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Contract Developments Scheduled in 1961
Work Experience of the Population in 1959
Pay Levels for White-Collar Occupations

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

James P. Mitchell, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w an C laque,

Commissioner

J. M y e r s , Deputy Commissioner

R obert

J. F it z g e r a l d , Assistant Commissioner

H

enry

H

erm an

B. B y e r , Assistant Commissioner

W. D u a n e E v a n s , Assistant Commissioner
P h il ip A r n o w ,

Assistant Commissioner

M ary S. B edell, Acting Chief, Office of Publications
Arnold E. Chase, Chief, Division of Prices and Cost of Living
H. M. D outy, Chief, Division of Wages and Industrial Relations
J oseph P . Goldrero, Special Assistant to the Commissioner
H arold Goldstein, Chief, Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics
L eon Greenrero , Chief, Division of Productivity and Technological Developments
R ichard F. J ones, Chief, Office of Management
W alter G. K eim , Chief, Office of Field Service
P aul R. K erschraum, Chief, Office of Program Planning
L awrence R. K lein , Special Assistant to the Commissioner
H yman L. L ewis , Chief, Office of Labor Economics
F rank S. M cE lroy, Chief, Division of Industrial Hazards
Abe R othman, Chief, Office of Statistical Standards
W illiam C. Shelton, Chief, Division of Foreign Labor Conditions

Regional Offices and Directors
NEW ENGLAND R EG IO N
W endell D. M acdonald
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M ID D LE ATLANTIC REGION
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The Monthly Labor Review is for sale by the regional offices listed above and by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D.C.—Subscription price per year—$6.25 domestic; $7.75 foreign. Price 55 cents a copy.
The distribution of subscription copies is handled by the Superintendent of Documents. Communications on editorial matters
should be addressed to the editor-in-chief.
U se o f fu n d s fo r p r in tin g th is p u b lic a tio n a p p r o v e d by th e D ir e c to r o f th e B u rea u o f th e B u d g e t (N o v e m b e r 19,1959).


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KALAMAZOO

Monthly Labor Review

U N IT E D STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR • BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ^
L a w r e n c e R. K l e i n , Editor-in-Chief
M a r y S . B e d e l l , Executive Editor

— U -4 ^ 7 -----

(on leave)

PUBLIC LIBRARY

CONTENTS

Special Articles
1257 Major Agreement Expirations and Reopenings in 1961
1268 Deferred Wage Increases and Escalator Clauses
1272 Special Labor Force Reports
1272
Work Experience of the Population in 1959

Summaries of Studies and Reports
1284
1293
1296
1301
1308

Pay Levels for Professional and Other White-Collar Occupations
Trends in Labor Legislation for Public Employees
The 10th Constitutional Convention of the Steelworkers
Wages in Structural Clay Products Manufacturing, April-June 1960
Earnings of Hotel Employees in 24 Areas, March-June 1960

Departments
in
1313
1319
1321
1326
1333
1367


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The Labor Month in Review
Significant Decisions in Labor Cases
Chronology of Recent Labor Events
Developments in Industrial Relations
Book Reviews and Notes
Current Labor Statistics
Index to Volume 83, Monthly Labor Review

December 1960 ®Voi. 83 • No.12

The Monthly Labor Review Covers the Entire Labor Field

E ach issue contains factual, inform ed sp ecial a rti­
cles on lab o r problem s a n d lab o r econom ics. In
addition, these six d ep artm en ts a re re g u la r features:
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The Labor Month in Review

★

Significant Decisions in Labor Cases

★

Chronology of Recent Labor Events

★

Developments in Industrial Relations

★

Book Reviews and Notes

★

Current Labor Statistics

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The Labor Month
in Review

Secretary of Labor James P. Mitchell’s
appointment of a committee to study a job dispute
at Cape Canaveral, Fla., members of the Plumbers
union and the International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers returned to their jobs at Cape
Canaveral, Fla., after a 1-week strike at the end
of November. The strikers claimed that em­
ployees of the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration were doing work over which the
unions held jurisdiction. The committee will be
asked to submit recommendations to provide the
basis for a settlement, with the understanding
that any agreement will not be a precedent for
settling other jurisdictional disputes.
Jurisdictional conflict continued to afflict other
missile bases. Earlier in the month, a conflict
between the International Association of Ma­
chinists and the Plumbers at the new Convair
Astronautics Division plant near San Diego had
led to the I AM’s cancellation of an 8-year agree­
ment for arbitrating all disputes between the two
unions. The Defense Department announced
that 78,000 man-days were lost as a result of work
stoppages at missile bases in the year ended
June 30. The department has conferred with
union leaders on this subject and AFL-CIO Presi­
dent George Meany has been trying to find a
formula for eliminating jurisdictional disputes
among the Federation’s affiliates, but little
progress has been evident.
U pon

of helping develop fair
and just relationships in the field of labor-manage­
ment relations and contributing to the general
welfare, a committee of the National Council of
Churches made an intensive study of the 1959
steel strike that was published late in November.
In its recommendations, the committee opposed
any legal prohibition on the right to strike or to
conduct collective bargaining on an industrywide
basis, but asserted that social relationships in this
W ith the objectives


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country had reached the stage where “work
stoppages will increasingly be felt to have out­
lived their usefulness.” The members endorsed
recent proposals for equipping the Government
with a variety of methods for handling emergency
disputes so that it could be more flexible in specific
situations. The committee rejected the concept
of compulsory arbitration as a technique and also
contended that the Government should enter only
those disputes in which such action was essential
to safeguard the public interest.
P r esid en t David J. McDonald of the Steel­
workers and K. Conrad Cooper of U.S. Steel
announced that the joint committee to study local
working conditions problems which, under the
contract signed in January, was to make its report
and recommendations by November 30, would not
meet that deadline. Their statement said they
had not yet finished the “exploration” period.
Steelworkers covered under the January 1960
contracts received deferred increases averaging
9.4 cents an hour on December 1. A potential
cost-of-living increase was being arbitrated under
contract terms which made the granting of a
maximum 3-cent cost-of-living increase contin­
gent upon insurance costs between the contract
signing and the quarter ending June 30, 1961.
Union and management had been unable to agree
within the 30 days allotted by the contract upon
the estimated projections of insurance costs.
However, over a million workers in automotive,
aircraft, and related industries received escalator
increases in December as a result of a rise in the
Consumer Price Index to 127.3 percent of its
1947-49 level in October. About 975,000 re­
ceived 2 cents and about 80,000 gained 1 cent.
U pon the heels of the Mechanization and Mod­
ernization Agreement between the Pacific Maritime
Association and the International Longshoremen’s
and Warehousemen’s Union, the New York
Shipping Association and the International Long­
shoremen’s Association adopted a scale for royalty
payments to the ILA on container cargoes. An
arbitration board announced on November 22
that payments would range from 35 cents to $1 a
gross ton on containers filled or emptied away
from piers by non-ILA labor. Payments were to
be retroactive to July 1, and to continue to the
expiration of the contract on September 30, 1962,
in

IV

with either party having the right to seek an
adjustment in October 1961. In exchange for
arbitration of the question of compensation for
containerized cargo, the ILA agreed in the 1959
negotiations to do away with “ stripping” cargo
containers—unloading and reloading them on the
pier. Alexander Chopin, chairman of the shipping
association, said that the award cleared the way
for greater use of container operations and esti­
mated that there would be no job losses as a
result, since containerization should result in
increased business and more work opportunities.
Thomas W. Gleason, labor member of the arbitra­
tion board, said that the royalty payments should
be extended to all Atlantic and Gulf ports. The
greatest immediate impact was expected to be in
trade with Puerto Rico, in which container cargoes
account for about one-half of the general cargo
transported by ship. The benefits and adminis­
tration of the fund accumulated from the payments
were still to be negotiated by the parties.
A 4-month strike by Local 1 of the Elevator
Constructors Union in New York City, which had
seriously hampered construction, ended on Decem­
ber 3 when union members voted 1,030 to 348 to
accept a 3-year contract. Under the settle­
ment, workers were to receive a 25-cent-an-hour
wage increase each year, except that in the first
year operators will receive $1.26 a year to bring
them up to the mechanics’ scale. The employers
were authorized to hire about 6 percent of their
workers outside the union hiring hall, but they
were unable to obtain a clause permitting free
use of prefabricated equipment, which they had
sought.
The United Auto Workers swallowed a second
defeat at the Sikorsky Division plants of United
Aircraft early in November. Last summer, the
union lost a 3-month strike at the division’s plants
in Stratford and Bridgeport, Conn. A decertifi­
cation election had been sought before the strike
ended, and the vote announced in November
removed about 5,000 employees from UAW
representation. An independent union is now
attempting to organize the group.
T he Sun Valley, Fla., real estate venture of
Teamster President James R. Holla, which was
first given publicity during the McClellan com­


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

mittee hearings, became the basis for indictment
of Ploffa and two associates on December 7.
Henry Lower, president of Sun Valley, Inc., and
former president of a Detroit Teamster local, and
Robert E. McCarthy, Jr., former branch manager
of the Bank of Commonwealth in Detroit, were
indicted along with Hoffa by a Federal grand jury
in Orlando, Fla. The indictment charged that
the three had devised a way to defraud four
Detroit labor organizations and others of more
than half a million dollars by inducing them
through false pretenses and promises to purchase
land from Sun Valley.
Maurice Hutcheson, president of the Brother­
hood of Carpenters, and William O. Blaier, a union
vice president, were sentenced on November 28 to
2 to 14 years in prison and fines of $250 each for
their activities in an Indiana highway land scandal.
Frank M. Chapman, union treasurer, who (as
reported last month) was also convicted in the
same trial, died before the sentencing. The Car­
penters’ Executive Board declared that the con­
victions resulted from a “ climate of intense
antiunionism” in the State and that the men
would be “ completely vindicated when the record
of this case is considered in the calm judicial
atmosphere of the Indiana Supreme Court.”
A threatened strike on the Canadian railroads
was prohibited at the last moment by emergency
legislation that became effective on December 2.
The law required the 110,000 nonoperating railroad
workers to postpone strike action at least until
May 15, 1961, when a Royal Commission studying
the railroad freight rate structure is expected to
hand down its findings. The Canadian National
Railways and the Canadian Pacific Railway Co.
had refused to accept a 14-cent-an-hour wage
increase in a 2-year contract recommended by a
conciliation board. The union had agreed to the
board’s recommendation.
Unemployment reached 4 million in the month
of November, amounting to a seasonally adjusted
rate of 6.3 percent of the labor force which was the
highest rate since December 1958. During the
month, nine more areas were added to those major
production and employment centers with more
than 6-percent unemployment—which now in­
cludes a third of the 150 centers surveyed by the
Department of Labor’s Bureau of Employment
Security.

Major Agreement
Expirations and
Reopenings in 1961
C o r d e l ia T . W a r d *

in the automobile industry are
likely to be of major interest among the important
collective bargaining developments expected in
1961. Agreements in this industry are due to
expire in August and September. Other industries
where contracts are to be renegotiated in the
course of the year are trucking (January), rubber
(April through June), meatpacking (August), and
machinery (September). Altogether, two-fifths
of the agreements for bargaining units of 5,000 or
more workers, affecting a total of about 2 million
workers, are due to expire in 1961. Most of the
remaining major contracts provide for either previ­
ously agreed upon deferred wage increases or
possible cost-of-living adjustments, or they permit
reopenings on wages.
The U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of
Labor Statistics has in its file of agreements, or
from published reports, information on 343 col­
lective bargaining contracts covering 5,000 or
more workers each.1 These agreements, which
represent virtually all of the contracts of this size
in the United States, cover nearly 6 million work­
ers, or about a third of all workers under collective
bargaining. Of these agreements, 291, involving
5.3 million workers, will be in effect on January 1,
1961. Fifty-two agreements were to expire by
December 31, 1960, and settlements had not been
reached at the time this article was completed.
Included in this group are major agreements in the
airline industry for nonflying personnel and the
agreement between the General Electric Co. and
the International Union of Electrical Workers.2
As a result, this article deals with the status of
the 291 agreements known to be effective on
January 1, 1961.
N egotiations


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The overwhelming majority of major agree­
ments which will be in effect January 1, 1961,
were negotiated for 2- to 3-year terms (table 1).
Only 35 of the 285 agreements of fixed duration
will be in effect for longer periods, including 17 for
5 years.
All but 22 of the 291 major agreements provided
for possible wage adjustments by including
deferred wage increases or cost-of-living clauses,
or by permitting wage reopenings either at a fixed
date or under specified conditions. Frequently,
and particularly in long-term agreements, more
than one type of wage adjustment was stipulated,
as the following tabulation indicates:
Agreements

Wage reopening only___________
Escalator clause only___________
Deferred increase only__________
Wage reopening and escalator
clause_______________________
Wage reopening and deferred in­
crease_______________________
Escalator clause and deferred in­
crease___________
Wage reopening, escalator clause,
and deferred increase_________

Workers

60
1
98

1, 436, 200
12, 500
1, 121, 200

1

7, 000

29

553, 800

70

1, 555, 200

10

224, 500

Possible wage adjustment in 1961 may result
from contract reopenings provided in 66 agree­
ments. Under the terms of 19 of these agree­
ments, wage negotiations may take place in event
of a stipulated “change in the purchasing power
of the dollar” or other significant economic changes.
The other 47 agreements establish a specific
reopening date or the date at which a wage increase,
if agreed upon, is to go into effect (table 2).
Adjustments in wages resulting from changes in
the BLS Consumer Price Index may be in store
for 1.6 million workers covered by 75 agreements,
primarily in the aircraft, automobile, and steel
industries. The primary metals industry—to­
gether with aircraft, shipbuilding, railroads (oper­
ating employees), and construction—comprises
•Of the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
i
Although the Bureau does not collect railroad and airline agreements,
information for four key railroad and five airline bargaining situations has
been included in this study.
s At the time this article was completed (October 20, 1960), newspapers
reported a 3-year agreement between QE and the IUE which, in addition to
a 3-percent wage increase effective ‘’immediately,” included one of the follow­
ing three options to be selected by the union: (1) a 3 percent wage Increase in
April 1962, an eighth paid holiday, and a fourth week of vacation after 25 years;
(2) a 4-percent increase in April 1962; or (3) a wage reopening in April 1962.
By November 10, the IUE left it to the discretion of local unions to choose
either option (1) or option (2).

1257

1258
T

able

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
1.

D

u r a t io n , 1

W a g e - R e o p e n in g ,
M ore W

and

W a g e - A d j u s t m e n t P r o v i s io n s
E f f e c t J a n u a r y 1, 1961

T otals 2
Duration

A g r e e m e n t s C o v e r in g

Wage reopening

Agreements

Automatic cost-of-living
review

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

291

5,312.6

100

2,221. 5

82

1,799.2

207

1 year................................. ..................
Over 1 and less than 2 years...........
2 years______ ________ ______ _____ _
Over 2 and less than 3 years_______
3 years_______________ ___________ _
Over 3 and less than 4 years........ ........
4 years_________________________
Over 4 and less than 5 years..............
5 years.................................................................
Over 5 years____________________
Open end (no fixed term)4................

8
17
80
44
101
3
3
4
17

71.6
161.2
933.4
1,285. 7
1, 288.3
19.0
48.5
30.6
269.6
213.3
991.4

3
15
4
47
2
2
2
13

37.0
185.3
32.5
716.3
14.0
42 0
li.i
184.6
213.3
785.4

3
16
33
19
2

29.0
171. 5
1,183. 5
180.7
14.0

9
63
42
60
3

1

9. 5

3
14

8
6

2.

P r o v i s io n s

fo r

5,000

W orkers
(thousands)3
3,454. 7
7 *

8

4

1 In classifying agreements by duration for this study, a 1-month leeway
was observed; e.g., agreements with terms of 23 or 25 months were grouped
with agreements of 2 years’ duration.
2 Sums of individual wage provision items may exceed totals, since agree­
ments frequently provide for more than one wage action. Possible wage
a ble

or

Deferred wage increase

Total.................................. ..................

T

5,000

Agreements with provisions for

Number of
workers
(thousands)

Number of
agreements

of

o r k e r s , in

2
6

20.0

191 0

71.1
720 0

1,261. 7
' 027 5

19! 0

25.1
247. 5
9,12 3
213! 5

8

i

reopenings, automatic cost-of-living reviews, and deferred increases scheduled
prior to termination date are counted for contracts terminating in 1961.
3 Refers to all workers covered by agreements, including instances where
deferred increases were granted to specific groups or occupations only.
4 Subject to negotiation at any time.

T e r m i n a t i o n , W a g e R e o p e n i n g , o r W a g e A d j u s t m e n t i n 1961, i n A g r e e m e n t s C o v e r in g
M o r e W o r k e r s i n E f f e c t J a n u a r y 1 , 1961, b y I n d u s t r y G r o u p

or

Agreements with provisions in 1961 for—
Current
agreements
available 1
Industry

Wage reopening
Termination

Specific wage
reopening

Possible wage
reopening

Automatic
cost-of-living
review

Deferred wage
increase

Current
agreements not
available

Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Work­
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
Agree­ ers
ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­ ments (thou­
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands)
sands) 2
sands)
All industries.
Manufacturing.
Ordnance and accessories_______________
Food and kindred products_____________
Tobacco manufactures____ _____________
Textile-mill products__________________
Apparel______________________________
Lumber and wood products (except fur­
niture) .........................................................
Paper and allied products______________
Printing, publishing, and allied industries..
Chemicals and allied products___________
Products of petroleum and coal...................
Rubber and miscellaneous plastics products.
Leather and leather products____________
Stone, clay, and glass products__________
Primary metal industries...............................
Fabricated metal products............................
Machinery (except electrical).......................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
su p p lies............................................ .......
Transportation equipment............................
Instruments and related products________
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries___
Nonmanufacturing.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

117 1,966.7

147 2,587.1

65 1,294.8

16.5
165.4
5.8
39.3
322.7
30.0
33.0
22.8

13.7
19.1
84.5
19.0
42.2
489.1
51.3
147.5
146.6
916.1
16.5
6.0

2,725.5

Mining, crude-petroleum, and natural-gas
production..................................................
Transportation (except railroads and air­
lin es)..._________ _______ __________
Railroads and airlines *_________________
Communications................................. ...........
Utilities: Electric and gas_______________
Wholesale and retail trade______________
Hotels and restaurants...................................
Services______________________________
Construction...............................................
1 See footnote 2, table 1.

291 5,312.6

9
8

79.9
5.8
26.0
133.8

2
1
2

30.0
13.0
10.3

2

19.1
84.5

1

3

5

8

13.9
20.5
14.0
131.5

5
11
1

57.7
645.3
9.5

52

2

3
2

47 1,438.7

19

230.8

75 1, 599.2

52

585.4

208.5

15

193.0

68 1, 538.9

64

959.2

20

258.9

16 6
34! 5

2
4

16 5
78.5

1

10.0

7

84.0

1

5.0

10

2
4
1
1

5.3
125.0

1

20.0

2

3

16.0
47.9

1
1

4
2
1

9.6
79.5
11 n

6.2

1
2

475.1

3
3
22

75
13.7

5.5

8

135 9

3
2

28 3
477 6
37 3
16.0

1

37 3

2

23.4
800 5
9.5

5

25
1

21

258.8

2

120 2
15.7

10.0
22
3

3
3
1

119 1,877.2

23.2
28.0
7.0

1
1

6.0

1

60

671.9

37 1,230.2

4

37.8

7

60.3

55

918.0

32

326.5

17

335.2

15.0

4

28.3

10

174.8
213 6

2

20.5

70.1
44.9
43.9
15.0
56.1
106.7

3
2
21
1

1

6
4
6
I
5
13

13.0

206.0
481.0
770.5
349.1
78.5
111.4
127.3
107.1
494.6

* See footnote 3, table 1.

3 See text footnote 1.

5
1
4

54.0
770.5
255.1
13.6
35.8
9.0
92.2

2

1

14.9

7.9

2

20 0

1

12.0

1
1
1

8
5
1

28

23 9

7
7

5.1

67 5
64.5
12 0
356.7

84.5
12.4

1
13

66
114.0

MAJOR AGREEMENT EXPIRATIONS AND REOPENINGS
T able 3.
ments

E xpiration D ates S pecified in 291 A gree­
Covering 5,000 or M ore W orkers 1

Year and month

Num­ Number
ber of
of
agree­ workers
ments (thou­
sands)

Total------------------

291

5,312.6

1961_____________

117

1,966.7

January______
February..........
M arch..............
April________
M ay_________
June_________
July................
August____ _
September........
October.—.......
November____
December____

10
7
6
10
22
10
3
11
14
8
6
10

237.4
138.9
58.5
97.7
205.6
97.8
22.0
676.0
184.3
76.3
62.1
110.1

1962_____________

123

1,688. 4

January______
February_____
M arch_______
April................
M ay_________
J u n e ..............

3
7
10
15
17
38

19.2
111.0
81.3
210.3
213.8
663.9

July. --------August. _____
September____
October
November____
December____

10
7
8

80.9
96.8
112.1

5
3

55.6
43.5

1963____ ________

37

586.8

January-June..

23

366.6

July-December.

14

220.2

1964_____________
1966_____________
1969_____________
Open end 3_______

6
1
1
6

57.0
17.0
5.3
991.4

Significant contract expirations

Trucking.
Women’s dresses.
Rubber.
Cotton garments; rubber.
Rubber; maritime.
Meatpacking; automobiles.
Machinery; automobiles; maritime.
Electrical products.
Tobacco.

Construction.
Construction.
Steel and aluminum; aircraft; ship­
building.
Maritime.

Shipbuilding; communications; men’s
clothing.
Communications; electrical prod­
ucts.

Railroads; coal.

* Based on agreements known to be in effect on January 1, 1961. For
62 situations, covering 585,400 workers, agreements effective in 1961 were
not available.
» Subject to negotiation at any time.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1259

the bulk of the workers scheduled to receive a
specified wage increase of a deferred nature,
frequently referred to as an “annual productivity
increase” or an “annual improvement factor.”
Of the 117 agreements expiring in 1961, the
largest number (42) expire in the second quarter,
but the largest number of workers—over 880,000—
are affected by terminations in the third quarter
(table 3). The Labor Management Relations
(Taft-Hartley) Act of 1947 requires that a party
to an agreement desiring to terminate or modify
it shall serve written notice upon the other party
60 days before the expiration date. In the
absence of such notice, many agreements provide
for the automatic continuation of the agreement,
frequently for yearly periods.
Listing of Selected Agreements

Table 4 contains a list of 143 selected bargaining
situations, each covering 5,000 or more workers,
many of which expire or may be reopened for wage
negotiations between January 1 and December 31,
1961.3 The listing also includes a number of
contracts which are not scheduled to terminate or
be reopened but which provide for wage reviews
based upon changes in living costs or specify
deferred wage increases payable during 1961. The
143 situations fisted cover 3.8 million workers.
s Space limitations preclude the listing of all major contracts under which
some action in 1961 is scheduled. No contracts in the construction industry
are listed; in other industry groups, the selection of contracts is, in the main,
designed to cover a broad range of separate industries and key situations.

1260
T able 4.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
E xpiration, R eopening,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions of
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611

Selected Collective B argaining A gree­

Order of Listing

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

Steel and aluminum
Fabricated metal products
Machinery
Electrical products
Automobiles
Aircraft
Shipbuilding
Controlling instruments
Rubber
Chemicals

Company or association1

Manufacturing
11. Petroleum
12. Stone, clay, and glass products
13. Lumber
14. Paper
15. Printing and publishing
16. Textiles
17. Apparel
18. Food products
19. Tobacco

Union»

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.

Nonmanufacturing, exclusive of construction and mining
Railroads
Local transit
Trucking and warehousing
Maritime
Telephone and telegraph
Electric and gas utilities
Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and real estate
Hotels and restaurants

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term <
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review4

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

1. Steel and Aluminum
Aluminum Co. of America. Aluminum; and
Steelworkers.
Bethlehem Steel Co______ Steelworkers____
Cast Iron Soil Pipe and
Fittings Manufacturers’
Negotiating Committee.
Chicago
Foundrymen’s
Association and inde­
pendent companies (Illi­
nois).
Jones & Laughlin Steel
Corp. (Ohio and Penn­
sylvania).
Kaiser Aluminum and
Chemical Corp.
Kaiser Steel Corp. (Fon­
tana, Calif.)
Republic Steel Corp_____

20, 700
82,800

Aug. 1959 to
July 1962.
Jan. I960 to
June 1962.
Feb. 1960 to
Dec. 1961.

Semiannually
Aug. 1, 1961; increase varies by
(Feb. and Aug.),
location.
Oct. 1, 1961............ Oct. 1, 1961; 7-10 cents.

Molders...............

9, 000

------do....... ............

5,000

May 1959 to
Apr. 1961.

Steelworkers___

27, 000

Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.

Oct. 1, 1961.

------do........... ......

5,000

........do..... ............

6,500

Semiannually
Aug. 1, 1961; 7-13 cents.
(Feb. and Aug.)
Jan. 1, 1961............

....... do...................

51, 000

Aug. 1959 to
July 1962.
Oct. 1959 to
June 1961.
Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.
Jan. 1960 to
June 1962.

Jan. 3 and July 1, 1961; 3'cents.

United States Steel Corp. ........do................... 125, 000
(production and mainte­
nance).
Youngstown Sheet and ........do................... 24, 500 Jan. 1960 to
Tube Co.
June 1962.

Oct. 1, 1961; 7-10 cents.

Oct. 1, 1961.

Oct. 1, 1961; 7-9.8 cents.

Oct. 1, 1961.

Oct. 1,1961; 7-10 cents.

Oct. 1, 1961.

Oct. 1, 1961; 7-10 cents.

2. Fabricated Metal Products
American Can Co.......... .

Steelworkers____

18, 000

Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.

Semiannually
(Apr. and Oct.).

Oct. 1, 1961: 7-10.8 cents for
hourly rated employees;
$2.80-$4.72 per week for
salaried employees.

California Métal Trades Machinists_____
Association.
Continental Can Co., Inc— Steelworkers........

6, 000
13,600

June 1959 to
Mar. 1961.
Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.

Semiannually
(Apr. and Oct.).

Oct. 1,1961: Job classes 1 and'2,
7 cents per hour; all others
will be increased by 7 cents
and adjusted to reflect an
0.2-cent per-hour increase in
increments between job
classes.

3. Machinery
Allis-Chalmers Manufac­ Auto Workers__
turing Co. (West Allis,
Wis.).
Automotive Tool and Die ----- do_________
Manufacturers Associa­
tion (Detroit, Mich.).
Caterpillar Tractor Co. ----- do____ ____ _
(Illinois).
Deere and Co. (Iowa and ----- do. ______
Illinois).
General Motors Corp____ International
Union of Elec­
trical Workers.
In tern atio n al H arvester Auto Workers__
Co. (production and
maintenance).
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9.000

Apr. 1959 to
Nov. 1961.

6.000

Jan. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.

16,000

Nov. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.
Nov. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.
Oct. 1958 to
Aug. 1961.

13,800
35,000
33,600

Jan. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.),
do

do
do
do

___do

1261

MAJOR AGREEMENT EXPIRATIONS AND REOPENINGS
T able 4.

E xpiration, R eopening ,

and W age-Adjustment P rovisions of Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

U nion3

Company or association 3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term *

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review 3

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

3. Machinery—Continued
5,600

Sperry Rand Corp., Rem­
ington Rand Division
(Elmira, N.Y.).

Sept. 1956 to
June 1961.
4. Electrical Products

Raytheon Manufacturing
Co. (Massachusetts).
Zenith Radio Corp. (Chi­
cago, 111.).

Brotherhood of
Electrical
Workers.
Independent Radionic Workers
of America
(Ind.).

13,000

Sept. 1958 to
Aug. 1961.

5,000

July 1959 to
June 1962.

In event the President or U.S.
Congress declares a national
emergency.
July 1, 1961.................... -..........

5. Automobiles
American Motors Corp. Auto Workers__
(Kenosha and Milwau­
kee, Wis.).
.do.
Budd C o .................. - ........

20,000

Oct. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.

11,000

Dec. 1958 to
Oct. 1961.
Oct. 1958 to
Aug. 1961.
Oct. 1958 to
Aug. 1961.
Oct. 1958 to
Aug. 1961.
Nov. 1958 to
Nov. 1961.

Chrysler Corp.............

_do.

104.000

Ford Motor Co...........

.d o .

132.000

General Motors Corp.

.do.

340.000

Studebaker-Packard Corp.
(South Bend, Ind.).

.do.

7,500

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
___ do............... —
___ do....... ...........
___ d o . . . .............
___ do..................
___ do..................

6. Aircraft
Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).

Bendix Aviation Corp.

Auto Workers—

13,000

Dec. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.

Boeing Airplane Co---------

Machinists--------

40,000

Aug. 1960 to
Sept. 1962.
Sept. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.
June 1960 to
June 1962.®

C u rtiss-W rig h t Corp. Auto Workers—
(Wood-Ridge, N.J.).
Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. Machinists_____
(Santa Monica and El
Segundo, Calif.).
Douglas Aircraft Co., Inc. Auto Workers—
(Long Beach, Calif., and
Tulsa, Okla.).
General Dynamics Corp., Machinists_____
San Diego Division of
Convair.
Lockheed Aircraft Corp. ___ do____ _____
(M arietta, Ga.).

6,000
20,000
20,800

June 1960 to
June 1962.®

21,100

June 1960 to
June 1962.®

8,000

July 1960 to
July 1962.

Lockheed Aircraft Corp., ___ do-------------California Division (Los
Angeles County, Calif.).
North American Aviation, Auto W o rk ers...
Inc.

12,000

Aug. 1960 to
July 1962.

24,900

June 1960 to
June 1962.

Machinists—........

16,000

Aug. 1960 to
Nov. 1962.«

United Aircraft Corp.,
P ratt and Whitney Air­
craft Division (Connect­
icut) .

Quarterly (Feb.,
May, Aug.,
Nov.).
Quarterly (Feb.,
May, Aug.,
Nov.).
July 3, 1961quarterly there­
after.
Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).
July 10, 1961quarterly there­
after.
Quarterly (Jan.,
Apr., July,
Oct.).
Nov. 30, 1961

Aug. 11,1961; 4.5-8 cents.
June 7,1961; 7 cents.
June 19,1961; 7 cents.
July 3, 1961; 3 cents.
July 10,1961; 7 cents.
July 10, 1961; 3 cents.
M ay 28, 1961; 7 cents.
Jan. 2,1961; 7-12 cents.

7. Shipbuilding
Bethlehem Steel Co., East Marine and
Shipbuilding.
Coast Shipbuilding Divi­
sion.
Peninsula
Ship­
Newport News Shipbuild­
builders’
ing and Dry Dock Co.
Association
(Newport News, Va.).
(Ind.).
Pacific Coast Shipbuilders.
craft unions
including
Teamsters
(Ind.).
See footnotes at end of table.
574923— 60------ 2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

14,000

June 1960 to
May 1963.

Aug. 1, 1961: hourly rates, 11
cents; piece rates, 6 percent.

1? 000

May 1960 to
May 1963.

May 22, 1961; 5-10 cents.

10,000

July 1959 to
June 1962.

July 1,1961; 9 cents.

1262
T able 4.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
E xpiration, R eopening ,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions op Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

Company or associations

Union >

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review *

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

8. Controlling Instruments
M inneapolis-H oneyw ell
Regulator Co. (Minne­
apolis and St. Paul,
Minn.).
8perry Rand Corp., Sperry
Gyroscope D ivision
(Great Neck, N.Y.,
area).

Teamsters (Ind.)_

7,000

Feb. 1960 to
Jan. 1962.

International
Union of Elec­
trical Workers.

9,500

Nov. 1956 to
May 1961.

Feb. 1, 1961........... .

Quarterly (Feb.,
May, Aug.,
Nov.).
9. Rubber

Firestone Tire and Rubber Rubber...........
Co.
B. F. Goodrich Co............ . ___ do____
Goodyear Tire and Rubber ....... do...................
Co.
United States Rubber Co.. ___ do...................

18,000
13,500
23.000
25.000

June 1959 to
Apr. 1961.
June 1959 to
June 1961.
Apr. 1959 to
Apr. 1961.
M ay 1959 to
May 1961.

At any time..............................
At anytime____________
At any time_______ ______
At any time_______ _______
10. Chemicals

American Viscose Corp.,
Fibers Division.
Dow Chemical Co. (Mid­
land, Mich.).

Textile Workers
Union.
Mine Workers,
District 50
(Ind.).

7,500
6,200

June 1959 to
June 1962.
Mar. 1959 to
Mar. 1962.

June 1,1961; 5 cents.
Quarterly (Jan.,
Apr., July,
Oct.).

Feb. 27, 1961; 9 cents.

11. Petroleum
Atlantic Refining Co .
Sinclair Oil Corp________

Atlantic Inde­
pendent Union
(Ind.).
Oil, Chemical and
Atomic.

9,600

Apr. 1959 to
Mar. 1961.

9,500

June 1959 to
June.1961.

At any time_______________

12. Stone, Clay, and Glass Products
Glass Container Manufac­
turers Institute.
Libbey-Owens-Ford Glass
Co.
Owens-Illinois Glass Co.,
glass container plants
and warehouses.
Pittsburgh Plate Glass
Co., Glass Division.

Glass Bottle......._

8,000

Glass and Ce­
ramic.
Glass Bottle____

8,500

Glass and Ce­
ramic.

10,300
10,000

Mar. 1960 to
Feb. 1962.
May 1960 to
Oct. 1961.
Apr. 1960 to
Mar. 1962.
June 1960 to
Feb. 1962.

Mar. 1, 1961; 3 percent.
Apr. 1, 1961; 3 percent.
Company and union to meet
in Feb. 1961 to discuss pos­
sible adjustments.

13. Lumber
Lumbermen’s Industrial
Relations Council, Inc.;
Plywood and Door M an­
u factu re rs In d u s tria l
Committee, Inc.; and
Willamette Valley Lum­
ber Operators Association
(Washington and Ore­
gon).

Carpenters; and
Woodworkers.

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

30,000

June 1959 to
May 1961.8

Feb. 16, 1961: minimum guar­
antee of $2.21 per hour
established; 4 cents for em­
ployees not on bonus or
incentive; and 4 cents for
employees who receive skilled
maintenance fixed premium
except at Clarksburg, W. Va.,
Henryetta, Okla., j a i M t.
Vernon, Ohio, where increase
to be determined by job
evaluation program.

1263

MAJOR AGREEMENT EXPIRATIONS AND REOPENINGS
T able 4.

E xpiration, R eopening,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions of Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

U nion8

Company or association *

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
te rm 8

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review 8

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

14. Paper
International Paper Co.,
Southern Kraft Division.

Pacific Coast Association
of Pulp and Paper Man­
ufacturers.

Papermakers
and Paperworkers; Pulp;
and Brother­
hood of Electri­
cal Workers.
Papermakers
and Paperworkers; and
Pulp.

13,000

June 1959 to
May 1961.

20,000

June 1960 to
May 1962.

June 1,1961

15. Printing and Publishing
Chicago Lithographers As­
sociation (Chicago met­
ropolitan area).
Metropolitan
Lithogra­
phers Association, Inc.,
and independent shops
(New York District).

Lithographers
(Ind.).

New York Employing
Printers Association, Inc.
Printers League Section
(New York, N.Y.).

Typographical...

5,000

M ay 1959 to
Apr. 1961.

7,500

May 1960 to
Apr. 1962

5,300

Oct. 1959 to
Oct. 1961.

May 1,1961; $5',per week for all
minimum wage scales (ex­
cept miscellaneous litho­
graphic classifications re­
ceive $4).

16. Textiles
Berkshire Hathaway, In c.. Textile Workers
Union.
Dan River Mills, Inc. United Textile
Workers.
(Danville, Va.).
Dyeing and Finishing Textile Workers
Union.
Companies (New York
and New Jersey).
United Knitwear Manu­ Ladies’ Garment.
facturers League, Inc.
(New York, N.Y.).

5,300
9.000
10,000

Apr. 1959 to
Apr. 1962.
Mar. 1960 to
May 1961.
Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.

7.000

July 1958 to
July 1961.

7,500
Associated Fur Manufac­ Meat Cutters___
turers, Inc. (Greater New
York area).
125,000
Clothing Manufacturers Clothing.
Association of the U.S.A.

Mar. 1958 to
Feb. 1961.

Apr. 15, 1961.
At any time..

In event of increase or decrease
in cost of living or change in
the purchasing power of the
dollar from July 15, 1958,
level.
17. Apparel

do.

Cluett Peabody and Co.
C o tto n g a rm e n t firm s
(Philadelphia, Pa.).
Infants’ and Children’s
Coat Association, Inc.,
and Manufacturers of
Snowsuits, Novelty Wear
and Infants’ Coats, Inc.
Manufacturers’ Association
of Robes, Leisurewear,
Shirts and Rainwear,
Inc. (New York metro­
politan area.).
National Skirt and Sports­
wear Association, Inc.
Popular Priced Dress Man­
ufacturers Group, Inc.;
United Popular Dress
Manufacturers Associa­
tion, Inc.; United Better
Dress Manufacturers As­
sociation, Inc.; National
Dress Manufacturers As­
sociation,
Inc.;
and
Affiliated Dress Manu­
facturers, Inc.
Shirt Institute, I n c .......... .

6,100

June 1960 to
May 1963.
M ay 1958 to
May 1961.
Sept. 1958 to
May 1961.
June 1956 to
May 1961.

___ do...................

6,000

Ladies’ Garment-

8,500

Clothing

9,700

May 1958 to
May 1961.

Ladies’ Garment.

7,000

___ do...................

84,000

June 1958 to
May 1961.
Mar. 1958 to
Feb. 1961.

5,000

May 1958 to
May 1961.

Clothing

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Notice on or before Feb. 1,
1961, modifications to be­
come effective June 1, 1961.

1264
T a b l e 4.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
E xpiration, R eopening ,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions op Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

Company or association *

Union *

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 196] for—
Contract
term «
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review *

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

18. Food Products
Associated Milk Dealers, Teamsters (Ind.).
Inc. (Chicago, 111.).
Brewers Board of Trade, .......do..............
Inc. (New York, N.Y.).
Brewery Proprietors of Brewery_____
M ilwaukee.
California Processors and Teamsters (Ind.)_
Growers, Inc.

6,200

May 1959 to

6,000

June 1960 to
May 1962.
June 1959 to

A p r . 1961.

5,800

M a y 1961.

60,000

Mar. 1960 to
Feb. 1962.«

13.000

Oct. 1959 to
Oct. 1961.

Milk Dealers’ Association
of Metropolitan New
York, Inc.
Sugar Plantation Compa­
nies’ Negotiating Com­
mittee (Hawaii).

Longshoremen
and Ware­
housemen

14.000

June 1958 to
Jan. 1961.

Armour and Co..................

Packinghouse__

14.000

Swift & Co.

___ do— ........ .

10, 000

Swift & Co.

National Broth­
erhood of
Packinghouse
Workers (Ind.),
Packinghouse___

Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1961.
Oct. 1959 to
Aug. 1961.
Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1961.

Wilson and Co., Inc.

.do.

June 1, 1961; $6 per week.
Mar. 1, 1961: hourly rates, 9
cents plus additional 1 cent
for women’s jobs; salaried
jobs, $3.60 per week; incentive
rates, 4.3 percent.

(Ind.).

5,000
5,500

Semiannually
(Jan. and July).
-----do................ .
.do.

Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1961.«

.do.
19. Tobacco

American Tobacco Co.,
Inc.

Tobacco...............

5,800

J a n .1960 to
Dec. 1961.
20. Railroads

Class I railroads.
Class I railroads.

12 nonoperating
557,000
employee
unions.
Brotherhood of
213, 500
Locomotive
Engineers
(Ind.); Brother­
hood of Loco­
motive Fire­
men and Enginemen;
Brotherhood
of Railroad
Trainmen;
Order of Rail­
way Conduc­
tors and
Brakemen
(Ind.).

July 1960 to
open end.«

Nov. 1, 1961.

July 1960 to
open end.«

Nov. 1, 1961.

Mar. 1, 1961; 2 percent to base
rates in effect prior to July
1960.

21. Local Transit
Chicago Transit Author­
ity (Chicago, 111.).

Street, Electric...

12,100

Dec. 1959 to
Nov. 1962.

New York City Transit Transport
Authority (New York,
Workers.
N.Y.).
Philadelphia Transporta­ ----- do...................
tion Co. (Philadelphia,
Pa.).
Public Service Coordi­ Street, Electric...
nated Transport Co.
(New Jersey).

29,000

Jan. 1960 to
Dec. 1961.

6,200

Nov. 1958 to
Jan. 1961.

5,200

Feb. 1960 to
Jan. 1962.

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Quarterly (Mar.,
June, Sept.,
Dec.).

Dec. 1,1961; 5 cents.
Jan 1, 1961; 4-5.5 cents plus
inequity adjustments. July
1, 1961; 4-5.5 cents.

Quarterly (Feb.,
May, Aug.,
Nov.).

Feb. 1, 1961; 5 cents. Aug. 1,
1961; 3 cents.

1265

MAJOR AGREEMENT EXPIRATIONS AND REOPENINGS
T able 4.

E xpiration, R eopening ,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions of Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

Company or association 2

U nion3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term »

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review «

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

22. Trucking and Warehousing
Automobile Carrier Truckaway and Automobile
C a rrie r D riv e a w a y
Agreements.
California Trucking Asso­
ciation, Inc., Local
Drayage; and Long Line
and Turn Around Agree­
ments.
Central States Area—Lo­
cal Cartage Agreement.
Central States Area—
Over-the-Road Motor
Freight Agreement.
Motor Transport Labor
Relations, Inc.
New England Freight
Agreement.
Southeastern Area City
Pickup and Delivery
Negotiating Committee.
Southwest Operators As­
sociation.
Trucking Companies—
Over-the-Road Agree­
ment (New York and
New Jersey area).
Trucking Companies—Lo­
cal Cartage and Overthe-Road Motor Freight
Agreements (New York;
upstate area).

Teamsters
(Ind.).

15,000

Mar. 1955 to
Feb. 1961.

___do________

11,000

May 1958 to
June 1961.

___ do.___ _____ 110,000

Feb. 1955 to
Jan. 1961.
Feb. 1955 to
Jan. 1961.

___ do_________

55,000

___ do_________

25,000

___ do....... ...........

13,000

___ do_________

6,000

Semiannually
(Feb. and
Aug.).

Jan. 1,1961; 5 cents.

Jan. 1960 to
Dec. 1962.
Apr. 1958 to
A p r . 1961.
June 1955 to
Jan. 1961.

___ do_________

5,000

___ do_________

50,000

May 1955 to
Jan. 1961.
Sept. 1960 to
Aug. 1962.«

___do................... .

15,000

Aug. 1958 to
July 1961.

Increases vary in 1961—dates
not specified.

23. Maritime
Atlantic and Gulf Coast Maritime.
Companies and Agents—
dry cargo and passenger
vessels unlicensed per­
sonnel.
.do.
Atlantic and Gulf Coast
Tanker Companies, un­
licensed personnel.
Atlantic and Gulf District Seafarers.
Freightship Agreem entunlicensed personnel.
New York Shipping Asso­ Longshoremen’s
Association.
ciation.
Pacific Maritime Associ­ Longshoremen
and Ware­
ation.
housemen
(Ind.).
Pacific Maritime Associ­ Seafarers______
ation-unlicensed person­
nel.

30.000

7.000

June 1958 to
June 1961.

Contract provides for 2 wage
reviews spaced 1 year apart.
Increase granted Jan. 1,
1960, under one reopening.

Juno 1958 to ___ do____________________
June 1961.

15.000

Sept. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.»

At any time_______________

20.000

15.000

Oct. 1959 to
Sept. 1962.
Oct. 1960 to
June 1966.»

June 1961_______________ ..

18.000

Oct. 1958 to
Sept. 1961.

Oct. 1, 1961; 5 cents.

24. Telephone and Telegraph
Chesapeake and Potomac Communications.
Telephone Co. (Wash­
ington, D.C., metropoli­
tan area).
do.
Michigan Bell Telephone
Co., Plant and Traffic
Departments.
Mountain States Tele­ ___ do................. phone and Telegraph
Co., Plant and Traffic
Departments.
New Jersey Bell Telephone Brotherhood of
Electrical
Co., Plant Department.
Workers.
New Jersey Bell Telephone Communications.
Co., Traffic Department.
See footnotes at end of table.


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6,300

May 1960 to
May 1963.

May 12, 1961.

15, 300

June 1960 to
June 1963.

June 6, 1961.

14,400

Aug. 1960 to
Aug. 1963.

Aug. 5, 1961.

7,200

July 1960 to
July 1963.«

July 3, 1961.

7,900

May 1960 to
May 1963.

May 25, 1961.

June 15, 1961; 1.5 cents for
clerks and 4 cents for super­
cargoes and chief supervisors
only.

1266
T able 4.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
E xpiration, R eopening ,

Company or association2

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions of Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

U nion3

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term *
Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review 3

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

24. Telephone and Telegraph—Continued
New York Telephone Co.,
Traffic
Department
(downstate area).
New York Telephone Co.,
Plant and Engineering
Departments (upstate
area).
New York Telephone Co.,
P la n t D e p a rtm e n t
(downstate area).

Telephone
Traffic Union
(Ind.).
Empire State
Telephone
Workers’
Organization
(Ind.).
United
Telephone
Organizations
(Ind.).
Communications.

Northwestern Bell Tele­
phone Co.
Ohio Bell Telephone C o ... -----do...................
Pacific Telephone and Tel­
egraph Co. (northern
! California) and Bell Tel­
ephone Co. of Nevada,
Plant and Traffic De­
partments.
Pacific Telephone and Tel­
egraph Co., Plant De­
partment (southern Cal­
ifornia) .
Pacific Telephone and Tel­
egraph
Co.,
Traffic
Department (southern
California).
Southern Bell Telephone
and Telegraph Co.
Southern New England
Telephone Co. (Con­
necticut).
Southwestern Bell Tele­
phone Co., Plant and
Traffic Departments.
Western Union Telegraph
Co.

16,000

Nov. 1959 to
Feb. 1961.

6, 200

Jan. 1960 to
Mar. 1961.

18, 500

Feb. 1960 to
Mar. 1961.

19.000

M ay 1960 to
Apr. 1963.
M ay 1960 to
May 1963.
June 1960 to
June 1963.

May 1, 1961________________

17.000

May 29, 1961____ __________

do

17.000

do.

10,800

July 1960 to
July 1963.

July 3, 1961________________

10,000

Aug. 1960 to
Aug. 1963.

Aug. 31, 1961_______________

50,000

Federation of
Women Tele­
phone Workers
of Southern
California
(Ind.).
Communications.

9,100

Sept. 1960 to
Aug. 1963.6
June 1960 to
Sept. 1961.

Sept. 1, 1961_______________

Connecticut
Union of Tele­
phone Workers,
Inc. (Ind.).
Communications.

38,000

July 1960 to
July 1963.5

July 1961...____ ___________

Telegraphers.

23,900

June 1960 to
M ay 1962.

Jan. 1, 1961: 5 cents for hourly
rated employees except non­
automobile messengers; $8
per month for monthly
rated employees.

25. Electric and Gas Utilities
Commonwealth
Edison
Co. and Subsidiary Pub­
lic Service Co. (Illinois).
Consolidated Edison Co.
of New York, Inc.
Niagara Mohawk Power
Corp. (New York).

Brotherhood of
Electrical
Workers.
U tility.................

Brotherhood of
Electrical
Workers.
Pacific Gas and Electric ___ do...................
Co. (California).

10, 200

Apr. 1959 to
Mar. 1961.

22,000
7,500

Dec. 1959 to
Nov. 1961.
June 1960 to
May 1961.

13,600

July 1960 to
June 1962.

July 1, 1961__________ _____

26. Wholesale and Retail Trade
Associated Food Retailers Retail Clerks___
of Greater Chicago and
The Retail Chain Food
Stores (Illinois and Indi­
ana).
Food Employers Council, ....... do....... ..........
Inc., and Independent
Retail Operators (Los
Angeles, Calif.).
Great Atlantic and Pacific Meat Cutters___
Tea Co., Inc. (New
York and New Jersey).
R. H. Macv and Co. (New Retail and
York, N.Y.).
Wholesale.
See footnotes at end of table.


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12,000

Nov. 1959 to
Nov. 1961.

13,000

Apr. 1959 to
Mar. 1964.

17, 500

M ay 1960 to
June 1962.

8,500

Feb. 1959 to
Jan. 1961.

Semiannually
(Jan. and July).

Jan. 1, 1961; 7.5 cents (except
6-7 cents for apprentices and
2.5 cents for box boys).
M ay 29, 1961; $3--$4 per week
(10 cents per hour for parttime workers).

1267

MAJOR AGREEMENT EXPIRATIONS AND REOPENINGS
T able 4.

E xpiration, R eopening ,

and Wage-A djustment P rovisions of Selected
ments, J anuary- D ecember 19611— Continued

Union 3

Company or association *

Approxi­
mate
number
of em­
ployees
covered

Collective B argaining A gree­

Provisions effective January-December 1961 for—
Contract
term <

Wage reopening

Automatic cost-ofliving review8

Deferred wage increase (hourly
rate unless otherwise speci­
fied)

26. Wholesale and Retail Trade—Continued
San Francisco Retailers
Council—D ep artm en t
Stores (San Francisco,
Calif.).
Distributors’ Association
(California).

Retail Clerks.

5,500

Oct. 1958 to
May 1961.

Longshoremen
and Ware­
housemen
(Ind.).

5,000

June 1958 to
May 1961.

27. Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate
Building Managers’ Asso­
ciation of Chicago.
Prudential Insurance Co.
of America.
Realty Advisory Board on
Labor Relations, Inc.—
A partm ent Buildings
(New York, N.Y.).
Realty Advisory Board on
Labor Relations, Inc.—
Commercial Buildings
(New York, N.Y.).

Building Service.

6,600

Insurance
Workers.
Building Service.

17.000

do

11.000

12,000

Sept. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.
Sept. 1959 to
Sept. 1961.
Apr. 1958 to
Apr. 1961.
Jan. 1,1961; 5 cents.
Dec. 1962.

28. Hotels and Restaurants
Associated Restaurants of Hotel
Oregon, Inc.; and the
Portland Independent
Hotel Association (Ore­
gon).
do
Chicago Union Restaurant
Employers Council (Chi­
cago, 111.).
do
Golden Gate Restaurant
Association and inde­
pendent companies (San
Francisco, Calif.).
Hotel Association of New New York Hotel
Trades
York City, Inc.
Council.
Southern Florida Hotel Hotel
and Motel Association
(Miami Beach, Fla.).

5,500

July 1957 to
May 1962.

15,000

Jan. 1960 to
Dec. 1961.

15,000

Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1964.

35,000
5,300

June 1,1961_____ _________

Sept. 1,1961_______________
June 1, 1961; $1.25-$3.50 per
week.

May 1963.
Sept. 1959 to
Aug. 1969.

Sept. 15,1961.......................... .

1 Contracts on file with the Bureau of Labor Statistics, October 20, 1960,
except where footnote indicates that information is from newspaper source.
a Interstate unless otherwise specified.
s Unions affiliated with the AFL-CIO except where noted as independent.
< Refers to the date the contract is to go into effect, not the date of signing.
Where a contract has been amended or modified and the original termination
date extended, the effective date of the changes becomes the new effective
date of the agreement.
For purposes of this listing, the expiration is the formal termination date
established by the agreement. In general, it is the earliest date on which termi­


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nation of the contract could be effective, except for special provisions for termi­
nation as in the case of disagreement arising out of a wage reopening. Many agree­
ments provide for automatic renewal at the expiration date unless notice of
termination is given. The Labor Management Relations (Taft-Hartley)
Act, 1947, requires that a party to an agreement desiring to terminate or mod­
ify it shall serve written notice upon the other party 60 days prior to the
expiration date.
8 Date shown indicates the month in which adjustment is to be made, not
the month of the Consumer Price Index on which adjustment is based.
»Information is from newspaper account of settlement.

Deferred Wage
Increases and
Escalator Clauses
D onald L. H elm

and

R ichard G. Seefer *

Deferred Increases

As a r e s u l t of collective bargaining concluded in
1960 and in earlier years, wage increases are
scheduled to go into effect in 1961 for at least
2.9 million workers covered by major contracts
in manufacturing and selected nonmanufacturing
industries.1 The number of workers scheduled
to receive such increases is about the same as in
1960 and 1959—2.6 million and 2.9 million,
respectively—but lower than in earlier years: 4
million in 1958 and 5 million in 1957. The
apparent downward trend in deferred increase
coverage does not necessarily reflect a decline in
the popularity of long-term contracts; rather, it
appears to be related to the expiration dates of
long-term contracts expiring in a given year.
For example, many of the workers scheduled to
receive deferred wage increases in 1961 are em­
ployed in the steel industry under long-term con­
tracts negotiated in January 1960. On the other
hand, a sizable number of workers not scheduled
to receive increases in 1961 are employed by major
automobile, farm equipment, and meatpacking
firms whose contracts are up for renegotiation in
the fall of 1961.
Another factor accounting for the smaller
number of workers covered by deferred increases
in 1961 than in earlier years has been the 3-year
contracts signed in the fall of 1960 in the electrical
equipment industry, which do not provide such
raises in 1961. In general, contracts of at least 2
years’ duration provide for either a wage increase
or a wage reopener during each contract year.
The two wage adjustments in the new contracts
at the General Electric Co. and the Westinghouse
Electric Corp., however, are 18 months apart,
1268

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with the first increase in October 1960 and the
second in April 1962. Under previous 5-year
contracts, these workers had received deferred
adjustments in each year from 1956 through 1959.
Ex­
clusive of the construction trades, about 2.3
million workers covered by major collective bar­
gaining contracts in manufacturing and selected
nonmanufacturing industries will receive deferred
wage increases during 1961. The most frequent
increases—covering about 30 percent of the work­
ers—will average 8 but less than 9 cents an hour
(table 1). The majority of the workers affected
by increases of this size are employed in the steel
and related products industries, where increases
(including the effect on incentive pay) are to be­
come effective in October. Average increases
falling within the range of 5 but less than 8 cents
an hour will affect 45 percent of the workers
mostly in various other metalworking industries
and in transportation (including the operating
employees of the railroads).
About 1.6 million workers covered by deferred
wage increase provisions for 1961 are employed in
manufacturing industries. Within this sector of
the economy, raises averaging 8 but less than 9
cents an hour will be dominant, affecting 42 per­
cent of the workers. Next most frequent are
raises averaging 6 but less than 8 cents an hour
for almost 3 out of 10 manufacturing workers.
Only 11 percent will receive deferred adjustments
averaging at least 9 cents an hour.
More than 730,000 workers in the selected non­
manufacturing industries 2are scheduled to receive
deferred wage increases in 1961. The largest
group of workers affected—covering 42 percent of
the workers—will receive deferred increases aver­
aging 5 but less than 6 cents an hour. This
group consists largely of operating employees of
the Nation’s railroads. About one out of six
A ll In d u stries Studied, E xcept Construction.

* Of the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
1 This summary is limited to collective bargaining contracts affecting 1,000
or more workers in all industries except service trades, finance, and govern­
ment. Information—based in part on secondary sources—is derived from
settlements summarized in the Bureau’s monthly report on Current Wage
Developments.
Estimates for construction are included in the totals of this portion of the
text but are not incorporated in any table except table 3 because data are less
complete for construction than for the other industries covered.
»Information excludes construction (discussed later), the service trades,
finance, and government.

1269

DEFERRED WAGE INCREASES AND ESCALATOR CLAUSES
T

able

1.

D

eferred
M ore

W a g e I n c r e a s e s S c h e d u l e d T o G o I n t o E f f e c t i n 1961 i n S it u a t i o n s A f f e c t i n g
W o r k e r s i n M a n u f a c t u r in g a n d S e l e c t e d N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r i e s 1

1,000

or

Approximate number of workeis affected (in thousands)
Average deferred wage increases
(cents per hour)

Total..................................................
Under 5 cents
e Knt lneo fhcui Appnt<i
6 but less tbau 7 c^nts
7 but less than 8 cents.. -----------8 but less tbau Qrents
9 but less than 10 cents
1U U111 ItJbo ILItlll 11 UClUo---------------—- ULIl ItJoo llid ll 10
---------13 cents and over— ---------------—
Not specified or not computed 4—

Num­
Food Lum­
ber of
and
ber
situa­ All in­ Total
kindred
and
manu­
dustries
tions
studied1 factur­ prod­ furni­
ture
ucts
ing 2

P rint­ Chem­ Stone,
clay,
icals
ing
and
and
and
allied
glass
pub­
lishing prod­ prod­
ucts
ucts

547

2,333

1,602

98

24

32

58
92
83
110
89
35
32
12
H
20
5

202
441
265
332
718
135
121
34
27
51
7

149
131
189
286
668
69
40
24
7
34
6

5
8
7
9

2
6
1
2
2

6

29
10
3
5
20
2

5

3
6
1
3
5

5
1

7
2

Total
Ware­
housing, Trans­ Public
Metal- non­
work­ man u- Mining whole­ porta­ util­
ities
ing 3 factur- (metal) sale and tion
retail
ing
studied
trade

41

51

1,261

731

10
9
11
9

7
1
24
15
3

111
58
131
230
651
37
18
21
1
1
1

53
310
76
47
50
66
81
10
19
17
2

2

33

30
3

209

416

73

35
13
37
11
39
26
26
8
6
8

5
267
38
5
9
32
43

13
30
1
1
1
5
12
2
8

6
9
2

1 Excludes certain industries, notably construction, the service trades,
finance, and government.
2 Includes a few settlements in the following industry groups for which
separate data are not shown: Leather and leather products (41,000), miscel­
laneous manufacturing (13,000), paper and allied products (16,000), textiles
(8,000), tobacco t7,000), apparel (9,000), and rubber (1,000).

2 Metalworking employees are found primarily in the manufacture of iron
and steel, aluminum, metal containers, aircraft, and missiles.
* Insufficient information to compute cents-per-bour increase.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

workers will be affected by increases averaging 6
but less than 8 cents an hour. In contrast with
workers in manufacturing industries, 7 percent of
the nonmanufacturing workers are scheduled for
raises averaging 8 but less than 9 cents an hour,
and 26 percent of the latter will receive raises
averaging at least 9 cents an hour.

averaged 6 but less than 7 cents an hour; in 1961,
only 11 percent are scheduled to receive raises of
this amount. Conversely, the most common de­
ferred increase for 1961 is expected to average 8
but less than 9 cents an hour—for 31 percent of
the workers as against only 3 percent in 1960.
These disparities are due principally to the differ­
ent industries which are affected by deferred in­
creases in the two years. On the one hand, the
large number of workers who received raises
averaging 6 but less than 7 cents an hour in 1960
were employed mostly in industries having con­
tracts subject to bargaining in 1961—automobile
and related industries, farm equipment, and meat­
packing. On the other hand, workers scheduled
to receive adjustments averaging 8 but less than
9 cents in 1961 are largely employed in the steel
industry, with contracts renegotiated in 1960.

T iming of A djustm ents

About 1,017,000 workers will receive increases
during the first half of the year. (See table 2.)
The employees affected are found largely in local
transit, trucking, telegraph, trade, railroads (oper­
ating personnel), aircraft, and shipbuilding. The
increases will be concentrated in the months of
January (about 270,000 workers), March (about
305,000 workers), and May and June (about 292,000 workers). The second half of the year will be
dominated by wage increases in the steel and re­
lated industries in October (about 767,000 work­
ers) and by those in the aircraft industry, falling
due in July and August. In mid-December 1960
(the time this article was completed), relatively
few workers—only about 73,000—were covered by
increases going into effect in November and De­
cember 1961, but contracts negotiated in the
balance of 1960 may raise this number.
C omparison W ith

1960

In 1960, the most frequent deferred wage in­
creases, affecting 45 percent of the workers,

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Construction. It is estimated that about 600,000
workers in the construction trades are employed
under major collective bargaining contracts pro­
viding deferred wage increases in 1961 (table 3).
Of these, almost one-half will receive scale ad­
vances averaging 17 but less than 21 cents an
hour. The single most frequent increase will
amount to 20 cents an hour for one-fourth of the
workers affected. In contrast with the deferred
increases for other industries cited earlier, only
11 percent of the construction workers will receive
raises averaging 10 cents an hour or less.

1270
T

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

a b l e 2.
D e f e r r e d W a g e I n c r e a s e s D u e i n 1961 in
M a j o r C o n t r a c t s i n M a n u f a c t u r in g a n d S e l e c t e d
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g I n d u s t r i e s , b y E f f e c t i v e M o n t h

Month

Approximate
number of
workers
affected

Total......................

i 2,333,000

January....... ..........

270,000

February. . . . . . .
March__ _______
April__________
M ay__ _________
June___________
July___ ________

71,000
305,000
79,000
134,000
158,000
187,000

August_________

152,000

September______
October_________

130,000
767,000

November. ____
December_______
Month not known.

51,000
22,000
61,000

Principal industries affected

Trade, local transit, some trucking, and
telegraph.
None.
Railroads (operating personnel).2
None.
Some aircraft, shipbuilding, and trade.
Aircraft and some trade.
Aircraft, shipbuilding, and some local
transit.
Aluminum, shipbuilding, and some air­
craft.
Various metalworking.
Basic steel, refractories, some fabricated
metal products (including metal contamers), and eastern longshoring.
None.
None.

1 The total is smaller than the sum of the Individual months since 70,000
employees will receive two deferred increases in 1961.
2 The wage increase provided for 1961 by the agreements between the
operating unions and the Nation’s class I railroads is not strictly comparable
with most other increases summarized here, since the adjustments for the
railway workers go into effect in less than a year of the effective dates of the
agreements (reached in June 1960); other long-term agreements typically
specify only one wage increase for each contract year.

Nine out of 10 construction workers affected
will receive scale advances during the first 6
months of 1961, the time of the year in which
wage adjustments are normally concentrated in
this industry. About 132,000 workers will re­
ceive increases in the second half of the year,
including approximately 70,000 workers who will
also receive an increase in the first half. (For
this latter group, scale advances will range from
18 to 42 cents an hour over the entire year.)
The disparity in size of wage increase between
the construction trades and manufacturing and
other nonmanufacturing industries is due pri­
marily to two factors: (1) cost-of-living clauses
are rarely found in the construction industry;
and (2) hourly scales in the construction industry
are relatively high, so that a given increase in
cents per hour amounts to a smaller percentage
increase than in most industries.
Cost-of-Living Escalator Clauses

The Bureau of Labor Statistics has estimated
that, as of the beginning of 1961, between 2.5 and
2.8 million workers will be covered by major col­
lective bargaining agreements with automatic
cost-of-living escalator provisions.3 The estimate
for 1961 represents a decline from an estimated
4 million organized workers covered in 1959.

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This decline is due largely to the discontinuance of
such provisions in 1960 negotiations by two major
industries: These industries were electrical equip­
ment and railroads (covering both operating and
nonoperating employees), which together account
for about 1 million workers. The new contracts
in electrical equipment, signed in the fourth
quarter of 1960, eliminated previous cost-of-living
escalator provisions, which over the 5-year con­
tract period had provided quarterly adjustments
amounting to an average of 20 to 23 cents an
hour. In the case of railroads, contract amend­
ments, agreed to in late spring and early summer,
discontinued escalator provisions of agreements
negotiated in 1956 and 1957. These cost-ofliving adjustments were made semiannually and
over a 3-year period, from May 1957 to May 1960,
had totaled 17 cents an hour.
Notwithstanding the decline in the number of
workers covered by cost-of-living escalator pro­
visions, such clauses will continue to play a role
in wage determination for 1961, both in contracts
that are up for renewal and in those which provide
for deferred wage increases. Thus of the 2.3
million workers (excluding those in construction)
scheduled to receive deferred increases in 1961,
about one-half are also covered by escalation
(table 4). Of this number, however, about 650,000 are employed ander contracts which specify an
3
In addition, it is estimated that about 250,000 unorganized workers—
mostly office and other employees of establishments whose production work­
ers are covered by collectively bargained escalator clauses—are also covered
by provisions for automatic cost-of-living adjustments. In 1959, the com­
parable number was about 400,000.

T able 3. D eferred Increases
S cheduled T o Go I nto E ffect
S ituations in Construction

Hourly increases effective
during period

in
in

U nion Scales
1961 in M ajor

Approximate number of workers
affected
Total for
1961

January 1
to June 30

T o ta l............... ..........

600,000

539,000

5 but less than 7 cents_____
7 but less than 9 cents...............
9 but less than 11 cents_____
11 but less than 13 cents_________
13 but less than 15 cents_____
15 but less than 17 cents_____
17 but less than 19 cents___
19 but less than 21 cents_________
21 but less than 23 cents . . .
23 but less than 25 cents________
25 cents________ .
40 cents and over........... .................

12,000
20,000
37.000
29.000
41.000
93.000
133.000
163.000
31.000
2,000
22.000
17,000

12,000
29.000
90.000
29.000
31.000
83.000
132,000
89.000
23.000
2,000
10.000
9,000

July 1 to
Decernber 31
1 132,000

63,000
10,000
10,000
21,000
8,000

1
Includes 71,000 workers in 4 situations who will also receive increases dur­
ing the January to June 1961 period.

DEFERRED WAGE INCREASES AND ESCALATOR CLAUSES
T able 4. Cost- of-Living E scalator P rovisions in
M ajor Contracts in M anufacturing and Selected
N onmanufacturing I ndustries P roviding D eferred
Wage I ncreases in 19611

Item

Approximate
number of
workers due
to receive
deferred
increases

Percent of
workers cov­
ered by costof-living esca­
lator clauses

2,333,000

47

202,000
441,000
265,000
332,000
718,000
135,000
121,000
34.000
27.000
51.000
7,000

59
12
21
75
84
2
6

Manufacturing 3--------------------------------Chemicals and allied products---------Stone, clay, and glass products--------Metalworking-------------- ------- ---------

1,602,000
41,000
51,000
1,261,000

63
38
32
76

Nonmanufacturing 3........ ............................
Metal mining------ ----------------- -Warehousing, wholesale and retail
trade_________ ____________ ____
Transportation.......................................

731,000
33,000

12
81

209,000
416,000

18
6

All situations with deferred increases........
A verage D eferred W age I ncrease
Under 5 cents________________________
5 b u t less than 6 cents______ ______ ____
6 but less than 7 cents-------------------------7 but less than 8 cents_________________
8 but less than 9 cents---------------------- 9 but less than 10 cents________________
10 but less than 11 cents-----------------------13 cents and over____________ _________

2

I ndustry Group (Selected)

1 Excludes certain industries, notably construction, the service trades,
finance, and government, as well as workers covered by contracts in which
the first cost-of-living review date does not occur until 1962.
2 Insufficient information to compute cents-per-hour increases,
s For specific industries included in the total, see table 1.
N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

upper limit to any cost-of-living increases that
might go into effect in 1961. These contracts
are largely concentrated in the steel industry,
where deferred increases (averaging between 8 and
9 cents an hour) may be supplemented by a cost-ofliving adjustment not to exceed 3 cents an hour.
In steel, however, some or all of any cost-of-living
increase that falls due may be used to offset the
rising costs of the insurance programs above a
specified amount. Other industries whose escala­
tor provisions are similarly limited include alumi­
num and metal containers.
Many of the West Coast aircraft-missile con­
tracts—in which deferred wage increases of gen­
erally 3 or 7 cents will go into effect—are also
subject to escalation. These agreements, which
were signed in the summer of 1960, provided for
a 7-cent-an-hour raise over a 2-year contract
period. Those that deferred the entire wage
increase until 1961 continued provisions for
quarterly escalator adjustments (generally with


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1271

a slight modification of the formulas). On the
other hand, aircraft bargaining agreements that
provided for a general increase of 4 cents in 1960
and deferred the remaining 3 cents until the
summer of 1961 suspended the operation of their
escalator clauses for 1 year; quarterly reviews
are to be resumed in the summer of 1961, including
adjustments for changes in the Consumer Price
Index above specified levels during the interim.
Most of the remaining workers covered by
cost-of-living clauses are employed under contracts
expiring in 1961. Most of these agreements pro­
vide for at least one review before their expiration
dates; they are in such industries as automobiles,
farm equipment, and meatpacking. Trucking
contracts, which expire in the early part of 1961,
presumably do not provide for any cost-of-living
review in 1961 prior to renegotiation.
Escalator Increases D u ring 1960. Cost-of-living
increases during 1960 were about the same as, or
slightly above, the level recorded in 1959 but still
below the levels in 1958 and 1957 for workers within
the same industries. In most major automobile
and farm equipment contracts, cost-of-living in­
creases totaled 4 cents an hour in 1960, compared
with 3 cents in 1959 and 6 cents in both 1958 and
1957. Semiannual escalator clauses in meat­
packing contracts provided increases of 3 cents
(the same as in 1959), compared with 8 cents in
1958 and 5 cents in 1957. Railroad workers re­
ceived a 1-cent-an-hour cost-of-living increase
before their contracts were amended in 1960,
compared with 3 cents in 1959, 5 cents in 1958,
and 8 cents in 1957. Most of the major trucking
contracts provided semiannual increases totaling
4 cents an hour in 1960. This was the only major
industry in which such increases were substantially
higher than those for 1959 (2 cents) but still below
1958 and 1957 (6 cents and 7 cents, respectively).
At the time this article was prepared, it was not
known what increase, if any, would be. put into
effect in 1960 under the escalator provisions of
the basic steel industry-—for the 3 cents potentially
due may be offset against rising insurance costs.
In 1959, these workers received a 1-cent-an-hour
cost-of-living increase, compared with 9 cents in
1958 and 7 cents in 1957.

S p e cia l L a b o r F o rc e R e p o rts
E

i\ o t e .
T h is article is one o f a series o f reports on special labor force
subjects fo rm e rly covered in Series P -5 0 o f the B u rea u o f the Census Current
P o p u la tio n Reports. R ep rin ts o f this article , including additional detailed
tables, are available up o n request to the B u rea u or to a n y o f its regional offices
{listed on the inside fr o n t cover o f this issue ).

d it o r s

Work Experience of the
Population in 1959
S ophia Cooper *
T h e A m e r i c a n l a r o r f o r c e is characterized by
a high degree of flexibility and turnover, with
millions of workers entering and leaving each
year. A significant number of those who move
in and out want work for only part of the year;
in addition to those who retire during the year or
enter after graduation from school, many choose
to work for short periods when other responsibil­
ities permit. The effect of these moves by dif­
ferent individuals on the overall size and composi­
tion of the work force is revealed by the annual
survey of the work experience of the population.1
In 1959, more than 78 million different persons
worked at some time during the year (table 1), 10
million more than were employed at the seasonal
peak of 67.6 million in July. Among these 78
million, 42 million worked 50 weeks or more at
full-time jobs. In contrast, almost 7 million full­
time workers were employed less than a half year,
primarily because of home responsibilities, school
attendance, or some other noneconomic reason.
In such a mobile labor force, a large number of
workers become job hunters for short periods of
time during the year. The total number of dif­
ferent individuals who were unemployed at some
time during 1959 amounted to 12.2 million (table
2), compared with the largest monthly estimate of
4.7 million in February.
Some of the other basic facts revealed by the
survey are as follows:

1272


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1. About 31.5 million men and 10.5 million
women worked 50 weeks or more at full-time jobs.
2. Almost all men except those of retirement or
school age worked at some time during the year,
and seven-tenths worked all year at full-time jobs.
About 60 percent of the teenage workers worked
part time. Less than half of all women worked
during the year; the highest proportion was among
those 18 to 24 years of age. Among women who
worked, 36 percent were employed all year at full­
time jobs. This proportion was highest (45 per­
cent) among women in the age group 45 to 64.
3. Only 22 percent of wage and salary workers
whose longest jobs were in agriculture worked all
year at full-time jobs, reflecting the highly seasonal
nature of the work and the dependence on unpaid
family workers during the busiest periods. Less
than 45 percent of the workers in the highly sea­
sonal construction industry worked regularly
all year. About the same proportion applied to
workers in trade and service, industries which
have been employing large numbers of women and
youth on a part-time and part-year basis.
4. About 12.2 million persons, or 15 percent
of all those who worked or looked for work, had
some unemployment during the year, with the
greatest incidence of unemployment among young
•Of the Division of Manpower and Employment Statistics, Bureau of
Labor Statistics.
1 The annual survey for 1959 was taken in February 1960 as a supplement
to the regular monthly survey of the labor force conducted for the Bureau
of Labor Statistics by the Bureau of the Census through its Current Pop­
ulation Survey. Earlier surveys of the work experience of the population
have been summarized in the Bureau of the Census Current Population
Reports Series P-50 (now discontinued), Nos. 8, 15, 24, 35, 43, 48, 54 59 68
77, 86, and 91.
The annual survey measures the total number of different individuals
who worked or were unemployed at some time during the year. The regular
monthly surveys provide estimates o( employment and unemployment as
of the week ending nearest the 15th of each month.

1273

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959

than full-year work among young men and
women (6.2 million), and home responsibilities the
most frequent cause among adult women (8.5
million).
These and other aspects of work experience in
1959 are analyzed in this article, which also re­
views recent developments in year-round full-time
employment.

persons 18 and 19 years of age. Among the un­
employed who worked at some time during the
yeas, work losses totaling 15 weeks or more gen­
erally increased with age—57 percent for men 65
years and over compared with less than 32 per­
cent for men 25 to 34 years.
5. Some 4.2 million workers were unemployed
two or more different times during the year.
This amounted to 40 percent of the unemployed
who worked at some time during the year. In­
formation on three or more spells of unemploy­
ment, available for the first time in the report for
1959, showed that 2.4 million, or 60 percent of
persons with 'repeated unemployment, had three
or more spells. The incidence of recurrent un­
employment increased with the age of the un­
employed; it was more prevalent among Negroes
than among white workers; and among unem­
ployed wage and salary workers, it was highest
(over 50 percent) in agriculture and construction.
6. Unemployment was the reason given most
frequently for loss of working time by men 25 to
64 years of age who were employed less than 50
weeks, and illness was next in importance. School
attendance was by far the largest factor in less

Extent of Work Experience
Y ear-R ound

3 Comparisons of data for 1959 with other years make allowance for the ad­
dition of Alaska and Hawaii to the figures for 1959.
T able

1.

W

ork

E

x p e r ie n c e

D

u r in g

the

F u ll-T im e

Y ear,

by

E

xtent

of

E

Both sexes

Work experience
1959 i

E m p lo ym en t,

1957-59.

Many factors cause changes in the number of
workers employed full time throughout the year.
The most important short-run influence is, of
course, the general economic situation. When
production and business activity are high, em­
ployment expands, layoffs are at a minimum, and
year-round full-time work increases. Even under
these circumstances, other factors such as weather,
industrial disputes, and material shortages can
alter the amount of regular work in the economy.
Work regularity in 1959 showed a substantial
improvement over the previous year.2 More than
34 million nonfarm wage and salary workers re­
ported a full year’s work at jobs that usually pro­
vided 35 hours or more work per week—about

1958

m plo y m en t and

Sex ,

1957-59
Female

Male
1957

1959 ‘

1958

1957

1959 i

1958

1957

Number (thousands of persons 14 years old and over)
Total who worked during the year 2______________________

78,162

77,117

77, 664

48, 973

48,380

48, 709

29,189

28,736

28,955

Full tim e:3
50 to 52 weeks........................... ___................ ............ ........
27 to 49 weeks___________ -- ______________________
P art time or interm ittently_____________________________
1 to 26 weeks at full-time jobs...............................................
At part-time jobs__________________________________
50 to 52 weeks___ ________ ____________________
27 to 49 weeks_________________________ _______
1 to 26 weeks_____________ ____________________

42,030
12,515
23,617
8,459
15,158
5,173
3,104
6, 881

41,329
11, 546
24,240
8, 799
15, 441
5,402
3,025
7,014

42, 818
11, 981
22,865
8,075
14, 790
4,989
2,872
6,929

31, 502
7, 830
9,641
3, 665
5,976
2, 211
1,224
2, 541

30, 727
7,233
10, 419
4,091
6,328
2,348
1,259
2, 721

32,089
7,350
9,270
3,447
5,823
2,135
1,115
2,573

10, 528
4, 685
13,976
4, 794
9,182
2, 962
1,880
4,340

10, 602
4,313
13, 821
4,708
9,113
3,054
1,766
4,293

10,729
4,631
13, 595
4,628
8,967
2, 854
1,757
4,356

Percent distribution
Total who worked during the year 2_____________________

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Full tim e:3
50 to 52 weeks_______________________ ____________
27 to 49 weeks... . . . ___
. . _______ _______ _____
P art time or interm ittently. _. ..................... ................ .............
1 to 26 weeks at full-time jobs_____________
________
At part-time jobs___________ _______ _________ _____
50 to 52 weeks_____ ________________________ ____
27 to 29 weeks____________________________ _____
1 to 26 weeks__________________________________

53.8
16.0
30.2
10.8
19.4
6.6
4.0
8.8

53.6
15.0
31.4
11.4
20.0
7.0
3.9
9.1

55.1
15.5
29.4
10.4
19.0
6.4
3.7
8.9

64.3
16.0
19.7
7.5
12.2
4.5
2.5
5.2

63.5
15.0
21.5
8.5
13.1
4.9
2.6
5.6

65.9
15.1
19.0
7.1
12.0
4.4
2.3
5.3

36.1
16.1
47.9
16.4
31.4
10.1
6.4
14.9

36.9
15.0
48.1
16.4
31.7
10.6
6.1
14.9

37.0
16.0
47.0
16.0
31.0
9.9
6.1
15.0

i Data for 1959 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not strictly
comparable with previous years. This inclusion has resulted in an increase
of about 300,000 in the total who worked during the year, with about 150,000
in the group working 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.


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3 Time worked includes paid vacation and paid sick leave.
3 Usually worked 35 hours or more a week.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1274

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

700,000 more than in 1958, when curtailed pro­
duction and business activity brought about a cut
of 1.3 million in this group. The dampening of
the recovery by the 17-week steel strike during
the second half of 1959 accounted in part for the
failure of year-round full-time work to regain its
1957 prerecession level.
Some industrial workers fared better than others
because the increase in regular work was not
proportionate to the decline in industries which
had been most affected in 1958 (table 3). Most
of the 1958 cut of 1.3 million in year-round work
took place in durable goods industries—1.1 million.
By contrast, the increase in this sector in 1959
was only 350,000, bringing the total to 6.6 million,
some 750,000 short of the number tallied in 1957.
The steel strike was responsible to a large extent
for the slow pace of recovery in durable goods.
About 500,000 steelworkers were idled by the
strike, and an estimated 500,000 workers in the
automobile, machinery, and fabricated metals
industries were laid off because of steel shortages.
Employment in mining and in transportation was
T

able

2.

E

xtent

of

also adversely affected. While some of these
workers would not have worked a full 50 weeks
even without a strike, nevertheless, a sizable mem­
ber would have had year-round full-time employ­
ment. In primary metals, the proportion of em­
ployees working year round full time dropped
from 65 percent in 1958 to 48 percent in 1959.
Had the proportion with steady work remained at
the 1958 recession-affected level, at least 200,000
more of the workers in this one industry would
have had full-year employment in 1959. Despite
the strike, most of the other durable goods in­
dustries except fabricated metal products had a
greater proportion of employees working all year
at full-time jobs during 1959 than in 1958. The
smallest proportion with year-round full-time
work within durable goods was still in automobile
manufacturing, although it rose from 40 percent
in 1958 to 45 percent in 1959. This undoubtedly
would have risen higher had there been no material
shortages as a result of the steel strike.
The situation of wage and salary workers in
nondurable goods manufacturing was quite differ-

U n em ploy m en t D

u b jn g

the

Y ear,

Both sexes

Extent of unemployment
1959 1

1958

by

S e x , 1 9 5 7 -5 9

Male
1957

1959 1

1958

Female
1957

1959 1

1958

1957

Number (thousands of persons 14 years old and over)
Total -working or looking for work______ _______________ _
Percent with unemployment_____ ____________ II”.”!

79,494
15.3

78, 787
17.9

78. 585
14.7

49, 523
16.5

49,158
19.6

49,444
15.7

29,971
13.5

29,628
15.1

29,141
13.1

Total with unemployment_____________________________
Did not work but looked for work..................... .IIIIIIII"
With work experience, to ta l........................... .............. I...
Year-round workers 2 with 1 or 2 weeks of unemploy­
m ent___ ____________________________________

12,195
1,332
10,863

14,120
1,670
12,449

11, 568
921
10, 647

8,163
550
7,613

9,645
778
8,867

7,758
735
7,023

4,032
782
3,250

4, 474
892
3,582

3,810
180
3,624

Part-year workers 8with unemployment, totallll.IIII
1to 4weeks of unemployment-.....................
5 to 10 weeks of unemployment_____ ___

840
10,023
2, 569
2,348
1,403
2,070
1,633

1,180
11,269
2,387
2,367
1,479
2, 556
2,482

1,119
9, 528
2,443
2,339
1,394
1,898
1,454

657
6,956
1,472
1, 688
1,031
1,564
1,201

863
8,004
1,435
1,692
1,094
1,950
1,835

447
6, 576
1,475
1,646
1,030
1,385
1,039

184
3,067
1,097
660
372
506
432

317
3,265
952
675
385
606
647

672
2,952
968
693
363
513
415

Total with 2 or more spells of unemployment_____ _

4, 228
1,813
2,415

(9
(9

4,377

(9
(9

3,173
1,293
1,880

3, 850

3 or more spells................................... IIIIIIIIIIIII!

(9
(9

3,171
(9

1,055
520
535

(9

Unemployed persons with work experience, total......................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

7.7

9.5
90.5
19.2
19.0
11.9
20.5
19.9

10.5
89.5
22.9

9.7
90.3
16.2
19.1
12.3

6.4
93.6

5.7
94.4
33.8
20.3
11.4
15.6
13.3

8.8

22.0

8.6
91.4
19.3

18.6
81.5
26.7
19.1
10.0
14.2
11.5

41.1

41.1

35.4

33.3
(9
(9

11 to 14 weeks of unemployment______________
15 to 26 weeks of unemployment______________
27 weeks or more of unemployment........... ............

