View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

L

Monthly
Labor
Review
D E C E M B E R 1961 VO L. 84 N O .

1962 Calendar of Union Contract Developments
Membership of American Trade Unions
Work Experience of the Population in 1960

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

Arthur J. Goldberg, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w a n C lagtje ,
R obert

J.

Commissioner

M y ers,

Deputy Commissioner

H erm an B . B y e r ,

Assistant Commissioner

W.

Assistant Commissioner

D

uane

E v a n s,

P eter H en le,

Assistant Commissioner

P a u l R . K er sc h bau m ,

Assistant Commissioner

Arnold E. C hase, Chief, Division of Prices and Cost of Living
H. M. D outy, Chief, Division of Wages and Industrial Relations
R ay S. D xjnn, J r ., Acting Chief,Office of Management
J oseph P. G oldberg, Special Ass istant to the Commissioner
Harold Goldstein, Chief, Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics
L eon Greenberg , Chief, Division of Productivity and Technological Developments
R ichard F. J ones, Deputy Assistant Commissioner (Management)
W alter G. K eim , D eputy Assistant Commissioner (Field Service)
L awrence R. K lein , Chief, Office of Publications
H yman L. L ewis , Chief, Office of Labor Economics
F rank S. M cE lroy, Chief, Division of Industrial Hazards
A be R othman, Chief, Office of Statistical Standards
William C. Shelton, Chief, Division of Foreign Labor Conditions

Regional Offices and Directors
N E W E N G L A N D R EG IO N
W endell D . M acdonald
18 Oliver Street
Boston 10, Mass.
Connecticut
N ew Hampshire
M aine
Rhode Island
Massachusetts
Vermont

SO U T H E R N REG IO N
B runswick A. Bagdon
1371 Peachtree Street N E.
Atlanta 9, Ga.
Alabama
North Carolina
Arkansas
Oklahoma
Florida
South Carolina
Georgia
Tennessee
Louisiana
Texas
Mississippi
Virginia

M ID D L E A T L A N T IC REG IO N
L ouis F. B uckley
341 N inth Avenue
N ew York 1, N .Y .
Delaware
N ew York
M aryland
Pennsylvania
N ew Jersey
District of Columbia

N O R T H C E N T R A L R EG IO N
Adolph O. Berger
105 West Adams Street
Chicago 3, 111.
Missouri
Illinois
Indiana
Nebraska
Iowa
North Dakota
Ohio
Kansas
South Dakota
Kentucky
West Virginia
Michigan
Minnesota
Wisconsin

W E ST E R N REGION

M ax D. K ossoris
630 Sansome Street
San Francisco 11, Calif.
Nevada
Alaska
N ew Mexico
Arizona
California
Oregon
Utah
Colorado
Washington
Hawaii
Wyoming
Idaho
Montana

l,Br»p^1PK1^•nl1^llHm B W ^^>w^r^•^ in;lT ^ >~-w-itrii'ww.~?iiy,''Tiff,T»ff'x r » r » ^~M'7iar»w?TOS8W ~ m w T '-m rr~ 7 T ~ n K T O « r-rm < irrin i w " n ^

The Monthly Labor Review is for sale by the regional offices listed above and by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D.C.—Subscription price per year—-$6.25 domestic; $7.75 foreign. Price 55 cents a copy.
The distribution of subscription copies is handled by the Superintendent of Documents. Communications on editorial matters
should be addressed to the editor-in-chief.
Use o f fu n d s fo r p r in tin g th is p u b lic a tio n a p p r o v e d b y th e D irec to r o f th e B u rea u o f th e B u d g e t (N o v em b e r 19,1959),


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Monthly Labor Review
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR • BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
L a w r e n c e R . K l e in , Editor-in-Chief
M ary S. B e d e l l , Executive Editor

CONTENTS

Special Articles
1299
1309
1319
1324
1324

Membership of American Trade Unions, 1960
Major Agreement Expirations and Reopenings in 1962
Deferred Wage Increases and Escalator Clauses
Special Labor Force Report
Work Experience of the Population in 1960

Summaries of Studies and Reports
1338
1344
1350
1356
1362
1364

Pay Levels in White-Collar Occupations
Scientific and Technical Employment in Industry, 1960
Unemployment Insurance Legislation in 1961
State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1961
Wages in Textile Dyeing and Finishing, April-May 1961
Earnings in Cigar Manufacturing, April-May 1961

Departments
hi

1367
1372
1374
1381
1391
1429


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Labor Month in Review
Significant Decisions in Labor Cases
Chronology of Recent Labor Events
Developments in Industrial Relations
Book Reviews and Notes
Current Labor Statistics
Index to Volume 84

December 1961 • Voi. 84 • No. 12

M a jo r Bargaining Agreements Expiring
and W orkers Affected, 1962

Agreements


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Workers
(in th o u san d s)
700
600

500

400

300

200
100

0
J

P

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D

1962
This illustration is based on data presented in the article “ M ajor
Agreements Expirations and Reopenings in 1 9 6 2 ,” pp. 1309-1318.
A t least 143 agreements for bargaining units of 5,000 or more work­
ers each, affecting 1.8 million workers, are due to expire in 1962.
The article also discusses deferred increases, cost-of-living escalation,
and reopening provisions.

The Labor Month
in Review
U nio n officials at the Miami convention of the
AFL-CIO concerned themselves largely with prob­
lems left over from the 1955 merger convention—
jurisdictional disputes between industrial and
building trades unions, raiding, and instances of
racial discrimination. Positions taken prior to
the convention promised only trouble at the con­
vention, which adjourned on December 13, but
discord gave way to harmony as President Meany,
other officials, and a team of attorneys pounded
“common sense” procedures into shape.
With dissent entered only by the International
Typographical Union, the convention adopted a
constitutional amendment establishing an elabo­
rate procedure for settling interunion disputes in
which one party claims that an established col­
lective bargaining relationship or an established
job relationship has been or is being violated.
Two basic steps are provided for: mediation by
persons selected by AFL-CIO President George
Meany from within the labor movement and, if
this fails, arbitration by outside umpires (David
L. Cole was later named as the first umpire).
This arbitration, however, is not final and binding;
an appeal may be taken to a 3-man subcommittee
of the Executive Council, which may uphold the
umpire, in which case no further action is permit­
ted, or may refer the dispute to the Executive
Council. By majoiity vote, the council may set
aside or modify the arbitrator’s decision.
Strong penalties are provided for failure to
comply with the final decision, but the plan makes
it clear that the result may not be submitted to
the courts for enforcement, as the industrial unions
had favored. The new machinery covers raids by
one union against another’s members, disputes be­
tween two unions over whose members shall per­
form certain work, and the use of scurrilous
literature in organizing campaigns where two
unions are seeking to organize the same group.
It does not cover boycotts, refusals by a union to
perform work coming from a shop it considers
unfair, or rivalry between unions competing for
the same group of unorganized workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The procedure adopted to handle complaints of
discrimination requred no constitutional amend­
ment since it is to operate through the existing
Civil Eights Committee and Department of Civil
Rights. Several steps hy which complaints are to
be heard and decided and compliance effected are
provided for.
A large scale organizing campaign, another
promise of the 1955 merger, failed to generate
much steam. Although the customary exhorta­
tions were used, the 6-year interval during which
the Federation’s size declined through expulsion
of several unions and the labor movement as a
whole failed to keep pace with the growing labor
force, had done little to raise hopes for a program
to cope with union organizing rivalries, the
changing nature of the work force, and the impact
of automation.
With James R. Hoffa and other Teamster of­
ficials also meeting in the area, the AFL-CIO
reaffirmed its 1957 expulsion action, but held the
door of reaffiliation open to “cleansed” unions.
This was interpreted to mean, for the Teamsters,
the removal of Hoffa from office.
Secretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg, making
a plea for the help of the labor movement in meet­
ing the Nation’s goals in both foreign and domestic
affairs, told the convention, “As the new world
grows, as the ambitions of the poor and the
exploited rise, they look here, to you, for guidance
and example.”
F. K e n n ed y addressed the
convention the day following his speech to the
annual meeting of the National Association of
Manufacturers. To both the NAM and the
AFL-CIO, President Kennedy outlined the United
States’ position in the world economy as the
Nation faces increased competition by the develop­
ment of the European Common Market. Empha­
sizing that the United States must have the means
to persuade the Common Market to reduce its
tariffs to permit American products to enter Com­
mon Market countries on a competitive basis, the
President announced that in January he would ask
the Congress for broader and more flexible author­
ity to negotiate tariff revisions, including the
right to make .reductions on general categories of
items instead of item-by-item adjustments. In
addition, he said he would propose legislation
which would lessen the tax privileges of investing
in Western Europe. He said to the AFL-CIO,
P r esident J ohn

in

IV

“I am hopeful that . . . management and labor
will recognize their responsibilities to permit us
to compete . . . that your negotiations will take
adequate calculation and account of this need for
us to maintain a balance of trade in our favor.”
Mr. Kennedy said he would recommend legisla­
tion “which will provide a recognition of the
national responsibility in the period of transition
for those industries and people who may be
affected.”
The Joint Economic Committee and a House
Labor subcommittee studying the effects of
imports on employment heard testimony in late
November and earl}7 December which reflected
growing concern over the growth of imports, the
unfavorable balance of United States trade and
various proposals for encouraging exports.
Reaffirming the Machinists’ traditional free
trade position, IAM President A. J. Hayes opened
the union’s trade conference in late November
with a statement that “Withdrawal from world
trade and isolationism from world problems is no
longer possible.” AFL-CIO President George
Meany outlined to the delegates a foreign trade
program that included provision for Federal
assistance to workers, communities, and indus­
tries hurt by foreign competition in an expanded
and strengthened reciprocal trade law.
The conference delegates recommended that in
addition to tariff reductions and trade adjustment
features, the foreign trade program should contain
machinery to prevent the “flooding” of U.S. mar­
kets with imports and the exploitation of labor
abroad; the raising of labor standards throughout
the world through the International Labor Organ­
ization and the General Agreement on Trades and
Tariffs; and legal changes to deny tax deferment
to firms producing goods abroad and to require
management to compete more freely.
I n l in e with recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions
delimiting the National Labor Relations Board’s
area of authority in regulating union security
arrangements, the NLRB, on November 22 re­
versed the Keystone doctrine which held that un­
less a union security provision contained the model
clause set forth by the Board, it would not bar an
election requested by a union seeking to unseat
an incumbent. The new ruling, in a case involving
the International Brotherhood of Electrical Work­


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

ers and the United Mine Workers at Paragon
Products Corp., states that union security clauses
will act to bar an election unless they are clearly
illegal on their face or have been found illegal by
the Board.
In a case where a local of the Retail Clerks had
continued organizational picketing after it had
lost a representation election, the NLRB ruled
that (1) picketing did not become unlawful until
the Board certified the election results, and (2) the
1-year ban against picketing dated from the time
the illegal picketing ceased, rather than from the
time of the election.
The Public Interest in National Labor Policy, a
report issued on December 10 by an independent
study group, financed by the Committee for Eco­
nomic Development, finds that no “ crisis” exists
in labor-management relations today, but the re­
port’s authors make a number of recommendations
in the area of national labor policy. Although
much of the counsel proffered by the nine pro­
fessors and arbitrators, who were headed by Clark
Kerr, president of the University of California,
is not new, many of the proposals will receive
serious attention. The report stresses that the
drift toward “ excessive regulatory detail” needs
to be halted. It says the function of the Federal
Government should be to set the framework and
provide the overall rules for collective bargaining,
while that of the States should be to exercise
their traditional police power to prevent violence,
coercion, and similar illegal activities.
Finding that evidence on union responsibility
for inflation is inconclusive, the group nonethe­
less emphasizes that it is becoming increasingly
important to keep prices down, in view of the
growing ability of other nations to produce goods
competitively with the United States. The report
proposes the establishment of an annual LaborManagement Conference on the Joint Economic
Report, to be called by the President, as an aid in the
exchange of ideas and analyses among leaders of
labor, management, and Government and to focus
more attention upon the economic impact of col­
lective bargaining. In the field of automation
and the effective use of manpower, the report
suggests that increased vesting of pension rights
and eventual consideration of an integrated
national plan in the area of pensions would elimi­
nate some of the present impediments to mobility".

Membership of
American
Trade Unions, 1960
H arry P. C oh an y *

T he

s t a b il it y

in

u n io n

m e m b e r sh ip

f ig u r e s

relative to the organizable labor force during the
past decade has received considerable attention
from both within and without the labor move­
ment. Union spokesmen, anticipating a decline
or lag in membership caused by changes in
technology and in the composition of the work
force, or by other factors, have repeatedly empha­
sized the need to stimulate recruitment lest
organized labor endanger its present power and
prestige in economic and political affairs. Some
students of the labor movement have claimed that
unions have entered a period of “stagnation” or
“saturation.” They argue that, since all readily
organizable sectors of the labor force have already
been enrolled, future growth will, at best, be slow.
Other students of the problem are more optimistic
and see signs of modest but persistent growth in
the future, particularly in those areas where labor’s
penetration has thus far been minor.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ latest biennial
survey of union membership, covering 1959 and
1960, reveals that the plateau which in general has
*Of the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
1 The basic requirement for inclusion in the directory was affiliation with
the AFL-C IO (except for federal labor unions and local industrial unions)
or, for unaffiliated unions, the existence of collective bargaining agreements
with different employers in more than one State. The requirement of col­
lective bargaining agreements was waived for unions which organize govern­
ment workers and, therefore, generally do not negotiate agreements. A few
independent unions failed to reply to the Bureau’s questionnaire, and it was
therefore impossible to determine whether they met the interstate definition.
In addition, some unaffiliated unions, interstate in scope, may have been
omitted because adequate information as to their existence or scope was not
available.
2 Information on the number of collective bargaining agreements and
worker coverage will appear in the forthcoming Directory.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

existed since the early 1950’s still prevails. In
1960, the membership of 184 national and inter­
national unions with headquarters in the United
States was 18.1 million, representing an increase
of only 36,000 since 1958. Included in the 1960
total are nearly 1.1 million members in Canada.
In terms of union affiliation, 15.1 million members
were in unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO and
3 million in unaffiliated national and international
unions. This ratio has remained unchanged since
the explusion of the Teamsters and two small
unions from the AFL-CIO in 1957. The propor­
tion of union members in the total labor force is
still about 1 out of 4 and in nonagricultural
employment, about 1 out of 3; these ratios in
recent years have moved slowly downward.
The various categories of union membership
studied—-such as women members and those in
white-collar occupations, in manufacturing and in
nonmanufacturing—also showed very little change
since the previous survey. The concentration of
union membership in a few large unions, a long­
standing characteristic of the American labor
movement, was also unchanged.
Scope of Study

As part of the information sought for the
Bureau’s 1961 Directory of National and Inter­
national Labor Unions in the United States, all
AFL-CIO affiliates and all unaffiliated unions
known to be interstate in scope 1 were asked to
report the average number of dues-paying mem­
bers for 1959 and 1960 (including those outside the
United States), the number of local unions cur­
rently active, and the number of collective bargain­
ing agreements in effect.2 Other questionnaire
items dealt with women members, white-collar
members, and members employed in major in­
dustry groups. AFL-CIO State bodies were
asked to furnish an estimate of the number of
members of AFL-CIO unions in their respective
States.
A number of unions failed to respond to one or
more of the questionnaire items, and where pos­
sible in these cases, the Bureau prepared estimates
derived from other sources, notably union periodi­
cals, convention proceedings, financial statements,
and collective bargaining agreements on file in
1299

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1300
the Bureau. In addition, some unions supplied
estimates, primarily because records at their
international headquarters cannot supply the data
sought. For reasons of prestige, some unions may
inflate membership figures, particularly to conceal
a decline.
The chief difficulty in measuring membership,
however, lies in the different concepts of member­
ship counts among unions. To achieve uniformity
in reporting practices, the Bureau has consistently
asked for the annual average number of dues-paying
members. However, an analysis of the responses
indicates, that this standard is not adhered to by
all unions. In many instances, the reported totals
include members exempt from dues payments
(i.e., unemployed members and those on strike)
and apparently those who are temporarily in
arrears. In other words, some reports appear to
account for all workers on the rolls considered to
be in “good standing” or “bookmembers.” Some
unions follow the practice of taldng a membership
census as of a given date, the results of which are
likely to differ from an annual average which
would reflect fluctuations during the year.
But these measurement problems, which the
Bureau has repeatedly pointed out in its member­
ship studies, while significant in union-by-union
comparisons, do not invalidate appraisals of broad
aggregates over time, particularly since unions
tend to be fairly consistent in their reporting
practices from survey to survey. Consequently,
the Bureau feels that its membership figures,
despite their defects, represent as reasonable an
T a ble 1. M e m b e r sh ip R epo rted 1 by N a tio na l

and

approximation of membership strength as may be
needed for the Government and public purposes
for which these data are compiled.3
Number of National and International Unions

In 1960, the Bureau had knowledge of 184
national and international unions, as defined,
with headquarters in the United States (as against
186 in 1958).4 Of this total, 134 were affiliated
with the AFL-CIO and represented more than
80 percent of the membership claimed by all
unions.
Federation affiliates range from major unions
whose activities are widely reported in the press,
such as the United Automobile Workers and the
United Steelworkers of America, to small organiza­
tions less well known, whose activities touch
few workers and employers, e.g., the International
Association of Siderographers or the International
Union of Journeymen Horseshoers.
The unaffiliated group of 50 unions includes
such long-established and well-known organiza­
tions as the United Mine Workers [of America] , the
Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers, and the
Order of Railway Conductors and Brakemen.
s Union reports to the Bureau, particularly since the merger of the A FL
and the CIO, have been improving. The financial statements filed by unions
w ith the Department of Labor under the provisions of the Labor-Manage­
ment Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959 may open up another fruitful area
for research relating to union size and trends. The Bureau hopes to explore
the relationship between the annual per capita receipts of national and
international unions and membership before its next membership survey.
*T he forthcoming 1961 directory w ill list 179 unions. The difference
between this figure and the 184 tabulated for 1960 is accounted for by mergers
and dissolutions.

I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n s ,

by

G eog raph ic A rea

and

A f f il ia t io n ,

1960
Union affiliation

All unions

Geographic area

Members

AFL-CIO

Number
Number
(thousands)
Total membership reported
In the United States_______
Outside the United States__
Canada_______________
Puerto Rico___________
Canal Zone____________
Other.................................. .

Unions

Members
(thousands)

Unions

Members
(thousands)

184
184

125
111
32

21

7

i National and international unions were asked to report their average
dues-paying membership for 1960. 170 national and international unions
reported a total of 17,805,583 members, and the Bureau estimated on the basis
of other information that membership of the 14 unions which did not report
was 231,156. 79,821 members of federal labor unions and local industrial
unions directly affiliated with the AFL-CIO are not accounted for in these
estimates. Also excluded are members of unaffiliated unions not interstate
In scope (see text footnote 5). Membership figures for areas outside the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Percent

Unaffiliated

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals

U N IO N M E M B E R S H IP , 1960

1301

T a ble 2. D ist r ib u t io n op N a tio na l
t io n al U n io n s , by P er c e n t C h ange
R e po r t e d , 1951-60
1951 to 1960
Percent change

Num­
ber of
unions

Total unions reporting 1...........
20 percent or more gain............
15 to 19.9 percent gain_______
10 to 14.9 percent g a in .......... .
5 to 9.9 percent gain_________
1 to 4.9 percent gain_________
None, or less than 1 percent
gain or lo s s ..____ _________
1 to 4.9 percent lo s s .................
5 to 9.9 percent loss_________
10 to 14.9 percent loss_______
15 to 19.9 percent loss_______
20 percent or more loss............-

Per­
cent

131 100.0

and I n te r n a ­
in M em b e r sh ip

1958 to 1960
N um ­
ber of
unions

against more than 15,000 for the independents.
About 6,400 local unions were in areas outside the
United States, mostly in Canada (6,200).

1959 to 1960

Per­
cent

N um ­
ber of
unions

Per­
cent

157 100.0

159

100.0

38
7
13
3
5

29.0
5.3
9.9
2.3
3.8

11
5
7
12
30

7.0
3.2
4.5
7.6
19.1

6

3.8

4
18
21

2.5
11.3
13.2

9
6
7
10
7
26

6.9
4.6
5.3
7.6
5.3
19.8

30
16
16
9
4
17

19.1
10.2
10.2
5.7
2.5
10.8

52
29
18
7
2
2

32.7
18.2
11.3
4.4
1.3
1.3

i Only membership figures as reported by the unions to the Bureau were
used as a basis for the comparative data shown. The 1959 and 1960 member­
ship figures were obtained from the questionnaire which was used to compile
the current directory. The 1951 membership reports appeared in the earlier
Directory of Labor Unions in the United States, 195S, BLS Bull. 1127, and 1958
figures in BLS Bull. 1267.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

More than half of the independents’ membership
was in unions expelled by the AFL-CIO and the
former CIO, namely the International Brother­
hood of Teamsters, the Bakery and Confectionery
Workers’ Union, the Laundry Workers, the
Electrical Workers (UE), the Mine, Mill and
Smelter Workers, the Longshoremen’s and Ware­
housemen’s Union, and the American Com­
munications Association.
The number of local unions chartered by
Federation affiliates was in excess of 62,000, as
« Reported and estimated 1959 and 1960 membership figures for national
and international unions were as follows:

Total Membership

On the basis of reports from 170 unions and
estimates for 14, the membership figures recorded
for these organizations in 1960 was 18,037,000,
including members outside the United States
(table 1). The addition of 80,000 members in
federal labor unions and local industrial unions
directly affiliated with the AFL-CIO raises the
total to 18,117,000. Of this total, 15,072,000
were in unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO, and
3,045,000 were in unaffiliated national and inter­
national unions. For 1959, AFL-CIO member­
ship amounted to 15,124,393, and unaffiliated
unions claimed 3,044,351 members, yielding a
total of 18,169,000.5 The corresponding figures
claimed in 1958, as reported in the Bureau’s
1959 Directory, were: total, 18,081,000; AFL-CIO,
14,993,000; and unaffiliated, 3,088,000.
These data reveal a high degree of stability
for both the AFL-CIO and the independents,
as a group. The net gain for the former was
about 80,000 members, as against a loss of 43,000
for the latter. This shift is attributable, in part,
to the return of the International Longshoremen’s
Association’s 50,000 members into the AFL-CIO.
T a b l e 3. D ist r ib u t io n of N a tio na l and I n t e r n a t io n a l
U n io n s , by N u m b e r of M e m b e r s R e po rted 1 and
A f f il ia t io n , 1960

1959
AFL-CIO membership reports (123 u n io n s)..
AFL-C IO “per capita” data (12 unions)___
Federal labor unions and local industrial
unions__________________________________
Unaffiliated membership reports (36 unions). .
Unaffiliated membership
estimates
(14
unions)_________________________________

Mem bers
108,000
------------- 15,124,393
2,692,458
351,893
-------------

3,044,351

Total.....................................................................................

18,168, 744

I960
A FL-C IO membership reports (130 u n io n s)..
AFL-C IO “per capita”data (4 unions).............
Federal labor unions and local industrial
unions__________________________________
Unaffiliated membership reports(40 unions). .
Unaffiliated membership estimated (10
unions)_________________________________

14,884,183
107,921
79,821
------------- 15,071,925
2,921,400
123,235
-------------

3,044,635

Total.....................................................................................

18,116,560


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Union
affiliation

All unions
14,657,321
359,072
Number of members reported

N um ­
ber

Per­
cent

All unions 1_______________

184

Under 1,000---------------------1,000 and under 5,000____ _
5,000 and under 10,000______
10,000 and under 25,000_____
25,000 and under 50,000.........50,000 and under 100,000____
100,000 and under 200,000___
200,000 and under 300,000___
300,000 and under 400,000___
400,000 and under 500,000___
500.000 and under 1,000,000-1,000,000 and over__________

13
34
16
24
23
31
22
7
4
3
4
3

A F L - Unaf­
fili­
CIO
ated

N um ­
ber
(thou­
sands)

Per­
cent

100.0

18,037

100.0

134

50

7.1
18.5
8.7
13.0
12.5
16.8
12.0
3.8
2.2
1.6
2.2
1.6

6
90
122
396
817
2,080
3,161
1,839
1,352
1,332
3,069
3,773

(2)
0.5
.7
2.2
4.5
11.5
17.5
10.2
7.5
7.4
17.0
20.9

6
15
10
21
17
26
20
7
4
3
3
2

7
19
6
3
6
5
2

1
1

1 See footnote 1, table 1.
s Less than 0.05 percent.

N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1302

MONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

T a ble 4. N a tio na l
po rting

Union

and

I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n s R e ­

100,000 OR M ore M e m b e r s , 1960 1

2

Teamsters (Ind.)______
Steel_________________
Automobile___________
M achinists____ _______
Carpenters____________
Electrical (IB E W )____
Mine (Ind.)___________
Garment, Ladies’______
H otel_________________
Hod Carriers____ ____ _
Clothing______________
Retail Clerks__________
M eat Cutters_________
Railway and Steamship
Clerks______________
Engineers, Operating__
Electrical (IU E )______
Building Service......... .
Musicians_______ _____
Communications______
P lu m b in g ...____ ______
State and County_____
Painters____ __________

Members

Union 2

1,484,433
1,152,000
1,136,140
898,139
800,000
771,000
600,000
446,554
443,000
442,473
377,000
342,000
333,482

Textile Workers
(TW UA).
Oil___________________
Pulp______ _ _
Rubber_______________
Maintenance of W ay__
Electrical(UE) (Ind.).._
Railroad Trainmen____
Bricklayers______ _____
Iron W orkers.. ______
Retail, Wholesale______
Boilermakers_____ ____
Papermakers__________
Letter Carriers___ . . .
Transport W o r k e rs.__
Street, Electric Railway.
Railway Carmen______
Printing Pressmen____
Typographical- . . . . .
Packinghouse. ._ _____
Sheet Metal Workers.
Mine, M ill (Ind.)_____

300,000
291,000
287,937
272,000
266,618
259,917
251,273
210,000
192,568

Members
192,000
174,000
170,544
170,000
164,447
160,000
159,384
155,000
147,982
143,300
140,000
140,000
138,000
135,000
132,100
125,000
113,903
105,033
102,598
100,000
100,000

1 Based on union reports to the Bureau.
2 All unions not identified as independent (Ind.) are affiliated with the

Membership in the United States. The figures just
cited, which are consistent with the Bureau’s his­
torical series, account for the membership of
national and international unions with head­
quarters in the United States (and directly
affiliated AFL-CIO bodies), including members
outside the United States. However, they exclude
members of unaffiliated unions which confine their
activities to a single employer or to a single
locality. The Bureau estimates the membership
of such organizations at or slightly above 500,000,
although the worker coverage under collective
bargaining agreements may be somewhat larger.6
Using this estimate for single firm and local un­
affiliated unions, the 1960 total membership in the
United States (as distinct from membership in
national and international unions with head­
quarters in the United States) is 17,505,000.
M em bership claim ed by all n a tio n a l a n d in­
tern a tio n a l unions w ith h e a d q u a rte rs in
th e U nited S ta te s_______________________
Less: N um ber outside th e U n ited S ta te s___
M em bership of n atio n al a n d in te rn a ­
tio n al unions in th e U n ited S ta t e s ..
A dd: M em bership of local unions
directly affiliated w ith
A F L -C IO ______________
80, 000
E stim a te of m em bership in
single firm a n d local u n ­
affiliated u n io n s________
500, 000
----------T o tal m em bership in th e U nited
S ta te s------------------------------------


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

18, 037, 000
1, 112, 000

16, 925, 000

580, 000

17, 505, 000

This tabulation does not account for certain
categories of workers such as the unemployed, the
retired, and those on strike, who, though still
attached to unions, were exempted from dues
requirements and hence were excluded by certain
unions in their reports to the Bureau.7 Of the
91 unions which indicated the exclusion of such
workers from their membership count, only 46
were able to furnish an estimate of the numbers in
these categories. The total thus excluded was
567.000, or 18 percent of the 3.1 million members
reported by the 46 unions,8 comprising in the
main the unemployed (254,000) and the retired
(226,000).
Membership Outside the United States. In 1960,
125 of the 184 national and international unions
claimed 1.1 million members in areas outside the
United States, or slightly more than 6 percent of
the membership of all unions (table 1).
The decline of 70,000 in these areas since 1958
is, in large part, attributable to the admission of
Alaska and Hawaii into the Union; in 1958, the
two territories accounted for 55,000 members.
A different picture, however, is presented by the
loss of 32,000 members in Puerto Rico, now at
38.000. Of the five unions representing the over­
whelming majority of the organized workers on the
island, three reported losses totaling 45,500 during
the 2-year period, while two gained 4,300.
On the other hand, a modest upward trend con­
tinued in Canada where U.S. unions have added
16.000 members since 1958, as compared with a
65.000 gain for the 1956-58 period.
The remaining 6,000 members were in the
Panama Canal Zone and in widely scattered areas
throughout the world. Most of the members in
the latter category were accounted for by a sea­
going union and two unions composed of Federal
employees.
Membership Trends and Changes. After a more
than twofold increase during 1937-44, national and
international unions made for the most part slow
but steady gains and reached a peak of 17.5
million members in 1956 (exclusive of Canada).
6 The Bureau’s first membership survey of single employer and single
locality unions is currently in progress; results w ill be available in the spring
of 1962.
7 See forthcoming Directory of National and International Labor Unions in
the United States, 1961, for details on union reporting practices.
8 The corresponding figure for 1958 was 15 percent.

1303

UNION M E M B E R S H IP , 1960

A subsequent 500,000 member loss during the
1957-58 recession has not been regained. As chart
1 indicates, union membership in 1960 was at
about the same point as in 1954.
The relative status of the labor movement as
measured by the relationships between member­
ship and employment totals, has also remained
fairly constant for the past 2 years, as it has for
most of the post-World War II period. The
proportion of members in the total labor force is
still at about 1 out of 4. In nonagricultural
establishments—where most union members are
found and where organizing is concentrated—
the ratio remains at about 1 out of 3 (chart 2).9
Although these ratios have remained fairly
constant, membership has not quite kept pace
with the growth in the work force since 1953, as
the following data illustrate:
Membership (exclusive of Canada) as a percent of—

Total labor force

1953
1954
1955
1956
1957
1958
1959
1960

______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________

25.
25.
24.
24.
24.
23.
23.
23.

2
1
4
8
6
9
8
3

Employees in
nonagricultural
establishments

34. 1
35. 1
33. 6
33. 8
33. 3
33. 7
32. 8
32. 1

locals into national unions,10 without thereby
bringing new workers into the labor movement.
Net gains may have occurred through the ex­
tension of union-shop arrangements or by organ­
izing victories. Losses over the long run, for the
most part, are due largely to employment declines
in particular industries and occupations; some
may result from plant movements into less
unionized areas. Among the unions showing
declines during 1951-60 were those in the railroad,
textile, shoe, shipbuilding, and meatpacking in­
dustries. Organizations with gains included unions
in government service, air transportation, printing,
and a number with jurisdiction over skilled and
service occupations in a wide variety of industries.
Year-to-year membership changes reported by
the six largest unions in the United States are
illustrated in chart 3. In general, these unions
made their greatest strides during the early and
midpart of the past decade. Since then, shifts
have frequently been only modestly upward or
downward. The Teamsters, by far the largest
union in 1960, ranked third in 1951, behind the
C h a rt 1 . M e m b e r s h ip 1 of N a t io n a l a n d

In te rn a tio n a l

U n io n s , 1 9 3 0 - 6 0

Comparative stability in aggregate union mem­
bership in recent years tends to obscure significant
shifts in particular unions. For example, while
total membership during the past 2 years re­
mained virtually unchanged, one-third of the
unions for which comparable data were available
reported gains or losses of 10 percent or more.
Between 1951 and 1960, 3 out of 4 unions ex­
perienced similar fluctuations (table 2).
Short of a union-by-union analysis, it is im­
possible to pinpoint the reasons behind these
fluctuations. To some extent, in the short run
they reflect mergers of unions or, in the case of
the AFL-CIO, the absorption of directly chartered
8 Total labor force includes employed and unemployed workers, selfemployed, members of the Armed Forces, etc. Employment in nonagri­
cultural establishments excludes the Armed Forces and self-employed in ­
dividuals, as well as the unemployed, agricultural workers, proprietors,
unpaid family workers, and domestic servants.
At best, the ratio of union membership to total employment in nonagri­
cultural establishments is only a rough measure of the organizing accomplish­
ments of unions. Employment totals include a substantial number of people
who are not eligible for union membership (e.g., executives and managers).
10
Membership in Federal labor unions and local industrial unions directly
affiliated with the AFL-CIO dropped from 184,000 in 1955 to 80,000 in 1960.

619 4 8 4 —i61-------2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

i For the years 1948-52, midpoints of membership estimates, which were
expressed as ranges, were used. Excludes Canadian membership but in­
cludes a relatively small number of trade union members in areas outside the
United States. Members of federal labor unions and local industrial unions
are also included.

1304
Steelworkers and the Automobile Workers. Be­
tween 1951 and 1960, it gained nearly 500,000
members—the largest absolute increase for any
of these six unions, but most of this increase was
achieved by 1957; since then, its net gain has
been a modest 67,000.
The changes in the Steelworkers and the Auto­
mobile Workers are alike in that both suffered
deep membership declines during the 1957-58
recession. The Steelworkers, however, had re­
gained its previous high mark of 1,250,000 by
C h a rt 2 . M e m b e rs h ip 1 a s a P e rce n t o f T o ta l L a b o r
F o rce a n d of E m p lo y e e s in N o n a g ric u ltu ra l E s t a b ­
lishm ents, 1 9 3 0 - 6 0

Percent

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
T a ble 5. E stim ated D ist r ib u t io n of N a tio na l and
I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n s , by P roportion of W omen
M e m b e r s , 1960 1
All unions
Number of women
men: bers

Percent of women members
Number

Percent
Number
(thou­
sands)

All unions.....................
No women members____
Under 10 percent__________
1 0 and under 2 0 percent
20 and under 30 p ercen t_____
30 and under 40 percent___
40 and under 50 percent___
50 and under 60 percent
60 and under 70 percent...
70 and under 80 percent________
80 and under 90 percent____
90 and under 100 percent

183

1 0 0 .0

47
55
26

25. 7
30.1
14.2

12

6 .6

11

6 .0

11

6 .0

5
7
5
3

2.7
3.8
2.7

1

.5

3,304
179
605
214
457
553
373
210

1 .6

Percent

1 0 0 .0

5.2
18.3
6.5
13.8
16.7
11.4
6.4

663
50

2 0 .1

2

.1

1.5

1 142 unions reported 2,749,000 women members. 42 unions did not report
the number of women or failed to furnish membership data against which re­
ported percentages could be applied. It was estimated that 34 of these had
approximately 555,800 women members and 7 had none. For 1 union, appro­
priate information was not available. In terms of affiliation, it is estimated
that women members were distributed as follows: A FL -C IO , 88.4 percent;
unaffiliated, 11.6 percent. Women members of AFL-C IO federal labor
unions and local industrial unions are not included in these estimates.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

case of the Teamsters, the IBEW had made its
greatest gain—230,000—by 1957.
Distribution of Membership

Size of Unions. The importance of the six largest
unions discussed earlier is underscored by the fact
that these organizations and four others, each with
400,000 or more members, account for about 45
percent of total membership, as against 44 per­
cent in 1958 (table 3). On the other hand, 87
unions each with fewer than 25,000 members
represented less than 5 percent. Table 4 lists
1Excludes Canadian membership.
1959. For the Automobile Workers, despite a
pickup since 1958, the 1953 total of 1,418,000 is
still its high membership point.
The Machinists, behind the Carpenters by
50,000 in 1951, seemed destined to reach the 1
million mark in the late 1950’s, but a 95,000 loss
in the last 2 years prevented achievement of this
goal. Similarly, a persistent downward trend has
characterized the Carpenters since 1956. The
Electrical Workers (IBEW) resemble the Team­
sters in climbing steadily during the entire period,
rising by 270,000, or by 54 percent. As in the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 6. E stim ated D ist r ib u t io n of N a tio na l and
I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n s , by P roportion of W h it e C ollar M e m b e r s , 1960 1
Percent of membership in
white-collar work

All unions________________
N o white-collar m e m b e r s ..____
Less than 10 percent___________
10 and under 30 percent....... ............
30 and under 50 percent___________
50 and under 70 percent___________
70 and under 90 percent____
90 percent and over______________

Number
of unions

184

Number of
white-collar
members
(thousands)

Percent
of all
white-collar
members

2,192

1 0 0 .0

33
13

317
138

2

120

14.5
6.3
5.5
9.1
9.9
54.8

100

4
2

30

198
216
1 ,2 0 2

1 125 unions reported 1,487,000 white-collar members. 59 did not report
the number of such members. It was estimated that 25 of these had approxi­
mately 704,700 white-collar members and 34 unions had none.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

UNION MEMBERSHIP, 1960

the membership of all 43 unions reporting 100,000
members or more. A newcomer to the list is the
Sheet Metal Workers, replacing the Post Office
Clerks which dropped below this size group.11
Women Members. The 1960 estimate of 3.3
million women members indicated a gain of about
30,000 since 1958 (table 5). The proportion of
women among union members (1 out of 6) and
the proportion of union members in the Nation’s
female labor force (1 out of 7) remained unchanged.
For male members, the labor force ratio was
approximately 1 out of 3.
Men formed the majority in all but 21 unions.
In more than half of all unions (102), women
membership ranged from none (47 unions) to less
than 10 percent. In the four unions in which
11
Refers to membership of the Post Office Clerks prior to merger with two
other unions in 1961.

1305

women comprised 80 percent or more of all mem­
bers, their combined total amounted to 52,000.
Although a number of union reports indicated
changes in this category, two unions in the ap­
parel industry (Amalgamated Clothing Workers
and Ladies’ Garment Workers) still accounted for
about 20 percent of all women members. Among
other unions with large numbers of women mem­
bers were those having their principal jurisdiction
in electrical and transportation equipment manu­
facturing, textiles, retail trade, communications
and various service industries.
White-Collar Members. Special importance at­
taches to the number of union members in whitecollar occupations because of the changing char­
acter of the U.S. labor force and declared union
intentions to penetrate this sparsely organized
area. The 2.2 million estimate for 1960, how­
ever, based on reports for 125 unions and estimates
for the remaining 59, was only 8,000 greater than

Chart 3. Membership of Six Largest Unions, 1951-60

Thousands of Members


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Thousands of Members

1306

M O NTH LY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

the estimated total for 1958 (table 6). The
predominance of the blue-collar worker in Ameri­
can labor unions has remained unchanged, with
white-collar workers again accounting for only 12
percent of all members in national and interna­
tional unions. Roughly 9 out of 10 were in
unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO.
The evidence, rough as it is, points to a standstill
in union organization among professional, tech­
nical, sales, and office clerical workers on the
whole.12 As the Bureau has pointed out in the
past, the term “white collar” is not a precise one.
Because of this and the probable lack at many
union headquarters of separate membership rec­
ords for different occupational groups, it can be
assumed that the figures submitted to the Bureau
are often only rough estimates. Offsetting these
difficulties, however, is the fact that two-thirds
of white-collar members were in 32 unions in
which they represented at least 70 percent of the
total. Because of the composition of these unions,
classification problems are likely to be minor.
Also, union reporting on this item was, in general,
more consistent in 1960 than in 1958.
T a ble 7. D ist r ib u t io n

of

N a tio na l

and

An analysis of the data indicates white-collar
gains by unions in the entertainment industries
and by several predominantly blue-collar unions.
Unions of government employees and those in
retail trade scored both gains and losses, while
declines were noted among those in communica­
tions and the railroad industry.
About two-thirds of all white-collar members
were found in nonmanufacturing industries, the
remainder being somewhat more heavily concen­
trated in government than in manufacturing
industries. Among the three industrial categories
(shown in table 7), the highest ratio of whitecollar to total membership—nearly two-fifths—
was in government service, followed by nonmanu­
facturing (less than 20 percent), and manufactur­
ing (below 5 percent).13

12
Further evidence of the lack of significant union progress in this field can
be found in union publications and convention reports, the results of National
Labor Relations Board elections, and the demise of the Engineers and
Scientists of America in December 1960.
12 Since in a number of cases both the white-collar and the industrial cover­
age had to be estimated, these figures should be considered as rough approxi­
mations only.

I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n s ,

I n d u st r y G ro u p

by

and

A ff il ia t io n , 1960

Union affiliation

All unions
AFL-CIO

Unaffiliated

Industry group
Mem bers
Number

Members

2

Number

1

Number
(thousands)

Percent

Members

2

Number

2

Number
(thousands)

Percent

2

1

Number
(thousands)

Percent

All unions A__________ __________________________

184

18,037

1 0 0 .0

134

14,992

1 0 0 .0

50

3,045

M anufacturing........... ........................................ .............
Food, beverages, and tobacco____________
Clothing, textiles, and leather products........... .
Furniture, lumber, wood products, and paper .
Printing and publishing_____________ _____ ___
Petroleum, chemicals, and rubber_____________
Stone, clay, and glass_________________________
Metals, machinery, and equipment, except trans­
portation equipment________________________
Transportation equipment__________________
Manufacturing (not classifiable)_______________

106

8,591
1,043
1,219
822
350
546
249

47.6
5.8

77
15
17
18

51.3
3.9

29
7

905
451

8 .1

6

12

29.7
14. 8
.4

16
13

7, 6 8 6
592
1,207
790
305
473
235

2

33
45
73
13

1. 5
2. 4
.4

2,891
1,323
147

16.0
7.3

26
13
16

2, 633
1,312
139

17.6

12

258

Nonmanufacturing_____ ______ ___________________
Mining and quarrying________________________
Contract construction____________________ h ~
Transportation______________________ I IIIU II"
Telephone and telegraph_______________
Electric and gas utilities________________
Trade_______________________________________
Finance and insurance_______________ IIIIIIII
Service industries____________________________
Agriculture and fishing_______________________ ~
Nonmanufacturing (not classifiable)____U ' . U '

103

8,375
593
2, 271
2,566
412
275
846
72
1,281
52

46.4
3.3

75
7
19
35
4

6,482
85
2,203
1,661
314
244
685
67
1,195
26

43.2

Government: Federal, State, and local_________

22

23
2ö
17
21

15
38
18
21

11

23
48
6

14
17
5
31
6

5
41

4.6
1.9
3.0
1.4

.8

1 2 .6

8

14.2
2.3
1.5
4.7
.4
7.1
.3
(4)

1,070

5.9

> These columns are nonadditive; many unions have membership in more
than one industrial classification.
2 Number of members computed by applying reported percentage figures
to total membership, including membership outside the United States.
Total membership, moreover, may include retired and unemployed workers.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6 .8

11

10

13
3
26
4
1

2

30

824

5.3

7

2 .0

6

3.2

5

1 .6

8 .8

.9
.6

14.7
1 1 .1
2 .1
1 .6

4.6
.4
8 .0
.2

5
5
28
4
4
13

5.5

9
1,893
508
68

2

905
98
31
161
5

5

86

2

26

2

4
4

4

«

11

11

1 0 0 .0

1 .1

8

.5
.4
.3

62. 2
16. 7
2. 2
29. 7
3. 2
1 .0

5.3
2

.
.8

2 8

6

.2

247

8 .1

2 149 unions reported an estimated distribution by industry. For 3 5 unions,
the Bureau estimated industrial composition. Also, see footnote 1, table 1
4 Less than 0.05 percent.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

U NIO N M E M B E R S H IP , 1960
T a b l e 8. C la ssific atio n

of

1307
N a tio na l

and

I n ter n a t io n a l U n io n s ,
G r o u ps , 1960

iAll unions

by

P ercent

of

M e m b e r sh ip

in

I n d u st r y

Percent of membership in specified group

Members

2

0.1-19 percent

20-39 percent

40-59 percent

60-79 percent

80-100 percent

Industry group
N um ­ N um ­
ber 1
ber
(thou­
sands)

Per­
cent
•

Manufacturing________________
Food, beverages, and tobacco_____
Clothing, textiles, and leather products___________________________
Furniture, lumber, wood products,
and paper-..
_____
______
Printing "and publishing____ _____
Petroleum, chemicals, and rubber..
Stone, clay, and g la s s ____________
Metals, machinery, and equipment,
except transportation equipment.
Transportation equipment______
Manufacturing (not classifiable)___

106

Nonmanufacturing______ _______
Mining and quarrying..
Contract construction___
Transportation _____
.. .
Telephone and telegraph_____
Electric and gas utilities____ ____
T r a d e ____ _________________
Finance and insurance______ ___
Service industries_____ ________
Agriculture and fishing______ ____
Nonmanufacturing (not classifiable)________________________

103

Government: Federal, State, and local.

22

, 501
1,043

23

1,219

25
17

822
350
546
249
2, 891
1,323
147

16.0
7.3

14

46.4
3.3

14
7

1 2 .6

6
11
2
12
11

6

,375
593
2,271
2,566
412
275
846
72
1.281
52

5

8

41

1,070

8

21

15
38
18
21

11

23
48
6

14
17
5
31

8

47.6
5.8

N um ­
Num ­
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­
N um ­
ber of
N um ­
ber of
N um ­
ber of
N um ­
ber of
N um ­
ber of
ber of members ber of members ber of members ber of members ber of members
unions
(thou­ unions
(thou­ unions
(thou­ unions
(thou­ unions
(thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
9
9

139
32

6 .8

8

43

4.6
1.9
3.0
1.4

16
5
16

92

.8

6

6

15

14.2
2.3
1.5
4.7
.4
7.1
.3

17
3

(3)

4

5.9

2

20

8
2

872
375

3

245

194
33

1

1

147
72
103

7
5

741
356

1

11

171
80
216
248

3

236

2

32

1

252
45
207

2

i

11

10

2

39

7

1

1

90

2

68

3

667
231

2
1

2

14
The limitations of the data pointed out earlier for other membership
series also apply here, particularly the absence of detailed records in unions
with membership in more than one industry.
When attempting to relate membership figures to employment in the
various industry divisions, the nature of the estimates should be kept in
mind. In the first place, Canadian membership is included. M any mem­
bership totals include retired and unemployed workers. Also, union member­
ship totals are not necessarily identical with collective bargaining coverage.

799

8

114
405

15

1,176

75

6

2

69
180

Oftft
168
215

10
9

5

405
26

3

8
1

653
2

10
2
5

20

4

830

1

23

3
i

2?Q

2

66
200

By Industry. The industrial distribution of
membership revealed no significant developments
since 1956, the year for which the Bureau first
collected information on this item. A loss of
250,000 members for the manufacturing division
and a 25,000 gain for nonmanufacturing in the
last 4 years can probably be attributed more to
reporting difficulties than to actual membership
trends.14 On the whole, membership in private
employment has remained fairly evenly divided
between manufacturing and nonmanufacturing in­
dustries, with approximately 8.5 million in each
group. Members in Federal, State, or municipal
service now number about 1.1 million, reflect­
ing an increase of 155,000 in 4 years (table 7).
Three major industry groups—metals and
machinery, transportation, and construction—still
account for more than two-fifths of all union

4

0

21

1 These columns are nonadditive; many unions have membership in more
than one industrial classification.
2 See footnote 2, table 7.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

10

2

76
830

9
3

5
2, 502
906
56

2

1

34

68

4 813

1n
31

1

4
2

3
136

1 522
39

1
2

19
l

19

10

, no
1 412
346
75
342
24
4

913

Less than 0.05 percent,

N ote: Because of rounding, sums ofindividual item sm aynot equal totals.

members. Other industry groupings with at
least 1 million members were food and tobacco,
clothing and leather, and transportation equip­
ment in manufacturing, and services in nonmanu­
facturing industries. Fewer than 100,000 members
were attributed to two major industry groups:
finance and insurance, and agriculture and fishing.
The nonfactory character of unaffiliated unions
was again revealed by heavy membership con­
centrations in transportation, mining, and, to a
lesser extent, retail and wholesale trade. Except
for mining, however, Federation members out­
numbered the independents, as was true for
manufacturing industries, where the only inde­
pendent stronghold was in food and tobacco.
Table 8 highlights the multi-industry dispersion
of most U.S. unions. In transportation equip­
ment, for example, the three unions which
confined all—or almost all—of their activities to
this industry, accounted for only 39,000 workers.
The bulk of the organized workers in transporta­
tion equipment (830,000) were in two unions
where they represented between 60 and 79 percent
of the totals in each organization. A similar

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1308
T able

9. AFL-CIO
Membership

State
Total AFL-C IO for the United
S ta tes1 ____________________
Alabama________________________
Alaska__________________________
Arizona_________________________
Arkansas_______________________
California_______________________
Colorado_________________ ______
Connecticut_____________________
Delaware_______________________
Florida
_____________________
Georgia.. ______________________
Idaho__________________ ________
Illinois . . . ........ .................................
I n d ia n a ._______________________
I o w a __________________________
Kansas _______________________

13,877,800
185.000
22,300
80,000
72.000
1.350.000
90.000

200.000

28.000
150.000
115.000

20,000
1.200.000
350.000
135.000

100.000

M e m b e r s h ip

by

State,

as

Kentucky...... ..................................
Louisiana____________________
M aine_______________________
M aryland-District of Columbia
Massachusetts................................
Michigan____________________
M innesota......................................
M ississippi___________________
Missouri_____________________
Montana............... ....... ...................
Nebraska____________________
N evada--------------------------------N ew Hampshire______________
N ew Jersey__________________
N ew Mexico_________________
N ew York___________________
North Carolina................ - ............

pattern prevailed in retail and wholesale trade
where only 1 union functioned primarily in this
industry, while 16 others had considerable propor­
tions of their members in various other industries.
On the other hand, 19 unions having their principal
jurisdictions in government had enrolled 9 out of
10 of the organized public employees.
AFL-CIO Membership by State. Repeating a
query first introduced in 1958, the Bureau asked
State AFL-CIO bodies to estimate the number of
members of AFL-CIO unions in their respective
States.15 Responses were received from all States
except Hawaii which, up to this time, had not
chartered a central body (table 9).

by

S t a te B o d ie s ,

132.000
130, 000
68, 000
300, 000
600.000
700.000
250.000
45.000
450.000
50, 000
65.000
16.000
50.000
» 500,000
17.000
2 , 000,000
80.000

1960

State

Membership

State

1 State membership excludes Hawaii.
»Includes replies received from N ew Jersey State Federation of Labor

R eported

North Dakota..
Ohio...................
Oklahoma____
Oregon_______
Pennsylvania..
Rhode Islan d..
South Carolina.
South D akota..
Tennessee..........
Texas________
U tah...................
Vermont............
Virginia______
Washington___
West Virginia..
Wisconsin____
Wyoming..........

18,000
1 , 000,000
50, 000
160, 000
1, 500,000
50.000
35.000
17.000
140, 000
375.000
45.000
7, 500
95.000
350.000
70.000
400.000
15.000

(formerly AFL) and N ew Jersey State Industrial Union Council (formerly
CIO).

The 13.9 million members reported by AFL-CIO
State bodies for 1960 come within 145,000 of the
AFL-CIO total for the United States as reported
by the national and international union affiliates.
Eight States comprising the Middle Atlantic and
East North Central Region contained more than
half (55 percent) of AFL-CIO membership.
Overall figures for the 19 “right-to-work” States—
2.1 million—changed little in the 2-year period,
with Texas and Indiana still accounting for about
one-third of the AFL-CIO membership in these
States.
It was felt that most International unions would not be able to furnish
State membership figures and hence this inquiry was directed to State
organizations only. Since unaffiliated unions as a rule do not form statewide
organizations, this survey was limited to A FL-C IO State bodies.

Notice of New Base Period for Price Indexes

The base period for all price indexes prepared by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics will be shifted from 1947-49 to 1957-59, starting with data for
January 1962. This shift is in accordance with a directive from the Bureau
of the Budget to all Federal agencies preparing general-purpose index series.
As a convenience to users, however, the BLS will continue to publish,
until June 1964, the U.S. All Items CPI on the 1947-49 base.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Membership

Major Agreement
Expirations and
Reopenings in 1962
Cordelia T. Ward and Richard F. Groner*

E ditor ’s N ote .— This

article and that on deferred
wage increases and cost-of-living escalator
clauses onpp. 1319-1323 complement each other
in some respects. This article covers all agree­
ments affecting 5,000 or more workers; the
other covers situations affecting 1,000 or more
but excludes the service trades, finance, and
government. In addition, table 1 of this ar­
ticle includes all deferred increase provisions
in contracts in effect on January 1, 1962—
those effective in 1962 or later as well as those
already in effect, as in basic steel. The second
article is limited to deferred increases scheduled
for 1962.
*
I n 1962, major negotiations on new union con­
tracts are scheduled to take place in the steel
and aluminum industries, where key agreements
expire in June and July, respectively. Also up
for renegotiation will be major contracts covering
nearly 400,000 workers in the construction in­
dustry (primarily April and May), 163,000 in
aircraft (June, July, November), and 37,000 in
fabricated metal products (September). Bar­
gaining on new wage agreements in the railroad
industry was getting underway at the time this
article was prepared. At least 143 agreements
for major bargaining units of 5,000 or more
workers each, affecting a total of over 1.8 million
workers, are due to expire in 1962. Most of the
remaining major contracts provide for either
previously agreed upon deferred wage increases,
often in combination with possible cost-of-living
adjustments, or reopening on wages.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has information
in its file of agreements, or from published reports,
on 334 collective bargaining contracts covering
5,000 or more workers each.1 These agreements,
which represent virtually all of the contracts of
this size in the United States, cover nearly 6
million workers, or about a third of all workers
under collective bargaining. This article deals
with 287 agreements, involving 4.5 million workers,
known to be in effect on January 1, 1962. Fortyseven agreements were to expire by Decem­
ber 31, 1961, and settlements had not been reached
at the time this article was completed. Included
in this group are the major wage agreements in the
railroad industry.
The largest proportion of major agreements—•
over two-fifths and covering half the workers—•
was negotiated for a 3-year term (table 1).
Only 34 of the 283 agreements of fixed duration
were to be in effect for longer periods, including
19 for 5 years or more. Four agreements, in­
cluding two covering bituminous coal and an­
thracite miners, had no specific termination date.
All but 25 of the 287 major agreements provided
for possible wage adjustments by including
deferred wage increases or cost-of-living escalator
clauses, or by permitting wage reopenings either
at a fixed date or under specified conditions.
Frequently, and particularly in long-term agree­
ments, more than one type of wage adjustment
was stipulated, as the following tabulation
indicates:
Agreements

W age reopening o n ly____________
D eferred wage increase o n ly _____
W age reopening a n d escalator
clause____________________ .____
W age reopening a n d deferred wage
in crease______________________
E scala to r clause an d deferred wage
increase_______________________
W age reopening, escalato r clause,
a n d deferred w age in crease____

Workers
(thousands)

64
99

825. 3
1, 122. 8

1

7 .0

25

472. 7

64

1, 424. 9

9

262. 2

Three out of five workers due to receive a de­
ferred wage increase in 1962 under these major
*Of the D ivision of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
1 Although the Bureau does not collect railroad and airline agreements,
information for key bargaining situations in these industries has been in­
cluded in this study.

1309

1310

MONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

T able 1. D u r a t io n ,1 W age -R e o p e n in g , and W age -A d justm en t P r o v isio n s of A g r eem en ts C o v er in g 5,000
M ore W o r k er s , in E ffect J a n u a r y 1, 1962
Agreements with provisions for

T otals 2
Duration

Automatic cost-of-living
review

Wage reopening

1

Number of
agreements

Number of
workers
(thousands)

year __________________________
Over 1 and less than 2 years. --------2 years___________________________
Over 2 and less than 3 y e a r s ..............
3 years___________ _______________
__
Over 3 and less than 4 years
4 years
Over 4 and less than 5 years
5 years___________________________
Over 5 years _
Open end (no fixed term'» *

287

4,525.9

12

101.9
105.3
695.7
690.0
2,233. 3
14.0
137. 5
24. 5
263.2
42.3
218.2

1

12

61
36
128
2
10

3
15
4
4

Workers
(thousands)

Deferred wage increase

Agreements

Workers 3
(thousands)

99

1,567.2

74

1,694.1

197

3,282.6

2
2

16.3
25.0
163.9
154.4
923.4

1
1

5.6

1

5.6
74.1
553.4
644.1
1,558.6
14.0
137.5
19.0
234.0
42.3

n
6
58

3

42.0
14.5
178.2
37.3

2

1 2 .2

2
2
11

1 In classifying agreements by duration, a 1-month leeway was observed;
e.g., agreements with terms of 23 or 25 months were grouped with agreements
of 2 years’ duration.
2 Sums of individual wage provision items may exceed totals, since agree­
ments frequently provide for more than one wage action. Possible wage

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Total____________________________

or

8

1 0 .0

13

48
33
77

128.9
470.4
1,054.2
5.0

22

34

1
2

2
10
2
12

2 0 .0

4

reopenings, automatic cost-of-living reviews, and deferred increases scheduled
prior to termination date are counted for the entire duration of the contracts.
8
Refers to all workers covered by agreements, including instances where
deferred increases were granted to specific groups or occupations only.
* Subject to negotiation at any time.

T a ble 2. A g r eem en ts C o v ering 5,000 or M ore W or k e r s , in E ffect J a n u a r y 1, 1962, P r ov id ing
W age R e o p e n in g , or W age A d ju st m e n t in 1962, by I n d u st r y G roup

for

T e r m in a t io n ,

Agreements with provisions in 1962 for—
Current agree­
ments
available i

Wage reopening
Termination

Industry

Specific wage
reopening

Possible wage
reopening

Automatic
cost-of-living
review

Deferred
wage in­
crease

Current agree­
ments not
available

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers 2
Agree­ ers
Agree­
ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
All industries______________ ____________

287 4, 525. 9

143 1,835.3

57

749.9

24

546.0

51 1,209. 0

77 1,614.0

47

1,261.9

Manufacturing______________ _____

140 2, 483. 4

80 1, 072. 2

16

248.1

14

215.8

38

908.2

33

983.9

23

219.8

.
81.8

1

7.5
5.0

1

7.3

3
4

29.1
34.5

7

56. 5

1

1
1
1

6

9. 0
139. 6

3

13.0
58
8 n
38.0

1

5.3

1

7.9

1

2 0 .0

4

2

1 1 .0

2

-

Ordnance and accessories ________________
Food and kindred products_______________
Tobacco manufactures___________________
Textile-mill products______ ______________
__
A p p a r e l.-___ _ _________
Lumber and wood products (except furniture)_____ _________________
_____
Paper and allied products
---------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries.-.
Chemicals and allied products... ________
Products of petroleum and coal..
_ _____
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products..
Leather and leather products_____________
Stone, clay, and glass products__________
Primary metal industries___ _________ . . .
Fabricated metal products__ . . . ______ _
Machinery (except electrical)________ ..
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies
___ .
__________ . .
Transportation equipment______________
Instruments and related products______ . .
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries___
N onm anufacturing___________ ______
Mining, crude-petroleum, and natural-gas
production. ______ __________ _ _ _.
Transportation..
. . . _____ _ .
Railroads and airlines 3 ________ . . . _____
Communi cations____ ____ . . . .
_____
Utilities: Electric and gas . .
.
_____
Wholesale and retail trade_______ . _____
Hotels and restaurants___ _________ . . .
Services. _________ .
________________
Construction__ ______ _ __________ ____

3
14

29.1
143.3

2

4
18

29. 2
371.2

2

2

28.0
37.0
17.5
18.7
16.9
72.5
40.1
38.8
472.3
44.3
84. 0

3
3
3
2

4
6

5
22

4
4
14
26
2
1

225.1
795.2
14.2
6 .0

147 2, 042. 5
2

27
4
34
6
10
10

9
45

206.0
510.3
33.0
434.0
47.6
82. 0
106.8
109. 4
513. 4

6

3
2
2

3
1

21 6

14.3
49. 9
32.0
12.5
18. 7
9.0

1

40.1
38.8
472.3
37.3
10. 0

4
17

36. 4
191. 5

6

5
22

3

1

763.1

10

153. 8
33. 0
40.9
36.2
47. 5
33.5
37. 4
380. 8

6

4
4
28

1 Sums of individual Wage provision items m ay exceed totals, since agreements frequently provide for more than one wage action. Possible wage
reopenings, automatic cost-of-living reviews, and deferred increases scheduled
prior to termination date are counted for contracts terminating in 1962.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6

157.8

2
1

28.0
5.0
1
1

5
3
3
3
i
i

25.1
12. 0
7. 7

6 .0

63

4
3
4

1

41

501.8

1

16.0

31
5

393.1
11. 4
6. 0
68.3

1

7.0

2
1

2
8

3
7
7

7. 0
74.0

\
i
4

5
9.0

8

43.5

681.8
6.5

1

330.2

13

300.8

44

630.1

24

315.7

11

280.8

18

415.5

2

3

1
5

22

28 5

2

10 0

1

1

37 5
138.6

3

1

6 .0

18

2
1

1

1

15 0

9

37. 5
38. 6
74. 0

72.5
14.1

163 6
584 7
6. 5

1

10

5. 0

6 .2

14. 5

See footnote 3, table 1 .
See text footnote 1.

.

20 0

3
18

4

ß

52.2

1,042.1

5

9

42. 4
832.2
o

rn

81.0

M A JO R A G R E EM EN T E X P IR A T IO N S AND R E O P E N IN G S
T a ble 3. E x pir a t io n D ates S pe c ified in 287 A g r ee ­
m e n ts C o v er in g 5,000 or M ore W orkers 1

Year and month

N um ber N um b ei
of
of
agree­ workers
ments
(thou­
sands)

Total___________

287

4, 525.9

1962______________

143

1, 835.3

January.. ____
February_____
March________
April_________
M ay__________
June________
July__________
A ugust_______
Septem ber____

3
7

October. _____
N ovem ber.. . . .
December.. . .

16.2
1 0 1 .0

98.6
225.7
247.8
672.9
83.4
119.5
121.7

12

16
22

40
10

9
9

7

10.5
60.7
77.3

1963______________

78

1,060.3

January_______
February_____
March________
April.
______
M ay____ _ _.
June____ ___
July---------------A u g u s t .._____
September____
October.
___
November____
December_____

7

68.5

4
9
15
16
3

7

26.4
99.1
304.1
154.0
29.1
97.4
114.0
72.2
22.3
73.2

1964______________
January-J une . _
July-December.
1965______________
1966______________
_______
1967
1968
_______
1969______________
Open end 2. _____

Significant contract expirations

2
6

6

5
5
1

52

1, 291.3

33
19

564.8
726.5

5
3

63.5
36.0
16.0

1
1

4

Construction.
Construction.
Steel; aircraft; airlines.
Aluminum and aircraft.
Trucking.
Fabricated metal products; mari­
time.
Aircraft.

Rubber.
Apparel; communications; lumber.
Communications.
Communications.
Electrical products.
Electrical products.

may result from contract reopenings provided in
81 agreements. Under the terms of 24 of these
agreements, wage negotiations may take place in
event of a stipulated change in the purchasing
power of the dollar or other significant economic
changes. The other 57 agreements establish a
specific reopening date or the date at which a wage
increase, if agreed upon, is to go into effect. In­
cluded in this category are virtually all major
communications agreements.
Of the 143 agreements expiring in 1962, the
largest number (78), affecting over three-fifths of
the workers covered, expire in the second quarter,
primarily in June (table 3). The Labor Manage­
ment Relations (Taft-Hartley) Act of 1947 re­
quires that a party to an agreement desiring to
terminate or modify it shall serve written notice
upon the other party 60 days before the expiration
date. In the absence of such notice, many agree­
ments provide for the automatic continuation of
the agreement, frequently for yearly periods.
Listing of Selected Agreements

Trucking; apparel.
Meatpacking; automobiles;
chinery.

ma­

5.3
218.2

1 Based on agreements known to be in effect on January 1 , 1962.
For 47
situations, covering 1,261,900 workers, agreements effective in 1962 were not
available.
2 Subject to negotiation at any time.

agreements are in the transportation equipment
and transportation (trucking) industries (table 2).
These two industries also accounted for more than
four-fifths of the workers whose wages may be
affected by changes in the BLS Consumer Price
Index. Possible wage adjustment during the year


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1311

Table 4 contains a list of 134 selected bargain­
ing situations, each covering 5,000 or more work­
ers, many of which expire or may be reopened for
wage negotiations between January 1 and Decem­
ber 31, 1962.2
The listing also includes a number of contracts
which are not scheduled to terminate or to be re­
opened but which provide for wage reviews based
upon changes in living costs or specify deferred
wage increases payable during 1962. The 134
situations listed cover 3.1 million workers.
2 Space limitations preclude the listing of all major contracts under which
some action in 1962 is scheduled. N o contracts in the construction industry
are listed; in other industry groups, the selection of contracts is, in the main,
designed to cover a broad range of separate industries and key situations.

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

1312

T a ble 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , a n d W a g e -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s of S e l ec ted C ollective B a r g a in in g
_________A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y - D e c e m b e r 1962 1________________________________________
Order of Listing
Nonmanufacturing, exclusive of construction

Manufacturing
1. Steel and*aluminum
2. Fabricated metal products
Machinery
¿ Electrical products
5. Automobiles
. Aircraft
7. Shipbuilding
. Ordnance and accessories
9 Controlling instruments
10. Rubber

11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20-

3

6
8

Company or association 3

Chemicals
Petroleum
Stone, clay, and glass products
Lumber
Paper
Printing and publishing
Textiles
Apparel
Leather and leathe ' products
Food products

U n io n 3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.

Mining
Airlines
Local transit
Trucking and warehousing
Maritime
Telephone and telegraph
Electric and gas utilities
Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Personal services
Hotels and restaurants
Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—

Contract
term 4

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

1. Steel and Aluminum
20, 700

Aug. 1959 to

82, 800

Jan. 1960 to

do.

16, 400

Jan. 1960 to

do.

27,000

Jan. 1960 to

do.

5,000

do.

51,000

Aug. 1959 to
July 1962.
Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.
Dec. 1959 to
July 1962.«
Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.

Aluminum Co. of America, Aluminum; and
Steelworkers.
Bethlehem Steel Co........— Steelworkers----Inland Steel Co. (Illinois
and Indiana).
Jones and Laughlin Steel
Corp. (Ohio and Penn­
sylvania).
Kaiser Aluminum and
Chemical Corp.
Republic Steel Corp-------Reynolds Metals Co.

do.

6,200

United States Steel Corp.
(production and mainte­
nance) .
United States Steel Corp.
(salaried employees).
Youngstown Sheet and
Tube Co.

.do.

125,000

do.
.do.

8

,000

24, 500

Semiannually
(Feb. and Aug.).

July 1962.

June 1962.

June 1962.

June 1962.
Semiannually
(Feb. and Aug.).
Semiannually
(Feb. and Aug.).

Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.
Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.

2. Fabricated Metal Products
Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.
Apr. 1961 to
Mar. 1963.

Semiannually
(Apr. and Oct.).
Oct. 1, 1962______

13, 600

Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.

Semiannually
(Apr. and Oct.).

American Can Co......... ....... Steelworkers........

18,000

M achinists--------

7,000

California M etal Trades
Association (San Fran­
cisco, Calif., area).
Continental Can Co., In c.. Steelworkers.........

Apr. 1,1962; 5-9 cents.

3. Machinery
Deere and Co. (Iowa and
Illinois).

Auto Workers___

17,000

Oct. 1961 to
Oct. 1964.«

General Motors Corp-------

International
Union of Electrical Workers.
Auto Workers___

25,000

Sept. 1961 to
Sept. 1964.«

32,000

Oct. 1961 to
Oct. 1964.«

Steelworkers____

1 0 ,0 0 0

Feb. 1960 to
Aug. 1962.

International
Harvester
Co. (production and
maintenance).
Timken Roller Bearing Co.
(Ohio).

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
........ do___________
____ do......................

Oct. 1962; 2.5 percent.
Sept. 1962; 2.5 percent (6 -cent
minimum).
Oct. 1962; 2.5 percent (6 -cent
minimum).

4. Electrical Products
Electric Auto-Lite Co------

Auto Workers—

11,400

Jan. 1959 to

General Electric Co______

International
Union of Elec­
trical Workers.
Brotherhood of
Electrical
Workers.
International
Union of Elec­
trical Workers.

70,000

Oct. 1960 to
Sept. 1963.

15,000

Jan. 1961 to

36,400

Oct. 1960 to
Oct. 1963.

Raytheon Co. (Massachu­
setts).
Westinghouse
Corp.

Electric

See fo o tn o te s at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Feb. 1962.

Aug. 1962.

April 2, 1962; 4 percent; 3 per­
cent for locals that chose the
holiday-vacation option.
In event the President or U.S.
Congress declares a national
emergency.

April 16, 1962; 4-10 cents for
hourly rates; $1.60-$3.75 per
week for weekly salaried em­
ployees; and $6.93-$16.25 per
month for monthly salaried
employees.

M A JO R A G R E EM EN T E X P IR A T IO N S AND R EO P E N IN G S

1313

T a b l e 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , a nd W age -A d ju st m e n t P r ov isio n s of S e l ec ted
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y - D e c e m b e r 1962 1—Continued

Company or association

Union

3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

3

C ollective

B a r g a in in g

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
___ do..........- ........

Aug. 1962; 2.5 percent (6 -cent
minimum).

5. Automobiles
American Motors Corp.
(Kenosha and M ilwau­
kee, Wis.).
Chrysler Corp. (produc­
tion and maintenance.)
Ford Motor Co.....................

Auto Workers___

23.000

Sept. 1961 to
Sept. 1964.»

60.000

Sept. 1961 to
Sept. 1964.«
Sept. 1961 to
Aug. 1964.«
Sept. 1961 to
Aug. 1964.6
Jan. 1959 to
Mar. 1962.

120,000

General Motors Corp.

.do.

310,000

W illys Motors, Inc. (To­
ledo, Ohio).

.do.

5,000

___ do....................
____do....................

Sept. 1962 ; 2.5 percent (6 -cent
minimum).
Sept. 1962; 2.5 percent (6 -cent
minimum).
Do.

.do.

6. Aircraft
Aug. 1960 to
Sept. 1962.
June 1960 to
June 1962.

Boeing Airplane Co.............

M achinists_____

Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.
(Long Beach, Calif.)

Auto Workers

.

6,700

Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc.
(Santa Monica and El
Segundo, Calif.).
General Dynamics Corp.,
Convair Division (Cali­
fornia and New Mexico).
General Dynamics Corp.,
Convair Division (Fort
Worth, Tex.).
Lockheed Aircraft Corp.
(Marietta. Ga.).
Lockheed Aircraft Corp.,
California Division (Los
Angeles County, Calif.).
North American Aviation,
Inc.
Republic Aviation Corp.
(Farmingdale, N .Y .).
United Aircraft Corp.,
Pratt and W hitney AircraftDivision(EastHartford and Manchester,
Conn.).

M a ch in ists..........

14,100

June 1960 to
June 1962.

____do.....................

11,400

June 1960 to
June 1962.

____d o....................

9, 500

July 1960 to
July 1962.

8 ,0 0 0

July 1960 to
July 1962.
Aug. 1960 to
July 1962.

35,000

____do_________
____d o .................. .

12 000

,

Auto Workers__

24,900

M achinists...........

8,500

____do.....................

15,400

Quarterly (Feb.,
M ay, Aug.,
N ov.).
____do_______ .
Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
____do___________
____do___________
Quarterly (Jan.,
Apr., July,
Oct.).
........ d o __________

June 1960 to
June 1962.
Apr. 1960 to
Mar. 1962.
Aug. 1960 to
Nov. 1962.

____do___________

7. Shipbuilding
Bethlehem Steel Co., East
Coast Shipbuilding D i­
vision.
General Dynamics Corp.,
Electric Boat Division
(Groton, Conn.).

Aug. 1, 1962; hourly rates—
5 cents; piece rates—2.6 per­
cent.

Marine and Ship­
building.
Metal Trades
Council of N ew
London
County.
Boilermakers____

N ew York Shipbuilding
Corp. (Camden, N .J.).
Newport News Shipbuild­ Peninsula Ship­
ing and Dry Dock Co.
builders Asso­
(Newport News, Va.).
ciation (Ind.).
Pacific Coast Shipbuilders- Metal Trades; 10
craft unions in­
cluding Team­
sters (Ind.).

June 1960 to
June 1963.
M ay 1960 to
M ay 1963.

June 24, 1962;

May 23, 1962............................ -

July 1959 to

June 1962.

8. Ordnance and Accessories
Aerojet-General Corp. (Az­ Machinists.
usa and Sacramento,
Calif.).
General Dynamics Corp., ____do__________
Convair (Astronautics)
Division.
Martin Co. (Middle River, Auto Workers__
M d.).

See footnotes a t end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8,000

M ay 1960 to
May 1962.

13,600

June 1960 to

7,500

July 1960 to
July 1963.

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
____do___________

June 1962.

July is iw,?

Quarterly (Jan.,
Apr., July, Oct.).

8

cents.

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1314

T a b l e 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , and W ag e -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s of S elec ted
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y - D e c e m b e r 1962 1— C ontinued

Company or association

2

Union

3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

C ollective

B a rg a in in g

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review 3

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

Will be resumed
quarterly June
1962.

June 1962; 2.5 percent.

9. Controlling Instruments
M in n ea p o lis-H o n ey w ell
Regulator Co. (Minneapolis-St. Paul, M inn.).
Sperry Rand Corp., Sperry
G yr o sc o p e D iv is io n
(Great Neck, N .Y ., area).

Teamsters (Ind.)„

7,700

Feb. 1961 to
Jan. 1963.

International
Union of Elec­
trical Workers.

6,500

June 1961 to
June 1964.6

Feb. 1962___________________

10. Rubber
Firestone Tire and Rubber
Co.
Goodyear Tire and Rubber
Co.

Rubber

16,000

do

11, 500

do

2 0 ,0 0 0

do

25,000

Apr. 1961 to
Apr. 1963.
June 1961 to
Apr. 1963.
Apr. 1961 to
Apr. 1963.8
June 1961 to
M ay 1963.

June 11, 1962; 4-7 cents.
___ _do_ ___

Textile Workers
Union.
Mine Workers,
District 50

7, 500
6,200

and.).

June 1959 to
June 1S62.
Mar. 1959 to
Mar. 1962.

Quarterly (Jan.,
Apr., July, Oct.).

12. Petroleum
Sinclair Oil Corp.

Oil, Chemical
and Atomic.

9,000

July 1961 to

July 1962.

13. Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
Corning Glass Works (Cor­ Flint Glass_____
ning, Big Flats, and
Horseheads, N .Y .).
Glass Container Manufac­ Glass B ottle____
turers Institute.
Owens-Illinois Glass Co., _ __do____ __
glass container plants
and warehouses.
Pittsburgh Plate Glass Co., Glass and
Ceramic.
Glass Division.
United States Potters As­ Potters_________
sociation.

5,000

Dee. 1960 to
Jan. 1962.

8 ,0 0 0

Mar. 1960 to
Feb. 1962.
Apr. 1960 to
Mar. 1962.

10, 300
1 0 ,0 0 0

5, 500

June 1960 to
Feb. 1962.
Dee. 1960 to
Nov. 1962.
14.

Timber Operators’ Council
(Oregon and Washing­
ton).
Timber Operators’ Council
(Oregon and Washing­
ton).

Lumber

Carpenters

15,000

June 1961 to
M ay 1963.8

June 1, 1962__ ____

W nnri workers

13,000

June 1961 to
M ay 1963.8

June 1, 1962

15. Paper
International Paper Co.,
Southern Kraft Division.

Pacific Coast Association of
Pulp and Paper Manu­
facturers.

Papermakers and
Paperworkers;
Pulp; and
Brotherhood of
Electrical
Workers.
Papermakers
and Paperworkers; and
Pulp.

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

12,000

June 1961 to

20, 000

June 1960 to

May 1962.

May 1962.

_

_____

___ do_______ _________ ____

11. Chemicals
American Viscose Corp.,
Fibers Division.
Dow Chemical Co. (M id­
land, M ich.).

___

___ do__ _ _

M A JO R A G R E EM EN T E X P IR A T IO N S AND R E O PE N IN G S

1 3 15

T able 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , and W age -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s op S elected
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y - D ec e m b e r 1962 1— C ontinued

Company or association

Union

2

3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

C ollective

B a r g a in in g

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

16. Printing and Publishing
Metropolitan Lithographers
Association, Inc., and
independent shops (New
York district).
N ew York E m p l o y i n g
P r i n t e r s Association,
Inc., Printers League
Section
(New York,
N .Y .).

Lithographers
(Ind.).

7,500

Printing Press­
men.

5,000

M ay 1960 to

Apr. 1962.

Dec. 1959 to

Mar. 1962.

17. Textiles
Berkshire Hathaway, Inc.
(Massachusetts
and
Rhode Island).
Dan River M ills, Inc.,
(Danville, Va.).

Textile Workers
Union.

5,300

Apr. 1959 to

United Textile
Workers.

9,000

June 1961 to

Apr. 1962.

May 1962.

At any time.. .

18. Apparel
Associated Corset and
Brassiere Manufacturers,
Inc. (New York, N .Y .).
Clothing Manufacturers
Association of the U.S. A.

Ladies’ Garment.

6,500

Jan. 1960 to

Clothing.............

125,000

June 1960 to
M ay 1963.

Dec. 1962.«

Cluett Peabody & Co.
Eastern Women’s Headwear Association, Inc.
(New York, N .Y ., Area).
Industrial Council of Cloak,
Suit and Skirt Manu­
facturers, Inc.; Merchants’
Ladies’ Garment Association, Inc. ; and American
Cloak and Suit Manu­
facturers
Association,
Inc.
Popular
Priced
Dress
Manufacturers Group,
Inc.; United Popular
Dress
Manufacturers
Association, Inc.; United
Better Dress Manu­
facturers
Association,
Inc.; National Dress
Manufacturers Associa­
tion, Inc.; and Affiliated
Dress
Manufacturers,
Inc.

.do.

6 ,1 0 0

Hatters _

11,000

June 1961 to
M ay 1964.
Jan. 1961 to

Ladies’ Garment

32,400

June 1959 to

Notice on or before Feb. 1,
1962, modifications to be­
come effective June 1,1962.
----- do______________ _______

Dec. 1962.
May 1962.

.do.

84,000

Mar. 1961 to
Jan. 1964.

In event of increase or decrease
in the cost-of-living since
Feb. 15,1961.

19. Leather and Leather Products
Brown Shoe Co___
United Shoe
Workers.
International Shoe Co____ _ ___do_____ _
Ladies Handbag and Leath­
er N ovelty Companies
(New York, N .Y .).

Leather G ood s...

Massachusetts Shoe Manu­
facturers
(Massachu­
setts).
N ew
York
Industrial
Council of the National
Authority for the Ladies’
Handbag Industry (New
York, N .Y .).

United Shoe
Workers.

5,500

N ov. 1960 to

Jan. 1, 1962; 3 cents.

8,600

Oct. 1960 to

6 ,0 0 0

July 1959 to

Jan. 1 , 1962;
specified.

Oct. 1962. «

Sept. 1962.«

July 1962.

Leather G ood s...

See footnotes a t end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 0 .0 0 0

Jan. 1961 to

B y union, in event of inflation
or further rise in the cost of
living, but only at the end of
a season or at the end of a 6 month period.

Dee. 1962.

5,000

June 1959 to

May 1962.

B y union, in event of inflation
or further rise in the cost of
living but only at the end of
a season or at the end of a 6 month period.

amount

not

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B E R 1961

1316

T a ble 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , a n d W age -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s of S e l e c ted C ollective B a r g a in in g
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y —D ec e m b e r 1962 1 C ontinued

Company or association *

Union

3

Appro ximate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—
Contract
term 4

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review 3

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

20. Food Products
Brewers Board of Trade,
Inc. (New York, N .Y .).
Brewery Proprietors of
Milwaukee.

Teamsters (Ind.).

0

, uuu

Brewery------------

K non

California Brewers Associa­ Teamsters (Ind.)_
tion and California Beer
Wholesalers Association,
Inc. (California).
California Processors and ______G O --------------Growers, Inc.
(Cali­
fornia) .
Dairy Industry Industrial ____do...... ............Relations Association
(California).

If ouu

Pineapple
(Hawaii).

companies

Longshoremen
and Warehouse­
men (Ind.).

Sugar Plantation Com­
panies’
Negotiating
Committee (Hawaii).

Swift and Co____________ ____do_________

June 1,1962; 10 cents (except 5
cents at the Independent
Milwaukee Brewery unless
sales increase 1 0 percent).

Mar. 1962.

m non

lyfor IQRPtn
Feb. 1962.

7,300

Mar. 1961 to
M ar. 1962.

6 ,0 0 0

1 2 ,0 0 0

Packinghouse___

May 1962.
M ay 1963.

19

, non

1 2 ,0 0 0

5,000

In event of abnormal changes
in living costs or economic
conditions in the dairy
industry.

Jan. 1962.
Feb. 1, and Aug. 1,1962; 4 cents
(additional 2 cents effective
Feb. 1, 1962, for upgrading of
tradesmen and equipment
operators).
Sept. 3,1962; 6 cents.

T?ol-» 1QA1 t n

Jan. 1963.»

Semiannually
(Jan. and July).
____ do---------------- ........ do_______________ _____ -

Rp.pt 1961 to
'A u g . 1964.«
Sept. 1961 to
Aug. 1964.«
Sept. 1961 to
Aug. 1964.

____ do----------------

Sept. 1, 1962;]6 cents.

21. Mining
M ine Workers
A n th r a c ite o p era to rs
(Ind.)
(Pennsylvania).
Bituminous coal operators.

2 0 ,0 0 0

186,000

open end.
Deo, iyuj to
open end.
22. Airlines

American Airlines Inc.,
m e ch a n ics and oth er
ground service personnel.
Eastern Airlines, 26 cities
in eastern United States.
Pan American World Air­
ways, mechanics and
other ground service per­
sonnel.
United Airlines, mechanics
and other ground service
personnel.

Transport
Workers.

1 0 ,0 0 0

M achinists_____

6,800

Transport______
Workers.

7,200

M achinists--------

9,000

u ci. iyou io
Mar. 1962.«
rirtf mnn +n
Dec. 1962.«

U L t i ItfU U l/d

June 1962.«

June 1962.«

23. Local Transit
Chicago Transit Authority
(Chicago, 111.).

Street—-------------

Public Service Coordinated
Transport Co. (New
Jersey).

Street----------------

1 2 ,1 0 0

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).

IQñQtrt
Nov. 1362.
Jan. 1962.

24. Trucking and Warehousing
Automobile Carrier Truck - Teamsters (Ind.).
away and Automobile
Carrier Driveway Agree­
ments.
C e n tr a l P e n n s y lv a n ia — ..d o __________
Motor Carrier Employ­
ers Conference (Pennsyl­
vania).

See footnotes a t end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

15,000

Mar. 1961 to
Feb. 1964.

6,500

Aug. 1958 to
Aug. 1962.

In event of war, declaration of
emergency, or imposition of
economic controls.

Annually
(Mar. 1;.

Jan. 1 and’ Oct. 1, 1962: 9 cents
hourly increases; also mileage
rate increase.

M A JO R A G R E EM EN T E X P IR A T IO N S AND R E O P E N IN G S

1317

T a b l e 4. E x p ir a t io n , R e o p e n in g , a n d W age -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s of S elec ted C ollective
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y - D e c e m b e r 1962 1—Continued

Company or association J

Union »

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

B a r g a in in g

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

Annually
(Feb. 1).

Feb. 1, 1962 : 8 cents; 2 cents
adjustment in some areas to
bring rate near the level
of Indiana local cartage wage
rates; adjustment of checkers’
wage to within 1 0 cents of
drivers’; adjustment of dockmen’s wage to within 1 0 cents
of checkers’.
Feb. 1, 1962; 8 cents; also in­
crease in mileage rate.

24. Trucking and Warehousing—Continued
Central States Area—Local
Cartage Agreement.

Teamsters (Ind.)_

1 0 0 ,0 0 0

Feb. 1961 to
Jan. 1964.

Central States Area—Overthe-Road Motor Freight
Agreement.
Empire State Highway
Transportation Associa­
tion, Inc. (New York,
N .Y .).
Motor Transport Labor
Relations, Inc. (Phila­
delphia, Pa., Area).
N ew York-New Jersey
Area General Trucking
Agreement.

........do .................

55,000

Feb. 1961 to
Jan. 1964.

------ d o -..................

1 0 ,0 0 0

Sept. 1960 to
Aug. 1962.

------ d o ......... ...........

25,000

Jan. 1960 to
Dee. 1962.

------do....................

50,000

Sept. 1960 to
Aug. 1962.

W estern S ta te s A rea, ........ do_____ ____
Master Freight Agree­
ment.

60,000

July 1961 to
Jtme 1964.

In event of war, declaration of
emergency, or imposition of
civilian controls.

_do.

_do_

Jan. 1, 1962; 10 cents.
In event of declaration of war
by U.S. Congress, declara­
tion of national emergency,
or imposition of civilian eco­
nomic controls.
In event of war, declaration of
emergency, or imposition of
economic controls.

Inequity adjustments effective
Mar. 1 and June 1, 1962.

Annually
(July 1).

July 1, 1962: various mileage
and hourly rate increase. A
few locals receive an addi­
tional increase on Jan. 1 or
N ov. 1, 1962.

25. Maritime
Atlantic and Gulf Coast Maritime_______
Companies and Agents—
dry cargo and passenger
vessels unlicensed per­
sonnel.
Atlantic and Gulf District Seafarers...............
Freightship Agreement—
unlicensed personnel.
New York Shipping Asso­ Longshoremen’s
ciation (Port of Greater
Association.
N ew York and vicinity).
Pacific Maritime Associa­ Longshoremen
tion.
and Warehouse­
men (Ind.).

25,000

June 1961 to
June 1965.«

15,000

June 1961 to
June 1962.«

2 0 ,0 0 0

Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.

16,000

Oct. 1960 to
June 1966.«

June 1962; 2.25jpereent.

Annually in June____________

26. Telephone and Telegraph
American Telephone and
Telegraph Co., Long
Lines Department.
General Telephone Co. of
C a lifo r n ia (so u th er n
California).
Michigan Bell Telephone
Co., Plant and Traffic
Departments.
N ew Jersey Bell Telephone
Co., Traffic Department.
N ew York Telephone Co.,
Downstate and Upstate
P la n t D e p a r tm e n ts.
N ew York Telephone Co.,
T r a ffic D e p a r tm e n t
(downstate area).
N ew York Telephone Co.,
T ra ffic D e p a r tm e n t
(upstate area.).
Northwestern Bell Tele­
phone Co.
Pacific Telephone and
Telegraph Co., Plant D e­
partment (southern Cali­
fornia).
P a c ific T elep h o n e and
Telegraph Co. (northern
C a lifo r n ia ) a nd B e ll
Telephone Co. of Nevada,
Plant and Traffic D e­
partments.

Communications.

22,300

____do_ ...........___

8,000

____do_...................

N ov. 1960 to
N ov. 1963.

Nov. 1962________

June 1961 to
June 1962.

15,300

June 1960 to
June 1963.

June 1962______

____do ________

7,900
24,000

M ay 1960 to
M ay 1963.
M ay 1961 to
Feb. 1964.

Mav 1962

___do _______
Telephone
Traffic Union
(Ind.).
------d o. ................

15,000

Apr. 1961 to
Mar. 1964.

Mar. 1962_________

6,900

N ov. 1960 to
Oct. 1963.

Oct. 1962

M ay 1960 to
Apr. 1963.
July 1960 to
July 1963.

May 1962_____ ____ _________

June 1960 to
June 1963.

June 1962__ _

Communications.

19,000

____d o ....... ..........

10,800

___do_________

17,000

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July 1962................. ......................

....................................

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1318
T able 4. E x p ir a t io n ,

Company or association

2

R e o p e n in g , and W ag e -A d ju st m e n t P r o v isio n s of S elec ted C ollective B a rg ain in g
A g r e e m e n t s , J a n u a r y —D e c e m b e r 1962 1 Continued.

Union

3

Provisions effective January-December 1962, for—

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Contract
term 4

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Wage reopening

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

26. Telephone and Telegraph—Continued
Southern Bell Telephone Communications.
and Telegraph Co.
Southwestern Bell Tele­ ____CIO -------------phone Co., Plant and
Traffic Departments.
Western Union Telegraph Telegraphers____
Co.

C!/-\rvf 1QAOtr\
Aug. 1963.
July IQfíO lo
June 1963.

55,000
38,900
¿Oj yuu

Sept 1962

__ _

July 1962___________ ______

May 1962.

___________________

27. Electric and Gas Utilities
C om m onwealth Edison Brotherhood of
Electrical
Co. and Subsidiary Pub­
Workers.
lic Service Co. (Illinois).
r\r\
Niagara Mohawk Power ____QO--------------Co. (New York).
_QO--------------Pacific Gas and Electric
Co. (California).

oy, ouu
&nn
7 500
14 100

Apr. 1962.«
May 1962.

Tnly 1Q60 to

June 1962.
28. Wholesale and Retail Trade

First National Stores, Inc.
(New England area).
Great Atlantic and Pacific
Tea Co., Inc. (New York
and N ew Jersey).
Philadelphia Food Em­
ployers Labor Council.

IVluaL C u ttèrs.-.-

n nnn
UUU

__ao__________

17 500

Retail Clerks-----

i e nnn
I D , UUU

y,

T ?oh

1Q fiO t n

Feb. 1962.

Mfly 1 Q6 Hto

May 1962.

Anor

1Q *Q t n

June 1962.

29. Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate
John Hancock Mutual Life
Insurance Co.
Realty Advisory Board on
Labor Relations, Inc.,
Commercial Buildings
(New York, N .Y .).

Insurance
Workers.
Building Service.

IQfin

n l yt r i y u u tt nu
jT m

June 1962.
ix oZ j nUUU
nn

Jan. 1, 1962; 5 cents.

Dec. 1692.

30. Personal Services
Chicago Laundry Owners
A ssociation (C hicago,
111., Metropolitan area).

Laundry, Clean­
ing And D ye
House Workers
_Ond-).

Fam ily and Wholesale As­
sociation (New York and
N ew Jersey).

1 0 ,0 0 0

yo , un un un

XT/ATT

10*7 tn

Aug. 1962.
Jan IQSRtn

Nov. 1962.
31. Hotels and Restaurants

East Bay Restaurant As­
s o c ia t io n , I n c ., and
United Tavern Owners
Association, Inc. (Ala­
meda County, Calif.).
Golden Gate Restaurant
Association and inde­
pendent companies (San
Francisco, Calif.).
Hotel Association of N ew
York City, Inc.
R esta u ra n t-H o tel E m ­
ployers Council of South­
ern California, Inc.

H otel.

.do.

N ew York Hotel
Trades Coun­
cil.
H o te l.............— .

8,000

July 1959 to
July 1964.

15.000

Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1964.

Cîopi 1

.

35.000

June 1959 to
M ay 1963.

J llT1o 1 1*)K2

___

12.000

Mar. 1959 to

Mar. 1962.

1 Contracts on file with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 20, 1961,
except where footnote indicates that information is from newspaper source.
2 Interstate unless otherwise specified.
s Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO except where noted as independent.
4
Refers to the date the contract is to go into effect, not the date of signing.
Where a contract has been amended or modified and the original termination
date extended, the effective date of the changes becomes the new effective
date of the agreement.
.
,
.
.
For purposes of this listing, the expiration is the formal termination date
established by the agreement. In general, it is the earliest date on which


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.

termination ol the contract couia oe enective, except, iui oyeuiai
for termination as in the case of disagreement arising out of a wage reopening.
M any agreements provide for automatic renewal at the expiration date unless
notice of termination is given. The Labor Management Relations (TaftHartley) Act, 1947, requires that a party to an agreement desiring to ter­
minate or modify it shall serve written notice upon the other party 60 days
prior to the expiration date.
, . ^ ,
.
.
5 Date shown indicates the month in which adjustment is to be made, not
the month of the Consumer Price Index on which adjustment is based.
6 Information is from newspaper account of settlement.

Deferred Wage
Increases and
Escalator Clauses
R ichard

G. S e e f e r *

Deferred Increases

Deferred wage increases are scheduled to go
into effect during 1962 for about 2.4 million
workers covered by major collective bargaining
contracts in manufacturing and selected nonmanu­
facturing industries. The increases for most of
these workers were specified in contracts nego­
tiated in 1961, although some were agreed to
earlier. The number of workers scheduled to
receive deferred wage increases during the coming
year is smaller than in any of the past 5 years,
the period for which similar summaries have been
prepared. The corresponding estimates for these
years were about 2.6 million workers in 1960,
2.9 million in both 1961 and 1959, 4 million in
1958, and 5 million in 1957. The reduction in
1962 below previous years does not indicate a
decline in the popularity of deferred increases, but
rather reflects the timing of negotiations on major
contracts and some reduction in the employment
of production workers in manufacturing industries
that usually negotiate long-term agreements. In
addition, the length of long-term contracts varies
among industries; 2 and 3 years are predominant,
but a few run for as long as 4 or 5 years. More­
over, the duration of contracts negotiated in
any industry may change from time to time.
Thus, some industries have shifted between 2- and
3-year agreements or even between long-term and
single-year settlements. In the automobile in­
dustry, the General Motors contract negotiated
in 1948 with the United Automobile Workers was
for 2 years; the GM negotiations in 1950 resulted
in a 5-year contract, which was amended in 1953.
Subsequent agreements in this industry (in 1955,

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1958, and 1961) have each been for 3 years,
providing deferred increases in 1956, 1957, 1959,
1960, 1962, and 1963. In basic steel, the first
contracts providing deferred increases were con­
cluded in 1956 and were for 3 years; negotiations
that began in the industry in 1959 were not con­
cluded until early 1960 and specified deferred
increases in 1961, with most contracts due for
renegotiation in 1962. Over the entire 6 years
from 1957 through 1962, 1957—which was the peak
year in terms of number of workers affected by
deferred increases—was the only year in which
deferred increases were effective in both basic
steel and the automobile industry.
All Industries Studied, Except Construction. Of
the 2.4 million workers covered by this summary,
about 400,000 are in the construction trades and
about 2.0 million are employed under major col­
lective bargaining contracts in manufacturing and
other nonmanufacturing industries studied. More
than 2 out of 5 workers in the industries other
than construction who are scheduled to receive
deferred increases in 1962 will be affected by raises
averaging 6 but less than 7 cents an hour (table
1). Only about 1 out of 10 will get increases of
less than 6 cents, while nearly half (47 percent)
are scheduled for wage-rate advances averaging
7 cents an hour or more.
In manufacturing, almost 3 out of 5 workers
(56 percent) affected by deferred increases are
to receive advances in 1962 averaging 6 but less
than 7 cents an hour. These workers are con­
centrated in the food (52,000), rubber (68,000),
and metalworking (628,000) industries. Most of
the metalworking employees are engaged in the
manufacture of automobiles and automotive parts
or of farm equipment, where increases of 2.5 per­
cent (in most instances with a minimum of 6
*Of the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
1 See Editor’s N ote on “Major Agreement Expirations and Reopenings
in 1962,” p. 1309.
Only changes in wage rates are discussed in this summary; changes in
supplementary benefits are excluded. Normally most benefit changes
become effective at the time of settlement or within the first few months
thereafter.
This summary is lim ited to contracts affecting 1,000 or more workers in all
industries except the service trades, finance, and government. The informa­
tion—based in part on secondary sources—relates to settlements summarized
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics m onthly report on Current Wage Devel­
opments.
Because data are less complete for construction than for the other industries
covered, estimates for this industry are included in the totals in this portion
of the text but are not incorporated in any table except table 3.

1319

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B E R 1961

1320

T able 1. D efe r r e d W age I n c r e a se s 1 S ched uled T o G o I nto E ffect in 1962 in S itua tio n s A ffecting 1,000
M ore W o rkers in M a n u fa c t u r in g a n d S elected N o n m a n ufac tu rin g I n d u st r ie s 2

or

Approximate number of workers affected (in thousands)

Average deferred wage increase
(cents per hour) i

Total......................................................
Under 5 cents__________________
5 but less than 6 cents___________
6 but less than 7 cents___________
7 V i n t I p s s fc T ia n 8 o fv p t-S

g h\it lpf^ tih f lT i Qpp.nt.s
9 but less ttiSR IQ ppnt^

13

less tlifvn 14- pp’n t5'

N ot specified or not com puted 6 __

N um ­
Leather Stone,
Food Print­ Chem­
ber of
clay,
and
icals
ing
and
situa­ All In­ Total
and
and Rubber leather
tions dustries manu­ kindred and
glass
prod­
allied
pub­
prod­
factur­
studied 2
prod­
ucts
lishing prod­
ucts
ing 3
ucts
ucts

1,970

1,409

8

77
127
839
224
254
147
97
82
32
40

2

3

65
106
788
205
114
27
31
15
13
4
7
3

407
34
56
77
70
59
21

34
24
9

128

23
3

27
52
9
9

1

3

7

3

4

Ware­
hous­
ing,
whole­
sale
and
retail
trade
111

101

32

49

992

561

11

26

2

17
39
628
171
70

12

16

1

1
11

68
6

9
23

6

11
2

5
7
2

10

2

12

13
33
5

1

2

4

1 Wage changes are presented in terms of the average change for all workers
covered by a collective bargaining settlement.
2 Excludes certain industries, notably construction, the service trades,
finance, and government.
3 Includes a few settlements in the following industry groups for which
separate data are not shown: Paper and allied products (16,000), lumber and
furniture (14,000), textiles (10,000), miscellaneous manufacturing (8,000),
apparel (7,000), tobacco (2,000), and petroleum (1,000).

cents) will average between 6 and 7 cents.2 A
majority of the workers in meatpacking will receive
6 cents an hour; in rubber, the increases will be 7
cents at tire plants and 4 cents in plants manu­
facturing other goods, with the two increases in
most situations averaging 6 but less than 7 cents.
Deferred increases in the rubber industry are
unusual; typically, wages are negotiated each
summer.
Expressed in terms of cents per hour, the 1962
deferred wage increases for the approximately
561.000 workers in the nonmanufacturing in­
dustries studied tend to be distinctly higher than
those for manufacturing. Thus, slightly more than
4 out of 5 nonmanufacturing workers are sched­
uled to receive increases averaging at least 8
cents an hour, compared with about 1 out of 6 in
manufacturing. Nearly half the nonmanufactur­
ing workers (46 percent) will get advances averag­
ing 8 but less than 10 cents; most of these are
transportation workers, including about 200,000
engaged in local and long-distance trucking.
Raises averaging at least 10 cents an hour account
for about 36 percent of the nonmanufacturing
workers, including 47,000 in trade and more than
100.000 other trucking employees.
Slightly more than half the workers due de­
ferred increases will receive increases in the first
6 months of 1962. As table 2 indicates, 244,000

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

6

3

26

Total
nonMetal- manuwork­ facturing 4
ing
stud­
ied *

3

21

51
18
139
119
66

37
19
35
43

4
3
35
3
7
12

18
17
3
7
2

Trans­ Public
util­
porta­
ities
tion

416

34

6

2

18
14
14
125
104
44

1
8

4
3

12

8

16
26
37

3
5

3
< Primarily employees of manufacturers of automobiles and related parts
and farm and electrical equipment.
s Includes 2,000 workers in metal mining for which separate data are not
shown.
8 Insufficient information to compute amount of increases.
N o t e : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

workers, including about 163,000 in electrical
equipment and 20,000 in trucking, will receive
increases in April. About 230,000 (mostly in
trucking) are affected by raises to be effective in
February and a similar number in June in indus­
tries such as maritime (42,000 workers), rubber
(90,000), and metalworking (40,000). More than
20,000 workers each in food products, in the
cement industry, and in metalworking will receive
their increases in May.
In the second half of the year, deferred increases
in September predominate, affecting about 542,000
automobile workers and about 77,000 meatpack­
ing employees. More than 20,000 employees of
major shipbuilding firms are due to receive de­
ferred increases in August, and it is estimated that
at least 60,000 workers in the farm equipment
industry will get increases in October. Most of
the workers in the trucking industry who are due
for increases in the first half of the year will also
receive raises in the second half (in July, August,
October, and November). Only about 35,000
workers are shown as receiving deferred increases
in November and December because negotiations
2 Included in this category are employees of several companies (e.g., Ameri­
can Motors Corp., Chrysler Corp., and International Harvester Co.) whose
contracts provide that at least a portion of the deferred increases may be
diverted, or the deferred Increase delayed, upon mutual agreement, to help
finance improvements in nonwage items such as supplemental unemploy­
ment benefits or health and welfare provisions.

