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MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
O C T O B E R ,

1847.

Art. I.— THE COMMERCIAL TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES:
W IT H

REFERENCE

TO

TH E

PRO G RE SS

O F C O M M E R C IA L

FREEDO M .

O n the declaration o f independence, in 1776, a new nation sprang into
existence, with a government based on new and untried principles, and
such as caused the foreign policy o f the government to be different from
that o f any o f the existing nations o f the earth. T h e sole object o f gov­
ernment was avowed to be the protection o f the people at large, and to guar­
antee that every man should enjoy in peace the fruits o f his own industry,
on a footing o f perfect equality, socially and politically. A ll power was
admitted to rest with the people, and the federal government possessed no
authority, save that which was expressly granted in the instrument which
gave it being. T h e powers derived by the government from a constitution
matured through the long and anxious deliberations o f the founders o f the
Union, in the memorable Congress o f 1776, w ere specified and clearly
defined, being such as confined their relations with foreign countries very
nearly, i f not quite, to com m ercial subjects. Boundary treaties were, o f
course, n ecessary ; but otherwise, the manner, mode, and terms o f inter­
national com m erce came to be almost the exclusive subjects o f treaties
with foreign countries. As a republican Union could have nothing in
common with the general policy o f monarchical governments, and was
likely to encounter nothing but hostility until the- importance o f its com ­
m erce should command the attention o f Europe, it followed that there was
little danger o f “ entangling alliances” in other respects than in granting
special commercial advantages to one nation, to the exclusion o f others.
A nation o f energetic and enterprising people were just emancipated from
the colonial state, and looking round upon a world suddenly opened to
their commercial enterprise. Instead o f struggling in the restrictive bonds
o f selfish imperial regulations, the nation found itself raised to political
equality with all others, but debarred from their intercourse on all sides
b y their restrictive systems. In every direction, absurd interdictions met
the American merchant. His com m erce, which hitherto had been con­
fined to the mother country, was cut o ff even from that by the operation




The Commercial Treaties o f the United States :

340

o f the British navigation laws, which took effect against the States the
moment they ceased to be colonies. Those laws, w hich had been in
being for 150 years, had, practically, never been in operation. The prin­
ciple o f the law was, in brief, that there should be imported into Great
Britain no goods, the produce o f Asia, Africa, or Am erica, except in B ri­
tish vessels ; and goods imported from Europe in vessels o f the conti­
nent w ere subjected to higher additional rates o f duties than were laid on
those imported in British vessels. It is evident that, down to the inde­
pendence o f the United States, these provisions o f the navigation act were
a dead letter; because, in the three quarters o f the world whence foreign
shipping was interdicted, there was no shipping owned except by British
subjects. Those built within the colonies had all the privileges o f vessels
built in E n g lan d ; and, as the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and the
nations o f India, had no vessels, those o f England would have met no
competition, had there been no navigation act, which came first practically
into operation when the independence o f the United States was acknow ­
ledged ; and, as soon as it produced an influence upon trade, its fate was
sealed. As respects the United States, it required a commercial treaty to
modify the operation o f the act in this regard. T o enter generally into
the commerce o f the world, it becam e necessary to acquire the right by
treaty, as the natural right had been destroyed by artificial restrictions.
T h e great rivers o f Europe— those channels o f communication formed by
nature to promote trade between neighboring countries, as well as to connect distant nations with the ocean, and through it, with remote climes—
w ere rendered as impassable by hostile laws as if their channels pre­
sented natural difficulties to navigation. The United States, a young
country, with but little shipping and less capital, distributed among a
sparse population, had little to offer in return for the facilities they asked.
T h ey demanded that European nations should throw aside the exclusive
policy hitherto pursued, and allow United States vessels to visit their
wealthy cities, in return for the privilege o f sending their vessels to our
comparatively poor and unattractive towns.
In a republican government, an equal distribution o f wealth, and the
promotion o f the general welfare, in a uniform degree, being the object,
trade and commerce,, rather than war and glory, are the means to obtain
them. It became, therefore, at the formation o f the government, a matter
o f as much importance to fix a rule o f intercourse with all foreign nations,
as to define the internal policy o f the federal government. T h e same
men who brought so much wisdom to the construction o f our constitution,
considered as anxiously the true principles o f fair commercial negotiations
between independent States. These principles were, independence, equal
fa v o r , and reciprocity, and w ere laid down and proclaimed to the world
for the first time in the diplomatic history o f nations, in the preamble to
the Treaty o f France, February 6, 1778. That treaty was the foundation
o f our commercial intercourse, and bore the same relation to our foreign
policy which the Declaration o f Independence did to our internal govern­
ment ; and it has formed the basis o f all subsequent treaties.*
*

T REATY BETWEEN FRAN.CE AND THE UNITED STATES,

1778.

“ T he United States, willing to fix, in an equitable and permanent manner, the rules
which ought to be followed relative to the correspondence and commerce which the two
parties desire to establish between their respective countries, States, and subjects, His Most
Christian subjects and said United States, have judged that the said end could not be bet­




With Preference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

341

As the policy o f all monarchical governments is to concentrate great
revenues in the hands o f the central power, in order that profuse expendi­
ture may enlarge the circle o f imperial influence, and extend the patron­
age o f the crown, so does occasional w ar and large armies becom e a part
o f the general system o f such governments. Th# many are to be kept
poor to support the few in affluence, and sustain the strength o f the government.
It becomes a consequence o f such a system, that the people at large
should, neither in war or peace, acquire wealth faster than it can be ab­
sorbed into the hands o f the government. T h e policy o f such governments
has, therefore, ever been to discourage all industry that does not throw
its profits into the hands o f a few individuals, manageable by the crown.
Through taxation, the general wealth must flow concentratively into the
lap o f the executive, and from it, in uninterrupted and corrupt channels,
through all official action, down to the lowest officers. T h e government
o f France, at present, is a melancholy picture o f this system o f corruption.
Thus, the customs department supports 31,400 officials, at an expense o f
37,000.000 o f francs per annum ; and they collect 110,000,000 francs,
under a rigid system o f restriction, which, if modified to that o f England,
would probably employ but 6,000, instead o f 31,400 persons: but, by
cheapening the articles purchased by the people, an amelioration would
tend to raise their condition, while it weakened the government by dimin­
ishing the means o f its corruption. This is a slight indication o f the gen­
eral tendency o f the p o licy ; and the late detection o f a cabinet minister in
corrupt practices, but an example o f its over-action.
W hen peace was declared, Congress did not condescend to ask treaties
o f foreign powers acknowledging the independence o f the U n ion ; but, as
related by Mr. Jefferson, in a letter to Mr. Adams,
“ Were willing, by some of the ordinary international transactions, to receive
what would imply that acknowledgment. They appointed commissioners, there­
fore, to propose treaties of commerce to the principal nations of Europe. I was
then a member of Congress, was of the committee appointed to prepare the in­
structions to the commissioners; was, as you suppose, the draughtsman of those
actually agreed to, and was joined by your father and Dr. Franklin to carry them
into execution. But tire stipulations making part of these instructions, which
respected privateering, blockades, contraband, and freedom of the fisheries, were
not original conceptions of mine. They had before been suggested by Dr. Frank­
ter attained than by taking, for the basis o f their agreement, the most perfect equality and
reciprocity, and by carefully avoiding all those burdensome preferences which are usually
sources o f debate, embarrassment, and discontent; by leaving, also, each party at liberty
to make, respecting commerce and navigation, those interior regulations which it shall
find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantages o f commerce solely upon
reciprocal utility, and the just rules o f free intercourse; reserving, withal, to each party
the liberty o f admitting, at its pleasure, other nations to a participation o f the same advan­
tages. It is in the spirit o f this intention, and to fulfil these views, that certain negotia­
tors were appointed— ” & c. &e.
Art. 1. There shall be firm, inviolable, and perfect peace, &c.
Art. 2. The parties mutually agree not to grant any particular favor to other nations,
in respect o f commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to
the other party, who shall enjoy the same favor, freely, if the concession was freely made,
or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional.
Art. 3. N o greater duty or impost shall be levied, under any circumstances, upon the
subjects o f either country, than those o f the most favored nation, and the citizens o f each
shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, & c., that are enjoyed by those o f the most favored
nation.