2spells____ __________________ _

5,117

(9

1,267
(41

1,206

(9
(9

Percent distribution

Year-round workers 2 with 1 or 2 weeks of unemployment..
Part-year workers 3 with unemployment, total_________
1 to 4 weeks of unemployment______________ _____
6
to 10 weeks of unemployment_________________
11 to 14 weeks of unemployment__________________
15 to 26 weeks of unemployment____ _________ IIII
27 weeks or more of unemployment_______________

21.6
12! 9
19! 1
15.0

Total with 2 or more spells of unem ploym ent..............
2 spells............................................................. ..................
3 or more spells...... ......................................... ................

38.9
ie. 7
22 .2

92.3
23.6

1 Data for 1959 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not strictly
comparable with previous years. This inclusion has resulted in an increase
of about 50,000 in the total with unemployment.
2 Worked 50 weeks or more.


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(9
(9

13.1
17.8
13.7

(9
(9

22.2
13.5
20.5
15.8

41.7
17.0
24.7

22.0

20.7
43.4

(9
(9

21.0

23.4
14.7
19.7
14.8
45.2

(9
(9

32.5
16.0
16.5

91.2
26.6
18.8
10.7
16.9
18.1

(9
(9

3 Worked less than 50 weeks.
4 Not available.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1275

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959
T able 3. Y ear-R ound F ull-T ime W orkers,1 by M ajor I ndustry Group
Selected Y ears, 1950-59

and

Class

of

W orker

of

L ongest J ob ,

Percent of total with work experience during
the year

Number (thousands)
Class of worker and major Industry group of
longest job

1959

1958

1957

1955

1950

1959 3

1958

1957

1955

1950

Total......................................................... ...................

42,030

41,329

42,818

42,624

38,375

53.8

53.6

55.1

56.6

55.7

Agriculture_________ __________ _____________
Wage and salary w orkers...___ ____________
Self-employed workers. ........................................
Unpaid family workers.........................................

3,141
604
2,238
299

3,270
578
2,353
340

3,468
569
2, 589
311

4,316
779
3,194
344

4,393
803
3,246
345

39.6
21.9
74.8
13.7

39.4
20.9
74.9
14.3

41.5
23.0
77.1
12.3

46.6
31.5
81.5
12.0

47.0
32.3
75.9
13.4

Nonagricultural industries..................................... .
Wage and salary workers______ ___________
Forestry, fisheries, and mining.....................
Construction___ _____ _____ __________
Manufacturing...............................................
Durable goods..........................................
Nondurable goods____ _____________
Transportation and public utilities..............
Wholesale and retail trade________ _____
Service industries......................... ................
Public administration................... ................
Self-employed workers ......... ........... ...... ..........
Unpaid family workers____________________

38,887
34,158
444
1,789
11,838
6, 622
5,216
3,471
6,042
7,922
2,652
4,478
252

38,062
33,337
437
1,736
11,122
6,266
4, 856
3,354
6,223
7,842
2,623
4,464
262

39,348
34,677
514
1,837
12,285
7,373
4, 912
3,529
6,142
7,789
2, 581
4,426
246

38,310
33, 597
499
1,749
11, 940
7,104
4,836
3, 503
6,187
7,306
2,413
4,446
268

33,983
29, 708
411
1,456
10,669
5,779
4,890
3,391
5,733
5,925
2,123
4,060
215

55.4
54.7
56.3
43.6
62.5
62.9
62.0
71.4
48.3
44.5
77.7
66.4
24.0

55.3
54.6
56.9
40.6
62.3
62.4
62.0
72.0
49.2
44.7
78.5
66.9
24.3

56.8
56.1
64.7
45.7
63.3
66.4
59.2
72.2
49. 5
46.0
77.8
67.2
25.8

58.0
57.1
57.5
46.3
64.5
67.7
60.4
71.6
50.1
47.5
79.0
70.7
27.8

57.1
56. 4
39.9
41.4
61.9
64.7
59.0
73.6
52.8
46.9
75.8
67.3
25.5

i Persons employed 60 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.
3 Data for 1959 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not strictly
comparable with previous years. This inclusion has resulted in an increase
of about 150,000 in the group working 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.

ent from that in the hard goods sector. Since no
significant drop had occurred in year-round work
during 1958, the 1959 level of 5.2 million was
350,000 above 1958 and about 300,000 above 1957.
Employees with steady work rose by about 150,000
over the year in textile and apparel manufacturing,
to 1.3 milfion in 1959.
Service3 and public administration were the
only other major industries in which the number
of year-round full-time wage and salary workers in
1959 (10.6 million) was higher than in the pre­
recession year 1957. In fact, service was the only
major industry which showed a substantial in­
crease in the total number of workers—year
round or part year. Every other industry had
about the same number or fewer employees in 1959
than in 1957.
The historical decline in agricultural employ­
ment continued in 1959. Only 7.9 million persons,
or 400,000 fewer than in 1958, indicated that their
longest job during the year was in agriculture.4
The drop occurred entirely among self-employed
and unpaid family workers. In 1959, only 22 per­
cent of the 2% million wage and salary agricultural
workers—but 75 percent of the 3 milfion selfemployed—worked all year at full-time jobs.
»Including finance, Insurance, and real estate, as well as personal, educa­
tional, business, and other services, but excluding private household workers.

i Many persons who did some agricultural work were included in another
industry becausethe industry classificationis basedonthejobat whichthey
workedlongest duringthe year.


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N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

The increase in year-round employment was
limited to a few major occupation groups (table 4).
With the improved economic situation in 1959,
year-round full-time employment among crafts­
men reached 6.3 milfion—-150,000 more than in
1958. The total number of operatives with fullyear jobs was 7.4 milfion, a gain of 400,000
entirely among those working in factories. Among
both these groups, however, there were 400,000
fewer workers with year-round full-time employ­
ment in 1959 than in the prerecession year 1957.
Regular work had been curtailed most sharply
in these two groups during the 1958 downturn.
Clerical employment, at 11.4 milfion, was about
500,000 more than in 1958. The change in the
number working year round full time was not
significant.
Employment in service occupations (excluding
private households), which reached 7.5 milfion in
1959, continued to edge up over the year in fine
with long-range trends, and almost all of it repre­
sented greater full-time year-round employment.
On the other hand, laborers in nonagricultural in­
dustries dropped by 150,000 over the year, and
the number of farmers and farm laborers continued
to decline.
Year-round full-time work was more prevalent
among men than among women in almost every
major industry in 1959. In Federal public
administration, 71 percent of the women worked
all year at full-time jobs, compared with 90 percent

1276

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

of the men. The differences were even wider in
some nondurable goods manufacturing industries.
In apparel manufacturing, which employs many
women, only 38 percent of the women worked all
year full time, compared with 64 percent of the
men. In textile mills, where one-half of those
working at some time during the year were women,
the proportion was 47 percent for women and 78
percent for men. The differences were generally
smaller in durable goods manufacturing indus­
tries. It is not surprising that there are wide
differences in trade and service, where many
women are able to find part-time or part-year
work, but it is interesting to note that the propor­
tion of men in trade and service who held steady
jobs was smaller than in most other industries.
A contributing factor to this low rate probably is
the part-year or part-time employment of young
men either during the summer or after school
hours.

force activity of adult women, with a sizable pro­
portion wanting only part-time work;5the increas­
ing part-time employment of older men (discussed
later in this article); and the growing number of
teenage part-time workers. As a result, the per­
cent of nonfarm wage and salary workers with
part-time jobs rose from 12.5 percent in 1950 to
16.2 percent in 1959.
Annual changes among year-round full-time
wage and salary workers in nonagricultural indus­
tries have been uneven. All but 400,000 of the
4.3-million increase between 1950 and 1959 took
place during the unusually rapid growth of
1950-55. In 1950, the economy was just begin­
ning to pull out of the 1948-49 recession and there
were major strikes in the coal and steel industries.
The number of year-round full-time wage and
salary workers in nonfarm industries increased by
almost 1.9 million in 1951, as production was
increased to meet the needs of the Korean conflict.
About 1.8 million more were added in the 2
following years, boosting year-round full-time
workers to 33.3 million in 1953-—a peak of 60
percent of all nonfarm wage and salary workers.
Regular work declined during the 1954 recession
but moved back up in 1955 to 33.6 million.
Since 1955, there has been an increase of only
400,000 in the number of regular year-round wage
and salary workers. In nondurable goods manu­
facturing, service, and public administration (com­
prising more than 45 percent of total wage and

N on a g ricu ltu ra l W age a n d S a la ry W orkers, 1 9 5 0 59. The number of persons whose longest job

during the year was as wage or salary worker in
nonagricultural industries has increased by 9.5
million since 1950—about 4 million men and 5.5
million women. Some 4.3 million of the additions
were persons working all year at full-time jobs;
part-time workers accounted for 3.5 million, and
about 1.7 million were full-time workers with
employment of less than 50 weeks during the year.
The increase in part-time workers was relatively
greater than in the other groups and reflected a
number of factors: the steadily increasing labor
T able 4.

8 See Growth and Characteristics of the Part-time Work Force (in Monthly
Labor Review, November 1960, pp. 1166-1175).

Y ear-R ound F ull-T ime W orkers,1 by M ajor Occupation Group
Selected Y ears, 1950-59
Number (thousands)

Professional, technical, and kindred workers
Farmers and farm managers.........
Managers, officials, and proprietors, except farm__
Clerical and kindred workers_____
Sales workers........ ................... .
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred workers
Operatives and kindred workers_____
Private household workers......... .
Service workers, except private household___
Farm laborers and foremen
Laborers, except farm and mine__________

1959 2

1958

1957

1955

1950

42,030

41,329

42,818

42,624

38,375

53.8

53.6

55.1

56.6

55.7

4,926
2,232
5,959
6, 530
2,580
6,308
7,367
525
3,186
742
1,676

4,883
2,381
5,888
6,387
2,593
6,126
6,959
550
3,077
773
1,712

4,879
2, 598
5,763
6,443
2,499
6,698
7,776
542
3,029
775
1,816

4,452
3,243
5, 536
6,068
2, 497
6,355
8,214
611
2,808
992
1,847

3,132
3,335
5,125
5,337
2,143
5, 716
7,471
565
2,643
979
1,929

62.0
75.0
81.3
57.3
47.4
67.5
52.2
17.1
42.5
16.3
37.4

62.6
75.6
80.6
59.0
47.5
66.2
51.7
17.9
41.9
15.9
37.0

64. 5
77.9
83.2
58.2
47. 5
69.3
54.1
17.7
42.6
16.3
39.9

65.8
81.9
82. 7
60.2
47.3
69.6
56.0
21.2
42.6
19.4
44.2

60.3
76.6
81.1
63.4
46.7
65.6
54.3
22.9
45.9
20.2
43.4

1 Persons employed 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.
2 Data for 1959 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not strictly
comparable with previous years. This inclusion has resulted in an increase
of about 150,000 in the group working 50 to 52 weeks at full-time jobs.


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L ongest J ob,

Percent of total with work experience during
the year

Major occupation group of longest job

Total...................................................

of

1959

1958

1957

1955

1950

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

1277

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959
T able 5.

Y ear-R ound F ull-T ime Wage

and Salary W orkers, by M ajor
and A ssumed Changes, 1955-59

Percent of total who worked
year round full time

Total with
work expe­
rience in 1959
(thousands)

Major industry group of longest job and sex

I ndustry Group

1959

1955

Change
1955 to 1959

and

Sex , Actual

Difference between actual and
assumed numbers at work in
year-round full-time jobs in
19591 (thousands)

Total wage and salary workers in non agricultural industries........................

62,439

54.7

57.1

-2 .4

2 -1,406

M bIp wo £6 i\Tl rj po]ory workers
_______________________
Forestry fisheries^ and mining
_ _____________________
_______________________________
Construction
Manufacturing:
_________________________
Durable gonds
Nondurable goods
_ _ _ ____________________________
Transportation communication and public, utilities _ _________
Wholesale, and retail trade ______________- ____________________
Service industries
_ __________ ___ ________________
Public administration
_
__________ - ________________

38,039
728
3,938

64.8
56.7
43.2

67.2
57.3
45.9

-2 .4
- .6
-2 .7

2 -903

8,414
5,164
3,931
6,817
6, 595
2,452

65.6
73.7
74.4
62.7
59.6
85.1

71.6
70.8
75.3
64.9
63.1
86.0

-6 .0
2.9
- .9
-2 .2
-3 .5
- .9

-505
150
-35
—150
-231
-2 2

____________________________
Female wage and salary workers
Forestry fisheries mininc and construction __ _________________
Manufacturing:
Durable goods
_________________________________
Nondurable goods
_ ____________________________
Transportation communication and public utilities _____________
Wholesale and retail trade _ _________________________________
Service industries
______ _______ _____ __ ________
___________________________ ____
Public administration

24,400
222

39.0
54.1

41.1
58.0

-2 .1
-3 .9

-502
-9

2,108
3,255
934
5,708
11,212
961

52.2
43.3
58.6
31.0
35.6
59.0

51.8
44.9
56.8
32.7
38.5
63.7

.4
-1 .6
1.8
-1 .7
-2 .9
-4 .7

8
-5 2
17
-97
-325
-4 5

—4
-106

i Estimated by applying the 1955 rates of year-round full-time work to tbe
total with work experience in 1959.

2 Totals represent sums of industry components and therefore may not be
exactly consistent with changes in percent shown in column 4.

salary workers), there were more year-round full­
time workers in 1959 than in 1955. In durable
goods manufacturing, there were about one-half
million fewer full-year workers than in 1955, partly
because of the steel strike, as indicated earlier.
The other major industries showed very little
change over the 4-year period.
The effect of the decline in the rate of yearround full-time work is revealed by a simple pro­
jection of 1955 rates to 1959 (table 5). The rate
of year-round full-time work for all wage and

salary workers in nonfarm industries dropped from
57.1 percent in 1955 to 54.7 percent in 1959. If
the rate in each industry had remained at the 1955
level, 1.4 million more of the workers in 1959 would
have had full-time year-round employment. Ex­
amination of the industry composition of the 1.4
million workers suggests that several factors may
have been responsible for this difference. Almost
all of the additional year-round workers would
have been accounted for by 500,000 more in dura­
ble goods manufacturing and 800,000 in trade and

T a b l e 6.

E xtent

op

W ork E xperience D uring

the

Y ear,

by

A ge

and

S ex , 1959

Age and sex
Percent
Number of popu­
(thousands) lation

1950

1950

1959

Distribution of those
with work experience

Total with work
experience

Distribution of those
with work experience

Total with work
experience

and

Worked at full­
Worked
time jobs
Percent
Worked
at partat part- Number of popu­
time
time (thousands) lation
jobs
50 to 52 27 to 49 1 to 26
jobs
1 to 26
weeks
weeks
weeks
weeks

Worked at full­
time jobs
50 to 52 27 to 49
weeks
weeks

78,162

64.0

53.8

16.0

10.8

19.4

68,876

63.1

55.7

17.1

11.6

15.5

Male, 14 years and over_________
14 to 17 years______________
18 and 19 years_____________
20 to 24 years______________
25 to 54 years______________
55 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over____ ______

48, 973
2, 737
1,710
4,256
30,806
6, 551
2,913

84.1
49.0
82.1
92.0
97.1
89.3
42.4

64.3
3.4
17.8
48.8
75.3
69.9
42.5

16.0
1.8
15.1
20.6
16.9
16.9
11.7

7.5
18.8
29.1
18.4
3.9
5.1
11.2

12.2
76.1
38.0
12.2
3.8
8.2
34.5

45, 526
2,206
1,515
4,575
28, 543
6,007
2,679

86.8
62.2
84.0
92.7
97.4
89.6
49.3

65.4
7.8
25.0
54.0
74.1
70.3
52.3

16.7
5.1
17.4
21.5
17.2
15.8
15.1

8.0
19.9
33.3
15.6
4.7
6.2
9.1

9.8
67.1
24.2
8.9
4.0
7.7
23.5

Female, 14 years and over_______
14 to 17 vears______________
18 and 19 years_____________
20 to 24 years______________
25 to 34 years--------- -----------35 to 44 years........................... 45 to 64 years.............................
65 years and over___________

29,189
1,986
1,589
3,410
5,276
6,303
9,466
1,159

45.6
36.5
66.4
61.3
45.7
51.8
51.1
13.9

36.1
1.4
16.8
35.8
34.2
41.9
45.2
25.2

16.0
2.5
14.8
20.3
18.0
16.6
16.7
10.8

16.4
23.0
36.5
26.9
20.1
13.4
8.7
9.6

31.5
73.2
31.9
17.0
27.7
28.1
29.3
54.4

23,350
1,389
1,303
3,383
5,291
5,070
6,192
724

41.1
33.3
61. 6
58.7
43.7
47.2
39.4
11.8

36.8
2.6
24.9
42.0
37.8
40.5
41.0
29.7

17.9
5.4
17.1
22.3
17.8
18.7
18.5
11.1

18.7
30.0
35.3
22.8
22.3
14.6
11.7
12.0

26.6
61.9
22.6
13.0
22.0
26.2
28.8
47.4

Both sexes, 14 years and over------

N ote : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.


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1278

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
T able

7.

E xtent

of

W

obk

E

Extent of work experience during the year
Population (thousands). . . .
Percent who worked during the year
Total who worked: Number (thousands)
Percent____________

x p e r ie n c e

1959

D

u r in g t h e

1958

1957

Y ear

fo r

1956

M en

1955

65 Y e a r s
1954

and

1953

O ver,
1952

1950-59
1951

1950

6,871
42.4
2,913
100.0

6,747
43.4
2,931
100.0

6,650
47.3
3,145
100.0

6, 567
46.4
3.048
100.0

6,465
48.1
3,109
100.0

6,312
46.0
2,902
100.0

6,208
48.2
2,994
100.0

5,866
50.3
2,952
100.0

5,596
51.1
2,860
100.0

5,436
49.3
2,679
100.0

Worked at full-time jobs_____
50 to 52 weeks___________ .
27 to 49 weeks________
1 to 26 weeks__________

65.5
42.5
11.7
11.2

65.4
42.7
10.3
12.4

68.1
45.4
12.1
10.6

68.9
48.5
11.6
8.8

73.5
50.9
12.2
10.4

74.9
51.0
14.4
9.5

73.4
51.1
13.6
8.7

77.6
51.6
16.5
9.4

77.8
54.8
15.4
7.7

76.5
52.3
15.1
9.1

Worked at part-time jobs.
50 to 52 weeks______
27 to 49 weeks_____ ____
1 to 26 weeks__________ _____

34.5
13.7
6.6
14.2

34.6
15.2
5.5
13.9

31.9
13.4
4.7
13.8

31.1
12.7
5.4
13.0

26.4
11.4
5.4
9.5

25.1
9.3
4.3
11.5

26.6
9.2
6.3
11.1

22.4
8.9
3.8
9.6

22.2
8.1
4.8
9.3

23.5
7.9
6.6
9.1

N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

service—industries which together comprised
about 60 percent of year-round full-time work in
1959.
In durable goods manufacturing, part of the
500,000 can certainly be attributed to the effect of
the 1959 steel strike, which resulted in considerable
loss of time to workers in the second half of the
year, not only in primary metals but also in auto­
mobile manufacturing and in other steel-dependent
industries. Moreover, some workers did not have
a full-year’s regular work because recalls to work
in hard goods industries following the 1958 reces­
sion were continuing throughout the first half of
1959.
In service and trade, on the other hand, much of
the decline in the proportion of year-round full-time
employment is probably related to the changing
composition of the work force. Total employ­
ment in service and trade has been increasing in
recent years, in contrast to the situation in manu­
T a b l e 8.

E xtent

of

U n em ploy m en t

Major industry group

A mong

P a rt-Y ea r W age
G r o u p , 1957-59

Part-year workers with
unemployment as percent
of total with work experience

1959

1958

facturing, mining, construction, and transporta­
tion. A major source of labor supply for trade and
service industries has been the growing number of
married women and youth seeking only part-time or
part-year employment. Work schedules in these
industries are rather readily adjusted to less than
full-time arrangements, which are more convenient
to the growing number of married women and stu­
dents looking for part-time or occasional work.
Partly as a result of this, part-time and part-year
workers increased faster than year-round full-time
workers. In service, for example, the number of
year-round full-time wage and salary workers in­
creased by 600,000 between 1955 and 1959, while
part-year and part-time increased 1.8 million, and
therefore the proportion of the total who worked
regularly dropped from 47.5 to 44.5 percent. In
trade, the proportion working regularly declined
from 50.1 to 48.3 percent as the number of parttime and part-year workers rose.

1957

and

Sa la ry W o r k e r s,

by

M a jo r

I n d u stry

Long-term unemployment as percent of part-year workers
with unemployment
Percent of part-year workers
with unemployment who
had 2 or more spells of
15 to 26 27 weeks 15 to 26 27 weeks 15 to 26 27 weeks
unemployment
weeks or more weeks or more weeks or more
1959

1958

1957

1959

1958

1957

Alii ndustries.........................

14.7

16.9

14.2

20.4

16.4

22.7

21.9

19.8

15.0

41.9

45.1

45.1

Agriculture.............. ...
Nonagricultural industries____
Forestry, fisheries, and mining______
Construction..........
Manufacturing...................
Durable goods____ _
Nondurable goods____
Transportation, communication, and
public utilities_____ _
Wholesale and retail trade. .
Service industries______
Private household_________ ____
Other service_________________
Public administration............

20.2
14.5
22.3
35.7
17.5
18.8
16.0

21.9
16.7
25.9
40.4
21.0
23.6
17.6

20.5
13.9
19.1
33.5
17.3
18.0
16.4

22.6
20.3
22.7
26.5
19.8
21.6
17.2

27.8
15.7
19.3
16.8
12.6
10.0
16.5

24.3
22.6
22.1
28.0
22.4
23.5
20.7

33.7
21.2
26.1
21.5
21.4
23.5
17.8

20.9
19.7
18.4
23.2
18.1
17.1
19.6

25.9
14.4
19.1
17.6
13.0
11.5
15.3

56.0
41.0
40.3
57.6
40.5
38.9
42.9

63.3
44.0
45.7
61.0
40.7
39.7
42.4

68.6
43.8
51.3
60.7
39.0
36.2
43.2

11.5
13.3
9.5
11.1
9.1
5.3

12.9
15.1
10.3
12.0
9.9
6.0

10.5
12.6
8.7
11.3
8.1
5.5

22.2
17.0
17.9
15.3
18.6
23.9

17.6
17.3
18.0
24.5
16.1
17.8

27.4
20.6
18.6
17.9
18.9
20.8

24.9
20.3
19.7
25.0
18.1
18.8

24.6
20.3
18.2
20.4
17.4
19.2

10.5
14.3
15.3
19.9
13.8
14.3

38.2
34.8
36.6
51.0
32.3
25.6

44.6
39.2
40.3
58.6
34.8
33.2

43.6
39.5
44.7
62.3
38.6
29.1


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WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959
T able

9.

E x t e n t o f U n e m p l o y m e n t i n 1959
M a r it a l S t a t u s , C o l o r , a n d S e x

Characteristic

A ge

and

Unem­
ployed as
percent
of total
working or
looking for
work

by

A ge,

Percent of unemployed
who worked in 1959 hav­
ing unemployment of—
15
weeks 2 spells
or more

3 or
more
spells

Sex

Both sexes, 14 years and o v e r...........

15.3

34.1

16.7

22.2

Male, 14 years and over___________
14 to 17 years........ .........................
18 and 19 years_______________
20 to 24 years_________________
25 to 34 years_________________
35 to 44 years..----------------------45 to 64 years_________________
65 years and over_____________

16.5
15.9
30.1
28.4
18.4
13.9
13.9
9.0

36.3
27.9
36.6
33.2
31.5
34.8
42.1
56.8

17.0
10.4
16.0
17.9
16.6
15.8
19.2
12.7

24.7
18.5
26.1
20.5
20.1
25.4
29.8
35.9

Female, 14 years and over_________
14 to 17 years_________________
18 and 19 years___________ ____
20 to 24 years_________________
25 to 34 years___ _____________
35 to 44 years____________ ____
45 to 64 years.................................
65 years and over........ ................

13.5
12.0
24.5
18.5
13.7
13.1
10.8
8.3

28.9
14.2
16.4
25.6
30.7
30.3
35.0
0

16.0
12.3
15.5
14. 7
16.6
15.4
17.6
0

16.5
6.5
9.1
13.8
15.4
16.0
22.9
0

24.0
13.9
24.0

40.3
33.3
48.6

14.8
18.0
15.7

24.2
24.1
31.7

14.3
12.2
16.1

23.0
28.9
34.9

15.5
16.5
15.1

13.6
14.6
23.1

M arital Status and Sex
Male:
Single_______________________
Married, wife present_________
Other marital status__________
Female:
Single__ ____________________
Married, husband present_____
Other marital status__________
C olor and Sex
Both sexes:
White_________________ _____
Nonwhite___________________
Male:
W h ite ..........................- .............
Non white_____ _____________
Female:
White________ ______________
Nonwhite___________________

14.2
24.0

0
(2)

17.1
14.5

20.4
31.3

15.2
27.8

0
0

17.6
14.0

23.0
33.4

12.5
19.2

0
0

16.0
14.8

14.1
27.0

Age exerts a con­
siderable influence in determining the extent of
work during a year. Less than 50 percent of
boys 14 to 17 years of age have any work expe­
rience, compared with more than 95 percent of
men 25 to 54 years of age, three-fourths of whom
work year round at full-time jobs. By contrast,
very few young persons work all year at full-time
jobs (less than 3 percent of those 14 to 17 years
and less than 20 percent for those 18 and 19
years). Even at ages 20 to 24, slightly less than
half the boys and approximately one-third of the
girls work regularly. Since 1950, the proportions
of young men and women under 25 years of age
who work all year at full-time jobs have declined
significantly, while part-time employment has
become more common, particularly part-time work
for less than a full year or even less than a half

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year. Probably the most important factor in this
shift is the increased proportions of young people
attending school. Among girls 18 to 24 years
old, early marriage and motherhood undoubtedly
also play a role in work patterns. (See table 6.)
Among men 65 years of age and older, the pro­
portion who work has declined considerably, and
for those who work, part-time work has become
more important. In 1950-52, about 50 percent
of the men 65 years and over worked during the
year; in 1959, the proportion was 42 percent
(table 7). As a result, the number who worked
was only 0.2 million higher in 1959 than in 1950,
although the population of this age grew by 1.4
million. At the start of the decade, more than
75 percent of those who worked held full-time
jobs, but only about 65 percent did in 1959. Ex­
panded coverage and benefits under social secu­
rity and private pension plans have made possible
earlier retirement. In addition, the liberalization
of the provision concerning maximum earnings of
beneficiaries before benefits are withheld has
encouraged part-time and part-year work.
Married men had
greater opportunity for regular work in 1959 than
in 1958. About 74 percent held steady jobs dur­
ing the year, compared with 72 percent in 1958.
Almost all of the increase in year-round full-time
jobs benefited married men aged 20 to 44, the
age span in which heaviest layoffs had occurred
the year before.
E m p lo ym en t by M a rita l Sta tu s.

1 Percent not shown where base is less than 100,000.
J Not available.

E m p lo ym en t by A ge a n d Sex.

1279

Year-round full-time workers
Cthousands)
1959 i
1958

Total, 14 years and over_________

42, 030

41, 329

Male, 14 years and over
Married, wife present _
20 to 44 years _
__ __
All other ages____ ______
Single,_
____
_ _
Other marital status _

31, 502
27, 087
15, 500
11, 587
3, 080
1, 336

30, 727
26, 285
14, 813
11, 472
3, 083
1, 360

Female, 14 years and over_______
Married, husband present____
Single_________ ______ __ _ _
Other marital status__

10, 528
5, 464
2, 602
2, 462

10,
5,
2,
2,

602
456
664
483

1 Data for 1959 include Alaska and Hawaii. As a result, about 150,000
were added to the total working 50 to 52 weeks full time, of which about
60,000 were married men 20 to 44 years of age.

Data from the monthly survey of the labor
force indicate that between one month and the
next an average of about 10 percent of married
women workers left the labor force and another

1280
T

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

a b l e 10.
E x t e n t o f U n e m p l o y m e n t i n 195 9
P e r s o n s W h o W o r k e d D u r in g t h e Y e a r , b y
O c c u p a t io n a n d I n d u s t r y G r o u p o f L o n g e s t

A m ong
M a jo r
J ob

Percent of unemployed
Unem­
who worked in 1959 hav­
ployed as ing unemployment of—
Major occupation or industry group percent of
persons who
worked
15
3 or
weeks 2 spells more
or more
spells
Occupation G roup
Total workers____ _____
Professional, technical, and kindred
workers_______ _____
Farmers and farm managers_____
Managers, officials, and proprietors,
except farm_____ . .
Clerical and kindred workers
Sales workers_________
Craftsmen, foremen, and kindred
workers________
Operatives and kindred workers........
Private household workers____
Service workers, except private house­
hold_________
Farm laborers and foremen..........
Laborers, except farm and mine____

13.9

34.1

16.7

4.2
1.9

23.8
(■)

0)'

3.6
9.4
9.7

28.6
24.7
29.8

19.9
24.4
10.1

22.2
12.2
0)

12.6

11.7
9.1
12.0

35.9
32.9
29.6

19.0
10.3

20.6
32.5

13.8
11.6
31.8

35.5
47.0
42.3

1673
17.5

19.1
36.3
29.5

13.9

34.1

16.7

22.2

Wage and salary workers

16.0

34.1

17.0

21.7

A g ric u ltu re ..._________
Nonagricuiturai industries_____
Forestry, fisheries, and m ining...
Construction...____ _____
Manufacturing____________
Durable goods__________
Nondurable goods_____
Transportation and public utili­
ties__________ _________
Trade______________
Service_______________
Private household
Other service___ _____
Public administraion

20.9
15.8
23.6
38.0
19.5
21.1
17.6

49.0
33.2
40.0
40. 7
29.1
28.2
30.6

17.0
14.1
20.3
18.8
18.1
19.8

38.0
20.8
24.3
33.9
17.6
16.6
19.1

12.4
14.4
10.1
12.2
9.6
5.5

36. 7
31.7
33.7
36.6
32.8
40.1

14.5
15.4
13.5
9.8
14.6
12.2

I ndustry Group
Total workers_____________

1677
36.9
15.9

1 Percent not shown where base Is less than 100,000.

10 percent entered the labor force during 1959.
The proportion moving in and out of the labor
force was about the same for single boys and girls
as for married women, but it was only about 1
percent for married men, who of course have a
steadier attachment to the labor force.
Although there is no direct measure of whether
the same persons return to the labor force several
times during the year or whether different people
are involved, comparing the total number of
persons who worked during the year with peak
monthly employment suggests differences in this
kind of employment turnover among various
groups. The following tabulation shows that
the number of individual married women who
worked for at least 1 week during 1959 was 34
percent greater than the largest number employed
in any one month. The group with the next
highest ratio of total workers during the year to
peak employment was single women. The mar­


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ried men make rather few moves out of or into
the labor force during the year.
Persons with work ex­
perience in 1959
Number
A s percent of
(thou­
peak employ­
sands)
ment in 1959

Men _______ __
S in g le____________
Married, wife present___
Other marital status___
Women. ______
Single____ __
__
Married, husband present__
Other marital status__

..
..

..
..
..

48,973
9, 646
36,811
2,518
29, 189
6,920
16,807
5,465

106.
111.
105.
103.
131.
122.
134.
117.

8
4
3
5
0
3
0
5

Unemployment and Other Absences
Incidence o f U nem ploym ent by In d u stry a n d Occu­
p ation. Between 1958 and 1959, the number of

persons unemployed at some time during the year
dropped from 14.1 to 12.2 million. The sharpest
reductions in unemployment in 1959 occurred
among wage and salary workers in durable goods
manufacturing, particularly in several industries
which had been hardest hit the year before. In
primary metals, about 17 percent had some unem­
ployment in 1959, compared with 27 percent the
year before, and the proportion of jobless who
lost 15 weeks or more declined from 47 to 32
percent in 1959.6 In the machinery industry, the
unemployment rate dropped from 23 percent in
1958 to 14 percent. The rate in the automobile
industry showed only a small decrease, but the
proportion of jobless who were out of work for
15 weeks or more was cut in half—from 45 per­
cent of those unemployed in 1958 to 23 percent in
1959. In durable goods as a whole, the propor­
tion of unemployed who lost a total of 15 weeks
or more dropped from a level of more than 40
percent in 1958 to less than 30 percent; most of
the decline was in the group with unemployment
totaling 27 weeks or more.
Other major industries recorded improvements.
Among railroad workers, unemployment totaling
15 weeks or more was reduced sharply although
6 In the reports on work experience of the population, the number of weeks
of unemployment represents the sum of ail weeks in the calendar year during
which persons had looked for work regardless of whether the weeks were
continuous or in several distinct periods. In the monthly report on the
labor force, duration of unemployment represents the length of time (through
the current survey week) during which persons had been continuously
looking for work. In both reports, time lost by persons on strike is not re­
corded as unemployment unless the worker is actually looking for another job.

1281

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959

the proportion who had some idleness remained
at about 15 percent. In the construction indus­
try, both the incidence of unemployment and the
extent of time lost were reduced but remained, as
usual, higher than in most industries. In 1959,
about 38 percent of the workers whose longest job
was in the construction industry had some unem­
ployment, and two-fifths of these accumulated
more than 15 weeks of joblessness; in 1958, the
comparable proportions were 43 percent and
almost one-half.
Comparisons with 1957 can be made only for
unemployment among part-year workers, i.e.,
those who worked less than 50 weeks.7 Table 8
shows that unemployment in 1959 among partyear wage and salary workers had receded almost
to the 1957 levels. In the transportation indus­
try, however, the proportion of jobless workers
who lost 27 weeks or more of work remained
significantly higher in 1959 than in 1957 despite
a very large reduction as compared with 1958.

In every major industry except manufacturing,
there were significant declines between 1957 and
1959 in the proportion of the unemployed who
had two or more spells of unemployment.
Unemployment rates among
manual workers—craftsmen, operatives, and la­
borers—were also diminished in 1959. However,
their rates and the number of weeks lost because
of unemployment remained, as usual, above those
of most other occupation groups.
In several respects, workers in these blue-collar
occupations have fared least well among the nonagricultural jobholders. Over the long run, the
number of such workers has increased much less
than among white-collar workers; their employ­
ment has been less regular, and relatively more
workers have been unemployed and for longer
periods of time. (See accompanying chart.) Of

Blue-C ollar W orkers.

7
Prior to 1958, detailed data were not obtained for year-round workers
with 1 or 2 weeks of unemployment.

Employment and Unemployment in White-Collar, Service, and Blue-Collar Occupations1
S e r v ic e O c c u p a t io n s

B .'C - lil A l! O c c u p a t io n s
W h i t e - C o l la r O c c u p a t i o n s

B lu e - C o lla r O c c u p a t io n s
PERCEN T

PERCEN T

50

50 r
Change in Employment, 1950-59

40 -

30

-

n
20

TFT

10

Hi

-

'M

0

y 77

'¿('x

ÜL

P e rce n t o f W o rk e rs

T o ta l W ith
W o rk E x p e rie n c e

F u ll-T im e J o b s

W ith U n e m p lo y m e n t

P e r c e n t o f U n e m p lo y e d
W o rk e rs W h o

Lo st

15 W e e k s o r M o re

i All occupations include farmers and farm laborers not shown separately.
White-collar occupations include professional, managerial, clerical, and sales
workers. Service occupations include private household workers and per­


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P e r c e n t o f U n e m p lo y e d
W o r k e r s W it h T w o o r M o re
S p e lls o f U n e m p lo y m e n t

sonal and protective service workers. Blue-collar occupations include
craftsmen, operatives, and nonfarm laborers.

1282
course, these measures vary considerably among
specific occupations, but the growth occupations
have been those with the least incidence of
unemployment.
U nem ploym ent A m o n g M e n . The better eco­
nomic climate in 1959 reduced joblessness most
sharply among men 20 to 44 years of age. Unem­
ployment had been particularly severe among the
20- to 24-year-old group during 1958, with 35
percent out of work at some time. In 1959, the
rate was down to 28 percent.
Data on cumulative weeks of unemployment
during the year further indicate that middle-aged
and older workers have a harder time finding and
keeping new jobs once they become unemployed.
In 1958, 47 percent of unemployed men aged 45
to 64 had a total of 15 weeks or more of idleness,
compared with 41 percent of men aged 20 to 34.
In 1959, persistent unemployment declined more
slowly for the older group, so that the proportions
were 42 and 32 percent, respectively. The pro­
portion for unemployed men 65 years and older
remained very high—at 57 percent—in both years.
Repeated S p ells o j U nem ploym ent. Data on three
or more spells of unemployment, available for the
first time in this year’s survey, showed consider­
able concentration among construction, agricul­
tural, and private household workers.8 (See
tables 9 and 10.) Farm laborers, carpenters, and
other construction craftsmen had the highest
incidence of three or more spells—close to 40
percent. Private household workers as well as
laborers in construction and other nonmanufactur­
ing activities were not in much better shape, with
about one-third of these jobless having at least
three spells of idleness during the year. As
indicated earlier, these occupations are charac­
terized by more casual job attachments. Industry
data show a corresponding pattern, with greater
incidence of three or more spells of layoff among
farm, construction, and private household wage
and salary workers.
A greater proportion of men than women had
three or more separate periods of idleness. One
reason for this difference is that a larger proportion
of women are employed in office or sales jobs,
where the incidence of unemployment is low. In
addition, many women may enjoy greater freedom
of choice with respect to labor market activity.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
T a b l e 11. P e r s o n s W h o W o r k e d 1 t o 49 W e e k s
D u r in g t h e Y e a r , b y R e a s o n f o r P a r t - Y e a r W o r k ,
b y S e x , 1955 t o 1959
[In thousands]
Reason for part-year work

1959

1958

1957

1956

Total i_____________________

30, 959

30,383

29, 854

28,314

27,956

Unemployment_____________
Illness or disability2__________
Unpaid absence from work 3
Taking care of home_______
Going to school..................... ......
Other reasons 4______________

10,023
4,690
3,1 7 8
8,521
6,180
4,388

11,277
4,333
2,821
8 ,107
5 ,584
4 ,3 3 7

9,528
4,825
2 ,920
8, 352
5,881
3 ,9 7 4

7,904
4,845
3,3 5 7
8,315
5,493
3,145

8, 727
4 ,8 6 6
3' 159
8,451
5 ,206
3 ,370

15, 257

15,301

14, 489

13,642

13,567

6.956
2,830
1,950

8,011
2,655
1,574

6,576
2 ,9 1 6
1,663

5,439
2 ,9 6 6
2,089

6,015
2 ,8 7 0
i; 905

3,394
2,945

3,093
2,941

3 ,223
2 ,8 9 7

3,1 0 8
2 ,363

2 ,9 6 6
2,591

15, 702

15,082

15,365

14, 672

14,389

3 ,067
1,860
1,228
8,521
2,786
1,443

3 ,266
1,678
1,247
8,107
2,491
1,396

2 ,952
1,909
1,257
8 ,352
2,658
1,077

2,465
1,879
1,268
8,315
2,3 8 5
782

2 ,712
1 ,996
1, 254
8,451
2,240
779

1955

B oth S e x e s

M a le

Total i____________________
Unemployment______________
Illness or disability 2__________
Unpaid absence from work 3___
Taking care of home 5_________
Going to school______________
Other reasons 4__ ____________
F em ale

Total i______________ _____
Unemployment. . . ____ ______
Illness or disability2__________
Unnaid absence from work 3
Taking care of h o m e _________
Going to school_____
____
Other reasons 4__________ ____

1 Includes persons with one or more reasons for part-year work; therefore,
the sum of the reasons will exceed the number of part-year workers.
2 Excludes paid sick leave from a job (which is counted as time worked)
and periods of illness or disability during which the persons would not have
worked or would not have been in the labor market even if well.
3 Includes, among others, unpaid vacations and strikes.
4 Includes, among others, retirement, service in the Armed Forces, and
summer vacations for students.
5 Not available.

The incidence of three or more spells of unem­
ployment increases with age. About 20 percent
of unemployed men 20 to 34 years of age were out
of work at least 3 times during the year, compared
with 36 percent of those 65 years and over. This
of course leads to more weeks of unemployment
for those older workers who lose jobs even though
their unemployment rate is low. It is difficult to
know to what extent this low unemployment rate
reflects seniority protection from layoff or with­
drawal from the labor market after losing a job.
It is clear that the unemployed older workers who
persist in searching for work go through long
periods of job hunting interspersed with relatively
short periods of employment.
Among part-year workers with unemployment,
part-time workers were much more likely to have
three or more spells of unemployment than were
those whose employment was generally full time.
This was particularly striking for men, as shown in
the following tabulation. These part-year parttime workers are apt to be the school-age boys and
s Information on spells of unemployment as well as duration was obtained
only for persons who had worked at some time during the year. Therefore,
all references to the unemployed exclude persons who looked for work but
did not find it.

1283

WORK EXPERIENCE OF THE POPULATION IN 1959

girls and married women who move into and out
of the labor force, experiencing short periods of
unemployment in the process.
Male

Total with unemployment:
Number (thousands)___
Percent_______ _____
With 1 spell_______
With 2 s p e lls .____
With 3 or more
spells__________

Total

Part-year workers
Full time Part time

6, 956
100. 0

5, 853
100. 0

1, 107
100. 0

54. 4
18. 6

56. 5
20. 1

42. 8
11. 0

27. 0

23. 4

46. 2

3, 067
100. 0

2, 344
100. 0

719
100. 0

65. 6
17. 0

66. 3
18. 3

63. 8
12. 2

17. 4

15. 5

23. 9

Female

Total with unemployment:
Number (thousands)----Percent______________
With 1 spell. _ __
With 2 spells.
__
With 3 or more
spells___________


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As in other years,
there were marked differences by age and sex
in the reasons given most frequently for loss of
working time by persons employed for less than
50 weeks. Unemployment was the most impor­
tant factor for adult men under retirement age,
with illness next in importance. School attend­
ance was indicated as the cause by 6.2 million
young men and women; unemployment and other
reasons were of secondary importance. Among
adult women, taking care of the home and family
was the most common reason. Of the 15.7
million women working part year, 8.5 million
lost working time because of this factor. In
1959, more workers reported school attendance
and home responsibilities as reasons for part-year
work than in any year since 1955—the earliest
date for which such data are available—reflecting
the growing number of teenagers and married
women in the labor force. (See table 11.)

Reasons jo r P a rt-Y ea r W ork.

Summaries of Studies and Reports
Pay Levels for Professional and
Other White-Collar Occupations
I n t h e w i n t e r o f 1959-60, the Bureau of Labor
Statistics began a series of annual nationwide
surveys of compensation for selected professional,
administrative, technical, and clerical occupations;
this article summarizes the findings of the first
of these surveys. The data, which pertain to
representative establishments in a broad range
of American industry in urban areas,1 were ob­
tained by personal visits of Bureau field econo­
mists; for the most part, they show salaries in
effect during January-June 1960.
The study provides a fund of broadly based
information on salary levels and distributions in
private employment. Substantial general interest
in the survey results was anticipated. In addition,
the study provides more information than has
hitherto been available on pay in private industry
for use in appraising the compensation of salaried
employees in the Federal civil service. It should
be emphasized that the study is in no sense calcu­
lated to supply mechanical answers to questions
of Government pay policy. Indeed, no con­
ceivable survey could do so since the survey
descriptions are not identical with position de­
scriptions in the Federal service, and conclusions
can be reached only after considerable study and
analysis by Government technicians. The design
for the survey was developed in a study sponsored
by the Bureau of the Budget in collaboration
with the Civil Service Commission, the Special
Assistant to the President for Personnel Manage­
ment, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics.
The occupations studied were selected to provide
representation of a wide range of pay levels.
Individually, these jobs were judged to be surveyable in industry within the framework of a broad
survey design and representative of occupational
groups that are numerically important in industry
as well as in the Federal service. The occupa­
tional definitions used in collecting salary data

1284

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reflect duties and responsibilities in industry, but
they were also designed to be translatable to
specific pay grades in the General Schedule apply­
ing to Federal Classification Act employees.2
To meet the various needs for which the survey
was designed, it was necessary to establish defini­
tions for appropriate work levels (or classes) within
the occupations selected for study. Differentia­
tion between work levels (designated by Roman
numerals, with Class I assigned to the lowest
level) was made in terms of duties and responsi­
bilities. Specific job factors, however, varied from
occupation to occupation. Altogether, a total of
77 work level categories were studied.
In addition to salary data for all occupations,
the survey also collected information on cash
bonus payments for all except clerical and drafting
occupations, and supplementary establishment
data mainly relating to the characteristics of
salary rate systems.
Estimated employment in the occupations
studied amounted to about 1.1 million, approxi­
mately 8 percent of the 14.3 million employees
within the geographic and industrial scope of the
survey. Although they accounted for 50 percent
of the total employment in the jobs studied,
women worked largely in the clerical positions.
They constituted a majority of the keypunch
supervisors and a fourth of the payroll super­
visors; however, at only a few of the lowest work
levels in professional occupations did they account
for as much as 10 percent of the employees.
Average Salaries

Average (mean) weekly salaries among the 77
job categories ranged from $55.50 for file clerks I
to $442 for attorneys VI (defined to include top
1
For the scope of the study, see footnote 1, table 1. The survey results
are based on a stratified probability sample of establishments which have
been weighted to yield nationwide metropolitan area estimates. The num­
bers of employees indicated are estimates of the nationwide totals, and not
the sample counts. A detailed description of the scope and method of sur­
vey is provided in National Survey of Professional, Administrative, Tech­
nical, and Clerical Pay, Winter 1959-60 (BLS Bull. 1286, 1960).
J A11 job definitions are available upon request to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics. They also appear in appendix B of Bull. 1286, op. cit.

PROFESSIONAL AND WHITE-COLLAR PAY LEVELS

legal advisors, such as chief counsel heading a
staff of attorneys). Averages in excess of $200 a
week are shown in table 1 for 16 job categories;
engineers in levels V and VI accounted for more
than three-fourths of the aggregate employment
in jobs at these pay levels. The occupation posi­
tioning in the intermediate salary structure (above
entry level but below $200 a week) is illustrated
below with weekly averages for the numerically
most important work levels for the jobs shown.
Typists, I _________________________________
Stenographers, general--------------------------------Draftsmen, senior____________________________
Accountants, I I ______________________________
Supervisors, tabulating-machine unit, II ------Engineers, III_______________________________
Directors of personnel, II_____________________
Attorneys, I I I _______________________________

$60. 50
75. 00
120.00
132.00
140. 00
161.00
182.00
192.00

Among five levels of accountants surveyed,
weekly salaries ranged from $112 for accountants I
to $231 for accountants V. Auditors I averaged
$96 a week and auditors IV, the highest level
surveyed, averaged $179. Auditor I was defined
to include inexperienced trainees in positions
typically requiring a bachelor’s degree in account­
ing or the equivalent in education and experience
combined, whereas accountant I represented a
level of accounting responsibility above that of an
inexperienced trainee, and accountant V, the top
level surveyed, represented a level of responsibility
well above that defined for auditor IV. Fully
three-fourths of the accountants were employed in
manufacturing and public utilities; by way of
contrast, the largest group of auditors was in the
finance industries.
Attorneys I, newly hired persons in trainee posi­
tions (with the LL.B. degree and bar membership),
averaged $115 a week. This category, however,
accounted for only 427 attorneys. Of the succes­
sive levels of attorneys studied, salary incre­
ments—$25, $52, $63, $132, and $55—were sub­
stantially larger than for all other series except
personnel directors. Attorneys at the first three
levels were found mainly in finance; manufactur3Although engineers were not identified by field of specialization or func­
tion, inquiry was made into distinctions in rates of pay among engineers
employed within establishments in two or more fields of specialization (e.g.,
civil, mechanical, and electrical) or in two or more functions (e.g., research,
design, operations and maintenance, and production). Among establish­
ments employing engineers in two or more specializations, 94 percent reported
no rate differences on the basis of field of specialization; among those employ­
ing engineers in two or more functions, 92 percent reported no rate differences
based on function.
574923— 60------ 3


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1285

ing and public utilities together accounted for only
about a fourth of them. Attorneys IV, V, and VI,
however, were more equally divided among these
industry divisions; relatively few were employed
in the trade and service industries.
Six levels of chemists and engineers and seven
levels of mathematicians were surveyed, each
starting with a trainee level of professional work
typically requiring a bachelor of science degree or
the equivalent in education and experience. For
engineers, the largest group studied, average
weekly salaries ranged from $122 for engineers I
to $272 for engineers VI.3 Pay levels for mathe­
maticians were below those for engineers at the
lowest levels and about the same at the higher
levels. For each of the six levels of chemists, the
average salary was below that of engineers in the
corresponding level. Nearly all of the chemists
and a great majority of the engineers and mathe­
maticians were employed in manufacturing.
In the personnel management field, three occu­
pations (each with four levels) were studied. Job
analysts I, defined to include trainees under
immediate supervision, averaged $114 a week,
compared with $180 for job analysts IV, who par­
ticipate in the development, installation, and admin­
istration of evaluation and compensation systems
and are fully responsible for other broad assign­
ments. The levels for employment managers
and directors of personnel started with positions
requiring full responsibility for their respective
programs, each of the levels being determined on
the basis of employment, range of occupations,
and variety of functions for which the persons were
responsible. Weekly salaries for employment
managers averaged from $128 for level I to $224
for level IV, and for personnel directors, from
$152 for level I to $302 for level IV. Manufac­
turing establishments accounted for three-fifths to
four-fifths of the employment in these 12 job
categories. Among other industries, a fourth of
the employees in the first two levels of job analyst
positions were in finance; a third of the employ­
ment managers IV were in public utilities.
Weekly salaries for the levels in the drafting
field averaged from $72.50 for a relatively small
group of tracers to $146 for lead draftsmen, who
may perform drafting work but also plan and
direct the work of others (table 2). Of the nearly
91,000 draftsmen and tracers, 79 percent were
employed in manufacturing, and 12 percent were

1286
in establishments providing architectural and
engineering services.
General stenographers accounted for a tenth of
all employees in the jobs studied and, in the
clerical field, constituted the largest group among
17 occupations and work levels studied. Their
weekly salaries averaged $75, which was near the
midpoint in the range of average weekly salaries
for the clerical levels surveyed. For nine levels,
average salaries fell within a $9 range, from
$69.50 to $78.50 a week. Among all clerical
levels studied, average weekly salaries ranged
from $55.50 for file clerks I to $101.50 for tabulating-machine operators III, who are required to
perform complete reporting assignments by ma­
chine, including difficult wiring, without close
supervision. Although employment in manufac­
turing exceeded that in the several nonmanufac­
turing divisions in 14 of the 17 clerical jobs, in
only six instances did manufacturing account for
as many as half of the employees.
Among the clerical supervisory positions studied
were managers of office services, with four levels
based upon the size of the organization serviced
and the variety of services for which the managers
were responsible. Their average weekly salaries
ranged from $139 for level I to $218 for level IV.
Keypunch supervisors averaged $93 a week in
level I and $114 in level II; the first level related
to working supervisors who were also required to
operate keypunch machines, and the second to
full-time supervisors in charge of keypunch opera­
tions units. Similarly defined levels of tabulatingmachine unit supervisors averaged $114 in level I
and $140 in level II. Manufacturing industries
accounted for more than half of the employment
in all except the first level of managers of office
services and the second of keypunch supervisors_
Average Weekly Hours

Data on the length of the workweek, the period
for which employees received their regular
straight-time salary, were obtained in addition
to information on pay. The following tabulation
shows the distribution of the survey’s 77 job
4 Wage surveys conducted in major labor markets have also indicated that
work schedules tertd to be shorter in large northeastern labor markets (par­
ticularly in New York City) than in areas studied in other regions. See
Wages and Related Benefits, 20 Labor Markets, 1958-59 (BLS Bull. 1240-22).
• Distributions of employees by average weekly salaries are presented for
all occupation-work levels in Bull. 1286, op. cit.


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

categories according to average weekly hours
(rounded to the nearest half hour).
Average weekly hours

Number of job
categories

38________________________________________
38 %_______________________________________
39 ______________________________________
39/2_______________________________________
40 ___________________________________________

1
9
24
25

Inter job differences in average weekly hours
largely reflect variation in the distribution among
industries of the employment in these jobs.
Whereas the majority of manufacturing establish­
ments, for example, have 40-hour work schedules
for their office employees, banking and insurance
firms commonly report shorter workweeks.4 Av­
erages of 39 hours or less were recorded for all work
levels in the auditor and attorney series; for all
except one level (attorneys IV), employment was
greatest in finance. The fact that the average
work schedule for most of the clerical jobs was
either 39 or 38K hours is also explained by the lack
of concentration of such jobs in manufacturing.
Forty-hour averages are shown for five of six
engineering levels, and as pointed out earlier, a
great majority of the engineers were employed in
manufacturing.
Salary Distribution

Within nearly all occupation-work levels, salary
rates for some of the higher paid employees were
at least twice those of the lowest paid employees.
In the 20 occupations where 2 or more levels were
studied, absolute as well as relative spreads be­
tween the highest and lowest salaries tended to
widen with each increase in work level. There
was also a very substantial degree of salary overlap
between work levels in the same occupation.5
Expressing the salary range of the middle 50
percent of employees as a percentage of the
median salary (middle range and median weekly
salary in tables 1 and 2) permitted comparisons
of salary ranges for the various work levels on
the same basis and also eliminated the extreme
low and high salaries from each comparison.
However, this did not take into account differences
in the range of duties and responsibilities among
the job descriptions for various levels. Thus as
seen in table 3, the middle range in salaries for
attorney levels exceeded 35 percent of the corre­
sponding median in 5 of 6 levels, whereas for the

18

1287

PROFESSIONAL AND WHITE-COLLAR PAY LEVELS
T able 1.

E mployment, A verage Salaries, and Average Weekly Salaries P lus Cash B onuses ^ or Selected
P rofessional and Administrative Occupations,1 Winter 1959-60

Occupation and class

Accounts

Number of
employees
(thousands)

Average (mean)
salaries 2

Annual

M onthly

Mean

Median

Middle
range3

Average
Percent
Percent of
weekly
added to
employees
salaries plus salaries by
receiving
cash bonuses cash bonuses6 cash bonuses6

A uditors

and

25
35
39
32
22

$113
134
164
196
238

1.0
1.4
3.0
3.5
3.1

104
130
165
198

35
32
30
29

97
117
151
182

1.4
1.2
2.7
1.9

91120150202298341-

137
158
223
296
464
536

36
20
29
25
19
19

116
141
194
260
394
460

.4
.6
1.2
2.1
1.8
3.6

105
122
148
179
208
249

97110132161188234-

114
135
165
198
236
288

19
41
37
31
38
43

107
126
152
186
218
276

.5
1.9
1.8
2.3
3.4
4.8

122
139
161
189
223
272

123
137
160
187
218
264

115127146170197235-

130
150
176
206
245
302

16
17
16
19
22
25

123
140
162
191
227
281

.4
.6
.8
1.0
1.8
3.2

481
562
664
758
980
1,180
1,251

111
130
153
175
226
272
289

110
127
150
172
233
257
269

98116137156203232238-

122
141
167
191
253
300
346

11
14
11
17
50
24
22

111
131
153
176
251
288
295

.2
.4
.3
.6
10.9
5.7
2.0

18,189

1,512

349

344

286- 395

35

380

8.7

.2
.6
.9
.6

5,946
6,690
7,388
9,354

494
556
614
777

114
128
142
180

106
127
140
179

99113126161-

123
143
160
199

17
16
23
19

115
129
143
181

.5
.9
.8
.6

I _____________
IT_____________
I II —----- ---------IV ............. ..........

2.4
1.6
.7
.1

6,668
7, 841
9,110
11,680

554
652
757
971

128
151
175
224

125
151
169
212

108128151192-

149
168
193
253

45
27
19
14

131
154
1/9
226

2.3
2.0
2.1
.9

I ______________
I I __________
III- ------------ —
IV_____________

1.0
4.1
.9
.6

7,921
9,484
13,141
15,747

658
788
1,092
1,309

152
182
252
302

149
179
243
281

130156206237-

168
205
302
361

42
42
39
38

156
189
265
328

2.5
4.1
5.2
8.7

I .........................
I I ----- -----------I II .................. .
IV......... .............

.8
.5
.4
.1

7,251
8,042
9,399
11,356

603
668
781
944

139
154
180
218

140
146
179
213

123129148169-

151
181
206
264

49
18
39
19

142
156
184
219

2.2
1.0
2.0
.3

keypunch, I ........................
keypunch, I I ____________
payroll----- ----------------------tabulating-machine unit, I —.
tabulating-machine unit, I I ..

2.1
1.0
3.8
5.3
6.2

4,826
5,951
7,051
5,956
7,271

401
495
586
495
604

93
114
135
114
140

93
115
131
115
138

83100117101121-

102
124
151
130
157

32
21
30
31
38

94
115
137
116
142

1.4
.9
1.3
1.4
1. 6

$102-$122
118- 143
136- 178
162- 208
193- 259

I _______________________
I I ___________ __________
I II _____________________
IV...........................................
V______________________

13.7
18.5
14.9
6.4
2.4

$5,845
6,903
8,302
9,858
12,031

$486
574
690
819
1,000

$112
132
159
189
231

$110
129
155
185
228

I . ------------------------- - - II- ___ -- -----------------I II . -------------------------- -----IV------------- ------------------------

.8
4.1
4.3
2.0

4,980
6,062
7,648
9,307

414
504
636
774

96
116
147
179

93
113
143
174

85101127154-

.4
1.4
2.9
1.3
.6
.6

5,978
7,299
9,980
13,297
20,173
23,020

497
607
829
1,105
1,677
1,913

115
140
192
255
387
442

106
136
181
246
362
403

3.9
6.1
8.5
5.7
3.4
1.5

5,529
6,447
7,763
9,496
10,993
13,696

460
536
645
789
914
1,138

106
124
149
182
211
263

19.3
43.1
76.0
63.5
32.1
12.7

6,371
7,241
8,411
9,868
11,620
14,193

529
602
699
820
966
1,180

I -----------------------------I I ___________________
III- ----------- ..
IV __________________
V__________ ________
V I_________ ________
V II_________________

.4
.7
.7
.5
.4
.2
.1

5,786
6,760
7,992
9,115
11, 788
14,193
15,054

Directors, research and development........

1.1

Accountants,
Accountants,
Accountants,
Accountants,
Accountants,
Auditors,
Auditors,
Auditors,
Auditors,

Cash bonuses4

Average weekly salaries 2

A ttorneys
Attorneys,
Attorneys,
Attorneys,
Attorneys,
Attorneys,
Attorneys,

I .................................................
I I ________________________
I II _______________________
IV . ____________________
V . ----------- -------------------VI---------- ---------------- ---------

E ngineers

and

Scientists

Chemists, I _________________________
Chemists, I I -------- ------- --------------------Chemists, I II ________________ ______
Chemists, IV ______________ _________
Chemists, V_________________________
Chemists, V I________________________
Engineers,
Engineers,
Engineers,
Engineers,
Engineers,
Engineers,

I ------------------------------- II --------- ---------------------I I I ----------------------------------IV------ ----------------------------V______ . . . -------------------VI_______________________

Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,
Mathematicians,

P ersonnel M anagement
Job
Job
Job
Job

analysts,
analysts,
analysts,
analysts,

I ---------------------------------I I _____ . -------------------I II------- ------ -----------I V ... ---------------------------

Employment
Employment
Employment
Employment

managers,
managers,
managers,
managers,

Directors of personnel,
Directors of personnel,
Directors of personnel,
Directors of personnel,

Clerical Supervisory
Managers,
Managers,
Managers,
Managers,

office services,
office services,
office services,
office services,

Supervisors,
Supervisors,
Supervisors,
Supervisors,
Supervisors,

1 The study relates to establishments employing 100 or more workers In
188 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States (excluding
Hawaii), as revised in 1959 by the Bureau of the Budget, in the following
industries: manufacturing; transportation, communication, electric, gas,
and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and
real estate; engineering and architectural services; and research, develop­
ment, and testing laboratories.
2 Salaries relate to standard salaries that are paid for standard work sched­
ules. In tabulating the salary data, salaries reported on an annual or monthly
basis were converted to weekly salaries by dividing by 52.1 or 4.33, respec­


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tively. Average annual and monthly salaries were then derived from
average weekly salaries by using these same factors.
s The middle (interquartile) range is the central part of the array of em­
ployees by salary excluding the upper and lower fourths.
4 Cash bonuses were averaged over all employees in each job category,
including those who did not participate in such payments.
s Adjusted to include a small proportion of employees who received cash
bonuses but for whom data on amount of bonus were not available, by as­
suming their bonuses equaled those for whom such data were available.
6 Percentages were computed from weekly averages before rounding.

1288
T able 2.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
E mployment

and

A verage Salaries

for

S elected T echnical
1959-60

Clerical Occupations,1 Winter

Number of Average (mean) salaries3
employees
(thousands)
Monthly
Annual

Occupation and class

Draftsmen, junior.
Draftsmen, senior.
Draftsmen, leader.
Tracers..................

and

Average weekly salaries3
Mean

Median

Middle range 3

D raftsmen
27.9
50.2
8.8
3.7

$4,698
6,252
7,597
3,788

$390
520
631
315

$90.00
120.00
146.00
72. 50

$89.00
118.00
144.00
70.00

40.7
10.2
72.7
51.4
47.9
15.0
49.2
30.4
111.8
8.7
20.5
1.3
10.9
19.8
9.1
84.9
48.8

3,210
3,902
3,620
4,851
2,896
3,683
3,655
2,966
3,898
4,413
3,734
4,078
3,679
4,415
5,277
3,145
3,751

267
324
301
403
241
306
304
246
324
367
310
339
306
367
439
261
312

61.50
75.00
69. 50
93.00
55. 50
70.50
70.00
57.00
75.00
84. 50
71.50
78. 50
70. 50
84.50
101.50
60.50
72.00

60.00
75.00
68.00
92.00
54.00
69.00
69.00
55.00
74.00
84.00
72.00
77.00
70.00
85.00
101.00
60.00
71.00

$79.00-$101.00
105.00- 134.00
126.00- 164.00
63.00- 81.00

Clerical
Bookkeeping-machine operators, I ...............
Bookkeeping-machine operators, I I .............
Clerks, accounting, I __________________
Clerks, accounting, II__________________
Clerks, file, I .......... ...... ................................
Clerks, file, II________________________
Keypunch operators___________________
Office boys or girls____________________
Stenographers, general...................................
Stenographers, technical_______________
Switchboard operators..................................
Switchboard operators, special.....................
Tabulating-machine operators, I ..................
Tabulating-machine operators, I I ________
Tubulating-machine operators, I II..............
Typists, I ......................... ...... .......................
Typists, I I ____________—-------------------1 See footnote 1, table 1.

s See footnote 2, table 1.

engineers and scientists group the range was less
than 25 percent of the corresponding median for
16 of the 20 levels. For all other job groups, the
range was between 20 and 30 percent of the me­
dian for a majority of the work levels.
Median weekly salaries (the amount below and
above which 50 percent of the employees were
found) in most cases were lower than the
weighted averages (means) cited earlier. The
percentage by which the median differed from
the mean was less than 2 percent in 43 job cate­
gories and as much as 2 but less than 3 percent in
15 additional cases. Largest differences between
the medians and the weighted averages (from 5.2
to 8.8 percent) were found in the following cate­
gories: attorneys I, III, V, and VI; chemists VI;
directors of personnel IV; employment managers
IV; job analysts I; managers of office services II;
and mathematicians VI and VII. These are for
the most part higher work levels, usually covering
a wider range of duties and responsibilities.
Differences in the range of salaries paid individ­
uals in the work levels surveyed undoubtedly
reflected a variety of factors other than differences
in the definitions of the levels. Salaries of
individual employees in the same occupation and
grade level may vary considerably within estab­
lishments—in professional and administrative
occupations. Salaries are generally either deter­
mined on an individual basis or under formalized
pay plans which characteristically provide for a

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3

53.0065.0058.0079.0048.0060.0060.0049.0064.0077.0062.0071.0061.0075.0091.0053.0063.00-

69.00
86.00
79.00
106.00
62.00
80.00
80.00
63.00
85.00
91.00
83.00
89.00
80.00
96.00
112.00
67.00
81.00

See footnote 3, table 1.

wide range in salary rates for each occupation
and grade level within the pay structure. Distinct
overlapping of salaries between pay grades within
salary structures of individual firms was frequently
noted.
Pay Differences by Region and Industry

The survey design was not planned to permit
publication of separate estimates of salaries for
professional and administrative jobs by region or
major industry division. Estimates were com­
puted solely for the purpose of providing a basis
for some general observations relating to the broad
occupational groups surveyed. To eliminate from
these estimates the influence of differences in the
regional or industrial composition of employment,
the total employment within the scope of the
survey in each job category level was used as a
constant employment weight in computing aver­
ages for the various occupational groups for
comparison by region and industry.6
With the exception of the attorney series,
differences between the highest and lowest regional
averages appeared to be substantially smaller for
professional and administrative job groupings
than for the clerical and drafting groups. Among
four broad regions (Northeast, South, North
Central, and West) the maximum spread amounted
« Data for each of the occupational groups were insufficient in wholesale
trade to permit comparison with other industry divisions surveyed.

1289

PROFESSIONAL AND WHITE-COLLAR PAY LEVELS

to less than 5 percent in the engineering and
scientific series, to 5 percent in the personnel
management series, and to about 7 percent in the
accounting and auditing series. For the clerical
and drafting job groups, the highest regional
averages exceeded the lowest regional averages by
about 14 and 10 percent, respectively. The inter­
regional spread in the average for clerical super­
visory employees amounted to 7 percent.
Although the West led in salary levels for the
clerical and clerical supervisory series, the North
Central region was a close second in the clerical
area; and this region and the Northeast were only
slightly below the West in clerical supervisory
pay. Drafting-room salaries were highest in the
North Central region. In the other four occupa­
tional series, the Northeast had the highest salary
levels, with the West ranking second in three of
the four professional and administrative job series.
Salary levels were quite similar in manufacturing
and in the transportation, communication, elec­
tric, gas, and sanitary services industries for each
of the broad occupational groups, and average
salaries for these industries were above those for
all industries combined. In engineering and
architectural services, and in the research, develop­
ment, and testing laboratories combined, salary
levels for the engineering and scientific and the
drafting occupational groups were slightly above
those for manufacturing and public utilities
industries. Retail trade and the finance, insur­
ance, and real estate industries had similar pay
levels, which were usually somewhat lower than
in manufacturing and public utilities industries in
the-professional and administrative occupational
groups that could be compared, and considerably
lower in clerical occupations. In the finance,
insurance, and real estate group, particularly,
lower salary levels were at least partly offset by
the shorter average workweek schedules.
Weekly Pay Including Cash Bonuses

In addition to salary data for employees classi­
fied in professional and administrative occupa­
tions,7 information was obtained on the extent
to which these employees were paid cash bonuses
during the year preceding the survey and on the
amount of such payments. Among the 56 job
categories covered by the bonus inquiry, the pro­
portion of employees receiving cash bonuses

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

ranged from 11 to 50 percent; in about half the
jobs, more than 25 percent of the employees re­
ceived bonuses (table 1). Variations in the inci­
dence of bonus payments are believed to reflect,
in part, differences in the manner in which em­
ployment in the occupations and work levels is
distributed among industries and establishments.
Cash bonus payments were added to salary
data relating to all employees in each job cate­
gory, including those who did not participate in
such payments. Averaged over all employees in
each of the professional and administrative job
categories, bonuses added less than 1 percent to
weekly pay in 17 categories and as much as 1
percent but less than 2 percent in 16 others.
As shown in the following summary, the impact
of bonus payments tended to be greatest in the
higher work levels.
Bonus payments as
percent of average
w eekly salaries

Number
of job
catego­
Ties

8.7 to 10.9_______

3

5.2 to 5.7________

2

3.0 to 4.8________

8

Less than 3.0_____

43

Job category

Directors of personnel, IV
Directors of research and
development
Mathematicians, V
Directors of personnel, III
Mathematicians, VI
Accountants III, IV, and V
Attorneys, VI
Chemists, V and VI
Directors of personnel, II
Engineers, VI
All other categories

For those employees who actually received cash
bonuses, the supplementary payments added con­
siderably more to pay than is indicated by the
overall averages. The maximum increase (19 to
20 percent) for those receiving bonuses occurred
in weekly pay averages for directors of personnel
IV, directors of research and development, and
mathematicians V and VI. Bonuses averaged
from 10 to 13 percent of weekly salary for recipi­
ents in 7 other jobs and from 5 to 10 percent for
those in 18 additional jobs.
Employees receiving bonuses tended to have
lower salary rates (excluding bonuses) than em­
ployees in the same job categories who were paid
on a straight salary basis. Average salaries (exr Salary data for the clerical and drafting occupations were obtained from
occupational wage surveys conducted separately by the Bureau in 60 labor
markets. Information on cash bonuses was not collected in these studies.
Earlier studies conducted by the Bureau indicated that cash bonus pay­
ments, when averaged over all employees in office clerical occupations, added
little to their average weekly pay.

1290

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T able 3. D istribution of J ob Categories by S alary
R ange of M iddle 50 P ercent of E mployees
E xpressed as a P ercent of M edian Salary
Occupational group

Number
of job
cate­
gories

All categories__________

77

Accountants and audi­
tors.................................
Attorneys_____________
Engineers and scientists..
Personnel managem ent..
Clerical supervisory
Drafting.."............I ..........
Clerical______________

9
6
20
12
9
4
17

Un­
20
25
35
30
der and and and and
40
20 under under under under and
25
30
35
40 over
8

22

33

4

6
1
2
5
3
4
12

1
1
1

2

1

5

11
4
3

1

3

2

8

1

4
i
2
1

1

1

eluding bonuses) of employees receiving bonuses
were lower than all-employee averages in 32 cate­
gories and identical in 3 others. With bonus pay­
ments included, however, average weekly pay for
bonus-paid employees exceeded the average sal­
aries for all employees in the great majority of the
56 job categories.
Characteristics of Rate Systems

The survey design also provided for the collec­
tion of information on the nature of establishment
pay and classification plans. This part of the
study was concerned largely with determining the
extent to which establishments had adopted formal
salary plans, i.e., plans providing a single rate or
a rate range for each occupation. Where such
plans are not found, pay rates are personalized,
i.e., determined primarily with reference to the
qualifications of the individual employee. Where
formal rate range plans were in effect, policy on
intermediate rates and on progression within the
formal ranges was also recorded. Information
was not obtained on specific rates or on time
periods related to either automatic progression or
salary review policy.
The salary rate system may differ among em­
ployee groups within an establishment, and some­
times by level within an occupation. For example,
the pay system may differ between employees
covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act and
those not covered; between employees covered by
a labor-management agreement and those not
covered; or between employees on the general
payroll and those on the management or confi­
dential payroll. Establishments were classified
according to the system applying to a majority of
the employees reported in each of the seven broad

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occupational groups covered in the survey. In
these tabulations, therefore, differences among oc­
cupational groups in the estimates relating to
various types of salary rate systems may be due
not to employer policies applying to various occu­
pational groups but to differences in the number
of such groups in which employees were found in
each establishment. The proportion of establish­
ments with employees classified in the selected
occupational groups ranged from 8 percent for
attorneys to 98 percent for clerical occupations.
Among establishments employing accountants
and auditors, 33 percent had formal salary systems,
as did 55 percent of those employing draftsmen
(table 4). Virtually all of the establishments with
formal rate policies had a range of rates applying
to a majority of workers within each occupational
group. Among the seven occupational groups,
the proportion of establishments with a formal
rate range policy varied from 33 percent for ac­
countants and auditors to 53 percent for drafts­
men. The clerical occupation group was the only
one in which formal single rates applied to workers
in as many as 1 of every 10 establishments with
formal rate policies. The proportion of employees
paid under formal salary rate systems was greater
than indicated by the proportion of establishments
with such systems, because informal policies (with
salaries determined on an individual basis) were
much more prevalent in small establishments.
A majority of the establishments that had formal
rate range plans with specified minimum and
maximum rates had flexibility in intermediate step
rates. For clerical workers, such rates were not
specified in 43 percent of the establishments having
formal rate range plans and progression policies;
the proportion reached 77 percent for attorneys.
Among all occupational groups, clerical workers
had the highest proportion (35 percent) of estab­
lishments with formal rate range plans in which
the step rates within each range were specified.
Establishments reported under “other policy” in
table 4 included those with plans in which only
some of the lower step rates were specified, and
those with specified minimum and maximum rates
but in which the policy on progression was not
definitely established.
The prevailing method used for progression or
advancement under rate range plans was that of
periodic merit review. Even among clerical
workers, 72 percent of the establishments used

1291

PROFESSIONAL AND WHITE-COLLAR PAY LEVELS

obtained. About half of the establishments in­
dicated that hiring salaries quoted at the time of
the visit would be effective in hiring June 1960
graduates.
Engineers were employed in 32 percent, chemists
in 17 percent, and mathematicians in 2 percent of
the establishments within the scope of the survey.
For each of the three occupations, approximately
two-thirds of the establishments represented by
the above percentages hired inexperienced college
graduates. Almost half of the companies hiring
inexperienced engineers and approximately the
same proportion hiring inexperienced chemists had
established formal hiring salaries. Nine out of 10
establishments employing inexperienced mathe­
matics majors had formal hiring salaries.
In the establishments which had formal hiring
salaries, the most common practice was to permit
a range in hiring salaries with a fixed minimum
and an allowable spread above the minimum.
Inexperienced engineers and chemists were hired
under such a policy in 65 and 67 percent, respec­
tively, of the establishments with formal hiring
salaries. More than 90 percent of the establish­
ments with formal hiring salaries for mathemati­
cians permitted a spread in entrance salaries.
The remaining establishments with formal hiring
salaries had single entrance salary policies for
each of the three occupations.

periodic merit review for salary advancement
within rate ranges. Only in the case of clerical
workers did a significant proportion of establish­
ments (11 percent) have provisions for automatic
increases after specified periods. Combination
plans providing for one or more automatic in­
creases followed by merit reviews applied to per­
sonnel management occupations in 10 percent of
the establishments that had formal rate range
plans; the highest proportion of such arrange­
ments (20 percent) applied to draftsmen.
A flexible policy was also reported on the appli­
cation of rate range minimums to new employees
hired in an occupation. Among all establishments
with formalized rate ranges applying to one or
more of the occupational groups studied, 94 per­
cent permitted the hiring of new employees above
the minimum of the rate range.
Hiring Salaries for Selected Occupations

Establishment entrance rate policies for inex­
perienced college graduates with only a bachelor’s
degree in engineering, chemistry, or mathematics
were studied to determine hiring practices, entry
salaries, and the criteria used to establish salaries
paid if the employer permitted a range in hiring
rates. If known at the time data were collected,
information on policies effective in June 1960 were
T able 4.

P ercent D istribution

of

E stablishments 1 by T ype of Salary R ate S ystem 2 for Selected O c c u p a ­
tional Groups, Winter 1959-60

Type of salary rate system

Clerical

Clerical
super­
visory

Engineers
and
scientists

Account­
ants and
auditors

Personnel
manage­
ment

Attorneys

Draftsmen

16,143
100

9 ,044
100

2 ,576
100

8 ,5 2 9
100

11,212
100

42

55

37

42
58

53
44

63

1,089
100

4 ,540
100

4 ,0 6 7
100

Sa l a r y R a te S y st e m

Establishments with employees in occupational group:
Number of establishments
_ _________________________

30,027
100
38~
4
34
62

Formal rate pnlio.y
_____________________________
Pjngle rates
- _____ - ___ -_____ ---------Range of rates (minimum a^d maximum rate specified) ________
No formal rate policy; salaries determined on an individual basis------

11,033
100

39*
1
38
61

33

41

(?)

0

(?)

41
59

33
67

10, 266
100

4 ,488
100

5 ,254
100

3 ,443
100

35

21

21

14

3

27

19

70
16

77
20

55
18

64

88

3
77
20

F orm al R ate R a ng e P lans

Establishments with range of rates (minimum and maximum
specified):
Number of establishments
______ __ __________ — _
Percent-------- ------ -------------------------------------------------------Intermediate rate policy:
intermediate dollar rates not specified but established policy for
_________ _______ _________ —

43
23

59
19

Progression policy:
Automatic increases after specified period
_____ ___ ___ _____
____________ ______ _— -- ------ ---Periodic merit, r e v ie w

11
72

3
83

Other pnfic.y

1 See footnote 1, table 1.
_
.
.
2 Salary rate system applicable to a majority of employees m jobs studied.
within selected job groups in each establishment.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

17

13

59

19
1
85

14

0

0
90
10

12

Less than 0.5 percent.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of percentages may not eqnal totals,

17

1
85

1292
Both in establishments with single entry rates
for engineers, chemists, and mathematicians, and
in those with a range in hiring rates, a wide range
in entry salaries was found. A few of the estab­
lishments that had one hiring rate for all recruits
in an occupation had entry rates for engineers,
chemists, and mathematicians that were below
$360 per month. At the other extreme, entry
rates of $540 and over were found for engineers
and chemists in a limited number of cases. The
median establishment entrance salary, under
single-rate policies, was $476 for engineers, $453
for chemists, and $403 for mathematicians.8 The
middle 50 percent of establishment single­
entrance rates fell between $451 and $501 for
engineers, $408 and $493 for chemists, and $350
and $437 for mathematicians.
Minimum monthly entrance salaries in estab­
lishments which permitted a range in recruitment
rates showed approximately the same extremes in
the distributions for both engineers and chemists,
with a few lows under $360 and a few highs over
$540. In the group of establishments having a
range in entrance salaries for mathematicians,
minimum monthly salaries varied from approxi­
mately $390 to over $540. Median minimum
monthly recruitment rates in establishments
having a range in entrance salaries were $478
for engineers, $471 for chemists, and $500 for
mathematicians.
The middle 50 percentfof the establishments
permitting a range in entrance rates had lowest
monthly entrance salaries for engineers, between
$453 and $501; for chemists, between $411 and
$501 ; and for mathematicians, between $482 and
$505.
The allowable spread from lowest to highest
monthly entrance salary was obtained for estab­
lishments with such policies. For all three
occupations, the median establishment spread
between the lowest and highest monthly recruit­
ment rate was between 11 and 12 percent, with
the allowable percentage spreads ranging from
less than 5 percent to over 25 percent. A rela8
Differences in median establishment rates among these occupations
reflect in part, at least, differences in the manner in which the occupations
are distributed among all establishments studied. Approximately fourfifths of the establishments which had single hiring rates for engineers and
which also hired chemists or mathematicians applied the same hiring rate to
all recruits.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

tively large proportion of establishments, in fact,
fixed the maximum of the range at either 10 or 11
percent above the minimum. A total of 21
percent of the establishments hiring inexperienced
engineering graduates under a range of rates
policy, 23 percent of those hiring chemists, and
51 percent hiring mathematicians allowed the
10- or 11-percent spread. Analysis of the per­
centage spread from minimum to maximum for
individual establishments revealed no general
pattern of relationship between the amount of
percentage spread and the level of the minimum
entry salary.
The criteria used in determining actual hiring
salaries in establishments permitting a range in
hiring rates were provided by the surveyed estab­
lishments. The two criteria most often considered
for each of the three beginning professional
occupations were “ related experience prior to
graduation” and “ scholastic standing.” “ Mili­
tary service completed” and “ evidence of leader­
ship” were next in occurrence, although they did
not rank the same in all three occupations. These
four most commonly cited criteria were often found
in the same establishment. In fact, nearly all of
those using “ related experience prior to gradu­
ation” for determining entry salaries for engineers
also considered “ scholastic standing,” “ evidence
of leadership,” and “ military service completed.”
Among other factors frequently considered in
setting salaries above the formal minimum were
the standing of the college attended, special courses
completed, offers of competitors, and shortage of
applicants in fields specified for recruitment.
Most establishments cited more than one criterion
used in determining rates above the minimum;
slightly over half of all establishments with a
range of entrance salaries named four or five
criteria.
Determination of the salary paid beginners
varied from the designation of specific dollar
amounts for each criterion as a relatively precise
method of arriving at the starting salary to an
indication by employers that, although various
criteria were considered in establishing salary
offers, dollar amounts were subjectively deter­
mined for each person hired.
—Louis E.

B

adenhoop

Division of Wages and Industrial Relations

LABOR LEGISLATION FOR PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Trends in Labor Legislation
for Public Employees
o t e .— The fo llo w in g article is adapted
fr o m a speech by A rn o ld S . Z ander, P resident
o f the A m e ric a n Federation o f State, C ounty
and M u n ic ip a l E m ployees, delivered on A u g u st
31, 1960, before the a n n u a l conference o f the
A sso cia tio n o f State Labor R elations A gencies
at H ershey, P a . M in o r changes and om issions
have been made.