1321

D E F E R R E D W AGE IN C R E A SES AND ESCALATOR CLAUSES
T a b l e 2. D e f e r r e d W a g e I n c r e a s e s D u e i n 1962 i n
M a jo r S it u a t io n s in M a n u f a c t u r in g a n d S e l e c t e d
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r ie s , b y E f f e c t iv e M o n t h

M onth

T otal___________

Approximate
number of
workers
affected
1 1,970,000

January_________
February________
March......................
April____________
M ay.........................

175,000
227,000
55,000
244,000
109,000

June.........................

229,000

J u ly ........................
August__________
September_______

6 6 8 ,0 0 0

October_________
N o v e m b e r ............
December_______
M onth not known.

Principal industries affected

77,000
56,000
171,000
18,000
17.000

Footwear, trade, and trucking.
Trucking.
None.
Electrical equipment and trucking.
Food products, cement, and various
metalworking.
Rubber, various metalworking, and
maritime.
Various metalworking and trucking.
Shipbuilding and trucking.
Meatpacking and automobiles and re­
lated parts.
Farm equipment and trucking.
Trucking.
None.

2 0 .0 0 0

1 The total is smaller than the sum of the individual items since 90,000
employees w ill receive two deferred increases in 1962.

increases—about 6 cents, compared with about
6.5 cents in 1960 and 7.5 cents in both 1958 and
1957. Trucking contracts covering central States
operations provide deferred increases in 1962
averaging at least 8 cents an hour for most work­
ers—about a penny higher than the deferred raises
effective in both 1960 and 1959 but approximately
the same as in 1957.
Construction. About 394,000 workers employed
under major construction agreements for which
information was available are scheduled to receive
deferred wage increases in 1962. Approximately
85 percent of these workers will receive adjust­
ments in the first 6 months of the year (the usual
period for wage adjustments in this industry).
About 169,000 workers will receive increases in
the July to December period, including about
109,000 who were also to receive wage increases
in the first half of the year. Taking the year
as a whole, the most common increases, each
affecting almost one-fifth of the construction
workers, will average 9 but less than 11 cents or 25
cents an hour or more. The latter increases are
largely concentrated at 30 cents, with 50,000
workers due to receive a 10-cent-an-hour raise in
January and an additional 20 cents in July.
Fewer than 10 percent of the construction workers
affected are scheduled to receive raises that will
average less than 9 cents an hour, compared with
more than 75 percent of the workers in manufac­
turing and the nonmanufacturing industries sum­
marized earlier.

in a number of industries (including some in the
farm equipment and automotive parts industries)
where raises may go into effect in these months
had not been concluded at press time and because
collective bargaining is relatively slack in these
two months.
The distribution of the deferred wage increases
due in any year is greatly affected by the industries
in which increases are concentrated; hence, com­
parisons with other years have limited, if any,
significance. Even comparisons for the same
industries show no consistent pattern of change
between past deferred increases and those due in
1962. The 1961 contracts in the automobile and
related industries continued the 2}£ percent (with
a minimum in most instances of 6 cents an hour)
improvement factor increases—the same as those
in the 1955 and 1958 contracts. The 1961 con­
tracts differed, however, in two respects: The de­
ferred increases scheduled for 1962 and 1963 are
to go into effect at 12-month intervals (whereas
the 1958 contracts had established 13-month in­
tervals), and as noted previously, some of the
auto and farm equipment settlements (notably
American Motors, Chrysler Corp., and Interna­
tional Harvester Co.) provided that these increases
may be either reduced or their effective dates
changed to help finance improvements in fringe
benefits.3 The 1962 deferred increases in meat­
packing tend to be slightly lower than previous

25 up/pts ATlfi ovai*
N ot specified or not com puted2--------

* Moreover, the ITAW contracts with the Big Three automobile producers
diverted part of the 1961 improvement-factor increase to help finance
improvements in nonwage benefits, amounting to 2 cents an hour at General
Motors Corp. and Ford Motor Co. and 3 cents an hour at Chrysler Corp.

i The total is smaller than the sum of the figures for the two 6 -month periods
since 109,000 employees will receive a deferred increase in each of the periods,
s Insufficient information to compute amount of increase.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

in

Approximate number of workers
affected
Hourly increase effective during
period
Total

Total.........................................................

i 394,000
8 ,0 0 0

7 but less than 9 cents.............................
9 but less than 11 cents_____________
11 but less than 13 cents____________

23.000
72.000
44.000
8 ,0 0 0

67.000
17 J"wit
than IQ np.nt.s
19 but less than 21 cents.........................
blit loss than 23 ppnt.s

2 0 .0 0 0

69,000

January 1
to June 30

July 1 to
December
31

334,000

169,000

2 1 ,0 0 0
2 2 ,0 0 0

2 2 ,0 0 0

156,000
40, 000
7.000
55.000
5.000
29.000

44,000
8 ,0 0 0

71,000

21

OO
o§


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 3. D e f e r r e d I n c r e a se s in U n io n S cales D u e
1962 in M ajor S it u a t io n s in C o n structio n

18,000
7,000

1322

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

T able 4. C ost - of -L iv in g E scalator P r ov isio n s in
M ajor C ontracts in M a n u fa c t u r in g and S elected
N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g I n d u s t r ie s P r o v id ing D efe r r e d
W age I n c r e a se s in 1962 1
Approximate
number of
workers due to
receive de­
ferred wage
increases

Item

All situations with deferred increases_____
A

v er a g e

D

e fe r r e d

W

a g e

I

n c r ea ses

1,970,000

Percent of
workers cov­
ered by costof-living esca­
lator clauses

54

2

Under 5 cents___________________ ______
5 but less than 6 cents_____________ _
_ _ _ __
but less than 7 cents_____
7 but less than 8 cents___________ _____
8 but less than 9 c e n ts -_____ _
9 but less than 10 cents_______ _________
1 0 but less than 11 cents. - ______
1 1 but less than 1 2 cents_______
______
12 but less than 13 cents_______
___
13 but less than 14 c e n ts __________
14 cents and over.. ___________
N ot specified or not computed 3 ___ ______

77,000
127,000
839,000
224,000
254,000
147,000
97,000
82,000
32,000
40, COO
50,000
3,000

15
26
72
47
41
78

M anufacturing4. ___ _______
___
Food and kindred products_____ ____
Rubber____ _ _ . ____________
Leather and leather products _____ _
Stone, clay, and glass products.______
____
Metalworking.__________ _

1,409,000
128,000

51
55

Nonmanufacturing 4_ _ - _ - _____
Warehousing, wholesale and retail trade.
Transportation____ __ . . . _ ________

561,000

6

I

n d u stry

G

ro u p

(S e

l ec ted

12
12

31
72
70
25

)

1 0 1 ,0 0 0

32.000
49.000
992,000
1 1 1 ,0 0 0

416,000

7
65
63
38
74

1 Excludes certain industries, notably construction, the service trades,
finance, and government, as well as workers covered by contracts in which the
first cost-of-living review date does not occur until 1963.
2 See footnote 1 , table 1 .
3 Insufficient information to compute amount of increase.
4 For specific industries included in the total, see table 1 .

N

o t e

totals.

:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal

This disparity in the size of wage increases
between construction and other industries is due
primarily to two factors: (1) hourly scales in the
construction industry are relatively high, so that
a given increase in cents per hour amounts to a
smaller percentage increase than in most industries,
and (2) cost-of-living clauses are rarely found in
the construction industry.
Cost-of-Living Escalator Clauses

During 1961, there was at least a temporary
halt in the trend evident in 1959 and 1960 toward
either eliminating cost-of-living escalator clauses
or limiting the size of escalator increases. The
automobile and meatpacking agreements negoti­
ated during 1961 continued their escalator clauses
essentially without change, although most of the
automobile contracts used the first cent of the
escalator allowance due in 1961 to offset some of
the increase in fringe benefit costs. The trucking


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

agreements, signed either late in 1960 or during
the first 3 quarters of 1961, also continued costof-living escalation without limit, but changed the
frequency of review from semiannual to annual
and postponed the first review date, in most cases
to 1962. In sharp contrast, 1960 negotiations
either eliminated escalation entirely (for about
a million workers in electrical equipment manu­
facture and on the railroads) or limited the size
of adjustments (particular^ in basic steel and
related industries). (Similar maxiinums had been
set in the fall of 1959 in aluminum and metal
container contracts.) Moreover, the permissible
increases in the cost-of-living allowance in the
basic steel and related contracts were subject to
offset against increased costs of insurance.
As of January 1962, an estimated 2.5 million
workers will be employed under selected major
collective bargaining contracts containing auto­
matic cost-of-living escalator clauses—about the
same number as were covered by such provisions
a year earlier.4 Practically all of these workers
are employed under long-term contracts that
specified deferred wage increases due either in
1962 or in earlier years, although a substantial
number of workers under long-term agreements
specifying one or more deferred increases are not
covered by cost-of-living escalation.
Included in this total are about 1.1 million
workers who are scheduled to receive deferred
increases in 1962, whose total wage increase will
thus depend on a combination of their deferred
increase and the course of the Consumer Price
Index during the year. Among these workers,
approximately 600,000 are in the automobile and
farm equipment industries, where most escalation
is based on quarterly changes in the BLS Con­
sumer Price Index; about 70,000 in meatpacking,
where the escalator provisions are reviewed semi­
annually; and almost 300,000 in trucking, where
annual reviews are in effect.
Most of the remaining 1.4 million workers
covered by escalator clauses are employed under
4 In addition, it is estimated that about 250,000 unorganized workers—
mostly office and other employees of establishments whose production
workers are covered by collectively bargained escalator clauses—are also
covered by provisions for automatic cost-of-living adjustments. Although
many unorganized employees of companies where collective bargaining con­
tracts provide for deferred increases also receive comparable increases, no
effort has been made here to estimate the number of such workers.

D E F E R R E D W AGE IN C R E A SES AND ESCALATOR CLA U SES

contracts that will expire during 1962.5 About
625,000 of these, concentrated in the basic steel,
aluminum, metal containers, and related indus­
tries, are employed under contracts that do not
permit any further review of the escalator allow­
ance before they expire. At least 250,000 will
have one or two more cost-of-living reviews before
their contracts expire during 1962. Most of these
are employed in the aircraft-missile industry,
where contracts are subject to renegotiation in
the late spring and early summer. Existing con­
tracts in this industry provide for quarterly costof-living reviews.
About 900,000 workers covered by contracts
that provide for deferred increases in 1962 do not
contain cost-of-living escalator provisions. In­
cluded are about 225,000 employees in the elec­
trical equipment industries (mostly General Elec­
tric Co. and Westinghouse Electric Corp.), where
cost-of-living provisions were eliminated from 3year contracts concluded in the fourth quarter of
1960. Other contracts featuring deferred increases
in 1962 but no escalation include some in trade
and those in printing, rubber, leather, stone, clay,
and glass, and utility industries.
Escalator Increases During 1961. Cost-of-living
escalator increases in 1961 tended to be about the
same as or slightly lower than in 1960. The 1961
increases were considerably below those during the
1950 s, because the Consumer Price Index was
6 Included in the estimate of the total number of workers under escalator
clauses are approximately 325,000 employed under contracts for whom new
agreements had not been completed when this report was prepared but whose
previous contracts had provided for escalation; it has been assumed that the
new agreements will continue escalation.
6 For additional details of this provision, see M onthly Labor Review N o­
vember 1961, p. 1249.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1323

relatively stable during the year and many costof-living escalator clauses either limited the per­
missible escalator increases in 1961 or postponed
increases until 1962.
Escalator increases under contracts in automo­
biles and related industries amounted to 1 cent an
hour during 1961. An additional 1 cent that
would have been due Under the escalator formula
of the auto contracts was applied to help finance
increases in pension benefits. Cost-of-living esca­
lator increases in most major automobile and farm
equipment contracts amounted to 4 cents in 1960,
3 cents in 1959, and 6 cents a year in 1957 and
1958. In meatpacking, cost-of-living increases in
1961 totaled 3 cents, including 1 cent in anticipa­
tion of any increase that might become effective
in the future. The increase effective in this indus­
try in both 1959 and 1960 was also 3 cents; in
1958, the cost-of-living allowance in meatpacking
rose 8 cents, while in 1957 it advanced 5 cents.
The increase in the Consumer Price Index was
sufficient to give basic steel workers the 3-cent
maximum increase in their allowance permitted
during 1961 under contracts concluded early in
I960; half of this went to offset increased insurance
costs, and half (1.5 cents) was addend to the cash
cost-of-living allowance effective October l.6 In
1960, the entire 3-cent increase in the cost-ofliving allowance was used to offset increased insur­
ance costs. Basic steel workers received a 1-cent
cost-of-living increase in 1959, 9 cents in 1958, and
7 cents in 1957. Most workers in the trucking
industry received no cost-of-living escalator in­
creases in 1961 as a result of postponement of the
first escalator review date until 1962. These
workers had received 4 cents in 1960, 2 cents in
1959, and 6 cents in 1958 and 1957.

Special Labor Force Report
E ditor ’s N ote .— Other

articles in this series cover such subjects as multiple
jobholders, the marital and family characteristics of workers, and the employ­
ment of high school graduates, and include the annual report on the labor
force. Reprints of all articles in the series, including in most cases addi­
tional detailed tables and an explanatory note, are available upon reguest
to the Bureau or to any of its regional offices {listed on the inside front cover
of this issue).

Work Experience of the
Population in 1960
C arl R o se n f e l d *
O n e op the most significant developments revealed
by the annual survey of work experience of the
population for 1960 was an unusually large rise
in the total number of persons who worked at
some time during the year. An estimated record
number of 80.6 million persons worked at one
time or another during 1960, about 2.5 million
more than the 1959 peak (table 1). This gain—•
the second largest in the past 10 years—occurred
in spite of a downturn in business activity during
the latter half of the year. The groups which
showed the greatest increases over the year,
accounting for about 1.9 million of the expansion,
were young people under 25 and women 35 years
and over. Apparently several factors combined
to bring about this growth. The teenage popula­
tion is now expanding more rapidly than in
the past few years, the tendency for married
women to return to work has continued to grow,
and both groups have a more tenuous attachment
to the labor force than most other workers,
moving in and out in response to changes in
their personal circumstances. Because of greater
turnover, the total number of different young
people and women who are in the labor force
during the year is far in excess of their number in
an average month.
1324


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Another major finding of the survey was the
considerable increase in the number of persons who
worked all year at full-time jobs in spite of rising
unemployment in the latter half of 1960. Over
43 million workers were employed 50-52 weeks
at jobs that usually provided 35 hours or more
of work a week, 1.2 million more than the year
before. Only a small part of the improvement
in regular work (300,000) occurred in durable
goods manufacturing, and this represented a
recovery from the long steel strike in late 1959
which had curtailed the amount of year-round
full-time work in hard goods manufacturing.
Further improvement in steady work in durable
goods was cut short by the onset of the recession
which hit this sector early in 1960.
The largest part of the increase in year-round
full-time work occurred in service industries
(including finance and private households), where
900,000 more men and women worked steadily in
1960 than a year earlier. In addition, these
industries had 800,000 more part-time and partyear workers than in 1959. Besides service, which
accounted for 1.7 million of the 2.5 million rise in
the annual work force, trade and public adminis­
tration were the only other industries which had
more persons working during 1960 than the year
before.
With the cutbacks in business activity in the
second half of 1960, the number of different
persons who were unemployed at some time during
•Of the D ivision of Manpower and Employment Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU LA TIO N IN 1960

the year rose by almost 2 million oyer the previous
year to 14.2 million (table 2). Joblessness in­
creased in nearly all major industry groups. The
rise was sharper among those looking for work for
a total of 15 weeks or more than for those jobless
a lesser time.
The article which follows analyzes in greater
detail the changes between 1959 and 1960 in the
work experience of the population and presents
information available for the first time on the
number of weeks worked on part-time jobs in
industry groups and the characteristics of persons
who did not work during the year but spent some
time looking for work.1
1

Data relate to the work experience of persons age 14 years and over who
were in the civilian noninstitutional population in February 1961. The
annual survey for 1960 was taken in February 1961 as a supplement to the
regular monthly survey of the labor force conducted for the Bureau of Labor
Statistics by the Bureau of Census through its Current Population Survey.
Previous surveys of the work experience of the population have been summa­
rized in the Bureau of Census Current Population Reports, Series P-50 (now
discontinued), Nos. 8, 15, 24, 35, 43, 48, 54, 59, 68, 77, 86, and 91.
The survey on the work experience of the population in 1959 was analyzed
in the December 1960 issue of the M onthly Labor Review (pp. 1272-1283) and
BLS Special Labor Force Report N o. 11.
The annual survey measures the total number of different individuals
who worked or were unemployed at some time during the year. The regular
monthly surveys provide estimates of employment and unemployment as of
the week ending nearest the 15th of each month.
T able

1. W o r k E x p e r i e n c e D

u r in g

the

1325
Employment

Personal Characteristics of Workers. The number
of persons who worked at some time during the
year was not only the highest on record in 1960,
but the over-the-year gain was also about twice as
great as the average for the past decade. The
expansion to 80.6 million in the number of persons
with work experience during the year is attribut­
able to the growth in the size of the working age
population, as well as to a minor rise in the pro­
portion of women who worked. About threefourths of the 2.5 million gain in the number of
workers was accounted for by increases of equal
magnitude among young workers under 25 years
of age and women 35 to 64 years old, who together
comprised two-fifths of all who worked in 1960
(table 3). Most of the increase in the number of
workers under 25 years was concentrated in the
teenage group 14 to 19 years old, which had had
a particularly sharp rise in the population.
Between 1959 and 1960, the number of persons in
this age group jumped by over 1 million, and the
number who worked went up by about 600,000
(chart 1); between 1958 and 1959, the comparable,
gains were only about half as great.

Y e a r , by E x te n t of E m ploym ent and Se x ,

Both sexes

Work experience
1960 i

1959 i

1958

Male
1957

1960 »

1959 i

1957-60

Female
1958

1957

1960 i

1959 i

1958

1957

Number (thousands of persons 14 years of age and over)
Total who worked during the year s_____

80,618

78,162

77,117

77,664

50,033

48,973

48,380

48,709

30,585

29,189

28, 736

28,955

Full tim e : 8
50 to 52 w e e k s _____________________
27 to 49 weeks______________ _______
Part time or interm ittently................. .........
1 to 26 weeks at full-time jobs________
At part-time jobs...................................__
50 to 52 weeks____ _ - ________
27 to 49 weeks____ _____________
1 to 26 weeks___________________

43,265
12,132
25,221
8,756
16,465
5,307
3,290
7,868

42,030
12, 515
23, 617
8,459
15,158
5,173
3,104
6,881

41,329
11, 546
24,240
8,799
15,441
5,402
3,025
7,014

42,818
11,981
22,865
8,075
14,790
4,989
2,872
6,929

31,966
7,653
10,414
3,857
6,557
2,247
1,267
3,043

31,502
7,830
9,641
3, 665
5,976

30,727
7,233
10,419
4,091
6,328
2,348
1,259
2,721

32,089
7,350
9,270
3,447
5,823
2,135
1,115
2,573

11,299
4,479
14,807
4,899
9,908
3,060
2,023
4,825

10,528
4,685
13,976
4,794
9,182
2,962
1,880
4,340

10,602
4,313
13,821
4,708
9,113
3,054
1,766
4,293

10, 729
4, 631
13, 595
4,628
8,967
2,854
1,757
4,356

100.0

100.0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

36.9
14.6
48.4
16.0
32.4

36.1
16.1
47.9
16.4
31.4

36.9
15.0
48.1
16.4
31.7

1 0 .0

1 0 .1

1 0 .6

15.8

6.4
14.9

14.9

37.0
16.0
47.0
16.0
31.0
1 9.9
! 6 .1
15.0

2 ,2 1 1

1,224
2,541

Percent distribution
Total who worked during the year >...........
Full tim e : 8
50 to 52 weeks__________ __________
27 to 49 w eeks._____________________
Part time or intermittently_____________
1 to 26 weeks at full-time jobs.............. A t part-time jobs......................................
50 to 52 weeks__________________
27 to 49 weeks__________________
1 to 26 weeks____
_____________

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

53.7
15.0
31.3
10.9
20.4

53.8
16.0
30.2

53.6
15.0
31.4
11.4

55.1
15.5
29.4
10.4
19.0
6.4
3.7
8.9

6 .6

4.1
9.8

1 0 .8

19.4

6.6
4.0
8.8

2 0 .0

7.0
3.9
9.1

i Data for 1959 and 1960 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not
strictly comparable with previous years. For 1959, this inclusion resulted in
an Increase of about 300,000 in the total who worked during the year, with
about 150,000 in the group working 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.0
63.9
15.3
2 0 .8

7.7
13.1
4.5
2.5
6 .1

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

64.3
16.0
19.7
7.5

63.5
15.0
21.5
8.5
13.1
4.9

65.9
15.1
19.0
7.1

1 2 .2

4.5
2.5
5.2

2 .6

5.6

1 2 .0

4.4
2.3
5.3

6.6

6 .1

* Time worked includes paid vacation and paid sick leave.
* Usually worked 35 hours or more a week.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1326
C h a rt 1 . In cre a se B etw ee n 1 9 5 9 a n d 1 9 6 0 in N u m b e r
of P ersons W h o W o r k e d D uring the Y e a r , b y A g e
and Sex

During the past decade, there has been a
substantial rise in the percentage of women in the
35 to 64 age group who work at some time during
the year, rising from 43 in 1950 to 53 in 1960.
The upsurge in labor force participation was most
dramatic among women 45 to 64 years old.
These older women comprised one-fourth of all
women workers in 1950; by 1960, after accounting
for about 50 percent of the decennial growth in
the number of women workers, their proportion
was one-third.
The rise in employment of white and nonwhite
persons during 1960 was proportionate to their
share in the working population. However, there
were dissimilar movements over the past decade in
the employment patterns of white and nonwhite
men and women. Between 1950 and 1960, the
proportion of nonwhite women who worked
remained unchanged while that for white women
increased (table 4). Among men, however, a
smaller proportion were employed in 1960 than
10 years earlier, with nonwhites showing a sharper
decline than whites.
Year-Round Full-Time Employment. Approxi­
mately 35.3 million nonfarm wage and salary


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

workers were employed during all of 1960 at jobs
which usually provided 35 hours or more work per
week, a rise of over a million from 1959 and 2
million more than during the recession year of
1958 (table 5). The gain in work regularity
between 1959 and 1960 was concentrated in the
service industry group (excluding private house­
holds), which had some 850,000 more regularly
employed workers, and in durable goods manu­
facturing, where the number rose by 300,000.
In most other industry groups, the changes were
relatively minor.
Most of the rise in the service industry group
was concentrated in the educational services,
finance, and personal services segments of the
industry. About one-half the workers in the
service industry group worked full time 50-52
weeks, but there were wide differences in the rates
within this group, ranging from a high of twothirds in finance to a low of less than one-third in
entertainment and recreation.
The recent increase in the number of full-time
workers employed all year in the service industry
was a continuation of the sharp rise in this group
during the past several years. Between 1955 and
1960, the number of wage and salary workers fully
employed all year in this industry jumped by
about one-fifth, or 1.5 million, while in all other
nonfarm industries combined the number of these
workers remained virtually unchanged. Only
two other industry groups, public administration
and nondurable goods manufacturing, had in­
creases over the 5-year period in the numbers of
wage workers employed all year at full-time jobs.
In spite of sharp cutbacks in employment during
the second half of the year in durable goods in­
dustries, about 7 million, or two-thirds of all
persons who had worked the longest in these
industries during 1960, reported that they had
been engaged at full-time jobs all year. The
increase of 300,000 in durable goods industries
resulted chiefly from a 200,000 expansion in the
number of regular workers in the primary metal
industries, where in the previous year the 17-week
steel strike prevented many persons from working
all year. The proportion working steadily in
primary metals jumped from 48 percent in 1959
to 64 percent in 1960, the largest gain recorded in
any industry. At the same time, the proportion
of workers who said that they worked mainly at

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU L A T IO N IN 1960

1327

part-time jobs in primary metal industries climbed
from 3 percent to about 8 percent, as some firms
were forced to operate plants or departments at
reduced schedules most of the year.
Wage and salary workers in the automobile
industry also worked more steadily during 1960
than in 1959. As a result of a sharp expansion in
production and sales of passenger cars, 55 percent
of the workers reported that they had worked 50
to 52 weeks at full-time jobs in 1960, compared
with 45 percent a year earlier. Moreover, the
proportion had been depressed in 1959 as many
auto workers had been laid off late in the year
because of shortages of steel resulting from the
strike. In other major durable goods industries,
none of the ratios changed significantly between
the 2 years.
In nondurable goods manufacturing industries,
about 62 percent, or 5 million workers, reported
that they had been employed throughout 1960 at
usually full-time jobs, about the same proportion
T a ble 2. E x t e n t

of

and number as a year earlier. However, in the
appearl industry, where intermittent work is usually
much more common than full-year because of the
seasonal nature of production, only 39 percent of
the workers worked a full year at jobs which
usually provided 35 hours or more of work a week,
the lowest proportion of any manufacturing in­
dustry. In 1959, when about 100,000 more men
and women worked regularly, the comparable
proportion was 45 percent.
The 1.2 million increase between 1959 and 1960
in the number of workers employed year round on
full-time jobs was heavily concentrated in three
occupation groups. The largest expansion, 600,000, was among professional and technical workers,
a group that has been growing faster than other
occupations in recent years, while the managerial
and clerical groups had 300,000 more each. On
the other hand, the nonfarm laborer group was
the only one to show a comparatively large drop
in the number fully employed all year, down

U nem plo ym ent D u r in g

th e

Y ear,

Both sexes

S e x , 195 8 -6 0

Male

Extent of unemployment
1960 i

by

1959 1

1958

1960 i

1959 i

Female
1958

1960 i

1959 i

1958

Number (thousands of persons 14 years of age and over)
Total working or looking for work_______________ ____ ____
Percent with unemployment_______ ___________ _______

82, 204
17.2

79, 494
15.3

78, 787
17.9

50, 6 8 6
18.4

59, 523
16.5

49,158
19.6

31, 518
15.3

29, 971
13.5

29,628
15.1

Total with unem ployment_____ __ _ _ _ _ _
_____ _____
_ _ _______
D id not work but looked for work_____
W ith work experience_____________________ _ _______
Year-round workers 2 with 1 or 2 weeks of unemploym ent_____________________________________ _____
Part-year w orkers 3 with unem ploym ent.-- ________
_______
1 to 4 weeks of unemployment________
5 to 10 weeks of unemployment________ _ ............
11 to 14 weeks of unemployment_______________
15 to 26 weeks of unemployment________________
27 weeks or more of unemployment_____________

14,151
1,586
12,565

12,195
1,332
10,863

14,120
1,670
12,449

9,318
653
8,665

8,163
550
7, 613

9,645
778
8,867

. 4,833
993
3,900

4,032
782
3,250

4,474
892
3, 582

1,062
11,503
2,834
2, 704
1,517
2,466
1,982

840
10,023
2,569
2,348
1,403
2,070
1,633

1,180
11, 269
2,387
2,367
1,479
2, 556
2,482

779
7, 8 8 6
1,651
1,907
1,123
1,821
1,384

657
. 956
1,472

1 ,2 0 1

863
8,004
1,435
1.692
1,094
1,950
1,835

283
3, 617
1,183
797
394
645
598

184
3,067
1.097
660
372
506
432

317
3,265
952
675
385
606
647

Total with 2 or more spells of unemployment_______
2 spells_________________________ ____ _________
3 or more spells_________________ ___ _ _______

4, 602
2,034
2,568

4,228
1,813
2,415

5,117
«
«

3, 430
1, 453
1,977

3,173
1,293
1,880

3,850
(4)
(4)

1,172
581
591

1,055
520
535

1,267
(4)
(4)

6

1 ,6 8 8

1,031
1, 564

Percent distribution
Unemployed persons with work experience, total____________

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

Year-round workers 2 with 1 or 2 weeks of unemployment____
Part-year workers 3 with unemployment________________ ___
1 to 4 weeks of unemployment___ ____ _________________
5 to 10 weeks of unemployment______ ____ _____________
11 to 14 weeks of unem ployment_______________ _ _ ___
15 to 26 weeks of unemployment_______________________
27 weeks or more of unemployment___ _________________

8.5
91.5
2 2 .6

7.7
92.3
23.6

21.5

2 1 .6

1 2 .1

19.6
15.8

12.9
19.1
15.0

36.6
16.2
20.4

2 2 .2

Total with 2 or more spells of unemployment_______________
2 spells______________________________________
______
3 or more spells__ ______ __________________ _____ ______

1

Data for 1959 and 1960 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not
strictly comparable with those for 1958. This inclusion resulted in an in­
crease of about 50,000 in the total with unemployment in 1959.
Worked 50 weeks or more.
Worked less than 50 weeks.

2
3

619484 — 61

3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 0 0 .0

9.5
90.5
19.2
19.0
11.9
20.5
19.9

38.9
16.7

41.1
«
w

4
N

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

9.0
91.0
19.1

8 .6

91.4
19.3

2 2 .0

2 2 .2

13.0

13.5
20.5
15.8
41.7
17.0
24.7

2 1 .0

16.0
39.6
16.8
2 2 .8

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

9.7
90.3
16.2
19.1
12.3

7.3
92.7
30.3
20.4

2 2 .0

20.7

16.5
15.3

5.7
94.4
33.8
20.3
11.4
15.6
13.3

91.2
26.6
18.8
10.7
16.9
18.1

43.4
(4)
(4)

30.1
14.9
15.2

32.5
16.0
16.5

35.4
(4)
(4)

1 0 .1

8 .8

N ot available.
o t e

totals.

:

B e c a u se o f ro u n d in g ,

sum s

of in d iv id u a l ite m s

m ay

not

equal

M O NTH LY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1328

after entry into the labor market. Middle-aged
women tend to hold regular full-time jobs to a
greater degree than younger married women
who may have young children requiring care.
There is a marked difference in the proportions
of white and nonwhite workers employed on yearround full-time jobs. About two-thirds of the
white men but only one-half the nonwhite men
with work experience were employed continuously
at full-time jobs in 1960, about the same propor­
tions as in 1950. Among non white women work­
ers, however, the proportion with such jobs ad­
vanced from one-fourth to about one-third over
the decade, while that for white women remained
virtually stable at 38 percent. The increase in the
ratio of non white women with regular jobs resulted,
in part, from the decline in the relative number
employed as private household and farm workers,
occupations which are least likely to offer con­
tinuous employment.
The appreciable difference in the proportions of
white and nonwhite persons who work annually
at full-time jobs can largely be traced to the
greater concentration of nonwhites at the bottom
of the skill ladder—in occupations in which fullyear work is least likely. Well over half the non­
whites with work experience in 1960, but only
one-fifth of the whites, were in occupation groups
in which full-time work all year is relatively rare—

150,000, owing to cutbacks in construction and
manufacturing industries. This trend is not sur­
prising, since unskilled workers from these two
industries are usually affected first and most
sharply by downturns in the economy. In the
other occupation groups, the number of fully em­
ployed workers was not changed significantly over
the year.
Of all occupation groups in which men work,
laborers were least likely to be fully employed all
year, primarily because of the seasonal nature of
the industries in which many worked, and the fact
that workers on the lowest rung of the skill ladder
are most subject to unemployment. Only 35 per­
cent of the nonfarm laborers and 28 percent of the
farm wage workers worked full time 50 or more
weeks during 1960.
The highest incidence of full-time work during
all of 1960 was experienced by married men be­
tween the ages of 25 to 64 years, over three-fourths
of whom were fully employed all year—virtually
the same proportion as in 1959. On the other
hand, the proportion for married men 20 to 24
years of age declined sharply over the year, from
62 to 55 percent, owing in part to the reductions
in the proportions of service workers and nonfarm
laborers who worked regularly 35 hours or more
each week. These are occupations in which many
young men tend to work during the first years

T a b l e 3. E x t e n t o f W o r k E x p e r i e n c e D u r i n g t h e Y e a r , b y A g e a n d S e x , 1959 a n d 1960
1959

1960
Total with work
experience

Total with work
experience

Percent distribution of total
with work experience

Percent distribution of total
with work experience

Age and sex
Worked at full-time jobs
Percent
(thousands) of population

Both sexes, 14 years and over------

80,618

64.8

19.4

7.5
18.8
29.1
18.4
4.0
3.8
5.1

1 2 .2

1 1 .2

34.5

16.4
23.0
36.5
26.9

31.5
73.2
31.9
17.0
27.7
28.1
29.3
54. 4

78,162

15.3
1.7
12.3
24.3
16.2
15.2
15.4

13.1
77.5
40.1

38.4

48, 973
2,737
1,710
4,256
21,217
9,589
6 , 551
2, 913

16.0
19.4
35.8
28.2

32.4
77.9
35.3
16.1
28.2
30.8
29.2
51.6

29,189
1,986
1,589
3,410
5,276
6,303
9,466
1,159

45.6
36.5
66.4
61.3
45.7
51.8
51.1
13.9

36.1
1.4
16.8
35.8
34.2
41.9
45.2
25.2

36.9
.7
18.1
36.1
34.8
42.7
46.5
27.2

1 0 .6

14.6
1.9
1 0 .8

19.6
16.8
14.8
15.5
9.4

: B e c a u se o f ro u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l to ta ls .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 0 .8

16.0

20.4

7.7
17.8
30.2
18.3
4.0
4.1
4.9
11.9

46.9
34.8

o t e

16.0

10.9

30, 585

N

53.8
64.3
3.4
17.8
48.8
75.5
75.0
69.9
42.5

15.0

Female, 14 years and over_______
14 to 17 years_______________
18 and 19 years— __________
20 to 24 years_________ ______
25 to 34 years_______________
35 to 44 years--------- ----------45 to 64 years___ _____ ______
65 years and over ________

62.1
47.4
53.7
52.7
15.8

64.0
84.1
49.0
82.1
92.0
97.5
96.3
89.3
42.4

53.7
63.9
3.0
17.5
44.8
76.2
75.9
71.1
39.1

6 6 .8

27 to 49
■weeks

I t o 26
weeks

84.5
49.7
84.1
92.9
98.0
96.6
89.6
43.1

2 0 .2

11.7
8 .8
1 1 .8

1 2 .6

3.5
4.8
8 .6

to 26
■weeks

Worked
at parttime
jobs

50 to 52
weeks

27 to 49
weeks

50,033
2,933
1.942
4,436
21,313
9, 738
6,670
3,001

1,738
3, 533
5,424
6 , 595
9,938
1,356

Worked at full-time jobs

50 to 52
weeks

Male, 14 years and over_________
14 to i7 y e a r s__________ ____
18 and 19 years______________
20 to 24 years____________ -25 to 44 years_______________
45 to 54 years________ _______
55 to 64 years_________ ______
65 years and over. ...................

2 ,0 0 1

Worked
at part- Number
Percent
time (thousands) of population
jobs

1 .8

15.1
2 0 .6

17.1
16.4
16.9
11.7
16.0
2.5
14.8
20.3
18.0
16.6
16.7
1 0 .8

1

2 0 .1

13.4
8.7
9.6

76.1
38.0
1 2 .2

3.4
4.8
8 .2

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU L A T IO N IN 1960

private household, service, and farm and nonfarm
laborers. The nonwhite workers in these and
other occupation groups may also be subject to
irregular work patterns because of discriminatory
hiring and firing practices.

1329

T a b l e 4. E x t e n t

o f W ork E x p e r ie n c e ,
S e x , 1950 a n d 1960

Percent excess of number who worked
during year to average number in
labor force, I960
Male

14
18
20
25
45
65

All ages__________
to 17 y ears____________
an d 19 y e a rs__________
to 24 y e a r s . __________
to 44 years . . .
to 64 y e a rs____________
years a n d o v e r. __ _ _

6
52
30
8
(9
3
31

Female

30
74
39
37
27
20
50

1 Less than 0.5 percent.

Movement in and out of the labor force is much
greater for women than for men, and for both
sexes it generally declines with increasing age
until retirement age, when it rises sharply. Oc­
cupation groups with above average ratios of labor
turnover are those which are seasonal in nature
and have a comparatively large proportion of
women and young persons—farm laborers, service,
sales, and clerical.
A peak total of 16.5 million persons, or 1 out of
every 5 with work experience in 1960, reported
that they had usually worked at part-time jobs at
some time during the year, about 1.3 million more
than in 1959. Out of every 10 additional parttime workers, 4 were teenagers, 3 were 45 years
of age or over, and 2 were between the ages of 35
and 44. The increase in the number of men was
2
See “ Growth and Characteristics of the Part-Time Work Force,” Monthly
Labor Review, November 1960, pp. 1166-1175.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C olor

and

[Percent distribution]
1960

1950

Work experience and sex
White

Intermittent and Part-Time Employment. Many
studies have shown that employment has increased
faster during the past decade among persons with
casual or limited attachment to the labor market
than among those employed full time most of the
year. Since nearly one-third of the Nation’s
workers in 1960 were employed on a part-time or
intermittent (full time for 26 weeks or less) basis,
the total number of persons who work during a
calendar year will be considerably in excess of the
average number in the labor force. The number
of persons who worked at some time during 1960
exceeded the average labor force by 14 percent,
and the turnover during the year varied widely
by age and sex as shown in the tabulation below:

by

Non­
white

White

Non­
white

M a le

Percent with work experience. .
Total who worked. . .

84.7
100.0

82.6
100.0

86.8
100.0

87.3
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs..............
1 to 26 weeks___________
27 to 49 weeks________
50 to 52 weeks_________ _
Worked at part-time job s.............

87.6
7.4
14.8
65.4
12.4

80.5
10.6
19.4
50.5
19.5

90.6
7.6
16.1
66.8
9.4

85.9
11.0
24.8
60.2
14.1

Percent with work experience.____
Total who worked................

45.7
100.0

57.5
100.0

39.4
100.0

58.4
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs . . .
1 to 26 weeks_____. . .
27 to 49 weeks_____
50 to 52 weeks_______
Worked at part-time jobs................

68.3
15.8
14.7
37.8
31.7

63.0
17.7
14.4
31.0
37.0

74.1
18.0
17.5
38.6
25.9

68.8
24.0
19.7
25.2
31.2

F em ale

N

o te

:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may n o t equal totals.

somewhat sharper than for women. About onethird of the part-time workers were employed all
year.
There are several reasons why individuals work
at part-time jobs. Data from the monthly survey
of the labor force show that a minority of parttime workers in nonfarm industries, 22 percent in
1960, do not work a full week because of economic
factors—slack work at their job or inability to
find full-time employment. The large majority
of part-time workers do not have the time or the
desire to work a full week. These persons are
most often students busy with school, housewives
with family responsibilities, the partially disabled
or ill, and older workers who have retired on
pension but still desire or need to supplement their
income.2
Over one-half the part-time workers in 1960
were concentrated in trade, service, and private
households industries, and another one-fourth
were self-employed and unpaid family workers in
farm and nonfarm industries. The over-the-year
increase in the number of part-time workers in
these industries and groups of workers was pro­
portionate to their representation among all parttime workers. Chart 2 shows that, among
part-time workers, more men were in blue-collar
occupations (craftsmen, operatives, and laborers)
than any other group and women were most likely
to be clerical, sales, and service workers.

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

1330
T able 5

Y ea r - R o u n d F ull -T im e W o r k er s ,1

by

M ajor I ndu stry G r o u p
1957-60

and

C lass

of

W or k er

of

L ongest J o b ,

Percent of total with work experience during
the year

Number (thousands)
Class of worker and major industry group
I9602

19592

1958

1957

I9602

1959 2

1958

1957

Total........ ..............- ------ ---------------------------

43,265

42,030

41,329

42,818

53.7

53.8

53.6

55.1

Agriculture....................................... .............. .
Wage and salary workers------------------Self-employed workers_______________
Unpaid family workers----------------------

3,075
612
2,142
321

3,141
604
2,238
299

3,270
578
2,353
340

3,468
569
2,589
311

38.9
22.9
71.1
14.4

39.6
21.9
74.8
13.7

39.4
20.9
74.9
14.3

41.5
23.0
77.1
12.3

Nonagricultural industries_______________
Wage and salary workers---------- -------Forestry, fisheries, and mining-----Construction___________ _____ —
M anufacturing.................................
Durable goods— .......................
Nondurable goods----------------Transportation and public utilities.
Wholesale and retail trade...............
Service industries----------------------Public administration.............. .........
Self-employed workers---------------------Unpaid family workers........ ...................

40,190
35,347
'450

38,887
34,158
444
1,789
11,838
6,622
5,216
3,471
6,042
7,922
2,652
4,478
252

38,062
33,337
437
1,736

39,348
34,677
514
1,837
12,285
7,373
4,912
3, 529
6,142
7,789
2,581
4,426
246

55.3
54.8
63.3
41.8
64.3

55.4
54.7
56.3
43.6
62.5
62.9
62.0
71.4
48.3
44.5
77.7
66.4
24.0

55.3
54.6
56.9
40.6
62.3
62.4
62.0
72.0
49.2
44.7
78.5
66.9
24.3

56.8
56.1
64.7
45.7
63.3
6 6 .4
59.2
72.2
49.5
46.0
77.8
67.2
25.8

1 ,6 8 8

12,090
6,948
5,142
3,417
6,123
8 ; 825
2,754
4, 561
282

1 1 ,1 2 2

6,266
4,856
3,354
6,223
7,842
2,623
4,464
262

6 6 .0

62.1
71.7
47.0
45.3
75.0
65.4
23.6

i
Persons employed 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs,
s Data for 1959 and 1960 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not
strictly comparable with previous years. For 1959, this inclusion resulted in

an increase of about 150,000 in the group working 50 to 52 weeks at full-time
jobs.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Part-time workers are becoming an increasing
proportion of the work force, rising from fewer
than 16 percent of all workers with some work
experience in 1950 to 20 percent in 1960, and there
is an increasing tendency to work at these jobs all
year. In 1960, some 5.3 million persons, or about
7 percent of those who worked reported that they
had worked all year at part-time jobs, compared
with fewer than 3.3 million persons, or 5 percent,
in 1950.
Data available for the first time on the number
of weeks worked by part-time workers in the
various industry groups indicate that over one-half
of these wage and salary workers in nonagricul­
tural industries worked 26 weeks or less and that
one-fourth "worked all year (table 6). In the
trade and service (including private households)
industries, where over half the part-time workers
are concentrated, the proportions were similar to
those for all nonfarm wage and salary workers.
In manufacturing industries, where a very small
proportion work part time, about one-third of
the 1.2 m illion persons who usually worked part
time were employed all year. This ratio, higher
than the average for all wage and salary workers,
may reflect the fact that during 1960 many
manufacturing plants had sharply cut back work
schedules because of a decline in orders. In
agriculture, more than 60 percent of the part-time
self-employed and unpaid family workers, but

only 10 percent of the wage and salary workers,
were employed a full year at their jobs.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Reasons jor Part-Year Work. Some 32 million
persons, or 4 out of every 10 who worked at
full-time or part-time jobs during 1960, were
employed for fewer than 50 weeks. There are
many reasons for not working a full year and their
importance varies with age and sex. Workers
most frequently attributed part-year work to
unemployment (table 7). The number mention­
ing this reason rose by 15 percent between 1959
and 1960, although the number of part-year
workers increased by about 3 percent. The next
two causes indicated most frequently were taking
care of the home and going to school. Men and
women who worked at full-time jobs for 27 weeks
or more were about twice as likely to blame
unemployment for their failure to work all year
as were those who worked for 26 weeks or less.
The casual attachment of many workers to the
labor force is indicated by the number who had
worked at some time during 1960 but were no
longer in the labor force when the survey was
made in February 1961. At that time, about
12 million persons, or 15 percent of all who had
worked at some time in 1960, were no longer in
the labor market. Part of the decrease is undoubt­
edly caused by the seasonally low levels of employ­
ment during the first few months of the year in

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU L A T IO N IN 1960

retail trade and agriculture, industries in which
many women work intermittently during the year.
About 9 out of 10 persons who had dropped out
of the work force, primarily housewives and
students, had worked at part-time or intermittent
jobs.
Employment of I f- to 17-Year-Olds. About 5 mil­
lion boys and girls 14 to 17 years old worked at
some time during 1960, with over 75 percent
holding part-time jobs. Practically all of the jobs
at which these young persons worked required
little or no training or experience (table 8).
About one-third of the boys and one-fifth of the
girls were farm laborers, nearly equally divided
between those who worked for wages and those
who worked without pay on family farms. Over
one-fifth of the boys were nonfarm laborers, with
comparatively few working in construction and
manufacturing; a substantial number probably
worked at odd jobs, such as mowing lawns, for
private households. Another 14 percent had sales
jobs, chiefly as clerks in stores or delivering news­
papers. Ten percent of the boys were operatives,
with only a few employed in factories; very likely
they were delivery boys for retail stores or auto
service station attendants. Among the girls, 40
T able 6. I n dustry of W orkers W ith P art-T im e J obs 1
in 1960, by C lass of W or k er of L ongest J ob and
W e e k s W orked

Industry group and class of
worker

Percent distribution
Part-time
workers
as percent By
B y weeks worked
of total
indus­
with work try
experience
T otal 50 to 27 to 1 to
52
49
26
weeks weeks weeks

All industries.______________

20.4

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

32.3

19.9

Agriculture_____ __________
Wage and salary workers.
Self-employed workers___
Unpaid family w orkers...

42.2
42.1
18.3
74.7

20.3

45.3
10.4
67.0
61.7

1 1 .0

1 0 .1

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

Nonagricultural industries___
Wage and salary workers2 _
Construction_______
Manufacturing. ____
Durable goods___
Nondurable goods.
Transportation and
public utilities____
Wholesale and retail
trade_____________
Service in d ustries___
Public administration.
Self-employed workers___
Unpaid family w orkers...

18.1
17.1
12.5
6.3
3.8
9.4

79.7 1 0 0 . 0
66.9 1 0 0 . 0
3.1 1 0 0 . 0
7.2 1 0 0 . 0
2.4 100. 0
4.8 1 0 0 . 0

28.9
25.8
14.1
31.4
31.2
31.5

2 2 .0

6 .2

25.2
27.6
7.8
18.6
6 8 .0

6 .8

3.4

11.9
1 1 .8
1 0 .1
2 2 .2
2 2 .1
2 2 .2

24.7
29.9

47.8
43. 7
77.6
2 1 .2

28.1
48.9
52.1
63.7
43.9
38.9
46.5

1 .8

1 0 0 .0

28.8

28.4

42.8

2 0 .0

7.9
4.9

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

25.9
25.5
22.9
40.5
53.1

20.4

1 .8

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

53.7
51.9
63.0
31.4
32.6

32.7

2 2 .6

14.0
28.1
14.3

1 Jobs which provided less than 35 hours of work per week in a majority
of the weeks worked.
2 Includes a small number of workers in forestry, fisheries, and mining,
not shown separately.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1331

Chart

2. M ajo r Occupation Groups
Workers, b y Sex, 1 9 6 0

of Part-Time

percent were private household workers (probably
chiefly babysitters) and one-third were clerical,
retail sales persons, and waitresses and other
service workers.
Approximately 4 out of 5 of the boys and girls
were wage and salary workers during 1960, and
the industries in which they found jobs were
mainly those which are suitable to part-time
schedules. Out of every 10 boys who worked,
3 worked in trade, the same number in service
industries (including private households), and
2 in agriculture. Fourteen percent of the boys
worked in manufacturing, and a majority of these
were the newsboys employed by the printing
industry. Girls were less likely than boys to
work in trade, manufacturing, and service (except
private households) industries; nearly one-half
were employed in private households.
Unemployment

About 14.2 million different persons, 17 percent
of all who worked or looked for work, experienced
a week or more of unemployment in 1960. The
increase over 1959 of 2 million is primarily attrib­
utable to the cyclical downturn in business activity

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1332
which resulted in a decline in demand for workers
in some segments of the economy.
Among the persons who were unemployed in
1960, there were, at one end of the employment
spectrum, 1 million year-round workers who were
unemployed or on layoff for only 1 or 2 weeks and,
at the other extreme, about 1.6 million persons
who did not work at all but looked for jobs. The
remaining 11.5 million unemployed persons had
been employed during the course of the year but
for less than 50 weeks.
Personal Characteristics oj the Unemployed. The
sharpest increase in unemployment between 1959
and 1960 occurred among young people under 25
years of age. With greater numbers entering the
work force, and because of some increase in their
unemployment rate, 900,000 more persons in this
age group looked for work in 1960 than a year
earlier. Over the year, the rate of increase in
unemployment, 25 percent, was double that for
older persons. Although workers in the prime
age groups (25 to 64) accounted for one-half the
T able 7. P er so n s W ho W orked 1 to 49 W e e k s D u r in g
th e Y e a r , b y R easo n for P art -Y e a r W ork , by S e x ,
1 9 57-60
[In thousands]

1957

1960

1959

1958

32,036

30,959

30,383

29,854

11,503
4, 784
2, 715
8,960
6 , 656
4, 748

10,023
4,690
3,178
8,521
6,180
4,388

11,277
4,333
2,821
8,107
5,584
4,337

9,528
4,825
2,920
8,352
4,881
3,974

All reasons 1 ......................................

15,811

15,257

15,301

14,489

Unemployment.---------- -----------Illness or disability 2 ---------------Unpaid absence from work 3 ____

7,886
2, 751
1,513

6,956
2,830
1,950

8 ,0 1 1

2,655
1,574

6,576
2,916
1,663

Going to school.---------------------Other reasons 4________________

3,753
3,306

3,394
2,945

3,093
2,941

3,223
2,897

16,225

15, 702

15, 082

15,365

3,617
2.033

3,067
1,860
1,228
8,521
2, 786
1,443

3,266
1,678
1,247
8,107
2,491
1,396

2,952
1,909
1,257
8,352
2,658
1,077

Reason for part-year work
B

o th

All reasons

Se

x e s

-------------------------

Unemployment________ - .............
Illness or disability 2 ___________
Unpaid absence from work 3 -----Taking care of hom e___________
Going to school. ------ ------------Other reasons A .------------------- M

F

a le

em a le

All reasons 1 ......................- ..........
Unemployment...... .....................
Illness or disability 2 ---------TJnpaid(absence from work 3 -----Taking care of home----------------Going to sch o o l....................... .......
Other reasons 4. . . ------- -------------

1 ,2 0 2

8,960
2,903
1,442

1 Includes persons with one or more reasons for part-year work; therefore,
the sum of the reasons will exceed the number of part-year workers.
2 Excludes paid sick leave from a job (which is counted as time worked)
and^periods of illness or disability during which the persons would not have
worked or would not have been in the labor market even if well.
3 Includes, among others, unpaid vacations and strikes.
3
Includes, among others, retirement, service in the Armed Forces, and
summer vacations for students.
3 N ot available.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

T a b l e 8 . E m p l o y m e n t o f P e r s o n s 14 t o 17 Y e a r s O l d ,
b y M a jo r O c c u p a t io n G r o u p o f L o n g e s t J o b , I n­
d u s t r y o f W a g e a n d S a l a r y W o r k e r s , a n d S e x , 1960
Persons with work
experience
Major occupation or industry group
Both sexes
O

c c u p a t io n

G

Clerical and kindred workers.—....................... .
Sales workers_____________________________
Operatives and kindred workers........................
Private household workers..............................—
Service workers, except private household—
Farm laborers and foremen 1..........- ..................
Laborers, except farm and m ine-----------------All other occupations 2 .........................................
n d u str y

G

Female

r o u p

All occupation groups: Number (thousands).
Percent.........................

I

Male

4,934

2,933

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

6.3

4.1
14.2

1 2 .8

7.6
17.2
13.6
26.7
13.2
2.5

1 0 .1

1.7
12.9
31.8
21.7
3.5

2 ,0 0 1
1 0 0 .0

9.6
10.9
4.0
39.9
14.6
19.2
.8
1 .1

r o u p

Wage and salary workers: Number (thou­
sands)_________________________________
Percent...............
Agriculture........ ..................................
Manufacturing. ..............- ..................
Durable goods_______________
Nondurable goods----------------Wholesale and retail trade----------Private households______________
Service, except private households.
AU other industries 3_____________

3,995
100. 0

2,237

1,758

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

16.8
9.3

2 1 .0

11.5
4.0
.7
3.3
24.9
45.7
12.4
1.5

1 .8

7.5
28.2
26.9
14.7
4.0

13.5
2.7
1 0 .8

30.9
1 2 .0

16.5
6 .0

1 Includes a small number of farmers and farm managers.
Includes professionals, managers, and craftsmen.
Includes forestry, fisheries, mining, construction, transportation and
public utilities, and public administration.
2
3

increase in the number of jobless persons, the
rise was relatively smaller than that for all workers.
A greater proportion of men than women
reported unemployment or layoffs in 1960, and
this tendency held true for each age group. How­
ever, the rise in unemployment over the year was
relatively smaller for men than for women. The
upturn in joblessness among young men under
25 years of age was three times as sharp as among
older men. The marked difference may be due,
in part, to the fact that young men are more
likely to be employed in marginal jobs where lay­
offs or separations are most frequent, and older
workers are usually better protected from layoffs
by greater seniority rights. Men 20 to 24 years
old not only had the highest unemployment
rate, 35 percent, but they also showed the sharp­
est increase from 1959. Among women, those 18
and 19 years old had the highest unemployment
rate, 30 percent, about double that for all women,
and they experienced the most pronounced upturn
in rate over the year (table 9).
Married men were affected somewhat harder
by unemployment in the 1960 recession than
other men; they showed a sharper rise over 1959

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU L A T IO N IN 1960

1333

in the rate of unemployment, but their rate
remained lower than for other men. Also, over
the year, there was a small upswing to 35 percent
in the proportion of husbands unemployed 15
weeks or more, while that for other men was
relatively unchanged at 40 percent. Among
women, the incidence of unemployment varied
little by marital status.
Non white workers have historically been af­
fected more severely by unemployment than
white workers, especially during downturns in
business activity, and this tendency held true
during 1960. The increase in the number of
nonwhite workers who had some unemployment
during the year was greater than among whites,
20 percent and 15 percent, respectively.
In good times and bad, nonwhite men are
twice as likely to be hit by unemployment as are
T a b l e 9. E x t e n t

of

U nem plo ym ent

C h a r a c t e r i s ti c
0

in

and

1960,

by

A g e , M a r it a l S t a t u s , C o l o r ,

15 w e e k s o r m o re
1959

and

Sex

P e r c e n t o f u n e m p l o y e d w h o w o r k e d d u r i n g t h e y e a r h a v in g
u n e m p l o y m e n t of—

U n e m p lo y e d a s p e r c e n t of
t o t a l w o r k in g o r lo o k in g
fo r w o r k

1960
T o t a l , 14 y e a r s a n d o v e r _____________ _____

1959

white men. During 1960, nearly one-third of the
nonwhite men were jobless for at least 1 week,
compared with one-sixth of the whites. Also,
nonwhite male workers were much more likely
than white men to suffer three or more spells
of unemployment during the year, and as a result,
a relatively larger group of nonwhites were with­
out work for a long time (15 weeks or more).
Non white women also had less favorable unem­
ployment rates and were more liable to have
multiple spells of unemployment than white
women, but variations in the rates were not as
marked as for men. One reason for the appre­
ciable differences in rates between nonwhite and
white workers is that nonwhite workers, because
of relatively low educational attainment and dis­
criminatory training and employment practices,
are more heavily concentrated in laboring and

1960

1959

2 s p e lls
1960

3 o r m o re s p e lls
1959

1960

1959

1 7 .2

1 5 .3

3 5 .4

34. r

1 6 .2

1 6 .7

2 0 .4

2 2 .2

M a le , 14 y e a r s a n d o v e r _________ _________ ________
14 to 17 y e a r s _________ _______ ___________________
18 a n d 19 y e a rs ______ _____________________
20 to 24 y e a r s _________________________
25 to 34 y e a r s _____________ _________
35 t o 44 y e a r s _________________________
45 t o 64 y e a r s _________________________
.
65 y e a rs a n d o v e r ____________ ____________________

1 8 .4
1 9 .3
3 3 .0
3 4 .8
20.1
1 5 .3
1 4 .4
1 0 .8

1 6 .5
1 5 .9
30 .1
2 8 .4
1 8 .4
1 3 .9
1 3 .9
9 .0

3 7 .0
2 9 .7
3 2 .5
3 6 .2
3 3 .2
3 3 .5
4 3 .0
6 1 .4

3 6 .3
2 7 .9
3 6 .6
3 3 .2
3 1 .5
3 4 .8
42.1
5 6 .8

1 6 .8
1 6 .6
15 .1
16.1
1 6 .5
1 8 .0
17.1
1 5 .7

1 7 .0
1 0 .4
1 6 .0
1 7 .9
1 6 .6
1 5 .8
1 9 .2
1 2 .7

22. 8
22. 5
2 2 .4
1 9 .8
1 8 .4
2 4 .0
2 7 .0
33 .1

24 7
18 5
26 1
2 0 .5
20 1
2 5 .4
29 8
3 5 .9

F e m a l e , 14 y e a r s a n d o v e r __________
_______ . .
1 4 t o l 7 v e a r s ________________________ _____ __
18 a n d 19 y e a rs ________________ __________
20 to 24 y e a r s ________________________________
25 to 34 y e a r s ______________________________ .
35 to 44 y e a r s _______________________________
45 to 64 y e a r s _______________________________
65 y e a r s a n d o v e r __________________________

1 5 .3
1 3 .7
2 9 .9
1 9 .5
1 6 .2
1 4 .5
1 2 .5
8 .3

1 3 .5
1 2 .0
2 4 .5
1 8 .5
1 3 .7
13 .1
1 0 .8
8 .3

3 1 .9
1 8 .9
21.1
3 0 .8
3 3 .5
3 1 .9
36.1

2 8 .9
1 4 .2
1 6 .4
2 5 .6
3 0 .7
3 0 .3
3 5 .0
(>)

1 4 .9
8 .5
1 3 .2
1 8 .2
1 5 .9
1 4 .3
1 4 .6

1 6 .0
1 2 .3
15. 5
1 4 .7
16. 6
1 5 .4
1 7 .6

1 5 .2
9 .1
8 .3
1 1 .4
1 5 .4
1 7 .4
18. 7
(>)

16 5
6 5
9 .1
3 3 .8
15 4
1 6 .0
2 2 .9

26.1
1 5 .7
2 5 .9

2 4 .0
1 3 .9
2 4 .0

3 8 .2
3 5 .2
4 7 .6

4 0 .3
3 3 .3
4 8 .6

1 6 .8
1 6 .7
1 7 .3

1 4 .8
1 8 .0
1 5 .7

22 0
28 ft
2 4 .7

24 2
24 1
3L7

1 6 .7
14.1
1 7 .5

1 4 .3
1 2 .2
16 .1

2 9 .6
3 0 .6
3 7 .3

2 3 .0
2 8 .9
3 4 .9

1 5 .2
1 4 .6
1 4 .9

15. 5
1 6 .5
15 .1

11 4
1/5 ft
1 9 .8

18 0
14 6
23d

B oth sexes:
W hite........................................................................
N on w hite______________________________ ._

1 5 .9
2 7 .8

1 4 .2
2 4 .0

3 3 .8
42 .3

(2)
(2)

1 6 .2
1 6 .2

17.1
1 4 .5

1 9 .0
27.1

2 0 .4
3 1 .3

Male:
W h ite ................................................ ..........................
N onw hite____________________ ____ __________

1 6 .9
3 1 .8

1 5 .2
27 .8

3 5 .7
43 .3

(2)
(2)

17.1
15 .0

1 7 .6
1 4 .0

2 1 .0
3 1 .4

2 3 .0
33 .4

14 .2

12.5
19.2

29.9
40.4

(2)
(2)

14.0
18.3

16.0
14.8

14.4
18.5

14.1
27.0

A oe and Sex

(l)

(0

0)

(»)

M a r it a l S t a t u s a n d S e x
M a le :
Single.- _______________ ______ _______ ___________

Married, wife present___________ _____ ________
Other marital status________________________
Female:
Single______________________________________
Married, husband present__________ _____ _ .
Other marital status____________________ ____
C olo r a n d S e x

Female:
W hite...............................................................................
Nonwhite.................................... ............... ..............
1

Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

22.9

l N ot available.

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1384

which are highly seasonal and where job attach­
ments are relatively unstable are usually most
subject to unemployment. About 43 percent
of those who had worked the longest in the con­
struction industry and one-fourth of those in
agriculture had at least one break in employment.
A larger proportion of the workers from these two
industries were also jobless longer and had multiple
spells of unemployment than the average for all
wage workers.
Unemployment among wage and salary workers
from manufacturing industries rose over the year
by about one-tenth to 4 million. Workers in
this industry group comprised fewer than 30
percent of the employed but 36 percent of the
jobless hired workers in nonagricultural industries.
The increase between 1959 and 1960 in manu­
facturing unemployment was not only more
moderate than in all other industry groups,
except the transportation and public utilities
group, but also a smaller proportion of factory
workers were jobless a long time or subject to
multiple spells of unemployment than the average

other relatively unskilled jobs where unemploy­
ment is most prevalent.
Unemployment by Industry and Occupation. As is
always the case, the incidence, frequency of un­
employment, and the proportions of wage and
salary workers who are without work for a long
time during the course of a year are unequally
distributed by industry, occupation, and personal
characteristics. For example, one-fourth of the
wage workers who had worked the longest in
goods producing industries (agriculture, mining,
construction, and manufacturing) had some un­
employment during 1960, compared with relatively
half as many from service-type industries (trans­
portation, trade, government, and financial, pro­
fessional, and personal service). (See table 10.)
Furthermore, more than one-fourth of all bluecollar workers (craftsmen, operatives, and non­
farm laborers) had at least one job layoff or
separation, hut fewer than 10 percent of whitecollar workers (professional, managerial, clerical,
and sales). Workers employed in industries
T a ble 10. E x t e n t

of

U n em plo ym ent in 1959
M ajor O ccupation

a nd
a nd

1960 A mong P e r so n s W ho W orked D u r in g
I n d u st r y G r o u p of L ongest J ob

Unemployed as percent of
total who worked
M ajor occupation or in d u stry group

1960

1959

V ear,

by

Percent of unem ployed who w orked during the year having
unem ploym ent of—

1959

3 or more spells

2 spells

15 weeks or more
1960

th e

1960

1959

1959

1960

Occupation Group
All occupation g ro u p s-.................................. ....................
Professional, technical, and k indred workers----------Farm ers a n d farm m anagers........ —.............. - ................
M anagers, officials, and proprietors, except farm .
Clerical and kindred w orkers................. ..................
Sales workers__________________________ _________
Craftsmen, foremen, a n d kindred workers..................Operatives and kindred workers— ------ ----------------P riv ate household w orkers-----------------------------------Service workers, except private household....................
F arm laborers and foremen----------------------------------Laborers, except farm and m in e-------------------- ------ -

22.2

13.9

35.4

34.1

16.2

16.7

20.4

5.4
2.0
4.5
11.1
12.3
21.3
27.7
11.4
16.0
13.2
34.9

4.2
1.9
3.6
9.4
9.7
19.9
24.4
10.1
13.8
11.6
31.8

25.5

23.8

13.6

19.6

9.1

15.6

13.9

35.4

34.1

16.2

16.7

20.4

22.2

18.0
24.3
17.7
21.9
43.4
21.7
23.3
19.6
13.2
17.9
11.3
12.8
11.0
7.4

16.0
20.9
15.8
23.6
38.0
19.5
21.1
17.6
12.4
14.4
10.1
12.2
9.6
5.5

35.2
43.8
34.7
45.5
44.4
30.7
29.7
32.1
36.0
32.7
35.4
39.1
34.4
36.6

34.1
49.0
33.2
50.0
40.7
29.1
28.2
30.6
36.7
31.7
33.7
36.6
32.8
40.1

16.4
14.6
16.5
17.9
20.1
16.3
17.0
15.3
12.1
15.4
16.6
14.4
17.2
12.8

17.0
16.4
17.0
14.1
20.3
18.8
1S.1
19.8
14.5
15.4
13.5
9.8
14.6
12.2

19.9
41.3
18.7
20.5
34.3
15.2
13.3
18.2
20.4
15.6
16.2
26.6
13.4
10.6

21.7
38.0
20.8
24.3
33.9
17. 6
16.6
19.1
20.7
16.7
20.9
36.9
15.9
12.2

15.6

(9

34.1
27.2
26. 5
37.3
33.6
37.9
38.8
41.4
46.1

0)

28.6
24.7
29.8
35.9
32.9
29.6
35.5
47.0
42.3

(9

12.0
12.7
14.7
16.8
18.1
15.1
15.2
13.7
18.1

(9

13.9
12.6
16.3
16.8
19.0
10.3
13.6
16.3
17.5

(9

11.5
9.3
12.4
28.2
17.8
20.6
19.4
42.2
27.7

12.2
(9

11. 7
9.1
12. 0
29.6
20.6
32.5
19.1
36.3
29. 5

I ndustry Group
All in d u stry groups
Wage and salary workers...................—
A griculture______________________
N onagricultural industries-----------Forestry, fisheries, a n d m ining-----C onstruction-----------------------------M an u factu rin g -.................................. .
D urable goods...... .................. —
N ondurable goods........................
T ransportation and public utilities.
Wholesale and retail trad e-----------Service industries______ ____ ____
P riv ate households___________
O ther services_______________
P ublic adm inistration____________
i Percent n o t shown where base is less th a n 100,000.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU LA TIO N IN 1960
T a bl e 1 1 . T ype of W ork L ooked fo r by P er so n s
W i t h N o W o r k E x p e r i e n c e i n 1960 W h o W e r e
U n e m p l o y e d D u r in g t h e Y e a r , b y A g e , M a r it a l
S t a t u s, a n d C olor

Age, marital status,
and color

Total looking for work
(thousands)

Percent distribution by type
of job looked for

Total

Total, 14 years and over__

Regular
full-time
job

Temporary
or parttime job

1,586

1 0 0 .0

59.7

40.3

530
174
466
308
108

1 0 0 .0

37.0
74.1
72.7
76.3
44.4

63.0
25.9
27.3
23.7
55.6

A ge
14 to 19 years_____ _____
20 to 24 years___ _______
25 to 44 years____________
45 to 64 years...__________
65 years and over. .............

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

M arital Status
Single___________________
Married, spouse present__
Other marital status____ _

652
733

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

201

1 0 0 .0

46.6
67.7
73.1

53.4
32.3
26.9

1,213
373

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

60.1
58.4

39.9
41.6

C olor

W hite. _________________
Non white__________ _____

unemployed wage worker. The relatively modest
over-the-year rise in unemployment among factory
workers may be due to two factors. During 1959,
the number of unemployed from the durable goods
industries was boosted by temporary furloughs
in the fabricated metal, machinery, and automobile
industries due to shortage of steel caused by the
long strike in the steel industry. Also, some
persons separated from industrial jobs may have
obtained work in trade, service, or some other
nonmanufacturing industry and when they lost
that job were classified as being from one of the
latter industries, if during the year, they had
worked longer at the later job than the one in
manufacturing.
Among the major durable goods industries,
the sharpest rise in incidence of unemployment
was in primary metals, where the rate advanced
over the year from 17 to 27 percent, a level equal
to that in 1958. The steel strike in 1959 did not
affect the count of unemployed from that industry,
since persons on strike generally are not included
among the unemployed. The rise in unemploy­
ment was accompanied by a doubling to 17 percent
in the proportion of primary metal workers who
were jobless for a total of more than 6 months,
reflecting the cutback in steel production in earlv
1960.
Of all factory workers, a layoff or job separation
was most likely among automobile workers, 42
61948 4 — 61------ 4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1335
percent of whom were without work at some time
during the year, about the same proportion as in
1959. Auto workers have frequent spells of un­
employment of short duration, and comparatively
few suffer long unemployment. One-third had
more than one spell of unemployment, about the
same proportion as the average for all durable
goods industries, but only 1 out of 6 was un­
employed for a total of 15 weeks or more.
Apparel workers were subject to unemployment
or layoffs to an even greater degree in 1960 than
in 1959 as the rate advanced 9 points to 40 percent,
a level twice as great as the average for all non­
durable goods manufacturing workers and much
higher even than in 1958. In this highly seasonal
industry, 40 percent of the workers were un­
employed more than once during the year.
Workers from wholesale and retail trade com­
prised one-fifth of all non agricultural wage
workers who were unemployed in 1960, a larger
proportion than in the previous 2 years, primarily
because of a rise in the unemployment rate.
This industry was the only one to show a significant
upsurge in unemployment since 1958; in all other
industry groups, the rates remained about the
same or declined. Data from the monthly survey
of the labor force also show that wage workers
from trade comprised a larger segment of the un­
employed in 1960 than in 1958.
An additional one-fifth of the unemployed
nonfarm wage workers were from service indus­
tries, and they too were a larger segment of the
unemployed in 1960 than in 1958 and 1959.
However, the increase in the number unemployed
in the service industry was due entirely to a gain
of 2 million in the number who worked at some
time; the unemployment rate was virtually
unchanged between 1958 and 1960.
Very Long-Term Unemployed. The total number
of weeks that a person is unemployed during a
calendar year is related not only to the duration
of each spell but also to the number of times he
is separated or laid off. Workers unemployed a
very long time (a total of 27 weeks or more) were
more likely to have three or more periods of
joblessness than those without work for a shorter
period. About 4 in 10 of the workers out of work
for 27 or more weeks were unemployed three or
more times compared with one-third of the persons

1336
T able

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
12.

M a jo r R e a s o n f o r N ot W o r k in g f o r P e r s o n s W it h N o W o r k E x p e r ie n c e in
e m p l o y e d D u r in g Y e a r , b y T y p e of J ob L o o k ed f o r a n d A ge

1960 W h o W e r e U n ­

Percent distribution by major reason for not working
Type of job looked for and age

Number
(thousands)

Persons with no work experience_____ _______________

Total

1, 586

1 0 0 .0

111 or
disabled

3.5

Keeping
house

Going to
school

Could not
find work

Other

1

1 1 .6

15.1

65.1

4 .7

76.2

6.5

75.0
69.8
77.0

4.6
8.5
4.7
3.4

947

1 0 0 .0

3.4

1 1 .0

3.9

14 to 19 years.............................. .....................................—
20 to 24 years___________________________________
25 to 64 years___________________________________
65 years and over_______________________________

196
129
574
48

1 0 0 .0
1 0 0 .0

1.5
3.1
4.4

2 .0

15.5
13.9

16.8
3.1

Nonworkers who looked for temporary or part-time job.

639

1 0 0 .0

3.8

12.5

31.8

48.5

14 to 19 years___________________________________
20 to 24 years___________________________________
25 to 64 years___________________________________
65 years and over--------------------- -------------------------

334
45

1 0 0 .0

.3

.9

57.5

39.8

1.5

10.5

30.5

1.5

54.0

3.5

Nonworkers who looked for regular full-time job______

1

Includes, among others, retirement and service in the Armed Forces.

in the 15- to 26-week group and 1 out of 8 of those
without work for 14 or fewer weeks.
About 2 million workers were unemployed for
a total of 27 weeks or longer in 1960, some 350,000
more than in 1959 but about one-half million
fewer than in 1958. The rate of increase between
1959 and 1960 in the number of very long-term
unemployed was half again as large as for workers
jobless less than 27 weeks. It was also greater
for workers under 25 years of age than for older
persons, for wage and salary workers in service
producing industries than for those in goods
producing industries, and for service occupations
than for clerical and sales or blue-collar workers.
The rise to 800,000 in the number of married men
who were unemployed 27 weeks or more was
relatively twice as sharp as for single men. Very
long-term unemployment was not only more
prevalent among part-time than full-time workers,
but it also increased faster.
Over one-fourth of the 2 million persons
unemployed for a total of 27 weeks or more were
factory workers, about 40 percent were equally
divided between service and trade industries,
and another 15 percent were construction workers.
There were marked differences among various
labor force groups in the occurrence of very long­
term unemployment. For example, 1 out of 4
unemployed workers from agriculture was without
work for a total of more than 6 months compared
with 1 out of 6 from service and public adminis­
tration and only 1 out of 8 from manufacturing.
About 4 out of 10 of the very long-term unem­
ployed were 45 years of age or over. As usual, a


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 0 0 .0

(2)

(2)

200

1 0 0 .0

60

(2)
2

Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.

larger proportion of jobless older than younger
persons were out of work so long, 20 percent and
14 percent, respectively. Older workers tend to
have a lower overall unemployment rate than
younger ones, but once they become unemployed
they are more likely to be jobless longer and to
experience multiple spells of unemployment.
Unemployed persons who usually worked on
part-time jobs were out of work for more than a
half year about twice as frequently as those
usually employed on full-time jobs.
Nonwhite persons were not only overrepresented
among the unemployed, but the unevenness was
magnified among those who could not find work
for a total of 27 weeks or more. One-fourth of
all persons jobless that long were nonwhites, who
totaled only 11 percent of all the employed and
18 percent of the unemployed. The rate of very
long-term unemployment, the proportion jobless
for a total of more than 26 weeks as a percentage
of all who worked during the year, was about
three times as high for nonwhites as for whites, 5.7
percent and 2.1 percent, respectively. The rela­
tively high ratio for nonwhites reflects their higher
unemployment rates, longer average duration of
each period of unemployment, and greater fre­
quency of multiple spells of joblessness over the
year than for whites.
Unemployed Who Did Not Find Work. In addi­
tion to the 12.6 million persons who had worked
but were also unemployed at some time during
1960, about 1.6 million persons looked for work
but could not find any, a quarter million more than

W O RK E X P E R IE N C E O F T H E PO PU LA TIO N IN 1960

in 1959. This group contained a half million boys
and girls 14 to 19 years of age and the same number
of married women.
Data available for the first time on characteris­
tics of persons who were unsuccessful in finding a
job reveal that approximately 6 out of 10 looked
for regular full-time employment rather than for
temporary or part-time work (table 11). The
type of job looked for varied markedly by age
and marital status of the jobseeker. About 60
percent of the teenagers, many of whom were
students, and those 65 years and over wanted


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1337
temporary or part-time work, while 85 percent of
the men and 70 percent of the women in the central
age groups (20 to 64 years) desired regular full-time
jobs.
As might be expected, persons seeking regular
jobs reported much more frequently that they did
not work because of inability to find employment
than those desiring other types of jobs (table 12).
Altogether, about 2 out of 3 did not work because
they could not find a job and about one-fourth
mainly because they were going to school or
keeping house.

Summaries of Studies and Reports

Pay Levels in
White-Collar Occupations
A m o n g 6 8 professional, administrative, technical,
and clerical occupation work levels surveyed in
the winter of 1960-61 by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics,1 average monthly salaries ranged from
$252 for file clerks engaged in routine filing to
$1,726 for attorneys in charge of legal staffs,
handling complex legal problems but usually
subordinate to a general counsel or his immediate
deputy in large firms. Within this broad range
of defined work levels, monthly salaries averaged
less than $500 in 23 levels, $500 and under $1,000
in 32 levels, $1,000 and under $1,500 in 10 levels,
and more than $1,500 in 3 levels. For pro­
fessional engineers—the largest occupation stud­
ied—average salaries ranged from $548 a month
for recent college graduates in trainee positions
to $1,588 for those in the highest engineering
level.

Scope of Survey

The salary data relate to a broad range of
manufacturing and nonmanufacturing industries
within metropolitan areas in the United States.2
In addition to being useful for wide, general
economic analysis, the results are suitable for
appraising the compensation of salaried em­
ployees in the Federal civil service. Like other
surveys, however, the results are in no sense
calculated to supply mechanical answers to
questions of pay policy.
The occupations selected for study were judged
to be (a) survey able in industry, using a sample of
establishments representative of private employ­
ment, and (b) representative of occupational
groups which are numerically important in indus­
try as well as in the Federal service. The number of
work levels defined for survey (designated by
Soman numerals, with I assigned to the lowest
1338


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

level) ranged from one for office boys and girls
to eight for chemists and engineers. In defining
levels of responsibility for some occupations, the
work levels encompassed all employees with
specific job functions that could be classified
uniformly among establishments. Chemists and
engineers, for example, were defined to cover
employees in major fields of these professions from
newly hired college graduates through seven
higher levels of responsibility. In others, direc­
tors of personnel and chief accountants, for
example, the work levels necessarily were limited
to fully experienced employees who were responsi­
ble for programs of the scope and complexity
specified for each level surveyed.3 In this sur­
vey—the second in an annual series—several
occupations covered last year were omitted, addi­
tional work levels were included for some occupa­
tions, and the definitions for a number of work
levels were revised.
The selected occupations as defined for this
study accounted for nearly 900,000 employees,
or about 8 percent of the estimated 11,300,000
employed in establishments within scope of the
survey. The eight levels of engineers accounted
for nearly three-fourths of the 333,000 employees
in the professional and administrative occupa­
tions as defined for the study. Three occupations
(accounting clerks, stenographers, and typists)
included three-fifths of the 493,000 employees
1 This survey, conducted for the most part in the first half of 1961, was the
second in an annual series; the initial study covered the winter of 1959-60.
These surveys were planned by the Bureau of the Budget in collaboration
with the Civil Service Commission, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
which also conducted the surveys.
The full report of this year’s survey, was issued as National Survey of Pro­
fessional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical Pay, Winter 1960-61 (BLS
Bull. 1310, 1961). Results of the first survey were summarized in “ Pay
Levels for Professional and Other White-Collar Occupations,” Monthly
Labor Review, December 1960, pp. 1284-1292, and a full report was published
in National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical, and Clerical
Pay, Winter 1959-60 (BLS Bull. 1286, 1960).
2 For the scope of this study, see footnote 1 in the accompanying table.
A detailed description of the scope and method of survey is provided in
appendix A of BLS Bull. 1310, op. cit.
2 Job definitions used in classifying employees by occupation and level of
work are available upon request to the Bureau of Labor Statistics. They
also appear in appendix C of Bull. 1310, op. cit.

PAY L E V E LS IN W H IT E-C O L LA R OCCUPATIONS

in the clerical occupations. The drafting-room
occupations studied had aggregate employment
of 59,000.
Women accounted for 84 percent of total
employment in the clerical occupations studied,
compared with 1 percent in the professional and
administrative occupations, and 3 percent in
drafting-room occupations surveyed. More than
95 percent of the bookkeeping-machine operators,
file clerks, keypunch operators, stenographers,
switchboard operators, and typists were women.
Among the professional and administrative occu­
pations, the relatively few women employees were
largely reported in the first few work levels.
Average Salaries

Average monthly salaries for the five levels of
accountants surveyed ranged from $478 to $879,
as shown in the accompanying table. Among
the four levels of auditors, average monthly
salaries ranged from $433 to $790. Level I of
both accountants and auditors included trainees
with bachelor’s degrees in accounting or the
equivalent in education and experience combined.
More than half the relatively few auditors I and
about a fourth of those in the higher levels were
employed in finance industries, whereas more
than four-fifths of the accountants at all levels
were employed in manufacturing and public
utilities industries.4 At level III—the largest
group of employees in each series—monthly
salaries averaged $600 for accountants and $644
for auditors.
Chief accountants were surveyed separately
from accountants, and included only those who
met quite specific requirements as to the scope
and complexity of the accounting program and
the subordinate staff they directed. Those whose
professional duties and responsibilities were at
level I were paid monthly salaries averaging $797
and those meeting the much higher requirements
described for level IY 5 averaged $1,251. Most of
4 Establishments primarily engaged in providing accounting and auditing
services were excluded from the survey.
5 Although level V of chief accountants was surveyed, employees meeting
requirements as defined for that level were insufficient in number to warrant
presentation of average salaries.
8 Establishments engaged in oSering legal advice or legal services were
excluded from the survey.
7 It was recognized in the definition that top positions of some companies
with very extensive and complex engineering or chemical programs were
above that level.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1339
the chief accountants at the four levels were
employed in manufacturing industries.
Attorneys classified at level I average $531 a
month. These were trainees with LL.B. degrees
and bar membership, who held positions in legal
advisory departments in which their full profes­
sional training could be utilized. At the highest
of the seven levels of attorneys surveyed, monthly
salaries averaged $1,726. Attorneys at that level
included those in charge of legal staffs handling
assignments in one or more broad legal areas, who
were responsible for recommendations which
could have an important bearing on the company’s
business but who were usually subordinate, in
large firms, to a general counsel or his immediate
deputy. The spread of $1,195 in average monthly
salaries was greater for attorneys than for any of
the other occupational series covered. The fi­
nance industries employed the highest proportion
of the attorneys—approximately two-fifths, com­
pared with one-fourth in manufacturing and a
slightly smaller proportion in public utilities.6
Chemists and engineers in eight levels were sur­
veyed. Each series started with a professional
trainee level, typically requiring a B.S. degree or
the equivalent in education and experience com­
bined. The highest level involved either full
responsibility over a very broad and highly
diversified engineering or chemical program, with
several subordinates each directing large and
important segments of the program; or individual
research and consultation in difficult problem
areas where the engineer or chemist was a recog­
nized authority and where solutions would repre­
sent major scientific or technological advance.7
Among the eight levels of engineers, average
monthly salaries ranged from $548 to $1,588.
Chemists at level I averaged $481 a month and at
level VIII, $1,523. The percentage difference in
average salaries tended to diminish at the more
advanced work levels; for example, average
monthly salaries for chemists were 12 percent
below those for engineers at level I but only 5 per­
cent lower at level IV. Level IV, the largest
group in each series, included professional em­
ployees who were fully competent in all technical
aspects of their assignments, worked with con­
siderable independence, and in some cases, super­
vised a few professional and technical workers.
Manufacturing industries accounted for 80 percent
of all engineers and 92 percent of all chemists;

1340

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

public utilities 11 and 2 percent, respectively; and
the surveyed engineering and scientific services
employed most of the others. For both engineers
and chemists, salary levels were about the same
in manufacturing and public utilities and slightly
higher in the engineering and scientific services.
Directors of personnel and job analysts, each
representing four levels of work,8 were studied in
the personnel management field. Job analysts I,
defined to include trainees under immediate super­
vision, averaged $493, compared with $801 for job
analysts IY, who analyze and evaluate a variety
of more difficult jobs under general supervision
and who may participate in the development and
installation of evaluation or compensation systems.
Directors hf personnel were limited to those whose
E m ploym ent

and

programs included, at a minimum, responsibility
for administering a formal job evaluation system,
hiring and placement, and employee relations and
services functions. Those with responsibility for
contract negotiations with labor unions as the
principal company representative were excluded.
Provisions were made in the definition for weighing
various combinations of duties and responsibilities
to determine the level classification. Average
monthly salaries for personnel directors ranged
from $723 to $1,211. Manufacturing industries
accounted for three-fourths of both the job
8 Although level V of director of personnel was surveyed, employees
meeting requirements as defined for that level were insufficient in number
to warrant presentation of average salaries.

A v era g e S a la r ies for S elec ted P r o fe ssio n a l , A d m in is t r a t iv e , T e c h n ic a l ,
C ler ic a l O c c u pa t io n s ,1 W in t e r 1960-61
M onthly salaries

Occupation and class

Number
of em­
ployees

2

Occupation and class
Mean Median

Middle
range 3

Auditors
Auditors
Auditors
Auditors

I ______ ______ _______
II.....................................
------III----- ------ -IV _____ . . . ---------V ________ ______ ____

4 ,433
7 ,790
15,932
10,960
4 ,4 5 3

$478
527
600
727
879

$473
519
593
718
851

I ------ ----- ---------------------II______________ ________
I I I ......................................
IV ------- --------------------------

393
1,847
3 ,3 9 7
1,780

433
539
644
790

423
533
643
768

532
544
1,125
226

797
957
994
1,251

774
921
973
1,186

Chief accountants
Chief accountants
Chief accountants
Chief accountants

I _______________
I I ______________
III_____________
IV ............ ..............

$437- $520
475- 570
54 2 - 651
6 5 4 - 797
7 6 6 - 972
38 7 47750567 3 -

486
597
718
876

6 9 2 - 872
85 0 -1 ,0 4 8
8 4 9 -1 ,0 9 8
1 ,0 6 9 -1 ,3 7 9

A ttorneys

Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys
Attorneys

I ---------- ----------------------I I _____________________
III_____________ ______
IIIA ......................................
IV ..........................................
IV A ________________ _
V ............ ..............................

Mean Median

2

Middle
range 3

Job
Job
Job
Job

I ____________________
II----------------------------III__________________
IV ................................... .

145
498
796
524

$493
561
662
801

$506
546
644
787

of personnel I . ------ --------of personnel I I __________
of personnel I II ___ . . . .
of personnel IV ........... .........

642
1,819
872
302

723
833
1,037

722
820
996
1,159

651- 789
708- 911
884-1,174
1,041-1,359

601
706
817
1 ,0 0 0

549- 653
623- 774
726- 892
846-1,135

analysts
analysts
analysts
analysts

Directors
Directors
Directors
Directors

1 ,2 1 1

$457488574722-

$547
633
738
863

Office Services
Managers,
Managers,
Managers,
Managers,

office services
office services
office services
office services

I _________
II________
III____ . .
IV _______

427
613
246

Draftsmen, junior------- -----------------Draftsmen, senior_______ ____ ____
Tracers__________________________

19,402
37, 254
2,635

408
530
327

401
522
325

356- 452
465- 589
283- 368

25, 562
5,341
52,359
38,393
36,121
1 1 , 260
45,061
24,355
90,906
7,371
16,394
1,044
12,090
18, 541
8 , 567
61,855
38,131

272
343
318
425
252
322
318
259
341
381
328
364
314
381
457
275
326

266
341
309
422
244
314
314
250
338
382
332
371
310
381
456
271
322

237296265360216270271223292344284336270336409241283-

68

604
707
814
1 ,0 0 2

D raftsmen
297
823
929
1,169
1,061
503
413

531
678
817
967
1,222
1,278
1,726

520
666
794
910
1,215
1,241
1 ,642

4 9 1 - 557
5 9 1 - 748
6 7 5 - 930
780-1,130
1 ,0 2 7 -1 ,3 5 6
1 ,0 2 2 -1 ,4 4 5
1, 358-2,061

C h e m is t s a n d E n g i n e e e s

Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists
Chemists

I............... ................... ...........
II________________ _____
III...........................................
IV _________ _____ ______
V . . . ......................................
V I_____________________
V I I .......................... ............
V III..........- ............ ............

1,340
3,6 1 9
6 ,9 4 3
7,133
4,2 5 6
2,0 6 3
696
230

481
557
643
792
952
1,113
1,288
1,523

485
547
632
779
935
1,091
1,233
1,435

4 4 3 - 524
51 2 - 592
57 7 - 699
70 2 - 878
8 3 8-1,053
9 7 0-1,241
1 ,0 9 7 -1 ,4 5 3
1 ,3 0 0 -1 ,7 0 0

Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers
Engineers

I ................................ ............
II...........................................
III........................................
IV ....................................... .
V ............................................
V I................................. .........
V II_______ _____ ______ _
V III....... ............................. .

9 ,8 2 8
30,873
64,671
71,637
3 9 ,0 5 6
18, 669
5,424
1 ,217

548
609
705
832
980
1,114
1,373
1,588

549
604
700
822
948
1,102
1,352
1,563

525- 574
5 6 6 - 649
64 4 - 762
74 4 - 911
8 4 3-1,057
9 7 4-1,241
1 ,1 9 3 -1 ,5 2 2
1 ,3 7 1 -1 ,7 7 0

1 The study relates to establishments employing 250 or more workers in 188
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States (excluding
Hawaii), as revised through 1959 by the Bureau of the Budget, in the following
industries: Manufacturing; transportation, communication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; engineering and architectural services; and research, development,
and testing laboratories.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M onthly salaries

P ersonnel M anagement

A c c o u n t a n t s a n d A u d it o e s

Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants
Accountants

Number
of em­
ployees

and

Clerical
Bookkeeping-machine operators I . . .
Bookkeeping-machine operators I I . .
Clerks, accounting I .................... .........
Clerks, accounting II............................
Clerks, file I ...........................................
Clerks, file I I . . ......................................
Keypunch operators......................... .
Office boys or girls________ ______ _
Stenographers, general....................... .
Stenographers, technical......................
Switchboard operators------ -----------Switchboard operators, special_____
Tabulating-machine operators I____
Tabulating-machine operators II___
Tabulating-machine operators III—.
Typists I ..................................................
Typists II......... .....................................

300
388
364
483
280
363
363
287
388
414
380
401
355
429
507
306
368

1 Salaries relate to the standard salaries that were paid for standard work
schedules; l.e., to the straight-time salary corresponding to the employee’s
normal work schedule excluding overtime hours.
* The middle (interquartile) range is the central part of the array of em­
ployees by salary, excluding the upper and lower fourths.

PAY LEV E LS IN W H IT E-C O L LA R OCCUPATIONS

analysts and directors of personnel as defined for
the survey.
Managers of office services, as defined for the
study, included four levels based on the variety
of clerical and other office services supervised and
the size of the organization serviced. Those at
level I were responsible for providing four or five
office service functions for a staff of 300 to 600
employees, compared with seven or eight functions
for about 1,500 to 3,000 employees at level IV.
Among the four levels studied, average monthly
salaries ranged from $604 to $1,002. Manufactur­
ing industries accounted for three-fifths of the
employees in the four levels combined, and an
additional fifth were employed in finance industries.
In the drafting field, monthly salaries among
three levels of work averaged $530 for senior
(fully experienced) draftsmen, $408 for junior
draftsmen, and $327 for the relatively small
group of tracers. Manufacturing industries ac­
counted for a high proportion of the draftsmen
and tracers, with 82 percent employed in those
industries, 9 percent in public utilities, and about
7 percent in the engineering, architectural, and
scientific services industries studied.
General stenographers accounted for almost
1 of every 5 workers in the 17 clerical occupation
work levels studied. Their salaries averaged $341
a month, which was slightly above the midpoint
in the range of average monthly salaries for all
employees in the clerical work levels represented
in the study. Among the clerical jobs studied,
monthly salaries ranged from $252 for file clerks I
to $457 for tabulating-machine operators III, who
were required to perform, without close super­
vision, complete reporting assignments by ma­
chine, including difficult wiring. Office boys or
girls, two-fifths of whom were employed in
manufacturing industries, averaged $7 more a
month than file clerks I, who were more heavily
represented in the finance industries. More than
nine-tenths of the employees in 11 work levels
were female, as were four-fifths in 1 work level,
and half or more of the employees were male in the
other 5 (accounting clerks II, office boys or girls,
tabulating-machine operators I, II, and III).
Although employment in manufacturing exceeded
• Studies of scheduled weekly hours of office workers in major labor markets
also Indicate that shorter workweeks are more prevalent in large north­
eastern markets (particulary N ew York City) than in most areas in other
regions. See “ Supplementary Wage Benefits in Metropolitan Areas, 195960,“ Monthly Labor Review, April 1961, pp. 379-387.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1341
that in each of the five nonmanufacturing industry
divisions within scope of the survey in 15 of the
17 clerical work levels, in only 6 instances did
manufacturing account for as many as half the
employees.
Median monthly salaries (those below and above
which 50 percent of the employees in the various
work levels were found) for nearly all work levels
were slightly lower than the averages. The
percentage by which the median differed from the
mean was less than 2 percent in 43 of the work
levels and as much as 2 but less than 3 percent in
13 additional levels. The amounts by which the
average salaries exceeded the medians were largest
for attorneys IIIA (6.3 percent), followed by
chemists VIII (6.1 percent), chief accountants IV
(5.5 percent), and attorneys V (5.1 percent).
Average Weekly Hours

The length of the workweek, upon which the
regular straight-time salary was based, was
obtained for individual employees in the occupa­
tions studied. A distribution of the 68 job
categories according to their average weekly hours
(rounded to the nearest half hour) is shown in the
following tabulation:
Average weekly hours

3 7 .5 ___________________________
3 8 .5 ________
3 9 .0 - _________
3 9 .5 -------------------------------------------------------4 0 .0 -------------------------------------------------------------------

Num ber of
job categories

i
ii
17
29
io

Differences in average weekly hours among
occupations, and among work levels within
occupations, largely reflect variation in the dis­
tribution of employment in the various job
categories among industries.9 In manufacturing
and public utilities industries, a 40-hour workweek
was predominant, whereas work schedules of less
than 40 hours were found to a greater extent in
trade and finance industries, particularly in bank­
ing and insurance firms. Average workweeks of
39 hours or less for all levels of auditors and
attorneys, and for most of the office clerical job
categories, reflect the extent to which they are
employed in industries in which such shorter
workweeks are widely found. In comparison,
average weekly hours of 40 or 39.5 for all levels of
chemists and engineers, for example, reflect the
high incidence of the 40-hour workweek in manu-

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1342

facturing, public utilities, scientific research, and
engineering services industries.
Salary Distributions

Within each of the 68 occupation work levels,
salary rates for some of the higher paid employees
were twice those of the lowest paid employees.
All occupations in which two or more levels of
work were surveyed showed a substantial degree of
overlapping of individual salaries between work
levels in the same occupation.10 Salary ranges
established for pay grades or work levels within
salary structures of individual firms also exhibited
substantial overlap.
The absolute spread between highest and lowest
paid workers within work levels, and to a lesser
extent the relative spread, tended to widen at the
higher wmrk levels for most occupations in which
several work levels were surveyed. It is apparent
from the accompanying chart that the relative
spread varied considerably among occupations,
and in many cases, was not greater for professional
occupation work levels than for clerical levels
studied. Thus, when the extreme salaries were
S a la r y M e d ia n s a n d R a n g e s 1 for S e le c te d P ro fe ssio n a l
a n d C le r ic a l O c c u p a t io n s , W in te r 1 9 6 0 - 6 1

excluded and the range was expressed as a percent
of the median salary, the relative spread in
salaries was greater for most levels of attorneys
than for engineers; in each of these occupations,
the spread was smallest at the lowest levels.
When compared with file clerks I and II and general
stenographers, however, the relative spread in
salaries was smaller for the two lowest levels of
attorneys and for all levels of engineers, except for
about the same relative spread in salaries for
engineers VIII and general stenographers.
Differences among work levels in the range
of salaries observed undoubtedly reflect a variety
of factors other than differences in the work level
definitions. As pointed out earlier, the industrial
distribution of employment varied considerably
from occupation to occupation. Salaries of in­
dividual employees in the same occupation and
grade level also tend to vary considerably within
establishments; this pattern is particularly ap­
parent in the professional and administrative
occupations. Salaries are generally determined
on an individual basis, or under formalized pay
plans which characteristically provide for a wide
range in salary rates for each occupation and
grade level within the pay structure.
Changes in Salary Levels During the Year

As previously indicated, between the initial
survey (winter 1959-60) and the present survey,
various changes were made in the professional
and administrative occupations and levels sur­
veyed and in the definitions used in classifying
employees. Although most of the changes in
these definitions were clarifications and refine­
ments, or more consistent statements of the factors
that determine work levels, their effect on salary
levels could not be measured, precluding year-toyear comparisons except in quite general terms.
Since no changes were made in the definitions
for the 20 drafting and clerical job categories,
the 1959-60 data were adjusted to correspond
to the scope of the 1960-61 survey and reweighted
by the 1960-61 employment (nationwide) to
eliminate the effect of changes in the proportion
of workers represented in different levels. These
adjusted figures show that the increase in average
1 The interquartile range is the central part of theW ray of employees by
salary, excluding the upper and lower fourths. The interdeeile range excludes
the upper and lower tenths of the array.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

« Distributions of employees b y salary rates are presented for all occupation
work levels in Bull. 1310, op. cit.

PAY L E V E LS IN W H IT E-C O L LA R OCCUPATIONS

salaries for all drafting and clerical employees as
a group amounted to 3 percent over the year.
Among the 20 occupations and levels, the increases
ranged from 1.9 to 7.7 percent, with most of them
falling within a range of 2 to 4 percent. Although
precise comparisons could not be made for the
professional and administrative occupations, salary
increases for those jobs did not appear to vary
appreciably from those for the drafting and
clerical jobs.
Supplementary Cash Bonuses

Information was obtained in the 1959-60
survey on the extent and amount of cash bonuses
paid to employees in professional and adminis­
trative occupations during the year preceding the
survey period. In the 1960-61 survey, informa­
tion was collected to determine whether such
bonus payments tended to be about the same as,
or higher or lower than, they had been a year
earlier.
Among the 56 professional and administrative
job categories covered by the bonus inquiry in the
1959-60 survey, the proportion of employees
receiving cash bonuses ranged from 11 to 50 per­
cent; in four-fifths of the jobs, from 15 to 40
percent of the employees received such bonuses.
11 Information from the 1959-60 survey on the proportion of employees
in each occupation receiving cash bonuses and percent added to salaries is
provided in “ Pay Levels for Professional and Other White-Collar Occupa­
tions,” Monthly Labor Review, December 1960, p. 1289.
The impact of bonus payments tended to be greatest in the higher work
levels.

1343
Average bonus payments for employees in each
category (including those who did not receive
bonuses) increased the average pay for the 56
job categories 11 in 1959-60 as follows:
Percent added to average salaries

8 .7 -1 0 .9_____________________________________
5 .2 -5 .7 ______________________________________
3 .0 -4 .8 ______________________________________
Less th a n 3 .0___

3
2
8
43

The information on bonuses from the 1960-61
survey was based on numbers of establishments
rather than numbers of employees and did not
include the actual amounts of bonuses paid.
Because of these differences, as well as the changes
in the occupation work level classifications, only a
rough approximation of changes in bonuses can
be given.
Slightly less than half of the establishments had
bonus plans in both survey periods : approximately
1 percent of the establishments had discontinued
plans that were in effect in the previous year and
less than 1 percent had initiated plans during the
1960-61 period. Cash bonus payments in 1960-61
added about the same proportion to average
salaries as a year earlier in nearly three-fifths of
the establishments that paid bonuses in both
periods. Among the other establishments paying
bonuses in both periods, approximately a third
paid proportionately more and two-thirds paid
less in 1960-61.
—Louis E. B adenhoop
D ivision of W ages a n d In d u s tria l R elations

It seems clear that health insurance, originally designed to ease problems of
medical costs, has actually contributed, by its effect on utilization and on
prices in a scarcity market, to intensification of the problem. This is not to
deny, in any way, the great good which insurance has already accomplished.
However, if it is to continue to play a constructive role in the easing of medical
costs for consumers and in the stabilization of income for producers, it must
acknowledge, more forthrightly than heretofore, its influence on costs and be
prepared to accept the corollary responsibilities.
— A nne R . Somers a n d H erm an M. Somers, “ C overage, C osts, a n d C ontrols in V olun­
ta r y H e a lth In su ra n c e ” (in P u b l i c H e a lth R e p o r ts , U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H e a lth ,
E d u catio n , a n d W elfare, W ashington, Ja n u a ry 1961, p. 6).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number of job
categories

1344

Scientific and Technical
Employment in Industry, 1960
E d i t o r ’s N o t e .— The

following summary is the
second in a series of articles covering the
employment of scientific and technical personnel
in the United States. The first—reporting on
such personnel employed by State government
agencies—appeared in the October 1961 issue
(pp. 1100-110f). Summaries of the surveys
of such personnel in the Federal Government
and in colleges and universities will be published
in later issues. All of the surveys have been
conducted at the reguest of the National Science
Foundation.