342

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States :

lin, in some of his papers in possession of the public, and had, I think, been re­
commended in some letters of his to Congress. I happen only to have been the
inserter of them in the first public act, which gave the formal sanction of a public
authority. W e accordingly proposed our treaties, containing these stipulations,
to the principal governments of Europe. But we were then just emerged from a
subordinate condition; the nations had, as yet, known nothing of us, and had not
yet reflected on the relations which it might be to their interests to establish with
us. Most of them, therefore, listened to our proposals with coyness and reserve
Old Frederick alone closing with us without any hesitation. The negotiator o f
Portugal, indeed, signed a treaty with us, which his government did not ratify;
and Tuscany was near a final agreement. Becoming sensible, however, our­
selves, that we should do nothing with the greater powers, we thought it better
not to hamper our country with engagements to those of less significance, and
suffered our powers to expire without closing any other negotiation. Austria,
soon after, became desirous of a treaty with us, and her ambassador pressed it
often upon m e; but, our commerce with her being no object, I evaded his repeat­
ed invitations. Had these governments been then apprised of the station we
should so soon occupy among nations, all, I believe, would have met us promptly,
and with frankness. These principles would then have been established with
all; and, from being the conventional law with us alone, would have slid into
their engagements with all, and become general.”
T h e United States thus took the lead in commercial negotiation, al­
though they may not lay claim to the paternity o f a system which had its
origin in the Congress o f Utrecht— an era remarkable in commercial history for the enlightened views and liberal regulations then embodied in
treaty stipulations. Although France was the first to recognise us as a
nation— not from friendship to us, but to suit her own selfish antagonism
to England— w e have made less progress with her, in a commercial way,
than with most other nations, i f w e except Spain, that wretched abode o f
despotism and desolation.
T h ere now exist 38 treaties between the United States and foreign
countries ; o f these, 29 are treaties o f reciprocity, containing the “ favored
nation clause,” which stipulates that any concession to one shall be en ­
joyed by all others, freely, if the concession is made freely, and upon pay­
ing the same equivalent, i f compensation is stipulated. T h e great emi­
gration which has taken place between the nations o f Europe and the
United States, has transferred to the United States a great number o f use­
ful citizens, and a considerable amount o f property. It has also closely
connected the descents o f property in the United States with persons in G er­
many, and, vice versa, a great number o f the citizens o f the United States
inherit property in the countries o f Europe. This has given rise to a new
class o f treaties, particularly with those nations which, situated remote
from the sea, have no occasion for com m ercial treaties. T h e first treaty
with the Netherlands, in 1782, embraced a clause to remove the duties
on the property o f emigrants, and to allow the citizens o f the United
States to inherit property in the Netherlands, without first obtaining letters
o f naturalization. A similar clause was contained in the first French
treaty. This was a wise and liberal provision, and did great credit to the
foresight o f the negotiators. A s the country advanced, and the intercourse
becam e more extended among the citizens o f the new and old world, the
necessity o f extending these provisions to other nations becam e more
urgent. A s an instance, it may be remarked that the kingdom o f Bavaria
contained, in 1837, 4,315,369 inhabitants ; and the emigration from it, in
four years, ending with 1839, was 24,507 souls, o f whom 23,978Avent to




With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

343

the United States. T h e Bavarian government levied a heavy tax on
the money and property carried away, and the amount ascertained as
so taxed, was 7,000,000 guilders, or $2,800,000, and was estimated to be
about h alf the actual sum, as a great deal w as concealed to avoid the tax.
In the other countries o f Germany, similar taxes prevailed. In 1842, Mr.
W heaton, the American Minister to Berlin, was charged with powers to
conclude special conventions with the German sovereignties for the abo­
lition o f these taxes, and also o f the droit d’aubaine, or alien duty, charged
upon property inherited by aliens. Five German States have acceded to
this, and Wurtemburg, Hesse Cassel, Bavaria, Saxony, and Nassau, have
abolished the droit d’aubaine and droit de detraction by treaty, as follow s:—
Art. 1. Every kind of droit d’aubaine, droit de retraite, and droit de detraction, or
tax on emigration, is hereby, and shall remain abolished, between the two con­
tracting parties, their States, citizens, and subjects, respectively.
Art. 2. Where, on the death of any person holding real property within the ter­
ritories of one party, such real property would, by the laws of the land, descend
on a citizen or subject of the other, were he not disqualified by alienage, such
citizen or subject shall be allowed the term of twro years to sell the same, which
term may be reasonably prolonged according to circumstances, and to withdraw
the proceeds thereof, without molestation, and exempt from all duties of detraction.
Art. 3. The citizens or subjects of each of the contracting parties shall have
the power to dispose of their personal property within the States of the other, by
testament, donation, or otherwise ; and their heirs, legatees, and donees, being
citizens or subjects of the other contracting party, shall succeed to their said per­
sonal property, and may take possession thereof, either by themselves or by others
acting for them, and dispose of the same at pleasure, paying such duties only as
the inhabitants of the country where the said property lies shall be liable to pay
in like cases.
Art. 4. In case of the absence of the heirs, the same care shall be taken, provi­
sionally, of such real or personal property as would be taken in a like case of
property belonging to the natives of the country, until the lawful owner, or the
person who has a right to sell the same, according to article 2, may take meas­
ures to receive or dispose of the inheritance.
Art. 5. If any dispute should arise between different claimants to the same in­
heritance, they shall be decided, in the last resort, according to the laws, and by
the judges of the country where the property is situated.
Art. 6. But this convention shall not derogate in any manner from the force of
the laws already published, or hereafter to be published, by his majesty the King
o f Bavaria, to prevent the emigration of his subjects.
B y this means, the movement o f emigration becomes more facile, and
the rights o f citizens o f each country to the property o f their kindred in
another more secure.
T h e following are the heads o f all the treaties made by the federal
governm ent:—
UNITED STATES FOREIGN TREATIES.
F ranck.
NEGOTIATORS.

D ate o f Treaty.
Nature.
Feb. 6 ,1 7 7 8 ... Treaty o f Alliance. Annulled 1798................
“
1778... Amity and Commerce.
“
1798.................
N ov. 14,1788.. Convention on Consuls. “
1798................
Sep. 30, 1800.. Convention—Favored Nations.........................
A p . 30,1809... Cession o f Louisiana...........................................
June £4,1822.. Commerce and Navigation...............................
July 11, 1831.. Indemnity and Duty on W ines.........................
N ov. 9,1843.. • Surrender o f Criminals......................................
Feb. 24,1841. • New Article to Treaty o f 1843.........................

American.
Benjamin Franklin.
Benjamin Franklin.
Thomas Jefferson.
O. Ellsworth.
James Monroe.
John Quincy Adams.
William C. Rives.
A. P. Upshur.
John C. Calhoun.

Foreign.
C. A . Gerard.
C. A . Gerard.
De Montmorin.
J. Bonaparte.
F. B. Marbois.
G. H. de Newville.
H. Sebastiani.
A . Pageot.
A . Pageot.

B e l g iu m .

Nov., 1 8 4 5 .... Commerce and Navigation.

R e cip ro city.... T . S. Clemson.

D ec., 1823........ Commerce and Navigation.

R e cip rocity.... W . Tudor.

B r a z il .




A . Deschamps.

Aracaty.

344

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States:
C e n t r a l A m e r ic a .
NEGOTIATORS.

D ate o f Treaty.
Dec. 5 ,1825... Commerce and Navigation.

N ature.
American.
Reciprocity----- Henry Clay.

Foreign.
A . J. Canas.

N e th erlan ds.

Oct. 8 ,1 7 8 2 ... Amity and Commerce. Reciprocity.............. John Adams.
“ 8 .1 7 8 2 ... Recapture o f Vessels........................................... John Adams.
Jan. 19,1839* • Treaty o f Commerce........................................... John Forsyth.

G. Van Randwiek.
G. Van Randwiek.
A . Martini.

G r e a t B r it a in .

N ov., 1 7 8 2 .... Provisional Articles o f Pence........................... B. Franklin.
R. Oswald.
Sept., 1783... • Treaty o f Peace. Mississippi Free................. B. Franklin.
D. Hartley.
N ov., 1794-•• • Amity, Commerce, and Navigation............... John Jay.
Grenville.
Jan. 8, 1802... Modification o f Treaty o f 1794........................ Rufus King.
Hawkesbury.
Dec. 24, 1814.. Treaty o f Peace— Ghent................................... H. Clay, J.Q . Adams. Gambier.
July, 1815....... Treaty to Regulate Commerce. Reciprocity.. Adams, Clay, Gal’tin. Robinson, and GoulA p. 17,1817... Naval Forces on the Lakes............................. Richard Rush.
C. Bagot.
[bourn.
Oct. 20, IS IS .. Definition o f the Right o f Fishing.................... Rush and Gallatin.
Robinson, and GoulC. Bagot.
[bourn.
July 12,1822.. Award o f the Emperor o f Russia..................... H. Middleton.
Aug. 6, 1827.. Renewal o f the Treaty o f 1815 for 10 years..
Gallatin.
Addington.
Sept., 1827... • Reference o f Boundary.................................... Gallatin.
Addington.
Nov., 1 8 2 7 .... T o carry into effect the Treaty o f Dec., 1814..
Gallatin.
Addington.
August, 1842.. Northeast Boundary and Slave Trade............ D. Webster.
Ashburton.
June, 1 8 4 0 .... Oregon Boundary................................................ J. Buchanan.
R. Packenham.
A l g ie r s .