E d it o r ’s N

A f e w y e a r s a g o , a survey of labor relations in
the public service would have revealed little stat­
utory or constitutional authority for collective
bargaining by government workers and their
employers. But collective bargaining for State
and local government employees recently has been
developing in much the same manner as it did in
private industry prior to the enactment of the
National Labor Relations Act in 1935. Public
employees, as do their counterparts in industry,
have a basic right in the common law to assemble
and to petition for redress of their grievances and
for advancement of their economic interests. The
NLRA provided the machinery for the enforce­
ment of these basic rights for employees in indus­
try, but both it and the Labor-Management
Relations Act specifically exempted government
employees from their provisions.
Although there has been increased legislative
activity in the last few years in this area, no
State or municipal government unit has yet
adopted for public employees a thorough, com­
prehensive code of labor relations. The law in
this field is defined by the courts, State statutes,
and attorneys’ general opinions, as well as by or­
dinances and opinions of municipal attorneys
throughout the country. The American Federa­
tion of State, County and Municipal Employees
(AFSCME) has taken the stand that public
employees have the right to organize and bargain
collectively in all areas. Of course, this position
is strengthened by favorable legislation.
Growth of Legislation

With the growth in organization of public
employees, their unions have been seeking repre­
sentative status similar to that accorded workers
574923— 60—

4


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1293
in private employment. The greatest obstacle of
such a labor relations policy for public employees
has been the position of many public officials that
the sovereignty of the government does not permit
the “ delegation of power” which they declare is
incurred in bargaining or entering into agreements
with other private organizations. These public
officials, even when disposed to negotiate with a
union representing their employees, have been
very careful to avoid having this relationship
labeled “ collective bargaining” or “ joint negotia­
tions.” They have issued agreed-upon terms in
unilateral statements of policy or in rules and
regulations. However, this willingness to work
with unions, even on a sub rosa basis, is encour­
aging because it reveals a change in the thinking
of responsible public administrators. Other gov­
ernmental employers, for example, New York City,
Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Cincinnati, have
taken an open, positive attitude and have at­
tempted to establish their labor relations in a
pattern similar to that practiced in industry.
To illustrate, in August 1960, the Superintendent
of the New York State Department of Public
Works signed an agreement with the AFSCME
Council 50 which guarantees employees the right
to join the union and present grievances without
reprisal or retaliation and provides for a series of
meetings to develop a joint statement of labor
policy as the basis for union-management bargain­
ing and discussions. While collective bargaining
in public employment is developing in these ways,
legislative activity in this area is also increasing
markedly.
O rganizing a n d Representation. Legislation delin­
eating employee rights has been passed in Alaska,
Florida, Illinois, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New
Hampshire, New Jersey, Oregon, Rhode Island,
and Wisconsin, and in a number of cities. Most
such laws simply guarantee the right of public
employees to form and join labor unions and
recognize the right of public employees to have
such organizations represent them in proposals
relating to salaries and working conditions.
New Jersey granted these limited rights to
public employees in its new constitution of 1947,
which was implemented by provisions in the
State civil service law and rules promulgated
under the law. The Illinois University Merit
System Law and the New Hampshire State civi

1294
service law granted rights of representation to
covered employees. New Hampshire, as early
as 1955, passed legislation permitting towns to
enter into collective bargaining contracts with
unions of public employees. The new Illinois
State personnel code approved on July 18, 1955,
recognized the existence of unions by assigning to
the State Director of Personnel the duty “to
conduct negotiations affecting pay, hours of work,
or other working conditions of employees. . . . ”
In 1958, the State of Rhode Island adopted a
law guaranteeing and protecting the right of
State employees to organize. In the same year,
Massachusetts adopted a similar law covering
employees of the State and any political subdivision
except police officers. In August 1960, Massa­
chusetts took a further step by enacting a law
permitting cities and towns to enter into collective
bargaining agreements with unions representing
their employees. The new State of Alaska, in its
first legislative session, approved a law which
permits the State and any of its political sub­
divisions to enter into contracts with labor
organizations representing their employees. In
Oregon, a bill recognizing the rights of public
employees to join labor organizations and to
bargain collectively was passed by both houses
of the 1959 legislature but was vetoed by the
Governor. However, the State conciliation act
was amended to make conciliation services and
facilities available to public employees and to the
State and its political subdivisions on the same
basis as to employees and employers in industry.
Minnesota in 1957 enacted legislation which
not only spelled out and guaranteed the right of
public employees to join and be represented by
labor unions but also permitted the development
of responsible unions and the elimination of
multiplicity of representation. It did this by
authorizing representation status to a majority
union of public employees. Thus, the framework
for orderly collective bargaining was established.
While a 1959 Florida law prohibits strikes against
the State, counties, and municipalities and forbids
public employees to belong to government em­
ployee organizations which assert the right to
strike, it nevertheless authorizes public employees
to join and maintain membership in labor
organizations which comply with the law.
A 1959 Wisconsin law which specifically granted
municipal employees the right to organize! and

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

bargain followed years of persistent organization
of public employees. Despite this steady growth,
many public administrators hampered organizing
efforts by unwillingness to negotiate or to recognize
unions because they said these rights were not
specified by law. By the 1959 enactment, munic­
ipal employees are guaranteed the right to form
and join labor unions and to be represented by
them in negotiations with their employers; at the
same time, municipal officials are prohibited from
interfering with, restraining, or coercing municipal
employees in the exercise of these rights.
A number of cities have defined the rights of
municipal employees by charter amendment, city
ordinance, or resolution. Denver’s charter au­
thorizes its employees to designate agents to
represent them. Hartford, New Haven, Bridge­
port, Meriden, and Norwalk, by ordinance, recog­
nize the right of city employees to organize.
Milwaukee, by resolution of its council, recognizes
the right of its employees to organize. The
Youngstown city council has taken similar action.
Tacoma’s charter authorizes city employees to
organize and to bargain collectively. Salt Lake
City, by ordinance, grants city employees the
right to bargain collectively with department
heads and the city commission on salaries and
working conditions. In 1952, the charter of
Woonsocket, R.I., was amended to grant municipal
employees the right to join labor unions. In
1959, the city enacted an ordinance to authorize
a modified union shop in the department of public
utilities. In the May 1960 primary election in
Oregon City, Oreg., the voters approved a measure
recognizing the right of public employees to
organize and to bargain collectively. Similar
provisions covering State employees are contained
in a civil service initiative which was accepted by
the voters of the State of Washington in November.
Although the States of New York, Pennsylvania,
and Washington do not accord statutory recog­
nition to union bargaining rights of public em­
ployees, the Governors of these States have
nevertheless stimulated improved labor relations
in State employment through executive orders
and statements of labor policy. At the local
government level, Mayor Robert F. Wagner’s
executive order of March 31, 1958, has resulted
in an actively operating program of labor relations
for New York City employees which has furthered
collective bargaining. As early as 1951, the

1295

LABOR LEGISLATION FOR PUBLIC EMPLOYEES

Cincinnati City Council, by resolution, declared
a policy of bargaining collectively with unions of
city employees. Philadelphia, by council action
in 1939, authorized the first collective bargaining
agreement between the city and the AFSCME,
which represented nonuniformed city employees.
This relationship included the signing of an
exclusive bargaining rights contract in 1958 and
the approval of a modified union shop in August
1960 which was expected to be formalized by
ordinance by the year end. The August agreement
establishes three categories of city employees—
12,000 who must join the union as a condition of
employment (10,500 of these were already mem­
bers of the union), 4,800 for whom union member­
ship is voluntary, and 1,200 for whom union
membership is prohibited. Philadelphia is the
first of the large cities to sign such an agreement;
the AFSCME has, however, about 75 union shop
agreements in effect throughout the country.
Cincinnati followed Philadelphia this spring m
signing an exclusive bargaining agreement with
AFSCME Council 51. The agreement grants
the AFSCME exclusive bargaining rights for 3,800
city employees. Altogether, nearly 400 collective
bargaining agreements negotiated by the AFSCME
are now in effect.
Checkoff and M ed ia tio n . Another development in
the labor relations field which demonstrates an
increasing governmental acceptance of public
employee unionism is the authorization of pay­
ment of union dues by payroll deduction, or
checkoff. There are now 38 States where payroll
deduction for State and/or local government
employees is in use, and Puerto Rico enacted a
law in July 1960 granting the checkoff to its
employees. Of the 38 States, the following 10
have authorized the checkoff for State employees
by statute: California, Connecticut, Florida,
Massachusetts, Minnesota, New York, Ohio,
Oregon, Rhode Island, and Wisconsin. The
Ohio, Florida, and Massachusetts laws apply to
political subdivisions as well. California, Minne­
sota, and New York, by separate legislation, have
authorized union dues deductions for employees of
political subdivisions. At the local government
level, a number of major cities have authorized
payroll deduction by ordinance or resolution.
They include Akron, Boston, Bridgeport, Cin­
cinnati, Cleveland, Detroit, Houston, Long Beach,

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Los Angeles, Miami, New York City, Omaha,
Philadelphia, Salt Lake City, San Diego, San
Francisco, and Youngstown. Where the checkoff
is not authorized by legislative enactment, it is
often permitted by administrative arrangement or
some type of collective bargaining agreement with
the public employer. Approximately 80 percent
of AFSCME’s membership, representing about
1,000 local unions, has an arrangement covering
the checkoff.
Another new trend in labor relations in the
public service is the use of State labor mediation
services. In addition to Oregon, the States of
Michigan and Pennsylvania have passed laws
which provide for the mediation of grievances of
public employees. The Minnesota law mentioned
previously gives public employees the right to use
the labor conciliator in representation elections.
North Dakota and Nebraska also have mediation
laws applicable to public employees. In North
Dakota, legislation passed in 1951 provided for the
mediation of grievances between the State and its
subdivisions and their employees. The North
Dakota law contains a safeguard against its being
construed as authorizing public employers “ to
attempt to or deter any public employee working
subject to his jurisdiction from affiliating with any
union. . . . No r shall a public employer refuse to
consider grievances concerning employment prob­
lems with the representatives duly chosen by such
union. . . .” Nebraska has created a Court of
Industrial Relations, which serves as an industrial
commission to settle disputes and before which
public employees in proprietary governmental
services or public utilities may present their
grievances. In Wisconsin and New York, there
has been some use, on a voluntary basis, of the
employment relations boards in public employee
disputes. For example, the New York State
Labor Relations Board has recently ruled that it
had jurisdiction to determine appropriate bargain­
ing units for employees of a county water authority
who were subject to the civil service law and the
State labor relations act.
AFSCME Objectives

Twelve States and Puerto Rico have labor rela­
tions acts; the AFSCME looks to the time when
these acts will be amended to extend coverage
specifically to public employees. The union is

1296

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

presently trying to have a bill introduced in
Michigan to provide for this coverage. Of course,
what the union would like to see is a well-drawn,
comprehensive code of labor relations governing
public employees in each of the 50 States. Real­
istically, this objective cannot be achieved for
many years. Meanwhile, it is imperative that
some kind of relief be afforded public employees
who are denied the right to strike. The public
employees no-strike laws which are in effect in 10
States should be repealed.
State and municipal civil service laws, although
they deal with such matters as appointment,
classification, promotion, discharge, and change
in status, are not sufficiently comprehensive to
remove all causes for employee complaints. In
private industry, effective grievance and arbitra­
tion machinery has become a major instrument
in maintaining labor peace. Grievance machinery
in the public service is inadequate. Where they
do exist, State and local government grievance
procedures are usually the result of unilateral
action by the government employer and are more
often than not a part of the merit system mecha­
nism. They seldom constitute a practical and
effective plan for settling grievances. Public
employees need quick, informal consideration and
adjustment of their grievances, preferably at the

first level. They need union representation at
every stage of the grievance procedure and, if
necessary, final and binding arbitration of their
grievances by a board of impartial arbitrators. f
Even where the collective bargaining process is
well defined and a contract covering union mem­
bers is in effect, there is frequently no provision
for the settlement of grievances.
The central doctrine of the AFSCME is that
improvement of the public service will follow from
responsible organization of public employees and
the resulting improvement in their social and
economic welfare. Responsible unions cannot
operate properly without security. Security re­
quires authority by legislative enactment or by
collective bargaining agreement for the right of
the individual to join the union, his right to have
his union represent him in negotiations on wages,
hours, and working conditions, the right to pre­
sent his grievances and have them settled in a fair
and orderly fashion, and his right through the
union to mediation and voluntary arbitration
procedures. Security for the union also means
recognition of the majority union as the exclusive
bargaining agent for all employees of the govern­
ment unit and maintenance of membership, with
all employees sharing the responsibilities and the
costs of union representation.

The 10th Constitutional Convention
of the Steelworkers

construct a limited number of hospitals and clinics
as pilot medical care projects, a series of political
and legislative goals, and a number of constitu­
tional changes. A distinctly political flavor per­
vaded much of the convention as several partisan
speakers addressed the delegates during the
weeklong meeting.

e e t in g
in
A t l a n t i c C i t y , N.J., September
19-23, 1960—less than 9 months after the steel
dispute of 1959 had been settled—the 3,480
delegates to the 10th Biennial Convention of the
United Steelworkers of America considered a
variety of issues facing the union. Among the
problems were unemployment and automation,
the future of the medical care program for Steel­
workers, the progress of the labor-management
study committees created by the steel settlements,
and the continuation of internal political dissen­
sion. Out of their deliberations came a program
designed to alleviate unemployment, the intent to

M


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Economic Affairs

From both written and oral reports, the dele­
gates learned that the union had sustained no
serious financial damage during the 2-year period
ending June 1960, although the union’s net worth
dropped $6.3 million to $27.3 million. The steel
negotiations and strike of 1959 had, of course,
cost heavily, but the officers’ report noted that

STEELWORKERS lOTH CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

higher administrative costs as well as continued
unemployment, which reduced dues income, con­
tributed to the decline. Terming the strike “one
of the most costly ventures of any labor union,
and particularly ours,” Secretary-Treasurer I. W.
Abel estimated that the costs of maintaining a
staff of technicians and assistants in New York
City, of holding Wage Policy Committee meetings,
of making the Steelworkers’ story known to the
public, together with costs for transportation,
office materials, and the like, resulted in expendi­
tures by the international, its districts, and its
locals of over $17 million. Other labor organiza­
tions, Mr. Abel stated, contributed “. . . better
than $3.5 million, of which we have repaid every
single dollar, with the thanks and gratitude of the
Steelworkers.” Additional public and private
assistance to strikers and their families, providing
the major part of strike relief, amounted to almost
$23 million. Unemployment payments in New
York alone provided 35,000 steelworkers, who had
completed the required 49-day waiting period,
with $9 million; State and local public assistance
agencies supplied an additional $12.3 million to
over 49,000 strikers and their families; and 105,000
families received the equivalent of $1.4 million in
surplus foods.
In his opening remarks, President David J.
McDonald reported 150,000 members were unem­
ployed and another 350,000 working less than
full time. The union announced that supple­
mental unemployment benefits payments, pro­
vided through funds established under contracts
with the major steel producers, had increased
sharply since May 1960. The union warned:
If the benefit payments continued at the heavy July
level for 4 or 5 months . . . the weekly benefits being
paid by several of the large companies will, under the
terms of the plans, be reduced by at least one-quarter. In
some cases, even a fairly rapid recovery will not avoid
reductions by next February or March.

The national economy signaled other difficulties,
the officers’ report noted:
The high level of unemployment, the inadequate growth
in the gross national product, and the slight decline in
industrial production are all symptomatic of a rocky road
ahead.

11In vest in A m e ric a ” Program . Faced thus by unem­
ployment, the convention responded favorably to
President McDonald’s suggestion for an “Invest


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1297

in America” program, which included a series of
legislative proposals, a “Commission on Continu­
ing Prosperity,” and the shorter workweek. As
envisioned by Mr. McDonald, the program in­
volved the conversion of idle dollars into physical
goods for the use of all citizens. In calling on
industry and government to join labor in this
program, he explained:
. . . Dollars lying in treasuries, dollars lying in banks,
only for the sake of earning interest and accumulating
more dollars . . . are not productive dollars. But when­
ever these book balances are transferred into physical,
living assets, then we will build our country to a position
where she will be far outstripping every other nation . . .
in every conceivable concept, and we call upon industry
and government to join us in our crusade to invest in
America.

Among the legislative measures proposed were
expanded Federal expenditures for the construc­
tion of schools, homes, hospitals, and roads, aid
to distressed areas, tax cuts for lower income
groups, and lower interest rates.
According to McDonald, the Commission on
Continuing Prosperity should be staffed by a
small group of persons who are actively “in the
heart of the economic life of our land and who
actually determine the economic and in many
instances the political future of our land . .
Among such men would be chairmen of the boards
of major companies, like General Motors and United
States Steel, and their union counterparts at the
collective bargaining table.
The commission
would meet periodically with the President of the
United States and would recommend programs
for economic growth and full employment.
The proposal for a 32-hour, 4-day week had
been foreshadowed by earlier endorsements of a
shorter workweek both for the industry and the
economy as a whole, first by McDonald and then
by the union’s Wage Policy Committee. Demo­
cratic presidential nominee Senator John F. Ken­
nedy, who addressed the convention, took issue
with this proposal:
My own feeling is that I would prefer a different solution.
I would prefer the solution of this economy going ahead
at such full blast that in a 40-hour week we would barely
produce what we could consume . . .

In a later press conference, McDonald indicated
that the union, as planned, would carry its proposal
for a shorter workweek with no reduction in pay
to the Congress, for possible amendment to the

1298
Fair Labor Standards Act, to the recently estab­
lished Human Relations Research Committee,
where it would be studied and discussed, and
eventually to the bargaining table for negotiations
scheduled in 1962.
The delegates’ concern with unemployment was
reflected also in the passage of resolutions propos­
ing automation controls and condemning sub­
contracting. To prevent automation from de­
veloping into a ‘‘headless monster destroying
more than it creates,” the delegates proposed
cooperation between management and labor “in
planning a smooth transition from one stage of
technology to another,” together with govern­
mental action to increase purchasing power and
a shorter workweek. The delegates condemned
subcontracting as a cause of increased unemploy­
ment in the steel industry and as a threat to
wage standards and working conditions. Prompted
by a question from the floor, President McDonald
denounced as “reprehensible” a brochure issued
by the Construction Industry Joint Conference,1
that had been designed to attract maintenance
contracts from industrial firms. Steelworkers
contracts generally cover both production and
maintenance workers. He said:
. . . I have been carrying on quite a battle in the confines
of the Executive Council of the AFL-CIO on this subject.
I think that the brochure . . . is a most reprehensible
document.
What it says in effect is this to employers throughout the
country: “If you drove your maintenance work to outside
contractors, then you will be relieved of the burden of
pensions, insurance, SUB and other payments.”

In a significant policy
change, the delegates unanimously adopted a
resolution supporting comprehensive prepaid
medical service programs, promising wherever
possible to substitute them for existing “ inade­
quate” health plans through collective bargaining.
As proposed, the union will experiment with
hospitals and clinics similar to those in New York’s
Health Insurance Plan, the United Mine Workers’
program, and the Kaiser Foundation Health
Plan. I t was hoped that the money needed for
construction of new facilities might come from
steel industry pension funds and from Govern­
ment grants authorized under the Hill-Burton
Act for hospital construction.
M ed ica l Care Program .


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

The new policy formulation followed the issuance
of a report comparing Steelworkers’ health and
insurance plans and experience under their plans
with other collectively bargained plans and
several prepaid group practice plans. The prin­
cipal conclusions reached by this study were as
follows:
1. The United Steelworkers of America has a good
health insurance program— one of the best in the United
States.
2. The union’s goal is to achieve for its members and
their families comprehensive health care of high quality,
fully prepaid, adequately financed but economically
operated, and available to all workers when actively
employed, laid off, or retired and to all their dependents.
3. Aside from relatively minor improvements in our
hospitalization and physician service benefits, little
progress can be made toward our goal by the purchase
of additional benefits from the standard insurance carriers.
4. Nonetheless, continuing efforts must be made to
achieve greater effectiveness for our present insurance
programs. In this respect, the major objectives are the
removal of certain limitations on the present benefits,
elimination of physicians’ charges over and above the
fee schedules provided under the programs, and the
establishment of effective controls against unnecessary
hospitalization and physician services.
5. At the same time, alternative solutions for our
problems should be sought through group practice pre­
payment plans of various kinds, developed and tested in
selected steel areas.
6. In attempting to improve our programs and solve
those problems which so far have resisted solution, we
should seek the cooperation of the employers through
the Joint Subcommittee on Medical Care recently estab­
lished under the Human Relations Research Committee
created by the steel companies and the union; and we
should jointly seek the cooperation of the medical profes­
sion, the hospital administrators, and all others who can
participate constructively. However, recognizing our
responsibility, if we cannot have the full cooperation of
the employers in these efforts, we should be prepared to
proceed alone if this should become necessary.2

Joint Study Committees

The convention received reports of uneven
progress being made by the joint study committees
established under the provisions of the steel
settlements. Launched after the settlement early
in January were the Human Relations Research
1 The Construction Industry Joint Conference describes itself as “ comprised
of the General Presidents of international unions in the construction industry
and representatives of participating national contractors’ associations.”
2 Special Study on the Medical Care Program for Steelworkers and Their
Families (United Steelworkers of America, Insurance Pension and
Unemployment Benefits Department, September I960).

STEELWORKERS 10TH CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION

Committee and the Local Working Conditions
Committee, whose participants included the union
and the 11 major steel companies. Similar com­
mittees had been established earlier by the Kaiser
Steel agreement.3 In general, all of the com­
mittees were to be forums in which the parties
could discuss a variety of problems away from the
pressures of the bargaining table.
Addressing the convention, Dr. George W.
Taylor, chairman of the Kaiser Committee for
Equitable Sharing of Economic Progress, reported
that a number of meetings had been held and that
information was being gathered in several problem
areas. The attitudes that had been expressed by
the parties, in conjunction with the kind of ap­
proach that was being used, had given him “ high
hopes that out of this experiment in Kaiser Steel
progress can be made in doing . . . things in
a little better way than they have been done in
earlier years.” The Human Relations Research
Committee, it was reported, had met 13 times and
was still establishing an agenda. The Local
Working Conditions Committee had not yet ap­
pointed its neutral chairman, although the partici­
pants, faced with a contractual obligation to
report their findings by November 30, 1960, were
meeting.
In a subsequent address to the convention,
Secretary of Labor James P. Mitchell commented
on the committees’ promise and offered his aid:
If the men who work in the mills and the men who
manage the mills do not sit down together in these com­
mittees and address themselves through these committees
to the future of the steel industry, who in the world is
going to do it?
There may be difficulties that were not anticipated
when these agreements were drafted. It may be that there
are obstacles that I do not see in this role, and perhaps an
office like mine could be helpful. . . . If I can help in

3 The Human Relations Research Committee set up under the basic steel
agreement provided for equal participation by union and management with
each designating a committee cochairman. The equivalent Kaiser com­
mittee diflered in basic structure in that it provided for participation by three
public members with one, Dr. George W. Taylor, designated as overall
chairman. Other public members were Professor John T. Dunlop and
David Cole.
4 Its predecessor, also headed by Rarick, was the Dues Protest Committee,
which was formed following the action taken by the Eighth Biennial Con­
vention of 1956 to raise staff salaries and to increase monthly dues from $3 to
$5. In a referendum vote, Rarick polled 223,516 votes to McDonald’s 404,173.
For a review of the insurgents’ activities at the Ninth Biennial Convention,
see Monthly Labor Review, November 1958, pp. 1264-66.
5 In a subsequent telegram, Rarick was informed by the Labor Department
th at the Department of Justice would investigate his charges to determine
whether criminal provisions of the Labor-Management Reporting and Dis­
closure Act of 1959 had been violated.


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1299

getting these conversations started and these committees
moving, I should be glad to do so, because I believe them
to be one of the most significant accomplishments in the
last negotiations.

Internal Affairs

Internal factions, which the incumbent ad­
ministration had hoped were finally routed at the
Ninth Biennial Convention, continued to plague
the union in 1960. As in the past, the opposition
was led by Donald C. Rarick, president of the
U.S. Steel-Irvin Works local, and the recently
formed Organization for Membership Rights.4 In
an atmosphere marked by name calling and the is­
suance of charges and countercharges, scuffles
occurred both on and off the convention floor, one
of which personally involved Rarick. President
McDonald appointed a committee to investigate
circumstances surrounding this fight, following
Rarick’s telegram to the Secretary of Labor asking
him “ to bring the full protection of the law . . .
to safeguard the rights of the rank-and-file mem­
bers of the United Steelworkers.” 5
A number of actions of the convention seemingly
slowed the OMR drive. On a first test of the
insurgents’ delegate strength, approximately a
dozen voted against a resolution commending
McDonald. An OMR protest over the seating of
paid staff representatives as voting delegates was
turned down on the dual grounds that no specific
delegates were challenged and that, in any case,
the protest had been submitted after the constitu­
tional deadline for delegate challenges of 5 days
preceding the convening of the convention. The
convention also upheld the Appeals Committee,
which had endorsed the union’s action in placing
a trusteeship over a local whose officers were
OMR members for financial mismanagement and
had censured an OMR leader for not adequately
protecting the constitutional rights of three mem­
bers of his local.
Winning office in the Steelworkers union re­
quires two campaigns—one for nomination and
the other for the actual election to office by
referendum. In the past, both the incumbents
and their opposition have run as slates of candi­
dates. In 1957, for example, Rarick led a slate
of Dues Protest Committee nominees. Similarly,
OMR used the occasion of the convention to an­
nounce that Rarick again would head a slate in
opposition to President McDonald. However,

1300
I. W. Abel, who is not opposed for reelection,
disavowed this tacit support by Rarick, and
Joseph W. Murray, Philip Murray’s son and
OMR’s announced candidate for vice president,
declared that he was not a candidate for any
office.
C onstitutional Changes. On several occasions,
OMR members voiced fears that the need to make
constitutional changes in order to conform with the
Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act
of 1959 might be used to tighten nomination and
election procedures to the detriment of Rarick’s
candidacy. In 1957, Rarick needed the endorse­
ment of only 40 locals in order to have his name
placed on the ballot. Nomination procedures
alone were the subject of 212 resolutions submitted
by local unions, 143 of which recommended that a
nominee, in order to be placed on the ballot, must
have the endorsement of 10 percent of all Steel­
workers’ local unions (not less than 250 locals).
Other resolutions would have required endorse­
ments from as high as 25 percent of the local
unions. The Constitution Committee, supported
by McDonald and by a standing vote of the dele­
gates, dispelled OMR’s fears by referring all major
changes in nominations and elections procedures to
a study committee which will report its findings at
least 90 days before the 1962 convention.
Constitutional changes which might have some
bearing on internal politics were, however,
adopted. One empowered the International Ex­
ecutive Board to fill a vacancy among international
officers or district directors until a special refer­
endum could be held or, if the regular referendum
was scheduled to take place in less than a year, to
make an appointment for the unexpired term. A
second change authorized disciplinary action
against any member who might deliberately en­
gage “in conduct in violation of the responsibility
of members toward the organization as an institu­
tion” or might deliberately interfere “with the per­
formance of the organization’s legal or contractual
obligations.” A third permitted any candidate
for office to have observers at the polls and at the
tallying of the ballots. In several additional
changes, existing procedures concerning appeals
over nominations and suspension or revocation of
local union charters were spelled out for the first
time. These were among a variety of technical


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

changes that were adopted to bring the constitu­
tion into conformity with the requirements of the
new law.
Other M atters. Since the previous convention, the
union reported, 275 locals had been chartered, in­
cluding 65 in Canada, 6 in Puerto Rico, and 1 in
Hawaii. For the immediate future, it was prom­
ised, stress would be placed on organizing the
150,000 to 200,000 office and technical workers in
the steel industry. John Pastin, director of the
Office and Technical Department of the Steel­
workers, noted that the ratio of 1 office worker to
every 9 steel employees in 1937 had dropped to 1
to 4, and that within the next 4 or 5 years, office
workers are expected to comprise one-third of the
steel work force. Concluded McDonald, “If we
don’t [organize the office and technical workers!
we are going to become a minority force . . . ”
Other resolutions stressed the political and legis­
lative programs of the union. The delegates called
for the repeal of certain “punitive” provisions of
the Landrum-Griffin Act and, as in past years, of
the Taft-Hartley Act. Medical care for the aged
under the social security system, repeal of State
right-to-work laws, a $1.25 hourly minimum wage,
extended coverage under the Fair Labor Standards
Act, improved workmen’s compensation and un­
employment benefits, and a call for new civil
rights legislation, were all included in a lengthy
list that comprised the union’s legislative goals.
Minutes before Senator John F. Kennedy ad­
dressed the convention, his ticket was endorsed by
the delegates.

Convention Speakers

In addition to the speakers already identified,
the convention was addressed by New Jersey
Governor Robert B. Meyner, Congressman James
Roosevelt, Steelworkers General Counsel Arthur
J. Goldberg, Howard University President James
M. JNabrit, Jr., and Dr. Caldwell B. Esseltyn,
president of the Group Health Association of
America. Fraternal greetings were presented by
officers of the metalworker unions in Sweden,
Australia, and Germany.
— L eo n E . L u n d e n
Division of Wages and Industrial Relations

WAGES IN STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

Wages in Structural Clay Products
Manufacturing, April-June 1960
a r n i n g s of production workers in structural clay
products manufacturing establishments in AprilJune 1960 averaged $1.92 an hour, exclusive of
premium pay for overtime and for work on week­
ends, holidays, and late shifts. The straight-time
hourly earnings of virtually all the 57,245 workers
within the scope of a survey 1 conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics ranged from $1 to $3.50.
Earnings of the middle half of the workers fell
within the range of $1.50 to $2.25 an hour. The
level of earnings varied widely by geographic
location—from $1.29 in the Southwest region to
$2.21 in the Middle Atlantic States.2
Nationwide hourly averages of production
workers for the four sectors of this industry group
studied separately were $1.74 for brick and struc­
tural clay tile plants, $1.84 for ceramic wall and
floor tile establishments, $2.01 for clay sewer pipe
establishments, and $2.34 for establishments
producing clay refractory products.
Selected job averages for men, who accounted
for more than nine-tenths of the productionworker employment in the structural clay products
industry group, ranged from $2.43 an hour for
maintenance machinists to $1.61 for janitors.
A large majority of the workers were provided
supplementary wage benefits, including paid
vacations, paid holidays, and various insurance
and pension benefits.

E

Industry Characteristics

The structural clay products industries covered
by this study include establishments primarily
engaged in the manufacture of (1) brick and
structural clay tile ; (2) ceramic wall and floor tile ;
(3) clay firebrick and other refractory products;
(4) clay sewer pipe; and (5) other structural clay
products such as terra cotta, roofing tile, and drain
tile. The basic processes of mining, forming,
drying, and burning are common to the production
of each of these products, and a general similarity
of occupational structure exists. Data are pre­
sented for the industry group and separately for
the four major industries (excluding “ other
structural clay products”).

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1301

Structural clay products are formed by machine.
The two most common methods of manufacture
are the “stiff-mud” and the “soft-mud” processes.
Most widely used is the stiff-mud process, which
requires clay containing just enough moisture and
plasticity to be extruded through a die. The
bulk of brick and structural clay tile and most
sewer pipe were produced by the latter method
at the time of the Bureau’s study. The soft-mud
process, employed when the clay is too wet to be
extruded and hence must be molded, was used to
some extent in each of the four industries, but
was not the predominant method in any. A third
method, the dry-press process, was predominant
among plants manufacturing wall and floor tile
and clay refractory products. By this method,
clay in a nearly dry state is molded to shape.
Tempering—the first step in the forming proc­
ess-produces a homogeneous and plastic mass
suitable for molding into units of desired shape.
This is commonly done by adding water to the
prepared clay in a pugmill, which thoroughly
kneads and mixes the material. In the stiff-mud
process, the clay is then run through an auger
machine, which forces the mass through a die in
a continuous stream that is cut to length. In
the soft-mud process, the tempered clay is pressed
into molds by an automatic machine. Much of
the moisture in the wet clay units is removed in
dryers before the burning process begins. Burn­
ing is performed in one of several types of kilns,
chiefly scove, periodic, and tunnel kilns. In scove
and periodic kilns, the dried units are set by hand
in a manner which permits the free circulation of
the hot kiln gases. In a tunnel kiln, the units are
loaded on cars which travel through the kiln at a
prescribed speed, passing through various tem­
perature zones, thereby permitting continuous use
of the kiln. Cooling is very important to the
manufacturing process because the rate has a
direct effect on color and too rapid cooling causes
cracking and checking of the ware. During
drawing—the process of unloading a kiln after
cooling—the units are sorted, graded, and taken
to storage or loaded for delivery.
Plants manufacturing structural clay products
are usually located near the source of raw matei
The study was limited to establishments employing 20 or more workers
at the time of reference of the universe data. A more comprehensive account
of the survey is presented in forthcoming BLS Report 172, Wage Structure:
Structural Clay Products, April-June 1960.
s For definition of regions, see footnote 2, table 1.

1302
rials, and the shipment of finished products gen­
erally is limited to short distances because of
transportation costs. The largest employment
concentrations in April-June 1960 were in the
Great Lakes region (29 percent), the Middle
Atlantic region (18 percent), and the Southeast
(16 percent). Ohio and Pennsylvania together
accounted for a third of the employment in these
industries; California, Missouri, and Texas were
other important producing States.
Brick and structural clay tile manufacturers
employed slightly more than two-fifths of the
57,245 production workers covered by the Bureau’s
study and accounted for the largest segment of the
employment in most regions. However, the man­
ufacture of refractory products constituted nearly
three-fifths of the employment of the industry
group in the Middle West region, whereas the
manufacture of ceramic wall and floor tile ac­
counted for the largest number of workers in the
Pacific region.
Although employment in 1960 was virtually the
same as in 1954, when the Bureau also conducted
a survey of structural clay products manufacture,3
the number of units produced increased during this
period through such technological changes as the
application of the tunnel kiln and the installation
of conveyor systems that reduce material handling
labor. Thus, according to the Bureau of the
Census, the production of unglazed brick increased
9 percent during the 6-year period; clay wall and
floor tile, 45 percent; and clay sewer pipe, 15
percent.4
In terms of employment, structural clay prod­
ucts establishments usually employ fewer than 100
workers and rarely employ as many as 500.
Plants producing ceramic wall and floor tile tend
to be somewhat larger than those manufacturing
other products.
Establishments with collective bargaining agree­
ments covering a majority of their workers em­
ployed nearly two-thirds of the industry’s produc­
tion workers in April-June 1960. Regionally, the
proportions ranged from 95 percent in the Middle
Atlantic to 29 percent in the Southeast and 16
percent in the Southwest. In all other regions,
the proportion was between 70 and 80 percent.
Among the four industries studied separately, the
proportions nationally were clay sewer pipe, 86
percent; clay refractories, 83 percent; ceramic wall


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

and floor tile, 62 percent ; and brick and structural
clay tile, 53 percent.
Wages of slightly more than two-thirds of the
workers were based on hourly rates. The propor­
tion of workers subject to incentive earnings
ranged from less than a fifth in the Mountain
region to nearly two-fifths in the Great Lakes
region. Piece rates were the most common type
of incentive system employed, although produc­
tion bonus systems were also frequently used. A
few establishments in the industry group employed
a method of wage payment generally referred to as
“stint work” or “task work.” Under this method,
the establishment provides a fixed daily rate for a
predetermined amount of work, regardless of the
actual time taken to complete the assigned task.
It is estimated that approximately 2 percent of the
workers were paid by this method, which was
usually applicable to workers loading and unload­
ing the kilns. For purposes of this study, these
workers were classified as time workers.
Average Hourly Earnings

Earnings of production workers in structural
clay products manufacturing establishments in
April-June 1960 averaged $1.92 an hour, exclusive
of premium pay for overtime and for work on
weekends, holidays, and late shifts (table 1).
Men averaged $1.95 an hour, compared with
$1.63 for women, who for the most part were
employed in relatively unskilled occupations such
as finishers, packers, and sorters. Regionally, the
highest average was recorded in the Middle
Atlantic States ($2.21), and the lowest averages
in the Southwest ($1.29) and Southeast ($1.31).
Nationwide, production workers in establish­
ments manufacturing brick and structural clay
tile averaged $1.74 an hour, compared with $1.84
for workers in ceramic floor and wall tile establish­
ments, $2.01 for workers in clay sewer pipe plants,
and $2.34 for employees of clay refractories.
These differences in the national averages for the
various industries are partially due to differences
in the product mix among the regions of varying
wage levels. The relatively low-wage Southeast
3 See Earnings in the Structural Clay Products Industries, M ay 1954 (in
Monthly Labor Review, January 1955, pp. 75-79).
4 See Current Industrial Reports: Clay Construction Products, Summary
for 1959 (U.S. Bureau of the Census), Series M320-09.

1303

WAGES IN STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

and Southwest regions together accounted for 38
percent of the production worker employment in
brick and structural clay tile plants and 23 percent
of the ceramic wall and floor tile workers. Whereas
earnings were highest in clay refractories in each
of the regions for which comparisons could be
made, lowest regional averages were most fre­
quently recorded for ceramic wall and floor tile
plants, which employed relatively larger propor­
tions of workers on routine and comparatively
light tasks. More than a third of the production
T

workers in the latter industry were women, but
the proportions of women in the other industries
were negligible.
Earnings of almost all the workers ranged from
$1 to $3.50 an hour; fewer than 1 percent earned
less than $1 and only about 2 percent earned $3.50
or more (table 2). Earnings of the middle half of
the workers fell between $1.50 and $2.25. Whereas
a fourth of the workers in the nationwide earnings
array earned less than $1.50, the proportions of
workers with such earnings ranged from nearly

1.
N u m b e r a n d A v e r a g e S t r a ig h t - T im e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s 1 o f P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s i n S t r u c t u r a l
C l a y P r o d u c t s M a n u f a c t u r in g E s t a b l is h m e n t s b y S e l e c t e d C h a r a c t e r is t ic s , U n i t e d S t a t e s a n d S e l e c t e d
R e g i o n s ,2 A p r i l - J u n e 1960

able

United S tates3
Item

Number
of work­
ers

Middle Atlantic

Average Number
of work­
hourly
earnings4
ers

Average Number
of work­
hourly
ers
earnings 1

5,998
5, 338
660

$1.29
1.31
1.11

1,853

1.62

1.24
1.53

3,749
1,155

1.22
1.21

2. 55

5, 762
1,165

1,188

1,384

1.25

754

1.68

2.11
2.28

1,951
1,850

1.96
1.88

4,252
4, 725

1.36
1.26

1, 646
4,352

1.27
1.30

3, 881
6,489

2.14
2.26

1,862
1,939

1.78
2.06

3,292
5,685

1.25
1.35

3,487
2, 511

1.23
1.37

2.14

9,850

2.24

2,725

2.06

2,559

1.49

930

1.64

1.54

520

1.72

1,076

1.57

6,418

1.24

5,068

1.23

$2.21
2.25
1.80

3,801
3, 555
246

24,930
10,024
12,203
7,881

1.74
1.84
2.34
2.01

4,054
1,912
3; 796

2.19
1.94
2.39

Size of community:
Metropolitan areas4...................-........
Nonmetropolitan areas____________

24,430
32,815

1.95
1.91

4,100
6,270

Size of establishment:
20 to 99 workers__________________
100 or more workers----------- -----------

22,878
34,367

1.82
2.00

Labor-management contracts:
Establishments with—
Majority of workers covered.........
None or minority of workers
covered_______________ ____-

36, 836
20,409

Middle West

Great Lakes

$1.96
1.97
1.78

4,489
3,912
577

$2.16
2.20
1.87

1,133

1.70

1,122

1.97

1,214
1,716

2.11
2.09

2,696
' 614

2.40
2.09

1,199

2.21

2.27
2.12

1,012
3,634

2.08
2.20

1,108

2.01

4,211

2.16

5,788
11,034

2.13
2.19

1,440
3,206

1.88
2.30

568
820

1.87
2.03

1,987
2, 502

2.17
2.15

12,197

2.24

3,600

2.15

1,108

2.01

3, 414

2.19

4,625

1.98

1,046

2.23

280

1.78

1,075

2.06

4,646
4,615
31

5,470
3, 242
3,104
3,114

2.20
1.99
2.34
2. 34

5, 577
11,245

Size of establishment:
20 to 99 workers__________________
100 or more workers...... .......................
Labor-management contracts:
Establishments with—
Majority of workers covered____
None or minority of workers
covered____________ - --- —

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
,
2 The regions used in the study include: Middle Atlantic—New Jersey,
New York, and Pennsylvania; Border States—Delaware, District of Colum­
bia, Kentucky, Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia; Southeast—Alabama,
Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Ten­
nessee; Southwest—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and Texas; Great Lakes—
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Middle West—
Iowa, Kansas, Missouri Nebraska North Dakota, and South Dakota


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Pacific

1,388
1,368
20

$2.17
2.20
1.77

Size of community:
Metropolitan areas 4----------------------

Mountain

$2.17
2.17
1.73

16, 822
15, 505
1,317

Product:
Brick and structural clay tile----------

Average
hourly
earnings 4

$1.31
1.31
1.37

10,370
9, 571
799

All production workers______ ____ _____
M en______ _____________________
Women_________________________

Average Number
of work­
hourly
earnings 1
ers

8,977
8,506
471

$1.92
1.95
1.63

Product:
Brick and structural clay tile_______

Average Number
of work­
hourly
ers
earnings 1

Southwest

$1.92
1.95
1.57

57,245
53,044
4,201

All production workers.......... ...................
M en___________ ________________
Women_________ _______________

Southeast

Border States

Mountain—Arizona, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Utah, and
Wyoming; Pacific—California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington,
a Includes data for New England region not shown separately.
4 The term “metropolitan area” used in this study refers to the Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas established under the sponsorship of the
U.S. Bureau of the Budget.
N ote: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publica­
tion criteria.

1304

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T a b l e 2.

P e r c e n t D is t r i b u t i o n o f P r o d u c t io n W o r k e r s i n S t r u c t u r a l
l i s h m e n t s b y A v e r a g e S t r a ig h t - T im e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s ,1 U n it e d
J u n e 1960

C l a y P r o d u c t s M a n u f a c t u r in g E s t a b ­
S t a t e s a n d S e l e c t e d R e g io n s A p r il -

United States3

Average hourly earnings 1
Total

Men

Women

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

South­
east

South­
west

Under $1.00................

0.3

0.3

1.2

0.7

$1.00 and
$1.10 and
$1.20 and
$1.30 and
$1.40 and

under $1.10_
under $1.20 ..
under $1.30under $1.40under $1.50-

7.3
5. 5
4.3
3.5
3.9

6.9
5.6
4.1
3.5
3.5

11.9
4.3
6.3
2.5
8.4

0.1
.4
.4
.4
1.2

1.2
5.1
5.6
6.0
6.7

28.9
18.2
11.8
9.4
7.6

25.2
20.9
17.1
9.3
6.6

$1.50 and
$1.60 and
$1.70 and
$1.80 and
$1.90 and

under $1.60under $1.70 _
under $1.80under $1.90under $2.00-

4.5
6.2
4.8
6.6
9.5

3.7
5.9
4.7
6.2
9.6

14.2
10.2
7.2
11.5
7.9

1.1
4.0
3.5
11.3
13.1

10.4
8.9
8.5
4.5
1.9

6.0
4.3
3.0
1.5
2.4

$2.00 and
$2.10 and
$2.20 and
$2.30 and
$2.40 and

under $2.10.
under $2.20under $2.30 _
under $2.40under $2.50 _

7.7
7.6
7.4
4.7
3.7

7.9
8.0
7.8
4.9
3.9

5.4
2.5
2.7
2.6
1.0

10.1
11.1
13.1
6.3
7.3

4.0
5.1
8.8
7.0
3.3

$2.50 and
$2.60 and
$2.70 and
$2.80 and
$2.90 and

under $2.60under $2.70.
under $2.80under $2.90under $3.00.

2.6
2.1
1.3
1.0
1.0

2.7
2.3
1.4
1.1
1.1

.1
.1
.2

.8

3.2
2.7
1.5
1.6
1.1

3.1
2.0
1.9
.8
.9

$3.00 and under $3.10.
$3.10 and under $3.20$3.20 and under $3.30$3.30 and under $3.40$3.40 and under $3.50-

.9
.4
.5
.5
.4

.9
.5
.5
.6
.4

(3)
(3)

1.4
.6
.5
.9
.3

.4
.6
.8
.1
.4

1.9

2.1

(3)

3.1

2.2

$3.50 and over.
Total__
Number of workers____
Average hourly earnings 1

(3)

.1
(3)

Middle
West

(3)

0.1
.6
1.5
2.7

0.1
1.2
6.5

6.3
4.0
2.8
2.5
1.4

3.9
7.3
3.9
8.7
15.5

2.1
1.1
.7
.6
.6

.7
.7
.4
.2
.1

.2
.1

.1
.1

(3)
(3)

(3)

(3)

.1

(3)

Pacific

0.3
.3
.1

0.1
.1

6.6
7.4
4.6
3.2
8.3

2.4
13.0
12.4
14.3
23.5

2.9
3.6
10.7
5.6
8.7

11.2
9.3
8.0
6.1
4.0

8.3
9.3
12.0
6.9
4.7

10.5
9.7
2.0
4.3
2.5

16.3
11.4
5.8
4.9

3.0
3.0
1.7
1.0
1.5

4.5
3.4
2.2
1.6
2.3

.4
.3
.8
1.9

.1
.1
.1
.1

1.1
.5
.7
.9
.7

1.7
.8
1.1
.7

.3

3.1

.2

(3)

.1
.1

Moun­
tain

.4

11.8

5.5
3.9
2.8

1.8

.9

1.1

.5

.1
.2

.5

.1
.3
.1

2.1

.9

.3

.5

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

57,245
$1.92

53,044
$1.95

4,201
$1.63

10,370
$2.21

3,801
$1.92

8,977
$1.31

5,998
$1.29

16,822
$2.17

4,646
$2.17

1,388
$1.96

4,489
$2.16

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
3 Includes data for New England region not shown separately.

four-fifths in the Southeast and Southwest to less
than 1 percent in the Mountain and Pacific
regions.
Occupational Averages

The occupational classifications selected for
separate study and listed in table 3 accounted for
slightly more than three-fifths of the 57,245
production workers employed in establishments
within the coverage of the Bureau’s survey. A
large proportion of these workers were employed
at jobs related to the burning or “firing” of the
product. Basic operations consist of loading
(setting or placing) the kiln with green ware,
controlling the temperature of the kiln (function
of a fireman), and unloading or drawing the burnt
ware from the kiln. Workers engaged in loading
or unloading were frequently paid on an incentive
basis and earned more per hour than firemen,


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Great
Lakes

* Less than 0.05 percent.
N ote: Because of rounding, sums of individual items m ay not equal 100.

whose earnings were usually based on hourly rates.
Thus, loaders (placers) and unloaders of tunnel
kilns averaged $2.08 and $2.05 an hour, respec­
tively, while firemen averaged $1.78. This general
wage relationship among the three occupational
groups usually prevailed in the various regions
and for the various types of kilns.
The more than 4,400 offbearers—workers han­
dling products both before and after the burning
process—averaged $1.85 an hour at the time of
the study. Workers in this classification averaged
$2.37 an hour in the Middle Atlantic region,
compared with $1.18 in the Southwest. Among
the occupations studied separately, highest nation­
wide averages for men were reported for mainte­
nance machinists ($2.43) and lowest for janitors
($1.61).
Workers employed under incentive wage systems
usually earned substantially more than hourly
rated workers in the same occupational classiti-

1305

WAGES IN STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING

cation. For example, in the Middle Atlantic
region, incentive-paid offbearers averaged $2.58 an
hour, compared with $2.09 for time-rated workers.
Among the four industries for which separate
data were developed, highest nationwide occupa­
tional averages were usually reported in the
clay refractory products industry and lowest
averages in the brick and structural clay tile
industry. The general relationship held in the
Middle Atlantic region, but not in the Great
Lakes region, where highest occupational averages
were frequently recorded for brick and structural
clay tile plants.
Occupational averages were usually higher
among establishments located in the larger

communities (metropolitan areas), having labormanagement contract agreements, and employing
more than 100 workers.
Earnings of individual workers varied consider­
ably within the same job and general geographic
location. In many instances, particularly for
jobs commonly paid on an incentive basis, hourly
earnings of the highest paid workers exceeded
those of the lowest paid in the same job and area
by $1 or more. Thus, some workers in a relatively
low paid job (as measured by the average for all
workers) earned as much as some workers in jobs
for which higher averages were recorded. For
example, the following tabulation indicates a
considerable overlapping of individual rates for

T able 3. N umber and Average S traight-T ime H ourly E arnings 1 op W orkers in Selected Occupations in
S tructural Clay P roducts M anufacturing E stablishments, U nited States and Selected R egions, A prilJ une 1960
United States 3
Occupation and sex

M en
Clay makers........................................ - ........... ......
Die pressers......................- ................ - ........... ......
Dry-pan operators................................. - ...............
Electricians, maintenance----------------------------Finishers..... ...........................- ................ ...............
Glazing-machine feeders------------------------------Grinders, clay-------------------------------------------Insp ecto rs-------- ------— ...............- ------ ---------Janitors__________________________________
Kiln drawers (periodic kiln)-------------------------Kiln firemen (periodic kiln)-------------------------Kiln firemen (scove kiln)-----------------------------Kiln firemen (tunnel kiln)---------------------------Kiln loaders (scove kiln).................. .....................
Kiln placers (tunnel kiln)........... ..........................
Kiln setters (periodic kiln)...................................Kiln unloaders (tunnel kiln)-------------------------Machinists, maintenance---------------------- ------Maintenance men, general utility------------------Mechanics, automotive, maintenance-------------Molders, h a n d .......... .......................... ..................
Molding-machine operators--------------------------Offbearers________________________________
Packers__________________________________
Pick miners_______________________________
Pipe turners---------------------------------------------Power-shovel operators-------------------------------Pressmen, automatic_______________________
Pugmill men.......................- ...................................
Sorters.......................................... - .........................
Truckdrivers_____________________________
Light (under 1H tons).....................................
Medium (1M to and including 4 tons)..........
Heavy (over 4 tons, trailer type)..................
Heavy (over 4 tons, other than trailer type).
Truckers, hand-----------------------------------------Truckers, power--------------- ------ ------------------Forklift_______________________________
Other than forklift...........................................
W omen
Finishers__________________
Glazing-machine feeders-------Inspectors—...............................
Janitors___________________
Offbearers..................................
Packers.....................................Sorters........................................
See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Number Average
hourly
of
workers earnings

488
815
647
203
257
141
576
237
519
2, 740
2,039
218
1,334
397
1,310
2,703
1,457
469
1,424
282
489
490
4,441
367
348
102

536
549
896
180
1,432
87
596
339
396
1,343
2,187
1,831
356
735
330
107
31
572
210

862

$2.03
2.16
1.90
2.38
1.92
1.89
1.77
2.00

1.61
2.25
1.84
1.94
1.78
2.22

2.08
2.26
2.05
2.43
2.00

2.12

2.33
2.26
1.85
2.23
2.39
1.89
1.91
2.11

1.88

2.34
1.87
1.96
1.72
2.08
1.90
1.73
1.87
1.87
1.87
1.45
1.59
1.55
1.44
1.84
1.55
1.58

Middle Atlantic

Border States

South west

Southeast

Number Average Number Average Number Average Number Average
hourly
of
hourly
of
hourly
of
hourly
of
workers earnings 1 workers earnings 1 workers earnings 1 workers earnings 1
$1.56
1.59
1.38

1.75
2.69
1.78

29
85
32
16
15
15
134
25
72
433
239

1.74

340

246

$2.14

30

$2.03

134
41
33

2.05
2.34
2.05

45
9
49

1.88

64

2.05

86

1.63

54
629
595

1.83
2.49
2.07

63
153
139

158

2.06

136

2. 52
2.01

62
191
142

1.89
2.48
1.94

334
26
84
157
582

2.43
2.63
2.64
9 59
2.25
2.37
2.49
9 98
2.37

136
25
61
52
356

1.93
1.94
2. 21
2.42

150

2.67

123
728
161

211

402
259
46
151
40
80

132
7

$1.31

2.11

1.22

45

1.21

88

1.22

315
114

1.08
1.48
1.29

1.33

159

1.31

1.47
1.34
1.30

172
315
214

1.54
1.35
1.44

193
17
20

61
519

1.51
1.91
1.58
1.17
1.18

1.13
1.37
1.80
1.24
1.27

2.10

1.50
1.69
1.48

1.88

1.86

887

1.27

80

9 05
2.60

34

1.15

164
48
150

21

1.06
1.42
1.56
1.28

48
81
99

1.50
1.52
1.35

120

203

2.47
2.31
2.23

62
33
61

2.06
2.09
1.80

128

2.01

106

1.90

420

1.42

59

1.31

39

1.93

251
116
49
249
397
336
61

1.34
1.70
1.24
1.16
1.32
1.32
1.29

1.20

1.97
2.08
2.19
2.19

2.05
2.38
1.37
1.69
1.82
1.57

10

52
140
327
290
37

9
48
45
144
134
82
52

16
33
180
198
142
56

1.23
1.38
1.25
1.30
1.31
1.28

139
55

1.23
1.56

265

1.10

190

1.40

46

2.11

1.83
1 7H

2.21

1 65

1306

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

TABL4 R3T;prr^ u4M
TB^
A verage Straight-T ime H ourly E arnings * op W orkers in Selected Occupations in
J une ° 1960— Continued°UCTS M anufacturing E stablishments, U nited States and Selected R egions, A prilGreat Lakes

Middle West

Mountain

Pacific

Occupation and sex
Number of
workers

Average Number of Average Number of Average Number of Average
hourly
workers
hourly
workers
hourly
hourly
workers
earnings 1
earnings 1
earnings 1
earnings1

M en

Clay makers..... ...........................
Die pressers.............................!!!!]]”!
Dry-pan operators........................
Electricians, maintenance________
Finishers__________ __ __ IIIIIIII""
Glazing-machine feeders..... ......................
Grinders, clay.................... .....
Inspectors.................. .......... ...............
Janitors________ __ ___
Kiln drawers (periodic kiln)..... IIIIIIII........
Kiln firemen (periodic kiln)..... .........
Kiln firemen (scove kiln)........... ...........
Kiln firemen (tunnel kiln)........ ........IIIIIII
Kilnloaders (scove kiln)____ ___ __
Kiln placers (tunnel kiln).............. IIIIIIIIII
Kiln setters (periodic kiln)..............
Kiln unloaders (tunnel kiln)........ .......II
Machinists, maintenance__ ______
Maintenance men, general utility..... .......
Mechanics, automotive, maintenance__
Molders, hand___________________
Molding-machine operators________IIIII"!
Oflbearers________________
Packers_____________ IIIIIII
Pickminers___________ IIIIIIIIIII
Pipe turners________ __ .IIIIIIIIII
Power-shovel operators_________ IIIIIII"!
Pressmen, automatic_______
Pugmill men.............. ........IIIII".........
Sorters.... .................................... ......
Truckdrivers______________ IIIIIIIIII"
Light (under 1M tons)______ IIIIIIIIII
Medium(1J4 to andincluding 4tons)___
Heavy (over 4tons, trailer type)___ __
Heavy (over 4tons, other than trailer type)
Truckers, hand......................................
Truckers, power_____
Forklift.... .............. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
Other thanforklift______________ I
W omen
Finishers.
Glazing-machine feeders . .
Inspectors.......................... .
Janitors________________
Oflbearers______________
Packers________ _______
Sorters...... ....................... .

88
215
185
80
77
66
151
76
137
895
713
40
247
101
349
831
288
116
387
109
146
62
1,198
149
57
45
128
211
218
88
410
41
186
47
136
473
543
445
98

$2.07
2.37
2.19
2.32
2.22
2.27
2.17
2.26
1.80
2.77
1.94
2.18
2.08
2.19
2.29
2.66
2.28
2. 36
2.14
2.11
2.47
2.34
2.22
2.20
2.40
2.46
2.21
2.22
2.10
2.39
2.04
1.93
2.07
1.89
2.10
2.08
2.07
2.05
2.15

173

1.64

Number of workers

and under $1.80 _
and under $2.00
and under $2.20
and under $2.40
and under $2.60
and under $2.80
and under $3.00
or more_____


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.59
2.32
70
42
52
157
114

2.15
1.90
1.94
2.32
1.75

76

2.08

217
144
160
107

2.48
2.45
2.89
2. 49
2.08
2.35
3.15

121

24
72

’255'
21

"2 IÖ2
2.80

17

$1.90

2. 76
2.01
2.22

1.85
66

40

"Î.78

2.50
2. 52
2.32
2. 58
2.05

23
48
67

2. 56
2.69
2.28

"ÏÔ9
7
15
56

" 2."60

16
326
292
34

"2 I 25
2.13
2.13
2.16

100

2.08
1.77

107

1.87
1.93
1.77

2.04

49

2.06
"l 96

1.90

"87

"Ü96

’2."25

‘ "43

"2IÖ4

’"2Î"

’ 2 IÖ5 "
1.83
2.15
2.15
2.12

2.30
158
24
172
52
223
30
55
33
14
71
411

"2 I 22
137

2.11

1.79

” 56

93
203
189
14

2.22

2.08
2.30

1.82
1.80

1.57
1. 73

incentive-paid men offbearers and hourly paid
tunnel kiln placers in Ohio, despite a 33-cent
difference in the hourly averages for the two
jobs.

$1.60
$1.80
$2.00
$2.20
$2.40
$2.60
$2.80
$3.00

2.02

2.27
2.48
2.24
2.19
2.29
2.86

2.00

2.33
2.78

L58~

74
240

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays,
and late shifts.
3 Includes data for New England region in addition to those shown
separately.

Average hourly earnings
Total workers.

$2.19
2.39

2.22

46

--

Offbearers

$2.16

Placers,
tunnel kiln

$2.39
516

$2. 06

34
17
119
137
65
71
42
31

14

no

59
10
3

24

12

109

N ote: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publica­
tion criteria.

Selected Establishment Practices

Data were also obtained on work schedules and
supplementary benefits including paid vacations,
paid holidays, retirement pensions, life insurance,
sickness and accident insurance, and hospitaliza­
tion and surgical benefits. (See table 4.)
Work schedules of 40
hours a week applied to four-fifths of the pro­
duction workers in the industry group and were
predominant in each of the regions for wdiich
separate data are presented. Weekly schedules
in excess of 40 hours were reported more often in
the Southeast than in the other regions, applying
to slightly more than two-fifths of the workers.
Scheduled W eekly H ours.

1307

WAGES IN STRUCTURAL CLAY PRODUCTS MANUFACTURING
T able 4.

P ercent of P roduction W orkers E mployed in Structural C lay P roducts M anufacturing E stab­
lishments W ith F ormal P rovisions for Selected S upplementary W age B enefits ,1 U nited S tates and
Selected R egions,2 A pril- J une 1960

Selected benefits 1

United
States 3

Regions
Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

South­
east

South­
west

Great
Lakes

Pacific

Middle
West

Moun­
tain

100
69
100
20
80
100
20
26
54

97
91
97
2
95
97
2
29
66

Paid vacations:4
After 1 year of service....... ......................................................
1 week_____ _______ ______ ______ ____________
After 5 years of service.................................. ........................
1 week . ___________________________________
2 w eeks..___ ______________________ __________
After 15 years of service 8________ ____ __________ _____
1 wpaV
2 weeks.............................................................................
3 weeks _
_________________________ _______

91
86
91
16
70
91
14
29
42

100
97
100
6
77
100
6
20
57

92
77
92
8
72
92
8
36
32

70
68
70
33
32
70
29
23
13

73
68
73
44
28
73
45
28

97
93
97
11
84
97
8
37
49

100
99
100

Paid holidays 8_______ _______________________________
Tifiss than 6 h olidays
6 holidays............. . ....................... —................- ................
__ _ _ ________
7 h olidays
_
8 h olid ays
__ _____________ __________

80
10
40
28
1

99

88
13
37
38

52
27
18
7

51
35
16

83
3
60
20

93
11
29
52
1

80

97

80

28
66
3

Health, insurance, and pension p lans:2
Life insurance.................................... .....................................
Accidental death and dismemberment insurance________
Sickness and accident insurance or sick leave or both 8___
Sickness and accident insurance___________________

86
64
71
67

96
80
99
99

79
58
70
70

71
46
27
27
1

92
70
83
82

83
76
76
75

61
42
50
50

89
69
61
18

5
86
84
49
8
30

93
92
62
4
49

2
77
75
48
9
27

80
41
50
48
2
2
79
76
44
3
12

1
92
92
34
5
25

83
78
52
16
64

63
63
13

54
95
95
83
12
28

Sink leave (partial p ay or w aitin g period)

Hospitalization insurance_______ ____________________
Surgical insurance __________ ______ _______________
Medical insurance____ _____________________________
Catastrophe insurance
R etirem ent pension
______________________________

(9)

48
47
4

71
71
57
19
25

100
100
26
74

1

1 If formal provisions for supplementary benefits in an establishment were
applicable to half or more of the workers, the benefits were considered appli­
cable to all workers. Because of length-of-service and other eligibility re­
quirements, the proportion of workers currently receiving the benefits may
be smaller than estimated
2 For definition of regions, see footnote 2, table 1.
3Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
4 The periods of service shown were arbitrarily chosen and do not neces­
sarily reflect the individual provisions for progression. For example, the
changes indicated at 5 years may include changes occurring between 1 and 5
years.

5 Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.
8 Tabulations were limited to full-day holidays; additional half-day holi­
days were also provided in some establishments. Because of rounding, sums
of individual items may not equal totals.
2 Includes only those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne
by the employer, and excludes legally required plans such as workmen’s
compensation and social security.
8 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sick leave or sickness and
accident insurance shown separately.
8 Less than 0.5 percent.

Less than 10 percent of the workers were scheduled
to work on late shifts during the survey period.

only about seven-tenths of the workers were in
establishments with such provisions, compared
with nine-tenths or more in all other regions. Pro­
visions also tended to be somewhat less liberal in
the two Southern regions.

Paid holidays were provided by
establishments employing four-fifths of the pro­
duction workers covered by the study. Region­
ally, proportions ranged from slightly more than
half in the Southeast and Southwest to nearly all
in the Middle Atlantic and Pacific States. Six or
seven holidays a year were most commonly
reported in all regions except the Southeast and
Southwest, where provisions were usually less
liberal. Virtually all office workers were given
time off with pay on specified holidays.
P a id H olidays.

P a id Vacations. Nine-tenths of the production
workers were eligible for paid vacations after quali­
fying periods of service. Most commonly, workers
with a year of service received a week’s vacation
pay; those with 5 years of service, 2 weeks; and
those with 15 years of service, 3 weeks’ vacation
pay. Regionally, vacation benefits were least
common in the Southeast and Southwest, where


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Life, hospi­
talization, and surgical insurance for which em­
ployers paid at least part of the cost were available
to slightly more than four-fifths of the production
workers. Accidental death and dismemberment
insurance and sickness and accident insurance were
available to approximately two-thirds of the
workers.
Retirement pension plans (other than the pro­
gram under Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Dis­
ability Insurance) were provided by establish­
ments employing 30 percent of the workers.
Among the regions studied separately, the propor­
tion of workers covered by such plans varied from
12 percent in the Southeast to 64 percent in the
Middle West.

H ealth, In su ra n ce, a n d P en sio n P la n s.

— L . E a r l L e w is
Division of Wages and Industrial Relations

1308

Earnings of Hotel Employees
in 24 Areas, M arcii-June 1960
E a r n i n g s of hotel employees in selected jobs
varied widely among the 24 areas in which studies
of occupational earnings were conducted by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics during March-June
I960.1 Average hourly earnings generally were
lowest in the southern cities and highest in the
San Francisco—
1Oakland area. Straight-time aver­
age hourly earnings of chambermaids, numerically
the most important job studied, ranged from 41
cents in New Orleans to $1.51 in San FranciscoOakland. Highest averages were recorded for
dinner cooks in nearly all areas, amounting to
$2.50 or more an hour in eight areas. In addition
to cash wages, free meals were commonly provided
bartenders, cooks, dishwashers, pantry workers,
waitresses, and waiters. Bellmen, waiters, wait­
resses, and to some extent, bartenders and maids
received tips in addition to the reported wage rates.
Weekly work schedules of 40 hours applied to the
majority of hotel employees in most northern
areas, while schedules of 48 hours were most
common in the southern cities. Vacation pay­
ments and insurance benefits were available to
most workers in all cities.

Industry Characteristics

New York City, Chicago, and Miami together
accounted for nearly half of the 135,000 workers
employed by hotels within the scope of the survey.
Most of the hotels studied operated eating and
drinking places. Depending largely upon the
extent of these and allied services, the proportion
of workers in specific work categories varied some­
what among individual hotels and areas. How­
ever, in almost all areas, office clerical workers
represented from 3 to 8 percent of the nonsupervisory hotel employment, and front desk em­
ployees (including room, mail, information, and
reservation clerks; cashiers; and switchboard
operators) accounted for a slightly larger pro­
portion. Chambermaids, the largest occupational
category among those selected for study, con­
stituted approximately 10 to 15 percent of the
hotel employment in most areas.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

In the 24 areas combined, the men slightly
outnumbered the women in nonsupervisory em­
ployment. Men accounted for more than threefifths of the work force in New York City and the
Newark and Jersey City area, but less than twofifths in Baltimore, Minneapolis-St. Paul, Pitts­
burgh, and Portland (Oreg.). Men comprised the
large majority of elevator operators in Baltimore,
Boston, New Orleans, New York City, San Francisco-Oakland, and Washington, D.C.; in the
other cities, women elevator operators were pre­
dominantly or about equally employed. Men
outnumbered women as dishwashers in 22 areas.
Labor-management contracts covering wages
and working conditions of nonsupervisory workers
in other than front desk or office jobs were re­
ported by hotels accounting for at least threefourths of such employment in 17 areas. The
proportion was about two-thirds in Miami and
Denver; between a third and a half in Indian­
apolis, New Orleans, and Portland (Oreg.); and
less than a fourth in Atlanta and Baltimore.
Labor-management agreements covering office
clerical workers were not common in any of the
areas, but the majority of front desk employees
were covered by contracts in five areas—Boston,
Detroit, Milwaukee, New York City, and Pitts­
burgh. Individual hotels in northern cities fre­
quently united to negotiate the provisions of
union contracts. The Hotel & Restaurant Em­
ployees and Bartenders International Union and
the Building Service Employees’ International
Union, both AFL-CIO, are the largest unions in
the industry.
The earnings information presented in this
article relates to wage rates paid by the employer.
1 The earnings information presented in this report relates to average
straight-time hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Tips and the value of room and
board, provided to some hotel workers, were also excluded.
The study was limited to year-round hotels employing 50 or more workers.
Standard Metropolitan Area definitions were used for all areas except Chicago
(Cook County); Newark and Jersey City (Essex, Hudson, Morris, and Union
Counties); New York City (the five boroughs); and Philadelphia (Phila­
delphia and Delaware Counties, Pa., and Camden County, N.J.). Payroll
periods covered in 1960 were as follows: March (Boston, Buffalo, Newark
and Jersey City, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, Washington,
D.C., Cleveland, and Detroit); April (Atlanta, Miami, Chicago, Min­
neapolis-St. Paul, and St. Louis); May (Indianapolis and San FranciseoOakland); and June (New York City, New Orleans, Cincinnati, Kansas
City, Milwaukee, Denver, Los Angeles-Long Beach, and Portland).
A more comprehensive account of this survey is presented in forthcoming
BLS Report 173, Wage Structure: Hotels, March-June 1960.

1309

EARNINGS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES

and New Orleans—reported that chambermaids
frequently received tips.

For some groups of workers, however, perqui­
sites and gratuities form an important supplement
to wages, and in some instances may substantially
exceed the amount of money received directly
from the employer. Among the occupations
studied, the large majority of cooks, dishwashers,
waiters, waitresses, and pantry workers in nearly
all the areas were provided two or more free meals
daily. However, provisions for free meals applied
to the majority of room clerks in only seven areas
and were even less prevalent for other occupational
groups. Provisions for free room were not com­
mon. Tips probably constituted an important
part of the total earnings of waiters, waitresses,
and bellmen in all areas. Bartenders serving in
public bars were also commonly reported to
receive tips. Some hotels—particularly in Miami
T

1.

able

N

u m ber and

Occupational Earnings

Hotel chambermaids averaged less than $1 an
hour in 9 of the 24 areas surveyed in MarchJune 1960 (table 1). City wide averages ranged
from 41 cents in New Orleans to $1.51 in San
Francisco-Oakland. New York City, accounting
for nearly a third of the chambermaids in the
combined areas, reported average hourly earnings
of $1.34.
Average hourly earnings of men and women
dishwashers were closely comparable with those
of chambermaids in most areas. As indicated
previously, dishwashers typically received two or

A v e r a g e S t r a ig h t - t i m e H o u r l y E a r n i n g s 1 o f M e n a n d W
t i o n s i n H o t e l s , 24 A r e a s , M a r c h - J u n e I9 6 0 2

o m en in

Selec ted O ccupa­

Men
Bartenders
Area

Total
No.
of
work­
ers

N

Service bars

Clerks room

Dinner or
second cooks

Dishwashers

Elevator
operators,
passenger

Avg.
No. Avg.
Avg. No.
No. Avg. No.
Avg. No. Avg. No. Avg.
No.
Avg. No. Avg.
hrly.
hrly.
of
of
hrly.
hrly.
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
hrly.
of
of
of
hrly.
hrly.
of
work­
earn­
work­
earn­
work­
earn­
work­
earn­
work­
earn­
earn­ work­ earn­ work­ earn­ work­ earn­
ings1 ers ings1
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings 1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers

o rth ea st

Boston____ _______
PnfPalo
Newark and Jersey
New York C ity - ___
Philadelphia
___
S

106
42

$1.89
1.88

80
36

$1.85
1.87

26

$2.02

137
53

$0.73
.77

26
9

$1.21
1.24

69
44

$1.53
1.56

15

$2.44

128
96

$1.16
1.01

90
22

$1.14
1.18

35
537
83

1.51
2.00
1.62

30
370
59

1 50
1.96
1.60
2 15

167
24
20

2.08
1.65
2 17

33
1,209
118
114

.63
.84
.62
.72

13
129
60
27

.90
1.54
1.08
1.39

29
530
65
33

1.48
1.96
1.69
1.74

9
129
11
11

2.24
2.75
3.01
2. 74

46
1,273
185
97

.94
1.46
1.04
1.44

1,034
85

1.61
1.05

1.44
1.04
1.30
1.15

1.32

in

1.49

36
24
132
25
114

1.53
1.25
1.65
1.33
1.82

143
8
16

2.19
1.45
2.79

64
57
643
134
253

.45
.58
1.01
. 54
1.06

.76
.83

2.18

.68
.68
1.04
.60
1.08

38
65

84

58
343
101
249

23
32
205
30
51

1.12

8

.12
.30
.46
. 18
.53

29

1.08
1.31
1.12
2.17

12
37
158
42

7

42
166
48
94

139

1.09

318
46
46
50
23
68
33

1.94
1.83
1.90
1.96
1.57
1.64
1.97

220
39
43
39
23
61
32

1.86
1. 83
1.90
1.96
1.57
1.63
1.96

98

2.13

156
32
29
47
32
10

1.45
1.11
1.13
1.12
.78
.97

149
30
32
56
21
50
30

1.76
1.57
1.48
1.51
1.39
1.30
1.68

2. 63
2. 29
2. 55
2.05
1.84
2.36

1.17
1.13
.89
1.16
. 65
.84

1.42
1.23

22
10
7
15
21

356
79
103
84
67
113

190
17

1.74

.61
.57
.62
.60
.30
.43
.73

58

7

449
69
83
147
55
150
49

20
33

.70
.92

60
65

2.06
1.81

45
58

2.07
1.79

15
7

2.03
1.95

77
114

.74
.48

26
58

1.27
1.09

46
48

1.44
1.44

11
42

2.25
1.84

130
99

1.17
.94

19
33

1.30
1.10

55

1.60

48

1.60

7

1.61

92

.38

10

1.10

51

1.51

13

1.88

103

.89

1.36
1.25

151
26

1.61
1.74

52
12

2.56
2.09

264
59

1.37
1. 24

58
7

1.30
1.19

1.56

111

2.20

120

2.57

163

1.62

76

1.61

o u th

Haiti more
M ia m i___________
Washington
N

Public bars

Cleaners,
lobby

Bellmen

o rth

C

e n tr a l

Chicago— _____ ___
Detroit. _________
Indianapolis
Kansas C ity_______
Minneapolis-St.
Paul __________
St. Louis ______ W

est

Denver — _____
Los Angeles-Long
Beach
_____
Portland
San Francisco-Oak­
land ____ - ____

198
36

2.02
2.26

161
33

2.00
2.25

145

2. 65

106

2. 67

See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

!

37

2.14

356
57

.68
.73

62
19

39

2. 60

209

1.01

63

1310

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T able 1.

N umber

and

Average Straight- time H ourly E arnings 1 of M en and W omen
tions in H otels, 24 Areas, M arch- J une 1960 2— C ontinued
Men—Continued

Housemen

Area

Pantrymen

in

Selected Occupa­

Women
Waiters

Chambermaids

Clerks, room

Dishwashers

Elevator
operators,
passenger

Pantrywomen

Waitresses

No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
No. Avg.
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
hrly.
of
hrly.
of
of
hrly.
of
hrly.
work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earn- work- earners
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers
ings1 ers ings1
N ortheast
Boston_________
150
B uffalo... _____
75
Newark and Jersey
C ity____ ____ ___
42
New York C ity___
1,377
Philadelphia..............
131
Pittsburgh— .............
128

259
59

$0.83
.78

516
306

$1.10
1.09

9
39

$1.43
1.38

16
10

$1.17
1.03

29

$1.13

50

$1.29
1.06

274
135

$0.73
.73

69
2,444
229
205

.62
.66
.87

128
5,530
476
554

.77
1.34
1.00
1.41

15
7

2.03
1.56

58

1.43

62

1.33

9
193
80
80

1.63
1.04
1.44

81
32

1.59
1.13
1.43

75
387
100
301

.57
.90
.63
.75

30
67
797

.19
.32
.65

.43

1.21

422

.76

.47
.55
.78
.41
1.03

17

19

311
210
1,043
264
952

18

1.48

28
23
40
24
95

.65
.64
1.36
.53
1.10

100
116
696
111
316

.20
.28
.55
.29
.67

1.29
1.10
1.14
1.16
.80
.93
1.30

18

1.26

722
106
155
105
38
82

.84
. 74
.79
.90
.50
.64

1,796
230
404
554
179
378
186

1.14
1.06
1.07
1.03
.65
.89
1.23

39

1.36
1.13

12

75
152

1.06
.73

342
474

1.18
.94

$1.14
1.14

32

.91
1.61
1.08
1.50

21
281
52

71
45
346
78
247

.62
.67
1.07
.59
1.07

108

508
46
96
82
58
110
44
110
138

$1.36
1.43
1.67
1.22

South
A tlanta_____
Baltimore______
Miami....... ........
New Orleans___
Washington____

1.53

80

.53

127

.81

29

1.06

37

1.06

1.19
1.00
1.12
.57
.84
1.08

265
29
83
96
39
74

1.43
1.11
1.14
1.32
.62
.93

191
45
48
45
42
33
26

1.26
1.15
1.10
1.26
.76
.92
1.21

418
132
203
219
112
227
192

.78
.71
.74
.84
.31
.58
.81

.85

78

1.27
1.13

60
85

1.36
1.14

309
214

1.05
.73

34

1.12

150

.83

59

1.24

97
28

1.32
1.20

30
22

1.84
1.48

370
108

1.12
1.14

42

1.63

25

1.62

23

1.94

297

1.36

N orth Central
Chicago....... ......
Cincinnati_______
Cleveland______
Detroit_________
Indianapolis..
Kansas C ity—
M ilw au k ee___
Minneapolis-St.
P a u l........... ..........
St. Louis__________

1.34

16
32

1.44
1.52

17
13

.92
1.49

134
41
14
40
31
47
43

13
15

1.30
1.18

67

41

1.39

W est
Denver...... ...........
Los Angeles-Long
Beach....................
P o rtla n d ...______
San Francisco-Oakl a n d .....................

67

1.00

113

.83

219

.99

379
27

1.28
1.22

74

1.97

481

1.10

1,398
153

1.16
1.20

293

1.57

56

1.98

278

1.32

805

1.51

1 Earnings data exclude tips and the value of free room and meals, if any
were provided; also excluded is premium pay for overtime and for work on
weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

2 For definitions of areas and payroll periods covered, see text footnote 1.
N ote: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publi­
cation criteria.

more free meals daily, while at least some of the
maids received tips. Elevator operators averaged
higher earnings than chambermaids in nearly all
cities, most commonly by amounts ranging from
3 to 10 cents an hour. Pantry women, with aver­
ages ranging from 53 cents in New Orleans to
$1.94 in San Francisco-Oakland, received wages
similar to those of elevator operators in some
cities, although there were notable exceptions.
Among the men’s jobs studied, dinner cooks
(assistant chefs) were usually the highest paid,
averaging $2.75 in New York City, $2.79 in
Washington, $3.01 in Philadelphia, and from $2.55
to $2.74 in five other major areas. Bartenders
also received relatively high earnings. Usually,
bartenders of service bars (i.e., those in which
drinks are prepared for waiters to serve in the

guest or dining rooms) averaged somewhat more in
wage rates than bartenders of public bars, who
have a greater opportunity for tips.
Wages paid to bellmen averaged less than 50
cents an hour in eight areas and substantially
less than $1 in all except San Francisco-Oakland,
where an average of $1.01 was recorded. As in
the case of bellmen, nearly all waiters and waitresses
were employed by hotels reporting that tips
were frequently received by these workers from
patrons. Hotel wages for waiters and waitresses
in some areas were generally similar to those
received by bellmen; however, in other areas,
waiters and waitresses earned substantially more.
Reflecting, in part at least, the multiemployer
bargaining associated with the industry, wage
rates paid to individual workers in a job were


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1311

EARNINGS OF HOTEL EMPLOYEES

Vacations with pay were provided for workers
with qualifying service by virtually all of the
hotels in the areas studied. In nearly all areas,
all or a large majority of the workers in nonclerical
occupations were provided a week’s vacation after
1 year of service and 2 weeks after 3 years of
service (table 2). Provisions for 3 weeks of
vacation pay upon meeting service eligibility
requirements applied to all or virtually all non­
clerical workers in five of the largest areas. Such
benefits were received after 10 years of service in
Los Angeles-Long Beach and San FranciscoOakland, after 15 years in New York City and
Minneapolis-St. Paul, and after 20 years in
Pittsburgh. Roughly a fourth of the workers in
Baltimore and Chicago and smaller proportions
in several other cities were employed in hotels
that provided 3 weeks’ vacation pay for long-serv-

generally closely grouped within each labor mar­
ket. This grouping of virtually all employees
within narrow (10 or 20 cents) rate bands was
particularly evident in the elevator operator and
maid jobs.
Establishment Practices

Weekly work schedules of 40 hours applied to a
majority of the nonclerical employees in all 24
areas studied, of the office clerical employees in
15 areas, and of the front desk employees in 12
areas. Although work schedules of 48 hours a
week prevailed in nearly all other instances,
schedules of less than 40 hours were common for
office clerical employees in Boston, Buffalo, and
San Francisco-Oakland, and also for front desk
and nonclerical employees in the latter area.

T able 2. P ercent of N onsupervisory W orkers, E xcept F ront D esk and Office E mployees, E mployed
H otels With F ormal P rovisions for Selected S upplementary Wage B enefits ,1 24 A reas, M arch- J une 1960

Area

week
after 1
Total* year of
service
1

Health, insurance, and pension plans8

Paid holidays 8

Paid vacations *
2 weeks
after 3
years of Total
service

Less
than
4 days

4 or 5
days

in

6 days

7 or
more
days

Life

Acciden­ Sick­
tal death ness Hospi­ Surgi­
cal
and dis­ and ac­ taliza­
tion
member­ cident
ment

Medi­
cal

Retire­
ment

N or theast

Boston
Buffalo

98

98

98

100

100

100

79
95

N o w a r k a n d J e r se y C i t y - TSTfìW Y ork - C it y
P h ila d e lp h ia
P i f.f.shnrgh

100
100
100

100
100

100
100

100
100

04
10Q
97

94
100

S outh
Afla n ta

B al ti m ore
M ia m i
N e w O rleans
yy dolling tunj J-v • v7------- - —

100
100

92

90

1 45
100

95

68

75

56
73
37

100

100

8

93

7

11

16
67
35

40
6
2

93
87
77

98
87
77

100

81

100
100

100
86

100
100

100
100

93

93

93

92
72
82
98

29
46

49

100

100

5
100
100

84

11

95

88

7

93

100
100
6

100

96

100
100
100

4

93

100

98

95
100

11

67
8 37
90

4
79

77

89
92
77

85
92
8

100

100

93

46
93

39
93

66

66

11

67
78
63

67
82
63

100

100

100

52
87

100
100
100

100
100
100

100
100
88

95
36

93
44
77
95
43

100

100

66

35

35

100

75

66

N orth C entral

Chicago

100
100

Cìin n innati
0 ] 0 y p j <yp| d

100

"Detroit
I n d ia n a p o lis
K a n s a s O ity» M o
M i 1w a n kee

100
100
100
100

95
100
100
100

83

100
100

100
100
100

824
100

99
89
79
100

100
100

100
84

D eri ver
Los Angeles-Long Beach..

100
100

100
100

96
100

P o r fl an d

100
100

100
96

100

iV l l U U c c t p u i l o “ iJ l . 1 a L L l_____ _

S t . L/Ollis
W est

San Francisco-Oakland__

100

43
99
8

4
6

7

19
8

88

88

100
20

91
48
100

81
48

4

20
6

70

15

1 If formal provisions for supplementary benefits in a hotel were applicable
to half or more of the workers, the benefits were considered applicable to all
workers. Because of length-of-service and other eligibility requirements, the
proportion of workers currently receiving the benefits may be smaller than
estimated.
2 For definitions of areas and payroll periods covered, see text footnote 1.
* Vacation payments such as percent of annual earnings and flat-sum
amounts were converted to an equivalent time basis. Periods of service
were arbitrarily chosen and do not necessarily reflect the individual provi­
sions for progressions. Provisions for vacations of 3 weeks or more are sum­
marized in the text and presented in greater detail in BLS Report 173, op. cit.
5 7 4 9 2 3 — 6 0 --------5


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

43

17
99

100
95

100

100
100

15

72
100
70
94

59
100

78
100

100

100

69
32
70
12

70
12

92

95
47
100
100

95
47
100
94
100

95
28

100

100

100

48
100
100

93

93
100
70
100

89
100
70
100

100

100

70

100

26
44
6

19
11
12

89
100

* Includes provisions in addition to those shown separately.
5 Limited to full-day holidays provided annually.
6 Includes only those plans for which at least a part of the cost is borne by
the employer and excludes legally required plans such as workmen’s com­
pensation and social security. In addition to the plans listed separately,
data were collected on sick leave provisions and catastrophe insurance
(extended medical coverage); such plans were reported infrequently.
i A majority of the workers were employed in establishments providing
2 weeks’ vacation after 1 year of service.
8 A majority of the workers were employed in establishments pro v id mg
1 w eek’s vacation after 3 years o f service.