T h e N a t i o n ’s i n d u s t r i e s employed approxi­
mately 813,000 scientists and engineers in January
1960, about 6 percent more than a year earlier
and 11 percent more than in January 1958, as
revealed by a survey made by the Bureau of
Labor Statistics for the National Science Founda­
tion.1 Technicians, employed largely in support
of these scientists and engineers, numbered
about 594,000 in January 1960, an increase of
8 percent over the preceding year. Despite a
higher rate of growth than that for total industrial
employment, scientific and technical personnel
account for less than 2 percent of all nonagricultural employees. Nevertheless, this relatively
small group is largely responsible for carrying
on the research and development activities that
generate employment for vast numbers of produc­
tion workers.

Employment of Engineers and Scientists

By Occupational Group. Engineers, numbering
648,900 in January 1960, accounted for 80 percent
of all scientific and engineering personnel in
companies within the scope of the survey. Of
the 163,700 scientists, nearly half were chemists;
the next largest groups were physicists, geologists
and geophysicists, and mathematicians, each
group numbering in the neighborhood of 15,000.
Fewer than 20,000 life scientists were employed in
industrial establishments. (See table 1.)
Between January 1958 and January I960,2 the
number of engineers employed in private industry
increased about 5 percent per year, on the average,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

whereas the average increase for all scientists
was more than 7 percent each year. The growth
in employment of engineers was only slightly
greater in 1959 than in 1958. On the other
hand, the number of physical scientists increased
nearly 9 percent in 1959, compared with a rise of
only 5 percent in the previous year. The employ­
ment increase for life scientists was about the
same for both years, with the growth that occurred
in 1958 being significantly greater than for either
engineers or physical scientists.
Variations in growth among the different occu­
pational groups are not readily explained by the
data obtained from the surveys. Part of the
variation is undoubtedly related to the differences
in the rate of growth of research and development
activities in industries which are important users
of the various types of scientific personnel.
Important aspects of occupational change also
are the shift in position titles which results from
company reorganizations, changes in emphasis on
types of work programs, and other reasons. For
example, the recent rapid increase in application
of mathematical techniques to research in the
natural sciences and engineering and in electronic
data processing may have entailed the shifting of
some physicists and engineers to jobs with the
title of mathematician.
Changes based on larger numbers—such as
those for engineers—are likely to have far greater
significance than those related to very small num­
bers. Since the medical, agricultural, biological,
and ‘‘other” scientist groups are each very small,
minor absolute changes in their numbers occasion
rela tively large p ercentage changes. Furthermo re,
the “other” scientist group is a residual category
of uncertain content, including mostly persons
whose occupational titles appeared to belong either
to interdisciplinary fields or to new specializations.
It may be that newly emerging areas of specializa­
tion, which foster new job titles (e.g., electronics
scientist), account for a part of the growth in the
“other” scientist category in 1959.
i
For the full report on the survey, see Scientific and Technical Personnel
in Industry, 1960 (National Science Foundation, Bull. 61-75, 1961).
For comparison with earlier data, see Science and Engineering in America
Report (National Science Foundation Bull. 56-16, 1956), Science and
Engineering in American Industry, Report on a 1956 Survey (N SF Bull. 59-50,
1959), and Scientific and Technical Personnel in American Industry, Report
on a 1959 Survey (N SF Bull. 60-62,1960).
* Hereinafter, the periods of January 1958-January 1959 and January
1959-January 1960 are referred to as years 1958 and 1959, respectively.

S C IE N T IF IC AND T EC H N IC A L EM PLOYM ENT IN IN D U STRY , 1960
T able 1. E mployment of S cientists a nd E n g in e e r s
in I n d u str y , 1 by O ccupational G r o u p , 1958-60
[Workers in thousands]
Percent change
Occupational g r o u p

All groups.......................................

Jan.
1958

Jan.
1959

Jan.
1960

J a n .1958 J a n .1959
to
to
J a n .1959 J a n .1960

730.5

764.1

812.7

4.6

6.4

Engineers........................................ 587.4
Scientists:
Physical................................... 117.8
Chemists_____________ 69.5
P h y sic ists..................
13.4
Metallurgists................... 1 0 . 6
Geologists and geophys­
icists......... ................... 15.4
Mathematicians.............
9.6
Life_____________________
16.7
Medical scientists_____
6.7
Agricultural scientists..
5.0
Biological scientists___
5.0
Other and not classified___
7.8

615.4

648.9

4.8

5.4

123.8
71.5
14.9
11.4

134. 7
77.0
15.6
12.7

5.1
2.9
11.4
7.3

7.7
4.9
11.4

14.8
11.3
18.2
7.0
5.6
5.5

15.3
14.1
19.8

- 4 .1
16.9

6 .6

6 .6

5.9
7.3
9.2

8 .6

4.5
11.3
11.4
14.7

8 .8

3.6
25.3
9.1
- 6 .4
5.7
32.1
38.9

1 The 1960 survey and the earlier surveys were based on a stratified proba­
bility sample of companies in all manufacturing and most nonmanufactur­
ing industries. Omitted from the coverage of the survey were the few sci­
entific and technical workers employed in firms (most of them small) outside
the scope of the sample, and the relatively small number of self-employed
scientists and engineers. These exclusions probably amounted to between
4 and 5 percent of all scientific and engineering personnel in industry.

N o t e : Totals and percentages have been calculated on the basis of un­
rounded figures and do not necessarily correspond with the rounded figures
shown.
S o u r c e : For 1958 a n d 1959 d a ta , see Scientific and Technical Personnel in
American Industry, Report on a 1959 Survey (N SF Bull. 60-62, I960); for 1960
d a t a , see Scientific and Technical Personnel in Industry, 1960 (N SF Bull.

61-75, 1961).

By Major Industry. Chief employers of scien­
tists and engineers are the aircraft, electrical
equipment, chemicals, and machinery industries,
which accounted for approximately 45 percent of
all scientific and technical personnel in 1960
(table 2). Moreover, in aircraft and chemicals
manufacturing, scientists and engineers accounted
for 12 and 9.6 percent of total employment in
the respective industries; this compares with
2.8 percent for all industries combined.3 Large
concentrations of scientists and engineers in these
industries are to be expected since their activities
are predominately science-based, involving com­
plex and dynamic technologies. Within the many
big companies classified in these industries are to
be found the country’s largest research and
development operations.
Engineers, although concentrated in the aircraft,
electrical equipment, and machinery industries,
were important numerically in every industry.
In only two industries—food and kindred products
5 The employment figures used in these comparisons were derived from the
surveys of scientific and technical personnel. Because they are based on a
sample of companies, with small firms excluded from the survey in a number
o f industries, they are not comparable t o other employment estimates pub­
lished by the Bureau of Labor Statistics based on establishment reports.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1345

and chemicals and allied products—did engineers
constitute fewer than half of all workers classified
as scientists and engineers.
Several of the scientific occupational groups are
concentrated very heavily in one or two indus­
tries. Three-fifths of the life scientists and more
than two-fifths of the chemists were employed in
the chemicals industry. The electrical equipment
and aircraft industries together employed threefifths of the physicists and two-fifths of the mathe­
maticians. More than two-fifths of the metal­
lurgists were in the primary metals industry, and
three-fourths of the geologists and geophysicists
were in the petroleum products and extraction
industry.
All industry groups for which data are shown in
table 2 increased their employment of scientists
and engineers over the 2-year period ending
January 1960. Although the rate of increase
differed markedly among industries, the ratio of
scientists and engineers to total employment in
the different industry groups showed great yearto-year stability, although the expansion in
scientific and engineering employment was some­
what more rapid than for total employment. For
all industries taken together, 28 of each 1,000
employees were scientists or engineers in 1960,
T able 2. E mployment of S cientists
b y I n d u st r y , 195 8 -6 0

and

E n g in e e r s ,

[Workers in thousands]
Percent change
Industry

Jan.
1958

Jan.
1959

Jan.
1960

All industries................................. 730.5
Food and kindred products___
Textile mill products and apparel______________________
Paper and allied products_____
Chemicals and allied products..
Petroleum products and extraction_____________ ____ _____
Stone, clay, and glass products.
Primary metal industries_____
Machinery (except electrical)..
Electrical equipment_________
Aircraft and parts____________
Professional and scientific instruments...... ... .............. ...........
Other manufacturing industries.
Construction________________
Transportation and other publie utilities____ _ ________
Engineering and architectural
services______________
Other nonmanufacturing industries______________ ________

J a n .1958 J a n .1959
to
to
Jan. 1959 J a n .1960

764.1

812.7

4.6

6.4

9.7

1 0 .2

9.9

5.1

- 2 .7

4.8
9.5
80.1

5.4
9.7
83.1

5.8
10.5
90.7

10.7

47.7
9.0
32.0
64.4
91.5
83.9

47.9
9.2
33.2
67.4
92.7
94.9

1 0 .2

2 .0

35.1
71.4
101.4
101.5

3.8
4.6
1.3
13.1

21.7
87.7
42.2

23.7

26.3
93.2
45.1

9.1

43.7

34.5

35.4

54.1

56.1

57.7

62.9

8 8 .6

48.6

2 .1

3.9
.4

1 .0

8.1

7.9
9.0

1.4
10.3
5.7
6 .0

9.4
7.0
11.3

8.6

3.6

3.2

36.7

2.7

3.8

56.9

3.7

1.3

66.5

9.0

5.7

N o t e : Totals a n d p e rc e n ta g e s h a v e b e e n c a lc u l a t e d o n t h e b a s is o f u n ­
r o u n d e d fig u re s a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r ily c o rr e s p o n d w i t h the r o u n d e d fig u re s
sh o w n .

S ource: See table 1.

1346
compared with 27 per 1,000 in 1959 and 25 per
1.000 in 1958.

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
Chart 1. Total Employees and Scientists and Engineers
in Manufacturing, by Size of Com pany, January
1960

By Size oj Company. The large firm predominates
in the employment of scientists and engineers,
particularly in manufacturing industries. Of all
scientific and engineering personnel in industry,
slightly more than half were in companies with
5.000 or more employees in January 1960. In
manufacturing industries alone, firms with 5,000
or more workers accounted for the employment of
62 percent of the scientists and engineers but only
40 percent of all employees of the industries
(chart 1). Furthermore, these large firms em­
ployed nearly 70 percent of the scientists and
engineers engaged in research and development in
manufacturing.
The concentration of scientists and engineers
in large companies was marked in the three
industries which utilize the greatest numbers of
them: the aircraft and parts, electrical equipment,
and chemicals and allied products industries, in
which 92, 64, and 61 percent, respectively, of their
scientific and engineering personnel were in firms
with 5,000 or more employees in January 1960.
In engineering and in every scientific occupa­
tional group, a much higher proportion in each
category worked for large companies than for small
ones. Two-fifths or more of each of the scientific
occupational groups were employed in companies
with 5,000 or more workers; the proportions
ranged from 40 percent for biological scientists to
84 percent for physicists. Employees in occupa­
tions important in research and development work
tended particularly to be concentrated in larger
firms.
Twenty-seven percent of the scientists and
engineers in industry were employed in January
1960 by firms with fewer than 500 employees.
Half of them were in nonmanufacturing indus­
tries—two-fifths in the engineering and architec­
tural services and the construction industries—
where the small company is the predominant form
of organization.
By Primary Function. The leading activity
of scientists and engineers in industry is produc­
tion and operations. The 310,000 who were pri­
marily engaged in these functions constituted 38
percent of all scientists and engineers employed
in industrial firms in January 1960 (table 3). The

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MANUFACTURING COMPANIES
WITH....

1 In c lu d e s b o th scien tists a n d e n g in e e rs c o n d u c tin g a n d th o se a d m in iste rin g re s e a r c h
a n d d e v e lo p m e n t.

second largest?group—nearly one-third of all
engineering and scientific personnel—was occupied
in research and development; in addition, nearly
6 percent were primarily concerned with managing
and administering these activities. Management
and administration of activities other than research
and development was the concern of 8 percent of
the scientists and engineers. Most of the remain­
der were classified in “all other activities,” which
included functions such as operations research and
technical sales, service, and purchasing. The
major change during 1959 in the functional dis­
tribution of scientists and engineers was the rise
(approximately 9 percent) in the numbers engaged
in research and development.
In five of the nine scientific fields—physics,
mathematics, biological science, chemistry, and
metallurgy—more scientists (over 40 percent)
were primarily engaged in early 1960 in the per­
formance of research and development than in
any other single function. Physicists were out-

1347

S C IE N T IF IC AND T EC H N IC A L EM PLOYM ENT IN IN D U STRY , 1960

mathematical science, comparable to knowledge
acquired through technical institute, junior college,
or other formal post-high-school training or
through equivalent on-the-job training or experi­
ence. Their work, although extremely varied,
usually consists of either assisting the scientist or
engineer directly or performing some of the tasks
that otherwise would be done by him. In either
case, engineering or scientific personnel are freed
for duties requiring a higher level of training or
experience. On the other hand, some companies
employ technicians but not scientists or engineers;
for example, architectural firms employ draftsmen
but may employ no engineers.

standing in this proportion—approximately 78
percent. The aircraft and parts, electrical equip­
ment, and professional and scientific instruments
industries each used more than 50 percent of their
scientific and engineering personnel in the per­
formance and administration of research and
development in early 1960, as compared with
fewer than 15 percent in the nonmanufacturing
industries—engineering and architectural services,
construction, and transportation and other public
utilities (chart 2).
The functional distribution of engineers and
scientists appears to bear a relationship to size of
company, as measured by total employment.
The proportion of engineers and scientists in
research and development tended to increase with
the size of company—from 19 percent for com­
panies with fewer than 100 employees to 47
percent for firms with 5,000 or more employees.
In production and operations, on the other hand,
the percentage of scientists and engineers employed
decreased with size—from 54 percent in companies
with fewer than 100 employees to 33 percent in
firms employing 5,000 or more employees.

Overall Employment. Approximately 594,000
technicians were employed in January 1960—an
increase of 8.1 percent over the figure for January
1959 (table 4).4 This is a greater rate of increase
than that for scientists and engineers (6.4 percent)
in the same period.
Of every 10 technicians in industry in early
1960, about 5 were engineering and physical
science aids, 3 were draftsmen, and the other 2
were medical, agricultural, or biological techni­
cians or were in the miscellaneous group of “other”
technicians. Since engineering and physical
science technicians and draftsmen accounted for
so many technicians, the increase in their employ­
ment largely determined the overall trend. Of

Employment of Technicians

Technicians perform work which requires a
knowledge of engineering or physical, life, or
* D ata on technicians were n o t collected for 1958.

T a ble 3. E m ploym ent

of

S c ien tists

a nd

E n g in e e r s ,

by

O c cupational G r o u p

and

F u n c t io n , J a n u a r y 1960

[W orkers in thousands]
Scientists and engineers prim arily engaged in—
All scientists
and engineers
Occupational group

Research and
development

Management and administra­
tion of—

Exploration

Production
Other activities
and operations

Research and Other activities
development
A ll groups______ ______ _______________

812.7

257.1

45.4

67.7

14.4

310.0

118.0

Engineers________________

648.9

190.4

33.8

58.4

2.4

268.8

95.1

134.7
77.0
15.6
12.7
15.3
14.1
19.8

60.9
35.7
12.3
5.3

1 0.6

7.1
4.2
.3

11.9

.9

1 .1

34.1
23.2
.9
4.7

1 0.1
6 .6

1 .6

______

Scientists:
Physical__________ ____
______
Chemists ____________________
Physicists_____________________
M etallurgists____________ - ___
Geologists and geophysicists-- -M athematicians— __________ Life
___________________________
Medical scientists__________ -Agricultural scientists___ _______
Biological scientists____________
Other and not classified____________

6 .6

5.9
7.3
9.2

.6

.2

.9

7.0
5.7

.7
.9
.3

.6

1 .0
1 .1

.2

3.6

.4

.4

1 L e s s t h a n 50 c a se s.
N o t e : T o t a ls h a v e b e e n c a lc u la te d o n t h e b a s is o f u n r o u n d e d f ig u re s a n d
do n o t n e c e s s a r ily c o rr e s p o n d w i t h t h e r o u n d e d fig u re s s h o w n .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7.2

1 .6

0
S o u r c e : See t a b l e 1.

.4
.9
.3
.6

.2
.1
0

11.5
.1

0
0
0
0

0

.4
.6

1 .6

.5

3.7
3.8
.7
1.9

2 .0

7.8
4.2

1 .2
3 .3

4.9

1 .8

1 .8

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1348

the other occupational groups, medical, agricul­
tural, and biological technicians showed virtually
no change, and the residual group—“other
technicians”—decreased by nearly 6 percent.

T able

4. E m ploym ent
t io n al

of T e c h n ic ia n s ,
G r o u p , 1959-60

by

O ccupa ­

[Workers in thousands]
Number
Occupational group

In Major Industries. Although all major indus­
tries utilized technicians in January 1960, more
than two-fifths were employed in the electrical
equipment, machinery, engineering and architec­
tural services, and aircraft industries. Industry
as a whole used 73 technicians for each 100
scientists and engineers. The distribution of the
various technician groups by industry was uneven.
For example, engineering and physical science
technicians were concentrated in electrical equip­
ment, telecommunications and broadcasting, ma­
chinery, and aircraft; draftsmen were employed
chiefly in engineering and architectural services,
machinery, and electrical equipment; and medical,
agricultural, and biological technicians were em­
ployed primarily in medical laboratories and
C h a rt 2 . P e rce n t of Scien tists a n d E n g in e e rs P rim a rily
E n g a g e d in R e se a rch a n d D e v e lo p m e n t A c t iv it ie s ,
b y Ind u stry, J a n u a r y 1 9 6 0
P e r c e n t in R e s e a rc h a n d D e v e lo p m e n t A c tiv itie s

20

30

40

50

6 0 ___ 70

Aircraft and parts
Electrical equipment
Professional and scientific instruments
Chemicals and allied products
Fabricated metals and ordnance
Machinery, except electrical
Food and kindred products
Stone, clay, and glass products

Percent
change

Jan.
1959

Jan.
1960

All groups________ _____ _____________________

549.4

593.6

8 .1

Draftsmen______ __________________ . . . . . . _
Engineering and physical science technicians____
Medical, agricultural, and biological technicians..
Other technicians___ ____ _____________________

195. 2
250. 3

2 1 0 .0

7.6
13.7

1 6.1

87.8

284.6
16.1
82.9

.2

-5 .9

N o t e : T o t a ls a n d p e rc e n ta g e s h a v e b e e n c a lc u l a t e d o n t h e b a s is ”o f u n ­
r o u n d e d fig u re s a n d d o n o t n e c e s s a r ily c o rr e s p o n d w i t h t h e r o u n d e d fig u res
show n.
S o u r c e : S ee t a b l e 1.

secondarily in the chemicals and allied products
industry.
Nearly all industries shared in the growth of
technicians between January 1959 and January
1960. Only the aircraft industry showed a
significant decrease (11 percent) in the employ­
ment of these workers, the decline being related to
the overall drop in the industry’s employment and
to the continuing shift from aircraft to missile
production. Among industries using large num­
bers of technicians, greater-than-average increases
in technician employment occurred in electrical
equipment, chemicals and allied products, fabri­
cated metal products and ordnance, and machinery.
Although the proportionate increases in technician
employment were great in the food and textile
industries, these changes are not considered sig­
nificant among such small-scale users of techni­
cians. The construction industry also showed a
high rate of growth in technician employment.
However, since this industry is characterized by
fluctuations in employment and is particularly
affected by seasonal factors, comparisons of em­
ployment based on data collected in January may
not accurately reflect year-to-year changes.

Paper and allied products
Textiles'and apparel
Petroleum products and extraction
Primary metals
Engineering and architectural services
Construction

E9

Transportation and other public utilities


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

I n c lu d e s b o th s c ie n tis ts a n d e n g in e e r s c o n d u c tin g a n d
th o s e a d m in is te r in g r e s e a r c h a n d d e v e lo p m e n t.

By Size oj Company. The industries that employ
many scientists and engineers in their very large
companies also have an almost equally heavy con­
centration of technicians in these giant firms. In
aircraft, chemicals, and electrical equipment, and
also in motor vehicles and primary metals, about
60 to 90 percent of the technicians worked in
companies with 5,000 or more employees in early
1960. In some industries, however, where the
small firm plays a more important role, consider-

S C IE N T IF IC AND T E C H N IC A L EM PLOY M ENT IN IN D U STR Y , 1960

able numbers of technicians were used in enter­
prises with relatively few employees. For
example, more than three-fourths of the techni­
cians in engineering and architectural services
worked for firms with fewer than 100 employees;
corresponding proportions of technicians for firms
of the same size in fabricated metals and construc­
tion were 38 and 34 percent, respectively.
More than half (55 percent) of all engineering
and physical science technicians were working in
companies with 5,000 or more employees. On the
other hand, nearly half (48 percent) of the medical,
agricultural, and biological technicians worked in
companies with total employment under 100—
chiefly small medical laboratories—and draftsmen
tended to be concentrated in the largest and
smallest firms.
In Research and Development. About 160,600, or
27 percent, of all technicians were engaged pri­
marily in research and development activities in


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1349

January 1960. This contrasts with 37 percent of
scientists and engineers primarily concerned with
research and development work.
The overall ratio of technicians to scientists and
engineers engaged in research and development
was 53 per 100 in early 1960. The ratios ranged
from 34 technicians per 100 scientists and engi­
neers in transportation and other public utilities
to 92 per 100 in paper and allied products. The
electrical equipment, aircraft, and chemicals
industries were the three largest employers of
research and development technicians and to­
gether accounted for the employment of almost
half the technicians performing these functions.
However, in these industries, the ratios of techni­
cians to scientists and engineers in this type of
work were somewhat less than the corresponding
ratio for all industries.
— W illiam L. C opeland
D ivision of M anpow er a n d E m p lo y m en t S tatistics

1350

Unemployment Insurance
Legislation in 1961
Op t h e 48 S t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e s (and Congress
for the District of Columbia) which convened in
1961/ 44 enacted changes in their unemployment
insurance laws. As in 1959, most of the 1961
amendments to the State unemployment insurance
laws appear to have been adopted with one or the
other of two general purposes in mind.
Several changes were apparently made for the
purpose of bringing the State law up to date;
for example, changes dealing with qualifying
requirements and maximum and minimum weekly
benefit amounts represented adjustments of the
unemployment insurance law to current wage and
price levels; in the case of many amendments
dealing with coverage, changes were made to bring
the law into closer alinement with recently amended
Federal coverage provisions.
Other changes, however, clearly represented
attempts to deal with a particularly serious un­
employment situation, characterized by a rate of
insured unemployment which, for the first 6
months of the year, averaged almost 6 percent.
Three significant trends were discernible as re­
sponses to the unemployment situation, (a)
Following the example set in 1959 by six States,
Hawaii adopted a permanent program of extended
benefits, payable on a county basis when county­
wide unemployment reaches a prescribed rate of
6 percent. Delaware and New York enacted
similar, temporary programs of extended benefits,
payable on a statewide basis and designed specifi­
cally to cope with the effects of the 1960-61
recession, (b) Idaho and South Carolina followed
a trend set in recent years by seven other States
by adopting flexible maximum benefit provisions,
(c) Nine States adopted legislation providing
specifically that an individual shall not be con­
sidered unavailable for work while attending,
under specified conditions, certain vocational
training courses approved by the director of the
employment service agency.
In addition to the enacted legislation which is
summarized below, two important developments
in the area of unemployment insurance occurred in
1961:
1. The Puerto Rican unemployment insurance
program was brought into the Federal-State

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

system on January 1, 1961, and a number of
States enacted necessary legislation permitting the
States’ officials to enter into agreements with
Puerto Rico to take and process interstate claims.
2. A new unemployment insurance program,
effective October 1, 1961, was approved by the
Virgin Islands. It provides for weekly benefit
amounts ranging from $8 to $25, variable duration
of the lesser of 26 weeks and one-third of baseperiod wages, and coverage of firms employing
one or more workers at any time. Employees of
the government of the Virgin Islands are covered.
Agricultural workers are not excluded, although
“employment” does not include service performed
by alien contract workers imported into the
Virgin Islands for crop harvesting purposes.
Benefits will not be payable under this law until
January 1, 1964.
Coverage

Significant coverage provisions were adopted by
the Hawaii and Idaho legislatures. The Hawaii
law, effective May 22, 1961, covers domestic
service if the cash remuneration paid by an
employing unit for such service is $225 or more
per quarter. The Idaho law, effective January
1, 1962, extends mandatory coverage, with some
few exceptions, to local government employees.
The 1960 Federal Social Security Amendments
(P.L. 86-778) extended coverage under the Fed­
eral Unemployment Tax Act, effective January 1,
1962, to employees serving on or in connection
with American aircraft outside the United States
under certain conditions, employees of certain
nonprofit organizations, and employees of “feeder”
organizations, whose profits are payable to a non­
profit organization. FUTA coverage was ex­
tended to privately owned Federal instrumentali­
ties, and States were given qualified permission to
require contributions from such instrumentalities.
Unemployment insurance laws of 28 States
automatically covered the services which were
added to Federal unemployment tax coverage in
1960. However, eight of these States enacted
legislation specifically extending coverage to most
of the services performed for feeder and nonprofit
organizations and the aircraft employment to
1
For purposes of this article, the District of Columbia, but not Puerto Rico,
is treated as a “ State.” Of the legislatures which convened, 47 met in regular
session and 1 (Mississippi) in special session; no sessions were held by the
Kentucky and Virginia legislatures.

UNEM PLOY M ENT IN SU R A N C E L EG ISL A TIO N IN 1961

which the Federal law now applies. Only 5
(Arizona, California, Massachusetts, South Caro­
lina, and Texas) of the remaining 23 States
without adequate automatic provisions to cover
these services amended their laws to correspond
more closely with current Federal coverage
provisions.
Provisions in the laws of 42 States automati­
cally provided for State coverage of privately
owned Federal instrumentalities when Federal
permission was granted. Four States (California,
Massachusetts, New Jersey, and Tennessee) en­
acted legislation to extend State coverage to these
instrumentalities.
During 1961, no State took action to reduce the
size-of-firm restrictions on coverage. In 27 States,
coverage is still limited to firms with at least four
workers, and in 4 States, to firms with three or
more workers. Of the 20 States that cover em­
ployers of one or more workers, only 7 States
(including the District of Columbia) have broad
coverage of one or more workers employed “at
any time.” The remaining 13 States cover em­
ployers of at least one worker in each of a speci­
fied number of weeks (usually 20) or employers
who have a payroll of a specified amount.
Benefits

The increases in maximum and minimum week­
ly benefit amounts enacted in 1961 are shown in
the accompanying table. The increases in the
maximum weekly benefit amounts represent im­
portant steps toward achieving a principal ob­
jective of unemployment insurance—to maintain
income in some reasonable proportion to the lost
wages of unemployed workers. In 1960, in 31
States, 50 percent or more of the claimants were
eligible for the statutory maximum weekly bene­
fit amount. In these States, the weekly benefit
amount tended to become a flat uniform rate,
rather than one related to the individual income
of the claimant. Nine of these 31 States in­
creased the maximum in 1961.
Only 11 States, with 20.8 percent of all covered
workers, now have maximums amounting to 50
percent or more of the State’s 1960 average week­
ly wage in covered employment. In 30 States,
with 61.4 percent of all covered workers, the
2
A M ississippi provision enacted in 1958, setting the maximum at 55 per­
cent of the State’s average weekly covered wage, is inoperative at current
wage levels because of a $30 ceiling.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1351
I n c r e a s e s in W e e k l y B e n e f it s f o r T o tal U n e m p l o y ­
m e n t E n a c t e d b y S t a t e s i n 1961

State

A labam a_________
D e la w a re .-______
H a w a i i . _________
Idaho 1____ _______
Illinois___ ________
M aine 2_________ .
M issouri__________
M o n tan a_________
N ew H am pshire___
N ew J e r s e y - ._____
N orth C arolina____
N orth D akota_____
South Carolina 1___
Texas 3___________
W est Virginia__ _

Change in
m inim um
weekly
benefit—

Change in
m axim um
weekly
benefit—

From —

To—

From —

T o—

$6

$9

15

17

$28
40
45
40
32
33
33
32
38
35
32
32
26
28
30

$32
50
55
43
38
34
40
34
40
50
35
36
34
37
32

7

9

10
10

15
12

11

12

8
7

10
10

Old and new m axi­
m um s as percent of
S tate’s 1960 average
weekly covered wage
Old

N ew
37
39
57
49
31
43
36
39
49
35
46
41
39
33
33

41
48
70
53
37
45
44
41
52
50
51
46
51
44
35

1 The increase in the maximum weekly benefit resulted from the State’s
adoption in 1961 of a flexible maximum w eekly benefit which fluctuates
with the average weekly wage of covered workers in the State (52.5 percent in
Idaho and 50 percent in South Carolina, with the dollar benefit subject to
rounding).
2 Effective October 1961.
3 Effective January 1962.

maximums amount to 40 to 50 percent of the
State’s average weekly wage, and in 10 States,
with 17.8 percent of all covered workers, the
maximums amount to less than 40 percent of the
State’s average weekly wage in covered em­
ployment.
Increases in the maximum weekly benefit
amount were effected in Idaho and South Caro­
lina as a result of the adoption by those States of
“flexible maximum” benefit provisions, which re­
quire the maximum weekly benefit to be a percent
of the State’s average weekly wage. The oper­
ation of flexible maximums, adopted in previous
years by six other States,2 resulted this year in
increasing the maximum weekly benefit amounts
of Colorado, Vermont, and Wyoming by $2, and
in increases of $1 in Kansas, Utah, and Wisconsin.
With the exception of the Kansas provision,
which was enacted in 1949, all the flexible maxi­
mum provisions have been adopted within the
past 6 years. Provisions for automatic adjust­
ment of the maximum to current statewide aver­
age wages, insure that fewer workers will receive
an inadequate proportion of their lost wages,
particularly during periods of generally rising
wage levels.
Method oj Computation. Changes in the method
of computing the individual’s weekly benefit
amount or the individual’s average weekly wage
were effected in seven States by specific amend­
ments. Eleven other States changed the computa-

1352
tion formula to accommodate legislative increases
in tire minimum or maximum weekly benefit
amount. The changes, however, reflect no dis­
cernible trend in the type of formulas used in com­
puting the individual’s weekly benefit amount,
and a wide variety of formulas still exists.
Significant amendments include a decrease in
the “high quarter” (the calendar quarter of the
base period in which earnings were highest) wages
required for specific weekly benefit amounts in
California. A new benefit schedule adopted by
New Jersey requires slightly higher average
weekly wages to qualify for all but the minimum
weekly benefit amount.
Florida now computes the weekly benefit
amount as 50 percent of the average weekly wage
in the base period, rather than 50 percent of the
average weekly wage in the high quarter. The
weekly benefit amount in South Carolina is now
computed as 50 percent of the average weekly
wage (total wages in the high quarter divided
by 13), instead of a fraction from 1/21 to 1/26 of
high-quarter wages, which varied in order to
give proportionately higher benefits to lower
paid workers.
Texas and Montana, where benefits are based
on a fraction of high-quarter wages, enacted
changes in the fraction. Texas changed the com­
putation fraction from 1/26 to 1/25 of the highquarter wages, and Montana changed its weighted
high-quarter schedule from approximately 1/18—
1/22 to approximately 1/20-1/25—with the result
that higher earnings will now be required in Mon­
tana to qualify for most benefit levels. Wisconsin
changed the method for determining the indi­
vidual’s average weekly wage by allowing wages
of a more recent period (the 52 weeks preceding
the end of the employee’s most recent employ­
ment) to be considered.
Duration. Only Texas (which increased its maxi­
mum duration of benefits from 24 to 26 weeks),
Alabama (which increased its maximum duration
from 20 to 26 weeks), West Virginia (which in­
creased its uniform duration from 24 to 26 weeks),
and Montana enacted significant changes in their
regular duration provisions.
The Montana duration was changed from a
uniform 22 weeks to an unusual variable of 13,
20, or 26 weeks, with more restrictive earnings
requirements for each of the two longer duration

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

periods. Those who meet only the requirement
of 1% times wages in the quarter in which earn­
ings were highest, formerly required for the uni­
form duration of 22 weeks, will now be eligible
for 13 weeks. In order to be eligible for 20 weeks,
claimants must now meet the regular requirement
and have wages of at least $100 in each of two
quarters in the base period other than the high
quarter. Only those who meet the regular re­
quirement and have wages of at least $100 in each
of three quarters other than the high quarter will
be eligible for 26 weeks of benefits.
Texas now determines the duration of benefits
for a worker as the lesser of 26 times the weekly
benefit amount and 27 percent of base-period
wage credits, instead of the lesser of 24 times the
weekly benefit amount and 25 percent of baseperiod wage credits. Delaware adopted a more
significant change by increasing the duration
fraction from 29 percent to 37 percent of baseperiod earnings.
Delaware and New York joined temporarily,
and Hawaii permanently, with six other States 3
which have provisions for temporary extensions of
duration during periods of high unemployment.
Delaware enacted a temporary program of ex­
tended unemployment insurance benefits, pay­
able for weeks of unemployment beginning on
March 5 and before July 31, 1961, to individuals
who had exhausted regular benefits after October
31, 1960. Benefits were equal to one-half of the
total weeks to which the individual was previously
entitled and were paid under this program until
Federal Temporary Extended Unemployment
Compensation benefits became payable.4
New York enacted a temporary program which
provides for an extention of 13 weeks for claim­
ants who exhaust their regular benefits. The
extended benefits begin the week when the total
number of claimants who have exhausted benefits
during the last 13 weeks equals 1 percent of the
average number of employees, on whose wages
contributions from employers were payable for
four consecutive calendar quarters ending not
less than 30 weeks prior to such week. No pay­
ments were made under this act because of the
TEUC program, but the act remains in effect
until April 1 , 1962.
3 California, Connecticut, Idaho, Illinois, North Carolina, and Vermont
all enacted their provisions in 1959.
4 p.L . 87-6.
TEU C benefits became payable in Delaware and N ew York
In April 1961.

U NEM PLOY M ENT IN SU R A N C E L E G ISL A TIO N IN 1961

Hawaii adopted a permanent program of 13
weeks of benefits (outside tbe unemployment
insurance law) to provide additional compensa­
tion for workers unemployed as a result of a
natural or manmade disaster and for unemployed
workers in counties where the rate of unemploy­
ment is 6 percent or more.
Qualifying Requirements

Illinois and seven of the eight States which
had increased the minimum weekly benefit also
amended their laws to require higher earnings, or
earnings over a longer period, before claimants
may be eligible for any benefit. A wide variety
of requirements (of minimum earnings or of
specified periods of time worked during the base
period) to qualify for minimum benefits exists
among the States (required minimum base-period
wages range from $150 to $800). However, a
general trend over the years toward higher
qualifying requirements continued in 1961.
Four States increased their flat minimum baseperiod qualifying amount: Illinois, from $700 to
$750; Maine, from $300 to $400; New Hampshire,
from $500 to $600; North Carolina, from $500 to
$550. South Carolina increased its minimum
base-period qualifying wage requirement from
$240 to $300 and its high-quarter requirement
from $120 to $180. Montana increased its min­
imum high-quarter qualifying wage requirement
from $170 to $285, thereby increasing its baseperiod requirement from $255 to $427.50. An
increase in Idaho’s base-period wage requirement
from $472 to $572 resulted automatically from an
increase in the minimum weekly benefit amount.
Alabama adopted a requirement of earnings in
the base-period amounting to 1% times highquarter wages and, as a result of the increase in
the minimum weekly benefit amount, increased its
high-quarter earnings requirement from $112.01 to
$221.01. Oregon changed its minimum employ­
ment requirement from earnings of $20 or more
in each of 20 weeks to earnings in 20 weeks which
must average $20 per week.
In addition, Illinois increased from $150 to $175
the earnings required outside the high quarter.
New Hampshire and North Carolina adopted
provisions requiring wages in at least two quarters
of the base period, bringing to a total of 33 the
number of States which specifically require wages
in more than one quarter, or where qualifying wage

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1353
or employment requirements automatically require
wages in at least two quarters for all claimants.
With the exception of Maine and New Hamp­
shire, all States which raised the maximum weekly
benefit amount require, as a result, increased wages
before claimants may qualify for the new maxi­
mum. However, California reduced the amount
of base-period wages—from $1,500 to $1,410—
needed to qualify for its maximum.
Wisconsin amended its minimum requirement
of 18 weeks of employment to provide an alternate
qualifying requirement. An individual who has
at least 14 but less than 18 weeks of employment,
in the 52 weeks preceding his unemployment may
now qualify for benefits if he has 55 or more weeks
of employment in the 104 weeks preceding his
unemployment. This new minimum qualifying
requirement, which requires 41-38 weeks of work
in the first 52-week period, is more restrictive than
the alternate requirement adopted by New York
in 1958.
Six States in 1961 enacted laws which prevent
the payment of benefits in 2 consecutive benefit
years without intervening employment, making
20 States which now have such a provision.
Alabama, Delaware, North Carolina, North
Dakota, and South Dakota enacted legislation
requiring claimants who have received benefits in
a preceding benefit year to have specified earnings,
ranging from 4 to 10 times the weekly benefit
amount, subsequent to the beginning of the first
benefit year, in order to qualify for benefits in the
second benefit year. California amended its law
to provide that twice the amount of disability
insurance and workmen’s compensation benefits
received by an individual may be considered as
wages for purposes of satisfying its requalifying
requirement.
Waiting Period. Montana reinstituted a 1-week
waiting period provision before benefits are pay­
able for total unemployment, which was repealed
in 1957. Texas also adopted a 1-week waiting
period requirement before a claimant is eligible for
any benefits, but the waiting week becomes
compensable after the claimant has been paid
benefits in his current benefit year equal to four
times his weekly benefit amount. In Hawaii, the
waiting period week is now compensable if the
claimant is entitled to benefits for each of 12 con­
secutive weeks following the waiting period.

1354
Rhode Island now provides that the waiting period
for the second benefit year may be served in the
last week of the old benefit year. Only Maryland,
Nevada, and North Carolina do not now provide
waiting period requirements, but the waiting
period now becomes compensable in five States
(formerly three), under certain circumstances.
Partial Earnings Limit—Allowance. The partial
earnings limit, which determines the point at which
a claimant is no longer considered partially unem­
ployed and is no longer eligible for benefits, was
raised in Idaho, New Jersey, North Carolina, and
West Virginia. In both Idaho and North Caro­
lina, the earnings limit was raised from the weekly
benefit amount to 1% times the weekly benefit
amount (representing payment for less than 60
percent of full-time hours in North Carolina).
The new limit in West Virginia is equal to the
weekly benefit amount plus $10 instead of the
weekly benefit amount plus $6. New Jersey
changed its limit from the weekly benefit amount
to the weekly benefit amount plus the greater of
$5 or %the weekly benefit amount.
Three of these States made parallel changes in
the partial earnings allowance, which is the
amount of earnings disregarded in computing
the benefit for a week of partial unemployment.
In New Jersey, the amount of earnings disregarded
is now equal to the weekly benefit amount plus
the greater of $5 or %the weekly benefit amount.
West Virginia now disregards $10 instead of $6,
and earnings disregarded in North Carolina are
%the weekly benefit amount, instead of the lesser
of $10 and % the weekly benefit amount. In
addition, Maine adopted an amendment, effective
October 1962, providing that earnings disregarded
will equal $10 earned in other than regular
employment, instead of $10 earned in any em­
ployment; evidently, all earnings from regular
employment will be deducted by Maine in com­
puting the benefit for a week of partial unem­
ployment.
Availability for Work

The most significant change made in the
requirements that claimants be available for work
was the adoption by nine States (California,
Idaho, Illinois, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Penn­
sylvania, Rhode Island, and West Virginia) of
legislation providing specifically that an individual

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

shall not be considered unavailable for work
while attending, under specified conditions, certain
vocational training courses approved by the
director of the employment security agency.
Prior to 1961, only Massachusetts, New York,
North Dakota, and Utah had such provisions.
The laws of the District of Columbia and Michigan
permit the payment of benefits to individuals
while attending training courses, but they do
not specifically provide that such individuals are
not to be considered unavailable for work.
Hawaii amended its able-for-work provision by
providing that a claimant is not ineligible for
benefits if he is ill or disabled after filing a claim,
if no suitable work is offered after the beginning
of such illness or disability. Kansas and Maine
deleted similar provisions from their laws. Nine
States now have this provision.
Disqualifications From Benefits

Over the years, there has been a general
tendency to make disqualification provisions more
explicit, to apply them to more circumstances,
and to increase the consequence of disqualifications
to the workers. The trend continued, generally,
in 1961.
Thirteen States made changes in one or more
of the three major causes for disqualification—
voluntary leaving, refusal of suitable work without
good cause, and discharge for misconduct. Idaho,
Maine, Montana, and Texas, changed the period
or the nature of the disqualification for all three
causes. Disqualification for all three causes in
Idaho is now for the duration of the unemploy­
ment and until the individual has earned wages
equal to eight times the weekly benefit amount,
instead of 30 days of bona fide work.
Voluntary Leaving. Six States changed their pro­
visions concerning the period or the nature of the
disqualification for voluntarily leaving work
(Idaho’s change discussed previously). Montana
restricts “good cause” for voluntarily leaving to
good cause attributable to the employment; in
all, good cause is restricted in 21 States to good
cause attributable to the employer or connected
with the work. Montana changed its disquali­
fication period for voluntary leaving from 1-4 to
1-5 weeks; Texas, from 1-24 to 1-26 weeks.
Iowa now provides that only wage credits earned
in employment which the claimant left shall be

UNEM PLOY M ENT IN SU R A N C E L E G IS L A T IO N IN 1961

canceled, instead of all wage credits. Maine
changed its disqualification period from 5-14
weeks to the duration of the unemployment and
until the claimant has earned 15 times his weekly
benefit amount (in any event, such disqualifi­
cation must continue for a minimum of 4 full
weeks).
In addition, Kansas, Maine, Montana, New
Jersey, Oregon, South Carolina, and Wisconsin
enacted changes in the conditions or the circum­
stances under which the disqualification for volun­
tary leaving will apply.
Refusal of Suitable Work. California amended its
law to provide that the period of disqualification
for job refusal shall be not less than 2 nor more
than 10 consecutive weeks, rather than not to
exceed 10 weeks. Maine, which has had a dis­
qualification for refusal of work for the duration
of the unemployment, now requires, in addition,
that the claimant must earn 15 times his weekly
benefit amount. The provision specifically pro­
vides that lack of transportation shall not be a
valid excuse for refusal of suitable work.
Montana changed its disqualification period
from the week of occurrence of the disqualifying
act plus 1-4 weeks to the week of occurrence plus
1-5 weeks; South Carolina, from the week of the
act plus 1-5 weeks to the week plus 5; Texas,
from 1-12 to 1-13 weeks.
Discharge for Misconduct. Maine changed its
disqualification for discharge for misconduct from
the week of occurrence plus 7-14 weeks to the
duration of the unemployment and until the
claimant has earned 20 times his weekly benefit
amount. West Virginia changed from the week
of occurrence plus 6 weeks to the duration of the
unemployment and until the individual has
worked at least 30 days in covered employment.
Montana changed the disqualification period
for misconduct from 1-4 weeks to 1-9 weeks;
South Carolina, from 1-22 to 5-22 weeks; Texas,
from 1-24 to 1-26 weeks.
Maine and Oregon enacted new disqualifications
for gross misconduct, bringing to a total of 20
the number of States which have special provi­
sions for such misconduct as dishonest or criminal
acts or misdemeanors. Montana, which defines
gross misconduct as a criminal act of which an
individual has been convicted or to which he has
admitted, provided a 12-month disqualification

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1355
if such misconduct was connected with the work
or on the employer’s premises. Oregon provided
for the cancellation of all wage credits for gross
misconduct. Illinois changed its disqualification
to apply generally to theft. Kansas now dis­
qualifies for gross misconduct for the duration of
the unemployment and until the individual earns
eight times his weekly benefit amount. Maine
changed the disqualification for conviction of a
felony or misdemeanor by requiring wages of $400
instead of $300 in subsequent employment.
Other Disqualifications. New Jersey adopted an
amendment providing that if unemployment is
due to pregnancy, a woman shall be deemed un­
available for work for a specified period. Of the
other 35 States with similar provisions, Maine,
Montana, North Carolina, West Virginia, and
Wisconsin made slight changes in their require­
ments. Twenty-one States have provisions con­
cerning unemployment due to marital obliga­
tions, such as care of children. Oregon changed
its disqualification period for unemployment due
to marital obligations from 4 weeks to the duration
of the unemployment and until the individual has
secured bona fide employment.
Kansas, Massachusetts, and North Carolina
amended provisions dealing with disqualification
of claimants who are unemployed due to labor
management disputes.
Maine, Montana, New Hampshire, New
Mexico, Rhode Island, and Texas changed the
penalties or the disqualifications for fraudulent
misrepresentation.
California, Maine, Pennsylvania, West Vir­
ginia, and Wisconsin adopted amendments con­
cerning the relationship of benefit eligibility to
the receipt of severance or terminal pay. Dela­
ware, Idaho, Maine, Nebraska, Tennessee, and
West Virginia altered provisions dealing with the
receipt of pension or retirement income. Kansas
and Montana amended their laws to provide a
disqualification for any week with respect to
which an individual is receiving compensation
for temporary or permanent total disability under
workmen’s compensation. Maine extended its
disqualification for receipt of other remunera­
tion, which previously applied to those who receive
such remuneration, to individuals who are en­
titled to receive such remuneration.
— M u r r a y A. R u b i n
B ureau of E m p lo y m en t Security

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1356

State Labor Legislation
Enacted in 1961
l t h o u g h m o s t of the hundreds of labor laws
enacted by the legislatures of 47 States 1 and
Puerto Rico meeting in regular session in 1961
were amendments to existing acts, a number of
States enacted significant new provisions.2 In
the field of workmen’s compensation, New Mexico
established a subsequent-injury fund to promote
the employment of handicapped persons without
loss of workmen’s compensation protection, and
Maine, Montana, and Pennsylvania adopted pro­
visions for rehabilitation. Pennsylvania
ex­
tended its minimum wage law to men and set a
statutory minimum wage. Migrant labor camps
were made subject to licensing and regulation in
Illinois, and North Carolina regulated the trans­
portation of farm workers. Coverage for farm
workers was provided under the workmen’s com­
pensation law in Wisconsin and the temporary
disability insurance law in California. Prohibi­
tions against employment discrimination because
of race, creed, or national origin were enacted in
Idaho, Illinois, and Missouri, and against age dis­
crimination in California, Ohio, and Washington.
A State labor relations act was approved in
North Dakota. Four States enacted curbs against
strikebreaking.

A

Workmen’s Compensation

Maximum weekly benefits for death and all
types of disability caused by a work injury were
raised in the District of Columbia and 12 States:
Alabama, Connecticut,3 Illinois, Massachusetts,
Missouri, Montana, New Hampshire, Pennsyl­
vania, Utah, Washington, West Virginia, and
Wisconsin. Total maximum benefits were also
raised in several of these States. Five other
States—Maryland, Nevada, North Dakota,
Rhode Island, and Wyoming—raised weekly or
total maximum benefits for some, but not all,
types of injuries. By the end of the legislative
year, maximum weekly benefits for temporary
total disability—the most frequent type of com­
pensable disability—-were set at $70 or more by 6
States and the District of Columbia, $50 but
less than $70 by 12 States, $40 but less than


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$50 by 13 States, and $30 but less than $40 by 19
States and Puerto Rico.
Medical benefits were increased in seven
States—Alabama, Colorado, Kansas, New Hamp­
shire, Rhode Island, Vermont, and West Virginia.
Alabama, Connecticut, Illinois, and Pennsylvania
liberalized provisions for the furnishing, repair, or
replacement of specified appliances such as eye­
glasses or artificial limbs.
The maximum burial allowance was made
payable in additional cases or raised or otherwise
liberalized in Alabama, Arkansas, Hawaii, Illi­
nois, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Texas, and Vermont.
Some laws laws remedied inadequacies in spe­
cial cases. For example, Colorado and Vermont
made partial disability from occupational diseases
compensable; Nevada, Pennsylvania, and Wis­
consin increased benefits for silicosis; and Wash­
ington raised the level of benefits currently payable
under prior awards for permanent total disability
or death.
Several important changes were made in cover­
age. Wisconsin provided compulsory coverage
for farm workers if the farmer employs six or
more workers for 20 days during a calendar year.
New York became the 24th jurisdiction to elim­
inate numerical exemptions. Colorado extended
coverage under its occupational disease law to a
number of additional types of conditions, including
anthracosis, disabilities due to handling meat prod­
ucts, and poisoning by various metallic compounds.
Vermont added coverage for conditions caused
by exposure to chemicals or combinations of
chemicals. About a dozen States extended cover­
age to various groups of public employees or
volunteers doing public service, continuing a
trend of recent years.
Rehabilitation provisions were adopted for the
first time in Maine, Montana, and Pennsylvania.
Maine provided a maximum of 2 years of rehabili­
tation services to an injured employee, at a maxi­
mum cost of $2,500. In Montana and Pennsyl­
vania, payments for living and other expenses
were provided without overall time or dollar
limits. The Montana provisions are mandatory
1

All but Kentucky, Mississippi, and Virginia.

2For unemployment Insurance legislation enacted in 1961, see pp.

1350-1355
of this issue. A detailed statement on workmen’s compensation legislation is
available on request to the Bureau of Labor Standards.
« The Connecticut maximum amount is set by law at 55 percent of the
State’s average weekly production wage as determined annually by the
State labor commissioner.

STA TE LABOR L E G ISL A T IO N E N A C TED IN 1961

for State fund employers and voluntary for those
privately insured or self-insured.
New Mexico established a subsequent-injury
fund to encourage the employment of the handi­
capped. It applies to a preexisting permanent
physical impairment and a subsequent disability
by accident resulting in a combined permanent
disability greater than would have resulted from
the second injury alone. Kansas liberalized its
subsequent-injury fund. The preexisting disa­
bility may now be any physical or mental impair­
ment due to specified diseases or injuries, and the
subsequent injury may be any compensable in­
jury. Colorado’s provisions were made appli­
cable to occupational diseases.
Time limits for compensability or for filing
claims were liberalized for a number of occupa­
tional diseases in Colorado, Hawaii, and Vermont
and for radiation diseases only in Idaho, Illinois,
Indiana, Nevada, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin.
Occupational Health and Safety

Several States for the first time adopted pro­
visions to control nuclear development and radia­
tion hazards; other States revised existing laws
for more effective control. Some of the new leg­
islation stemmed specifically from the 1959 Fed­
eral act which permits the Atomic Energy Com­
mission (AEC) to enter into an agreement with
any State providing for the discontinuance of the
Commission’s licensing and regulatory authority
with regard to certain radiation hazards, if it finds
the State’s program for control of such hazards to
be adequate.
A preliminary requirement for control of radia­
tion hazards is registration of radiation sources.
Wisconsin enacted a law limited to registration of
installations not licensed by the AEC, for the
purpose of assessing the potential radiation prob* The following 19 jurisdictions have laws with a statutory minimum wage:
Alaska, Arkansas, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts,
Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Penn­
sylvania, Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Vermont, Washington,
and Wyoming.
Minimum wage laws in the following 16 jurisdictions apply to men as well
as women: Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Idaho, Maine, Massachusetts,
New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina. Pennsylvania,
Puerto Rico, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wyoming.
«Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, Nevada, New
Hampshire, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and
Washington. Puerto Rico sets rates ranging from 25 cents to $1 an hour for
various occupational groups.

8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1357
lem; a provision of the law directed the State
Industrial Commission and the Board of Health
to recommend steps for an adequate regulatory
program to the 1963 legislature. Registration
provisions were included in Idaho, New Hamp­
shire, and Washington enactments. The Idaho
law further provided for issuing licenses to regis­
trants; and in Arkansas, Indiana, and Tennessee,
where registration provisions already existed, the
licensing of certain operations was required or
authorized. Florida’s governor was authorized
to designate a State regulatory agency empowered
to require licensing or registration.
Idaho, New Hampshire, and Washington
authorized their respective State health depart­
ments to issue rules for the control of radiation
hazards. Federal-State agreements relating to the
regulation of sources of ionizing radiation were
authorized in Arkansas, Florida, Idaho, Indiana,
and Washington.
Other safety legislation included rulemaking
authority in Oregon for boilers and in New York
for amusement devices and temporary structures
at carnivals and fairs. Florida specified that its
general safety provisions shall apply to all
employers including those who have elected not to
accept the workmen’s compensation law.
Minimum Wages

Pennsylvania adopted a statutory minimum
wage4 (set at $1 an hour) for the first time and
extended coverage to men6 in 1961. Wage board
procedure was retained; the boards may not recom­
mend rates below 85 cents an hour.
The statutory minimum rates in Washington
and Connecticut were raised from $1 to $1.15 an
hour; they will be advanced to $1.25 on January 1,
1962, in Washington and on October 1 , 1963, in
Connecticut. Lower rates were set in Connecticut
for hotel and restaurant industries ($1 an hour,
advancing to $1.15 on May 1 , 1962, and $1.25 on
May 1 , 1964) and for learners and persons under 18
years (85 cents, becoming 95 cents on October 1,
1963). Maximum allowances for gratuities were
also raised in Connecticut. Today, 12 States
have basic statutory minimum rates of $1 an hour
or more.6
North Carolina increased the coverage of its
minimum wage law by making it applicable to

1358
establishments employing four or more, rather
than six or more, persons. Maine made employers
of four or more, rather than four or more at one
location, subject to the act. Both States
exempted taxicab drivers. Maine also exempted
waitresses, bellhops, and certain other types of
employment, although such employees are
included in the count of employees. In Washing­
ton, minors under 18 were exempted from the
statutory minimum, but they are still covered by
an earlier law under which wages may be set by
order for women and minors.
Wage Payment and Collection

Pennsylvania enacted a new law to replace its
former requirement of wage payments twice a
month unless otherwise stipulated in the hiring
contract. The new law requires regular paydays
but does not specify the period. Payment by the
next regular payday is required if the employee is
separated from the payroll or if work is suspended
as the result of an industrial dispute. The
Secretary of Labor was authorized to take assign­
ments of wage claims for collection. The Oregon
wage payment law, which had covered employees
in specified industries, was amended to apply to
every employer.
Wage Garnishment

Five States raised the amount of wages exempt
from garnishment or revised the formula for
determining the exemption. West Virginia raised
the exemption from $10 to $20 a week. Alaska
exempted $350 (rather than $300) of wages earned
within the preceding 30 days by the head of a
family and set an exemption—$200 for the first
time for a person not the head of a family. The
Illinois exemption was raised from $45 per week to
the higher of that amount or 85 percent of wages,
but not more than $200 a week. In Minnesota,
the maximum exemption was set at 50 percent of
wages earned and unpaid at the time wages are
garnished; formerly, it was 50 percent of wages
earned within the preceding 30 days, but not more
than $75 a week. New Mexico established an
exemption of 80 percent of wages earned in the
preceding 30 days if they are less than $100 and 75
percent if they are greater. The law formerly
exempted only 80 percent of the first $100 due for


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B E R 1961

the preceding month and provided no exemption
if the debt was incurred for the necessities of lifePrevailing Wages

Pennsylvania adopted a prevailing wage law
to replace former provisions held by the courts to
be insufficient authority to require payment of
prevailing wages. Under the new act, the Secre­
tary of Labor is to determine prevailing minimum
wage rates in the locality (as defined by the Secre­
tary) for laborers, mechanics, skilled and semi­
skilled laborers, and apprentices on any public
work contract over $2,000. Safeguards are pro­
vided to assure compliance in paying such rates.
Various clarifying and strengthening changes
were made in the Illinois and West Virginia pre­
vailing wage laws. For example, in Illinois, the
definition of locality was broadened to permit a
wider area to be considered in determining pre­
vailing wages than the district, city, or county
where the work is to be performed. The exclusion
of workers transporting materials to and from the
project site was revised to exclude only transpor­
tation by sellers and suppliers. In West Virginia,
among other changes, a detailed procedure was
established for determining wage rates at regular
intervals, the definition of “locality” was broadened,
coverage of the law was extended to highways,
bridges, and airports, and a board was provided
to hear appeals from determinations by the
Secretary of Labor.
Montana extended coverage to “heavy highway
or municipal construction.” Massachusetts spec­
ified that “construction” shall include such items
as the painting of public buildings. Connecticut,
on the other hand, exempted work on public
buildings if the project cost is less than $5,000.
Equal Pay

Wisconsin, in an amendment to its fair employ­
ment practice act, specified that a pay differential
“based in good faith on any factor or factors other
than sex does not constitute discrimination . . . .”
Twenty-one States now have equal pay provisions:
Alaska, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connect­
icut, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts,
Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey,
New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode
Island, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

STA TE LABOR L E G ISL A T IO N EN A C TED IN 1961

Agricultural Workers

The year 1961 again saw several improvements
in the protection afforded under labor laws to
migratory and resident agricultural workers.
The workmen’s compensation law in Wisconsin
was made applicable to farm workers if the farmer
employs six or more workers for 20 days during
a year. California agricultural workers, already
covered under the workmen’s compensation act,
were brought under the temporary disability
insurance law, which provides cash benefits if a
worker loses time from his work because of nonoccupational illness. California also issued a mini­
mum wage order setting a minimum rate of $1 an
hour for women and minors in farm work.
Illinois required migrant labor camps to be in­
spected and licensed by the Department of Public
Health. The law set standards relating to sani­
tation, heating, exits, and other matters and
authorized the department to issue additional
rules. California enacted several laws or amend­
ments concerning the housing or health of mi­
grants. These include a requirement for annual
registration of labor camps with the labor depart­
ment (regulation of camp conditions is already in
effect), authority for the labor department to con­
duct a survey of migrant housing needs, and statu­
tory authority for the Department of Public
Health to maintain a health program for migrant
farm workers and their families. Wisconsin re­
quired every “person,” rather than every “em­
ployer,” to get a permit before operating a migrant
labor camp.
In North Carolina, the Department of Motor
Vehicles was directed to make and enforce safety
regulations for the transportation for pay of five
or more migratory farm workers to and from em­
ployment if a motor vehicle other than a passenger
automobile or a station wagon is used.
Other changes included programs in Colorado,
Pennsylvania, and Oregon to provide or extend
educational opportunities for children of migrant
workers; extension of registration requirements in
7

There are now 21 States and Puerto Rico which make such discrimination
unlawful: Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Idaho,
Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New
Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island,
Washington and Wisconsin.
8 Alaska, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Louisiana, Massa­
chusetts, N ew York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Washing­
ton, and Wisconsin.
C19484— 6 1 ------ 5


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1359
New Jersey to day-haul crew leaders and in New
York to growers bringing in 5 or more, rather than
10 or more, migrant workers; establishment of a
special commission to study problems of labormanagement relations in agriculture in California;
and provision for a special committee to study
migrant labor problems in Colorado.
Discrimination in Employment

Laws prohibiting discrimination in employment
because of race, creed, color, or national origin
were enacted this year in Idaho, Illinois, and Mis­
souri. Kansas made its voluntary antidiscrimi­
nation law mandatory,7 and Indiana placed the
administration of its law in an independent fair
employment practice commission (rather than the
labor department), but retained the voluntary
character of its law. Voluntary acts were passed
in Nevada and West Virginia.
The Illinois and Missouri laws followed the cus­
tomary pattern of declaring certain discriminatory
acts by employers, unions, and employment agen­
cies unlawful and creating an agency empowered
to hear complaints, attempt adjustment by con­
ciliation, and if that fails, issue cease and desist
orders enforceable in the courts. Coverage is,
however, more limited than in the other States
having such acts. The Illinois act initially applies
to employers of 100 or more; in January 1963, it
will become applicable to employers if 75 or more,
and in January 1965, to those employing 50 or
more persons. The Missouri act applies to em­
ployers of 50 or more.
The Idaho act is largely directed toward dis­
crimination in public accommodations, but in­
cludes a provision making it a misdemeanor for
any person to deny any other person, because of
race, creed, color, or national origin, the right to
work by refusing to hire, by discharging, by bar­
ring from employment, or by discriminating in
compensation or other terms or conditions of
emplojmient.
The Wisconsin fair employment practice act was
amended to prohibit discrimination because of sex.
Three States—California, Ohio, and Wash­
ington-prohibited employment discrimination
against older workers, making 14 States and Puerto
Rico which have some type of prohibition against
age discrimination on the books.8 In Washington,
the age prohibition was added to its fair employ-

1 3 6 0 ____________________________ __________________________________ _______

ment practice act. The ages 40-65 were desig­
nated in prohibiting certain discriminatory prac­
tices. The California act made it unlawful for an
employer to refuse to hire, or to discharge, dismiss,
reduce, suspend, or demote an individual, solely
because he is between 40 and 64 years of age; it
was placed with the employment service provisions
of the unemployment insurance law. The Ohio
provision, that no employer shall refuse oppor­
tunity of interview for employment or shall dis­
charge without just cause any employee between
the ages of 40 and 65 who is otherwise qualified,
was placed under the general duties of the labor
department.
The New York law was amended to specify the
ages between 40 and 65, rather than 45 and 65, in
prohibiting certain discriminatory practices.
Child Labor and School Attendance

Major changes affecting youth employment
were made in minimum age, hours, and nightwork
provisions of child labor laws, as well as in school
attendance and workmen’s compensation laws.
Several States amended their minimum age pro­
visions. Tennessee and Alabama laws provided
that any minor age 14 or 15 who is lawfully ex­
cused from school attendance may be employed
in nonhazardous work during school hours, and in
Tennessee such children may work until 10 p.m.
rather than 7 p.m.; the Alabama hours and nightwork provisions for those under 16 were not
waived. Maine amendments permitted minors of
14 or 15 years to work in automatic laundries and
in retail establishments where frozen dairy prod­
ucts are manufactured on the premises.
In Florida, the minimum age of 16 was lowered
to 12 for employment outside school hours in any
factory, mechanical establishment, or laundry, and
for boys as messengers, while pages in the State
legislature were exempted from all provisions of
the law. A Puerto Rico amendment permitted
work in factories outside school hours at age 14.
As to hazardous occupations, in Maryland the
m i n i m u m age of 1 8 was reduced to 1 6 for girls em­
ployed in restaurants, and in Wisconsin the 1 8 year minimum for work on docks was amended to
exempt work on or about small pleasure and fish
boat liveries and piers. Florida set a minimum
age of 1 6 for minors spraying insecticides or other
toxic substances; on the other hand, it exempted

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

the operating of power mowers having cutting
blades of 24 inches or less from the 16-year mini­
mum for operating power-driven machinery.
Massachusetts set hours and nightwork stand­
ards for work in various occupations not formerly
covered. A 6-day week and a nightwork prohibi­
tion of 10 p.m. to 6 a.m. were set for boys 16-18
and girls 16-21 in offices, laundries, hotels, and
certain other places of business, and in beauty cul­
ture and similar establishments. A 9-hour day
and a 48-hour week were also set for work in
beauty culture and similar establishments (such
standards were already in effect for the other es­
tablishments). Oregon amended its nightwork
provision to permit minors under 16 to work until
10 p.m. instead of 6 p.m. on special permit from
the Wage and Hour Commission. In Alabama,
nightwork was prohibited for children under 16
between 8 p.m. and 7 a.m. throughout the year
instead of between 7 p.m. and 7 a.m. during the
school term only.
Pennsylvania limited work outside school hours
by children under 16 to 4 hours a day and 18 a
week, rather than limiting combined hours of work
and school to 8 a day and 44 a week. A 28-hour
workweek was set for minors 16 and 17 attending
school, and boys of that age enrolled in school may
not work between 11 p.m. and 6 a.m. The law
also authorized the issuance of special permits for
minors between 7 and 18 in theatrical productions,
concerts, modeling, radio and television, etc.
Several States amended their school attendance
provisions as they would affect working children.
North Dakota required completion of high school
rather than the 8th grade before children under 16
may leave school. Oklahoma made provision for
leaving school at the age of 16 rather than 18,
where the child’s best interests would be served.
Colorado, Oregon, and Pennsylvania enacted laws
providing for the education of migratory children
during both the summer term and the school year.
California and Tennessee amended their work­
men’s compensation laws as they apply to illegally
employed minors. The Tennessee amendment
specified that both legally and illegally employed
minors are covered by the law; formerly the cov­
erage of illegally employed minors was in doubt.
California required agricultural employers to pay
50 percent extra compensation for illegally em­
ployed minors under 16 injured on the job (in
line with the requirement for other employers).

STATE LABOR LEGISLATION ENACTED IN 1961

Idaho and Washington passed laws to provide
jobs and outdoor training for boys. The Idaho
law creates an Idaho Youth Conservation Project,
under the jurisdiction of the Idaho State Forester,
for the employment of boys 14-17 years old; it
specifies pay of $30 a month in addition to board,
lodging, medical services, certain clothing, and
equipment. The Washington law provides jobs
in forestry projects for youths 16-21 and requires
a weekly payment of $25, plus subsistence, medical
service, and equipment.
Industrial Relations

One State, North Dakota, enacted a labor rela­
tions act in 1961; 13 States and Puerto Rico now
have labor relations acts of general application.9
The North Dakota act guarantees workers the
right to organize and bargain collectively or to
refrain from such activities and specifies unfair
labor practices for employers and employees. The
Commissioner of Agriculture and Labor was
designated to administer the law.
An Oregon act set up procedures for the selection
of bargaining agents, which will be administered
by a three-member labor-management relations
board. Oregon also adopted a labor relations
act applying to licensed professional and prac­
tical nurses employed in health care facilities.
The “agency shop” was prohibited in Nebraska
through an amendment to its right-to-work law.
The amendment prohibits any person from denying
employment to another because he refuses to pay
a fee to a union either directly or indirectly.
(Under an agency shop arrangement, if a worker
prefers not to become a union member, he must
pay a fee equivalent to membership dues to the
union representing the plant’s workers.)
Of particular interest this year were bills to
curb strikebreaking activities which were intro­
duced in about two-thirds of the legislatures and
became law in Delaware, Maryland, New Jersey,10
and Washington. These laws vary in detail but
generally prohibit any person not directly in­
volved in a labor dispute from recruiting persons
to replace workers on strike or locked out.
New York amended its anti-injunction law to
permit a less formal hearing process before a
9 Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Minnesota, N ew York, North Dakota, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Utah,
and Wisconsin.
w The N ew Jersey law was passed by the 1960 legislature but not approved
by the Governor until February 15,1 9 6 1 .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1361
court may issue temporary injunctions in labor
disputes involving perishable farm products. An
amendment to the North Dakota law removed the
requirement that a court, before issuing an in­
junction in a labor dispute, must find that peace
officers are unwilling or unable to furnish adequate
protection.
Maine outlawed mass picketing, coercion, force,
or obstruction to hinder work in connection with
perishable food products or to prevent delivery
of supplies necessary to the maintenance of build­
ings and equipment.
In California, public employees were guaranteed
the right to join labor unions, and public agencies
were required to meet and confer with representa­
tives of such unions upon request. Rhode Island
made it the duty of cities and towns to bargain
collectively with firefighters concerning wages,
hours, and other working conditions, and provided
for submitting unresolved issues to arbitration.
Private Employment Agencies

A number of States amended their laws regulat­
ing private employment agencies. Oregon pro­
hibited registration fees. In Hawaii, administra­
tive authority to set maximum placement fees
replaced the fee standards set by law. Under
Connecticut amendments newly regulating the re­
cruitment of domestic workers from outside the
State, minors under 18 may not be recruited. The
employment agency was made responsible during
a 30-day period for transportation, food, and
lodging for recruits until they are suitably placed
or returned home.
Temporary help agencies were exempted from
coverage of the California and Oregon laws.
However, certain standards must be met in Cali­
fornia, including the payment of social security
and unemployment taxes and the carrying of
workmen’s compensation insurance; also, em­
ployees may not be sent to a place having a labor
dispute.
New York specified several additional practices
prohibited to employment agencies; for example,
they may not require applicants to subscribe to,
or pay for, agency publications, incidental service,
or advertising.
— B eatrice M cC onnell
A ssistan t D irecto r
B ureau of L ab o r S ta n d a rd s

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1362

W ages in Textile Dyeing and
Finishing, April-May 1961
S t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of production
workers in textile dyeing and finishing establish­
ments averaged $1.71 in April-May 1961, accord­
ing to a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.1 Variations around this average were
found by region and occupation and for men and
women. Of the supplementary benefits studied,
paid vacations, holidays, and several types of
insurance plans applied to most workers.

Earnings

In comparison with the national average of
$1.71, straight-time hourly earnings averaged
$1.56 in the Southeast region, where slightly more
than one-half of the 57,300 production workers
within the scope of the study were employed. In
the Middle Atlantic region, which accounted for
about one-fourth of the workers, earnings averaged
$2.02, and in New England, with nearly one-fifth
of the workers, $1.78. (See accompanying table.)
Earnings of individual workers ranged from $1
to more than $3 an hour, with the middle half
receiving between $1.46 and $1.90. Approxi­
mately 6 percent of the production workers earned
between $1 and $1.25 an hour; 30 percent received
less than $1.50. Five percent earned $2.25 or
more an hour. As indicated in the following tabu­
lation, the proportions of workers at various levels
of hourly earnings differed among the regions.
Percent of production workers
Middle SouthNew
United
States 1 England Atlantic east

$1.00
$1.25
$1.50
$1.75
$2.00
$2.25

5.
an d u n d er $1.25... _ _
24.
and u nder $1.50_
34.
and u nder $1.75 _ —
15.
and u n d er $2.00---------15.
an d u nder $2.25 __
5.
an d o v e r--------------------T o tal __ _____ __ __ 100 .

1.
5
0
8.
0 46.
8 32.
7.
3
4.
3
0 100.

1.
3
7.
6
3
9.
5 15.
4 53.
0 13.
0 100 .

5
1
7
6
1
0
0

8.
36.
39.
9.
2.
2.
100 .

5
9
9
9
4
3
0

l includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Three-fourths of the production workers in the
Southeast and two-thirds in New England were
in establishments primarily engaged in processing
cotton broadwoven fabrics. Their earnings aver­
aged $1.59 and $1.79 an hour, respectively. Syn­
thetic broadwoven fabrics were the principal prod­

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

uct processed in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s with almost
three-fourths of all workers in the Middle Atlantic
region. Earnings of these workers averaged $2.06.
More than four-fifths of the workers within the
scope of the survey were men. Their earnings
averaged $1.76 an hour versus $1.45 for women.
Data were also tabulated according to estab­
lishment and community size, plant ownership,
and labor-management contract coverage. In
each of the three major regions, earnings were
higher in establishments with 250 or more workers
than in smaller plants, and higher in establish­
ments in which a majority of the workers were
covered by labor-management contracts than in
establishments in which none or a minority were
covered by such contracts. However, because of
the interrelationship of these and other character­
istics, such as method of wage payment, location
and size of community, their exact influence on
wage levels cannot be determined.
The occupational classifications for which sepa­
rate data were obtained accounted for approxi­
mately one-half of the production and related
workers within the scope of the survey. Among
these classifications, dyeing-machine tenders,
cloth, was numerically most important; these
workers averaged $1.83 an hour. Other occupa­
tions for which average hourly earnings were
within a range of $1.75 to $1.85 included batchers,
boil-off machine operators, calender tenders, color
mixers, cloth inspectors (hand), cloth winders,
printing back tenders, printing-machine helpers,
and tenter frame tenders. Averages among all
occupations studied ranged from $1.36 an hour
for janitors to $4.07 for machine printers.
Among the occupations studied separately,
those shown in the table are representative of
types of activity and differences in earnings levels
i
A more comprehensive account of this study w ill be presented in forth,
coming BLS Bull. 1311, Industry Wage Survey: Textile Dyeing and Finishing.
A pril-M ay 1961. Separate data are also available for 8 States and 3 areas
The study covered establishments employing 20 or more workers and
primarily engaged in dyeing and finishing textiles except wool fabrics and
knit goods (industry group 226 as defined in the 1957 Standard Industrial
Classification Manual, IX.S. Bureau of the Budget).
The straight-time hourly earnings for production and related workers
presented in this report differ in concept from the gross average hourly earn­
ings published in table C -l of the Current Labor Statistics section of this
issue. Unlike the latter, the estimates presented here exclude premium pay
for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Establish­
ments in this survey are weighted in accordance with their probability of
selection from a regional-size class, and average earnings are calculated from
the weighted data by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by
the number of such individuals. In the monthly series, the sum of the
man-hour totals reported by establishments in the industry is divided into
the reported payroll totals. The results from the monthly series give a greater
weight to large establishments because of the nature of the sample.

1363

W A G E S IN T E X T IL E D Y E IN G A N D F IN IS H IN G , 1961
N

u m b e r a nd A v erage
E st ab l ish m e n t s by

S traigh t -T ime H ourly E a r n in g s 1 of P roduction W or k er s in T e x t il e D y e in g a n d F in is h in g
S elec ted C h a r ac ter istic s , U n it e d S t a tes and S e l ec ted R e g io n s ,2 A pr il - M ay 1961
N ew England

United States3
Item

All production workers_______________
___ ____ . . .
M en________ _ __
W omen___ ______ _____ __________
Plant ownership:
Independent______ _____ _____
Owned by textile firm______ ___
Type of material:
Cotton textiles 4___ ______________
Broadwoven fabrics___________
Y am or thread
___
__ _
Synthetic textiles 4 ___ .
Broadwoven fabrics___________
Yarn or thread
Size of community:
Metropolitan areas 6. . . ----------------Nonmetropolitan areas__ _________
Size of establishment:
20-249 workers____________________
250 or more workers_________ . . . .
Labor-management contracts:
Establishments with—
Majority covered______________
None or minority covered______
Selected occupations:
Color mixers______________________
Dyeing-machine tenders, c lo th __
Finishing-range operators____
Inspectors, cloth, machine_________
Printers, machine________ .
Winders, yarn________________ . . .

Southeast

Middle Atlantic

Number of Average hourly Number of Average hourly Number of Average hourly Number of Average hourly
earnings 1
workers
earnings 1
workers
earnings 1
workers
earnings 1
workers
57,304
47,445
9,859

$1.71
1.76
1.45

10,732
9,255
1,477

$1.78
1.81
1.59

13,166
12,090
1,076

$2.02
2.05
1.61

30,384
24,142
6,242

$1.56
1.60
1.40

27,914
29,390

1.81
1.62

7,990
2,742

1.77
1.81

12,011
1.155

2.04
1.79

5,039
25,345

1.39
1.59

41,626
35, 814
4,951
15,678
14,390
1,159

1.64
1.67
1.46
1.89
1.92
1. 56

7,740
7,332

1.78
1.79

2,992
2,308

1.77
1.81

3,438
2,635
436
9, 728
9,564

1.93
1. 97
1.75
2.05
2.06

28,048
23,569
4,479
2,336
2,269

1.56
1. 59
1.43
1.48
1.48

28,992
28,312

1.81
1. 61

5,046
5,686

1.76
1.80

11,848
1,318

2.04
1.79

9,669
20,715

1.57
1.55

21,882
35,422

1. 76
1.68

5,196
5,536

1.70
1.86

10,171
2,995

1.99
2.10

4,270
26,114

1.38
1.59

29,628
27,676

1.85
1.56

6,493
4,239

1.83
1. 71

12,368
798

2.04
1.65

9, 490
20,894

1.65
1.51

1,305
4,382
1,166
929
805
2,170

1.81
1.83
1.71
1.69
4.07
1.43

270
884
493
174
201
218

1.80
1.81
1.73
1.70
4.04
1.61

299
2,134
293
186
256
143

2.19
1.99
1.88
1.82
4.09
1.64

698
1,240
370
507
337
1,649

1.64
1.56
1. 54
1.63
4.15
1.39

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
2 New England—Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, N ew Hampshire,
Rhode Island, and Vermont; Middle Atlantic—N ew Jersey, N ew York, and
Pennsylvania; and Southeast—Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North
Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia.
3 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.

4 Includes data for types of material in addition to those shown separately.
5 The term “metropolitan area” as used in this study refers to the Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas established under the sponsorship of the U.S.
Bureau of the Budget.

among regions. All or practically all of the
workers in 4 of the 6 occupations shown were men;
approximately one-third of the cloth inspectors,
machine, and nearly all yarn winders were women.

The most prevalent provisions were 7 days annu­
ally in New England and 9 days in the Middle
Atlantic region. The number of days varied from
1 to 7 in the Southeast.
Paid vacations after qualifying periods of serv­
ice were provided for more than 95 percent of the
industry’s production workers. Most workers
received 1 week’s vacation after 1 year of service
and 2 weeks after 5 years. Establishments with
one-fifth of the workers provided 3 weeks’ vaca­
tion after 15 years of service.
Life, sickness and accident, hospitalization, and
surgical insurance, for which employers paid at
least part of the cost, were available to two-thirds
or more of the production workers. Small pro­
portions of workers were eligible for accidental
death and dismemberment, medical, and catas­
trophe insurance.
Retirement pension plans (other than benefits
available under Federal old-age, survivors’ and
disability insurance) were provided by establish­
ments employing two-fifths of the workers.

Establishment Practices

Data were also obtained on certain establish­
ment practices, including work schedules and
supplementary benefits.2
A work schedule of 40 hours a week was in effect
in establishments employing four-fifths or more of
the production workers in each of the three major
regions. Almost two-fifths of the workers were
employed on late shifts, with about twice the num­
ber of workers on the second as on third shifts.
In the New England and Southeast regions, extra
pay was common for third, but not for secondshift work. Most workers on both the late shifts
in the Middle Atlantic region received extra pay.
Paid holidays were provided by establishments
employing three-fourths of the production workers.
2
cit.

Minimum [wage-rate data were also obtained and appear in Bull. 1311, op.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

N o t e : D a sh e s in d ic a te n o d a ta re p o rte d o r d a ta th a t d o n o t m e e t p u b lic a ­
tio n c r ite ria .

— F red

W. M ohr

D ivision of W ages and In d u stria l R elatio n s

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1364

Earnings in Cigar Manufacturing,
April-May 1961
of production workers
in tlie cigar manufacturing industry averaged
$1.39 an hour in April-May 1961, according to a
survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics.1 Earnings data by sex, selected regions,
areas, and occupations were also studied. Approx­
imately nine-tenths of the workers were employed
in establishments providing paid vacations and
holidays. Life, hospitalization, and surgical
insurance were also common.

S t r a ig h t -t im e

Percent of production workers earn­
ing specified amounts in—
United
States 1

ea r n in g s

Earnings

Women, accounting for four-fifths of the
workers covered by the study, averaged $1.37 an
hour, compared with $1.48 for men (accompanying
table). Workers in the Middle Atlantic region
(nine-tenths of whom were in Pennsylvania)
averaged $1.44 an hour and accounted for nearly
half of the industry’s total employment. In the
Southeast (largely in Florida), workers averaged
$1.36 an hour and accounted for slightly more
than a third of the employment in the industry.
In both major regions, average hourly earnings
were higher in plants employing 100 or more
workers than in the smaller plants, higher in
metropolitan areas than in the smaller communi­
ties, and higher in plants with labor-management
contracts than in those not having such agree­
ments. However, the exact influence of any one
of these characteristics cannot be fully isolated.
For example, the larger establishments tend to be
concentrated in the larger communities and to
have a greater degree of unionization.
Individual earnings in the cigar manufacturing
industry ranged from less than $1 to more than
$2.50 an hour in April-May 1961, with the middle
half of the workers in the earnings array falling be­
tween $1.21 and $1.56 an hour. At the lower end of
the array, 1.9 percent of all workers earned less than
$1 ;216.8 percent, less than $1.15; and 31.3 percent,
less then $1.25. Most of the workers earning less
than $1 an hour were in the Southwestern region.3
As indicated in the following tabulation, an eighth
of the workers in the Middle Atlantic region earned


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

less than $1.15 an hour, compared with a fifth in
the Southeast.

Less th a n
$1.00 a n d
$1.05 a n d
$1.10 an d
$1.15 an d
$1.20 a n d
$1.25 a n d
$1.50 a n d
$1.75 a n d

$1.00_
______
u n d er $1.05___
u n d er $1.10_____
u n d er $1.15_____
u n d er $1.20_____
u n d er $1.25____
u n d er $ 1 .5 0 ____
u n d er $ 1 .7 5 ___
o v e r____________

Middle
Atlantic

Southeast

1. 0

1. 9
6. 8
3. 7
4. 4
5. 8
8. 7
3 8 .0
19.9
10.9

0. 3
5. 0
3. 0
4. 0
5. 0
8. 9
37. 1
22. 9
13. 6

9. 9
4. 7
5. 8
7 .8
9. 6
36. 2
16. 8
8. 4

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
N o t e : Because of rounding, percentages may not add to 100.

Employment in the industry declined by more
than a third since April 1955, when a similar BLS
study was made.4 During this period, the pro­
duction of cigars increased substantially—from an
annual total of 6 billion cigars in 1955 to nearly 7
billion in I960.5 This increase in output and the
accompanying decrease in employment, resulted
largely from the introduction of the homogenized
binder, permitting automatic feeding of the binder
into the cigar and thereby eliminating the need for
employees at this position of the cigarmaking
machine. As indicated in the following tabula1 A more comprehensive account of the survey is presented in forthcoming
BLS Bull. 1317, Industry Wage Survey; Cigar Manufacturing, A pril-M a y 1961.
The study covered establishments employing eight or more workers primarily
engaged in the manfacture of cigars.
The straight-time hourly earnings presented In this report differ in concept
from the gross average hourly earnings published in table C of the Current
Labor Statistics section of this issue. Unlike the latter, the estimates presented
here exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts. In addition, establishments in this survey are weighted in
accordance with their probability of selection from a regional size class, and
average earning are calculated from the weighted data by summing individual
hourly earnings and dividing by the number of such individuals. In the
monthly series, the sum of the man-hour totals reported by establishments in
the industry is divided into the reported payroll totals. The results from the
monthly series give a greater weight to large establishments because of the
nature of the sample.
2 At the time of the study, the Federal minimum wage was $1 an hour.
Effective September 3,1961, the minimum was raised to $1.15. The Federal
law applies to manufacturing establishments engaged in interstate commerce.
A few establishments covered by this study reported that they were engaged
only in intrastate commerce.
» The Southwestern region includes Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas.
‘ See “ Earnings in Cigar Manufacturing, April 1955,” M onthly Labor
Review, December 1955, pp. 1453-1459.
5
A n n u a l Report on Tobacco Statistics, 1960 (U.S. Department of Agriculture,
Statistical Bull. 281, p. 48).

1365

EARNINGS IN CIGAR MANUFACTURING, 1961

The decline in cigarmaking by the hand method
has also contributed to increased productivity of
the industry. In 1961, hand cigarmakers ac­
counted for less than 5 percent of the industry’s
production workers.
Occupational classifications for which average
straight-time hourly earnings are shown in the
accompanying table accounted for three-fourths of
the industry’s production and related workers.
Practically all cigarmaking machine operators,
banding and cellophaning machine operators,
tobacco strippers (machine), and cigar inspectors
were women. Women also accounted for three-

tion, the largest number of cigarmaking machine
operators were employed on 1-position machines
in 1961, whereas in 1955, all operators were
employed on 4- or 2-position machines.
1955

T o ta l production
w o rk ers______________
C igarm akers, h a n d -------C igarm aking m achine
o perators ------------ --4-positions____ —
3-positions_________
2-positions_________
1-p o sitio n -------- _ _

1961

Number Percent

Number

34, 019 100. 0
9. 0
3, 074

21, 562
954

100. 0
4. 4

7, 416
834
1, 001
1, 302
4, 279

34.
3.
4.
6.
19.

13, 061
8, 403

38. 4
24. 7
—

—

4, 658

13. 7

Percent

4
9
6
0
8

N u m b e r a n d A v e r a g e S t r a ig h t - T im e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s 1 o f P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s in C ig a r M a n u f a c t u r in g
E s t a b l i s h m e n t s , b y S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , U n i t e d S t a t e s , S e l e c t e d R e g i o n s ,2 a n d A r e a s , A p r i l - M a y

1961
Areas

R egions1
United States 3

Middle
Atlantic

Border States

Southeast

Philadelphia,
Pa.8

York County,
Pa.

TampaSt. Petersburg,
F I a.6

Item

All establishments, to t a l....................
M en_________________ ____ ___
Women_______________________
M ethod of manufacture : 8
H and ..................................................
Machine______________________
Size of establishment:
8-99 workers__________________
100-499 workers...............................
500 or more workers........................
Size of community:
Metropolitan areas 7.......................
Nonmetropolitan areas..................
Labor-management contracts:
Establishments with—
Majority of workers covered.
None or minority of workers
covered....................................
Selected occupations:
Adjusters, machine........ ...............
Banding and cellophaning ma­
chine operators.............................
Cigarmakers, hand____________
Cigarmaking machine operators:
4-positions..................................
3-positions_________________
2 -positions________________
1 -position....................................
Floor men or women___________
Inspectors, cigars______________
Packers, cigars--------- -----------Strippers, machine..........................

Num ber of
workers

Average
hourly
earn­
ings 1

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings 1

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earntags 1

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earntags 1

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earntags 1

Number of
workers

Average
hourly
earntags 1

Number of
workers

21, 562
4,721
16,841

$1. 39
1.48
1.37

10,496
2,107
8,389

$1.44
1.49
1.43

1,081
284
797

$1.45
1.58
1.41

7,676
1,959
5,717

$1.36
1.45
1.33

2,855
566
2,289

$1.56
1.62
1.54

1,275
192
1,083

$1.26
1.41
1.23

3,911
1,152
2,759

$1.39
1.45
1.37

884
20,678

1.05
1.41

388
10,108

1 51
L 44

1,081

1.45

7,492

1.37

2,855

1.56

1,275

1.26

3,827

1.40

394

1.04
1. 37
1 38

1.15
1.31

1,840

1.44

2,373

1.54

39S
877

1 .3 9

2,855

1.56

1,275

1.26

3,911

1.39

1,686

1.64

2,080

1.49

907

1.20

1,928
10,050
9,584

1.25
1.37
1.44

1 170
4 390

1 2Q

16,789
4,773

1.41
1.34

7,854

1.46
1 38

10, 576

1.47

3,052

1. 5 9

10,986

1.32

7 444

1 38

561

2.01

311

2.03

32

1,131
954

1.33
1.29

538
239

1.38
1 61

61

834

1.60
1.65
1.38
1.35
1.25
1.42
1.56
1.28

209

1 55
1 70

1,001

1,302
4,279
1,330
534
2,172
2,149

841
582
743
305
1,078
996

939

1 41

1.47

2 ,7 0 4
4 57«

6,175
1 521

1,025

5,258

1.42

2 418

1 24

2.12

154

1.93

83

2.29

35

2.04

55

1.60

1.37

439
589

1.30
1.30

98

1.53

103

1.22

209
510

1.30
1.34

600

1.63

600

1.63

454

1. 79
1.30
1.59
1.73
1.42

1.06
1.23
1.19
1.18
1.42
1.11

281

239
71
254
277

90
245
43
28
170
202

166

1.28
1.22
1.25

370
425

1.84
1.30

1.46

501

1 54

1 38
1.25
1.41
1.53
1.33

i Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
___ ,
.
_
1 The regions used in this study include: Middle Atlantic—N ew Jersey,
N ew York, and Pennsylvania; Border States—Delaware, District of Colum­
bia, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; and Southeast—
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina,

86
97
138
63

1 24

Average
hourly
earnings 1

1 43
l ! 29

1.43
1.40
1.42

1 551

'404
88
779
869

1.23
1.29
1.24
1.45
1.63
1.23

400

8 Establishments were classified as hand-method or machine-method
plants on the basis of primary operations measured by value of product.
Of the 21,562 workers within the scope of the study, 2,484 (mostly in the
Southeast) were employed in establishments using both methods of produc­
tion. With very few exceptions, these workers were in establishments
classified as machine-method plants for purposes of this tabulation.
7 The term “ metropolitan area” as used in this study refers to the Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas, as defined by the U .S. Bureau of the Budget.

3 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
8 Includes Philadelphia and Delaware Counties, Pa., and Camden County,
N ote: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publi­
N .J.
cation criteria.
3
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the U.S. Bureau
n f the Budget.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1366

fourths or more of the hand cigarmakers and cigar
packers. Virtually all of the machine operators,
packers, and hand cigarmakers were paid on an
incentive basis. All machine adjusters and twothirds of the floormen were men, and these workers
were generally paid time rates. More than half
of the 954 workers engaged in manufacturing
cigars by hand methods were employed in the
Tampa-St. Petersburg, Fla., area. Men hand
cigarmakers in this area averaged $1.47 an hour,
compared with $1.26 for women in similar work.
Establishment Practices

Work schedules of 40 hours a week applied to
94 percent of the workers in the Middle Atlantic
region and to 78 percent in the Southeast. Fifteen
percent of the workers in the Southeast region—
all of them employed in the Tampa-St. Petersburg
area—were scheduled to work 48 hours a week.
Fifteen percent of the workers in the Middle
Atlantic region and 18 percent in the Southeast
were employed on second (evening) shifts. Most
commonly, second-shift workers in the Middle
Atlantic region received a 5-percent differential
over day rates; premium pay for second-shift work
was not common in the Southeast. Third-shift
operations were virtually nonexistent in the
industry.
Paid holidays were provided to nearly ninetenths of the production workers in both the
Middle Atlantic and Southeast regions. Pro­
visions for 6 or 7 days annually were most common


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

in the Middle Atlantic region, whereas 2 or 4 days
were most commonly provided in the Southeast.
Vacations with pay (after qualifying periods of
service) were provided to more than nine-tenths
of the production workers in both the Middle
Atlantic and Southeast regions. Most commonly,
workers in the Middle Atlantic region received 1
week of vacation pay after a year of service and
2 weeks after 5 years of service; after 15 years of
service, 2 weeks’ vacation pay was provided in
plants having slightly more than a third of the
workers and 3 weeks in plants with nearly half
the workers. Vacation provisions in the South­
east region were somewhat more liberal than those
in the Middle Atlantic.
Life insurance, hospitalization, and surgical
benefits, financed at least in part by the employer,
were available to the majority of the workers in
both the Middle Atlantic and Southeast regions.
Other types of insurance benefits, applying to a
smaller proportion of the workers, included sick­
ness and accident insurance and medical insurance.
Catastrophe insurance and sick leave provisions
were not common.
Pensions—providing regular payments for the
remainder of the worker’s life upon retirement in
addition to those available under Federal old-age,
survivors’, and disability insurance—applied to
two-fifths of the production workers in both the
Middle Atlantic and Southeast regions.
— C

harles

M . O ’C o n n o r

D ivision of W ages a n d In d u stria l R elations

Significant Decisions
in Labor Cases *

Labor Relations

Legality of Agency Shop. Upon reconsideration,
the National Labor Relations Board reversed 1 a
decision of last February,2 and held (in a 4-1 vote)
that the agency shop is a lawful form of union
security contract under the Labor Management
Relations Act and therefore a mandatory bargain­
ing issue in Indiana, where State courts have
construed the right-to-work law to permit the
agency shop.
The union in this case, the United Automobile
Workers, had a national agreement with the em­
ployer, the General Motors Corp., which provided
a union shop in all bargaining units except those
in right-to-work States. Shortly after an Indiana
appellate court found that the State’s right-towork law did not forbid an agency shop, the UAW
asked General Motors to bargain on a supple­
mental agreement that would require an agency
shop at the company’s nine plants in Indiana.
General Motors refused, contending that the pro­
posed agency shop clause was illegal under the
Taft-Hartley Act because, while it would have
left the final decision as to membership with each
employee, it would have required employees who
chose not to join the union to contribute to its
financial support. To condition employment on
anything other than union membership was con­
trary to the act’s section 8(a)(3) union security
proviso, the company asserted.
In these circumstances, the Board majority
emphasized that two factors were indispensable to
the solution of this case. First, all parties were
in agreement that the Board decide the case under
the Federal act, applying Federal law and without
resorting to the Indiana right-to-work law. This
made it unnecessary, the majority said, to consider
either the State law or section 14 (b) of the
Federal act, which permits States to ban agree­
ments requiring union membership that would

otherwise be legal under Federal law. Second,
the Board majority noted that no suggestion had
been made that membership in the union was not
available to any employee who wished to join.
Therefore, it was unnecessary to decide the ques­
tion of the extent to which a closed-union policy
might affect the legality of an agency shop
agreement.
In solving the remaining basic issue, i.e.,
whether the agency shop was intended by Con­
gress to be embraced within the section 8 (a) (3
proviso, the majority opinion relied on four prec­
edents: The Public Service,3 American Seatingf
Union Starch,5 and Radio Officers 6 cases.
Special reference was made to the Supreme
Court’s 1954 decision in the Radio Officers case
relating to the section 8(a)(3) proviso: [“The]
legislative history clearly indicates that Congress
intended to prevent utilization of union security
agreements for any purpose other than to compel
payment of union dues and fees. Thus Congress
recognized the validity of the unions’ concern
about ‘free riders,’ i.e., employees who receive the
benefits of union representation but are unwilling
to contribute their share of financial support to
such union, and gave unions the power to contract
to meet that problem while withholding from
unions the power to cause the discharge of em­
ployees for any other reason.”
In this decision, the Board concluded, the
Supreme Court had construed the act and the
whole section in keeping with the basic policy of
the amended act, “by qualifying the requirement
of ‘membership’ with the protection against dis­
charge so long as the employee tendered the
requisite periodic dues and fees.”
The legality of the agency shop proposal in
this case, the majority decided, could not be dis­
tinguished from any other union security proposal
*Prepared in the U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Solicitor. The
cases covered in this article represent a selection of the significant decisions
believed to be of special interest. No attem pt has been made to reflect all
recent judicial and administrative developments in the field of labor law or to
indicate the effect of particular decisions in jurisdictions in which contrary
results may be reached based upon local statutory provisions, the existence of
local precedents, or a different approach by the courts to the issue presented.
1General Motors Corp. and International Union, United Automobile Work­
ers, 133 N L R B No. 21 (Sept. 29, 1961).
2 Id., 130 N L R B 54 (Feb. 20, 1961); see Monthly Labor Review, M ay 1961,
pp. 526-527.
3Public Service of Colorado and Charles G. Smith, 89 N L R B 418 (1950).
4American Seating Co. and Pattern Makers League of North America 98
N L R B 800 (1952).
6 Union Starch and Refining Co. v. N L R B , 342 U.S. 815 (1951).
6 Radio Officers Union v. N L R B 347 U.S. 17 (1954).

1367
619484— 61------6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1368
which predicates a right of discharge only upon
an employee’s failure to tender the equivalent of
regulation union dues and initiation fees. There­
fore, the Board concluded that such a proposal
fully comported with the congressional intention
in section 8(a)(3) and was a subject on which the
company was obliged to bargain.
In his dissenting opinion, Member Leedom
asserted that, in order to uphold the legality of
the agency shop, it was necessary to conclude
that Congress intended the word “membership”
in section 7 and 8(a)(3) to encompass literal
membership and other forms of union security
but in section 14(b) to encompass only literal
membership. Further, he said, membership
would have “to mean one thing in Indiana and a
different thing somewhere else.” He concluded
that an agency shop cannot be lawful under the
LMRA in a State like Indiana where employ­
ment cannot lawfully be conditioned on literal
membership.
The dissent pointed out that although non­
members under the agency shop would not be
entitled to some economic benefits (strike benefits,
for example) which are guaranteed to union
members, nonmembers would be required to pay
the same as dues paying members, and this would
encourage them to join the union.
The dissent continued that for all practical
purposes, such a situation would achieve “the
very thing . . . that the Federal statute guaran­
tees [against] in a right-to-work State quite as
effectively as if the union contract expressly pro­
vided for union membership as a condition
of . . . employment. For who can say as a
verity that a man forced to buy a cake will not
eat it.” He concluded that “the device of the
agency shop, where membership is unlawful, is
such an impairment of an employee’s freedom
that . . . it is a travesty to condone the imposi­
tion of such device when the act forbids the
requirement of literal membership.”
Right To Work. A Florida district court of
appeals held 7 that a State court does not have
jurisdiction to enjoin a union’s picketing which
could arguably constitute unfair labor practices
under the Federal Labor Management Relations
Act, even though the objective of the picketing
was to force the employer to enter into an agree­
ment in violation of the State right-to-work law.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

For certain construction work, the employer
in this case employed nonunion laborers but paid
the union wage scale. After unsuccessful at­
tempts to have the employer require these em­
ployees to become union members, the labor unions
involved picketed certain model homes which the
employer was trying to sell. Although the em­
ployer alleged that the pickets congregated in a
threatening manner in front of the homes, and
that a union’s agent expressed his intention to
get the employees in the union by legal or illegal
means, there was no allegation of violence, overt
acts of coercion, execution of a closed-shop agree­
ment, or attempts to implement such an agree­
ment.
A lower tribunal had issued a restraining order
prohibiting the unions from (1) acting in further­
ance of any illegal conspiracy; (2) advertising
that the employer was unfair to organized labor;
and (3) interfering with the employer’s business
by intimidation, coercion, or threats. The unions
appealed.
In reversing that decision, the appellate court
pointed out that the U.S. Supreme Court has
generally construed the LMRA as preempting the
field in labor matters where the conduct com­
plained of affects interstate commerce, thus
leaving the States a very narrow field of oper­
ations. The court concluded that the established
rule appears to be that a State court may not en­
join peaceful picketing where the activities com­
plained of are arguably within the purview of the
LMRA.8 In the present case, both parties had
argued on the assumption of fact and authorities
dealing with businesses affecting interstate com­
merce.
The court disclaimed any intention to conclude
that the operation of section 12 of the Declaration
of Rights of the Florida Constitution and the
right-to-work statutes are rendered impotent by
Federal preemption. Rather, it asserted that “a
ridiculous anomaly arises when States are per­
mitted under their right-to-work laws to enjoin
the enforcement of executed union security agree­
ments, where such contracts [violate] State laws,
but are without authority to prohibit conduct

7

v. B a b c o c k
(Fla. D ist. C t. of A pp., 3d D ist., Ju ly 31, 1961).
8 S a n D ie g o B u i l d i n g T r a d e s C o u n c il v. G a r m a n , 359 U.S. 236 (1959); see
M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , June 1959 ,pp. 669-670.
Co.