Sept., 1795-.. • Peace and Commerce......................................... J. Donaldson.
June20,1815.. Peace and Commerce. Reciprocity.............. S. Decatur.
Dec., 1816....... Renewed Treaty. Reciprocity........................ J. Chauncey.

V . Hassan.
Omar.

A u s t r ia .

Aug. 29,1829..

Commerce and Navigation. Reciprocity------ M. Van Buren.

M ay 16,1832..

Commerce and Navigation. Reciprocity------ J. Hamm.

De Leaderer.

C h il i .

A. Bello.

N e w G ranada.

March 6,1844.. Mails across Panama......................................... W . M . Blackford.

J. Acosta.

Ottom an Porte.

May 7 ,1 8 3 0 ... Commerce and Navigation.

Reciprocity.. . . Commodore Biddle.

Hamed.

P eru.

N ov. 13,1839.. Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.... S. Lamed.
Mar. 17,1841.. Convention. Peru to pay $300,000.*............ J. C. Pickett.

G. del Rio.
Del Rio.

Portu gal.

A u g .26,1840.. Commerce and Navigation.

R ecip rocity.... E. Kavanagh.

Sept., 1 7 8 3 .... Commerce and Navigation.
July, 1799.......
“
“
M a y 2 ,1 8 2 8 ...
“
“

R ecip ro city .... B. Franklin.
“
. . . . J. Q,. Adams.
“
. . . . Henry Clay.

Garrett.

P r u s s ia .

Thulemeier.
C. Guillaume.
Niederstetter.

R u s sia .

April, 1 82 4.... Pacific Fisheries.................................................. H. Middleton.
Dec., 1832....... Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.... James Buchanan.

Nesselrode.
Nesselrode.

S a r d in ia .

Nov., 1833*«-• Commerce and Navigation.

R e cip ro city.... N. Nile3.

S. de la Marguerite.

S ia m .

March, 183 3... Commerce and Navigation.

R eciprocity.. . . E. Roberts.
T w o S ic il ie s .
Oct., 1832........ Indemnity to the United States........................J. Nelson.
Dec., 3845........ Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city.... W . H. Polk.

De Cassaro.
G. Fortunato.

C h in a .

July, 3,1844... Commerce............................................................. C. Cushing.

Tsiyeng.

C o l o m b ia .

Oct. 3,1824..• Commerce and Navigation.

R ecip ro city .... R. C. Anderson.

April, 18 2 6 .... Commerce and Navigation.

R e cip ro city.... Henry Clay.

June 13,1839.. Commerce and Navigation.

R eciprocity.. . . J. C. Pickett.

Deo. 10, 1837.. Commerce and Navigation.

R ecip ro city .... A . Stevenson.

P. Gual.

D enmark.

P. Pederson.

E cuador.

L . de Saa.

Greece.

S. Tricoupi.

H anover.

May 20, 1840.. Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city .... II. W heaton.
March, 1847... Com. and Nav. Reduce Duties and T o lls ... A . D. Mann.
H a n se T

D ec.20,1837.. Commerce and Navigation.

A. de Berger.
De Falcke.

ow n s.

R eciprocity.... Henry Clay.

H. RumpfF.

M e x ic o .

Jan., 1828....... Limits.................................................................... J. R. Poinsett.
April 5,1831.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip rocity.... A . Butler.
“ 11,1839. Convention to Adjust C laim s.......................... J. Forsyth.
Jan. 20, 1843* • Convention to provide for Payment o f Claims.. W addy Thompson.

Estevan.
Alaman.
Martinez.
Bocanegra.

M orocco.

Jan., 1787....... Peace and Commerce. Reciprocity................ Thomas Barclay.
Sept., 183 6 .... Commerce and Navigation. “
•••.......... J. R. Leib.

Fennesh.

S p a in .

Oct. 27,1795..
Aug. 11,1802..
Feb. 2 2 ,18J9..
“ 17,1834..

P eace& N av. U.S. citizens may trade to N .O .. T . Pinckney.
Convention on Indemnities............................... C. Pinckney.
Cession o f the Floridas....................................... John Q,. Adams.
Convention on Indemnities............................... C. P. Van Ness.




* N ot ratified till 1845.

De la Paz.
P. Cavallos.
L. de Onis.
J. de Heredia.

With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

345

M uscat.
NEGOTIATORS.

D ate o f Treaty.
June24,1827.. Commerce and Navigation.

Nature.
American.
R e c i p r o c it y .• E. Roberts.

Foreign.
Syeed Bin.

S weden.

April 3, 1783.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip ro city .... B. Franklin.
Sept., 1 8 1 6 .... Com. and Nav. (8 years.)
. . . . J. Russell.
July, 1827........
“
“
(10 years.)
“
. . . . J. S. Appleton.
T

N ov., 1 7 0 6 .... Peace and Commerce.
June, 1 8 0 5 ....
“
. “

G. Phillips.
D’ Engestrom.
Wetterstedt.

r ip o l i .

Reciprocity............... Joel Barlow.
“
................ T . Lear.

Hanan.
Caramanby.

T u n is .

March. 1799... Commerce and Navigation.
Feb., 182 4.-...

R eciprocity.. . . W . Eaton.
S. D. Heap.
V

Jan., 1835....... Commerce and Navigation.

Ibrahim.
Sidi Mahmoud.

en ezu ela.

R ecip ro city .... J. G. A . Williamson. Michelena.
W URTEM BURG.

April 10, 1844. A b ol’ n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton.

Von Maucler.

H esse C a ss e l.

March, 1844... Abolition o f droit d’ aubaine............................. H. W heaton.

Bernstien.

B a v a r ia .

Jan. 2 1 , 1845 • Abol’ n droit d’aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton.

Lerchenfeld.

Saxon y.

May 14,1845.. Abol’n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton.

Minekuitz.

N assau .

May 2 7 , 1846. . Ahol’ n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton.

Von Roeder.

In all these treaties the object is, to settle boundaries, procure indemni­
ties for damage done to com m erce, and to extend its sphere o f action.
T h e only instance o f “ foreign entanglement,” or the entering into obliga­
tions with foreign powers for an object that had no bearing upon the na­
tional welfare, and was a mere subscription to a British chimera— a tribute
to that presumption ever manifested by Great Britain in her intercourse
with other nations— appears to be the clause o f the treaty with Great
Britain, in 1842, in reference to the African slave trade. I f any nation
w as entitled to set itself up as supreme arbiter, and dictate a course to
other nations, that party belongs to the United States, in relation to the
African slave trade, inasmuch as that, as colonies, they resisted, to the
point o f rebellion, the attempts o f Great Britain to force it upon them, and
suppressed it among their first acts as a government, treating it as piracy
long before its profits ceased to enrich Liverpool. It is doubtful, if the
United States had not first stopped the sale o f slaves here, by English
dealers, whether, to this day, England would have abolished the trade.
A loss o f profit is a wonderful stimulant to British philanthropy. T h e
United States, o f their own act, abolished the slave trade after 1808, and
from that time to this there have been no Africans landed in the territories
o f the Union. Had all nations done the same thing, the trade would have
ceased. That they did not see fit to do so, was no affair o f ours. E n g ­
land prosecuted the trade long afterwards, without molestation from the
United States. In the spirit o f our institutions a wise government was
content with doing its own duty. T h e trade never flourished so much, as
from the ports o f London and Liverpool from 1810 to 1814. In all those
years, the government o f England had perfect control o f the seas. H er
vessels alone could prosecute the slave, or any other trade, with im punity;
and she exercised the belligerent “ right o f sea rch ” freely, pushing it to
an abuse that compelled the United States to resist by force. After peace
was declared, the “ right o f search,” although strenuously resisted by the
United States, w as never abandoned by England ; and when her dimin­
ishing profit in slave traffic awakened her philanthropy, she discovered
that the capabilities o f the vast coast o f Africa for a future trade are al­
most limitless, she n ow sends $10,000,000 worth o f goods there, per an­
num. T h e “ right o f search,” based on the slave trade, would give her