1312
ice employees. Four-week paid vacations were
reported in a few isolated instances.
Paid holidays were provided the majority of
nonclerical workers in 16 areas. Workers in
Miami and Los Angeles-Long Beach commonly
received 1 day annually; those in Boston, 2 days;
those in Baltimore, Chicago, Cincinnati, and
Newark and Jersey City, 4 days; in Washington,
D.C., and San Francisco-Oakland, 5 days; and
those in St. Louis, 7 days. The most common
provision in six areas was 6 paid holidays a year.
A majority of the nonclerical workers in 23
areas were employed by hotels providing at least
a part of the cost of various types of insurance


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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

plans. The plans listed in table 2 were most
commonly reported; some employees were also
covered by sick leave provisions and catastrophe
insurance, but such plans were reported only
infrequently.
Retirement pension benefits (other than those
available under Federal Old-Age, Survivors, and
Disability Insurance) were provided the majority
of workers in four areas—Los Angeles—
Long Beach,
New York City, Pittsburgh, and San FranciscoOakland.
— C harles

M.

O ’C o n n o r

Division of Wages and Industrial Relations

Significant Decisions
in Labor Cases*

Labor Relations

A U.S. court of appeals
upheld 1 an injunction of a Federal district court
which restrained a union from violating the no­
strike clause of its collective bargaining contract
on the ground that the no-strike clause, when
considered in the context of the whole contract,
took precedence over the contractual right to
honor a picket line.
In this case, a union representing several em­
ployers' truckdrivers, dockmen, and warehouse­
men notified the employers that in an effort to
organize the clerical employees, it would picket
their terminals for the purposes of inducing these
employees to join the union and calling to the
attention of its members that these employees
were not members. When all the union members
honored the picket line, the employers brought suit
under section 301 of the Labor-Management Re­
lations Act to enjoin the union from violating the
no-strike provision of their agreements. Each
agreement provided that “there shall be no strike,
lockout, tieup, or legal proceedings without first
using all possible means of settlement, as provided
for in the agreement, of any controversy which
might arise.” Both parties agreed that the picket­
ing activities did not relate to any grievance con­
cerning the subject matter of the contracts.
Upon finding that the union had violated the
no-strike provision, the trial court issued an in­
junction on the basis that no labor dispute within
the meaning of the Norris-LaGuardia Act was
involved, and that section 301 of the LMRA con­
ferred jurisdictional authority to grant the relief.
In affirming the decision of the lower court, the
court of appeals resolved a conflict between the
no-strike provision and the provision which said
that honoring a picket line would not constitute
a violation of the contract.
In rejecting the union's argument that since no
labor dispute had been submitted to the grievance

Ju risd ic tio n a l D isp u tes.


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procedure, the no-strike provision of the contract
was inoperative and could not be the basis of in­
junctive relief, the court asserted there was a
dispute concerning interpretation of the contract
and that as it read the contract, the agreement
not to strike was not conditioned upon referral to
the grievance procedure. The court interpreted
the language of the contract “that there shall be
no strikes or tieups without first using all possible
means of settlement as provided for in the agree­
ment” to mean that the use of all possible means
of settlement was prerequisite to the right to
strike over any issue, whether or not it had been
submitted to the grievance procedure. Therefore,
the court concluded that the obvious purpose of
this provision was to further industrial peace
through conciliation by agreeing not to strike,
lock out, or tie up the employer's enterprise until
the procedure for conciliation of disputes under
the contract was exhausted. Read in this light,
the court reasoned that the no-strike provision
was applicable and took precedence over the
contractual right to honor a picket line, an ac­
tivity which would result in the disruption of
labor relations established by the contract.
U nion S ecurity Agreem ent. A U.S. court of
appeals held2 that an employer violated the
National Labor Relations Act by executing a
union security agreement with an individual whom
the employees had selected and the Board had
certified as their bargaining representative, since
an individual is not a labor organization within the
meaning used in section 8(a)(3) which authorizes
the execution of such contracts.
The National Labor Relations Board certified
an individual, Robert Gray, as the bargaining
representative of a group of employees, a majority
of whom had voted for him in an NLRB election.
Subsequently, Gray and the company executed a
collective bargaining agreement which contained
a union security clause.

*Prepared in. the U.S. Department of Labor, Office of the Solicitor. The
cases covered in this article represent a selection of the significant decisions
believed to be of special interest. No attem pt has been made to reflect all
recent judicial and administrative developments in the field of labor law or to
indicate the effect of particular decisions in jurisdictions in which contraryresults may be reached based upon local statutory provisions, the existence of
local precedents, or a different approach by the courts to the issue presented.
1 Local 795, International Brotherhood of Teamsters v. Yellow Transit Freight
Lines, Inc. (C.A. 10, Aug. 16, 1960).
2 Schultz v. N L R B and Oray, Intervenor; N L R B v. Grand Union Co. and
Gray, Intervenor (O.A.D.O., Sept. 15, 1960).
1313

1314
As a result of charges filed by Joseph Schultz,
an employee, the NLRB issued a complaint against
the company, alleging violation of sections 8(a)(1)
and (3) of the act in executing a contract con­
taining the union security clause, since Gray was
not a “labor organization” within the meaning of
sections 2(5)3 and 8(a)(3)4 of the act. However,
the Board concluded that Gray was a labor
organization in accordance with section 8 (a) (3).
In reversing the Board’s decision and holding
that an individual bargaining representative was
not a labor organization as the term is used in
section 8(a)(3), the court conceded that it was
possible to encompass the word “individual”
within the meaning of labor organization as this
term is used in other sections of the act. How­
ever, the court noted that the U.S. Supreme
Court had enunciated the principle that “most
words have different shades of meaning and con­
sequently may be variously construed, not only
when they occur in different statutes but when
they are used more than once in the same section.” 5
The court held that in interpreting the term labor
organization as used in section 8(a)(3) and section
2(5), which omits the word individual in defining
labor organization, one must apply the definition
which best serves to carry out the intentions and
purposes of the act.
Since the wording of this section was so carefully
considered when it was enacted, the court reasoned
that Congress apparently intended to exclude
the individual from its application. Otherwise,
it would have alluded to neither labor organization
nor individual, but instead would have used the
term “representatives” which as defined in section
2(4) includes any individual or labor organization.
The court found that this view of congressional
intent was further supported by the inclusion of
such words as “ membership therein” and “ acquir­
ing or retaining membership” in section 8(a)(3),
which the court felt unquestionably appeared to
exclude an individual from its application.
The court also reasoned that should it give the
term “labor organization” the interpretation urged
by the Board, it would inevitably produce an
absurd and dangerous result and one plainly at
variance with the policy of the legislation as a
whole. Noting the U.S. Supreme Court’s state­
ment that statutes must be read in the light of the
mischief to be corrected and the end to be attained,
the court pointed out that since labor organiza­

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

tions have extensive power under the section,
great caution must be exercised in granting of
such power. The court argued that where a
union is the bargaining representative, the con­
stitution and the bylaws of the union afford
protection to the employees. On the other hand,
where the bargaining agent is an individual,
standards for his control do not exist and it might
be very difficult to find a way to penalize him for
failure to perform his duties.
In conclusion, the court pointed out additional
reasons why the term “labor organization” as used
in section 8(a)(3) was not intended to encompass
individuals. It noted that a true organization
has permanency and continuity, whereas an
individual is mortal and subject to certain disa­
bilities. Also, within the structure of an organ­
ization, duties and responsibilities can be dis­
tributed, and a system of checks and balances can
be established.
The dissent pointed out that the employer
should not be deemed guilty of an unfair labor
practice, since he simply entered into the agree­
ment which the employees and their bargaining
representative demanded. It also noted that the
NLRA expressly declared that workers were to
possess full freedom of association, self-organ­
ization, and designation of representatives. The
dissent found no claim that the labor organ­
ization created by the employees failed to repre­
sent the overwhelming majority of them. The
employees had voted for Gray to represent the
organization which they themselves created; to
all intents and purposes, he was a part of such
organization, according to the dissent.
Ju risd ictio n a l D isp u te. The National Labor Re­
lations Board ruled 6 that a jurisdictional dispute
existed where there was reasonable cause to believe
that the object of a local union’s picketing was to
force an employer to reassign work from members
of another local to members of the picketing local.
3 Section 2(5) provides that the “ term ‘labor organization’ means any
organization of any kind, or any agency or employee representation com­
mittee or plan, in which employees participate and which exists for the
purpose, in whole or in part, of dealing with employers concerning grievances,
labor disputes, wages, rates of pay, hours of employment, or conditions of
work.”
4 Section 8(a)(3) provides in part “ that it shall be an unfair labor practice
for an employer by discrimination in regard to hire or tenure of employment
to encourage or discourage membership in any labor organization . . .”
8Atlantic Cleaners and Dyers, Inc. v. U.S., 286 U.S. 433 (1932).
3
Local 107, International Brotherhood of Teamsters, and Safeway Stores,
Inc., 129 NLRB No. 2 (Sept. 1, 1960).

1315

DECISIONS IN LABOR CASES

In this case, a company made a change in its
operations in the Wilmington, Del., area which
resulted in the discharge of drivers represented
by Teamsters Local 107. The change was made
only after unsuccessful efforts by both parties to
negotiate a new collective bargaining agreement.
The employer also made an offer to Local 107,
which was rejected, to attempt to find comparable
work for the discharged employees. The com­
pany then employed drivers represented by two
other Teamsters locals, giving as a reason that
better maintenance service could be secured in
the locations covered by those locals. The dis­
charged drivers picketed the Wilmington plant
and the newly employed truckdrivers refused to
cross the picket line.
The Board upheld the employer’s contention
that Local 107 struck to force the company to
reassign the driving from employees represented
by the two other locals to employees represented
by Local 107, and that picketing for this objective
violated section 8(b)(4) (i) and (ii)(D) of the
NLRA. The Board found that Local 107 was
striking to secure the assignment of work to its
members and was interested only incidentally, if
at all, in its representative status and the employ­
ment of the displaced drivers. It further agreed
that while Local 107 had theretofore been the
bargaining representative of these drivers, the
dispute at the time of the picketing was, by
reason of the change, one involving the assign­
ment of work. Thus the Board found the dispute
properly before it for determination under section
10(k) of the act.
The dissent averred that this case clearly fell
within the F ra n k lin rule,7 and that Local 107
must be permitted to strike to defend its historic
bargaining status. The dissent disagreed that
this strike was for the unlawful purpose of com­
pelling a particular assignment of the work. The
company’s concealment from Local 107 of the
change in its operations invited the kind of defen­
sive strike action which ensued, according to the
i Local 292, International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers and Franklin
Broadcasting Co., 126 NLRB No. 150 (Mar. 22, 1960), holding that 10(k) was
inapplicable where the picketing union was striking to protect its bargaining
status and secure the reemployment of discharged employees. See M onthly
Labor Review, June 1960, pp. 626-627.
8 Union de Trabajodores de la Gonzales Chemical Industries, Inc. and Gon­
zales Chemical Industries, Inc., 128 NLRB No. 116 (Aug. 26, 1960).
• Sailors’ Union of the Pacific and Moore Drydock Co., 92 NLRB 547, Dec. 8,
1950.


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dissenting opinion. The dissent stated that con­
certed action by a labor organization to defend
its past bargaining position and prevent the
undermining of its representative status is not
the kind of dispute contemplated by section
8(b)(4)(D), but is a type of concerted action
which may be legitimately pursued.
The National Labor Relations
Board ruled8 that a union violated the National
Labor Relations Act by failing, in the course of
picketing the only entrance of a plant, to indicate
clearly that the dispute was with the primary em­
ployer and not with a neutral employer whose
employees were working on the premises for an
extended period of time.
An independent local union which was certified
as the bargaining representative for the employees
of a manufacturer picketed the employer’s plant.
During the picketing, union members orally in­
duced employees of a neutral employer, who was
doing some construction work on the premises, not
to enter the plant. Many of the signs which the
pickets carried did not indicate that the dispute
was with the primary employer alone.
The Board ruled that the local union induced
or encouraged the employees of the contractor to
engage in a concerted refusal in the course of their
employment to perform services, with an object
of forcing the contractor to cease doing business
with the primary employer, and thereby violated
section 8(b)(4)(A) of the act. The Board also
held that the Teamsters union (which replaced
the local union as bargaining representative dur­
ing the strike) violated section 8(b)(4)(B) because
it sought to force the primary employer to recog­
nize or bargain with it, although it had never been
certified as bargaining representative. The Board
viewed this as a “common situs” situation in
which the unions failed to satisfy the M oore D rydock criterion, “that the picketing must disclose
clearly that the dispute is with the primary em­
ployer,” 9because of their failure to indicate clearly
on their picket signs that the dispute was only
with the manufacturer and their periodic oral
appeals to employees of the secondary employer.
The Board pointed out that the NLRA reflects
the dual congressional objectives of preserving the
right of labor organizations to bring pressure to
bear on offending employers in primary labor dis-

Secondary Boycott.

1316
pûtes and of shielding unoffending employers and
others from pressures in controversies not their
own.10 The Board asserted that by its M oore
D ry dock doctrine, it has sought to accommodate
these dual objectives in a reasonable manner.
Notwithstanding the fact that the M oore D r y dock
case was one in which the picketing occurred at
the premises of the secondary employer, the rule
has been applied by the Board where the picketing
was conducted at the situs of the primary em­
ployer. No persuasive reason was apparent to
the Board for making the legality of picketing
depend on where the title to property was vested.
The Board concluded that the protection of the
act’s so-called secondary boycott provisions should
be as available to the secondary or neutral em­
ployer in the position of the contractor working
for a relatively extended period of time at the
premises of another as to the neutral employer
confined to a permanent business site who finds
himself in the middle of a labor dispute involving
another employer.
A dissenting opinion would dismiss the section
8(b)(4) (A) and (B) violations on the basis that
the union did no more than induce the employees
of the secondary employer, in their individual
capacities, not to cross the picket line. It noted
that the majority decision renders virtually all
primary picketing subject to the restricting as­
pects of M oore D ry dock and objected to the impli­
cation that the rule applies only when the primary
employer harbors the secondary employer for a
relatively extended period of time. Asserting that
the common situs cases involving section 8(b)(4)
were never intended to be construed literally to
embrace every situation in which a primary em­
ployer and a secondary employer simultaneously
happen to be working on the same physical prem­
ises, the dissent pointed out that the LaborManagement Reporting and Disclosure Act of
1959, which expressly confirmed the purpose of
preserving the right to engage in “any primary
strike or primary picketing,” was further evidence
that Congress did not intend this section to be
literally interpreted.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court held 11
that the NLRA deprived the Wisconsin Employ­
ment Relations Board of jurisdiction of an unfair
labor practice proceeding against a union that had
Dreem'ption.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

threatened to impose fines upon members who
had crossed a picket line and continued to work
during a strike against an interstate employer.
When a company and the union which was the
employees’ certified bargaining representative
could not agree on a new contract, the union called
a strike and began peaceful picketing of the com­
pany’s plant. Following settlement of the strike,
the union, in accordance with its constitution and
bylaws, proceeded to try the members who had
ignored the picket line and continued to work,
as it had previously warned them it would.
Before the trials ended, the company and the
union members who were being tried filed a com­
plaint with the Wisconsin Employment Relations
Board, charging that the union’s conduct con­
stituted coercion of the complainants in the
exercise of their rights under section 111.04 of
the Wisconsin Statutes, and that the union had
been guilty of an unfair labor practice under
section 111.06(2) (a) of the statutes.
The WERB ruled in favor of the complainant
union members and the company, and its decision
was upheld by the trial court.
The Wisconsin Supreme Court reversed the
lower court on the ground that the union’s action
in fining its members who crossed the picket line
was protected by the National Labor Relations
Act, and therefore only the National Labor
Relations Board had jurisdiction to determine
the case.
*
The court noted that the pertinent provisions
of the Federal act (section 7) and section 111.04
of the Wisconsin law are substantially the same,
and that section 111.06(2) (a) corresponds closely
to section 8(b)(1) of the NLRA except for the
proviso of the latter which reads:
Provided, That this paragraph shall not impair the
right of a labor organization to prescribe its own rules
with respect to the acquisition or retention of member­
ship therein.

Therefore, the court pointed out that the
crucial question was whether Congress by this
proviso intended to protect such union conduct or
whether it intended that such conduct should
remain outside the scope of congressional reguw N L R B v. Denver Building and Construction Trades Council, 341 U.S. 675,
June 4,1951.
11 Local 2^8, United Automobile Workers v. Wisconsin Employment Relations
Board (Wis. Sup. Ct., Oct. 4, 1960.)

DECISIONS IN LABOR CASES

lation so that the States might regulate it if they
desired.
The court reasoned that one of the purposes
of the Federal law was to correct the inequality
of bargaining power between employers and
employees by encouraging the exercise of free
collective bargaining by workers in employments
affecting interstate commerce. In construing the
provisions of section 7 and section 8(b)(1)(A)
together, the court stated that it could be argued
that Congress had spelled out the balance of
bargaining power which it desired to maintain
between unions and employers. Thus, the court
concluded that any attempt by the States to
regulate union activity in such a way as to disrupt
this balance would invade a field of regulation
already preempted by Congress.
The court mentioned an exception to this
doctrine of preemption, namely, that States may
regulate activity which is of merely peripheral
concern of the NLRB.12 However, the court
asserted that there is an intimate connection be­
tween the power of a union to fine a member wiio
crosses a picket line in order to work during a
strike and the aspects of collective bargaining
sought to be regulated by the NLRA. It con­
cluded that the union’s conduct was arguably
within the compass of sections 7 and 8 of the act
under the rule laid down in the Oarmon case.13
The court found the basis for applying the pre­
emption doctrine in three previous decisions of
the NLRB which construed the proviso that
affirms the right of unions to prescribe their own
membership rules. In one case,14 it was argued
that a union was guilty of unlawful coercion when
iJ See International Association of Machinists and Truax v. Gomales (May
26, 1958), 356 U.S. 617, where the rights in question were too remotely related
to the public interest sought to be protected by the NLRA to require a
bolding that preemption exists under the act. See also Monthly Labor
Review, July 1958, pp. 772-773.
13 San Diego Building Trades Council v. Garmon (1959), 359 U.S. 236. In
applying the test of preemption laid down in this decision, the court pointed
out that if the activity is arguably withiD the compass of section 7 or section
8, the issue must be decided by the NLRB and not the State or the courts.
The failure of such Board to define the legal significance, under the act, of a
particular activity does not give the States power to act. See also Monthly
Labor Review, June 1959, pp. 669-670.
m International Typographical Union and its agents and Don Hurd and
American Newspaper Publishers’ Association (Oct. 28, 1949), 86 NLRB, 951.
u Minneapolis Star and Tribune Co. and Willard W. Carpenter, Local 638,
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and
Helpers of America and Willard W. Carpenter (Aug. 6, 1954), 109 NLRB, 727.
1«Allen Bradley Company v. Lodge 78, International Association of Ma­
chinists, 127 NLRB No. 8 (Apr. 6, 1960).
w Williams v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review (Pa. Super.
Ct., Sept. 20, 1960).
5 7 4 9 2 3 — GO------- 5


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1317

it threatened members with expulsion if they
failed to follow certain union prescribed collective
bargaining procedures. Rejecting this argument,
the Board stated that the right to prescribe rules
necessarily includes the right to enforce them.
The second case 15 concerned the legality of a
$500 fine imposed by the union upon a member
for not participating in picketing during a strike.
The Board held that the proviso of section
8(b)(1)(A) precluded its interfering with the
union’s right to impose the fine.
One of the most recent decisions16 on this
question concerned a company demand for inclu­
sion of contract clauses which would have for­
bidden the union to restrain or coerce any of its
members by “discipline, discharge, fine, or other­
wise” in the exercise of any of their rights under
the Federal act. The NLRB held that this
demand intruded upon rights guaranteed to
unions by the law, and therefore the employer’s
insistence on the demand was unlawful.
The court concluded that the aforementioned
decisions of the Board indicate that it has inter­
preted the proviso as making the enforcement by
a union of its own constitution and bylaws a
protected activity under the NLRA, and that
such interpretation is permissible in view of the
fact that Congress used the word “right” in the
proviso when referring to the union activity of
prescribing rules for acquisition and retention of
membership.
Unemployment Compensation
V oluntary Quit. A Pennsylvania Superior Court
held 17 that a claimant, discharged for failure to
pay a union fine, had not left his employment
voluntarily, and he was therefore entitled to un­
employment compensation.
The claimant was laid off for lack of work and
placed on a recall list. While not working, he
was required to pay only that portion of his union
dues that went to the international union to
remain a member in good standing. The inter­
national union’s bylaws made failure to pay by the
10th of the month the cause for automatic sus­
pension, but if the tax were paid by the 30th,
automatic reinstatement followed. The local
union’s bylaws provided for suspension for failure
to pay, without any grace period. In addition,
a suspended member was to be deprived of his

1318

seniority and fined 50 hours’ pay before reinstate­
ment.
Although the claimant offered to pay the pre­
scribed international dues before the 30th of the
month in which he was in default, the local union
refused to accept it and demanded the full penalty
as required by its bylaws. Upon his failure to
pay the fine, he was dropped from the recall list
and his employment terminated. The Unem­
ployment Compensation Board denied him unem­
ployment benefits on the ground that he had quit
voluntarily.
In reversing the decision of the Unemployment
Compensation Board, the court reviewed its
earlier decisions on the question of union dues
under section 402(b) of the Pennsylvania unem­
ployment compensation law 18 and reversed a
previous decision on this point.
The court referred to its holding in the B u tler
case 19 respecting section 402(b). The court
stated that in B u tler it had “definitely ruled that
a claimant who fails or refuses to join or remain a
member of a bona fide labor organization, as a
condition of continuing in employment under the
contract between such organization and employee,
does not have cause of necessitous and compelling
nature for leaving his work.” The court then
discussed a recent decision of the Supreme Court
of Pennsylvania,20 holding that where a State
statute expresses a public policy designed to alle­
viate a condition of distress among the public
and explicitly proscribes a waiver of the benefits
of the act, no private agreement, however valid
between the parties, can constitute a waiver.
The court concluded that in view of the established
rule of the Gianfelice case and the statutory lan­
guage, it was unable to see in section 402(b) a
legislative intent to deny benefits to an employee
as a “voluntary quit” for failure to meet the terms
of a collective bargaining agreement and thereby
create the hardship this act was intended to
alleviate.
The court pointed out that although the public
policy of the State encourages unionism, the law
provides that “it shall be an unfair labor practice
for an employer by discrimination in regard to
hire or tenure of employment or any te rm a or
conditions of employment to encourage or dis­


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MONTHLY LABOE. REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

courage membership in any labor organization.” 21
The court asserted that the claimant was of
course bound by the collective bargaining agree­
ment and his unemployment was due to his delin­
quency under the agreement. However, the
court reasoned that the denial of unemployment
compensation on that basis amounts to an attempt
on the employers’ part to encourage membership
in the union. The court concluded that the col­
lective bargaining agreement may control an em­
ployee’s right to work in a closed shop but not his
right to unemployment benefits.
The court further noted that it was not the
intent of the law that the State should join
hands with a union’s organizing effort. Such
actions tend to force a worker to join a union in
order to qualify for benefits, and so make the
union agreement a vehicle to destroy the public
policy of alleviating distress as a result of
unemployment.
In one other case,22 a superior court had held
that “there may be circumstances in which a
union’s demands upon an employee are so severe
and unreasonable as to constitute good cause for
leaving his employment.” The court pointed out
that if reasonableness of the union’s demands is a
test, then the instant case presented the unreason­
able situation of two divergent bylaws, where the
claimant complied with one but not the other and
received an outrageous penalty of loss of seniority
and a large fine for 2 days’ delinquency.
A concurring opinion pointed out that the by­
laws of the local union must give way to the bylaws
of the international union on the dues delinquency
issue. The local union was acting merely as the
agent for the international in collecting the assess­
ment. Thus, its effort to deprive the claimant of
his right to reinstatement and to impose an un­
reasonable fine for the privilege was void.
« This section provides, among other things, “that no employee shall be
deemed to be ineligible under this subsection where as a condition in con­
tinuing in employment such employee would be required to join or remain
a member of a company union or to resign from or refrain from joining any
bona fide labor organization.”
19Butler v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review, 151 A. 2d 843
(1959).
2« Warner Co. v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review and Cianfelice, 153 A. 2d 906 (1959).
2143 Pennsylvania Statutes, section 211.6(c).
22 Vernon v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review, 63 A. 2d 383
(1949).

Chronology of
Recent Labor Events

October 1, 1960
T he International Shoe Co. and two unions—the United
Shoe Workers and the Boot and Shoe Workers—represent­
ing about 12,300 workers in 30 establishments agreed
upon a 2-year contract, subject to ratification by union
members. Basic terms were wage increases of 5 cents an
hour on January 1, 1961, and an additional 3 cents a year
later.

October 6
A Federal district court in New York City upheld
the National Labor Relations Board rule that a hot-cargo
provision in an otherwise valid and enforcible union con­
tract rendered the contract no bar to a representation
election. The court refused to issue an injunction against
an NLRB-directed election involving a union which main­
tained a hot-cargo agreement with an employer; it held
that, since the Labor-Management Reporting and Dis­
closure Act of 1959 made such agreements unfair labor
practices, a union which exacted such an agreement must
be considered “less qualified” to represent employees and,
therefore, that an election was justified. The case was
Local 1545, United Brotherhood of Carpenters v. Vincent
and United Furniture Workers.

Conclusion of a 3-year contract between Braniff Inter­

October 14
Acting on a petition of the 23 railroad unions affiliated
with the Railway Labor Executives’ Association (RLEA),
the Federal District Court in Detroit issued an order
allowing the Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad
Co. and the Erie Railroad Co. to proceed with their sched­
uled merger on October 17 but forbidding the new company
to dismiss or transfer any workers until settlement of a
union suit seeking to safeguard the employees’ interests.
A n arbitration award granted the 7,000 Atlantic and
Gulf Coast members of the Masters, Mates and Pilots
union employed on cargo and tanker ships a 5-percent pay
increase, retroactive to June 16, 1960, and overtime pay
for work done aboard cargo ships between 5 p.m. and
8 a.m. when in foreign ports. Arbitration followed a stale­
mate in the negotiation of a wage reopening provision of a
contract that will expire June 15, 1961.

October 15
About 1,000 of the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers
employed by the Union Carbide Nuclear Co. at the atomic
energy plant it operates for the Atomic Energy Commission
in Paducah, Ky., ratified a 9-cent-an-hour wage increase.
On October 18, a similar raise for 4,500 employees at two
of the three atomic energy plants in Oak Ridge, Tenn., was
approved by members of seven unions which bargain
through the Atomic Trades and Labor Council. The
2,000 OCAW-represented employees of the third Oak
Ridge plant struck from October 15 to October 31, when
the union accepted (subject to membership ratification)
the terms approved by the other seven unions. The
increases were negotiated under wage reopeners of the
existing contracts at each of the four plants.
October 18

October 9

The Nation’s major railroads and five unions representing
about 250,000 operating employees agreed to submit their
prolonged dispute over work rules and practices to a
15-member Presidential commission to study. The panel,
composed of five representatives of the railroads, five of the
unions, and five public members named by the President,
will begin its work in January 1961 and will have until the
following December to report its recommendations, which
will not be binding. (See also p. 1322 of this issue.)

Machinists Local 1834 in New York City ratified an
agreement which settled a 2-month strike against Lockheed
Aircraft Service Co., a maintenance unit at New York
International Airport, Idlewild, Long Island. The 26month contract, retroactive to August 1, included im­
mediate wage increases of 4 cents an hour plus 3 cents on
September 18, 1961, a cost-of-living provision (effective
September 18, 1961), higher minimums and maximums
in basic wage rates, upgrading of some job classifications,
and other improvements.

The Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (Ind.)
and the Pacific Maritime Association agreed upon a
5^-year contract, under which employers would con­
tribute $27.5 million to a fund that will provide $7,920 to
fully registered longshoremen and clerks upon retirement,
as well as supplemental wages and other benefits if the
contract provisions reduce work opportunities. In return,
the union agreed to the use of laborsaving devices and a
substantial relaxation in working rules. (See also p. 1322
of this issue.)

national Airways and its ground-service employees, mem­
bers of the Air Transport Division of the Railroad Clerks,
ended a 10-day strike. Terms of the agreement, covering
workers in 28 cities, included wage raises of 45 cents an
hour for skycaps and an average of 41 cents an hour for
other employees. The union did not achieve its goal of a
union shop.


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1319

1320

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

October 22

October 28

T he International Union of Electrical Workers ended its
3-week strike against the General Electric Co. by agreeing
to a 3-year contract based on an immediate 3-percent
wage increase for about 70,000 workers in 55 plants and
a second wage adjustment in 1962. The agreement
improved pension and other fringe benefits but discon­
tinued the escalator clause of the previous agreement.
The agreement followed a few days after the return to
work of the 9,000-member IUE Local 301 in Schenectady,
N.Y., and the negotiation of a similar contract with the
Westinghouse Electric Corp. (See also p. 1321 of this
issue.)

T he U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia
upheld Teamster objections to the appointment of Terence
F. McShane as chairman of the union’s board of monitors.
When McShane was sworn in by Federal District Court
Judge F. Dickinson Letts in September (see Chron. item
for Sept. 26, 1960, MLR, Nov. 1960), the union challenged
the action on the ground that McShane was prejudiced
because of his investigations of the Teamsters as an FBI
agent. The court held that, because the original consent
decree establishing the monitorship provided that the
board chairman should be nominated jointly by both
parties to the suit, a nomination could be vetoed by
either party “on reasonable grounds.”

October 26
A T eamster union local and some of its officials were
acquitted of unlawfully using union funds for political
purposes (see Chron. item for Feb. 24, 1960, MLR, Apr.
1960). The Federal district court at St. Louis ruled that
the Federal Corrupt Practices Act permits such contri­
butions if the funds are voluntarily designated for this
purpose by union members. The case was U.S. v. Local
688, International Brotherhood of Teamsters.
I n New York City, 13 local labor organizations with
350,000 members announced the organization of a non­
profit corporation, Medstore Plan, Inc., to operate a chain
of drugstores to provide the unions’ members and their
families with prescription drugs. Medstore will be
financed by the participating unions’ contributions of $1
a year per member, and it plans to charge at least 30
percent below other retail prices.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

A State court in Indianapolis found Carpenter President
Maurice A. Hutcheson and two other officials of the union
guilty of bribing a former State right-of-wray purchasing
director for advance information about proposed highway
routes (see Chron. item for Feb. 18, 1958, MLR, Apr.
1958 and Apr. 11, 1960, MLR, June 1960).

Negotiating under reopening provisions of the existing
3-year contracts, three West Coast unions— the Sailors’
Union of the Pacific, the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen,
and the Marine Cooks and Stewards— agreed writh the
Pacific Maritime Association on a 7-percent wage increase
for 15,000 unlicensed seamen. The new terms, subject
to union membership ratification, also included a 10-cent
per man-day increase in employer payments for physical
examinations, including eye examinations, and other
welfare benefits. (See also p. 1323 of this issue.)

Developments in
Industrial Relations*
Wages and Collective Bargaining

The General Electric Co.
and the Westinghouse Electric Corp. signed 3-year
contracts during the latter part of October with
the International Union of Electrical, Radio and
Machine Workers; the GE contract ended a strike
by the IUE which had begun on October 2, I960.1
Agreement was reached first with Westinghouse,
on October 20, followed 2 days later by settlement
with General Electric. Both settlements were
essentially the same as the original 3-year pro­
posals made by General Electric on August 30
and by Westinghouse about a week later. Two
key demands of the IUE—one for a supplemental
unemployment benefit plan and the other for
continuation of escalation—were not included in
the agreements.
Wage provisions of the General Electric con­
tract—affecting about 70,000 workers represented
by the IUE at more than 50 plants—nailed for an
immediate 3-percent pay increase; at Westing­
house, where the increases were negotiated in
terms of cents per hour, the immediate increases—
affecting about 40,000 workers—ranged from 4 to
10 cents. Both contracts froze the existing cost-ofliving allowances into the wage structure and dis­
continued future escalation.
At Westinghouse, a deferred wage adjustment
with increases of 4 to 10 cents an hour goes into
effect in April 1962. The company had originally
proposed raises of 4 to 11 cents an hour in 1960 and
5 to 14 cents in 1962. The reductions were made
in order to accommodate improvements in fringe
benefits over the company’s original proposal
without an increase in the total package cost.
The improvements included a fourth week of
vacation after 20 years’ service, an eighth paid
holiday, and improvements in life insurance
for retirees and in hospital and medical expense
benefits.
Electrical E q u ip m en t.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

At General Electric, the details of the April
1962 wage increase were to be decided by the IUE
within 30 days of the settlement date. The agree­
ment provided that the IUE could choose among
(1) a reopening of wage negotiations; (2) a 4-per­
cent wage increase; or (3) a 3-percent pay raise
with an eighth paid holiday and a fourth week of
vacation after 25 years’ service. Health and
welfare provisions were liberalized in the first con­
tract year separately from the above alternatives.
On November 10, the union decided to let the
locals choose between options (2) and (3).
Both settlements featured improvements in
pensions and the addition of a layoff income or
termination pay plan, but the retraining pro­
grams offered by General Electric and Westing­
house were not accepted by the IUE. The
layoff and termination pay plans provide basic
benefits of 1 week’s pay for each year of service
to laid-off or terminated employees with at least
3 years’ service. Pension improvements (in two
steps) include higher monthly benefits for each
year of service and liberalized vesting rights.
Westinghouse concluded similar settlements
with the Federation of Westinghouse Independent
Salaried Unions (at the time of the IUE agree­
ment), representing 15,000 white-collar employ­
ees, and with the independent United Electrical,
Radio and Machine Workers of America for about
8,000 workers (on October 25).
Numerous local unions (including locals of the
Machinists and Automobile Workers) signed with
General Electric prior to the IUE agreement, and
on October 27, the UE reached agreement with
the company. Overall cost of the UE settlement
was about the same as that with the IUE but
included a 3-percent pay raise in 1962, a fourth
week of vacation after 25 years’ service, and an
eighth paid holiday. The UE contract, unlike
the IUE, included a retraining program for
workers faced with loss of jobs. According to
the company, the UE represents 10,000 workers
in 13 plants.
On October 6, 1960, the International Brother­
hood of Electrical Workers announced it had
agreed to a 1-year pact with the Admiral Corp.
•Prepared in the Division of Wages and Industrial Relations, Bureau of
Labor Statistics, on the basis of currently available published material.
* See M onthly Labor Review, November 1960, p. 1208.

1321

1322

for 3,000 workers in two Chicago area plants.
Wage increases ranged from 5 to 7 cents an hour.
Other M a n u fa ctu rin g . The American Newspaper
Guild and six New York City newspapers agreed
on November 1, 1960, to 2-year contracts for
editorial, commercial, and maintenance employ­
ees. The contracts, subject to union membership
ratification, provided for an average $6-a-week
wage package over 2 years—$3.50 in 1960 and
$2.50 in 1961. Increases varied among classifi­
cations, with higher paid employees receiving
larger increases. Other contract changes called
for a $l-a-week increase (50 cents each year)
in employer payments for either pension or
welfare benefits and 4 weeks’ vacation after 10
instead of 12 years’ service.
A 2-year contract, described by the ANG
as “fundamentally” the same as the above, was
signed on the same day with a seventh paper,
the New York Post. The Guild represents
about 6,000 employees at the seven newspapers.
Members of the United Shoe Workers ratified
on November 1, 1960, a 2-year contract with the
Shoe Manufacturers Board of Trade, Quality
Shoe Manufacturers Association. The settle­
ment, affecting about 5,000 workers in the New
York City area, called for an immediate 5-centan-hour pay raise and an additional 3 cents a year
later. Fringe benefit improvements consisted of
an additional paid holiday (total 8)0 and increased
hospitalization and surgical benefits; a severance
pay plan was also established.
The Bath Iron Works and the Industrial Union
of Marine and Shipbuilding Workers signed on
October 6 a 3-year contract for about 2,400
workers in Bath and Brunswick, Maine. On
October 16, pay rates were raised approximately 3
percent; additional wage increases of 2.75 percent
and 2.5 percent are scheduled for October 1961
and 1962, respectively. The increases amount
to a 23-cent-an-hour raise for employees in the
first-class skilled classification, which will bring
their rate to $2.88 an hour by October 1962.
The Union Carbide Nuclear Co. (a division of
Union Carbide and Carbon Corp.) and the Atomic
Trades and Labor Council announced, on October
13, agreement on a 9-cent-an-hour wage increase
for 4,500 workers at two of three atomic energy
installations in Oak Ridge, Tenn. In Paducah,
Ky., about 1,000 workers represented by the Oil,

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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

Chemical and Atomic Workers International
Union, ratified on October 15 a proposal for a
similar raise. Some 2,000 workers at the third
Oak Ridge plant, represented by the OCAW,
went on strike on October 15; the settlement at
this plant, reached on October 31, also provided
for a 9-cent-an-hour increase. Negotiations at all
four plants were conducted under wage reopening
clauses of 3-year contracts expiring next fall.
Secretary of Labor James P. Mitchell
announced on October 18 that the Nation’s
Class I railroads and 5 operating brotherhoods
representing about 250,000 employees had agreed
to refer the controversial work rules and practices
issue to a special 15-member Presidential commis­
sion. The commission, consisting of five railroad,
five union, and five public representatives ap­
pointed by the President, will study such items
as the carriers’ proposal to eliminate most firemen
on diesel locomotives and union demands for a
nightwork pay differential, improved overtime
rules, and job protection, and make recommenda­
tions for settling these and other issues on which
the parties differ. The study group is to start
work in January 1961, with a final report due by
December 1, 1961. Mr. Mitchell said the Com­
mission’s recommendations will not be binding,
“but they will carry great weight.”
R ailroads.

The Pacific Maritime
Association and the International Longshoremen’s
and Warehousemen’s Union (Ind.) signed an
agreement on October 18 which established a
$27.5-million fund over a 5%-year period to provide
supplemental wages and other benefits for West
Coast longshoremen whose job opportunities are
lessened under the agreement and under which
the employers have a fairly free hand to eliminate
restrictive work practices. The fund, financed
entirely by employer payments, is in addition to
$1.5 million paid by employers last year under a
provisional automation fund agreement.2 In
return, the union agreed—subject to membership
ratification—to give up most work-rule restrictions
on cargo handling. In general, employers will
decide on such items as the number and size of
longshore gangs, the weight of slingloads in the
loading and unloading of ships, and the number
of times cargo will be handled.

Longshore and M a ritim e.

3 See Monthly Labor Eeview, September 1959, p. 1027.

1823

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

The fund will insure against layoffs resulting
from changed cargo handling methods, provide a
minimum weekly earnings guarantee, permit early
retirement, and increase death and disability
benefits. All fully registered longshoremen and
clerks will be entitled to 36 monthly payments of
$220 or, if they so choose, a lump-sum payment
of up to $7,920, in addition to their regular
pension upon either early or normal retirement.
The weekly wage guarantee applies when, because
of mechanization, hours drop below a certain
level (still to be negotiated); the guarantee,
however, does not apply when earnings drop
because of a decline in business activity. Accord­
ing to an employer spokesman, registered long­
shoremen (excluding casual labor) are currently
working an average 42 hours a week. About
15,000 workers are covered by the agreement.
The new agreement on mechanization and
modernization is to run until June 30, 1966.
The basic agreement that was to expire in 1962 3
was also extended to mid-1966, with provision for
annual reopening on any of its terms but pensions.
The Pacific Maritime Association and three
unions representing 15,000 unlicensed seamen
agreed on October 28 to a 7-percent pay increase—
the first general pay raise since 1957. The settle­
ment, negotiated with the Sailors’ Union of the
Pacific, the Pacific Coast Marine Firemen, and
the Marine Cooks and Stewards’ Union, also
called for an additional employer payment of
5 cents a man-day (bringing their total contribu­
tion to 10 cents) to establish clinics for preem­
ployment medical examinations and other benefits
not now provided and a 5-cent a man-day com­
pany payment to provide eye examinations and
glasses for union members. The parties also
agreed to initiate actuarial studies with regard to
determining the feasibility of establishing an
automation fund. Negotiations were conducted
under reopening provisions of the 3-year contracts
expiring in September 1961.
A 5-percent wage increase, retroactive to June
16, 1960, for 7,000 licensed seamen employed on
Atlantic and Gulf Coast cargo and tanker ships
was announced on October 14. The increase
was based on an arbitration award in a case
involving the shipowners and the International
Organization of Masters, Mates and Pilots. The
3 See M onthly Labor Review, August 1960, pp. 861-862.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

award also called for overtime pay “for all work”
performed aboard cargo ships between 5 p.m. and
8 a.m. while in foreign ports. The arbitration
followed a stalemate in negotiations over a wage
reopening provision of a contract scheduled to
expire June 15, 1961.
The city of New York
agreed on October 20 to establish six paid holidays
a year for 40,000 members of the Police and Fire
Departments, after discussion with the Patrol­
men’s Benevolent Association, the Uniformed
Firemen’s Association, and other employee groups.
In return, the organizations agreed not to ask for
additional holidays next year and to drop demands
for mealtime pay and premium pay for nightwork.
The firemen’s demands for improved working
conditions led to picketing of City Hall by off-duty
men. Meanwhile, the Patrolmen’s Association
protested against the department’s enforcement
of a rule prohibiting policemen from holding out­
side jobs.
During these activities, the United Federation
of Teachers was pressing New York City’s Board
of Education for election of a bargaining unit
and dues checkoff. The union charged Dr. John
J. Theobald, Superintendent of Schools, with
breaking promises which he had made on these
demands in May 1960. Dr. Theobald denied these
charges, maintaining that the union’s proposals
were still under consideration and that he could
not act on a representation election until he had
heard the viewpoints of all the teachers’ organiza­
tions. The union, which claims a membership of
10,000 school teachers out of a total teaching
staff of about 40,000, struck on November 7,
1960, but the walkout was called off a day later
when the Board of Education offered not to press
charges against the teachers if they returned to
work. A committee of labor leaders was set up
to act as intermediaries in the dispute. The
UTF’s action was not supported by other union
groups, such as the Teachers Union and the
Secondary School Teachers Association. The
State’s Condon-Wadlin Law prohibits public em­
ployees from striking.
M u n ic ip a l E m ployees.

Conventions and Mergers

At the quadrennial convention of the United
Mine Workers, October 4-11 in Cincinnati,

1324
delegates endorsed proposals designed to relieve
hardship resulting from depressed conditions in
the coal mining industry. Among the recommen­
dations were higher unemployment compensation
“to be paid for the entire duration of unemploy­
ment” and a Federal study to formulate a national
fuels policy assuring coal a competitive position
among other power sources. A report described
as a union effort to promote industry stability
indicated that the UMW had invested $70 million
in the preceding 10 years in coal companies and
other firms to safeguard job opportunities and
spread unionization, as well as to realize a profit­
able financial return.
Collective bargaining and the construction of
American-flag merchant ships in foreign yards
were the principal topics at the 20th convention
of the Industrial Union of Marine and Shipbuild­
ing Workers, October 10-14, 1960, in New York
City. Recalling a 4%-month strike at the East
Coast shipyards of Bethlehem Steel Co. which
ended in a 3-year contract last June,4 delegates
voted to establish a strike fund for which locals
are to contribute $1 per member per month for
an indefinite period.
To foster shipbuilding in the United States (a
report noted that 896 vessels were ordered by
American companies from foreign yards in the
past 14 years), delegates called for a curb on U.S.
firms’ foreign orders, an adequate replacement
and repair program, and a federally maintained
research center to provide the industry with
technical advice and consultation.
Two unions—the National Federation of Post
Office Clerks and the United National Association
of Post Office Craftsmen—announced on October
19 a merger of their organizations, subject to
formal ratification. The new union is to be known
as the United Federation of Post Office Clerks,
with a membership of about 135,000 workers.
The merged organization is to be headed by
E. C. Hallbeck, former president of the 100,000member NFPOC; Joseph F. Thomas, former
president of the Post Office Craftsmen, will become
director of organization.
Other Developments

A civil suit filed on October 5 in New York City
by Secretary of Labor James P. Mitchell charged
irregularities in the National Maritime Union

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

election of President Joseph Curran and 74 other
officials. The suit, the first major test of the elec­
tion provisions of the Labor-Management Report­
ing and Disclosure Act of 1959, charged Mr. Curran
and the other officers with failing to provide a secret
ballot, illegally disqualifying candidates, permitting
electioneering at the polling places, using union
funds to promote the candidacy of certain officers,
and failing to give equal treatment in the union’s
newspaper to all candidates for office. In the
election, which took place in the spring of 1960,
Mr. Curran was reelected to a 2-year term by
18,949 votes compared with 2,024 and 1,140 votes
for the other two candidates; the election was
supervised by the Honest Ballot Association.
In its reply to the court, the union disputed the
Government’s charge that the NMU had used its
newspapers improperly to endorse candidates for
election, maintaining that if this were a violation
of the IM RDA, it violated “the free speech
guarantee” of the Constitution. Preliminary court
hearings were to begin in early November.
A special committee (representing seven printing
and allied crafts unions) to promote legislation
aimed at stopping the importation of professional
strikebreakers in labor disputes was at least par­
tially the outgrowth of a lengthy strike against
two Portland, Oreg., newspapers.5
Participating unions were the Stereo typers,
the Typographers, the Pressmen, the Photo
Engravers, the Bookbinders, the Papermakers and
Paperworkers, and the Newspaper Guild. Elmer
Brown, president of the ITU, said a model bill
had been drawn up for introduction “in the more
than 40 State legislatures which will meet in 1961,
and in the Canadian provincial legislatures.”
Mr. Brown said the model bill would not prohibit
employers from hiring replacements for striking
employees during a labor dispute so long as they
were not professional strikebreakers and were
not recruited by a third party.
A National Labor Relations Board trial examiner
found a local of the Stereotypers and Electrotypers
Union guilty of an unfair labor practice in the
Portland strike on the grounds that the union’s
demands had amounted to “an elaborate closed
shop hiring system . . . by insisting upon . . .
contract provisions giving them control over the
4 See Monthly Labor Review, August 1960, p. 861.
See Monthly Labor Review, March 1960, p. 300.

DEVELOPMENTS IN INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS

manning of machines and the hiring of substitute
employees,” and requiring that foremen be union
members. The Stereotypers said it would appeal
to the Board and, if necessary, to the U.S. Supreme
Court.
In late October, the U.S. Court of Appeals for
the District of Columbia ruled by a 2 to 1 vote
that either party in the dispute between the
Teamsters union and its board of monitors could
veto the appointment of the board chairman “on
reasonable grounds.” The latest ruling under
the consent decree—set up by a court order more
than 2% years ago—stemmed from the union’s
objection to the appointment of a former FBI
agent as monitor chairman.6 The dissident Team­
sters members who challenged the validity of the
election that named James R. Hoffa to the union’s
top post in the fall of 1957 said they would consider
asking for a review of the appeal ruling by all
nine judges of the court.
On November 2, the union filed a petition in
the court of appeals asking permission to hold
a convention in Chicago from January 16 to 20,
1961. Mr. Hoffa said the union and representa­
tives of the dissident group had reached a
settlement on all issues, but that it was unsatis­
factory to Federal District Court Judge F.
Dickinson Letts, who has retained jurisdiction of
the original suit. Under the consent decree, the
board of monitors will be terminated once a new
convention is held to elect officers.
Management representatives and the Inter­
national Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union for• See Monthly Labor Review, November 1960, pp. 1213-1214.
f See Monthly Labor Review, August 1957, p. 987.

5 7 4 9 2 3 — 60

6


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1325

mally adopted on October 19 an industrywide
severance pay program in the ladies’ garment
trades for workers whose employers go out of
business. The plan, merging the resources of
local market and area funds, covers about 400,000
workers employed in manufacturing dresses, coats,
suits, sportswear, blouses, infants’ wear, and
undergarments. It calls for the establishment of a
$10 million fund, including the transfer of some
$3 million now under regional agreements, to be
financed by employer contributions of 0.5 percent
of payrolls. (In some regions, the contribution
had been 1 percent of payrolls, but the union
said a lower contribution rate was adequate since
the risk was spread over a larger number of em­
ployers. The excess is to be used for other
employee benefits.) Severance benefits are deter­
mined by earnings and length of service. Onefourth of the total benefit is to be paid in a lump
sum and the balance in weekly installments up to
a maximum of 48 weeks for employees with 16
or more years’ service. Benefits are discontinued
for periods of temporary employment, but are
resumed for subsequent layoffs if occurring within
1 year of the original separation. Weekly benefits
will range from a minimum of $12.50 to a maximum
of $25.
Maurice A. Hutcheson, president of the Brother­
hood of Carpenters and Joiners, and two other
international officers of the union were convicted
in late October of bribing an Indiana highway
official in a right-of-way transaction for which
they had been indicted nearly 3 years ago.7 Con­
viction carries a prison sentence of 2 to 14 years
and a maximum fine of $15,000; sentencing was
set for November 28, 1960.

Book Reviews
and Notes

E

N o t e .— L istin g o f a publication in this
section is fo r record a n d reference only a n d does
not constitute a n endorsement o f p o in t o f view
or advocacy o f use.

d i t o r ’s

Special Reviews

continued refinement of tools for selection and
placement without adequate research regarding
the validity and effectiveness of such tools. They
recommend a moratorium on writings about “how
to interview,” “do’s and don’ts” in interviewing,
etc., until there is more research evidence about the
reliability of the interview as an assessment device.
While apparently finding some encouragement in
Government research in selection and placement,
they conclude that business and industry have
been neglecting this field.
The chapter on Employee and Executive Com­
pensation, by David W. Belcher, finds that the
marginal productivity theory, while significant for
long-run analysis, is of little use in answering shortrun compensation questions. Realization of the
inadequacy of wage theory, the author feels, has

E m p lo ym en t R elations Research— A S u m m a r y a n d
A p p ra isa l. Edited by Herbert G. Heneman,

Jr., and others. New York, Harper and
Brothers, 1960. 226 pp. (Industrial Rela­
tions Research Association Publication 23.)
$3.50.
This useful volume undertakes to collate and
evaluate the research that has been carried on in
six areas of industrial relations since World War
II. The various subjects dealt with are not closely
interrelated, and even in combination with those
covered by the predecessor volume—A Decade of
Industrial Relations Research, 1946-1956, issued
under IRRA sponsorship in 1958—do not encom­
pass the whole field of industrial relations. They
appear to have been selected because they repre­
sent areas in which a considerable amount of re­
search has been done. The six chapters will not
all be of equal interest to most readers, but all are
highly informative in the areas with which they
deal. Most of them discuss the significant con­
clusions which have been reached through the
research described.
Herbert S. Parnes, in the chapter The Labor
Force and Labor Markets, is concerned primarily
with recent writings on concepts of the labor force
and with research in labor mobility.
George W. England and Donald G. Paterson,
writing on Selection and Placement—The Past
Ten Years, report evidence of considerable prog­
ress in research in this field, but are highly critical
of some aspects of this research. They decry the
1326


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resulted in a “burst of empiricism” which econo­
mists hope will lead to some understanding of the
wage determination process. The author suggests
that many firms depend on wage comparisons
based on wage surveys. However, he finds a need
for more study of methods in making such surveys.
Job evaluation is heavily relied upon in determin­
ing wage structure, but few studies have tested the
validity of job evaluation. With regard to the pay
of individual workers, much research has been
done on merit rating, but this approach is little
used. The author concludes that wage deter­
mination is still “a messy business.”
The chapter on Public Policy and Dispute Set­
tlement, by Gordon F. Bloom and Herbert R.
Northrup, reviews the existing state of public
policy as expressed in the law regarding such issues
as recognition picketing, the secondary boycott,
and jurisdictional disputes. Noting that govern­
ment, through law and administrative action,
strongly influences collective bargaining, the
authors express little optimism for some of the
more direct manifestations of government inter­
vention, such as factfinding. They express regret
that much current research is appearing in legal
journals and is “concerned more with the legal pros
and cons of various legislative acts than with their
economic and sociological implications.”
David Dolnick, writing on History and Theory
of the Labor Movement, holds that no significant
new theory of the labor movement has been pro­
duced during the past 20 years—probably not

1327

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

since Perlman’s Theory of the Labor Movement
appeared in 1928. The author urges that the
theory be brought up to date and suggests some
of the subjects with which it should deal.
George P. Shultz and Arnold R. Weber, in
Technological Change and Industrial Relations,
call for “ a moratorium on unverified projections
about the effects of automation on industrial rela­
tions.” They see value in continued descriptive
studies, but urge that primary emphasis be placed
on structured research in which “ data are col­
lected with the aim of answering well defined,
analytically conceived questions or testing formal
hypotheses about relationships between given in­
dependent and dependent variables.”
The chief contributions of this volume are (1)
an appraisal of the adequacy of recent research in
several areas of industrial relations, (2) a summary
of the major results obtained, and (3) the presen­
tation of an extensive bibliography for further
reading.
With respect to adequacy of research, the
reviewer has the impression that the authors are
far from satisfied. There has been progress, it is
true. Some of the questions raised have been
satisfactorily answered. But the book abounds
in reminders that “ further study is needed,”
“ little systematic work has been done,” or at times
“ what is needed is not more research but research
of better quality.”
The authors do not undertake to suggest how
industrial relations research can be extended or its
quality improved. Government and business, to
be sure, can often step up research programs if the
value of the research can be demonstrated. Per­
haps the research foundations can be induced to
finance more private research in the universities
and elsewhere. Employment Relations Research,
itself, should contribute convincing evidence of the
need for further research and valuable guidance as
to its proper direction.
All of the authors present bibliographies of
postwar writings, many of the references being
helpfully annotated. The bibliographies and ref­
erences constitute one of the major contributions
of the book.
— R o b e r t J. M y e r s


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Deputy Commissioner
Bureau of Labor Statistics

By Herbert
E. Weiner. Washington, Public Affairs Press,
1960. I l l pp. $3.25.
After World War I, the problem of nationaliza­
tion and socialization became one of the most
important issues in the deliberations and plans of
European labor which suddenly found itself in
responsible governmental positions. The theory
of changing the economic system yielded to the
hard facts of practical application with all its
complications and pitfalls. In continental
Europe, labor, by and large, strove for socializa­
tion rather than nationalization because it had
had experience with governmental ownership of
railways, mines, and means of communication
which the constitutional governments had in­
herited from the once absolute monarchies. With
no experience of government ownership, British
labor saw in nationalization the answer to the
malfunctioning of the economic system.
The clamor for nationalization gained new
strength after World War II both in Europe and
the underdeveloped areas of the world. In Europe,
it was linked, as many observers believed, to the
conviction that the profit-minded munitions in­
dustry, which allegedly had conspired with warminded politicians, must be nationalized to prevent
future wars. In the underdeveloped areas, nation­
alization was considered the messianic solution for
all the plagues of political and economic backward­
ness. This outcry was the more popular in the
light of the heavy investment of foreign capital
in factories and mines.
Today, nationalization of industry and agricul­
ture has received new impetus in underdeveloped
areas from the Castro experiments in Cuba. At
such times as these when popular enthusiasm en­
dangers cool analysis of facts, it is always good to
turn to the “ text books” to ascertain problems and
solutions achieved elsewhere.
Dr. Weiner’s book fills this need. In a system­
atic, meticulous fashion, he traces the transition
of the British trade union movement’s early poli­
cies on nationalization from liberal philosophy to
a Socialist orientation rooted partly in Thomas
More’s Utopia and partly in a deep religious back­
ground. At the same time, the reader learns that
nationalization as it developed in Great Britain
may not be just a “ Marxian” instrument if it is

B ritish Labor and P ublic O wnership.

1328
connected with vital needs of the economic system
of a country. The author’s description of the
slow change in attitude from mere acceptance of
the pressing need for reform to Utopian demands
for dogmatic changes unrelated to social and eco­
nomic precepts is an excellent lesson on what can
and cannot be done in nationalization experiments.
Dr. Weiner must be commended for the pa­
tience with which he has studied a mass of material
—some of it written almost 100 years ago—and
for the great service he has rendered in making
the result of this tedious work available to us.
British Labor and Public Ownership is a case
study that can be read with great profit by poli­
tician and economist, by government official and
social worker, and, last but not least, by manage­
ment official and trade union leader. One can
only hope that it will be translated into other
languages.
— A r n o ld L. S t e in b a c h
Chief, International Trade Union Organizations Division
Bureau of International Labor Affairs

L a st M a n I n : R a cia l Access to U nion P ow er .

By
Scott Greer. Glencoe, 111., The Free Press,
1959. 189 pp., bibliography. $4.
Last Man In is a study of the situation of Ne­
groes and Mexicans in Los Angeles local unions
which profess no ethnic barriers to membership or
leadership. Designed to permit generalized find­
ings, it is much more than a series of case studies,
although case illustrations are liberally used.
The analysis is studded with terminology from
the field of social anthropology not characteristic
of the language generally used by students of
union organization and labor relations: “ associational basis of union structure,” “ power configu­
ration,” “ determinants and dilemmas,” “ conflicts
and accommodations,” “ ethnic job placement,”
and “ low-status jobs.” The training and orien­
tation of the author make this perfectly under­
standable. And in the light of much of the
suspicion with which sociologists’ efforts in the
labor field have been viewed, it must be stated
that Mr. Greer appears to have good insight into
the nature of the problems with which he has
dealt.
Dealing initially with the degree of union
membership open to minority groups, the author
finds it principally related to jobs for which the
employer is willing to hire minority group mem­

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MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

bers: lowest in jobs involving personal relations
with customers and highest in unskilled jobs
vacated by whites during periods of labor shortage,
especially World War II. Mr. Greer finds little
or no difference on the basis of specific union types
or affiliation.
Among his findings are the following: Negroes
and Mexicans, once in the labor force, are rela­
tively easier to organize than nonethnic workers;
office holding and staff assignments depend on
skill levels, the nature of union structure, and
whether large plants or scattered small operations
are involved; union attitudes toward race are
heavily influenced by management views and
international union policies; in the absence of
these factors, local membership views, splits, and
politics determine the position of the local and
its leadership; the role of the local leader on
ethnic problems is essentially compounded of
his accommodations to pressures.
The study does not deal with the unions in the
area which did not have significant ethnic minor­
ities in their membership. Greer states that a
number of these were reported to be “extremely
exclusionist.”
•— P h il ip A r n o w
Assistant Commissioner, Bureau of Labor Statistics

Causes o f W ealth. By Jean Fourastié.
(Translated and edited by Theodore Caplow.)
Glencoe, 111., The Free Press, 1960. 246 pp.
$5.
Published in France as Machinisme et BienÊtre, Professor Fourastié’s book is, as its American
translator notes, a major contribution to the
development of a scientific approach to the study
of the interrelatedness of technical progress and
welfare. In view of the long history of consump­
tion research in this country and abroad, and the
author’s acknowledgment of indebtedness to his
many predecessors in this general area of research,
one cannot agree as wholeheartedly with the
editor’s claim that the book is an “almost singlehanded attempt to create a new specialty on the
borderline between economics and sociology.”
However, Professor Fourastié does bring a fresh
approach to consumption research from his back­
ground as an employment and productivity
specialist. His book provides a synthesis of
facts and observations on the level of living and
style of life as related to technical progress, and
The

1329

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES

for these areas it sets a framework and direction
for future research that are both imaginative and
challenging.
The author’s stated purpose is “to study the
evolution of the material conditions imposed upon
men by economic evolution, without regard to
their favorableness.” He achieves this through
an evaluation of the “level of living” and “style
of life,” which are “the human consequences of
contemporary economic evolution,” at different
periods of time and in different places.
The essential problems of the level of living
are summarized in two questions: “Can the
disparity that is presently observed between the
average levels of living in different countries be
explained by an evolution through time?” and
“What are the causes of this evolution through
time?” In three chapters filled with admittedly
imperfect but nonetheless convincing data, Pro­
fessor Fourastie traces the purchasing power of
wages in France “from black bread to the frigidaire,” develops some general indicators of the
level of living, and compares the level of living
in various parts of the world.
From his findings, he arrives at two essential
conclusions: (1) “ The average level of living of
the population of several great nations has been
appreciably improved in the course of recent
centuries, in spite of reductions in the duration of
work, and increases in the density of population.”
(2) “ This improvement in time has created a
disparity in space, due to the fact that the levels
of living of the different nations of the world have
been raised at very different rates. Since the
disparities in space can be reduced to disparities
in time, the essential problem of the level of living
is to find out how the improvements in time
occurred.” His answer is technical progress,
which he defines as “ the independent variable of
economic life.” His discussions of the effect of
productivity on prices and the purchasing power
of labor afford many opportunities to introduce
fascinating facts and historical statistics without
detracting from the basically serious and scholarly
approach to the subject. For example, in dis­
cussing changes in prices of haircuts and mirrors
in relation to productivity, the basic statistics are
drawn from Colbert’s accounts for the building of
the Chateau of Versailles.
Having concluded that there can be no increase
in the average level of living without an increase

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in productivity, the author turns to an evaluation
of the evolution in the style of life and the inter­
actions of such factors as education, health, and
worktime and conditions on productivity and the
level of living.
At times Professor Fourastie is so carried away
by faith in his theory that he tends to make
exaggerated claims for it. Probably few would
agree with him that “if the length of the work­
week in France had been maintained at 50 hours
from 1920 to 1939, as it was from 1900 to 1920,
World War II would have been avoided, because
French industrial power would have been sufficient
to discourage the Nazis ideas of revenge.” Never­
theless, the chapters on the effect of education and
duration of work on changes in productivity and
the level of living are a stimulating new approach
to research in these areas. For specialists in the
various subjects, it raises the question of whether
much of the time currently spent on efforts to
perfect statistics might more effectively be used
to analyze the interrelatedness of technical
progress and welfare and its impact on the eco­
nomic life of the Nation.
— H e l e n H . L a m a le
Division of Prices and Cost of Living
Bureau of Labor Statistics

Education and Training
An Annotated Bibliography on Industrial Training: Trainingin Organizations— Business, Industrial, Government.
By Emil A. Mesics. Ithaca, N.Y., Cornell Uni­
versity, New York State School of Industrial and
Labor Relations, October 1960. 77 pp. (Bibliog­
raphy series, 4.) 50 cents; free to New York State
residents.
Proceedings of 16th Annual Conference, American Society
of Training Directors, St. Louis, Mo., May 8-5, 1960.
{In Journal of the American Society of Training
Directors, New York, July 1960, pp. 3-83. $1.)
Acquisition of Skills. Ottawa, Canadian Department of
Labor, 1960. 68 pp. (Research Program on the
Training of Skilled Manpower, 4.)
Recruitment, Selection and Induction of Apprentices. By
L. R. Wall. {In Personnel Practice Bulletin, Com­
monwealth of Australia, Department of Labor and
National Service, Melbourne, September 1960, pp.
8-17. 5s.)
The Federal Government and Higher Education. New York,
Columbia University, The American Assembly, 1960.
205 pp. $1.95, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs,

N.J.

1330
An Experiment in Education. Pittsburgh, United Steel­
workers of America, Department of Education, 1960.
88 pp.

Employee Benefits
Special Study on the Medical Care Program for Steelworkers
and Their Families. Pittsburgh, United Steelworkers
of America, Insurance, Pension, and Unemployment
Benefits Department, 1960. 108 pp.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
Injury Experience in the Metal Industries, 1956 and 1957.
By John C. Machisak, Norma W. Kearney, Elizabeth
B. Dixon. Washington, U.S. Department of the
Interior, Bureau of Mines, 1960. 82 pp. (Informa­
tion Circular 7977.) 50 cents, Superintendent of
Documents, Washington.
La Prévention des Accidents du Travail en France. By
Pierre Caloni. (In Les Cahiers du Musée Social,
Paris, May-June 1960, pp. 112-123.)

Employee Savings Plans. By J. A. Paquin and Helen
Gepp. (In Personnel Practice Bulletin, Common­
wealth of Australia, Department of Labor and Na­
tional Service, Melbourne, September 1960, pp.
42-46. 5s.)

Industrial Relations

Recent Top Executive Pension Estimates. By Harland
Fox. (In Management Record, National Industrial
Conference Board, Inc., New York, October 1960,
pp. 2-7, 26-30.)

Decision-Making in a Laboristic Economy. By George W.
Taylor. (In Office Executive, National Office Man­
agement Association, Willow Grove, Pa., October
1960, pp. 9-12, 14. 50 cents.)

Health and Safety
Health Statistics From the U.S. National Health Survey:
Older Persons— Selected Health Characteristics, United
States, July 1957-June 1959. By Geraldine A.
Gleeson. Washington, U.S. Department of Health,
Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, 1960.
76 pp. (Publication 584-C4.) 45 cents, Superin­
tendent of Documents, Washington.
Noise: Its Effects on Man and Machine. Washington,
U.S. Congress, House of Representatives, Committee
on Science and Astronautics, 1960. 51 pp. (H.
Rept. 2229, 86th Cong., 2d sess.)
Application of Scientific and Laboratory Techniques in
Industrial Hygiene. By Kingsley Kay. (In Occu­
pational Health Review, Canadian Department of
National Health and Welfare, Ottawa, Vol. 12, No. 2,
1960, pp. 2-7.)
Illness and Health Care in Canada: Canadian Sickness
Survey, 1950-51. Ottawa, Department of National
Health and Welfare and Dominion Bureau of Statis­
tics, 1960. 217 pp. $2, Queen’s Printer, Ottawa.
The Extent of Voluntary Health Insurance Coverage in the
United States as of December 31, 1959. New York,
Health Insurance Council, 1960. 32 pp.

Research Needs in Industrial Relations. By K. F. Walker.
Nedlands, Western Australia, University of Western
Australia Press, 1960. 110 pp., bibliography. 5s.

The Arbitration of Disputes Over Subcontracting. By
Donald A. Crawford. Arbitration and Contract Dis­
putes. By Morrison Handsaker. (In Challenges to
Arbitration: Proceedings of the 13th Annual Meeting,
National Academy of Arbitrators, Washington,
January 27-29, 1960. Washington, Bureau of Na­
tional Affairs, Inc., 1960, pp. 51-100. $6.50.)
Arbitration in the British Civil Service. By S. J. Frankel.
(In Public Administration, Journal of the Royal
Institute of Public Administration, London, Autumn
1960, pp. 197-211. $1.25.)

Labor Force
School and Early Employment Experience of Youth: A
Report on Seven Communities, 1952-57. By Margaret
L. Plunkett and Naomi Riches. Washington, U.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
1960. 89 pp. (Bull. 1277.) 50 cents, Superinten­
dent of Documents, Washington.
Employment of the Physically Handicapped— A Survey of
Industrial Plants in Atlanta, Georgia. By E. T.
Eggers. (In Industrial Medicine and Surgery,
Chicago, September 1960, pp. 427-433. $1.25.)

Proceedings of the President’s Conference on Occupational
Safety, March 1-3, 1960. Washington, U.S. Depart­
ment of Labor, Bureau of Labor Standards, 1960.
269 pp. (Bull. 218.) Free.

More Jobs for the Handicapped— [A Symposium]. (In
Employment Security Review, U.S. Department of
Labor, Bureau of Employment Security, U.S. Em­
ployment Service, Washington, September 1960,
pp. 3-32. 20 cents, Superintendent of Documents,
Washington.)

Injury Experience in the Nonmetal Industries (Except Stone
and Coal), 1956 and 1957. By John C. Machisak,
Norma W. Kearney, Hazel M. Keener. Washington,
U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines,
1960. 78 pp. (Information Circular 7979.) 45
cents, Superintendent of Documents, Washington.

Employment of Women Under the Old-Age, Survivors, and
Disability Insurance Program. By Ella J. Polinsky.
Washington, U.S. Department of Health, Education,
and Welfare, Social Security Administration, 1960.
17 pp.


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1331

BOOK REVIEWS AND NOTES
The Older Office Worker—Backbone of American Business.
By Maurice F. Ronayne. (In Personnel Journal,
Swarthmore, Pa., October 1960, pp. 178-181. 75
cents.)

Looking Ahead in Labor Relations: And Other Challenges
for Personnel Management. New York, American
Management Association, 1960. 86 pp. (Manage­
ment Report 50.) $2.25; $1.50 to AMA members.

Prospects for Part-Timers. By Thomas R. Brooks. (In
Challenge, New York University, Institute of Eco­
nomic Affairs, New York, July 1960, pp. 61-64. 25
cents.)

Personnel Management—Soviet Style. By Edward McCrensky. (In Personnel Administration, Washington,
September-October 1960, pp. 44-51. $1.25.)

The Teacher Shortage Analyzed. (In NEA Research Bulle­
tin, National Education Association, Washington,
October 1960, pp. 68-74. 60 cents.)
Labor Turnover as an Index of Unemployment in the United
States, 1919-58. By Donald Dewey. (In Journal of
Industrial Economics, Basil Blackwell, Oxford, June
1960, pp. 265-287. $1.90.)
Arbejdslflsheden, 1958. Copenhagen, Statistiske Departe­
ment, 1960. 71 pp. (Statistiske Meddelelser, 1960:4.)
Kr. 3,00.

Finding and Training Potential Executives. Washington,
Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., 1960. 14 pp. (Per­
sonnel Policies Forum Survey 58.) $1.

Production and Productivity
Automation and the Community. By Solomon Barkin.
New York, Textile Workers Union of America, Re­
search Department, 1960. 44 pp.
(Publication
E-101 A; reprinted from New York Governor’s Con­
ference on Automation, June 1-3, 1960.)
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ington, [Congressional] Joint Economic Committee,
1960. 604 pp. (Joint Committee Print, 86th Cong.,
2d sess.) $1.75.

The Evolving Work-Life Pattern. By Fred Slavick and
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Gerontology.) 15 cents, Distribution Center, Cornell
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295-318. $1.50.)

Labor Organizations

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Ninety-Second Annual Congress Held September 5-9,
1960. London, Congress House, 1960. 248 pp.

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tion Program. By
Cornell University,
ministration, 1960.

New York Workmen’s Compensa­
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Sloan Institute of Hospital Ad­
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Unemployment Insurance Experience in Calendar Year 1959.
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Employment Security, Washington, September 1960,
pp. 1-5. 30 cents, Superintendent of Documents,
Washington.)
Financing Unemployment Insurance in Mississippi: Esti­
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Social Security in Ecuador. (In Bulletin of the Interna­
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ber 1960, pp. 431-458.)

Proceedings of 21st Annual Ohio Personnel Institute Held
at Ohio State University, May 12, 1960. [Columbus],
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Commerce Conference Series, C-138.)

Sweden’s New National Pension Insurance. By Ernst
Michanek. (In Bulletin of the International Social
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413-423.)


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1332
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Wage Structure: Miscellaneous Plastics Products, JanuaryFebruary 1960. By Fred W. Mohr. Washington,
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1960. 45 pp. (BLS Report 168.) Free.
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Federal Labor Legislation—A Bibliography. By Mary R.
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Current Labor Statistics
CONTENTS
A.—Employment
1334 Table A -l.
1335 Table A-2.
1339 Table A-3.
1343 Table A-4.

Estimated total labor force classified by employment status, hours worked,
and sex
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry
Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry
Unemployment insurance and employment service programs, selected opera­
tions

B. —Labor Turnover
1344 Table B -l.

Labor turnover rates, by major industry group

C. —Earnings and Hours
1347 Table C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by industry
1359 Table C-2. Average overtime hours and average hourly earnings excluding overtime of
production workers in manufacturing, by major industry group
Table
C-3.
Indexes
of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and con­
1360
struction activities
1360 Table C-4. Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in
manufacturing, in current and 1947-49 dollars

D. —Consumer and Wholesale Prices
1361 Table D -l.

Consumer Price Index—All-city average: All items, groups, subgroups, and
special groups of items
1362 Table D-2. Consumer Price Index—All items and food indexes, by city
1363 Table D-3. Indexes of wholesale prices, by group and subgroup of commodities
1364 Table D-4. Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings
1365 Table D-5. Indexes of wholesale prices, by stage of processing and durability of product

E. —Work Stoppages
1366 Table E -l.

Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes

F. —Work Injuries
Table F -l.

Injury-frequency rates for selected manufacturing industries *

i This table is included in the January, April, July, and October issues of the Review.
N ote: The following applies, with a few exceptions, to the statistical series published in the Current Labor Statistics section: (1) The source is the TJ.S.
Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, (2) a description of each series may be found in Techniques of Preparing Major BLS Statistical Series, BLS
Bull. 1168 (1954), and (3) the scope of coverage is the United States without Alaska and Hawaii. Exceptions are noted on the tables.


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1333

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

1334

A.—Employment
T a b l e A - l . E stim a ted to ta l labor force classified b y em ploym ent statu s, hours worked, and sex
[In thousands]
Estimated number of persons 14 years of age and o ver1
1959

1960

Employment status

1959

1958

Total labor force.......................... ........... 73,592 73,672 74,551 75,215 75,499 73,171 72,331 70,993 70,970 70,689 71,808 71,839 72,629

71,946

71,284

71,155 72,070 72,706 73,002 70,667 69, 819 68,473 68,449 68,168 69,276 69,310 70,103
3,388 3,788 4, 017 4,423 3,459 3,660 4,206 3,931 4,149 3,577 3,670 3,272

69,394
3,813

68,647
4,681

5.4
4.9
5.0
5.4
4.8
5.2
6.0
5.9
5.5
5.2
5.6
5.7
1,655 1,697 1,871 2, 654 1,638 1, 580 1, 516 1,476 1,909 1,683 1, 846 1,607
644
567
855 1,095
930
833
764
651
603
924 1,033
695
309
619
400
250
325
278
259
256
396
276
288
351
441
381
420
509
715
533
356
388
402
418
705
333
411
499
502
469
430
417
414
396
431
428
393
416
67, 767 68,282 68,689 68, 579 67,208 66,159 64, 267 64,520 64,020 65,699 65,640 66,831
61,179 61, 828 61,805 61, 722 61, 371 60, 765 59, 702 59, 901 59,409 60,888 60,040 60, 707
48.284 46,247 45, 380 47, 879 48, 594 44, 829 46,151 45, 357 47,115 48,455 43, 877 45,800
7,247 6,308 6,586 7,231 7.203 10, 455 7, 585 8,605 6,867 7,227 10,991 9,049
3,142 2, 535 2,702 2, 921 3,578 3,345 3, 575 3, 553 3,356 3,496 3,254 3,369
2,508 6, 737 7,136 3, 691 1,997 2,138 2,391 2,386 2,070 1, 707 1,920 2,490
6,588 6, 454 6, 885 6, 856 5, 837 5,393 4,565 4. 619 4,611 4,811 5, 601 6,124
4, 789 4,536 4,957 4,874 4,129 3, 788 2,465 2,597 2,622 2,978 3, 774 3,972
1,314 1,363 1,371 1, 492 1,254 1,189 1,117 1,121 1,178 1,175 1,307 1,531
312
557
474
468
362
368
403
408
366
586
536
373
123
400
344
273
144
154
187
82
89
105
186
155

5.5
1,658
778
335
469
571
65, 581
59, 745
45,068
8,531
3,172
2,974
5,836
3, 852
1,356
442
186

6.8
1,833
959
438
785
667
63,966
58,122
44,873
7,324
3,047
2,876
5,844
3,827
1,361
457
199

Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.s

Annual average

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Total, both sexes

Civilian labor force................................. 71,069
Unemployment................................ 3, 579
Unemployment rate, sea6.4
sonally adjusted8.............
Unemployed 4 weeks or less__ 1,637
689
Unemployed 5-10 weeks. .......
260
Unemployed 11-14 weeks ___
492
Unemployed 15-26 weeks_____
500
Unemployed over 26 weeks----Em ploym ent.................... ............... 67, 490
Nonagricultural______ ______ 61, 244
Worked 35 hours or m ore... 47, 545
Worked 15-34 hours______ 8,371
Worked 1-14 hours_______ 3,369
With a job but not at work 4 1,957
Agricultural. . ____________ 6,247
Worked 35 hours or m ore... 4, 296
Worked 15-34 hours______ 1, 447
398
Worked 1-14 hours_______
106
With a job but not at work A

Males
49,081

48,802

46, 551
2,007
44, 544
39,762
31,987
4,594
1,437
1,743
4,782
3, 481
861
298
142

46, 562
2,473
44,089
39,340
31,715
4,405
1,378
1,840
4, 749
3,421
823
336
170

46,197
3,155
43,042
38,240
31,390
3, 736
1,329
1,784
4,802
3,413
857
353
179

Total labor force...................... ............... 24,138 24,102 23,872 24,217 24,550 23,835 23, 271 22,548 22,482 22,277 23,030 23,110 23, 584

22, 865

22,482

22,832
1,340
21, 492
20, 405
13,352
4,126
1,794
1,134
1, 087
431
533
106
17

22,451
1,526
20,924
19,882
13, 483
3, 589
1,718
1,093
1,042
414
504
104
20

Total labor force___________________ 49, 455 49,570 50,678 50,998 50,949 49,337 49,060 48,445 48,487 48,412 48,778 48,729 49,045
Civilian labor force _______________
Unemployment................... ............
Employment__________________
Nonagri cultural_____________
Worked 35 hours or m ore..
Worked 15-34 hours.......... .
Worked 1-14 hours..........
With a job but not at work A
Agricultural________________
Worked 35 hours or m ore..
Worked 15-34 hours........
W'orked 1-14 h ours.......... .
W ith a job but not at work A

46, 964
2,200
44, 764
39,909
33,196
4,098
1,322
1,292
4, 855
3, 675
786
294
99

47,085
2,082
45,003
39,900
33,559
3,440
1,291
1,611
5,103
4,016
725
257
106

48,229
2,400
45,829
40,603
32, 558
3,203
1,044
3, 799
5,226
3,936
857
265
167

48,521
2,504
46,017
40,617
32,201
3,300
1,091
4,026
5,399
4,247
745
278
129

48, 484
2,696
45,788
40,462
33,718
3, 551
1,193
1,999
5,325
4,232
724
296
73

46,865
2,184
44, 681
39,932
33,808
3, 384
1,502
1,237
4,749
3, 705
695
273
75

46,580
2,431
44,149
39,574
31,761
5,170
1,433
1,210
4,575
3,503
749
228
95

45, 958
2,910
43,048
39,038
32,273
3,554
1,559
1, 653
4,010
2,257
859
514
380

45,999
2,672
43, 328
39,319
31,851
4,361
1,547
1,557
4,009
2,397
818
482
315

45,923
2, 821
43,103
39,108
32,973
3,341
1,440
1,354
3,995
2,409
870
462
253

46,278
2,405
43, 873
39,744
33,645
3,446
1,468
1,180
4,128
2,729
845
380
177

46,232
2,370
43,863
39,337
30,730
5,954
1,363
1,291
4,526
3,306
800
281
137

Females

Civilian labor force.............................. . 24,106
Unemployment________________ 1,379
E m ploym ent................ .............. . 22,726
N onagricultural_____________ 21, 333
Worked 35 hours or more. _ 14,347
Worked 15-34 hours..____ 4,272
Worked 1-14 hours_______ 2,047
With a job but not at work A
665
Agricultural________________ 1,392
620
Worked 35 hours or m ore..
Worked 15-34 hours______
661
104
Worked 1-14 hours_______
7
Wit h a job but not at work4

24,070
1,307
22, 764
21,279
14, 724
3,807
1,851
897
1,485
773
590
105
16

23,841
1,388
22,453
21,224
13, 690
3,105
1,491
2.939
1,229
599
506
103
20

24,185
1, 513
22, 672
21,187
13,178
3,287
1,611
3,110
1,485
707
625
125
26

24, 518
1,727
22,791
21,260
14,160
3,680
1,728
1,691
1, 531
643
768
112
9

i Estimates are based on information obtained from a sample of households
and are subject to sampling variability. Data relate to the calendar week
ending nearest the 15th day of the month. The employed total includes all
wage and salary workers, self-employed persons, and unpaid workers in
family-operated enterprises. Persons in institutions are not included.
Because of rounding, sums of individual items do not necessarily equal
totals.
3 Data for 1960 include Alaska and Hawaii and are therefore not directly
comparable with earlier data. The levels of the civilian labor force, the
employed, and nonagricultural employment were each increased by more
than 200,000. The estimates for agricultural employment and unemploy­
ment were affected so slightly that these series can be regarded as entirely
comparable with pre-1960 data.


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23, 803
1,276
22,527
21,439
14,786
3,819
2,075
759
1,088
424
558
93
14

23,239
1,229
22, 010
21,191
13,066
5,285
1,912
928
819
283
439
84
11

22,516
1,296
21,219
20, 664
13,878
4,032
2,016
738
555
209
257
71
20

22,450
1,258
21,192
20, 582
13, 505
4,244
2,006
829
610
198
305
75
29

22,245
1,328
20, 917
20,301
14,144
3, 525
1,916
716
615
213
308
74
20

22,998
1,172
21, 826
21,144
14, 809
3,781
2,028
527
683
249
330
94
9

23,078
1,301
21, 777
20, 703
13,145
5, 038
1,891
628
1,074
467
507
92
8

23, 552
1,265
22,287
20,945
13,810
4,454
1, 933
747
1,343
491
670
170
11

8 Unemployment as a percent of labor force.
4 Includes persons who had a job or business b ut who did not work during
the survey week because of illness, bad weather, vacation, or labor dispute.
Prior to January 1957, also included were persons on layoff with definite
instructions to return to work within 30 days of layoff and persons who had
new jobs to which they were scheduled to report within 30 days. Most of
the persons in these groups have, since that time, been classified as unem­
ployed.
N o t e : For a description of these series, see Explanatory Notes (in Employ­
ment and Earnings, U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics,
current issues).

1335

A.—EMPLOYMENT

T a b l e A -2 .