W o o d , W ir e a n d M e t a l L a t h e r s I n t e r n a t io n a l U n io n , L o c a l S/,5

1369

DECISIONS IN LABOR CASES

admittedly directed toward the ultimate purpose
of securing the execution of such contracts.
Although here the ultimate purpose was to force
the employer to commit an act expressly pro­
hibited by State law.” But, since the U.S.
Supreme Court had construed the Federal act as
preempting labor relations where they aifect in­
terstate commerce, the court found that the tem­
porary injunction could not stand.
Picketing jor Recognition. In reversing a second
February decision, the National Labor Relations
Board held 9 that picketing to obtain prevailing
rates of pay and conditions of employment did not
constitute unlawful picketing for recognition.
When a member of the contractors’ association
in this case commenced work on a church, local
41 of the Laborers’ Union commenced picketing
the church site, although another union had been
certified as the representative of the association’s
employees. Such picketing continued until it was
ended by an injunction. Most of the time during
the picketing, the picket signs and handbills of the
union indicated that its sole purpose was to alert
the public that the work was not being done by
qualified craftsmen and that the prevailing rate of
pay and conditions were not being adhered to.
In the original Board decision, a panel found that
the u n io n h a d v io la te d th e LMRA as a m e n d e d in
1959 by picketing for recognition when another
union was the certified bargaining representative.
About 2 months later, the picketing union re­
quested “full Board consideration,” which led to
the present decision.
The Board rejected the employer’s argument
that picketing by an outside union when another
union has newly won Board certification consti­
tuted unwarranted harassment of the picketed
employer, saying that argument must be addressed
to the Congress. The Board reasoned that the
Congress, in section 8(b)(4)(C), did not lay down
a broad proscription against all types of picketing
but forbade only picketing with the objective of
obtaining recognition and bargaining. The Board
noted that the union disclaimed such an obj ective
but sought only to eliminate working conditions
8

C a r r ie r s U n io n and C a l u m e t C o n tr a c to r s ’
133 N L R B No. 57 (Oct. 2,1961).
10 A m e r i c a n F e e d C o . and L o c a l 2 1 0 , I n t e r n a t io n a l B r o th e r h o o d o f T e a m s t e r s ,
133 N L R B No. 23 (Sept. 20,1961).
11 L o c a l 1976, U n it e d B r o th e r h o o d o f C a r p e n t e r s v. N L R B , 357 U.S. 93 (1958);
see M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w , August 1958, pp. 892-893.
L o c a l 4 1 , I n t e r n a t io n a l H o d

A s s o c ia tio n ,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

that were below those prevailing in the area. This
aim it could achieve without the employer’s either
bargaining with or recognizing the union. There­
fore, the Board said, it could not reasonably con­
clude that the union’s objective in picketing was
to obtain recognition or bargaining, which it might
be willing to forgo if subnormal working conditions
were eliminated.
Legality oj Hot-Cargo Contract. The National
Labor Relations Board held 10 that the signing of
an employer-union contract containing a “ hotcargo” clause is a violation of the 1959 amend­
ments to the Labor Management Relations Act,
even without any request or attempt by the union
to enforce the provision.
Before the 1959 amendments became effective,
the employer and the union in this case entered
into a written agreement which contained the
following provision: “ There is hereby excluded
from the job duties, course of employment, or
work of employees covered by this agreement, any
work whatsoever in connection with the handling
or performing any service whatsoever on goods,
products, or materials coming from or going to
the premises of an employer where there is any
controversy with a union.” This provision was
retained in an amended agreement signed in June
1960.

T h e re a fte r, how ever, th e u n io n m a d e no

attempt to enforce it.
Relying on the legislative history of the 1959
amendments, the Board noted that section 8(e)
was specifically designed to prohibit agreements
to support secondary boycotts. The Board also
noted that the legislative history revealed that
the section’s chief objective was to close the socalled Sand Door 11 loophole. In that case, the
Supreme Court in 1958 held that a hot-cargo clause
could not be used as a defense to a charge of illegal
inducement of employees to refuse to handle goods
under section 8(b)(4)(A), but it also held that the
mere existence of a hot-cargo clause is not evidence
of such inducement. Under these circumstances,
the Board found that the Congress, by use of the
words “ to enter into any contract or agreement”
in section 8(e), intended to make the signing or
execution of any contract containing a hot-cargo
clause an unfair labor practice. Accordingly, the
Board directed the parties in the present case not
to enter into any contract, either express or im­
plied, of the type referred to in section 8(e).

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1370
Unemployment Insurance

Voluntary Quit. The Alabama Court of Appeals,
in affirming an award of unemployment compen­
sation to an employee who had been retired pur­
suant to the terms of a union contract despite his
desire to continue working, held 12 that the claim­
ant was not disqualified under the Alabama
unemployment insurance law as a voluntary quit.
The employee in this case had been working for
the company for 11 years when the company
signed a collective bargaining agreement with a
union of which he was a member. The agreement
incorporated a pension plan providing, in part:
(4) E v ery em ployee who a tta in s a t least 65 years of
age an d is eligible for eith er (a) an y old-age benefits u n d er
th e Social Security A ct or (b) re tire m e n t u n d er th is P en ­
sion P lan shall be req u ired to retire on his 6 5th b irth d a y
or (if he is n o t th e n eligible for eith er (a) or (b) above)
on such subsequen t d a te as he first becom es eligible for
eith er (a) or (b) above unless b o th th e C om pany a n d th e
U nion agree th a t such em ployee m ay continue w orking
in stead of retirin g . Any consent given by e ith e r th e
C om pany or th e U nion to allow an y em ployee to continue
w orking in stead of retirin g as req u ired above, m ay be
subsequently w ith d raw n a t a n y tim e a n d in case of w ith ­
draw al of such consent such em ployee shall be requ ired to
retire as of th irty (30) days a fte r such consent is w ithdraw n.

The employee had reached age 65 and was retired
by the company pursuant to the agreement, al­
though he wanted to continue working and the
union agreed that he need not retire. The worker
filed a claim for unemployment compensation
which was awarded by the claims examiner and
referee. The board of appeals disqualified the
claimant as a voluntary quit, and he appealed to
the circuit court, which awarded him benefits.
The employer then took this appeal to the next
higher court.
The question to be decided for the first time by
the Alabama courts was whether an employee in
these circumstances is disqualified under section
214 of the Alabama Unemployment Compensation
Law as having left his employment “voluntarily
without good cause connected with such work”.
The employer, in contending that the claimant
was disqualified, relied primarily on the Bergseth
case 13 in Minnesota and the Lamont case 14 in
Massachusetts. In the Bergseth case, where the
employment contract provided for automatic re­
tirement at a certain age, the court held that the
claimants were disqualified from receiving benefits


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

since separation was voluntary and “without good
cause attributable to the employer.” It was held
that the union agreement bound the employees
individually and that the employer had to retire
the employees under the contract. In the Lamont
case, the Massachusetts court, interpreting the
provisions of the State’s unemployment compen­
sation law as it read at that time, held that retire­
ment pursuant to an employment contract was a
termination of work “without good cause attribut­
able to the employing unit or its agent.” The
court reasoned that although the claimants had
not personally agreed to the retirement provisions
of the contract, the agreement by the union—as
their bargaining agent—had bound each member.
In the present case, the claimant argued that
the pension plan did not compel his retirement
but permitted him to continue working if the
union and the employer consented. Further,
since the union agreed that the employee could
continue working, his unemployment was due to
the employer’s refusal. The claimant cited as
authority the decisions of a New Jersey court in
the Campbell case15 and a Pennsylvania courtin
the Warner case.16 The relevant holding in
these decisions was that a person who would
otherwise be eligible for unemployment compen­
sation cannot be disqualified as a voluntary quit
if in fact he retired involuntarily even though his
retirement was under the provisions of a retire­
ment plan. In addition, it was stated that to
bind the claimant by the prior action of his agent
would, in effect, constitute an advance waiver of
benefits which was invalid under the State’s
unemployment insurance statutes.
The Alabama Court of Appeals, in affirming
the lower court’s decision that the claimant was
not disqualified, was persuaded by the reasoning
of the New Jersey and Pennsylvania courts. It
noted that section 244 of the Alabama Unemploy­
ment Compensation Law also provides that an
employee’s waiver or release of his rights to
12

Reynolds Metals Co. v. Thorne, (Ala. C t. of A pp., O ctober Term , No. 8,
D iv. 738, M ay 19, 1961; C ertiorari denied Sept. 14, 1961. N ot officially re­
ported; see C C H U nem ploym ent Insurance Reporter, Alabam a paragraph
8263.)
Bergseth v. Zinsmaster Baking Co., 252 M inn. 63, 89 N .W . 2d 172 (1958).
Lamont v. Director of Division of Em ploym ent Security, 337 M ass. 328,
149 N .E . 2d 372 (1958).
Campbell Soup Co. v. Board of Review, 13 N .J. 431, 100 A. 2d 287 (1953).
Warner Co. v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review, 396 Pa.
545,153 A. 2d 906 (1959).

12
14
15
16

DECISIONS IN LABOR CASES

1371

unemployment benefits is void but did not
decide this case solely on the applicability of this
provision. It also relied on Alabama court
holdings that, since the unemployment insurance
law is remedial, the benefit provisions must be
construed liberally and the disqualification pro­
visions applied strictly. Following these prin­
ciples of legislative construction, which the New
Jersey and Pennsylvania courts had also applied,
the Alabama court held that the determination of
whether the claimant is disqualified rests on the
facts at the time of his retirement, without regard
to the terms of the employment contract. In this
case, the employer had chosen to retire the em­
ployee rather than to allow him to continue
working.
Refusal of Suitable Work. A Delaware superior
court held17 that a worker was disqualified from
receiving unemployment benefits for failing to
respond to his former employer’s notice of recall,
although he did not actually receive the notice
because his father refused to accept delivery.
The employee in this case had been laid off
because of lack of work. About 3 weeks later,
the employer sent a certified letter to the worker’s
last known address, directing him to report for
an interview, but his father refused to accept it
and he did not report as directed. Within the
following week, when he went to the company
to claim supplementary unemployment benefits
under a company plan, a company supervisor
discussed with him his failure to report.
The issue in this case was whether or not the
claimant refused “ an offer of work for which he
[was] reasonably fitted” and therefore disqualified
from receiving unemployment benefits pursuant
to section 3315(3) of the Delaware Unemploy­
ment Compensation Law. At the administrative
17
J e w e l l v. U n e m p l o y m e n t
(Del. Super. C t., Sept. 14,1961).

C o m p e n s a ti o n C o m m i s s io n a n d


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Chrysler Corp.

hearing, the referee concluded that the claimant
was not disqualified since he did not receive the
letter and did not refuse the job offer. On
appeal, the commission reversed the referee’s
decision. The commission stated that the em­
ployer had taken all necessary steps in sending
the letter by certified mail to the address listed
by the worker and that, when the letter arrived,
the employee, or his father, acting as his agent,
had an obligation to accept it.
On appeal to the court, the claimant argued that
the notice sent by the company was only a call
for an interview and not a recall notice. He con­
tended further that, since company supervisors
testified that the company was hiring almost
daily for about a month following the notice, the
company could have rehired him when he reported
in connection with the supplementary unemploy­
ment benefit claim. The court, however, affirmed
the decision of the commission that the claimant
was disqualified. It stated that since the employee
had not received the notice, he could not complain
that he was misled by the fact that it was merely
a notice of an interview. The court also stated
that the commission’s finding that the claimant’s
father was his agent, although not supported by
the record, was not relevant to the issue. It held
that the company’s letter to the claimant was
an “offer of work” within the meaning of the
State’s law. The court agreed with the commis­
sion and the referee that the employer was in no
way at fault in the failure to communicate the
notice to the worker. It concluded that “if a
reasonable method of getting notice to a person
has been adopted and the notice is not received
through no fault of the person giving the notice,
but by reason of some act or inaction on the part
of a person or persons having some relationship to
the person for whom the notice is intended, a court
will uphold the effect and consequences of the
notice, notwithstanding it may not have been
received by the person to whom it was addressed.”

Chronology of
Recent Labor Events
October 1, 1961
I n t h e f i r s t s e t t l e m e n t in this year’s round of negotia­
tions in the farm equipment industry, Deere & Co. reached
a new 3-year agreement with the United Automobile
Workers covering about 17,000 workers. Economic terms
were similar to those in the General Motors-UAW settle­
ment (Chron. item for Sept. 26, 1961, MLR, Nov. 1961).
On the same day, the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Co.
put into effect pay cuts ranging from 5 to 25 percent for
about 13,000 of its salaried employees “until extensive cost
and expense reducing activities . . . take . . . effect.”
Later in the month, the company asked the UAW for a 1year extension of the contract, covering hourly rated em­
ployees, which was due to expire November 1.
Two weeks later, the UAW and the International Har­
vester Co. reached tentative agreement on a 3-year con­
tract, also similar to the GM agreement, for about 32,000
employees. (See also p. 1378 of this issue.)

October 2
T h e National Labor Relations Board, reversing an earlier
decision (Chron. item for Feb. 10, 1961, MLR, Apr. 1961),
ruled that a union which picketed to obtain prevailing area
wage rates and employment conditions where another
union was the certified bargaining agent did not unlawfully
picket for recognition since neither recognition nor bargain­
ing was necessary to attain its objectives. The case was
L o c a l 4 1 , I n te r n a tio n a l H o d C a r r ie r s and C a lu m e t C o n tr a c ­

October 4
T h e P r e s id e n t approved P .L . 87-391, amending the re­
employment rights provisions of the Universal Military
Training and Service Act. The amendment provides that
those reentering the Armed Forces after August 1, 1961,
need not count previous service toward the 4 years during
which their civilian job rights are protected, guarantees the
jobs of those called for preinduction examination until
notice of induction or rejection, and eliminates the require­
ment that those rejected for military duty must request a
leave of absence to take physical fitness examinations.

October 6
N e g o t ia t io n s between the United States Steel Corp. and
the United Steelworkers ended in agreement to credit half
of the potential 3-cent-an-hour cost-of-living increase due
October 1 against a projected rise in the cost of a companypaid insurance plan, as provided in their 1960 contract
(Chron. item for Jan. 5, 1960, MLR, Mar. 1960). A
deferred wage increase, estimated to average 8.9 cents an
hour counting the effect on incentive pay, also went into
effect October 1.

October 10
Two of the three members of an NLRB panel refused to
apply the M a s t r o P la s t i c s doctrine that unfair labor prac­
tice strikers are exempt from a contractual no-strike
provision (Chron. item for Feb. 27, 1956, MLR, Apr. 1956)
in a situation where the unfair practices were “not serious”
and where the contract provided for reasonably fast
settlement of the grievance by arbitration. The case,
A r l a n ’s D e p a r tm e n t S to r e o f M ic h ig a n , I n c ., and E v e ly n
H e la e r s ; C e n tr a l S ta te s J o i n t B o a r d , A m a lg a m a te d C lo th in g
W o r k e r s , involved the dismissal of 39 employees who
engaged in a walkout protesting the illegal discharge of a
union steward.

to r s A s s o c ia tio n .

A Philadelphia blouse manufacturer who shut down oper­
ations, dismissed workers, and moved to South Carolina,
illegally attempted to obtain bargaining concessions be­
cause, although a new union contract would have increased
his labor costs substantially, he offered to reopen the Phila­
delphia plant if given concessions, according to an NLRB
ruling. The Board ordered the manufacturer to offer em­
ployment at either the Philadelphia or South Carolina
plant to former workers and if at the latter location, to pay
travel and moving costs; to reimburse workers for pay
lost; and to bargain with the union if a majority of the
workers are union members. The case was S id e le F a s h ­
io n s , I n c ., and P h i l a d e l p h i a D r e s s J o i n t B o a r d , I n t e r n a tio n a l
L a d ie s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s 'U n io n .

October 3
P r e s id e n t J o h n F. K e n n e d y signed P.L. 87-345 extend­
ing the Mexican farm labor program through December 31,.
1963.
1372


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

October 11
the first companywide strike at the Ford
Motor Co. in 20 years, the United Automobile Workers
and the company agreed on a 3-year contract including
economic terms similar to those in the General Motors
settlement. (See Chron. item for Sept. 26, 1961, MLR,
Nov. 1961; see also p. 1377 of this issue.)
On October 18, the company announced a 2-percent pay
increase with a monthly minimum of $8.40, retroactive to
September 1, and other improvements for about 49,000
salaried workers.
F o l l o w in g

T h e S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r and the Acting Secretary o f
Health, Education, and Welfare approved the first train­
ing program under the Area Redevelopment Act (Chron.
item for May 1, 1961, MLR, July 1961). This program,
financed by Federal grants of $135,000, will prepare about
325 unemployed persons in the Huntington, W. Va., area
for jobs available locally.

1373

CHRONOLOGY O F LABO R EV EN TS
R . H o f f a a n d R o b ert E.
M cC arth y , Jr., a D etro it banker, w ere in d icted b y a
F ederal g ran d ju ry in O rlando, F la., for th e second tim e
(C hron. item for Ju ly 13, 1961, M L R , S ept. 1961) on
charges of frau d in th e pro m o tio n of a real e sta te develop­
m en t w hich w as alleged to h av e been financed th ro u g h th e
m isuse of union funds b u t o p erated for th e d efen d an ts’
personal profit.
T e a m st e r P r e s id e n t J a m e s

Milk Co. case, in w hich th e d isp u ted su b co n tractin g clause
was fo u n d to be so am biguous as to preclude a finding
regarding its legality.

T h e E xecutive Council of th e A F L -C IO ended its q u a r­
terly m eeting afte r voting to g ra n t F ed eral lab o r union
ch arters to locals t h a t secede from th e T eam sters union
a n d apply for a charter, an d ad o p tin g a re p o rt charging A.
P hilip R andolph, p resid en t of th e Sleeping C ar P orters,
w ith responsibility for " t h e gap . . . betw een organized
labor a n d th e N egro co m m u n ity .” (See also p. 1374 of
th is issue.)

I n th e case of Bethlehem Steel Co. (Shipbuilding Division)
a n d Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers,
th e N L R B u nanim ously held t h a t th e c o m p an y ’s te rm in a ­
tion, w hen th e c o n tra c t expired, of a rb itra tio n , dues
checkoff, superseniority, a n d grievance processing p ro ­
visions was legal. T he B o ard reasoned th a t th e a rran g e­
m ents concerned th e c o m p an y ’s relatio n sh ip to th e union
a n d n o t to th e em ployees a n d th e u n io n ’s rig h ts u n d er
th e clauses resu lted from th e co n tra c t. M oreover, since
n egotiations h a d reached a n im passe, th e com pany could
law fully in s titu te th e em plo y m en t term s a n d conditions
in its c o n tra c t p roposal a n d was n o t obliged to yield to
avoid th e im passe. H ow ever, a com pany dem an d th a t
grievances be signed b y in d iv id u al em ployees was found
to be an u n fair practice.

October 13

October 29

T h e U .S. Com m ission on Civil R ig h ts issued a rep o rt
sum m arizing actions needed to en d discrim ination in em ­
p loym ent, placem ent, train in g , a n d unions. T h e recom ­
m endations included expanding F ed eral su p p o rt for
ap p ren tice an d vocational train in g p rogram s b u t m aking it
co n tin g en t on th e ir being no n d iscrim in ato ry a n d nonsegreg ated ; am ending th e L andrum -G riffin A ct to b an discrim ­
in atio n or segregation in u n ions; a n d providing F ederal
m oney to S ta te em ploym en t offices in such a w ay as to
encourage nondiscrim inato ry job referrals.

A f t e r 3}i years o f negotiations, th e O rder of R ailro ad
T elegraphers a n d th e S o u th ern Pacific R ailro ad reached
an ag reem en t w hich, in effect, g u aran teed reg u lar em ­
ployees th e ir jobs or p ay as long as th e y wish to w ork.
T he c o n tra c t also lim ited th e n u m b er of jobs t h a t can be
abolished because of changes in technology or organiza­
tio n a n d p rovided com pensation for o th e r w orkers dis­
placed b y job abolishm ent. (See also pp. 1379-1380 of
th is issue.)

October 12

October 30

October 17
N L R B decided to app ly its jurisd ictio n al sta n d a rd s
for office buildings to owners, lessors, a n d m anagers of
shopping centers w ith a gross an n u al incom e of $100,000
of w hich $25,000 is received from organizations th a t m eet
a n y jurisdictional sta n d a rd of th e B oard (excluding in­
d irect inflow an d outflow sta n d a rd s). T h e new ruling
found application in th e case, C a r o l M a n a g e m e n t C o r p .
a n d L o c a l 7 8 4 , I n te r n a tio n a l H o d C a r r ie r s , in w hich
a rep resen tatio n election w as directed.
T he

October 22
A tom ic T rades an d L abor Council a n d th e U nion
C arbide N uclear Co. te n ta tiv e ly agreed to a 3-year con­
tr a c t covering a b o u t 4,500 w orkers in Tennessee an d
providing a w age increase of 8 cents a n hour. (See also
p. 1379 of th is issue.)
T he

October 25
T h e N L R B announced it intends to judge each c o n tra c t­
ing o u t or su b contracting clause alleged to violate th e
h o t cargo ban of th e L andrum -G riffin A ct according to th e
in ten tio n of th e p arties, th e scope of th e restrictio n , an d
th e language used. T his ap p ro ach w as defined in th e
M ilk

D r iv e r s

I n t e r n a tio n a l

and

D a ir y

B r o th e r h o o d


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

E m p lo y e e s
of

U n io n ,

T e a m s te r s

and

L ocal

646,

M in n e s o ta

E astman K o d a k C o . put into effect a 3-percent general
pay raise for approximately 36,000 employees.
T h e U n ited A uto W orkers anno u n ced a new ag reem en t
w ith th e E a to n M a n u factu rin g Co., a m ajo r a u to p a rts
supplier, affecting a b o u t 3,500 em ployees in M ichigan a n d
Ohio. Econom ic term s were said to parallel those in th e
a u to c o n tracts (preceding C hron. ite m for Oct. 11).

October 31
A c t i n g u n d er th e W alsh-H ealey P ublic C o n tra c ts Act,
th e S ecretary of L ab o r an nounced a m inim um wage
d eterm in a tio n of $1.42 a n d $1.80 a n h o u r for P ro d u c t
G roups 1 an d 2, respectively, of th e M iscellaneous C hem i­
cal P ro d u cts a n d P re p a ra tio n s In d u stry .

N L R B decided th a t, u n d er th e com m on-situs doc­
trin e, a union could law fully p ick et freq u en t "re m o te ”
b ro ad casts of a stru c k radio sta tio n from a car d ealer’s
prem ises. F u rth erm o re, th e u n io n ’s issuance of "d o n o t
p a tro n iz e ” leaflets was legal because th e sta tio n was an
a u to "p ro d u c e r” w ith in th e m eaning of th e L an d ru m Griffin A ct b y "ad d in g . . . lab o r in th e form of a d v er­
tisin g ”— a finding w hich a d issenting m em ber said would
surprise a u to m an u factu rers. T he case was Local 662,
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers a n d Middle
T he

South Broadcasting Co.

Developments in
Industrial Relations

Union Developments

AFL-CIO Executive Council. The AFL-CIO
Executive Council, meeting in New York City,
October 9 to 12, acted in several areas critical for
the Federation. Its most publicized decisions
related to the Teamsters union, expelled from the
Federation in 1957 on corruption charges. The
Council on October 10 voted 25 to 2 against
readmitting the truckdrivers union, as proposed
by the Transport Workers Union. AFL-CIO
President George Meany said later at a press
conference that there is every indication that the
union “more than ever is now under the domina­
tion of corrupt and criminal elements.”
The following day, the Council voted 24 to 2 to
permit the executive officers to issue “federal
charters to local groups who leave the Teamsters
international union and who indicate a desire to
join the ranks of the AFL-CIO and to give these
groups all the support that an affiliate of the
AFL-CIO is entitled to receive.” Essentially,
the Council’s action reaffirmed the power of the
president and secretary-treasurer to issue federal
union charters. Mr. Meany would not discuss
the possibility of an all-out fight with the Team­
sters; the Council’s position, he said, was that
the Federation would charter any local “that is
not happy” with Teamster President James R.
Hoffa. He stressed that no special machinery
was being created to process applications from
dissatisfied Teamsters and that no additional
funds were being appropriated.
The problem of jurisdictional disputes between
craft and industrial unions remained largely
unsolved. A. J. Hayes, president of the Inter­
national Association of Machinists and chairman
of the internal disputes subcommittee, reported
that a revised formula for deciding plant job
jurisdictions had been rejected by building trades
unions, which had also turned down the previous
1374


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

proposal.1 Mr. Meany said, however, that “a
little progress has been made—although I don’t
want to be too optimistic. . .” He said the next
few subcommittee meetings would determine if
“real progress” can be made before the AFL-CIO
convention in December.
In an internal civil rights dispute, the Council
adopted a subcommittee report that criticized A.
Philip Randolph, a Federation vice president and
president of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car
Porters, for having created the “gap that has
developed between organized labor and the Negro
community.” The 3-man subcommittee was set
up last June to review and answer Mr. Randolph’s
charges that several AFL-CIO affiliates had prac­
ticed racial discrimination and that Mr. Meany
had failed to place “the moral weight of his office”
behind the Federation’s Civil Rights Committee
and Department of Civil Rights.2 The report
labeled Mr. Randolph’s allegations as “incredible,”
“false and gratuitous,” and “unfair and untrue.”
The report contended Mr. Randolph engaged in
discrimination himself, stating that his union
employed only Negro staff members and that he
had never attempted to negotiate a nondiscrim­
ination clause in the union’s contract with the
Pullman Co.
On legislative matters, the Council termed the
first session of the 87th Congress a “qualified
success,” applauding the passage of laws on
minimum wages, Federal aid to depressed areas,
housing, unemployment pay, and social security.
However, it declared that the Administration and
Congress had been remiss about two measures that
it said would have helped to reduce unemploy­
ment: a temporary cut in withholding taxes and a
program of short-term public works projects.
Teamsters. In response to the AFL-CIO actions,
Teamster President Hoffa said his union would
meet the challenge “anywhere, anytime, and we’ll
come out on top.” Mr. Hoffa and the interna­
tional union, on October 23, filed a $1 million libel
and slander suit against the Federation president
and 24 other officers of the AFL-CIO. The suit
charged they had “maliciously launched a vicious,
calculated, and calloused attack” on the reputation
♦Prepared in the D ivision of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, on the basis of available material.
1 See M onthly Labor Review. August 1961, pp. 888-889.
2 Ibid., p. 889.

D EV E LO PM E N T S IN IN D U S T R IA L R EL A TIO N S

of the union and Hoffa, the object of which was “to
stigmatize” and raid the union. The only mem­
bers of the Executive Council not named in the
suit were Walter P. Reuther of the Auto Workers,
David J. McDonald of the Steelworkers, William
McFetridge of the Building Service Employees,
and Mr. Randolph.
In mid-October, Air. Hoffa had been called to
testify before the Senate Internal Security Sub­
committee concerning mutual assistance pacts
between the Teamsters and unions charged with
being Communist dominated. Two unions men­
tioned were the Mine, Alill and Smelter Workers
Union and the International Longshoremen’s and
Warehousemen’s Union. Mr. Hoffa acknowl­
edged pacts with these unions,3but said he knew of
no convincing evidence that these unions were Com­
munist dominated. The pacts, he said, were
negotiated lor mutual aid in collective bargaining
and he would make an alliance with “any organi­
zation that protects the workers.”
On October 11, Mr. Hoffa and Robert E. Mc­
Carthy, Jr. (a Detroit banking executive) were
reindicted by a Federal grand jury in Orlando, Fla.,
on fraud charges involving the misuse of union
funds in a Florida land venture. The indictment
was similar to one returned by a Federal grand
jury in December I960,4 which was dismissed in
July 1961 by a Federal judge on the ground the
jury had been improperly impaneled. The indict­
ment included charges of mail fraud in advertising
Sun Valley, Inc., as a union-sponsored retirement
community for Teamsters instead of a privately
owned development which Mr. Hoffa had financed
with more than $500,000 of union funds. Mr.
Hoffa and Air. McCarthy both pleaded not guilty
to the charges.
In Cincinnati, members of a Teamster local
representing 1,800 milk drivers and dairy workers,
which, together with three other locals had seceded
from the international,5 voted, in a representation
election conducted by the National Labor Rela­
tions Board on October 31, to disaffiliate. The vote
was 1,664 to 12. Mr. Meany personally welcomed
the local into the Federation and on November 2
presented its charter as a Federal local. Other
Cincinnati locals that had participated in the
3See M onthly Labor Review, O etoberl961,p.ll24.
4See M onthly Labor Review, February 1961, pp. 184-185.
e SeeM onthly Labor Review, October 1961, pp. 1123-1124.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1375

revolt, as well as locals in Cleveland, Dayton, and
Columbus, were seeking NLRB elections.
Transport Workers. Delegates to the eleventh
constitutional convention of the Transport Work­
ers Union of America, meeting in New York City,
October 2-6, endorsed more than 40 resolutions
and heard speeches by TWU President Alichael J.
Quill, Secretary of Labor Arthur J. Goldberg,
Teamster President Hoffa, and New York City
Mayor Robert F. Wagner. Among the more
significant statements adopted by the convention
were advocacy of public ownership and operation
of all “national” railroads, establishment of a
National Labor Party, collective bargaining pro­
visions (such as a shorter workweek, retraining,
and wage guarantees) designed to “combat the
evil effects of automation,” and readmission of the
Teamsters to the AFL-CIO.
A constitutional
change approved by delegates at the closing session
deleted all references of the TWU’s affiliation with
the AFL-CIO, the union to “affiliate with such
national or international organizations as the in­
ternational executive council may determine.”
Steelworkers. InPittsburgh, Federal District Judge
Joseph P. Willson on October 11 held that the
union’s procedures for nominating and electing
international officers were illegal under the LaborAlanagement Reporting and Disclosure Act.
Judge Willson found the union’s constitution
deficient, since it did not provide for nominations
by secret ballot or provide a method whereby all
union members could participate in the nomina­
tion of district directors. The decision arose from
a suit filed by Nicholas Mamula to protest the
election in February of Kay Kluz as director of the
union’s District 20 in Western Pennsylvania.
Mr. Mamula had failed to win a place on the
ballot. Judge Willson ordered the election set
aside.
The ruling, however, was stayed on October 12
by Judge Austin Staley of the Third Circuit Court
of Appeals in Philadelphia, pending an appeal by
the union which contended the LMRDA does
not require a secret ballot in nominations, but
only in elections.
Two weeks later, Donald C. Rarick—who lost
his bid for the presidency of the Steelworkers in
1957 against incumbent David J. AIcDonald—acted in Federal court in Pittsburgh to void Mr,

1376___________________________________

McDonald’s reelection in February 1961 on sim­
ilar grounds, namely, that the international s
nominating procedures denied him the right to run
for office. Last December, union headquarters
announced Mr. Rarick had failed to secure the
minimum of 40 local union endorsements
required by the union constitution before a
candidate can be placed on the ballot.6
Maritime. The U.S. Department of Justice on
October 25 announced it had withdrawn a suit
against the National Maritime Union, initiated
in I960,7 which sought to invalidate the reelection
of Joseph Curran as president, on the ground that
the union had violated the election procedures of
the Landrum-Griffin Act. In return, the union
signed a stipulation that in the future it would not
prepare ballots in such a way as to permit identi­
fication of voters and would not permit election­
eering at polling places. The Government had
found no evidence of bad faith or fraudulent
conduct by the union or its officers in the last
election.
Paul Hall, president of the Seafarers’ Interna­
tional Union, on October 22 announced issuance
of a charter of affiliation to the 6,000-member
Seamen’s and Waterfront Workers’ Trade Union
of Trinidad. Mr. Hall said the interests of both
unions could be advanced through affiliation,
citing as one example, the problem of “runaway
ships” (vessels owned by United States operators
but registered in foreign countries).
The National Maritime Union was also active
in the Caribbean area during October, according
to a report by NMU President Curran, following
his return from a 2-day meeting in Kingston,
Jamaica, with 10 unions representing 50,000 mari­
time workers in Jamaica, the Netherlands Antilles,
Honduras, Panama, Trinidad, and Nicaragua.
Among the objectives of the meeting, he said,
were leadership training, organizing activities
emphasizing foreign flag operations, and combat­
ing interference by some governments with trade
union activities.
Air Line Pilots. Clarence N. Sayen, president of
the Air Line Pilots Association, on October 31
announced his “personal decision” to resign “in
the near future, but no later than the next board
of directors’ meeting,” originally scheduled for

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M O NTH LY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

_

November 1962 and subsequently moved up to
May. Mr. Sayen, head of the union since 1951,
said he had not submitted a formal resignation but
was putting the union on notice so that officials
could “think about it.” His announcement re­
portedly reflected dissatisfaction among some
ALPA members with the handling of the Pilots’
strike against Southern Airways, Inc. (which began
in 1960), and the lack of vigorous union action for
a reduction in worktime.
In an outgrowth of the Southern Airways strike,
the Pilots in mid-October had notified 19 air car­
riers of intent to amend contracts to give pilots
the right to refuse to fly into or out of airports
served by a struck carrier operating with non­
union pilots. The union planned to seek a provi­
sion relieving pilots of the obligation to fly pas­
sengers to destinations where they could transfer
to a struck line.
Other Developments

The Presidential Commission appointed last
February to study a dispute involving the Pilots,
the Flight Engineers’ International Association,
and several airlines issued its final report on
October 17. The report essentially reiterated
recommendations handed down in May,8 with
amplifications. In addition to urging that the
two unions merge (which it said was “the surest
way to protect the interests of individual engineers
and pilots”), the Commission recommended that the
four airlines with four-man cockpit crews on turbo
jet flights gradually switch to three-man crews.
It proposed a set of job rights and pay scales for
both engineers and pilots during the transition.
Actively employed flight engineers would have
priority rights to bid on existing engineer jobs, and
pilots displaced by the reduction to three-man
crews would be guaranteed monthly pay equiva­
lent to their average earnings in the 6 months
prior to displacement for up to 4 years. Incum­
bent engineers would have to meet some pilot quali­
fications (with training provided by the airlines)
and all future engineers hired would have to be
qualified pilots. Severance pay—equivalent to 1
month’s pay for each year of service, with a
minimum of $10,000 and a maximum of $25,000 •
e See M onthly Labor Review, February 1961, p. 185.
See M onthly Labor Review, December 1960, p. 1324.
« See M onthly Labor Review, July 1961, pp. 750-753, 773.

7

D EV E LO PM E N T S IN IN D U S T R IA L R EL A TIO N S

would be provided to furloughed flight engineers
who did not meet specified pilot qualifications.
The three-man board of inquiry appointed by
Secretary of Labor Goldberg during the maritime
strike last summer,9 to study union demands for
bargaining rights on “ runaway” shipping, held its
first meeting on October 31, 1961. Labor and
management representatives agreed to compile and
submit basic information on the controversy to the
board, to be discussed at subsequent meetings.
The board consists of W. Willard Wirtz, Under
Secretary of Labor, Edward Gudeman, Under
Secretary of Commerce, and Donald B. Straus, a
New York arbitrator.
Secretary Goldberg on October 17 reported that
strikes at missile and space sites resulted in an
estimated 1,136 man-days of idleness in September.
The Secretary said that although the September
1961 strike loss was substantially below the Sep­
tember 1960 loss of almost 5,000 man-days, it was
“ too high in view of the critical importance to the
Nation of our missile and space programs.” The
man-days lost, he said, resulted almost entirely
from unauthorized work stoppages at Lowry Air
Force Base in Denver and Schilling Air Force Base
in Salina, Kans. Workers returned to their jobs
under orders of the President’s Missile Sites Labor
Commission,10 which had been investigating the
issues in the controversies, the Secretary said,
adding that the Commission received “ whole­
hearted cooperation” from national officers of the
unions involved.
Wage and Collective Bargaining

Automobiles and Farm Equipment. Negotiations
wrapping up new contracts were concluded in
October and early November at the Ford Motor
Co. and the Chrysler Corp. by the United Auto
Workers. National agreement between Ford and
the UAW was reached on October 11. This ended
a nationwide strike that began on October 3, but
several locals continued on strike until plant
agreements were settled. Economic terms had
been agreed to earlier.11
The UAW and the Chrysler Corp. reached agree­
ment in principle on a national contract on Novem9See M onthly Labor Review, October 1961, p. 1120.
10See M onthly Labor Review, July 1961, p. 773.
11See Monthly Labor Review, November 1961, p. 121,5.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1377

ber 2, for about 60,000 production, office, clerical,
and engineering employees. Contract improve­
ments essentially followed those provided earlier
at General Motors and Ford, including increased
supplemental unemployment benefits, company
payment of the employees’ share of hospitalmedical insurance premiums, and continuation of
the annual improvement factor raises and cost-ofliving escalation. Like the UAW agreements at
GM and Ford, the Chrysler settlement also
reduced the size of the first year’s wage increase
by 2 cents to help finance medical insurance
improvements, and used the 1-cent cost-of-living
increase that would have been payable in Septem­
ber 1961 to offset part of the increased pension
costs.
The settlement differed principally from GM
and Ford in that the union agreed to divert more
money from wages to help finance improved fringe
benefits. Heavy layoffs at Chrylser had report­
edly reduced the money in the Supplemental
Unemployment Benefits fund to about $3.8 mil­
lion (a maximum funding of about $20 million was
provided for under the previous contract). To
compensate for this drain, the UAW agreed that
a maximum of 5 cents from wages over the con­
tract period could be used to supplement the
company’s regular contribution. One cent of the
1961 annual improvement factor increase would
be applied to the fund in the first contract year.
In 1962 and 1963, the status of the fund is to be
reviewed with up to 2 cents to be diverted from
wages in these years, if necessary. The company
agreed that, for each penny to be diverted from
the improvement factor increase to SUB, it
would pay 1.14 cents into a reserve fund to be
used should the regular fund be exhausted. In
addition, the union waived retroactive payment of
the first year’s wage increase—which would have
been effective September 1—and instead the com­
pany would transfer this sum, reportedly amount­
ing to about $2 million, to the SUB fund the day
after the contract is ratified by the locals. It will
also make an additional payment later based on
the savings accruing from postponing the effective
date of higher fringe benefits to January 1. The
contract provides, however, that on June 29,
1964 (or earlier upon mutual agreement) employees
will receive 1 cent an hour for each 1 cent that
has been diverted from the improvement factor
increases.

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B E R 1961

1378
The separate agreement covering 7,000 office,
clerical, and engineering employees provided that
the size of their improvement factor raises would
be reduced over the contract period to match those
provided for production workers—2%percent with
a minimum of 6 cents an hour. In the first year,
nonproduction employees would receive 3 percent
(as under their previous contract), but only 2%
percent in the second year and 2}'2percent in 1963.
The Ford Motor Co. on October 18 announced
a 2-percent pay increase (with a minimum of
$8.40 a month) retroactive to September 1, for
most of its 49,000 salaried employees who are not
organized. In addition to the pay raise, the com­
pany reported it would transfer to base rates
$62.40 of the current $88.40 quarterly cost-ofliving allowance and would continue escalation.
It also said it would assume the employees’ share
of medical insurance premiums, and improve
retirement, group insurance, hospital-medicalsurgical, separation pay, and leave plans.
The International Harvester Co. and the United
Auto Workers on October 15 tentatively agreed
to a new 3-year contract covering about 32,000
workers. The second major agreement this year
in the farm implement industry, it followed a
settlement between the UAW and Deere & Co. 2
weeks earlier.12 The contract, subject to ratifi­
cation by the UAW members involved, provides
for wage increases of 2.5 percent, with a minimum
of 6 cents an hour, in October of 1961, 1962, and
1963. The cost-of-living escalator clause was
continued.
Fringe benefit improvements were about the
same as in the automobile contracts, including
the $2.80-a-month pension for each year of service,
higher supplemental unemployment benefits and
a short workweek benefit, company-paid hospital
and medical insurance, extension of insurance to
laid-off workers as long as their SUB lasts, and
payment by the companj^ of half the cost of medi­
cal coverage for retirees and their dependents.
To help finance these improvements, the union
agreed to divert 1 cent of the current cost-of-living
allowance toward payment of the increased cost
of the hospital-medical and pension programs.
Unlike the GM and Ford contracts, no deduction
was made from the first year’s improvement fac­
tor, but if the company provides future hospitalmedical coverage equal to the GM program in
Michigan, 2 cents of the next general wage in­

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

crease will apply to the cost of the liberalized
coverage.
Other Metalworking.
About mid-October the
Communications Workers of America negotiated
a 4- to 10-cent increase for its 6,600 members
at the Merrimack Valley Works of the Western
Electric Co. in Haverhill, Lawrence, and North
Andover, Mass.
The increase was negotiated
under an annual wage reopening provision of a
3-year agreement concluded a year earlier.
At company plants in the Kearny, N.J., area,
about 14,000 employees received wage increases
ranging from 5 to 9 cents an hour, effective
October 16, under a new 3-year contract. Nego­
tiations were conducted with the International
Brotherhood of Electrical Workers. The contract
may be reopened on wages in 1962 and 1963.
On October 18, a leading machine tool manu­
facturer—the Brown & Sharpe Manufacturing Co.
of Providence, ft.I.—agreed with the International
Association of Machinists on a new 2-year con­
tract. It provides immediate 5-7-cent-an-hour
increases for nonincentive workers and a 3-cent
base-rate increse for incentive workers and fur­
ther increases of 4-6 and 2 cents an hour, respec­
tively, in 1962. The agreement also improved
holiday and funeral leave provisions and estab­
lished jury-duty pay.
Pay increases effective in November were an­
nounced on October 13 for 8,000 hourly and sala­
ried employees of the Sikorsky Division of United
Aircraft Corp. in Bridgeport and Stratford, Conn.
Raises ranged from 6 to 11 cents an hour for hourly
workers and amounted to 3 percent for those paid
on a salaried basis. Hourly employees had been
represented by the United Automobile Workers
until it was ousted as bargaining agent in an NLRB
election in the fall of 1960 after a 3-month strike.13
Textiles. In late September and early October,
a number of New England textile dyeing and
finishing plants negotiated individual agreements
with the Textile Workers Union of America.
Most contracts were negotiated for 2-year periods;
generally, they provided no immediate wage
increase but called for a company payment of $5
a month per employee, which the union hoped to
See M onthly Labor Review, November 1961, p. 1245.
is See M onthly Labor Review, January 1961, p. 68.

12

D EV ELO PM EN TS IN IN D U S T R IA L R EL A TIO N S

use to establish an areawide pension fund. An
additional $2 employer payment is scheduled for
the second year. Some of these contracts also
provide for either a 6-cent wage increase or a
wage reopening in the second year.
More than 150 textile printing, dyeing, and
finishing plants in metropolitan New York and
northern New Jersey reached agreement in late
September on a new 2-year contract with the
TWUA, affecting about 8,000 employees. The
agreement provided wage increases of 7 cents an
hour effective October 1, 1961, and 6 cents on
October 1, 1962. It also called for an employer
payment of an additional $1 a month in 1961 to
the pension fund and $1 more in 1962, bringing
the total to $9; and a $500 increase in insurance
coverage, to $1,500, effective immediately. Com­
panies in the Paterson, N.J., area also agreed to
maintain work loads at the level existing on
June 1, 1961, reversing a previous arbitration
decision, which increased them.
Atomic Energy. The Union Carbide Nuclear Co.
(a division of the Union Carbide Corporation)
and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Union
in mid-October agreed to 3-year contracts for
about 2,500 workers at its uranium separation
plant in Paducah, Ivy., and at its gaseous diffusion
plant in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Included in the con­
tracts were 8-cent hourly wage-rate increases
in both the first and second years and a wage
reopening provision in the third year. The con­
tracts also increased shift differentials and estab­
lished a major medical expense plan for which
the company will pay half the cost.
About a week later, the Atomic Trades and
Labor Council reached tentative agreement with
the company on a 3-year contract affecting about
4,500 workers at the Oak Ridge National Labora­
tory and Y-12 plant in Oak Ridge, Tenn. The
contract, subject to union membership ratification,
included an 8-cent-an-hour wage increase and
wage reopening provisions in 1962 and 1963.
Other Manufacturing. Effective October 30, the
Eastman Kodak Co. put into effect a 3-percent
general wage increase for about 36,000 employees.
An 8-cent-an-hour general pay increase was to
go into effect on November 4 for all hourly and
incentive employees of the American Optical Co.,
the firm announced on October 4.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1379
A number of 2-year contracts, affecting at
least 3,000 employees in the glassware industry
in Illinois, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and
West Virginia, were agreed to in September by
the American Flint Glass Workers’ Union and
two employer associations. Individual contracts
were also signed with companies bargaining
independently. The settlement with the Illumi­
nating and Allied Glassware Manufacturers Asso­
ciation (representing seven companies engaged in
the production of lamp shades, lamp parts, and
globes) provided wage increases of 7 cents an
hour effective in September of both 1961 and
1962. The contract with the Table and Art
Glassware Manufacturers called for 12 cents in
wage increases—6 cents beginning January 1962
and the rest a year later; it also reportedly included
minor adjustments in vacations.
Transportation. The Order of Railroad Teleg­
raphers and the Southern Pacific Railroad signed,
on October 29, a memorandum of agreement that
in effect guaranteed the 946 regular employees
their jobs or their earnings. The agreement was
reached with the assistance of Labor Secretary
Goldberg and Francis A. O’Neill, Jr., a member
of the National Mediation Board, after more than
3 years of negotiations.
Besides the guarantee for the regular employees,
more than 100 operators on the “ extra” list who
fill in for sick and vacationing regulars also were
guaranteed 40 hours’ work or pay each week and
the right to fill vacancies on the regular list.
Those employees whose positions had been
abolished during the 3%-year negotiations, who
lost their jobs because of technological or organi­
zational change, as well as future hires who are
later laid off, would get 60 percent of regular pay
for a 5-year period.
The agreement set a job base of 1,000 5-day
positions and limited the number of jobs that can
be abolished in any year to 20 or the number of
vacancies resulting from attrition (such as deaths
and retirements), whichever is smaller. Abol­
ishment is permitted only if required by changes
in technology, organization, or the volume or
composition of traffic, and then only after 90 days’
notice to the union. The company may, however,
make job cuts above the 20 limit if they result
from line abandonments authorized by the
Interstate Commerce Commission or from a

1380
pending “ Centralized Traffic Control Plan.”
ORT President George E. Leighty said that
because only 946 telegraphers are regularly
employed, it “ probably” would be “ a number of
years before any jobs can be abolished except as
the result of centralized traffic control and line
changes or abandonments.” He predicted this
job stabilization provision would become a target
for unions on all railroads and Secretary Goldberg
and Mr. O’Neill called the pact a “landmark
agreement in the railroad industry.”
After about 2 years of negotiations, the Railroad
Yardmasters of America and the Nation’s railroads
reached agreement covering approximately 4,500
employees. Wage provisions were essentially the
same as those agreed to in 1960 by the railroads
and the five operating unions.14 They included a
2-percent increase retroactive to July 1, 1960,
applied to the base rates after incorporating $34
of the monthly cost-of-living allowance, and an
additional 2-percent increase on the same base
retroactive to March 1, 1961. The cost-of-living
escalator clause was discontinued. Other con­
tractual changes included holiday and vacation
provisions.
After this settlement, the Switchmen’s Union of
North America remained the only union that had
not reached agreement with the railroads in
negotiations begun in 1959.
Motor freight companies of North and South
Carolina and the Teamsters union agreed in midSeptember on a 3-year contract for about 10,000
over-the-road and local cartage employees. Under
the agreement, retroactive to September 1, 1961,
increases for over-the-road drivers will total 28
cents in hourly rates or 0.75 cent in mileage rates
over the contract term. Local cartage drivers
will receive increases totaling 32 cents an hour
over the 3-year period. Cost-of-living escalation
was continued. The agreement also improved
holiday, vacation, health and welfare, and pension
provisions.
A threatened strike by the Air Line Pilots
against Trans World Airlines, called for 11:59
p.m., November 2, was averted on November 1,
when President John F. Kennedy ordered the
establishment of a three-man Emergency Board.
The dispute involved working rules and flying
hours. The union represents about 1,500 pilots


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

at TWA. The Board had 30 days to investigate
and report to the President.
Trade. In the New York City area, about 5,000
retail drug store employees will receive wage
increases and other benefits under 2-year contracts
ratified on October 1 and 2 by members of the
Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union.
The pacts, negotiated with four city independent
store associations, as well as the Nassau-Suffolk
Pharmaceutical Association and the Whelan and
Liggett drug chains, included weekly wage in­
creases of $5 for pharmacists effective October 1,
1961, and $5 more a year later. Increases for
other employees varied according to occupation
and years of service. Over the 2-year period,
weekly wage increases for employees of the inde­
pendent stores will range from $4 for groups such
as dishwashers, pantrymen, waitresses, and soda
fountain help, to $8 for sales clerks and cosmeti­
cians with 5 years’ service. The settlement with
the independent associations also improved vaca­
tion and sick leave provisions.
Members of the Retail Clerks International
Association on October 1 ratified a 3-year con­
tract with the San Francisco Retailers Council
providing wage increases and improved fringe
benefits for 4,500 department store employees in
the area. The agreement called for wage-rate
increases of 7.5 cents an hour the first year (2.5
cents retroactive to June 1 and 5 cents to August 1)
and additional 6.25-cent raises effective on June 1
of 1962 and 1963. Other terms of the agreement
included increases in sales commissions, overtime
pay for all nightwork except on one scheduled
night opening a week, a fourth week’s vacation
for 25-year service employees, and increased
pension and welfare benefits.
Construction. The New York Chapter of the
Associated General Contractors of America, Inc.,
and the International Union of Operating Engi­
neers on September 30 agreed to a 3-year contract
covering about 8,500 highway and heavy construc­
tion workers in upstate New York. The new
agreement provides a 15-cent-an-hour wage in­
crease effective October 1, and additional 20-cent
increases effective in October of 1962 and 1963.
u See M onthly Labor Review, July 1960, p. 735.

Book Reviews
and Notes

new tough line revolve inevitably around the
indifferent success of some unions in collective
bargaining (including strikes) during the past few
years. Professor Pierson attempts to assess the
apparent trend toward formal and informal
multiemployer bargaining. It is no criticism of
the authors to say that about all these papers
do is to offer some speculations as to whether the
events reported in the newspapers represent
trends; if so, what they are and how far they
E ditor ’s N ote .—Listing of a publication in this
are
likely to go. Is management permanently
section is for record and reference only and does
“tougher”
? Are the “hard realities of economic
not constitute an endorsement of point of view
life”
going
to change the character of collective
or advocacy of use.
bargaining? Are the unions in a permanent
Special Reviews
decline? Will the role of Government be steadily
enlarged? It is not always easy to tell where
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy &
the authors disagree, although it seems likely
Society. Berkeley, University of California,
that Barbash and Pierson would not accept
Institute of Industrial Relations, Yol. 1, No.
Northrup’s view that the Secretary of Labor is
1, October 1961. 136 pp. Annual sub­
a dangerous busybody.
scription, $3.50; single issue, $1.25.
In “The Prospects for Industrial Conflict,”
There should be some quiet singing in the
Arthur Ross extends his analysis of strike activity
streets in celebration of the appearance of this
(developed in Changing Patterns of Industrial
fine new journal, which will henceforth appear
Conflict with Paul T. Hartman) to predict a
three times a year, in October, February, and
steady lessening of strikes in the United States.
May. According to the Introduction by Arthur
The net effect of shortrun influences is uncertain,
M. Ross, Chairman of the Board of Editors and but probably on the side of reducing the number
Director of the Institute, Industrial Relations
of strikes. Meanwhile, “cycles of strikes” have
will deal with “all aspects of the employment
come to an end in certain industries (apparel,
relationship in modern industrial society.” It
automobiles, coal mining, and textiles) which in
will include studies of social movements, political
the past accounted for a large proportion of
processes, economic development, economic se­
strike idleness. Strike cycles continue in steel,
curity, managerial organization, as well as those
construction, electrical equipment, and machinery.
more specifically associated with the term “indus­
If all these were terminated, we would be left with
trial relations” in common usage. We are thus
a “residual level of conflict” which would not
promised a pot pourri of the land that institutions
cause “sufficient disturbance in economic or
gather when they use the term “industrial rela­
political life to generate any great pressure for
tions” or “labor relations” to identify their
changes in the industrial relations system.”
common interests. But as long as the results are
The first part of a two-part contribution by
pleasing and instructive, who cares?
Seymour M. Lipset, “Trade Unions and Social
The person responsible for the physical makeup
Structure: I,” “attem pt^ to specify how the
of Industrial Relations deserves a special accolade.
American labor movement differs in social struc­
The cover is attractive in that conservative way
ture from the labor movements in other industri­
appropriate to professional journals, the title page
alized countries and to account for these
is beautifully designed, and the type face, margins,
differences . . . .” The differences appear “in
and leading make each page a joy to contemplate.
ideology, class solidarity, tactics, organizational
The place of prominence in Yol. 1, No. 1 is
structure, and patterns of leadership behavior.”
given to a symposium on “The Employer Chal­
If the second part, promised for February, is like
lenge and the Union Response” by Herbert R.
the first, Lipset will have brought off the neatest
Northrup, Jack Barbash, and Frank C. Pierson.
trick of the year, an explanation of trade unions
The first two papers on management’s so-called
without a single reference to employers. If a


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1381

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1382
reader were trying to be captious about a generally
excellent editorial performance, he might remon­
strate against the inconvenience of having to read
a piece as short as this in two parts.
One of the most rewarding contributions is
Reinhard Bendix’s “The Lower Classes and the
‘Democratic Revolution.’ ” This is a fresh, wellwritten analysis of the great social movements
which began in the 18th century and continue
through our day. He offers persuasive pleas for a
reinterpretation of social change which will
embrace the democratic and industrial latecomers,
treating England as the exception rather than the
model. His approach suggests a way out of the
dilemmas in which we find ourselves when we
attempt to apply either Marxian or anti-Marxian
analyses to peoples outside North America and
Europe.
The final contribution, entitled “Arbitration in
Great Britain,” by Morrison and Marjorie L.
Handsaker, is a pertinent comparison of American
and British practices. To Americans, the most
interesting aspect of the study is the surprising
juxtaposition of three facts: the relatively large
number of wildcat strikes in Great Britain, the
widespread reluctance on all sides to use arbitra­
tion for the interpretation of agreements, and the
British practice of making arbitration awards not
binding. Perhaps the American practice of mak­
ing awards legally, but not morally, binding is a
blessing in disguise.
The reader is led to believe that the October
issue represents a fair sample of what may be
expected in the future, except that contributions
from abroad will appear from time to time.
Industrial Relations promises to be well worth the
price of admission.
— G eorge W . B rooks
V isiting Professor, N ew Y ork S ta te School of In d u stria l
an d L abor R elations, Cornell U n iversity

Electric Utilities— Costs and Performance: A Study
oj Inter-Utility Differences in the Unit Electric
Costs oj Privately Owned Electric Utilities. By
William Iulo. Pullman, Washington State
University, Bureau of Economic and Business
Research, 1961. 180 pp. (Bull. 34.) $7.50,
Washington State University Press.
This well-written book undertakes to determine
whether and to what extent external factors, i.e.,
factors not amenable to management control in the

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

short run, explain both the relative and absolute
level of electric utility rates. Seven such factors
are finally decided upon, after the analysis and
rejection of many more. It is claimed that some
80 percent of the differences in inter-utility costs
are explained by these seven factors, the remaining
20 percent being due to all other factors—prima­
rily differences in the efficiency of management.
The study covers the period 1952-57 and ana­
lyzes 186 privately owned utilities.
The book evidences considerable thought and
ingenuity and, as a pioneering effort, deserves care­
ful reading by both utility managements and
regulators. In the absence of effective competi­
tion working at the vitals of business enterprise,
i.e., profits, management may well become com­
placent in the feeling of “we’re doing the best
possible job under the circumstances.” Maybe it
is, but a sound analytical appraisal of whether it is
or is not is helpful in either case. Utility regula­
tory commissions should be most interested in this
study because they have been accused of limiting
their concerns to the question of utility earnings
and neglecting a critical review of utility expenses.
Consequently, it is said that regulation deals with
only 13 percent of electric utility operations—the
portion of revenue flowing to common equity
income.
Basic to the approach used by the author is the
identification and measurement of significant fac­
tors outside the shortrun influence of management.
Thus the author analyzes the effect of area wage
levels and fuel costs rather than actual wages and
fuel expenses. However, he uses actual interest
cost, presumably because interest rates are longrun
arrangements.
I would not raise the question of where short
run becomes long run, and what determines the
point at which a cost is beyond the shortrun
control of management, were it not for the author’s
conclusion that the kilowatt hours used per resi­
dential customer is the single most important
factor tending to explain differences in inter­
utility unit costs. That the level and design of
utility rate structures importantly influence the
amount of electricity used, especially by residen­
tial customers, seems to be beyond question.
Also, few students of the problem will question
the proposition that pricing of utility service is
one of management’s most important functions,
and perhaps one of the significant measures of

BOOK R E V IE W S AND N OTES

its efficiency. I suggest, therefore, that the factor
of average residential consumption should have
been standardized or adjusted for the effect and
the differences in rates before being used in the
statistical analysis. The failure to do so may
have had a significant effect on the results.
One other point: this brief review does not
provide the opportunity to analyze critically the
conceptual definitions or the methodology em­
ployed in analyzing the effect of the various
factors on the cost of producing electricity, but
I feel that omitting the equity portion of the
overall return from “cost” (although including
the portion represented by interest on the debt
component) may seriously limit the significance of
the results. This omission was neither neces­
sary nor consistent with the inclusion in “cost”
of elements such as income taxes, which are a
direct function of equity income. The result is
to introduce a bias stemming from inter-utility
differences in capital structure and, at the same
time, to omit an important element of total cost.
Consequently, the relative levels of cost may be
distorted; and the absolute levels certainly are.
I must therefore object to the author’s conclusion
that the costs derived in the study “approximate
quite closely the overall average rate that users
must pay for electric energy service from each of
the utilities . . . ” The level of costs as developed
fails to account for some 13 percent of total costs.
The above comments are not intended to detract
from the reviewer’s opinion that the author is to
be commended for a well-planned, well-executed
attack on a most important and difficult problem.
Dr. lulo’s study, along with a similar study of
transit fares made by William S. Vickrey in 1952,
provides a good foundation for further research
which I hope it will stimulate.
— D a v id A. K o s h
P ublic U tility C o n su ltan t, W ashington, D .C .

Money and Credit— Their Influence on Jobs, Prices,
and Growth. The Report of the Commission
on Money and Credit. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J., Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1961. 285 pp. $3.95.
Supplementary Statement to the Report of the Com­
mission on Money and Credit. By H. Chris­
tian Sonne. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., PrenticeHall, Inc., 1961. 30 pp. 50 cents.
Those who expected sweeping, dramatic recom­
mendations on monetarv and fiscal matters which


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1383:
would point the way toward solution of our pres­
ent economic problems and provide firm, clear
policies for our future economic development will
experience a measure of disappointment in the
Report of the Commission on Money and Credit.
It might have distilled, from the experience of the
50 years since the Aldrich Commission’s recom­
mendations led to the establishment of the Federal
Reserve System, the essence of the basic principles
which might guide future development of our
increasingly complex economy and then have rec­
ommended their translation into laws and insti­
tutions. Instead, the Commission, for the most
part, contented itself with recommending contin­
ued administrative manipulation by the Govern­
ment of this or that segment of the monetary and
credit systems to meet the economic exigencies
of the moment. Possibly the diverse member­
ship of the Commission and the inability of indi­
vidual members to divorce themselves completely
from their own institutional interests prevented
their agreement upon clearly defined basic prin­
ciples which could be recommended for formula­
tion into laws that would obviate the need for
continued administrative action on the present or
an even larger scale.
The Commission saw three major objectives as
the primary aims of monetary, credit, and fiscal
policies: (1) An adequate rate of economic growth,
(2) sustained high levels of production and em­
ployment, and (3) reasonable stability of prices.
It also recognized the national security, the in­
creasing need for harmonious international eco­
nomic relations, and continuing economic develop­
ment abroad as important national objectives.
While expressing dissatisfaction with recent
rates of economic growth, the Commission—to the
chagrin of some individual members—did not
recommend establishment of any specific rate of
growth as a target in itself. It found that a
growth rate in real gross national product of some­
where between 3b and 4% percent a year would
be expected during the 1960’s if the United States
can maintain the level of aggregate demand neces­
sary to assure low-level unemployment. As a
target for monetary, credit, and fiscal measures,
low-level unemployment was defined as being
somewhere near the point at which the number of
unfilled job vacancies is about the same as the
number of unemployed. With respect to price
stability, the Report states that national policy

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1384

clearly should be to avoid even mild increases in
the price level, as long as the cost in terms of other
equally vital objectives is not excessive. The
Commission concluded that it is possible to achieve
satisfactory performance in all three major objec­
tives simultaneously. In fact, the attainment of
one is likely to be helpful, if not essential, to the
attainment of others.
The Report was written to be understood by
any well-informed reader whether he is a student
of monetary and fiscal matters or not, although
the subjects covered—the whole gamut of monetary
and fiscal policies, debt management, the function­
ing of our private financial institutions, Federal
credit programs, and international monetary
relations—will appeal most to those with more than
an ordinary interest in such matters. In fact,
it is the expressed hope of the Commission that
the Report will stimulate widespread public
interest in, and discussion of, these matters and
lead to the adoption of policies which will insure
improved functioning of our economy.
It is to be hoped, indeed, that many publicspirited citizens and organizations, public and
private, will complete the job that remains to
be done. H. Christian Sonne, vice chairman of
the Commission, in a lengthy comment and a
separately published supplementary statement,
described the challenge when he expressed the
view that the Report fails to deal adequately
with the main economic changes and problems
that we are likely to face during the crucial decade
ahead. The main issues include, according to
Mr. Sonne, the risk of heavy reliance on tradi­
tional countercyclical measures, the national neces­
sity for growth, and our rising price and cost
structure with its increasing effect on our balance
of payments.
The success of our economic system will depend,
not so much upon how well the .proper functions
of Government in this regard are organized and
coordinated, as upon how clearly the principles of
economic growth, job creation, and price stability
are set forth in our laws and institutions and how
well these principles are understood and adhered
to by the people as a whole.
— A rnold E . C hase
Chief, D ivision of Prices a n d C ost of L iving
B u reau of L ab o r S tatistics


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Problems in Vocational Counseling: The Appli­
cation of Research Findings. By Lloyd H.
Lofquist and George W. England. Dubuque,
Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Co., 1961. 186 pp.
$3.50.
This book is accurately and appropriately
titled. The text consists of a series of 46 problems
considered relevant to an effective vocational
counseling program and provides questions and
a discussion of suggested answers on each problem.
It is the authors’ feeling that many counselors
and administrators have not given serious enough
thought to ways in which current knowledge can
be applied to the vocational counseling process.
The primary purpose of the book, therefore, is
to involve the student in the actual interpretation
of research data pertinent to the counseling
problem and to acquaint him with appropriate
references.
The text is divided into seven parts, with three
or more problems covered in each part. For
each problem, the authors usually present one or
more research findings, ask such questions as
“How would you interpret these data?” and
“What are the implications for counseling?” and
provide suggested answers for discussion, sources
for the data presented in the problem, and ad­
ditional references.
Lofquist and England admit that the discussion
following the presentation of each problem offers a
“ school solution” which represents their particular
biases. However, it appears that they have also
reflected their biases in academic areas. For in­
stance, while the authors stress in the Preface that
the problem-study approach in the book should be
useful in the training of counselors to work in a
variety of settings, including the counseling of
adults, older workers, and the handicapped, and
while extensive coverage is given to the use of tests
in counseling, only cursory treatment is given to
such problems as the use of work history in the
counseling interview. It is apparent that the au­
thors chose to cover only a few major areas and
only a small sampling of problems with respect to
each area, perhaps more to illustrate the problemstudy approach than to attempt to cover the most
significant problems in the counseling process.
However, it is regrettable that the book did not
cover certain additional areas such as use of the

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

school cumulative record and problems involved in
formulating the counseling plan.
In an excellent introduction to the book, Pro­
fessor Donald G. Paterson, one of the venerable
statesmen in the field, describes the role this book
is expected to play in training in counseling:
T extbooks are invaluable tools b u t, even a t best, th ey
p resen t th e p ra c titio n er a n d th e stu d en t-in -tra in in g w ith
only boiled dow n, second-hand inform ation. W h a t is
worse, th e y dispense th e inform ation, so to speak, on a
silver p la tte r w ith o u t eith er arousing curiosity or leading
th e read er to becom e eager in th e exciting qu est for new
know ledge. T hus, it is high tim e for a problem -oriented
book to ap p ear on th e scene. T his is w h at D r. L ofquist
a n d D r. E n g lan d have produced on th e pages w hich follow.
T his book should serve ad m irab ly as a su p p lem en tary te x t
for courses in vocational a n d o ccupational counseling.

The authors themselves state in the appendix
that their own experience in applying research find­
ings to counseling problems has proved the useful­
ness of this approach in a variety of teaching
settings. It would probably have been helpful to
many users of this book if the authors described
more adequately their experiences in the use of
this approach. Also, unless the book is used
mainly as an illustration of an approach to be used
by the instructor rather than as a textbook it
would seem to suffer from a fault referred to by
Dr. Paterson regarding other textbooks—that of
dispensing information “ on a silver platter”
through the suggested answers provided to each of
the questions raised.
However, it does seem that the authors have in
great measure achieved their objective of produc­
ing a textbook and an approach that will stimulate
the thinking of counselors-trainees, practicing
counselors, and supervisors, and to encourage the
appreciation of research findings in counseling
practice. A special feature of the book is a Text
Reference Chart which relates groups of problems
covered in the book to pertinent sections in 30 ma­
jor texts in the field of counseling. Other features
include a rather comprehensive discussion of a
definition of vocational counseling developed by
the authors (with emphasis on vocational planning
rather than on psychotherapy), recognition
throughout the book of the role of adult, as well as
student, counseling, and emphasis on the impor­
tance of sound occupational information for effec­
tive counseling. It is hoped that there will be a
significant expansion in coverage of problems per­
tinent to vocational counseling in future editions.

https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1385

This book should also prove useful for counselorin-service training in agencies that provide voca­
tional counseling.
— A braham S tahler
Chief, D ivision of C ounseling a n d
Special A pplican t Services
B u reau of E m p lo y m en t Security

Developing Competent Subordinates. By James M.
Black. New York, American Management
Association, 1961. 128 pp. $4.50.
The author has written this book to help
“operating executives at all organizational levels
whose success in management so very much de­
pends on their skill in developing self-reliant
subordinates and, above all, making shrewd
choices in the first place.” In this objective, Mr.
Black has succeeded.
Considerable emphasis throughout the book
is placed on the accountability of executives to
select, train, and competently supervise workers,
whether they are in the office or on the produc­
tion line. The rejection or acceptance of respon­
sibility in these areas determines the failure or
success of the supervisor and, to some extent, the
entire company.
The author thoroughly demonstrates the reasons
why some managers and organizations have a
strong, continuing staff and why some fail in this
achievement. The “most effective manager is
primarily motivated by the challenge of his job.”
Therefore, he seeks workers who can help him
meet that challenge, and his prejudices or personal
preferences will have little effect on his judgment.
The weak manager lacks leadership ability, is
disinterested in his subordinates, and makes little
effort to develop them; he thus builds no loyalty.
Also presented are ways in which the supervisor
can spot the possible problem employee and correc­
tive steps that can be taken. In conclusion,
Mr. Black discusses 10 guides for employee
counseling and 11 guides for effective leadership.
Although some of the ideas and methods men­
tioned by the author are elementary, the book
is well worth the time of even the experienced
manager or supervisor.
— E dward

L. D iamond

Office of M anag em en t S ta n d a rd s
an d Staff U tilization
B ureau of L ab o r S tatistics

1886
The Challenge of Abundance. By Robert Theo­
bald. New York, Clarkson N. Potter, Inc.,
1961. 235 pp. $4.50.
This is a stimulating but puzzling book. Mr.
Theobald has had wide experience in national and
international economics, both in Europe and the
United States. He displays wide knowledge of
the practical problems of foreign aid. However,
he does a better job of diagnosing the problems
than he does in supplying the answers.
With respect to the domestic economy, he is a
strong proponent of Government responsibility.
In industrial relations, he recommends stronger
controls over labor-management bargaining.
With respect to traffic, water supply, distribution
of income, and other internal problems, he would
use the power of Government to redistribute in­
come and spread abundence more widely among all
classes in the population. For example, he states,
“decisions about the exact amount that should be
paid for various types of services cannot be left
to market forces, but depend on abstract ideas
about the right distribution of income.”
In considering the international challenge, he
rightly diagnoses the problems of the economic
relations between rich countries and poor ones.
He sets forth the dilemma of population increases
in the poor countries outstripping the produc­
tivity increases which could provide a higher
standard of living. Likewise, he appropriately
emphasizes the fact that poor countries cannot as­
pire to the living standards of the rich countries,
but must concentrate as much of their effort as
possible upon the production of capital goods.
He suggests that people in the poor countries
should be encouraged to contribute some of their
leisure time to work for the Government. He
recognizes the similarity of this to the use of labor
battalions in Communist countries, but argues
that the idea could be applied by democracies.
The author has many good ideas as to what
ought to be done, but he doesn’t always succeed
in showing how to do it. He recommends increas­
ing the flow of private investment into underde­
veloped areas, and then points out that “the recent
example of Cuba . . . has shown how politically
attractive confiscation can be.” To solve this
dilemma, he suggests the working out of an agree­
ment under the aegis of one of the international
organizations, the agreement to be subject to com­


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

pulsory arbitration. But how many countries
would agree to compulsory arbitration?
In the last analysis, the author proposes world
citizenship and world government as a final solu­
tion, but this is so remote from present practice
and current thinking that it doesn’t offer much
hope for the immediate future.
— E w an C lague
C om m issioner of L ab o r S tatistics

To Change a Nation: Propaganda and Indoctrina­
tion in Communist China. By Franklin W.
Houn. New York, The Free Press of Glen­
coe, Inc., A Division of the Crowell-Collier
Publishing Co., 1961. 250 pp. $6.50.
Without mentioning “brainwashing” once, the
author of this unassuming volume makes a valu­
able contribution toward correcting some exag­
gerated claims about the methods of Communist
propaganda and indoctrination as practiced in
China. He does so in one succinct paragraph in
the concluding chapter:
T he tech n iq u e of “ ideological rem oulding” in special
schools an d cam ps has n o t generally yielded th e resu lts
th a t th e public confessions m ig h t suggest. W hile th e
psychological pressures g en erated in th e “ rem o u ld ing”
process m ay well produce te m p o ra ry shifts in a ttitu d e
to w ard th e regime, in m an y know n instances, conversion
to th e regim e w as e ith er accom panied by m e n ta l reserva­
tio n s or followed b y “ backsliding.”

He treats the subject with the objectivity of a
Spinoza, which he explains in the preface, “I felt
throughout that I should take the part neither of
critic nor apologist, but simply that of dispassion­
ate reporter—neither to attack nor defend the
Communist policy, but simply to describe it as ac­
curately as possible.” What he describes is the
“most extensive propaganda effort of all time, and
one likely to be of the greatest consequence in
the course of world affairs.”
Born in China, Dr. Franklin W. Houn is a polit­
ical scientist, currently on the faculty of the Uni­
versity of Nebraska.
The book deals more with Communist propa­
ganda policy and organization in China than with
the Communist message. These problems, in
themselves, are highly complex and call for a
careful study. The author points out that Com­
munist propaganda, unlike the political campaigns
in nontotalitarian countries, is total in its effort,

BOOK R E V IE W S AND N OTES

1387

“addressing itself to the whole person.” Accord­
ingly, he finds it necessary to dwell upon the
connection between propaganda and indoctrina­
tion. Being a scientist, he defines his terms
carefully. Propaganda is the “broad and rather
impersonal appeal of a regime.” Indoctrination
is the “more direct enlisting of personal loyalties.”
The former relies upon mass media; the latter
upon social institutions, such as schools.
One of the outstanding merits of this book is
that the author is aware of what the Marxist
would call the “contradictions” of the regime:
T he chief problem of an y to ta lita ria n p ro p ag an d a policy
is th e achievem ent of a degree of conform ity w ith o u t
stifling creativ ity or generating explosive tensions. T he
h isto ry of th e C om m unist p ro p ag an d a policy in C hina
is one of vacillation betw een rigid M arxist-L eninist
o rth o d o x y an d lim ited accom m odations to changing
conditions. . . .

The book supplies much needed information on
numerous aspects of Chinese history. Long before
Mao Tse-Tung broadcast the slogan, the Chinese
had used the classical phrase, “Let One Hundred
Schools of Thought Contend and One Hundred
Flowers Bloom.” The phrase was used originally
to describe a period in Chinese 1istory when new
schools of thought emerged following a period of
civil war. But the author notes that it “has never
been entirely clear what Mao meant by the
slogan.”
What is clear is that the “frequent shifts in
Communist propaganda policy should not obscure
the underlying consistency and rigidity in the
objectives of the leadership.”
— A lbert S. E pstein
A ssociate D irecto r of R esearch
In te rn a tio n a l A ssociation of M achinists

Education and Training

Employee Benefits

Manual of Educational Statistics.

P a id

New Y ork, U nited
N atio n s E ducational, Scientific an d C u ltu ral O rgani­
zations, 1961. 241 pp. (SS.60.D.16.A.) $3.

Education of the Adult Migrant.

B y E d w ard W arner
Brice. W ashington, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth ,
E ducation, an d W elfare, Office of E ducation, 1961.
96 pp., bibliography. (Bull. 6.) 50 cents, Superin­
te n d e n t of D ocum ents, W ashington.

A p p r e n tic e s h ip

and

T r a in in g

in

M ason ry

C o n fe re n c e

of

A m e r ic a n

S ta te s

M em b ers

Geneva,
In te rn a tio n a l L abor Office, 1961. 128 pp. D istrib ­
u te d in U nited S tates by W ashington B ranch of IL O .
III,

V o c a tio n a l

T r a in in g .

C open­
hagen, In te rn a tio n a l R elations D ivision of th e M inis­
tries of L ab o r an d Social Affairs, 1961. 14 pp.
(P am phlet 13.)

D a n is h

S o c ia l

S tr u c tu r e — V o c a tio n a l

C a lif o r n ia

U n io n

A g r e e m e n ts , 1 9 6 1 .

F r in g e B e n e fits i n S a l a r y A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .
B y D aniel W .
Sm ith. ( I n Office E xecutive, N atio n al Office M an­

agem ent Association, W illow Grove, P a., Ju ly 1961,
pp. 9-15. 50 cents.)
I n d u s t r i a l P e n s i o n a n d I n s u r a n c e P la n s f o r O h io 's S e n io r
C itiz e n s .
Colum bus, Ohio, G overnor’s Comm ission
on Aging, 1961. 31 pp.

o f th e

I n te r n a tio n a l L a b o r O r g a n iz a tio n , B u e n o s A i r e s , A p r i l
1 961: R ep o rt

in

C alifornia In d u s tria l R elations R eports, C alifornia
D e p a rtm e n t of In d u stria l R elations, San Franciso,
Ju ly 1961, pp. 5-21.)

C o n s tr u c tio n .

W ashington, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, B ureau of
A pprenticeship a n d T raining, 1961. 39 pp. (Bull.
T -151.)
S e v e n th

H o lid a y s
(In

T r a in in g .

N ew D elhi, G overn­
m en t of In d ia, M in istry of L abor a n d E m ploym ent,
1961. 34 pp.

Health and Safety
O c c u p a tio n a l H a z a r d s to

Young

W o rk ers: R e p o rt N o . 14,

T h e O p e r a tio n o f C ir c u la r S a w s , B a n d S a w s , G u illo tin e
S h e a r s ; R e p o r t N o . 1 5 , W r e c k in g a n d D e m o litio n
O p e r a tio n s .
W ashington, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor,

B u reau of L abor S tan d ard s, 1961. 21 a n d 10 pp.
(Bulls. 227, 228.) 15 cents each, S u p erin ten d en t of
D ocum ents, W ashington.

T r a i n i n g f o r E m p lo y m e n t [in I n d i a ) .

The Scientific Approach to Career Planning.

B y M. C.
Cobb. New Y ork, L an te rn Press, Inc., 1961. 142
pp., bibliography. $3.95.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

H e a lth S t a t i s t i c s

F rom

th e

U .S .

N a t i o n a l H e a lth S u r v e y :

D i s a b i l i t y D a y s , U n ite d S ta te s , J u l y 1 9 5 9 - J u n e 1 9 6 0 .

B y C harles S. W ilder. W ashington, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t
of H ealth , E du catio n , a n d W elfare, P ublic H e a lth
Service, 1961. 50 pp. (P u b licatio n 584-B 29.) 40
cents, S u p erin ten d en t of D ocum ents, W ashington.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1388

A S t u d y to D e te r m in e th e P o s s ib le I m p a c t o f A u t o m a t i o n o n

Industrial Relations

a S e le c te d G r o u p o f G e n e r a l A s s is ta n c e R e c i p ie n t s i n
S u b c o n tr a c tin g

C la u s e s

in

M a jo r

C o lle c tiv e B a r g a i n i n g

B y Leon E . L unden. W ashington,
U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, B u reau of L ab o r S tatistics,
1961. 33 pp. (Bull. 1304.) 30 cents, S u p erin ten d ­
e n t of D ocum ents, W ashington.
A g r e e m e n ts .

I n te r a c tio n o f C o n tr a c t A d m i n i s t r a t i o n a n d C o n tr a c t N e g o ti­
i n th e B a s i c S te e l I n d u s t r y .
By G a rth L.
M angum . ( I n L ab o r Law Jo u rn al, Chicago, S eptem ­
ber 1961, pp. 846-860. $1.)

a tio n

C h ic a g o .
Chicago, Cook C ounty D e p a rtm e n t
P u b lic Aid, 1961. 86 pp., bibliography.

of

F a c to r s A s s o c ia te d w ith th e M i g r a n t S ta tu s o f Y o u n g A d u l t
M a le s F ro m R u r a l P e n n s y lv a n ia .
By C. H arold Brown
a n d R oy C.
B uck. U niv ersity
P a rk ,
P enn­
sy lv an ia S ta te U niv ersity , College of A griculture,
1961. 34 pp., bibliography. (Bull. 676.)
C a r d ia c s

and

D ia b e tic s

in

I n d u s tr y : A

S tu d y

in

W ork

B y G race W yshak, Leonid S. Snegireff,
M .D ., A u g u sta F. Law , M .D . Springfield, 111.,
C harles C T hom as, P ublisher, 1961. 260 pp.,
b ibliography. $10.75.
E x p e r ie n c e .

B y M ilton
D erber, W. E. C halm ers, M ilton T . E delm an. ( I n
In d u stria l and L abor R elations Review, Ith a c a , N .Y .,
O ctober 1961, pp. 83-101. $1.75.)

U n io n P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n P la n t D e c i s i o n - M a k i n g .

By S eym our W olfbein. ( I n
N a tio n ’s Business, W ashington, S eptem ber 1961,
pp. 38-39, 72-73, et seq.)

B e r lin C h a n g e s J o b O u tlo o k .
T h e R o le o f C o lle c tiv e B a r g a in in g R e s e a r c h i n
R e la tio n s .
B y M ax S. W ortm an, Jr. ( I n

I n d u s tr ia l

L ab o r Law
Journal, Chicago, S eptem ber 1961, pp. 882-898. $1.)

( I n In d u s try a n d L abor,
G eneva, A ugust 15, 1961, pp. 146-148. 25 cents.
D istrib u te d in U n ited S tates by W ashington B ranch
of IL O .)

E m p l o y m e n t o f W o m e n i n I s r a e l.
M o d e l A r b itr a tio n

C la u s e s to P r o te c t M a n a g e m e n t R ig h ts .

W ashington, C ham ber of Com m erce of th e U n ited
S tates, L abor R elations a n d Legal D ep a rtm e n t, 1961.
22 pp. 50 cents.
S e ttlin g P la n t D i s p u t e s — T h e A u s t r a l i a n E x p e r ie n c e .
By
F ra n k T . deV yver. ( I n L ab o r Law Jo u rn al, Chicago,

O ctober 1961, pp. 933-943.

$1.)

By Jules B ackm an. ( I n L ab o r Law
Journal, Chicago, S eptem ber 1961, pp. 805-815. $1.)

B e r e tn in g o m A r b e jd s m a r k e d s r d d e ts V ir k s o m h e d , A p r i l 1 ,
1 9 6 0 -M a rch 31, 1961.
C openhagen, A rbejdsm arke-

dsräd ets, 1961.

100 pp.

Labor Organizations

T he S iz e o f C rew s.

C h a n g in g P a tt e r n s i n I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s : P r o c e e d in g s o f
1 3 th A n n u a l C o n fe re n c e , I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s C e n te r ,
M c G ill

U n iv e r s ity ,

F rances B airstow .
117 pp.

J u n e 6 -7 ,
1961.
E d ite d by
M ontreal, th e U niversity, 1961.

P r o c e e d in g s o f th e E le v e n th A n n u a l L a b o r - M a n a g e m e n t
C o n fe re n c e , [ W e s t \ i r g i n i a U n i v e r s i t y ], A p r i l 2 0 - 2 1 ,
1961.
M organtow n, W est V irginia U niversity, In s ti­
tu te of In d u stria l R elations, 1961. 41 pp. (Bull.
Series 62, 2-3.) Free.

I n d e p e n d e n t U n io n s i n th e G u lf C o a s t P e tr o le u m R e f in in g

B y F. R ay M arshall.
L ab o r L aw Jo u rn al, Chicago, S eptem ber 1961,
pp. 823-840. $1.)
I n d u s t r y — T h e E s s o E x p e r ie n c e .
(In

By
A lfred B ra u n th a l. ( I n Free L ab o r W orld, In te r­
n a tio n al C onfederation of F ree T rad e Unions,
Brussels, A ugust 1961, pp. 324r-327. 15 cents.)

F re e T r a d e U n io n T h in k in g o n F a ir L a b o r S ta n d a r d s .

O ttaw a, C an adian
D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, Econom ics an d R esearch
B ranch, 1961. 94 pp. 35 cents, Q ueen’s P rin ter,
O ttaw a.

L a b o r O r g a n iz a tio n s i n C a n a d a , 1 9 6 1 .

Labor Force
T he M in e r s in
S o u th C a r o lin a ’s M a n p o w e r i n I n d u s t r y — L a b o r F o rc e
E s tim a te s b y C o u n ty , M a r c h 1 9 6 0 .
Colum bia, S.C.,

E m ploym ent Security Comm ission, R esearch an d
S tatistics Section, 1961. 51 pp. Free.

F e d e r a tio n

C r is is a n d W a r: A
of

G reat

B r ita in

H i s t o r y o f th e M i n e r s ’
(F ro m

1930

O n w a rd s).

B y R . Page A rnot. London, George Allen & U nwin
L td ., 1961. 451 p p ., b ibliography. 42s.
T h e T r a d e U n io n S i t u a ti o n i n th e U n ite d K i n g d o m : R e p o r t

S c ie n tis ts a n d E n g in e e r s i n th e F e d e r a l G o v e r n m e n t, O cto b er

B y Bella Schw artz. W ashington, N atio n al
Science F o un d atio n , 1961. 44 pp. (N S F 61-43.)
35 cents, S up erin ten d en t of D ocum ents, W ashington.

1958.

E m p lo y e e s — A u to m a tio n — M a n a g e m e n t.

B y R ich ard A.
Johnson. Seattle, U n iversity of W ashington, College
of Business A dm in istratio n , 1961. 31 pp., bibliog­
rap h y . (M an ag em en t Series, 3.)


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

of

a

M is s io n

F rom

th e

I n te r n a tio n a l

Labor

O ffice.

G eneva, In te rn a tio n a l L ab o r Office, 1961. 123 pp.
$1.25. D istrib u te d in U n ited S ta te s by W ashington
B ranch of IL O .
T h e P o li t i c a l “ D i l e m m a ” o f G e r m a n T r a d e U n i o n i s m . By
N a th a n Reich. ( I n A m erican Jo u rn a l of Econom ics

a n d Sociology, N ew Y ork, Ju ly 1961, p p . 411-423.
$ 1.)

BOOK R E V IE W S AND N O TES

1389

B y Shri
L. N . M ishra. (I n In d ia n L ab o r Jo u rn a l, G overn­
m en t of In d ia, L ab o r B ureau, D elhi, Ju n e 1961, pp.
463-466. 3sh.)

Springer. { I n Personnel a n d G uidance
W ashington, S eptem ber 1961, pp. 51-57.)

T a s k B e fo r e th e I n d i a n T r a d e U n io n M o v e m e n t.

By H elen B. Shaffer. W ashing­
to n , E d ito rial R esearch R ep o rts, 1961. 17 p p .
(1961, Vol. II, No. 2.) $2.

J o b s f o r Y o u n g P e o p le .

Personnel Management
N ew Y ork, A m erican
M anagem ent A ssociation, Personnel D ivision, 1961.
119 pp. (M anagem en t R ep o rt 63.) $3; $2 to AM A
m em bers.

T h e P e r s o n n e l J o b i n th e 1 9 6 0 ’s .

Social Security
S o c ia l S e c u r i t y A m e n d m e n ts o f 1 9 6 1 : S u m m a r y a n d L e g is ­

B y W ilbur J . Cohen a n d W illiam L.
M itchell. { I n Social Security B ulletin, U.S. D e­
p a rtm e n t of H ealth , E d u catio n , an d W elfare, Social
Security A dm inistration, W ashington, Septem ber
1961, p p . 3-11, 33. 25 cents, S u p erin ten d en t of
D ocum ents, W ashington.)
la tiv e H is to r y .

B y W . C. S eatter.
Personnel, A m erican M anag em en t Association,
N ew Y ork, S eptem b er-O cto b er 1961, pp. 16-29.
$1.75; $1.25 to A M A m em bers.)

M o r e E f fe c tiv e C o n tr o l o f A b s e n te e is m .
{In

O ld - A g e ,
M o r a le

F a c to r s

in

I n d u s tr ia l

M a n a g e m e n t:

The

E x a m i­

S u r v iv o r s ,

$ 6.
S o lv in g th e S h o r ta g e o f S p e c i a l i z e d P e r s o n n e l.

O ld - A g e ,

S u r v iv o r s ,

B y M ichael
E. E dm onds. ( I n M anag em en t R ecord, N atio n al
In d u stria l Conference B oard, Inc., N ew Y ork, Sep­
tem b er 1961, p p . 2-7.)

C o m p a n y M i l i t a r y L e a v e P r a c tic e s : A R e v ie w .

In d ex es, 195 9 .
W ashington,
U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, B ureau of L ab o r S ta­
tistics, 1961. 268 pp. (Bull. 1295.) $1.50, S uper­
in te n d e n t of D ocum en ts, W ashington.

G eneva, In te r­
n atio n al L abor Office, 1961. 280 pp. (Studies an d
R eports, N ew Series, 63.) $2.50. D istrib u te d in
U n ited S tates by W ashington B ranch of IL O .
S tu d ie s — A

V o c a tio n a l R e h a b ilita tio n : X I , A t t i -

to E m p lo y m e n t.
B y V era M yers
Schletzer and others. M inneapolis, U n iv ersity of
M innesota, In d u stria l R elations C enter, 1961. 76
p p. (Bull. 32.) Free.

tu d i n a l

D is a b ility

In su ra n ce:

E a r ly -

C o m m e n ts o n R e c e n t I m p o r t a n t W o r k m e n ’s C o m p e n s a tio n
C a ses.
By Joseph A. Page. { I n N A C C A Law

Jo u rn al, N a tio n a l A ssociation of C laim an ts’ C ounsel
of America, B oston, N ovem ber 1960 a n d M ay 1961,
p p . 235-286.)
A

R e v ie w o f
1 9 6 0 -6 1 .

[ R a ilr o a d R e tir e m e n t ] B o a r d
{ I n M onth ly R eview , U.S.

A c ti v i t i e s

in

R ailro ad R e­
tire m e n t B oard, Chicago, A ugust 1961, p p . 1-18.)

O u tlo o k f o r th e H a n d i c a p p e d — [ A S y m p o s i u m ].
{In
E m p lo y m en t S ecurity Review , U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of
L abor, B ureau of E m p lo y m en t S ecurity, U.S. E m ­
p lo y m en t Service, W ashington, S eptem ber 1961, pp.
3-32. 20 cents, S u p erin ten d en t of D ocum ents,
W ashington.)

M i n n e s o t a S tu d ie s i n

and

P r o v is io n s .

W ashington,
U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth , E d u catio n , a n d W elfare,
Social Security A dm inistration, B ureau of Old-Age
a n d S urvivors Insurance, 1961. 6 pp.

S y m p o s iu m .

Problems of Worker Groups
N ew

F in a n c in g

A m e n d m e n ts .

S o c ia l S e c u r i t y F a r m S t a t i s t i c s , 1 9 5 5 - 1 9 5 9 .

W h o le s a le P r ic e s a n d P r i c e

L iv in g

In su ra n ce:

U n d e r th e 1 9 6 1

B y M arice C. H a rt. { I n
Social S ecurity B ulletin, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth ,
E d u catio n , a n d W elfare, Social Security A dm inis­
tra tio n , W ashington, O ctober 1961, p p . 4r-13. 25
cents, S u p erin ten d en t of D ocum ents, W ashington.)
R e tir e m e n t

F a m ily

D is a b ility

By
R o b ert J. M yers. { I n Social Security B ulletin, U.S.
D e p a rtm e n t of H ealth , E d u catio n , a n d W elfare,
Social Security A dm inistration, W ashington, Sep­
tem b er 1961, pp. 12-19. 25 cents, S u p erin ten d en t of
D ocum ents, W ashington.)

B y G eorge Singer. N ew Y ork,
E xposition Press, Inc., 1961. 155 p p ., bibliography.

Prices and Consumption Economics

and

B a s is a n d P o lic y

n a tio n o f a C o n c e p t.

W ashington,
B ureau of N atio n al Affairs, In c., 1961. 13 pp.
(Personnel Policies F o ru m S urvey 62.) $1.

Jo u rn a l,

A m o u n ts o f R e tir e m e n t A n n u i t i e s , 1 9 6 0 , [ U n d e r th e R a i l ­
ro a d

R e tir e m e n t

A c t] .

R ailro ad R etire m e n t
1961, p p . 9-13.)

{ I n M o n th ly R eview , U.S.
B oard, Chicago, S eptem ber

C a l i f o r n i a ’s P u b l i c A s s is ta n c e M e d ic a l C a r e P r o g r a m : A n
o f I ts P e rfo rm a n c e , 1 9 5 7 -1 9 6 0 .
By
M arg aret Greenfield. [San Francisco], D e p a rtm e n t
of Social W elfare, 1961. 155 p p .
E x a m in a tio n

B a r r ie r s

R e m u n e r a tiv e H o m e w o r k f o r th e H o m e b o u n d C h r o n ic a lly III:
O b s e r v a tio n s

on

th e


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M e a n in g

of

W ork.

By D onald

U n e m p lo y m e n t

In su ra n ce

E x p e r ie n c e

in

C a le n d a r

Y ear

B y T h u rza B rannon. { I n L abor M a rk e t a n d
E m p lo y m en t Security, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor,
B ureau of E m p lo y m en t Security, W ashington, Sep­
tem b er 1961, p p . 6-9, 23. 30 cents, S u p erin ten d en t
of D ocum ents, W ashington.)

1960.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1390

Miscellaneous

Wages and Hours
B y A dolph L angsner
an d H e rb e rt G. Zollitsch. C incinnati, S o uth-W estern
Publishing Co., 1961. 726 pp., b ibliography. $7.50.

W a g e a n d S a la r y A d m in is tr a tio n .

jS o u r c e s o f O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e a n d S a l a r y R a te D i s p e r s io n
W i t h i n L a b o r M a r k e ts .
B y H . M. D o u ty . { I n
In d u stria l an d L abor R elations Review , Ith a c a ,
N .Y ., O ctober 1961, pp. 67-74. $1.75.)
A

D ir e c to r y

o f I n d u s tr y

W a g e S tu d ie s

and

U n io n

The

The E x p a n d ed P ro g ra m
n o m ic

o f T e c h n ic a l A s s is ta n c e f o r E c o ­

D e v e lo p m e n t

of

U n d e r -D e v e lo p e d

C o u n tr ie s .

New Y ork, U n ited N ations, T echnical A ssistance
B oard, 1961. 51 pp. (TA B, 1, R ev. 3.)

S c a le

W ashington, U.S. D e p artm e n t
of L abor, B ureau of L abor S tatistics, 1961. 25 pp.
Free.
S tu d ie s ,

D e v e lo p m e n t— A n a l y s i s a n d C a s e S t u d i e s .
By
A dam antios Pepelasis, Leon M ears, Irm a A delm an.
New Y ork, H a rp e r & B rothers, 1961. 620 pp., bib­
liography. $8.50.

E c o n o m ic

1 9 5 0 -6 0 .

W a g e P a tt e r n i n th e U n ite d S ta te s , 1 9 4 6 - 1 9 5 7 .
By
Jo h n E. M aher. { I n In d u stria l a n d L ab o r R elations
Review , Ith a c a , N .Y ., O ctober 1961, pp. 3-20.
$1.75.)

B y M a rtin P atch en .
Englew ood Cliffs, N .J., P rentice-H all, Inc., 1961.
123 pp., bibliography. (F o rd F o u n d a tio n D octoral
D issertation Series.) $4.50.

T h e C h o ic e o f W a g e C o m p a r is o n s .

E d ite d b y K laus K n o rr
a n d W illiam J. B aum öl. Englew ood Cliffs, N .J.,
P rentice-H all, Inc., 1961. 174 pp. $3.95, cloth;
$1.95, paper.

W h a t P r i c e E c o n o m ic G r o w th ?

A

A P ro p o sa l fo r P ro ­
W ashington, U.S. Senate,
Special C om m ittee on Aging, 1961. 20 pp. (C om ­
m ittee P rin t, 8 7 th Cong., 1st sess.) 15 cents, S uper­
in te n d e n t of D ocum ents, W ashington.

C o n s ta n t P u r c h a s in g P o w e r B o n d :
te c tin g R e tir e m e n t I n c o m e .

B y A nna C. Rogers. W ash­
ington, P ublic Affairs Press, 1961. 189 pp. $6.

G r a p h ic C h a r ts H a n d b o o k .

S o c ia l S c ie n c e .
E d ite d by D onald P. R ay.
N ew Y ork, P hilosophical L ib rary , 1961. 169 pp.
$4.75.

T hen an d N o w — A Second L ook.
By
Sidney G. T ick to n . N ew Y ork, F u n d for th e A d­
vancem ent of E du catio n , 1961. 45 pp.

T ren d s in

C o s ts a n d I n te r n a tio n a l T r a d e .
B y N. A rnold
Tolies and B e tti C. G oldw asser. W ashington,
C om m ittee for a N atio n al T rad e Policy, 1961. 43 pp.

F a c to r s A f f e c tin g E m p l o y m e n t a n d P a p e r s o n W o r ld A f f a i r s ,

T e a c h in g S a l a r i e s

L abor

D i s a r m a m e n t a n d J o b s : P r o c e e d in g s o f th e 1 3 th A n n u a l
I n d u s t r i a l R e la tio n s C e n te r L a b o r C o n fe re n c e , M a r c h

E d ited by W alter H . Uphoff. M in­
neapolis,
U n iversity of
M innesota,
In d u strial
R elations C enter, 1961. vi, 94 pp. (Bull. 33.)
$1.50, N icholson Book Store, U n iversity of M innesota,
M inneapolis.
2 3 -2 4 , 1961.

O c c u p a tio n a l W a g e S u r v e y : N e w

Y o rk , N .Y ., A p r il 1961.

W ashington, U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, B ureau of
L abor Statistics, 1961. 32 pp. (Bull. 1285-65.) 25
cents, S u p erin ten d en t of D ocum ents, W ashington.
O ther bulletins in th is series include:
C h ic a g o , III., A p r i l 1 9 6 1 __________
L u b b o c k , T e x ., M a y 1 9 6 1 _________
R o c k fo r d , I I I., M a y 1 9 6 1 __________
M u s k e g o n - M u s k e g o n H e ig h ts , M i c h .,
M a y 1 9 6 1 ______________________
P r o v i d e n c e - P a w t u c k e t , R . I —M a s s .,
M a y 1 9 6 1 _____________________
S a n A n t o n i o , T e x ., M a y 1 9 6 1 _____
P o r t l a n d , O r e g .- W a s h ., M a y 1 9 6 1 __
A t l a n t a , G a ., M a y 1 9 6 1 ----------------P a te r s o n - C lif to n -P a s s a ic , N .J . {B er­
g e n a n d P a s s a i c c o u n tie s ) , M a y
1 9 6 1 ___________________________
B e a u m o n t - P o r t A r th u r , T e x ., M a y
1 9 6 1 ___________________________
S a v a n n a h , G a ., M a y 1 9 6 1 _________
S p o k a n e , W a s h ., M a y 1 9 6 1 _______
H o u s to n , T e x ., M a y 1 9 6 1 _________
L a w r e n c e - H a v e r h ill,
M a s s . , - N . H .,
J u n e 1 9 6 1 ______________________
W o r c e s te r , M a s s ., J u n e 1 9 6 1 ______
A k r o n , O h io , J u n e 1 9 6 1 ___________
N o r fo lk -P o r ts m o u th a n d
N ew p o rt
N e w s - H a m p t o n , V a ., J u n e 1 9 6 H


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Bull. No.

Pages

Price
{cents)

L a b o r L a w s a n d T h e ir A d m i n i s t r a t i o n : P r o c e e d in g s o f the

1285-66
1285-67
1285-68

30
14
16

25
20
20

G o v e r n m e n ta l L a b o r O ffic ia ls , H e ld i n D e tr o it, M ic h .,

1285-69

16

20

1285-70
1285-71
1285-72
1285-73

26
24
18
20

25
25
20
20

1285-74

18

20

1285-75
1285-76
1285-77
1285-78

16
14
22
18

20
20
25
20

1285-79
1285-80
1285-81

16
18
18

20
20
20

1285-82

24

25

43d

C o n v e n tio n

o f th e

I n te r n a tio n a l

A s s o c ia tio n

of

2 9 - S e p t e m b e r 1, 1 9 6 0 .
W ashington, U.S.
D e p a rtm e n t of L abor, B ureau of L abor S tan d ard s,
1961. 182 pp. (Bull. 230.) 55 cents, S u p erin tend­
e n t of D ocum ents, W ashington.
A u gu st

C o n v e n tio n ,

R e c o m m e n d a tio n ,

R e s o lu tio n s

a n d A d d itio n a l

T e x ts A d o p t e d b y th e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r C o n fe re n c e
{ I n Official B ulletin, In te rn a tio n a l
L abor Office, G eneva, Vol. X L IV , No. 1, 1961. 30
cents. D istrib u te d in U nited S tates by W ashington
B ranch of ILO .)
a t i t s 4 5 th S e s s io n .

B ib l i o g r a p h y o f S o c ia l S c ie n c e P e r i o d i c a l s a n d M o n o g r a p h
C h in a , 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 6 0 .
W ashington,
U.S. D e p a rtm e n t of Comm erce, B u reau of th e Census,
1961. 32 pp. (Foreign Social Science B ibliographies,
Series P -9 2 , N o. 3.) 25 cents, S u p erin ten d en t of
D ocum ents, W ashington.

S e r ie s : M a i n l a n d

Current Labor Statistics
TABLES
A.

—Employment

1392
1393
1397
1401

A -l. Estimated total labor force classified by employment status and sex
A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry
A-3. Production workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry
A-4. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry division and selected
groups, seasonally adjusted
1401 A-5. Proauction workers in manufacturing industries, by major industry group, seasonally
adjusted
1402 A-6. Unemployment insurance and employment service program operations

B.

—Labor Turnover

1403 B—1. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group

C.
1406 C -l.
1418 C-2.
1418 C-3.
1419 C-4.
1421 C-5.
1421

C-6.

D.

—Earnings and Hours
Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by industry
Average weekly hours, seasonally adjusted, of production workers in selected industries
Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers in manufacturing,
by major industry group
Average overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by industry
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and pajTolls in industrial and construction
activities
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in manufacturing

—Consumer and Wholesale Prices

1422 D -l.
1423
1424
1426
1427

Consumer Price Index—All city average: All items, groups, subgroups, and special
groups of items
D-2. Consumer Price Index—All items and food indexes, by city
D-3. Indexes of wholesale prices, by group and subgroup of commodities
D-4. Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings
D-5. Indexes of wholesale prices, by stage of processing and durability of product

E. —Work Stoppages
1428 E -l.

Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes

F. —Work Injuries
F -l.

Injury-frequency rates for selected manufacturing industries 1

1 T h is ta b le is in c lu d e d in th e J a n u a r y , A p r il, J u ly , a n d O c to b e r is s u e s o f t h e Review.
o t e : W ith th e e x c e p tio n s n o te d , th e s ta tis tic a l series h ere are from th e B u r e a u o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s i n Techniques of Preparing Major B L S Statistical Series
( B L S B u ll. 1168, 1954), a n d c o v e r th e U n ite d S ta te s w it h o u t A la s k a a n d H a w a ii.