346

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States:

the control o f those seas ; and unceasingly, and in every shape, has she
urged the claim. W h en the W h ig cabinet was about going out o f power,
in 1841, Lord Palmerston had succeeded in forming a treaty, by which
Austria, Prussia, and Russia, countries concerned very little in the navi­
gation o f the ocean, and not at all in the African seas, conceded the “ right
o f search ” to England. Their accession was valuable to the minister,
only, in that it increased the moral pow er with w hich he approached
France for her signature; and having obtained that, as he afterwards an­
nounced in Parliament, he “ f e lt sure o f the United States.” Precisely
at that juncture, however, Lord Aberdeen succeeding to the seals o f the
foreign office, sent Mr. Packenham to treat with Mr. W ebster on the
Maine boundary. T h e treaty which settled that, contained a clause, by
w hich each party bound themselves to keep, for five years from dale, a
force o f eighty guns, in the African seas, for the suppression o f the slave
trade. T h e “ right o f search ” was, however, not relinquished by E n g ­
land. On the arrival o f that treaty in Paris, it had the effect o f prevent­
ing the Frfench government from signing Lord Palmerston’ s treaty; and
they made a new one on the model o f the W ashington treaty, agreeing to
keep each a force in the African seas.
N ow this clause o f the W ashington treaty, w hich expired in September,
1847, was an instance o f “ entanglement,” in a matter with which the
United States had nothing to do. From the jealous manner in w hich the
stipulated force was watched by England, to see that it w as always kept
full, it was evident that she supposed our small force could not spare the
guns, and that especially in time o f w ar it would prove so onerous, that
w e should prefer the “ right o f search.” The matter is now, however, at
an end. T h e joint forces have been on service in the African seas five
years, and the trade is admitted to be greater than ever. Mr. W ebster,
in his “ defen ce” o f the treaty, states that the arrangement was designed
to carry into effect one o f “ the stipulations o f the treaty o f Ghent, thought
binding on us,” and to avoid the “ right o f search,” — as if England had
compelled such an alternative. The treaty o f Ghent, article 10, states as
follows
“ Whereas, the traffic in slaves is irreconcileable with the principles of human­
ity and justice, and whereas, both his majesty and the United States are desirous
of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is agreed that both the
contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an
object.”
,
It is not easy to see why this clause, made in 1814, should involve the
alternative, in 1842, o f submitting to the “ right o f search,” on ono hand,
or o f keeping a fleet on the African coast, on the other. It does not al­
lude to A frican slaves particularly, but includes all slaves ; and requires the
United States to send a force to Hindostan to check the sale o f children and
debtors into slavery, in countries under British rule, as much as it does to
send a naval force to the African coast. There are apparently only two
ways o f suppressing the slave trade, v iz .: to prohibit the export o f all
English goods to Africa, or to colonize the whole coast. A ll the machine­
ry o f slavery is in full activity, in the interior o f Africa. T h e blacks are
captured, brought down, and delivered on the coast, in exchange for L an ­
cashire goods. If, after that, they work on Brazilian plantations as slaves,
or on English ones as apprentices, or emigrants, which is the new word, it
is nothing to the captors ; they get their pay, and continue their captures for




With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

347

future profit. I f no more goods could be had for negroes, none would be
brought down to the coast. England would, however, in that case, lose the
sale o f her goods. This “ entanglement ” with England about the slave
trade, seems to be an anomaly in our treaty system ; and as, after a use­
less existence, it has expired, it w ill probably not be continued.
The commercial prosperity o f the Union is an evidence o f the success­
ful working o f our system o f treaties, and o f the wisdom o f those princi­
ples o f equality and reciprocity laid down as a rule by the framers o f the
government. The general results o f the business for 1846, show the fol­
low ing as the proportion o f the foreign trade, done in national and other
v essels:—
ENTERED.

CLEARED.

Tons.

American.............
Foreign................
T o t a l............

Propor- Imported
Proportion.
goods.
tion.
2,151,114 C9.15 $106,008,173
87.11
959,739 30.85
15,683,624 12.89

2,221,028
968,178

Propor- Exported Propor­
tion.
goods.
tion.
69.64 $86,550,175
76.26
30.36
76,938,361 23.74

3,110,853

3,189,206

100.00

100.00

$121,691,797

100.00

Tons.

$113,488,516

100.00

A system which has produced such results, after seventy years existence
as a nation, cannot be w rong in its general principles. Equal rights and
reciprocity have given the United States 69.15 per cent o f all the tonnage
that arrives, and they bring 87.11 per cent o f all the goods imported, and
the vessels o f the Union carry aw ay 76.26 per cent o f all the exports.
T h e same general principles have, however, operated differently with dif­
ferent nations, according to the nature o f the trade, the bearing which the
duties levied by the United States had upon the articles o f their respective
production, and the degree o f reciprocity stipulated. T h e intercourse be­
tween Great Britain and the United States, rests upon the treaty o f 1815,
which provides perfect reciprocity between the vessels o f the two coun­
tries, in the direct trad e; that is to say, the productions o f Great Britain
may be brought to the United States, in either British or American ves­
sels, on equal terms, and reciprocally, United States productions may be
carried to Great Britain, in the vessels o f either country, without discrimi­
nation. T h e treaties with the countries o f the North o f Europe, n ego­
tiated in 18 27 -8, by Mr. Clay, are o f the most liberal construction, and
em brace the indirect trade ; that is to say, the United States vessels may
g o thither from any country with the products o f any country, and may go
thence with the products o f any country to any destination ; and vice versa,
the North o f Europe vessels may com e and go on the same terms. Un­
der these treaties, the tonnage o f those vessels in our ports exceeds that
o f our own entered directly to and from those countries.
Under the English treaty, our trade with Great Britain seems to have
progressed, as indicated in the number o f tons arrived from Great Britain,
as follo w s:—

1823.
Tons.

Amer. vessels.......................
British “
......................
Total.............................

1833.
Tens.

119,202 199,177
46,011 111,485
165,213

210,662

Val. o f imports.

1846.
Tons.

Val. o f imports

$33,869,692
2,858,623

374,137
198,373

$37,299,036
6,545,124

$36,728,315

572,510

$43,844,160

T h e tonnage o f the Boston mail steamers was about 20,000 tons for
1846 ; yet the Am erican vessels do nearly all the trade, it appears, m eet­
ing the English vessels on equal terms on their own ground. T h e result
is different, as w e have intimated, with the North o f Europe treaties. In




349

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States:

Aprii, 1826, M r. Clay negotiated with Denmark a treaty o f perfect reci­
procity, embracing the indirect trade. In July, 1827, Mr. Appleton con­
cluded one with Sweden on the same terms. In D ecem ber, 1827, Mr.
Clay perfected one with the H anse T ow ns o f still greater concessions.
Article 1 provides :—
“ The contracting parties agree, that whatever hind o f produce, manufacture, or
merchandise, of any foreign country, can be, from time to time, imported into the
United States, in their own vessels, may be also imported in vessels of said free
Hanseatic republics, Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh; and that no higher or other
duties upon the tonnage or cargo of the vessels, shall be levied or collected,
whether the importation be made in the vessels of the United States, or either of
the said Hanseatic republics.”
Article 4 contains a most extraordinary provision, and one which, under
the “ favored nation clause,” it would be difficult to maintain against the
claims o f other nations —
“ In consideration of the limited extent of the territories of the republics of
Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, and of the intimate connection of trade and navi­
gation subsisting between these republics, it is hereby stipulated and agreed, that
any vessel, which shall be owned exclusively by a citizen or citizens of any or
either of them, and of which the master shall also be a citizen of any or either of
them, and provided that three-fourths of the crew shall be citizens or subjects of
any or either of said republics, or of any or either of the States o f the German
confederation, such vessel so owned and navigated, shall, for all purposes of this
convention, be taken to be, and considered as, a vessel belonging to Lubeck, Bre­
men, or Hamburgh.”
This most extraordinary provision extended to the subjects o f all the
distinct German States, embracing 35,000,000 o f people, the privilege o f
Hamburgh citizenship, as far as qualifying them to man vessels in the
Am erican trade went. In May, 1828, Mr. Clay concluded a treaty with
Prussia. In 1829, Mr. V an Buren negotiated with Austria a treaty co n ­
taining the same provision in regard to the indirect trade. T h e effect o f
these treaties may be traced partly by observing the tonnage arrived from
each p la c e :—
TONNAGE ENTERED THE UNITED STATES.

1846.

m
Amer’ n. Foreign.
F r o m Austria...............................

Total.

Am er’ n.

Foreign.

Total.