E m p loyees in nonagricultural establishm ents, b y industry 1
[In thousands]
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Oct.» Sept.* Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Total employees................ ........................... 53, 435 53,446 53,062 52,923 53,309 52,957 52,844 52,172 52,060 52,078 53,756 52, 793 52,569 51,975 50,543
Mining______________________________
Metal____ ________ ______ _________
Iron___________________ _ _______
Copper
. _________
Lead and zinc________ _____-.............
Anthracite
- - ________
Bituminous coal..........................................

657
93.3

148.5

Crude-petroleum and natural-gas pro­
______ ______
duction
Petroleum and natural-gas production
(except contract services)__ _______
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying_____

116.9

Contract construction__________________
Nonbuilding construction_____________
Highway and street construction_____
Other nonbuilding construction______
Building construction________________
General contractors________________
Special-trade contractors_____ ______
Plumbing and heating. __________
Painting and decorating___________
Electrical work__________________
Other special-trade contractors_____

3,012

__

663
94.3
33.2
32.4
10.6

672
94.9
34.1
32.0
10.7

655
94.5
34.2
31.1
11.1

681
96.7
35.3
31.9
11.4

677
96.1
35.3
31.3
11.9

677
95.1
34.2
31.3
12.3

666
93.2
33.4
30.2
12.3

669
88.6
32.9
26.4
12.3

658
72.7
32.6
11.1
12.2

668
69.5
32.3
8.1
12.1

660
67.2
30.0
8.0
12.0

621
46.5
9.7
8.7
11.4

676
80.1
27.2
22.3
12.3

721
93.1
30.8
28.6
12.9

12.0
151.1

11.3
155.6

10.7
140.5

11.8
164.2

12.2
167.2

13.2
168.7

14.1
171.5

15.5
173.2

15.5
173.2

15.7
173.7

15.9
164.3

16.0
145.4

16.3
168.1

20.3
195.2

288.0

291.6

291.6

291.6

286.2

287.3

284.6

287.7

291.4

297.0

297.9

298.6

300.8

302.6

175.6

177.8

178.4

177.0

174.2

174.8

174.3

175.9

177.7

177.9

177.7

178.4

180.6

188.0

117.5

118.3

117.9

116.8

115.7

112.6

102.9

104.1

105.1

111.6

114.2

114.2

110.7

109.3

3,068 3,130 3,098 2,977 2,830 2,590 2,312 2,389 2,453 2,699 2,856 2,961 2,767 2,648
518
587
634
416
584
594
502
429
437
569
661 659
640
643
313.4 322.9 320.1 315.0 284.2 222.0 161.5 167.5 170.0 220.5 270.8 309.5 271.2 256.0
327.0 338.0 338.7 328.1 310.1 279.7 254.8 281.4 267.3 297.0 316.6 324.0 312.7 313.2
2,428 2,469 2,439 2,334 2,236 2,088 1,896 1,960 2,016 2,181 2,269 2,327 2,183 2,079
837.9 857.3 857.9 816.8 774.2 705.4 609.8 638.7 660.5 725.5 764.8 801.6 757.9 750.6
1, 589. 9 1,611.7 1,580.6 1, 517.6 1,461.9 1,382.7 1,286.6 1, 321.7 1, 355.1 1,455.2 1, 504.6 1,524.9 1,424.7 1,328.6
326.7 321.6 315.5 311.3 304.2 292.1 281.2 287.5 296.6 308.6 314.5 322.6 310.5 303.6
243.7 255.9 251.6 234.2 222.0 196. S 179.9 178.2 183.5 204.9 222.0 228.4 201.4 169.6
201.6 206.7 199.6 187.9 176.5 170.0 165.3 169.3 171.0 176.3 180.1 181.1 174.2 173.2
817.9 827.5 813.9 784.2 759.2 724.3 660.2 686.7 704.0 765.4 788.0 792.8 738.6 682.2

M anufacturing. ___ _________ _______ 16,330 16,491 16,386 16,250 16,422 16,348 16,380 16,478 16,520 16,470 16,484 16,280 16,197 16,168 15,468
Durable goods_______ _____________ 9,345 9,396 9,296 9,342 9,504 9,516 9,548 9,630 9,680 9,640 9, 577 9,313 9,168 9,290 8,743
Nondurable goods......................... .......... 6,985 7,095 7,090 6,908 6,918 6,832 6,832 6,848 6,840 6,830 6,907 6,967 7,029 6,878 6, 725
Durable goodt
Ordnance and accessories...... ....................

145.7

Lumber and wood products (except
furniture)__________________ _____ 650.6
Logging camps and contractors_____
Sawmills and planing mills_________
Millwork, plywood, and prefabri­
cated structural wood products.
Wooden containers____
Miscellaneous wood products________ ...........
Furniture and fixtures________________
Household furniture______ . . .
Office, public-building and profes­
sional furniture____________
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and fix­
tures___________________
Screens, blinds, and miscellaneous
furniture and fixtures.......................
Stone, clay, and glass products.................
Flat glass_______ ____ _________ ____
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown
Glass products made of purchased glass.
Cement, hydraulic_____ ___________
Structural clay products...... ........... ......
Pottery and related products...............
Concréte, gypsum, and plaster prod­
ucts____________ ____ _________
Cut-stone and stone products...........
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products______ _________ _____

392.0

___
550.1

150.0

149.8

146.0

149.6

149.4

150.0

150.7

150.0

149.4

149.5

147.0

145.3

141.7

126.7

661.5
117.6
313.4

674.6
118.5
321.8

674.2
122.0
320.1

685.9
126.1
324.8

660.7
108.5
318.1

636.0
92.3
310.7

624.2
90.3
304.8

628.1
91.9
305.9

629.4
93.2
306.3

651.6
102.2
315.5

667.2
106.1
323.6

679.9
107.7
329.0

658.0
98.7
319.9

621.7
86.2
311.0

131.0
42.6
56.9

133.2
43.6
57.5

131.8
43.9
56.4

133.0
44.8
57.2

132.7
44.8
56.6

132.0
43.6
57.4

130.2
42.2
56.7

131.6
42.2
56.5

131.5
42.3
56.1

134.9
43.0
56.0

138.4
42.5
56.6

142.6
43.5
57.1

139.1
44.0
56.3

127.1
44.7
52.7

392.7
281.4

392.1
281.1

385.0
275.0

391.0
279.9

388.3
279.5

391.3
282.3

390.8
282.2

390.8
282.9

391.1
283.4

391.2
285.1

390.6
285.3

391.9
285.9

384.0
279.3

357.9
257.1
43.8

50.2

49.7

48.7

49.4

48.3

48.5

48.1

47.4

47.1

46.9

47.0

47.7

46.1

36.8

37.5

37.1

37.1

35.7

35.9

35.5

35.7

36.1

35.8

35.6

33.7

34.4

34.5

24.3

23.8

24.2

24.6

24.8

24.6

25.0

24.8

24.5

23.4

22.7

24.6

24.2

22.6

555.0
30.2
108.4
17.2
41.9
73.6
47.9

558.0
29.8
107.2
17.0
42.9
75.6
47.6

557.3
30.0
106.9
16.4
43.2
76.2
47.8

562.6
30.5
109.8
16.5
43.0
75.7
49.1

558.1
30.8
106.9
16.8
42.1
76.0
48.8

554.1
31.7
105.5
16.8
41.2
74.5
49.2

547.8
34.4
105.0
17.2
39.0
72.3
49.5

551.0
36.3
104.0
17.6
38.4
72.7
49.4

548.0
36.5
101.1
17.5
39.8
73.3
48.9

557.3
36.4
102.1
17.8
41.4
76.0
48.8

561.6
36.3
103.5
18.4
41.8
77.4
49.8

561.6
36.7
99.2
18.6
41.1
77.6
50.1

550.4
32.7
100.2
18.0
41.7
75.5
48.1

514.5
27.3
95.5
16.3
42.0
73.1
43.9

117.9
18.7

120.5
18.6

120.1
17.8

120.0
18.4

118.5
18.1

116.4
18.0

111.5
17.5

112.8
17.5

112.6
17.3

116.6
17.7

118.3
18.0

121.8
18.2

117.8
18.1

108.8
18.3

99.2

98.8

98.9

99.6

100.1

100.8

101.4

102.3

101.0

100.5

98.1

98.3

98.3

89.3

Primary metal industries.......................... 1,126.3 1,135.0 1,142.1 1,156.1 1,203.1 1,224.9 1,250.5 1,273. 3 1,280. 7 1,275.1 1,264.2 1,196.2
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
525.9 540.3 549.0 580.0 606.5 620.5 635.9 640.1 638.8 634.1 597.3
mills_____
. ________ . .
Iron and steel foundries____________
220.3 213.4 220.7 226.8 222.5 227.5 228.4 232.2 230.3 230.3 215.8
Primary smelting and refining of non49.7
44.3
59.2
59.4
57.8
54.7
53.2
58.6
59.1
57.4
ferrous metals_______ _____
58.7
Secondary smelting and refining of
12.4
12.6
12.7
12.0
12.4
12.6
11.8
11.9
12.1
12.2
12.2
nonferrous m etals.. . _________ .
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of non112.3 112.3 111.3 113.5 112.2 113.6 115.3 115.4 116.0 116.6 116.2
ferrous m etals..................................
66.1
65.4
67.0
67.3
67.0
62.8
61.6
61.1
59.1
60.4
Nonferrous foundries..._____ _______
60.5
Miscellaneous primary metal indus­
146.4 144.8 145.1 150.1 151.9 154.3 157.9 158.7 156.8 154.1 144.5
tries.................... ............................ .
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

823.9 1,137.7 1,104.4
222.8
226.9

522.0
223.9

536.7
197.4

44.9

52.2

56.2

11.9

12.2

11.5

117.0
67.6

115.8
64.8

105.5
57.7

132.8

146.8

139.4

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 19(50

1336

T a b l e A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry1—Continued
[In thousands]
1959

1960

Annual
average

Industry
O ct.» Sept. 1 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Fabricated metal products (except ordnance, machinery, and transportation equipment)_________________ 1,077.8 L,078. 7 1,064.9 L,063.2 l, 086. 3 L,080.8 L,079.8 L,097.3 L, 106.2 1,099.2 1,082.0 1,042.1 1,051.6 l, 069.0 1,029.9
56.8
55.9
56.7
59.1
58.2
58.5
63.9
59.5
59.6
61.1
63.6
62.2
58.2
63.5
Tin cans and other tin w are..................
131.6 128.7 126.9 132.2 133.0 134.0 137.5 139.7 139.8 138.1 123.7 130.1 134.2 128.3
Cutlery band tools, and hardware
Heating apparatus (except electric)
113.1 113.8 114.6 115.9 116.0 116.1 116.4 117.4 116.9 114.2 116. 5 120.6 116.6 109.3
and plumbers’ supplies— ..............
295.1 298.1 294.8 293.1 287.7 282.0 282.5 282.3 281.8 282.1 275.5 263.2 285.3 303.0
Fabricated structural metal products
Metal stamping, coating, and engrav237.0 223.2 225.8 236.3 236.5 237.2 246.0 251.2 246.1 239.3 223.3 237.2 230.1 210.7
ins_
_________ - _________
49.8
60.9
51.1
50.8
49.9
51.4
49.8
49.1
48.1
49.2
49.8
47.6
44.7
47.1
TJchtinc fixtures__________________
59.6
60.5
60.0
59.2
57.2
54.4
55.4
57.4
58.1
56.5
54.8
56.6
52.4
54.6
Fabricated wire products.......................
Miscellaneous fabricated metal prod135.6 134.8 135.9 139.5 139.9 143.1 145.3 145.8 145.3 142.4 140.2 138.0 137.5 123.3
ucts _____. . . . . . . . . . ___ ___ __ __
Machinery (except electrical)--------------- 1,588.8 1, 605. 8 1,615.2 1,635.3 1,658. 6 1,660.9 t, 677.8 1, 687. 7 1,691.1 1,675.0 1,660.3 1. 625.8 1, 636. 5 1,611.7 1.501.2
99.8 100.2 101.3 103.2 104.3 107.1 107.4 108.5 107.3 104 6 105. 7 103. 1 93.1
99.5
Engines and turbines ______________
139.4 144.0 145. 5 148.8 149.3 153.4 159.1 160.5 157.8 1.54.1 141.0 151.4 157.9 136.9
Agricultural machinery and tractors
119.2
121.6 125.6 127.6 130.3 132. 5 133.0 132.6 131.2 129.2 125.2 126.3 129.9 122.0
Pnnistriiet.lon and mining machinery__
250.3 250.8 258.4 264.8 263.5 264.7 263.1 259.9 257.3 255.4 251.6 247.9 238.7 223.7
Metalworking machinery___________
Special-industry machinery (except
176.3 176.4 176.2 178.0 176.5 176.1 175.4 174.6 173.3 172.3 171.8 169.8 165.5 159.6
metalworking machinery)_______
226.9 228.0 228. 5 230.8 230.1 231.0 232.7 233.0 229.4 229.3 228.9 229.5 223.5 220.1
Genera! industrial machinery-----------141.1 140.8 140.6 140.4 138.9 139.0 138.3 137.0 137.6 138.1 136.9 136.0 132.7 124.9
Office and store machines and devices..
Service-industry and household ma178.9 179.7 186.6 192.6 196.5 197.7 195.3 198.5 194.4 189.6 184.4 186.3 184.9 168.9
chines _______________________
274.2 274.1 273.7 274.3 272.6 279.1 283.7 287.0 285.5 285.0 281.4 283.6 275.5 252.0
Miscellaneous machinery parts_______
Electrical machinery.................................. 1,301.9 1, 325.1 1, 308.0 1,292.4 1,297.0 1,289.6 1,293. 7 1,310.0 1,318.4 1, 318.6 1,317.0 1.301.5 1,311.2 1,241.6 1.118.8
Electrical generating, transmission, dis416.7 415.8 414.3 413.6 414.8 417.9 421.4 422. 5 420.5 419.5 407.4 413.1 402.1 373.8
tribution, and industrial apparatus.
¿9. 5 40.3
39.6
39.5
37.7
34.6
40.0
38.9
40.3
39.3
38.4
39.3
40.0
38.7
Electrical appliances_______________
28.8
28.7
29.5
29.3
28.1
28.9
29.1
25.4
28.3
28.5 28.6
27.9
27.8
27.0
Insuiated wire and cable................... .
74.4
70. 7 73.5
76.4
69.8
75.4
77.0
61.8
72.6
70.9
72.4
67.9
71.3
69.7
Electrical equipment for vehicles........ .
29.5
29.5
29.3
27.6
29.7
29.8
29.6
26.4
29.8
29.1
29.5
28.7
28.5
28.2
Electric lamps - _________ - _______
690.5 680.2 664.9 665. 7 658.0 657.5 666.1 671.3 674.2 674.7 674.9 675.2 627.2 551.4
Communication equipm ent-------------48.8
50. 7 51.1
49.1
48.7
50.1
45.7
48.9
48.2
48.3
49.1
49.5
49.2
49.6
Miscellaneous electrical products...___
Transportation equipm ent_______ ____ 1,640.2 1,618.8 1, 524. 8 1,590.7 1,607.9 1,652. 8 1,665.1 1,700.9 1, 721.4 1, 722.3 1,655.9 1, 511.1 1,692.4 1,670.8 1. 592.8
766.3 680. 3 745. 6 784.7 785.0 790.8 819.0 837.7 822.6 756.9 602.2 784.2 731.6 630.8
Motor vehicles and equipment__ ____
639.7 638.8 630.4 618.1 658.3 668.7 680.3 687.0 693.7 700.9 709.7 717.4 734.9 757.6
A i r c r a f t and parts__________________
370.2 371.4 371.1 371.2 381.4 387.0 393.0 397.2 400.6 404.2 412.3 418.4 435.0 457.2
A ircraft _ _______________ - ____
133.1 132.1 125.3 114.9 138.7 139.8 140.7 140.6 142.0 144.2 144.9 145.2 146.3 152.6
Aircraft engines and parts-------------13.6
13.9
13.6
14.4
13.8
18.3
13.8
13.9
14.0
8.3
14.1
12.6
12.7
11.1
Aircraft propellers and parts----------123.8 122.6 122.9 123.7 124.1 128.0 132.6 135.4 137.3 138.9 138.9 139.9 139.2 129.5
Other aircraft parts and equipment.
141.9
140.7
131.1
142.8
144.5
143.5 143. C 144.2 134.0 137.4 135.6 132.4 131.0 145. 6
Ship and boat building and repairing.
124.3 124.3 124.6 110.9 112.3 110.1 107.4 106. 4 121.7 117.5 119.5 109.7 120.9 125.3
Shipbuilding and repairing..... ............
23.9
22. 4 21.4
21.9
24.6
23.2
19.2
25.5
25.0
25.1
19.2
18.7
19.0
23.1
Boatbuilding and repairing________
46.9
48.8
51.4
51.4
47.7
50.9
58.7
56.0
59.6
60.8
61.6
51.9
58.6
60.0
Railroad e q u ip m e n t.............................
10.4
10.9
9.7
9.7
9.0
10.6
10.1
9.0
10.4
10.5
10.3
10.7
10.8
10.5
Other transportation equipm ent-------- ...........
Instruments and related products--------Laboratory, scientific, and engineering
instruments_____________________
Mechanical measuring and controlling
instruments
_______________- __
Optical instruments and lenses ............
Surgical, medical, and dental instruments ___________- __ - _- _------Ophthalmic goods__________________
Photographic apparatus------------------Watches and clocks________________

351.4

Miscellaneous manufacturing industries .
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware_
Musical instruments and parts_______
Tovs and sporting goods.............. ..........
Pens, pencils, other office supplies-----Costume jewelry, buttons, notions
Fabricated plastics products_________
Other manufacturing industries

520.0

352.3

351.9

348.5

352.8

351.3

353.1

353.7

353.6

352.1

354.0

352.5

351.8

338.9

315.2

65.9

66. C

66.3

66.6

66.8

66.9

68.2

67.8

67.2

64.2

58. 1

66.2

65.6

65.5

98.1
18.4

99.5
18.5

99. C 101. C 100.2
18.4
18.5
18.1

100.3
18.4

100.2
18.2

99.9
17.6

97.9
17.3

97. S
16.9

96. 4
17.1

97. 4
16.9

93.0
15.8

83.9
14.0

45.1
26.5
68.7
29. Í

45.4
27.1
67.6
28.4

45.5
26.9
66 8
26.6

45.8
27.2
65.9
28.5

45.3
27.6
65.6
29.6

45.1
27.7
65.6
30.3

44.9
27.8
65.8
30.8

44.6
28.1
66.4
30.9

44. 7
28.1
67.1
31.7

44.1
28.0
66.8
32.3

43. 7
27.6
65.9
33.1

43.1
26.1
65.3
31.4

41.5
23.7
65.6
28.4

521.3
47.5
19.5
103.2
32.7
60.7
96.2
161.7

514.9
46.7
19.2
101.0
32.5
61.1
95.3
158.8

492.9
44.5
18.0
95.1
32.2
57.4
92.7
153. (

508.9
45.8
18.6
98.6
31.8
59.7
95.6
158.8

498.7 496.5 493.9
45.7
46. C 46.7
19.5
19.1
18.6
81.8
93.2
88.1
31.5
31.3
31.6
61.5
58. 1 59.1
95.4
95.5
94.8
156.7 157. Í 157.6

489.0
46.3
19.6
77.2
31.2
61 £
96.6
156.2

480.0 494.1
46.4
47.7
19.7
19.9
79.4
73.3
30.4
31.0
60. 6 61.5
96.2
96.0
153.6 158.6

516.9
48.0
19.8
95.2
32.1
62.2
97.1
162.5

522.3 486.5
45.9
48.0
19.8
18.0
100. 3 84.5
32.3
30.8
63. 3 60 6
97. 1 92.6
161.5 154.1

459.9
44.4
16.4
81.7
30.7
58.2
84.0
144. 5

45.1
27.6
65.5
28.5

Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products___________ 1,550. 5 1, 621. 9 1, 601.7 1,521.4 1.469.2 1,414.9 1,404.1 1,376. 8 1,3S0.2 1,396.6 1,434. 1,478.2 l, 526.9 1,470.2 1,476.4
305. C 294.6 302.1 307.0
310.9 308.2 305.7 303.4 297.2 292.6 294.8 298.2 302. ( 305.
Meat product« .....
95.2
96.8
99.8
89.8
90. £ 91.6
94.6
91. (
902
97.8
97.5 101.4 102.4 102.0
Dairy products____________________
223.0 220.4
184.7 185.! 167.: 166.7 169.5 182. £ 211.7 260.
254.6 207.
356.4 333.
Canning and preserving____________
109.
113.3
113.8
109.
113.
C
112.3 110.2 108. £ 108. S 108. < 109.: 109. ‘
Grain-mill produet.S
110.2 112.
289.
285.2 284.3
290.
290.9 289.2 292. C 290.8 286.1 287.0 286. : 286. Í 285. S 287.
Bakery produets . . .
45.
43.
31. C 31.4
34.8
41.:
25.7
24.5
26.:
25.8
25.
26.3
25.7
27.4
Sugar __________________________
79.
73. £ 75.4
78.5
78.
72.7
72.3
71.
69.
70.2
66. £
70.6
76.9
73.2
Confectionery and related products___
209.
207.0
215.
200.4
205.,
210.
206.
201.1 198.:
221.7 220.2 211.
215.7 219.
Beverages
_____________________
137.51 136.2 137.3
135.
132. £ 131.4 132. £ 132.1 132.
138.5 139. £ 139.1 134.
136.
Miscellaneous food products------------See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1337

A.—EMPLOYMENT
T a b l e A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry1—Continued
[In thousands]
1960

Annual
average

1959

Industry
Oct.2 Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Tobacco manufactures_______________
Cigarettes__ ________________ - ___

99.7
_____

Tohftppo and snuff _____________ Tobacco stemming and redrying...........
Textile-mill products-------------------------- 934.4
Scouring and combing plants------------- ...........
Yarn and thread mills............................ _____
Broad-woven fabric mills___________
Narrow fabrics and small w ares........... .......
Knitting mills ___________________
Dyeing and finishing textiles_________
Carpets rn g s other floor c o v e r in g s .
Hats (except cloth and millinery)“. ........
Miscellaneous textile goods------ ---------

91.4
38.5
25.3
6.2
21.4

78.5
38.4
24.3
6.2
9.6

77.8
38.2
25.4
6.3
7.9

78.5
37.7
25.5
6. 2
9.1

79.1
37.9
25.6
6. 2
9.4

81.4
37.3
25.9
6.3
11.9

86.6
37.5
26. 5
6.4
16.2

88.5
37.6
25.4
6.4
19.1

943.1 953.6
5.2
5.4
102.5 104.2
384.6 388.6
29.4
28.9
223.8 227.3
88.0
89.0
43. 7 43.9
9.3
9.7
57.1
56.1

941.8
5.4
103.1
389.1
28.8
217.7
89.0
43.3
9.8
55.6

961.7
5.5
106.5
393.7
29.5
225.5
90.1
44.0
10.1
56.8

956.3
5.4
105.7
392.9
29.3
221.6
89.9
44.9
10.1
56.5

955.1
5.3
105.9
395. 3
29.4
217.5
89.9
45. 8
9.6
56.4

956.6
5.2
106.3
396.6
29.8
215.7
88.9
46.2
10.2
57.7

952.0
5.6
106.6
394.9
29.7
211.3
89.4
46.7
9.9
57.9

953.0
5.6
107.4
396.1
29.8
210.4
89.6
46.5
10.3
57.3

107.0
38.1
25. 5
6.0
37.4

92.5
38.0
27.4
6.4
20.7

103.1
37.7
27.4
6.4
31.6

89.2
37.4
27.1
6.6
18.1

90.4
36.4
29.1
6. 5
18.4

960.3 969.3
5.4
5.3
108.2 108.7
398. 1 398.9
29.4
29.3
216.2 224.5
89.3
89.3
46.2
46.2
10.4
10.2
56.9
57.1

978.5
5.6
110.3
399.9
29.5
228.4
89.4
46. 7
9.6
59.1

966.0
5.5
110.0
398.5
29.5
220.1
88.4
46.6
10.1
57.3

941.5
5.2
108.2
399.9
27.5
207.0
84.9
44.8
10.1
53.9

91.2
37.7
27.1
6.4
20.0

Apparel and other finished textile products______ _______________ _____ 1,210. 3 1,225. 0 1,237. 7 1,188.0 1,215. 9 1, 207.9 1,211.2 1, 247.8 1,240.7 1,219.5 1,232.9 1, 239.9 1, 232.3 1,210.7 1,156.3
116.3 116.6 109.4 116.1 115.0 114.3 114.9 114.6 114.0 114.3 114.4 113.5 111.4 107.3
Men’s and boys’ suits and coats--------Men’s and boys’ furnishings and work
356.2 359.3 349.5 357.6 353.7 349.6 351.7 349.6 346.7 349.1 352.7 351.2 338.3 311.3
clothing - - _______________ -_____
333.6 343.4 328. 2 329.0 328.1 335.7 358.0 355.1 346.2 349.8 348.0 336.0 344.7 339.7
Women’s outerwear................................
118.3 118.8 113.0 118.6 118.4 120.0 121.6 121.6 119.8 121.5 124.0 124.0 118.9 114.1
Women’s, children’s undergarments.. .
19.1
18.3
17.0
18.6
19.0
19.5
22.8
22.2
18.5
17.8
17.9
Millinery _ __________ - ____- ___
13.1
14.9
16.5
72.3
72.6
72.4
72. 1 73.9
74.0
73.5
74.4
69.6
73.8
75.6
73.6
74.8
73.2
Children’s outerwear_______________
9.3
7.8
6.8
8.6
9.8
7.5
6.6
6.8
9.2
7.4
6.6
Fur goods______________ -----_____
7.3
6.9
10.7
61.4
60.9
62.7
64.2
61.3
59.2
57.7
60.3
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories._
60.2
60.0
57.2
61.7
56.7
59.6
140.4 137.3 132.1 136.8 138.1 137.4 138.4 137.6 135.7 138.1 139.2 142.6 135.0 125.0
Other fabricated textile products...........
Paper and allied products......................
Pnlp paper, and paperboard mills____
Pafierhoard containers and boxes.--___
Ofher paper and allied products_____

564.0

566.9
277.7
154.6
134.6

567.0
279.2
153.0
134.8

560.5
275.0
150.9
134.6

567.0
278.3
152.6
136.1

562.7
274.4
151.7
136.6

562.3
274.0
152.2
136.1

560.0
273.1
152.3
134.6

559.9
274.0
152.4
133.5

561.3
275.4
152.6
133.3

564.1
274.0
156.2
133.9

564.4
273.3
157.7
133.4

566.2
273.9
158.0
134.3

559.9
273.8
153.5
132.6

547.1
269.4
149.6
128.1

Printing, publishing, and allied Industries.
Newspapers__________________ - ___
Periodicals________________________
Books ___________________________
Commercial printing..............................

904.3

902.2
331.1
64.6
64.9
233.4
69.3
23.1
48.1

895.1 890.4
331.0 331.4
62.8
61.9
63.8
63.1
230. 8 229.3
68.7
68.2
22.6
22.0
4a 6 48.1

892.0
331.4
62.3
62.3
229.4
68.6
22.6
48.4

885.9
329.4
62.7
62.2
227.3
68.4
20.6
48.0

886.3
327.7
63.9
62.3
229.3
68.6
2.05
48.0

886.2
327.2
63.9
61.6
230.3
68.1
20.1
47.8

883.3
325.7
64.2
61.1
229.1
67.3
19.9
47.5

878.8
324.9
64.7
60.2
229. 2
65.5
19.6
46.8

887.5
329.6
64.5
60.1
230.0
66.9
21.6
46.8

886.2
326.6
64.7
59.7
228.8
67.9
23.0
46.9

886.0
327.6
65.0
59.6
228.0
67.5
22.3
47.6

868.3
322.6
62.4
58.0
224.0
66.3
20.8
46.2

852.2
316.4
61.5
55.0
220.7
65.7
20.0
44.5

67.7

66.8

66.4

67.0

67.3

66.0

67.2

68.5

67.9

68.0

68.6

68.4

68.0

68.4

880.8

880.7
105.9
343.6
106.7

882.2
106.7
347.3
107.7

878.9
106.1
347.4
107.8

877.8
105.8
343.7
106.6

879.6
104.7
340.2
105.4

882.3
104.6
338.3
105.5

869.4
103.9
336.7
105.8

864.6
103.7
334.9
105.2

860.5
103.6
334.0
105.6

861.9
103.9
332.9
105.3

862.1
104.0
331.7
104.9

861.1
103.6
330.8
104.4

847.8
102.5
325.6
104.0

820.9
102.2
310.6
102.9

54.3
78.9
7.8
34.0
39.2
111.2

54.3
79.1
7.8
31.7
36.6
111.0

52.8
79.0
7.9
31.6
36.3
110.0

53.1
78.4
7.9
35.8
36.6
109.9

52.8
77.8
7.9
44.1
37.5
109.2

52.7
77.3
7.8
48.8
39.2
108.1

52.7
76.8
7.7
39.4
39.3
107.1

52.4
51.8
76.9
76.3
7.9
7.8
37.2
35.9
40. 1 40.8
106.3 104.7

51.7
76.4
7.8
35.0
42.7
106.2

51.4
76.4
7.7
34.1
43.7
108.2

51.5
77.1
7.8
34.8
43.9
107.2

51.0
75.5
7.7
36.9
40.0
104.6

49.3
73.0
7.8
35.6
38.5
101.0

229.8
182.4

230.2
183.4

232.5
184.0

231.9
183.2

232.4
183.7

232.2
183.8

232.4
184.1

232.2
184.2

231.7
182.9

229.7
184.0

233.4
186.2

238.2
192.1

Greeting cards____________________
Bookbinding and related Industries___
Miscellaneous publishing and printing
services____-----________ -------__
Chemicals and allied products_________
Industrial inorganic chemicals. _____
Industrial organic chemicals. _______
Drugs and medicines— ........................
Soap, cleaning and polishing preparatio n s __________________________
Paints, pigments, and fillers_________
Gum and wood chemicals___________
Fertilizers ____ __________________
Vegetable and animal oils and fats____
Miscellaneous chemicals____________

.......

231.9
183.8

Products of petroleum and coal................
Petroleum refining................................
Coke, other petroleum and coal
prnd lifts

223.2

225.8
180.1
45.7

47.4

46.8

48.5

48.7

48.7

48.4

48.3

48.1

48.0

48.8

45.7

47.2

46.1

Rubber products. ......... ...........................
Tires and inner tubes______________
Rubber footwear___________________
Other rubber products______________

257.1

258.6
102.0
22.3
134.3

257.1
103. 0
22.1
132.0

252.5
103.1
21.5
127.9

258.1
103.5
22.0
132.6

257.1
103.4
21.9
131.8

260.2
104.4
22.5
133.3

267.4
105.1
22.8
139.5

269.0
104.0
23.0
142.0

269.2
105.3
23.1
140.8

269.5
105.5
23.6
140.4

270.1
106.1
23.7
140.3

273.2
107.0
23.3
142.9

259.8
101.6
22.0
136.2

244.6
100.8
20.9
122.9

363.9 373.9
34.6
34.3
4. 7
4.6
18.2
19.3
241.9 249.5
16. 5 17.3
32.4
32.6
16.2
15.7

365.5
34.4
4.3
19.5
246.0
16.4
30.1
14.8

365.7
34.5
4.3
19.5
245.4
16.0
30.2
15.8

357. 6
34.0
4.2
18.7
238.8
15.8
30.2
15.9

359.3
34.1
4.4
18.6
240.1
15.6
30.9
15.6

370.4
34.4
4.8
19.6
246.8
15.6
33.5
15.7

370.9
34.8
5.0
19.9
248.0
15.1

370.9
35.6
5.0
20.1
249.8
15.0
31.7
13.7

372.5
35.8
4.9
19.5
249.4
15.1
32.4
15.4

372.6
35.9
5.0
19.3
246.5
15.5
33.6
16.8

372.0
36.2
5.1
18.9
244.7
16.2
34.1
16.8

372.2
37.1
4. 9
19.4
248.9
15.3
31.2
15.4

357.2
37.9
4.1
18.2
238.1
15.0
29.9
14.0

Leather and leather products. ________ 360.6
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished .
Industrial leather belting and packing.
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings ..
Footwear (except rubber).............. T___
Luggage__________________________
Handbags and small leather goods........
Gloves and miscellaneous leather goods. ...........
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3 3 .3

14.8

1338

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

Table A-2. Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by industry1—Continued
[In thousands]
1959

1960

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.2 Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Transportation and public utilities_______ 3,888 3,907 3,921 3,939 3,942 3,924 3,917 3,900 3,887 3,882 3,940 3,912 3,910 3,902 3,903
Transportation_____________________ 2,549 2, 555 2,560 2, 573 2, 592 2,585 2,579 2,570 2,553 2,549 2,602 2,571 2, 568 2,559 2,531
Interstate railroads..................................
875 4 904 6 912.2 919.5 914.5 909.8 903.6 899.7 900.6 919.7 898.0 893.0 930.6 963.6
Class I railroads___ ______________
766 2 792 9 800. 7 807.4 801.9 796.6 789.0 785.3 785.9 796.3 784.0 786.0 815.3 840.8
91.4
91.4
91.2
90.9
Local railways and buslines_________
91.1
91.3
91.2
91.8
91.7
90.8
92.3
96.4
90 8 90 4
Trucking and warehousing_________
892 2 877 4 879.3 887.1 880.3 880.6 883.3 878.0 876.2 897.0 892.6 898.1 853.2 792. 5
Other transportation and services_____
696 8 687 4 690.2 694.6 698.6 697.6 692.1 684.7 681.1 694.2 688.4 685.2 683.3 678.5
39.4
41.9
38.3
38.4
39.4
Buslines, except local__ ____________
38.8
39.7
40.2
40.4
40.8
40.0
41.7
41 5 41 7
Air transportation (common carrier).-153.0 153.3 152.4 152.1 153.0 153.1 152.3 152.2 152.2 152.1 150.8 150.2 145.9 140.3
Pipe-line
transportation
(except
natural gas)_____________________
24.1
24.1
24.2
24.2
24.6
24.7
25.1
24.6
24.6
24.7
24.8
25.8
24.1
24.5
752
739
741
Communication_____. . . ____________
744
741
738
737
736
741
743
740
771
741
746
751
Telephone________________________
709.1 713.5 714.0 707.0 704.0 702.6 700.2 699.2 698.0 701.1 702.9 702.8 705.5 732.4
Telegraph______ _________________
36.4
36.6
36.7
36.7
36.9
37.5
37.2
37.2
37.3
37.0
37.6
38.3
36 2 36 3
614
592
Other public utilities____________ ____ 598
597
599
606
598
598
597
600
600
601
601
606
610
Gas and electric utilities____________
581.6 585.2 589. 2 582.5 574.6 574.2 568.5 574.0 574.0 575.7 576.7 577.5 576.6 578.5
Electric light and power utilities___
257 5 259 3 260.0 257.3 254.1 254.0 253.8 253.8 254.1 254.7 254. 9 255.0 255.9 258.3
Gas utilities__________ _________
153.5 153.6 156.7 155.3 153.2 153.4 153.0 153.2 152.9 153.4 153.7 153.7 153.3 151.5
Electric light and gas utilities combined. - - - - - - 170 6 172 3 172.5 169.9 163.3 166.8 161.7 167.0 167.0 167.6 168.1 168.8 167.4 168.7
24.4
23.2
Local utilities, not elsewhere classified..
23.5
23.1
23.1
23.2
23.9
23.7
23.8
23.4
23.2
24 1 24 5
22.9
Wholesale and retail trade_____________
Wholesale trade_____________________
Wholesalers full-service and limitedfunction........................................... .
Automotive________________ ____
Groceries, food specialties, beer,
wines, and liquors______________
Electrical goods, machinery, hardware, and plumbing equipment__
Other full-service and limited-func____ ___
tion wholesalers_____
Wholesale distributors, other___ _____
Retail trade_______________ ________
General merchandise stores_______ —
Department stores and general mailorder houses________ __________
Other general merchandise stores.......
Food and liquor stores______________
Grocery, meat, and vegetable markets.
Dairy product stores and dealers—.
Other food and liquor stores___ ____
Automotive and accessories dealers___
Apparel and accessories stores_______
Other retail trade. _ _____ ________
Furniture and appliance stores_____
Drug stores_____________________

11,733 11,654 11,592 11,591 11,637 11,543 11,620 11,325 11,329 11,424 12,345 11,723 11,551 11,385 11,141
3,169 3,149 3,153 3,138 3,129 3, 111 3,120 3, i'll 3,114 3,113 3,155 3,141 3,121 3,070 3,013
1 876 7 1 879 6 1,870.9 1, 867.1 1,851.4 1, 856. 4 1, 850. 4 1, 852.9 1,852. 7 1, 882. 9 1, 868. 8 1, 858. 3 1,819.2 1,752.0
' 142.0 142.7 142.2 ' 141. 5 140.5 ' 139.6 ' 139.0 ' 138.7 ' 138.0 139.2 ' 138. 6 ' 138. 5 135.2 126.5
315.1 314.9 315.4 314.1 313.0 315.1 317.8 316.1 317.9 321.3 320.9 314.0 309.7 303.1
454.9 458.4 459.5 458.1 455.2 455.5 455.0 454.8 453.3 456.4 455.1 454.5 448.0 439.2
964 7 963 6 953.8 953.4 942.7 946.2 938.6 943.3 943.5 966.0 954.2 951.3 926.3 883.2
1 272 5 1 273 6 1, 267. 0 1, 261.6 1, 259.3 1, 263.1 1,260.8 1, 260.8 1, 260.7 1,272.0 1, 271. 8 1, 263.0 1, 250.7 1, 261.4
8,564 8,505 s’, 439 8,453 8, 508 S, 432 8; 500 8,214 8, 215 8,311 9,190 8,582 8', 430 8,315 8,128
1, 545.8 1,503.1 1,452. 5 1, 433.1 1, 462.5 1,465.6 1, 511.0 1,404.3 1, 402.3 1, 464.9 2,025.0 1, 628.3 1, 520. 8 1,483. 5 1, 433.8
958 1 922 9 917.2 934.2 932.1 944.8 892.1 898.3 942.7 1, 294.3 1,053.8 976.7 953.4 925.1
550 0 529 6 515.9 528.3 533.5 566.2 512.2 504.0 522.2 ' 730. 7 ' 574.5 544.1 530.1 508.7
1,651.8 1,637. 5 1, 640.9 1, 659. 9 1, 655. 6 1, 648.7 1,649.0 1,633. 6 1, 634.8 1, 629. 7 1,663.3 1, 645. 6 1, 627.0 1, 613. 6 1, 598.8
1,195.3 1,190.3 1,204.8 1, 203. 7 1,200. 7 1,199.8 1, 200.1 1,197.0 1,198. 2 1, 218.4 1,209.3 1,191.1 1,175.3 1,149.4
220 6 228 4 229.6 226.8 222.8 220.2 214.9 214.5 214.9 217.1 217.2 218.3 222.7 227.4
221 6 222 2 225.5 225.1 225.2 229.0 218.6 223.3 216.6 227.8 219.1 217.6 215.6 222.0
814.1 814. 5 819.9 824.5 827.4 819.0 815.0 801.2 801.1 799.7 814.8 803.8 802.2 791.0 764.5
635.1 620.7 585.6 597.8 628.3 626.7 679.6 584.4 584.4 609.1 744.0 634.3 621.2 606.0 592.1
3,917.2 3,929. 5 3,940.2 3,937.5 3, 933.9 3.872, 2 3, 845.5 3, 790.8 3, 792.1 3, 807.3 3,943.0 3,869.5 3, 858. 8 3,820.4 3, 738. 4
399 6 396 8 398.1 397.0 399.0 397.4 395.1 396.7 397.3 417.0 405.1 398.5 393.8 390.2
405 2 400 1 398. 6 398.6 392.0 396.4 384.2 383.3 390.6 418.4 389.8 385.4 378.2 355.8

Finance, insurance, and real estate______
Banks and trust companies___________
Security dealers and exchanges________
Insurance carriers and agents__________
Other finance agencies and real estate___

2,501

2,516 2,536
680.6 686.8
102.2 103.4
947 3 Q52 8
786 1 793 4

2,530
682.9
102.9
946.8
797.1

2,496
671.2
100.4
930.8
793.6

2,469
662.9
99.9
922.3
783.5

2,463
663.2
99.9
922.5
777.4

2,444
661.9
99.7
919.9
762.9

2,439
657. 5
99.2
917.3
764.9

2,429
652.2
97.9
910.3
768.5

2,438
653.2
97.7
913.6
773.7

2,438
650.4
96.9
910.8
779.4

2,441
647.5
96.8
908.4
788.7

2,425
638.4
94.5
904.0
787.8

2,374
615.3
84.6
895.0
779.5

Service and miscellaneous_____________
Hotels and lodging places____________.
Personal services:
Laundries______ ________ _____ ___
Cleaning and dyeing plants_________
Motion pictures........................................

6,704

6,702
506.4

6,685
590.8

6,715
591.7

6,745
524. 5

6,717
497.1

6,644
479.3

6,511
458.6

6,484
459.6

6,474
452.7

6,547
463.4

6,593
470.4

6,614
476.1

6,525
505.4

6,395
511.3

307 1
174 4
193 5

310 2
170 9
195 4

315 6

314. 6
181.3
190.7

311. 5 308.4
179.4 177.4
190.3 189.7

304.6
169.3
175.3

305. 7
170.0
178.0

307.2
171.9
178.9

309 0
173.4
179. 8

310 6
174.7
185.6

312 2
174. 4
190.0

310 9
170. 6
187.0

312 7
167.4
189.8

17515

192 1

Government_________________________
8,610 8,445 8,140 8,145 8,409 8,449 8,553 8,536 8,343 8,288 8,635 8,331 8,274 8,127 7,893
Federal3..... ..................... .............. ........... 2,179 2,185 2,206 2,205 2,204 2, 212 2,334 2, 331 2,153 2,151 2,492 2,192 2,168 2,197 2,191
Executive__ ____________________
2,157 6 2,178 0 2,177.3 2,176. 6 2,184.6 2,306.8 2,303. 6 2,125.3 2,123. 6 2, 464. 5 2,164.7 2,140.9 2,169. 4 2,164.2
Department of Defense___________
910 8 919 2 919.1 ' 922.8 ' 917.1 ' 916. 5 919.0 ’ 920. 2 921.3 ' 924. 6 ' 928.3 931. 4 ' 941.3 960.3
Post Office Department___________
565 9 566 5 564 8 560.0 553.3 553.0 551.8 553.0 553.6 863. 4 557 5 551 2 572 9 562 8
Other agencies_______ . ________
680 9 692 3 693 4 693.8 714. 2 837.3 832.8 652.1 648. 7 676. 5 678 9 65« 3 65.5 2 641.1
Legislative___ ____________________
22 5
22 8
22. 8
22 6
22 5
22 1
22 8
22. 5
22. 5
22. 5
22. 4
22. 5
22. 5
22 5
Judicial-.- _______ _______________
4 9
4 .9
4. 9
4 .9
4 .9
4 .9
4 8
47
4. 8
4 .8
4 8
4 9
4 9
4 8
State and local4_________ ___________ 6,431 6 , 2 6 o" 5 ,934’ 5 ,940 6,205 6,237 6, 219 6 ,205 6,190 6,137 6,143 6,139 6 ,106 5,930 5,702
State___ _______________ _ _______
1,571 8 1,530 3 1,539 2 1, 575. 2 1 578 8 1, 572.8 1, 564.1 1, 559. 8 1, 550. 2 1, 555. 4 1; 555 6 1 550 6 1, 524 3 l r 470. 8
Local____________________________
4 688 2 4 403 9 4. 400 6 4, 629. 9 4 658.0 4 646 4 4 641 1 4 630 1 4 586 3 4 587 6 4 582 9 4 555 8 4 405 7 4 281 1
Education___________ ____________
2,893 5 2, 525. 8 2,538. 8 2 ,8 5 1 .3 2, 978. 5 2, 987.4 2, 992.0 2, 990. 9 2, 947. 3 2, 948. 7 2, 945. 0 2 906 4 2, 721 ! 5 2, 568. 7
Other____________________________
3 ,3 6 6 .5 3 ,4 0 8 .4 3 ,4 0 1 .0 3 ,3 5 3 .8 3, 258.3 3, 231.8 3, 213.2 3 ,1 9 9 .0 3 ,1 8 9 .2 3 ,1 9 4 .3 3,193. 5 3, 200.0 3,208. 5 3 ,1 3 8 .2
1 Beginning with the August 1958 issue, figures for 1956-58 difler from those
previously published because of the adjustment of the employment estimates
to 1st quarter 1957 benchmark levels indicated by data from government
social insurance programs. Statistics from 1957 forward are subject to revi­
sion when new benchmarks become available.
These series are based upon establishment reports which cover all full- and
part-time employees in nonagricultural establishments who worked during,
or received pay for, any part of the pay period ending nearest the 15th of the
month. Therefore, persons who worked in more than 1 establishment
during the reporting period are counted more than once. Proprietors, selfemployed persons, unpaid family workers, and domestic servants are ex­
cluded.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 Preliminary.
3 Data relate to civilian employees who worked on, or received pay for,
the last day of the month.
4 State and local government data exclude, as nominal employees, elected
officials of small local units and paid volunteer firemen.
S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics for all
series except those for the Federal Government, which is prepared by the
U.S. Civil Service Commission, and that for Class I railroads, which is
prepared by the U.S. Interstate Commerce Commission.

1339

A.—EMPLOYMENT
T able

A-3. Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by industry 1
[In thousands]
1959

1960

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.» Sept.» Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

507
524
527
519
534
532
533
518
527
481
532
Mining____________ ___________ ____
572
516
525
73.4
78.4
79.3
77.6
57.2
80.4
60.5
54.9
80.0
33.7
65.1
78.4
76.5
Metal______________________________
77.8
29.4
28.6
28.4
29.5
28.8
28.2
25.9
30.5
30.5
5.3
22.7
26.1
I r o n .._____ ______________________
29.6
28.6
25.3
25.6
25.7
24.8
21.1
8.5
5.6
5.5
6.1
26.0
18.0
23.4
Copper__________________________
26.2
25.8
8.9
10.2
9.9
9.8
9.1
9.7
10.1
10.1
10.1
9.3
10.0
8.2
10.5
Lead and zinc______________ ______
8.2
12.4
14.1
10.5
11.5
13.9
13.9
14.3
9.0
14.3
10.0
14.6
Anthracite_________________________
18.5
10.4
9.7
Bituminous coal..........................................
130.1 136.0 119.1 144.3 147.7 149.5 152.0 154.1 154.4 155.1 144.9 128.5 149.2 173.8
Crude-petroleum and natural-gas pro­
duction_________ __________ ____
199 5 202. 6 202.3 202.9 198.3 199.5 197.7 199.8 202.7 208.3 209.6 209.4 210.2 211.1
Petroleum and natural-gas production
(except contract services)____ ____ _
101.7 103.1 103.9 103.2 101.2 101.8 102.5 103.3 103.9 104.6 104.8 105.2 106.1 112.9
97,8
85.3
96.4
95.9
93.1
83.9
86.1
92.6
95.3
95.3
92.5
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying.........
91.9
97.8
98.3
Contract construction__________________
2,646 2,705 2,669 2,558 2,420 2,190 1,914 1,989 2, 047 2, 289 2,445 2,551 2,372 2, 278
424
507
573
353
439
554
558
513
340
360
Nonbuilding construction_____ ______
506
497
576
558
Highway and street construction..........
285.8 296.1 292.6 286.7 256.6 196.2 136.3 142.9 145.2 195.2 245.0 283.8 245.4 231.8
Other nonbuilding construction______
272.1 279. 5 280.1 271.0 256.8 227.4 203.3 210.4 214.9 243.8 261.8 269.9 260.5 265.1
Building construction________________
2,088 2,129 2,096 2,000 1,907 1,766 1,574 1,636 1,687 1,850 1,938 1,997 1,866 1,781
General contractors..... ........................
733 1 751 9 752.4 714.7 675.1 609.5 513.4 542.2 564.0 629.0 667.6 703.8 662.4 658.1
Special-trade contractors..................... .
1,355.2 1,377.0 1,343.9 1,285.4 1,232.0 1,156.3 1,060.3 1,093. 6 1,123.2 1,220.9 1,270.4 1, 293.4 1,203.2 1,122. 6
Plumbing and heating__________ .
267.6 262.5 256.2 253.4 246.7 235.4 224.1 230.3 239.3 251.5 256.3 265.2 252.8 247.0
Painting and decorating___________
221.0 233.6 229.5 212.7 201.3 176.3 160.3 159.3 163.1 184.6 201.3 207.4 181.7 153.3
Electrical work.. _______________
161. 5 166.0 159.9 149.6 139.4 133.3 128.6 132.0 134.4 138.8 143.0 144.5 138.3 138.2
Other special-trade contractors_____
705.1 714.9 698.3 669.7 644.6 611.3 547.3 572.0 586.4 646.0 669.8 676.3 630.4 584.1
Manufacturing............. ...... ......................... 12,254 12,395 12,265 12,145 12,332 12,292 12,334 12,435 12,494 12, 449 12,466 12,274 12,201 12, 237 11, 658
Durable goods............................ ........... 6,909 6,947 6,833 6,888 7,056 7,084 7,123 7,205 7,268 7,230 7,173 6,922 6,786 6,955 6, 5Ó7
Nondurable goods............. .................. . 5,345 5,448 5,432 5,257 5,276 5, 208 5,211 5,230 5,226 5,219 5,293 5,352 5,415 5,282 5,151
D u r a b le go o d s

Ordnance and accessories.........................
71.5
Lumber and wood products (except fur­
niture)_________________________
582.9
Logging camps and contractors______
Sawmills and planing mills
______
Millwork, plywood, and prefabricated
structural wood products...... ........... .
Wooden containers____ ___________
Miscellaneous wood products...... .......... _____
Furniture and fixtures........... ................
327.6
Household furniture___ . . .
Office, public building, and professional
furniture... ________
... _
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and fix­
tures______________ ___________
Screens, blinds, and miscellaneous fur­
niture and fixtures____ __________
Stone, clay, and glass products................. 443.9
Flat glass__________ ______________
Glass and glassware, pressed or blown.
Glass products made of purchased glass.
Cement, hydraulic____________
Structural clay products........................
Pottery and related products........ . .
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products
Cut-stone and stone products— ___
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products______________ _________
Primary metal industries __________
898.6
Blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling
m ills___________________ ______
Iron and steel foundries_____________
Primary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals________ . ________
Secondary smelting and refining of nonferrous metals_______ ___________
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of nonferrous metals_______ ___________
Nonferrous foundries_______ _______
Miscellaneous primary metal industries
Fabricated metal products (except ord­
nance, machinery, and transporta­
tion equipment)_________________
833.9
Tin cans’ and other tin w are________
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware
Heating apparatus (except electric) and
plumbers’ supplies_______ ______
Fabricated structural metal products..
Metal stamping, coating, and engraving
Lighting fixtures____ _____________
Fabricated wire products.. ________
Miscellaneous fabricated metal prod­
ucts........................................................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

72.0

72.3

72.4

73.0

73.8

74.9

74.7

74.3

74.0

72.9

73.4

72.9

68.4

593.6
110 3
284 8

606.9
110 9
293.1

606.1
114.6
291.4

617.4
118.6
296.0

592.5
101.8
288.8

586.6
86.1
281.6

555.7
83.9
275.1

560.6
85.5
276.7

561.4
86.5
277.0

583.6
95.4
286.3

599.3
99.5
294.5

612.0
101.2
300.0

591.1
92.3
291.5

556.8
80.1
283.6

110.2
38.7
49.6
328.4
241.8

112. 8
39.7
50.4
327.2
241.2

110.9
39.9
49.3
320.9
235.6

112.0
40.8
50.0
326.7
240.4

111.7
40.8
49.4
324.3
240.3

110.9
39.7
50.3
327.2
242.7

109.0
38.2
49.5
326.9
242.9

110.5
38.3
49.6
327.6
244.0

110.3
38.3
49.3
327.4
244.0

113.6
39.1
49.2
327.8
245.9

116.7
38.6
50.0
327.2
246.6

120.8
39.7
50.3
328.6
247.2

117.7
40.2
49.4
321.2
240.8

106. 5
40. 6
46.0
297.3
220.1

73.5

39 5

39 0

38.4

38.8

37.6

38.0

37.7

37.2

36.8

36.7

36.6

37.5

35.9

34. 2

27.9

28.3

28.1

28.1

26.8

27.2

26.7

27.0

27.4

27.1

26.7

24.7

25.6

25.6

19.2
448.8
25.9
14.0
34.3
63.8
40.8
92.8
16.2

18.7
451.5
25. 5
90.8
13.8
35.2
65 7
40.4
95.8
16.0

18.8
449.9
25.8
90.0
13.4
35.3
66.1
40.9
94.8
15.2

19.4
456.1
26.2
93.2
13.6
35.3
65.8
42.2
95.0
15.8

19.6
451.6
26.6
90.5
13.7
34.5
65.9
41.7
93.2
15.6

19.3
448.2
27.5
89.3
13.7
33.7
64.5
42.3
91.0
15.4

19.6
443.0
30.2
88.9
14.1
31.6
62.2
42.5
86.8
14.9

19.4
445.2
32.0
87.5
14.5
31.0
62.6
42.4
87.7
15.0

19.2
442.6
32.2
84.7
14.5
32.5
63.1
41.9
87.8
14.9

18.1
452.4
32.3
85.9
14.8
33.9
66.0
42.0
91.7
15.3

17.3
457.1
32.1
87.2
15.3
34.3
67.2
43.0
94.0
15.6

19.2
458.2
32.6
83.0
15.6
33.7
67.5
43.1
97.2
15.9

18.9
449.1
28.7
84.7
15.0
34.4
65.5
41.3
94.3
15.6

17.4
417.8
23.5
80.5
13.3
34.6
63.4
37.6
86.9
15.7

68 8
907.0

68.3
909.8

68.4
923.8

69.0
970.3

72.5
70.8
69.9
71.8
70.5
71.0
992.6 1019.8 1,042. 6 1,051.5 1,048.3 1,038.8

68.4
975.0

69.6
602.3

69.6
916.4

62.3
891.0

419.2
186.7

430. 8
179.5

438.7
187.1

468.9
193.1

495.3
188.8

510.6
194.0

526.4
194.7

531.6
198.8

531.6
197.7

527.7
197.6

493.2
183.2

118.8
194.2

416.6
192.2

436.8
167.4

45.0

45.8

46.3

46.6

46.1

47.2

45.4

42.5

40.7

37.4

32.4

32.9

40.0

43.2

9.1

9.0

8.6

8.6

8.9

9.1

9.3

9.3

9.4

9.2

8.8

8.8

9.1

8.2

83.9
48.9
114.2

83.7
48. 6
112.4

82.7
47.6
112.8

85.2
50.3
117.6

84.2
49.6
119.7

85.6
51.2
122.1

87.0
53.7
126.1

87.4
55.2
126.7

88.1
55.4
125.4

89.1
55.2
122.6

89.1
54.3
114.0

89.9
55.7
102.0

89.2
53.3
116.0

80.6
46.4
108.4

833.4
53.1
103.1

819.4
55.8
100.1

817.3
55.4
98.6

840.1
55.6
103.8

836.5
54.3
104.4

836.8
51.7
105.4

853.8
51.3
109.1

863.3
50.3
111.7

856.6
50.8
111.9

840.9
49.1
110.2

799.9
48.2
95.0

811.8
49.1
101.9

831.6
51.9
106.2

795.8
50.6
100.1

85.7
211.0
192.6

38.6
44.0

85.9
213.4
180.2
36.4
43.4

86.4
210.1
182.4
36.0
43.1

87.8
208.1
192.8
37.9
45.2

88.1
204.4
192.9
37.0
45.9

88.5
199.7
193.7
38.6
46.6

88.5
200.6
201.9
39.5
48.4

89.5
200.7
207.1
39.8
49.2

89.0
199.5
202.4
39.4
48.7

86.8
199.3
196.2
39.0
47.7

89.2
192.8
179.5
38.8
45.8

93.1
181.4
193.9
40.5
43.4

89.5
203.4
187.8
38.5
45.4

83.3
220.0
169.4
34.2
41.7

105.3

104.2

05.3

108.9

109.5

112.6

114.5

115.0

114.9

112.6

110.6

108.5

108.9

96.5

9 2 .2

1340

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
T a b l e A-3. Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by

industry 1—Continued
[In thousands]
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.» Sept.»

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Machinery (except electrical)........... ........ 1,088. 8 1,104.7 1,111.6 1,130. 4 1.154.1 1,159.3 1,176.4 1,186.1 1,191.0 1,178.8 1.166.0 1,135.9 1,146.8 1,134.1 1,039.3
Engine and tu rb in e s..........._........... .
61.6
61.0
61.3
62.9
64.5
65.8
68.2
68.4
69.5
68.3
66.0
67.1
65 9 fin 7
Agricultural machinery and tractors...
93.0
97.1
98.7 101.5 101.7 105. 5 110.9 112.3 110.1 106. 5 94.5 103.9 112.4
94 7
Construction and mining m achinery...
81.0
83.1
85.5
87.4
89.9
91.4
91.9
91.4
89.9
88.7
84.7
85.6
89. 6 82.4
Metalworking machinery.......................
181.6 181.9 190.2 195.6 195.7 196.4 195.1 192.1 190.7 189.7 186.7 184.0 175. 6 162.1
Special-industry machinery (except
metalworking machinery)______
122.6 122.7 122.4 124.2 123.5 123.1 122.6 122.3 121.4 120. 7 120.2 118.2 114.9 108. 5
General industrial m achinery..............
142.9 143.5 143.7 146.5 146.5 147.5 149.0 149.8 146.4 146.2 146.0 146.6 141 9 138 1
Office and store machines and devices..
91.9
92.2
92.6
92.9
92.3
92.9
92.4
92.1
92.6
92.7
92.0
91.6
89.7
84.0
Service-industry and household machines_______ _______ ___________
128.9 129.7 136.5 143.0 146.9 148.4 146.0 149.2 145.4 140.9 136.3 138.4 138.1 123.2
Miscellaneous machinery parts______
201.2 200.4 199.5 200.1 198.3 205.4 210.0 213.4 212.8 212.3 209.5 211.4 206.0 185.6
Electrical machinery_________________ 861.0 876.4 861.4 849.6 858.7 855.1 860.4 878.7 890.0 892.1 891.9 881.6 893.3 839.7 750.1
Electrical generating, transmission,
distribution, and industrial apparatus __________________________
278.5 276.7 276.0 277.6 279.3 283.1 287.2 289.0 287.8 284.7 275.4 281.6 273.7 247.8
Electrical appliances_______________
30.1
29.4
28.6
29.1
28.7
29.5
30.4
30.0
29.8
29.8
29.9
30.6
28.2
25.4
Insulated wire and cable________ ____
21.2
21.0
21.8
22.0
20.4
21.8
22.2
22.5
22.9
22.7
22.2
22.2
21.6
19 3
Electrical equipment for vehicles_____
55.5
54.6
51.3
52.9
54.3
56.0
59.0
60.9
60.3
58.5
54.9
57.9
54.4
47.0
Electric lamps......... ...............................
24.7
25.4
25.9
24.9
25.8
25.9
25.9
24.5
25.9
25.6
25.8
25.5
23 9 22. 5
Communication equipm ent_________
430.2 422.8 410.8 413.7 408.8 408.8 418.7 426.3 429.5 433.2 435.8 437.2 401.6 355.4
Miscellaneous electrical products_____
36.2
36.2
36.1
35.8
35.3
35.4
36.3
35.3
35.9
37.2
37.8
38.3
36.3
32.7
Transportation eq u ip m ent___________ 1,157. 7 1,135. 9 1, 036.2 1,104.8 1,127.2 1,173.6 1,187.1 1,221.2 1,244.8 1,238. 7 1,172.1 1,026.0 1.207.8 1,189. 5 1,124.0
Motor vehicies and equipm ent.............
597.4 508.7 573.9 614.9 615.8 622.9 651.9 675.2 657.7 592.7 439.0 622.5 ' 574.2 480.0
Aircraft and p a r ts .................................
368.0 364.7 358.4 347.5 388.0 398.1 407.1 411.7 416.1 422.1 428.8 435.2 451.1 479.3
Aircraft___ _____________________
212.5 212.4 212.2 214.2 223.5 229.1 233.5 237.5 240.8 243.7 249.4 254.0 268.1 291.5
Aircraft engines and parts_________
77.7
58.4
82.4
74.5
69.8
83.3
83.9
83.2
83.2
84.9
85.6
85.8
86. 5 89.9
Aircraft propellers and parts_______
6.7
2.7
8.5
6.6
5.9
8.5
8.6
8.4
8.5
8.4
8.3
8.7
9.1
12.2
Other aircraft parts and equipm ent..
71.1
72.2
71.2
73.6
70.5
77.2
81.1
82.6
83.6
85.5
85.1
86.7
87.4
85.7
Ship and boat building and repairing..
118.8 117.8 119.4 111.1 114.7 113.1 109.8 108.7 120.8 116.3 117.5 107.0 118.8 121.4
Shipbuilding and repairing___ _____
91.4
102.9 102.4 103.2
93.0
90.9
87.4 100.2
88.1
96.2
98.1
88.6
99.9 105.1
Boatbuilding and repairing________
15.9
19.7
15.4
21.7
16.2
22.2
21.7
21.3
20.6
20.1
19.4
18.4
18.9
16.3
Railroad equipm ent________________
43.1
45.6
36.4
46.7
44.8
44.7
41.5
44.0
37.2
33.3
32.2
34.0
37.1
36.1
Other transportation equipment_____
8.6
8.1
8.4
8.6
8.3
8.3
8.4
7.7
7.7
6.9
8.5
9.1
8.3
7.2
Instruments and related products ....... 226.3 228.0 226.1 223.4 227.5 227.7 229.8 230.5 231.3 230.5 232.2 231.9 231.0 222.3 205.3
Laboratory, scientific and engineering
instrument__ ____ _________ _____
35.7
36.8
35.8
35.9
35.8
36.0
36.0
36.1
36.2
37.4
37.2
36.9
35.1
31.8
Mechanical measuring and controlling
instruments ............................. ...........
63.9
66.2
66.4
64.7
64.4
66.9
66.8
67.3
65.9
64.4
65.0
65.8
62.4
55 8
Optical Instruments and lenses.............
12.4
12.7
12.7
12.5
12.7
12.3
12.5
12.1
12.1
11.5
12.0
11.6
10.7
9.4
Surgical, medical, and dental lnstrum ents..................... ...........................
29.8
30.4
30.1
30.2
30.4
30.1
30.2
30.1
29.7
29.5
30.0
29.0
28.7 27.3
Ophthalmic goods. .................................
20.4
21.3
21.5
21.0
21.7
21.9
21.1
22.1
22.3
22.4
22.3
22.0
20.6
18.4
Photographic apparatus.........................
38.7
38.7
41.6
39.7
39.1
38.7
38.8
39.0
39.6
40.5
40.5
39.8
39.3
39.7
Watches and clocks .
22.5
23.1
22.4
22.2
20.6
23.5
24.2
24.6
24.7
25.4
26.0
26.8
25.5
22.9
Miscellaneous manufacturing industries.. 416.5 417.1 410.4 389.1 405.2 397.3 395.1 391.9 387.5 379.1 393.0 414.8 420.0 386.6 361.0
Jewelry, silverware, and plated ware...
38.1
36.5
37.4
36.3
36.5
35.3
37.1
36.7
36.6
37.8
38.2
38.1
36.1
34.5
Musical instruments and parts . . . .
15.9
14.6
15.2
15.7
15.7
15.3
16.2
16.0
16.3
16.7
16.7
16.7
15.0
13.6
Toys and sporting goods.......................
78.5
87.6
85.8
80.0
835
73.4
67.2
62.7
64.6 80.7
59.0
85.9
70. 7 67. 5
Pens, pencils, other office supplies__
24.8
23.8
23.6
24.5
24.0
23.4
23.2
23.1
22.4
22.9
24.1
24.3
22.8
22.3
Costume jewelry, buttons, notions__
48.9
47.8
46.8
49.0
45.9
47.9
50.0
50.0
48.7
49.4
49.9
50.6
48.8
46.4
Fabricated plastics products..................
74.8
75.2
74.1
74.2
71.5
74.9
76.2
75.0
75.7
76.3
77.0
77.2
72.9
64.8
Other manufacturing Industries............
126.6 123.9 117.8 123.6 122.6 123.3 123.4 122.6 120.4 125.3 128.2 127.2 120.3 111.9
Nondurable goods
Food and kindred products___________ 1,094.9 1,163.1 1,142.3 1,064.1 1,015.4
Meat products________________
248.3 245.8 243.4 241.8
Dairy products........................................
70.4
70.3
65.7
69.0
Canning and preserving______ _____
318.0 297.2 219.3 173.1
Grain-mill products................................
76.0
78.3
76 6
77.5
Bakery products.....................................
163.6 162.9 165.0 164.4
Sugar.......................................................
20.4
22.2
21.3
20.6
Confectionery and related products___
62.4
52.6
55.3
58.9
Beverages................................................
113.5 115.9 117.8 117.9
Miscellaneous food products_________
93.4
95.6
96.0
94.5
Tobacco manufactures___________
Cigarettes................................................
Cigars................................................
Tobacco and snuff......................... .
Tobacco stemming and redrying_____
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

90.3

97.1
33.3
23.8
5.0
35.0

81.2
33.5
23.6
5.2
18.9

68.7
33.4
22.7
5.2
7.4

67.9
33.1
23.8
5.2
5.8

967.4
235/7
66.7
150.8
75.0
160.9
19.8
54.8
112.2
91.5

959.5
232.1
63.7
152.0
74.4
161.7
20.8
55.4
108.9
90.5

933.7
233.8
60.7
133.6
73.9
160.8
19.3
57.2
104.9
89.5

938.6
237.2
59.6
134.1
74.1
160.9
20.3
57.8
103.2
91.4

954.0
240.6
59.3
136.5
74.7
160.6
29.4
58.4
104.1
90.4

68.3
32.5
23.7
5.2
6.9

69.1
32.6
24.0
2.5
7.3

71.2
32.1
24.1
5.3
9.7

76.4
32.4
24.8
5.4
13.8

78.2
32.5
23.8
5.3
16.6

989.5 1,031.8 1,080.1 l, 025.3 1,035.3
244.8 243.6 233.4 240.6 243.5
60.8
60.0
63.7
65.5
66.7
149.6 177.9 225.9 189.2 186.6
75.2
74.8
77.7
77.9
79.5
162.7 165.7 165.7 162.1 164.9
35.3
36.8
39.0
25.3
25.9
62.9
64.0
64.6
59.4
61.6
108.8 113.4 117.6 111.8 112.4
90.2
92.6
94.7
93.5
94.2
80.9
32.5
25.5
5.3
17.6

82.2
32.8
25.7
5.4
18.3

92.8
32.5
25.8
5.4
29.1

78.9
32.2
25.4
5.5
15.8

80.1
31.5
27.4
5.4
15.8

A.—EMPLOYMENT

1341

T a b l e A-3. Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by

industry 1—Continued
[In thousands]
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Oct.« Sept.* Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

885.3
6.1
101. 6
371.5
25.9
207.5
77.5
39.1
8. 4
48.4 '

873.9
5.0
101. 5
370.5
25.9
199.7
76.6
38.9
89
46.9

850.8
4.7
99 7
372.4
23.9
186.8
73.7
36. 7
90
43.»

Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable good*—Continued
Textile-mill products........ .........................
Scouring and combing plants________
Yam and thread mills ......... ................
Broad-woven fabric mills.... ..................
Narrow fabrics and smallwares.............
Knitting mills_____________________
Dyeing and finishing textiles....... .........
Carpets, rugs, other floor coverings.......
Hats (except cloth and millinery)....... Miscellaneous textile goods___ .............

840.8

849.5
4.7
94. 5
356.1
25.4
202. 7
75.5
36. 4
8.2
46.0

858.6 847.8
4.9
4.9
96 C 94 9
359.7 360.4
25.7
25.1
205.7 196.6
76.8
76.7
36.3
35.9
8. 5
8.6
45.0
44.7

866.7
5.0
97.7
364.7
25.9
204.6
77.7
36.4
8.9
45.8

862.9
4.9
97.6
364.7
25.6
200.7
77.7
37.2
8.9
45.6

861.4
4.É
97.7
366.9
25.8
196.7
77.8
38.0
8.3
45.4

863.0 859.5 859.7
4.8
5.1
5.1
98. C 98.3
99.0
368.5 366.8 368.0
26.1
26. C 26.1
195.0 191.2 189.7
76.6
77.3
77.4
38.4
39. C 38.8
8.9
8.6
9.1
46.7
47.2
46.5

867.4
4.«
99.8
369.9
25.8
195.7
77.1
38.6
9.2
46.4

875.6
4.8
100.4
370.2
25.8
203.6
77.3
38.5
8.9
46.1

Apparel and other finished textile products.................................... - ................ 1,080. 9 1,095. 5 1,017. 3 1,059.7 1,085.3 1,079.1 1,082.4 1,118.2 1,111.1 1,090. 8 1,102.5 1,107.0 1,100.0 1,080.0 1,027.0
Men’s and boys’ suits and coats ____
104.3 104.7
99.5
97.8 104.7 103.5 102.3 103.1 102.5 102.2 102.4 102.6 101.7
95.0
Men’s and boys’ furnishings and work
clothing________________________
327.
6
318
0 326.0 322.9 318.8 320.9 319.2 316.2 318.4 321.1 320. 4 308. 5 283.9
324.7
W omen’s”outerwear________ _______
299.4 309.1 294 3 293.9 293.0 300.9 322.6 319.8 311.1 313.8 311.3 299.5 308.0 302. 7
Women’s, children’s undergarments__
105.3 105. 6 100.5 105.2 105.5 107.5 108.9 108.6 106.8 108.7 111. 1 111. 1 106.2 101.9
11.3
Millinery_____ ________ T__________
13.0
15.9
15.0
16.9
14. 7
20.7
20.1
16.2
16. 4
17. 5
17.1
16.3
15.7
67.9
65.5
61.9
Children’s outerwear.............................
66.1
66.2
64.7
64.5
64.8
64.3
66.2
67.1
65.7
66.3
65.1
5.2
4.9
Fur goods................................................
5.6
4.8
5.0
7.3
6.3
57
5.0
6. 8
7. 7
7.1
60
82
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories..
54.4
53.8
54.1
55. 0 55. 3 51 2 55.7
53.3
6Ì.9
54.8
56.8
57.9
54. 4 50.9
Other fabricated textile products_____
118.9 115. 3 110 4 115.0 116.7 115.8 117.0 116.4 114.8 116.9 117.0 121.0 113. 7 103. 6
Paper and allied products....... ...... ...........
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.......
Paperboard containers and boxes_____
Other paper and allied products______

449.6

451.7
225.2
123.6
102.9

451.3
226.4
122.1
102 8

444.5
222.2
119.8
102.5

451.8
225.7
122.0
104.1

449.2
222.8
121.5
104.9

448.3
222.5
121.3
104.5

446.4
221.5
121.8
103.1

445.8
221.6
121.7
102.5

447.2
223.3
121.4
102.5

4.50.5
222.2
125.2
103.1

452.3
222.2
127.1
103.0

453.6
222.1
127.4
104.1

448.6
223.1
122.9
102.6

439.3
220.7
119.6
99.0

582.0

579. 7
164.9
28. 7
40. 2
187.2
52. 7
16. 6
37. 7

572 7
164.2
27. 5
38 7
184.8
52.1
16 4
38.0

568
163 7
26 6
38 0
183.9
51 8
16 0
37.5

571.9
165.0
26.8
37.5
184.5
52.0
16.6
38.0

566.8
164.0
27.0
37.4
182.5
51.8
14.6
37. 7

567.5
162.9
27.7
37.6
184.6
52.1
14.5
37.6

567.6
162.6
27.6
37.2
185.4
51.5
14.0
37.6

565.1
161.5
27.4
37.0
184.4
50.7
13.7
37.2

562 4
161. 5
27.4
36.6
185.0
48.9
13.5
36.4

570 6
165.8
27.2
36.4
185.4
50.3
15.4
36.8

570.2
163.6
27.5
36.3
184.4
51.5
16.7
36 7

509 8
164.1
27.6
36.3
183.8
51.1
16.1
37.5

557 5
16l! 0
26. 6
35 5
180.2
50.1
15.0
36.3

545 4
157.2
25. 5
33 7
177.5
49 7
14 2
35.0

51. 7

51.0

50 8

51.5

51.8

50.5

51.7

53.2

53.1

63.3

53.5

53.3

52. 8

52. 6

Chemicals and allied products.................. 541.6
Industrial inorganic chemicals..............
Industrial organic chemicals................. __
Drugs and medicines_______________
Soap, cleaning and polishing preparations___________________________
Paints, pigments, and fillers.................
Gum and wood chemicals....... ...............
Fertilizers________________________
Vegetable and animal oils and fats____
Miscellaneous chemicals____________ -....... Products of petroleum and c o a l.............. 148.9
Petroleum refining___________ ____ _
Coke, other petroleum and coal products______ _____________________

540.4
69.5
209.7
57.5

537.6
69.9
210.3
57.9

536.9
69.5
211.3
58.3

540.4
69.5
211.1
57.5

546.7
69.2
210.0
56.6

551.0
69.3
208.9
56.7

540.5
68.7
208.7
57.3

537.3
68.8
207.7
57.0

535.9
69.1
208.0
57.6

537.1
69.6
206.8
57.3

539.0
69.7
206.9
56.9

540.0
69.2
206.7
56.9

530.9
68.4
203.3
57.1

512.2
67.3
191.8
57.6

32. 4
46.1
6. 3
23. 7
26. 8
68.4

32. 2
46.9
6. 4
21 6
24.1
68.3

31 7
46.7
64
21 6
23.8
67.6

31.3
46.6
6.4
25. 8
23.9
68.3

30.8
46.3
6.4
34.1
24.9
68.4

30.8
46.1
6.4
38.7
26.5
67.6

30.7
45.7
6.3
29.5
26.6
67.0

30. 4
45.9
6. 5
27.4
27.4
66.2

30 2
45.3
6.4
26 3
27.9
65.1

30.2
45.8
6. 4
24 9
29.4
66.7

30.1
45.8
6.3
24.0
30.4
68.9

30 4
46.6
63
24 7
30 8
68.4

30 3
45.4
63
26 9
27 2
66.0

3ft 1
43.7
64
26 1
26 1
63.1

150.5
115. 3

153.5
116. 7

153.2
117.0

155.6
117.6

154.9
116.7

154.4
116.3

154.2
116.4

154.9
117.1

154.1
116.4

154.5
116 4

153.7
114.9

150.5
115.5

155.4
118.4

157.0
121.2

38.2

Printing, publishing, and allied Industries _________________________
Newspapers___ ___________________
Periodicals.................... ........................
Books___________________________
Commercial printing..............................
Lithographing................ ...... ................
Greeting cards.................................... .
Bookbinding and related industries__
Miscellaneous publishing and printing
services______ ___ ______________

35.2

36. 8

36.2

38.0

38.1

37.8

37.8

37. 7

38.1

38.8

35 0

37 0

35 8

Rubber products...................... ................
Tires and inner tubes.................... ........
Rubber footwear___________________
Other rubber products______________

198.2

198.7
75.4
18.4
104.9

196.1
75.7
18 2
102.2

191.7
75.9
17.6
98.2

197.9
76.6
18.2
103.1

197.6 200.7
77.0
78.1
18. 1 18.5
102.5 104.1

207.5
78.8
18. 9
109.8

208.6
77.4
19.0
112.2

208.0
77.9
19.0
111.1

208.0
78.1
19.4
110.5

209.1
79.0
19. 6
110.5

212.3
79.7
19 1
113.5

199.4
74.6
17 9
106.9

186.0
74.7
16. 7
94.6

Leather and leather products__ ______
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished..
Industrial leather belting and packing.
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings...
Footwear (except rubber)............ . I ___
Luggage.. _______________________
Handbags and small leather goods____
Gloves and miscellaneous leather goods.
See footnotes at end of table.

318.2

321.7
30.1
3.6
16. 0
216.1
14.1
28.1
13.7

331.0
30. 4
3.5
17.2
222.8
15. 0
28.0
14.1

322.2 323.2
29.9
30.2
3.2
3.2
17.3
17.3
218.9 218.9
14. 1 13.8
25.9
26.0
12.9
13.8

315.2 316.9
29.7
29.8
3.1
3.3
16.6
16.6
212.3 213.7
13. 5
13.3
26.0
26. 5
14.0
13.7

328.1
30.1
3.7
17.5
220.6
13.3
29.2
13.7

328.8 329.0
30.5
31.3
3.9
3.9
17.9
18.1
221.7 223.6
12 6
12.8
29 1 27.7
12.9
11.8

331.5
31. 5
3.8
17.4
224.0
12 8
28.3
13.7

331.0
31. 7
3.9
17. 4
220.4
13.2
29. 5
14.9

331.0 331.6
31.9
32.8
4.0
3.8
16 9
17. 4
219.2 223.7
13 0
14 0
30 1 27.3
13.6
14.9

317.7
33. 7
3.1
16 2
213.8
12 5
26.1
12.3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

1342

Table A-3. Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry 1—Continued
[In thousands]
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Oct.2 Sept.2 Aug.
Transportation and public utilities:
Other public utilities.......... ................ .....
Gas and electric utilities____________
Electric light and power utilities___
Gas utilities________ ____________
Electric light and gas utilities combined_________________________
Local utilities, not elsewhere classified.
Wholesale and retail trade:
Wholesale trade_____________________
Wholesalers, full-service and limitedfunction.___ __________________
Automotive_____________________
Groceries, food specialities, beer,
wines, and liquors.___ __________
Electrical goods, machinery, hardware, and plumbing equipment__
Other full-service and limited-function wholesalers___ __________
Wholesale distributors, other________
Retail trade:
General merchandise stores__________
Department stores and general mailorder houses___________________
Other general merchandise stores___
Food and liquor stores_____ ________
Grocery, meat, and vegetable markets__ . _________ ___________
Dairy-product stores and dealers___
Other food and liquor stores_______
Automotive and accessories dealers___
Apparel and accessories stores ______
Other retail trade (except eating and
drinking places)________________
Furniture“and appliance stores...........
Drug stores_____________________

July

June

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

636
614.2
221.2
136.9

540
517.9
223.2
137.2

544
522.1
224.4
140.2

537
515.7
221.6
139.0

529
508.0
218.2
136.9

530
508.9
218.9
137.6

524
503.7
219.1
137.6

530
509.4
219.3
137.8

530
509.9
219.8
137.6

532
511.3
220.3
137.9

533
512.8
220.8
138.2

534
513.5
221.1
138.2

534
513.0
221.8
138.0

537
516.4
223.2
137.5

156.1
21.4

157.5
21.7

157.5
21.7

155.1
21.1

152.9
20.9

152.4
20.9

147.0
20.6

152.3
20.3

152.5
20.2

153.1
20.4

153.8
20.5

154.2
20.7

153.2
20.6

155.7
20.4

2,699

2,705

2,693

2,687

2,670

2, 679

2, 671

2,674

2, 674

2,721

2,709

2,694

2,651

2,622

1, 627.0 1,632.7 1, 625.1 1,621.8 1, 606.3 1, 612. 6 1, 604.9 1,607.9 1,608. 5 1,643.0 1, 633.1 1,623.4 1,588.8 1, 536.7
' 122. 6 ' 123.5 123.2 122.3 121.0 120.5 120.0 120.1 119.9 121.3 120.9 120.8 117.5 110.0

.......

279.8

279.6

280.4

278.9

277.9

279.8

282.2

281.0

282.9

287.2

287.2

280.1

276.9

272.2

389.4

393.8

394.7

394.0

392.4

392.6

392.2

392.0

391.2

394.8

394.6

394.5

388.1

382.1

835.2 835.8 826.8 826.6 815.0 819.7 810.5 814.8 814.5 839.7 830.4 828.0 806.3 772.4
1,072.1 1,072.2 1,067.7 1,065.4 1,063. 7 1,066.7 1,066.0 1,066. 5 1,065.8 1,078.1 1,075.9 1,070.8 1,061.8 1,084.9
1,393.7 1,344. 5 1,328. 4 1, 359. 5 1,362. 4 1,407.7 1,301.6 1,299.7 1,362.4 1,919.3 1,525.8 1,419.1 1,383. 6 1,334.7
877.8 847.2 842.9 861.3 859.4 872.0 820.7 826.4 871.0 1,219.3 981.1 904.4 882.6 855.9
515.9 497.3 485. 5 498.2 503.0 535.7 480.9 473.3 491.4 700.0 544.7 514.7 501.0 478.8
1,495.2 1,496.0 1,518. 4 1,513.4 1,508.6 1, 512.6 1,499.9 1, 500.3 1,496.4 1,532.9 1,516.0 1,498.1 1,485. 3 1,483.2
1,120. 0 1,114.1 1,131. 3 1,129.0 1,126.2 1,127.8 1,128.1 1,123.9 1,125.1 1,145. 3 1,136.8 1,118. 4 1,102.0 1,078.7
' 186. 4 ' 193. 7 194.7 192.4 188.7 185.8 173.0 181.2 181.4 184.7 184.0 184.9 190.1 198.5
188.8 188.2 192.4 192.0 193.7 199.0 190.2 195.2 189.9 203.5 195.2 194.8 193.2 206.0
716.5 723.1 728.1 729.4 722.5 720.0 705.9 705.1 704.3 720.5 708.8 709.0 699.8 677.2
563.7 529.5 542.8 571.7 570.2 623.8 530.1 530.2 556.4 692.0 583.1 569.3 554.7 542.0
2,128.0 2,131. 6 2,139. 7 2,129.0 2,095.4 2,096. 5 2,064. 5 2,068.7 2,083. 8 2,196.9 2,131.1 2,113.9 2,090.3 2,056.7
' 359.3 ' 356.3 357.9 356.9 358.7 358.4 356.7 358.6 359.5 379.0 367.8 361.4 356.5 354.3
383.7 378.1 377.9 378.2 371.6 375.4 363.1 361.8 368.4 393.3 369.1 365.0 357.7 337.0

! For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to August
1968 and coverage of the series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
Production and related workers include working foremen and all nonsuper­
visory workers (including leadmen and trainees) engaged in fabricating, proc­
essing, assembling, inspection, receiving, storage, handling, packing, ware-


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

May

housing, shipping, maintenance, repair, janitorial, watchman services,
product development, auxiliary production for plant’s own use (e.g., power
plant), and recordkeeping and other services closely associated with the
aforementioned production operations.
2Preliminary.