N

1391
6 1 9 4 8 4 — ¡61--------7


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1392

A.—Employment
T able A - l. Estimated total labor force classified by employment status and sex
[In thousands]
Estimated number of persons 14 years of age and over1

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

Annual average

1960

1961

Employment status

1959

1958

76,153 76, 790 74,059 73,216 73,540 72,894 72,361 73,079 73,746 73, 592

71,946

71,284

73,639 74,286 71, 546 70,606 71,011 70,360 69,837 70, 549 71,213 71,069
5,140 5,580 4, 768 4,962 5,495 5,705 5, 385 4,540 4,031 3, 579

69,394
3,813

68,647
4,681

6.2
6.3
1,840 1, 637
689
847
260
357
488
492
500
499
67,182 67, 490
61,616 61, 244
41,598 47, 545
14,484 8,371
3,687 3,369
1,746 1,957
5,666 6,247
3,666 4,296
1,341 1,447
492
398
167
106

5.5
1,658
778
335
46U
671
6Ö, 681
59, 745
45,068
8, 631
3,172
2,974
Ö, 836
3,852
1,356
442
186

6.8
1,833
959
438
785
667
63,966
58,122
44, 873
7,324
3,047
2,876
6,844
3,827
1,361
457
199

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.2 Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Total, both sexes
Total labor force.................................... - 74,345 73,670 75,610
OWilifln labor force__________ - ____ 71,759 71,123 73,081
Unemployment________________ 3,934 4.085 4,542
Unemployment rate, sea­
6.9
6.8
6.8
sonally adjusted».............
Unemployed 4 weeks or less__ 1,723 1,814 1,683
725
638 1,046
Unemployed 5-10 weeks_____
373
374
246
Unemployed 11-14 weeks___
527
497
517
Unemployed 15-26 weeks____
913
760
723
Unemployed over 26 weeks---Employment__________________ 67,824 67,038 68,539
Nonagricultural____________ 61, 860 61,372 62,215
Worked 36 hours or more... 47; 679 47,473 46,080
Worked 15-34 hours_____ 8,380 7,785 6,644
Worked 1-14 hours______ 3, 560 3, 369 3,071
With a job but not at work '. 2,240 2,747 6,421
Agricultural - _____________ 5, 964 5,666 6,325
Worked 35 hours or more__ 4, 212 3,835 4,279
Worked 15-34 hours_____ 1,189 1,243 1,345
517
405
449
Worked 1-14 hours____ -183
181
With a job but not at work <_ 114

6.6
6.8
6.8
6.9
6.9
6.9
6.8
1,995 2,857 1,672 1,600 1,729 2,063 2,200
827 1,097 1,408 1,281
851
845
1,243
564
407
610
806
303
330
268
696
950
647 1,008 1,205 1,063
608
674
643
923
799
928
907
1,026
68,499 68,706 66,778 65,734 65,516 64,655 64, 452
59,
818
59,947
60,734
60,
539
62,035
61,234
62, 046
44,981 47,803 47,927 47,650 47,301 45,341 47,132
7,414
8,952
7,536
7,522
7,081
7,
533
6,837
3,067 3, 466 3,858 3,736 3,900 3,722 3,483
7,162 3,688 1.916 1,811 1,816 1,933 1, 789
6,453 6, 671 5,544 5,000 4, 977 4,708 4,634
4,364 4, 405 3. 700 3,139 3,122 2.842 2,745
1,385 1,577 1,341 1,200 1,195 1,121 1,126
505
507
453
432
537
393
509
256
209
228
240
150
111
195

6.8
2,107
994
424
516
499
66,009
61, 059
47,675
8,044
3,589
1,752
4,950
3,015
1,163
535
237

Males
Total labor force................ ..................... 49,612 j 49,621 51,281
Civilian labor force------------------- ------ 47,059 47,107 48,784
Unemployment________________ 2,307 2,393 2,816
Employment__________________ 44,751 44,713 45,968
Nonagricultural______ -_____ 40,127 40,117 40,904
Worked 35 hours or more— 33, 422 33,192 32,819
Worked 15-34 hours.........- Z , 855 3,739 3,280
Worked 1-14 hours______ 1,434 1,436 1,381
With a Job but not at work «. 1 , 415 1,751 3, 425
4,625 4,597 5,064
Agricultural............. - ........—
Worked 35 hours or more— 3,520 3,344 3,716
843
713
800
Worked 15-34 hours....... 361
292
302
Worked 1-14 hours_____
144
100
150
With a Job bu t not at work

51, 540 51,614 49,753 49,299 49,309 49,109 49, 031 49,186 49,506
49,058 49JL42 47,272 46,812 46,812 46,608 46,539 46,688 47,005
3,092 3,303 3,033 3,270 3,709 3.887 3, 717 3,092 2,496
45,966 45,839 44,238 43,542 43,103 42,721 42, 822 43,596 44,509
40,874 40,598 39, 686 39,244 38,845 38,627 38,796 39,337 39,881
32,182 33, 758 33,286 32,895 32,506 31,531 32, 698 32,888 29,346
3,344 3,388 3,603 3,629 3,609 4,356 3, 534 3,806 7,993
1,344 1,485 1,638 1,596 1,624 1,552 1, 460 1,472 1,424
4,004 1,967 1,160 1,123 1,107 1,188 1,105 1,173 1,120
5,092 5,241 4, 553 4,298 4,258 4.094 4, 027 4,259 4,629
3,758 3,804 3, 325 2,889 2,849 2,609 2, 530 2,747 3,260
843
839
832
841
813
921
843
831
813
369
438
450
455
356
379
289
384
351
156
217
217
233
96
194
213
138
170

49,455

49,081

48,802

46,964
2,200
44,764
39,909
33,196
4,098
1,322
1,292
4, 855
3,675
786
294
99

46,562
2, 473
44,089
39,340
31,715
4, 405
1,378
1,840
4,749
3,421
823
336
170

46,197
3,1ÖÖ
43,042
38,240
31,390
3,736
1,329
1,784
4,802
3,413
857
353
179

Females
24,733 24,048 24,329 24,612 25,176 24,306 23,916 24,232 23,785 23,330 23,893 24,240
24, 700 24,016 24,297 24, 580 25TÎ44 24,274 23,884 2L199~ 23,752 23,298 23,861 24,208
Civilian labor force-----------------Unemployment--------- --------------- 1,627 1,692 1,726 2,048 2,277 1,734 1,692 1,786 1,818 1,669 1,448 1,536
Employment--------------- ---------— 23,073 22,325 22,571 22, 533 22,867 22, 540 22,192 22,413 21,934 21,630 22,413 22,672
Nonagricultural-------------------- 21,733 21,256 21,311 21,172 21,437 21,549 21,490 21, 695 21,321 21, 023 21,722 21,636
Worked 35 hours or more-- Hi 258 14,282 13,262 12,798 14,044 14,641 14,754 14,794 13,809 14,434 14,788 12,255
Worked 15-34 hours--------- 4,525 4,046 3,364 3,493 3,693 3,930 3,907 3,913 4,596 3,880 4,238 6,490
Worked 1-14 hours_______ 2,126 1,934 1,691 1,723 1,980 2,220 2,141 2,276 2,170 2, 023 2,117 2,264
684
626
709
579
744
688
756
996 2,995 3,158 1,721
825
With a Job but not at work«.
607
692 1,037
718
613
991
701
1,339 1,069 1,261 1,361 1,430
Agricultural— ................
406
215
268
235
602
375
250
273
562
607
693
491
Worked 35 hours or more..
497
314
324
354
289
656
499
369
502
572
476
442
Worked 15-34 hours..
123
67
57
80
76
103
69
156
159
158
103
157
Worked 1-14 hours—
11
22
20
15
15
24
14
13
39
26
15
32
With a job but not at work«.

Total labor force.

l Estimates are based on Information obtained from a sample of households
and are subject to sampling variability. Data relate to the calendar week
ending nearest the 15th day of the month. The employed total Includes all
wage and salary workers, self-employed persons, and unpaid workers In
family-operated enterprises. Persons In Institutions are not Included.
Because of rounding, sums of Individual Items do not necessarily equal
totals.
»Beginning In 1960, data Include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not
directly comparable with earlier data. The levels of the civilian labor force,
the employed, and nonagricultural employment were each increased by more
than 200,000. The estimates for agricultural employment and unemploy­
ment were aflected so slightly that these series can be regarded as entirely
comparable with pre-1960 data.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

24,138

22,865

22,482

24,106
1,379
22,726
21,333
14, 347
4,272
2,047
665
1,392
620
661
104
7

22,832
1,340
21, 492
20, 405
13,352
4,126
1,794
1,134
1,087
431
533
106
17

22,451
1,526
20,924
19,882
13,483
3, 689
1,718
1,093
1,042
414
504
104
20

» Unemployment as a percent of labor force.
* Includes persons who had a Job or business but who did not work during
the survey week because of illness, bad weather, vacation, or labor dispute.
Prior to January 1957, also Included were persons on layoff with definite
instructions to return to work within 30 days of layofl and persons who had
new Jobs to which they were scheduled to report within 30 days. Most of
the persons in these groups have, since that time, been classified as unem­
ployed.
N ote: For a description of these series, see Explanatory Notes (in Employ­
ment and Earnings, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics
current Issues).

1393

A.— EM PLOY M ENT

Table A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.

[Inthousands]
1961

A nnual
average

1960

Industry
Oct. 2
T o t a l e m p l o y e e s ........................................................
M in in g ______________________________________
M e ta l m in in g ____________ _________________
I ro n o res_________________________________
C o p p er o re s................ ...........................................

Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

55,26C 55,092 54,538 54,227 54,42Ç 53, 708 53,171 52,785 52,523 52,864 54, 706 54, 59E 54,882 54,347 53,380
677
8 8 .'
29.'
29. 6

677
85.8
26.5
29.6

672
.'
28.0
29.3

678
.
27.8
29.5

87. i
27.4
29.0

657
85.8
26.6
28.3

654
.;
27.0
28.2

155.8
145.7

154.2
144.0

153.9
143.7

142.9
132.8

153.5
143.2

153.2
143.0

153.3
142.4

C ru d e p e tr o le u m a n d n a tu r a l g a s ________
C r u d e p e tr o le u m a n d n a tu r a l g a s fie ld s.
O il a n d g a s fie ld s e r v ic e s _______________ ............

312.0
178.7
133.3

314.9
180.6
134.3

318.0
180. Í
137.8

314.4
178.:
136.2

309.9
175.4
134.5

Q u a r r y in g a n d n o n m e ta llic m in in g ........... ..

119.7

121.9

122.3

122.5

121.7

117.6

C o n tr a c t c o n s tr u c tio n _______________________
G e n e r a l b u ild in g co n tr a c to r s............................
H e a v y c o n s t r u c t io n .......................................
H ig h w a y an d str e e t c o n s tr u c tio n ______
O th er h e a v y c o n s tr u c tio n ______________
S p e c ia l tra d e c o n tr a c to r s.............. ................. ........

3,014

C o a l m in in g ...................................... .......................
B it u m in o u s _________ _____ _______________

Feb.

67C
.

88

88

88

668

26.6
28.3

89. S
28.3
30.0

682
91. (
29.8
30.3

695
90.7
29.
30.4

706
93.6
32.5
30.3

709
93.Í
33.2
28.3

731
83.6
27.7
23.3

157.5
147.4

163.2
151.6

163.9
152.0

167.1
155.2

170.7
158.0

175.0
161.5

182.2
168.2

196.8
178.3

306.1
175.3
130.8

304.5
175.4
129.1

304.4
176. <
127.5

306.3
177. 6
128.7

310.5
178.8
131.7

311.9
179.4
132.5

311.9
179.7
132.2

313.9
181.7
132.2

330.9
186.4
144.5

1 1 2 .2

106.0

102.3

106.2

113.6

1 2 1 .6

125.9

119.5

119.6

86

656
8 6 .2

666

3,046 3,075 3,023 2,971 2,775 2,619 2,454 2,342 2,457 2,630 2,942 3,110 2,882 2,955
945.2 961.4 940.8 923.1 860.0 816.6 766. i 728. ( 774.6 831.4 922.7 963.7 911.
960.1
679.1 679.9 6 6 8 . 8 653.8 589.6 515.5 446.0 413.9 438.7 493.4 613.2 680.7 581.3 585.8
388.2 392. C 383. 5 370.5 320.5 262.7 2 1 1 . c 185.5 199.7 234. Í 324.Í 373.2 302.4 312.7
290.9 287. { 285.2 283. £ 269.1 252.8 234.7 228.'! 239.0 258.6 288. < 307.5 278. f 273.0
1, 421. 9 1,433.5 1,413.4 1,394.0 1,325.8 1,286.6 1, 241.0 1,199. 9 1,243.4 1,305.5 1, 405.9 1, 466.0 1,388.8 1,409. 5

M a n u fa c tu r in g ______________________________ 16,598 16,664 16,531 16,268 16,320 16,076 15,904 15,866 15,838 15,933 16,213 16,538 16,739 16,762 16,667
D u r a b le g o o d s . . ................................................. 9,217 9,202 9,083 9,051
9 ,1Ò6 8,996 8,836 8 , 775 8,769 8 , 867 9,036 9,224 9, 299 9,441 9,369
N o n d u r a b le g o o d s .. ...................................... 7,381 7,462 7,448 7,217 7,214 7,080 7,068 7,091
7,069 7,066 7,177 7,314 7,440 7,321 7,298

Durable goods
206.5

203.9
103.6
52.7
47.6

2 0 2 .1

2 0 1 .6

103.9
51.3
46.9

104.0
51.1
46.5

199.2
103.0
50.2
46.0

197.6
102.4
49.5
45.7

632.0
108.7
275.3

634.0
105.4
278.6

628.9
104.5
278.6

630.9
104.3
278.9

147.5
41.5
59.0

149.5
41.7
58.8

145.8
41.7
58.3

F u r n itu r e a n d fix tu r e s .........................................
380.2
H o u s e h o ld fu r n itu r e ____________________
O ffice fu r n itu r e _________________________
P a r titio n s ; office a n d s to r e fix tu r e s _____
O th er fu r n itu r e a n d f ix tu r e s ........................ ............

380.2
267.8
28.3
37.7
46.3

374.0
262.7
28.1
37.4
45.8

S to n e , c la y , a n d g la ss p r o d u c t s ......................
585.8
F la t g la s s ________________________________
G la ss a n d g la ssw a r e, p ressed or b l o w n ...
C e m e n t, h y d r a u lic ______________________
S tr u c tu r a l c la y p r o d u c t s .............. ..................
P o t t e r y a n d r e la te d p r o d u c ts ___________
C on c rete, g y p su m , an d p la ster p r o d u c ts.
O th er s to n e a n d m in e r a l p r o d u c ts ______ ............

589.1
29.2
103.6
41.3
73.6
44.6
159.6
122.3

590.6
28.6
103.4
41.7
74.1
43.7
162.0
122.5

O r d n a n c e a n d a cc e sso r ie s_________________
A m m u n itio n , e x c e p t for s m a ll a r m s____
S ig h tin g an d fire c o n tr o l e q u ip m e n t ___
O th er o r d n a n c e a n d a cc esso ries.................

L u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c ts, e x c e p t
fu r n itu r e ..............................................................
621.0
L o g g in g c a m p s a n d lo g g in g c o n tr a c to r s.
S a w m ills a n d p la n in g m ills _____________ ............
M illw o r k ,
p ly w o o d ,
and
r e la te d
p r o d u c ts ...............................................................
W o o d e n c o n ta in e r s ...........................................
M isc e lla n e o u s w o o d p r o d u c ts .....................

___

49.6
43.6

196.6
101.5
50.0
45.1

195.8
100.4
50.5
44.9

195.2
99.0
51.6
44.6

194.7
98.4
52.1
44.2

192.9
96.9
52.3
43.7

188.1
95.3
49.0
43.8

187.3
93.9
50.0
43.4

173.0
86.5
45.0
41.5

602.8
89.5
271.6

581.1
80.9
263.6

558.8
73.6
254.6

557.4
76.2
252.4

568.3
77.7
259.9

583.0
80.8
267.5

611.8
89.4
283.0

637.5
97.0
293.2

636.8
92.6
294.7

660.9
94.4
306.9

146.3
42.6
58.8

141.7
42.2
57.8

138.3
40.9
57.4

134.0
39.9
56.7

132.1
39.6
57.1

133.9
39.5
57.3

137.0
40.3
57.4

139.4
41.6
58.4

145.1
42.8
59.4

146.6
43.2
59.6

156.1
43.8
59.8

363.1
254.9
27.0
36.3
44.9

364.3
255.4
27.2
36.5
45.2

359.1
252.6
26.5
35.7
44.3

359.5
255.2
26.6
34.6
43.1

357.7
252.8
26.7
36.0
42.2

357.2
252.8
26.6
35.9
41.9

356.5
251.1
27.3
36.0
42.1

366.5
257. 8
27.8
36.9
44.0

378.7
267.6
28.4
38.2
44.5

386.2
272.1
29.0
39.5
45.6

383.4
271.1
28.3
39.0
45.1

384.9
277.5
26.7
36.6
44.2

583.5
27.7
101.7
42.4
74.1
41.6
160.3

581.7
26.5
101.7
42.2
73.1
42.9
159.5
121.5

569.3
26.7

555.6
25.7
99.8
40.1
69.9
42.9
145.8
117.4

541.7
26.7
99.4
37.5
67.1
42.8
138.3
115.6

531.2
26.7
98.1
36.5
64.8
43.1
133.1
114.5

539.1
28.8
96.3
38.0

559.9
30.2
98.6
39.5
69.7
43.7
143.9
118.6

582.1
29.3
101.3
41.0
72.9
45.4
154.3
121.9

596.9
29.9
102.9
42.8
74.8
46.7
160.3
123.5

595.3
31.1
102.9
42.8
76.1
47.1
155.4
124.0

601.7
33.7
99.4
43.9
77.7
47.8
157.9
124.6

1 2 1 .1

1 0 1 .0

40.9
71.7
42.9
153.0
118.9

196.0
1 0 2 .8

6 6 .1

43.2
137.4
115.4

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r i e s ...............................T 1,189.9 1,184.5 1,168.4 1,155. 5 1,154.0 1,130. 6 1,099.1 1,088.4 1,085.8 1,095.3 1 , 1 1 0 . 6 1,131.6 1,155.9 1,228. 7 1,181.9
B la s t fu rn a ce a n d b a sic s te e l p r o d u c t s ..
631.8 621.7 616.8 609.9 596.8 575.0 563.4 556.9 555.1 560.7 576.1 593.2 652.5 587.5
Iro n a n d s te e l fo u n d r ie s..................................
188.1 187.4 186.2 187.0 184.2 179.9 180.8 182.5 186.9 191.3 193.8 196.4 203.6 2 1 1 . 6
N o n fe r r o u s s m e ltin g a n d r e fin in g .............
67.7
68.3
6 8 .0
67.8
65.7
65.0
65.5
6 6 .0
6 8 .0
68.3
68.5
69.5
70.8
6 8 .0
N o n fe rro u s
r o llin g ,
d r a w in g ,
and
e x tr u d in g _____________________________
174.3 171.8 166.7 169.1 166.1 164.4 164.1 164.9 167.4 170.5 171.7 173.3 175.6 184.5
N o n fe r r o u s fo u n d r ie s ____________________
63.2
61.3
60.0
61.8
60.4
58.9
58.7
59.3
60.7
61.8
62.5
63.9
65.1
6 8 .0
M isc e lla n e o u s p rim a r y m e ta l in d u s tr ie s .
59.4
57.9
58.4
57.8
57.4
56.2
57.2
55.9
55.9
58.0
59.0
59.6
61.1
62.3

___

F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c ts _______________ 1,098. 7 1,094. 9 1,088. 6 1,067.1 1,082.3 1,071.4 1,044. 7 1,034.1 1,039. 6 1,061. 5 1,083. 7 1,109.3 1,128.3 1,128. 6 1 . 1 2 0 . 8
M e ta l c a n s ______________________________
63.0
64.3
63.6
62.6
61.8
60.6
59.1
57.9
57.1
57.9
58.4
60.3
62.5
62.5
C u tle r y , h a n d to o ls, a n d g en er a l h a r d ­
w a r e _____________________________ _____
130.0 129.5 125.5 129.2 128.3 1 2 1 . 6 124.6 126.4 130.0 132.8 134.3 135.1 136.0 135.4
H e a tin g e q u ip m e n t a n d p lu m b in g fix ­
tu r e s .......................................................................
77.2
77.4
75.1
72.4
75.6
74.6
73.3
73.9
74.4
76.7
73.0
78.4
79.0
81.0
F a b r ic a te d str u c tu r a l m e ta l p r o d u c ts . .
339.3 334.0 330.3 330.0 322.5 318.1 312.8 313.5 319.1 327.4 334.3 340.6 334.3 331.9
S c r e w m a c h in e p r o d u c ts, b o lts , e t c _____
81.4
80.7
79.4
79.4
79.9
78.5
77.3
77.6
78.6
79.3
81.8
82.9
85.6
86.7
M e ta l s ta m p in g s .................. ..............................
175.4 175.5 169.4 180.0 181.9 174.6 170.0 173.8 183.7 189. 7 197.3 199.8 197.7 189.1
C o a tin g , e n g r a v in g , a n d a llied s e r v ic e s ..
66.9
64.9
63.5
64.6
63.8
61.9
60.3
59.5
59.6
61.8
63.8
65.0
64.2
63.2
M isc e lla n e o u s fa b ric a ted w ire p r o d u c ts .
54.2
54.2
52.9
53.4
52.2
53.1
53.0
52.0
50.8
51.8
54.3
55.6
56.9
56.5
M iscellaneous fab ric a ted m e ta l p r o d u c ts.
107.5 108.1 107.4 107.0 107.0 105.6 105.6 105.7 106.6 107.2 108.4 1 1 0 . 6 l 112.4 114. 6

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1394
T able

A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
Revised series ; see box, p. 1400.

[in thousands]

A nnual
average

1960

1961
In d u stry
O ct.2 Sept.2 Aug.

Ju ly

June

M ay

A pr.

M ar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct

1960

1959

Manufac turing—C ontinued
D u ra b le

pood*—C ontinued

M achinery— .................................... ............ 1,398.8
Engines and tu rb in es..............—............ F arm m achinery and equipm ent...........
C onstruction and related m ach in ery ...
M etalw orking m achinery and eq u ip ­
m en t____________________________
Special in d u stry m achinery------------ General industrial m achinery-----------Office, com puting, and accounting
m achines---------- ------------ -------------Service in d u stry m achines----------------M iscellaneous m achinery.................
Electrical equipm ent and supplies......... 1,474. 6
Electric distribution e q u ip m en t............
Electrical industrial apparatus_______
H ousehold appliances------------ ---------Electric lighting and wiring equipm ent.
Kadio and T V receiving sets------------ Com m unication equipm ent--------------Electronic components and accessories ..
M iscellaneous electrical equipm ent and
supplies__________________________

398. 5 1,389.3 1,394. 8 1,405.3 1,406. 5 1,407.3 1,404. 8
80.1
80.
81.0
78.4
77.9
79.3
80.7
105. 6 102.7 108.7 113.9 120.5 124.1 123.5
196.1
200.2 201.8 199.6 200.5 199.4 198.0
243.7
167.1

239.7
166.6

211.0

212.0

150.3
90.9
149.0

150.5
89.0
147.

240.2
166.9
213.1
149.5
93.8
145.1

241.9
168.7
212.3
149.1
95.1
145.4

240.1
167.8
209. 2
147.9
98.2
142.6

406.3 1.404.1 1,409.3 1,415.3 1,418.9
76.
82.1
81.1
82.0
80.1
120.9 116.0 112.9 108.6 108.7
195.8 195.4 197.2 200.5 205.8

114.1
219.7

1,450.5
89.9
122.7
225.5

244.2
167.6
206.4

244.8
168.6
206.9

246.8
169.5
207.7

246.2
169.7
209.9

245.9
171.1

246.3
172.4
214.5

247.1
171.7
218.2

258.2
173.8
223.0

244.7
164.9

211.8

148.4
96.8
140.8

147.6
96.3
140.9

147.9
96.0
141.6

148.2
95.2
142.4

148.0
95.1
145.3

148.2
96.5
146.2

147.6
95.8
147.1

145. 7
99.8
150.4

138.1
97.3
147.5

220.1

, 456. 8 1,443. 3 1,416.8 1,423.0 1,413.2 1,401.1 1,404.4 1,410.5 1,414.9 1,421.5 1,448.4 1,418.7 1,445.6 1.391.4
162.0 162.3 160.7 160.4 158.8 158.8 159.2 160.3 161.6 162.5 162.2 154.3 163.2 156.8
173.0 171.7 170.7 171.2 169.5 167.8 167.9 168.0 169.4 170.2 172.0 165.0 177.4 174.7
154. 2 150.0 148.7 150.9 150.2 149.4 148.7 148.3 146.6 148.3 152. 8 147.5 157.2 157.6
129.1 130.9 126.7 127.3 126.0 125.5 125.5 126.0 126.4 129.4 131.1 125.2 132.7 133.2
114.4
99.5 112.0 115.6 111
98.5 100.3 103.4 102.9
126.6 120.6 111.7 107.9 104.2
380.8 375.0 371.9 373.8 372.2 372.5 373.7 375.6 377.5 380.5 379.9 374.1 366.9 336.1
227.4 226.9 222.9 225.8 226.8 225.9 224.8 223.3 222.0 218.8 225.3 225.3 225.2 211.3
103.7

105.9

103.5

105.7

105.5

102.7

104.3

105.6

108.5

112.3

113.1

111.7

111.4

107.3

1,504. 8 , 510.6 1,451.9 1,521. 5 l, 534. 9 1,526. 4 1,482.4 1,484.3 1,482.2 1.533.1 1,587.0 1,605.3 1,605.0 1,617.3 1.670.4
T ransportation equipm ent—.................
730.2 727.6 693.2
629.4 587.1 660.6 670.0 658.9 613.0 610.3 614.0 664.3 715.1 728.
M otor vehicles and equ ip m en t----------674.6 660.5 661.4 659. 9 661.5 664.0 668.0 664.8 663.1 663.7 663.4 655.8 673.8 755.4
A ircraft and p a rts-------------------------143.8 141.0 146.4
143.3
141.9
142.9
141
143.9
143.2
142.7
140.4
136.9
140.7
142.5
Ship and boat building a n d repairing
40.9
43.8
44.3
41.9
38.8
36.5
40.0
35.1
34.1
34.2
35.2
34.5
35.4
36.1
Eailroad eq u ip m en t...............................
34.4
31.1
30.9
28.1
26.3
24.0
25.4
27.0
28.1
29.1
29.4
28.1
28.2
28.0
O ther transportation equ ip m en t........
345.2
354.2
351.3
351.3
343.9
341.1
340.2
347.0
340.2
342.4
345.2
343.5
348.4
351.3
350.2
In stru m en ts and related p ro d u c ts............
72.3
75.7
75.4
75.8
75.7
76.0
75.4
75.5
74.6
74.3
73.9
72.1
74.2
73.0
Engineering and scientific instrum ents.
M echanical m easuring and control
92.8
95.1
92.2
91.1
91.1
90.8
90.4
90.5
91.1
90.0
91.3
91.2
91.5
92.6
devices----------------------------------------40.6
39
39.0
40.1
39.1
38.4
38.3
38.2
38.5
38.9
39.4
39.1
39.7
39.7
Optical and ophthalm ic goods..........
Surgical, medical, and dental equip­
45.4
47.3
47.7
47.7
47.2
47.4
47.5
47.2
47.0
47.3
47.5
47.3
47.7
48.0
m e n t________________ _____ ______
67.5
70.5
70.4
69.0
68.9
68.2
67.6
67.1
67.1
67.3
68.4
68.5
69.4
68.9
Photographic equipm ent and supplies.
28.2
26.2
26.6
25.7
24.7
23.4
21.9
22.4
22.3
23.5
24.7
25.3
27.1
27.9
W atches and clocks_________________
411.8 392.1 388.0
M iscellaneous m anufacturing in d u stries.. 406.9 400.6 392.4 375.0 385.4 376.8 368.7 364.2 362.2 355.0 373.0 396.
43.2
43.2
44.4
42.
44.0
42.0
41.9
41.4
41.2
41.0
41.0
39.5
41.8
42.6
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w a re ...
98.0
89.1 105.8 116.0 102.3
79.3
85.3
89.4
95.9
115.4 112.3 104.7 106.3 102.3
Toys, am usem ent, and sporting goods
30.9
31.4
31.0
32.0
30.3
30.
30.3
30.1
29.9
30.2
30.8
30.9
32.0
32.1
Pens, pencils, office and a rt m aterials.
59.4
56.2
57.5
58.3
54.7
51.8
52.8
51.9
50.9
51.8
54.5
52.8
55.5
55.9
Costum e jewelry, buttons, and notions.
154.6 150.8 147.1 152.8 151.5 150.8 151.4 151.9 151.6 155.4 159.5 161.1 158.1 156.5
O ther m anufacturing industries.............
N o n d u r a b le go o d s

, 700. 6 1,753.9 1,809.0 1,895.2 , 792. 7 1,790.3
Food and k indred products------------------ 1,851.4 1,923. 5 1,919.1 1,825. 7 1,778.2 1,707.9 1,697. 2 1, 688.2 1,681
319.3 326.4 327.7 321.1 316.7
320.7 319.8 322.1 323.7 315.2 309.7 307.7 307.7 313.
M eat products...........................................
304.6 308.2 310.2 314.2 316.6 317.5
304.9
308.2
323.4
311.1
313.9
318.6 325.2 326.1
D airy products_____________________
C anned and preserved food, except
235.5 304.5 241.8 245.1
365.7 352.4 264.5 222.9 195.1 196.0 189.6 183.0 186.5 202.
m eats____________________________
132.8 134.2 133.8 132.2 126.7 125.0 125.3 124.8 126.2 127.0 126.8 130.2 128.4 133.5
Grain mill products-------------------------309.2
308.1
303.7
303.0
311.1 307. 5 302.2
303.3
302.3
305.1
309.4
306.4 309.8 310.1
B akery products----------------------------38.2
36.9
49.3
44.4
47.0
31
29.7
38.0
31.4
28.7
29.0
29.7
31.1
31.2
Sugar...........................................................
79.0
79.6
87.7
87.5
86.9
78.7
80.4
77.7
72.4
72.6
75.9
71.9
81.5
83.2
Confectionery and related p ro d u c ts ...
223.4 225.2 227.4 221.1 212.3 210.9 208.5 206.1 207.9 214.1 217.9 224.7 218.2 215.0
B everages.----------------------- ----- -------M iscellaneous food and kindred prod'
141.5 139.9 140.1 140.6 138.3 138.4 138.2 140.3 141.2 143.0 146.2 148.1 142.8 143.1
ucts— ....................................................
94.6
94.1
114.5
96.1
92.3
88.3
83.3
78.7
77.3
78.2
76.0
Tobacco m anufactures_________________ 103.8 118.9 100.0
36.7
37.2
37.2
37.2
36.8
36.
36.7
37.0
36.5
36.6
37.5
37.2
37.5
37.3
Cigarettes.....................................................
29.5
28.2
28.1
27.9
27.5
26.4
26.1
25.7
25.0
25.1
24.9
22.8
24.1
24.5
Textile mill products__________________
C otton broad woven fabrics--------------Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics..
W eaving and finishing broad w oolens..
N arrow fabrics and small w ares..............
K n ittin g ______ _______ ___ _____ . . . . .
Finishing textiles, except wool and b n itFloor covering______________________
Y arn and th read ____________________
M iscellaneous textile goods......................
S ee fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le ;


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

892.3

891.0
250.6
70.6
53.7
27.0
216.7
70.8
33.2

889.0
249.6
70.5
53.9
26.6
217.4
70.6
32.7

102.1

102.0

66.3

65.7

874.6
248.5
68.7
54.3
26.1
212.2

69.8
31.0
99.6
64.4

887.0
250.8
69.1
55.2
26.4
216.
70.9
32.2
101.1

64.7

877.8
249.7
68.6

53.7
26.4
212

70.6
32.4
99.9
63.8

871.3
250
68.7
52.3
26.2
209.4
70.6
32.1
98.7
62.8

865
251.2
68.9
51.1
25.9
204.7
70.4
33.8
98.4
61.3

864.5
252.4
69.7
51.0
26.1
200.5
70.3
34.2
98.0
62.3

864.9
254.4
70.7
49.2
26.1
197.7
70.7
34.4
97.6
64.1

877.9
255
71.9
49.1
26.3
203.2
72.1
35.1
99.3
65.2

892.0
256.4
72.1
50.3
26.
212.5
72.4
35.0
100.5

900.1
257.3
72.2
51
26.8
216.4
72.8
35.0

914.6
260.4
73.4
56.0
27.6
214.4
74.3
35.
101.1 103.7
66.91 69.0

942.9
264.7
74.4
60.4
28.5
219.6
76.4
37.1
108.6
73.3

A.—EMPLOYMENT

T able

1395

A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
[In thousands]

R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

1961

1960

Annual
average

Industry
Oct. 3

Sept. 2

Aug.

July

Apr.

Mar.

3 1,178.
5 112.
5 295.

1, 213.
117.
295.

Feb.

Jan.

Oct.

1960

1959

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods— Continued
Apparel and related products_________ 1,219.
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats......... .
M en’s and boys’ furnishings_________
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear___________________________
W omen’s and children’s undergar­
ments___________ _______________
Hats, caps, and millinery____________
Girls’ and children’s outerwear_______
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel...
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prod­
ucts........................ ..............
Paper and allied products.........................
Paper and p u lp .........................................
Paperboard___________ _____________
Converted paper and paperboard
products_______________________
Paperboard containers and boxes_____

598.0

Printing, publishing, and allied industries.
Newspaper publishing and printing...
Periodical publishing and printing___
Books____ ________________________
Commercial printing________________
Bookbinding and related industries...
Other publishing and printing indus­
tries................................. .......

935.2

356.0

333.0

331.9

335.44

121.7
34.3
74.6
73.6

120.3
37.6
77.9
73.8

112.1

2

32.7
77.2
69.2

115.6
32.5
76.4
70.8

2
0

138.8

139.3

131.8

136.1

134.44

597.3
226.8
66.2

595.
228.1
67.1

588.5
225.7

593.6
227.9

126.8
177.5

125.0
175.

123.
172.1

931.3
340.0
70.7
74.7
291.4
47.9

926.0
339.2
69.9
74.1
288.7
47.9

925.6
339.
70.4
72.2
289.0
47.7

66.8

361.

347.0

347.2

362.5

352.4

361.3

369.0

116.
40.
73. 8
66.7

115.7
40.7
75.7
65.4

112.3
36.6
72.9
61.3

117.2
34.1
70.5

121.6

122.5
36.1
74.6
73.

119.7
36.2
76.1
69.4

119.0
37.5
75.4
71.2

136.

132.7

129.1

130.9

136.0

139.1

139.7

136.

136.2

9
1

581.
221.
67.0

580.1
221.5
67.2

578.2
2 2 0 .'
67.1

581.9

586.2
224.0
67.4

593. 9
225. 5
67.9

597.4
226.3
6 8 .8

593.3
224.4
69.3

584.9
217.7
70.6

123.7
173.8

6

1 2 2 .8

1 2 2 .1

1 2 1 .2

169. 6

169.3

122.0

124.1
178.2

124.4
175.1

123.2
173.3

924.
340.2
70.4
72.6
288.5
47.0

2

921.3
337. 7
71.4
72. Í
288.3
46.4

924.5
337.4
72.2
72.0
289.9
47.0

930.6
336.4
71.8
72.2
292.
47.6

917.2
332.6
71.0
71.1
289.2
47.0

889.5
320.0
69.8
67.0
283.5
45.4

104.8

1

6

68.2

2 2 2 .1

67.5

66.6

33.3
73.0
73.1

169.0

121.9
170.4

172.8

123.4
177.1

920.6
335.6
72.6
71.6
287.8
46.8

919.0
336.3
72.8
71.6
287.5
46.4

928.1
338.8
72.6
72.1
291.4
46.1

933.0
338.7
72.1
72.1
293.0
47.6

106.2

106.5

106.2

105.2

106.0

106.2

104.4

107.1

109.5

109.7

106.3

103.8

833.1
288.0
152.
107.3
97.2
64.0
40.1
83.6

832.0
285.8
152.1
107.1
97.6
63.4
43.0
83.0

830.9
282.4
150.3
105.3
95.3
62.0
54.5
81.1

823.1
282.0
149.1
105.2
94.0
61.3
51.1
80.4

815.9
282.2
149.0
105.0
93.5
61.0
45.1
80.1

817.9
283.8
149.4
106.4
93.0
61.4
43.9
80.0

821.1
285.3
150.9
107.0
92.3
61.9
42.5
81.2

824.1
285.8
151.7
107.0
94.3
62.5
41.0
81.8

827.0
286.3
150.8
107.0
95.3
63.2
42.4
82.0

829.6
286.8
153.2
107.4
92.2
63.5
44.8
81.8

809.6
279.2
149.1
104. 5
89.0
62.3
45.3
80.2

204.4

205.7
170.7
35.0

207.4
171.8
35.6

204.5
169.6
34.

207.9
172.9
35.0

204.0
172.1
31.9

202.4
171.8
30.6

201.5
171.7
29.8

203.0
172.0
31.0

204.5
173.1
31.4

207.1
173.8
33.3

209.9
174.9
35.0

211.7
177.6
34.1

215.3
181.4
34.0

384.7

379.4
102.9
154.8
121.7

369.2
100.3
150.3
118.6

361.7

363.6
100.5
148.8
114.3

358.0
99.3
146.4
112.3

351.6
98.6
143.0

350.7
97.9
144.2
108.6

355.5
101.3
146.6
107.6

361.8

1 1 0 .0

349.2
99.2
141. 7
108.3

149.3
109.

367.0
104.4
149.2
113.4

373.6
105.1
154.6
113.9

374.0
106.8
153.3
113.8

371.4
105.0
153.2
113.3

364.0
33.2
243.0
87.8

353.4
32.9
236.4
84.1

353.5
32.5
235.1
85.9

360.9
32.3
241.3
87.3

364.2
32.4
244.7
87.1

360.5
33.4
243.2
83.9

360.8
33.8
241.2
85.8

364.1
33.9
239.1
91.1

363.2
34.1
237.0
92.1

365.8
34.1
242.6
89.1

374.6
36.4
247.5
90.6

3,945
826.5
725.5
266.0
92.2
104.
49.6
880.3
197.3
174.4
22.7
307.0
828.5
697.1
37.2
92.3
616.4
254.7
154.3
176.4
31.0

3,891
813.3
713.0
270.4
92.4
106.3
48.4
852.8
196.0
172.5

3,870
808.9
708.1
272.7
92.1
109.8
47.5
837.1
193.6
171.5

3,872
807.4
706.0
278.3
92.0
116.9
46.6
840.4
190.9
169.4

3,871
810. 7
708.5
282.3
92.1

3,888
811. 9
710.3
283.9
92.3

3,966
843.7
734.6
284.6
92.3

3,992
845.1
742.6
283.9
93.1
120.7
47.3
895.8
191.4
170.9
22.5
306.1
836.6
703.6
38.3
92.8
610.6
252.7
153.3
174.9
29.7

4,015
863.7
759.8
280.1
92.2
118.0
47.4
900.0
192.0
172.1

4,017 4,010
886.9 925.2
780.5 815.2
282.6 281.1
94.6
96.8
120.4 118.9
47.2
47.6
873.8 848.2
191.0 179.7
171.
160.9
23.1
24.3
308.0 303.4
838.7 836.6
706.0 707.1
38.3
39.0
92.4
88.9
613.0 611.6
254.3 254.3
153.4 153.7
175.0 173.7
30.3
30.0

101.1

147.0
113.6

Leather and leather products___________
Leather tanning and finishing________
Footwear, except rubber.......................
Other leather products_______________

357.2

361.0
33.5
235.7
91.8

369.0
33.2
243. 7
92.1

359.7
32.4
240.5

Transportation and public utilities_______
Railroad transportation________________
Glass I railroads____________________
Local and interurban passenger transit...
Local and suburban transportation___
Taxicabs___________________________
Intercity and rural bus lines_______HI
Motor freight transportation and storage.
Air transportation____________________
Air transportation, common carriers...
Pipeline transportation__ ____ ________
Other transportation_________________
Communication______ _____ __________
Telephone communication___________
Telegraph communication..................
Radio and television broadcasting...
Electric, gas, and sanitary services___
Electric companies and systems____
Gas companies and systems_______
Combined utility systems_________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems.

3,882

3,985
825.3
723.4
266.
91.0
104.8
49.2
919.3
203.
181.2
21.9
306.1
824.1
693.6
37.1
91.5
617.6
254.2
155.4
177.3
30.7

3,971
835.0
733.0
257.1
91.2
103.7
50.0
891.0
202.9
180.4

3,977
832.5
730.8
257.7
91.0
104.5
50.1
891.0


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

370.

116.
31.69.
66.

838.1
288.8
153.7
108.0
98.2
64.0
40.6
84.8

Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods-I.I-.III
Paints, varnishes, and allied products..

See footnotes at end of table.

351.

106.6

Agricultural chemicals____________
Other chemical products__________

Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts.____ ______________________
Tires and inner tubes________________
Other rubber products_____________
Miscellaneous plastic products______

348.2

1,203. 1,170.1 1,186. 6 1,224. 7 1, 228. 9 1,228.4 1,224.9
119.' 1 2 0 . 1 120.3 121.6 122. 6 121. 5 118.8
295.7 289.0 294.7 300.5 307.1 307.5 297.9

835.7
286.1
153.3
107.4
98.3
63.3
42.3
85.0

Chemicals and allied producst_________
Industrial chemicals_________________
Plastics and synthetics, except glass___
Drugs________ ______ _______________

Petroleum refining and related industries
Petroleum refining__________________
Other petroleum and coal products..!.'

1,217.8 1, 233. 9 1,167. 5 1,184. 6
117.4 117.9 112.5 117.5
309.2 311.1 299.0 303.8

820.3

608.1

86.8

201.2

178.

22.6

2 2.8

306.9
832.4
700.
37.0
92.7
623.0
256.2
156.7
178.9
31.2

314.
834.5
701.8
37.1
93.7
622.5
256.0
156.9
178.5
31.1

22.2

303.3
824.4
693.7
37.0
91.8
608.5
251.3
152.6
174.5
30.1

102.6

1 2 1 .1

1 2 1 .1

46.2
832.0
191.1
170.2

122.6

47.7
848.7
190.5
169.8
22.3
292.8
830.8
698.4
37.6
92.9
606.7
251.9
152.5
173.1
29.2

47.0
874.5
191.3
170.
22.4

2 2 .2

2 2 .1

2 2 .2

303.3
827.6
695. 7
36.9
93.1
604.1
251.4
148.2
174.4
30.1

297.9
828.3
696.8
37.0
92.6
606.5
251.5
151.8
173.7
29.5

297.4
829.8
697.2
37.4
93.3
605.6
251.6
152.0
172.9
29.1

38.2
93.6

29. 5|

22.6

305.7
838.6
705.6
38.2
92.9
612.0
253.1
153.6
175.3
30.0

1396

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
T able

A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
[inthousands]

Revised series; see box, p. 1400.

1961

Annual
average

1960

Industry
Oct.3 Sept.3 Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

............
11,557 11,429 11,342 11,327 11,354 11,238 11,162 11,101 11,040 11,233 12,146 11,608 11,509 11,412 11,125
Wholesale trade_____ . . . .
----------- 3,076 3,051 3,044 3,013 2,990 2,959 2,955 2,964 2,974 2,995 3,057 3,044 3,045 3,009 2,941
Motor vehicles and automotive equip217.3 216.7 217.5 215.0 213.6 213.7 211.9 211.8 213.1 215.2 215.0 215.2 213.6 206.9
ment
_ ____ ___
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products _
189.7 190.8 190.5 188.4 186.0 185.3 185.1 184.7 184.0 184. 6 186.2 184.7 183.8 176.8
130.9 132.4 131.5 130.6 129.3 129.2 129.1 130.7 130.2 131.2 133.7 133.3 130.8 125.9
Dry goods and apparel _______ _____
489.9 481.7 487.3 493.1 486.7 484.8 489.9 495.2 498.0 504.8 501. 9 494.4 494.0 486.8
Groceries and related products____
204.8 205.1 204.8 203.6 202.4 203.2 204.3 205.0 206.2 207.9 208.1 207.9 208.1 201.2
Electrical goods.
. . . ______ ______
Hardware, plumbing and heating
143.3 143.9 143.6 142.0 142.3 142.1 141.6 141.5 142.2 143.2 144.2 144.4 145.1 146.0
goods.. _ ____________________
489.2 489.2 488.6 484.5 478.9 476.8 477.4 475.6 476.8 477.6 478.0 479.4 479.1 458.6
Machinery, equipment, and su p p lies._
Retail trade_______________ __________ 8,481 8,378 8,298 8,314 8,364 8,279 8,207 8,137 8,066 8,238 9,089 8, 564 8,464 8,403 8,184
General merchandise stores__________ 1, 577. 4 1, 532. 5 1,488.8 1,480. 0 1,501. 5 1,488.1 1,468.6 1, 463. 9 1,420. 7 1,500. 7 2,036. 7 1, 683.1 1, 582. 9 1, 563.1 1, 531.1
887.2 861.0 858.5 874.4 866.3 859. 5 857.7 833.4 889.2 1,221.9 990.2 922.5 914.4 896.2
Department stores. .
___________
327.3 317.3 311.4 320.0 322.2 313.5 311.1 299.1 313.4 443.2 355.9 339.0 335.4 324.8
Limited price variety stores________
Food stores___ __________ _ ----------- 1,369. 7 1,351.1 1,346.1 1,355.0 1,358. 9 1,353. 7 1,349.2 1,352.5 1,360. 7 1,361.5 1,394. 5 1,372.8 1,365. 3 1,356.1 1,305.0
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores..
1,179.4 1,174.9 1,184. 9 1,187.3 1,181.0 1,180.1 1,181.7 1,187. 2 1,191.1 1,208. 5 1,195. 8 1,190.4 1,181.6 1,134. 0
Apparel and accessories stores.. _____ 674.7 646.5 612.1 616.5 ' 644.1 ' 637. 5 625.9 ' 630. 7 593.8 ' 633.0 766.0 662.2 645.6 637.2 608.7
97.9
102. 7 102.1 103.4 109. 5 102. 6 101. 5 102.8 101. 9 110. 4 135.9 108.3 103.2 104.3
M en’s and boys’ apparel stores_____
Women’s ready-to-wear stores___ . .
247.4 236.3 234.7 243.7 245.8 241.1 240.0 225.9 238.7 286.7 253.1 248.6 243.1 235.7
89.4
94. 7
89.5
Fam ily clothing stores_____________
95.1
91.8
95.7 120.6
97.8
93.7
97.8
90.7
93.7
93.3
92.8
Shoe stores___
. ______________
117.9 109.0 111.5 117.5 117.4 114.7 115.9 105.0 113.9 132.4 119.8 119.4 119.0 112.8
Furniture and appliance stores_______
408.2 405.0 403.7 402.7 401.8 396.8 399.4 400.2 401.3 406.1 424.4 414.7 412.4 409.2 398.0
Eating and drinking places............... . 1,642.0 1,647.8 1, 658. 6 1,662. 5 1, 667. 6 1, 637.2 1,617.3 1,558.2 1, 548. 5 1, 565. 5 1,593.1 1,613. 4 1,640.4 1,626. 5 1, 596.2
Other retail trade.._ _________ ______ 2, 809.1 2,794.6 2, 788. 9 2,797. 7 2, 790. 0 2, 765.8 2, 746. 5 2,731.8 2, 740.8 2, 771. 5 2,874. 7 2,817. 7 2,817.8 2,811.1 2,744.9
655.4 657.1 659.1 655.7 653.4 656.0 657.1 661.2 667.9 670. 7 672.7 673.7 674.6 656.1
Motor vehicle dealers______
____
Other vehicle and accessory dealers..
139.3 140.2 142.1 142. 5 136.8 134.5 129.9 129.4 130.7 144.7 142. 6 142.2 142.8 140.5
Drug stores________ _____________
377.0 372.3 370.4 371.2 368.3 366.6 367.3 367.0 373.0 389. 6 372.1 373.8 369.5 355.2

Wholesale and retail trade....

Finance, insurance, and real estate..

...

2,764

2,776
699.6
263.0
80.2
143.9
131.3
862.2
471.1
51.9
296.9
201.2
542.8
34.1
75.8

2,801
7Ö7.6
264.6
80.4
145.2
133.2
866.9
473.2
52.3
298.9
203.4
548. 8
34.5
76.7

2,795
704. 7
264.3
80.7
144. 7
132. 5
863. 9
471. 7
52.0
298. 0
204. 0
548. 6
34.7
76.5

2,766
696.3
261.3
78.7
144.4
130. 5
857.3
467.4
52.0
295. 7
201.9
542.3
34.4
76.2

2,734
688.2
259. 5
76. 5
145.1
126.9
853.2
467.0
51.5
293. 5
200. 0
529. 8
33.6
75.9

2,724
688.0
262.2
76. 6
147. 5
123.3
853.8
467. 8
51. 5
293. 6
198. 5
522. 5
32. 6
76.0

2,710
687.9
261.4
75. 6
147.8
119. 7
853. 4
467.3
51.2
293.9
197. 9
513. 6
31. 6
76.2

2,706
686.6
261.1
75.3
147.8
117.1
850. 8
465. 8
51.0
293.3
197. 0
518. 0
29. 5
75.8

2,702
684.5
261.8
75.8
148.0
115.1
846.2
463.2
50.8
291.4
196. 2
521. 7
30. 5
76.0

2,709
686.7
260.8
74.4
148. 5
115. 0
848.3
463. 7
51.3
292.1
197.9
523.9
32.1
75.9

2,705
684. 7
258. 4
73.3
147.2
115.0
846.6
463. 0
51.2
291. 2
197.2
527. 2
33.1
76.0

2,702
682. C
257.2
73.4
146.0
115.1
842.8
460. 4
51.0
290.0
197.2
531.2
35.1
76.0

2,684
674.7
256.2
72. 4
146.0
114.2
839.0
459.0
50.9
287.3
196.2
527.3
36.1
76.7

2,597
641.7
242.4
66.9
138. 5
106.7
818.2
450. 0
49.9
277. 7
189.7
521. 4
43.3
76.4

7,642

7,627
623.8
567.6

7,606
7Ò2.9
597.6

7,631
7Ò0.6
597.4

7,598
619. 6
559.7

7,510
559.8
509.6

7,448
551.8
506.6

7,359
537.3
495.6

7,333
536.4
495.3

7,313
532.1
491.0

7,380
534.6
492.0

7,416
535.2
491.4

7,452
541 £
4 9 5 .4

7,361
567.7
511.1

7,105
547.3
490.8

511.0

510.9

518.5

522.4

514.2

506.8

504.6

500.8

507.2

509.3

515.7

520.4

521.0

529.1

109.9
188.6

109.4
190.2

110. 4
193.4

111. 2
192.1

109. 8
189.0

110. 7
187.9

110. 5
181.5

111. 4
178.3

109. 2
179.6

110. 6
182.3

110. 8
184.9

111. 8
188.8

109. 9
189.3

105. 5
194.9

42.2
146.4

41. 7
148.5

43.1
150.3

43. 3
148.8

42. 4
146.6

42. 8
145.1

45. 9
135.6

46. 9
131.4

47. 9
131.7

48 3
134.0

46. 7
138.2

43 7
145.1

43. 5
145.8

44.8
150.2

Banking__ ____ ______ ________________
Credit agencies other than banks_______
Savings and loan associations_________
Personal credit institutions____ ______
Security dealers and exchanges_________
Insurance carriers________ __________
Life insurance__ __________________
Accident and health insurance_______
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance...
Insurance agents, brokers, and services...
Real estate_____ _____ _ _____________
Operative builders. . .
.. . .
Other finance, insurance, and real estate.

Services and miscellaneous___ - - - - -

Hotels and lodging places____________
Hotels, tourist Courts, and m otels_____
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants.
Miscellaneous business services:
Advertising_______________________
M otion pictures____ ___________ . . . .
M otion picture filming and distributing____ _____
________ ______
M otion picture theaters and services...
Medical services:
Hospitals________________ __________

1,151. 0 1,149. 6 1,152.8 1,142.8 1,132. 6 1,130.1 1,130.2 1,126. 2 1,119. 6 1,119.2 1,119. 6 1,116.1 1,105.0 1,062. 0

Government____________ _ . ____ ____

9,033 8,888 8,535 8,534 8,797 8,816 8,787 8,769 8,737 8,672 8,980 8,699 8,649 8,520 8,190
Federal G overnm ent3__________ ______ 2,277 2,281 2,300 2,294 2,277 2,240 2,233 2,221 2,213 2 ,2Ó8 2,506 2,216 2,216 2,270 2,233
Executive__________________________
2,252. 7 2,271.2 2,265. 0 2,248.1 2,212.1 2,205. 0 2,193. 3 2,185. 7 2,180. 5 2,478.2 2 188 9 2,188.8 2,242. 6 2,205. 2
Department of Defense______ _____ _
948.9 ' 950. 0 944.2 942.9 ' 938. 0 935.6 933.7 932.8 931.8 931.2 932.4 934.0 940.6 ' 966. 2
Post Office Department____ _______
584.2 587.0 586.7 581.1 573.7 572.2 567.9 565.9 566.9 864.8 571.8 566.7 586. 7 574.5
Other agencies____________ ____ ___
719.6 734.2 734.1 724.1 700. 4 697. 2 691. 7 687. 0 681. 8 682 2 684.7 688.1 715 3 664. 5
Legislative_____ ____________________
23.5
23.6
23.6
23.5
23.1
22.9
22.6
22.5
2 2 .5
2 2 .4
22.6
22.5
22.4
22.4
Judicial_____ ____ _______________ . .
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.1
5.0
5.0
5 .0
4.9
4.8
5 .0
5.0
5.0
State and local governm ent4___________ 6,756 6,607 6,235 6,240 6, 520 6,576 6,554 6,548 6,524 6,464 6,474 6,483 6,433 6,250 5,957
State government_________________ _
1,681.2 1,623. 5 1,613.6 1,664. 6 1, 680. 2 1,668. 7 1, 661. 2 1, 654. 3 1, 638 3 1,637.1 1,637.0 1,632. 6 1, 592. 7 1.541.1
Local government________________ _
4,926.1 A 611. 4 4, 626.0 4,855. 4 4,896.2 4,885.1 4,886. 6 4,869. 6 4,825. 8 4.837.3 4,845. 5 4,800.2 4, 657. 0 4.416.2
______ _ _______
Education__
3,172.0 2,738.1 2, 750. 6 3,089.1 3,233.0 3,232. 0 3,234. 7 3,228. 0 3,185. 9 3,197.0 3,195. 7 3,156. 2 2.983.3 2,776.8
Other State and local government____
3,435.3 3,496.8 3,489. 0 3,430. 9 3,343.4 3,321. 8 3,313.1 3,295. 9 3,278. 2 3.277.4 3,286.8 3,276. 6 3.266.4 3,180.6

1
Beginning with the December 1961 issue, figures differ from those pre­
viously published for three reasons. The industry structure has been con­
verted to the 1957 Standard Industrial Classification; the series have been
adjusted to March 1959 benchmark levels indicated by data from government
social insurance programs; and, beginning with January 1959, the estimates
are prepared from a sample stratified by establishment size and, in some cases,
region. Statistics from April 1959 forward are subject to further revision
when new benchmarks become available.
In addition, data include Alaska and Hawaii beginning in January 1959.
This inclusion increased the nonagricultural total by 2 1 2 , 0 0 0 (0.4 percent) for
the March 1959 benchmark month, with increases for industry divisions
ranging from 0 .1 percent in mining to 0 . 8 percent in government.
These series are based upon establishment reports which cover all full- and
part-time employees in nonagricultural establishments who worked during,


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

or received pay for, any part of the pay period ending nearest the 15th of the
month. Therefore, persons who worked in more than 1 establishment dur­
ing the reporting period are counted more than once. Proprietors, selfemployed persons, unpaid family workers, and domestic servants are
excluded.
2 Preliminary.
3 Data relate to civilian employees who worked on, or received pay for, the
last day of the month.
4 State and local government data exclude, as nominal employees, elected
officials of small local units and paid volunteer firemen.
S o u r c e : U .S. Department of Labor, Bureau o f Labor Statistics for all
series except those for the Federal Government, which is prepared by the
U.S. Civil Service Commission, and that for Class I railroads, which is pre­
pared by the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission.

A.— EM PLOY M ENT

1397

T a b l e A-3. Production workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1

Revised series; see box, p. 1400.

fin thousands]
1961

1960

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.2

Sept. 2

M ining________________________________
Metal mining_________________________
Iron ores..____ _______ _______ _______
Copper ores..................................................

536
72.7
24.7
24.3

Coal mining.............. .................. ...................
Bituminous________ ________________

135.8
126.8

Crude petroleum and natural gas_______
Crude petroleum and natural gas fields.
Oil and gas field services_____________
Quarrying and nonmetallic m ining..........
Contract construction.____ ___ ____ _____
General building contractors___________
H eavy construction______ ____ ________
Highway and street construction_____
Other heavy construction________ ___
Special trade contractors___ ____ _____ ...
M anufacturing_________________________
Durable goods.......... ...............................
Nondurable goods.............. ...................

Aug.
536
70.1

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

24.3

530
72.8
23.4
24.

539
72.8
23.0
24.4

23.9

518
70.2
21.9
23.1

23.0

135.2
126.2

123.8
114.8

135.0
126.0

134.4
125.5

134.6
124.9

137.9
129.3

225.4
109.7
115.7

228.2
111.3
116.9

230.7
111. 1
119.6

228.8
110.5
118.3

224.2
107.7
116.5

220.7
107.6
113.1

102.3

1 0 2 .6

102.7

101.9

98.0

92.6

86.4

2 1 .8

529
71.9
2 2 .8

514
70.6

517
70.5

2 2 .2

2 1 .8

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

23.1

526
73.8
23A
24.5

541
74.5
24.9
24.6

553
73.9
24.4
24.6

564
76.7
27.6
24.4

567
76.9
28.6

143.8
133.5

144.3
133.6

146.1
135.4

150.4
139.2

154.1
142.2

161.2
148.9

175.7
159.2

219.4
107.6

219.9
108. f

2 2 2 .0
1 1 0 .0

228.5

1 1 1 .8

1 1 1 .0

1 1 2 .0

115.4

227.3
111.7
115.6

227.2
111.7
115.5

229.1
113.8
115.3

245.2
118.5
126.7

82.9

86.3

93.6

1 0 1 .6

105.8

99.6

100.5

2,827 2,655 2,602 2,550 2,355 2,203 2,042
824.3 840.0 819.3 800.9 739.1 695.9 647.7
604.6 605.2 595.3 579.6 513.5 442.9 374.9
355. 7 359.2 351.3 338.0 288.7 231.0 180.4
248.9 246.0 244.0 241.6 224.8 211.9 194.5
1,198.4 1,209.8 1,187.5 1,169.1 1 , 1 0 2 .5 1,063.8 1,019.2
12,352 12,418 12,274 12,023 12,090 11,875 11,712
6,769 6,760 6,641 6 , 616 6,678 6,582 6,426
5,583 5,658 5,633 5,407 5,412 5,293 5,286

Feb.

1 1 ,6 6 6

6,358
5,308

1 1 1 .1

2 2 .6

589
67.2
23.0
18.5

1,931 2,043 2,213 2,519 2 , 6 8 6 2,458 2,535
609.1 654.6 710.3 800.4 840.0 788.3 835.4
343.0 368.2 421.2 540.4 606.8 509.0 516.5
155.7 169.3 203.4 293.2 314.3 270.6 281.9
187.3 198.9 217.8 247.2 265. 5 238.4 234.6
978.6 1,020.5 1,081.2 1,178.3 1,238.8 1,160. 7 1,183.1
11,642 11,740 12,005 12,324 12,5.30 12,562 12,596
6,351 6,449 6,613 6 ,797 6,880 7,021 7,031
5,291 5,291 5,392 5,527 5,650 5,541 5,565

Durable goods
Ordnance and accessories..................... .......
Ammunition, except for small arms____
Sighting and fire control equipment___
Other ordnance and accessories.......... .

98.0
—

Lumber and wood products, except fur­
niture____ ________________ _______ 556.3
Logging camps and logging contractors.
Sawmills and planing mills___________ ............
Millwork, plywood, and related prod­
ucts______________________________
Wooden containers.....................................
Miscellaneous wood products____ ____
Furniture and fixtures.................................. 315.3
Household furniture_________________
Office furniture____ _________________
Partitions; office and store fixtures_____ —
Other furniture and fixtures__________ ............
Stone, clay, and glass products................... 473.0
Flat glass................... ............... ................. ..
Glass and glassware, pressed or blow n.. . .
Cement, hydraulic__________________ _
Structural clay products_____________ _—
Pottery and related products___ _____ _—
Concrete, gypsum and plaster products. .
Other stone and mineral products______
Primary metal industries.............. .............. 962.1
Blast furnace and basic steel products... .
Iron and steel foundries_______________—
Nonferrous smelting and refining........... ..
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and
extruding__________ ____ ___________
Nonferrous foundries_____ __________ _—
Miscellaneous primary metal industries .
Fabricated metal products_____________
838.6
M etal cans_________ ____ ______ ____ _ .
Cutlery, handtools, and general hardw are..____ _____ _______ __________ _
Heating equipment and plumbing
fixtures____ ______________________ _
Fabricated structural metal products . . .
Screw machine products, bolts, etc..........
M etal stampings______ ____ ________ _ .
Coating, engraving, and allied services. .
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products...
Miscellaneous fabricated metal products. —
.
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

96.5
39.9
23. 5
33.1

94.1
39.5

93.8
39.1

93.1
39.0

2 2 .2

2 2 .6

2 2 .2

32.4

32.1

567.2
103.0
250.1

567.8
99.5
253.0

125.9
37.3
50.9

31.9

92.9
39.1
21.9
31.9

90.9
39.4
21.7
29.8

563.3
98.8
253.2

564.8
98.3
253.1

536.6
82.4
246.5

513.5
73.5
237.5

127.3
37.4
50.6

123.5
37.7
50.1

123.9
38.8
50.7

119.8
38.3
49.6

315.8
229.2
22.5
28.1
36.0

310.8
224.9
22.3
28.0
35.6

299.8
217.1
21.3
26.8
34.6

301.0
217.6
21.5
26.9
35.0

476.9
25.1
87.7
33.5
63.2
37.9
127.0
90.1

477.4
24.5
87.3
33.8
63.7
37.0
129.2
89.8

470.6
23.6
85.6
34.5
63.6
35.1
127.7
88.5

957.4
514.0
158.3
52.0

904.2
503.5
157.3
52.5

133.5
52.5
47.1

92.2
38.9

91.3
38.6

2 2 .0

2 1 .6

31.3
492.0

31.1

91.6
37.9
22.9
30.8

91.7
38.2
23.2
30.3

91.6
38.0
23.7
29.9

228.8

490.3
68.9
226.6

501.7
71.6
233.6

518.0
75.6
241.7

116.4
36.8
49.3

112.4
36.0
48.7

110.4
35.6
48.8

1 1 2 .0

295.7
214.8

296.6
217.5

294.1
214. 7

294.2
215.2

2 0 .8

26.0
34.1

2 1 .0

2 1 .0

2 1 .0

25.0
33.1

26.3
32.1

26.2
31.8

469.9
22.5
85.6
34.4
62.8
36.5
127.0
89.4

458.1
22.7
84.9
33.1
61.4
36.4

431.2
22.7
83.4
29.8
56.8
36.3
106.9
83.7

421.2

86.9

444.2
21.7
83.5
32.3
59.7
36.3
114.0
85.3

927.2
498.0
156.2
52.2

926.1
491.8
157.1
52.1

904.3
479.4
154.6
50.3

872.6
458.0
150.0
49.6

131.0
50.5
45.4

126.1
49.4
45.3

128.3
50.8
46.0

125.2
49.6
45.2

836.0
53.9

831.3
55.1

809.4
54.5

825.4
53.7

816.4
53.2

101.5

100.9

97.1

1 0 1 .1

100.4

93.5

57.0
242.7
63.5
139.3
55.7
42.9
79.5

57.2
237.9
63.0
140.9
53.7
42.6
80.0

55.2
234.1
61.5
134.0
52.5
41.3
79.2

55.4
234.1
62.1
144.7
53.6
42.0
78.7

54.6
227.2
60.8
146.5
53.0
41.7
79.0

52.9
223.0
59.7
139.1
51.3
40.6
77.5

1 2 1 .2

88.9
37.7
30.1

89.4
37.0
22.7
29.7

84.4
34.5
21.3
28.6

545.3
83.7
256.7

570.7
91.3
267.1

570.3
87.1
268.5

594.3
88.5
281.5

115.1
36.3
49.3

117.3
37.5
50.1

122.3
38.8
51.2

124.1
39.1
51.4

133.0
39.7
51.7

293.8
213.8
21.7
26.4
31.9

302.3
219.4

314.5
229.3
22.9
28.4
33.9

321.4
233.6
23.4
29.6
34.8

318.9
232.3
29.2
34.5

321.0
238.3
21.7
27.3
33.7

82.1
28.8
54.4
36.5
102.3
82.7

428.9
24.7
80.2
30.3
56.1
36.4
106.4
83.6

448.8
26.0
82.5
31.7
59.5
36.9
86.4

470.4
25.0
85.2
33.1
62.8
38.5
122.7
89.9

484.7
25.8
86.9
34.9
64.5
39.8
128.1
91.4

483.2
27.0
86.9
34.9
65.9
40.3
123.5
91.8

494.0
29.6
84.0
36.2
67.6
41.1
127.9
93.4

861.0
446.3
150.7
49.8

858.5
439.7
152.4
50.4

866.5
437.5
156.4
52.2

880.0
441.9
160.7
52.6

899.8
455.9
163.1
52.9

922.0
471.9
164.8
53.8

992.0
529.3
172.4
54.9

953.2
471.0
181.3
51.9

123.5
47.8
43.7

123.0
47.6
43.6

124.0
48.1
43.9

126.3
49.4
44.7

129.1
50.4
45.3

130.1
51.4
46.4

131.9
52.6
47.0

133.6
53.7
48.2

142.9
56.6
49.5

789.6
52.0

780.4
50.6

784.4
49.3

804.4
48.5

826.5
49.4

849.7
49.9

868.4
51.9

869.0
54.1

867.1
54.5

96.4

98.0

101.7

104.3

105.7

106.5

107.3

107.5

53.6
52.5
218.3 219.3
60.0
60.9
134.6 137.7
49.7
48.9
39.4
40.3
77.81 77.5

53.8
224.0
61.4
146.7
49.0
40.8
78.5

54.2
56.3
231.6 237.9
61.6
63.6
153.2 160.0
51.3
53.2
41.7
42.8
79.2l 80.3

58.1
243.7
64.7
162.4
54.6
44.3
82.2

58.7
238.1
67.2
160.7
53.8
45.5
83.6

61.2
236.8
69.1
153.3
53.3
45.6

6 6 .1

2 2 .6

35.5
49.0

2 2 .2

27.2
33.5

1 1 2 .8

2 1 .1

2 2 .8

8 6 .0

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1398

Table A-3. Production workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

[inthousands]

Annual
average

1960

1961
Industry
Oct.*

Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Machinery______________ . ---------------Engines and turbines________ _______
Farm machinery and equipment_____
Construction and related machinery__
Metalworking machinery and equipment
________ _______________
Special industry machinery_________
General industrial m achin ery__ _____
Office, computing and accounting machines
____________ ___________
Service industry machines___________
Miscellaneous machinery__ __________

961.6

Electrical equipment and supplies. -----Electric distribution equipment____
Electrical industrial apparatus.
Household appliances. _______
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.
Radio and TV receiving sets_________
Communication equipment______ ___
Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment
and supplies___________ _________

997.7

Instrument and related products____ .
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control dev ic e s ______ _____ _________ - __
Optical and ophthalmic goods __ _
Surgical, medical, and dental equip______ ____ _________
ment
Photographic equipment and supplies.
Watches and clocks_________________

225.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w are..
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods.
Pens, pencils, office and art materials..
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries______

331.0

182.1
119.7
143.8

182.7
120.7
146.3

183.2
119.8
150.2

194.0
122.3
154.9

183.9
116.3
154.6

93.2
66.4
105.7

94.0

94.4
65.1
107.0

95.0
64.9
109.2

95.4

106.3

110.5

95. 4
65.6
110.9

95.2
69.7
114.2

112.9

952.1
107.1
113.7

955. 4
100.4
108.8

1 0 2 .6

96.4

70.5
206.0
157.3

82.3
207.6
162.7

8 6 .2

204.9
163.0

986.9
108.3
121.5
120.7
103.6
82. 2
201.4
164.4

967.0
104.7
122.4

160.7

946.5
106.1
113.2
110.3
98.0
73.2
204.9
159.3

78.6

81.5

85.3

86.3

84.7

84.9

82.5

94.2

942.7
103.3
113.9
114.3
97.5
74.3
195.9
164.5

930.6
103.2
111.9
113.3
97.3
68.3
197.1
163.5

79.0

94.4
58.7

94.0
63.2
109.5
943.5
104.8
114.8

77.6

182.4
118.3
142.2

105.5

95.0
60.1
113.5

Transportation equipment------------------- 1 , 0 1 0 . 1 1,016.0
469.4
Motor vehicles and equipment_____
380.3
Aircraft and parts ___________ _ ___
Ship and boat building and repairing. .
118.6
Railroad equipment
25.2
Other transportation e q u ip m e n t__
22. 5

183.1
117.8
140.1

94.1
67.7
107.1

176. 5
115.1
144.6

90.4
196.1
165.2

97.9
81.8
193.2
161.4

950.4
104. 6
115.4
114.8
98.8
78.1
195.7
163.7

79.6

77.0

79.3

1 1 2 .6

181.2
117.0
139.2

94.4
64.5
109.3

180.4
115.4
142.9

1 0 1 .8

980.1 1,030.4 1,025.9
56.1
59.5
46.6
89.2
79.6
74.7
133.7 144.5 148.6

180.9
116.1
139.0

178.6
116.9
144.3

968.3
106.0
115.4
113. 8

977.5
52.0
74.8
128.9

176.8
116.4
141.5

175. 6
115.2
143.4

982.0
106.3
116. 8
118.4
101.3
95.6
199.6
166.4

971.7
52.1
78.8
126.1

129.6

970.9
51.6

1 1 2 .0

126.0

967.5
51.7
81.8
124.6

968.4
50.9

967.0
49.6
79.0
130.4

949.9
50.2
69.0
131.4

970.1
50.9
86.5
125.4

971.8
51.9
89.5
127.9

956.7
49.0
75.2
129.6

961.6
51.8
72.2
130.3

8 6 .1

6 6 .8

8 8 .8

933.5
103.8
111.9
1 1 2 .8

97.2
69.1
199.1
162.1

6 6 .0

938.9
104.9
1 1 2 .2
1 1 2 .0

97.5
71.8
2 0 1 .2

979.4
106.5
115.3
116.1

1 1 1 .0

92.6
6 8 .2

1 2 2 .1

104.4
85. 6
185.9
159.6

76.0

77.5

961.2 1, 032. 9 1, 049.6 1, 043. 7 1, 005. 9
429.8 504.8 514.9 504.5 463.8
368.2 369.5 371.3 373.8 377.4
116. 1 112.5 115.4 118.4 118.7
23.4
23.3
24.2
23. 5
24.5
23.6
22.7
2 2 .6
23.8
2 2 .6

999.0
454.2
380.1
119.3
23.9
21.5

998.5 1, 047.4 1 , 1 0 1 . 0 1 , 1 2 0 . 8 1,124. 4 1,132. 7 1,181.0
457.4 503.4 553.fi 566.8 569.3 566. 5 538. 5
379.3 380.2 381.7 384.0 379.2 392.5 462.6
116.6 117.8 116.9 117.8 118.8 116.6 1 2 2 . 0
29.3
28.2
32.4
32.0
27.3
30.1
25.1
28.5
2 2 .1
25.1
2 0 .6
24.7
18.7
2 0 .1
223.9
43.0

227.6
42.9

228.5
42.6

232.0
42.8

58.7
28.3

59.3
28.4

59.4
29.1

59.4
29.8

60.5
29.8

63.3
30.7

02

32.9
38.9
16.6

32.9
39.6
18.0

33.0
40.3
19.1

33.3
41.7
20.5

33.4
42.1

33.1
41.1

2 0 .1

2 1 .1

31.8
41.3
23. 2

288.7 286.4
32.2
32.6
69.2
73.1
22. C 2 2 . 2
42.3
43.0
119.1 119.4

279.6
32.6
63.6
22.3
42.0
119.1

296.9
33.6
73.3

320.7
34.6
90.0
23.4
46.1
126.6

222.5
39.5

217.5
38.4

220.5
40.5

218. 9
41.2

216.7
41.4

217.4
42.4

217.4
42.0

60.5
29.4

59.1
29.2

58.8
28.6

59.2
29.2

58.8
28.9

58.4
28.4

58.3
28.2

33.4
39.7

33.1
39.8

32.5
39.1

2 2 .6

2 1 .8

2 0 .1

32.8
39.3
19.5

32.8
38.8
18.4

32.7
38.7
17.1

32.6
38.7
17.2

317.4 300.9
33. C 30.8
88.3
95.8
23.6
22.7
43.5
46.0
119.0 115.6

309.8 301.5 293.2
32. C 32. C 32.1
79.4
85.7
89.5
21.£
21.7
22.5
41.3
44.8
42.2
121. C 119.7 118.7

230.1
41.4

42.8

226.1
40.5

324.5
33.7
98.4
23. i
45.9
122.7

1 1 1 .6
1 0 0 .6

6 6 .2

2 2 1 .0

2 2 .8

44.7
122.5

335.9 316.0
35. C 33.9
86.4
100. 1
24. C 23.0
47.3
48.2
128.6 125.4

.5
29.9

313.2
33.8
82.9
22.9
49.1
124.6

Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products____________ 1,262. 2 1, 328.0 1,317.9 1,226. 4 1,184. 2 1,120. 7 1,114.1 1,104.4 1 , 1 0 0 . 6 1 , 1 2 1 . 2 1,169.2 1, 225. 4 1, 307. 8 1,211.3 1 , 2 2 2 . 0
258.9 257.6 259.0 260. £ 252.4 247. C 244.7 244.5 250.3 256.2 263. C 264.4 257. £ 255.2
Meat produ cts_______________ ____
Dairy products_____ __________ __
166.6 171. 5 172.6 171.6 164.5 162.9 160.0 158.1 158.5 160.9 162.6 166.2 169.7 175.3
Canned and preserved food, except
326. c 313.2 226. S 186. 1 158.4 160. C 153.6 147.1 149.9 166.5 199.1 267.8 206.1 209.4
meats . ________ _ _____________
93.3
88.4
92. C 89.8
86.4
86.5
87.8
8 8 .6
86.7
8 8 .1
93.9
92.6
93.6
94.0
Grain mill p r o d u c ts.._______________
175.8 177.8 178.2 177.3 173.3 171.3 171.7 172.0 172.5 176.0 177.4 179. C 176.6 176.4
Bakery products____________________
31.3
30.2
43.5
39.5
32.5
38.7
25. 5
23.8
22.7
25.7
23.6
22.9
Sugar.
._ _____
_ _ __ __
24.8
25.0
63.3
62.9
63.5
60.2
6 8 .6
70. £
71.8
62.6
55.9
55.6
55.2
59. 1
Confectionery and related products___
64.1
65.9
119.8 1 2 0 . 8 123.3 119.6 1 1 2 . 8 111.9 1 1 0 . 1 108. S 109.9 115. C 118.6 123.1 118.3 118.0
Beverages...____ ___
. _______
Miscellaneous food and kindred prod99. C 99.7
98.7 1 0 1 . £ 104. (
93.6
96. C 96. £
93.2
94.2
94. £
94.7
92.6
96.1
ucts
___________________________
Tobacco manufactures_________________
C igarettes________________________
Cigars___ _____ _________ _________

91.9

Textile mill products___ _ ___________
Cotton broad woven fabrics____ ___
Silk and synthetic broad wnyp.n fabrics
Weaving and finishing broad w oolens..
Narrow fabrics and sm a llw a res..___ _
Knitting .
_______________ . . . .
Finishing textiles, except wool and kn it.
Floor covering_____________________
Y am and thread.
_________________
Miscellaneous textile goods___________

805.0

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

107.4
31.8
22.7

88.7
32.0
22.3

65.0
31.6

804.2
234.1
63 8
47. 5
23.7
196. 1
60.8
27.8
94.7
55.7

802.2
233.1
63. 7
47.7
23.2
196.8
60.7
27.4
94.6
55.0

788.1
232.0
62.1
48. 1

2 1 .1

2 2 .8

191.5
60.0
25. £
92.2
53.5

67.2
32. (
23.1

66.4
31. £
23.3

800.3 791.4
234.1 233.4
62.1
62.6
48.9
47.6
23. 0
23.0
196.3 192.3
60.8
61.1
27. C 27.1
93.5
92.3
52.8
53.8

6 8 .0

31.£
23.2
784.9
233. £
62. 1
46.0
2 2 .8

189.2
60.8
26. £
91.3
51.9

72.4
31.5
23.9

77.4
31.6
24.6

81.4
31.7
24. f

85.1
31. £
25.6

88.5
32. 1
26.2

103.5
32.2
26. i

83.3
32.2
26.0

84.0
31.7
27.7

779.0
234.7
62.4
45.1
22.4
184.3
60.6
28.4
90.8
50.3

778. 1
236. i
63.1
44.9

778.3
238. (
64.2
42.9
2 2 .6

180.4
60.3
28.8
90.7
51.2

177.7
60.9
29. (
90.2
52.8

804.4
240.1
65.5
43.8
23.2
192.2
62.3
29.5
92.9
54.9

813.2
241.1
65.7
45.3
23.£
196.5
62.6
29.5
93.6
55.6

826.7
244. ]
66.£
49.5
24.1
194.3
64.
30. ‘
95.9
57.5

855.0
248.4

2 2 .6

790.8
239. £
65. £
42.8
22.9
182.9
62.0
29.7
91.9
54.0

6 8 .2

53.9
24.9
199.4
6 6 .2

31. 5
1 0 0 .6

61.9

A.—EM PLO Y M EN T
T able

1899

A-3. Production workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

[inthousands]
1961

I960

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.«

Sept. 3

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dee.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Apparel and related products__________ 1,085. 1,084. 1 , 1 0 0 . 1,033. 1,050. 3 1,033. 1,045. 1,082. 1,071. 1,039. 1, 055. 1,090. 1,093. 1,094.2 1, 090.6
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats........... ___
105.1 105.
100.
105.3 101.7
99.5 105.5 107.
107.6 107.
108. £ 109.7 108. S 106.3
M en’s and boys’ furnishings________ _
282.1 270.5 275.1 270. C 267.4 268.1 267.
280.'
261.1 266.6 272. a 278.8 279.6 271.3
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear_________________________ ____
313.8 321.5 297.7 296.9 301.2 316.5 335.7 326.5 312.5 312.6 327.
316.8 325.8 331.8
Women’s and children’s undergarments.
107.9 107.
98.9 1 0 2 . 6 1 0 2 . 2
103.'
103.'
1 0 2 .'
99.6 104.
108. a
108.7 106.2 105.8
Hats, caps, and millinery____________ ___
29. (
30.6
33.8
28.8
25.5
27.5
36. !
36.:
32.9
30.7
29.6
32.4
32.4
33.6
Girls’ and children’s outerwear_______ ___
66.7
69.8
69.1
64. ]
6 8 .1
61.5
65.5
67.
64.9
62.6
64.5
66.3
67.5
66.9
64.4
64.5
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel—
59.8
57.2
60.9
57.0
57.8
56.6
52.6
57.6
63.6
60.2
64.5
61.9
Miscellaneous fabricated textile prod­
ucts........................ ................. .................
115.6 115.8 108.1 112.3 111.4 112.7 109.5 106.2 108.0 113.1 116.0 116.7 113.6 113.1
Paper and allied products______________
Paper and pulp_____________________
Paperboard.......................... ......................
Converted paper and paperboard prod­
ucts....... ........................................... .........
Paperboard containers and boxes_____
Printing, publishing and allied indus­
tries______________ _______ _______ _
Newspaper publishing and printing___
Periodical publishing and printing____
Books______________________________
Commercial printing______ ____ _____
Bookbinding and related industries___
Other publishing and printing indus­
t r ie s .............................. .........................
Chemicals and allied products...................
Industrial chemicals_________________
Plastics and synthetics, except glass___
Drugs_____ ____ ____________________
Soap, cleaners and toilet goods_______
Paints, varnishes and allied products. .
Agricultural chemicals_______________
Other chemical products_____________

476.6
183.4
53.3

475.0
184.3
54.1

467.4
182.2
53.8

473.7
184.9
55.1

464.4
180. 1
54.4

462.1
179.2
54.2

460.8
178.8
54.3

459.4
178.:
54.2

462.9
179.5
54.6

466.3
180.9
54.5

473.8
182.7
55.1

477.5
183.4
55.9

474.0
181.9
56.4

470.1
177.3
57.8

97.4
142.5

95.8
140.8

94.2
137.2

94.6
139.1

93.6
136.3

93.8
134.9

93.1
134.6

92.5
134.4

93.2
135.6

93.0
137.9

94.3
141.7

95.1
143.1

95.7
140.1

95.7
139.4

604.4

600.8
176.1
29.5
45.9
232.8
38.8

594.2
174.2
28.5
45.1
230.1
38.7

593.7
175.0
29.0
43.4
229.6
38.6

593.7
176.2
29.1
44.2
228.4
37.9

590.3
175.4
29.2
44.2
227.8
37.1

592.2
175.1
30.3
43.8
228.5
37.3

594.3
174.5
30.7
43.7
229.9
37.7

591.2
173.2
30.7
43.6
228.1
37.5

591.4
174.4
30.9
43.6
228.0
37.2

598.7
176.6
30.7
43.7
231.5
36.9

603.7
176.7
30.5
43.6
233.1
38.4

603.1
175.2
30.4
43.8
233.4
38.5

591.5
172.4
29.8
43.0
229.5
38.1

575.6
167.1
28.9
40.6
224.6
37.0

77.7

77.6

78.1

77.9

76.6

77.2

77.8

78.1

77.3

79.3

81.4

81.8

78.8

77.4

509.6

509.9
165.1
103.3
58.5
60.1
38.3
29.0
57.6

509.2
166.5
103.4
58.8
59.6
36.8
26.8
57.3

506.1
166.1
102.9
58.9
58.9
36.9
26.1
56.3

507.0
164.8

509.1
163.8

502.0
162.7

499.5
166.3

502.4
166.9

505.7
167.6

1 0 1 .6

1 0 0 .1

1 0 1 .2

1 0 1 .8

57.7
58.0
35.8
37.2
55.0

57.4
56.3
34.2
37.3
54.1

1 0 0 .8

57.5
55.5
34.6
30.2
54.0

58.1
55.5
34.9
28.6
54.9

58.0
57.5
35.4
27.3
55.5

58. 1
58.7
36.2
28.5
55.8

510.8
169.0
103.5
58.8
56.1
36.7
31.0
55.6

505.9
167.5

58.8
59.2
36.4
28.9
56.1

495.2
163.0
99.8
57.4
55.7
34.1
31.3
53.9

496.6
164.7

1 0 2 .8

508.7
162.7
100.9
57.3
57.6
35.2
40.5
54.5

133.4
108.0
25.4

134.7
108.8
25.9

131.6
106.4
25.2

134.3
108.8
25.5

132.1
108. 0
24.1

131.0
108.4

129.7
108.4
21.3

129.3
108.8
20.5

131.0
109.3
21.7

132. 5
22.3

135. 1
110.7
24.4

137.1
111.5
25.6

137.7
113.1
24.6

139.8
115.2
24.6

294.2
75.0
122.4
96.8

284.1
72.4
118.1
93.6

277.2
73.5
114.7
89.0

278.7
72.6
116.7
89.4

273.7
71.3
114.6
87.8

267.8
70.7
111.5
85.6

265.5
71.3

266.0
69.9

1 2 0 .8

84.0

282.5
75.9
117.7
88.9

1 2 2 .2

84.1

276.7
74.2
117.0
85. 5

288.7
78.2

1 1 2 .1

271.1
73.4
114.5
83.2

288.3
76.7

1 1 0 .1

89.4

89.7

288.7
77.4
121.3
90.1

319.4
29.3

326.9
29.0
218.4
79.5

317.9
28.3
215.3
74.3

322.2
29.1
217.7
75.4

311.4
28.8
210.9
71.7

311.2
28.3
209.4
73.5

318.2
28.0
215.4
74.8

321.9
28.4
218.9
74.6

317.8
29.3
217.2
71.3

317.5
29.7
214.8
73.0

321.1
29.8
212.7
78.6

319.9
29.9
79.4

322.9
29.9
216.4
76.5

86.4
46.8
816.2
19.1

8 6 .2

46.0
844.1
18.5

46.9
816.3
19.3

87.4
46.4
805.9
19.2

87.4
45.2
778.4
18.8

87.3
44.3
764.1
18.8

87.1
43.5
763.2
18.8

87.3
43.3
757.8
18.8

87.4
44.8
775.2
19.0

87.5
44.2
801.1
19.1

8 8 .1

44.5
822.0
19.1

87.3
44.6
827.0
19.2

89.2
44.6
801.8
19.8

91.5
44.9
779.1

566.9
27.0
77.7

574.0
26.9
78.8

575.5
27.0
79.6
549.9
220. 1
140.0
162.7
27.1

571.1
27.0
78.3
544.0
218.9
137.6
160.6
26.9

568.3
26.8
77.5
536.6
216.0
135.9
158.7
26.0

569.9
26.8
78.8
533.2
216.2
132.3
158.7
26.0

571.3
26.8
78.0
536.0
216.6
135.3
158.4
25.7

571.7
27.0
78.6
535.1
216.9
135.4
157. 5
25.3

573.2
27.3
78.2
536.7
217.5
136.2
157.7
25.3

576.1
27.6
79.0
539.7
218.2
136.8
158.8
25.9

578. 5
27.9
78.2
540.7
218.3
137.2
159.2
26.0

581.0
27.7
78.4
542.6
218.8
137.6
159.8
26.4

581.9
27.9
77.9
543. 6

585.4
28.4
74.8
544.3
221.4
137.9
158.6
26.5

477.8

___
___
___
—

Petroleum refining and related indus­
tries______________________________ 132.6
Petroleum refining__________________
Other petroleum and coal products___ . ..........
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts_____ ______________ __________ 298.8
Tires and inner tu b e s................... .............
Other rubber products__________ ____ _
Miscellaneous plastic products_______ _
Leather and leather products__________
315.1
Leather tanning and finishing________ _ ___
Footwear, except rubber_____________ _
Other leather products________________

2 1 0 .8

79.3

2 2 .6

1 0 0 .0

1 1 0 .2

2 1 0 .6

1 0 2 .2

58.3
54.7
36.4
31.7
55.0

333.4
32.3
2 2 2 .6

78.5

Transportation and public utilities:
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation___ _
Intercity and rural bus lines_____ _____
Motor freight transportation and storage..
Pipeline transportation_____ ____________
Communication:
Telephone communication____________
Telegraph communication >____________
Radio and television broadcasting______
Electric, gas, and sanitary services_______
Electric companies and systems________ ___
Gas companies and systems___________
Combined utility systems_____________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems____
See footnotes at end of table.

019 4 8 4 — 61 ------- 8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

8 6 .2

5 4 4 .5

5 5 0 .0

218.2
138.5
161.2
26.6

2 2 0 .2

139.9
162.8
27.1

2 2 0 .2

137.3
159.4
26.7

2 1 .0

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1400

Table A-3. Production workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1—Continued
Revised series ; see box below.

[In thousands]

Annual
average

1961

1960
Industry
Oct. 2

Wholesale and retail trade 4____ ________
Wholesale trade___________________ ___
Motor vehicles and automotive equipm ent__ __________________________
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products.
D ry goods and apparel____ __________
Groceries and related products _______
Electrical goods. __________________
Hardware, plumbing and heating
goods..
M a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t, a n d s u p p lie s

Retail trade 4 __ _
__ ____ . . .
General merchandise stores___ _______
Department stores________________
Limited price variety stores_______
Food stores___ . . . ______ ______ . . .
Grocery, meat, and vegetable stores..
Apparel and accessories stores________
M en’s and boys’ apparel stores__ _
W omen’s ready-to-wear stores___
Fam ily clothing stores_____________
Shoe stores___________ . ___ . . . .
Furniture and appliance stores_______
Other retail trade 4. . ______ . . . . . . .
Motor vehicle dealers. . . . . .
Other vehicle and accessory dealers___
D rugstores_________________________

Sept.*

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

8,762 8,672 8,658 8,676 8,599 8,549 8 ,554 8,502 8,676 9,558 9,004 8,881 8,810 8,592
2,636 2,631 2 , 600 2,580 2, 552 2,550 2, 559 2, 569 2,591 2, 650 2,638 2,640 2 , 610 2, 558 .
183.2
159.4
110.7
433.5
179.2

182.7
160.2
1 1 2 .6

425.2
180.1

182.7
160.2
111.7
431.6
179.5

181.9
158.5
1 1 1 .1

436.9
178.3

180.6
157.2
109.9
431.5
177.0

180.6
156.8
110.7
429.1
178.2

178.9
156.9
1 1 0 .8

434.6
179.2

179.1
156.6
111.7
439.0
179.9

180.5
155.8
111.5
442.5
181.1

182.4
156.7
112.5
449.3
182.4

181.9
158.2
113.7
446.2
183.0

182.6
156.5
113. 5
439.6
182.8

181.5
155.6
1 1 2 .0

439.1
183.6

175.7
149.8
108.7
433.6
178.5

124.7 125.3 125.0 123.6 123.7 123.7 123.1 123.1 123.9 125.4 126.5 126.9 127.7 129.2
419.1 419.2 418.9 415.2 410.1 408.0 408.8 407.3 408.5 408.5 409.6 410.9 412.0 396.2
6,126 6,041 6,058 6,096 6,047 5,999 5,995 5,933 6,085 6,908 6,366 6,241 6 , 2 0 1 6,034
1,409. 5 1,366. 6 1,360. 5 1,378. 5 1,365.0 1,347.1 1,346. 9 1,303.8 1,383.6 1,916. 9 1,565.0 1,465. 7 1,447.9 1,421.1
812.3 786.9 786.4 801.7 793.9 787.9 787.1 762.6 817.9 1,148. 9 917.8 851.0 843.6 828.5
306.9 297.1 291.6 297.4 299.0 291.2 292.1 279.8 294.2 423.2 336.7 319.6 316.8 307.9
1,264.2 1, 260. 7 1, 270. 4 1,272.6 1,268.5 1,265. 4 1, 268. 4 1, 276. 2 1, 277. 6 1,312.1 1,289. 3 1, 282. 7 1,273.1 1, 219. 9
1 , 1 0 1 . 0 1,097.6 1,108.1 1,109.0 1,103. 5 1,103.8 1,104.7 1 , 1 1 0 . 2 1,114.6 1,133. 5 1,119.7 1,115.2 1,106. 5 1,057.0
587.2 553.6 558.5 583.9 579.1 568.5 574.0 537.8 575. 5 707.7 605.8 589.7 582.3 557.2
92.9
99.2
89.8
92.0
93.2
92.6 100.4 126.6
94.3
95.6
99.0
93.2
92.5
93.7
226.1 215. 2 214.0 222.3 224. 6 220.4 219.8 205. 7 217.9 266.2 232.9 228.7 223.3 217.3
84.9
85.9
86.3
82. 7
89.2 113.4
83.5
90.4
88.1
91.3
88.1
83.6
8 6 .6
86.8
92.4 101. C 119.2 106.7 106.4 106.3 1 0 0 . 8
104.4
95.9
98.2 104.1 104.7 1 0 2 . 0 103. 1
363.8 362.5 361.6 360.8 355.7 358.1 358.9 359.8 364.9 383. 5 373.3 371. 5 368.9 359.9
2,478.2
2,497.9
2,460.2
2,446.
9
2,455.
7 2,483. 6 2,588.1 2, 533.0 2, 531.8 2,528. 3 2,475. 7
2, 507.4 2, 500. 2
2, 501.8
573. 7 576.5 578. 5 575.6 573.8 576.4 578.4 582. 5 588.9 591. 5 593.4 594.9 596.2 579.6
114.
5
120.9
1
2
1
.
8
116.1
109.7
109.4
1 1 0 .2
125. 6 122.4 1 2 2 . 1 123.1 121.3
117.6 118.6
352.6 348.1 346.1 347.4 344.5 342.9 344.3 343.2 348.4 367.0 349.6 350.7 347.5 336.2

Finance, insurance, and real estate:

Banking. . _ _______
Security dealers and exchanges_________
Insurance carriers________ ____ ________
Life insurance__________ _
Accident and health insurance______
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance. .

Mar.

596. 5
123.2
781.8
431. 5
46.5
266.7

604.1
125.2
787.0
433.8
47.1
268.9

602. 2
124. 7
784.7
432. 7
46.8
268.1

593.3
1 2 2 .8

778.2
428.4
46.8
266.0

585.4
119.2
773.8
427.6
46.4
263.6

585.0
115.7
774.6
428. 5
46.3
263.8

585.1
1 1 2 .1

774.1
427.6
46.1
264.4

584.0
109.6
771.8
426.0
45.8
264.2

582.5
107.6
768.1
423.7
45.7
262.8

586.4
107.8
771.1
424.3

46.4

264.2

584.9
107.7
769.9
423.8
46.2
263.6

582.1
107.9
766.7
421.4
46.1
262.7

547.9

575.9
107.0
763.9
420.7
46.0
260.3

746.8
412.7
45.3
252.4

99.9

Services and miscellaneous:

Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels_____
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants.
Motion pictures:
M otion picture filming and distributing.

540.3

568.7

568.0

533.0

482.7

480.4

469.6

469.8

465.1

466.6

466.3

470.7

485.0

465.9

378.9

379.7

385.2

388.4

381.0

374.5

373.1

370.4

376.3

378.1

384.3

388. 6

389.2

396.6

27.2

27.2

28.2

28.0

27.4

27.7

29.4

30.4

31.5

31.7

31.0

28.9

29.0

30.6

i For comparability of data w ith those published in issues prior to Decem­
ber 1961 and coverage of these series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
For mining, manufacturing, and laundries, cleaning and dyeing plants,
data refer to production and related workers; for contract construction, to
construction workers; and for all other industries, to nonsupervisory workers.
Production and related workers include working foremen and all nonsuper­
visory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in fabricating,
processing, assembling, inspection, receiving, storage, handling, packing,
warehousing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial and watchmen
services, product development, auxiliary production for plant’s own use
(e.g., power plant), and recordkeeping and other services closely associated
with the above production operations.
Construction workers include working foremen, journeymen, mechanics,
apprentices, laborers, etc., engaged in new work, alterations, demolition,

repair and maintenance, etc., at the site of construction or working in shop
or yards at jobs (such as precutting and preassembling) ordinarily performed
by members of the construction trades.
Nonsupervisory workers include employees (not above the working super­
visory level) such as office and clerical workers, repairmen, salespersons,
operators, drivers, attendants, service employees, linemen, laborers, janitors,
watchmen, and similar occupational levels, and other em ployees¿whose
services are closely associated with those of the employees listed.
2 Preliminary.
3 Data relate to nonsupervisory employees except messengers.
4 Excludes eating and drinking places.

A comprehensive description of the 1961 revision of the Bureau’s statistics on employ­
ment, hours and earnings, and labor turnover in nonagricultural establishments, which
is reflected for the first time in the figures published in this issue, will appear in the
January 1962 issue of the Monthly Labor Review.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1401

A.—EMPLOYMENT
T able

A-4. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry division and selected groups,
seasonally adjusted 1
[In thousands]

Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
1961
Industry division and group
Oct. 2

Sept. 2 Aug.

July

June

1960

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

54,576 54,417 54,333 54,335 54,182 53,894 53,663 53,561 53,485 53,581 53, 707 53,995

T otal__________
M ining____ ________
Contract construction_____________ . .
Manufacturing_____________ __

Oct.
54,190

663

667

665

672

669

670

666

668

667

672

679

693

698

2,788

2,777

2,770

2, 776

2,795

2,742

2,766

2,792

2,765

2,773

2,757

2,832

2,877

16,352 16,342 16,381 16,392 16,373 16,275 16,119 16,023 15,962 16,021 16,174 16,351

16,489

9,114

9,058
199
602
366
569
1,135
1,084
1,398
1,439
1,537
346
383.

8,904
196
601
365
561

592
929
834
206
371
365

7,217
1,772
89
884
1,196
588
925
828
206
365
364

3, 914

3,903

9,128
209
602
370
577
1,185
1,083
1,417
1,460
1,496
347
382

9,119
203
605
372
572
1,183
1,088
1,403
1,430
1,534
349
380

9,131

91,38

8,820
196
595
361
557
1,085
1,040
1,388
1,416
1,468
340
374

8

, 797
196
591
358
551
1,084
1,041
1,394
1,411
1,455
341
375

8,863
195
596
356
556
1,092
1,055
1,401
1,405
1,491
343
373

8,988
194
594
364
564
1,107
1,073
1,414
1,402
1,553
345
378

9,111
192
608
372
576
1,127
1,092
1,433
1,417
1, 565
348
381

202

202

200

603
371
578
1,174
1,094
1,404
1,444
1,530
349
382

604
370
575
1,170
1,082
1,401
1,442
1,559
349
384

606
368
573
1,151
1,085
1,396
1,442
1,560
347
386

9,208
190
618
376
588
1,151

Nondurable goods____
__ _ _________
. _
7,224
Food and kindred products_____________________ 1,761
Tobacco manufactures.____ __________
___
87
Textile mill products...
_ __ ________________
882
Apparel and related products______ ____
. . . 1,203
Paper and allied products. ____________________
592
Printing, publishing, and allied industries_______
927
Chemicals and allied products________ ____ _.
835
___
204
Petroleum refining and related industries...
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______
375
Leather and leather products____________ _____
358

7,223
1,764
96
880
1,198
589
928
833
203
374
358

7,250
1,770
90
882
1,213
592
929
835
205
372
362

7,254
1,773
887
1,208
593
932
836
203
272
362

7,259
1, 775
90
887

7,215
1,787
90
877
1,204
585
924
824
205
356
363

7,203
1,794
92
870

7,158
1,785
91
870
1,171
584
920
821
205
352
359

7,186
1,788
92
876
1,180
584
922
824
206
356
358

7,240
1,791
93
884
1,203
589
925
827
208
359
361

7,281
1,803
96
890

585
925
822
204
351
359

7,165
1,785
91
869
1,182
583
922
819
204
350
360

3,901

3,919

3,922

3,931

3,950

3, 976

3,991

Wholesale and retail trade_______________ ___________ 11,471 11,414 11,410 11,437 11,392 11,355 11,320 11,252 11,296 11,347 11,334 11,371
Wholesale trade____ _____ _ . . _. __________ _____ 3,049 3,036 3,020 3,022 3, Oil 3,001 2,988 2,991 2,989 2,992 3,003 3,008
Retail trade___________ ______ ______________
8,422 8,378 8,390 8,415 8,381 8 ,354 8,332 8,261 8,307 8 ,355 3,331 8,363

3,953

3,939

3,942

11,423
3,018
8,405

Durable goods____ ____ _______________
Ordnance and accessories........................ ............ .........
Lumber and wood products, except furniture____
Furniture and fixtures_______________ __________
Stone, clay, and glass products, _ __ __________
Primary metal industries_______________________
Fabricated metal products________________ ___
Machinery_______ _ ____________
Electrical equipment and supplies______________
Transportation equipment ............
Instruments and related products__ ____________
M iscell aneous manufacturing industries. . . _

Transportation and public utilities .