2,000

4,432
389
15,453

5,019
419
3,502

12,862

7,290

20,152

24,872

1,592
1,375
9,938
281
61,656

5,611
1,794
13,440
281
86,528

31,136

9,290

40,426

33,812

73,842

107,654

4,432
389
13,453

Hanse T o w n s......... ........
T otal................. ......

Prussia.......................
Sw eden..................... ........
D e n m a r k .......................

This is a very considerable change in the trade. W hile that in United
States vessels has slightly increased, that in foreign vessels has com e
largely to exceed it. If, now, w e take the total arrival o f the vessels un­
der those flags, w e shall see the operation o f the indirect trade :—
Where, from.

Austrian. Prussian. Swedish. Danish.

Russia..............................
319
Prussia............................. ...................
Sweden...........................
Danish W est Indies......
Hanse Tow ns................ ....................
Holland...........................




Hanseatic.

........
959
9,336

2,105

721
351

542
281
198
1,501
390

293
56,941
399

Total. American.

319
959
9,878
281
491
61,268
1,690

11,145
419
F 3,502
29,018
24,872
21,903

With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.
W here from.

Belgium..........................
England..........................
France............................ ......
Cfcina..............................
Spain..............................
Spanish islands..............
Cuba................................
Portugal..........................
Sicily..............................
Tuscany..........................
Trieste...........................
Turkey...........................
T e x a s.............................
M exico...........................
Brazil..............................
Argentine republic.......
Chili................................
Hayti...............................
A frica .............................
Sandwich Islands.........
T otal.................. ......

Austrian. Prussian.

367

Swedish. Danish.

222

170
587

980
892
2,685

399
247

1,125
544

123

Hanseatic.

352
925
1,582

90
443
300

581
366
255
1,477
149

117

275

150
2,435
150

923
307

444
78
1,139
254
275
154

5,275

63,669

773

434
231
1,844

5,409

21,047

349

Total. American.

1,554
1,987
5,221
308
1,651
791
90
443
881
366
592
1,477
444
494
4,622
404
1,198
461
434
231

12,714
374,137
113,554
18.937
18.001
1,683
156,905
5,128
21,798
3,387
5,019
7,170
21,908
22,410
61,014
5,988
6,560
30,264
9,418
606

97,244

927,430

T h e tonnage o f these nations arriving in the Union, amounts , it ap.
pears, to 10 per cent o f the United States tonnage arriving from the same
places, after nineteen years operation o f treaties conferring equal privi­
leges.
In the direct trade, however, with Sweden, Prussia, and the
Hanse Tow ns, the tonnage o f those countries far exceeds that o f the Uni­
ted States com ing direct. This account does not embrace the United
States tonnage arriving at those ports from other nations, nor the depar­
tures for other countries— as, for instance, American vessels arriving at
Hamburgh from Havana or the Brazils. W hat amount o f that trade the
United States vessels enjoy, under the treaties, as an offset to the increase
o f foreign tonnage in our ow n ports, does not appear in the official table.
It seems that, o f 21,047 Swedish tonnage that arrived in 1846, only 9,336
came from Sweden, and o n ly 7,765 cleared thither; o f 5,275 tons Danish
tonnage, only 281 came from Denmark, but 1,128 cleared for there.
T h e greatest increase in the foreign tonnage appears to be in the Hanseatic, under the extraordinary stipulation o f Mr. Clay, that vessels owned
there, though built elsewhere, and manned hy the citizens o f other coun­
tries, should be considered Hanseatic vessels. W ith other countries, it is
required, that vessels should be built and manned by their own citizens.
T h e Hanseatic treaty is probably the nearest approach to free trade ex­
tant, and nearly as much so as the treaty made by Mr. Pitt, with France,
just before the great revolution broke out, or our ow n regulations with that
government made at nearly the same period. Its effect is doubtless to
facilitate the general com m erce o f the world, and the consumption o f
Am erican produce in Germany, by promoting the means o f transportation.
It has exerted very nearly the same influence on American trade general­
ly, in a more moderate degree, as that which the suspension o f the navi­
gation laws o f France, England, and Belgium, in respect o f corn, exerted
on the sale o f Am erican farm produce, in the summer o f 1847. T h e
multiplicity o f vessels caused the rate o f freight on flour to fall from 8s. 9d.
sterling per barrel, in February, to Is. 6d., in August. At the same time,
the price o f flour, in Liverpool, fell from 40s. to 30s. In spite o f this
fall, the N ew Y ork shipper was, through the supply o f freight, in relatively
the same position to the Liverpool market, in August, as in February.




350

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States :

T h e treaty with F rance concluded in 1822, and under w hich our trade with
that power is at present regulated, provided for a discriminating duty in favor
o f national vessels; as thus, on whatever duty was charged on French goods,
arriving in the United States in United States vessels, an additional duty*of
not more than 83 75 per ton o f merchandise, should be charged on the same
goods arriving in French vessels. T h e quantities that make a ton w ere specified, and also 94 cents per ton, ship’ s register, additional; and reciprocally,
United States vessels arriving in France should pay 20 francs extra per ton
o f merchandise, and 5 francs per ton o f ship’s register— this treaty to continue two years, and after that to be subject to one year’s notice o f discon­
tinuance— the discriminating duties on goods to cease one-fourth, at the
end o f two years, and one-fourth annually thereafter; consequently, the
discrimination ceased in 1829, and the trade is n ow on a basis o f recipro­
city. T h e discriminating tonnage duty is, however, continued, and is
much higher than France charges upon the vessels o f any other nation.
British vessels pay but 20 cents, and in ballast nothing. It w ill be ob­
served, that Hanseatic vessels being, as respects the indirect trade, on the
same footing with the United States, and being subjected to a low er ton­
nage duty in France than United States vessels, they have an actual ad­
vantage over those o f the United States in going to France for freights.
Thus, i f two vessels o f 400 tons each, leave the E lbe for Havre to take
freight for the United States, one a German and the other an Am erican,
the former w ill b e charged in Havre 72 cents, or $ 2 88 tonnage, and the
latter $376, and on arriving in the United States both w ill be on the same
terms. Y et this advantage does not appear to have operated much against
our trade, as in the above table it w ill be seen that, in 1846, but 5,221
foreign tons came from France, and 113,554 Am erican ; there came, also,
7,678 tons o f French shipping. For a long time, the silks o f France were
admitted at nominal duties, and free, and her wines on liberal terms. This
did not induce France to modify her absurd discrimination against A m eri­
can trade, or modify the high taxes she imposes on American produce;
yet the tariff o f 1846, which raised the duties o n ' her produce, has been
matter o f complaint with her journals. France imposes I f cents per pound
on United States cotton— a higher rate than upon that o f other countries—
and yet her statesmen talk learnedly o f competing with England in the
manufacture, when that country has been obliged to remove the duty from
cotton altogether. This tax is not so much a disadvantage to the United
States, as it is a burden to French manufacturers. The small degree o f
wisdom displayed by France in her com m ercial legislation, places her far
behind those nations she affects to rival.
T h e trade with the British colonies was not included in the treaty which
regulated that with the mother country, and is now regulated by a British
order in council, o f 1830, an act o f Congress, and the President’ s pro­
clamation o f the same year. T h e order in council established certain
“ free ports,” to w hich United States vessels might com e direct from the
United States, with American products, on the same terms as British ves­
sels, and might sail thence to any country whatever. T h e act o f C on­
gress empowered the President to issue a proclamation, opening the U ni­
ted States ports to colonial vessels whenever he should have evidence that
United States vessels were free to visit the colonies. This was done. It
has been a cause o f complaint, however, that, while United States vessels
could, on pain o f forfeiture, visit only certain enumerated ports o f the colo­
nies, and one only at one voyage, British vessels might com e from any




With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

351

colonial ports and visit,any o f the ports o f the Union, and returning from
the Union go to different colonial ports ; and that British vessels, by ma­
king a freight from England to the W est Indies, can earn another to the
United States, and thence another to England, on terms cheaper, by reason
o f the triple voyage, than United States vessels can carry their own pro­
duce to England. It has also been alleged, that the United States trade
with the W est Indies has diminished by being supplanted by British ves­
sels. T h e nationality and tonnage o f the vessels trading to the W est In­
dies and the British colonies, in 1829 and in 1846, appears to be as fol­
lows :—
TONNAGE ENTERED FROM WEST INDIES,

1829.

American. British. French. Spanish. Swed. Danish. Havtien. Total.
...... 815
17,969 ......
18,784
Swedish W. Indies...
.........
122
13,325 ......
13.447
Dutch
“
.........
482
43,463
......
44,945
Danish
“
32,777
317
British
“
36,094
...............
French W. Indies—
Spanish “
....
Cuba.......................
Hayti.....................