1343

A.—EMPLOYMENT

Table A-4. Unemployment insurance and employment service programs, selected operations 1
[All Items except average benefit amounts are In thousands]
1959

1960
Item
Sept.
Employment service:2
New applications for work.................. ......
Nonfarm placements................ .................

811
584

Aug.

839
556

July

788
491

June

Apr.

May

1,008
537

811
534

Mar.

762
511

836
450

Jan.

Feb.

828
412

Dec.

875
418

707
432

Nov.

823
465

Oct.

762
556

Sept.
744
633

State unemployment Insurance programs:
936
1,621
1,645
1,501
1,197
1,265
1,162
1,232
1,387
1,197
1,426
Initial claims34..........................................
1,407
1,206
Insured unem ploym ent3 (average weekly
1,309
1,203
1,841
1,677
2,157
2,180
1,682
2,209
1,939
1,686
1,588
1,657
1,598
volume)........ ......................................... .
4.4
3.4
3.1
5.6
4.8
5.5
4.3
4.9
5.7
4.3
4.0
4.2
Rate of insured unem ploym ent6_______
4.0
4,826
7,621
7,108
5,398
4,620
9,114
7,893
6,365
6,570
7,527
6,435
5,848
Weeks of unemployment compensated L .
6,238
Average weekly benefit amount for total
unem ploym ent8...................................... $33.54 $32.99 $32.37 $32. 33 $32. 24 $32.50 $32.39 $32. 26 $31.90 $31.91 $32. 21 $30. 81 $30. 49
Total benefits paid___________________ $201,805 $206,276 $183,775 $198,938 $204,883 $237,391 $287,142 $247,835 $235, 202 $219,466 $168, 344 $136,856 $141,800
Unemployment compensation for ex-service­
men: s 4
Initial claims 3_...........................................
Insured unemployment4(average weekly
volume)........ ........... ................................
Weeks of unemployment com pensated...
Total benefits paid.................................... .
Unemployment compensation for Federal
civilian employees:10 4
Initial claims 3......... ....................................
Insured unemployment5 (average weekly
volume).___ ________________ _____
Weeks of unemployment com pensated...
Total benefits paid...................................

27

32

27

23
54
230
$7,032

29
61
272
$8,345

27

31

31

28

27

24

61
247
$7,570

61
241
$7,427

53
229
$6,966

48
175
$5,297

41
160
$4,825

40
174
$5,207

52
223
$6,850

49
180
$5,470

45
195
$5,957

45
197
$6,004

12

13

15

12

12

11

12

13

17

14

14

13

12

30
126
$4,205

33
144
$4,799

38
173
$5,730

39
159
$5,265

38
146
$4, 820

33
144
$4,713

31
117
$3,815

28
112
$3,568

27
117
$3,685

5

6

59

6

12

15

21

22

32

28
120
$4,059

30
130
$4,418

1,781

1,804

30
107
$3,546

29
128
$4,383

81

6

61
97
$75.74
$7,434

39
104
$71.08
$7,502

1,826

1,700

1 Data relate to the United States (including Alaska and Hawaii), except
where otherwise indicated.
2 Includes Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands.
• Initial claims are notices filed by workers to indicate they are starting
periods of unemployment. Excludes transitional claims.
4 Includes Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands.
3 Number of workers reporting the completion of at least 1 week of unem­
ployment.
• The rate is the number of insured unemployed expressed as a percent of
the average covered employment in a 12-month period.
t Includes data for the Federal civilian employee program through June
1959.
8 Includes data for the Federal civilian employee program for the period
October 1958-June 1959.
• Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with other programs.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

22

49
210
$6,445

Railroad unemployment insurance:
31
Applications 31.............................................
99
Insured unemployment (average weekly
65
107
volume)........ ...... .................. ...... ...........
152
Number of payments 12_______ ______
227
Average amount of benefit paym ent13—
$80.90 $78. 72
Total benefits paid I4_....... ........................ $18, 532 $12,139
All programs:13
Insured unemployment 3_..........................

30

94
105
93
97
54
69
78
63
45
184
201
223
194
159
190
133
164
104
$72.19 $74. 58 $77. 35 $79.10 $80. 57 $80.82 $80. 61 $83.50 $84.31
$7,909 $10,414 $13,374 $13,754 $16,582 $19,206 $21,693 $25,810 $26,078
1,801

2,078

2,370

2,326

2,359

2,008

1,853

1,479

1,370

Excludes data on claims and payments made jointly with State programs,
ii An application for benefits is filed by a railroad worker at the beginning
of his first period of unemployment in a benefit year; no application is required
for subsequent periods in the same year.
11 Payments are for unemployment in 14-day registration periods.
13 The average amount is an average for all compensable periods, not
adjusted for recovery of overpayments or settlement of underpayments,
u Adjusted for recovery of overpayments and settlement of underpayments,
is Represents an unduplieated count of insured unemployment under the
State, Ex-servicemen and U CFE programs, the Railroad Unemployment
Insurance Act, and the Veterans’ Readjustment Assistance Act of 1952 (not
presented separately in table), which terminated January 31,1960.
S o u r c e : U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Employment Security for
all items except railroad unemployment insurance, which is prepared by the
U.S. Railroad Retirement Board.

1344

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

B.—Labor Turnover
T able B -l.

Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1
[Per 100 employees]
1960

1959

Annual
average

Major industry group
Sept.9 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Accessions: T o ta l9
Manufacturing_______________________

3.5

3.8

2.9

3.9

3.2

2.8

2.7

2.9

3.6

3.8

3.0

3.1

3.9

3.6

Durable goods____________________
Ordnance and accessories__ _____
Lumber and wood products_____
Furniture and fixtures...................
Stone, clay, and glass products__
Primary meta] industries...............
Fabricated metal products............
Machinery (except electrical)........
Electrical machinery___________
Transportation equipment___
Instruments and related products.
Miscellaneous manufacturing____

3.8
2.3
3.9
3.5
2.9

5.1

4.1
2.7
4.4
5.3
3.2
3.0
5. 5
2. 5
3n
6. 3
2. 9
5. 6

2.9
2.2
4.2
3. 5
2.6
2.3
2.9
2.3
2.7
3.1
1.6
4.8

3.8
3.2
8.3
4.0
3.3
2.4
3.9
3.1
3.8
3. 5
3.0
5.2

3.2
2.1
6.9
4.0
2.8
1.8
3.9
2.3
2.8
3.3
2.0
4.9

2.8
1.9
5.6
3.5
2.8
1.6
3.2
1.9
2.1
3.1
1.8
4.8

2.7
2.1
3.7
3.3
2.3
1.7
3.0
2.3
2.5
3.1
1.7
5.1

2.9
2.2
3.5
3.3
2.5
2.2
3.6
2.6
2.7
3.3
2.2
4.2

3.8
2.4
3.6
3.9
2.6
2.7
5.0
3.3
3.1
5.2
1.9
5.8

4.7
2.2
2.4
2.9
1.9
2.7
6.3
3.1
2.9
11.8
1.4
2.6

3.2
2.8
3.1
3.0
2.8
2.2
5.8
2.7
3.1
3.3
2.2
2.8

3.1
2.7
3.6
3.8
2.5
2.2
3.2
2.4
3.3
3.6
2. 5
4.7

4.1
2.9
4. 5
4.8
2.7
2.8
4.6
3.1
4.6
4. 8
3.1
6.3

3. 8
2. 8
4.7
40
3.1
2.9
4. 4
3. 2
3. 6
45
2 5
4.8

2.9
3.9
1.9
2.7

3.3
4. 0
2. 6
3. 5

2.9
3.9
1.6
2.9

4.1
5.4
1.7
3.5

3.3
4.6
2.5
3.3

2.8
4.4
1.3
2.8

2.6
3.1
1.4
3.1

2.8
3.3
1.4
3.0

3.1
3.9
1.4
3.2

2.1
2.7
.6
2.1

2.6
3.8
1.1
2.5

2.9
3.9
1.9
3.0

3.5
4. 5
2. 5
3.5

3.1
4.1
18
3.2

3.6
2.7
1.7

3.8
2.4
1.6
.8
1.9
4.0

4.2
4.0
3.3
1.8
3.1
6.1

4.0
2.5
1.7
1.2
2.7
5.1

3.4
2.2
1.4
.7
1.7
3.0

3.4
2.1
1.6
.8
1.5
3.1

4.0
2.2
1.7
.6
2.3
3.3

4.4
2.3
1.6
.6
2.7
4.2

2.2
1.7
1.2
.4
2.0
3.6

3.1
1.8
1.3
.5
1, 8
4.7

4.1
2.2
1.6
2.4
3.5

5. 0
3.0
1.8
1. 0
3.2
4.0

4^2
2. 6
1. 8
10
2. 7
4.1

3.3

2.8
1.5
1.0

4.0
1.8
.9

3.6
1.0
1.0

6.0
1.1
1.2

3.9
1.0
.9

2.4
.7
1.3

3.6
1.8
1.7

2.9
.9
4.1

2.1
1.8
8.8

2.7
2.4
1.5

1.8
2.1
2.1

2. 7
1. 6
2.3

2.6
1.6
1.2

1.3
13
17
7
17
.9
J5
14
j)
14
13

2.8

3.7
2.3
3.2
7.0

2.2

Nondurable goods *_______________
Food and kindred products_____
Tobacco manufactures____ _____
Textile-mill products___ ______ I
Apparel and other finished textile
products_______ ____________
Paper and allied products_______
Chemicals and allied products___
Products of petroleum and c o al...
Rubber products______________
Leather and leather products____

2.9
3.8

4.2
2.4
1. 8
1.1
3.6
4.2

Nonmanufacturing:
Metal mining_________________
Anthracite mining____________”,
Bituminous coal mining________

2.5
1.5
2.3

2.7
2. 4
2. 7

.8

3.0
3.2

2.8
4.1
3.4

2.9

2.8
3.6

2.5

2.8
4.0
1.8
4.0

2.7

3.5

1.6

3.0
3.4

2.1
1.3

.7

2 .6

Accessions: New hires
Manufacturing.......... ................ .................. .

1.8

1.9

1.7

2.3

1.7

1.4

1.5

1.7

1.9

1.3

1.5

2.0

2.6

2.0

Durable goods____________________
Ordnance and accessories................
Lumber and wood products_____
Furniture and fixtures.....................
Stone, clay, and glass products.......
Primary metal industries_______
Fabricated metal products.............
Machinery (except electrical)..........
Electrical machinery____________
Transportation equipment............
Instruments and related products..
Miscellaneous manufacturing.........

1.7
1.0
3.4
2. 7
1.0
.5
1. 9
1. 2
1. 9
1. 8
1. 5
3. 4

1.8
1.7
3.6
4. 4
1. 4
.6
2.0
1. 3
1. 8
1. 6
1. 7
4.2

1.5
1.6
3.8
2.7
1.3
.4
1.4
1.1
1.4
1.1
1.2
3.2

2.1
1.6
6.3
2.7
2.1
.7
2.0
1.7
2.1
1.4
2.3
3.5

1.6
1.4
5.5
2.6
1.5
.5
1.7
1.2
1.3
1.2
1.3
2.6

1.4
1.2
3.7
2.1
1.2
.6
1.4
1.1
1.0
1.1
1.4
2.3

1.4
1.5
2.6
2.3
1.2
.8
1.5
1.4
1.4
.9
1.2
2.5

1.7
1.6
2.4
2.2
1.3
1.2
2.0
1.6
1.7
1.6
1.6
2.5

1.9
1.5
2.3
2.4
1.2
1.4
2.4
1.8
1.8
2.0
1.3
2.8

1.3
1.5
1.7
1.5
.8
1.0
1.8
1.1
1.4
1.5
1.1
1.4

1.4
2. 1
2.3
2.0
1.0
.9
1.4
1.3
1.8
.9
1.5
1.9

2.0
2.1
2.9
3.0
2.0
1.2
1.8
1.6
2.5
1. 6
2.0
3.5

2. 6
2. 2
4.1
4. 0
1.8
1. 6
2.7
2.0
3.3
1. 8
2. 6
4.9

2. 0
19
37
28
1.8
1. 5
2.1
18
2. 2
15
19
3.0

1.9

Nondurable goods <________________
Food and kindred p ro d u cts!...” ”
Tobacco manufactures.....................
Textile-mill products..................... .
Apparel and other finished textile
products............ ...... .....................
Paper and allied products________
Chemicals and allied products........
Products of petroleum and coal___
Rubber products___ ___________
Leather and leather products____

1.9
2. 3
1.3
1. 6

2.1
2.3
1.2
2.2

1.9
2.3
.7
1.9

2.7
3.1
1.0
2.4

1.9
2.2
1.3
2.0

1.6
1.7
.6
1.7

1.5
1.4
.5
1.7

1.7
1.5
.7
1.8

1.7
1.6
.7
1.7

1.2
1.1
.3
1.2

1.5
1.9
.7
1.5

2.0
2.3
1.2
2.0

2. 5
2.6
1.8
2.6

20
2. 0
11
2.1

13
Iff
jf
1.5

2.7
1. 9
1. 3
.6
1. 3
2. 6

3.2
1. 7
1.2
.6
1. 4
2.8

2.9
1.7
1.2
.6
.8
2.9

2.9
3.0
2.6
1.3
1.2
4.0

2.8
1.8
1.2
.8
.7
2.6

2.6
1.5
1.0
.5
.5
1.6

2.6
1.3
1.1
.4
.6
1.6

2.7
1.5
1.2
.3
1.3
1.7

2.9
1. 5
1.0
.2
1.6
2.5

1.5
1.0
.7
.2
.9
1.9

2.3
1.3
.9
.3
1.0
2.0

3.0
1.8
1.3
.6
1. 7
2.1

3.9
2.4
1. 4
.7
2 5
2.6

3.0
1. 9
1. 3
.6
17
2.6

Nonmanufacturing:
Metal mining__________________
Anthracite mining_________ III!!
Bituminous coal mining_________

18
13
is
-3
-8
1.7

1.8
•3
1.0

1.2
.9
.5

1.7
.2
.4

2.6
<5
.5

2.2
.1
.5

2.4
.1
.4

1.7
.2
.3

1.1
.2
.5

1.6
.3
.4

1.1
.5
.3

1.1
1.2
.5

1. 5
1.0
.6

1.3
.1
.5

1. 4
.3
.4

7
J
.3

See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1345

B.—LABOR TURNOVER
T a b l e B -l. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group 1—Continued
[Per 100 employees]

Annual
average

1959

1960
Major Industry group
S ept.* Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Separations: Total*
Manufacturing...............................................

4.2

4.3

3.6

3.3

3.3

3.6

3.7

3.0

2.9

3.1

4.1

4.7

4.3

3.4

3.6

Durable goods..........................................
Ordnance and accessories------ -----Lumber and wood products............
Furniture and fixtures......................
Stone, clay, and glass products----Primary metal Industries................
Fabricated metal products_______
Machinery (except electrical) - ........
Electrical machinery............ ...........
Transportation equipment..............
Instruments and related products..
Miscellaneous manufacturing.........

4.3
3.2
6.0
4.6
4.5
4.2
4.9
4.0
3.7
3.9
3.4
4.4

4.6
2.2
5.7
4.1
3.6
4.5
5.0
3.8
2.9
7.4
2.8
5.0

40
2.5
4.6
3.7
3.2
4.4
4.9
3.0
2.6
6.1
2.2
3.6

3.7
2.8
4.2
3.3
3.5
4.4
4.0
3.3
3.1
4.2
2.2
4.0

3.5
2.2
3.9
3.5
2.8
4.4
3.4
3.1
3.1
3.8
2.3
3.9

3.9
3.1
4.9
4.2
3.1
3.6
4.4
3.2
3.7
4.8
2.1
4.9

4.1
2.2
5.3
3.6
3.6
3.5
5.1
2.9
4.0
5.4
1.9
4.3

3.1
1.7
3.4
3.8
2.6
2.2
3.9
2.4
3.1
3.9
2.1
3.9

2.8
2.1
3.9
3.9
2.8
1.8
3.1
2.2
3.0
3.0
1.8
4.3

3.1
1.4
4.6
3.1
2.9
2.0
3.0
2.2
2.7
3.8
2.0
7.9

4.5
1.7
5.1
3.5
2.7
2.5
5.6
3.0
2.8
9.5
2.1
6.6

5.3
2.3
5.0
4.8
3.4
3.3
9.1
3.7
3.4
8.9
2.9
5.1

4.4
3.3
5.9
5.5
4.5
3.5
4.8
3.7
3.7
5.0
3.1
5.6

3.5
2.3
4.6
3.7
2.8
2.3
4.3
2.7
2.8
5.2
2.1
4.7

3.9
2.9
4.2
3.7
3.5
3.3
4.3
3.3
3.1
5.1
2.4
4.7

Nondurable goods 4------------------------Food and kindred products,........ .
Tobacco manufactures__________
Textile-mill products.......................
Apparel and other finished textile
products.,......................................
Paper and allied products................
Chemical and allied products------Products of petroleum and coal----Rubber products...............................
Leather and leather products.........

4.0
4.4
1.8
4.4

3.6
4. 5
2.3
4.0

3.0
3.6
2.1
3.4

2.6
3.1
1.6
2.8

2.9
3.7
1.5
2.9

3.1
3.6
1.7
3.5

3.0
4.1
2.0
2.9

2.8
3.8
1.9
3.0

3.0
4.1
2.7
3.1

2.9
4.1
1.9
3.3

3.2
4.4
1.3
3.3

3.5
4.9
1.7
4.0

4.1
5.3
2.1
4.1

3.0
4.0
1.9
3.3

3.0
3.8
2.1
3.4

4.3
4.2
2.9
2.6
3.8
4.7

4.4
2.9
2.0
1.4
3.1
4.8

4.2
2.3
1.4
1.6
2.3
3.4

3.0
2.3
1.4
1.1
2.6
3.3

4.0
2.3
1.3
.9
2.7
4.2

4.0
2.2
1.5
1.1
3.8
4.6

3.6
2.4
1.4
.9
4.1
4.8

3.3
2.3
1.2
.7
2.8
4.2

4.0
2.6
1.6
1.0
2.4
3.7

3.3
2.4
1.5

4.0
2.8
1.7
2.7
5.2

4.8
4.1
2.7
1.7
3.0
5.2

3.8
2.6
1.6

2.7
3.3

3.8
2.6
1.6
1.3
3.6
3.8

2.5
3.9

3.8
2.4
1.8
1.3
2.7
3.7

4.1
2.9
3.2

3.7
1.8
3.3

3.3
7.7
10.0

3.2
3.8
3.1

2.7
3.1
4.0

2.6
3.2
3.8

3.1
1.1.
1.9

1.7
1.3
1.3

2.2
2.2
1.5

2.2
.7
1.7

2.2
2.5
2.1

1.8
1.3
1.4

4.3
1.7
1.8

2.6
2.9
3.6

3.9
4.3
2.5

Nonmanufacturing:
Metal mining............................ ......
Anthracite mining...........................
Bituminous coal mining--------------

1.0

11

1. 1

Separations: Quits
Manufacturing...............................................

1.8

1.5

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.0

1.0

1.0

0.9

1.0

1.4

2.2

1.3

0.9

Durable foods_____________________
Ordnance and accessories------------Lumber and wood products---------Furniture and fixtures----------------Stone, clay, and glass products-----Primary metal industries------------Fabricated metal products----------Machinery (except electrical)...........
Electrical machinery.........................
Transportation equipment_______
Instruments and related products..
Miscellaneous manufacturing..........

1.6
1.2
3.7
2.4
1. 5
.7
1.7
1.3
1.7
1.2
1.6
2.4

1.3
1.1
3.1
2.3
1.1
.5
1.2
.9
1.2
.9
1.2
2.4

1.0

1.0
.8
2.2
1.7
.8
.5

1.0
1.0

1.0

1.0

.9
.7
1.8
1.3
.7
.8
.8
.7

1.0

1. 1

.8
.9
1.4

.9
.9
1.4
1.5
.7
.6
1.0
.7
1.1
.8
.8
1.5

.8
.7
1.4
1.0
.5
.7
.7
.6

.8
.8
1.5

.9
1.0
.8
.9
1.6

.9
.8
1.5
1.4
.7
.5
.9
.7

.7
.7
1.1

.7
.8
1.5

.7
1.1
.9
1.4
1.0
1.4
2.4

2.1
1.9
4.3
2.9
1.8
1.3
1.9
1.6
2.3
1.5
2.0
3.5

1.2

2.3
1.9
.7
.5

.9
.8
1.8
1.4
.7
.5
.9
.8
1.1
.7
.8
1.5

1.3

.9
2.4
1.6
.8
.4
.8
.7
.9
.8
.8
1.8

1.0
.8
2.4
1.5
.8
.5
.9
.8
1.0
.9
.9
1.6

2.3
1.7
.9
.7
1.1
.9
1.3
1.0

.8
.8
1.7
1.1
.7
.4
.8
.6
.9
.8
.7
1.2

1.4
1.1
1.2
1.7

1.3
1.1
.9
1.6

1.3
1.0
.9
1.7

1.2
.9
.8
1.4

1.1
1.0
.9
1.3

1.2
1.0
1.2
1.4

1.0

.8
.7
1.1

1.2
1.0

2.2

1.8
1.6
1.2
2.1

1.3
1.1
1.0
1.6

.8
1.4

1.5
1.4
1.2
1.8

2.5
2.3
1.5
2.6

1.4
1.2
1.1
1.6

.9
.9
1.2

3.0
2.5
1.7
1.0
1.2
3.0

3.2
1.5
1.0
.6
.9
3.0

2.8
.9
.6
.3
.7
2.2

2.1
1.0
.6
.3
.8
2.2

2.6
1.0
.6
.3
.8
2.0

2.4
.9
.6
.3
.7
1.9

2.3
.8
.5
.3
.7
1.6

2.2
.8
.5
.2
.8
1.7

2.3
.9
.6
.3
.8
1.8

1.8
.7
.4
.2
.7
1.4

2.2
.9
.5
.3
.7
1.7

2.8
1.2
.7
.4
1.0
2.0

3.6
2.7
1.7
1.0
1.6
3.0

2.5
1.2
.7
.4
.9
2.1

1.7
.8
.5
.3
.6
1.5

1.9
.4
1.2

1.6
.2
.3

1.6
.1
.4

1.2
.5
.2

1.6
.7
.3

1.7
.3
.3

2.1
.3
.2

.9
.2
.2

.9
(')
.3

1.0

.9
.2
.4

1.0

2.2
.5
.6

1.4
.3
.3

1.2
.5
.3

Nondurable goods ‘________________
Food and kindred products--------Tobacco m anufactures...................
Textile-mill products....... ................
Apparel and other finished textile
products____________________
Paper and allied products................
Chemicals and allied products-----Products of petroleum and coal___
Rubber products.............................
Leather and leather products------Nonmanufacturing:
Metal mining--------------------------Anthracite m ining.......... ............
Bituminous coal mining..................
See footnotes at end of table.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.2
2.0
1.1

.8

1.0

1.0

.2
.3

1.0

2.4
2.0

1.0

.4
.5

1. 1

1.0

1.8

1.0

1346

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T a b l e B -l. Labor turnover rates, by major industry group1—Continued
[Per 100 employees]
1960

1959

Annual
average

Major industry group
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Separations: Layoffs
Manufacturing_______________________

1.8

2.2

2.0

1.7

1.6

2.0

2.2

1.5

1.3

1.7

2.6

2.8

1.5

1.6

2.3

Durable goods...................................... .
Ordnance and accessories ............
Lumber and wood products______
Furniture and fixtures....................
Stone, clay, and glass products___
Primary metal industries________
Fabricated metal products........... .
Machinery (except electrical)____
Electrical machinery____________
Transportation equipm ent........... .
Instruments and related products..
Miscellaneous manufacturing.........

2.0
1.5
1.7
1.4
2.5
3.0
2.7
2.2
1.1
2.1
1.4
1.3

2.7
.7
1.9
1.2
1.8
3.5
3.2
2.4
1.1
5.8
1.1
1.7

2.5
1.3
1.5
1.5
1.9
3.4
3.5
1.8
1.1
4.7
1.0
1.2

2.1
1.5
1.2
1.2
2.2
3.4
2.5
1.9
1.4
2.7
.8
1.6

1.9
1.1
1.1
1.1
1.5
3.4
1.8
1.8
1.4
2.4
1.0
1.7

2.3
1.7
1.9
1.7
1.8
2.5
2.9
1.8
1.9
3.4
.8
2.7

2.6
1.0
2.8
1.7
2.4
2.4
3.7
1.6
2.3
4.0
.7
2.2

1.6
.5
1.5
1.9
1.4
1.2
2.4
1.1
1.3
2.4
.8
1.9

1.3
.7
1.9
1.9
1.5
.8
1.6
1.0
1.1
1.7
.7
2.2

1.8
.4
2.7
1.6
2.1
.9
1.8
1.1
1.1
2.5
.9
6.4

3.1
.7
2.7
1.7
1.6
1.3
4.3
1.9
1.0
8.2
.9
4.7

3.5
.8
1.9
2.1
1.9
2.1
7.3
2.2
1.3
7.3
1.0
2.0

1.6
.6
1.0
1.8
2.1
1.6
2.2
1.5
.6
2.6
.6
1.3

1.8
.7
1.7
1.4
1.4
1.0
2.7
1.2
.9
3.6
.6
2.3

2.6
1.8
2.1
2.2
2.5
2.6
3.1
2.4
1.8
3.8
1.3
3.1

Nondurable goods 4......................... ......
Food and kindred products............
Tobacco manufactures................... .
Textile-mill products__ : ........ ........
Apparel and other finished textile
products................ .........................
Paper and allied products................
Chemicals and allied products........
Products of petroleum and coal___
Rubber products............................
Leather and leather products ........

1.3
1.9
.4
1.6

1.2
2.4
.6
1.4

1.1
2.0
.7
1.2

.8
1.6
.2
.8

1.1
2.1
.4
.9

1.4
2.1
.5
1.4

1.4
2.7
.8
1.0

1.2
2.3
.7
1.3

1.3
2.6
1.2
1.2

1.6
3.0
.9
1.7

1.6
3.0
.3
1.5

1.5
3.0
.1
1.6

1.1
2.4
.2
1.0

1.2
2.4
.5
1.2

1.7
2.5
.9
1.8

.9
1.1
.8
1.1
2.0
1.3

.8
.8
.5
.5
1.7
1.1

.8
.8
.4
.8
1.2
.7

.6
.7
.4
.4
1.3
.7

1.0
.8
.4
.3
1.5
1.6

1.1
.8
.6
.5
2.7
2.1

.9
1.0
5
.3
29
2.6

.7
1.0
.4
.2
1.6
1.7

1.2
1.2
.6
.5
1.1
1.2

1.1
1.2
.7
.4
1.7
1.3

1.1
1.2
.8
.7
2.5
1.4

.6
1.1
.6
.5
1.2
2.6

.8
.6
.5
.3
.9
1.5

.9
.9
.5
.4
1.1
1.2

1.8
1.3
1.0
.6
1.8
1.8

N onmanufacturing:
Metal mining....................................
Anthracite mining.......................... .
Bituminous coal mining. ..............

1.2
1.3
1.5

1.0
.6
2.6

1.1
6.1
8.7

.3
1.9
2.6

.2
1.6
3.5

.2
1.8
3.1

.5
.2
1.4

.3
.6
.8

.7
.8
.9

.4
«
1.1

.9
1.8
1.5

.3
.3
.7

1.6
.3
.8

.6
1.7
3.1

2.2
3.7
2.0

J Month-to-month changes In total employment In manufacturing and
nonmanufacturing industries as indicated by labor turnover rates are not
comparable with the changes shown by the Bureau’s employment series for
the following reasons:
(1) The labor turnover series measures changes during the calendar
month, while the employment series measures changes from midmonth to
midmonth;
(2) Industry coverage is not identical, as the printing and publishing
Industry and some seasonal industries are excluded from turnover;
(3) Turnover rates tend to be understated because small firms are not as
prominent in the turnover sample as in the employment sample; and
(4) Reports from plants affected by work stoppages are excluded from the


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

turnover series, but the employment series reflects the influence of such
stoppages.
2 Preliminary.
2 Beginning with January 1959, transfers between establishments of the
same firm are included in total accessions and total separations; therefore,
rates for these items are not strictly comparable with prior data. Transfers
comprise part of other accessions and other separations, the rates for which
are not shown separately.
4 Excludes the printing, publishing, and allied industries group, and the
following industries: Canning and preserving; women’s, misses’, and chil­
dren’s outerwear; and fertilizer.
* Less than 0.05.

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS

1347

C.—Earnings and Hours
T a b l e C - l . Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 b y ind u stry
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Mining.................................. .........................
M etal_____________ ________ _____
Iron_____________________ _____
Copper........... .............................. —
Lead and zinc---------- ---------------Anthracite________________________
Bituminous coal................ ......................
Crude-petroleum and natural-gas productlon:
Petroleum and natural-gas productlon (except contract services)__
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying----Contract construction
-------- -------------Nonbuilding construction----------------Highway and street construction...
Other nonbuilding construction---Building construction................. ...........
General contractors_______ ____
Special-trade contractors......... ........
Plumbing and heating..............
Painting and decorating______
Electrical work-------------------Other special-trade contractors.

$107.47 $108.67 $111.22 $110.83 $110.70 $111.38 $110.98 $108.13 $111.11 $114.51 $109.89 $108.92 $107.45 $107.73 $100.10
112.98 111.49 111. 37 110.27 114.01 113. 58 111. 30 107.71 113.05 111.41 108.84 99.38 99.29 103. 31 96.22
117.42 113.88 117.67 110.98 120. 22 120.80 115.66 115.95 122.40 118.98 119.00 86.34 90.19 107. 34 100.27
115. 81 116. 24 112.14 115.46 115. 54 114. 66 114.66 103.94 111. 87 110.32 105. 64 110. 53 99. 46 106.17 94.62
86. 48 88.62 91.66 95.04 94.58 93.71 92.52 92.62 94.71 94.58 93.20 92.39 94.85 90.63 85.93
84.39 94.26 93.50 93.23 82.29 80.88 99.91 76.16 88.09 94 .7 3 9 3 .84 8 2 .80 88 .3 6 8 4 .9 8 76.01
108. 56 114.10

116. 85

121.60

121. 69 119.03

122. 30 127.26

112. 44 116.16
102.60

113.52
101.70

116.03
9 8 .78

115.18
98.55

113.52
92.89

124.31
126.90
124.26
129.97
123.68
113.52
128.82
135. 58
119. 65
151. 32
124. 55

121.18
121.06
117.43
125.15
121.24
111. 13
126.69
134.87
118.62
149. 38
121. 41

119.56
118.03
111. 90
123.86
119.91
. 26
124.93
132.68
116. 60
148. 23
119.70

119.19
117.96
112.36
123. 51
119.19
109.50
124.57
131.98
115.58
147.07
118.99

115.50
116.91
105. 69
124.26
115.60
104.83
120.74
130. 27
113.91
146. 69
112.83

101.00 102.37
123.09
125. 70
124. 26
127. 84
122. 74
111. 74
128.50
134. 95
120. 38
151. 71
122. 84

123.61
124. 91
122.36
127.80
123.68
113. 77
128. 83
135.20
120. 70
150. 93
124.21

110

121.97

127.32

112.12 116.72
9 1 .46

9 2 .3 8

135. 38 118.14

113.81
9 6 .13

113. 75 113. 72 117.81
113.47
103.88
117. 56 115. 50 120.87
114.22 114.87 119.13
104. 31 104.88 108.78
119.71 119. 72 124.53
128. 43 129.83 133. 32
. 22 111. 89 115. 87
144. 77 146.30 148.19
112. 53 111.54 118. 27

111. 16 108.00
101.01 96.75
110

123.55

115.81

118. 30 102.38

117. 83 113.12
9 5 .90
9 7 .90

116.72
99.01

114.93
9 5 .48

109. 75
8 9 .6 3

113.88
110.87
104.80
116. 74
114.14
103.93
120.04
129.08
113 86
142.51
113.23

117. 66
117. 74
113.03
123.01
117. 72
109.85
122. 38
130.79
115.17
144. 38
116. 49

115. 66
112. 58
109. 62
116.35
116. 71
107.87
121. 70
126. 29
116 47
138.75
117. 51

114.82
113.24
108.09
118.40
115.28
106. 39
120. 27
128. 56
113 40
142! 08
113.80

110.47
109.47
104.14
114. 26
110. 67
102. 53
115. 28
123.23
107 95
135.97
109.31

Average weekly hours
Mining.. ------------------------------ ----------Metal--------- --------------- ------- -------- Iron---------------------------------------Copper______________ _________
Lead and zinc..... .................. ...........
Anthracite_________ ________ - ..........
Bituminous coal................... ............ .
Crude-petroleum and natural-gas production:
Petroleum and natural-gas production (except contract services) —
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying-----

40.1
4 2 .0
41 .2
4 3 .7
3 7 .6
3 0 .8
3 3 .2

4 0 .7
4 1 .6
40.1
4 3 .7
3 8 .7
3 4 .4
35 .0

4 1 .5
41 .4
41 .0
4 2 .0
4 0 .2
3 4 .0
3 7 .3

4 1 .2
4 1 .3
3 8 .4
4 3 .9
4 1 .5
3 3 .9
37.1

4 1 .0
4 2 .7
41 .6
44 .1
4 1 .3
2 9 .6
3 6 .4

41 .1
42 .7
41 .8
44.1
41 .1
2 9 .2
3 7 .4

4 0 .8
42 .0
4 0 .3
44.1
4 0 .4
3 6 .2
3 8 .8

3 9 .9
4 0 .8
4 0 .4
4 0 .6
4 0 .8
2 7 .2
3 7 .3

4 0 .7
4 2 .5
4 2 .5
4 3 .7
4 1 .0
3 1 .8
3 8 .7

42.1
4 2 .2
4 1 .6
4 5 .4
4 1 .3
3 4 .2
4 0 .9

4 0 .7
4 1 .7
4 1 .9
4 4 .2
4 0 .7
34 .0
3 5 .8

41 .1
4 0 .4
3 0 .4
4 5 .3
4 0 .7
3 0 .0
3 7 .9

4 0 .7
4 0 .2
31 .1
41 .1
4 1 .6
3 1 .9
3 5 .2

4 0 .5
4 0 .2
37 .4
42 .3
4 0 .1
3 0 .9
3 6 .4

3 9 .1
3 8 .8
3 6 .2
39 .1
3 9 .6
2 8 .9
3 3 .9

41 .0
4 4 .3

4 0 .3
44 .9

4 0 .9
45 .0

4 0 .4
4 5 .2

4 1 .0
4 3 .9

4 0 .7
4 3 .8

4 0 .4
4 1 .1

3 9 .9
4 1 .2

41.1
4 1 .8

4 0 .5
4 3 .3

4 1 .2
4 3 .2

4 0 .4
4 4 .3

4 1 .1
4 4 .6

4 0 .9
4 3 .8

4 0 .8
4 3 .3

Contract construction-------------- ------- ----Nonbuilding construction----------------Highway and street construction...
Other nonbuilding construction---Building construction---------------------General contractors.............. ...........
Special-trade contractors------------Plumbing and heating..............
Painting and decorating...........
Electrical work-------------------Other special-trade contractors.

3 7 .3
41 .9
4 3 .6
4 0 .2
36.1
3 5 .7
3 6 .3
3 7 .8
3 5 .2
3 8 .9
3 5 .4

3 7 .9
4 2 .3
4 3 .6
4 1 .0
3 6 .7
3 6 .5
3 6 .7
3 8 .3
3 5 .4
3 8 .9
36 .1

3 7 .8
4 2 .2
43 .7
4 0 .7
3 6 .7
3 6 .7
3 6 .6
3 8 .3
3 5 .5
3 8 .7
35 .9

3 7 .4
4 1 .6
4 2 .7
4 0 .5
3 6 .3
3 6 .2
3 6 .3
38.1
35 .2
3 8 .7
3 5 .5

3 6 .9
4 0 .7
4 1 .6
3 9 .7
3 5 .9
3 5 .8
3 5 .9
3 7 .8
3 4 .6
3 8 .5
3 5 .0

36 .9
41 .1
4 2 .4
40 .1
3 5 .9
3 5 .9
3 5 .9
3 7 .6
3 4 .4
3 8 .3
3 5 .1

35 .0
39.1
3 9 .0
3 9 .2
3 4 .2
3 3 .6
3 4 .4
3 6 .8
3 3 .8
38 .1
3 2 .8

3 5 .0
3 8 .2
3 8 .7
37 .8
3 4 .3
3 4 .2
3 4 .4
3 6 .8
3 2 .9
3 7 .8
3 3 .0

35.1
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
3 4 .6
3 4 .5
3 4 .6
3 7 .2
3 3 .4
3 8 .4
3 3 .0

3 6 .7
3 9 .4
3 9 .2
39 .5
3 6 .1
3 5 .9
3 6 .2
3 8 .2
3 4 .9
39 .1
3 5 .2

3 5 .7
38 .9
3 9 .4
38 .4
3 4 .8
34 .3
35.1
3 7 .2
3 4 .4
3 7 .8
3 3 .9

3 7 .0
4 0 .6
41 .1
4 0 .2
3 6 .0
3 5 .9
36 .1
3 7 .8
3 4 .9
3 8 .5
3 5 .3

3 6 .6
3 9 .5
4 0 .6
3 8 .4
3 5 .8
3 5 .6
3 5 .9
3 6 .5
3 5 .4
3 7 .0
3 5 .5

3 6 .8
4 0 .3
41.1
3 9 .6
3 5 .8
3 5 .7
3 5 .9
3 7 .7
3 5 .0
3 8 .4
3 4 .8

3 6 .7
40 .1
4 1 .0
3 9 .4
3 5 .7
3 5 .6
3 5 .8
3 7 .8
3 4 .6
3 8 .3
3 4 .7

$ 2 .73
. 66

$ 2 .72

2. 56
2.31
2. 77
3 .2 9

2.4 3
2.2 9
2 .7 7
3.31

$2 .7 0
. 61
2 .8 4
2. 39
2 .2 9
2 .7 6
3. 30

$ 2 .6 5
2. 46
2 .8 4
2 .4 4
2. 27
2. 76
3. 26

$2. 64
2 .4 7
2 .9 0
2. 42
2 .2 8
2. 77
3 .2 9

$2. 66
2 .5 7
2 .8 7
2.5 1
. 26
2. 75
3 .2 5

$2. 56
2 .4 8
2 .7 7
2 .4 2
2 .1 7
2. 63
3 .0 2

Average hourly earnings
Mining______________________________
M etal_____________ _____— .............
Copper------------ ---------------------Lead and zinc--------------------------Anthracite............ ....................... ......... Bituminous coal___________________
Crude-petroleum and natural-gas production:
Petroleum and natural-gas production (except contract services) —
Nonmetallic mining and quarrying----Contract construction--------------------- ----Nonbuilding construction----------------Highway and street construction...
Other nonbuilding construction___
Building construction................. ...........
General contractors_____________
Special-trade contractors_________
Plumbing and heating_______
Painting and decorating_____
Electrical work-------------- -----Other special-trade contractors.
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.68
2 .6 9
2. 85
2. 65
2 .3 0
2. 74
3.2 7

$2. 67
. 68
2. 84

2. 29
2. 74
3.2 6

$ 2 .68
2 .6 9
2. 87
2 .6 7
. 28
2. 75
3 .2 6

$2. 69
2. 67
2 .8 9
2.6 3
2. 29
2 .7 5
3 .2 8

2. 85
2 .2 8

2 .7 9
2 .2 8

2. 28

2 .8 4

2. 81

3 .3 0
3. 00
2. 85
3 .1 8
3.4 0
3 .1 3
3. 54
3. 57
3. 42
3 .9 0
3 .4 7

3.2 8
3.0 0
2. 85
3 .1 7
3. 37
3.11
3.51
3. 54
3. 38
3.8 9
3. 45

3. 27
2. 96
2 .8 0
3 .1 4
3. 37
3 .1 0
3 .5 2
3. 53
3 .4 0
3 .9 0
3 .4 6

2

2. 66

2

$ 2 .70
2. 67
2 .8 9
2 .6 2
2 .2 9
2. 78
3. 27

$2.71

2 .8 9
2 .6 0
2 .2 8
2. 77
3 .2 7

$2. 72
2. 65
2. 87
2 .6 0
2.2 9
2. 76
3. 28

2. 83
2 .2 5

2.8 3
2 .2 5

2.8 1
2 .2 6

2. 81 2 .8 4 2.8 1 2.86 2 .8 0
2.22 2.21 2.22 2.22 2. 21

2 .8 4

2. 25

2.22

. 81
2 .1 8

2. 69
2 .0 7

3 .2 4
2 .9 1
2.7 5
3 .0 9
3 .3 4
3.0 7
3. 49
3. 54
3. 37
3 .8 6
3 .4 2

3 .2 4
.9 0
2 .6 9
3 .1 2
3 .3 4
3 .0 8
3 .4 8
3.5 1
3.3 7
3.8 5
3 .4 2

3 .2 3
2. 87
2 .6 5
3 .0 8
3 .3 2
3 .0 5
3. 47
3. 51
3 .3 6
3 .8 4
3. 39

3. 30
2. 99
2.7 1
3 .1 7
3 .3 8
3 .1 2
3.5 1
3 .5 4
3. 37
3 .8 5
3. 44

3. 25
2.9 1
2.61
3.11
3 .3 3
3 .0 5
3. 48
3 .4 9
3. 35
3.8 3
3.4 1

3 .1 6
2 .8 5
2 .7 0
3 .0 3
3 .2 6
3 .0 3
3. 39
3. 46
3 .2 9
3. 75
3. 31

3 .1 2
. 81
2 .6 3
2 .9 9
3. 22
2 .9 8
3. 35
3.4 1
3 .2 4
3 .7 0
3 .2 7

3.0 1
2 .7 3
2. 54
2 .9 0
3 .1 0

2

2.66

$2.71
2. 64
2.8 7
2. 56
2 .2 7
2 .8 0
3 .2 7

2 .6 4
2
2.88 2. 86

3 .2 4

3. 21

2. 58
3 .0 8
3. 32
3 .0 4
3 .4 6
3. 49
3. 35
3. 81
3 .3 8

2. 65
3 .0 6
3 .3 0
3 .0 3
3 .4 4
3 .4 9
3 .3 2
3. 79
3 .3 6

2.88 2.88

2

3 .1 9
2 .8 5

2.66

3 .0 4
3. 28
3 .0 3
3 .4 2
3 .4 7
3.31
3. 77
3. 34

3 .1 8
2 .9 0
2. 75
3 .0 6
3. 27
3 .0 6
3. 39
3 .4 6
3 .3 0
3. 75
3. 30

2

2

2

2.88

3. 22
3. 26
3 .1 2
3. 55
3.15

1348

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Sept.* Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing---------------- ----------------- $90.85 $90.35 $91.14 $91.60 $91.37 $89.60 $90.91 $91.14 $92.29 $92.16 $88.98 $89.06 $89.47 $89.47
Durable goods________ _______ _____ 98.15 97.20 97.76 98. 98 98. 58 97. 36 98. 74 98. 98 100.86 99. 87 95 44 96. 52 96. 70 97.10
Nondurable goods................................... 81.51 81.77 82.37 82.16 81.35 79. 52 79.93 79.95 80.77 81.19 80.39 79. 79 80. 79 79.60

$83.50
90.06
75.27

D u r a b le g o o d s

Ordnance and accessories___________ 108.14 105.60 105.20 107.30 107.79 106. 49 108. 73 107.68 108.21 109.10 106. 97 106. 55 105.22 105.06
Lumber and wood products...................
Sawmills and planing mills.............
Millwork, plywood, and prefabricated structual wood products...
Wooden containers_____________
Miscellaneous wood products.........
Furniture and fixtures_____ ________
Household furniture.........................
Office, public-building, and professional furniture...................... ......
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and
fixtures...................................... .
Screens, blinds, and miscellaneous
furniture and fixtures_________

101. 43

82.76
79.60

81.97
80.00

81.35
79.00

83.84
81.18

81.40
78.94

80.20
77. 95

77.60
75.27

78.01
75. 25

77.03
75.83

80. 40
78.14

80.60
78.18

82.42
79.37

82.62
79. 77

79. 79
77. 74

75.41
73.23

81. 54
58. 67
69.36

84.00
60.74
68.45

82.89
63.14
68.61

83.37
62. 42
70. 55

84.42
62. 47
69.29

82. 97
60.70
68.04

81.95
59.10
68.38

81.95
59.25
66.99

82. 58
59. 50
67.32

83.42
60.09
67.32

83. 82
59. 35
67.08

84.86
61.35
67.40

83. 43
62.06
66.42

84.05
59. 79
66.42

79.38
56.88
63.52

75.74
71.46

75.89
71.23

74.40
69.30

74. 77
69.83

74.19
69.65

73. 82
69.83

72. 73
67.94

74. 56
70. 35

74. 56
70.35

77.33
73.92

75.21
72.21

76. 49
73.85

75. 58
72.04

74. 44
70.93

70.31
66. 76
79. 79

88.58

89.03

88.40

88. 40

87. 54

86. 88

87. 74

86.92

87.97

88.83

82.99

86.11

86.11

85. 49

93.69

97.27

97.68

96. 76

94.60

92.10

93.26

92.80

93.73

96.05

94.66

91.94

93.89

91.66

85.97

76. 81

77.76

76.57

77.36

76.76

72.91

74.80

75.22

74.82

75. 33

73.23

74.93

71.53

73.93

71.56

40.6
41.1
39.8

39.9
40.1
39.6

40.3
40.9
39.5

40.3
40.8
39.8

40.3
40.8
39.6

39.2
39.5
38.8

Average weekly hours
Manufacturing___________ ___ _____
Durable goods_____________________
Nondurable goods_________________

39.5
39.9
39.0

39.8
40.0
39.5

39.8
39.9
39.6

40.0
40.4
39.5

39.9
40.4
39.3

39.3
39.9
38.6

39.7
40.3
38.8

39.8
40.4
39.0

40.3
41.0
39.4

D u r a b le g o o d s

Ordnance and accessories.... ..................

40.5

40.0

40.0

40.8

41.3

40.8

41.5

41.1

41.3

41.8

41.3

41.3

41.1

41.2

40.9

Lumber and wood products___ _____
Sawmills and planing m ills.......... .
Millwork, plvwood, and prefabricated structural wood products..
Wooden containers...........................
Miscellaneous wood products____

39.6
40.2

39.6
40.2

39.3
39.9

40.5
41.0

40.1
40.9

39.9
40.6

38.8
39.0

39.4
39 4

39.3
39.7

40.2
40.7

40.1
40.3

40.8
40.7

40.7
40.7

40.5
40.7

39.9
39.8

39.2
38.1
40.8

40.0
39.7
40.5

39.1
41.0
40.6

39.7
40.8
41.5

40.2
41.1
41.0

39.7
40.2
40.5

39.4
39.4
40.7

39.4
39.5
40.6

39.7
40.2
40.8

40.3
40.6
40.8

40.3
40.1
40.9

40.8
40.9
41.1

40.5
40.3
40.5

41.0
40.4
41.0

40.5
39.5
40.2

40.5
40.6

40.8
40.7

40.0
39.6

40.2
39.9

40.1
39.8

39.9
39.9

39.1
38.6

40.3
40.2

40.3
40.2

41.8
42.0

41.1
41.5

41.8
42.2

41.3
41.4

40.9
41.0

39.5
39.5

41.2

41.8

41.5

41.5

41.1

40.6

41.0

41.0

41.3

41.9

39.9

41.4

41.2

41.1

39.5

39.2

40.7

40.7

41.0

40.6

39.7

40.2

40.0

40.4

41.4

40.8

40.5

41.0.

40.2

38.9

39.8

40.5

40.3

40.5

40.4

39.2

40.0

39.8

39.8

40.5

39.8

40.5

39.3

40.4

40.2

$2. 27
2. 43
2.04

$2.23
2. 38
2.03

$2.21
2. 36
2.02

$2. 22
2. 37
2.03

$2.22
2. 38
2.01

$2.13
2.28
1.94

Furniture and fixtures............................
Household furniture_____ ______
Office, public-building, and professional furniture..............................
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and
fixtures........................... ..............
Screens, blinds, and miscellaneous
furniture and fixtures_________

Average hourly earnings
Manu facturing------------ ----------------------- $2.30
Durable goods____________________
2.46
2.09
Nondurable goods_________________

$2.27
2. 43
2.07

$2.29
2.45
2.08

$2.29
2.45
2.08

$2.29
2.44
2.07

$2.28
2. 24
2.06

$2.29
2. 45
2.06

$2.29
2. 45
2.05

$2.29
2. 46
2.05

D u r a b le g o o d s

Ordnance and accessories____ _______

2. 67

2.64

2.63

2.63

2.61

2.61

2.62

2.62

2.62

2.61

2.59

2. 58

2.56

2.55

2.48

Lumber and wood products_________
Sawmills and planing mills______
Millwork, plywood, and prefabricated structural wood products..
Wooden containers...........................
Miscellaneous wood products.........

2.09
1.98

2.07
1.99

2.07
1.98

2. 07
1. 98

2.03
1.93

2.01
1.92

2.00
1.93

1.98
1.91

1.96
1.91

2.00
1.92

2.01
1.94

2.02
1.95

2.03
1.96

1.97
1.91

1.89
1.84

2.08
1.54
1.70

2.10
1.53
1.69

2.12
1.54
1.69

2.10
1.53
1.70

2.10
1. 52
1.69

2.09
1.51
1.68

2.08
1.50
1.68

2.08
1.50
1.65

2.08
1.48
1.65

2. 07
1.48
1.65

2.08
1.48
1.64

2. 08
1.50
1.64

2. 06
1.54
1.64

2.05
1.48
1.62

1.96
1.44
1.58

1.87
1.76

1.86
1.75

1.86
1.75

1.86
1.75

1.85
1.75

1.85
1.75

1.86
1.76

1.85
1. 75

1.85
1.75

1.85
1. 76

1.83
1.74

1.83
1. 75

1.83
1.74

1.82
1.73

1. 78
1.69

2.15

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.14

2.14

2.12

2.13

2.12

2.08

2.08

2.09

2.08

2.02

2.39

2.39

2.40

2.36

2.33

2.32

2.32

2.32

2.32

2.32

2.32

2.27

2. 29

2.28

2.21

1.93

1.92

1.90

1.91

1.90

1.86

1.87

1.89

1.88

1.86

1.84

1.85

1.82

1.83

1.78

Furniture and fixtures............................
Household furniture____ _______
Office, public-building, and professional furniture..............................
Partitions, shelving, lockers, and
fixtures_____ _______ _____ _
Screens, blinds, and miscellaneous
furniture and fixtures__________
See footnotes at end of table.

E r r a t u m . In the July through November 1960 issues, the 1959 annual averages for the
industries on this page were incorrect as printed. Correct data are in this and the June 1960
issues.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1349

C —EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Sept.* Aug.

July

June

May

Mar.

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Stone, clay, and glass products........... $92.52 $93. 89 $93.02 $93.07
Flat glass........................................... 125. 83 125.42 124.26 125.29
Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown............................................ 91.25 92.86 91.54 92.86
Glass products made of purchased
7 4 .4 8
74.84 73.71
7 7 . 52.
Cement, hydraulic_____________ 105.18 103. 57 106.71 105.63
83.
64
82.22
83.43
81.
80
Structural clay products............... Pottery and related products------- 79.18 83. 28 79.21 82.46
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
products____________________ 94. 83 96. 36 95.26 94.60
Cut-stone and stone products------ 76. 70 78.62 75.89 77.27
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
products......................................... 96.64 98.49 97.20 96. 96
Primary metal industries...................... 106. 78 106.68 108.75 109. 70
Blast furnaces, steel works, and
rolling mills—.............................. - 110. 60 110. 53 113.83 115. 74
Iron and steel foundries................... 95.76 95.98 97.61 97. 61
Prim ary smelting and refining of
nonferrous metals------------------- 111.24 110. 43 109.74 108.24
Secondary smelting and refining
of nonferrous metals..................... 94. 49 94.40 94.00 93.67
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of
nonferrous metals------------------- 110.15 109.89 111.78 110.83
Nonferrous foundries...................... . 101. 30 101. 96 101.81 101.91
Miscellaneous primary metal in­
dustries................. ........................ 108. 74 108. 47 109. 57 109. 85
Stone, clay, and glass products---------Flat glass......................................... .
Glass and glassware, pressed or
blown............................................
Glass products made of purchased
Cement, hydraulic..........................
Structural clay products............... .
Pottery and related products........ .
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
Primary metal industries________
Blast furnaces, steel works, and
rolling mills..................................
Iron and steel foundries_________
Prim ary smelting and refining of
nonferrous metals____________
Secondary smelting and refining
of nonferrous metals___ _______
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of
nonferrous metals____________
Nonferrous foundries___________
Miscellaneous primary metal in­
dustries___ ______________

$92.84 $91.08 $90. 57 $90.85 $91. 30 $92.25 $91.39 $91. 88 $91.43 $90.83
124.97 123. 78 124. 74 123.48 126.80 127. 39 127. 58 130.00 133.34 113.46
84.36

88.13

85.75

74. 56 72.68
99. 96 106.17
80.99 80.80
81.87 80. 35

73.45
98.98
80.39
79.80

71.55
92.92
75.25
73.24

93.72
77.75

91.96
75.44

86.43
73.31

97.44 95.84 98.29 98.29 99.01 98.53 95.24 95.94 96.46 96.93
109. 70 112.29 114.29 115.26 117.96 117.14 107.86 105. 74 106. 40 112. 72
116.21 122.22 122. 89 123.60 128. 54 127. 72 113.10 116.66 118. 73 122. 28
96.61 95.48 99.00 99.25 100.35 99.29 94. 28 96.14 96.14 97.44

87.96
100.97

90.63

70.50
97. 66
79.78
81.79

71.62 70.87 75.14 74.21
98.15 100.04 101.02 103.25
80.19 80.40 82.21 81.61
80.30 80.14 82.60 80.98

92.02
77. 61

87.08
72.20

89.03
75.14


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

88.83
75.48

91.14
76.96

90.93
75.26

88.18

108. 54 106. 53 107. 87 108. 54 109.20 110. 92 109. 45 109.45 107.71 110. 62
101.50 97.32 100.60 101.00 113.16 102.92 100. 61 103. 58 101. 76 100.28
110.12 110.40 115.08 117.88 118. 72 117.32 107.96 108.81 111.11 113. 85
Average weekly hours

100.90
93.06

40.9
39.8

40.3
39.8

39.9
39.6

40.2
39.2

40.4
40.0

41.0
40.7

40.8
40.5

41.2
41.4

40.2

39.8

40.2

40.5

38.9

40.3

40.1

39.8

39.7

39.4

39.2
40.3
41.0
38.2

39.6
41.2
40.5
36.5

39.0
41.1
41.3
38.0

38.6
41.0
41.0
38.0

38.0
40.8
40.7
38.2

37.3
39.7
39.3
38.4

38.3
39.9
39.7
37.7

37.9
40.5
40.0
37.1

40.4
40.9
40.7
38.6

39.9
41.3
40.6
38.2

43 3
40.8

44.0
41.6

44.1
40.8

44.0
41.1

43.4
41.7

42.8
41.5

40.5
38.2

41.8
40.4

42.3
40.8

43.4
41.6

40.1
38.0

40.7
38.1

40.5
38.7

40.4
38.9

40.6
38.9

40.1
39.4

41.3
40.1

41.3
40.3

41.6
41.1

36 5
38.0

36. 6
38.7

37.2
39.2

37.7
39.2

38.1
38.8

39.3
38.5

39.9
39.6

40.0
39.7

41.2
40.3

41.2

40.9

41.1

41.0

41.4

42.2

41.4

40.7

40.5

40.8

40.8

40.4
40.4

40.5
40.4

40.9
41.1

39.5
40 8
40. 3
40.1
37.0

39.7

40.0

40.0

40.2

108.00
85.93
99.05

41.0
39.9

41.0
40.2

94.13
75.99

108.47 112.25 108.05 107.04 108. 62 105.86 108.92 108. 53 111.90 105.93
95.06 94. 77 95.06 94.66 95.76 96.05 96.28 95.68 96.22 94.16

40.8

40 2
40.2

40. 4
40.3

41.4
40.4

41.2
40.6

40.5
40.6

39.9
39.4

39.4

39.3

39.7

39.8

39.9

40.0

88.84

102. 31

41.0
42.6

41.1
41.6

40.0
38.6

39.9

38.0

39.7

39.7

40.3
40.8
40.7
38.8

39.5
41.8
40.4
37.9

39.7
40.9
40.6
38.0

39.1
40.4
39.4
35.9

43.3
40.9

44.0
41.8

44.4
41.3

44.0
41.0

43.0
40.5

41.4
41.1

40.7
38.8

41.0
39.9

41.4
40.0

41.6
40.4

39.8
38.1

41.2
40.2

37.7
38.8

38.0
39.4

38.3
39.4

39.7
40.1

37.5
37.2

41.3

40.1

41.1

40.8

41.6

40.9

40.1

41.1

41.4

41.5

41.6

42.2

41.3

40.2

41.7
41.5

41.3
40.9

41.3
41.6

40.8
41.2

41.9
41.1

40.2
39.6

42.1
41.9
41.8
41.1
Average hourly earnings

39.4

40.3

41.0

41.4

39.2

Stone, clay, and glass products_______ $2 29 $2.29 $2.28 $2.27 $2.27 $2.26 $2.27
3.15
3.11
3.14
3.14
3.12 3.13
3.13
Flat glass.......... ........... ...................
Glass and glassware, pressed or
2.28
2.30
2.30
2.31
2.31
2. 31 2.30
blown______________________
Glass products made of purchased
1.89
1.89
1.89
1.89
i on
1 Q0
1 89
glass................................— .........
2.46
2.48
2 61
2 57 2 59 2. 57 2.54
Cement, hydraulic_____________
2.03
2.04
2.03
2 04 2 04 2 03 2.02
Structural clay products________
2.13
2.14
2.15
2.17
2.17
2.14
2.18
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster
2.15
2.15
2.16
2 IQ
2 IQ
2 16 2.15
products________________
1.89
1.87
1.89
1.88
1.89
1.86
1.88
Cut-stone and stone products
Miscellaneous nonmetallic mineral
2.38
2.39
2.40
2.40
2.42
2.40
2.41
2.85
2.85
2.82
2.82
2.80 2.81
2.81
Primary metal industries........... .........
Blast furnaces, steel works, and
3.08
3.11
3.05
3 02
3.07
3 os
3 06
rolling mills.................................
2.50
2.48
2.49
2.49
2. 48 2.49
2.52
Iron and steel foundries_________
Prim ary smelting and refining of
2.61
2.62 2.66
2.64
2. 70 2.67
nonferrous metals_____________ 2.70
Secondary smelting and refining of
2.33
2.34
2.33
2.33
2.36
2.35
2.38
nonferrous metals____________
Rolling, drawing, and alloying of
2.67
2.67
2.68
2 72
2 70 2.69
? 74
nonferrous metals____________
2.49
2.47
2. 51 2.50
2.53
2.52
2.52
Nonferrous foundries.....................
Miscellaneous primary metal in­
2.80
2. 76
2. 76 2.76
2.76 2.76
2.76
dustries___ ________________
See footnotes at end of table.
5 7 4 9 2 3 — 6 0 --------7

88.65

91.88

93.74
78.81

89.95

88.93

89.47

72.95 71.82
104.14 101.18
83.23 83.03
81.70 81. 75

93.15

40.8
39.7

40.4
40.2

$84.80
113.10

$2.26
3.15

$2.26
3.17

$2.25
3.13

$2.24
3.15

$2.23
3.14

$2.23
3.13

$2.21
3.16

$2.12
2.93

2.26

2.26

2.24

2.25

2.21

2.22

2.22

2.16

1.87
2.46
2.02
2.13

1.87
2.47
2.01
2.16

1.86
2.47
2.02
2.14

1.86
2.50
2.01
2.12

1.85
2.45
1.99
2.11

1.84
2.54
2.00
2.12

1.85
2.42
1.98
2.10

1.83
2.30
1.91
2.04

2.13
1.86

2.10
1.85

2.10
1.85

2.10
1.84

2.13
1.86

2.12
1.84

2.09
1.84

2.01
1.81

2.38
2.86

2.38
2.87

2.38
2.85

2.34
2.78

2.34
2.65

2.33
2.66

2.33
2.79

2.21
2. 65

3.09
2.50

3.12
2.49

3.10
2.47

3.00
2.43

3.07
2.44

3.10
2.44

3.08
2.43

2.88
2.31

2.63

2.63

2.64

2.65

2.66

2.69

2.59

2.47

2.32

2.33

2.32

2.32

2.30

2.28

2.28

2.21

2.68
2.50

2.67
2.51

2.66
2.48

2.65
2.46

2.65
2.49

2.64
2.47

2.64
2.44

2. 51
2.35

2.82

2.82

2.80

2.74

2.70

2. 71

2.75

2. 61

1350

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T a b l e C - l . Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 b y industry— C ontinued

Sept.2 Aug.
Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Fabricated metal products_______
Tin cans and other tinw are............
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware..
Heating apparatus (except electrie) and plumbers’ supplies____
Fabricated structural metal products_________ _________
Metal stamping, coating, and engraving........... ............. .............
Lighting fixtures....... .......................
Fabricated wire products________
Miscellaneous fabricated metal
products.. _______________
Machinery (except electrical)...............
Engines and tu rbines...’..................
Agricultural machinery and tractors_______________ _____
Construction and mining machinery_........................................
Metalworking machinery...... ..........
Special-industry machinery (except metalworking machinery)..
General industrial machinery . .
Office and store machines and devices_________________
Service-industry and household
machines. _______________ _
Miscellaneous machinery parts.......
Fabricated metal products.....................
Tin cans and other tinw are..
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware.
Heating apparatus (except electrie) and plumbers’ supplies____
Fabricated structural metal produ cts..___ ___________
Metal stamping, coating, and engraving___ _____ _______
Lighting fixtures____________
Fabricated wire products______ _
Miscellaneous fabricated metal
products........................................
Machinery (except electrical).
Engines and turbines.......................
Agricultural machinery and tractors_________________
Construction and mining machinery___ _______________
Metalworking machinery________
Special-industry machinery (except metalworking m achinery)..
General industrial machinery____
Office and store machines and devices______________
Service-industry and household
machines_______________
Miscellaneous machinery parts___

Annual
average

1960

Industry
July

June

May

j Apr.

Mar.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
$101.18 $100.45 $99.63 $100.21 $99.96 $96.56 $98.42 $98.42 $100.94
115. 79 119.26 119.94 118.40 116.47 111.66 108. 94 108 40 111.25
94.96 94. 77 93.83 93.60 93.90 90.85 92.63 91.31 98.00
93. 30 93. 38 92. 51 92.98 92.28 89.71 91.42 91.42 91.34
102.42 101. 84 102. 26 102.09 100.86

98.74

98.25

109. 36 107.17 103.97 107.33 108.00 102.21 105. 57
94.25 89.24 87.02 91.08 89.60 86.02 88.44
90.12 89.60 88.75 88.75 89.38 87.91 90.32

$99. 77 $94. 64 $96. 76 $99.66 $97.41
112.10 110.24 108.24 127.32 112.36
96.79 88.91 91.02 93.71 92.25
92.34

90.02

92.63

92.00

91.83

94.62

96.56

97.75

96.72

93. 43

99.14 103.07 106.25 102. 58
84.77 87.72 95.22 87.72
89.95 89.01 88.80 89.60

92.63
80.17
83.74

111. 54 107. 70
88.62 90.72 90.39
90.94 93.56 93.83

41.1
42. 4
41.0

40.0
41.6
39.7

41.4

42.4
40.9
41.7

40.8
39.8
40.7

41.9
40.8
41.4

42.5
42.7
41.3

41.7
40.8
41.1

40.1
39.3
39.5

41.5
41.3
41.7

41.7
41.7
41.2

40.3
40.8
40.5

41.5
41.2
40.5

41.7
41.1
41.0

42.0
41.3
41.2

39.7
39.6
40.1

39.7

38.8

39.5

39.8

40.5

39.5

44.2

oy. o
43.5

40.2
43.4

40.6
43.4

39.6
42.7

40.3
42.6

41.0
42.2

41.2
42.4

39.1
39.6

42.5
40.9

42.2
40.5

42.5
40.9

42.6
42.0

42.3
41.2

42.6
41.2

42.1
40.9

41.9
41.2

39.8
39.6

4U. o

40.5

40.7

40.8

40.4

40.2

40.2

39.7

39.6
40.3
41.5
38.7
40.5
41.0
41.2
41.4? 40.6
Average hourly earnings
$2.42 $2.43 $2.43 $2.45 $2.41 $2.36
2.73
2.71
2.71
2.72
2.65
2.65
2.30
3.31
2.30
2.35
2.31
2.19

40.6
41.4

40.4
41.4

40.5
41.4

39.6
39.8

$2.36
2. 64
2.22

$2.39
2. 78
2. 28

$2.37
2. 65
2.25

$2.27
2.51
2.17
2.22

41.7
40.0
39.9

40.4
39.1
39.6

41.4
40.2
40.5

39.7
40.3
40.0

40.3
40. 5
40.6

40.0
40.9
40.7

40.2
41.2
41.1

40.4
41.3
40.7

39.9
40.8
39.7

41.3
41.2
41.1

40.2

40.2

39.7

40.0

40.2

39.2
40.6

39.7
40.9

40.0
42.4

40.3
43.5

40.5
43.9

40.1
43.3

41. 5
40.7

42.1
40.8

42.3
40.9

42.4
41.4

42.2
41.1

41.7
40.7

40.7

39.7

41.2

40.4

40.5

40.0

39.7
40.0

39.7
40.1

39.6
40.1

40.1
40.5

40.3
40.5

40.0
39.8

Fabricated metal products........... ......... $2. 48
Tin cans and other tinware...........
2.77
Cutlery, handtools, and hardware.. 2.38
Heating apparatus (except electrie) and plumbers’ supplies..
2.38
Fabricated structural metal prodnets..___ _____
2.48
Metal stamping, coating, and engraving................................ ........ 2.61
Lighting fixtures......... ................
2.31
Fabricated wire products________ 2.27
Miscellaneous fabricated metal
products__________
2.39
Machinery (except electrical)................ 2. 58
Engines and tu rb in es..................... 2. 81
Agricultural machinery and tractors_________________________ 2.61
Construction and mining machinery...................... ...................
2. 55
Metalworking m achinery...........
2.70
Special-industry machinery (except metalworking m achinery).. 2.44
General industrial machinery......... 2.53
Office and store machines and devices________________
2.61
Service-industry and household
machines...... ..............................
2.48
Miscellaneous machinery parts___ 2. 54
See footnotes at end of table.

$2. 45
2.78
2.34

$2.46
2.77
2.34

$2.45
2.76
2.34

$2.45
2.76
2.33

2. 37

2.36

2.36

2.36

l
40.6

ah
At

A

41.0
40.3
oo. y

2.33

2.35

2.35

2.46
2. 57
2.22
2.24

2. 58
2. 22
2.23

2.58
2.26
2.23

2.69
2.24
2.24

2.53
2.20
2.22

2.38
2.56
2. 83

2.38
2.57
2.76

2.38
2.57
2.78

2.37
2.57
2.78

2.35
2.55
2.73

2.59

2.56

2.57

2.81

93.30
90.68
92.73

39.6

41.6
40.3
39.8

2.42
2.51

98.89
97.20
101.43

40.1

40.3
39.2
39.8

2.42
2.51

89.55
93.06

40.1

41.7
40.2
40.0

2.42
2. 51

98.05
100.94

40.3

41.9
40. 8
39.7

2.41
2.53

91.89
101.38

40.9

40.3

2.79

95.59

101.35
114.06

40.4

41.0

2.57

104.09

39.1

41.5

2. 55
2.81

88. 53
94.25
102.26

40.4

41.4

2.58

97. 44
103.25
110.42

87.91

40.1

41.4

2.54
2.71

$90.80
104.42
86.15

98. 58

94. 88 95. 91 95. 20 95.68 95.75 93.77 98.29
98.77 98.00 93.09 96.28 96. 74
103 97 103.68 105.11 105. 88 106.14 104.04 105.47 104. 55 105.32 105.92 102.82 103. 82 103.16
112.40 114. 90 112.33 114.26 113.15 108.38 112.20 110.02 113.01 112. 48 110.16 109.76 109.88
104. 92 104.12 102.43 102.80 102.91 102.80
100.75 103.74 102.82 100. 49 102.31 101.89
99 96 100. 84 102.00 102.77 102.47 101.05
100.10 101.09 97.81 99.14
109.35 110. 84 118.30 122.24 123.36 120.37 123. 76 120.50 119.35 118.48 115. 72 115.02 101.27
113.10
101.26 101. 46 102.37 102. 61 102.12 99.66 102.43 101.28 101.58 101.81 100.25 101.39 99.36
102. 97 103.22 102.66 103. 91 103.16 101.34 101.84 100.85 101.84 105.00 102.18 101.76 100. 61
106.23 101.63 105.88 103.42 103.28 101.20
102. 87 102.56 102.41 101.00 100.50
98.46 96.87 96.62 98.65 99.14 98.00 96.62
98.74 102.51 93. 65 98.25 97.36
101. 60 100. 65 100.25 101.25 100.85 98.70 100.85 102.09 102. 59 102. 67 99.88 101.84
102. 67
Average weekly hours
40.8
41.0
40.5
40.9
40.8
39.9
40.5
40.5
41.2
41.4
40.1
41.0
41.7
41.8
42.9
43.3
42.9
42.2
40.9
40.2
40.0
40.9
42.3
41.6
41.0
45.8
39.9
40.5
40.1
40.0
40.3
39.5
40.1
39.7
41.7
41.9
40.6
41.0
41.1
39.2
39.4 39.2
39.4
39.1
38.5
38.9
38.9
39.2
39.8
38.8
40.1
40.0
41.3


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Feb.

2.33

2.32

2.32

2.31

2.30

2.29

2.45

2.44

2.42

2.39

2.39

2.40

2.33

2.54
2.21
2.25

2.43
2.13
2.21

2.46
2.15
2.15

2.50
2.23
2.15

2.46
2.15
2.18

2.31
2.04
2.12

2.35
2.54
2.73

2.31
2.52
2.72

2.32
2.52
2.71

2.32
2.51
2.68

2.32
2.50
2. 68

2.23
2.38
2.55

2.55

2. 56

2.23

2.24

2.60
2.24
2.26

2.56
2.73

2. 55
2. 73

2.38
2.55
2.71

2.59

2.59

2.60

2.59

2.59

2. 59

2.56

2.57

2.42

2.47
2.71

2.46
2. 70

2. 47
2.68

2.46
2.69

2.35
2. 56

2.37
2. 48

2.38
2.47

2.36
2. 46

2.34
2.45

2.25
2.35

2.78

2.80

2. 77

2. 75

2.49
2. 73

2.39
2.49

2.41
2.49

2.40
2.49

2.39
2.49

3.39
2. 50

2.54

2.52

2.51

2. 50

2.50

2.46

2.35

2.44
2.49

2.47
2.49

2.45
2.49

2.47
2. 48

2.42
2. 46

2. 42
2.46

2.41
2.48

2.40
2.45

2.29
2.33

2.56

2. 57

2.56

2.55

2.53

2.44
2.51

2.44
2.50

2.46
2.50

2.46
2.49

2.45
2.48

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS

T able

1351

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

1969

Annual
average

Industry

j

Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Electrical machinery_______________
Electrical generating, transmis­
sion, distribution, and industrial
apparatus___________________
Electrical appliances.......................
Insulated wire and cable_________
Electrical equipment for vehicles...
Electric lamps..................................
Communication equipment-...........
Miscellaneous electrical products...

$93.03 $91. 77 $90.39 $92.23 $91.37 $88.98 $91.43 $90. 97 $92.80 $93.07 $90.72 $91.39 $90.76 $89.91

Transportation equipment.....................
Motor vehicles and equipment.......
Aircraft and parts______________
Ship and boat building and
repairing....... ...............................
Railroad equipm ent.......................
Other transportation equipment...

113.24 108.90 110.15 110.97 111.66 107.59 110.84 111.79 115.92 110.70 104.66 109. 62
117.38 108.64 111.20 112.87 113.85 108.23 113.83 116.62 124.11 113. 29 102.38 113.03
110.84 110. 84 110.97 110.57 110. 29 107.07 109.34 108.81 108. 40 109.88 108.00 108.26
103.88 108.23 106.90 105.60 105.46 103. 49 103. 62 102.31 101.92 102. 44 101.26 99.20
107.34 107. 24 107.90 110. 65 111.39 110. 26 112.18 102.11 110.15 109.69 102.65 103. 47
86.97 83.63 84.80 86.36 86.63 84.58 84.10 87.42 87.07 89.82 86.41 91.17

96.80
90.09
87. 51
102. 77
86.08
90.27
90.00

96.80
90.00
88.20
95.59
87.47
88.80
89.82

96.80
90.62
88.40
98.21
85.25
85.69
89.15

96.88 96. 24 94.25
91.25 91.80 89.17
89. 68 88. 62 84.66
97. 32 98.55 95.40
86.75 87.30 86.41
89. 24 87.34 85.19
88.43 89. 65 89.20

96.15
91.10
89.46
96.53
88.36
88.18
89. 60

95.84 96.87 97.88
91.80 91.01 91.03
89. 24 88.39 88.15
98. 65 104. 25 101.52
87. 42 89.91 91.24
87.34 89.10 88. 73
88.65 91.13 93.18

95.18
89.55
85.70
91.54
92.77
88.32
90. 42

94.30 94.13
91. 48 89.67
85.08 86.30
94.08 96.80
93.21 89.19
88.99 88.15
90.67 89.40

$85.14

94.19
89.27
87.15
96.56
88.13
86.86
88.94

89.72
85. 36
80.11
89. 47
80.57
81.97
85.03

108.40 107.73
111. 48 110.16
107.06 106.63

100. 69
99.96
101.91

99.84 101.40
106.70 107.41
89. 98 89.13

98.00
100. 70
82.74

Average weekly hours
Electrical machinery..............................
Electrical generating, transmis­
sion, distribution, and industrial
apparatus................... ...................
Electrical appliances____________
Insulated wire and cable.................
Electrical equipment for vehicles...
Electric lamps_________________
Communication equipment............
Miscellaneous electrical products...
Transportation equipment....................
Motor vehicles and equipment___
Aircraft and parts........ ...................
Ship and boat building and
repairing...................... ........ ..........
Railroad equipment...... ..................
Other transportation equipment-..