_________________

Finance, insurance, and real estate____________ __
Service and miscellaneous____ _

T a ble

1 ,2 1 0

1,057
1,395
1,422
1,487
342
377

1 ,2 0 1

1 ,1 1 2

1,438
1,405
1,595
348
387

1 ,2 1 2

592
922
828
210

364
364

2,762

2, 757

2, 748

2, 747

2,739

2,732

2,732

2, 731

2,727

2,723

2,719

2,707

7,604

7,582

7, 546

7,533

7,471

7,436

7,425

7,463

7,460

7,439

7,447

7,431

7,415

8,970
2,314
6,656

8,920
2,313
6,607

8,865
2,309
6 , 556

_ _ 2,770

____________________

Government _ . .
____ .
Federal. ___
_________
State and lo ca l..
1 For coverage of the series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
2 Preliminary.

3,958

88

1 ,1 0 1

8,821 8 , 774 8,734 8 , 712 8,682 8,671 8,643 8,622
8,590
2,288 2, 270 2,251 2,248 2,235 2,258 2,239 2,247
2,252
6,533 6,504 6,483 6 , 464 6 ,447 6,413 6 , 404 6 ,375
6,338
N o t e : The seasonal adjustment method used is described in “ N ew Seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components,” M onthly Labor
Review, August 1960, pp. 822-827.
8,835
2,301
6 , 534

A-5. Production workers in manufacturing industries, by major industry group, seasonally
adjusted 1
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.

[inthousands]
1961
Major industry group

Oct. 2 Sept . 2

Aug.

June

1960

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

12,156 12,164 12,145 12,060 11,910 11,812 11,755 11,820 11,962 12,133

lanufacturing_______________________________________ 12,108

1 2 ,1 1 2

Durable goods
______ ____
6,675
99
Ordnance and accessories_______________________
537
Lumber and wood products, except furniture____
306
Furniture and fixtures____ ____ .*_______________
464
Stone, clay, and glass products_________________
P r im a r v m e ta l in d u s tr ie s
955
823
Fabricated metal products____________ _________
M a c h in e r y ..______ _ ______________ ________
978
984
Electrical equipment and supplies______________
Transportation equipm ent.. . _____________ ____ 1 , 0 0 0
222
Instruments and related products.. ____ _____
307
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries_________

6,680
97
541
308
460
952
830
967
957
1,040
224
304

6,699
95
538
309
464
944
838
967
972
1,039
225
308

Nondurable goods_____ _______________________ . . . 5,433
Food and kindred p ro d u cts__ _________________ 1,174
76
Tobacco manufactures_________________________
Textile mill products______________________ ____
795
Apparel and related products______ ___________ 1,072
472
Paper and allied products.. . ._ ________ ____
596
Printing, publishing, and allied industries_______
O h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p r o d n c t s
509
133
Petroleum refining and related industries________
290
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______
Leather and leather products___.*_______________
316
1 For definition of production workers, see footnote 1, table A-3.
2 Preliminary.

5,432
1,177
85
794
1,066
469
597
508
131
289
316

5,457
1,182
80
795
1,081
472
596
510
134
287
320


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

July

6,709
95
538
307
462
944
824
966
968
1,073
223
309

6,682
93
540
305
461
924
828
959
968
1,072

6,637
93
535
303
458
911
828
962
967
1,052

222

221

310

307

6,491
91
533
302
449
876
802
959
950
1 ,0 1 0

218
301

6,403
92
528
297
446
859
786
953
944
983
217
298

6

,377
91
523
295
440
858
786
958
939
971
217
299

6,447
91
530
294
445
864
799
963
937
1,006

6,568
91
529
300
453
878
817
975
935
1,066

220

222

298

302

6,680
91
542
308
464
891
832
991
951
1,081
224
305

Oct.
12,278
6,784
90
551
312
476
916
851
996
942
1,113
226
311

5,463 5,423 5,419 5,409 5,378 5,373 5,394 5,453
5,494
1,188 1,183 1,197 1 , 2 0 2 1,195 1,197 1,198 1,205
1,217
78
79
78
81
80
80
81
83
86
784
800
798
790
783
784
789
796
803
1,076 1,063 1,069 1,068 1,050 1,039 1,048 1,071
1,080
473
468
466
466
464
465
464
469
471
597
594
595
595
594
593
593
597
595
510
505
500
499
497
499
501
503
505
132
132
132
131
131
133
134
135
137
286
279
271
267
266
267
271
275
279
323
322
321
316
318
316
315
319
321
N o t e : The seasonal adjustment method used is described in “ N ew seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components,” M onthly Labor
Review .August 1960, pt>. 822-827
5,455
1,183
77
800
1,072
472
601
513
130
287
320

1402

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

Table A-6. Unemployment insurance and employment service program operations1
fAll items except average benefit amounts are in thousands]

Sept.
Employment service: *
New applications for work_____________
Nonfarm placements__________________

793
607

Aug.

845
603

July

818
501

Apr.

M ay

June

1,018
551

873
520

Mar.

808
440

895
417

Feb.

Jan.

949
342

Dec.

1,065
366

N ov.

820
378

Oct.

881
430

Sept.

858
517

811
584

State unemployment Insurance programs: *
1,709
1,229
1,393
Initial claims8 !...............................................
1,248
1,501
1,368
1,468
1,919
2,381
2,175
1,081
1, 744
1,206
Insured unem ployment8 (averageweekly
1,991
3,168
3,266
1,744
1,958
2, 328
2,779
3,394
1,678
volum e)_______________ _____ ___ . . . .
1,558
2, 639
2, 039
1,598
5.7
3 8
7.8
8.4
4.3
4.8
4.9
4.2
Rate of Insured unem ploym entT.......... .
5.1
4.0
9,835 10, 656 13,334 11,935 11,975
6,992
8,273
9,105
Weeks of unemployment com pensated...
5, 772
7,310
7,054
5, 861
6,238
Average weekly benefit amount for total
$33.12 $33.36 $32.91 $32.92 $33. 46 $34.18 $34. 37 $34. 45 $34.34 $34.18 $34. 01 $33. 73 $33.54
unemployment_____________________
Total benefits paid____________________ $185,008 $237,168 $223,978 $264,448 $320, 089 $362, 539 $461, 643 $399,264 $397,609 $300,204 $231,114 $189,891 $201,805

8.1

6.6

39

36

33

29

27

91
61
71
91
80
83
326
355
355
291
370
380
$8,984 $10,190 $11,980 $11,618 $11,002 $11,017

71
279
$8,597

59
227
$7,016

50
190
$5,870

49

6.8

Unemployment compensation for ex-service­
men: 8 •
Initial claim s8............................................
Insu-ed unem ploym ent8 (average weekly
volum e)_______ ____________ _________
Weeks of unemployment com pensated...
Total benefits paid........................................

$6,886

Unemployment compensation for Federal
civilian employees:18 8
Initial claim s8________________________
Insured unem ploym ent8 (average weekly
volum e)_________ ___________________
Weeks of unemployment compensated__
Total benefits Dald.........................................

11

15

28
118
$4,136

31
139
$4,878

32
115
$3,932

19

26

Railroad unemployment Insurance:
Applications <*___________________ . . . . .
Insured unemployment (average weekly
volum e)___ _________ _______________
Number of payments 11________________
Average amount of benefit paym en t11
Total benefits paid 18_................................
All programs:18
Insured unemployment * 8_________......

25
52

221
10

30

29

58
263
$8,174

60
236
$7,271


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

12

12
31
142
$4,913

100

9

33
148
$5,090

6
100

29

13
36
167
$6,228

6

35

12
40
160
$5, 604

10

33

13

19

14

14

14

41
162
$5,534

40
164
$5, 606

36
142
$4,817

33
131
$4, 464

30
115
$5, 934

13

38

21

23

20

210

$6,445

12
28

120

$4,059

99

123
83
106
113
82
74
83
107
103
95
77
107
253
224
242
266
226
194
164
203
270
192
167
227
$80. 70 $80. 61 $77.88 $78.43 $80. 01 $79. 57 $81.60 $80. 99 $82.69 $82. 46 $81. 52 $77. 50 $80.90
$13, 558 $16,173 $12, 713 $17, 551 $20, 485 $16,273 $22,274 $19,706 $22, 208 $18. 793 $16,036 $15,222 $18, 532

200

1,719

1,907

2,136

2,175

i Data relate to the United 8tates (Including Alaska and Hawaii), except
where otherwise Indicated.
Includes Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
* Includes data for Puerto Rico, beginning January 1961 when the Com­
monwealth's program became part of the Federal-State UI system.
* Initial claims are notices filed by workers to Indicate they are starting
periods of unemployment. Excludes transitional claims.
* Includes interstate claims for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands for the
entire period.
* Number of workers reporting the completion of at least 1 week of unem­
ployment.
» The rate Is the number of Insured unemployed expressed as a percent of
the average covered employment in a 12-month period.
* Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with other programs.
•Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.

1

26

26

2,543

3,046

3,403

3,638

3,515

2, 847

2,225

1,839

1,781

10

Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with State programs,
u An application for benefits is filed by a railroad worker at the beginning
of his first period of unemployment In a benefit year; no application Is required
for subsequent periods In the same year.
Payments are for unemployment In 14-day registration periods.
The average amount Is an average for all compensable periods, not
adjusted for recovery of overpayments or settlement of underpayments.
Adjusted for recovery of overpayments and settlement of underpayments.
Represents an unduplicated count of Insured unemployment under the
State, Ex-servicemen and UOFE programs and the Railroad Unemploy­
ment Insurance Act.

11
18
>8
11

Source: U.8. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security for
all items except railroad unemployment Insurance, which Is prepared by the
U 8. Railroad Retirement Board.

B.—LABOR TURNOVER

1403

B.—Labor Turnover
T able

B -l. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1
[Per

100

R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

employees]

1961

Annual
average

1960

Major industry group
Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

2.9

3.5
3.6

4.8
3.7

3.8

3.3
3.6

4.4

3.5

3.1

4.2

2 .6

3.1

4.2
4.4
3.2
3.0
4.4
3.0
4.0

4.8
3.9
3.4
2.4
3.9
2.9
3.2
4.3
2.4

5.5
4.5
4.0
3.1
4.7
3.6
4.0
4.8
2.9

1959

Accessions: T o ta l 2
Manufacturing:
Actual_____________________________
Seasonally adjusted___ _____
_
Durable goods________________________
Ordnance and accessories____________
Lumber and wood products, except furniture_______________ _____ - .........Furniture and fixtures________
_ ...
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary metal industries_____ _______
Fabricated metal products___ ________
Machinery_________________________
Electrical equipment and supplies____
Transportation equipment___________
Instruments and related products_____
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries__________________ ______ ___
Nondurable goods__ ______ ___________
Food and kindred produ cts................—
Tobacco manufactures__________ ____
Textile mill products________________
Apparel and related products.................
Paper and allied products____. . . -----Printing, publishing, and allied industries_____________ _______ ____
Chemicals and allied products________
Petroleum refining and related industries.
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______ _ ____________________
Leather and leather products_________
Nonmanufacturing:
Metal mining________ _____ _________
Coal m in in g._______________________

4.6
3.6

4 .1

4.4
4.0

5.0
3.9

4.2
4.2

4.0
4-4

4.9
2.7

3.9

2 .8

2 .8

4.5
3.3

4.2
2.5

4.6
5.1
3.0
3.3
4.4
3.4
4.8
4.6
3.5

5.1
5.9
4.0
3.5
5.6
3.3
4.7
7.0
3.5

5.3
5.3
3.7
3.1
4.6
3.0
3.4
4.1

8 .8

7.1
3.7
4.4
4.8
4.7
2.9
3.2
4.4

7.6
3.6
4.4
4.1
4.8
3.0
3.2
5.0

2 .8

4.4
4.9
4.1
4.7
3.6
4.0
4.3
3.4

2 .6

2 .1

6 .2

7.6

6 .1

5.9

5.7

5.1
8.7
13.2
3.9
4.8
2.9

5.8
9.8

5.0
7.7

5.5
8.3
2.9
3.9
6.9
4.0

4.3
5.7
4.5
4.0
6.3
2.7
2 .6
2 .2

4.2

5.3

3.2
3 .8

3.7
4.0

2.3
3.3

4.2

4.3

3.8
2.7

2 .6

2 .2

3.2
2.5

2 .2

2 .6

2.4

2.4

5.4
3.5
5.0
4.1
5.0
3.0
2.9

4.2
3.0
3.4
2.9
3.5

2.3

2 .6

2 .1

6 .8

3.6
1.9

2.5
1.9
2.3
2.7
2.4
2.7
3.4

1.9

5.4
3.1
3.0
3.4
4.3
3.3
3.5
4.2
2.4

5.7

5.5

4.7

5.6

2 .2

3.5

4.7

6 .2

5.3

5.5

3.6
4.9
1.4
3.6
4.9
2.4

3.6
4.4

3.2
3.5
1.7
2.9
5.7

3.5
3.9
5.0
2.9
5.8
2.3

2.5
3.3
5.8
1.9
3.5
1.5

3.1
3.9
3.6

3.8
5.8
3.0
2.9
4.9
2.3

5.2
9.0
15.1
3.2
5.4
3.0

4.1

. 4.3

2 .6

2 .8

2 .2

2 .6

2.5

2 .0

2.5
1.3
.7

3.2

3.8

3.0

3.0

1 .6
1 .0

2 .1

2 .0

2 .2

1.3

1 .2

1.3

2.3
4.3

3.1
4.3

3.8
4.7

3.1
4.8

3.6
4.8

1 .8
1 .2

1.7

2 .2

3.1

3.4

3.6

1 .2

1 .0

1 .2

1 .6

2 .2

1.5
1.9

2 .1

2 .8

2 .2

2 .6

1.9

2 .1
2 .2
2 .2

1.9

2.5
2.4

2 .2

2 .6
2 .8

1.7
2 .1

2.5
2 .1
2 .0

2.7
1.5

2 2.0

6 .8

4.4
6.4
2 .8

3.6
6.9
2.9

3.4

3.1

3.0

2 .2
1 .0

2 .0
1 .2

2 .0

4.0
3.1

2.5

2 .6

1 .8

1 .0

.8

1 .8
1 .1

1 .2

1.4

2.3
1.3

2.3
1.7

4.4
4.4

5.1
5.3

3.9
6.5

4.6

4.8
5.8

4.1
3.9

3.4
4.0

2.7
4.5

3.6
5.2

1 .8

3.4
1.9

2.3
3.4

2 .1

3.9
1.3

2 .8

3.1

1.9

1.9

.8

1 .6

2.5
1.5

3.8

3.6

6 .0

4.2

4.0
4 .6

3.4
5.2
2.3

2 .0

1 .6

.6

3.7

3 .5

1 .8

2 .6

4.9
1.9

3.5
3.4
2 .6

2.4
3.7
2.5
3.2
4.3
2.3

8 .0

2.5

6 .0

6 .2

5.6
3.2
5.3

5.4
3.5
5.7

Accessions: New hires
Manufacturing:
Actual ___________________________
Seasonally adjusted_______________
Durable goods. ______________________
Ordnance and accessories_________. . .
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture______ ________________
Furniture and fixtures_______________
Stone, clay, and glass products----------Primary metal industries......................
Fabricated metal products___________
Machinery__________________ _______
Electrical equipment and supplies____
Transportation equipment___________
Instruments and related products____
Miscellaneous
manufacturing
industries_________________________
Nondurable goods_____________________
Food and kindred products__________
Tobacco manufactures..............................
Textile mill products________________
Apparel and related products________
Paper and allied products_________ . .
Printing, publishing, and allied industries_________________________
Chemicals and allied products.............
Petroleum refining and related industries.
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______ __________ ________ -Leather and leather products..................
Nonmanufacturing:
M etal mining---- ------------- ---------------Coal mining........................................ .........
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.9

3.1
2.3

2.5
3.3

2.9
3.1

2 .1

1 .8

1 .6

1 .0

2 .0

1 .9

1.4
1.7

1.5

2 .1

1 .8

1 .8

2 .6
1 .8

2 .6

2 .1
2 .1

2.4

1 .8

1.4
1.5

1 .2
1 .6

1.3
1.9

1 .2

1.9

1 .8

1 .6
1 .8

.9

2 .6

1 .6

1.7

2 .6

3.6
4.2
1.9
1.3
2.9
1.7
3.3
2.3
2.7

4.3
4.4
2.5
1.4
3.2

4.1
3.6

5.8
2.9
2.9
1.3
2.7

4.7

3.9

2.4

1 .2

2 .0

1.7
1.7
.9
.4
1.3

2 .6

2 .2
2 .1

1 .1

1.3

1.5
1.3

2 .1
2 .1

1 .6
2 .6
2 .1

1 .2

1 .8

1 .8

2 .2

1.9

2 .2
1 .0

1.9
1.4
1 .0

.4
1.3

.5
1.3
1.4
1.4

.9
2 .1

1 .8

1.3
1.5
1.3

2.3

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.5

1.7
.5
1.5
1.5
1.3
1.3

1 .2

1 .1

1 .1
1 .2
1 .1
1 .1

2.9
1.9

2.4
1.5
1.9
1.5

2 .1
2 .2
1 .8

2 .2

2 .0

1 .8

1.5
1.4
1 .1

1 .8
1 .8
.6

1 .1
.6

.4
1 .0

.9
1 .0

1.4

.9
.9

1 .1

1 .8

3.5
3.6
1.9

3.4

2.5
1.5
.6
2 .1

.8

2.5

.8
2 .1

2 .8
2 .0

4.2
3.4
2 .6

1.7

1.7
2.7
2.3

2 .0

2 .6

1.7
1.7

1.9
2.3

4.4

5.9

3.8

3.8

3.5

2 .8

2 .6

2.3

2.5

1.4

2.3

3.5

4.7

3.4

3.5

3.4
5.3
7.6

3.8

3.1
4.8

3.4
5.2
1.3
2.7
3.6
2.9

2.4
3.1
1.3
2.5
3.2
1.7

1.9
2.4
.5
1.9

1.9

1 .6

1 .2

1.7

1.5

2.4
3.6

3.5
5.7

.8

2 .1

2.5
3.5
2.9

2 .8

2 .0
.6

1.7
1.7

1 .6

2 .8

2.9

1.3
2.7

1.3
2.5

1.3

1 .2

1 .0

1 .0

1.9
1.5
.5

1.7
.5

1.9
.9
.5

1.3
1.9

1 .1
2 .1

1 .0

.6

2.9

2 .1

.9

1.3

1 .0

1 .0

.3

.3

6 .1

3.3

13.4
3.1
4.0

2 .2

2 .0

2.4
3.7
1.9

2.7
1.5
.7

2.4
1.4

2.3
1.5

2.9
2.3

1 .8

.8

1 .1

2 .1

1 .1

1.7
1.4
.7

2 .8

2 .2

1.4

2.9

2 .8

2 .2

2 .8

3.7

3.6

2.4
3.6

1.9
2.9

1.4
1.9

1.4

1 .2

1 .1

2.3

1.3

.9

.9

.7

.7

.3

.3

.2

.8

.2

1 .0

.3

.8

1.4
1.4
.9
1.5
.7

2 .0
1 .8

1.4

1.4
2.4

1 .8

1 0 .2
2 .1

2.9

3.5

3.2

3.6
3.0
2.4
3.6

1 .1

1 .6

2 .2

1 .8

2 .1

1.9

2 .6

2.4

.6

.8

1 .1

2.4
1.4

.4

3.1
1.5

.5

.7

1 .0

.8

1 .6
.8

1 .2

1 .8

2.3

2.5

2.4
3.2

1.7
2.9

2.4
3.2

1.5

1.9

1.9
.4

1.9
.4

2 .2

.5

.4

2 .0

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1404

T able

B -l. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p . 1400.

[Per loo employees]

Annual
average

I960

1961
Major industry group
Sept.3 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Feb.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

4.3

4.1

Separations: Total3
Manufacturing:
Actual___________________________
S e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d _______ _________

4.8

4.1

4.1

3.4

3.9

4.8

4.5

4.7

5. 3

4 -3

3 .8

3 .5

4 -2

3.9
4M

4.7

3 .8

3.6
4-0

3.5

3 .9

4 -7

4 -9

4 -3

4 -2

4 .3

Durable goods______________________
Ordnance and accessories -------- -- -Lumber and wood products, except
furniture____________________ --Furniture and fixtures.. ----------------Stone, clay, and glass products---------Primary metal industries_________ —
Fabricated metal products---- ------Machinery------ ------------ --------------Electrical equipment and supplies-----Transportation equipment__________
Instruments and related products------Miscellaneous manufacturing industries___________________________

4.2
3.5

3.9
2.4

4.3
2.1

3.5
2.3

3.3
2.1

3.1
1.9

4.2
2.4

4.2
2.2

5.1
2.3

5.0
1.9

4.5
2.3

4.4
2.3

4.9
3.4

4.3
2.4

4.0
23

6.4
4.8
45
3.0
5.0
3.7
3.9
4.3
3.6

6.2
4.6
3.7
2.7
4.5
3.5
3. 1
4.2
2.6

5.9
4.3
2.2
2.2
4.5
3.4
3.0
8.2
2.4

4.3
3.3
3.0
2.3
4.3
3.4
3.1
4.3
2.4

4.0
4.3
2.8
2.2
3.5
3.2
2.8
4.0
2.0

3. 7
3.5
3.2
2.2
3.1
2.9
2.8
3.9
2.3

48
4.3
3.2
3.2
4.4
3.2
3.5
5.7
2.3

6.1
4.0
4.0
3.5
5.2
2.8
3.2
6.6
2.2

6.1
5.1
5.3
4. 4
6.7
3.4
3.9
7.3
2.9

6.8
4.8
5.5
4.9
6. 4
3.1
3.4
5. 9
2.4

7.8
4.9
4.8
4. 5
4.9
3.1
3.8
4.8
2.7

6.8
5.0
4.4
4.9
5.0
3.7
3.3
4. 7
2.3

6.8
5.2
4.9
4.8
6. 3
4. 4
4.0
5. 2
3.7

6.1
4.6
4.1
4. 0
4.8
3.4
3.5
5. 2
2.7

5. 4
4. 4
3.8
2. 5
4.7
3.1
3.2
5. 5
2.4

5.1

5.9

5.1

4.3

4. 7

4.3

5.0

4.3

5. 6

10.4

7. 5

6.0

6.1

5. 9

5. 3

Nondurable goods. _________________
Food and kindred products--------------Tobacco manufactures______________
Textile mill products--------------- ------Apparel and related products-----------Paper and allied products----------------Printing, publishing, and allied industries _ --------------------------------Chemicals and allied products............ Petroleum refining and related industries.- _________________________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products______________________ _____
Leather and leather products ............

5.4
8.1
6.8
4.3
6.2
4.1

4. 5
6.8
3.2
3.9
5.2
2.9

3.9
5.0
2.1
3.4
6.1
2.5

3.7
4.8
2.1
3.1
5.5
2.3

3.7
4.3
2.9
3.1
6.6
2.2

3.8
4.6
6.3
3.1
6.5
2.2

3.6
4.4
5.3
3.3
5.2
2.4

3.5
4.3
7.0
3.1
5.1
2.4

4.2
5.5
3.4
3.9
6.1
2.9

4.7
6.6
6.2
3.8
6.8
2.9

4.5
6.9
13.4
3.7
5.7
2.9

5.0
7.8
10.3
4.0
6. 4
3.1

5.9
8.8
5. 8
4.7
6. 7
4.3

4.4
6.0
5. 9
3.7
6.1
2.9

4.2
6.1
5.1
3. 5
5. 6
2.7

3.7
2.9

3.1
2.2

2.5
1.7

2.8
2.2

2.6
2.4

2.5
1.8

2.5
1.6

2.6
16

2.8
2.0

3.0
2.0

2.4
2.0

2.9
1.9

4.0
3.4

2.8
2.1

2. 8
2.0

2.6

2.2

1.7

1.4

1.0

1.0

1.1

1.1

1.6

1.6

1. 5

2.1

2. 6

1. 6

1. 4

4.3
5.9

3.4
5.8

3.1
5.6

3.1
4.2

2.8
4.3

2.7
5.1

4.0
5.1

4.3
4.5

4. 5
4.9

4. 4
5.3

4.3
4.3

4.1
5.1

4.3
6.0

3. 9
5.0

3.4
4.7

4.0
1.8

2.9
1.7

2.3
5.8

1.8
1.4

2.4
2.3

2.2
2.6

2.8
3.4

2.4
3.5

5.1
1.7

6.6
5.0

4.1
2.1

3.6
3.7

4.7
1.9

3. 8
3.6

3. 4
3.8

1.3

1. 5

N onmanufacturing :
Metal mining----------------------------------Coal mining................................................

Separations: Quits
Manufacturing:
Actual_____________________________
S e a s o n a l l y a d j u s t e d --------- ------- ----------Durable goods---------------------- ----------Ordnance and accessories-----------------Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_______ -- ---------- ------Furniture and fixtures--------------------Stone, clay, and glass products---------Primary metal industries-----------------Fabricated metal products.....................
Machinery___________ ___________
Electrical equipment and supplies-----Transportation equipment. ------- - ..
Instruments and related products------Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.......... ............................. .............
Nondurable goods. _________________
Food and kindred products--------------Tobacco manufactures--------------------q'extile mill products----------------------Apparel and related products-----------Paper and allied products....... ...........
Printing, publishing, and allied industries _________________________
Chemicals and allied products........... —
Petroleum refining and related industries . -------- --------------------------------Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products____ _______________________
Leather and leather products --------Nonmanufacturing :
Metal mining_______________________
Coal mining...................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.1

1.7

1.2

1.2

1.1

1.0

0.9

0.8

0.9

0.7

0.9

1.3

2.3

1 .»

1 .2

1 .1

1 .2

1 .2

1 .0

1 .1

1 .1

1 .1

1 .1

1 .1

1 .2

1 .3

1.9
1.9

1.4
1.2

1.0
1.0

1.0
1.0

.9
.9

.8
.9

.8
.8

.6
.8

.7
.9

.6
.7

.7
.8

1.0
1.0

1.8
2.0

1.1
1.0

1.3
1. 2

3.3
2.5
1.7
1.0
2.1
1.4
2.1
1.4
2.1

2.9
2.3
1.5
.7
1.5
1.1
1.5
1.0
1.3

2.2
1.6
1.0
.5
1.0
.8
1.0
.7
.9

2.2
1.3
1.0
.5
1.0
.9
1.1
.8
1.0

2.0
1.4
.9
.4
.9
.7
.9
.7
.8

1.7
1.2
.8
.4
.8
.7
.9
.7
.8

1.3
1.1
.7
.4
.7
.7
.8
.7
.8

1.0
.8
.6
.3
.6
.5
.8
.6
.7

1.2
1.0
.7
.3
.6
.6
1.0
.6
.8

1.0
.9
.6
.3
.6
.5
.7
.5
.7

1.3
1.1
.7
.4
.7
.6
.9
.6
.8

1.8
1.7
1.1
.4
1.0
.7
l.i
.9
1.0

3.6
2.6
1.9
.8
1.8
1. 4
2.0
1. 4
2.0

2.3
1.7
1.1
.6
1.1
.9
1.2
.9
1.1

2. 6
1.9
1. 4
.8
1. 4
1.1
1.4
1. 1
1.3

3.0

2.7

1.6

1.7

1.6

1.4

1.3

1.1

1.2

1.1

1.3

1.9

3.2

1.9

1.9

1.1
1.0
.8
1.2
1.8
.7

1.0
.9
.6
1.0
1.5
.6

1.1
1.0
.9
1.1
1.7
.7

.9
.9
.7
.9
1.3
.6

1.1
1.2
.7
1.2
1.7
.7

1.6
1.9
1. 1
1. 5
2.2
1.1

2.8
3.8
1. 9
2.3
3.0
2. 6

1.6
1.7
1. 0
1. 6
2.3
1. 2

1.7
1.9
1. 1
1. 7
2. 3
1. 3

1.1
.5

1.1
.5

1.3
.5

1.1
.4

1.1
.5

1. 5
.7

2. 5
1.9

1.5
.8

1. 5
.8

2.5
3.1
1.9
2.6
2.8
2.2

2.1
2.6
1.3
2.3
2.7
1.4

1.4
1.5
.8
1.6
2.3
.9

1.5
1.5
.7
1.6
2.1
.9

1.3
1.4
.6
1.5
2.0
.8

1.2
1.1
.9
1.3
1.8
.7

2.4
1.6

1.7
1.0

1.4
.6

1.4
.8

1.2
.6

1.1
.6

1.0

.7

.5

.5

.4

.4

.3

.3

.4

.3

.3

.5

1.3

.5

.5

1.8
3.0

1.6
2.9

1.0
2.2

1.1
2.1

1.0
1.9

.9
1.7

.8
1.7

.7
1.5

.8
1.7

.6
1.4

.8
1.6

1.1
2.2

1.7
3.4

1.1
2.2

1.3
2.2

2.0

1.6

.9

.9

1.0

.7

.6

.9

.9

.7

.8

2.4

1. 5

1

.3

.2

.1

.2

.2

.4

.3

.5

.4

.5

.2

.3

.8
.2

!

.3

.5
.3

B.—LABOR TURNOVER

1405

Table B -l. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

[Per 100 employees]
1961

1960

Annual
average

Major industry group
Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

3.1

2 .8

2 .6

2.3

2 .6

Oct.

Sept.

I960

2.4

2.4

2 .0

2 .0

1959

Separations: Layoffs
Manufacturing:
Actual_____________________________
Seasonally adjusted__________________
Durable goods________________________
Ordnance and accessories............ ............
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture...............................................
Furniture and fixtures_______ _______
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary metal in d u str ies....................
Fabricated metal products..................... .
Machinery_________________________
Electrical equipment and supplies____
Transportation equipment___________
Instruments and related products.........
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries______________ _____________
Nondurable goods____________________
Food and kindred products__________
Tobacco manufactures______ _____ _
Textile mill products.................... ............
Apparel and related products.............. .
Paper and allied products____________
Printing, publishing, and allied indus­
tries________________________ ___
Chemicals and allied products________
Petroleum refining and related indus­
tries______________ _____________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
products________________________
Leather and leather products..............
N onmanufacturing:
M etal mining_________________________
Coal mining__________________________

1.9

1.7
1.9

2.3
2.5

.8

1.7
.7

2.7
.7

2 .1

2.4

1.4
1.9

3.0

1 .6

2 .2

1.5
1.4

2 .0
1 .6

1.7

1 .8

2 .2

2 .0

.*
.9

1.7

1.5

1.4
1.5
1.3

1.3
2.3
1.3

1 .1

1 .2

2.7

2.7
1.7
1.3

1 .2
2 .0

1 .2
2 .1

2 .2

1 .6

1.9

2 .0

.8

2.3
.9

1.3

2.4
.6

6 .8
1 .1

1.4

2 .2

2.3
4.3
4. 6

1 .8

3.6
1.4

1 .1

1.0

.8

1

2.3
2.3

2.9

3.2
2.9

3.6
2.9

1.7
.5

2 .6

3.1

3.9
.7

2 .8

1 .0

.9

2.4
.9

2 .6

.8

3.7
.9

3.2

1 .0

.9

.7

1.4
1.7

2 .8
2 .6

5.4
3.3
4.5
4.2
5.4

3.2
3.5
3.7
3.6

4.3

2 .1

2 .1

1 .8
1 .8
1 .1
2 .6

2 .1
2 .2

2 .1
2 .1

2 .0
2 .2

6 .1

3.7
1.4

2.7
3.9
3.4
2.4
1.5
3.1
.9

2.5
1.7

3.1

1.9
2.3
3.2

4.3
3.4
4.1
3.5
5.5

6 .0

1 .8
1 .2

4.5
2.5
3.0

5.6
2.9
5.2

2 .6

2 .6

1.9
1.3

1.7
1.5
1.3

2 .8

2 .6

2 .6

1.0

4.5

.6

1.0

1.9
5.6

1.0

1 .0

1.4

4.9
1.3

2.7

1.9

2.4

2 .2

3.0

2 .6

3.7

8.7

1.9
2.9

1 .6

2.7

1.9
2.4

2 .6

1 .1

2 .1

3.3
5.2
5.2
2.5
5.1

2 .1

1 .8
2 .0

2 .0

4.1
1 .8

2 .1

1.7

3.1

2 .8

4.0

2.9
5.1
1.3
4.1

1 .2

.8

1 .0

.8

.8

1.0

.8
.8

.9
.7

.7
.7

.8

1.4

.9
.9

1 .0

.9

1.0

.9

.6

.6

.4

.2

.3

.4

1.0

1.5
2.7

1 .2

1 .2

1 .2

1.4

2.5

3.0

2 .1

1 .8

2 .8

2 .8

.7
.9

.8

.2

.8

.8

4.8

.9

1.7

1.9

1.3
2.7

2.7

1 .6

2.3
1 .1

.7

1.0
1 .2

1.0

1 Beginning with the December 1961 issue, figures differ from those pre­
viously published. The industry structure has been converted to the 1957
Standard Industrial Classification, and the printing and publishing industry
and some seasonal manufacturing industries previously excluded are now
included.
Data include Alaska and Hawaii beginning in January 1959; this inclusion
has not significantly affected the labor turnover rates.
Month-to-month changes in total employment in manufacturing and non­
manufacturing industries as indicated by labor turnover rates are not com­
parable with the changes shown by the Bureau’s employment series for the
following reasons: (1 ) the labor turnover series measures changes during the


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

.8

1.9
1.9

1 .0

3.8

3.3
2 .8

2.3

2.4
3.0
3.1
1.9

1.4

1 .2

1 .6

1 .2

3.1

3.6

3.7

1 .1

1.0

.6

3.3

2 .0

3.2

2.7

2.9
5.2
8.3

2.4
4.4
3.5

2 .2

2 .0

3.6
3.6
1.3
2.7
.9

2 .0

2 .0

1 .8

3.5
1.7

3.6
1.5

3.1

1 .8

1 .1

1 .2

1 .1

1.5
1 .2

1 .1

.9
.9

1.0
1.0

.9
.9

.9

.8

1.0

.9

.4

.6

.8

.8

1.0

.8

.6

.5

3.1
2.5

3.3
3.2

3.0

2.4

1.9

2 .2

1.5

2 .2

2 .1

2 .2

1 .8

2 .1

1 .8

1 .1

3.4

2 .1

1.5

3.1

1.7

1 .1

4.7
4.4

2 .6

2 .8

1.5
2.9

3.1

2 .8

2 .8
1 .1

5.9
1.7
3.0
1.3

2.3
3.9
1.7

1.0

.7

2 .2

3.6
4.5
1.5
3.2

2 .8

4.2
1 .6

2 .6

2 .0

1 2.1

1.0

.8

1.1

calendar month, while the employment series measures changes from mid­
month to midmonth; and (2 ) the turnover series excludes personnel changes
caused by strikes, but the employment series reflects the influence of such
stoppages.
2 Preliminary.
3 Beginning with January 1959, transfers between establishments of the
same firm are included in total accessions and total separations; therefore,
rates for these items are not strictly comparable with prior data. Transfers
comprise part of “other accessions” and “other separations,” the rates for
which are not shown separately.

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1 4 06

C.—Earnings and Honrs
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Annual
average

1960

1961

Mar.

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
M ining...................................................- ............ $108. 79 $108.09 $110.24 $108.09 $104.92 $103.49 $101.14 $104.15
TVTpffll mining _____________________ 116. 2 0 113.02 114.40 114. 24 109. 62 111.25 109. 35 110.29
Iron ores________________________ 1 2 1 . 8 8 120.09 119.20 117.91 109. 6 6 1 1 0 . 26 108. 03 107. 74
Copper ores........................... - ............ 121.99 116. 47 117.00 117.72 113. 05 117.82 116. 6 8 117. 75
Coal mining.................................................
Bitum inous_____________________

114. 45 113.83 119.32 115.18 106.91 101.35
116.18 115. 55 120. 46 117. 29 108.26 102. 65

$106.27 $103.75 $1 0 2 . 82 $105.44
110. 97 112.19 108.95 110.70
110.19 109.15 106.14 109. 82
117. 21 1 2 0 . 06 118. 26 119. 07

$104. 64 $105.44 $103. 6 8
112. 56 111. 19 102.77
115.37 114. 73 107. 34
119. 62 116. 77 105.90

96.71 107. 22 110. 09 107. 53 103.18 108. 54 105.09 110.76 109.03
97. 34 108. 26 110.84 108. 58 103.87 109. 59 106. 73 112. 77 111. 70

Crude petroleum and natural gas........... 105.47 104. 67 106.93 103. 75 104.00 105.75 104. 75 104. 42 106. 6 8 103.09 103.99 103. 6 6 103.99 103.32 103. 52
Crude petroleum and natural gas
fields _ _ ___________________ 114. 37 110.95 116.33 112.19 111.35 114.11 110.95 111.63 116. 2 0 108. 54 109. 21 109. 35 110.16 108. 54 108.12
96. 51 98.93 98.21 96. 48 97.81 97. 78 98.97 97.61 97.33 97. 75 98.97 98. 27 98.08 98. 31 99.68
Oil and gas field services-------------Quarrying and nonmetallic mining........ 104. 62 104.42 103. 50 1 0 2 . 60 100.34 96.10 92.99 92. 55 93. 21 92. 25 95 87 101.03 100. 35 96. 58 94. 57
Contract construction_____ ____________
General building contractors------ -------H eavy construction... --------------------Highway and street construction.„
Other heavy construction------------Special trade contractors...........................
Manufacturing _ ----------- -------------------Durable goods------------ ------------Nondurable goods-----------------------

119.13
110. 23
121. 72
117. 8 8
127. 30
124. 02

116. 29
108. 78
116. 40
109. 85
123. 91
121. 32

112. 77
105. 40
109. 92
1 0 0 . 66
119. 42
118.96

92.50 92.86 93.20 93.03
99.35 100.44 100.35 101.09
84.14 83. 58 84.16 83.56

92.10
99.70
82.29

90.78
98. 31
81.27

120.38
109. 50
122. 70
118. 6 6
128. 07
126.94

122.05
111. 74
127.15
124. 24
131.57
126. 45

119.76
110. 23
1 2 2 . 60
120.13
126. 77
125.06

112.41 114.08 115.39
103. 70 106. 50 107. 46
110. 48 1 1 2 . 1 1 113. 87
100.10
101.14 104. 37
119. 87 121. 27 122.09
118. 61 119. 65 1 2 1 . 0 0

108.07
99.33
107.51
98.10
115. 82
114. 58

110. 98
102. 76
110. 19
104.37
117.87
117. 22

119.18
108. li
124.12
122. 04
126.07
123.88

89.08
96.29
80. 47

88.62
96.19
79.84

89. 21
96. 23
80. 52

90.12
97. 69
80.55

89. 54
97.17
80.88

89. 31
96. 29
80. 47

116. 87 112. 67
106. 26 103. 72
1J4. 11
122.11
120.18 1 1 0 . 0 0
123. 93 119. 60
1 2 2 . 21
118.11

108.41
100.32
108.94
105.06
1] 3. 65
113. 62

89.89
97.60
80.75

89.72
97. 44
80.36

88.26
96.05
78. 61

Average weekly hours
M in in g........... - ......................- ...........................
Metal mining...............................................
Iron ores-----------------------------------Copper ores...........................................

40.9
42.1
40.9
44.2

41.1
41.4
40.3
42.2

41.6
41.6
39.6
42.7

41.1
42.0
39.7
43.6

40.2
40.6
37.3
42.5

39.5
40.9
37.0
43.8

38.9
40.5
35.7
43.7

39.6
41.0
36, 4
44.1

40.1
41.1
37.1
43.9

39.6
41.4
37.0
44.8

39.7
40.5
36.6
43.8

40.4
41.0
38.0
44.1

40.4
42.0
40. 2
44.8

40.4
41.8
39.7
44. 4

40.5
40.3
37.4
42.7

Coal mining.................................................
Bitum inous_____________________

36.8
37.0

36.6
36.8

38.0
38.0

36.8
37.0

34.6
34.7

32.8
32.9

31.5
31.4

34.7
34,7

35.4
35.3

34.8
34.8

33.5
33.4

34.9
34.9

33.9
34.1

35.5
35.8

35.4
35. 8

Crude petroleum and natural gas...........
Crude petroleum and natural gas
fields----- --------------------------------Oil and gas field services.................

41.2

41.7

42.1

41.5

41.6

41.8

41.9

41.6

42.0

41.4

42.1

41.8

42.1

42.0

42.6

40.7
41.6

40.5
43.1

40.8
43.4

40,5
43.5

40.8
44.3

Quarrying and nonmetallic mining-----

40.2
42.5

40.6
43.6

40.9
42.7

40.2
43.6

45.2

44.4

42.9

41.7

41.5

41.8

41.0

42.8

44.9

44.8

43.7

44.4

37.7
36.5
41.4
41.8
40.8
36.8

36.8
35.9
40.0
39.8
40.1
36.0

35.8
34.9
38.3
37.7
38.9
35.3

35.8
34.8
38.9
38.5
39.3
35.3

36.1
35.5
39.2
38.9
39.5
35.4

36.4
35.7
39.4
38.8
39.9
35.8

34.2
33 0
37.2
36.2
38.1
33.9

35.8
34.6
38.8
38.8
38.9
35.2

38.2
36.4
42.8
43.9
41.2
37.2

37.7
35.9
42.4
43.7
40.5
36.7

36.7
35.4
40.7
41.2
40.0
35,9

37.0
35.7
40.8
41.2
40.3
36.3

40.1
40.6
39.6

39.7
40.2
39.0

39.3
39.8
38.7

39.1
39.5
38.7

39.0
39.3
38.5

38.9
39.3
38.5

38.7
39.1
38.2

39.3
39.6
38.9

39.7
40.2
39.1

39.6
40.0
39.2

39.7
40.1
39.2

40.3
40.7
39.7

$2.61
2.70
2. 89
2. 70

$2.59
2. 87
2.67

$2 . 61
2 . 66
2. 89
2. 63

$2.56
2.55
2.87
2. 48

3.10
3.13

3.12
3.15

3.08
3.12

41.4
42.7

40.5
42.5

44.9

45.4

45.0

Contract construction----------------------------General building contractors...................
H eavy construction--------------------------Highway and street construction...
Other heavy construction.................
Special trade contractors...........................

37.5
35.9
40.9
41.2
40.4
36 9

38.5
37.0
43.1
43.9
41.9
37.3

37.9
36.5
41.7
42.6
40.5
37.0

Manufacturing......... - ...................................... .
Durable goods....................................
Nondurable goods----------------------

39.7
39.9
39.5

40.2
40. 5
39.8

40.0
40.3
39.7

40.3
43.0

41.5
42.5

40.2
42.9

40.2
43. 2

Average hourly earnings
$2 . 60
2. 70
2. 97
2. 67

$2.63
2. 69
2. 96
2. 67

$2. 65
2.70
2.97
2.67

$2.62
2.71
2.95

2 .6 6

$2 . 62
2.72
2.98
2. 69

2 .6 8

$2(. 59
2. 69
2.90
2. 70

3.09
3.12

3.09
3.12

3.07
3.10

3.09
3.12

3.11
3.14

3.09
3.12

3.08
3.11

3.11
3.14

2. 50

2. 50

2.53

2. 50

2. 51

2.54

2. 49

2. 47

2.48

2. 47

2. 46

2.43

2. 77
2. 27

2.77
2.28

2. 79
2. 29

2. 76
2. 27

2. 77
2.27

2.80
2.29

2.70
2. 30

2. 69
2.27

2.70
2 . 28

2. 70
2.26

2 68
2

.
. 26

2.65
2. 25

2.27

2.26

2.24

2. 23

2.23

2.23

2. 25

2. 24

2. 25

2.24

2 21

.

2.13

3.16
3.01
2.89
2. 71
3.04
3. 38

3.10
2.97
2.84
2. 69
3.03
3.33

3.12
2.97
2.90
2.78
3.06
3. 33

3.10
2.96
2.75
3. 06
3.33

3.07
2.93
2 . 82
2.67
2.99
3. 29

2. 93
2.81
2.67
2 55
2.82
3.13

2.29
2.46
2. 09

2.27
2.43
2.07

2.27
2.43
2.06

2. 27
2.44
2.06

2.26
2.43
2.05

2.19
2.36
1.98

M ining.................................................................. $2 . 6 6
M etal m in in g.......... —.............. - .............. 2.76
2. 98
Iron ores_______________________
2. 76
Copper ores....................- ...................

$2.63
2.73
2.98
2.76

$2.65
2.75
3.01
2.74

$2. 63
2.72
2. 97
2.70

$2 . 61
2.70
2. 94

Coal mining................................................Bituminous__________ _____ _____

3.11
3.14

3.11
3.14

3.14
3.17

3.13
3.17

Crude petroleum and natural g a s.........
Crude petroleum and natural gas
fields______________ _____ _____
Oil and gas field services...................

2. 56

2.51

2. 54

2

. 81
2.32

2. 76
2.29

2.81
2. 30

Quarrying and nonmetallic mining-----

2. 33

2. 30

2.30
3.16
3.02
2.94
2.82
3.13
3.38

3.16
3.02
2. 94
2.82
3.12
3.37

3.16
3. 03
2.91
2. 76
3. 09
3.37

3.15
3.02
2. 87
2. 67
3.07
3.37

3.14
2.98
2.84
2.60
3.05
3.36

3.16
3.00
2 .8 6
2

. 60
3.07
3.38

3.17
3.01
2. 89
2. 69
3.06
3.38

2.31
2.48

2.33
2.49

2. 32
2.49

2.32
2.48

2. 31
2. 47

2 .1 0

2 .1 2

2 .1 1

2.1 1

2 .1 0

2.29
2. 46
2. 09

2.29
2. 45
2.09

2.29
2.45
2.09

Contract construction.........— .........—..........
General building contractors...... ............
H eavy construction_________________
Highway and street construction...
Other heavy construction-----------Special trade contractors..........................

3.21
3.05
3.00
2 . 88
3.17
3.44

3.17
3.02
2.95
2. 83
3.14
3.39

Manufacturing...................- ......................... —
Durable goods------------- ------------ Nondurable goods----------------------

2.33
2.49
2.13

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 .6 8

2 .8 8

0 .—EA R N IN G S AND H OU RS
1407

T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961

1960

Annual
average

Industry
Sept.

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1960

1959

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Ordnance and accessories_____

$114.5 $112.8 $111.7 $112.1 $112.1 $112.0 $112.6 $111.5 $111.7
115 4 115.7, 115.3 114.3<
114.2 114.4 114.2 115.6,
m e n t ..,.............................. ............
117 6 116.1 116.0(
117.0' 115.5,
112. 3;
Other ordnance and accessories__.. 110.5' 107. IS 104.9' 105.41 105.2( 105.5f 107.9S 111.5,
107. 9S 106.3'
1

furniture_______________ _____.........
Sawmills and planing mills______..
products...... .........................
Wooden containers....... ............
Miscellaneous wood products.
Furniture and fixtures...
Household furniture.
Office furniture..........
Other furniture and fixtures.

.
.
.

79.9£
71.8f

79. If
71.38

78. 21
70. 71

85.8S
64.7S
70.52

86.94
63.82
69.95

84.84 86.11 85. 27
64.8C 64. OS 62.87
69.60 71.05 70.12
75. 62
70. 49
92. 48
99.54
79.00

79.13 78.12
. 74.62 72. 67
. 93.56 91.65
. 103.16 106. 42
. 80.18 82.35

79.7$
71. 20

76.02
71.28
89.28
99.63
80.19

77.42 74.8?
69.7C 67.55

73.53
68.17
87. 78
98.49
79.20

$109. 4 $110.3( $109.6 2 $110.1 $108.6 $106.30
114.5 i n . 5 : 110.8 111. 9; 110.2' 108.05
105.7, 114.24 117.2 115.51 113. If 111.07
106.6( 105.56 102.4, 104. If 103.15 100.69

71.21
65.4

69.8f
64.3f

70.84
64.56

69.94
63.75

71.05
65.40

75.65
67.75

76.83
69.13

73. 71
67.20

74.24
67.26

84.24
61.86
70.12

81.5f
59.91
68.06

79.76
59.75
67.55

79.56
59.68
67.32

80.3S
58.81
66. 91

79.18
60.68
68.97

81.61
62.65
70. 41

81.18
61.82
69.72

81.19
62.17
69.32

82.81
61.35
68.21

68. 35
86. 94
93.75
78.01

73.14
68.35
87.20
94.43
80.20

72.77
67.44
87.42
95. 26
79.00

72.20
66.73
87. 85
93. 65
78.80

75.43
71.06
89.47
92. 79
79.40

74.26
69.74
88.40
95.74
79.19

76.17
71.33
91.24
97.27
81.19

76.14
71.51
90.80
96.87
80.95

75.20
70.45
90. 42
96.72
78.78

74.48
70.82
86. 27
93.09
77.33

Average weekly hours
Ordnance and accessories.

.

40.9

40.6

40.2

40.5

40.5

40.6

40.8

40.4

40.8

40.1

40.7

40.6

40.8

40.7

41.2

.

40.8

40.9

40.9

41.0

41.1

41.1

41.3

41.1

41.6

41.5

41.0

40.9

41.0

m ent__ ____ _________ _______ .
Other ordnance and accessories.. 1.

41.0

41.4

40.3
41.4

39.9
40.6

40.0
39.6

40.4
40.1

40.1
40.0

40.1
40.3

39.7
40.9

38.6
40.9

39.7
40.6

37.5
40.4

40.8
40.3

41.3
39.7

41.4
40.2

41.0
40.3

41.6
40.6

40.2
40.1

39.5
39.5

40.5
40.0

39.7
39.6

38.8
38.6

38.5
38.5

38.4
38.1

38.5
38.2

37.6
37.5

38.2
38.7

39.4
39.4

39.4
39.5

39.0
39.3

39.7
39.8

41.4
40.4
40.2

40.4
40.5
40.0

41.2
40.3
40.6

40.8
40.3
40.3

40.5
39.4
40.3

39.8
38.9
39.8

39.1
38.8
39.5

39.0
38.5
39.6

39.4
37.7
38.9

39.2
38.9
40.1

40.2
39.4
40.7

39.6
38 4
40.3

39.8
39.6
40.3

41.2
40.1
40.6

40.9
40.6
41.1
42.4
41.8

39.8
39.6
41.1
40.3
40.1

39.8
39.6
40.4
40.5
40.5

38.7
38.3
39.9
40.2
40.0

38.7
38.4
39.7
38.9
39.8

38.7
38.4
40.0
38.7
40.1

38.5
38.1
40.1
39.2
39.7

38.2
37.7
40.3
38.7
39.4

39.7
39.7
40.3
38.5
40.1

39.5
39.4
40.0
39.4
40.2

40.3
40.3
41.1
39.7
40.8

40.5
40.4
40.9
39.7
41.3

40.0
39.8
41.1
40.3
40.4

40.7
40.7
40.5
40.3
40.7

$2.58

Lumber and wood products, except
furniture............ ........................
_ 39.6
Sawmills and planing mills-______ _ 39.7
Millwork, plywood, and related
products............................ .
40.7
Wooden containers_________
39.5
Miscellaneous wood products
40.3
Furniture and fixtures..................
Household furniture________
Office furniture.............. ...........
Other furniture and fixtures.

41.0
41.0
41.4
41.1
40.7

Average hourly earnings
Ordnance and accessories. ...................... $2.80
Ammunition, except for small
arms______________________
2.83
Sighting and fire control equip­
ment. . _______ ________________
2.92
Other ordnance and accessories.. . I 2.67
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture______ ____ ______ _____ _
Sawmills and planing m ills_______
Millwork, plywood, and related
products___________ __________
Wooden containers_________ _____
Miscellaneous wood products_____
Furniture and fixtures______________
Household furniture.......... ................
Office furniture________________ II
Partitions; ofllceand store fixtures..
Other furniture and fixtures______
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.78

$2.78

$2. 77

$2.77

$2.76

$2.76

$2.76

$2.74

$2.73

$2.71

$2.70

$2.70

$2. 67

2.83

2.82

2.79

2. 79

2.78

2. 77

2.78

2.78

2.76

2.72

2.71

2.73

2.69

2.61

2.91
2.64

2.90
2.65

2.92
2.63

2. 92
2.63

2.92
2.62

2.91
2. 64

2.89
2.64

2.83
2.62

2.82
2.64

2.80
2.62

2. 84
2. 58

2.79
2.59

2.76
2.56

2.67
2.48

2.02
1.81

1.97
1.78

1.98
1. 79

1.97
1.78

1.95
1.76

1.93
1.75

1.85
1.70

1.82
1.69

1.84
1.69

1 .8 6

1 .8 6

1.70

1.69

1.92
1.72

1.95
1.75

1.89
1.71

1.87
1.69

2 .1 1

1.64
1.75

2.10
1.58
1.74

2.10
1.60
1.74

2.09
1.59
1.75

2.09
1.56
1. 74

2.08
1.57
1.74

2.05
1.54
1. 71

2.04
1.54
1.71

2.04
1.55
1.70

2.04
1.56
1.72

2.03
1.59
1.73

2.05
1.61
1.73

2.04
1.57
1.72

2.01
1.53
1.68

1.93
1.82
2.26
2.51
1.97

1. 91
1.79
2.23
2.51
1.97

1.90
1.78
2.25
2. 47
1.97

1. 91
1.80
2. 21
2.46
1.98

1.90
1.78
2 .2 0

1.89
1.78
2.19
2.41
1. 96

1.89
1.78
2.18
2.44
2.00

1.89
1.77
2.18
2.43
1.99

1.89
1.77
2.18
2.42
2.00

1.88
1.77
2.20
2.40
1.95

2 . 13
2. 31

2.45
1.98

1.90
1.79
2 .2 2
2

. 41
1.98

2 .0 2

1.56
1.72
1.88
1.77
2.21
2.43
1.97

1.89
1.77

1 .8 8

2 .2 2

2 .2 2

2.45
1.99

2.44
1.96

1.77

1.83
1.74

1.90

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1 4 08

T a ble

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Annual
average

1960

Industry
Sept. 3

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods— Continued
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Flat glass________ _______ ______
Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown____ __________________
Cement, hydraulic____ _________
Structural clay products_________
Pottery and related products_____
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
products----------- ------ --------------Other stone and mineral products..

$97.88 $98.18 $97.06 $97.29 $94.83 $93.03 $91.54 $90.62 $91.08 $90.39 $93.38 $94. 94 $93.61 $92.97
128.56 127.84 125.42 126.56 124.19 118.18 122.07 122.07 124.03 130. 29 135.47 134.08 127.26 127.35

$91.46
132. 29

94.72 96.56 95.68 96.32 94.72 95.20 94.64 94.24 92.90 91.49 93.37 92.97 91.01 91.94
111.92 108.79 109.06 107.16 105.56 103.46 102.94 100.74 101. 65 103.06 105.67 105.01 105.44 102.87
86.51 8 6 . 1 1 85. 28 86.32 85.07 83.42 81.18 79.56 80.36 79. 95 82.00 82. 62 82.41 82.21
83.33 81.49 81.38 83.00 83.44 81.59 81.43 80.25 78.97 79.45 82. 64 82.86 79.76 81.37

88.36
98.98
81.19
78.90

100.92 103.69 101.85 101.62
99.19 97.64 97.00 97.00

Primary metal industries. __________ 118.37
Blast furnace and basic steel
products_______ . ----------------- 127.43
Iron and steel foundries----------- . . 97.41
Nonferrous smelting and refining. __ 109.18
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and
extruding________________ ____ 117.39
Nonferrous foundries____ .
102.09
Miscellaneous primary metal jnd u stries...----------- ------------------- 121. 77

96.90
95.24

93.56
93.90

90.76
92.57

87.96
91.71

89.69
92.63

87.30
91.18

93.21
92.80

97.86
94.42

96.32
94.19

93.04
93.79

92.45
93.15

116.11 117.68 116.58 114.16 111.25 108.49 107.26 106.69 104.90 103.60 105.36 106.30 109.59

112.19

123.80 126.80 125.06 121.76 118.80 114.27 112.98 112.06 108.58 105. 73 108.17 110.40 116.13
99.96 100. 33 100.19 98.67 95.63 94.00 93.25 92.25 93.62 94.00 95.00 95.63 96.61
110.43 110. 70 110.29 108. 0 0 107.33 106.66 107.86 108.79 108.00 108.65 108.53 109.59 108.09

122.71
97.04
104.81

114.90 112.67 112. 94 110.92 108.77 107.30 105.59 105.59 104.15 105.97 106.63 105.44 105.01
99.60 100.35 98.95 98.95 98.06 98.31 97.46 97.22 97.57 98.06 97. 6 6 97.51

105.59
96.87

115.82 116.18 117. 74 115.60 113.47 111.25

111.50

100.10

112.11

113.37 111.93 110.48 110.65 110.54 112.92

Average weekly hours
Stone, clay, and glass products----------Flat g la s s ...------------------- ---------Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown____ . -------------- ------ Cement, hydraulic______________
Structural clay products-------------Pottery and related products_____
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
products_________________ ____
Other stone and mineral products...

41.3
40.3

41.6
40.2

41.3
40.2

41.4
39.8

40.7
39.3

40.1
38.0

39.8
39.0

39.4
39.0

39.6
39.5

39.3
41.1

40.6
42.6

41.1
41.9

40.7
40.4

40.6
40.3

41.2
41.6

39.8
41.3
41.0
38.4

40.4
40.9
41.4
37.9

40.2
41.0
41.0
37.5

40.3
40.9
41.3
37.9

39.8
40.6
40.9
38.1

40.0
40.1
40.3
37.6

40.1
39.9
39.6
37.7

40.1
39.2
39.0
37.5

39.7
39.4
39.2
36.9

39.1
40.1
39.0
37.3

39.9
40.8
40.0
38.8

39.9
40.7
40.3
38.9

39.4
40.4
40.2
37.8

39.8
40.5
40.3
38.2

39.8
40.9
40.8
38.3

43.5
41.5

44.5
41.2

43.9
41.1

43.8
41.1

42.5
40.7

41.4
40.3

40.7
39.9

39.8
39.7

40.4
40.1

39.5
39.3

41.8
40.0

43.3
40.7

43.0
40.6

42.1
40.6

43.2
41.4

Primary metal industries. __________
Blast furnace and basic steel
products______________________
Iron and steel foundries______ . . .
Nonferrous smelting and refining. _.
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and
extruding. ___________________
Nonferrous foundries----------- . . . .
Miscellaneous primary metal industries___________ __________ _

40.4

39.9

40.3

40.2

39.5

38.9

38.2

37.9

37.7

37.2

37.4

37.9

38.1

39.0

40.5

40.2
38.5
39.7

39.3
39.2
40.6

40.0
39.5
41.0

39.7
39.6
41.0

38.9
39.0
40.6

38.2
38.1
40.5

37.1
37.6
40.4

36.8
37.3
40.7

36.5
36.9
40.9

35.6
37.3
40.6

35.6
37.6
41.0

36.3
38.0
40.8

36.8
38.1
41.2

38.2
38.8
41.1

40.1
40.1
41.1

43.0
41.0

42.4
40.2

42.2
40.0

42.3
40.3

41.7
39.9

41.2
39.9

40.8
39.7

40.3
39.8

40.3
39.3

39.6
39.2

40.6
39.5

40.7
39.7

40.4
39.7

40.7
39.8

41.9
40.7

41.0

39.8

40.2

40.6

40.0

39.4

38.9

39.2

39.5

39.0

38.9

39.1

39.2

39.9

40.4

Average hourly earnings
Stone, clay, and glass products_______ $2. 37
Flat glass_______________________ 3.19
Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown___________________ _____
2.38
Cement, hvdraulic_______ _______ 2.71
2 .1 1
Structural clay products_________
Pottery and related products_____
2.17
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
products-------------- ----------------- 2.32
Other stone and mineral products... 2.39
Primary metal industries____________
Blast furnace and basic steel
products----------- -------------------Iron and steel foundries__________
Nonferrous smelting and refining. „.
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and
extruding_____
. . . ---------- -Nonferrous foundries___ . _____
Miscellaneous primary metal industries_______________________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.36
3.18

$2.35
3.12

$2.35
3.18

$2.33
3.16

$2. 32
3.11

$2. 30
3.13

$2.30
3.13

$2.30
3.14

$2.30
3.17

$2. 30
3.18

$2.31
3.20

$2.30
3.15

$2.29
3.16

$2 . 2 2
3.18

2.39

2.38
2 .6 6

2.08
2.15

2.08
2.17

2.39
2.62
2.09
2.19

2.38
2 . 60
2.08
2.19

2.38
2.58
2.07
2.17

2. 36
2.58
2.05
2.16

2.35
2. 57
2.04
2.14

2. 34
2.58
2.05
2.14

2.34
2.57
2. 05
2.13

2.34
2.59
2.05
2.13

2.33
2.58
2.05
2.13

2.31
2.61
2.05
2 .1 1

2.31
2.54
2.04
2.13

2 .2 2

2 .6 6

2.42
1.99
2.06

2.33
2. 37

2.32
2.36

2.32
2.36

2.28
2.34

2.26
2.33

2. 23
2.32

2 . 21
2.31

2 .2 2

2.31

2 . 21
2. 32

2.23
2.32

2.26
2.32

2.24
2.32

2 . 21
2.31

2.14
2.25

2.93

2.91

2.92

2.90

2.89

2 .8 6

2.84

2.83

2.83

2.82

2.77

2.78

2. 79

2.81

2.77

3.17
2.53
2. 75

3.15
2. 55
2. 72

3.17
2. 54
2.70

3.15
2.53
2.69

3.13
2.53

3.08
2.50
2.64

3.07
2.50
2.65

3.07
2.50

3.05
2.51

3.00
2.51

2 .6 6

2 .6 6

2. 97
2.50
2.65

2. 98
2. 50

2 .6 6

3.11
2.51
2.65

2 .6 6

2 .6 6

3.04
2.49
2. 63

3.06
2.42
2.55

2. 73
2.49

2. 71
2. 49

2. 67
2.49

2. 67
2. 49

2 66

.
2.48

2.64
2.48

2.63
2. 47

2

. 62
2. 47

2.62
2.48

2.63
2.48

2.61
2.47

2.62
2.47

2.61
2. 46

2.58
2.45

2.52
2.38

2.97

2.91

2.89

2.90

2.89

2 .8 8

2 .8 6

2 .8 6

2 87

2.87

2.84

2.83

2.82

2.83

2.76

C .— E A R N I N G S A N D H O U R S
1409
T

able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Industry
Sept.

Aug. | July

June

M ay | Apr.

Machinery_____________
Engines and turbines.
Metalworking machinery and
equipment____________________
Special industry machinery____II!
General industrial machinery____
Office, computing and accounting
machines_____________________
Service industry machines_____ I
Miscellaneous machinery............ .

Mar. | Feb.

Jan.

Dec. | Nov. I Oct.

$98.5 $1 0 2 .3 $1 0 1 .7 5 $102.0 3 $1 0 0 . 8
121.5 128.1 128.1 126.7 3 120.9

$99.4
118.3

$97.8 $96.9 2 $96.7
115.0 2 116.0 0 116.1

$96.6 8 $97.6
114.2 9 114.6

I960 | 1959

$99.4 $ 1 0 0 .3
113.8 116.0

$98.8
114.6

$96.12
113.21

82.0

94.2

92.91

94.6

94.6

92.5(

91.3 4

88.4 7

91.1<

92.1 2

94.0

94.1,

93.3

93.0,

89.10

97.0

96.0<

94.6'

95.5

94.5

93.21

90.8 2

91.8

92.2

91.1 5

90.4

92. 5<

92.5

91.2f

91.43

99.9
94.1

99.0
93.4
100.4

100 0

99.6 100. 78 1 0 1 . 6 8
92.9< 93.6 ‘ 95.2'
101. 8'
106.71

112 2

104. 1' 104.2'
101.4, 99.1'
93.7, 105.4'

102.4 1 0 2 . 6
98. r
99.6
107.41 108.0

. 4( 1 0 0 . 4(
97.3
94. r
107.5; 105.56

101

102.1

. (
93.5i
99.31

101.0

102.18 99.4' 95.68
93.2£ 95.58 97.06
. ( 107. 74 104.33

93.3'

91.4i

90.71

91.4,

S9.5

89.2$

87.9

85.4

84.8C

81. 7(

84. If

86.24

86.86

86.48

84.46

96. 5J

95. r

94.11

95.6,

94.02

92. oe

91.5'

92.0(

90.68

89. S'

90.6;

91.08

90.45

90. 5C

89.21

. IS

99.9'

98.00

97.2

96. 78

96.29

94.8 i

96.38

97.21

96.78

96.96

95.82

. (

. £

99.7C

100 6

101 0

107.5'
116.2S
102.8 C
107. IS

106. 7f 107.16 107.6? 106.75 106.49
113.65 1 1 2 . 6 8 113.5< 113.o; 115.87
100.04 100.62 1 0 2 . 4C 103.2C 105. 56
108.24 107.3C 107.3( 106.63 105.85

101

105.0' 104.9( 104.23 103.4( 103.1- 104. IS
112.18 111.72 1 1 0 . 2 1 111. 3l 109.31 107. OS
104. li 104.9C 103. 72 1 0 2 . 8 ( 100.84 100. 7c
103.6i 103.48 103.08 102.56 102.43 102.94

115. 51 115.93 117.18 117.6C 116.34 116.62 115.OS 114.68 113.85 1 1 2 .34
103.91 101.19 1 0 1 . 1 1 101.92 100.28 99.39 98.9C 99.22 99.39 98.3S 110.84
102.44 105. 71 104.92 106.08 104.64 102.80 101. 77 1 0 1 . 1 2 100.35 98.3C 99.53
100.98
112.74 111. 51 113.28 112.47 110.29 108.81 108.40 108. 79 108.12 107.86
107.98
97.28 93.69 96.56 95.34 95.91 95.20 94. 72 94.72 92.98
91.96 93.30
105. 59 102.09 103. 75 104. 75 103. 58 102.26 1 0 2 . 0 1 101.27 101. 76 102.26
! 101.11
Average weekly hours
Fabricated metal products........ ...........
¿y.y
4 1 .1
40.7
41.0
40.5
40.1
39.6
39.4
39.5
39.3
40.0
M etal cans__ ___________________ 41.9
43.9
43.9
43.7
42.0
41.1
40.5
40.7
40.9
40.1
40.5
Cutlery, hand tools, and general
hardware_____________________
36.0
40.1
39.7
40.1
40.1
39.7
39.2
38.3
39.1
39.2
40.2
Heating equipment and plumbing"
fixtures_______________________
40.1
40.0
39.6
39.8
39.4
39.0
38.0
38.6
38.6
38.3
38.5
Fabricated structural metal products. 41.0
41.2
40.5
40.9
40.4
40.0
39.8
39.6
40.0
40.0
40.8
Screw machine products, bolts, etc. 41.4
40.8
40.4
41.0
40.4
39.4
39.4
39.1
39.3
39.2
39.7
M etal stampings________________
38.1
41.2
41.0
41.4
41.2
40.6
39.9
39.4
39.1
39.3
39.8
Coating, engraving, and allied"
services........ ..............
41.3
41.0
40.5
41.0
40.5
40.4
39.8
39.0
38.9
38.0
39.7
M iscellaneous fabricated """wire"
products_________ _______ _____ 41.6
41.2
41.1
41.4
40.7
40.2
39.8
40.0
39.6
39.1
40.1
Miscellaneous fabricated metal"
products________ _____ ____
40.4
40.6
40.2
40.8
40.3
40.0
39.7
39.5
39.3
38.7
39.5
Machinery______________________
40.9
40.9
40.9
41.1
40.9
40.8
40.4
40.5
40.4
40.1
40.3
Engines and turbines____________
40.1
39.6
39.4
39.7
39.8
40.8
39.5
39.9
39.5
39.5
38.9
Farm machinery and equipm ent... 40.0
39.7
39.0
39.7
40.0
40.6
40.2
40.5
40.2
40.0
39.7
Construction and related machinery
40.6
41.0
40.8
40.8
40.7
40.4
39.7
39.8
39.8
39.6
39.7
Metalworking machinery and
equipm ent........................................ 41.4
41.7
42.0
42.0
41.7
41.8
41.4
41.4
41.4
41.0
40.9
Special industrial machinery_____
41.9
41.3
41.1
41.6
41.1
40.9
40.7
41.0
40.9
40.8
41.3
General industrial machinery____
39.4
40.5
40.2
40.8
40.4
40.0
39.6
39.5
39.2
38.4
39.6
Office, computing and accounting
machines_____________________
41.6
41.3
41.8
41.5
41.0
40.6
40.6
40.9
40.8
40.7
40.9
Service industry m achines.........
40.2
39.7
40.4
40.4
40.3
40.0
39.8
39.8
39.4
38.8
39.7
Miscellaneous machinery_____ I
41.9 1 41.0
41.5 I 41.9
41.6
41.4
41.3
41.0
41.2
41.4
41.1 |
Average hourly earnings
Fabricated metal products..................... VZ. 4 7 $2.49 $2.50 $2.49 $2.49
$2.48 $2.47 $2.46 $2.45 $2.46 $2.44
M etal cans________________
2.92
2 .8 8
2.84
2.85
2.84
2.85
2.83
Cutlery, hand tools, and "general"
hardware____________________
2.28
2.35
2.34
2.36
2.36
2.33
2.33
2.31
2.33
2.35
2.34
Heating equipment and plumbing’
fixtures_______________________
2.42
2.40
2.39
2.40
2.40
2.39
2.39
2.38
2.39
2.38
2.35
F abricatedstructural metal products
2.54
2. 53
2 . 53
2. 51
2.51
2. 51
2.51
2.50
2.50
2.49
2.47
Screw machine products, bolts, etc. 2.45
2.43
2 . 43
2.43
2.41
2.39
2.39
2.39
2.38
2.
37
2.36
M etal stampings________________
2.46
2.56
2.62
2.61
2.61
2.60
2.
56
2.55
2.54
2.
57
2.
56
Coating, engraving, and allied"
services____________________
2.26
2.23
2.24
2.23
2 .2 1
2 .2 1
2 .2 1
2.19
2.18
2.15
2
.
1
2
M iscellaneous fabricated"""wire
products__________________
2.32
2.31
2.29
2.31
2.31
2.29
2.30
2.30
2.29
2.29
2.26
Miscellaneous fabricated metal
products_________________
2.49
2.49
2.48
2.48
2.48
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.45
2.44
Machinery_________________________
2.63
2.61
2.62
2.62
2.61
2.61
2.60
2.59
2.58
2.58
2.
56
Engines and turbines____________
2.90
2.87
2 .8 6
2 .8 6
2.84
2.84
2.84
2.80
2.79
2.82
2.81
Farm machinery and equipment!!! 2.57
2.52
2.58
2.58
2.58
2.60
2.59
2.59
2.58
2.57
2.
54
Construction and related machinery. 2.64
2.64
2.63
2.63
2.62
2.62
2.61
2.60
2.59
2.59
2.58
Metalworking machinery and
equipment____________________
2.79
2.78
2.79
2.80
2.79
2.79
2.78
2.77
2.75
2.74
2.71
Special industry m achinery...IIIII 2.48
2.45
2.46
2.45
2.44
2.43
2.43
2.42
2.43
2.41
2.41
General industrial machinery........
2.60
2.61
2.61
2.60
2.59
2.57
2.57
2.56
2.56
2.56
2.55
Office, computing and accounting
machines_____________________
2.71
2.70
2.71
2. 71
2.69
2 .6 8
2.67
2 .6 6
2.65
2.65
2.64
Service industry m achines!. III!!!!
2.42
2.36
2.39
2.36
2.38
2.38
2.38
2.38
2.36
2.37
2.35
Miscellaneous machinery................ .
2.52
2.49
2.50
2.50
2.49
2.47
2.47
2.47 1 2.47
2.47
2.46
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Sept.

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Fabricated metal products...................
M etal cans_____________________
Cutlery, hand tools, and general
hardware_____________________
Heating equipment and plumbing
fixtures________________ ____
Fabricated structural metal prod­
ucts__________________________
Screw machine products, bolts, etc
M etal stampings...............................
Coating, engraving, and allied
services_______________________
Miscellaneous fabricated wire prod­
u cts________________ _________
M iscellaneous fabricated ""m’etaT
products...........................

Annual
average

1960

103.68 104. 55 102.92
111.28 109.69 109.48
100. 75 99.85 99.47
102.29 1 0 2 . 6 6 103.25

111.24 110.97 117.27 113.32
100. 50 1 0 0 . 0 2 99.72 96.37
101. 75 100.84 101. 71 1 0 2 . 0 1
109.03 108.39 106 23 101.91
92.90 92.20 93.43 93.02
102.34 1 0 1 . 0 2 101.26 9 9 . 54
40.6
40.5

40.8
41.9

40.5
41.4

40.9
42.4

40.4

39.9

40.1

40.5

39.4
41.0
40.2
41.2

39.2
41.2
39.5
42.5

39.0
40.6
40.5
41.6

40.1
40.2
42.2
41.9
41.0

40.3

40.4

40.2

40.3

40.2

40.4

41.3

39.7

39.5

39.9

40.6

40.7
38.8
40.3
39.9

40.5
39.6
40.3
39.8

41.0
39.6
40.1
40.1

41.5
40.7
40.6
41.3

41.2
41.7
39.9

41.1
41.5
39.7

42.8
41.9
40.2

42.6
41.9
41.3

41.3
39.7
41.6

40.9
39.4
40.9

40.7
40.1
41.5

40.6
40.8
42.0

$2.45
2.81

$2.46
2 . 77

$2.44
2.77

$2.35
2.67

2.33

2.34

2.32

2 .2 0

2.35
2.48
2.37
2.59

2.36
2.48
2.36
2.64

2.34
2.45
2.36
2.59

2.28
2.38
2.30
2.49

2.14

2.15

2.15

2.06

2.26

2.25

2.24

2.16

2.45

2.45

2.43

2.36

2.56
2. 76
2.50
2.58

2. 56
2.81
2.50
2.57

2. 55
2. 77
2.49
2. 56

2.48
2.69
2.45
2.50

2.70
2.41
2.55

2.70
2.41
2.54

2.74
2.38
2.53

2.30
2.47

2.64
2.34
2.46

2.65
2.34
2.47

2.61
2.33
2.44

2. 51
3.28
2.37

2 .6 6

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961

1410

T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
Annual
average

1960

1961
Industry
Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Mar.

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods— Continued
Electrical equipment and supplies-----Electric distribution equip m ent-._
Electrical industrial apparatus-----Household appliances-----------------Electric lighting and wiring equip­
ment-------- -----------------------------Radio and TV receiving sets..........Communication equipment---------Electronic components and accessories____ - __ __ ______ __ ___
Miscellaneous electrical equipment
and supplies................—..................
Transportation equipment------- --------Motor vehicles and equipment-----Aircraft and parts----------------------Ship and boat building and
repairing-------- -----------------------Railroad equipm ent.................. .........
Other transportation equipm ent—

$93.77 $94. 94 $93. 69 $94. 71 $93.37 $93.13 $92. 50 $92. 50 $92. 73 $91. 49 $91. 94 $92.29 $92.23 $90.74 $89.10
101.25 101. 50 101.15 1 0 1 . 0 0 99. 94 99. 85 99. 45 99. 79 99. 79 99. 75 98.40 96.88 98. 82 97.77 95. 65
102. 59 100. 69 99. 94 99.88 98. 25 98. 25 96.96 97.20 96. 07 95.74 95. 52 94.33 96. 08 95.44 93.43
104. 65 1 0 1 . 0 0 101.96 101. 56 100. 90 100. 50 99. 00 97. 25 100. 04 97.71 95. 94 96.96 97.20 96.23 94.87
84. 70 8 8 . 58 87.64 88.98 87. 47 86.63 86.63 8 6 . 24 84. 70 82.88 86.29 87.20 85.24 84. 71 83.63
83.16 83. 98 84.16 83.13 81. 6 6 79.59 80.51 82.18 83.07 81.86 81.06 82. 56 82.14 80.11 79.40
104. 55 102. 87 100.19 102. 72 1 0 0 . 0 0 100.25 99. 60 99.94 100. 69 98. 95 1 0 0 . 8 6 1 0 1 . 60 100.61 98.82 97. 41
81.81

80. 40

77.39

80.20

79.80

79. 60

79. 60

80.00

79.40

76. 03

77.81

75.63 98.90 97.20 99.31 97.04 93. 77 93. 77 93.06 94.47 94. 95 94.49
104
112. 96 113. 00 112.87 112. 87 110.95 109. 85 108. 74 108.19 111.60 111.91
93.15 113. 94 115. 43 116. 57 116.00 112. 24 107. 80 105. 46 105. 00 112. 35 114. 62
115.92 114.26 1 1 2 . 8 8 111. 52 112.07 113. 03 114. 54 114. 82 114. 6 8 114.40 112.89
114 05 112. 52 111.60 108. 63 109. 87 109. 07 107. 05 106.90 106. 47 103. 57 104.99
106. 8 8 107. 34 108. 36 110.32 107. 52 104.72 106. 6 8 103. 8 8 106. 03 106.88 1 0 2 . 8 6
90. 23 87.08 84.74 8 6 . 2 2 83.13 83.71 81.66 78.38 78.12 79. 63 81.06

78. 00

77.41

76.24

74.00

96.39

96. 72

93.93

92. 34

114. 95 112. 72 111.52 107. 45
120. 25 117.67 115.21 111.38
1 1 1 . 11 110. 43 106.63
112. 20
107.84 102. 75 103.75 100. 47
107.86 106.65 107. 8 6 105.72
82.74 84. 80 80.13 80.40

Average weekly hours
Electrical equipment and supplies-----Electric distribution equipm ent. . .
Electrical industrial apparatus-----Household appliances-----------------Electric lighting and wiring equip­
m ent..... ........................—- ................
Radio and TV receiving sets.............
Communication equipm ent.............
Electronic components and acces­
sories.................................... .---------Miscellaneous electrical equipment
and supplies.................................... .

39. 9
40 5
41. 2
41.2

40. 4
40.6
40. 6
40.4

39.7
40.3
40.3
40.3

40.3
40.4
40.6
40.3

39.9
40.3
40.1
40.2

39.8
40.1
40.1
40.2

39.7
40.1
39.9
39.6

39.7
40.4
40 0
38.9

39.8
40.4
39.7
39.7

39.1
39.9
39.4
39.4

39.8
40.0
39.8
39.0

40.3
40.2
39.8
39.9

40.1
40.5
40.2
40.0

39.8
40.4
40.1
39.6

40.5
40.7
40.8
40.2

38. 5
39. 6
41.0

39.9
39. 8
40.5

39.3
39.7
39.6

39.9
39.4
40.6

39.4
38.7
40.0

39.2
37.9
40.1

39.2
37.8
40.0

39.2
38.4
40.3

38.5
39.0
40.6

37.5
37.9
39.9

39.4
38.6
41.0

40.0
39.5
41.3

39 1
39.3
40.9

39.4
38.7
40. 5

40.4
39. 5
41.1

40.5

40.2

38.5

40.1

39.9

40.0

40.0

40.2

40.1

38.4

39.7

40.0

39.9

39.5

40.0

32.6

40.7

40.0

40.7

40.1

39.4

39.4

39.1

39.2

39.4

39.7

40.5

40.3

39.8

40.5

Transportation equipm ent..-------------Motor vehicles and equipment----Aircraft and parts-------- -------------Ship and boat building and
repairing------- ------------------------Railroad equipment............... - ..........
Other transportation equipm ent. . .

37.2
32.8
41.4

40.2
39.7
41.1

40.5
40. 5
40.9

40.6
40.9
40.7

40.6
40.7
40.9

40.2
39.8
41.1

39.8
38.5
41.5

39.4
37.8
41.6

39.2
37.5
41.7

40.0
39.7
41.3

40 4
40.5
41.2

41.2
41.9
41.1

40.4
41. 0
40.7

40.7
41.0
40.9

40.7
41.1
40.7

40.3
37.9
41.2

39.9
38.2
40.5

40.0
38.7
39.6

39 5
39.4
40.1

40.1
38.4
39.4

40.1
37.4
39.3

39.5
38.1
38.7

39.3
37.1
37.5

39.0
37.6
37.2

37.8
37.9
38.1

38.6
37.0
38.6

39.5
38.8
39.4

37.5
38.5
40.0

39.3
38.8
38.9

39.4
39.3
40. 4

$2.34
2. 50
2.43
2. 48

$2.31
2. 46
2.40
2.46

$2.29
2.41
2.37
2.43

$2.30
2. 44
2.39
2.43

$2.28
2.42
2.38
2. 43

$2.20

2.07

Average hourly earnings
$2.35
2. 50
2.49
2. 54

Electrical industrial apparatus.
Household appliances.................
“
m ent............................... .......
Radio and TV receiving sets..........
Communication equipment.
l
and supplies................
Transportation equipment.
Motor vehicles and equ
Aircraft and parts------pairing___________________
Railroad equipm ent.............—
Other transportation equipme:
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

-

$2.35
2.50
2.48
2.50

$2. 36
2.51
2. 48
2.53

$2.35
2. 50
2.46
2.52

$2. 34
2.48
2.45
2. 51

$2.34
2. 49
2.45
2. 50

2 .2 2

$2.33
2. 48
2.43
2. 50

$2.33
2. 47
2.43
2. 50

$2.33
2. 47
2. 42
2.52

2 22
2 .1 1

2.23

2.23
2 .1 1

2 .1 1

2. 54

2. 53

2.53

2. 50

2. 50

2 . 21
2.13
2.49

2.14
2.48

2 . 20
2.13
2.48

2.19

2 .1 2

2 21
2 .1 0

2 .2 1

2 .1 0

2. 55

2.16
2.48

2. 46

2.18
2. 09
2. 46

2.18
2. 09
2.46

2.15
2.07
2. 44

2 .0 2

2 00

2 .0 1

2 00

2 .0 0

1.99

1.99

1.99

1.98

1.98

1.96

1.95

1.94

1.93

2 .2 0

.

.

.

.

2 .2 0

2 .1 0

2.35
2.29
2.36
2 . 01

2.37

2.32

2.43

2.43

2. 44

2.42

2.38

2.38

2.38

2.41

2.41

2.38

2.38

2. 40

2.36

2.28

2

. 81
2. 84
2.80

2

. 81
2.87
2. 78

2.79
2.85
2. 76

2. 78
2.85
2.74

2. 78
2. 85
2. 74

2. 76
2.82
2. 75

2. 76
2.80
2. 76

2. 76
2. 79
2. 76

2.76
2 . 80
2. 75

2. 79
2.83
2. 77

2. 77
2.83
2. 74

2.79
2.87
2.73

2. 79
2.87
2. 73

2. 74
2.81
2. 70

2.64
2.71
2.62

2. 83
2.82
2.19

2.82
2.81
2.15

2. 79
2.80
2.14

2

2. 75
. 80
2.15

2.74
2.80

2.72
2.80
2.13

2. 71
2 . 80

2. 72
2 . 80
2.09

2. 73
2.82

2.74
2.82
2. 09

2. 72
2. 78

2. 73
2. 78

2. 74
2. 77

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2 .1 2

2.64
2. 78
2.06

2. 55
2.69
1.99

2 .1 1

2 .1 1

0 .—E A R N IN G S AND H OU RS
T able

1411

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
Annual
average

1960

1961
Industry
Sept . 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Mar.

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Instruments and related products_____
Engineering and scientific instru­
ments________________________
Mechanical measuring and control
devices_______________________
Optical and ophthalmic goods____
Surgical, medical, and dental
equipment_________ __________
Photographic equipment and suppilies.........
lie s ..
.
Watches and clocks.
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries_____________________________
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware____________ _____ _____ _
Toys, amusement, and sporting
goods________________________
Pens, pencils, and office and art
materials_______________ _____
Costume jewelry, buttons, and
notions_______________________
Other manufacturing industries___

$97.99 $97. 75 $96.80 $97.10 $95. 75 $95. 51 $95. 6 8 $94.87 $95. 51 $92. 90 $95.00 $95.00 $93. 67 $93.73

$91.39

111.23 112. 89 110. 57 110. 84 1 1 2 . 61 109. 75 113.30 109.18 112.32 112.47 111. 24 110. 95

107.43
91.84
78.18

113.44

1 1 2.88

95.91
89.44

96. 56
88.18

95.27
88.15

97. 27
87.33

95.04
85.68

95.44
85.06

94. 80
84.66

93. 77
83.41

93. 77
83.39

90.32
82.95

93. 67
83.20

92.34
82. 61

91.25
81.58

92.00
81.80

83.64

82.82

81.60

81.61

81.00

80.80

79.80

81.20

80.60

77.00

81.41

82. 42

81.41

80.40

113. 48 113. 05 112. 52 112.36 109.30 107. 98 106.92 107.04 107. 59 107. 83 107.49 107.90 106.86 106.14
81.18 79. 59 78. 54 76.58 79.59 78. 98 79. 76 79.40 78.19 73. 6 8 76.44 77.41 76.43 76.83

78.79
102.01

76.63

76.40

74.47

74. 29

76. 22

75. 07

75. 27

75.46

75.66

75.08

72.96

75.05

75.22

73.90

74. 28

73.42

84.05

82. 2 1

79.58

82. 2 1

80.17

79.75

79.17

79.39

78.80

77.14

84.04

83.84

77.97

80.40

80.16
66.98

70. 75

69. 56

68

. 92

69.78

69.81

70. 20

70.80

71.00

70.82

66.04

68.46

68

. 56

67. 8 6

67.73

74.03

70.29

71.55

72. 65

72. 8 6

72.91

72. 31

72.50

68.82

69. 52

72.50

74.21

73.32

71.92

70.98

68.21

67.08
80. 59

67.42
80.39

69.60
82.19

69. 52
80.34

68

.99
80.16

67. 51
80. 96

67. 47
80. 77

67.90
80.57

64. 73
79.93

68.16
80. 78

67.72
81.40

64.09
81.19

66.13
79. 99

6 6 .8 6

39.2

40.6

40.6

40.2

40.4

40.8

41.5

41.2

41.4

41.8

39.5
39.6

40.0
40.1

41.0
40.3

81.80

78.80

Average weekly hours
Instruments and related products_____
Engineering and scientific instru­
ments___ ____________________
Mechanical measuring and control
devices____________ ____ ______
Optical and ophthalmic goods____
Surgical, medical, and dental
equipment____________________
Photographic equipment and sup­
plies ______ _____ ___ ____
Watches and clocks______________
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries____________________ _______
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware_____________ ___________
Toys, amusement, and sporting
goods_________________________
Pens, pencils, and office and art
materials . _________________
Costume jewelry, buttons, and
notions____________________ . .
Other manufacturing industries___

41.0
41.1

40.9
40.9

40.5
40.3

40.8
41.2

40.4
40.5

40.3
40.6

40.2
40.8

40.2

40.3

40.2

41.5

39.7

41.6

39.9
39.9

38.6
39.5

40.2
40.0

39.8
40.1

40.3
41.6

40.4
41.4

40.2
41.0

40.7
41.0

40.1
40.8

40.1
40.7

40.0
40.7

39.9
40.1

40.6

40.4

40.0

40.2

40.1

40.0

39.7

40.4

40.1

38.5

40.3

40.6

40.3

40.0

40.2

42.5
39.6

42.5
39.4

42.3
38.5

42.4
38.1

41.4
39.4

40.9
39.1

40. 5
39.1

40. 7
39.5

40.6
38.9

41.0
37.4

41. 5
39.2

41.5
39.9

41.1
38.6

41.3
39.0

41.3
39.5

40.0

39.4

39.1

39.7

39.1

39.0

39.1

39.2

38.9

38.0

39.5

39.8

39.1

39.3

39.9

40.8

40.3

39.2

40.3

39.3

38.9

39.0

39.3

39.4

38.0

41.4

41.3

38.6

40.2

40.9

40.2

39.3

38.5

39.2

39.0

39.0

38.9

38.8

38.7

37.1

38.9

39.4

39.0

38.7

39.4

39.8

38.2

39.1

39.7

39.6

39.2

39.3

39.4

37.2

38.2

39.4

39.9

39.0

39.3

40.1

39.2
39.9

39.0
39.7

39.2
39.6

40.0
39.9

39.5
39.0

39.2
39.1

38.8
39.3

39.0
39.4

38.8
39.3

37.2
38.8

39.4
39.6

39.6
39.9

37.7
39.8

38.9
39.6

39.8
40.0

$2.24

Average hourly earnings
Instruments and related products____ $2.39
Engineering and scientific instru­
2. 76
ments______ _________________
Mechanical measuring and control
2.38
devices_______________________
Optical and ophthalmic goods......... 2.15
Surgical, medical, and dental
2.06
equipment____________ _____ _
Photographic equipment and sup­
2.67
plies_____ ______ ______ _____ _
Watches and clocks______________ 2.05
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries__________________________
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
w a re....................... ..........................
Toys, amusement, and sporting
goods____ _____ _______________
Pens, pencils, and office and art
materials_____________________
Costume jewelry, buttons, and
notions_____ _________________
Other manufacturing industries___
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1.91

$2.39

$2.39

$2.38

$2.37

$2.37

$2. 38

$2. 36

$2.37

$2.37

$2. 34

$2. 34

$2.33

$2.32

2. 76

2.76

2.74

2.73

2.73

2. 76

2.73

2.73

2. 75

2.70

2. 71

2.70

2 .6 8

2. 57

2.39
2.13

2.37
2.15

2.39
2 .13

2.37

2.37
2.08

2.35
2.08

2.35
2.09

2.34

2 .1 0

2.38
2.09

2.33
2.08

2.32
2.06

2. 31
2.06

2. 30
2.04

2.24
1.94

2.05

2.04

2.03

2 .0 2

2 .0 2

2 .0 1

2 .0 1

2 .0 1

2 .0 0

2 .0 2

2.03

2 .0 2

2 .0 1

1.96

2.63

2. 65

2 .0 1

2 .0 1

2.63
1.97

2.59
1.95

2.60
1.94

2.60
1.98

2. 57
1.97

2.47
1.94

2.64
2.04

2 .1 0

2 66
2 02

2 .6 6

2.65

2.64

2. 64

2.04

2 .0 1

2 .0 2

2 .0 2

1.89

1.90

1.92

1.92

1.93

1.93

1.93

1.93

1.92

1.90

1.89

1.89

1.89

1.84

2.04

2.05

2.03

2 .0 2

2 .0 0

2.03

2.03

2.03

2 .0 2

2 .0 0

1.96

.
.

. 06

2.04

2.03

2.04

1.76

1.77

1.79

1.78

1.79

1.80

1.82

1.83

1.83

1.78

1.76

1.74

1.74

1.75

1.70

1 .8 6

1.84

1.84

1.85

1.82

1.84

1 .8 6

1 .8 8

1. S3

1.77

1.76
2.05

1.74
2.06

1.73
2.05

1.75
2.05

1.74
2.06

1.73
2.04

1.71
2.04

1.70
2.04

1.70

1

2

1 .8 6

1.84

1.83

1.83

1.84

1.74
2.05

1.70
2.03

1.72
2.03

1.74
2.06

1.76
2.06

2 .0 2

. 68
1.97

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1412
T able

C—1. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.

I n d u s tr y

A nnual
a v er a g e

1960

1961

1959

D ec.

N ov.

O ct.

S e p t.

I960

F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c ts ____________ $ 8 9 . 6 4 $ 8 8 . 6 0 $ 9 0 . 2 5 $ 9 0 . 2 5 $ 8 9 . 5 7 $ 8 7 . 2 0 $ 8 7 . 2 3 $ 8 7 .2 3 $ 8 7 . 6 7
9 3 .6 9
96. 72
9 5 .4 4
9 4 .4 7
9 7 .6 4
9 5 .1 8
98. 47
9 8 .1 8
M e a t p r o d u c ts ............................................ 9 9 . 1 2
9 0 .9 4
9 1 .1 5
90. 52
9 1 .3 6
9 2 .4 4
9 3 .5 3
9 2 .4 4
9 4 .6 1
D a ir y p r o d u c ts _____________________ 9 5 . 6 9
C a n n e d a n d p r e se r v e d fo o d , e x c e p t
6 7 .3 4
6 8 .6 3
6 8 .3 8
6 8 .4 5
7 2 .2 0
7 0 .3 1
7 0 .1 0
7 4 .3 0
m e a t s _____________________________ 7 3 . 6 3
9 6 .3 6
9 7 .9 0
9 5 .4 8
9 5 .2 6
9 5 .2 7
9 8 .2 6
G r a in m ill p r o d u c ts ............. ................... 1 0 4 . 6 3 1 0 2 . 0 8 1 0 0 .2 5
8 4 .3 2
8 5 .5 7
85. 79
8 5 .5 7
8 7 .8 9
8 9 .5 7
8 9 .3 5
8 8 .2 6
B a k e r y p r o d u c ts ....................................... RR 4 4
9 7 .6 5
9
7
.
3
8
9
7
.
6
7
9
4
.
0
2
1
0
0
.
2
6
9
6
.
7
0
9 9 .7 2 1 0 1 .9 4
S u g a r................................................................ 9 8 . 7 7
7 0 .9 2
7 0 .7 1
7 1 .3 1
7 2 .1 3
7 3 .4 5
7 4 .2 1
7 3 .3 0
7 3 .9 7
C o n fe ctio n ery a n d re la ted p ro d u c ts 7 5 . 1 1
9 4 .8 6
9 4 .7 7
9 6 .9 2
9 8 .4 6
9 8 .1 5
B e v e r a g e s............. ........................................ 1 0 2 . 6 6 1 0 0 . 7 8 1 0 5 .0 8 1 0 0 . 9 4
M isc e lla n e o u s fo o d a n d k in d r e d
8
5 .6 5
8
5
.
8
5
8
4
.
2
3
8
4
.
2
5
8
6
.
5
1
8
7
.
1
3
8 8 .1 8
8 7 .3 5
8 8 .2 0
p r o d u c ts .......................- ..........................

$ 8 7 .1 0
9 7 .1 0
9 0 .7 3

$ 8 6 .7 1
9 7 .4 7
9 0 .7 3

$86. 73
9 6 .4 1
9 0 .5 2

$ 8 6 .7 4
97. 53
91. 59

$ 8 8 .3 0
9 4 .8 3
8 9 .6 8

$ 8 2 .8 2
9 2 .2 9

6 6 .2 5
9 6 .7 9
8 4 .7 4
1 0 0 .8 0
6 7 .5 5
9 5 .8 9

6 3 .5 4
9 6 .8 0
8 6 .0 3
9 9 .9 7
6 9 .1 3
9 6 .8 7

7 0 .4 9
9 9 .4 1
8 5 .4 4
8 8 .8 3
7 0 .8 8
9 7 .0 4

7 2 .8 0
9 6 .9 2
8 5 .2 2
9 2 .8 0
7 1 .3 8
9 7 .3 6

6 8 .7 1
9 4 .1 5
8 3 .8 1
9 3 .7 0
6 9 .3 4
9 6 .7 2

6 5 .2 8
9 0 .8 5
80. 00
8 8 .6 4
6 6 .5 9
9 3 .5 6

S e p t.2

A ug.

June

J u ly

M ay

M ar.

A pr.

Feb.

Jan.