40,516 ......
19,179 ......
99,779 2,091
21,370
200

British N. America..

88,492 4,409

9,207
137 ....
42
785 8,646 ....

49,860
295
19,416
326
111.627
74 2,931 24,575
92,901

376,970 7,017 10,034 8,783 815 1,299
TONNAGEENTEREDIN 1846.
American.
British. French. Spanish. Dan.
......
653
......
13,935
......
29^018
478
198
.......
90,484 33,724
British Guiana........ ......
7,299
6,108
....
5,275 ......
......
270
......
51,284
Cuba.....................
650 ...... 2,664
30,264
Hayti.................... ......
251 ...... 307
91
Honduras................ ......
5,359
64 .......... .
British N. America..........
850,784 515,879
Total............

Total............ ......

2,931 411,649
Hanse.

Total.
653
13,935
293
29,987
124,208
....
13,407
5,275
51,554
90
160,309
154
31,067
5,423
1,366,663

1,235,985 556,994 5,526 2,934 505 537 1,802,481

This trade, it w ill be observed, has more than quadrupled, and in every
case the increase is largely on the side o f the United States. If, now, w e
compare the quantities o f goods imported and exported, w e shall arrive at
an approximation o f the manner in which United States interests have
been affected under the admitted disadvantages o f the arrangem ent:—

18S9.
Amor, vessels. For’ n vessels.

Swedish W . I .,
283,049
Dutch
“ . 434,717
Danish
“ . 2,036,311
British
“ . 175,628
French W . I .
756,419
Spanish
“ . 884,646
Cuba............... 4,720,151
Hayti.............. , 1,570,288
Honduras.......
64,847
575,066
British N . Am,.
Total..........




7,451,116

1846.
Total.

283,049
438,132
2,053,266
240,224

Amer. vessels.

For’ n vessels.

Total.

2,476

777,992
898,832
4,866,524
1,799,809
64,807
277,542

5,285
397,600
745,010
555,953
12,561
336,813
2,252,316
8,083,911
1,521,692
207,997
826,993

1,110,724

5,285
398,056
752,614
843,678
12,561
348,236
2,277,110
8,159,632
1,542,962
207,997
1,937,717

499,125

11,700,177

14,946,131

1,529,717

16,186,348

3,415
16,955
64,596
21,573
14,186
146,373
229,521

456
7,604
277,725
11,423
24,794
75,721
21,270

352

The Commercial Treaties o f the United Stales:

A ll the increase in the imports from the W est Indies, appears to have
taken place in American vessels. Before the present arrangement, the
trade went through the Danish and Swedish islands to the British islands,
but as the Spanish islands furnish the same articles on better terms, the
trade with them has increased in a greater degree. T h e domestic exports
o f the United States have been as follows to those places :—
EXPORTS OF UNITED STATES PRODUCE.

1829.
W here to.

Swedish W . I .
Dutch
“ .
Danish
u .
British
** .
Brit Guiana...
.French W . 1...
Spanish “ ...
Cuba................
Hayti...............
Honduras.......
British N. Am .

Total. . . . . . .

Amer. vessels. For’ n vessels.

1846.
Total.

$679,212
370,887
1,914,643
1,463

$5,311
8,987
27,367

$684,523
379,874
1,942,010
1,463

990,975
200,248
3,375,563
664,462
12,693
2,654,830

65,664
9,532
343,700
150,525

10,864,976

Amer. vessels.

For’ n vessels

Total.

69,274

1,056,639
209,780
3,719,263
814,987
12,693
2,724,10-1

$138,121 ................
263,775
$8 72
919,601
39,851
4,221,598
693,485
464,129
87,539
587,724
30,388
656,101
19,340
4,285,913
428,053
1,089,112
24,901
325,494 ................
3,536,462 2,506,204

$138,121
264,647
959,452
4,915,083
551,668
618.112
675,441
4,713,966
1,114,013
325,494
6,042,666

580,360

11,545,336

16,488,030 3,830,633

20,318,663

This is a great progress o f trade, and highly advantageous to the United
States in every respect. The sales o f produce to the different colonies o f
European governments, have greatly increased, and the carrying is 75 per
cent in Am erican vessels. W hatever advantages English vessels may have
in existing arrangements, superior to those enjoyed by the vessels o f the
Union, the effect appears to be only to promote the consumption o f Am eri­
can produce in the islands, by facilitating the transportation. That policy
w hich would seek to prevent British vessels from com ing here to buy farm
produce, because England is so selfish as to prevent the United States
from buying the products o f her colonies, cannot be considered wise or
statesmanlike. An instance o f this short-sighted policy occurred in the
plaster trade o f Nova Scotia. T h e quarry was situated at a place remote
from the free port, at which alone Am erican vessels w ere allowed to load,
while British vessels w ere allowed to go directly to the spot. This was
thought a disadvantage to Am erican vessels, while it proved to be so only
to the quarry owners, who were deprived o f Am erican customers by this
folly.
N ow , under the supposition that the whole above quantity o f
$20,318,663 o f farm produce was carried in foreign vessels, there would
be little wisdom in refusing to sell that produce at all, unless it could be
carried in Am erican bottoms. Y et this is the spirit in which navigation
laws are enacted. A s it is, the produce is not only sold, but carried, to a
considerable extent, in American vessels ; and yet this matter has been a
fruitful source o f complaint with certain parties among us.
T h e manner in which these laws operate practically, may be gathered
from a few facts. T h e famine, which has overtaken England in the last
year, has compelled her to abolish the Navigation L aw s in respect to corn,
which, until M arch next, may be imported into Great Britain, from any
country, in any vessel. T h e effect o f this has been, conjointly with the
United States law, allowing goods to pass the United States territory, to
and from Canada, in bond, to induce shipment o f flour from Canada to
England in Am erican vessels, via the O sw ego Canal and the port o f N ew
Y ork— a route 50 cents per barrel cheaper than down the St. Law rence.




With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

353

Similar necessities have, also, induced the appointment o f a parliamentary
committee to examine into the operation o f the Navigation Laws, in respect
to the indirect trade. A short quotation from the evidence o f Mr. Berger,
a London merchant in the United States trade, will show the tendency o f
this investigation. In answer to the question, “ Have you experienced
any inconvenience or loss from the operation o f the Navigation Law s ?”
Mr. Berger gives a reply at once comprehensive and specific :—
“ The principal inconvenience that we experience is from that clause in the
Navigation Law which enacts that goods, not the produce of the United States,
shall only be brought from the United States in an English vessel. . There is a
large trade carried on, principally from the northern ports of the United Slates,
viz., Boston and New York, with Africa, the East Indies, and other parts ; there
is a large market there for the produce of those countries, and very frequent op­
portunities occur, when the markets in this country are bare of those articles, and
when it would be most important that they should be brought over here. I speak
of such articles as palm oil, ivory, African hides, East India hides, Manilla
hemp, East India gums, and African gums, and dye-woods of all kinds; a con­
siderable quantity of East and West India drugs, Cuba tobacco, annatto, and other
articles : all those articles are very valuable, though not much in bulk.
“ Are those articles that you have a great trade in ? Yes, a considerable trade
both in London and in Liverpool, and those articles can only be imported into this
country in British vessels.
“ Have you experienced any difficulty in procuring British ships in the northern
ports of the United States, Boston and New York? Frequently there has been a
difficulty and a delay in getting forward those goods, from the difficulty of getting
British ships.”
Not that there is any absolute deficiency o f British shipping in these
northern ports. But the British ships that frequent New Y ork and Boston
are mainly an inferior class o f colonial craft, from Nova Scotia or N ew
Brunswick, not adapted to carry the more valuable descriptions o f A m e­
rican produce, and not always “ in a position to corse across the Atlantic.”
“ Generally speaking,” adds the witness, “ they are the worst w hich w e
get, and the consequence is an increased rate o f premium on the insurance,
an increased length o f voyage, and an increased loss o f interest; and what
affects us more than anything else, the risk o f the loss o f the market,
w hich the delay and the length o f the voyage entail upon us.”
“ Can you give any particular instance of the difficulty of getting British ships,
in which to import those particular goods t'iat you have referred to into this coun­
try ? Y e s : one of our friends writes us here in November last, from Salem,
Massachusetts: 1The favorable state of your market would induce me to send
about 150 casks of palm oil lately received, was there any British vessel here at
this time; and also another parcel of 150 hogsheads, which I daily expect.’ And
afterwards he wrote us, ‘ The 150 casks which are mentioned in my last I have
sold, there not being a British v e s s e l s o that not only a British ship lost the
freight, but we lost the commission.”
“ The favorable state o f the British market” is simply a short way of
saying that Great Britain very particularly wanted palm oil, at that par­
ticular moment, and would have been only too happy to pay a handsome
price for it. But the Navigation Law s stopped the way. T h e examina­
tion p roceeds:—
“ Can you give another instance ? I can give another instance whiclt affected
us. The goods were sent by a ship which bears a good name, but which was a
wretched craft—the Duke of Wellington; she was a St. John’s ship, loading at
Boston. There were 100 bales of Cuba tobacco which had to be sent round from
vol.

x v n .—

rto. iv.