40.1

39.9

39.3

40.1

39.9

39.2

40.1

39.9

40.7

41.0

40.5

40.8

40.7

40.5

39.6

40.0
39.0
40.7
40.3
38.6
40.3
40.0

40.0
39.3
41.8
38.7
39.4
40.0
40.1

40.0
39.4
41.6
39.6
38.4
38.6
39.8

40.2
39.5
42.3
39.4
38.9
40.2
39.3

40.1
39.4
42.2
39.9
39.5
39.7
40.2

39.6
38.6
40.9
39.1
39.1
38.9
40.0

40.4
39.1
42.6
39.4
39.8
39.9
40.0

40.1
39.4
42.7
40.1
39.2
39.7
39.4

40.7
39.4
42.7
41.7
40.5
40.5
40.5

41.3
40.1
43.0
41.1
41.1
40.7
41.6

40.5
39.8
41.4
38.3
41.6
40.7
41.1

40.3
40.3
41.1
39.2
41.8
41.2
41.4

40.4
39.5
40.9
40.0
41.1
41.0
41.2

40.6
39.5
41.9
40.4
40.8
40.4
40.8

39.7
38.8
41.4
38.9
39.3
39.6
40.3

40.3
40.9
40.6

39.6
38.8
40.9

40.2
40.0
41.1

40.5
40.6
40.8

40.9
41.1
41.0

39.7
39.5
40.1

40.6
40.8
40.8

40.8
41.5
40.6

42.0
43.7
40.6

40.7
40.9
41.0

39.2
38.2
40.6

40.6
41.1
40.7

40.0
40.1
40.4

40.5
40.8
40.7

39.8
39.2
40.6

37.5
38.2
39.0

39.5
38.3
37.5

39.3
38.4
38.2

39.7
39.1
38.9

40.1
39.5
39.2

39.5
39.1
38.8

39.4
39.5
38.4

39.2
36.6
39.2

38.9
39.2
39.4

39.1
39.6
40.1

38.5
37.6
39.1

38.3
37.9
40.7

38.4
38.8
40.9

39.0
39.2
40.7

39.2
38.0
39.4

Average hourly earnings
Electrical machinery............................ $2.32
Electrical generating, transmis­
sion, distribution, and industrial
apparatus___________________
2.42
Electrical appliances____________ 2.31
Insulated wire and cable................. 2.15
Electrical equipment for vehicles... 2. 55
Electric lamps_________________
2.23
Communication equipment........... 2. 24
Miscellaneous electrical products... 2.25
Transportation equipment.....................
Motor vehicles and equipment___
Aircraft and parts______________
Ship and boat building and
repairing______________ _____
Railroad equipment___________
Other transportation equipment...
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.30

$2.30

$2.30

$2.29

$2.27

$2.28

$2.28

$2.28

$2. 27

$2.24

$2. 24

$2.23

$2.22

$2.15

2.42
2.29
2.11
2. 47
2.22
2.22
2.24

2.42
2.30
2.13
2.48
2.22
2.22
2.24

2.41
2.31
2.12
2. 47
2.23
2. 22
2.25

2. 40
2.33
2.10
2. 47
2. 21
2.20
2. 23

2.38
2.31
2.07
2. 44
2.21
2.19
2.23

2.38
2.33
2.10
2.45
2.22
2.21
2. 24

2.39
2.33
2.09
2.46
2. 23
2. 20
2.25

2.38
2.31
2.07
2.50
2. 22
2.20
2.25

2.37
2. 27
2.05
2. 47
2. 22
2.18
2.24

2.35
2.25
2.07
2.39
2. 23
2.17
2. 20

2.34
2.27
2.07
2.40
2.23
2.16
2.19

2.33
2.27
2.11
2.42
2.17
2.15
2.17

2.32
2.26
2.08
2.39
2.16
2.15
2.18

2.26
2.20
2.08
2.30
2.05
2.07
2.11

2.81
2.87
2.73

2. 75
2.80
2. 71

2.74
2.78
2.70

2.74
2. 78
2.71

2.73
2.77
2. 69

2.71
2. 74
2. 67

2.73
2.79
2.68

2. 74
2.81
2.68

2. 76
2.84
2. 67

2. 72
2. 77
2. 68

2. 67
2. 68
2.66

2.70
2.75
2.66

2.71
2. 78
2.65

2.66
2.70
2.62

2.53
2.55
2.51

2.77
2.81
2.23

2.74
2.80
2.23

2.72
2.81
2.22

2.66
2.83
2.22

2.63
2.82
2. 21

2.62
2. 82
2.18

2. 63
2.84
2.19

2.61
2.79
2. 23

2.62
2.81
2. 21

2.62
2. 77
2.24

2.63
2. 73
2.21

2.59
2. 73
2.24

2.60
2.75
2.20

2.60
2.74
2.19

2. 50
2.65
2.10

1352

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T able C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
Durable goods—Continued
Instruments and related products__ $94. 56 $95. 99 $95. 75
Laboratory, scientific, and engi­
neering instruments............... .
116. 34 115. 79 115.37
Mechanical measuring and con
trolling instruments...................
91.18 91.87 92.57
Optical instruments and lenses...
99.12 97.17 98.77
Surgical, medical, and dental in­
struments_________________
85.47 85. 06 85. 48
Ophthalmic goods.......................
/ 3. S3 79. 80 78.78
Photographic apparatus_______
106. 39 110.27 108. 94
Watches and clocks........................
(6.04 80.00 79.00
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries______________________
77.62 77.60 76.44
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware_______________________
75.45 79.77 77.22
Musical instruments and parts___ 92. 70 90. 58 88. 66
Toys and sporting goods________ 71. 92 70.59 68.20
Pens, pencils, other office supplies. 71. 58 72.00 66.06
Costume jewelry, buttons, notions 65.82 68. 56 67.64
Fabricated plastics products.
84. 46 83.64 84.05
Other manufacturing industries... 81.00 80.60 80. 79

$95.65 $94. 77 $93.43 $95. 88 $94.07 $94.19 $96.23 $94. 71 $94. 53 $93.89 $93.25
114.95 112.88 110.97 116. 75 113. 57 112.05 116.14 112.44 112.14 110.66 111. 14
93.90 93.90 92.80 95.06 92.34 93. 61 94.94 92. 97 92.80 91.80 92.62
98. 77 98.36 94.13 96.00 97.11 95.06 97.48 92.57 95.68 95.63 92.25
85.89 83. 62 81.80 84. 66 82.99 83.84 83.64 83.64 83. 44 84. 87 82.82
81.20 80.40 79.20 79.18 79.60 79.19 79. 59 79.38 77.39 76.44 77.59
107.12 106. 34 105.82 106. 86 104. 90 104.86 109. 65 108.20 107. 43 105. 98 104. 65
78.01 77.41 75. 65 77.03 76.82 77.81 77.41 78.80 80. 57 79. 77 77.41
77.41

$87.38
103.07
86. 72
88. 51
78.00
71.41
97. 53
73. 71

77.41

76.05

78.18

77.81

78.20

78.76

77.16

77.33

76.95

76. 57

73.26

80. 36 80.77
90.17 87.38
69. 63 71.16
69. 95 72.18
70.22 68.29
83.03 83.03
80.19 81.00

80.16
86.58
69.32
69.95
66.33
80.40
79. 59

80.54 79.35
88.32 88.70
71. 53 70.80
70. 88 70.92
68. 73 69.17
83.02 83.23
82.01 80.79

79.10
88. 32
70.64
70.13
69. 52
84.04
81.00

84. 91
92.42
70.59
71.96
69.48
83.83
81.20

83. 66
92.18
70.62
70.80
68.64
82.39
78.41

83.46
93.94
70. 75
70.58
69.87
83. 40
78. 79

81.25
91. 78
70.80
70. 75
70. 58
83.00
78.41

79. 46
88. 99
69.17
70.58
68. 90
83.20
79.40

75. 70
83. 79
66. 91
67. 72
65.18
79.17
76.04

Average weekly hours
Instruments and related products__
Laboratory, scientific, and engi­
neering instruments__________
Mechanical measuring and con­
trolling instruments.................... .
Optical instruments and lenses___
Surgical, medical, and dental in­
struments_____ ______________
Ophthalmic goods........ ................ .
Photographic apparatus_________
Watches and clocks____________
Miscellaneous manufacturing indus­
tries......................................................
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware_______________________
Musical instruments and parts___
Toys and sporting goods.................
Pens, pencils, other office supplies..
Costume jewelry, buttons, notions.
Fabricated plastics products_____
Other manufacturing industries__

39.6

40.0

38.3
41.2
39. 3
38.9
37.4
41.2
39.9

40.7
40.8
39.0
40.0
39.4
41.0
39.9

39.9

40.5

40.4

40.7

40.5

40.1

40.8

40.2

40.6

41.3

41.0

41.1

41.0

40.9

39.9

41.7

41.8

41.5

41.8

41.5

41.1

42.3

41.6

41.5

42.7

41.8

42.0

41.6

42.1

40.9

39.3
41.3

39.6
41.0

39.9
41.5

40.3
41.5

40.3
41.5

40.0
40.4

40.8
41.2

39.8
41.5

40.7
40.8

41.1
42.2

40.6
40.6

40.7
41.6

40.8
41.4

40.8
41.0

39.6
40.6

40.7
37.1
40.3
38.6

40.7
39.7
41.3
40.2

40.9
39.0
40.8
39.7

40.9
40.4
41.2
39.2

40.2
40.4
40.9
38.9

39.9
39.8
40.7
38.4

40.7
39.2
41.1
39.1

39.9
40.0
40.5
38.8

40.5
40.2
40.8
39.3

40.8
40.4
42.5
38.9

40.6
40.5
42.1
40.0

40.7
40.1
41.8
40.9

41.2
39.4
41.4
40.7

40.6
40.2
41.2
39.9

40.0
38.6
40. 3
39.0

39.4

39.9

39.9

39.2

40.3

39.9

40.1

40.6

40.4

40.7

40.5

40.3

39.6

39.6
40.3
38.1
36.7
39.1
40.8
39.8

41.0
40.8
38.9
39.3
39.9
40.7
39.7

41.0
39.9
39.1
40.1
38.8
40.9
39.9

40.9
39.9
38.3
39.3
37.9
39.8
39.4

41.3
40.7
39.3
39.6
39.5
41.1
40.4

40.9
40.5
38.9
39.4
39.3
41.0
39.8

41.2
40.7
38.6
39.4
39.5
41.4
39.9

43.1
42.2
39.0
40.2
39.7
41.5
40.4

42.9
41.9
39.9
40.0
39.0
41.4
39.8

42.8
42.7
40.2
40.1
39.7
41.7
40.2

42.1
42.1
40.0
40.2
40.1
41.5
39.8

41.6
41.2
39.3
40.1
39.6
41.6
40.1

40. 7
39.9
38.9
39. 6
38.8
40. 6
39.4

$2.19

Average hourly earnings
Instruments and related products........ $2.37
Laboratory, scientific, and engi­
neering instruments...................... 2.79
Mechanical measuring and con­
trolling Instruments.....................
2.32
Optical instruments and lenses......
2.40
Surgical, medical, and dental in­
struments................. ........... ......... 2.10
Ophthalmic goods...........................
1.99
Photographic apparatus_________ 2. 64
Watches and clocks_____________ 1.97
Miscellaneous manufacturing Indus­
tries........ ............................................. 1.96
Jewelry, silverware, and plated
ware________________________ 1.97
Musical Instruments and parts....... 2.25
Toys and sporting goods.................
1.83
Pens, pencils, other office supplies.. 1.84
Costume jewelry, buttons, notions. 1.76
Fabricated plastics products........... 2.05
Other manufacturing industries__ 2. 03
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$2.37

$2.37

$2.35

$2.34

$2.33

$2. 35

$2.34

$2.32

$2.33

$2.31

$2.30

$2.29

$2.28

2. 77

2.78

2. 75

2.72

2.70

2.76

2.73

2.70

2.72

2.69

2.67

2. 66

2.64

2.52

2.32
2.37

2.32
2.38

2.33
2.38

2.33
2.37

2.32
2.33

2.33
2.33

2.32
2.34

2.30
2.33

2.31
2.31

2.29
2.28

2.28
2.30

2. 25
2.31

2.27
2.25

2.19
2.18

2.09
2.01
2.67
1.99

2.09
2.02
2.67
1.99

2.10
2.01
2.60
1.99

2.08
1.99
2.60
1.99

2.05
1.99
2.60
1.97

2.08
2.02
2.60
1.97

2.08
1.99
2.59
1.98

2.07
1.97
2.57
1.98

2.05
1.97
2.58
1. 99

2.06
1.96
2. 57
1.97

2.05
1.93
2.57
1.97

2.06
1.94
2. 56
1.96

2.04
1.93
2. 54
1.94

1. 95
1.85
2.42
1.89

1. 94

1.94

1.94

1.94

1.94

1.94

1.95

1.95

1.94

1.91

1.90

1.90

1.90

1.85

1. 96
2.22
1.81
1.80
1. 74
2.04
2.02

1.95
2.20
1.79
1.80
1.73
2.06
2.03

1.96
2.21
1. 79
1.78
1.76
2.04
2.02

1.97
2.19
1.82
1.80
1.76
2.03
2.03

1.96
2.17
1.81
1.78
1.75
2.02
2.02

1.95
2.17
1.82
1.79
1.74
2.02
2.03

1.94
2.19
1.82
1.80
1.76
2.03
2.03

1.92
2.17
1.83
1.78
1.76
2.03
2.03

1.97
2.19
1.81
1.79
1. 75
2.02
2.01

1.95
2.20
1. 77
1. 77
1.76
1.99
1.97

1.95
2.20
1. 76
1. 76
1.76
2.00
1.96

1.93
2.18
1.77
1.76
1.76
2.00
1.97

1.91
2.16
1. 76
1. 76
1.74
2.00
1.98

1.86
2.10
1.72
1.71
1.68
1. 95
1.93

1353

0.—EARNINGS AND HOUES

T able C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Sept, » Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
N ondurable goods

Food and kindred products...................
Meat products_________________
Dairy products______ __________
Canning and preserving— ............
Grain-mill products-.......................
Bakery products....... -......................
Sugar..................................................
Confectionery and related products.
Beverages------------------------ ------Miscellaneous food products...........
Tobacco manufactures______________
Cigarettes......................... ................
Cigars________________________
Tobacco and sn u ff.........................
Tobacco stemming and redrying...

$88.80 $88.58 $89. 60 $88.51 $88.91 $87.16 $86.94 $86.33 $88.91
102.01 99.70 100.94 98.90 99.55 95.74 95.01 95.26 104. 66
91.12 90.30 91.79 90. 73 89.01 89. 21 87.53 87.53 87.53
72.92 74.03 70. 71 67.86 70.05 69. 75 69.75 69.17 68.74
99.23 98.35 99. 01 94. 61 94.18 92.87 94. 61 92. 87 95.70
89.28 88.48 89.16 88.54 87.05 85.79 85. 39 84.56 83.92
97. 93 96.96 101. 92 99.84 97. 61 95.88 98. 77 95.04 94. 61
74.07 73.12 72.10 72. 62 71. 50 68. 92 70. 67 69. 38 70.49
99.05 100. 53 102. 42 100.37 99.79 100.19 95.16 93.03 93.99
89.02 86.93 86.74 86.11 85.90 84.85 84. 85 86.11 85.49
62.96
78.58
55.01
69.19
52.92

64.81
79.13
54.72
70.47
49.87

68.43
80.88
53. 58
67.52
59. 93

71.53
85.07
54. 38
70.46
64.34

68. 58
80. 26
54.43
68.08
61.78

64.80
77.17
49.48
66.06
58.32

59. 86
67.47
53.05
62.10
50.81

61.37
72.76
52. 26
61.94
50. 75

66.05
83.23
53.20
66.38
50.90

$88.78 $87. 74 $85.68 $86.11 $85. 68
104. 73 105. 22 103.05 101. 29 97.23
86.30 86. 30 86. 73 90. 52 86.32
68.15 63. 47 65.74 67. 82 67.64
93.96 95.05 93.96 96.57 92.66
85.22 85.01 84.42 85.67 83. 21
97.31 94.77 82. 62 98.59 93.10
68.90 69.55 69. 65 70.47 68.90
96.07 95. 26 95. 59 100. 67 96.80
86.73 87.35 86.73 87.78 84. 65

$81.81
91.08
81.90
66.13
89. 79
79.00
89. 73
66. 30
92.23
80.95

67.49
83.64
53.11
68.08
57.65

64.56
81.81
55.58
66.70
44.82

63. 92
83.00
55.34
66. 64
49.29

63.40
82.20
54. 53
66.35
52.27

65.40
81.80
53.02
66.82
52.40

62.56
77.55
51.79
62.79
49.92

Average weekly hours
Food and kindred products...................
Meat products..................................
Dairy products...... ...........................
Canning and preserving-------------Grain-mill products.........................
Bakery products........... .................
Sugar...---------------------------------Confectionery and related products.
Beverages............................... ...........
Miscellaneous food products...........

41.3
41.3
41.8
41.2
44.7
40.4
40.3
40.7
40.1
41.6

41.2
41.2
42.0
40.9
44.5
40.4
40.4
40.4
40.7
41.2

41.1
41.2
42.3
39.5
44.8
40.9
41.6
39.4
41.3
41.5

40.6
40.7
42.2
37.7
43.4
40.8
41.6
39.9
40.8
41.4

40.6
40.8
41.4
38.7
43.4
40.3
40.5
39.5
40.4
41.3

39.8
39.4
41.3
37.7
42.6
39.9
40.8
38.5
40.4
40.6

39.7
39.1
40.9
37.5
43.2
39.9
41.5
39.7
39.0
40.6

39.6
39.2
40.9
37.8
42.6
39.7
41.5
39.2
38.6
41.2

40.6
42.2
40.9
38.4
43.5
39.4
43.2
39.6
39.0
41.1

41.1
42.4
40.9
38.5
43.1
40.2
48.9
39.6
39.7
41.9

41.0
43.3
40.9
36.9
43.6
40.1
48.6
40.2
39.2
42.2

40.8
43.3
41.3
38.0
43.5
40.2
40.9
39.8
39.5
41.9

41.4
43.1
42.7
39.2
44.3
40.6
41.6
40.5
41. 6
42.2

40.8
41.2
41.7
39.1
43.5
40.2
43.3
39.6
40.5
41.7

40.7
40.3
42.0
39.6
43.8
40.1
44.2
39.7
40.1
41.3

Tobacco manufactures......... .............. .
Cigarettes..................................... .
Cigars________________________
Tobacco and snuff______________
Tobacco stemming and redrying...

40.1
37.6
38.2
37.4
44.1

37.9
38.6
38.0
38.3
36.4

37.6
38.7
36.7
37.1
36.1

39.3
40.9
37.5
38.5
38.3

38.1
38.4
37.8
37.2
37.9

36.0
37.1
34.6
36.1
36.0

34.8
33.4
37.1
34.5
34.1

36.1
36.2
36.8
34.8
35.0

38.4
40.6
37.2
37.5
36.1

39.7
41.0
37.4
38.9
40.6

38.2
40.3
38.6
37.9
33.7

40.2
41.5
38.7
38.3
40.4

40.9
41.1
38.4
37.7
43.2

39.4
40.9
37.6
38.4
39.4

39.1
40.6
37.8
37.6
38.7

Average hourly earnings
Food and kindred products................... $2.15
Meat products.................................. 2.47
Dairy products_____ ___________ 2.18
1.77
Canning and preserving------------Grain-mill products_____________ 2.22
2.21
Bakery products_______________
Sugar___________ ________ _____ 2.43
Confectionery and related products. 1.82
Beverages........................... ............. 2.47
Miscellaneous food products........... 2.14

$2.15
2.42
2.15
1.81
2.21
2.19
2.40
1.81
2. 47
2.11

$2.18
2. 45
2.17
1. 79
2.21
2.18
2.45
1.83
2. 48
2.09

$2.18
2.43
2.15
1.80
2.18
2.17
2.40
1.82
2.46
2.08

$2.19
2.44
2.15
1.81
2.17
2.16
2.41
1.81
2.47
2.08

$2.19
2. 43
2.16
1.85
2.18
2.15
2.35
1.79
2.48
2.09

$2.19
2.43
2.14
1.86
2.19
2.14
2.38
1.78
2. 44
2.09

$2.18
2.43
2.14
1.83
2.18
2.13
2. 29
1.77
2.41
2.09

$2.19
2. 48
2.14
1.79
2. 20
2.13
2.19
1.78
2. 41
2.08

$2.16
2.47
2.11
1.77
2.18
2.12
1.99
1.74
2.42
2.07

$2.14
2. 43
2.11
1.72
2.18
2.12
1.95
1. 73
2. 43
2.07

$2.10
2.38
2.10
1.73
2.16
2.10
2.02
1.75
2. 42
2.07

$2.08
2.35
2.12
1. 73
2.18
2.11
2.37
1.74
2.42
2.08

$2.10
2.36
2.07
1.73
2.13
2.07
2.15
1.74
2.39
2.03

$2.01
2. 26
1.95
1. 67
2.05
1.97
2.03
1.67
2.30
1.96

1.57
2.09
1.44
1.85
1.20

1.71
2.05
1.44
1.84
1.37

1.82
2.09
1.46
1.82
1.66

1.82
2.08
1.45
1.83
1.68

1.80
2.09
1.44
1.83
1. 63

1.80
2.08
1.43
1.83
1.62

1.72
2.02
1.43
1.80
1.49

1.70
2.01
1.42
1.78
1.45

1.72
2.05
1.43
1.77
1.41

1.70
2.04
1.42
1.75
1.42

1.69
2.03
1.44
1.76
1.33

1. 59
2.00
1.43
1.74
1. 22

1.55
2.00
1.42
1.76
1.21

1. 66
2.00
1.41
1.74
1.33

1.60
1.91
1.37
1.67
1.29

Tobacco manufactures....... ........ ...........
Cigarettes_____________________
Cigars________________________
Tobacco and snuff______________
Tobacco stemming and redrying__
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1354

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

1959

Annual
average

Industry
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings

Manufacturing—Continued
N o n d u r a b le goods— Continued

Textile-mill products..............................
Scouring and combing plants..........
Yam and thread mills__________
Broad-woven fabric mills________
Narrow fabrics and smallwares.......
Knitting mills................ . . . ............Dyeing and finishing textiles_____
Carpets, rags, other floor coverings.
Hats (except cloth and millinery)-.
Miscellaneous textile goods.............
Apparel and other finished textile
products....... ........................................
M en’s and boys’ suits and coats___
M en’s and boys’ furnishings and
work clothing________________
Women’s outerwear . . . ___ . ..
Women’s, children’s undergarments_______________________
Millinery______ ______ ________
Children’s outerwear........................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories..............................................
Other fabricated textile products.—

$62.05 $64.31 $64.31 $65. 53 $65.36 $63. 76 $63.83 $64.16 $64.48 $64.87 $64.40 $64. 40 $63.28 $63. 43
67.25 72.45 75.50 74. 03 73.15 70.69 70.18 69. 70 72.25 71.06 70. 53 69.72 74.34 72.16
56.02 58.29 58.98 59. 74 59.89 59. 49 58. 59 59. 70 60.20 60.35 59.90 59. 90 59. 40 58.95
61.92 64.88 65.37 66. 58 66.01 64.96 65.12 64.27 64.74 65. 52 64.74 64. 74 63.27 63. 29
63.46 66.80 65.57 68.30 66.50 65.11 66.17 65. 76 65. 36 66. 75 65. 27 65.11 65.36 65. 53
57.00 58.29 57.60 58.67 58. 22 55.95 55.48 56.47 56.32 56. 77 57.96 57.66 57. 45 57.51
67.94 70. 58 70.62 75. 00 74.05 71.28 71. 05 71.10 70. 58 73. 78 72. 83 72.31 69. 66 71.48
78.98 80.75 79. 59 79. 60 79.00 78.99 79.97 81.32 81.71 81.32 79. 17 80.73 80. 73 81.51
57.26 60.80 57.95 62. 53 61. 66 58.64 59. 49 59. 57 62.24 63.00 57. 78 57.26 60.02 61.71
75.24 75.58 75.41 76. 55 75. 58 73.42 74.37 76.30 77.27 76.45 72.68 74.52 74.52 73. 71

$58.29
64.96
52. 36
56.26
60.37
54. 75
66.83
77. 30
58. 74
68. 95

55. 77

57.62

69.33

72.38

56.42
70.67

55. 90
72.58

55.90
69.12

53. 70
65. 49

55.85
66.95

56.11
68.00

55.44
67.08

55. 85
68.32

56.15
68.02

55. 02
66.02

55. 69
67.28

55. 63
65.47

53. 45
60.37

48.28
57.20

49.37
61.08

49.24
58.65

49. 37
56. 95

48.84
59.00

47.29
56.10

47.35
59.69

48. 58
59. 86

48.58
58.14

49.13
58.99

49.65
58.48

49.27
55.76

49.91
57.61

48. 76
59. 51

46.08
57.63

52.05
67.32
50.37

52.11
69.48
53.42

50.26
67.03
53.28

51.12
58. 56
53.05

51.05
55.94
51.62

48.99
54.65
48.79

50.41
67.13
51.70

51.18
71.04
52.48

50.96
65. 08
52.62

51.52
60.82
50. 54

53.02
58. 70
52.22

52.36
60.64
50.26

51.52
67.32
50.20

51.29
62. 93
51.10

49.59
64. 05
50.23

53.28
63.63

53.95
61.56

52.85
63.79

52.27
61.94

52.27
61.66

51.26
58.67

52.71
60.96

52.42
60.38

52.20
59.78

52.91
59.97

52.91
59.52

52.62
59.90

52.91
59.75

52. 54
59. 59

50.76
56. 85

Average weekly hours
Textile-mill products_______________
Scouring and combing plants.........
Yarn and thread m ills....................
Broad-woven fabric mills........... .
Narrow fabrics and smallwares___
Knitting mills__________ ______
Dyeing and finishing textiles_____
Carpets, rugs, other floor coverings.
Hats (except cloth and m illinery)...
Miscellaneous textile goods.............

38.3
39.1
37.1
38.7
38.0
37.5
38.6
40.5
34.7
39.6

Apparel and other finished textile
products________________________
Men’s and boys’ suits and coats...
Men’s and boys’ furnishings and
work clothing________________
Women’s outerwear____________
Women’s, children’s undergarments_______________________
Millinery_____________________
Children’s outerwear......................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories..........................................
Other fabricated textile products..

35.3

36.7

36.3

39.7
41.4
38.6
40.3
40.0
38.6
40.1
41.2
37.3
40 2

39.7
42.9
38.8
40.6
39.5
38.4
39.9
40.4
34.7
39.9

40.2
42.3
39.3
41.1
40.9
38.6
41.9
40.2
37.0
40.5

40.1
41.8
39.4
41.0
40.3
38.3
41.6
40.1
36.7
40.2

39.6
41.1
39.4
40.6
39.7
37.3
40.5
40.3
34.7
39.9

39.4
40.8
38.8
40.7
40.1
36.5
40.6
40.8
35.2
40.2

40.1
41.0
39.8
41.2
40.1
37.4
41.1
41.7
36.1
40.8

40.3
42.5
40.4
41.5
40.1
37.3
40.8
41.9
36.4
41.1

40.8
41.8
40.5
42.0
40.7
38.1
42.4
41.7
37.5
41.1

40.5
40.3
40.2
41.5
39.8
38.9
42.1
40.6
34.6
39.5

40.5
40.3
40.2
41.5
39.7
38.7
41.8
41.4
34.7
40.5

39.8
42.0
39.6
40.3
40.1
38.3
40.5
41.4
35.1
40.5

40.4
42.2
40.1
41.1
40.7
38.6
41.8
41.8
36.3
40.5

38.6
40.6
37.4
38.8
39.2
37.5
40.5
40.9
35.6
39.4

37.7

36.4
38.2

36.3
38.2

36.3
38.4

35.1
37.0

35.8
37.4

36.2
38.2

36.0
37.9

38.5
38.6

36.7
38.0

36.2
37.3

36.4
37.8

36.6
37.2

35.4
34.3

36.3
32.5

37.4
34.9

37.3
34.3

37.4
33.7

37.0
34.5

36.1
33.0

35.6
34.5

36.8
34.4

36.8
33.8

37.5
34.1

37.9
34.0

37.9
32.8

38.1
33.3

37.8
34.6

36.0
34.1

36.4
34.7
34.5

36.7
36.0
37.1

35.9
34.2
37.0

36.0
32.0
37.1

35.7
30.4
36.1

34.5
29.7
34.6

35.5
35.9
35.9

36.3
37.0
36.7

36.4
34.8
36.8

36.8
33.6
36.1

37.6
31.9
37.3

37.4
32.6
35.9

36.8
34.7
35.6

36.9
34.2
36.5

36.2
35.0
36.4

36.0
38.1

36.7
38.0

36.2
38.2

37.3
38.0

36.3
38.3

35.6
36.9

36.1
38.1

36.4
37.5

36.5
37.6

37.0
38.2

37.0
38.4

36.8
38.4

37.0
38.3

37.0
38.2

36.0
37.4

Average hourly earnings
Textile-mill products_______________ $1.62
Scouring and combing plants____
1.72
Yarn and thread mills__________
1.51
Broad-woven fabric mills..............
1.60
Narrow fabrics and smallwares___ 1.67
Knitting mills_________________
1.52
Dyeing and finishing textiles_____ 1.76
Carpets, rags, other floor coverings. 1.95
Hats (except cloth and millinery).. 1.65
Miscellaneous textile goods............. 1.90
Apparel and other finished textile
products................................................
Men’s and boys’ suits and coats___
Men’s and boys’ furnishings and
work clothing_______________
Women’s outerwear.........................
Women’s, children’s undergarm ents.............................................
Millinery_____________________
Children’s outerwear.......................
Miscellaneous apparel and accessories.............. ..............................
Other fabricated textile products...
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$1.62
1.75
1.51
1.61
1.67
1.51
1.76
1.96
1.63
1.88

$1.62
1.76
1.52
1.61
1.66
1.50
1.77
1.97
1.67
1.89

$1.63
1.75
1.52
1.62
1.67
1.52
1.79
1.98
1.69
1.89

$1.63
1.75
1.52
1.61
1.65
1.52
1.78
1.97
1.68
1.88

$1. 61
1.72
1. 51
1.60
1.64
1.50
1. 76
1.96
1.69
1.84

$1.62
1.72
1. 51
1.60
1.65
1.52
1.75
1.96
1.69
1.85

$1.60
1.70
1.50
1.56
1.64
1. 51
1.73
1.95
1.65
1.87

$1.60
1.70
1.49
1. 56
1.63
1.51
1.73
1.95
1.71
1.88

$1.59
1.70
1.49
1.56
1.64
l. 49
1.74
1.95
1.68
1.86

$1.59
1.75
1.49
1. 56
1. 64
1.49
1.73
1.95
1.67
1.84

$1.59
1.73
1.49
1. 56
1.64
1.49
1.73
1.95
1.65
1.84

$1.59
1.77
1.50
1. 57
1.63
1. 50
1.72
1.95
1.71
1.84

$1.57
1. 71
1.47
1. 54
1. èl
1.49
1. 71
1.95
1. 70
1.82

$1. 51
1. 60
1.40
1.46
1. 54
1.46
1.66
1.89
1.65
1.75

1.58
1.91

1.57
1.92

1.55
1.85

1.54
1.90

1.54
1.80

1.53
1. 77

1. 56
1.79

1.55
1.78

1.54
1.77

1.53
1.77

1.53
1.79

1.52
1.77

1.53
1.78

1.52
1.76

1.51
1.76

1.33
1.76

1.32
1.75

1.32
1.71

1.32
1.69

1.32
1.71

1.31
1.70

1.33
1.73

1.32
1.74

1.32
1.72

1.31
1.73

1.31
1.72

1.30
1.70

1.31
1.73

1.29
1. 72

1.28
1.69

1.43
1.94
1.46

1.42
1.93
1.44

1.40
1.96
1.44

1.42
1.83
1.43

1.43
1.84
1.43

1.42
1.84
1.41

1.42
1.87
1.44

1.41
1.92
1.43

1.40
1.87
1. 43

1.40
1.81
1.40

1.41
1.84
1.40

1.40
1.86
1.40

1.40
1.94
1.41

1.39
1.84
1.40

1.37
1.83
1.38

1.48
1.67

1.47
1.62

1.46
1.67

1.44
1.63

1.44
1.61

1.44
1.59

1.46
1.60

1. 44
1.61

1.43
1.59

1.43
1.57

1.43
1.55

1.43
1.56

1.43
1.56

1.42
1. 56

1.41
1.52

1355

0.—EARNINGS AND HOURS

T able C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable good»—Continued
Paper and allied products......................
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
Paperboard containers and boxes...
Other paper and allied products__

$97.94 $97. 75 $97.33 $97.13 $96. 05 $93. 63 $94.30 $94. 73 $95. 20 $95. 22 $95. 22 $95. 67 $96. 77 $94.16
107.45 106.82 106.87 106.19 104.64 102.15 103. 29 103. 97 104. 24 104. 48 104. 72 104. 48 106. 32 102. 73
91.10 90.69 88.99 89. 64 88.34 86. 43 86.03 86. 67 87. 74 86. 93 88.20 89. 68 90. 95 87.78
85.68 85.90 85.49 85. 70 86.11 84. 26 84. 87 84. 05 84. 67 85.07 83. 64 83. 84 84.03 83.42

$88. 83
96. 10
82. 41
78. 96

Printing, publishing, and allied industries........ ..............................................
Newspapers................ ............. ......
Periodicals............ ............................
Books..... ............. .............................
Commercial printing........................
Lithographing_________________
Greeting cards_____ ___________
Bookbinding and related industries.
Miscellaneous publishing and
printing services_____________

107.42
113.13
125.67
94.16
107.86
110.37
73.84
81.27

103. 41
108. 28
113. 15
90. 52
102. 96
106. 40
70. 07
80. 50

97.90
103. 43
102. 97
85. 80
97. 22
98. 81
67.03
74.86

117.27 116. 73 119.81 116.18 115.97 115.06 117.35 118.81 118. 50 118. 78 117.18 114.98 117.34 116.19

110. 75

106.09
110.14
119.19
97.17
105.72
112.16
71.55
82.64

106. 20
111.47
120.10
92. 97
105.18
109.97
73.30
82.60

105. 54
112.10
114.09
93. 43
105.18
109. 53
69.74
82.64

106. 37
113.31
114. 37
94.25
105.06
110. 55
73. 53
81.20

103. 95
110. 05
115.30
91.66
103. 33
106. 23
70.48
79.92

105. 05
108. 72
116. 57
91.43
105. 86
109. 20
73. 54
82. 01

104.12
108. 42
111.20
89. 44
103. 35
107. 86
76.63
81.20

104. 56
107. 45
111.35
91. 14
105.34
107. 73
75. 08
81. 79

106. 86
113.31
108. 93
92. 57
106.92
109. 89
70.10
83.28

103. 79
107. 76
113. 96
90. 29
104. 28
107.19
70.25
81.66

104. 83
110. 00
119.83
91. 31
104. 67
108. 67
69.72
80.43

106. 70
111. 96
132. 30
92.23
106.00
109. 60
68.60
81.09

Average weekly hours
Paper and allied products.....................
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
Paperboard containers and boxes...
Other paper and allied products...

42.4
43.5
41.6
40.8

42.5
43.6
41.6
41.1

42.5
43.8
41.2
41.1

42.6
43.7
41.5
41.4

42.5
43.6
40.9
41.8

41.8
43.1
40.2
41.1

42.1
43.4
40.2
41.4

42.1
43.5
40.5
41.0

42.5
43.8
41.0
41.3

42.7
43.9
41.2
41.7

42.7
44.0
41.8
41.2

42.9
43.9
42.3
41.3

43.2
44.3
42.5
41.6

42.8
43.9
41.8
41.5

41.9
42.9
41.0
40.7

Printing, publishing, and allied industries........................................................
Newspapers___________________
Periodicals_______________ _____
Books....... ........................................
Commercial printing........................
Lithographing_________________
Greeting cards........... .......................
Bookbinding and related industries.
Miscellaneous publishing and
printing services_________ ____

38.5
35.8
42.6
39.9
39.8
39.7
39.7
37.8

38.3
35.3
41.1
41.0
39.3
40.2
39.1
38.8

38.2
35.5
41.7
39.9
39.1
39.7
39.2
38.6

38.1
35.7
40.6
40.1
39.1
39.4
37.9
38.8

38.4
36.2
40.7
40.8
39.2
40.2
38.1
38.3

37.8
35.5
40.6
40.2
38.7
39.2
36.9
37.7

38.2
35.3
40.9
40.1
39.5
40.0
38.3
38.5

38.0
35.2
40.0
39.4
39.0
39.8
38.7
38.3

38.3
35.0
40.2
39.8
39.9
39.9
38.5
38.4

39.0
36.2
39.9
40.6
40.5
40.7
38.1
39.1

38.3
35.1
40.7
39.6
39.8
39 7
38.6
38.7

38.4
35.6
41.9
39.7
39.8
40.1
38.1
38.3

38.8
36.0
44.1
40.1
40.0
40.0
37.9
38.8

38.3
35.5
40.7
39.7
39.6
39.7
38.5
38.7

37.8
35.3
39.3
39.0
39.2
38.9
38.3
38.0

38.2

37.9

38.4

37.6

37.9

37.6

38.1

38.7

38.6

39.2

38.8

38.2

38.6

38.6

37.8

Average hourly earnings
$2.30
2.45
2.18
2.09

$2.29
2.44
2.16
2.08

$2.28
2. 43
2.16
2.07

$2.26
2.40
2.16
2.06

$2.24
2.37
2.15
2.05

$2.24
2.38
2.14
2.05

$2.25
2. 39
2.14
2.05

$2.24
2.38
2.14
2.05

$2.23
2.38
2.11
2.04

$2. 23
2.38
2.11
2.03

$2. 23
2.38
2.12
2.03

$2.24
2.40
2.14
2.02

$2.20
2.34
2.10
2.01

$2.12
2.24
2.01
1.94

2.79
3.16
2.95
2. 36
2. 71
2.78
1.86
2.15

2. 77
3.12
2.90
2.37
2.69
2. 79
1.83
2.13

2.78
3.14
2.88
2.33
2.69
2. 77
1.87
2.14

2.77
3.14
2.81
2.33
2.69
2.78
1.84
2.13

2.77
3.13
2.81
2.31
2.68
2. 75
1.93
2.12

2.75
3.10
2.84
2.28
2.67
2.71
1.91
2.12

2.75
3.08
2.85
2.28
2.68
2.73
1.92
2.13

2.74
3.08
2.78
2.27
2.65
2.71
1.98
2.12

2.73
3.07
2.77
2.29
2.64
2.70
1.95
2.13

2. 74
3.13
2. 73
2.28
2.64
2.70
1.84
2.13

2. 71
3.07
2.80
2.28
2.62
2.70
1.82
2.11

2.73
3.09
2.86
2.30
2.63
2. 71
1.83
2.10

2.75
3.11
3.00
2.30
2.65
2.74
1.81
2.09

2.70
3.05
2.78
2.28
2.60
2. 68
1.82
2.08

2.59
2.93
2.62
2.20
2.48
2. 54
1.75
1.97

3.07

3.08

3.12

3.09

3.06

3.06

3.08

3.07

3.07

3.03

3.02

3.01

3.04

3.01

2.93

Paper and allied products___________ $2.31
Pulp, paper, and paperboard mills. 2.47
Paperboard containers and boxes.. 2.19
Other paper and allied products__ 2.10
Printing, publishing, and allied industr ie s .....................................................
Newspapers_______________ ____
Periodicals....... —............................ Books.._______________________
Commercial printing____________
Lithographing________ _________
Greeting cards .......................... .
Bookbinding and related industries.
Miscellaneous publishing and
printing services............................

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

1356
Table

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

1959

A n n u al
average

I n d u s try
S ep t.2 A ug.

J u ly

Ju n e

M ay

A p r.

M a r.

Feb.

Jan.

D ec.

N ov.

O ct.

S ep t.

1959

1958

A verage w eek ly earn in g s
M an u fac tu rin g —0 o n tln u e d

Nondurable goods—C o n tin u e d
C hem icals a n d allie d p ro d u c ts ................. $104.90 $104.90 $106.08 $105. 59 $103. 58
In d u s tria l Inorganic c h em icals......... 117.16 116.05 117.46 116. 20 114. 53
In d u s tria l organic c h em icals______ 111. 24 110. 42 113.13 112. 67 110. 77
D ru g s a n d m ed ic in es_____________
94. 71 94.02 94.60 94.19 93. 73
Soap, clean in g a n d polish in g prep112. 47 114. 93 111.51 113.82 110.95
a ra tio n s ........ - ................. . . . ......... ..
P a in ts , p ig m e n ts, a n d fillers............. 100. 53 101. 27 101.11 103.07 102.41
92.22 88. 62 93.10 90.29 87. 74
G u m a n d w ood c h em icals........ .........
F e rtiliz e rs .--...................... - ...................
80. 64 80.37 81.90 80. 70 79. 74
V egetable a n d a n im a l oils a n d fa ts.
89.80 90. 50 92.42 92.17 89.42
M iscellaneous c h em icals........... .........
96. 39 95.18 95.99 94.77 95.06

$104.41 $102.01 $101. 60 $101. 60 $102.66 $101.75 $101.09 $104. 48 $100.02 $94. 48
117.45 113.02 112. 75 112.61 114.93 113. 55 113.97 117.87 111.64 104. 70
112.29 108. 62 108.21 108. 21 109. 78 108. 58 108.05 112.89 106. 81 100.04
92.75 92.97 93.66 92.62 92.66 93.11 93.11 94.39 90. 58 85.88
108.24 111.72 109.15 107.94 109.36 108.16 108.58 110.30 105. 47 100. 86
101.19 98.90 98. 42 98.01 98.33 99.22 96.32 101.40 98.29 93.25
86.29 84. 20 84.00 82.60 84. 77 87.90 82. 54 86.86 83.36 80.45
85. 44 74.07 77.96 78. 75 78. 57 76. 44 75.48 80.70 78.12 74.03
87.23 87. 96 86. 29 87.30 86. 48 87.23 85.84 87.32 85. 44 82.21
95. 71 94.89 93.96 93.96 94.25 93.43 92.39 92.21 91.58 87.02

P ro d u c ts of p e tro le u m a n d co al............. P e tro le u m re f in in g ..- ..........................
C oke, o th e r p e tro le u m a n d coal
p ro d u c ts ________________________

108. 68 107. 43 109.82 108.36 102.51 105.44 106.49 105.97 106.90 105.30 103.17 108.03 108.20 105.83

R u b b e r p ro d u c ts _____________________
T ires a n d in n e r tu b e s _____________
R u b b e r footw ear--------------------------O th e r ru b b e r p ro d u c ts ........................

98. 67 100.15 103.53 102.72 100.04 94.60 97. 71 100.00 102.16 101.59 97.66 101.18 102.01 101.60 92.59
112.18 114. 66 123.71 121.39 117. 51 107.38 113. 68 117.71 119. 80 118. 59 112.62 117.49 117. 56 120.01 106.04
78.98 81.40 82.21 82.82 81.40 77.01 78. 61 77.21 79.40 80.79 79.80 79.40 79.18 79.19 76.62
92.10 92. 75 91.66 92.34 90.12 88.43 89. 78 91.76 93.52 92. 93 89.87 93.38 94. 73 92.99 84.59

121.01 117. 62 121.18 119.60 118.03 119. 54 116.87 116.87 116.98 117. 74 118.90 117.50 120.77 117.38 110.97
124. 84 120. 90 124.84 123.22 123.11 124.23 120.20 120. 60 120.40 121.80 124.01 119.80 124.53 121.29 114.90
97.28

A v erag e w eek ly h o u rs
C hem icals a n d allie d p r o d u c ts .............. ..
In d u s tria l inorganic c h em icals____
In d u s tria l organic c h e m ic a ls .......... .
D ru g s a n d m ed ic in es...........................
Soap, cleaning a n d polish in g prepa ra tio n s ------ ------------------------------P a in ts , p ig m e n ts, a n d fillers........... .
G u m a n d w ood c h em icals_________
F e rtiliz e rs ________________________
V egetable a n d a n im a l oils a n d fa ts .
M iscellaneous c h em icals................... .

41.3
41.4
41.2
40.3

41.3
41.3
41.2
40.7

41.6
41.8
41.9
40.6

41.9
41.8
42.2
40.6

41.6
41.8
41.8
40.4

42.1
42.4
41.9
40.5

41.3
41.4
41.3
40.6

41.3
41.3
41.3
40.9

41.3
41.4
41.3
40.8

41.9
42.1
41.9
41.0

41.7
41.9
41.6
41.2

41.6
41.9
41.4
41.2

42.3
42.4
42.6
41.4

41.5
41.5
41.4
40.8

40.9
40.9
40.5
40.7

41.5
40.7
43.5
42.0
44.9
40.5

42.1
41.0
42.4
42.3
43.3
40.5

41.3
41.1
43.3
42.0
43.8
40.5

42.0
41.9
43.2
42.7
44.1
40.5

41.4
41.8
42.8
43.1
43.2
40.8

41.0
41.3
42.3
48.0
43.4
40.9

42.0
40.7
42.1
40.7
44.2
40.9

41.5
40.5
42.0
42.6
43.8
40.5

41.2
40.5
41.3
42.8
45.0
40.5

41.9
40.8
42.6
42.7
46.0
40.8

41.6
41.0
43.3
42.0
46.4
40.8

41.6
40.3
41.9
41.7
46.4
40.7

42.1
41.9
43.0
42.7
46.2
40.8

41.2
41.3
42.1
43.4
44.5
40.7

41.0
40.9
41.9
42.3
44.2
40.1

P ro d u c ts of p e tro le u m a n d co al............. .
P e tro le u m re fin in g ______ _____ ___
C oke, o th e r p e tro le u m a n d coal
p ro d u c ts ...............................................

41.3
41.2

40.7
40.3

41.5
41.2

41.1
40.8

40.7
40.9

40.8
41.0

40.3
40.2

40.3
40.2

40.2
40.0

40.6
40.6

41.0
41.2

40.8
40.2

41.5
41.1

40.9
40.7

40.5
40.6

41.8

41.8

42.4

42 0

40.2

40.4

40.8

40.6

40.8

40.5

40.3

42.7

42.6

41.5

40.2

R u b b e r p ro d u c ts ......................................... .
T ire s a n d in n e r tu b e s _____________
R u b b e r fo o tw ear__________________
O th e r ru b b e r p ro d u c ts ........................

39.0
37.9
39.1
39.7

39.9
39.0
40.1
40.5

40.6
41.1
40.3
40.2

40.6
40.6
40.6
40.5

39.7
39.7
40.1
39.7

38.3
36.9
38.7
39.3

39.4
38.8
39.5
39.9

40.0
39.5
38.8
40.6

40.7
40.2
39.5
41.2

40.8
40.2
39.8
41.3

39.7
38.7
39.9
40.3

40.8
40.1
39.9
41.5

41.3
40.4
40.4
42.1

41.3
41.1
40.2
41.7

39.4
38.7
39.7
39.9

A verage h o u rly earn in g s
C hem icals a n d a llied p r o d u c ts ............
In d u s tria l inorganic c h em icals____
In d u s tria l organic chem icals............
D ru g s a n d m e d ic in e s .—____ ______
Soap, cleaning a n d p o lish in g prepa ra tio n s ____ _____ _________ ____
P a in ts , p ig m e n ts a n d fillers..............
G u m a n d w ood c h em icals..................
F e rtiliz e rs ________________________
V egetable a n d a n im a l oils a n d fa ts .
M iscellaneous c h em icals..... ......... ..

$2. 54
2. 83
2.70
2. 35

$2.54
2.81

2. 71
2. 47

2.31

$2.55
2. 81
2.70
2.33

$2. 52
2.78
2.67
2.32

$2.49
2. 74
2.65
2.32

$2.48
2.77
2.68
2.29

$2.47
2. 73
2.63
2.29

$2.46
2. 73
2.62
2.29

$2.46
2.72
2.62
2.27

$2.45
2. 73
2. 62
2.26

$2. 44
2. 71
2.61
2.26

$2.43
2. 72
2.61
2.26

$2.47
2.78
2.65
2.28

$2. 41
2.69
2.58
2.22

$2.31
2.56
2.47
2.11

2. 38

2. 73
2.47
2.09
1.90
2. 09
2.35

2.70
2.46
2.15
1.95
2.11
2.37

2.71
2.46
2.09
1.89
2.09
2.34

2.68
2.45
2.05
1.85
2.07
2.33

2. 64
2.45
2.04
1.78
2.01
2.34

2.66
2.43
2.00
1.82
1.99
2.32

2.63
2.43
2.00
1.83
1.97
2.32

2.62
2. 42
2.00
1.84
1.94
2.32

2.61
2.41
1.99
1.84
1.88
2.31

2.60
2.42
2.03
1.82
1.88
2.29

2.61
2.39
1.97
1.81
1.85
2.27

2.62
2.42
2.02
1.89
1.89
2.26

2.56
2.38
1.98
1.80
1.92
2.25

2.46
2.28
1.92
1.75
1.86
2.17

P ro d u c ts of p e tro le u m a n d co al............. .
P e tro le u m refin in g ________________
C oke, o th e r p e tro le u m a n d coal
p ro d u c ts .................. .............................

2.93
3.03

2.89
3.00

2.92
3.03

2.91
3.02

2.90
3.01

2.93
3.03

2.90
2.99

2.90
3.00

2.91
3.01

2.90
3.00

2.90
3.01

2.88
2.98

2.91
3.03

2.87
2.98

2.74
2.83

2.60

2. 57

2.59

2.58

2. 55

2.61

2.61

2.61

2.62

2.60

2.56

2.53

2.54

2.55

2.42

R u b b e r p ro d u c ts ......................................... .
T ire s a n d in n e r tu b e s _____________
R u b b e r fo o tw e a r................................. .
O th e r ru b b e r p ro d u c ts ........................

2.53
2. 96

2.51
2. 94
2. 03
2. 29

2.55
3.01
2.04
2.28

2. 53
2.99
2.04
2.28

2.52
2.96
2.03
2.27

2.47
2.91
1.99
2.25

2.48
2.93
1.99
2.25

2.50
2.98
1.99
2.26

2. 51
2.98
2.01
2.27

2.49
2.95
2.03
2.25

2.46
2.91
2.00
2.23

2.48
2.93
1.99
2.25

2.47
2.91
1.96
2.25

2.46
2.92
1.97
2.23

2.35
2.74
1.93

See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2.12
1.92

2. 00

2.02
2. 32

2. 68

2.12

1357

C.—EARNINGS AND HOURS
T able

C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
Annual
average

1959

1960
Industry
Sept.2 Aug.2 July

June

May

Mar.

Apr.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average weekly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Leather and leather products............. .
Leather: tanned, curried, and fin- _ _____ _____
ished__
Industrial leather belting and
p ack in g ._______ ______
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings
____________________
Footwear (except rubber)_______
Luggage .
. . ___ _______
Handbags and small leather goods..
Gloves and miscellaneous leather
goods_______________________
Transportation and public utilities:
Transportation:
Interstate railroads:
Class I railroads 8 . _______
Local railways and buslines______
C ommunication:
T elephone................................
Telegraph4________________
Other publicTutllities:
Gas and electric utilities_________
Electric light and power utilities.
Gas utilities_________
___
Electric light and gas utilities
c o m b in e d .---------------------

$58.88 $62.48 $62.98 $62.37 $59. 90 $58.06 $60.84 $60.64 $61.78 $61.07 $60.43 $58.28 $59.09 $60.70
84.10 84.56 82.68 86. 27 83.07 81.66 81.87 81.24 81. 30 82.74 81.09 80.50 80.11 80.94

$57.78
78.39

78.74

78.74

80.20

78.21

77.03

73.53

76. 24

72.13

74.68

79.80

69.50

72.38

77.42

79.56

76.62

54.01
55.14
68.97
58.03

59.03
60.26
65.18
58.45

59.21
61.22
64.30
58.14

59.44
60.00
66.42
56.30

58. 25
56.80
65.07
57.07

55. 22
55. 52
62.87
53.61

57. 82
58. 56
63.63
58.05

58. 44
58.67
62.29
57.30

60.30
60.10
62.87
56.92

59.83
58.40
63. 54
58. 65

56.21
57. 46
69. 70
59.60

54.42
55. 69
63.50
54.24

55.85
56. 47
64.19
56.24

57.30
58.34
65.18
56.45

56.02
54. 87
63.46
55.54

53.94

54.52

53.43

54. 24

52.71

51.41

52. 20

52. 42

50.98

53.11

53. 71

52. 77

51.41

51.89

50.40

110.33 107.42 110. 42 107. 59 107.33 109.82 111.45 106.60 110.00 106.86 105. 25 106.17
100.19 100.22 100.22 100.92 99.79 97. 78 97.78 97.33 95.60 96.10 95.44 94.57 94.33
95.71 89.27 89.95 88. 26 87.81 86.36 87. 58 87.42 86.14 87.42 89.95 88. 58 89.32
106.14 103.09 102.37 104.00 97.75 95.30 95.30 94.43 95.30 95.53 95.53 95. 57 100.11
113.98 110.16 110.02 109.34 109.34 108.94 108.26 107. 59 108.39 107.98 109.03 108.62 107.79
116.89 110.97 110.97 109.88 109.61 108. 79 108.94 107.86 108.39 107. 71 108. 65 108.24 108.36
105.11 102.21 102.21 101.15 101.15 101.25 100.85 99.85 100.85 101.18 103.91 103.17 102. 34
118.69 115.87 115.34 115. 62 116.18 115.62 113.96 114. 52 114.67 114.12 114.13 113.44 112.06

106. 43
94.59

101. 50
90. 52

85.46
95.99

78. 72
90.06

105.78
106.34
99.39

100.37
101.43
94.83

110. 56

103.63

Average weekly hours
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
"Leather and leather products________
Leather: tanned, curried, and finished . . . __ ________ ______
Industrial leather belting and
packing _______
________
Boot and shoe cut stock and findings
_______________
Footwear (except rubber)________
Luggage____________ __________
Handbags and small leather goods..
Gloves and miscellaneous leather
goods.-_____________________
Transportation and public utilities:
Transportation:
Interstate railroads:
Class I railroads 3 __________
Local railways and buslines______
Communication:'
Telephone_______ _____- ........
Telegraph *________________
Other public utilities:
Gas and electric utilities_________
Electric light and power utilities.
Gas utilities________________
Electric light and gas utilities
combined________________

35.9

38.1

38.4

37.8

36.3

35.4

37.1

37.2

37.9

37.7

37.3

36.2

36.7

37.7

36.8

39.3

39.7

39.0

40.5

39.0

38.7

38.8

38.5

38.9

39.4

38.8

38.7

38.7

39.1

39.0

38.6

38.6

40.1

39.3

39.1

38.1

38.7

36.8

38.1

40.1

36.2

37.5

39.5

40.8

39.7

34.4
34.9
40.1
37.2

37.6
37.9
38.8
38.2

38.2
38.5
38.5
38.0

38.1
37.5
39.3
36.8

37.1
35.5
38.5
37.3

35.4
34.7
37.2
35.5

37.3
36.6
38.1
38.7

37.7
36.9
37.3
38.2

38.9
37.8
37.2
38.2

38.6
37.2
37.6
39.1

36.5
36.6
41.0
40.0

35.8
35.7
37.8
36.4

36.5
36.2
38.9
38.0

37.7
37.4
38.8
38.4

37.1
36.1
38.0
38.3

37.2

37.6

36.1

36.9

36.1

35.7

36.0

36.4

35.9

37.4

37.3

36.9

35.7

36.8

36.0

43.0

42.6
43.2

41.0
43.2

42.8
43.5

41.7
43.2

4L 6
42.7

42.9
42.7

42.7
42.5

41.0
42.3

42.8
42.9

41.1
42.8

41.6
42.6

41.8
42.3

41.9
42.8

41.6
42.7

40.9
43.5

39.5
42.6

39.8
42.3

39.4
42.8

39.2
42.5

38.9
41.8

39.1
41.8

39.2
41.6

38.8
41.8

39.2
41.9

40.7
41.9

39.9
42.1

40.6
44.1

39.2
42.1

38.4
41.5

41.6
42.2
40.9

40.8
41.1
40.4

40.9
41.1
40.4

40.8
41.0
40.3

40.8
40.9
40.3

40.8
40.9
40.5

40.7
40.8
40.5

40.6
40.7
40.1

40.9
40.9
40.5

40.9
40.8
40.8

41.3
41.0
41.4

41.3
41.0
41.6

41.3
41.2
41.6

41.0
40.9
40.9

40.8
40.9
40.7

41.5

40.8

40.9

41.0

41.2

41.0

40.7

40.9

41.1

41.2

41.5

41.4

41.2

41.1

40.8

Average hourly earnings
Manufacturing—Continued
Nondurable goods—Continued
Leather and leather products________ $1.64 $1.64 $1.64
Leather: tanned, curried, and fin2.12
2.14
2.13
ished
______________
Industrial leather belting and
2.04
2.00
2.04
packing______________ _____
Boot and shoe cut stock and find1.55
1.57
ings . . ___________________ 1.57
1.59
1.59
Footwear (except rubber)________ 1.58
1.67
1.68
1.72
Luggage______________________
1.53
1.53
Handbags and small leather goods.. 1.56
Gloves and miscellaneous leather
1.48
1.45
1.45
goods. .
__- _____________
Transportation and public utilities:
Transportation:
Interstate railroads:
2.62
2.59
Class I railroads 3___________
2.32
Local railways and buslines______ 2~33 2.32
Communication:
2.26
2.26
2.34
T elephone________________
2.42
2.44
2.42
Telegraph
------------------Other public utilities:
2.69
2.70
Gas and electric utilities_________ 2.74
2.70
Electric light and power utilities. 2. 77 2.70
2.53
2.57
2.53
Gas u tilitie s.______________
Electric light and gas utilities
2.82
2. 86 2.84
combined________________
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

$1.65

$1.65

$1.64

$1. 64

$1.63

$1.63

$1.62

$1.62

$1.61

$1.61

$1. 61

$1.57

2.13

2.13

2.11

2.11

2.11

2.09

2.10

2.09

2.08

2.07

2.07

2.01

1.99

1.97

1.93

1.97

1.96

1.96

1.99

1.92

1.93

1.96

1.95

1.93

1.56
1.60
1.69
1.53

1.57
1.60
1.69
1.53

1.56
1.60
1.69
1.51

1.55
1.60
1.67
1.50

1.55
1.59
1.67
1.50

1.55
1.59
1.69
1.49

1.55
1.57
1.69
1. 50

1.54
1. 57
1.70
1.49

1.52
1. 56
1.68
1.49

1. 53
1. 56
1.65
1.48

1.52
1. 56
1.68
1.47

1.51
1.52
1.67
1.45

1.47

1.46

1.44

1.45

1.44

1.42

1.42

1.44

1.43

1.44

1.41

1.40

2.58
2.32

2.58
2.31

2. 58
2.29

2.56
2.29

2.61
2.29

2.60
2.26

2. 57
2.24

2.60
2.23

2.53
2.22

2. 54
2.23

2.54
2.21

2.44
2.12

2.24
2. 43

2. 24
2.30

2.22
2. 28

2. 24
2.28

2.23
2.27

2.22
2.28

2.23
2.28

2. 21
2.28

2.22
2.27

2.20
2.27

2.18
2.28

2.05
2.17

2. 68
2.68
2. 51

2.68
2.68
2.51

2. 67
2.66
2. 50

2. 66
2.67
2.49

2.65
2. 65
2.49

2. 65
2.65
2.49

2.64
2.64
2.48

2. 64
2.65
2.51

2.63
2.64
2.48

2.61
2. 63
2.46

2.58
2. 60
2.43

2.46
2.48
2.33

2.82

2.82

2.82

2.80

2. 80

2. 79

2. 77

2. 75

2.74

2.72

2.69

2.54

1358

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T able C -l. Gross hours and earnings of production workers,1 by industry—Continued
1960

Industry
S ept.2| Aug.
WT1
IioIgsuIg Hikd rctkill 111«iIl •
Wholesale trade.......... .............. ............. $93. 56
Retail trade (except eating and drinking places)_____ ________________ 68.43
General merchandise stores______ 49.16
Department stores and general
mail-order houses........_........ - 55. 55
Food and liquor stores__________ 72.47
Automotive and accessories dealers. 88. 48
Apparel and accessories stores____ 52.17
Other retail trade:
Furniture and appliance stores. 76.92
Lumber and hardware supply
82. 94
stores__________________
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
Banks and trust companies 5. . . ............ 69.56
Security dealers and exchanges_______ 115. 54
Insurance carriers________7_________ 88.01
Service and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, year-round 8____________ 48.95
Personal services:
Laundries_____________________ 48.46
Cleaning and dyeing plants______ 54.95
Motion pictures:
Motion-picture production and
distribution....... ............................ 116. 76

July | June

May

Annual
average

1959
Apr.

Mar. | Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959 1 1958

Average weekly earnings
$93. 56 $94.19 $93.09 $92.46 $91.83 $91. 37 $90.35 $90.80 $91.94 $91. 71 $91.53 $91.94 $90.27

$87.02

69. 32
50.26

09. 52
50. 75

68.80
49.74

67.69
48.87

67.48
48.99

66.95
48. 33

66. 95
48.19

66.95
48.19

66.09
50.01

66. 38
47.46

67.11
47.94

67.82
48.50

67.06
48. 37

64.77
46.85

56.32
72. 76
89. 96
52.65

56.99
73.16
91.29
52. 59

56.00
72.16
91.29
52.82

55.04
70.60
90.87
51.56

55.14
70.13
91.73
53.48

53.69
68.89
88.91
50.85

53. 69
69.34
87. 40
51.64

54.19
69.38
88.04
51.87

56.70
69.26
86.29
53.35

52.98
69.81
88. 71
51.83

53.82
69. 65
89. 76
51.34

54.60
71.20
87.40
52.29

54. 36
69.89
88.24
51.90

52. 60
67.52
83.22
50.81

77.49

76.70

77.08

75.07

75.44

74.80

75.44

76.67

79.80

77.46

76.18

77.42

75.76

72. 31

83.69

83.50

82.88

82.49

81.64

79.49

78.28

78.09

79.99

80.22

81. 79

80.79

79.95

77.04

69.75 70.31 69. 75 69. 75 69.94 69. 56 69. 94 69.93 68.81 68.26 68.81 68.26
113.14 117.33 117.16 111.54 113.61 112.67 114. 52 115.49 117.14 110 1ñ 109 43 107 29
88.34 88.08 87.99 88.15 87.37 87.68 87.54 87.26 86.52 86.32 85. 79 85.98

68.07

66. 57

85! 79

82! 97

49.04

48.80

48.80

48.07
53.02

48. 56
54. 43

48.68
57.06

118.61

48.28

47.52

48.00

47.64

48.12

48.40

48.24

48.20

48.36

47. 44

45.20

48.00
57.94

46. 68
52.68

46.92
52.40

47.04
53.10

47.24
54.91

46. 37
54.35

46.96
55.60

46.96
53.54

46. 45
53.29

44.30
50.82

114. 62 112.12 113.37 107.96 107.23 112.13 111. 63 112.89 114.31 114.51 110.97 108.36
Average weekly hours

98.65

48.68
55.95

Wholesale and retail trade:
Wholesale trade....................................... 40.5
40.6
40.2
40.5
40.3
39.9
40.1
39.8
40.0
40.5
40.4
40.5
40.5
40.3
40.1
Retail trade (except eating and drinking places)______________ _______ 37.6
38.3
38.2
37.8
37.4
37.4
37.7
37.4
37.4
38.2
37.5
37.7
38.1
38.1
38.1
General merchandise stores______
34.9
34.3
33.9
35.0
33.7
34.5
33.8
33.7
33.7
36.5
33.9
34.0
34.4
34.7
34.8
Department stores and general
35.2
35.4
34.4
mail-order houses_________
34.5
35.0
34.9
34.2
34.2
34.3
37.3
34.4
34.5
35.3
35.0
35. 3
Food and liquor stores__________
36.2
36.4
35.9
35.7
35.3
35.6
35.3
35.2
35.4
35.7
35.8
35.9
36.7
36.4
36.3
44.1
44.1
44.1
43.9
44.1
Automotive and accessories dealers. 43.8
43.8
43.7
43.8
43.8
43.7
44.0
43.7
43.9
43.8
35.1
34.6
34.3
Apparel and accessories stores____ 34.1
33.7
34.5
33.9
34.2
33.9
34.1
35.1
34.0
34.4
34.6
34.8
Other retail trade:
41.0
40.8
40.8
Furniture and appliance stores. 40.7
41.0
41.1
41.0
41.0
41.0
41.2
42.0
41.4
41.4
41.4
41.8
Lumber and hardware supply
stores____________________ 42.1
42.7
42.6
42.5
42.3
42.3
41.4
41.1
41.2
42.1
42.0
42.6
42.3
42.3
42.1
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
37.4
Banks and trust companies 8________
37.2
37.3
37.3
37.3
37.4
37.4
37.4
37.8
37.6
37.3
37.6
37.3
37.4
37.4
Security dealers and exchanges_______
Insurance carriers_______ ____ ______
Service and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
40.2
Hotels, year-round 8_____ _______ 39.8
40.0
40.0
39.9
39.6
40.0
39.7
40.1
40.0
40.2
40.5
40.3
40.2
40.0
Personal services:
Laundries_______ ____ _________ 39.4
39.4
39.8
39.9" 39.9
38.9
39.1
40.0
39.2
39.7
39.3
39.8
39.8
39.7
39.2
Cleaning and dyeing plants.......... . 38.7
38.6
37.6
39.9
39.4
40.8
37.9
37.7
38.2
39.5
39.1
40.0
38.8
38.9
38.5
Motion pictures:
Motion-picture production and
distribution....................................
Average hourly earnings
„„ , ,
, ,
Wholesale trade____ ____ __________ $2.31 $2.31 $2. 32 $2.31 $2.30 $2.29 $2.29 $2.27 $2.27 $2.27 $2.27 $2.26 $2.27 $2.24
$2.17
Retail trade (except eating and drinking places)______________________
1.82
1.82
1.82
1.81
1.81
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.79
1.73
1.77
1.78
1.78
1.76
1.70
General merchandise stores______
1.44
1.45
1.45
1.42
1.45
1.45
1.43
1.43
1.43
1.37
1.40
1.41
1.41
1. 39
1. 35
Department stores and general
mail-order houses_________
1.61
1.61
1.60
1.60
1.60
1.58
1.57
1.57
1.58
1.54
1.62
1.56
1.56
1. 54
1. 49
Food and liquor stores..................... 2.03
2.01
2.01
2.01
1.97
2.00
1.98
1.97
1.96
1.94
1.95
1.94
1.94
1.92
1. 86
2.04
2.07
2.07
Automotive and accessories dealers. 2.02
2.07
2.08
2.03
2.00
2.01
1.97
2.03
2.04
2.00
2.01
1.90
1.54
Apparel and accessories stores____
1.53
1.50
1.52
1.53
1.55
1.50
1.51
1.53
1.52
1.52
1.51
1.52
1. 50
1. 46
Other retail trade:
1.89
1.88
1.88
1.84
Furniture and appliance stores. 1.89
1.84
1.82
1.84
1.87
1.88
1.90
1.84
1.87
1.83
1. 73
Lumber and hardware supply
stores____________________ 1.97
1.96
1.95
1.95
1.96
1.93
1.92
1.90
1.90
1.90
1.91
1.92
1.91
1.89
1.83
Finance, insurance, and real estate:
SI Banks and trust companies 8________
1.87
1.87
1.87
1.88
1.87
1.87
1.86
1.87
1.85
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.83
1.82
1. 78
! Security dealers and exchanges_______
Insurance carriers____ ____________
Service and miscellaneous:
Hotels and lodging places:
Hotels, year-round 8______
1.22
1.22
1.22
1.23
1.21
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.21
1.20
1.19
1.20
1.18
1.13
Personal services:
1.22
1.22
1.22
Laundries_______________ _____ 1.23
1.22
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.20
1.19
1.18
1.18
1.18
1.17
1.13
Cleaning and dyeing plants______ 1.42
1.41
1.41
1.43
1.42
1.42
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.39
1.38
1.37
1.32
Motion pictures:
Motion-picture p ro d u c tio n a n d
distribution__ _. _ ____ _ __
1 For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to August
state Commerce Commission and relate to all employees who received pay
1958 and coverage of these series, see footnote 1, table A-2.
during the month, except executives, officials, and staff assistants (ICO
In addition, hours and earnings data for anthracite mining have been re­
Group I).
vised from January 1953 and are not comparable with those published in
4 Data relate to domestic nonsupervisory employees except messengers.
issues prior to August 1958.
» Average weekly earnings have been revised beginning with January 1958
For mining, manufacturing, laundries, and cleaning and dyeing plants,
and
are not strictly comparable with data for earlier years. Average weekly
data refer to production and related workers; for contract construction, to
hours
and average hourly earnings are new series, available from January 1958.
construction workers; and for the remaining industries, unless otherwise
6
Money
payments only; additional value of board, room, uniforms, and
noted, to nonsupervisory workers and working supervisors.
tips
not
included.
2 Preliminary.
3 Figures for Class I railroads (excluding switching and terminal companies)
S o u r c e : U .S . Department o f Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics for all
are based upon monthly data summarized in the M-300 report by the Inter­
series except that for Class I railroads. (See footnote 3.)


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0.—EARNINGS AND HOURS

1359

T able C-2. Average overtime hours and average hourly earnings excluding overtime of production

workers in manufacturing, by major industry group 1
1960

1959

Annual
average

Major industry group
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Average overtime hours *
Manufacturing...............................................

2.5

2.4

2.4

2.5

2.4

2.1

2.5

2.6

2.8

2.7

2.6

2.8

3.0

2.7

2.0

Durable goods.........................................
Ordnance and accessories................
Lumber and wood products______
Furniture and fixtures__________
Stone, clay, and glass products.......
Primary metal industries................
Fabricated metal products..............
Machinery (except electrical).........
Electrical machinery____________
Transportation equipment............ Instruments and related products-.
Miscellaneous manufacturing.........

2.5
2.2
3.1
2.8
3.0
1.6
2.9
2.2
2.1
2.8
2.3
2.4

2.3
2.1
3.2
2.8
3.2
1.4
2.8
2.3
1.9
2.3
2.2
2.3

2.3
1.9
3.1
2.3
3.1
1.7
2.5
2.5
1.6
2.2
2.2
2.1

2.4
1.9
3.4
2.4
3.1
1.6
2.7
2.7
1.8
2.4
2.0
2.1

2.4
1.9
3.2
2.4
3.1
1.5
2.6
2.7
1.7
2.6
2.0
2.2

2.1
1.6
2.9
2.4
2.8
2.0
2.1
2.4
1.2
1.9
1.7
1.9

2.5
2.0
2.8
2.4
2.7
2.1
2.5
2.8
1.9
2.8
2.3
2.4

2.7
2.3
2.8
2.6
2.8
2.4
2.7
2.9
2.0
3.2
2.3
2.5

2.9
2.1
2.9
2.7
2.9
2.8
3.2
2.8
2.4
3.8
2.2
2.4

2.7
2.2
3.0
3.5
3.0
2.6
3.0
2.9
2.4
2.5
2.7
2.7

2.5
2.1
3.2
3.2
3.2
2.3
2.3
2.5
2.2
1.9
2.6
2.7

2.8
2.1
3.5
3.5
3.4
2.6
2.9
2.7
2.5
2.5
2.5
3.1

3.0
2.3
3.6
3.2
3.6
3.0
3.6
2.8
2.6
2.7
2. 4
3.0

2.7
2.1
3.4
2.9
3.4
26
2.9
2.7
2. 2
2.5
23
2.6

19
2n
29
2 1
28
n
2 1
17
15
19
15
2.1

Nondurable goods....................
Food and kindred products______
Tobacco manufactures____
Textile-mill products.......................
Apparel and other finished textile
products_____ ________
Paper and allied products...............
Printing and publishing..................
Chemicals and allied products__
Products of petroleum and coal__
Rubber products..................
Leather and leather products_____

2.6
3.9
1.4
2.2

2.5
3.3
.9
2.6

2.6
3.5
1.2
2.6

2.5
3.2
1.2
2.9

2.5
3.1
1.0
2.9

2.2
2.8
.7
2.5

2.4
2.9
.5
3.0

2.5
2.8
.6
3.0

2.6
3.3
1.3
3.0

2.7
3.4
1.1
3.2

2.7
3.6
1.0
3.2

2.8
3.6
1.3
3.2

3.0
4.0
1.6
3.1

2.7
3.3
1.2
3.1

22
30
1. 3
21

1.2
4.5
3.2
2.4
2.3
2.0
1.3

1.4
4.3
3.1
2.3
1.8
2.3
1.6

1.3
4.3
3.0
2.5
2.3
3.0
1.4

1.3
4.3
2.9
2.4
2.1
2.7
1.3

1.3
4.3
3.0
2.5
1.6
2.2
1.0

1.0
3.7
2.6
2.9
1.7
1.7
.8

1.4
4.1
3.0
2.3
1.4
2.3
1.4

1.4
4.2
2.8
2.4
1.5
2.8
1.4

1.3
4.3
2.9
2.3
1.6
3.1
1.4

1.4
4.3
3.6
2.4
1.5
2.8
1.4

1.6
4.5
3.1
2.4
1.8
2.5
1.4

1.5
4.6
3.2
2.5
2.1
3.5
1.2

1.5
5.1
3.6
3.1
2.3
4.3
1.2

1.4
4. 6
3.0
2.5
1.8
3.7
1.4

11
3.9
2. 5
2.0
1.5
2.3
li

Average hourly earnings excluding overtime *
Manufacturing_______________________ $2.23

$2.21

$2.22

$2. 22

$2.22

$2.22

$2. 22

$2. 21

$2.21

$2.20

$2.16

$2.14

$2.14

$2.15

$2.08

Durable goods..........................................
Ordnance and accessories............. .
Lumber and wood products............
Furniture and fixtures..___ _____
Stone, clay, and glass products___
Primary metal industries...............
Fabricated metal products_______
Machinery (except electrical)..........
Electrical machinery........................
Transportation equipment .............
Instruments and related products..
Miscellaneous manufacturing____

2.39
2.60
2.02
1.81
2.21
2. 75
2. 39
2. 51
2.26
2.72
2.30
1.90

2.37
2. 57
1.99
1.80
2.20
2. 75
2.37
2.49
2.25
2.68
2.31
1.88

2.38
2. 57
1.99
1.81
2.19
2. 75
2.38
2.49
2.26
2.67
2.31
1.89

2.38
2.57
1.99
1.81
2.19
2. 76
2.38
2.49
2.25
2.66
2.30
1.89

2.37
2. 55
1.95
1.80
2.19
2.77
2.37
2.49
2.24
2.64
2. 29
1.89

2.38
2.56
1.94
1.80
2.19
2.78
2.36
2.47
2.24
2.64
2. 28
1.89

2.38
2.56
1.93
1.81
2.20
2. 77
2.35
2.47
2.23
2.64
2.28
1.88

2.37
2.55
1.91
1.79
2.18
2.77
2.35
2.47
2.23
2. 64
2.27
1.89

2.37
2.55
1.89
1.79
2.18
2. 78
2.35
2.46
2.22
2.64
2.26
1.89

2.35
2.54
1.92
1.78
2.17
2. 77
2.33
2.46
2.20
2.64
2.25
1.88

2.31
2.53
1.94
1.76
2.16
2.70
2.29
2.45
2.18
2.60
2.24
1.84

2.28
2.52
1.94
1.76
2.14
2. 57
2.28
2.44
2.17
2.62
2.23
1.83

2.28
2.49
1.94
1.76
2.14
2.56
2.29
2.43
2.16
2.62
2.22
1.83

2.30
2.49
1.89
1.76
2.13
2.70
2.29
2.42
2.16
2.58
2. 22
1.84

2.23
2.42
1.82
1.73
2.04
2.61
2. 21
2.33
2.11
2.47
2.15
1.80

Nondurable goods_________________
Food and kindred p ro ducts..........
Tobacco manufactures_____ _____
Textile-mill products......... ............
Apparel and other finished textile
products____________________
Paper and allied products...............
Printing and publishing_________
Chemicals and allied products____
Products of petroleum and coal___
Rubber products..............................
Leather and leather products........ .

2.02
2.05
1.55
1.57

2.01
2.07
1.69
1.57

2.02
2.09
1.79
1.57

2.01
2.10
1.79
1.58

2.01
2.11
1.78
1. 57

2.01
2.12
1.78
1.56

2.00
2.11
1.71
1.56

1.99
2.10
1.69
1.54

1.98
2.10
1.69
1.54

1.97
2.08
1.68
1.53

1.96
2.05
1.67
1.53

1.95
2.02
1.56
1.53

1.95
1.99
1.52
1.53

1.94
2.02
1.64
1.52

1.89
1.94
1.57
1.47

1.55
2.20
(6)
2.47
2.85
2.46
1.61

1.54
2.19
(!)
2.47
2.83
2. 44
1.61

1.52
2.18
(»)
2.47
2. 85
2. 46
1.61

1.52
2.17
(s)
2.45
2. 84
2.45
1.62

1.51
2.15
«
2.42
2.84
2. 45
1.63

1.50
2.14
(»)
2.40
2. 87
2. 42
1.62

1.53
2.14
(5)
2.40
2. 85
2.41
1.61

1.52
2.14
(»)
2.40
2. 85
2.41
1.60

1.51
2.14
(5)
2. 39
2.86
2.42
1.60

1.50
2.12
(*)
2.39
2.85
2. 41
1.59

1.50
2.12
(5)
2.37
2.84
2.39
1.59

1.49
2.12
(»)
2.36
2.80
2.38
1.58

1.50
2.12
(«)
2.39
2.83
2.35
1.58

1.49
2.09
(')
2.34
2.81
2.36
1.58

1.49
2.02
«
2. 26
2.69
2.28
1.55

i For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to August
1958, see footnote 1, table A-2.
1 Preliminary.
* Covers premium overtime hours of production and related workers during
the pay period ending nearest the 15th of the month. Overtime hours are
those for which premiums were paid because the hours were in excess of the
number of hours of either the straight-time workday or workweek. Weekend
and holiday hours are included only if premium wage rates were paid. Hours


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for which only shift differential, hazard, incentive, or other similar types of
premiums were paid are excluded. These data are not available prior to 1956.
* Derived by assuming that overtime hours are paid at the rate of time and
one-half.
* Not available as average overtime rates are significantly above time and
one-half. Inclusion of data for the group in the nondurable-goods total has
little effect.

1360

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T able C-3. Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls in industrial and construction

activities 1
[1947-49=100]
Annual
average

1959

1960
Activity
Oct.2 Sept.2

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

Man-hours
T o ta l...
Mining...........................................................
Contract construction...______ _________
Manufacturing...............................................
Durable goods............................ .............
Ordnance and accessories...............
Lumber and wood products______
Furniture and fixtures__________
Stone, clay, and glass products___
Primary metal industries........... .
Fabricated metal products_______
Machinery (except electrical).........
Electrical machinery____________
Transportation equipment....... . .
Instruments and related products .
Miscellaneous manufacturing____
Nondurable goods_________________
Food and kindred products_____
Tobacco manufactures__________
Textile-mill products____ _______
Apparel and other finished textile
products____________________
Paper and allied products________
Printing and publishing_________
Chemicals and allied products____
Products of petroleum and coal___
Rubber products_______________
Leather and leather products.........

101.2
62.5
139.3
98.4

102.0
62.8
139.6
99.2

102 4
64.9
144.9
98.8

101.3
63.8
142.9
97.8

102.3
66.8
135.5
99.9

100.8
66.2
126.3
99.4

98.4
66.5
114.3
98.3

97.4
64.9
94.9
99.9

98.4
63.8
98.5
100.8

99.5
64.0
101.6
101.6

102.4
67.3
118.9
102.4

100.1
64.1
123.3
99.2

101.4
60.0
133.7
99.5

100.7
65.4
123.4
99.8

94.3
67.9
118.2
92.6

103.4 103.3
313.4 322.2
76.9
75.6
109.3 110.2
103.0 102.7
83.4
84.9
107.6 108.0
94.9
96.1
134.7 137.1
120. 1 114.3
117.9 117.2
108.7 107.0

101.7
311.7
78.6
110.6
104.9
85.4
106.8
97.1
134.1
102.4
118.1
106.4

102.4
313.0
78.0
106.2
103.8
88.0
105.3
99.7
130.1
110.9
116.3
99.3

106.1
319.7
81.8
108.7
105.9
92.9
109.2
102.7
134.2
114.1
119.4
104.8

106.5
326.3
77.7
107.5
104.6
95.2
108.5
103.3
133.1
119.8
118.8
102.9

105.8
325.9
74.2
108.0
102.4
99.0
106.2
103.5
131.7
117.7
118.7
100.5

108.1
336.4
70.6
105.7
100.1
103.1
109.8
105.4
137.3
123.8
121.0
102.4

109.3
332.3
72.4
109.2
101.3
104.3
111.3
105.3
138.4
127.0
119.8
100.3

110.3
332.1
72.2
109.3
101.2
106.1
112.3
105.1
141.5
130.1
120.6
98.5

109.8
334.7
76.9
113.5
105.0
105.2
110.6
104.8
142.7
119.2
123.5
103.5

103.4
325.9
78.7
111.4
105.4
93.1
101.9
100.0
139.3
100.5
122.4
108.7

103.3
328.0
81.7
113.8
106.9
59.1
105.9
102.0
142.0
122.4
122.8
111.0

105.6
325.3
78.4
108.7
104.6
91.1
108.7
101.0
132.6
120.4
117.1
101.1

95.9
303.0
72.7
97.2
94.7
83.7
101.1
88.9
115.9
111.6
105.4
92.7

92.4
89.3
85.9
68.9

94.3
96.1
96.6
68.5

95.3
94.1
76.4
71.8

92.3
87.5
64.2
70.9

92.5
82.4
66.3
73.4

90.9
78.5
64.5
72.9

89.4
76.4
61.8
71.8

90.1
74.1
61.6
71.7

90.5
74.4
68.4
72.5

91.2
77.5
74.6
72.9

93.6
81.4
79.6
74.6

94.2
84.7
77.9
74.8

95.0
88.1
92.6
75.6

93.0
83.7
77.1
74.4

88.7
84.2
77.7
69.2

101.4
111.6
118.1
105.9
80.4
99.1
83.9

102.9
112.4
118.0
105.6
82.4
97.3
85.0

108.0
112.6
115. 8
105.1
82.7
98.3
93.0

102.5
110.9
114.7
105.6
84.2
97.7
91.2

104.7
113.0
115.1
107.1
84.7
100.8
90.1

104.2
112.0
115.0
107.8
83.6
98.7
84.2

100.9
110.2
113.4
109.8
83.6
96.6
82.6

106.4
110.3
114.7
105.7
82.4
102.9
89.7

107.1
110.2
113.4
105.2
82.7
104.9
90.2

104.6
111.6
113.7
104.9
82.1
106.3
91.9

107.0
112.9
117.5
106.5
83.1
106.5
92.1

108.0
113.6
115.3
106.5
83.4
104.2
91.0

105.9
114.2
115.7
106.3
81.3
108.9
88.4

105.1
112.7
112.8
104.3
84.1
103.5
92.2

96.8
108.0
109.0
99.2
84.2
92.0
86.0

104.4
180.2
173.9

105.4
185.4
175.5

110.5
214.8
175.4

104.4
221.8
166.8

95.9 105.0
239.1 216.9
165.9 167.2

104.9
200.5
148.7

Payrolls
Mining......................................................... .
Contract construction............ ......... .............
Manufacturing_____________ _____ ____ 171.2

101.6
259.4
172.0

104.5
267.9
169.2

103.3
262.8
169.0

108.4
246.9
172.5

107.8
230.5
171.5

108.7
207.9
168.8

106.5
176.1
172.6

For mining and manufacturing, data refer to production and related work­
ers; for contract construction, to construction workers.
2 Preliminary.

i For comparability of data with those published in issues prior to August
1958, see footnote 1, table A-2.

T able C-4. Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of production workers in manufacturing,

in current and 1947-49 dollars 1
Annual
average

1959

1960
Item
Sept.2 Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

Sept.

1959

1958

Manufacturing
Gross average weekly earnings:
Current dollars____ _______________ $90. 85 $90.35 $91.14 $91.60 $91.37 $89.60 $90.91 $91.14 $92.29 $92.16 $88.98 $89.06 $89.47 $89.47
1947-49 dollars______________ ______ 71.65 71.37 71.99 72.41 72.34 71.00 72.32 72.56 73.60 73.43 70.84 70.96 71.46 71.81
Spendable average weekly earnings:
Worker with no dependents:
Current dollars________________
1947-49 dollars_________________
Worker with 3 dependents:
Current dollars__ ____ __________
1947-49 dollars_______ __________

73.45
57. 93

73.06
57.71

73.67
58.19

74.03
58.52

73.85
58.47

72.48
57.43

73.49
58. 46

73.67
58.65

74.56
59.46

74.92
59. 70

72.45
57.68

72.51
57.78

72.83
58.17

72.83
58.45

68.46
55.43

81.00
63. 88

80. 61
63.67

81.23
64.16

81.59
64. 50

81.41
64.46

80.01
63.40

81.05
64.48

81.23
64.67

82.14
65. 50

82.50
65.74

79.97
63.67

80.03
63. 77

80.36
64.19

80.36
64.49

75. 88
61.44

1 See footnote 1, table 0-3.
Spendable average weekly earnings are obtained by deducting from gross
average weekly earnings, Federal social security and income taxes for which
the worker is liable. The amount of tax liability depends, of course, on the
number of dependents supported by the worker as well as on the level of his
gross income. Spendable earnings have been computed for 2 types of income
receivers: (1) a worker with no dependents; and (2) a worker with 3 depend­
ents. The primary value of the spendable series is that of measuring relative
changes in disposable earnings for 2 types of income receivers.
The computations of spendable earnings for both the worker with no de­
pendents and the worker with 3 dependents are based upon the gross average


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$83.50
67.61

weekly earnings for all production workers in manufacturing without direct
regard to marital status, family composition, or other sources of income.
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings expressed in 1947-49 dollars
indicate changes in the level of average weekly earnings after adjustment for
changes in purchasing power as measured by the Bureau’s Consumer Price
Index.
2 Preliminary.
N ote: For a description of these series, see The Calculation and Uses of
the Spendable Earnings Series (in M onthly Labor Review, January 1959,
pp. 50-54).

1361

D —CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

D.—Consumer and Wholesale Prices
T a b l e D -l. Consumer Price I n d e x A l l - c i t y average: All items, groups, subgroups, and special

groups of items
[1947-49=100]
Ann ual
aver age

1959

1960
Group

All items.........................................................

125.6

125.4

125.5

125.6

125.5

124.6

123.5

117.4
114.4
135.2
106.2
116. 5
125.9
102.9

117.6
114.7
134.8
106.4
116.5
125.7
104.5

117.8
115.0
134.5
106.6
116.7
125.5
105.4

117.9
115.1
134.2
107.9
116.0
123.4
106.4

118.4
115.8
134.1
109.0
116.1
124.5
107.0

118.3
115.9
134.2
110.7
114.3
125.1
106.1

120.3
118.8
133.1
115.1
113.5
127.1
112.4

126.6

126.5

126.3

126.2

119.7
117.0
135.6
109.7
115.0
132.9
104.9

119.5
116.7
135.8
109.3
115.3
129.9
106.1

127.3

126.8

126.6

Deo.

1958

117.7
114.7
135.5
107.2
116.4
125.0
103.4

Mar.

July

1959

125.7

Apr.

Aug.

Oct.

Jan.

May

Sept.

Nov.

Feb.

June

Oct.

Food >........................................— ................
Food at home...........................................
Cereals and bakery products...........
Meats, poultry, and fish..................
Dairy products________________
Fruits and vegetables.......................
Other foods at home *.......................

120.9
118.2
138.5
110.0
118.4
124.8
112.0

120.2
117.4
137.8
110.2
117.5
124.6
109.3

120.1
117.4
137.7
111.3
116.6
127.3
106.5

120.6
117.9
137.5
110.8
115.8
134.4
104.8

120.3
117.7
136.1
110.3
115.0
136.1
104.5

Housing <-------- --------------------- -----------Rent_____________________________
Gas and electricity____________ _____
Solid fuels and fuel oil........ ....................
Housefurnishings................ ....................
Household operation............ - ................