A v e r a g e w e e k ly e a r n in g s

M a n u fa c tu r in g — C o n tin u e d

Nondurable goods

C ig a r e tte s .
C ig a r s ____

86.50

8 3 .8 0

8 5 .3 4

8 5 .7 0

8 4 .7 7

8 3 .9 5

8 1 .7 9

6 6 .7 2
R 3 .4 6
5 8 .8 2

6 8 .1 7
8 6 .6 5
5 7 .3 7

7 1 .0 5
8 3 .8 5
5 5 .1 3

7 4 .0 7
8 9 .8 2
5 6 .4 7

7 0 .8 7
8 5 .0 2
5 4 .2 4

7 1 .0 5
8 5 .8 9
5 3 .4 4

6 5 .5 1
7 8 .8 6
5 2 .1 2

6 5 .1 2
80. 56
5 2 .0 6

6 5 .2 2
8 0 .6 0
5 4 .1 7

6 8 .0 3
8 6 .4 8
5 4 .1 7

6 4 .3 0
8 3 .0 7
5 7 .8 7

6 4 .1 5
82. £3
5 6 .2 6

6 2 .8 3
8 0 .0 5
5 4 .8 6

6 4 .9 4
8 0 .2 9
5 3 .8 6

6 4 .1 2
8 0 .4 0
5 2 .8 8

66. 26
6 4 .7 1

6 6 .0 2
6 3 .6 7

6 4 .6 4
6 2 .4 9

6 5 .1 2
62. 64

6 3 .9 9
6 1 .8 6

6 3 .1 8
6 1 .3 9

6 2 .8 6
6 0 .7 6

6 1 .9 9
59. 75

6 1 .1 8
5 9 .9 0

6 1 .3 4
6 1 .1 5

6 2 .6 3
6 1 .1 5

6 2 .4 7
6 0 .5 3

6 1 .8 2
5 9 .7 5

6 3 .6 0
6 2 .5 6

6 3 .0 2
6 0 .9 0

6 9 .8 1

7 0 .3 1

6 8 .1 5

6 8 .5 6

6 7 .6 5

6 6 .5 0

6 5 .4 4

6 5 .4 4

6 5 .2 7

6 5 .7 6

6 7 .6 5

6 7 .5 6

6 6 .7 3

6 8 .3 1

6 6 .9 4

7 3 81
70 24
6 0 .4 5

7 4 .3 4
6 8 .9 1
6 0 .3 7

7 4 .8 0
6 7 .9 4
5 9 .6 0

7 4 .5 5
6 8 .9 5
5 9 .6 0

7 3 .3 3
6 7 .9 4
5 8 .3 7

7 0 .9 9
6 7 .2 0
5 7 .1 3

6 9 .3 7
66. 23
5 7 .2 3

6 9 .1 4
6 6 .2 3
5 6 .6 1

6 7 .2 5
6 4 .2 4
5 4 .9 3

6 5 .0 2
6 4 .0 1
5 4 .2 6

6 5 .1 9
6 5 .5 7
57. 53

6 7 .9 9
6 5 .0 2
5 7 .6 1

6 8 .5 6
6 4 . 51
5 7 .3 0

6 9 .8 3
6 6 .0 7
5 6 .9 3

7 0 .6 4
6 5 .6 9
5 7 .1 3

73 39
74 10
62 58
7 5 .7 6

7 3 .9 3
7 3 .9 2
6 1 .1 6
7 6 .1 4

7 2 .9 0
6 7 .4 8
59. 85
7 6 .1 4

7 6 .3 2
7 2 .2 2
6 0 .1 5
7 7 .0 8

7 5 .0 6
6 8 .8 2
5 8 . 71
7 4 .9 9

7 4 .5 2
6 9 .7 4
5 7 .5 1
7 3 .8 4

7 4 .5 2
6 9 .7 0
5 6 .9 2
7 2 .8 9

7 5 .3 0
6 8 .6 4
5 6 .0 2
7 0 .8 4

7 0 .8 8
6 9 .2 1
5 4 .8 3
7 1 .9 7

7 1 .0 6
7 0 .2 7
5 5 .3 5
7 0 .4 9

7 2 .6 7
7 0 .5 3
5 7 .0 7
7 2 .8 9

7 1 .6 4
7 0 .0 0
5 6 .1 7
7 3 .8 4

6 8 .0 0
7 0 .8 0
5 5 . 73
72. 35

7 1 .7 3
7 0 .6 2
5 8 .0 5
7 3 .6 0

7 2 .1 4
7 2 .5 1
5 8 .4 0
7 2 .4 5

S ilk a n d s y n t h e t ic b r o a d w o v e n
fa b r ic s . ____________________
W e a v in g a n d fin is h in g b ro a d
w o o le n s __________________________
N a r r o w fab ric s a n d s m a llw a r e s —
K n it t i n g ........................- ...............
F lo o r c o v e r in g _______________
Y a m a n d th r e a d _____________
M is c e lla n e o u s t e x tile g o o d s ----------- -

A v e r a g e w e e k ly h o u r s

Food and kindred products__________
M eat products__________________
Dairy products__________________
Canned and preserved food, except
meats_________________________
Grain mill products______________
Bakery products________________
Sugar---------------------------------------Confectionery and related products.
Beverages_______________________
Miscellaneous food and kindred
products______________________
Tobacco manufactures_______________
Cigarettes______________________
Cigars__________________________
Textile mill products________________
Cotton broad woven fabrics---------Silk and synthetic broad woven
fabrics.................. - .................... .......
Weaving and finishing broad
woolens_______________________
Narrow fabrics and smallwares----K nitting................................................
Finishing textiles, except w o o l and
Floor covering.....................................
Yarn and thread________________
Miscellaneous textile goods-----------

Ft

41
49 0
4 3 .3

4 1 .4 I
4 0 .5
4 2 .6

4 1 .4
4 1 .6
4 3 .4

4 1 .4
4 1 .9
4 3 .1

4 0 .9
4 1 .2
4 2 .6

4 0 .0
4 0 .2
4 2 .1

4 0 .2
4 0 .1
4 2 .2

4 0 .2
3 9 .2
4 2 .1

4 0 .4
4 0 .3
4 2 .1

4 0 .7
4 0 .8
4 2 .2

4 0 .9
4 1 .3
4 2 .2

4 1 .3
4 1 .2
4 2 .1

4 1 .7
4 1 .5
4 2 .6

4 0 .9
4 0 .7
4 2 .3

41. 0
4 1 .2
4 2 .4

2Q
4fi
40
41
40

4 0 .6
4 6 .4
4 0 .3
4 1 .0
4 0 .2
4 0 .8

3 8 .1
4 6 .2
4 0 .8
4 2 .3
3 9 .2
4 1 .7

3 7 .6
4 5 .7
4 0 .9
4 0 .8
3 9 .9
4 0 .7

3 8 .2
4 3 .7
4 0 .5
4 1 .6
3 9 .7
3 9 .9

3 5 .8
4 3 .3
3 9 .8
4 0 .7
3 9 .2
3 9 .7

3 6 .8
4 3 .4
3 9 .9
4 2 .1
3 9 .4
3 9 .4

3 7 .3
4 3 .8
3 9 .8
4 2 .9
3 9 .4
3 9 .0

3 7 .0
4 4 .5
3 9 .4
4 3 .4
3 9 .5
3 9 .2

3 6 .6
4 4 .4
3 9 .6
5 2 .5
3 8 .6
3 9 .3

3 6 .1
4 4 .0
4 0 .2
5 1 .8
3 9 .5
3 9 .7

3 9 .6
4 5 .6
4 0 .3
42. 3
4 0 .5
4 0 .1

4 1 .6
4 5 .5
4 0 .2
40. 7
4 0 .1
4 0 .4

3 8 .6
4 4 .2
4 0 .1
4 4 .2
3 9 .4
4 0 .3

3 8 .4
4 4 .1
4 0 .2
4 4 .1
3 9 .4
4 0 .5

R
h
9

F>

0

4 0 .9

4 2 .2

4 2 .6

4 2 .5

4 2 .2

4 1 .5

4 1 .7

4 2 .5

4 2 .4

4 1 .9

4 3 .1

4 3 .5

4 2 .6

4 2 .4

4 2 .6

4 2 .2

41

7
RQ O

4 0 .1
40, 3
3 8 .5

3 9 .4
4 1 .2
3 7 .9

3 8 .1
3 9 .0
3 6 .9

3 8 .2
3 9 .4
3 6 .6

3 6 .6
3 7 .2
3 5 .7

3 7 .0
3 8 .0
3 5 .9

3 7 .7
3 8 .2
3 7 .1

3 9 .1
4 0 .6
3 7 .1

3 7 .6
3 9 .0
3 9 .1

4 0 .6
3 9 .3
3 8 .8

4 0 .8
3$. 3
3 8 .1

3 8 .2
3 8 .6
3 7 .4

3 9 .1
4 0 .2
3 7 .5

3 8 .7

3 8 .2
3 9 .0
3 7 .5

40 4

40 5
4 0 .3

3 9 .9
3 9 .8

4 0 .2
3 9 .9

3 9 .5
3 9 .4

3 9 .0
3 9 .1

3 8 .8
3 8 .7

3 8 .5
3 8 .3

3 8 .0
3 8 .4

3 8 .1
3 9 .2

3 8 .9
3 9 .2

3 8 .8
3 8 .8

3 8 .4
3 8 .3

3 9 .5
4 0 .1

4 0 .4
4 0 .6

4 0 .7

4 2 .1

4 1 .3

4 1 .3

4 1 .0

4 0 .3

3 9 .9

3 9 .9

3 9 .8

4 0 .1

4 1 .0

4 0 .7

4 0 .2

4 1 .4

4 2 .1

4 1 .8

4 0 .8
4 0 .0
3 7 .1

4 0 .1
3 9 .9
3 7 .2

4 0 .2
3 9 .9
3 7 .0

3 9 .1
3 8 .7
3 5 .9

3 7 .8
3 8 .1
3 5 .7

3 7 .9
3 8 .8
3 7 .6

3 9 .3
3 8 .7
3 7 .9

3 9 .4
3 8 .4
3 7 .7

4 0 .6
3 9 .8
37. 7

4 2 .3
4 0 .8
3 8 .6

4 1 .4
3 9 .4
3 8 .6
3 9 .7

4 1 .4
3 9 .6
3 8 .2
3 9 .4

4 1 .6
3 9 .0
3 7 .6
3 8 .5

3 9 .6
3 9 .1
3 6 .8
3 8 .9

3 9 .7
3 9 .7
3 7 .4
3 8 .1

4 0 .6
4 0 .3
3 8 .3
3 9 .4

3 9 .8
4 0 .0
3 7 .7
3 9 .7

3 8 .2
4 0 .0 1
37 • 4
3 8 .9 1

4 0 .3
3 9 .9
38. 7
4 0 .0

4 1 .7
4 1 .2
4 0 .0
4 0 .7

$ 2 .1 4
2 .3 8
2 .1 5

$ 2 .1 2
2 .3 6
2 .1 5

$ 2 .1 0
2 .3 4
2 .1 5

$ 2 .0 8
2 .3 5
2 .1 5

$ 2 .1 1
2 .3 3
2 .1 2

$ 2.02

1 .8 1
2 .1 8
2 .1 4
1 .9 2
1 .7 5
2. 44

1 .7 6
2 .2 0
2 .1 4
1 .9 3
1 .7 5
2 .4 4

1 .7 8
2 .1 8
2 .1 2
2 .1 0
1 .7 5
2 .4 2

1 .7 5
2 .1 3
2 .1 2
2 .2 8
1 .7 8
2 .4 1

1 .7 8
2 .1 3
2 .0 9
2 .1 2
1 .7 6
2 .4 0

1.70

1 .9 7

1 .9 9

1 .9 8

3 8 .5

4 2 .0
40. 3
3 9 .2

4 2 .5
4 0 .2
3 8 .7

4 2 .6
4 0 .8
3 8 .7

4 1 .9
4 0 .2
3 7 .9

41 0
49 1
40 Q
4 0 .3

4 1 .3
42. 0
4 0 .5
4 0 .5

4 0 .5
3 7 .7
3 9 .9
4 0 .5

4 2 .4
4 0 .8
4 0 .1
4 1 .0

4 1 .7
3 9 .1
3 9 .4
4 0 .1

41 7
40 0

1

|

A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea r n in g s

Food and kindred products------- -------M eat products__________________
Dairy products__________________
Canned and preserved food, except
meats_________________________
Grain mill products_____________
Bakery products------------------------Sugar__________________________
Confectionery and related products.
Beverages............................. - ............ Miscellaneous food and kindred
products______________________
Tobacco manufactures______________
Cigarettes_________________ _____
C igars.----------------------- ------------Textile mill products________________
Cotton broad woven fabrics--------Silk and synthetic broad woven
fabrics.......... ....................— ............
W eaving and finishing broad
woolens______________________
Narrow fabrics and smallwares—
K nitting..............................................
Finishing textiles, except wool and
kn it_________________________
Floor covering__________________
Y am and thread...... .........................
Miscellaneous textile goods...........
S ee fo o tn o te s a t e n d o f ta b le .


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$ 2 .1 6
9 36
2 .2 1
1
2
9
9
1

R5
95
90
3R
R5

2 .5 1

$ 2 .1 4
2 35
2 .1 7

$ 2 .1 8
2 .3 6
2 .1 8

$ 2 .1 8
2 .3 5
2 .1 7

$ 2 .1 9
2 .3 7
2 .1 7

$ 2 .1 8
2 .3 5
2 .1 7

$ 2 .1 7
2 .3 8
2 .1 6

$ 2 .1 7
2 .3 9
2 .1 5

$ 2 .1 7
2 .4 0
2 .1 6

1 .8 3
2. 20
2 .1 9
2 .3 8
1 .8 4
2 .4 7

1 .8 4
2 .1 7
2 .1 9
2 .4 1
1 .8 7
2 .5 2

1 .8 7
2 .1 5
2 .1 9
2 .3 7
1 .8 6
2 .4 8

1 .8 9
2 .1 8
2 .1 7
2 .4 1
1 .8 5
2 .4 6

1 .9 1
2 .2 0
2 .1 5
2 .3 1
1 .8 4
2 .4 8

1 .8 6
2 .2 0
2 .1 5
2 .3 2
1 .8 1
2 .4 6

1 .8 4
2 .2 0
2 .1 5
2 .2 7
1 .8 0
2 .4 3

1 .8 2
2 .2 0
2 .1 4
2 .2 5
1 .7 9
2 .4 2

2.24
2.04

2.06

1.99
2 . 01

1.69
.31

2

2 .0 9

2 .0 7

2 .0 7

2 .0 5

2 .0 5

2 .0 3

2 .0 2

2 .0 2

2 .0 2

2 .0 0

1 .9 8

1 60
9 14
1 .5 2

1 .7 0
2 .1 5
1 .4 9

1 .8 6
2 .1 5
1 .4 7

1 .8 8
2 .1 8
1 .4 9

1 .8 6
2 .1 8
1 .4 7

1 .8 6
2 .1 8
1 .4 6

1 .7 9
2 .1 2
1 .4 6

1 .7 6
2 .1 2
1 .4 5

1 .7 3
2 .1 1
1 .4 6

1 .7 4
2 .1 3
1 .4 6

1 .7 1
2 .1 3
1 .4 8

1 .5 8
2 .1 0
1 .4 5

1 .5 4
2 .0 9
1 .4 4

1 .7 0
2 .0 8
1 .4 4

1 64
1 .5 9

1 63
1 .5 8

1 .6 2
1 .5 7

1 .6 2
1 .5 7

1 .6 2
1 .5 7

1 .6 2
1 .5 7

1 .6 2
1 .5 7

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1 .6 1
1 .5 6

1.92
1.64
2.00
1.41
1.56
1.50

1 .6 7

1 .6 7

1 .6 5

1 .6 6

1 .6 5

1 .6 5

1 .6 4

1 .6 4

1 .6 4

1 .6 4

1 .6 5

1 .6 6

1 .6 6

1 .6 5

1.59

1 .7 3
1 .6 8
1 .5 2

1 .7 4
1 .6 8
1 .5 2

1 .7 2
1 .6 6
1 .5 1

1.67
1.61
1.48

1 .8 0
1 .7 5
1 .4 9
1 .8 6

1 .7 8
1 .7 7
1 .4 9
1 .8 6

1 .7 8
1 .7 7
1 .5 0
1 .8 4

1.73
1.76
1.46
1.78

1 .5 7

1 77
1 .7 1
1 .5 4

1. 76
1 .6 9
1 .5 4

1 .7 5
1 .6 9
1 .5 4

1 .7 5
1 .6 9
1 .5 4

1 .7 4
1 .6 8
1 .5 4

1 .7 3
1 .6 6
1 .5 4

1 .7 2
1 .6 6
1 .5 3

1 .7 2
1 .6 6
1 .5 3

1 .7 2
1 .6 8
1 .5 2

1 .7 2
1 .6 9
1 .5 3

1 7Q
1 76
1 63
1 .8 8

1 .7 9
1 76
1 61
1 .8 8

1 .8 0
1 .7 9
1 .6 0
1 .8 8

1 .8 0
1 .7 7
1 .5 0
1 .8 8

1 .8 0
1 .7 6
1 .4 9
1 .8 7

1 .8 0
1 .7 7
1 .4 9
1 .8 6

1 .8 0
1 .7 6
1 .4 9
1 .8 5

1 .8 1
1 .7 6
1 .4 9
1 .8 4

1 .7 9
1 .7 7
1 .4 9
1 .8 5

1 .7 9
1 .7 7
1 .4 8
1 .8 5

1 .7 9
1 .7 5
1 .4 9
1 .8 5

1 77
1 73

1

1

1

C.— E A R N IN G S AND H OU RS

TABLE

1413

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Industry
Sept. 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Apparel and related products________
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats___
M en’s and boys’ furnishings______
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outerwear________________________
Women’s and children’s undergarm ents________________________
Hats, caps, and millinery_________
Girls’ and children’s outerwear___
Pur goods and miscellaneous apparel_______________________ . .
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
products______________ ________
Paper and allied products____ _______
Paper and p u lp _________________
Paperboard_______
_ _ __ . . .
Converted paper and paperboard
products______
Paperboard containers and boxes...
Printing, publishing and allied industries______________________ _______
Newspaper publishing and printing
Periodical publishing and printing.
Books__________________________
Commercial printing_____________
Bookbinding and related industries.
Other publishing and printing in____
dustries________________

Annual
average

1960

$56.93 $59. 8 6 $58.16 $56. 64 $55. 84 $56. 51 $57.51 $56.19 $55.06 $52.79 $56. 35 $57.19 $56.67 $56.45
65.18 69.84 6 8 . 40 68.32 67.71 65.51 65. 55 66.34 67.45 63.27 67. 81 69.50 69.33 68.27
51.89 50.92 49.08 48. 91 47. 75 47.30 48.06 46.90 46. 71 46.15 47.03 48.24 48.91 48. 55

$56. 63
65. 28
49.14

58.53

65.05

63. 61

58.86

58. 21

61.54

63.14

59. 94

57.28

54.16

59.40

58. 97

59.01

58.76

59. 6 8

54. 75
61.52
51.28

54. 31
6 6 . 25
53.49

52.64
66.06
53. 72

52. 35
62.12
53. 87

52.33
57. 62
51.39

53.14
59. 51
50.66

53.21
64.42
52.69

52.04
67.69
54.09

51.16
62.84
52.10

49.20
55.08
46. 51

53.14
58.14
51.41

53.73
62. 83
52.33

52.49
62.81
50.91

51.91
60.54
51. 54

51.97
61.90
50.84

61.90

61.46

61.03

59. 83

58.45

57. 56

58.22

56.86

56.93

55.44

60. 8 6

62.24

60.00

58.74

60.62

59.29 62.65 61.02 62.10 60.96 60. 70 60.48 59.89 59.45 60.35 62. 59 62.92 60. 70 60. 48
101. 67 101.05 100. 58 100. 39 97.90 97.90 96.14 95. 6 8 95.22 94.30 95.72 96.44 96. 87 95. 37
111.25 111.13 1 1 0 . 8 8 109. 56 108.13 108.38 106.03 106.21 105.29 105. 47 105.96 106. 76 107.69 105.46
112. 71 110.38 112. 52 1 1 0 . 8 8 108. 50 107. 57 105. 40 103.25 105.90 105.25 105.65 107.14 105.96 105.16

59. 75
93.30
102. 75
102.90

8 8 . 58
94. 78

88.18
93.06

87. 54
92.18

87.34
91.98

106.92
108.34
124.44
101.18
108.74
82.99

105.33
107.02
113.93
101. 52
106. 98
82. 82

104.39
106.07
109. 30
100.04
106.04
81.58

104. 67
106.95
107.29
99. 8 8
105.65
82.39

85.05
.75

85.06
86.24

83. 42
85.39

82.99
83.10

84.25
86.30

83.44
88.19

104.12 104.01 103.90 103.36
107.68 106. 36 105.05 104.69
105.65 104.99 107. 80 108.23
1 00.12
97.36 96. 96 97. 28
104.99 105.03 106.35 104.61
81.53 81.15 81.15 81.62

102.98
104.11
109.14
96.24
104. 76
82.13

103. 36
109.00
105. 81
93.14
103.30
79.61

103. 57
107.75
109.85
96.08
104.01
80.22

103.83
107.96
110.80
96. 63
104.79
79.87

88

85.26
.34

88

85. 47
87.08

84.05
87.98

83.23
8 6 .10

81.16
85.27

104.49 1 0 2 . 80
107.30 105.33
115. 46 109.18
95.51 95. 82
105.99 103. 8 8
79.07 78. 87

99.72
101.84
105. 60
92.34

108. 29 108.19 107. 80 108.19 108.30 108. 39 108. 57 107.80 107. 42 104. 90 106.43 105. 65 106. 37 106.37
Average weekly hours
Apparel and related products________
34.5
36.5
35.9
35.4
34.9
35.1
34.9
33.2
35.6
34.2
35.0
35.3
35.2
35.5
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats__
33.6
36.0
36.0
35.4
34.9
36.9
34.3
34.5
35.1
33.3
35.5
36.2
36.3
35.5
M en’s and boys’ furnishings______ 36.8
38.0
36.9
35.9
36.5
35.3
35.0
35.6
34.6
34.7
35.1
36.0
36.5
36.5
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ oute rw e a r ______ _ ____________
31.3
34. 2
34.6
32.7
32. 7
34 0
32.0
32.4
33.2
34.5
33.3
30.6
33.0
32.6
Women’s and children’s undergarm ents.. __________ ________ 36.5
37.2
36.3
36.1
35.6
36.4
35.4
36.2
36.4
36.2
34.8
33.7
36.8
35.8
Hats, caps, and millinery________
36.6
35.9
33.8
35.7
34.3
34.8
36.6
37.4
34.4
35.2
35.5
32.4
35.7
36.1
Girl’s and children’s outerwear___
33.3
35.9
36.3
36.4
35.2
34.7
34.4
35.6
36.3
35.2
35.7
35.6
35.3
32.3
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel_______________________ . . 36.2
36.8
35.9
35.4
35.0
35.1
33.4
35.5
35.1
34.5
36.4
35.6
35.8
35.5
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
______
products____________
36.6
38.2
37.9
38.1
37.4
37.7
37.8
37.2
36.7
36.8
38.4
38.6
37.7
37.8
Paper and allied products____ . . . . 42.9
43.0
42.9
42.2
42.8
42.2
41.8
41.6
41.4
41.0
41.8
42.3
42.2
42.3
Paper and pulp______ __ . . .
44.1
43.8
44.0
44.0
43.6
43.7
43.1
43.0
42.7
42.9
43.4
43.6
43.4
42.8
Paperboard __ . _______
44.2
43.8
44.3
43.4
44.0
43.2
42.5
42.1
42.6
43.2
42.9
43.1
41.8
42.7
Converted paper and paperboard
products.
. _______________ 41.2
41.4
41.1
41.2
40.5
40.6
40.7
40.7
39.9
40.3
40.7
40.7
40.8
40.8
Paperboard containers and boxes... 42.5
42.3
41.9
42.0
40.9
40.9
39.9
41.0
40.5
40.3
39.2
40.9
41.6
41.5
Printing, publishing and allied industries______
_________
38.6
38.3
38.1
38.2
38.0
38.1
38.2
38.0
38.0
38.0
38.5
38.6
38.7
38.5
Newspaper publishing and printing 36.6
36.4
36.2
36.5
36.5
36.3
36.1
35.9
36.9
36.7
36.1
37.2
37.1
37.0
Periodical publishing and printing. 41.9
40.4
39.6
39.3
38.7
38.6
39.2
39.4
38.9
40.0
39.7
39.5
39.8
40.8
B o o k s ___
________ . . . . .
41.1
40.8
41.0
40.6
41.2
40.4
40.4
40.1
40.2
40.6
40.2
39.3
40.6
40.3
Commercial printing_____________ 39.4
38.9
38.7
38.7
38.6
38.9
39.1
38.6
38.4
39.1
39.1
39.4
39.2
38.8
Bookbinding and related industries.. . .
___ . . . .
...
38. 6
38.7
38.3
38. 5
38.1
38.1
37. 2
38.1
38.2
38.2
38.4
38.2
38.1
38.5
Other publishing and printing industries... ___________________
38 4
38.5
38.5
38.0
38.3
38.5
38.5
38.7
38.4
38.4
38.5
38.5
37.6
38.7
Average hourly earnings
Apparel and related products________ $1.65 $1.64 $1.62 $1.60 $1.60 $1.61 $1.62 $1.61 $1.61 $1.59 $1.61 $1.62 $1.61 $1.59
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats___ 1.94
1.94
1.90
1.93
1.94
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.90
1.91
1.91
1.85
1.92
1.90
M en’s and boys’ furnishings______ 1.41
1.34
1.33
1.34
1.34
1.33
1.34
1.34
1.34
1.34
1.35
1.35
1.33
1.33
Women's, misses’, and juniors'
outerwear________ . _ _______
1.87
1 .8 8
1 .8 6
1.80
1.78
1.81
1.83
1.80
1.79
1.77
1.80
1.82
1.81
1.77
Women’s and children’s undergarm ents.____ ______________ . 1.50
1.46
1.45
1.45
1.47
1.46
1.47
1.47
1.47
1.46
1.46
1.45
1.46
1.45
Hats, caps and m illinery.. . . . ___ 1.82
1.84
1.81
1.74
1.71
1 .6 8
1.76
1.77
1.70
1.69
1.74
1.72
1.81
1.76
Girls’ and children’s outerwear___
1.54
1.49
1.48
1.48
1.46
1.46
1.44
1.47
1.46
1.48
1 49
1.48
1.44
1.48
Fur goods and miscellaneous apparel... . ______________ _____
1.71
1.67
1.70
1.69
1.64
1.67
1.64
1.70
1.71
1.69
1.65
1.62
1.65
1 .6 6
Miscellaneous fabricated textile
1.62
1.64
1.61
1.63
1.60
products________ ____________
1.63
1.61
1.60
1.62
1.64
1.61
1.61
1.63
1.63
Paper and allied products____________ 2.37
2.35
2.35
2.34
2.32
2. 32
2.30
2. 30
2.29
2.26
2.30
2.30
2.29
2.28
2. 54
2. 52
2. 52
Paper and pulp_____________ . . .
2. 49
2. 48
2. 47
2.43
2.48
2. 46
2.47
2.46
2.47
2.47
2.46
Paperboard_____________________
2. 55
2.52
2. 54
2.52
2.44
2.50
2.49
2. 48
2.47
2.48
2. 50
2. 47
2.48
2.48
Converted paper and paperboard
products______________________
2.15
2.13
2.04
2.13
2 .1 2
2 .1 0
2 .1 0
2.09
2. 07
2.06
2 .1 0
2.07
2.08
2.05
2 .2 0
Paperboard containers and boxes.._ 2.23
2 .2 0
2.19
2.17
2.14
2 .1 2
2 .1 1
2 .1 2
2 .1 0
2.16
2.15
2.14
2 .1 2
Printing, publishing and allied indus2.74
dustries______________________
2. 77
2. 75
2. 74
2. 70
2. 67
2. 74
2.73
2. 72
2.72
2.71
2.72
2. 69
2. 69
Newspaper publishing and printing 2. 96
2.94
2. 87
2.93
2.93
2. 95
2.93
2.91
2.90
2.90
2.93
2 92
2.91
2. 90
Periodical publishing and printing. 2. 97
2.82
2. 76
2. 73
2. 73
2.72
2. 77
2.83
2.75
2. 72
2. 75
2. 74
2. 77
2.76
Books______
_________________ 2.48
2.47
2.44
2.46
2.40
2.37
2.39
2. 38
2.37
2.36
2.43
2. 41
2.42
2. 40
Commercial printing____________
2.69
2. 76
2. 75
2. 74
2. 73
2.69
2. 65
2.72
2. 70
2.72
2.71
2.70
2 . 66
2 .6 8
Bookbinding and related industries- 2.15
2.14
2.13
2.14
2.14
2 .1 0
2.07
2.07
2.13
2.13
2 .1 2
2.15
2.14
2.08
Other publishing and printing
2.82
2 . 81
2.80
industries_________ ____ ____ _
2 . 81
2. 77
2.77
2.85
2.83
2 . 82
2.80
2.79
2. 79
2. 75
2.73
See footnotes at end of table.

104.06


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

100.86

77.16

36.3
37.3
37.8
34.1
36.6
36.2
35.8
36.3
38.3
42.8
44.1
43.6
41.2
41.8
38.5
36.5
39.7
40.5
39.4
38.2
38.4
$1. 56
1.75
1.30
1.75
1.42
1.71
1.42
1.67
1.56
2.18
2. 33
2. 36
1.97
2.04
2. 59
2. 79
.
2.28
2. 56
2 66

2 .0 2

2.71

1414

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
A nnual
average

1960

1961
In d u stry
Sept.2 Aug.
M anufacturing—C ontinued
Nondurable goods—C ontinued
Chemicals and allied p roducts________
In d u strial chem icals______ _______
Plastics and synthetics, except
glass__
D rugs__________________________
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods___
P ain ts, varnishes, and allied produ c ts_________ ______ ______ ____
A gricultural chem icals___________
O ther chem ical products_________

Ju ly

June

M ay

Apr.

M ar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
$107. 79 $107.49 $107. 90 $108.00 $105.06 $104.24 $104.24 $103.89 $104.14 $103.38 $103.98 $103. 73 $103.98 $103.25 $99.36
121. 72 121.51 122.06 121.80 119.81 119.11 118. 53 117.83 118.40 117.55 118.28 116.72 117.29 117.31 113.15
109. 52 107.90 108.94 109.72 105.88 105.32 104. 65 103.89 103. 38 104.04 103.98 103.22 105.16 104.17 100. 50
94.77 93.96 93.43 94.77 93.26 92.46 92.97 92.52 92.34 89. 89 92.29 91.66 91.43 90.68 87. 51
101.02 100. 60 99.22 101.02 97. 68 97. 68 96. 32 96.08 96.32 94.64 95. 99 96.22 95.24 94. 77 90.54
98. 58 99.39 100.12 100.43
85.27 84.66 85.07 84.00
102.42 102. 75 102. 51 101.26

99.05
82. 68
99.46

97. 68
81.46
98.98

96.48
84.29
98. 57

95.04
83. 50
98.09

94.33
84.12
99.53

94.64
83. 75
98.40

95. 91
83. 50
98. 71

95.99
83.27
98.29

96.22
83. 75
99.42

95. 65
82.37
97.06

92.70
80.17
94.16

Petroleum refining a n d related industries_____ ________________________ 126. 88 122. 59 126.42 126.24 123.30 124.42 121. 80 121.00 123.90 118. 73 119.02 118.53 121. 64 118. 78 117.42
Petroleum refining______________ 131. 70 126.95 131.24 130.38 128.21 129. 56 127.17 126.45 129. 58 123.62 124.23 122.10 125. 55 123. 22 121. 99
O ther petroleum an d coal products. 107.04 103. 81 105. 70 109.66 101.24 99.41 95.17 91.80 96.12 95.88 95.24 103.37 104. 96 99.26 97. 61
R u b b er a n d miscellaneous plastic
p roducts___________ . . ________
99.46 97. 85 98. 90 97.03 95.04 93.69 91.89 91.49 92.51 91.96 92.43 93. 77 91.96 92.97, 94.16
Tires and inner tu b e s .. _ _______ 126. 67 125.96 128. 86 121.88 115.20 114.82 110. 56 110.11 113.24 117.21 113. 92 115.92 111.72 116. 33 120.64
O ther ru b b er products________ — 93.94 91.30 91.53 91.35 91.58 90.27 88.13 87.91 87.91 86.30 88.18 89. 69 88.13 87.82 88. 38
M iscellaneous plastic products____ 85.08 83.44 83.03 84.67 83.03 81.20 80.80 80.20 79.99 78. 56 79.60 80.00 79.80 79.40 78.53
L eather and leather p ro d u cts_________
L eather tanning and finishing------Footw ear, except ru b b e r_________
O ther leather p roducts----------------

62.05
85.17
59.24
61.05

62.79
85.39
60. 64
61.40

63. 58
84. 77
61.66
60.86

63.29
85.41
61.07
60.75

61.46
83.92
58.97
59.62

59.95
84. 77
56. 86
59.09

61.62
82. 68
59.33
60.16

61.55
80. 85
59. 73
60.00

62.75
81.06
60.86
60.38

58. 35
81.66
56.25
55.81

60.06
83.10
56. 64
60.80

59.07
83. 77
55.20
60.26

58. 88
82. 53
55. 81
58.35

60.52
81.74
58.04
58.62

60.26
79.39
58.28
57.99

Average weekly hours
41.3
41.4

41.5
41.9

41.5
41.8

41.7
42.0

41.2
41.6

41.2
41.5

41.2
41.3

40.9
41.2

41.0
41.4

40.7
41.1

41.1
41.5

41.0
41.1

41.1
41.3

41.3
41.6

41.4
41.6

41.8
40.5
41.4

41.5
40.5
41.4

41.9
40.1
41.0

42.2
40.5
41.4

41.2
40.2
40.7

41.3
40.2
40.7

41.2
40.6
40.3

40.9
40.4
40.2

40.7
40.5
40.3

40.8
39.6
39.6

41.1
40.3
40.5

40.8
40.2
40.6

41.4
40.1
40.7

41.5
40.3
40.5

41.7
40.7
40.6

40.4
41.8
41.3

40.9
41.5
41.6

41.2
41.7
41.5

41.5
42.0
41.5

41.1
42.4
41.1

40.7
43.1
40.9

40.2
44.6
40.9

39.6
42.6
40.7

39.8
42.7
41.3

39.6
42.3
41.0

40.3
42.6
41.3

40.5
42.7
41.3

40.6
42.3
41.6

40.7
42.9
41.3

41.2
43.1
41.3

P etroleum refining a n d related industries______________ _____ _________
Petroleum refining____ _________
O ther petroleum and coal p roducts.

41.6
40.9
44.6

41.0
40.3
43.8

42.0
41.4
44.6

41.8
41.0
45.5

41.1
40.7
42.9

41.2
41.0
42.3

40.6
40.5
41.2

40.2
40.4
39.4

41.3
41.4
40.9

40.8
40.8
40.8

40.9
41.0
40.7

41.3
40.7
43.8

41.8
41.3
44.1

41.1
40.8
42.6

41.2
40.8
43.0

R ubber and miscellaneous plastic
products_________ . . _______ . . .
Tires and inner tu b e s.........................
O ther ru b b er products__________
M iscellaneous plastic p ro d u c ts.. .

41.1
40.6
41.2
41.3

40.6
40.5
40.4
40.9

40.7
41.3
40.5
40.5

40.6
39.7
40.6
41.3

40.1
38.4
40.7
40.7

39.7
38.4
40.3
40.2

39.1
37.1
39.7
40.0

39.1
37.2
39.6
39.9

39.2
38.0
39.6
39.6

38.8
39.2
38.7
38.7

39.5
38.1
39.9
40.0

39.9
38.9
40.4
40.2

39.3
38.0
39.7
39.9

39.9
39.3
40.1
40.1

41.3
41.6
41.3
40.9

L eather a n d leather p ro d u cts_________
L eather tan n in g an d finishing____
Footw ear, except r u b b e r . . ______
O ther leather products___________

36.5
39.8
35.9
37.0

37.6
39.9
37.2
37.9

38.3
39.8
38.3
37.8

37.9
40.1
37.7
37.5

36.8
39.4
36.4
36.8

35.9
39.8
35.1
36.7

36.9
39.0
36.4
37.6

37.3
38.5
37.1
37.5

37.8
38.6
37.8
37.5

35.8
38.7
35.6
35.1

36.4
39.2
35.4
38.0

35.8
39.7
34.5
37.9

35.9
39.3
35.1
36.7

36.9
39.3
36.5
37.1

37.9
39.3
37.6
37.9

Chemicals a n d allied products............ . $2. 61
In d u strial chemicals ___________
2.94
Plasties and synthetics, except
glass---------- --------- ---------- -------- 2.62
2.34
D ru g s. _______ . . . ____________
2.44
Soap, cleaners, a n d toilet goods___
P ain ts, varnishes, a n d allied prod2.44
u cts__________________________
2.04
A gricultural chem icals___________
O ther chemical p roducts. ________ 2.48

$2.59
2.90

$2.60
2.92

$2.59
2.90

$2. 55
2. 88

$2. 53
2.87

$2. 53
2.87

$2.54
2. 86

$2. 54
2.86

$2.54
2.86

$2.53
2.85

$2. 53
2.84

$2. 53
2.84

$2. 50
2. 82

$2.40
2.72

2.60
2.32
2.43

2.60
2.33
2.42

2. 60
2.34
2.44

2.57
2.32
2.40

2. 55
2.30
2.40

2.54
2.29
2.39

2.54
2.29
2.39

2. 54
2.28
2.39

2. 55
2.27
2.39

2.53
2.29
2.37

2. 53
2.28
2.37

2.54
2.28
2.34

2.51
2.25
2.34

2.41
2.15
2.23

2.43
2.04
2.47

2.43
2.04
2.47

2.42
2.00
2.44

2.41
1.95
2.42

2.40
1.89
2.42

2.40
1.89
2.41

2.40
1.96
2.41

2.37
1.97
2.41

2.39
1.98
2.40

2.38
1.96
2.39

2.37
1.95
2. 38

2.37
1.98
2.39

2.35
1.92
2.35

2.25
1.86
2.28

Chemicals an d allied p ro d u cts_____ _
In d u strial chem icals_____________
Plastics a n d synthetics, except
glass.................................. —..............
D rugs_________________ _______
Soap, cleaners, and toilet goods___
P ain ts, varnishes, a n d allied produ c ts__________________________
A gricultural chem icals___________
O ther chem ical products_________

Average hourly earnings

Petroleum refining an d related industries_____________________________
P etroleum refining_______________
O ther petroleum an d coal products.

3.05
3.22
2.40

2.99
3.15
2. 37

3.01
3.17
2.37

3.02
3.18
2.41

3.00
3.15
2. 36

3.02
3.16
2.35

3.00
3.14
2.31

3.01
3.13
2.33

3.00
3.13
2. 35

2.91
3.03
2.35

2.91
3.03
2.34

2.87
3.00
2.36

2.91
3.04
2. 38

2. 89
3.02
2.33

2. 85
2.99
2.27

R ubber a n d miscellaneous plastic
products________________
_______
Tires and inner tu b e s______
O ther ru b b er p r o d u c ts .________
M iscellaneous plastic products____

2.42
3.12
2.28
2.06

2.41
3.11
2.26
2.04

2.43
3.12
2.26
2.05

2.39
3.07
2.25
2.05

2.37
3.00
2.25
2.04

2.36
2.99
2.24
2.02

2.35
2. 98
2.22
2.02

2.34
2.96
2.22
2.01

2.36
2.98
2.22
2.02

2.37
2.99
2.23
2.03

2.34
2.99
2.21
1.99

2.35
2.98
2.22
1.99

2.34
2.94
2.22
2.00

2.33
2. 96
2.19
1.98

2.28
2.90
2.14
1.92

1.70
2.14
1.65
1.65

1.67
2.14
1.63
1.62

1.66
2.13
1.61
1.61

1.67
2.13
1.62
1.62

1.67
2.13
1.62
1.62

1.67
2.13
1.62
1.61

1.67
2.12
1.63
1.60

1.65
2.10
1.61
1.60

1.66
2.10
1.61
1.61

1.63
2.11
1.58
1.59

1.65
2.12
1.60
1.60

1.65
2.11
1.60
1.59

1.64
2.10
1.59
1.59

1.64
2.08
1. 59
1.58

1.59
2.02
1.55
1.53

L eather an d leather p ro d u c ts ............. .
L eather tan n in g and finishing____
Footw ear, except ru b b e r_________
O ther leather products___________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

C.—E A R N IN G S AND H OU RS
T able

1415

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961
Sept . 2

Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation:
Class I railroads 3_______________
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation. $99. 82
Intercity and rural bus lines_____ 120. 42
Motor freight transportation and
storage___________________________ 111.94
Pipeline transportation______________ 133. 57
Communication:
Telephone communication_______
97.77
Telegraph communication <______ 105.21
Radio and television broadcasting. 121. 83
Electric, gas, and sanitary services___ 114.26
Electric companies and systems__ 114. 26
Gas companies and systems______ 105. 78
Combined utility systems________ 123. 82
Water, steam, and sanitary systems. 94. 58

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Annual
average

1960

Industry
Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average weekly earnings
$114. 48 $111. 4£ $114.38 $113. 9f $108. 27 $111.41 $115. o: $108. 92 $1 1 1 . 0 1 $106. 97 $108.3£ $107.18 $108.81
99.16 98.47 99.41 98.06 97.16 97.13 97.16 95. 34 98. 31 96.11 94.87 95. 68 94. 82
116. 77 117.13 112. 4S 108. 94 112. 58 106.14 108.03 107. 68 104.33 104.0C 104. 58 1 1 0 . 1 2 105.22
111.19 108.42 109.30 106. 55 104. 45 103. 53 103. 63 1 0 2 . 06 103. 73 103. 82 106.17 106. 93 104.17
130.33 137.03 124. 42 128.95 133. 06 128.16 129. 03 135. 29 127.08 124.12 126.14 125. 36 124. 53
93. 62 93.46 92.12 91.03 90.17 90. 02 90.71 90. 48 91.64 92. 92 92. 00 95. 47
50
104. 33 104. 90 105.33 106. 0 0 102. 51 103.17 1 0 2 . 0 1 103. 00 100. 77 100.98 103. 70 106.14 1 89.
0 0 . 01
119. 27 118. 81 117. 50 117. 6 6 119. 58 118.01 118. 80 120. 51 121.28 122.61 124.09 122.29 121. 13
112.07 112.34 110. 98 110. 70 110. 43 110. 30 1 1 0 . 81 1 1 0 . 81 112.06 111.24 111. 24 113.28 108. 65
113. 44 113. 71 1 1 2 . 2 0 111. 52 110. 84 110.98 110. 57 1 1 0 . 81 111.79 111. 51 110.56 115. 60 109.45
103.12 103. 94 102. 36 102. 36 102. 77 102. 31 103.6c 103. 63 105.16 104. 08 104. 49 1 0 2 . 0 0 100. 69
121. 88
121. 25 1 2 0 . 6 6 119. 48 119. 07 119. 54 121. 42 120.13 121. 84 120.83 1 2 1 . 01 124.02 117. 26
94.16 93.43 92. 84 92.89 92.16 91.08 92.80 91.53 90. 58 91.62 91.02 91.54 89. 84

$101.84
91. 57
100.01
102.12

124.14
85.46
95. 99
115. 50
103. 73
104. 81
97. 51
110.70
86.11

Average weekly hours
Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation:
Class I railroads 3 ________________
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation.
Intercity and rural bus lines........._,
Motor freight transportation and
storage______ _____________________
Pipeline transportation_____________
Communication:
Telephone communication_______
Telegraph communication *______
Radio and television broadcasting,
Electric, gas, and sanitary services___
Electric companies and systems___
Gas companies and systems____
Combined utility system ............ .
Water, steam, and sanitary systems.

43.2

41.6

43.0

43.0

40.4

42.2

42.6

41.1

41.9

40.5

40.9

40.6

41.7

41.4

43.4
45.1

43.3
43.9

43.0
44.2

43.6
43.1

43.2
41.9

42.8
43.3

42.6
41.3

42.8
42.7

42.0
41.9

43.5
41.9

43.1
41.6

42.9
42.0

43.1
43.7

43.1
42.6

43.4
42.2

42.4
40. 6

42.6
40.1

41.7
41.4

42.2
38.4

41.3
39.8

40.8
40.2

40.6
39.8

40.8
39.7

40.5
41.5

41.0
40.6

41.2
40.3

41.8
40.3

42.1
40.7

41. 5
40.3

42.2
40.7

40.4
42.1
38. 8
41.1
41.1
41. 0
41. 0
41.3

39.5
41. 9
38.6
40.9
41.1
40. 6
40. 9
41.3

39.6
42.3
38.7
41.0
41.2
40.6
41.1
40.8

39.2
42.3
38.4
40.8
41.1
40.3
40.9
40.9

38.9
42.4
38.2
40.7
41.0
40.3
40.5
41.1

38.7
41.5
38.7
40.6
40. 9
40.3
40.5
40.6

38.8
41.6
38.2
40.7
40.8
40.6
40.8
40.3

39.1
41.3
38.2
40.9
40.8
40.8
41.3
40.7

39.0
41.7
38.5
40.9
40.9
40.8
41.0
40.5

39.5
41.3
38.5
41.2
41.1
41.4
41.3
40.8

40.4
41.9
38.8
41.2
41.3
41.3
41.1
40.9

40.0
42. 5
38.9
41.2
41.1
41.3
41.3
41.0

40.8
43. 5
38.7
41.8
42.5
40.8
41.9
41.8

39.6
42.2
38.7
41.0
41.3
40.6
41. 0
41.4

39.2
42.1
38. 5
41.0
41.1
40.8
41.0
41.6

$2. 65

$2. 64

$2 . 61

$2.46

2 .2 1

2 .2 0

2 .1 1

2. 47

2.37

Average hourly earnings
Transportation and public utilities:
Railroad transportation:
Class I railroads 3 _______________
Local and interurban passenger transit:
Local and suburban transportation.
Intercity and rural bus lines_____
Motor freight transportation and
storage___________________________
Pipeline transportation______________
Communication:
Telephone communication_______
Telegraph communication 4 . . . _______
Radio and television broadcasting.
Electric, gas, and sanitary services___
Electric companies and systems___
Gas companies and systems______
Combined utility systems________
Water, steam, and sanitary systems.
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2. 65

$2 . 6 8

$2 . 6 6

$2. 65

$2 . 6 8

$2.64

$2. 70

$2. 65

$2. 65

$2.64

$2.30
2.67

2.29
2 . 66

2.29
2.65

2.28
2 . 61

2. 27
2 . 60

2. 27
2 . 60

. 28
2. 57

2.27
2. 53

2. 27
2. 57

2.26
2.49

2.23
2.50

2.49

.
2.52

2. 64
3.29

2.61
3. 25

2.60
3.31

2. 59
3.24

2.58
3.24

2.56
3.31

2. 55
3.22

2. 54
3.25

2. 52
3.26

2. 53
3.13

2. 52
3.08

2. 54
3.13

2. 54
3.08

2.51
3.09

2.42
3.05

2. 42
2. 50
3.14
2. 78
2. 78
2. 58
3.02
2. 29

2.37
2. 49
3.09
2. 74
2. 76
2. 54
2.98
2 . 28

2.36
2.48
3.07
2. 74
2. 76
2. 56
2.95
2.29

2.35
2.49
3.06
2. 72
2.73
2.54
2. 95
2.27

2.34
2. 50
3.08
2. 72
2. 72
2. 54
2. 95
2 . 26

2.33
2. 47
3.09
2. 72
2.71
2. 55
2.94
2.27

2. 32
2. 48
3. 09
2. 71
2. 72
2. 52
2. 93
2.26

2.32
2. 47
3.11
2. 71
2. 71
2. 54
2. 94
2.28

2.32
2.47
3.13
2.71
2.71
2.54
2. 93
2 . 26

2.32
2.44
3.15
2. 72
2. 72
2. 54
2.95

2.30
2.41
3.16
2. 70
2. 70
2. 52
2.94
2.24

2.30
2. 44
3.19
2. 70
2.69
2. 53
2.93
2 . 22

2.34
2.44
3.16
2. 71
2. 72
2. 50
2. 96
2.19

2 . 26
2.37
3.13
2. 65
2. 65
2. 48

2.18
2 . 28
3.00
2. 53
2. 55
2.39
2. 70
2.07

2

2 .2 2

2 22

2 .8 6

2.17

1416

M ONTHLY LABOR R E V IE W , D EC E M B ER 1961
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
Annual
average

1960

1961
Industry
Sept . 2
Wholesale and retail trade 5______________
Wholesale trade_________________ -Motor vehicles and automotive
eq u ip m en t______- ___________
Drugs, chemicals, and allied prod______________________
ucts
D ry goods and apparel _________
Groceries and related products___
Electrical goods _______ ________
Hardware,“ plumbing, and heating
goods______________ _________
Machinery, equipment, and supplies.- _______________________
Retail trade 8__ __________________
General merchandise stores_______
Department stores___________
T.imited price variety stores__
Food stores-------------- ----------------Grocery, meat, and vegetable
stores_____________________
Apparel and accessories stores__ M en’s and boys’ apparel stores.
Women’s ready-to-wear stores
Fam ily clothing stores________
Shoe stores ________________
Furniture and appliance stores-----Other retail trade 6 ____ _________
Motor vehicle dealers________
Other vehicle and accessory
dealers___________________
Drug stores--------------- ----------Wholesale and retail trade 8______________
Wholesale trade ___________________
Motor vehicles and automotive
equipment.........................................
Drugs, chemicals, and allied products ________________________
D ry goods and apparel_______ . . .
Groceries and related products____
Electrical g o o d s_____ _________
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
goods_____ ___________________
Machinery, equipment, and supp lies..
_____________________
Retail trade 8 _______________________
General merchandise stores.............
Department s to r e s _________ _
Limited price variety stores__
Food stores_____________________
Grocery, meat, and vegetable
stores__________ __________
Apparel and accessories stores------M en’s and boys’ apparel stores.
W omen’s ready-to-wear stores.
Family clothing stores-----------Shoe stores__ _____ __________
Furniture and appliance stores____
Other retail trade 8 _____________
Motor vehicle dealers________
Other vehicle and accessory
dealers_________ _________
Drug stores_________________

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Average weekly earnings
$73.91 $73. 8 8 $74.07 $73. 51 $72.37 $71. 98 $71. 41 $71.60 $71. 60 $70.20 $71.00 $71.19
92.
69
92.69
91.66 91.43 91.88 91.30 91.13 91.35
94.42
94.19
94. 37 93.79

Sept.

1960

1959

571. 55 570.98
91.35 91.13

$69.17
88.91

89.25

89.25

88.83

88.41

88

. 41

87. 36

87.36

87.99

87.36

87.57

87.36

87.78

86

. 53

84.22

95.18
96. 27
88.81
99. 55

93.83
93. 62
8 8 . 61
97. 28

95.11
92. 72
89.46
97.28

93.83
90. 62
87.78
97.12

93. 37
90. 99
86.31
95.76

93.13
92.10

93.37
91.99
84.86
95.12

92.97
91.20
84.66
95. 76

92.80
93.65
84.66
96.88

91.94
89.68
85.90
95. 51

92. 40
90.06
85. 28
96. 63

92.86
91.10
85. 90
96.87

92.46
90.58
87.15
96.70

91.20
90.68
84. 67
95.11

87.38
89.68
81.56
93. 73

91.35

90.32

89.69

89.91

8 8 .6 6

8 8.88

103. 22
64.94
51.45
56.09
37.79
64.44

101.68

89. 8 8

65.23
51.25
56.03
38.08
64. 59

8 6 .1 0

96.07

. 48

86.83

87.91

87.89

87.89

88

8 6 .8 6

84.45

101.84 102. 41 101.18 100.78
65.57 64.90 63.84 63.46
51.39 51.16 50.22 49.74
56.19 55. 71 55. 55 54.19
38.53 37.18 35. 95 36.27
64.40 63. 36 61.95 61.60

99.88
62.70
49.39
53.69
36.92
61.24

99.72
62.87
49.39
53. 51
36.82
61.42

99. 55 102.16
63. 25 61.82
49. 74 49. 62
54.22 53.96
36. 51 35.49
61.06 61.39

98.98
62.48
48.08
52.86
35. 53
61.92

99. 39
62.65
48. 71
53. 6 6
35. 20
61.56

99.39
62.98
48. 99
53.48
35.09
61.71

99.80
62.37
48.58
53.09
35. 53
60. 98

97.99
60. 76
47.60
52.15
34.22
58. 72

63.01
50.42
62.12
45.16
50.96
51.04
75.81
71.72
8 6 .39

62.83
51.50
63.75
45.02
51.94
52.10
74.62
71.90
84. 67

62.83
51.94

63.18
52.24
64.47
45.89
52. 26
52.96
77.38
71.99
86.63

63.71
50.91
63.61
44. 69
50.78
51.68
76.04
71.99
87.91

62.99
50. 91
63.34
44. 82
51.01
52.15
75.99
72. 24
87. 91

63. 51
50.86
62. 75
44.62
51.01
53.30
76. 54
71.99
86.83

62.95
51.30
63. 29
44.41
51.01
52.33
74.98
71. 57
87.91

60.15
50.40
62. 54
43.31
50.78
51.51
73.87
70.22
86.08

77.16
53. 8 6

78. 40
53. 65

77.16
54.09

77. 26
53. 34

74.36
51.14

38.8
40.5

38.9
40.6

39.1
40.6

39.0
40.5

39.3
40.6

88

. 51

88

. 73

66.05
52.60
. 53
45.75
52.42
54.32
78. 25
74. 27
89.49

66

. 23
52.80
66.64
46.10
51.77
53.88
77. 23
74.69
90.17

65. 34
52. 55
65.05
45.83
52.13
53.46
77. 79
74.10
90.78

63.90
51.60
63.38
45.50
51. 47
52.64
76.22
72.98
89.04

63.37
51.11
62.63
45.90
51.10
50.88
76.04
72. 56
87.96

77.62
56.98

79. 20
56. 93

79.47
57.00

79. 39
56.17

78.94
55.13

77.88
54. 46

38.9
40.5

39.3
40.6

39.4
40.7

39.1
40.6

38.7
40.3

77. 53 77. 79 77.35 76.64
54. 39 54.02 54. 31 54.81
Average weekly hours
39.0
38.7
38.6
38.7
38.7
40.4
40.3
40.2
40.1
40.3

42.0

42.1

42.3

42.1

41.9

41.9

41.6

41.6

41.7

41.6

41.7

41.6

41.8

41.8

41.9

40.5
37.9
41.5
40.8

40.1
37.6
41.6
40.2

40.3
38.0
42.0
40.2

40.1
37.6
41.6
40.3

39.9
37.6
41.1
39.9

39.8
37.9
41.0
39.7

39.9
37.7
40.8
39.8

39.9
38.0
40.7
39.9

40.0
38.7
40.9
40.2

39.8
38.0
41.9
40.3

40.0
38.0
41.2
40.6

40.2
37.8
41.3
40.7

40.2
37.9
41.7
40.8

40.0
38.1
41.3
40.3

39.9
38.0
41.4
40.4

65.88
51.79
64.09
45. 56
50.48
53.95
77.64
73. 99
87.96

66

6 6 .00

45.36
51.05
52.16
76.67
72.07
85.31

40.6

40.5

40.4

40.5

40.3

40.4

40.4

40.2

40.7

40.5

40.5

40.6

40.7

40.4

40.6

40.8
38.2
34.3
34.2
32.3
36.2

41.0
38.6
35.1
34.8
33.4
36.7

40.9
38.8
35.2
34.9
33.8
36.8

40.8
38.4
34.8
34.6
32.9
36.0

40.8
38.0
34.4
34.5
32.1
35.4

40.8
38.0
34.3
34.3
32.1
35.4

40.6
38.0
34.3
34.2
32.1
35.4

40.7
38.1
34.3
34.3
32.3
35.5

40.8
38.1
34.3
34.1
32.6
35.5

40.7
38.4
35.7
35.5
33.8
35.9

40.9
38.1
34.1
34.1
32.3
36.0

40.9
38.2
34.3
34.4
32.0
36.0

40.9
38.4
34.5
34. 5
31.9
36.3

40.9
38.5
34.7
34.7
32.6
36.3

41.0
38.7
35.0
35. U
32.9
36.7

36.4
34.3
37.7
33.5
35.3
32.5
41.3
41.8
44.2

36.9
35.3
37.8
34.4
36.4
34.6
41.4
42.2
44.3

37.0
35.2
38.3
34.4
35.7
34.1
41.3
42.2
44.2

36.3
34.8
37.6
34.2
36.2
32.8
41.6
42.1
44.5

35.7
34.4
37.5
33.7
36.5
31.9
41.2
41.7
44.3

35.6
34.3
37.5
33.5
36.5
32.0
41.1
41.7
44.2

35.6
34.3
37.2
33.7
36.4
32.1
41.2
41.7
44.3

35.7
34.8
37.5
33.6
37.1
33.4
41.0
41.8
44.1

35.7
34.4
37.5
33.6
35.7
32.2
41.0
41.9
44.2

36.1
35.3
37.7
34.5
37.6
33.1
41.6
42.1
44.2

36.2
34.4
37.2
33.6
36.8
32.3
41.1
42.1
44.4

36.2
34.4
37.7
33.7
36.7
31.8
41.3
42.0
44.4

36.5
34.6
37.8
33.8
36.7
32.3
41.6
42.1
44.3

36.6
34.9
37.9
33.9
36.7
32.5
41.2
42.1
44.4

36.9
35.0
37.9
34.1
36.8
32.6
41. 5
42. 3
44.6

44.1
37.0

45.0
37.7

44.9
38.0

44.6
37.7

44.6
37.0

44.6
37.4

44.8
37.0

44.6
37.3

44.4
37.3

44.0
37.6

Wholesale and retail trade 8______________ $1.90
Wholesale tr a d e ____________________ 2.33
Motor vehicles and automotive
2.14
equip m ent___________________
Drugs,* chemicals, and allied products
______ _______________ 2.35
D ry goods and apparel___________ 2. 54
Groceries and related products------ 2.14
2.44
Electrical goods_________________
Hardware, plumbing, and heating
2. 25
goods-- ______________________
Machinery, equipment, and supplies__________________________ 2. 53
1.70
Retail trade 8_____________________
General merchandise stores_______ 1.50
1.64
Department stores „ ______
1.17
Limited price variety stores—
1.78
Food stores______________ _______
Grocery, meat, and vegetable
1.81
stores.........................- ................
A p p a r e l a n d a c c e s s o r ie s s to r e s
1. 51
* ‘ M en’s and boys’ apparel stores. 1.70
Women’s ready-to-wear stores. 1.36
1.43
Fam ily clothing stores_______
1 .6 6
Shoe stores........... - .......................
See footnotes at end of table.

$1 . 8 8
2.31

$1 . 8 8
2.32

$1 . 8 8
2.32

$1.87
2.30

44.2
44.3
44.2
44.3
37.2
37.8
37.0
37.0
Average hourly earnings
$1 . 8 6 $1.85 $1.85 $1.85 $1.80
2 . 26
2.28
2.28
2.28
2.30

$1.83
2. 25

$1.83
2.25

$1.83
2. 25

$1.82
2.25

$1.76
2.19

2 .1 2

2 .1 1

2 .1 1

2 .1 1

2 .1 1

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2 .1 1

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2.07

2 .0 1

2. 34
2. 43

2.33
2.40
2.08
2.40

2.32
2.42
2.07
2.41

2.31
2. 36
2.05
2.37

2. 31
2.37
2.07
2.38

2.31
2.41
2.08
2.38

2.30
2.39
2.09
2.37

2.28
2.38
2.05
2.36

2.19
2. 36
1.97
2.32


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

44.5
36.8

2.34
2. 49
2.13
2.42

2.36
2.44
2.13
2.42

2.34
2.41

2.34
2.42

2 .1 1

2 .1 0

2 .1 0

2.41

2.40

2.42

2. 34
2.44
2.08
2.39

2. 23

2 .2 2

2 .2 2

2 .2 0

2 20

.

2.19

2.16

2.16

2.17

2.17

2.18

2.18

2.15

2.08

2.48
1.69
1.46
1.61
1.14
1.76

2.49
1.69
1.46
1.61
1.14
1.75

2. 51
1.69
1.47
1.61
1.13
1.76

2.48

2.46
1.65
1.44
1. 57
1.15
1.73

2. 45
1.65
1.44
1.56
1.14
1.73

2.44

2.43
1.64
1.42
1.56

2.43
1.64
1.42
1.55

1 .1 0

1 .1 0

1 .1 0

2.44
1.62
1.40
1.53
1.09

1.72

2. 51
1.61
1.39
1.52
1.05
1.71

2.42
1.64
1.41
1.55

1.75

2.47
1.67
1.45
1.58
1.13
1.74

1.72

1.71

1.70

1 .6 8

2.39
1.57
1.36
1.49
1.04
1.60

1.79
1.49
1.76
1.33
1.44
1.57

1.79
1.50
1.74
1.34
1.45
1.58

1.80
1.51
1.73
1.34
1.44
1.63

1.79
1.50
1.69
1.35
1.41
1.65

1.78
1.49
1.67
1.37
1.40
1.59

1.77
1.47
1.67
1.34
1.40
1.59

1.76
1.48
1.70
1.34
1.40
1.56

1.76
1.51
1.76
1.35
1.43
1.62

1.75
1.48
1.71
1.33
1.39
1.60

1.76
1.48
1.71
1.33
1.38
1.60

1.74
1.48

1.74
1.47
1.06
1.32
1.39
1.65

1.72
1.47
1.67
i. 31
1.39
1.61

1.63
1.44
1.65
1.27
1.38
1. 58

1 .6 8

1.46
1.61
1 .1 2

1 .6 6

1.45
1.59
1 .1 2

1 .6 8

1.33
1.39
1.64

C.— EM PLOY M ENT AND H OU RS
T able

1417

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Annual
average

1960

Industry
Sept . 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

!
Apr. j Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Average hourly earnings--Continued
Wholesale and retail trade 5—Continued
Betail trade 5—Continued
Furniture and appliance stores___
Other retail trade 8 ______________
Motor vehicle dealers________
Other vehicle and accessory
dealers....................... ................
Drug stores---------------------------

1.89
1.76

1.77
1.99

1.87
1.77
2.04

1.87
1.76
2.04

2 .0 1

1.85
1.74
1.99

1.84
1.72
1.95

1.82
1.72
1.92

1.87
1.72
1.93

1.71
1.96

1.85
1.71
1.98

1.84
1.72
1.98

1.84
1.71
1.96

1.82
1.70
1.98

1.78

2 .0 2

1.76
1.54

1.76
1.51

1.77
1.50

1.78
1.49

1.77
1.49

1.75
1.48

1.75
1.47

1.76
1.46

1.75
1.46

1.73
1.45

1.73
1.44

1.75
1.45

1.73
1.45

1.74
1.43

1.69
1.36

$68.82 $69.19 $69. 56 $6 8 . 82 $6 8 . 63 $6 8 . 82 $69.01 $69.01 $6 8 . 45 $67. 52 $67.53 $67. 89 $67.16 $67.15
124. 34 125.04 127.42 143.45 151.10 152.16 139.38 129.37 119. 93 118.08 110. 87 114. 36 117.97 117.12
90.34 90. 34 90.05 89.57 89. 50 89.08 8 8 . 80 8 8 . 74 8 8 . 90 88.07 87. 85 87.99 87.28 87.41
96. 00 96.10 95.56 94.90 94. 74 93.71 93.93 93. 89 94.34 93.60 93. 38 93. 55 93.42 93.32
74.98 73. 6 8 74.14 73.47 72.92 73. 8 8 73.85 73.27 73.16 72.74 71.83 72.42 70.02 71.33

$65.10
124.07
85.29
91.52
68.48

1 .8 8

1.85
1.75

1 .8 6

1 .6 6

1.93

Average w eekly earnings
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Banking___________________ ____ ___
Security dealers and exchanges_______
Insurance carriers_________ __________
Life insurance __________________
Accident and health insurance____
Fire, marine, and casualty insurance.................................... ...........

85.21

85.11

85.11

85.01

85.02

85. 27

84. 24

84.19

83.99

83.12

82.90

82.96

81.76

81.96

Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels
45.14 45.21 44.88 44.75 45. 20 44. 85 45.08 44. 97 45.08 45.31 44. 57 45.43 43.78 43.89
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing
plants, ..................... ........................ 49.15 48. 76 49. 6 6 50.42 50.17 48. 51 48.25 47.75 48.13 47. 63 48. 50 49.13 48.11 48.11
M otion pictures:
M otion picture filming and distributing_______________ ______ 116.54 116. 31 119. 93 119. 50 114.94 115.43 119. 48 117.66 115. 82 118. 94 120.28 114.20 114.48 113. 69

79.36

42.40
46. 80
111.76

Average weekly hours
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Banking________ __________________
Security dealers and exchanges........... ..
Insurance carriers...____ ____________
Life insurance___________________
Accident and health insurance____
Fire, marine, and casualty in­
surance___________ ____ ___
Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels 6.
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing
plants____________________ ____
M otion pictures:
M otion picture filming and distrib­
uting _______________ ______ ___

36.8

37.0

37.0

36.8

36.9

37.0

37.1

37.1

37.2

37.1

36.9

37.1

36.9

37.1

37.2

40.3

41.1

40.8

39.6

39.3

39.0

39.2

39.1

39.2

39.4

39.1

39.5

39.8

39.9

40.0

38.7

38.7

39.1

39.7

39.5

38.5

38.6

38.2

38.5

38.1

38.8

39.3

38.8

38.8

39.0

$1.82

$1.81

$1.75

Average hourly earnings
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
B a n k in g .___ ______________________ $1. 87
Security dealers and exchanges_______
Insurance carriers___________ _______
Life insurance __________________
Accident and health insurance____
Fire, marine, and casualty in­
surance_______________________
Services and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, tourist courts, and motels 8.
Personal services:
Laundries, cleaning and dyeing
plants.................... ....................... —
M otion pictures:
Motion picture filming and distrib­
uting ___ ____ ____ ___ _____

$1.87

$1 . 8 8

$1.87

$1 . 8 6

$1 . 8 6

$1 . 8 6

$1 . 8 6

$1.84

$1.82

$1.83

$1.83

1 .1 2

1 .1 0

1 .1 0

1.13

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.15

1.14

1.15

1 .1 0

1 .1 0

1.06

1.27

1.26

1.27

1.27

1.27

1.26

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.25

1.24

1.24

1 .2 0

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to Decem­
ber 1961, see footnote 1, table A-2.
For employees covered, see footnote 1, table A-3.
2 Preliminary.
3 Based upon m onthly data summarized in the M-300 report by the Inter­
state Commerce Commission, which relate to all employees who received pay
during the month, except executives, officials, and staff assistants (ICC
Group I).


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Data relate to nonsupervisory employees except messengers.
Excludes eating and drinking places.
M oney payments only; additional value of board, room, uniforms, and tips
not included.
4
6
8

S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics for all
series except that for Class I railroads. (See footnote 3.)

1418

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

T a ble

C-2. Average weekly hours, seasonally adjusted, of production workers in selected industries 1
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961

1960

Industry division and group
Sept. 2 Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

_ _ ______ _ _____

40.7

40.7

41.6

40.5

40.3

39.9

39.3

40.2

40.4

39.3

39.9

40.1

40.2

Contract construction____ _____________ _______ ______

36.8

37.1

36.9

36.8

36.3

35.7

36.9

38.1

37.5

34.8

36.8

37.2

37.

Manufacturing______ ____

M ining____________

_

___ _

39.5

40.0

40.0

39.9

39.8

39.7

39.3

39.3

39.0

38.5

39.3

39.5

39.4

Durable goods________________ ________________ _.
Ordnance and accessories ___ __________________
Lumber and wood products, except furniture____
Furniture and fixtures___ _ _ _ _ _ _
Stone, clay, and glass products_____________ ____
Primary metal industries__ ___________________
Fabricated metal products.. ______ __
Machinery _ _______
___________ ______ _
Electrical equipment and supplies____ ________ _
Transportation equipment____ _ ______ _ ____
Instruments and related products__
_______
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries. .

39.7
40.9
39.0
40.2
41. 0
40.3
39.4
41.0
39.5
37.4
40.9
39.9

40.5
41.1
39.6
40.1
41.0
40.2
40.8
41.1
40.4
40.6
40.9
39.4

40.5
40.4
39.5
40.1
41.1
40. 5
40.9
41.0
40.1
40.7
40.5
39.6

40.4
40.7
39.7
40.1
40.9
39.7
40.7
40.8
40.1
40.6
40.7
39.7

40.2
40.4
39. 5
39.6
40.4
39.5
40.5
40.7
39.9
40.6
40.6
39.3

40.0
40.7
39.0
39.5
40.3
38.9
40.5
40.7
40.2
40. 5
40. 5
39.3

39.7
40.7
38.9
39.0
40.4
38.1
40.0
40.2
39.9
39.8
40.3
39.1

39.6
40.4
39.2
38.9
40.2
38.0
39.8
40.6
39.9
39.6
40.4
39.4

39.3
40.4
39.3
38.6
40.2
37.5
39.7
40.4
39.8
38.9
40.3
39.1

39.0
39.7
38.1
38.9
39.7
37.1
38.9
40.0
38.6
39.3
39.2
37.8

39.7
40.6
38.4
39.2
40.4
37.7
40.2
40.7
39.7
40.4
40.3
39.2

39.9
40. 5
38.9
39.4
40.6
38.1
40.4
40.8
40.1
40.8
40.4
39.3

39.
40.
38.
39.
40.4
38.
40.
40.
39.'40.
40.1
39.

Nondurable goods_____

39.2
40.8
39.6
40. 5
34.4
42. 5
38.3
41.3
41.0
40.9
37.1

39.3
40.9
39.6
40.2
35.6
42.6
38.2
41.6
41.0
40.2
37.0

39.5
41. 0
38.0
40.0
35.7
42. 7
38.2
41. 5
41.4
40.3
37.4

39.5
41.3
38.9
40.1
35.4
42.8
38.3
41.5
41.6
40.1
37.6

39.3
41.1
38.3
39.9
35.0
42.4
38.0
41.1
41.1
40.3
37.6

39.3
40.7
39.8
39.8
35.7
42.6
38.3
41.2
41.2
40. 5
37.4

39.1
40.9
38.4
38.9
35.6
42.0
38.2
41.3
40.8
39.5
36.8

38.8
40.9
38.3
38.6
34.8
42.0
38.2
41.1
40.7
39.5
36.7

38.7
40.6
37.7
38.2
34.4
41.6
38.2
41.0
41.5
39.4
36.9

38.1
40.5
38.1
37.8
33.6
40.9
37.7
40.4
41.2
38.6
35.6

38.7
40.7
38.1
38.4
34.8
41.8
38.4
41.1
40.9
39.5
36.5

38.9
41.1
39.2
38.3
35.2
42.0
38.4
41.1
41.4
39.6
36.5

38.
41.i
38.
38..
35.
41.«
38.
41.
41A
39.
36.

38.8
40.4
38.2

38.8
40.5
37.9

38.9
40. 5
38.2

38.9
40.6
38.1

38.9
40.4
38.3

38.9
40.5
38.2

38.8
40.4
38.2

39.0
40.3
38.4

38.9
40.3
38.3

38.8
40.2
38.2

39.1
40.5
38.5

39.0
40.5
38.4

39.
40.
38.

_

_ __

_________

F o o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts

_

___

__

___

Tobacco manufactures. _____________ . . .
Textile mill products.. __________ ____ ___ __
Apparel and related products. ____________
Paper and allied products. ________
. __ _
Printing, publishing, and allied industries___
Chemicals and allied products. __
Petroleum refining and related industries__ _ _
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic products.. _
Leather and leather products____ ________
Wholesale and retail trade 3 ________________ _ . . .
Wholesale trade____
_ _ _ _ _ ______ _ _ _ _
Retail trade 3 _____________________________________
1
2
8

For employees covered, see footnote 1, table A-3.
Preliminary.
Excludes eating and drinking places.

T able

N o t e : T h e s e a s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t method u s e d i s d e s c r i b e d in “New
Seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force Components,” Monthly Tabor
Renew, August 1960, pp. 822-827.

C-3. Average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production workers in manufacturing,
by major industry group 1
R evised s e r ie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Annual
average

1960

Major industry group
Sept . 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

Manufacturing....... ................ ............... ........... $2.25

$2 . 1 2

$2.24

$2 . 26

$2. 25

$2. 25

$2. 25

$2.24

$2.23

$2.24

$2.23

$2 . 2 1

$2 . 2 0

$2 . 2 0

$2 . 2 0

Durable goods___ ____ _______
Ordnance and accessories ___________
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture___
__ __________ _ _
Furniture and fixtures_____ _______ _
Stone, clay, and glass products_______
Primary métal industries____ ________
Fabricated metal products. ________ _
M a c h in e r y ...___ __ __ __
Electrical equipment and supplies. __
Transportation equipment___ _ _ _
Instruments and related products_____
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries. _________________
_ _ _ _

2.41
2. 73

2. 41
2.72

2. 42
2.73

2.42
2. 72

2. 42
2.72

2. 41
2. 70

2. 40
2. 69

2. 39
2.69

2. 39
2 .6 8

2. 40
2. 67

2.37
2. 64

2. 36
2.64

2. 36
2 . 62

2. 36
2 . 60

2 . 28
2.52

1.95
1.87
2. 27
2. 85
2 39
2. 55
2 . 28
2. 72
2.32

1.90
1 . 85
. 26
2. 84
2 41
2. 54
2. 29
2.73
2. 32

1.91
1. 85
2. 25
2. 84
2 42
2. 54
2.31
2. 72
2. 33

1.90
.
. 26
2. 83
2 42
2. 54
2. 30
2. 72
2.33

1 .8 8
1.86
2. 25
2. 83
2 42
2.54
2. 30
2. 71
2.32

1.87
1 85
2.24
2.81
2. 42
2.54
2. 29
2. 70
2. 32

1.79
1. 85
2. 23
2.79
2.41
2.53
2. 29
2. 70
2. 33

1. 77
1. 85
2. 23
2. 78
2. 41
2.53
2 . 28
2. 70
2.31

1.78
1 85
2. 23
2 78
2. 40
2. 52
2 . 28
2. 70
2.32

1 . 81
1 84
2.23
2. 77
2. 40
2. 51
2.28
2. 71
2.31

1.80
1 83
.
2. 73
2. 38
2. 50
2 . 26
2.69
2 . 28

1.85
1. 83
.
2. 73
2. 38
2. 48
2. 23
2.69
2 . 28

1 .8 8
1
2 21

. 82
.
2. 73
2. 38
2. 49
2. 24
2. 70
2. 27

1.82
82
.
2. 75
2. 36
2. 47
2. 23
2. 65
2 . 26

1.79
1. 77
2.13

1.85

1.84

1 .8 6

1.87

1 .8 8

1 .8 8

1.89

1 .8 8

1.89

1.87

1.85

1.83

1.84

1.84

1. 79

Nondurable goods____________________
Food and kindred products_____
__
Tobacco manufactures________ .
Textile mill products________________
Apparel and related products__ __ _
Paper and allied products.. _________
Printing, publishing, and allied indus­
tries. ________________ _________
Chemicals and allied p ro d u cts_______
Petroleum refining and related industries.
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic prod­
ucts_______ .
___ _____ _ ___
Leather and leather products ______

2. 05
2. 07
1. 57
1. 58
1.63
2.24

2. 03
2.05
1.67
1.57
1.61
2.23

2. 05
2.09
1.83
1.57
1.60
2.23

2.04
2.09
1. 85
1.57
1.58
2 . 22

2. 05

2. 05

2.04

2 .1 1

2 .1 0

.
2. 04

2 .2 2

1.83
1.57
1.59
2 . 21

1.77
1.57
1 . 60
2 . 21

2.03
2 . 06
1.72
1.57
1.58

2 00
2 01

1.84
1. 57
1.58

2.04
2. 09
1. 72
1.57
1 . 60
2 . 20

1. 57
1.58
2.19

.
.
1. 55
1. 57
1.59
2.18

1.99

2 .1 1

2.03
2.09
1.74
1.57
1.59
2 . 21

1.52
1.56
1. 58
2.18

1.99
2 . 02
1. 67
1. 56
1. 56
2.15

1.91
1.94
1.62
1. 50
1.53
2.07

(3)
2.53
2. 95

(3)
2.52
2. 92

(3)
2. 52
2.92

(3)
2. 51
2.93

(3)
2.48
2. 93

(3)
2. 47
2. 95

(3)
2. 46
2. 95

(3)
2. 48
2.96

(3)
2.48
2.94

2 .8 6

(3)
2. 47
2.84

2

(3)
2. 46
. 80

2

(3)
2. 46
. 82

(3)
2.43
2.82

(3)
2.33
2.79

2.33
1. 67

2. 32
1.64

2. 34
1.63

2.32
1.64

2.30
1.64

2.30
1.64

2. 30
1.64

2.29
1.62

2.31
1.62

2 32
1 . 61

2.29
1.63

2.29
1.62

2.27
1 . 61

2.26
1.61

2,18
1.56

2

1 86
2

1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to Decem­
ber 1961, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1,
table A-3. Average hourly earnings excluding overtime are derived by as­
suming that overtime hours are paid for at the rate of time and one-half.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 .2 0

(3)
2.48

2 22

2 01
1 .6 8

2 22

2 .0 0

1

2 20

2 .6 8

2. 27
2.40
2.14
2. 56
2.18

2 Preliminary.
3 N ot available, because average overtime rates are significantly above
time and one-half. Inclusion of data for the group in the nondurable goods
total has little effect.

C.—EMPLOYMENT AND HOURS

1419

Table C 4. Average overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by industry 1
________________________________

R evised s e rie s ; see box, p. 1400.
1961

Manufacturing________________________
Durable goods..................................
Nondurable goods______ __________
Durable goods
Ordnance and accessories______________
Ammunition, except for small arms___
Sighting and fire control equipment___
Other ordnance and accessories_______
Lumber and wood products, except
furniture_________________________
Sawmills and planing mills_______
Millwork, plywood, and related prod­
ucts_______ _____ ____ _____ _______
Wooden containers____ ______
I
Miscellaneous wood products________
Furniture and fixtures_________________
Household furniture_______________ II
Office furniture____________ I.IIIIIIII
Partitions; office and store fixtures
Other furniture and fixtures............. .......
Stone, clay, and glass products...................
Flat glass____ _____ _________________
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown _
Cement, hydraulic............................. .......
Structural clay products____________
Pottery and related products____ ____
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products.
Other stone and mineral products..........
Primary metal industries______________
Blast furnace and basic steel products..
Iron and steel foundries____________
Nonferrous smelting and refining
Nonferrous rolling, drawing, and' ex­
truding............ ................
Nonferrous foundries____________ HH
Miscellaneous primary metal industries
Fabricated metal products..........................
Metal cans______ _______________ I
Cutlery, handtools, and general hard­
ware._______ _______________
Heating equipment and plumbing'fix"-"
tures_________ __________________
Fabricated structural metal products'll
Screw machine products, bolts, etc____
Metal stampings____________________
Coating, engraving, and allied"servicesi
Miscellaneous fabricated wire products.
Miscellaneous fabricated metal prod­
ucts.............................................
Machinery___________________________
Engines and turbines_______ I.IIIII”
Farm machinery and equipment__III.
Construction and related machinery
Metalworking machinery and equip­
m ent....... ................ .............. ...........
Special industry m achinery...IIIIIIIII
General industrial machinery____
Office, computing and accounting ma"-~
chines_________________________
Service industry machines___ IIIIIIIII
Miscellaneous machinery__________ II
Electrical equipment and supplies
Electric distribution equipment.
Electrical industrial apparatus_______
Household appliances________________
Electric lighting and wiring equipment.
Radio and TV receiving sets_________
Communication equipment_______ III
Electronic components and accessories.
Miscellaneous electrical equipment and
supplies..................................................
Transportation equipment_____________
Motor vehicles and equipment—
Aircraft and parts_______________ HI*
Ship and boat building and repairing """
Railroad equipment_________________
Other transportation equipment______
Instruments and related products______
Engineering and scientific instruments.
Mechanical measuring and control de­
vices......................................................
Optical and ophthalmic goods___IIIIII
Surgical, medical, and dental equip­
m ent______________________ ____
Photographic equipment and supplies"
Watches and clocks....................................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Annual
average

1960

Industry
Sept.

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov

Oct.

2.7

2 .6

2.4
2.3

2 .2
2 .1

2 .1

2 .0

1.9

1.9

2 .1

2 .6

2.3

2 .0
2 .2

1 .8
2 .2

1 .8
2 .1

1 .8
2 .1

2 .0
2 .2

2 .2
2 .1

2.3

2.5
2.5
2.5

2 .0
2 .1

2 .0
1 .8

2.4

2 .0

2 .6

3.5

2 .6

2.5

2.5
2.3

2 .8

2 .8

2 .6

1.4

1.5

Mar.

Sept.

I960

2.5
2.5

2.4
2.4
2.5

2.7
2.7
2.7

2 .0

2 .1

1.7
2.7

2 .0

2 .6

1959

2 .0

1 .8

1.3

1.3
2.4

2 .0

1 .8

2 .1

1 .8

2.4

2 .0

2 .0

2 .1

1.5

1.4

1.4

2.3
1.7

1 .8

1 .8

2.4
1.7

1.9

1 .2

1.5
1.3

2 .0

1 .2

2 .8

1.4

1 .8
2 .1

1 .6

2 .0

1.5
2.3

2 .0

2.4

2 .0

1.7

2 .2

1 .8

1 .8

3.3
3.3

3.2
3.3

3.2
3.3

2.9
3.0

2.7

2.4
2.4

2.5

2.3

2 .6

2 .6

2.4
2.4

2 .6

2 .2

2 .8

3.0
3.0

3.0
2.9

2.9
3.0

3.2
3.3

3.4
2.7

3.1
3.2
2.7

3.1

2 .8

2.7

2.9
2.4

2.3

2 .2

2 .1

1 .8
2 .2

1.9

2 .6

2 .6

2.4

2 .0
2 .2

2.7
2.5
2.9

2 .6
2 .6

2 .8

1.7
1.7
1.3
1.4

1.5
1.7

1.9
2.4
2.3
2.5
1.9
1.3

2 .2

2 .6

2 .0

2.7
3.1
2 .6

2.7

2 .6

2 .8

2 .8

2.9

2.7
2.3
3.1
3.7
3.6

2 .2

2.5
2 .8

3.6
2.7
3.5
1.9
2.9

2.7

2 .2
2 .1

2 .1

1 .6
1 .6

2 .0

1 .8

2.3

1.5

2 .0

1 .6

2 .8

2 .1

2.4
3.5

1.9
3.1

2 .2

2 .2

3.7
1.7
3.0

3.6
2.3
3.7
1.9
3.1

3.6
1 .8

1 .6

3.1

2.7

1 .6

1 .6

5.8
2.7
2.5

1 .6

1 .6

6 .0

2.7

5.9
2.5

2 .1

2 .2
2 .1

2.4
4.1
2.7
2.7
2.9
3.9
2 .2
1 .8
2 .8

2.9
3.1
3.7
3.0

2 .2

2 .2

2.3

2 .6

2 .0

1 .8

2 .0

1.9

1.7

1 .8

1 .8

2 .0
2 .2

2.5
2.3

1 .8

2 .0

1 .6

1.9

2 .8

1 .2

1 .6
2 .2

1 .0

1.3
.7
1.4

2 .6

2 .8

2 .6

2 .2

3.8

3.2

3.5

2 .8
2 .0
2 .1

2.3

2 .2

2 .1

2 .1

2 .2

2 .1

2 .0

3.0

2 .0
2 .8

1 .8
2 .1

2 .8

2 .6

4.4

4.2

2.3
2.5
3.6

2 .0

1 .6

1.7

1.9

1.7

1.7
2.5
2.5
3.3

1.5
2.5
2.5
2.9

1.3

1 .0

2 .1
2 .1

1.9

2.7

2 .6

2 .6

3.1

2 .8

2 .8
2 .6

3.4
2 .8
2 .2

1.9
1.7
3.5
2 .0
2 .0
2 .2
1 .8

1.7

2 .6

1 .8
2 .2

2. 5

1. 7

1 .8

2.4
2.3
2.5

2.5
2.5
2.4

2.9

2 .0

1.7
2.3

1.4
.9
1.7

2 .1

2 .0
2 .1

2.7

1.9

1.5
2.3

1 .6

1.3

3.7
2.3
1.9
2.3
3.0

2.9

2 .1

2 .1

2 .2

2 .2
2

.4

1 .0

1 .1

2.9
2.4

2.4
2.3
1. 9

3.5
2.7
1.9
2.4
1 .8

3.3
1.7
1.9
2 .0

1.7
1.5
1.7

3.5
2 .8
2 .1

2.3
1.7
3.4
1 .8
2 .0
2 .0
2 .0

1.5
1.4

1 .6
1 .0

1.3

1.9
3.1

1 .8

3.4
2.7
2 .8

3.4
2 .2

2.5

3.3

2 .1

2 .1

2 .2

2 .1

1 .2
1 .8
1 .8

1.4

1 .2

1 .6
2 .8
2 .2

2. 9

1.7

2.5
1.9

1 .8

2 .2
2 .0

2 .1

2.3

3.5

4.5

2 .8

2 .6

2.3

2.4

1.4
2.4
2.5
3.7
2.7

1.9
2.4
1.4
1.9

1.7
2.4

1 .8

2 .0

2 .2

1 .8

1 .6

1 .6

1.4

1 .8

2 .2
2 .1

2 .1

2 .0
1 .1

2 .2

2 .1

2 .2

1.5

2 .6
2 .2

2.4
2.3
2.3

1 .8

2 .6
2 .1

1 .8

3.0
1.7
5.5
3.0

3.0

1.3

1.7

2 .8

3.6
3.7
3.7

2.7
3.2

1.4
1.7

2 .8
2 .6

1 .8

1.5

2.3

2 .8

2.4

2 .1

2 .6
2 .8

2 .6

2 .1
2 .2

2 .6

3.6
3.8
3.1
3.2

1.9
2.7

2.5
2.9

1 .6
2 .2

1 .8

2 .6
2 .2

1 .8

1 .8

2.7

3.0
3.3

4.3
3.3

4.0
3.1

2 .0

2 .0

2 .0

1 .6

1 .8

1.7

1.4

1.4

1.3
1.3

1.7
1.3
1.5

1.3
1.5
1.4

3.3
2.5

3.2
2.4
1.4

3.1
2.3
1.4

3.0
2.4
1.4

3.0
2.5

2.9

2.7

2 .8

2 .8
1 .6

2 .8

3.2

1 .2

1.5

1 .8

1 .8

2 .1

2 .8

1 .8

1.7
1.5
3.2
1.5

1.9
1.4
3.1

2 .0

1.9

2 .2
1 .2

2.4
1.4
3.3

2.3
1.5
3.1

3.8

2 .1
2 .0

1 .8

1.9
1.4
3.2
1.5
1.5
1.5
1.7
1.3

1 .6
1 .6
1 .6
1 .2

1 .0

.8

1.5

1.5
3.4
1.5

2 .2

2.3

2 .0
2 .1

2 .1
2 .2

2 .0

1.9

2 .0
2 .2

2 .2
2 .6
.6

1.3
2.9

1 .6
1 .6

1 .6
1 .6

1.3

1.5
1.5

1.4
1.7

1 .2

1 .1

1 .0

1.3
1.9
1.7

1.3

1 .6

1.5
1 .6

1 .6
1 .2
1 .6
.8
2 .6

1 .8

1.4
1.7
.9

1 .6

1.9

2 .6

2 .6
2 .2

2 .2

.6
.8

2.3

1 .8
2 .1

1.7

1 .8

1 .8

1.9

2 .0

1 .6
2 .1

2 .0

1.4
1.5
1.3
1.7
2.9
1.5

1.9
.5
1.3

.9
1.9

1 .1

3.4
1.9

.6

.7

2 .1

3.1
1.7
1.7
1.4
1.5
1.4

2 .1
2 .2

1.5
1.7

1 .8
1 .8

1 .8
1 .6

2 .0

1 .2
2 .6

1.9
3.0

1.7
1.9
2. 9
1.7

1.7
1.4
2 5
1 .6

2 .0

2.3

1.9
2.7
3.2

2.5

2 .2
1 .8

2 .6

2.9
.8
1 .1

2.4
2.3
.9
1.3

2 .6
1 .2

1 .0
1 .8

1 .2

1 .8

1.7

2 .8

1 .8

2 .0

2 .0

2 .1

2.5

2 .2

3.4

2 .1

2

2.5

2 .6

2.7

2 .8

2 .8

1. 7
1.5

1 .8

1. 9

1.7

1 .8

1.7

.7
2.7
1.3

.
2. 5
1 .Ò

1-7

1 .6

.9

1.7

1.4

1 .6
2 .1

1.4

1 .6

1 .2

1.4

1.5
1.3

1.5
1.4

1.9

2 .0

2 .1

2 .1

2 .0

3.1

2 .0

1.9

1.7

1 .0

.8

2 .0
2 .0
1 .2

1 .8
2 .2
1 .0

1 .8

1 .6

3.2
1.4

2 .0
2 .8

2.3
2.3

2 .1

2.3
1.9

1 .6

2 .1

1 .0

2 .0

2.3
3.1
3.9
2.3

1.9

.7

2 .2
2 .2
2 .2

1.5

2 .2

2 .2

1.5
2 .2

1.9
2.4

2.3

2.4
1.5

1.9

1.9
1.9
3.4
1.9
1.9

2.3
2. 7

2 .2

2.7
1.5
4.8
2.4

2 .6

2 .2
2 .2

1.3
1.9
1.5

.5

5.5
2.4
1.4
.7

3.3
2.9

1 .6

1.3
5.4
2.7

2 .1
2 .1

2.3
2.4

1.7

1.9
1.9

1 .6

2 .2

2 .2

2 .1

2 .0
1

3.6
1 .8
2 .6

2 .6

1.7
2.4

2 .0

1.9
2.3

3.7
1.5

2.5

2.7
2.5
2.5
2.3
2.3
2.7
3.1
2.4
3.6

1.7
1.9
1.7
2.3

2.4
2.3

1.7

1.3

.6
1 .6

1 .6
1 .8

1.5
1.7

2 .2

1 .6

2 .0

1.3

1 .1

1.4
1.4

2 .0

1 .2

1 .0
1 .8

2 .0
1 .6

2 .0

2 .0

1.9
1.9

1 .6

1 .6
1 .6

2. 4
.5

2 .8

2 .1

2 .1

1 .2

2 .8

.7
1.4
2.3

1 .8

2 .2

3.1
3.4

3.1
1.9
1.3
.7

3.6

1 .8

2.3
1.7
1.4

2 .8

3.3
1.9
1.4
.9
1.4
2.5

3.9

1 .6

2.4
3.1
3.5
3.7
1.5
2.5
1.5
4.7

2 .8

2.4
2.4
3.5
3.4

1 .2

4.5

2 .2

2 .0

2 .6
2 .6
2 .1
2 .1

1 .0

2 .2

2.4
2.5
1.5
1.4
1.9

1.7

2.3

5.0
2.3

2 .6

2 .2
2 .2

2.7
2 .8

1 .1
2 .2

5.6
2.5

2.3

2.5

3.2

3.2
1.3

1.5
3.5
1 .2

1.9
3.0
2.7
3.2

2 .6

2.4
2 .2

2.5
2.5
3.2

1 .2

2.5

2.3

1 .8

2.5
1.9
3.4
1 .2

2 .6

2 .0

2.3
2 .6

2 .0
1 .0

2.4
2.4
1.4
1.3

2 .2

1.9
2.4

2 .1
2 .8
1 .8

1 .1

1.9
2.3

1.5
1 .8
1 .2

2.3

2 .6

3.0
3.1

1 .1

1 .6

1 .8
1 .2

2 .6
1 .2

2.7
2.3

3.3

1 .6

2.3
1.5
1.4

1 .8

2.4
.9

1 .8

.8

2.4
2 .8
1 .6

2 .8

3.5
2.]
2.4

2

2 .6

3.1

2 2

2.4

2.3
1 .6

3

2 2

M ONTHLY LABO R R E V IE W , D E C E M B E R 1961

1420

Table C-4 Average overtime hours of production workers in manufacturing, by industry

Continued

Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
Annual
average

1960

1961
Industry
Sept .2 Aug.
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries._
Jewelry, silverware, and plated w are...
Toys, amusement, and sporting goods Pens, pencils, office and art materials—
Costume jewelry, buttons, and notions.
Other manufacturing industries.............
Nondurable goods
Pood and kindred products.........................
Meat products.............................................
Dairy products......................................—
Canned and preserved food, exceptmeats
Grain mill products...................................
Bakery products....................................... Sugar______________________________
Confectionery and related products----B everages.......... - - - - - - - - - - - - ,- - -- -

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

1.9

1.9
1.9

1 .8
2 .2

1 .8
2 .2

2 .0

2 .1

1 .8

1.9
1.4
1.7
1.9

1.7

2 .1

1.7
2 .0

2 .0
2 .6

1.9
2.3

2 .1

1.5

1 .6

1 .6

1.7
1.9

1 .6

1.5

1.5

1.9

2 .2

2 .0

2 .6

2 .1

1 .8

2 .1

2 .0

2 .0

2 .1

3 8
4 0
4 0
3 3
7 5
30
4 0
3 2
3 5
3.6

3.6
3.5
3.7

3.7
3.9
3.3
2.4
7.4
3.3
4.3

3.6
4.0
3.7

3.2
3.6
3.1

2 .8

3.1

2.9
3.2
3.1

2 .1

2 .1

6.7
3.3
3.2
2.5
3.2
4.0

5.3
2.9
3.3
2.5
2.4
3.7

2 .8

7.6
3.1
3.8
2 .8

2 .1

3.1
3.8

3.9
4.1

1 .6

1.9

2.3
3.3
3.8
3.0

2 .8

3.0
3.2

2 .8
2 .2

2 .1
2 .1

5.9
2.3
6.7
2.5

2.9

4.9
2.5

5.0

5.4

2 .6

2 .6

2 .6

3.6

3.9

2 .0

2 .2

2 .2

2.5
3.5

2.3
3.6

2 .2

2 .2

4.1

3.9

1 .1

1 .0

.6

.6

1.7

1.4

.5

.8

1.4
.7

.5
.7

.6
.8

2 .8

2.5
2.4

2 .2
2 .2

3.8
3.6
2.9

3.3
4.0
2.7

2 .1
2 .0
2 .1

2 .0

2 .8

2 .6
2 .2

2.4
2.5

2 .6

2 .2

2.7
2.4
1.4
3.6

1 .1

2

.8

3 4
3 9
3 4
3.0

3.6
3.6
3.2
3.1

3.2
3.3

2.5
3.2
4.2
2.9
2.3
4.2
2.9
2.9
3.3

.9
4

1.1

1 .0

li

1.4
.9
1.4

.6

1.3

1 .2
1 .1
1 .2

1. 5
1 .1
1 .6

’4
13
li 6

1 .6

1 .2

3.0

ss

1 .8

1 .2

1.3
.7

1.3

14

2 .6
1 .8

1.3
1.5

2 .8
1 .8
1 .1

1 .1

1.3
1 .2

1

1.7
1.4
1.9

.7

3 0
3 1
3 7
3 7
3.2

Hats, caps, and millinery-------Girls’ and children’s outerwear.

Mar.

3.0

Textile mill products...................................
Cotton broad woven fabrics--------------Silk and synthetic broad woven fabrics.
Weaving and finishing broad woolens..
Narrow fabrics and smallwares..........—
K n ittin g -............................r
Finishing textiles, except wool and knit.
Floor covering........ ..................—
Yarn and thread---------------------Miscellaneous textile goods-------

M en’s and boys’ furnishings..................
Women’s, misses’, and juniors’ outer­
wear__________________________■-

Apr.

2 .8
2 0
2 0

1 6
8

a « H >VAX7C, s u i t s BTlfì P.l

M ay

3.1

Tobacco manufactures-................................
Cigarettes---------------- ------ ----------------

Apparel and related products.

June

2 6

.

M is c e l l a n e o u s f o o d a n d k i n d r e d p r o d u c t s

July

1 .6
1 6
1 8

.
.
1. 5
1.9

2 .0
2 .8

.5
.9

2 .8

3.6
2.7
1.9
3.8
2 .2

2.5
2.5

2.3
2.9
2.5

.6

1 .6

1 .6

3.5

3.4
2.7

1.9
2 .1

1 .0

1.5

2.3

2.3

2 .1

2 .1

2.9
1.7

3.0
2.3

2 .2

2 .2

1 .2

1.4
3.1
3.1
1.7
2.3

2 .0

2 .1

3.2
2.9

2.9
2.9

2 .1

1 .8

2.3

2.7

1 .1

1 .2

2 .6

2.4

2 .6
2 .0
2 .1

1 .0

0 .8

0 .8

.7
.7

.9

.7
.5

.7

1.3
1.3

1.5
1. 2
2.3
1.4

1 .1
1 1

.8

1.4
.8
1 .6

.9
1.4

1 .0

.8

1.4

1.4

3.9
5.0
5.2

1 .0
1 .0

1.3

.6

.9
.7

1 .1

.6

1 .1

.8

Sept.

1960

2.3

2.1
2.8

2 .1

2.1

3.5
4.2
2.9
3.2
7.2
3.1
3.7
3.2
3.1
4.4

3.3
3.7
2.9
2.3

3.3
3.9
2.9
2.4
5.9
2.9
4.2
2.3
2.8
3.9

1.4
1. 1
1.3

1 .0
1 .1

2 .2

2.6
2.8

1 .6

1. 5
2.7

2.2
3.0
2. 5
2.3
1.9
2.4

6 .0

2.9
4.2
2.4
2.8

3.9

1 .0

3.3
3.1
2.4
1.9
3.2

2 .8

2.8

1.9
2. 5

2.4

1 .2
1 1
1 1

.
.

1.7

4.1
4. 9
5.2

4.3
5.2
5.1

4.1
5.1
5.1

4.5
5. 5
5.6

2 .6

2.5
3.0

2.7
3.6

3.1
3.7

2.8

3.1
4.0

3.6
4.6
5.3
2.3
2.4

2 .6

2.7

3.0

2 .6

2 .6
2 .6

Printing, publishing and allied industrie!
Newspaper publishing and printing...
Periodical publishing and printing—
Books.— .................................. .................
Commercial p rinting.............................
Bookbinding and related in d u str ies....

3 1

2 .6
2 .2

2.5
2.3
2.5
3.8

2.5
2.5

2.5

2.4

2 .8

2 .0

2 .0

3.2
3.5
2.7

3.2
3.4
2.7

2.9
3.2
2.9
3.0

3.0
3.0
3.6
3.6
3.1

3.2
3. 1
3. 9
3. 5
3.4

3.2
.
4. /
3.9
3. ó

2.9
2.7
3.6
3.7
3.1

2

2.5
2.4
2.5
3.4
2.7

2 .6
2 .1

4 7
4 4
3 SS
.9

3.0
2.3
3.0
4.4
3 3
2.4

.

2.4
2 SS
2. 5
2 3

2 .2

2 .6
2 .0

1 .8

1 .8

2 .2

2 .0

2 .0

2 .2

2 .2

2.1

2.7

2 .6

2.3

2 .2

2.3

2.3

2.3

2 .1

2.4

2.5

2 .6

2.7

2 .6

2.5

2.4
2. 5

2.4

2.4
2.3
2.3

2 .2

2 .2

1.9
1.7
1.7

2 .0
2 .0

2 .0
2 .1

2.3

2.3
2.5

1.5

1.4

2 .1
2 .2
1 .6

2.3
2.3

1.5
1.9

1 .8
2 .0
1 .2

2 .6

1.4
3.2
2.3

1
2
2
2

3.6
2.4

2.3
1.3
3.2
2.3

1 .6
1 .8
2 .8
1 .8

2 .0

2 .0
2 .1
1 .2

2 .0
2 .0
1 .6
1 .6

2 .2

2 .1

2 .2
2 .0

3.6
2. 5

3.
2.7

1.9
2.3
1.9
4.3
2.5

1.7
1.5

1 .6

2 .1

2 .2

2 .6

2.0

1.7
3.6

1.3
5. 9

6

1. 7
.4

1.4
4.5

1.4
4.8

1 .8

2 .2

2.4

1 .1
2 .0

.7
2.3
2.4

2 .1

2.4
2.3

3.5
4.5
3.3
3.0

Soap, cleaners and toilet goods..

3 0

2.9

2

2 .2

3 1

..

Leather tanning and finishing—
Footwear, except rubber.............
Other leather products..............................

2. 7
2.7

2 .8

3.9
2.7

2 .6
2 .2

1.7
2. 5
2.5

2 .0

2.9

2 .2

2.7

2 .6
2 .8
2 .6
2 .6

2 .8

2 .2

1.9
1.7
2.3
4.6
2.3

2 .1
1 .8

2 .0

5.2
2.3

6 .0

2.3

3.8
2.3

1.5

1.9
1.4
4.2

1 .8

1.5

1.3

1.3
4.2

1 .2

1 .1

2.9

2.5

2 .6
2 .2

2.4

2 .1

1 .8

1 .8

1 .8

1.4

1.7

2 .6

2 .6

2.9

3.1

2.5
2.9

1 .6
2 .1

1.7
1.3

1.4

1.4
2.4

19
.
4.9

2.5

1 2

1 .8

5.4

1.7
6.5

3.1
3. 5

3.0
3.6

2 .6

3.3

14
2 SS

14
2. 5

1 0

1 .1

2 .1

1 .8

2 .2
1 .2
1 .6

1 .2

1.5

i For comparability of data witn tnose puoiisneu in issues
ber 1961, see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1,
^ T h ese 'series cover premium overtime hours of production and related
workers during the pay period ending nearest the 15th of the month. Over­
time hours are those paid for at premium rates because (1 ) they exceeded


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.8
2.6
3.4
3.4
3.2
2.0

Agricultural chemicals.. .
Other chemical products.

Other rubber products............—
Miscellaneous plastic products.

3.3

1.6

2.9
3.4
3.0
1.9

2 0

5.7

2.7

1.3

4.2
2.5
1.9

2 .0
2 .0

3 1
3 0
2 9
3.5

1.2

3.8
4. 6
5.0

3.7
4.7
4.8

2.4
3.1

s

1.3
1.3
1.2

3.6
4.5
4.7

3.7
4.6
4.9

6 .0

2 2

3.5
2.9
3.3

1 .6
2 .2

1 .6

2.7
3.7

2 9

3.9

1 .8

.6
1 .2

.9

1.4

3.1
4.0

Petroleum refining—............... - ..........
Other petroleum and coal products.

2.2

1.3
1.3
1.9

3 2
4.2

2 .6

2.9

1 .1

3 3
4.8

1

3.1
3.1
3.7
4.2

1. 3
1. 8

4.3
5.1

Industrial chemicals .

1.2
1.5
.9

.

.4

4.6
5.3
6.4

tries.