23

354

The Commercial Treaties o f the United States :

New York to Boston ; the ship made a very long passage, and that tobacco, if it
could have been shipped by an American vessel, would have been here six weeks
before, and would have been sold for 3s. 3d. a pound; but before the time this
ship got here, the market declined 2s., and the tobacco is still on hand now, and
is not worth more than Is. 3d. a pound. Upon that single transaction there was
a loss to the parties interested of £500, or £600. There was another instance in
October last. Our correspondent wrote to us in these terms :— ‘ There are at
present 1,000 bales of Manilla hemp here, which would go forward were there
any British ship.’ W e ha'd to send out a ship from this country; she got into
distress, and had to put back to Cork, and those 1,000 bales, not having come for­
ward, being equal to 250 tons, have since been sold abroad.”
T h e colonial policy o f Great Britain, as well as that o f other nations
o f Europe, has, however, always had in view the maintenance o f a close
monopoly, until recently, when great modifications have been made in it.
The monopoly was, moreover, o f a very comprehensive character. It is
a monopoly o f supply o f colonial produce, and o f manufacture. T h e colo­
nies w ere allowed to draw their supplies only from the mother country;
they were constrained to carry all their produce to her markets o n ly ; and
w ere prohibited from manufacturing themselves, being required to send
their raw material to England to be wrought up. Earl Chatham declared
in Parliament, that colonists in Am erica had no right to manufacture so
much as a nail for a horse-shoe. Under such a system, the colonist was
but a slave ; he was working for the benefit o f the subjects at home, while
debarred from their political rights. In the course o f time, however, it
came to be discovered that the growth o f the colonies was cramped through
inefficient supplies, and they were permitted to procure them from other
nations, the United States particularly. In 1835, the abolition mania
ruined the physical resources o f the colonies ; and as one monopoly led
to another, the people o f England w ere allowed to buy no articles similar
to those produced in the colonies, except from them. T h e consequence
was, that England could consume no more than they could produce, and
when the slaves were manumitted the production was reduced. For tim­
ber, coffee, sugar, & c., the people o f England paid high prices— the dif­
ferential duties on foreign articles always maintaining the prices at the
colonial monopoly rate. This evil led, in 1842, under the reform o f the tariff
to the admission o f foreign articles at a less discrimination, taking from the
colonies a part o f their fancied advantages in the home market. This
has produced a desire on the part
the colonists to procure the removal
o f the inhibition from recruiting laborers in certain latitudes o f Africa, or,
in other words, to renew the slave trade, and it is probable that the privi­
lege will be granted. The idea o f a inked, black savage, just released
from his captors, voluntarily emigrating \o the British W est Indies, is a
theory o f British philanthropists, as pleasant as it is preposterous.
W hen a system o f protection or close monopoly is begun to be disturbed,
the work o f pulling to pieces must be done rapidly. T h e colonies w ere only
able to bear the confinement to British markets, because o f the high rates
the people o f England were compelled to pay for their produce. A s soon
as they becom e exposed to foreign competitors in the English markets, it
becom es necessary for them to find more favorable sources o f supply. I f
they are compelled to sell cheaper, they must also buy cheaper, and pro­
cure cheaper and more efficient labor than free blacks will afford. There
is no doubt but that the declaration o f the minister, in 1842, that the colo­
nies must be treated as “ integral parts o f the kingdom,” will be soon ful­




With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom.

355

filled. There w ill then be a system o f perfect free trade between E n g ­
land and her dependencies, and the trade o f the latter with foreign
countries be put on a liberal footing.
T h e most important change in regard to the W est Indies, which sooner
or later must take place, is in regard to the Island o f Cuba, a country o f
inexhaustible agricultural wealth. So great are its resources, and so fer­
tile its soil, that the protective system even o f Spain has not been able to
ruin it, even although it has supplied its slave population at enormous ex­
pense, annually, and been drawn upon for large sums to support the waste
o f the mother country. From the time when the combined tyranny o f
church and state drove the industrious Moors from Spain, the ingenuity o f
the Spanish government seems to have been exerted to retard the pros­
perity o f the kingdom and all its dependencies. T h e gold o f A m erica
corrupted court and people ; industry and enterprise languished; com ­
merce was destroyed by barbarous restrictions ; and the wealth and popu­
lation o f the kingdom wasted away under a rigid system o f “ protection to
home industry.”
T h e last official census reports 1,511 towns and villages
uninhabited and abandoned. In the bishopric o f Salamanca, there w ere
formerly 127 towns ; there are now but thirteen. Seville, in the 17th
century, had a population o f 300,000, o f whom 130,000 w ere manufactu­
rers ; at present, the gross population is 96,000. Merida has declined
from 40,000 to 5,000. Valencia, according to Escolano, had, in 1600,
600,000 inhabitants, and has now but 130,000. These are indications o f
the state o f Spain, when all other nations have advanced through mutual
treaties and the effect o f increasing commercial intercourse. T h e spirit
o f close monopoly and grinding oppression, w hich has reduced her from
the imperial splendor o f Charles V . to her present degradation, has lost
her most o f the colonies that he acquired, and has loosened her hold upon
Cuba, the inestimable prize on which the eyes o f all nations are fastened.
W hile drawing from it annually large revenues and forced loans, the m o­
ther country has constantly refused to better its condition by a more liberal
commercial policy, or to listen to the urgent memorials o f the islanders
for the suppression o f the slave trade. Papers, as sound in argument and
as bold in remonstrance as w ere addressed by the people o f the colony o f
Virginia to England for the prohibition o f the traffic, have gone up from
Cuba to the government at Madrid, but without effect. T h e worst fea­
tures o f the colonial policy are applied to the com m erce o f the island ;
and the efforts o f the United States, either by solicitation or countervailing
duties, have failed to elicit any modification by treaty o f the restriction on
international trade. Thus, as an instance, the duty on a barrel o f flour
imported into Cuba from the United States, in an American vessel, is
$ 9 50, and from Spain, in a Spanish vessel, $ 2 ; the discrimination
being 150 per cent o f the average price o f the flour. These enormous
exactions are ruinous to colonial interests, more particularly that the rival­
ry o f the Brazils, in coffee and sugar, and the United States, in sugar, di­
minishes the value o f Cuban produce. T h e United States can live with­
out selling flour to Cuba, but Cuba could ill afford to lose the United States
market for sugar. During the last few years, Spain has, to some extent,
changed her policy in favor o f her former colonies, and passed reciprocity
treaties with Venezuela, Chili, N ew Granada, and M exico. The princi­
ple is, that o f admitting into Spain the produce o f dissident colonies on
low er terms than the same produce o f other nations. Through these




350

The Commercial Treaties o f the United Stales, etc.
\

means she hopes to procure from Venezuela as much cotton as will supply
the Catalonian cotton-mills, independently o f the United States. In ac­
cordance with this policy, she seems rather to repel the trade o f the Union
than otherwise. In spite o f the disadvantages o f the com m erce with
Cuba, and which Spain refuses to ameliorate through treaty stipulation,
the trade is large and profitable to the Union. It was as follows, in 1 8 4 6 :—
COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA.
EXPORTS.

American vessels..
Foreign
“
..
T o t a l..............

Vessels cleared.
No.
Tons.
8,451 2,221.028
5,770
968,178
14,221

3,189,206

IM PORT8.

Domestic Foreign
Total.
produce.
goods.
$4,285,913 $766,122 $5,052,035
428,053
7,048
435,101
$4,713,966

$773,170

$5,487,136

Vessels entered.
Goods.
No.
Tons.
8,111 2,151,114 $8,083,911
5,707
959,739
75,721
13,818 3,110,853 $8,159,632

This is a large trade, and mostly in Am erican bottoms, being a singular
instance o f the fact, how little discriminating duties or paper regulations
can prevent trade, where it is not absolutely prohibited, from falling into
the most capable hands. A fair revenue tariff, in Cuba, would doubtless
double the consumption o f Am erican produce in the island, and increase
the prosperity o f the Cubans in a similar proportion. It is not improbable
that, in a few years, circumstances may place the island under the control
o f the Union, when the increase o f white population, the suppression o f
the slave trade, internal means o f communication, and external freedom o f
commerce, w ill soon make it one o f the most wealthy States o f the world.
Although Spanish legislation has been most inimical to Am erican com ­
m erce, the United States do a larger share o f Cuban trade than any other
nation. In 1841, the imports into Cuba were as follo w s:—
IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF CUBA,

From Spain. England.
Imports............ $5,295,261 $1,437,199
Exports............
3,473,630
6,779,438
T o ta l........