132.2
142.5
125.7
136.1
104.0
138.1

132.0
142.1
125.7
134.8
104.1
138.0

131.5
141.9
124.9
133.4
103.5
137.6

131.3
141.8
124.8
132.9
104.1
137.4

131.3
141.6
124.7
132.3
104.3
137.3

131.2
141.4
124.7
132.9
104.3
137.2

131.4
141.4
124.4
136.3
104.7
137.0

131.3
141.2
124.1
137.2
104.7
136.9

131.2
141.0
124.0
139.0
104.3
136.3

130.7
140.9
123.2
139.0
104.0
135.9

130.4
140.8
122.7
137.3
104.2
135.5

130.4
140.5
121.7
135.9
104.4
135.4

130.1
140.4
121.7
135.5
104.1
135.3

129.2
139.7
119.9
136.6
103.9
134.3

127.7
137.7
117.0
134.9
103.9
131.4

Apparel...........................................................
Men’s and boys’___________________
Women’s and girls’_________________
Footwear_________________________
Other apparel8____________________

111.0

112.2
101.8
140.5
93.9

110.6
112.2
101.1
140.2
93.8

109.3
110.5
99.7
139.9
93.1

109.1
110.2
99.4
139.8
93.1

108.9
109.8
99.1
140.1
93.1

108.9
109.7
99.4
139.8
93.2

108.9
109.5
99.6
139.8
92.9

108.8
108.9
99.6
139.7
93.0

108.4
108.7
99.3
138.7
92.8

107.9
108.8
98.0
139.4
92.2

109.2
109.1
100.3
139.7
93.1

109.4
109.1
100.9
139.2
93.3

109.4
108.9
101.3
138.5
92.9

107.9
108.4
99.5
135.2
92.3

107.0
108.6
99.1
129.8
92.0

Transportation............ .................................. 146.1
P rivate____ ____- ................................. 134.1
Public....................................................... 202.6

144.7
132.8
201.7

146.2
134.4
200.7

145.9
134.2
200.3

145.8
134.1
199.7

145.6
133.9
199.4

146.1
134.4
199.4

146.5 8147.5 «147.6
134.9 8136.0 «136.3
199.4 199.3 197.2

148.7
137.5
197.2

149.0
137.9
196.0

148.5
137.4
195.9

146.3
135.2
193.9

140.5
129.7
188.0

Medical care.............. ..................................... 157.3

156.9

156.7

156.4

156.1

155.9

155.5

155.0

154.7

153.5

153.2

153.0

152.5

150.8

144.6

Personal care_________________________

134.0

133.9

133.8

133.4

133.2

133.2

132.9

132.7

132.6

132.7

132.9

132.7

132.5

131.2

128.6

Reading and recreation________________

121.9

122.1

121.9

121.6

121.1

121.4

121.1

120.9

120.6

120.3

120.4

120.0

119.7

118.6

116.7

Other goods and services_______________

132.7

132.7

132.4

132.2

132.0

131.9

131.9

131.7

131.8

131.8

131.7

131.6

131.6

129.7

127.2

Special groups:
All items less food....................... - .........
All items less shelter......... ................—
All commodities less food___________

130.7
124.8
115.9

130.3
124.3
115.6

130.1
124.1
115.5

129.9
124.2
115.4

129.7
124.0
115.3

129.7
123.8
115.3

129.8
123.7
115.6

129.7
123.1
115.7

129.7
123.0
116.0

129.4
122.9
115.9

129.5
123.1
116.4

129.5
123.1
116.5

129.2
123.2
116.3

127.9
122.2
115.1

125.5
121.2
113.4

All commodities___________________
Nondurables 7-------------------------Nondurables less food..............
Nondurables less food and
apparel__________________
Durables 8____________________
Durables less cars___________

118. 2
120.7
120.9

117.7
120.3
120.9

117.6
119.9
120.1

117.7
120.0
119.9

117.6
119.8
119.6

117.3
119.4
119.4

117.4
119.4
119.7

116.7
118.3
119.6

116.7
118.0
119.4

116.7
118.1
119.2

117.1
118.5
119.9

117.2
118.6
119.8

117.3
118.8
119.8

116.6
118.1
118.3

116.3
118.6
116.9

129.5
110.9
102.8

129. 8
110.0
103.0

129.4
103.0

129.2
111. 1
103.0

128.7
111.5
103.2

128.4
111.9
103.5

129.0
112.1
103.6

128.9 128.8 128.9
112.5 «113.3 «113 3
103.6 103.4 103.4

129.1
113.8
103.3

128.9
114.1
103.4

128.8
113.6
103.3

127.3
113.0
103.3

125.6
110. 5
103.4

All services 8______________________
All services less r e n t--....................
Household operation services
gas, and electricity________
Transportation services--------Medical care services________
Other services_____________

151.2
153.4

150.8
153.0

150.3
152.5

150.0
152.1

149.7
151.8

149.6
151.7

149.4
151.5

149.2
151.3

148.9
150.9

148.2
150.1

147.8
149.7

147.6
149.5

147.3
149.1

145.8
147.5

142.4
143.8

140.1
186.3
164.3
136.8

139.8
185.8
163.6
136.5

139.2
185.2
163.3
136.0

139.1
184.9
163.0
135.5

138.9
184.5
162.5
135.1

138.8
184.3
162.4
135.2

138.5
184.2
161.9
135.0

138.3
183.9
161.3
134.9

137.8
183.6
160.8
134.7

137.2
182.7
159.5
134.1

136.7
182.7
159.2
133.6

136.3
182.2
158.8
133.7

136.3
182.1
158.4
133.1

134.8
180.3
156.3
131.7

131.4
174.1
149.2
129.6

111.0

i The Consumer Price Index measures the average change in prices of
goods and services purchased by urban wage-earner and clerical-worker
families. Data for 46 large, medium-size, and small cities are combined for
the all-city average.
8 In addition to subgroups shown here, total food Includes restaurant meals
and other food bought and eaten away from home.
8 Includes eggs, fats and oils, sugar and sweets, beverages (nonalcoholic),
and other miscellaneous foods.
* In addition to subgroups shown here, total housing includes the purchase
price of homes and other homeowner costs.
8 Includes yard goods, diapers, and miscellaneous items.
8 Revised.
r Includes food, house paint, solid fuels, fuel oil, textile housefurnishings,
household paper, electric light bulbs, laundry soap and detergents, apparel


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

(except shoe repairs), gasoline, motor oil, prescriptions and drugs, toilet
goods, nondurable toys, newspapers, cigarettes, cigars, beer, and whiskey.
8 Includes water heaters, central heating furnaces, kitchen sinks, sink
faucets, porch flooring, household appliances,_furniture and bedding, floor
coverings, dinnerware, automobiles, tires, radio and television sets, durable
toys, and sporting goods.
»Includes rent, home purchase, real estate taxes, mortgage interest, prop­
erty insurance, repainting garage, repainting rooms, reshingling roof, re­
finishing floors, gas, electricity, dry cleaning, laundry service, domestic
service, telephone, water, postage, shoe repairs, auto repairs, auto insurance,
auto registration, transit fares, railroad fares, professional medical services,
hospital services, hospitalization and surgical insurance, barber and beauty
shop services, television repairs, and motion picture admissions.

1362

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

T a b l e D 2. Consumer Price Index 1—A ll items and food indexes, by city
[1947-49=100]
1960

City
Oct.

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

1959

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Annual average

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

All items
All-city average s_
Atlanta, Ga........
Baltimore, M d ...
Boston, Mass___
Chicago, 111.........
Cincinnati, Ohio.

127.3

126.8

126.6

126.6

126.5

126.3

126.2

125.7

125.6

125.4

125.5

125.6

125.5

124.6

123.5

130.3
«

(3)
(3)
128.7
130.4
(»)

127.1
128.3
(3)
130.1
124.6

(3)
(*)
(’)
129.6
(3)

(3)
(3)
128.3
129.5
(3)

126.7
127.7
(3)
129.2
123.6

(3)
(8)
(*)
129.1
(3)

(3)
0
126.4
128.9
(3)

126.4
127.2
(3)
129.0
123.8

(3)
0
(3)
129.1
«

0
0
126.7
129.3
0

125.4
126.8
125.8
128.1
123.1

124.5
124.5
124.8
127.0
122.3

(3)
125.4
(3)
(3)
129.8

127.4
125.6
126.1
(3)
129.2

(8)
125.8
(3)
127.9
129.5

(8)
125.1
(3)
(3)
129.7

127.1
124.3
125.1
(3)
129.8

(8)
124.2
(3)
126.6
130.1

126.1
(3)
(3)
123.9
123.9
123.4
125.6
(3)
(3)
127.0
(3)
(3)
129.3 4128.8 4 129.1

(3)
124.0
(3)
(8)
128.9

126.4
124.1
125.4
«
128.8

0
124.9
0
126.9
128.5

125.6
123.8
124.6
125.9
127.4

124.8
123.9
123.6
124.1
125.4

128.5
126.1
127.7
129.0
127.2

(8)
125.5
127.2
(3)
(3)

(8)
125.3
126.8
(3)
(3)

127.5
124.8
126.9
128.9
127.6

(3)
124.9
126.4
(3)
(3)

(8)
124.9
126.4
(3)
(8)

127.1
124.7
126.4
127.9
127.6

(3)
124.5
126.0
(3)
(a)

126.2
0
124.4
124.1
125.5
125.5
126.6
(3)
4 127.2
(3)

(»)
124.2
126.5
(3)
(3)

«
124.1
126.2
(3)
(3)

126.5
123.7
126.0
126.8
126.3

125.6
122.8
124.5
125. 5
125.7

124.3
121.1
123.1
124.0
124.4

(3>
(3)
(3)
(3)
(3)

127.4
133.0
(3)
(3)
(3)

(8)
(8)
121.8
129.8
123.2

(«)
(3)

127.2
132.4
(3)
(3)
(3)

122.1
129.7
123.1

3

(8)
(3)
0
m
(>)

126.3
(3)
131.6
(3)
121.4
(3)
4 129. 0
(»)
121.9
(3)

126.6
131.8
0
(8)
(3)

(8)
0
121.5
129.2
121.7

126.3
130.0
120.8
128.2
121.7

124.7
127.5
120.2
125.8
121.1

129.1
130. 7
(31

127.9
128.7
(3)
130.4
124.8

Cleveland, Ohio__
Detroit, Mich.........
Houston, Tex..........
Kansas City, M o ...
Los Angeles, C alif..

(3)
125. 7
(3)
128. 2
130. 3

Minneapolis, M inn.
New York, N .Y ___
Philadelphia, P a__
Pittsburgh, P a........
Portland, Oreg........
St. Louis, Mo______
San Francisco, Calif.
Scranton, P a_______
Seattle, W ash ..........
Washington, D. C ...

0

0

0
0
0

0

<*>
(8)

(3)
0
0)
(8)
(3)

0
0
0
0
0

Food
All-city average 5_________

120.9

120.2

120.1

120.6

120.3

119.7

119.5

117.7

117.4

117.6

117.8

117.9

118.4

118.3

120.3

Atlanta, G a........
Baltimore, M d ...
Boston, Mass___
Chicago, 111.........
Cincinnati, Ohio.

118. 7
121.0
120.3
118.6
122.6

118.2
120.1
120.4
118.1
121.3

118.1
120.7
119.9
118.4
120.8

117.4
121.2
120.4
119.3
121.9

117.6
121.2
119.0
118.8
121.5

116.8
120.5
118.6
117.2
120.4

116.8
119.7
119.2
116.7
120.4

115.0
118.2
118.3
115.1
117.8

114.1
116.7
117.7
114.4
117.8

114.5
116.2
117.4
115.2
117.7

114.2
117.4
118.3
114.6
118. 2

114.3
117.8
119.4
115.3
118.4

115.3
118.1
119.6
116. 2
119.0

115.7
118.0
118.7
115.8
118.8

118.0
120.9
119.7
117.3
122.1

Cleveland, Ohio__________
Detroit, Mich__________
Houston, Tex__________
Kansas City, Mo_______
Los Angeles, Calif______

117.0
119. 6
116.2
113.9
127.0

116.2
118.9
115.8
113.1
126.5

116.7
120.0
115.8
112.9
125.5

117.0
120.6
115.6
113.9
126.6

117.1
120.0
114.8
114.0
126.4

116.4
119.0
114.4
112.7
126.1

115.8
119.1
114.8
112.4
126.8

113.4
116.5
113.0
110.7
124.4

112.9
115.7
113.3
110.4
123.7

113.1
115.8
113.6
111.3
125.2

113.4
116.3
113.5
111.4
123.6

113.1
116.9
113.9
111.3
123.6

113. 5
118.1
114.1
111.9
124.0

114.1
117.5
114.7
112.2
123.5

117.2
121.1
117.0
114.4
123.3

Minneapolis, M inn_____
New York, N .Y ________
Philadelphia, P a_______
Pittsburgh, P a...................
Portland, Oreg_________

119.7
123.2
124.0
122.6
121.3

118.6
122.5
123.1
121.9
121.1

118.7
122.5
123.0
121.0
120.4

118 9
121.9
123.1
123.1
121.7

119.3
121.8
122.6
122.1
121.3

118.1
121.8
121.7
122.2
120.4

118.6
121.4
121.2
121.0
121.2

116.6
120.7
120.0
118. 4
120.0

116.5
120.8
119.1
118.6
120.2

117.0
120.5
119.5
118.7
121.2

117.3
120.8
120.1
119.1
121.0

117.9
120.7
120.6
119.6
120.7

117.8
120.4
121.4
120.1
121.1

118.0
120.3
120.9
119.8
120.7

118.6
120.9
123.1
121.8
120.7

St. Louis, Mo........................
San Francisco, Calif...........
Scranton, P a____________
Seattle, Wash___________
Washington, D .C________'

120.2
125.0
117.0
123.3
121.6

118.9
125.2
115.9
123.2
120.8

119.6
124.0
114.8
123.1
120.1

119.9
124.7
115.7
123.0
120.9

119.6
124.2
116.5
122.6
120.9

118.5
124.3
115.8
122.6
120.4

118.0
124.6
115.5
122.8
119.5

116.7
122.7
113.9
120.9
117.9

117. 5
122.2
113.0
121.0
117.2

116.2
123.6
113.5
121.4
117.3

117.6
123.1
113.9
121.1
118.1

117.7
122.3
114.3
120.8
118.0

118.3
122.9
115.3
121.1
118.5

118.7
122.6
115.4
120.8
119.0

121.2
123.1
118.4
121.3
121.6

i, tauic u - 1. maexes measure time-to-time changes in
prices of goods and services purchased by urban wage-earner and clericalworker families. They do not indicate whether it costs more to live in one
city than in another.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

2 Average of 46 cities.
8 All items indexes are computed monthly for 5 cities and once every 3
months on a rotating cycle for 15 other cities.
4 Revised.

1368

D._CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

T a b l e D -3 . Indexes of w holesale prices,1 b y group and subgroup of com m odities
[1947-49=100, unless otherwise specified]
Annual
average

1959

1960
Commodity group
Oct. 2 Sept.

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

119.2

119.2

119.7

119.5

119.7

120.0

120.0

119.3

119.3

118.9

118.9

119.1

119.5

119.2

All commodities----------- ------- --------------- 119.7

1958

Farm products and processed foods----------

99.4

3 98.1

97.4

99.1

98.6

99.1

99.2

99.1

96.6

96.3

95.5

95.4

96.7

98.2

103.1

Farm products............................................
Fresh and dried fruits and vegetables..
Grains
___________
Livestock and live poultry__________
Plant and animal fibers..........................
"Fluid milk
Eggs........................................................
Hay, hayseeds, and oilseeds...................
Other farm products_______________
Processed foods
Cereal and bakery products_________
Meats, poultry, and f is h ............ ..........
Dairy products and ice c re a m .______
Canned and frozen fruits and vegetables
Sugar and confectionery__ __________
Packaged beverage materials________
Animal fats and oils________________
Crude vegetable oils....... ........................
Refined vegetable oils....... .....................
Vegetable oil end products.....................
Other processed foods______________

89.4
109.0
73.5
80.7
90.8
101.2
98.9
72.2
130.4
109.0
123.1
97.8
121.3
108.3
117.1
140.9
61.8
49.4
57.4
75.2
100.5

»87.7
104.7
74.9
79.0
92.1
3 99.8
85.5
72.3
3129.5
108.1
3122.4
96.0
120.5
107.9
117.9
140.9
3 60.0
3 48.7
55.2
3 74.7
101.4

86.6
98.7
74.3
80.7
92.2
97.0
76.4
73.7
125.6
107.8
122.0
96.8
118.0
106.8
116.9
140.9
66.0
51.6
56.8
73.3
101.7

88.9
112.9
75.5
84.1
96.4
95. 5
65.4
73.5
127.7
108.9
122. 5
99. 5
117.3
107.5
117.2
143.5
62.1
50.3
55.5
72.7
103.3

89.0
109.7
77.5
85.1
96.7
93.3
64.2
74.4
128.0
107.6
121.2
98.1
116.0
106.9
114.3
145.2
56.9
50.3
56.3
72.7
103.9

90.4
116.9
77.8
85.8
96.6
92.7
69.6
76. 5
128.3
107.3
121.2
98.5
114.9
106.3
114.3
145.2
56.0
48.7
57.0
71.5
102.2

91.1
111.5
79.4
85.7
96.3
95.5
80.2
76.3
128.6
106.8
120.9
96.7
115.6
105.8
114.1
145.2
57.6
47.5
56.7
71.5
102.8

90.4
104.4
78.2
86.2
96.0
97.9
75.8
76.7
127.9
107.3
120.8
97.8
117.7
105.8
113.7
145.2
53.1
45.2
55.6
71.5
101.7

87.0
100.5
76.7
80.8
96.1
99.0
58.4
77.1
128.9
105.7
120.6
93.1
118.4
105.0
113.9
145.2
49.4
45.3
54.5
71.2
101.6

86. 5
104.9
77.2
78.5
95. 9
99.3
56.9
77.5
127.4
105.6
120.7
92. 4
118.8
104. 5
113.3
145.2
48.7
46.0
54.8
71.2
103.9

85.9
107.9
76.1
76.0
95.7
98.3
62.8
76.3
127.5
104.7
120.4
90. 5
118.1
104. 6
115.6
145.2
50.1
45.0
52. 5
71.1
100.0

85.4
103.2
76. 5
75.3
94. 7
98.2
63.4
76.3
131.7
104.9
120.4
90.8
117. 7
106.4
116. 7
145. 2
54.2
45.8
52.6
71.9
98.3

86.5
102.2
75. 7
78. 5
94. 7
97.3
69.0
75.4
131. 5
106.4
120.4
95.1
116. 7
107. 4
117.4
145.2
53.2
48.7
54.0
73.6
96.8

89.1
102.7
77.3
85.1
98.2
94.4
65.6
76. 6
132.6
107.0
119.3
98. 2
114.3
109.0
115.1
146. 5
54.6
53.1
58.0
74.0
96.7

94.9
112.0
79. 5
92.9
101. 5
94.6
81. 7
76.9
140. 4
110.9
117.9
106. 7
112. 7
109. 7
115.6
165. 7
72.0
60.1
67.9
82.8
96.6

All commodities except farm products........
All commodities except farm and foods.......
Textile products and apparel____________
Cotton products.....................................
Wool products____________________
Manmade fiber textile products______
Silk products_________________ ____
Apparel.................................................—
Other textile products.............................
Hides, skins, leather, and leather products.
Hides and skins

124.7
128.1
95.8
92.8
101.1
78.6
128.5
101.1
91.3
108.4
64.1
98.1
132.5
103.6
116.3
122. 5
170.4
121.6
102.1
121.0
110.2
123. 6
128.4
104.5
94.2
47.7
112.8
111. 1
107.2
144.7
146.8
141.3
146.8
118.0
116.6
135.5
97.1
133.3
121.2
77.4
145.4
135.9

3124.4
3127. 9
95.9
93.4
101.2
78.6
128.4
101.1
85.7
108.1
62.3
97.5
132.5
3103.9
3116.1
122.4
170.4
3121.3
102.1
120.7
3110.4
3124.5
128.4
104.6
3 95.0
47.7
3112.8
108.4
106.7
3144.9
148.3
141.3
3146.6
3118.7
3117.9
3135.5
3 96.4
3133.0
121.2
77.4
145.4
135.9

124.6
128.2
96.1
94.3
101.5
78.9
126.8
101.0
84.6
108.7
63.6
98.9
132.5
104.7
115.3
121.3
170.4
116.6
102.1
120.0
110.5
124.6
128.4
105.0
95.4
48.9
112.1
108.4
106.7
145.3
152.1
141.3
145.9
119.6
119.2
136.7
94.7
133.0
121.2
77.4
145.2
135.9

124.8 124.6 124.5 124.9 124.9
128.2 128.2 128.2 128.7 128.6
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.3
96.3
95.6
95.0
94.8
94.8
94.7
101.8 102.1 102.4 102.7 102.8
79.4
79.4
79.7
79.6
79.6
123.3 121.6 118.7 118.0 116.6
101.0 100.8 100.6 100.7 100.7
82.5
80.5
85.1
86.8
81.9
110.1 110.3 111.2 112.1 111.8
73.5
72.0
72.9
67.1
68.0
102.2 103.0 103.5 104.7 102.8
132.5 132.5 132. 5 133.5 134.2
105.6 106.4 106.7 107.3 107.3
113.8 112.3 110.8 112.2 112.3
120.3 119.5 118.7 119.0 124.0
170.4 170.4 170.4 170.4 170.4
114.4 112.2 111.6 115. 6 115.6
102.0 101.8 101.7 101.8 101.8
117.9 116.0 113.6 115.4 115.0
110.4 110.2 110.2 110.2 110.1
124.7 124.6 124.6 124.5 124.2
128.4 128.3 128.3 128.3 128.3
103.8 103.2 103.0 102.9 102.8
94.2
94.5
95.1
94.8
95.1
50.6
51.7
47.9
50.2
47.8
110.3 110.2 110.2 110.2 110. 1
110.6 108.8 108.8 108.8 108.8
106.4 106.4 106.4 106.4 106.5
146.9 H46.7 3146.3 3144.7 3144.7
161.2 169.6 169.6 160.9 161.1
141.3 3137.0 3137.0 3137.0 3137.0
145.6 145.6 144.5 144.5 144.6
121.5 122.4 123.7 124.3 124. 5
121.6 123.1 124.9 125. 7 125.9
137.2 136.9 136.9 136.8 137.7
95.9
96.1
95.5
95.7
95.5
133. 5 133.5 133.4 133.1 133.1
121.2 121.2 121.2 121.2 121.2
88.4
89.3
83.2
82.3
82.3
145.9 145.9 145.9 145.1 144.8
135.9 135.9 135.9 135.9 135.9

124.7 124.8 124.4 124.4
128.7 128.8 128.6 128.5
96.7
96.3
96.6
96.5
94.0
95.9
95.0
95.8
103.2 104.0 104.2 103. 7
81.4
79.4
81.3
79.8
119.5 122.0 121. 7 117. 4
100.6 100.8 100.9 100.9
7& 4
79.4
79.8
79.3
112.0 112.7 112.3 111.7
67.2
73.8
73.7
69.8
104.8 105.5 103.5 103.8
134.2 134.2 134.1 133.8
107.2 108.0 107.8 109.3
112.0 111.9 111.7 111.2
124.1 124.1 124.1 124.0
170.4 170.4 170.4 170.4
114.5 116.6 115.5 113.8
101.8 101.3 101.2 100.7
114.6 114.4 114.3 113.9
110.0 109.9 110.0 110.0
124.2 124.1 124.0 123. 9
128.3 128.3 128.3 128.3
103.0 103.0 103.1 102.9
93.8
93.7
93.8
94.0
52.2
50.8
49.2
49.4
110.1 109. 6 109.8 109. 5
108.8 108.8 107.0 106. 6
106.5 106.5 106.8 106.8
3144.6 3143.1 3142.0 H44.4
160.7 162. 8 160. 5 173. 6
3137.0 3132.2 3132.2 3132.2
144.6 144. 6 143.0 143.0
124.9 125.1 124.8 124.3
126.1 126.1 125.9 125.8
137.7 137.8 137.9 138.1
94.5
97.2
98.2
97.0
133.2 133.7 132.4 132.3
121.2 121.2 121.2 121. 2
93.6 108.0 109.8 109.8
144. 5 144.5 144.3 144.3
135.9 135.9 135.9 135.9

124.5
128.4
95.9
93.0
104.1
81.0
114.2
100.6
78.5
116.2
87. 5
112.2
133.5
111.3
111.4
123.6
170.4
111. 1
100.7
114. 5
110.0
123. 9
128.3
102.6
93. 8
54.5
109. 4
106.3
106. 8
3141.9
159. 6
3132.2
143.0
126.2
127.9
138. 7
96.5
132.5
121.2
115.0
144.3
135. 9

131.1 130.6
145.7 3145.3
152.8 153.5
168.9 169.7
137.1 138.4
153.6 153.6
174.6 174.5
130.7 131.5
119.3 119.3
133.9 3134.2

130.5
145.5
153.6
169.9
138.7
153.6
174.5
131.5
118.8
134.7

131.0
144.2
153.4
169.5
138.6
153.6
174.5
131.3
118.7
134.6

127.5
147.6
155.2
172.2
140.7
152.9
173.2
133.2
121.6
135.4

127.4
147. 6
155.8
173. 6
141.1
152.9
173.2
132.4
121. 5
135.4

127.4
147. 6
154.5
173.1
137. 2
152. 9
173.1
131.0
121. 5
134.5

127.5
146. 4
153.6
172.0
136.1
153. /
173.0
130.1
121. 7
133.4

127.6
143.2
150.4
168.8
127.7
155.7
170.8
123.7

146.5

147.2

146.7

146.0

145.7

F o o tw e a r

Other leather products..........................
Fuel, power, and lighting materials.............
Coke
Gas fuels *
Electric power *___________________
Petroleum and products____________
Chemicals and allied products__________
Industrial chemicals________________
Prepared paint____________________
Paint materials___________________
Drugs and pharm aceuticals... ______
Fats and oils, inedible______________
Mixed fertilizer. .
Fertilizer materials ..
Other chemicals and allied products.. .
Rubber and rubber products____________
Crude ru b b er...'___________________
Tires and tubes___________________
Other rubber p roducts..........................
Lumber and wood products..........................
Lumber
Millwork_________________________
Plyw ood...................... .........................
Pulp, paper, and allied products_________
Woodpulp
Wastepaper
Paper _
Paperboard_______________________
Converted paper and paperboard
products . . . . _______________
Building paper and board___ _______
Metals and metal products_____________
Iron and steel. ____________________
Non ferrous metals_________________
Metal containers___________________
Hardware
_____________________
Plumbing fixtures and brass fittings__
Heating equipment________________
Fabricated structural metal products.
Fabricated nonstructural metal prod­
ucts............... ........................................
See footnotes at end of table.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

146.2

146.2

146.2

146.0

130.9
145.1
153.8
169.9
138.9
153.9
174.5
131.3
120.0
134.9
146.0

130.6
145.1
154.2
170.4
140.0
154.8
174.2
132.7
120.2
134.9
146.1

130.0
145.1
154.5
170.5
140.5
154.8
174.0
132.1
120.1
135.3
146.1

130.0
146.5
154.5
170.5
140.8
154.8
173.8
133.9
120.1
135.8
146.1

130.0
147.6
155.3
171.6
142.6
154.8
173.4
133.9
120.3
135.4
146.4

130.0
147.6
155.5
172.4
142.7
152.9
173.4
134.0
120.9
135.4
146.3

124.5 123.3
128.2 126.0
93.5
95.0
88.4
91.7
101.6 100. 8
80.2
81.1
113. 5 113. 5
99.3
100.0
75.2
76. 8
114.3 100.6
90.7
57.5
111. 8 92.3
129. 5 122.1
97. 5
109.0
112.7 112.7
122.6 122.9
169. 8 161.9
110. 9 101. 7
100.8 100. 4
116. 6 117. 7
109.9 110.4
123.8 123. 5
128.3 128.3
101.9 103.6
93. 4 94.0
56.7
62.6
109. 5 110. /
106. 9 108.0
106. 6 106.8
3144.5 145.0
152.0 134.0
3143.4 152.4
142.2 142.7
125.8 117.7
127.1 118.0
135. 9 128.2
101.2
97.1
132.2 131.0
121.2 121.2
112. 5 88.3
143.4 142.3
136.1 136.2

133.9

1364

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1900

T a b l e D-3. Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by group and subgroup of commodities—Continued
[1947-49=100, unless otherwise specifiedl
1960

1959

Annual
average

Commodity group
Oct .2
Machinery and motive products..................
Agricultural machinery and equipment.
Construction machinery and equipm ent—____ _______ ______ ______
Metalworking machinery and equipm ent.................................. ..................
General purpose machinery and equipm ent___________________________
Miscellaneous machinery.......................
Electrical machinery and equipment__
Motor vehicles....................................... .

Sept.

Aug.

July

June

May

Apr.

Mar.

Feb.

Jan.

Dec.

Nov.

Oct.

1959

1958

153.2 3151.8
146.6 146.2

153.2
146.1

153.2
146.0

153.4
145.9

153.5
145.7

154.0
145.6

153.9
145.3

153.9
145.3

153.8
144.3

153.7
144.0

153.6
143.9

153.7
143.4

153.0
143.4

149.8
139.1

177.0

176.7 3176.7

175.5

175.3

175.3

174.7

174.3

173.9

173.6

172.9

172.9

172.5

171.9

166.1

181.0 U81.0

180.2

180.2

180.0

179.2

178.5

178.6

177.8

177.7

177.6

177.5

177.4

174.5

170.1

166.6 166.9
150.4 150.2
152.5 3152. 5
141.5 137.2

166.4
150.2
153.1
141.6

166.6
150.1
153.3
141.6

166.4
150.2
153.9
141.6

167.8
150.0
153.9
141.6

167.9
150.1
155.6
141.6

167.7
149.9
155. 6
141.6

168.2
149.6
155.7
141.6

167.8
149.7
155.8
141.6

167.9
149.8
155.4
141.6

167.5
149.7
155.9
141.6

167.0
149.7
155.9
141.9

165.3
149.4
154.4
142.8

160.0
148.1
152.2
139.7

Furniture and other household durables.
Household furniture.____ __________
Commercial furniture.............................
Floor coverings........................................
Household appliances______________
Television, radio receivers, and phonographs..................................................
Other household durable goods.............

122.8 3122.8
125.5 125.0
157.1 157.1
130.5 3130.5
100.9 3100.9

122.9
125.0
157.1
130.6
101.1

123.1
125.0
157.1
130.6
101.7

123.0
124.9
156.7
130.6
101.7

123.2
125.0
156.7
130.8
102.1

123.5
124.9
156.7
130.8
103.1

123.7
124.9
156.6
130.6
103.2

123.5
124.9
155.8
129.6
103.3

123.4
124.7
155.8
129.6
103.3

123.2
124.2
155.5
129.0
103.7

123.3
124.3
155.5
129.3
104.1

123.3
124.4
155.5
129.3
103.9

123.4
124.1
155.2
128.1
104.7

123 2
123.0
154.6
127.8
104.7

91.1
156.8

91.1
157.6

91.1
157.6

91.4
157.6

91.4
157.4

91.7
157.4

91.7
157.3

91.8
158.3

91.8
158.1

91.7
157.8

91.9
156.6

91.8
156.6

92.1
156.6

92.8
156.4

94.4
155.1

Nonmetallic minerals—structural________
Flat glass............ ....................................
Concrete ingredients...............................
Concrete products...................................
Structural clay products.........................
Gypsum products..................................
Prepared asphalt roofing.......................
Other nonmetallic minerals........... ........

138.0
132.4
142.1
131.0
162.2
133.2
106.6
134.9

138.0
132.4
142.2
131.0
162.1
133.2
106.6
134.5

137.8
130.2
142.2
131.1
162.0
133.2
106.6
134.6

137.8
130.2
142.1
131.3
161.8
133.2
106.6
134.6

137.8
130.2
142.1
131.3
161.7
133.2
106.6
134.6

137.9
130.2
142.1
131.5
161.7
133.2
106.6
134.6

138.3
135.3
142.1
131.3
161.5
133.2
106. 6
134.4

138.2
135.3
142.1
131.0
161.5
133.2
107.6
133.7

138.2
135.3
142.0
131.1
161.5
133.1
107.6
133.7

138.4
135.3
142.0
130.5
161.3
133.1
113.6
132.8

137.8
135.3
140.4
130.4
160.7
133.1
113.6
132.5

137.7
135.3
140.4
130.3
160.6
133.1
113.6
132.5

137.5
135.3
140.4
130.3
160.4
133.1
110.8
132.5

137.7
135.3
140.3
129.7
160.2
133.1
116.4
132.4

136.0
135.4
139.0
128.1
156. 5
132.1
112.8
131.2

Tobacco products and bottled beverages »_
Tobacco products 8_________________
Alcoholic beverages___________ _____
Nonalcoholic beverages______ ______

132.0
130.8
121.1
171.4

132.0
130.8
121.1
171.4

132.0
130.8
121.1
171.4

131.8
130.8
120.6
171.4

131.7
130.8
120.6
171.1

131.7
130.8
120.6
171.1

131.7
130.8
120.6
171.1

131.7
130.8
120.6
171.1

131.7
130.8
120.6
171.1

131.7
130.8
120.5
171.1

131.7
130.7
120.7
171.1

131.7
130.7
120.7
171.1

131.7
130.7
120.7
171.1

131.4
130.5
121.3
167.4

128.2
129.6
120. 5
149.3

Miscellaneous products................................ 90.3
91.1
Toys, sporting goods, small arms, and
ammunition_____________________ 118.6 118.6
Manufactured animal feeds................... 66.2
67.7
Notions and accessories_____________ 96.4
96.4
Jewelry, watches, and photographic
equipment—_____ _______________ 110.9 3110.9
Other miscellaneous products________ 132.6 132.5

89.9

90.8

90.9

91.1

95.4

94.0

93.4

95.3

94.2

93.7

91.8

94.5

94.2

118.5
65.6
97.3

118.6
67.3
97.3

118.3
67.6
96.4

118.3
68.0
96.4

118.3
75.6
97.2

117.8
73.2
97.5

117.8
72.2
97.5

117.7
75.6
97.5

118.0
74.0
97.5

117.7
73.7
97.5

117.7
70.3
97.5

117.5
75.1
97.3

119. 0
74.4
97.5

110.9
132.3

110.7
132.5

110.2
132.6

110.5
132.5

110.5
132.1

110.6
131.6

110.6
131.5

110.6
131.9

109.5
131.9

108.3
131.9

108.3
132.0

108.3
132.2

107.6
132.2

1 As of January 1958, new weights reflecting 1954 values were introduced
Into the index. Technical details furnished upon request to the Bureau.
* Preliminary.
a Revised.
<January 1958=100.

8 This index was formerly tobacco manufactures and bottled beverages.
• New series.

T a b l e D -4 . Indexes of wholesale prices for special commodity groupings 1
[1947-49=100]
1960
Commodity group
All foods.......................................................................
All fish..........................................................................
All commodities except farm products___________
Textile products, excluding hard fiber products........
Refined petroleum products_______________ _____
East Coast petroleum______________________
Midcontinent petroleum................... ...................
Gulf Coast petroleum............................................
Pacific Coast petroleum____________________
Bituminous coal, in domestic sizes_______________
Soaps.............. ........ ............................................
Synthetic detergents................ ................. .............
Lumber and wood products, excluding millwork___
Softwood lumber______________ ___________
Pulp, paper and products, excluding bldg, paper__
Special metals and metal products.............................
Steel mill products ...................................................
Machinery and equipment—.......................................
Agricultural machinery, including tractors_______
Metalworking machinery_______________
Total tracto rs...___ ___ _____ _________
Industrial valves...............................................
Industrial fittings..........................................................
Antifriction bearings and components ___
Abrasive grinding w heels.................. ........................
Construction materials____________ ___________
1 See footnote 1, table D-3.
1 Preliminary.
a Revised.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Oct.2 Sept.
108.4
129.4
124.7
91.2
119.5
112.4
124.7
122.9
107.3
126.2
107.6
103.6
115.1
114.6
133.0
150.0
187.6
159.3
148.5
187.6
157.4
202.9
122.4
132.9
147.6
130.6

106.6
3128.1
s 124.4
91.6
119.2
111.4
124.7
122.9
106.0
126.1
107.6
101.2
3116.0
3116.0
132.7
149.2
187.6
3159.4
3148.0
3187.5
156.9
206.5
122.5
132.9
147.6
3131.1

Aug.

July

105.4
124.4
124.6
92.2
118.3

106.9
129.9
124.8
92.7
115.8
109.8
118.5
121.0
105.1
122.0
107.6
101.2
118.9
120.3
133.3
150.4
187.7
159.4
147.8
186.4
155.9
206.5
125.4
132.9
147.6
132.1

111.0

123.2
122.9
104.1
124.4
107.6
101.2
116.8
117.6
132.7
150.6
187 6
159.4
147.8
186.3
156.9
206.5
121.9
132.9
147.6
131.4

1959

June May Apr. Mar. Feb.
105.5
126.5
124.6
92.8
113.5
109.8
114.4
118.1
106.6
121.0
107.6
101.2
120.2
122.1
133. 2
150.6
188.1
159.6
147.7
186.3
155. 8
206.5
125.4
134.5
147.6
132.9

106.1
126.6
124.5
92.8
110.8
110.6
106.2
118.1
108.1
119.2
107.6
101.2
121.7
124.5
133.1
151.0
188.3
159.8
147.5
185.5
155.8
206.1
144.6
134.5
147.6
133.9

105.8
123.3
124.9
92.9
112.9
110.2
113.1
117.8
105.7
119.2
107.6
101.2
122.5
125.6
132.8
151.1
188.3
160.5
147.3
185.5
155.4
206.1
145.7
134.5
147.6
134.3

105.4
123.4
124.9
93.2
112.5
110.2
112.2
117.3
105. 8
127.8
107.6
101.2
122.6
126.0
132.7
151.1
188.3
160.4
147.1
185.5
155.2
206.1
145.7
134.5
147.6
134.5

102.7
121.8
124.7
93.5
111.9
112.2
109.3
118.8
103. 7
127.8
107.6
101.2
123.0
126.4
132.8
151.7
188.3
160.4
147.1
184.7
154.9
206.0
145.7
134.5
147.6
135.0

Jan.
103.0
121.9
124.8
93.5
111.7
111.8
107.7
119.4
105.8
127.8
107.6
101.3
123.2
126. 5
133.3
151.8
188.3
160.3
145.9
184.5
155.0
205.8
144.1
134.5
147.6
135.2

Annual average

Dec. Nov. Oct.
102.7
122.7
124.4
93.7
111.6
109.9
109.4
118.5
104.4
127.8
109.7
101.7
122.9
126.4
132.0
151.5
188.3
160.1
145.4
184.5
154.4
205.7
144.1
134.5
147.6
134.9

102.6
120.7
124.4
93.1
111.1
108.2
108.4
117.8
108.4
127.7
109.7
101 7
122.2
126.2
131.9
151.9
188.3
160.0
145.3
184.4
154.4
205.7
144.1
134. 5
147.6
134.6

104.1
121.1
124.5
92.4
111.8
108.2
109.8
117.8
109.5
126.5
109.7
101.7
124.4
129.2
132.1
151.2
188.2
159. 8
144.8
184.2
153.3
205. 7
144. 1
134.5
151.6
135.0

1959
104.4
124.5
124.5
91.4
114.2
108.9
115.7
118.4
108.2
124. 9
109.5
101.4
124.5
128.1
131.8
150.8
188.2
158.5
144. 8
181.8
153.3
196.9
139.0
136.1
152.5
134.6

1958
109.5
128.5
123.3
89.1
114.8
110.2
114.5
117.7
117.3
123.0
108.1
101.2
116.2
117.8
130.7
147.6
185.1
155.2
139.7
178.0
147.9
178.7
137.3
141.8
155.9
130.5

N ote: For a description of these series, see Wholesale Prices and Price
Indexes, 1958, BLS Bull. 1257 (1959).

1365

D.—CONSUMER AND WHOLESALE PRICES

T a ble D-5.

Indexes of wholesale prices,1 by stage of processing and durability of product
[1947-49=100]
Annual
average

1959

1960
Commodity group
Oct.2 Sept. Aug. July June May Apr. Mar. Feb. Jan.

Dec. Nov. Oct.

1959

1958

All commodities................................. - ................................... 119.7 119.2 119.2 119.7 119.5 119.7 120.0 120.0 119.3 119.3 118.9 118.9 119.1 119.5 119.2
Stage of processing
Crude materials for further processing...................- ..........Crude foodstuffs and feedstufls...... ............. .................
Crude nonfood materials except fuel------ ---------------Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for manu­
facturing-.------------------- ----------- ------ ---------Crude nonfood materials, except fuel, for con*
stru ctio n _________ - _____________________
Crude fuel
______________________________
Crude fuel for manufacturing_________________
Crude fuel for nonmanufacturing--.........................
Intermediate materials, supplies, and components.............
Intermediate materials and components for manufactoring............... .........................................................
Intermediate materials for food manufacturing---Intermediate materials for nondurable manu­
facturing..................................................................
Intermediate materials for durable manufacturing.
Components for manufacturing------------ ----------Materials and components for construction..................
Processed fuels and lubricants.................. ........ .............
Processed fuels and lubricants for manufacturing-.
Processed fuels and lubricants for nonmanufac­
turing-....................................... ..............................
Containers, nonreturnable_______________________
Supplies. .1........................................... ............................
Supplies for manufacturing................................... .
Supplies for nonmanufacturing..................... ..........
' Manufactured animal feeds_______________
Other supplies.....................................................
Finished goods (goods to users, including raw foods and
fuels)___________________________________________
Consumer finished goods________________________
Consumer foods_______ - _________ -__________
Consumer crude foods____________________
Consumer processed foods._______________
Consumer other nondurable goods------------------Consumer durable goods_____________________
Producer finished goods_________________________
Producer finished goods for manufacturing--------Producer finished goods for nonmanufacturing----

93.2 3 92.9 92.7 94.8 95.3 96.0 96.3 96.4 94.8 94.6 93.4 93.6 94.4 96.7 99.4
85.0 |3 83.9 83.8 86.1 86.8 87.5 88.0 88.0 84.7 83.7 82.1 81.8 83. 2 86.8 92.8
104.8 s 106.1 105.9 107.7 108.2 108.9 108.8 108.8 110.5 111.7 111.4 112.8 112.3 112.2 108.4
102.7 3104.0 103.8 105.8 106.3 107.1 107.0 106.9 108.8 110.1 109.9 111.4 110.9 110.8 106.8
142.1 142.2
126.2 3126.1
125.7 125.6
127.1 3127.0

142.2
124.1
123.6
124.8

142.1
122.7
122.2
123.4

142.1
121.5
121.1
122.2

142.1
120.7
120.3
121.4

142.1
122.0
121.5
122.8

142.1
125.7
125.2
126.5

142.0
125.5
124.9
126.3

142.0
126.0
125.5
126.9

140.4
125.7
125.2
126.6

140.4
125.2
124.7
126.0

140.4
124.2
123.7
124.9

140.3
123.4
122.9
124.1

139.0
121.2
120.9
121.8

126.6 126.8 126.8 127.0 127.0 127.1 127.6 127.5 127.4 127.5 127.3 127.3 127.1 127.0 125.3
129.4 129.5 129.4 129.0 127.2
97.0 97.8 98.5 98.5 102.2

128.4 3128.5 128.7 129.0 129.1 129.2 129.5 129.4 129.5 129.5
100.6 100.0 99.8 100.1 99.0 98.6 98.3 97.9 97.2 97.4
105.9 106.2 106.5 106.9 106.8 106.8 106.9 106.8 106.9 106.9
157.3 157.7 157.8 158.1 158.4 158.8 159.0 158.9 159.0 159.0
149.4 3149.4 149.6 149.6 150.3 150.8 152.0 152.0 152.4 152.1
134.3 3134.6 134.8 135.3 135.8 136.4 136.7 136.9 137.1 137.2
111.7 111.4 111.0 109.6 108.3 106.3 107.3 106.8 106.1 105.4
111.3 111.0 110.6 109.4 108.3 106.7 107.4 106.9 106.4 105.9

107.0
158.6
152.5
136.9
105. 3
105.6

106.8
159.0
152.4
136.7
105.0
105.0

106.9
158.5
151. 6
136.9
105. 3
105.1

106.4
157.9
151.5
136.5
106.0
105. 6

104.7
154.3
149. 5
132.9
106.5
105.8

109.9
138.3
115.3
149.8
100.1
61.2
123.0

108.4
138.9
115.4
149.8
100.2
61.6
122.9

105.6
139.1
115.4
149.5
100.4
62.0
122.9

107.4
138.2
117.3
148.8
103.2
69.8
122.8

106.6
138.4
116.6
148.8
102.3
67.5
122.7

105.5
138.3
116.3
148.4
101.9
66.7
122.6

104.7
137.9
117.1
148.3
103.0
70.2
122.3

104.7
136.3
117.2
145.5
104.1
75.1
121.2

105.1
136.2
117.1
145.7
103.9
74.4
121.2

105.6
136.2
115.9
145.8
102.4
70. 6
121.1

106.8
136.7
116.6
143.5
104.1
74.7
121.3

107.7
137.4
115.1
139.9
103.4
73.0
121.2

121.8
113.9
108.4
96.5
110.9
114.1
126.3
153.6
160.0
160.2
160.4 3159. 5
148.0 3147.1 148.2 148.1

121.1
113.1
106.9
93.4
109.8
113.6
126.2
153.7
159.9
148.3

121.2
113.2
107.5
98.3
109.5
113.2
126.3
153.6
159.6
148.5

121.4
113.4
107.5
100.2
109.1
113.7
126.5
153.9
160.1
148.6

121.4
113.4
107.4
96.7
109.7
113.8
126.5
153.9
160.1
148.5

120.5
112.3
104.7
89.8
107.8
113.8
126.4
153.8
159.8
148.7

120.6
112.4
104.8
91.5
107.7
113.9
126.4
153.8
159.6
148.8

120.1
111.9
103.6
94.2
105.6
113.8
126.2
153.5
158.9
149.0

120.0
111.7
103.5
92.3
105.9
113.6
126.1
153. 6
158. 6
149.3

120. 5
112.3
105.0
93.6
107.5
113.5
126. 2
153. 6
158.5
149.4

120.6
112.5
105. 5
91.9
108.4
113. 4
126. 5
153. 2
158.1
149.1

120.8
113.5
110.6
101.0
112.6
111. 7
125. 0
150.3
155.0
146. 4

112.4 112.1
139.2 138.5
115.1 3115.4
149.8 3149.7
99.8 100.3
60.1 61.7
123.1 123.0
122.5 3121. 5
114.8 113.7
110.0 108.2
106.6 100.3
110.9 3110.0
114.8 114.8
126.2 3124.3
153.8 152.9

111.8
138.3
114.8
149.5
99.5
59.3
123.1
121.5
113.6
107.1
94.3
109.8
114.6
126.2
153.7

Durability of product
Total durable goods ________________ _____________ 145.1 3144.8 145.5 145.6
Total nondurable goods.......................................................... 105.8 3105.3 104.9 105.6
T otal manufactures________________________________ 125.8 125.5 125.7 125.9
Durable manufactures__________________________ 146.5 3146.0 146.8 146. £
Nondurable manufactures--------------------- -------------- 109.4 109.2 109.1 109. a
Total raw or slightly processed goods------------------- ------- 98.9 3 98.0 97. C 98.7
Durable raw or slightly processed goods------------------ 102. £ 107.4 107.8 106.0
Nondurable raw or slightly processed goods................ 98.7 397.4 96.3 98.3
1 See footnote 1, table D-3.
« Preliminary.
• Revised.


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

145.8 146.1 146.5 146.5 146.8 146.8 146.6 146.7 146.4 145.9 142.8
105.2 105.2 105.6 105.5 104.3 104.3 103.8 103.7 104.2 105.0 106.4
125.8 125.7 126.0
147.2 147. 4 147.8
108. a 108.5 108.8
98.4 99.3 99.9
105.8 107.1 108.2
97.9 98.9 99.4

126.0
147.8
108.7
99.7
108.2
99.2

125.7
147.9
108.1
97.8
114.9
96.8

125.7
147.8
108.2
97.8
117.5
96.7

125.3
147.6
107.6
97.2
116.6
96.1

125.3
147.6
107.6
97.1
120.5
95.8

125.4
147.4
108.0
97.8
117. 4
96.7

125.5
147.0
108.5
98.9
114.1
98.1

124.5
144.0
109.2
101. 6
108.3
101. 2

N ote : For description of the series by stage of processing, see New BLS
Economic Sector Indexes of Wholesale Prices (in Monthly Labor Review,
December 1955, pp. 1448-1453); and by durability of product and data begin­
ning with 1947, see Wholesale Prices and Price Indexes, 1957, BLS Bull.
1235 (1958).

1366

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

E.—Work Stoppages
T able E - l. Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes 1
Number of stoppages

Workers involved in stoppages

Man-days idle during month
or year

Month and year
Beginning in
month or year
1935-39 (average)
1947-49 (average)
1945......................
1946.....................
1947......................
1948.....................
1949 ..................
1950 ..................
1951 ..................
1952 ..................
1953 ..................
1954 ..................
1955 ..................
1956 ..................
1957 ..................
1958....................
1959......................

2,862
3,573
4,750
4,985
3, 693
3,419
3,606
4,843
4, 737
5,117
5, 091
3,468
4,320
3,825
3,673
3,694
3, 708

1959: October.......
N ovem ber..
December...

277
161

1960: Ja n u ary * ...
February *..
March *.......
April *.........
May *_____
June *_____
July *...........
August *___
September *.
October*__

200

112

250
270
370
400
425
325
300
225
250

1 The data include all known strikes or lockouts involving 6 or more
workers and lasting a full day or shift or longer. Figures on workers involved
and man-days idle cover all workers made idle for as long as 1 shift in estab­
lishments directly involved in a stoppage. They do not measure the indirect


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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

In effect during month

Beginning in
month or year

In effect during month

1,130,000
2,380,000
3. 470, 000
4,600,000
2,170,000
1,960,000
3,030,000
2,410,000
2,220, 000
3, 540,000
2, 400,000
1, 530,000
2, 650,000
1,900,000
1, 390, 000
2,060,000
1, 880,000

Number

Percent of esti­
mated working time

16,900,000
39,700,000
38,000,000
116,000,000
34,600,000
34,100,000
50, 500,000
38,800,000
22,900,000
59,100,000
28,300,000
22, 600,000
28,200,000
33,100,000
16, 500, 000
23,900,000
69,000,000

0.27
.46
.47
1.43
.41
.37
.59
.44
.23
.57
.26
.21
.26
.29
.14
.22
.61

548
402
285

125,000
41,100
23,100

775,000
652,000
101,000

14,100,000
4,300,000
1,430,000

1.45
.48
.14

325
400
430
530
600
650
575
550
425
450

65,000
70,000
85,000

140,000
145,000
140,000
190, 000
225, 000
285,000
250,000
250,000
210,000
170. 000

1,000,000
1, 250,000
1, 500, 000
1, 500, 000
1,750,000
2, 750, 000
2,150, 000
2, 000,000
1, 750,000
1, 750, 000

.11
.14
.15
.16
.19
.28
.24
.20
.19
.19

110, 000

150,000
190,000
150,000
155,000
140,000
120, 000

or secondary effect on other establishments or industries whose employees
are made idle as a result of material or service shortages.
* Preliminary.

Index to Volume 83
Monthly Labor Review
January to December 1960
and Statistical Supplement
[Issues and page numbers in italics]

ARTICLES AND TECHNICAL NOTES
Automation
Experiences With the Introduction of Office Automation.
Apr. 876-S80.
The Reactions of Employees to Office Automation. Sept.
925-982.
Office Automation in the Federal Government. Sept.
938-938.
Budgets and Prices
Price Trends in the 1959 Economy and the Outlook. Feb.
128-182.
The Interim City Worker’s Family Budget. Aug. 785808.
The Revised City Sample for the Consumer Price Index.
Oct. 1078-1088.
The BLS Interim Budget for a Retired Couple. Nov.
1141-1157.
Estimating Equivalent Incomes or Budget Costs by Family
Type. Nov. 1197-1200.

Health and Safety
Work Injuries in the United States, 1958. Jan. 51-55.
Labor’s Interests in Medical Care Plans. Feb. 145-147.
Management’s Interests in Medical Care Plans. Feb.
147-149.
Hospital Benefits Under
Collective Bargaining, 1959.
Feb. 150-160.
Preliminary Estimates of Work Injuries in 1959. Apr,
890-891.
Surgical Benefits Under Collective Bargaining, 1959.
June 598-604Medical Benefits Under Collective Bargaining, 1959.
July 710-717.
Health Benefit Coverage of the New York Labor Force.
July 718-722.
Extension of Health Benefits to Prior Pensioners. Aug.
841-843.
Paid Sick Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts,
1959. Oct. 1061-1070.
Contract Allowances for Safety Equipment and Work
Clothing, 1959. Nov. 1189-1192.

Collective Bargaining Agreements

Industrial Relations

Checkoff Provisions in Major Union Contracts, 1958-59.
Jan. 26-81.
Hospital Benefits Under Collective Bargaining, 1959. Feb.
150-160.
The Basic Steel Companies and Steelworkers Agreement.
Feb. 161-168.
Surgical Benefits Under Collective Bargaining, 1959.
June 598-604Medical Benefits Under Collective Bargaining, 1959.
July 710-717
Extension of Health Benefits to Prior Pensioners. Aug.
841-843.
Paid Rest Periods in Major Union Contracts, 1959. Sept.
958-963.
Paid Time for Washup, Cleanup, and Clothes Change in
1959. Sept. 964-969.
Normal Retirement Provisions Under Collective Bargain­
ing. Oct. 1052-1061.
Paid Sick Leave Provisions in Major Union Contracts,
1959. Oct. 1061-1070.
Early and Disability Retirement Under Collective Bargain­
ing, 1959. Nov. 1176-1183.
Major Agreement Exnirations and Reopenings in 1961.
Dec. 1257-1267.

A Look at American Labor in 1959. Jan. 10-17.
The Basic Steel Companies and Steelworkers Agreement.
Feb. 161-168.
Changing Patterns of Industrial Conflict. Mar. 229-237.
The Steel Board’s Final Report on the 1959 Dispute.
Mar. 262-269.
Fifty Years of Labor Arbitration in Cleveland Transit.
May 464-471.
U.S. Firms as Employers in Latin America. May 479-485.
The Older Worker and Retirement Policies. June 577585.
Company Cooperation in Basic Steel Bargaining. June
586-588.
Mutual Strike Aid in the Airlines. June 589-591.
Bargaining Cooperation Among Auto Managements.
June 592-594An Appraisal of Management Cooperation. June 595-597.
A Review of Work Stoppages During 1959. June 610-614The Economic Climate of Collective Bargaining. Aug.
837-840.
Consultation and Negotiation in Swedish Factories.
Oct. 1039-1044Salary Determination for White-Collar Civil Servants in
Great Britain. Nov. 1158-1165.
1367


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1368

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
Labor Force

The Labor Movement and Organizations

New Aspects of Puerto Rican Migration. Feb. 133-185.
Migration From Farms and Its Meaning. Feb. 136-140.
Gross Change in Unemployment, 1957-59. Feb. 141-144.
The Employment of Older Workers Abroad. Mar. 270-

Union Membership, 1958. Jan. 1-9.
Labor’s Public Responsibility: The Recognition of National
Economic Interests in Bargaining.
Jan. 18-21.
Growth of Social Consciousness in Internal Union
Affairs. Jan. 22-25.
Collective Bargaining Coverage in Factory Employment,
1958. Apr. 345-349.
Trade Union Views on European Economic Integration.
Apr. 365-369.
Latin American Labor Unions. June 615-622.
The Changing Nature of the Union. Aug. 843-845.
New Organizing by Unions During the 1950’s, Sept.
922-924.
The Course of Ideology in International Labor. Oct.
1031-1038.
The 10th Constitutional Convention of the Steelworkers.
Dec. 1296-1300.

274-

Assistance to Labor Surplus Areas in Europe. June 569576.
Manpower Problems and Prospects in Latin America.
Sept. 909-916.
Negroes in Apprenticeship, New York State. Sept. 952957.
Special Labor Force Reports:
Educational Attainment of Workers, 1959. Feb. 113122 .

Marital Status of Workers, 1959. Mar. 257-261.
Unemployment and Job Mobility. Apr. 850-358.
Labor Force and Employment in 1959. May 491-500.
Employment of June 1959 High School Graduates,
October 1959. May 500.
The Employment of Students, October 1959. July
705-709.
New Seasonal Adjustment Factors for Labor Force
Components. Aug. 822-827.
Family Characteristics of Workers, 1959. Aug. 828836.
Multiple Jobholders in December 1959. Oct. 10451051.
Growth and Characteristics of the Part-Time Work
Force. Nov. 1166-1175.
Work Experience of the Population in 1959. Dec.
1272-1283.
Labor Law
State Labor Legislation in 1959. Jan. 45-49.
State Unemployment Insurance Legislation in 1959.
Jan. 50-51.
The Purposes and Results of U.S. Minimum Wage Laws.
Mar. 238-242.
The Employment of Older Workers Abroad. Mar. 270274-

A Minimum Wage for Farm Workers. July 677-685.
Additional Job Protection for Reservists and Guardsmen.
Sept. 969-970.
State Labor Legislation in 1960. Nov. 1184-1188.
Trends in Labor Legislation for Public Employees. Dec.
1298-1295.
Labor in Foreign Countries
Seven-Hour Workday Decree in the Soviet Union.

44:

Jan.

British Experience in Supplementing Duration of Un­
employment Benefits. Mar. 249-256.
The Employment of Older Workers Abroad. Mar.
270-274.
Purchasing Power of Workers in the USSR. Apr.
359-364.

Trade Union Views on European Economic Integration.
Apr. 365-369.
U.S. Firms as Employers in Latin America. May 479-485.
Assistance to Labor Surplus Areas in Europe. June
569-576.
Latin American Labor Unions. June 615-622.
Postwar Productivity Changes in Japanese Cotton
Spinning. July 700-704.
Manpower Problems and Prospects in Latin America.
Sept. 909-916.
Union Views on Fair Labor Standards in Foreign Trade.
Oct. 1025-1030.
The Course of Ideology in International Labor. Oct.
1031-1038.
Consultation and Negotiation in Swedish Factories.
Oct. 1039-1044.


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Production and Productivity
Comparative Job Performance of Office Workers by Age.
Jan. 39-43.
Postwar Productivity Changes in Japanese Cotton
Spinning. July 700-704.
Social Security
UI Claimants Exhausting Benefits During 1957-58.
Mar. 243-248.
British Experience in Supplementing Duration of Un­
employment Benefits. Mar. 249-256.
Assistance to Labor Surplus Areas in Europe. June
569-576.
Wages and Working Conditions
General:
Seven-Hour Workday Decree in the Soviet Union.
Jan. 44.
Extent of Incentive Pay in Manufacturing. May
460-463.
Composition of Payroll Hours in Manufacturing,
1958. July 686-692.
Trends in Earnings of Factory Workers, 1947 to
1960. Aug. 809-821.
Wage Developments in Manufacturing During 1959.
Sept. 917-921.
Union Views on Fair Labor Standards in Foreign
Trade. Oct. 1025-1030.
Salary Determination for White-Collar Civil Servants
in Great Britain. Nov. 1158-1165.
Deferred Wage Increases and Escalator Clauses.
Dec. 1268-1271.
Area, industry, and occupation surveys:
Earnings in West Coast Sawmills, July 1959. Jan.
31-38.
Occupational Earnings in Petroleum Refining, July
1959. Apr. 381-386.
Earnings in Selected Low-Wage Manufacturing In­
dustries, June 1959. June 605-610.
Wages in Miscellaneous Plastics Products, JanuaryFebruarv 1960. Aug. 846-852.
Earnings in the Machinery Industries, 1959-60.
Sept. 939-945.
Earnings of Communications Workers in October
1959. Sept. 946-951.
Earnings in Cigarette Manufacturing, May 1960.
Nov. 1193-1196.
Pay Levels for Professional and Other White-Collar
Occupations. Dec. 1284-1292.
Wages in Structural Clay Products Manufacturing,
April-June 1960. Dec. 1801-1307.
Earnings of Hotel Emplovees in 24 Areas, MarchJune 1960. Dec. 1308-1312.

INDEX TO VOLUME 83
Chronologies:
No. 22: Pacific Gas & Electric C o —Supplement No.
2— 1953-59. Feb. 167-178.
No. 15: New York City Printing—Supplement No.
2-1952-58. Mar. 280-291.
No. 6: Armour and Co.—Supplement No. 6— 195960. July 723-727.
No. 20: Massachusetts Shoe Manufacturing—Sup­
plement No. 3-1959-60. July 727-728.
No. 3: United States Steel Corp.—Supplement No.
8-1958-60. Oct. 1071-1077.
Minimum wages:
The Purposes and Results of U.S. Minimum Wage
Laws. Mar. 238-21+2.
Minimum Wages in Puerto Rico Under the FLSA.
Apr. 370-875.
Effects of the $1 Minimum Wage in Six Areas, 195659. May 1+72-1+78.
A Minimum Wage for Farm Workers. July 677-685.
Union scales:
Local-Transit Operating Employees, 1959. Feb. 161+166.
Building Trades, 1959. Mar. 275-279.
Local City Trucking, 1959. Apr. 887-890.
Printing industry, July 1, 1959. May 1+86-1+90.
Miscellaneous
Housing in Britain and America: Pt. I. Characteristics
and Ownership. May 1+1+9-1+59. Pt. II. Volume and
Expenditures. June 561-568.
Foreign Trade and Collective Bargaining. July 698-699.
DEPARTMENTS (regular features)
Book Reviews and Notes. See list of Book Reviews, pp.
1369-1870 of this index.
Chronology of Recent Labor Events. Each issue.
Decisions in Labor Cases, Significant. See list of case
citations under Court Decisions and National Labor
Relations Board Cases, pp. 1370-1371 of this index.
Industrial Relations, Developments in. Each issue.
Labor Month in Review. Each issue.'
Statistical Supplement, 1959, to Review. See Statistical
Series—1959 Supplement, pp. 1371-1372 of this index.
Statistics, Current Labor. See Statistical Series—Each
Issue, pp. 1371 of this index.
BOOK REVIEWS (listed by author of book)
Barbash, Jack, Ed. Unions and Union Leadership—Their
Human Meaning. Feb. 188.
Bowen, William G. The Wage-Price Issue—A Theoretical
Analysis. Oct. 1097—1098.
Bradley, Philip D., Ed. The Public Stake in Union Power.
Jan. 71-72.
Brennan, Charles W. Wage Administration: Plans, Prac­
tices, and Principles. Jan. 72-78.
Bruce, Robert V. 1877: Year of Violence. Aug. 869.
Cole, Arthur H. Business Enterprise in Its Social Setting.
Feb. 188-189.
Commerce Clearing House, Inc. 1960 Guidebook to
Labor Relations. June 639.
Committee for Economic Development. The European
Common Market and Its Meaning to the United States.
Mar. 806-807.
Davey, Harold W. Contemporary Collective Bargaining
Apr. 1+07-1+08Derber, Milton, W., Ellison Chalmers, Ross Stagner. The
Local Union-Management Relationship. Sept. 983981+.
Diebold, John. Automation: Its Impact on Business and
Labor. Mar. 305-306.


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1369
Dunlop, John T. Industrial Relations Systems. Jan.
70-71.
Fourastie, Jean. The Causes of Wealth. Dec. 1328-1329.
Galenson, Walter. The CIO Challenge to the AFL: A
History of the American Labor Movement, 1935-1941.
July 71+1-71+2.
Garbarino, Joseph W. Health Plans and Collective Bar­
gaining. Aug. 866-867.
Gaudet, Frederick J. Labor Turnover: Calculation and
Cost. June 638-639.
Granick, David. The Red Executive: A Study of the
Organization Man in Russian Industry. Nov. 12161218.
Greer, Scott. Last Man In: Racial Access to Union
Power. Dec. 1828.
Gregg, Davis W., Ed. Life and Health Insurance Hand­
book. Aug. 868.
Harbrecht, Paul P. Pension Funds and Economic Power.
May 520-521.
Hauser, Philip M. and Otis Dudley Duncan, Eds. The
Study of Population—An Inventory and Appraisal.
Feb. '190-191.
Helfgott, Roy B., W. Eric Gustafson, James M. Hund.
Made in New York: Case Studies in Metropolitan Manu­
facturing. Apr. 1+06-1+07.
Horowitz, Morris A. The New York Hotel Industry: A
Labor Relations Study. Sept. 983.
Horowitz, Morris A. Manpower Utilization in the Rail­
road Industry—An Analysis of Working Rules and
Practices. Sept. 981+-985.
Industrial Relations Research Association. Employment
Relations Research—A Summary and Appraisal. Dec.
1326-1327.
Jacobson, Howard Boone and Joseph S. Roucek. Automa­
tion and Society. Mar. 805-306.
Knowles, William H. Trade Union Development and In­
dustrial Relations in the British West Indies. July
71+2-71+3.
Kurihara, Kenneth R. The Keynesian Theory of Eco­
nomic Development. Mar. 806.
Larrowe, Charles P. Maritime Labor Relations on the
Great Lakes. Mar. 301+.
Long, Clarence D. Wages and Earnings in the United
States, 1860-1890. Oct. 1097.
Maisel, Albert Q. The Health of People Who Work. Aug.
867.
Mann, Floyd C. and L. Richard Hoffman. Automation
and the Worker: A Study of Social Change in Power
Plants. Sept. 985-986.
Moore, Elon H. The Nature of Retirement. Apr. 1+08.
Neuschutz, Louise M. Vocational Rehabilitation for the
Physically Handicapped. July 71+8-71+1+.
Nicholls, William H. Southern Tradition and Regional
Progress. Oct. 1098-1099.
Norgren, Paul H. and others. Employing the Negro in
American Industry: A Study of Management Practices.
Feb. 189-190.
Overstreet, Gene D. and Marshall Windmiller. Commu­
nism in India. Aug. 869-870.
Pen, J. The Wage Rate Under Collective Bargaining.
Jan. 69-70.
Phelps, Orme W. Discipline and Discharge in the Union­
ized Firm. Mar. 301+-805.
Purcell, Theodore V. Blue Collar Man: Patterns of Dual
Allegiance in Industry. Nov. 1218-1219.
Ross, Arthur M. and Paul T. Hartmann. Changing P at­
terns of Industrial Conflict. Nov. 1215-1216.
Saposs, David J. Communism in American Politics. May
520.
Segal, Martin. Wages in the Metropolis: Their Influence
on the Location of Industries in the New York Region.
Apr. 1+06-1+07.
Silcock, T. H. The Commonwealth Economy in Southeast
Asia. Apr. 1+07.

1370

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960

Snow, C. P. The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolu­
tion. Oct. 1099-1100.
Stessin, Lawrence. Employee Discipline. Sept. 986-987.
Stieber, Jack. The Steel Industry Wage Structure: A
Study of the Joint Union-Management Job Evaluation
Program in the Basic Steel Industry. May 519-520.
Taft, Philip. The A. F. of L. From the Death of Gompers
to the Merger. Jan. 73.
Thorp, Willard L. and Richard E. Quandt. The New In­
flation. July 744Vaccara, Beatrice N. Employment and Output in Pro­
tected Manufacturing Industries. June 637-638.
Weiner, Herbert E. British Labor and Public Ownership.
Dec. 1327-1328.
Young, Dallas M Understanding Labor Problems. May
521-522.
COURT DECISIONS
Fair Labor Standards Act
Arnold v. Ben Kanowsky, Inc. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Apr. 396.
Capitol Coal Sales, Inc. v. Mitchell (U.S. Dist. Ct.). May
510-511.
Mitchell v. El Paso Valley Cotton Association (U.S. Dist.
Ct.). Jan. 59-60.
Mitchell v. Mayol & Co., Suers, de (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Nov. 1203-1204.
Mitchell v. Pidcock (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Nov. 1204.
Mitchell v. Preskitt (U.S. Dist. Ct.). Nov. 1202-1203.
Mitchell v. Robert DeMario Jewelry (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Mar.
295.
Mitchell v. Whitaker House Cooperative Inc. (U.S. Ct.
of App.). May 510.
Mitchell v. H. B. Zachry Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). June 627628.
Labor Relations Acts
Arbitration:
Steelworkers v. American Manufacturing Co. (U.S.
Sup. Ct.). Aug. 853.
Steelworkers v. Enterprise Wheel and Car Corp.
(U.S. Sup. Ct.). Aug. 853-854.
Steelworkers v. Warrior and Gulf Navigation Co.
(U.S. Sup. Ct.). Aug. 854-856.
Bargaining:
NLRB v. Insurance Agents (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Apr.
392.
NLRB v. Ladies’ Garment Workers (U.S. Ct. of
App.). May 508.
Expedited election. NLRB v. Teamsters, Local 7 (U.S.
Dist. Ct.). Nov. 1201.
Federal-State jurisdiction:
Automobile Workers, Local 248 v. Wisconsin Employ­
ment Relations Board (Wis. Sup. Ct.). Dec.
1316-1317.
DeVeau v. Braisted (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Aug. 856-857.
Jurisdictional disputes:
Doll and Toy Workers v. Metal Polishers (U.S. Dist.
Ct.). May 509-510.
NLRB v. Local 1212, International Brotherhood of
Electrical Workers (U.S. Ct. of App.). Feb. 175176.
Minority union contract. NLRB v. Bernhard-Altmann
Texas Corp. (U.S. Ct. of App.). Sept. 973-974.
Picketing:
Getreu v. Local 58, Hotel & Restaurant Employees
(U.S. Dist. Ct.). Mar. 293-294.
McLeod v. Local 89, Hotel & Restaurant Employees
(U.S. Ct. of App.). Oct. 1084-1085.
NLRB v. Local 182, Teamsters (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Feb 174.
NLRB v. Local 639, Teamsters [Curtis Bros.] (U.S.
Sup. Ct.). May 507-508.


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Phillips v. Ladies’ Garment Workers (U.S. Dist.
Ct.). Mar. 293.
Procedural requirements. Machinists, Local 1424 v
NLRB (U.S. Sup. Ct.). July 729-730.
Railway Labor Act:
Baltimore & Ohio R.R. v. United Railroad Workers
Div. of Transport Workers (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Jan. 58-59.
Clark v. Hein-Werner Corp. and Machinists (Wis.
Sup. Ct.). Jan. 58.
Locomotive Engineers v. Missouri-Kansas-Texas
R.R. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Sept. 972-973.
Railroad Telegraphers v. Chicago & North Western
Ry. Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). June 623-625.
Secondary boycott:
Alpert v. Local 379, Teamsters (U.S. Dist. Ct.).
Sept. 974-975.
Great Northern Ry. v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Feb. 177-178.
International Union of Electrical Workers, Local 761
v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of App.). July 731-732.
Teamsters, Local 294 v. NLRB (U.S. Ct. of A pp).
Apr. 394-395.
Union security agreements:
NLRB v. American Dredging Co. (U.S. Ct. of App.).
Mar. 292.
NLRB v. Revere Metal Art Co. and Auto Workers,
Local 5 (U.S. Ct. of App.). Oct. 1087-1089.
Schultz v. NLRB and Gray, Intervenor; NLRB v.
Grand Union Co. and Gray, Intervenor (U.S. Ct.
of App.). Dec. 1313-1314.
Miscellaneous:
NLRB v. Deena Artware, Inc. (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
Apr. 393-394.
Retail Clerks, Locals 128 and 633 v. Lion Dry Goods
(U.S. Dist. Ct.). Feb. 176.
Teamsters, Local 795 v. Yellow Transit Freight
Lines, Inc. (U.S. Ct. of App.). Dec. 1313.
Miscellaneous
Damages for breach of contract. Lewis v. Benedict Coal
Corp. and Mine Workers v. Same (U.S. Sup. Ct.).
Apr. 392-393.
Internal Revenue Code. United States v. Kaiser (U.S.
Sup. Ct.). Sept. 971-972.
Maritime tort. Khedivial Line v. Seafarers (U.S. Ct. of
App.). July 730-731.
State no-strike law. Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers,
Local 86 v. Missouri (U.S. Sup. Ct.). Mar. 294-295.
Veterans Reemployment Rights. Robertson v. Richmond,
Fredericksburg and Potomac R.R. (U.S. Dist. C t )
Feb. 178.
Norris-LaGuardia Act
Khedivial Line v. Seafarers (U.S. Ct. of App.). July
730-731.
Marine Cooks and Stewards v. Panama Steamship Co.
(U.S. Sup. Ct.). June 625-626.
Railroad Telegraphers v. Chicago & North Western Ry.
Co. (U.S. Sup. Ct.). June 623-625.
Teamsters, Local 795 v. Yellow Transit Freight Lines,
Inc. (U.S. Ct. of App.). Dec. 1313.
Unemployment Compensation
Ault v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review
(Pa. Sup. Ct.). Apr. 395-396.
Butler v. Bakelite Co. Division of Union Carbide Corp.
(N.J. Sup. Ct.). July 732.
Darin v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Review.
(Pa. Sup. Ct.). Apr. 395-396.
Williams v. Unemployment Compensation Board of Re­
view (Pa. Super. Ct.). Dec. 1317-1318.

1371

INDEX TO VOLUME 83
NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD CASES
Discrimination. Lexington Electric Products Co. and
Tino; International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers,
Local 3 and Same, 124 NLRB No. 191. Jan. 57.
Dues reimbursement. Plumbers, Local 425 and Scalise
and Lummus Corp., 125 NLRB No. 107. Mar. 292293.
Hot-cargo clause. Pilgrim Furniture Co. and United
Furniture Workers, 128 NLRB No. 92. Nov. 1201—
1202.

Jurisdictional dispute:
International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers, Local
292 and Franklin Broadcasting Co., 126 NLRB No.
150. June 626-627.
Teamsters, Local 107 and Safeway Stores, Inc., 129
NLRB No. 2. Dec. 1814-1815.
Picketing:
Teamsters, Local 208 and Sierra Furniture Co., 125
NLRB No. 20. Feb. 174-175.
Teamsters, Local 239 and Stan-Jay Auto Parts, 127
NLRB No. 132. Oct. 1085-1087.
Schism doctrine. B & B Beer Distributing Co. and
Brewery Workers, 124 NLRB No. 185. Jan. 56-57.
Secondary boycott:
Chemical Workers, Local 36 and Virginia-Carolina
Chemical Corp., 126 NLRB No. 117. May 508-509.
Union de Trabajadores de la Gonzalez Chemical Indus­
tries, Inc., and Gonzalez Chemical Industries, Inc.,
128 NLRB No. 116. Dec. 1315-1316.
Seniority. Miranda Fuel Co. and Lopuch; Teamsters,
Local 553 and Same, 125 NLRB No. 53. Feb. 177._
Union security. Du-Wel Decorative Co. and Machinists,
125 NLRB No. 5. Jan. 56.
(Most recent 13 months and 2 annual averages)

Unemployment insurance and employment service
programs, selected operations. (Most recent 13
months.) Table A-4, each issue.
Labor turnover, rates, by major industry group. Table
B -l, each issue.
Work injuries.
Injury-frequency rates for selected
manufacturing industries. (Most recent 9 quarters
and 2 annual averages.) Table F -l, Jan., Apr., July,
Oct. issues.
Work stoppages resulting from labor-management disputes.
(13 most recent months and annual averages, 1935-39,
1947-49, and 1945 to 1959.) Table E -l, each issue.
STATISTICAL SERIES—1959 SUPPLEMENT
(Page numbers refer to Supplement)
Labor Force, Employment, and Unemployment
1-1.
1-2.
1-3.
1-4.
1-5.
1-6.
1-7.
1-8.

STATISTICAL SERIES—EACH ISSUE
Consumer and wholesale prices:
Consumer Price Index. All-city average: All items,
groups, subgroups, and special groups of items.
Table D -l, each issue.
------All items and food indexes, by city. Table D-2,
each issue.
Indexes of wholesale prices. By group and subgroup
of commodities. Table D-3, each issue.
------By stage of processing and durability of product.
Table D-4, Jan.-Sept. issues; table D-5, Oct.-Dec.
issues.
------ For special commodity groupings. Table D-4,
Oct.-Dec. issues.
Earnings and hours:
Gross hours and earnings of production workers, by
industry. Table C—1, each issue.
Average overtime hours and average hourly earnings
excluding overtime of production workers in
manufacturing, by major industry group. Table
C-2, each issue.
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and payrolls
in industrial and construction activities. Table
C-3, each issue.
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of
production workers in manufacturing, in current
and 1947-49 dollars. Table C-4, each issue.
Employment :
Estimated total labor force classified by employment
status, hours worked, and sex. Table A -l, each
issue.
Employees in nonagricultural establishments, by
industry. Table A-2, each issue.
Production or nonsupervisory workers in nonagricul­
tural establishments, by industry. Table A-3,
each issue.


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II—1.
II-2.

III—1.
III-2.
III-3.

III-4.
I l l —5.
III-6.
I l l —7.

I l l —8.

Employment status of the noninstitutional popu­
lation, by sex, 1958 and 1959. p. 1.
Employed persons, by occupation group and sex,
1957-59. p. 2.
Unemployment rates and percent distribution of
the unemployed, by industry group and class
of worker, 1957-59. p. 3.
Unemployment rates and percent distribution of
the unemployed, bo occupation group, 1957-59.

V 4•

Unemployment insurance and employment serv­
ice programs, selected operations, 1958 and
1959. p. 5.
Insured unemployment under State programs,
by geographic division and State, 1958 and
1959. p. 6.
Employment in nonagricultural establishments,
by industry, 1958 and 1959. pp. 7-9.
Employment in nonagricultural establishments,
by industry division, State, and area, 1958 and
1959. pp. 10-13.
Labor Turnover
Labor turnover rates, by industry, 1958 and 1959.
pp. 14-16.
Labor turnover rates in manufacturing for se­
lected States and areas, 1958 and 1959. pp.
17-18.
Earnings, Hours, and Wage Rates
Gross hours and earnings of production or non­
supervisory workers, by industry, 1958 and
1959. pp. 19-24Gross hours and earnings of produstion workers
in manufacturing, by State and selected areas,
1958 and 1959. pp. 25-26.
Average overtime hours and average hourly
earnings excluding overtime premium pay of
production workers in manufacturing, by major
industry group, 1958 and 1959. p. 27.
Indexes of aggregate weekly man-hours and pay­
rolls in industries and construstion activities,
1958 and 1959. p. 28.
Gross and spendable average weekly earnings of
production workers in manufacturing, in cur­
rent and 1947-49 dollars, 1958 and 1959. p. 29.
Indexes of average weekly or hourly earnings for
selected occupational gfoups in 17 areas,
1954-59. p. 30.
Relative pay levels for office workers, by industry
division and sex, and for plant workers, by
industry division and work category, in 20
areas, winter 1958-59. p. 31.
Average weekly earnings of office workers and
average hourly earnings of plant workers for
selected occupations in 20 areas, by industry

1372

IIIIII-10.
I I I - l l.
III-12.

III-13.
III-14.
III-15.

MONTHLY LABOR REVIEW, DECEMBER 1960
division and work category, winter 1958-59.
pp. 32-35.
9.
Indexes
of union hourly wage rates and weekly
hours in selected industries and trades, 194759. p. 36.
Indexes of union hourly wage rates and weekly
hours in the building and printing trades, 1958
and 1959. p. 37.
Average union hourly wages rates for selected
trades, by region and city, July 1, 1959. p. 38.
Indexes of average straight-time hourly earnings
of produstion workers in nonelectrical ma­
chinery manufacturing, selected areas and
occupations, 1953-59. p. 39.
Indexes of average salaries of public school
teachers in cities of 50,000 or more, by size of
city, 1947-59. p. 39.
Indexes of maximum salary scales for firemen and
policemen in cities of 100,000 or more, 1947-58.
p. 40.
Indexes of basic pay scales, average salary rates,
and average salaries of Federal Classification
Act employees included in the General Sched­
ule, 1947-59. p. 40.
Consumer and Wholesale Prices

IV - 1 . Consumer Price Index—United States city aver­
age: all items, groups, subgroups, and items—•
Indexes and relative importance, 1958 and
1959. pp. 41-46.
IV-2. Consumer Price Index—All items and major
group indexes, by city, 1958 and 1959. pp.
47-49.
IV-3. Wholesale Price Indexes, by groups and sub­
groups of commodities and product classes,
stage of processing, and durability of product,
1958 and 1959. pp. 50-56.


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Industrial Relations
V -l.
V-2.
V-3.
V-4.
V-5.
V-6.
V-7.

Estimated distribution of national and interna­
tional unions, by industry and affiliation, 1956
and 1958. p. 57.
Work stoppages resulting from labor-manage­
ment disputes, 1958 and 1959. p. 58.
Work stoppages, by size of stoppage, 1958 and
1959. p. 58.
Duration of work stoppages ending in 1958 and
1959._ p. 59.
Major issues involved in work stoppages, 1958
and 1959. p. 59.
Work stoppages, by industry group, 1958 and
1959. p. 60.
Work stoppages, by State, 1958 and 1959. p. 61.

Output Per Man-Hour and Unit Man-Hour
Requirements
VI-1. Indexes of employment, man-hours, real product,
real product per man-hour, and hours paid and
hours worked per dollar of real product, in
total private economy, agricultural, nonagricultural, manufacturing, and nonmanufactur­
ing sectors, 1947-59. p. 62.
VI-2. Comparisons of indexes of labor and nonlabor
payments, prices, and output per man-hour in
the private economy and the nonfarm sector,
1947-59. p. 63.
VI-3. Indexes of output, employment, man-hours, out­
put per man-hour, and unit labor requirements,
1947-59. pp. 64-70.
Work Injuries
VII—1. Estimated number of disabling work injuries, by
industry division and type of disability, 1958
and 1959. p. 71.
VII-2. Injury rates, by industry, 1958, and injury-fre­
quency rates, 1957. pp. 72-76.

U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1960

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BLS Bull. 1277: School and Early Employment Experience of Youth—A
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BLS Report No. 168: Wage Structure: Miscellaneous Plastics Products,
January-February 1960. 45 pp.


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