2.5

1
1 .2

.8
1.3
1.3

1 .1

4. 5
5.2
5.6

2 2

1.9

2.2

1.3
1.3

.6
.8

.0
.2
6
.2

2.8
1.2
1.4
1.0
1.1

4 9
SS 4
6.3

Paperboard containers and boxes-------

2.4
3.1

1.9
1.5
1.7
2.3

2.3

3.9
4.9
5.2

Paper and allied products..........................
Paper and p u lp .................- ......................
Paperboard--------------------------------- -Converted paper and paperboard prod-

1969

1
1
1
1

.7
1 .6
1 .2

1 .6

4.3

2 .1
2 .1

1 .2

.
2.4

2 .8

1.9
1.9
2.3
2.3
2.3

.6
.6

1 .1
.8
1 .2
.8

1 .2

1 .8

1 .0

1 .1
1 .1

2 .6

1 .1
1 .2

1.9

.6

1.9
2.4

1.4

2.3

.9

1 .6

1 .1
1 .1

5.9

2.4

.9

2.5
3.5
2. 5
1.9
1.9

5.7
2.3
2.3
3.9

1 .8
2 .8

1 .8
2 .0

1 .0

2.3
3.6
1.9

3.5
3.9
3.0
2.5
7.4
3.0
4.8
2.9

1 .8

0.9
.7
.7

.7

Oct.

3.3
4.0
2.9
1.7
5.7
2.9
5.8
2.5
2.5
4.0

2 .6
1 .8

2 .8
2 .1

Nov.

1 .1
2 .1
1 .0
1 .1

2 .8

1.3
3.1
1 .8
1 .6

1.7

1.7

2 .2

1 .8
2 .2

1 .6

2.5

2 .0

2 .1

2.3

1 .1
2 .2

1.3

1.4

1.4

1 .2

1 .2

2 .0
1 .1

1 .8

1 .8

1.3
1.7

1.3
1.7

2 .1
1 .0

.9
1 .2

1 .6

1.5

1.4

2.3
.8

1.9

1

1.3
2. 4
.9
1.9

2 8

.8
.1
8
.1
8

.

2. 5
2. 5

2.2

1 .2

1 .2

2.3

2.1

1 .0

1.1
1.4

1. 5

2.5

2.5
2.5

2.2
2.0
2.2
2.3
4.5
2.6
1.9

1.4
2.1
1.3
1.6

either tne straignc-nme woncuay or w im w ran ui w
ends or holidays or outside regularly scheduled hours. Hours for which
only shift differential, hazard, incentive, or other similar types of premiums
were paid are excluded.
2 Prelimary.

C.—EMPLOYMENT AND HOURS

1421

Table C-5. Indexes of aggregate weekly man-honrs and payrolls in industrial and construction activities1
[1957—59=100]

Revised series; see box, p. 1400.
1961

1960

Annual
average

A ctivity
Oct. 2 Sept . 2

Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960

1959

8 8 .0

89.4
83.8
81.0
91.2

90.8
84.9
82.5
92.7

96.5
87.2
98.1
96.7

1 0 0.8

99.0
91.1
98.3
99.6

94.7
102.3
1 0 1 .3

89.4
114.6

91.2
1 1 2.8

95.1
114.4

110.6

99.4
111.7

92.9

100.1

99.2

Man-hours
T otal...................................................................
M ining........ ............ .............................. .........'
Contract construction__________________
M anufacturing________________________
Durable goods............................................
Ordnance and accessories________
Lumber and wood products, ex­
cept furniture__________ _____
Furniture and fixtures__________ _
Stone, clay, and glass products___
Primary metal industries................ .
Fabricated metal products..............
Machinery_____________________
Electrical equipment and supplies.
Transportation equipment...........
Instruments and related products..
M iscellaneous m a n u f a c t u r in g
industries_______________
Nondurable goods__________________
Food and kindred products______
Tobacco manufactures.......... ...........
Textile mill products_____ ______
Apparel and related products____
Paper and allied products_______
Printing, publishing, and allied
industries........................... ........
Petroleum refining and related
industries_____________________
Rubber and miscellaneous plastic
products______________________
Leather and leather products_____

87.1
107.9
99.3

99.3
87.1
107.2
98.5

97.4
124.0

1 21.0

100.1

99.4
104.3
100.3
98.0
97.7
93.7
109.2
82.3

87.5
111.4
98.5

97.4
87.6
107.4
96.1

97.7
87.8
104.7
96.9

93.7
84.4
94.4
94.1

90.6
81.4
85.8
92.0

89.0
79.5
79.6
91.2

95.0
117.0

94.1
115.7

95.7
115.8

93.3
115.3

90.3
113.2

8 8.6

8 8 .2

115.3

113.2

1 0 0.2

101.8

104.3
100.9
98.0
94.6
92.8
105.4
75.5

102.3

99.0
96.0
99.5
94.6
93.9
92.3
100.7
83.7
96.6

101.8

94.9
92.2
95.6
90.6
93.8
93.7

8 8.8

96.5
99.6
94.4
96.0
93.9
103.0
85.2
98.6

84.4
91.6

8 6.1

8 6 .8

90.3
87.0
82.8
90.0
92.2
101.4
82.1
97.6

96.5
90.3
82.9
92.0
92.0

96.1
98.6

95.2

100.0

101.8

102.0

101.6

95.0
96.7
91.6
105.2
77.3
99.7

108.4

105.9

102.2

101.7
102.9

1 0 2.8

104.2

109.2
136.5
96.0
98.1
104.5

103.2
107.9
108.4
96.0
105.3
104.3

106.3
101.7

106.6
101.5

104.6
101.7

1 1 0.8

98.0
1 01.6

91.0

91.7

106.1
94.4

106.4
95.5

81.4
75.9
90.6

90.4
111.7
99.4
97.6

1 01.2

1 0 1 .0

106.6.

84.8
97.0

89.7
93.6
99.7
80.9
95.7

83.2
87.7
92.4
99.6
79.4
95.9

83.9
91.2
85.1
82.5
87.5
92.8
100.4
78.7
95.7

96.3

97.8
85.3
96.4
93.1
104.9
90.5
101.3

100.5

96.3

93.5

92.1

91.6

88.9

92.1

103.5

109.2

101.4

102.1

95.0
90.9
77.1
92.5
94.5

93.8
87.6
87.3

94.6
94.2
101.5
89.2
91.9
97.8

98.9
99.2
101.3
92.6

1 0 1.6

1 0 1.2

101.7
106.8
128.2
93.4
101.3
103.2

99.8
98.0
97.1
96.5

100.0

94.2
88.3
79.2
90.5
96.3
99.6

94.6

75.6
92.9
97.5
102.3

98.5
97.0
80.7
95.2
97.4
103.7

101.8
102.1

104.0

104.2

103.2

103.6

101.0

101.8

101.1

1 0 1.0

104.4
97.8

106.7
99.5

106.9
99.7

1 01.6

100.6

101.2

92.4
91.3
8 6 .0

8 8 .0

98.4

98.2
97.6

93.6
89.7
93.5
87.3
93.3
98.0

104.2
99.6

103.3
97.4

103.2
98.0

8 8 .0

80.7
89.4
100.6

8 8.6

1 0 0.0

1 00.2
8 8 .1

1 0 0.2

104.3

1 02.6

102.1

100.4
98.0
99.9
99.7
105.8
92.1

88.4
99.9
94.0
103.6
92.7
101.7

1 0 2.8

104.4

105.1
105.0
104.3
97.7
1 0 0.6
1 0 0 .4
105.3
96.0
103.0

99.2
99.9.
1 02.2

103. &
. .

102 8

101.7
.a

101

91.2

91.4

92.8

89.7

89.2

87.0

8 6 .0

89.4

89.3

91.4

93.5

93.5

95.0

1 01.6

99.4
99.6

99.6
99.8

96.6
93.7

93.7
91.4

91.4
96.1

91.5
98.2

93.5
98.3

94.6
92.9

98.2
95.5

101.3
93.7

101.5
97.5

104. 9
103.2

85.8
85.0
98.0

89.0
91.0
98.9

89.3
92.4
100.5

90.7
107.9
103.9

94.7
123.3
106.7

95.2
106.9
106.6

97.1
106.1
105.1

100.5

Payrolls
M ining_____________
Contract construction.
Manufacturing_______

93.1
122.1
110.2

108.4

92.2
125.0
107.6

0" C 8 8 .3
117.1 1 UO. 0
106.4 103.0

120.3
105.7

,
uiusc imuuauuu m issues prior to Decem­
ber 1961, see footnote 1 , table A-2.
For mining and manufacturing, data refer to production and related workers

85.6

82.9
8 8.6

100.3

98.9

and for contract construction, to construction workers, as defined in footnote
1) table A~3.
2 Preliminary.

Table C 6. Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in manufacturing1
[In current and 1957-59 dollars]
1961

1960

Annual
average

Item
Sept . 2 Aug.

July

June

M ay

Apr.

$92.50 $92. 8 6 $93.20 $93.03 $92.10
8 8 .43
89.03 89.27 89.45 88.73

87.37

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

N ov.

Oct.

Sept.

I960

1959

M anufacturing
Gross average weekly earnings:
Current dollars.........................
1957-59 dollars...........................
Spendable averag weeekly earnings:
Worker with no dependents:
Current dollars.......... ............
1957-59 dollars....................
Worker w ith 3 dependents:
Current dollars_________
1957-59 dollars______ ____ _

$88.26
86.96

74.73
71.44

75.01
71.92

75.29
72.12

75.15
72.26

74.41
71.69

73.39
70.64

72.43
69. 71

72.26
69. 55

72.08
69.44

71.72
69.03

72.18
69.54

72. 8 8
70.28

72. 71
70.39

72.57
70.39

71.89
70.83

82.31
78. 69

82. 61
79.20

82. 8 8
79.39

82.74
79. 56

81.99
78.99

80.95
77.91

79.97
76. 97

79. 78
76. 79

79. 60
76. 69

79.24
76.27

79. 71
76. 79

80.42
77. 55

80.24
77. 6 8

80.11
77.70

79.40
78.23

her 1961 see footnote 1, table A-2. For employees covered, see footnote 1.
Table A-3.
Spendable average weekly earnings are based on gross average weekly
earnings as published in table C -l, less the estimated amount of the workers’
kedera 1 social security and income tax liability. Since the amount of tax
liability depends on the number of dependents supported by the worker as
well as on the level of his gross income, spendable earnings have been com-


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$89.54 $89.31 $89.08 $88.62 $89.21 $90.12 $89.89 $89. 72
86.18 85.96 85.82 85.29 85.94 86.90 87.02 87.02

^ ^Pes
income receivers: (1 ) a worker with no dependents,
and (2) a worker with 3 dependents.
The earnings expressed in 1957-59 dollars have been adjusted for changes
in purchasing power as measured by the Bureau’s Consumer Price Index
2 Preliminary.
N ote: These series are described in "The Calculation and Uses of the
spendable Earnings Series,” M onthly Labor Review, January 1959, pp. 50-54.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1422

D.—Consumer and W holesale Prices
T a ble

D -l. Consumer Price Index »--All-city average: All items, groups, subgroups, and special
groups of items
[1947-49=100]
Annual
average

1960

1961

1
Group

1

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1960

1959

All Items_______________________________ 128.4

128.3

128.0

128.1

127.6

127.4

127. 5

127.5

127.5

127.4

127.5

127.4

127.3

126. 6

124.6

122.0

120 9
117.8
139 7
107 4
117.3
135. 4
106.0

120. 7
117 7
139. 7
108 7
117 5
132.2
105.8

1 21 2

121

118 3
139. 7

118.3
139 6
111.4
118.5
127.8
107.6

121.4
118.6
139.4

121.3
118.6
139.1

121. 4
118. 7
139.0
110. 5
119.3
126 3

121.1

120. 9
118 2
138. 6
no o
118 4
124. 8

118.3
115.9
134.2
110. 7
114.3
125.1
106.1

Food > ... ---------------------------- ----------------Food at home-.............................................
Cereals and bakery products_____
Meats, poultry, and fish.................
Dairy products.............. —..................
Fruits and vegetables____________
Other foods at home 1------------------

120.9
117. 6
140.2
109.7
119.0
122.9
109.8

121.1

121

117.8
139. 7
109.4
119.0
126. 5
108.9

118.2
139.6
108.4
118.5
132. 4
107.6

2

131. 5
141 8
124. 8
135. 6
104.2
137. 4

129.2
139.7
119.9
136. 0
103.9
134.3

110.7

111.0

112.0

112.2

109 4
no. 4

101 4
140 3
94.1

101

100.0

107.9
108.4
99. 6
135.2
92.3

100. 0

109.9
111. 5

109.6
111.7
99.3
140.8
92.8

109. 5
111 7
99. 1
140.8
92.8

109.8
111.4
99.9
140 9
92.6

109.6
111.3
99.5
140.9
92.9

109.4
111.4
99.1
140.3
93.0

110.6
112 0

141.0
92.9

109.6
111. 4
99. 4
140.8
92.6

149.3
136.8
209.1

148.3
135. 9
208.5

147.7
135 3
207.3

146.6
134.2
206.5

145.8
133 4
206.5

145.7
133.4
205.7

146.2
133.9
205.7

146.2
134.0
205.5

146.5 146.5 146.1 146 2 146.3
134. 5 134.4 134 1 134. 5 135.2
202.9 «202.9 «2 0 1 . 2 • 199.3 «192. 7

161.4

161.2

160.9

160.4

159.9

159.6

159.4

158.5

158.0

162.3

161.7

125.0

132.2
142 6
126. 7
136.1
104.0
138.1

132. 4
143.1
125 9
141 3
103 7
138.3

149.4
136.9
209.4

Reading and recreation__________________ 125.4

132.3
142 8
125.6
137.0
103.9
138. 3

132.5
143. 1
125.9
141.3
103.9
138.6

Transportation__________________________ 150.3
Private________________ ____ ________ 137.9
Public.........................................................- 209.4

134.3

112.0

132.1
142.7
125.7
136.3
104.0
138.3

132 3
143 3
125 8
139 9
103.8
138.7

109.9
111. 1

134.0

111.6

6

132.2
143. 4
126.2
136. 5
103.5
138.7

111.1

Medical care,.....................................................

111

119.1
126.1
109.5

132.4
143. 5
126 3
135. 6
103.9
138.9

Apparel.................................................... —........ 111.4
M en’s and boys'____________________ 1 1 2 . 2
Women’s and girls’__________________ 102.4
Footwear___________________________ 141.7
.........................—........... 93.1
Other apparel

111.9
102. 1
141.5
93.4

1 1 1.8

119.0
127.2
108.5

118.4
138 6
109. 9
118.9
126.2
111. 6

132. 4
143.6
125 6
135.9
103.6
139.1

132.3
143 6
125. 6
136.9
103.2
138.8

132.7
144.1
125. 7
138.4
103. 6
139.2

¡10 6

117.9
131.4
106. 4

2

132.3
142 9
125.9
139 6
103.6
138.3

132.6
143. 9
125. 7
137. 2
103.8
138.9

Housing
.................................... - ....................
Rent_______________________________
Gas and electricity-------- —---------------Solid and petroleum fuels—-------- -----HousefurnJshtngs.......... ...........................
Household operation................................

119.0
139.4
107. 8
118.0
138.2
107.9

119. 7
116 9
136 8
109 3
116 8
128. 3
106 8

100.2

141.2
92.9

134.2
124.4

134.3
124.1

133.9
123.5

133.8
123.9

133.8
124.1

133.6
123.4

133.8
122.7

133.7
1 2 2.2

101. 1
140.7
94.0

133.7

157.9
133.9

8

140. 5
93.9

139 9
93 3

157.3

156.2

150.8

134.0

133.3

131.2
118.8

122.3

122.5

121.9

121.5

132.7

132. 2

129.7

133.8

133.8

133.6

133.6

133.1

133.1

132.6

132.6

132.6

132.6

132.7

132.7

132.3
All items less shelter_________________ 126.0
All commodities less food____________ 117.0

132.0
125.8
116.6

131.6
125.6
116.1

131.4
125.7
116.0

131.2
125.2
115.6

131.0
124.9
115.3

130.8
125.0
115.2

130 9
125.0
115.4

130.8
125.0
115.5

130.6
124.8
115.4

130.8
125.0
115.9

130.8
125. 0
115.9

130.7
124. 8
115.9

130 0
124.0
115.7

127.9

118.8
120.9
121.5

118.7

118.4

118.7

117.7

1 2 0 .6

121.1

118.2
120. 7
120.9

117.5
119. 6

120.7

121.1
1 2 0 .6

118.3
120.9

110.6

120.8

118.0
120.7
120.5

118.4

121.5

118.0
120.7
120.7

118.1

121.0

118.0
120. 4
120.3

130.0

130.0

Other goods and services________________
Special groups:

All commodities

__________ - _______

Nondurables less food-----------Nondurables less food and
apparel__ _________________
Durables less ears____________
All services less rent - ___________
Household operation services,
gas, and electricity_________
Transportation services.,_____Medical care services_________
Other services_______________

120.0

120.0

1 20.8

121.0
121.0

120.1

115.1
418.1
118.3

129.9
111. 5

129.5

129.0

111
102.1

130.0
111.9

129.0
no 7
101.9

110.2

110.8

130.0
110. 7

129.5
110.9

1 02.1

110.8
101.8

130.1
110.3

102.1

1 11.2
101.8

130.0
109.9

102.1

102.0

102.1

102.4

102 8

102.8

102.8

103.2

127.3
113.0
103.3

153.4
155.8

153.2
155.6

153.0
155.4

152.8
155.2

152.7
155.0

152.5
154.9

152.3
154.7

152.2
154.6

151.9
154.2

151.7
154.0

161.4
153.6

151.3
153.6

151.2
153.4

150.0
152.1

145.8
147.5

141.0
190.0
170.5
138.3

140.8
189.9
169.8
138.2

140.6
189.8
169.5
137.9

140.7
189.4
169.3
137.7

140.8
189.3
168.8
137.6

140.7
188.8
168.2
137.6

140. 5
188.5
167.7
137.5

140.4
188.2
167.3
137.6

140.2
187.7
167.1
137.1

140.1
187.6
165.9
137.2

140.0
186.8
165. 3
136.8

140.1
187.0
165.1
136.7

140.1
186.3
164 3
136.8

139.0
184. 9
162. 8
135. 6

134.8
180.3
156.3
131.7

130.3
112.7

130.4
.9

i The Consumer Price Index measures the average change In prices of
goods and services purchased by urban wage-earner and clerical-worker
families. Data for 46 large, medium-size, and small cities are combined for
She all-city average,
s In addition to subgroups shown here, total food Includes restaurant meals
and other food bought and eaten away from home.
* Includes eggs, fats and oils, sugar and sweets, beverages (nonalcoholic),
and other miscellaneous foods.
t In addition to subgroups shown here, total housing Includes the purchase
price of homes and other homeowner costs.
i Includes yard goods, diapers, and miscellaneous items.
• Revised.
.
, ,.
r includes food, house paint, solid fuels, fuel oil, textile housefumishlngs,
household paper, electric light bulbs, laundry soap and detergents, apparel


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

120.2

117. 9
120.4

122.2

.

129 2
11 1

6

(except shoe repairs), gasoline, motor oil, prescriptions and drugs, toilet
goods, nondurable toys, newspapers, cigarettes, cigars, beer, and whiskey.
• includes water heaters, central heating furnaces, kitchen sinks, sink
faucets, porch flooring, household appliances, furniture and bedding, floor
coverings, dlnnerware, automobiles, tires, radio and television sets, durable
toys, and sporting goods.
» Includes rent, home purchase, real estate taxes, mortgage Interest, prop­
erty Insurance, repainting garage, repainting rooms, reshingling roof, refinlshlng floors, gas, electricity, dry cleaning, laundry service, domestic
service, telephone, water, postage, shoe repairs, auto repairs, auto Insurance,
auto registration, transit fares, railroad fares, professional medical services,
hospital services, hospitalization and surgical insurance, barber and beauty
shop services, television repairs, and motion picture admissions.

D —CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

1423

Table D-2. Consumer Price Index 1—All items and food indexes, by city
[1947-49=100]
1961
Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1960
May

Apr.

Mar.

Annual average

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1960

1969

All Items
AU-dty average1..................

128.4

128.3

128.0

128.1

127.6

127.4

127.5

127.5

127.5

127.4

127.5

127.4

127.3

126.5

124.6

Atlanta, Oa...........................
Baltimore, Md......................
Boston, Mass.......................
Chicago, 111.......................... .
Cincinnati, Ohio...................

0
0
130.6
131.3
(3)

128.3
129.6
(3)
131.1
125.4

0
0
0
130.8
0

0
0
130.4
130.9
0

127.4
129.8
0
129.7
124.6

0
0
0
129.9
0

0
0
130.0
130.1
0

127.7
129.5
0
130.2
124.8

0
0
0
130.5
(*)

(*)
0
129.3
130.4
0

127.7
129.3
0
130.6
125.0

0
0
0
130.5
0

8
129.1
130.7
0

127.2
128.3
128.4
129.9
124.4

125.4
126.8
125.8
128.1
123.1

Cleveland, Ohio...... .............
Detroit, Mich.......................
Houston, Tex____________
Kansas City, Mo.................
Los Angeles, Calif________

(3)
125.4
(3)
129.4
131.6

(3)
124.9
(3)
(3)
131.3

128.7
125.8
126.3
1«)
131.1

0
125.5
0
129.8
131.4

0
125.8
0
0
131.4

127.9
125.6
126.1
0
131.0

0
125.6
0
129.5
131.1

0
125.8
0
0
130.9

128.3
126.4
125.1
0
131.4

0
126,3
0
127.6
131.2

0
125.8
0
0
131.0

127.9
125.7
126.4
0
130.6

0
125.7
(*)
128.2
130.3

127.1
124.9
125.8
127.5
129.8

125.6
123.8
124.6
125.9
127.4

Minneapolis, Minn_______
New York, N .Y .................. _
Philadelphia, Pa...................
Pittsburgh, Pa......................
Portland. Oreg__ __

129.2
126.9
128.7
129.4
129.6

(3)
126.8
128.4
(3)
(3)

0
126.4
128.0
0
0

129.2
126.4
128.3
129.6
129.3

0
125.8
127.8
0
0

(«)
125.6
127.9
0
0

129.0
125.8
128.0
129.2
128.3

0
126.1
127.7
0
0

(»)
126.2
127.9
0
0

127.8
126.1
127.8
129.2
128.8

0
126.3
128.0
0
0

0
126.5
127.9
0
0

128.5
128.1
127.7
129.0
127.2

127.6
125.2
126.7
128.3
127.5

126.6
122.8
124.6
126.8
125.7

St. Louis, Mo____________
San Francisco, Calif.............
Scranton, Pa.........................
Seattle, Wash........................
Washington, D.C.................

(3)
(3>
(3)
(3)
(3)

129.2
134.9
(3)
(3)
(3)

0
0
124.3
131.8
125.2

0
0
(')
0
0

129.0
133.8
(*)
0
0

0
0
124.1
131.7
124.3

0
0
0
0
(*)

128.9
133.8
0
0
0

(«)
(*)
123.5
130.8
124.5

(')
0
0
0
(«)

133.9
0
0
0

0
0
123.9
130.5
123.8

<*)
(*)
(«)
(«)
(•)

127.1
132.6
122.3
129.8
123.0

126.3
130.0
120.8
128.2
121.7

Food
All-city average *..................

120.9

121.1

121.2

122.0

120.9

120.7

121.2

121.2

121.4

121.3

121.4

121.1

120.9

119.7

118.3

Atlanta, Ga_.........................
Baltimore, Md......................
Boston, Mass......... ...............
Chicago, 111............................
Cincinnati, Ohio...................

119.2
122.2
120.5
118.8
121.2

119.1
121.6
120.6
119.3
120.8

118.5
122.3
121.4
119.5
122.0

118.9
122.9
122.0
120.1
123.2

116.6
121.7
119.6
118.4
121.1

116.2
120.8
119.8
118.6
121.5

117.0
121.2
120.5
118.8
121.7

117.4
121.0
120.3
118.7
121.5

117.9
120.9
121.0
119.3
122.1

118.1
121.0
120.5
119.2
122.4

118.2
121.2
121.0
119.1
122.2

118.7
120.7
120.5
118.7
121.9

118.7
121.0
120.3
na 8
122.6

117.0
119.8
119.4
117 5
120.5

Ufi 7
118Ì0
118. 7
iifi 8
118.8

Cleveland, Ohio........... ......
Detroit, Mich__ ________
Houston, Tex................... .
Kansas City, Mo...............__
Los Angeles, Calif................

115.6
119.2
116.8
114.3
126.8

116.5
118.7
117.0
114.6
125.8

116.6
120.7
117.0
115.0
125.3

116.9
121.8
116.3
116.2
126.0

116.0
121.0
115.8
115.5
126.6

115.7
121.1
116.1
114.7
127.5

116.3
121.3
116.7
115.3
128.3

115.9
121.1
116.0
115.5
128.1

116.9
121.3
116.3
113.9
128.2

116.8
120.9
116.2
114.6
128.4

116.8
120.1
116.2
114.8
128.1

117.1
119. 4
116.5
114.5
127.3

117.0
119. 6
116. 2
na 9
127.0

115. 8
118.7
115 0
112 9
126.1

114 1
112 2
123.8

Minneapolis, Minn_______
New York, N .Y ....................
Philadelphia. P a..................
Pittsburgh, Pa___________
Portland, Oreg......................

117.9
122.3
123.1
121.8
123.8

117.5
122.7
122.8
122.1
124.2

117.5
122.2
123.4
122.9
123.7

119.2
122.6
124.3
123.6
123.5

118.7
121.2
122.4
122.6
122.9

118.6
121.0
122.6
121.8
122.5

118.6
121.6
123.0
122.4
123.7

119.0
122.5
123.3
122.6
122.7

119.2
122.8
123.8
123.2
122.0

119.4
122.7
123.5
123.0
122.4

119.7
122.8
123.9
122.2
122.2

119.2
123.6
123.9
122.4
121.4

119.7
123.2
124.0
122.6
121.3

118.4
122.0
122.1
121.2
121.0

iifi n
120 a
120 9
119 fi
120.7

120.8
126.3
116.3
125.2
120.3

121.0
126.2
116. 5
125.1
121.5

121.0
125. 0
116.7
124.9
121.9

121.3
126.1
118.5
125.6
122.2

121.7
126.2
116.9
125.6
121.2

121.5
126.2
116.7
125.4
120.7

121.7
126.2
116.9
125.4
121.4

121.4
128.6
117.7
124.7
121.3

121.3
126.5
117.7
124.7
121.1

121.3
126.1
117.1
124.4
121.4

121.8
126.2
117.4
124.6
121.7

120 7
125.5
117.0
123.4
121.2

120 2
125.0
117.0
123.3
121.6

no n
124.4
115.5
122 7
120.0

118.7
122 fi
Ufi 4
120 fi
HO. 0

U

St. Louis, Mo____________
San Francisco, Calif______
Scranton, Pa............ .............
Seattle, Wash........................
Washington, D.C________

! See footnote 1, table D -l. Indexes measure tlme-to-time changes In
prices of goods and services purchased by urban wage-earner and clericalworker families. They do not indicate whether It costs more to llv8 in one
eBy than In another.

619 4 8 4 — 61------- 9


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1 1 7 fi
114 7

* Average of 46 c itie s .

3 All Items Indexes are oompated monthly for 8 cities and once every 3
months on a rotating cycle for 15 other cities

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1424
T able

D-3, Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by group and subgroup of commodities
[1347-49= 100, unless otherwise specified]

Oct.*
All commodities______________________
Farm products and processed foods--------Farm products--..................... ...... .......
Fresh and dried fruits and vege­
tables...................... ..................—
Grains_______________________
Livestock and live poultry---------Plant and animal fibers-------------Fluid milk-----------------------------Eggs...................................................
Hay, hayseeds, and oilseeds-------Other farm products...........—.........
Processed foods-----------------------------Cereal and bakery products.......... .
Meats, poultry, and fish------------Dairy products and ice cream-----Canned and frozen fruits and vege­
tables............................................ .
Sugar and confectionery.................
Packaged beverage materials.........
Animal fats and oils-----------------Crude vegetable oils-----------------Refined vegetable oils----- ---------Vegetable oil end products............
Other processed foods---------------All commodities except farm products.......
All commodities except farm and foods—
Textile products and apparel...............
Cotton products----------------------Wool products.................................
Manmade fiber textile products—
Silk products...................................
Apparel—........................................
Other textile products....................
Hides, skins, leather, and leather prod
ucts...........................................................
Hides and skins.................................
Leather------- ------ --------------------Footwear--------------------------------Other leather products......................
Fuel and related products, and power *
Coal..................... — ........................—
Coke----------------------------------------Gas fu els8.............................................
Electric power •...................................
Crude petroleum and natural gaso­
line.......................................................
Petroleum products, refined-...........
Chemicals and allied products................
Industrial chemicals-------------------Prepared paint--------------------------Paint materials....................................
Drugs and pharmaceuticals..............
Fats and oils, inedible................ .......
Mixed fertilizer_________________
Fertilizer materials---------------------Other chemicals and allied prod­
ucts—
Rubber and rubber products..................
Crude rubber........................................
Tires and tubes_________________
Other rubber products___________
Lumber and wood products--------------Lumber________________________
M illwork____________ ______ ____
Plywood-----------------------------------Pulp, paper, and allied products______
W oodpulp---------- ------- --------------Wastepaper...................- .....................
Paper.....................................................
Paperboard_____________________
Converted paper and paperboard
products______________________
Building paper and board-----------Bee footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

118.7

Sept.
118.8

98.0

97.9

87.1

Aug.
118.9
98.6

July
118.6
97.5

June
118.2
96.2

Annual
average

1960

1961
Commodity group
May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I9601

1959

118.7

119.4

119.9

120.0

119.9

119.5

119.6

119.6

119.6

119.5

97.4

98.8

100.0

100.5

100.0

99.2

99.7

99.5

98.5

98.2

87.2

88.6

87.1

85.1

86.8

88.5

89.9

90.0

89.7

88.7

89.9

89.5

88.8

89.1

94.7 8 94.9
78.0
77.9
76. 9 77.6
99. 4 8 98.7
100.1 8 99.6
76.6
79.5
80.0
79.9
130.1 131.2
108 3 108.1
125.1 124.3
93.6
94.3
123.6 121.9

97.3
78.1
80.3
98.4
98.4
80.7
82.9
129.3
108.1
123.9
94.8
121.0

104.3
77.8
75.5
96.7
98.1
75.5
83.7
129.3
107.5
123.9
92.5
120.4

103.3
74.2
75.4
96.2
94.9
63.3
83.6
129.0
106.7
123.7
89.9
119.7

101.4
74.8
78.2
95.2
95.6
63.3
92.1
129.5
107.5
123.6
91.8
119.5

100.2
73.8
82.0
93.4
97.0
66.5
96.4
129.4
108.7
123.6
94.3
119.9

105. 9
76.4
83.1
92.8
98.7
75.7
87.5
129.6
109.6
123.6
96.1
120.7

99.8
76.0
85.3
91.2
99.6
81.2
81.3
129.6
110.5
123.6
99.5
119.8

103.7
75.2
84.7
90.7
101.1
75.2
79.5
128.3
109.9
123.5
98.3
121.3

99.5
72.7
82.8
90.7
102.3
87.7
74.1
130.4
109.2
123.5
97.3
122.0

107.5
70.3
81.8
90.8
102 3
108.1
72.5
129.1
109.1
123.1
96.6
121.7

109.2
73.5
80.7
90.8
101.5
98.9
72.2
130.4
109.0
123.1
97.8
121.3

106.7
75.7
82.6
94.2
98.0
77.3
74.7
128.5
107.7
121.8
96.7
118.5

102.7
77.3
85.1
98.2
94.4
65.8
76.6
132.6
107.0
119.3
98.2
114.3

108.1 107.3
112.6 112.8
136.0 138.6
57. 8 s 59.8
57.2 3 58. 2
77. 7 70.1
82.3
83.3
101.4 102.3

107.4
113.0
138.6
59.7
59.9
68.3
82.4
102.1

109.2
114.8
139.1
57.6
59.6
67.7
83.8
102.5

108.7
116.3
139.1
57.2
61.9
68.0
84.8
103.1

109.0
115.8
139.1
65.0
66.9
71.8
85.9
102.6

111.1
114.9
139.1
72.2
69.4
71.9
85.0
102.4

111.5
115.1
139.1
76.8
66.7
70.5
84.4
103.3

112.0
115.8
139.1
77.4
63.2
67.5
80.4
102.2

111.8
116.2
139.1
65.0
57.1
64.4
77.9
102.5

110.1
116.3
140.9
62.4
52.4
61.2
77.4
100.8

109.4 108.8
117.4 117.1
140.9 140.9
66.1
62.0
49.9
53.1
59. S 57.4
76.1
75.2
102.8 100.5

107.0
115.5
143.3
58.4
49.1
56 7
73.2
102.2

109.0
115.1
146.5
54.8
53.1
58.0
74.0
98.7

124.0 3124.1
127.3 127.5
94.4
94.7
91.0
91.6
101.8 3102.1
75.1
75.1
133.3 136.2
100.8 100.7
90.5
94.7

124.0
127.4
94.2
90.4
101.7
75.1
136.2
100.6
91.0

123.9
127.4
93.9
89.7
101.2
75.1
131.2
100 4
90.7

123.8
127.4
93.7
89.5
101.0
75.1
130.8
100.4
85.7

124.0
127.6
94.0
89.9
100.9
75.4
131.5
100.3
92.8

124.6
128.0
94.1
89.9
100.1
75.8
129.5
100.4
93.6

124.9
128.2
94.4
90.2
99.5
76.3
129.5
100.4
100.3

125.0
128.1
94.7
90.2
99.9
77.2
129.3
100.5
101.3

124.9
128.1
94.8
90.8
100.1
77.3
130.9
100.5
99.2

124.6
127.9
95.2
91.2
100.8
77.8
125.7
101.0
92.6

124.6
127.9
95.4
91.7
101.3
78.2
125.9
101.0
92.1

124.6
128.0
95.8
92.8
101.1
78.5
128.5
101.1
91.3

124.7
128.3
96.1
94.2
102.1
79.1
122.9
100.9
85.2

124.5
128.2
95.0
91.7
101.6
81.1
113.5
100.0
76.8

113. 5
82.5
107.6
133.9
105.4
113.7
120.1
170.4
116.9
102.4

113.1
82.9
106.3
133.5
105.1
114. 4
119.2
170.4
116.6
102.4

111.1
76.2
102.6
132.9
104.3
114.6
118.7
170.4
115.6
102.5

110.1
68.1
102.6
132.8
104.5
114.3
117.7
170.4
115.4
102.3

110.7
71.0
104.1
132.8
104.6
113.6
117.4
170.4
118.7
102.4

109.9
68.0
102.2
132.7
104.3
115.2
119.6
170.4
118.3
102.5

109.5
68.8
100.2
132.7
103.6
117.5
122.8
170.4
121.8
102.4

108.0
60.5
97.3
132.7
103.9
117.7
123.4
170.4
122.3
102.2

108.3
61.7
97.8
132.7
104.2
117.2
123.4
170.4
121.1
102.3

108.8
64.9
99.4
132.5
103.9
116.2
123.1
170.4
120.0
102.3

108.5
65,8
97.1
132. 5
104.2
116.1
123.0
170.4
120.2
102.4

108.5
64.1
98.1
132. 5
104.0
116.2
122.5
170.4
120.9
102.1

110.3
68.1
101.5
133.0
105.8
113.8
121.8
170.4
116.6
101.9

114.3
90.7
111.8
129.5
109.0
112.7
122.6
169.8
110.9
100.8

127.4 127.2
113.3 115.1
108.0 3108.1
120.3 120.6
132.2 132.4
99.9
100.0
90.8 390.7
47.0 3 48.7
113.6 114.4
111.9 110.2

127.2
116.8
108.4
120.8
132.4
101.1
91.3
51.1
113.6
110.0

127.2
117.4
108.9
121.1
132.4
101.0
92.5
52.2
113.0
111.7

127.2
117.0
109.3
122.2
132.4
101.0
92.4
54.1
112.3
112.3

127.2
115.0
109.9
122.8
132. 4
101.5
92.4
61.4
112.3
112.3

127.2
117.9
110. 2
123. 2
132.4
103.5
92.6
62.1
112.3
112.3

126.8
121.5
110.1
123. 2
132.4
104.6
92.6
57.7
112.3
112.3

126.8
121.9
110.0
123.2
132.4
104.1
92.7
54.7
111.9
112.4

126.8
121.1
109.7
123.0
131.7
104.8
92.7
50.2
111.6
112.4

126.8
119.3
110.2
123.6
130.3
104.4
92.8
48.5
111.8
111.9

120.8
119.1
110.1
123.5
128.4
104. 8
92.8
48.9
112.1
111.9

126.8
119.5
110.1
123. 6
128.4
104.5
93.1
47.8
112.9
111.2

126.8
115.4
110.2
124.2
128.5
103.8
93.6
49.0
109.8

127.4
114. 2
109.9
123.8
128.3
101.9
93.2
56.7
109.5
100.9

105.3
139.4
137.8
138.3
141.0
114.7
114. 4
132.4
91.0
130. 4
114. 4
100.2
145.4
122.4

105.3
139.6
3139.1
138.3
141.0
3115.7
3115.3
3132. 4
3 93.7
3129. 5
114.4
76.6
145.3
3122.4

105.3
139.4
137.9
138.3
141.1
115.9
115.8
130.7
95.3
126.3
114.4
76.6
145.9
122.8

105.8
139.0
136.2
138.3
140.9
117.2
116.8
132.0
97.2
126.4
114.4
76.6
145.9
123.0

105.8
139.6
137.4
138.5
141.6
117.8
117.0
134.0
97.2
126.5
114.4
65.0
145.9
128.9

105.8
140.2
140. 8
138.4
141.6
117.6
117.0
133.4
97.2
126.1
114.4
62.1
145.4
128.9

105.6
140.1
133.2
138. 4
142.5
118.0
116.5
134.8
99.1
131.0
114.4
62.1
145.4
129.1

105.6 5105.5 3105.4
139.9 139.6 139.7
138.0 136.2 135.7
137.1 137.1 137.2
143.3 143.3 143.6
115.4 114.7 115.7
114.4 113.5 114.5
134.7 134.9 135.8
91.7
90.8
92.0
131.5 132.2 132.2
114.5 114.5 114.5
67.8
72.4
62.1
145.7 145.7 145.7
129.9 130.1 132.4

307.2
141.2
136.5
137.1
146.8
116.5
115.0
135.5
95.1
132.3
114.5
67.8
145.7
132.4

107.4
143.6
140.3
141.3
146.8
116.9
115.1
135.8
96.1
133.1
121.2
77.4
145.7
132.4

107.3
144.7
146.5
141.3
146.8
117.7
116.3
135.3
97.1
133.4
121.2
77.4
145.7
135.9

106.7
144.7
155.7
138.4
145.6
121.3
121.4
136.6
98.1
133.2
120.6
83.7
145.4
135.3

106.6
144.5
152.0
143.4
142.2
125.8
127.1
135.9
101.2
132.2
121.2
112. 5
143.4
136.1

127.3 3127.3
144.8 1 144.8

121.2
144.8

121.2
144.9

121.2
144.9

120.9
144.6

129.7
145.3

130.3
145.8

130.9
145.6

131.1
145.4

131.1
145.4

131.1
145.7

130.6
145.7

127.5
146.4

114.0
82.2
109. 3
134.4
105.4
113.0
120.8
170.4
119.4
102.5

130.9
146.0

111.0

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

1425

Table D-3. Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by group and subgroup of commodities—Continued
[1947-49=100, unless otherwise specified]
1961

Commodity group

A ll commodities except farmland foods—Con
Metals and metal products____ ______
Iron and steel___________________
Nonferrous metals..............................
M etal containers________________
Hardware---____________________
Plumbing fixtures and brass fit­
tings....................................................
Heating equipment............................
Fabricated structural metal prod­
u c ts.____ ____________________
Fabricated nonstructural metal
products______________________
Machinery and motive products................. _
A gdcultural machinery and equipment.
Construction machinery and equip­
ment------------------------------------- -----Metalworking machinery and equip­
m ent—
General purpose machinery and equip­
ment .........................................................
Miscellaneous machinery.........................
Special Industry machinery and equip­
ment ‘........................................................
Electrical machinery and equipm ent..
Motor vehicles_________ ____ ______
Transportation equipment, railroad
rolling stock •........................................ .
Furniture and other household du rab les...
Household furniture..................................
Commercial furniture_______________
Floor coverings_____________________
Household appliances......... ......................
Television, radio receivers, and phono­
graphs......... ............. ...............................
Other household durable goods_______
Nonmetallic mineral products 7__________
Flat g la ss........ .................................... .......
Concrete ingredients............. ..................
Concrete products_________________
Structural clay products_________ . . . .
Gypsum products__ _________ ______
Prepared asphalt roofing..........................
Other nonmetallic minerals__________
Tobacco products and bottled beverages...
Tobacco products-.......... .......................
Alcoholic beverages________________
Nonalcoholic beverages____ _________
Miscellaneous products............ ..............
Toys, sporting goods, small arms,
ammunition___________________
Manufactured animal feeds _
Notions and accessories_________ ____
Jewelry, watches, and photographic
equipm ent................................................
Other miscellaneous products.............. .

Oct. 2 Sept.

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

I960 3

1959

153.1 3153. 7
170.4 170.8
134.9 136.3
156.6 156.6
176.7 3176.7

153.6
170.5
136.2
156.6
176.4

153.2
170.1
135.8
156.6
176.3

153.1
170.3
135.2
156.6
176.3

153.0
170.2
134.4
156.6
176.3

152.7
170.8
132.4
156.6
175.2

152.4
170.4
132.3
156.6
175.0

152.3
169.7
132. 2
156.6
175.1

152.2
169.4
132.1
156.6
174.9

152.2
168.6
133.9
153.6
174.7

152.3
168.5
135.5
153.6
174.6

152.8
168.9
137.1
153.6
174.6

153.8
170.0
139.0
153.9
174.3

153.6
172.0
136.1
153.7
173.0

133.8
114.8

133.5
115.6

132.8
115.5

132.2
115.4

131.3
115.4

130.9
115.2

130.9
114.5

130.9
114.8

130.9
114.9

130.8
116.8

130.8
118.4

130.8
119.3

132.1
119.4

130.1
121.7

133.5
115.2

131.6 3131.8

132.3

132.3

132.1

132.4

132.8

132.8

133.5

133.6

133.9

133.9

134.0

134.7

133.4

150.4
152.8
149.0

150.8
152.7
148.7

150.4
152.7
148.9

149.2
153.0
148.8

149.6
153.2
148.8

150.0
153.1
148.6

150.1
153.1
148.6

149.6
153. 4
148.5

149.6
153.4
148.5

149.6
153.5
148.4

148.6
153.1
148.0

146.7
153.0
148.2

146.2
152.9
146.7

146.4
153.4
146.1

146.0
153.0
143.4

178.5

178.5

178.5

178.3

178.2

178.5

178.6

178.2

178.2

177.6

177.0

177.3

176.7

175.6

171.9

182.9

182.1

181.7

181.7

181.5

181.7

181.8

183.3

182.7

182.7

182.3

182.1

181.2

179.9

174.5

165.7 3166.3 3166.1 3166. 3
152.0 152.0 152.0 151.8

166.5
151.4

166.3
151.4

166.2
151.4

166.1
151.2

166.2
151.2

166.1
151.3

166.1
150.9

166.3
150.7

166.5
150.4

167.1
150.2

165.3
149.4

100.5
151.7
140.4

100.4
151.7
140.3

100.3
151.9
140.3

153.5
140.2

(«,
152.4
140.5

(«)
152.6
140.3

(»,
154. 2
140.8

(')
154.4
142.8

(8)
123.1
125.1
156.8
130.4
101.9

(#)
123.4
124.1
155.2
128.1
104.7

100.6 3100. 6

150.7
140.4

150.4
140.3

100.5
150.5
140.5

100.3

100.3

100.3

100.5
151. 8
140.5

153.7
140.8

152.4
140.7

155.9
128.6
99.9

126.2
155.9
128.6

126.2
155.9
128.6

126.1
155.9
128.7

100.0 100.0 100.2 100.2

125.7
157.1
130. 2.
100.4

100.6

(«)
122.7
125.6
157.1
130.5
100.9

90.0
157.8
138.3
130.3
142.6
131.3
161.6
134.6
112.9
133.7
132.1
130.9

89.8
157.8
13S.5
132.4
142.6
131.3
161.5
134.6
112.9
133. 7
132.1
130.9

90.7
157.8
138.6
132.4
142.6
131.3
162.1
134.6
114.2
133. 7
132.0
130.8

91.2
156.6
137.9
132.4
142.0
131.0
162.3
133. 2
106.6
133.6
132.1
130.8

90.5
156.6
137.9
132.4
142.1
131.0
162.3
133.2
106.6
133.6
132.0
130.8

90.5
156.8
138.1
132.4
J42.1
131.0
162.2
133.2
106. 6
135.0
132.0
130.8

91.3
157.4
138.0
132.7
142.1
131.1
161.8
133.2
107.3
134.2
131.8
130.8

171.6
95.9

171.6
99.5

171.6
97.7

90.5
156.0
138.4
132. 4
142.3
131.2
162.1
134.6
114.2
132.9
132.1
130.8
121.3
171.6
95.2

90.9
156.2
138.5
132.4
142.2
131.1
162.1
134.8
114.2
133. 5
132.1
130.8

174.8
95.6

90.7
156. C
138.6
132.4
142.6
131.1
162.1
134.6
114.2
133.6
132.1
130.8
121.3
171.6
96.8

171.6
95.6

171.6
92.4

171.4
90.6

171.4
90.3

171.3
92.1

92.8
156.4
137.7
135.3
140.3
129.7
160.2
133.1
116.4
132.4
131.4
130.5
121.3
167.4
94.5

119.7
74.3
3 96.2

119.0
74.6
3 96.2

118.9
75.0
3 96.2

118.9
80.3
3 96.2

119.0
77.5
96.4

118.9
76.2
96.4

118.3
74.1
96.4

118.4
74.6
96.4

118.6
70.0
96.4

118.6

118.6

96.4

96.4

118.3
69.6
96.9

117.5
75.1
97.3

111.7
133.1

111.0

111.0

111.0

111.3
132.3

111.3
132.8

111.2

111.0

110.9
132.1

110.9
132.6

110.7
132.2

108.2
132.3

155.9
128.6
99.8

88.3
88.3
157.3 157.2
138.9. 138.5
130.3 130.3
142.5 142.4
131.5 131.4
161.9 161.9
137.3 137.3
120.4 114.2
133.2 3133.2
133.4 133.4
130.9 130.9

88.7
157.2
138.5
130.3
142.4
131.3
161.7
137.3
114.2
133.7
132.8
130.9

90.0
156.9
138.4
130.3
142.6
131.3
161.6
134.6
114.2
133.7
132.6
130.9

180.5
93.5

95.6

176.3
95.6

119.9
71.0
96.2

119.6
74.2
3 96.2
111.9
132. 8

121.1 121.2 121.1 121.1 121.2 121.2 121.1
180.5

112.2

153.6
140.4

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (9)
122.3 122.4 122.4 122.5 122.2 122.2 122.3 122.6 122.6
126.4 126.4 126.4

126.9 s 126. 7 126.4
156. 7 156.7 155.9 155.9
129.1 3129. 4 3129. 3 3129.3
99.9
99.8
99.8
99.8

133.0

100.1 100.0 100.0 100.1

126.3
155.9
128.6

122.2 122 2 122.1

132.3

132.2

1 As of January 1961, new weights reflecting 1958 values were introduced
Into the index. Technical details furnished upon request to the Bureau.
1 Preliminary.
* Revised.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Annual
average

1960

131.8

111.2

131. 7

125.7
157.1
130.2

121.2 121.2 121.1 121.1 120.8

132.8

132. 4

66.8 66.2

4Formerly titled Fuel, power, and lighting materials.
• January 1958=100.
»New series. January 1961=100.
»Formerly titled Nonmetallic minerals—structural.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1426

Table D-4. Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings1
[1947-49=100, unless otherwise specified]

Oct.* Sept. Aug.
All foods.................................................................................... 105.7
All fish ...................................................................................... 138.1
All commodities except farm products............................. 124.0
Textile produets, excluding hard fiber products--------- 89.2
Refined petroleum products:4
East Coast petroleum products, refined.......... ......... 114.6
Mideomtinent petroleum products, refined---------Gulf Coast petroleum products, refined....................
Pacific Coast petroleum products, refined----------- 107.0
Midwest petroleum produets, refined!---------------- 88.7
Bituminous coal—domestic sizes------------------------------ 124.4
Soaps........ ............... ................................................................ 109.6
Synthetic detergents................................ ............................. 100.3
Pharmaceutical preparations----------------------------------- 100.9
Ethical preparations8........................................- .......... 98.2
Anti-infectives8........................................................ 99.7
Anti-arthritics8-........................................................
Sedatives and hypnotics8...................................... 101.9
Ataractics8.................................................................
Anti-spasmodics and anti-cholinergics8---------Cardiovasculars and anti-hypertensives8------- 100.9
D iabetics8-............................................- .................. 103.8
Hormones8. . . ------- ------------------------------------Diuretics*------------------------------------------------Dermatologlcals!---------------------------------------- 100.5
Hermatinics8______________________________ 108. 5
Analgesics*________________________________
Anti-obesity preparations8......................... .........
Cough and cold preparations8---------------------- 98.8
Vitam ins8--------------- ---------------------------------Proprietary preparations8............................- ..............
V itam ins8.................- ----------------------------------Cough and cold preparations8 _____________
Laxatives and elimination aids8------- ------------ 99.5
Internal analgesics8________________________
Tonics and alteratives*------------------------------External analgesics8-----------------------------------A n tisep tics'..--------- ---------------------------------Antacids8. . . ---------------------------------------------Lumber and wood products (excluding millwork)........ 111.9
Softwood lumber___ ______________________________ 113.2
Pulp, paper, and products (excluding building paper) 130.0
Special metals and metal products--------------------------- 150.1
Steel mill products------------ ------------------------------------ 186.9
Machinery and equipment........... - ....................- .............. 159.3
Agricultural machinery (including tractors)_________ 151.0
Metalworking machinery_________ _______ _________ 191.2
Total tractors.................................. - ...................................... 159.3
Industrial valves---- ------ ---------------------------------------- 177.5
Industrial fittings_________________________________
Antifriction bearings and components----------- ---------- 130.6
Abrasive grinding wheels..................... ....... ....................... 146.9
Construction materials......................................................... 1129.7

105. 4 105.8 105.6 104.2 104.7 105.8
136.9 137.1 129.2 129.5 128.6 126.2
3124.1 124.0 123.9 123.8 124.0 124.6
88.4 88.4
88.9

88.6 88.1 88.1

102.2
122.2 122.2 122.2
110.1

113.4
121.7
119.8
107.9
93.9
118.3
109.7

113.4
116.0
119.8
109.1
88.7
117.3
109.6

1960»

107.5 108.0 107.5 107.3 108.8 108.5
132.0 133.3 131.3 133.2 131.5 129.4
124.9 125.0 124.9 124.6 124.6 124.6
88.7 89.2 89.5 90.0 90.6 91.2

106.0
126.7
124.7
92.2

104.4
124.5
124.5
91.4

112.4
124.7
122.9
107.3

111.0

108.9
115.7
118.4
108.2

114.8 116.1 116.6
124.2 125.3 126.0
127.3 127.3
104.3 105.5 106.1
93.5 99.3 99.9
117.7 126.4 127.9
107.5 107.5 107.4

122.1

Jan.

114.3
126.0
125.6
107.3

Dec. Nov.

111.4
125.2
122.9
105.5

111.4
124.7
122.9
105.5

100.0 100.0 (») 126.2
(‘)
127.9 127.7 127.4
120.1
107.4 107.6 107.6 107.6
102.0 102.9 102.9 103.6
.0 102.0 102.0 11002.0
102.0 102.0 110022.1
02.1 102.1 102.1 102.1
102.0 102.0 2.2 1100.0
02.1
100.8 100.8 102.2 199.9
100.1 (*) (*)
99.9 99.9 99.9 100.1
98.0 98.0 100.1
(•)
98.9 98.9 98.9 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.1 <‘ )
100.0
(•)
.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.6 100.6 100.6 100.6 110000.0
.0 (8)
( !)
100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
101.9 101.9 101.0
100.0 (•) (s)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 .0 100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 (*) (J)
(*)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.0 100.0 (») (‘)
.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.9 100.9 100.9
.0 100.0 100.0 (*) (»)
103.8 103.8 103.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0
(8
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
00.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.0 100.0 1
100.0 100.0 (*)
(«)
(•)
.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.0
100.0
.0
1
0
0
.0
(»)
(•)
.0 100.0 100.0
100.5 100.5 100.0
(•)
(*)
108.5 108.5 108.5 104.5 104.6 104.6 104.5 104.6 100.0 100.0
100.0
(*)
.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
(')
101.8 101.8 101.8 101.8 110000.0
100.0
C)
<8)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
(*)
100.0
(8)
00.0
1
0
0
.0
98.8 98.8 98.8
100.0 100.4
(»)
(")
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
88.1 88.1 88.1 100.0 110000.0
99.8
100.0
100.0
100.0
1
0
0
.2
(*)
100.0
.2
100.1 100.1 100.1 100.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (8) («)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (») (»)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.5 100.6 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (») (*)
( !)
99.5 99.5 99.5
100.3 100.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (!)
100.6 100.6 100.6 110000.6
00.0 97.8 (8) (•)
(*)
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7.0 110000.0
98.3
(«)
(*)
.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.2 100.2 99.7
100.0
(8)
(')
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 110000.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
1
0
0
.0
(»)
1
0
0
.0
(')
1
0
0
.0
.0
00.0
100.0 100.0 100.0 1115.3
115.4 115.4 115.6 112.1 111.1 112.1 113.3 113.7 114.8
3113.2 114.0
114.1
1
1
2
.8
112.4
112.7
1
1
1
.6
113.0
115.6
116.1
116.1
115.9
114.9
3114.2
3129.1
150.4
186.9
159.1
150.7
190.6
159.3

200.8
120.1 3120.1

i See footnote 1, table D-3.
1 Preliminary.
* Revised.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

131.8
146.9
3130.0

125.8
150.4
186.9
159.1
150.8
190.0
159.3
201.9
3119.4
130.5
146.9
13130.1

125.8
150.1
187.0
159.6
150.8
189.9
159.1
202.3
3119.4
130.6
146.9
130.5

126.0
150.1
187.0
159.5
150.8
189.5
159.0
202.5
121.7
130.6
146.9
130.5

125.6
149.9
187.5
159.5
150.5
189.5
159.2
202.5
121.7
130.6
146.9
130.6

130.6
149.7
187.5
159.6
150.5
189.5
159.2
202.5
121.7
130.6
146.9
130.7

1959

Oct.

July June May Apr. Mar. Feb.

114.6 114.6 113.4
108.2 115.0 121.7
121.3
108.5
107.0
91.3 92.6 93.9
123.1 121.7
109.6 109.6 109.6
100.3 100.3

Annual average

1960

1961

Commodity group

131.1
149.5
187.6
160.3
150.5
189.2
159.2

131.8
149.5
187.6
160.2
150.4
189.9
159.2

131.9
149.5
187.6
160.2
150.4
189.9
159.1

132.0
149.5
187.6
159.6
150.0
189.6
158.9

132.8
149.5
187.6
159.6
150.3
189.3
158.9

133.1
149.7
187.6
159.4
148.6
188.0
157.4

02.8
202.1 201.1 201.6 201.2 201.2 2122.4
121.7 122.0 121.4 121.7 121.7
131.4 132.9 132.9
130.6 131.4 131.4
146.9 146.9 146.9 146.9 147.6 147.6
129.9 129.8 130.1 130.0 130.3 130. 5

117.0
120.4
1*5.8
(8)

124.7
107.6
101.7
103.3
(‘ )
(«)
( 8)
C)
(*)
(•)
(•)
( !)
(*)
<*>
(•)
(*)
(8)
(8)
(•)
(*)
«
(*
(*)
(»)
(8)
(»)
(•)
(»)
(*)

118.9
120.4
132.9
156.5
187.9
160.0
147.9
186.7
156.4
205.1
132.2
133.6
147.5
132.6

(*)

124.9
109.5
101.4
103.0
(•)
C)
(•)
( ‘)
(*)
(‘ )
C)
(‘)
(*)
(•)
0)
(•)
( ’)
0)
(•)
(•)
(•)
(•)
(*)
(»)
(*)
(•)
(»)
m
(*)

124.5
128.1
131.8
150.8
188.2
158.5
144.8
181.8
153.3
195.9
139.0
135.1
152.5
134.6

♦The special Index for refined petroleum products is now being published
as a subgroup index in table D-3.
8 New series. January 1961=100

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES
T a ble

D-5.

1427

Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by stage of processing and durability of product
J1947—49= 100]
1961

Annual
average

1960

Commodity group
Oct.2 Sept.
All commodities________ ____________ _________________

Aug. July

June May

Apr. Mar. Feb.

118.7 118.8 118.9 118.6 118.2 118.7 119.4 119.9

Jan.

120.0 119.9

Dec. Nov.

Oct.

119.6 119.8 119 6

1960»

1959

11«. 6

110.5

Stage o f p roceeem g

Crude materials for further processing_________________
Crude foodstuffs and feedstuff«..........................................
Crude nonfood materials except fuel................................
Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for manu­
facturing.................. .............. ......................................
Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for con­
struction.......................................................................
Crude fu el.............................................................................
Crude fuel for manufacturing__________________
Crude fuel for nonmanufacturing.................. ...........
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components............._
Intermediate materials and components for manu­
facturing................................................ ..............................
Intermediate materials for food manufacturing___
Intermediate materials for nondurable manu­
facturing....................................................................
Intermediate materials for durable manufacturing.
Components for manufacturing.................................
Materials and components for construction__________
Processed fuels and lubricants. ______ _______ ____
Processed fuels and lubricants for manufacturing..
Processed fuels and lubricants for nonmanufac­
turing.___ _______________ ____ _____________
Containers, nonreturnable...............................................
S u p p lie s.................................. ..............................................
Supplies for manufacturing.........................................
Supplies for nonmanufacturing..... .......................... .
Manufactured animal feeds_________________
Other supplies............... ................ ................ .........
Finished goods (goods to users, Including raw foods and
fuels).............................................................................................
Consumer finished goods.................. ..................................
Consumer foods..............................................................
Consumer crude foods______ _______________
Consumer processed foods..... ...............................
Consumer other nondurable goods______________
Consumer durable goods.............................................
Producer finished goods_____________________ ______
Producer finished goods for manufacturing______
Producer finished goods for nonmanufacturing___

93.6 93.8
83.0 83.4
111.5 111.3

94.8
85.1

92.7
82.8

110.6 109.2

91.6 93.2 94.6 95.2 95.1 94.7 93.3 93.0 93.3 94.5
81.5 83.6 85.7 86.9 87.5 87.3 85.5 85. 1 85.1 85.7
108.5 108.7 108.6 107.2 105.4 104.4 104.1 104. 1 104.8 107.5

109.9 109.6 108.9 107. 4 106.7 106.9 106 7 106.2 103 3

102.2 101.8 101.8

142.5 142.4 142.4 142.« 142.6 142.6
124.7 123.2 122.6! 121.9
122.3
124.2
.8
121.5 120.9 121.9
125.4 123.9 123.2 122.5
123.0

142.2
126.9
126.3
127.7

121.2
121.8

122 122.2

142.6
123.3
122.7
124.2

142.6
126.8
126.2
127.7

142.3
127.4
126.8
128.2

142.0
126.3
125.8
127.1

142 1
126.2
125. 7
127. 0

96.7

102. 7 106.5

86.8
112.2
110.8

142.1
126.0
125.5
126.9

140.3
123.4
122.9
124.1

142 l
124 4
123. 9
125.2

125.4 2125.7 125.5 125.6 125.8 126.3 126.9 126.9 126.7 126.7 126.4 126.5 126.6 127.0 127.0
126.9 127.0 127.1 127.1 127. 4 127.8 127.9 127.9 127 8 127.8 127.9 128. 1 128.4 128.9 129.0
101.7 3101.3 101.4
103.0 103. 7 103 9 103.6 102.4 101.3 101.7 100.7 09.3 98.5

101.6 102.0

103.7 103 6
156.4 156.2
148.5!« 149.1
133.6 134 0
110. 5
110 3

104.1
156.0
»149. 1
134.1
.2
1

104 5
156.0
»149.2
134 1
10«. 4
«6

104.8
165.6
»149.3
134.3
110.3
110.3

104 8
15«. 4
150.0
133.5
111.9
6

104 8
155 4
150.1
133.5
111.9

104.0
155.6
150.0
133.7

105.2
156. 6
149.3
133.7

122.2

108.9
3137. 6
3116.8
3147.0
3102.9
68.4
3122. 2

133.3
115.6
147.1
101.4
68.3
119.5

133. 3
115.8
147. 2
.6
68.7
119.4

133.1
115.«
147.6
101. 7
69.2
119.2

133 7
118.3
147 6
104 7
74.8
119.5

110.4
139. 9
119.2
148.1
105.6
72.3
123.5

140.6
118.7
149.0
104.8
70.7
123.4

141.1
117.6
148.4
103.6
68.3
123.4

140.9
117.8
148.6
103.7
68.9
123.2

106.8
139.4 139.3 139 2 138.6 136.7
116.1 115.2 116.1 115.8 116.6
149.8 149.6 149.8 149.3 143.5
too. 1 99.9
104.1
64.2
P 60.1 63.8 74.7
123.0 123.1 123.2 122.9 121.3

121.3
113.2
107.1
93.9
109.9
113. 8
125.5
154. 0
160.7
148.1

3121.3
113.2
106.9
3 92.7
109.8
113.9
125.5
153.8
160.6
3147.9

121.4
113.3
107.2
94.8
109.8
114.0
125.6
153.8
160.6
147.8

121.2 120.6 120.7

103.6
156.0
148.3
133.2
108.3
108.9

3103.5
156.4
148.4
133.5
109.2
109.4

107.5
138.2
115.6
147.2
101.3
65.2

110.0
110
110.0
110 10
110.1 110 9 110.6 109. 1
101

113.1
106. 8
95.7
109 1
113 9
125. 6
153. 8
160.6
147.9

112.4
105.0
90.5
108.0
113.8
125. 6
153. 9
160. 7
147.9

112.5
105. 7
89.«
108.9
113.6
125.5
153. 7
160. 6
147. 7

105. 6
156. 7
149. 5
133. 9

105. 9
157.2
149.8
134.2
111.7
111.5 111.3 111.3 111.3

106 4
158.1
150.7
135. 5
108 9
108.9

111.0 111.6 111.6
111 111.6
112.6 112.5 112.7 112.3 112.3 112.4 10«. 1

122.2 122.6

101.2

101.0

01

122.2

121.3
122. 7 122.4
122.4
113.3 114.3 114.8 114.5 114.4 114. 9 114.7
106.8 108.6 109.5 109.1 109.0 110.4 no. l
90.6 97.2 96.8 96.8 99.6 109. 1 106.6
.«
111.7
114.2 115.0 115.2 114.9 114.7 114.7 114.8
125.5 125.5 125. 6 125.8 125.8 125. 8 125. 7
153. 7 153.8 153.9 154.0 153.8 153.6 153. 4
160.6 160.6 160.8 160.8 160.6 160.4 160.2
147.6 147.9 147.9 148.1 147.8 147.7 147.6

110.1 111.0 112.1

106.4
157.9
151.5
136.5
106.0
105.6

111.0 110.8 110

121.5
113 8
107.7
98.0
109.7
114.1
126. t
153.8
160.0
148.4

120.6
112.6

105.5
91.9
108.4
113.4
126.5
153.2
158.1
149.1

D u r a b ility o f p ro d u c t

Total durable goods....................................... ....... ....................
Total nondurable goods............. ...............................................

145.0 145.2 145.2 145.3 145.4 145.3 145.3 145.1 145.0 145.1 145.0 145.0 144.9 145. 7 145.9
104.4 3104.5 104.6 104.2 103.5 104.3 105.3 106.2 106.3 106.1 105.6 105. 8 106. 8 105 3 105.0

Total manufactures........................................................ .............
Durable manufactures______________ ______________
Nondurable manufactures______ ___________________
Total raw or slightly processed goods _ ..................................
Durable raw or slightly processed g o o d s............... .........
Nondurable raw or slightly processed goods...................

124.8
146.2
107.9
98.2
111.7
97.5

1 See footnote 1, table D-3.

2 Preliminary.

* Revised.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

125.0
146.3
108.2
97.8
114.2
97.0

124.9 124.9 124.8 125. 1 125.7
146.3 146.4 146.5 146.5 146. 5
108.1 107.9 107.7 108.3 109.3
98.6 97.3 95.8 97.0 98.0
112.7
111.9 109.7 110.7
97.9 96.6 95.0 96.3 97.4

110.8

126.0 126.1 126.1 125. 7 125. 7
146.3 146.3 146.5 146.4 146. 1
109.9
109.9 109.4 109.3
99.3 99.3 98.9 98.3 99, 1
101. 4
108.6 105.1 103.5
98.8 99.0 98.6 98.1 99.0

110.1

101.8

125.7
146.3
109. 5
98 9
102.9
98.7

125.8
147 0
108.9
98.6
107. 4
08.1

125.5
147.0
108.5
98.8
114.1
98.1

N ote: For description of the series by stage of processing, see New BLB
Economic Sector Indexes of Wholesale Prices (in Monthly Labor Review,
December 1955, pp. 1448-1453); and by durability of product and data begin­
ning with 1947, see Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes. 1657, BL8 Bull.
1235 (1958).

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1428

E.—Work Stoppages
T able E -l. Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes 1
Workers Involved In stoppages

Number of stoppages
Month and year

1Q35-3Q (ftvarfcgprt
1047-49
194«
1946
1047
1948
1949
I960
1951
1952
1953
1954
1955
1956
1967
1958
1959
1960

Beginning In
month or year

. _

.

_

___
............ ..........
.....................
_ ........................

..................................
............................
.....................................
.
......... ..............
............................. ..
..................................
_ _ _ .....................
..................................
_ _____ _________

In effect dur­
ing month

Beginning in
month or year

In effect dur­
ing month

1,130,000
2,380,000
3, 470,000
4,600,000
2,170,000
1, 960,000
3,030,000
2, 410,000
2,220,000
3, 540,000
2,400,000
1, 630,000
2,650,000
1,900,000
1,390,000
2,060,000
1,880,000
1,320,000

2,862
3,573
4,750
4,985
3,693
3)419
3,606
4) 843
4,737
5,117
5,091
3) 468
4,320
3,825
3) 673
3,694
3, 708
3,333

Man-days Idle during month
or year

Number

Percent of esti­
mated work­
ing time

16. 900,000
39,700, 000
38, 000,000
118,000,000
34, 600,000
34, 100, 000
50, 600,000
38, 800,000
22, 900.000
59,100,000
28, 300,000
22, 600,000
28, 200, 000
33,100,000
16, 500,000
23, 900,000
69,000,000
19,100,000

0.27
. 4C
.47
1.48
.41
.37
.59
.44
.23
.57
.26
.21
.26
.29
.14
.22
.61
.17

I960: October_____________________________________
November___________________________________
December....... ..................... .......................- ............. —

258
192
110

432
368
250

106,000
53,300
27,500

146,000
85,000
53,200

1,500,000
732,000
458,000

.16
. 08
.05

1961: January 1 ____________________________________
February *_____________________ _____________
March 3_____________________________________
A pril1 ____ ________________________________
May 3__________________ _____ - _____ _______
June * ______________________________________
July 3__________________________________ _____

170
210
220
320
430
330
330

300
330
350
460
620
570
560

80,000
120,000
55,000
94,000
120,000
140,000
95,000

100,000
150,000
75,000
126,000
165,000
211,000
183,000

700,000
940,000
610,000
1,180,000
1,530,000
1,760,000
1,690,000

.08
.11
.06
.14
.16
.18
.19
.13
. 35
.23

A ugust3________________________ _______________
Septem ber2 ____________________________________
October2_______________________________________

325
310
300

i The data Include all known strikes or lockouts Involving 6 or more
workers and lasting a full day or Bhlft or longer. Figures on workers Involved
and'man-days Idle cover all workers made Idle for as long as 1 shift In estab­
lishments directly involved In a stoppage. They do not measure the Indirect


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

550
530
510

95, 000
334,000
223,000

160,000
390,000
277,000

1,320,000
3,150,000
2,380,000

or secondary effect on other establishments or Industries whose employees
are made Idle as a result of material or service shortages.
3 Preliminary.
3 Revised preliminary.

Index to Volume 84
January to December 1961
[Issues and page numbers in italics]

ARTICLES AND TECHNICAL NOTES
Automation

Working Rules in West Coast Longshoring. Jan. 1-10.
Impact of Technological Change on Canada’s Automobile
Industry. Apr. 888-892.
Problems of the West Coast Longshore Mechanization
Agreement. June 597-600.
Progress Report of Armour’s Tripartite Automation Com­
mittee. Aug. 851-857.
Social and Economic Aspects of Automation. Sept. 957960.

Work Injuries and
I. Survivors’
Equitable.
II. Permanent
1200-1205.
Medical Expenses
Nov. 1186-1190.

Recovery:
Benefits—A Plan to Make Them
Oct. 1059-1065.
Disabilities—A Policy Proposal. Nov.
and Choice of Plans: A Case Study.
Industrial Relations

Working Rules in West Coast Longshoring. Jan. 1-10.
A Review of American Labor in 1960. Jan. 19-26.
The Steel Study: Summary and Conclusions. Feb. 113121 .

Collective Bargaining Agreements

The United Steelworkers and Unionwide Bargaining.
Feb. 129-136.
Military Service Allowances in Major Union Contracts,
1959. Mar. 250-258.
Major Medical Expense Benefits in Union Contracts.
Apr. 371-879.
Life and Accidental Death Insurance in Collectively
Bargained Plans. May 4.71-478.
Subcontracting Clauses in Major Contracts—Part I.
June 579-586. Part II. July 715-723.
Bargaining and the Nursing Profession. July 699-705.
Multiemployer Pension Plans Under Collective Bargain­
ing—Part I. Oct. 1092-1099.
Major Agreement Expirations and Reopenings in 1962.
Dec. 1809-1318.
Consumer Price Index

Compact Cars in the Consumer Price Index. May 519528.
The Problem of Quality Changes and Index Numbers.
Sept. 992-997.
The CPI and Problems of Quality Change. Nov. 11751185.
Relative Importance of CPI Components. Nov. 12381286.
Health and Safety

Social Research in Medical Care. Mar. 239-241.
Major Medical Expense Benefits in Union Contracts.
Apr. 371-379.
Life and Accidental Death Insurance in Collectively
Bargained Plans. May 471-478.
Preliminary Estimates of Work Injuries in 1960. May
485-487.
The Finances of Welfare and Pension Plans During 1959.
Sept. 985-938.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Steel Strikes and Bargaining Abroad. Feb. 122-128.
The United Steelworkers and Unionwide Bargaining.
Feb. 129-186.
Recommendations of Kaiser-USA Long-Range Committee.
Feb. 187-188.
Consensus and National Labor Policy. Mar. 229-233.
The Dimensions of Major Work Stoppages. Apr. 885-343.
The Government and Bargaining on The Alaska Railroad.
May 459-462.
New Agreement for Review of Salaries of White-Collar
Civil Servants in Great Britain. May 487-488.
Legislative Recommendations of the New York Waterfront
Commission. May 510-512.
The Use of Tripartite Bodies To Aid Collective Bargaining.
June 592-594.
The Work Rule Problem and Property Rights in the Job.
June 595-596.
Problems of the West Coast Longshore Mechanization
Agreement. June 597-600.
Special Bargaining Convention of the United Auto Workers.
June 611-613.
A Review of Work Stoppages During 1960. June 614-619.
Recommendations on the Airlines-Flight Engineers
Dispute. July 750-753.
Progress Report of Armour’s Tripartite Automation
Committee. Aug. 851-857.
The Future of Collective Bargaining. Nov. 1206-1212.
Labor Force

Employment and Earnings of New York Migrant Farm
Workers. Apr. 398-894.
Married Women and the Level of Unemployment. Aug.
869-870.
Professional Mathematics Work in Industry and Govern­
ment. Sept. 984-990.
State Government Employment of Scientific and Technical
Personnel. Oct. 1100-1104.
Employment in the Atomic Energy Field. Nov. 12191222 .

Scientific and Technical
1960. Dec. 1344-1349.

Employment in Industry,
1429

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1430
Special Labor Force Reports:
White-Collar Employment:
I— Trends and Structure. Jan. 11-18.
II— Characteristics. Feb. 189-147.
Labor Force and Employment in 1960. Apr. 844-354.
Marital and Family Characteristics of Workers,
March 1960. Apr. 855-864•
Employment of June 1960 High School Graduates.
May 463-470.
Long-Term Unemployment in the United States.
June 601-610.
The Employment of Students, October 1960. July
706-714Multiple Jobholders in December 1960. Oct. 10661078.
Work Experience of the Population in 1960. Dec.
1824-1387.
Labor Law

A^Review of American Labor in 1960. Jan. 19-26.
ILO Report on U.S. Trade Unions: I—The Law and Its
Operation. Feb. 148-156.
Legislative Recommendations of the New York Water­
front Commission. May 510-512.
Prevailing Wage Legislation in the States. Aug. 889-845.
Retraining the Unemployed: II—Federal and State Legis­
lation on Retraining. Sept. 939-943.
NLRB Policies Under Landrum-Griffin and Recent Court
Rulings. Sept. 960-965.
Bar Association’s Report on Legal Developments Under
LMRDA. Nov. 1218-1219.
Unemployment Insurance Legislation in 1961.
Dec.
1350—1355
State Labor Legislation Enacted in 1961. Dec. 1856-1361.
The Labor Movement and Organizations

A Review of American Labor in 1960. Jan. 19-26.
The 43d Convention of United Mine Workers of America.
Jan. 27-31.
Dues and Fee-Charging Arrangements of Labor Unions.
Jan. 81-85.
ILO Report on U.S. Trade Unions:
I— The Law and Its Operation. Feb. 148-156.
II— Labor-Management Relations and Union Govern­
ment. Mar. 273-281.
Organization of White-Collar Workers. Mar. 234-238.
Special Bargaining Convention of the United Auto
Workers. June 611-618.
The 18th Convention of the Teamsters Union. Aug.
829-884.
Review of the Teamster Monitorship. Aug. 835-838.
The Economic Role of Unions in Less-Developed Areas.
Sept. 951-956.
Membership of American Trade Unions, 1960. Dec.
1299-1308.
Production and Productivity

Impact of Technological Change on Canada’s Automobile
Industry. Apr. 888-892.
Labor Requirements for School Construction. July
724-730.
Labor Requirements for Highway Construction. Aug.
858-861.
Technology and Productivity in Bituminous Coal, 194959. Oct. 1081-1086.
Retraining of Workers

Impact of Technological Change on Canada’s Automobile
Industry. Apr. 888-892.
Progress Report of Armour’s Tripartite Automation Com­
mittee. Aug. 851-857.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Retraining the Unemployed:
I—European Government Programs. Aug. 823-828.
I—Federal and State Legislation on Retraining.
Sept. 989-943.
I l l —Skill Improvement Training for Electricians and
Plumbers. Oct. 1074-1080.
Social Security

The Challenge Facing the Unemployment Insurance
System. Mar. 242-249.
Work Injuries and Recovery:
I. Survivors’ Benefits—A Plan to Make Them Equi­
table. Oct. 1059-1065.
II. Permanent Disabilities—A Policy Proposal.
Nov. 1200-1205.
Retirement Plans for State and Local Employees. Nov.
1191-1199.
Wages and Working Conditions

General:
Job Pay Levels and Trends in 60 Labor Markets,
1959-60. Feb. 168-169.
Supplementary Wage Benefits in Metropolitan Areas,
1959-60. Apr. 379-887.
New Agreement for Review of Salaries of WhiteCollar Civil Servants in Great Britain. May
487-488.
Wages in Nonmetropolitan Areas, Southern and
North Central Regions, October 1960. July 731786.
Wage Developments in Manufacturing During 1960.
Aug. 846-850.
Deferred Wage Increases and Escalator Clauses.
Dec. 1319-1823.
Chronologies:
The Boeing Co., Washington Plants, 1936-61. July
754-764.
Chicago Newspaper Publishers’ Association—Supple­
ment No. 2-1954-61. Nov. 1226-1232.
Chrysler Corp.—Supplement No. 3—1953-60. May
500-509.
Commonwealth Edison Co. of Chicago—Supplement
No. 1-1953-61. Aug. 870-877.
Federal Classification Act Employees—Supplement
No. 3—1959-60. May 498-499.
General Motors Corp.—Supplement No. 4—1955-60.
Apr. 395-401.
International Harvester Co.—Supplement No. 3—
1957-61. June 685-640.
International Shoe Co.—Supplement No. 3—1958-61.
Oct. 1106-1108.
Massachusetts Shoe Manufacturing—Supplement No.
4-1961-62. Sept. 990-991.
North American Aviation—Supplement No. 3—195761. June 629—634Railroads—-Nonoperating Employees, 1920-61. Sept.
966-983.
Swift & Co.—Supplement No. 6—1959-60. Jan.
53-57.
Industry and occupation surveys:
Banking, mid-1960. Jan. 86-40.
Candy manufacturing, November-December 1960.
July 787-742.
Cigar manufacturing, April-May 1961. Dec. 1364~
1366.
Communications workers, October 1960. Oct. 10861091.
Crude petroleum and natural gas production, mid1960. Mar. 266-269.
Dress manufacturing, August 1960. July 743-748.
Federal classified employees, 1958-60. May 489-492.
Fluid milk, April-June 1960. Jan. 41-46.

INDEX TO VOLUME 84

1431

Industry and occupation surveys—Continued
Foundries, nonferrous, May 1960. Feb. 170-176.
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown, May 1960.
Feb. 156-162.
Hospitals, mid-1960. Apr. 865-S70.
Machinery (nonelectrical), M arch-May 1961. Nov.
1228-1225.
Migrant farm workers, New York, summer 1959.
Apr. 898-894.
Power laundries and dry-cleaning, mid-1960. Jan.
47-52.
Social welfare workers, 1960. Aug. 862-868.
Teachers, city public school, 1957-59. Mar. 259-262.
Textiles, cotton, August 1960. May 479-485.
------ dyeing and finishing, April-May 1961. Dec.
1862-1363.
------synthetic, August 1960. June 620-624White-collar occupations, winter 1960-61. Dec. 18881848.

T T uinT i «si'fllpQ*

Building Trades, 1960. May 513-516.
Local City Trucking, 1960. May 516-518.
Local-Transit Operating Employees, 1960.
268-265.
Printing Industry, 1960. June 625-628.

Mar.

Miscellaneous

The President’s Program for Economic Recovery and
Growth. Mar. 270-272.
A Case Study of Variables in Retirement Policy. June
587-591.
Plan for Equal Job Opportunity at Lockheed Aircraft
Corp. July 748-749.
The Finances of Welfare and Pension Plans During 1959.
Sept. 985-938.
The International Labor Conference of 1961. Sept.
944-950.
UMWA Welfare and Retirement Fund Report. Oct. 1105.
DEPARTMENTS (regular features'!

Book Reviews and Notes. Each issue. See list of Book
Reviews, pp. 1381-1890 of this index.
Chronology of Recent Labor Events. Each issue.
Decisions in Labor Cases, Significant. See list of case
citations under Court Decisions and National Labor
Relations Board Cases, pp. 1367-1871 of this index.
Industrial Relations, Developments in. Each issue.
Labor Month in Review. Each issue.
Statistical Supplement, 1960, to Review. Issued as
separate report.
Statistics, Current Labor. See Statistical Series, pp.
1391-1488 of this index.
BOOK REVIEWS (listed by author of book)

Aaron, Benjamin. Legal Status of Employee Benefit
Rights Under Private Pension Plans. Oct. 1126-1127.
Allen, V. L. Trade Unions and the Government. Sept.
1016-1017.
American Management Association. Optimum Use of
Engineering Talent: Meeting the Need for Technical
Personnel. Oct. 1134Baritz, Loren. The Servants of Power: A History of the
Use of Social Science in American Industry. Mar. 298.
Barron, Milton L. The Aging American: An Introduc­
tion to Social Gerontology and Geriatrics. Sept. 1017—
1018.
Bator, Francis M. The Question of Government Spend­
ing: Public Needs and Private Wants. July 782-783.
Beaumont, Richard A. and James W. Tower. Executive
Retirement and Effective Management. Nov. 12581259.
Bernstein, Irving. The Lean Years: A History of the
American Worker, 1920-1933. Feb. 189.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Black, James M. Developing Competent Subordinates.
Dec. 1385.
Boulding, Kenneth E. and W. Allen Spivey. Linear
Programming and the Theory of the Firm. Sept. 10191020.
Bowen, William G. Wage Behavior in the Postwar
Period—An Empirical Analysis. June 658.
Brecher, Ruth and Edward Brecher. How to Get the
Most Out of Medical and Hospital Benefit Plans—A
Program for Labor and Management. Oct. 1125-1126.
Brightbill, Charles K. Man and Leisure: A Philosophy
of Recreation. Nov. 1255.
Brown, E. H. Phelps. The Growth of British Industrial
Relations: A Study From the Standpoint of 1906-14.
Feb. 189-190.
Bry, Gerhard. Wages in Germany, 1871-1945. Apr.
417-418.
Buckingham, Walter. Automation: Its Impact on Busi­
ness and People. Aug. 891-892.
California, University of, Institute of Industrial Relations.
Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy & Society.
Dec. 1881-1382.
Commission on Money and Credit. Money and Credit—
Their Influence on Jobs, Prices, and Growth. Dec.
1883-1884.
Crook, Wilfrid H. Communism and the General Strike.
June 658-659.
Dempsey, J. R. The Operation of the Right-to-Work
Laws. July 782.
Dos Passos, John. Midcentury: A Contemporary Chron­
icle. Nov. 1259.
Draper, Theodore. American Communism and Soviet
Russia—The Formative Years. Feb. 190-191.
Dunlop, John T., ed. Potentials of the American Econ­
omy: Selected Essays of Sumner H. Slichter. June
656-657.
Fenn, Dan H., Jr. Managing America’s Economic
Explosion. Oct. 1129-1180.
Fillol, Tomás Roberto. Social Factors in Economic
Development: The Argentine Case. Sept. 1018-1014Foundation for Research on Human Behavior. Consumer
Behavior in 1961—A Summary Report. Nov. 12571258.
Galenson, Walter. Trade Union Democracy in Western
Europe. Oct. 1131-1183.
------and Seymour Martin Lipset, eds. Labor and Trade
Unionism: An Interdisciplinary Reader. Apr. 418-419.
Greenhut, Melvin L. Full Employment, Inflation, and
Common Stock. Nov. 1254-1255.
Grossman, Gregory. Soviet Statistics of Physical Output
of Industrial Commodities—Their Compilation and
Quality. Jan. 72-73.
------, ed. Value and Plan: Economic Calculation and
Organization in Eastern Europe. May 588-589.
Haber, William and Wilbur J. Cohen. Social Security:
Programs, Problems, and Policies—Selected Readings.
June 659.
Harris, Evelyn L. K. and Frank J. Krebs. From Humble
Beginnings: West Virginia State Federation of Labor,
1903-1957. May 540.
Hart, Wilson R. Collective Bargaining in the Federal
Civil Service: A Study of Labor-Management Relations
in United States Government Employment. Nov.
1253-1254.
Hickman, Bert G. Growth and Stability of the Postwar
Economy. Oct. 1128-1129.
Houn, Franklin W. To Change a Nation: Propaganda
and Indoctrination in Communist China. Dec.
1386-1387.
lulo, William. Electric Utilities—Costs and Performance:
A Study of Inter-Utility Differences in the Unit Electric
Costs of Privately Owned Electric Utilities. Dec.
1882-1883.
Jenks, C. Wilfred. Human Rights and International
Labor Standards. Aug. 896.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961

1432
Kagel, Sam. Anatomy of a Labor Arbitration. Aug.
894-895.
Katona, George. The Powerful Consumer: Psychological
Studies of the American Economy. Jan. 70.
Kerr, Clark, John T. Dunlop, Frederick H. Harbison,
Charles A. Myers. Industrialism and Industrial Man:
The Problems of Labor and Management in Economic
Growth. Mar. 294.
Kish, George. Economic Atlas of the Soviet Union.
Aug. 896-897.
Knoellinger, Carl Erik. Labor in Finland. July 781.
Kuznets, Simon. Six Lectures on Economic Growth.
Jan. 70-72.
Leiby, James. Carroll Wright and Labor Reform: The
Origin of Labor Statistics. Apr. 416.
Lichtenberg, Robert M. One Tenth of a Nation: National
Forces in the Economic Growth of the New York
Region. Mar. 294-295.
Livernash, E. Robert and others. Collective Bargaining
in the Basic Steel Industry: A Study of the Public
Interest and the Role of Government. July 780-781.
Lofquist, Lloyd H. and George W. England. Problems in
Vocational Counseling: The Application of Research
Findings. Dec. 1384-1385.
Macdonald, D. F. The State and the Trade Unions.
Sept. 1016-1017.
Maloney, P. W. Management’s Talent Search: Recruit­
ing Professional Personnel. Oct. 1133.
Meyer, F. V. The European Free-Trade Association—
An Analysis of “ The Outer Seven.” Aug. 894Meyers, Frederic. European Coal Mining Unions: Struc­
ture and Function. Oct. 1131-1133.
Michigan, University of, Survey Research Center. 1960
Survey of Consumer Finances. Nov. 1257-1258.
Moore, Wilber E. and Arnold S. Feldman, eds. Labor
Commitment and Social Change in Developing Areas.
Sept. 1014-1015.
Muller, Leo C. and Ouida G. Muller. New Horizons for
College Woman. Sept. 1018-1019.
Myrdal, Gunnar. Beyond the Welfare State: Economic
Planning and Its International Implications. Apr.
416-417.
National Bureau of Economic Research. Output, Input,
and Productivity Measurement. Nov. 1255-1257.
------. Trends in the American Economy in the Nineteenth
Century. Sept. 1015-1016.
Nelson, Eastin, ed. Economic Growth—Rationale, Prob­
lems, Cases. Sept. 1013-1014Neufeld, Maurice F. Italy: School for Awakening Coun­
tries—The Italian Labor Movement in Its Political,
Social, and Economic Setting From 1800 to 1960. Oct.
1131-1133.
Orleans, Leo A. Professional Manpower and Education in
Communist China. Nov. 1252-1253.
Patterson, Edwin W. Legal Protection of Private Pension
Expectations. Oct. 1126-1127.
Pelling, Henry. American Labor. Apr. 418-419.
Salant, Walter S. and Beatrice N. Vaccara. Import
Liberalization and Employment: The Effects of Unilat­
eral Reductions in United States Import Barriers.
Aug. 892-894Salter, W. E. G. Productivity and Technical Change.
Aug. 892.
Sherman, Herbert L., Jr. Arbitration of the Steel Wage
Structure. Aug. 894-895.
Shultz, George P. and Thomas L. Whisler. Management
Organization and the Computer. Sept. 1020.
Slichter, Sumner H., James J. Healy, E. Robert Livernash.
The Impact of Collective Bargaining on Management.
July 779-780.
Somers, Herman Miles and Anne Ramsay Somers. Doc­
tors, Patients, and Health Insurance: The Organization
and Financing of Medical Care. Nov. 1251-1252.
Sonne, H. Christian. Supplementary Statement to the
Report of the Commission on Money and Credit.
Dec. 1383-1384-


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Stark, Harry. Social and Economic Frontiers in Latin
America. Oct. 1130-1131.
Strand, Kenneth T. Jurisdictional Disputes in Con­
struction: The Causes, the Joint Board, and the NLRB.
Oct. 1127-1128.
Theobald, Robert. The Challenge of Abundance. Dec.
1386.
Uhr, Carl G. Economic Doctrines of Knut Wickseil.
June 660—661.
Vernon, Raymond. Metropolis 1985: An Interpretation
of the Findings of the New York Metropolitan Region
Study. Mar. 294-295.
Wilson, Thomas. Inflation. Aug. 895.
Wunderlich, Frieda. Farm Labor in Germany, 18101945—Its Historical Development Within the Frame­
work of Agricultural and Social Policy. May 540-541.
COURT DECISIONS
Fair Labor Standards Act

Goldberg v. Sorvas, d.b.a. Merit Protective Service
Ct. of App.). Nov. 1241-1242.
Goldberg v. Whitaker House Cooperative (U.S.
Ct.). July 768-769.
Kletjian, d.b.a. University Cleaning Co. v. Mitchell
Ct. of App.). Apr. 405-406.
Mitchell v. Dooley Bros. (U.S. Ct. of App.). Apr.

(U.S.
Sup.
(U.S.
405-

406 .

Mitchell v. Turner and Citizens and Southern Bank
(U.S. Ct. of App.). Mar. 285.
Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act

Goldberg v. Battles (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Oct. 1111-1112.
Goldberg v. Truck Drivers Local 299, Teamsters (U.S.
Ct. of App.). Nov. 1237-1238.
Hughes v. Local 11, Bridge, Structural and Ornamental
Iron Workers (U.S. Ct. of App.). July 767-768.
Serio v. Liss of Local 478, Teamsters (U.S. Dist. Ct.).
Mar. 284-285.
Teamsters, Local 107 v. Cohen (U.S. Ct. cf App.). Jan. 62.
National Labor Relations Act

Agricultural worker exclusion. NLRB v. Central Okla­
homa Milk Producers Association (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Apr. 404-405.
Bargaining:
Allen Bradley Co. v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Apr. 403.
NLRB v. Lassing, d.b.a. Consumers’ Gasoline
Station (U.S. Ct. of App.). Mar. 283-284Sylvania Electric Products v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of
App.). Sept. 1000-1001.
Discrimination. Pittsburgh-Des Moines Steel Co. v.
NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.). Feb. 177-178.
Dues reimbursement:
Carpenters, Local 60 v. NLRB (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
June 641—642.
NLRB V. Cadillac Wire Corp. and Steel Metals,
Alloys and Hardware Fabricators and Warehouse­
men, Local 810, Teamsters (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Aug. 879-880.
Federal-State jurisdiction. Wood, Wire and Metal
Lathers, Local 345 v. Babcock Co. (Fla. Dist. Ct. of
App.). Dec. 1368-1369.
Hiring authority of union foremen. NLRB v. News
Syndicate Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). June 643-644Hiring halls:
Carpenters, Local 60 v. NLRB (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
June 641—642.
NLRB v. Longshoremen and Warehousemen, Local
10 (U.S. Ct. of App.). Feb. 179-180.
Teamsters, Local 357 v. NLRB (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
June 642-643.

INDEX TO VOLUME 84
Hot cargo:
Kennedy [NLRB] v. Construction, Production and
Maintenance Laborers (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Oct. 11091110 .

Knapp [NLRB] v. Rochester Building and Construc­
tion Trades Council (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Oct. 11091110.

Jurisdictional disputes:
Hod Carriers, Local 33 v. Mason Tenders District
Council of Greater New York (U.S. Dist. Ct.).
Jan. 60-61.
NLRB v. Local 1212, International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Mar. 282-283.
Penello [NLRB] v. Local 59, Sheet Metal Workers
(U.S. Dist. Ct.). Sept. 999-1000.
Minority union. Ladies’ Garment Workers v. NLRB
(U.S. Sup. Ct.). Aug. 878-879.
NLRB authority:
International Telephone and Telegraph Corp. v.
NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.). Nov. 1288-1289.
NLRB v. Guernsey-Muskingum Electric Cooperative
(U.S. Ct. of App.). Apr. 404.
Picketing:
Graham [NLRB] v. Retail Clerks, Local 57 (U.S.
Dist. Ct.). Jan. 59-60.
Penello [NLRB] v. Retail Clerks, Local 692 (U.S.
Dist. Ct.). Jan. 58-59.
NLRB v. Local 239, Teamsters (U.S. Ct. of App.).
July 766-767.
Secondary boycott:
International Union of Electrical Workers, Local 761
v. NLRB (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Aug. 879.
Kennedy [NLRB] v. Construction, Production and
Maintenance Laborers (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Oct. 11091110.

Knapp [NLRB] v. Rochester Building and Construc­
tion Trades Council (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Oct. 11091110.

Steelworkers, Local 4203 v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.).
July 765-766.
Union general laws in contracts:
NLRB v. News Syndicate Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). June
643-644.
Typographical Union, Locals 38 and 165 v. NLRB
(U.S. Sup Ct.). June 644- 645 .
Union security. NLRB v. Lexington Electric Products Co.
and Local 3, International Brotherhood of Electrical
Workers (U.S. Ct. of App.). Feb. 178-179.
Railway Labor Act

Machinists v. Street (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Sept. 998-999.
System Federation No. 91, Railway Employes’ Depart­
ment v. Wright (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Apr. 402-403.
Unemployment Compensation

Ankrum v. Employment Security Agency (Idaho Sup. Ct.).
Oct. 1112-1114.
Communist Party, U.S.A. v. Catherwood (U.S. Sup.
Ct.). Aug. 881.
Gregory v. Anderson (Wis. Sup. Ct.). Sept. 1003-1004.
Jewell v. Unemployment Compensation Commission and
Chrysler Corp. (Del. Super. Ct.). Dec. 1871.
M atter of Louis A. Ferrara (N.Y. Ct. of App.). Aug.
881-882.
Pittsburgh Pipe and Coupling Co. v. Board of Review
(Pa. Sup. Ct.). Feb. 180-181.
Reynolds Metals Co. v. Thorne (Ala. Ct. of App.). Dec.
1370-1371.
Susquehanna Collieries Division of M. A. Hanna Co. v.
Unemployment Compensation Board of Review (Pa.
' Sup. Ct.). Nov. 1239-1241.
Wiley v. U.C. Board of Review (Pa. Super. Ct.). Sept.
1008.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1433
Miscellaneous

Cafeteria and Restaurant Workers, Local 473 v. McElroy
(U.S. Sup. Ct.). Sept. 1001-1002.
Horton v. Liberty Mutual Insurance Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
Sept. 1004-1005.
Maintenance of Way Employes v. U.S. (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
July 765.
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD CASES

Bargaining: Precrete, Inc. and Thomas Monahan, 132
NLRB No. 91. Nov. 1238.
Bargaining unit. American Cyanimid Co. and Pensacola
Building and Construction Trades Council, 131 NLRB
No. 125. Aug. 880.
Hot cargo:
American Feed Co. and Local 210, Teamsters, 133
NLRB No. 23. Dec. 1369.
Lithographers and Local 17 and Employing Lithog­
raphers, 130 NLRB No. 102. June 645-647.
Lithographers and Local 78 and Employing Lithogra­
phers of Greater Miami and Miami Post Co., 130
NLRB No. 107. June 645-647.
NLRB jurisdiction. West India Fruit & Steamship Co.
and Seafarers, Atlantic and Gulf District, 130 NLRB
No. 46. May 527-529.
Picketing:
Hod Carriers, Local 840, and C. A. Blinne Construc­
tion Co., 130 NLRB No. 69. May 524.
Hod Carriers, Local 41, and Calumet Contractors’
Association, 133 NLRB No. 57. Dec. 1369.
Hotel & Restaurant Employees, Locals 89 and 1,
and Stork Restaurant, 130 NLRB No. 67. Mau
525.
Local Joint Executive Board of Hotel & Restaurant
Employees and Crown Cafeteria, 130 NLRB No.
68. May 524-525.
Teamsters, Local 705, and Cartage and Terminal
Management Corp., 130 NLRB No. 70. May
525-526.
Secondary boycott. Teamsters, Local 537, and Lohman,
d.b.a. Lohman Sales Co., 132 NLRB No. 67. Oct. 11101111.

Seniority. Erie Resistor Corp. and Local 613, Interna­
tional Union of Electrical Workers, 132 NLRB No. 51.
Oct. 1111.
Union security. General Motors Corp. and Automobile
Workers, 130 NLRB No. 54 and 133 NLRB No. 21
May 526-527; Dec. 1367-1868.
STATISTICAL SERIES

(Most recent 13 months and 2 annual averages)
Consumer and wholesale prices:
Consumer Price Index. All city average: All items,
groups, subgroups, and special groups of items.
Table D -l, each issue.
---- . All items and food indexes, by city. Table D-2,
each issue.
Indexes of wholesale prices. By group and subgroup
of commodities. Table D-3, each issue.
---- . For special commodity groupings. Table D-4,
each issue.
---- . By stage of processing and durability of product.
Table D—5, Jan.—July, Oct.—Dec. issues.
Earnings and hours:
Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by
industry. Table C -l, each issue.
Average overtime hours and average hourly earnings
excluding overtime of production workers in manu­
facturing, by major industry group. Table C-2,
Jan.-Nov. issues. Overtime hours, by industry.
Table C-4, Dec. issue. Hourly earnings excluding
overtime, by major industry groupJ TableiC-3,
Dec. issue.

1434
Earnings and hours—Continued
Average weekly hours, seasonally adjusted, of pro­
duction workers in selected industries. (Sept.
1960-Sept. 1961.) Table C-2, Dec. issue.
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls
in industrial and construction activities. Table
C-3, Jan.-Nov. issues; table C-5 Dec. issue.
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of pro­
duction workers in manufacturing, in current and
1947-49 dollars. Table C-4, Jan.-Nov. issues;
table C-6, Dec. issue.
Employment:
Estimated total labor force classified by employment
status, hours worked, and sex. Table A -l, each
issue.
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by in­
dustry. Table A-2, each issue.
Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricul­
tural establishments, by industry. Table A-3, each
issue.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1961
Employment—Continued
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry division and selected groups, seasonally
adjusted. (Oct. 1960-Oct. 1961.) Table A-4,
Dec. issue.
Production workers in manufacturing industries, by
major industry group, seasonally adjusted. (Oct.
1960-Oct. 1961.) Table A-5, Dec issue.
Unemployment insurance and employment service
programs, selected operations. (Most recent 13
months.) Table A-4, Jan.-Nov. issues; table A-6,
Dec. issue.
Labor turnover rates, by major industry group. Table
B -l, each issue.
Work injuries. Injury-frequency rates for selected manu­
facturing industries. (Most recent 9 quarters and 2 an­
nual averages.) Table F -l, Jan., Apr., July, Oct. issues.
Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes.
(13 most recent months and annual averages, 1935-39,
1947-49, and 1945 to 1960.) Table E -l, each issue.

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961

New Publications Available
For Sale
Order sale publications from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing
Office, Washington 25, D.C. Send check or money order, payable to the Superintendent
of Documents. Currency sent at sender’s risk. Copies may also be purchased from any
of the Bureau’s regional offices. (See inside front cover for the addresses of these offices.)

BLS Bull. 1304: Subcontracting Clauses in Major Collective Bargaining
Agreements. 33 pp. 30 cents.
BLS Bull. 1310: National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Technical,
and Clerical Pay, Winter 1960-61. 53 pp. 40 cents.
BLS Report No. 189: Labor Law and Practice in Honduras.

37 pp.

30 cents.

For Limited Free Distribution
Single copies of the reports listed below are furnished without cost as long as supplies
Permit. Write to Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington
25, D.C., or to any of the Bureau’s regional offices. (See inside front cover for the addresses
of these offices.)

BLS Report No. 205: Wage Chronology: Commonwealth Edison Co. of
Chicago, 1945-61. 16 pp.
BLS Reports (Nos. 1-200): I. Subject Classification; II. Numerical Listing.
September 1961. 16 pp.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

U n ited S t a t e s
G overnm en t P rinting O ffic e
D IV IS IO N O F P U B L I C D O C U M E N T S

W

a sh in g t o n

25, D.C.

O FFIC IA L B U S IN E S S


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

P E N A L T Y F O R P R IV A T E U S E T O A V O ID
PA Y M EN T O F P O S T A G E , » 3 0 0
(G P O )