$8,768,891

$8,186,637

France. Netherlands.
$618,461 $1,010,291
908,605
2,835,917
$1,527,066

$3,846,208

1841.
U. States.
$5,654,125
5,660,739

A ll others.
Total.
$3,125,680 $21,340,017
2,329,719 22,954,038

$11,314,864

$10,455,399 $44,294,055

T h e imports and exports o f the United States are $11,314,864, being
larger than the trade with the mother country— a strong indication o f the
affinity, if it may be so expressed, o f the island for the United States, and
showing the inevitable tendency o f unrestricted trade to throw the island
into the arms o f the Union. T h e mutual wants and interests are too
strong, even for the hostile legislation o f the mother country.
In looking back at the great progress w e have made as a commercial
nation, through the agency o f reciprocity treaties in opening the previously
sealed ports o f Europe to our enterprise, w e find that prosperity has in­
creased with every concession, made either by ourselves or by foreign
powers. T h e Hanseatic treaties, apparently, have operated against our
shipping trade, inasmuch as that the amount o f the foreign tonnage is
greater in the direct trade. It is, nevertheless, true, that the quantity o f
domestic produce sent thither has quadrupled; that is to say, in 1825, it
w as $1,144,474, and in 1846, $4 ,003 ,3 15 , T h e trade done in Am erican
vessels has gradually increased, but that in foreign vessels faster, to the
great advantage o f the growers o f rice, tobacco, and cotton. This has
not flowed solely from the privileges that the Hanseatic shipping enjoy,
but those advantages have been a means. B y the great German Cus­
toms Union, or Zollverein, a great diminution took place in the restric­
tions on the internal trade o f Germany, resulting from w hich was a greatly




American Ocean Steam Navigation, etc,

357

increased consumption o f goods and produce, foreign and domestic ; and
com ing in aid o f those movements, M r. W heaton, our minister at Berlin,
succeeded, in 1839, in procuring a reduction in the duties on rice imported
into the Zollverein.
An increased import and consumption o f United
States rice took place in consequence, and the resulting increase o f revenue to the German Union, disposed them to farther liberal measures.
Cotton is admitted free o f du ty; and in 1844, a treaty was concluded, by
w hich an important reduction in the duties on tobacco was stipulated, in
exchange for a reduction o f duties on certain German goods in the United
States. This treaty, unfortunately, was rejected, on the ground, chiefly,
that it took from Congress the regulation o f the tariff, and conferred it on
the treaty-making power. T h e present tariff'has nearly accomplished the
reduction on German goods required by the rejected treaty, and it is to
be hoped that a new one may be negotiated. It is matter o f regret that
any grow ing disposition in Europe to meet us on more liberal terms, should
be chilled by backwardness on our part. T h e business o f 30,000,000
united and prosperous Germans is not to be lightly rejected, more particu­
larly that, at no distant day, H anover and the Hanse T ow ns must make
part o f the Customs Union, and every encouragement should therefore be
held out to induce the line o f duties to be brought down to the low level
o f those now imposed by Hamburgh, and which are nearly nominal. The
Iianse T ow ns make fierce resistance to this Union, but it is questionable
whether they will be able to resist it.

Art. II.— AMERICAN OCEAN STEAII NAVIGATION:
OK, T H E F IR S T A M E R IC A N M A IL S T E A M E R TO B R E M E N .

I n the attention lately directed towards the pioneer o f the Am erican
line o f ocean steamers, the only point which seems to have occupied the
public mind has been, in how many days w ill she reach England ? The
great object for which the line was established, seems to have been entirely overlooked, or, perhaps, it was never generally understood. A few
words, therefore, on this subject, may not be uninteresting.
W h en Congress passed a law authorizing the Postmaster-General to
contract for the transportation o f mails to foreign ports, regard was o f
course had to England as a principal point. But the Postmaster-General
did not consider that England was all the world. On the contrary, he
knew that the w hole continent o f Europe was intimately connected with
us in com m ercial and social relations; and as an American statesman he
could not but feel that, for the keeping up o f those relatioits in the w ay o f
correspondence, w e w ere entirely dependent upon England— at her mercy
in time o f peace, and to be cut o ff entirely in case o f war. Under this
view , and with the further view o f getting as much service out o f the
line as possible, he determined upon a route by steamers which should
touch at a port in the British channel, and deliver en passant our mail for
England, also a mail for Havre, and which should then go on and open
direct communication with some suitable point on the continent, from
which, independent o f England, and without paying tribute to her, w e
might distribute our own mail, and be the vehicle o f our own correspon­
dence throughout continental Europe.




353

American Ocean Steam Navigation : or,

In carrying out these views, he saw spread out before him the great
map o f Germany, teeming with a population advanced in all useful arts—
with great cities, and large manufacturing districts spread over its surface
from the Rhine to the Danube— eager and anxious to cultivate with us,
above all other people in the world, the most direct and intimate relations ;
and lastly, he had regard to the thousands and tens o f thousands o f G er­
mans, who had sent out their sons and daughters, “ bone o f their bone
and flesh o f their flesh,” to dwell among us, and form part o f the great
body o f Am erican citizens.
Bremen was indicated as the door o f entrance to this great coun try;
and the Senate o f Bremen, on beh alf o f all Northern Germany, made the
most liberal offers o f its post-office and harbor free o f all charges. It is
understood that the subject o f the terminus received the careful considera­
tion o f the whole cabin et; and that, looking to it in a national point o f
view, and with reference to the greatest national advantages, the Presi­
dent him self named Bremen ; to w hich the cabinet unanimously assented,
believing that this point would open a new and great field for Am erican
enterprise.
A contract was immediately entered into. On the 7th September, 1846,
the keel o f the first United States mail steamer was laid ; and on the 1st
June ensuing, the Washington, o f 2,000 tons burthen, left N ew York, car­
rying the United States mail for Southampton, Havre, and Bremen. M a­
jo r Ilob b ie, the First Assistant Postmaster-General, was on board to carry
out the enlightened views o f the Postm aster-G eneral; and as she left the
wharf, thousands cheered her on her mission o f peace.
Crossing the Atlantic, and with some reason to expect a friendly recep­
tion in England, almost before her anchor touched bottom at Southampton,
the American Consul came on board with a big hand-bill or circular let­
ter, from the Lords o f the Treasury, addressed to all postmasters in the
country— not, indeed, in so many words, but in effect— “ that, whereas the
government o f the United States had undertaken to establish a mail line
o f its own, and to carry the letters o f its own citizens, which would de­
stroy the British monopoly o f Atlantic mail-carrying, and make the A m er­
ican correspondence independent o f England, and take a great many
shillings from their mail, therefore resolved, that every letter arriving or
transmitted by the W ashington, be charged one shilling, precisely the
same as i f carried by the Cunard steamers.”
T h e object o f this, o f
course, being, by doubling the postage upon all letters by the Am erican
mail, to drive all correspondence into their own line ; and, in good keeping
with this illiberal spirit, the rumor was general at Southampton that these
same Lords o f the Treasury intended to start the Cunard steamers, now
building for Stew Y ork, from Southampton, instead o f Liverpool, so as ef­
fectually to run off the American line !
And these friendly demonstrations were in return for the courtesy o f our
government, in receiving and distributing all letters by the Cunard line
free o f all charge or claim o f any kind, for carrying their mails across
our territory in sealed boxes, taking their own account o f the contents,
and waiving the usual charge o f six cents upon all foreign letters, and in
all other post-office matters showing them the extreme o f liberality and
courtesy.
This touch o f “ British reciprocity,” entirely unexpected to M ajor H obbie, excited the indignation and regret o f all the Americans on b oa rd ;




The First American Mail Steamer to Bremen.

359

and the welcom e o f the town o f Southampton was in a quiet way, quite
as significant. W hen the first Cunard steamer arrived at Boston, the
whole town gave her an uproarious welcom e, as the pioneer in a new and
great enterprise. W hen the Sirius appeared at N ew York, our municipal
authorities, in the name and on behalf o f the city, gave her a cordial re­
ception. So in the case o f the Great W estern, and lately o f the first
French steamer. But the city o f Southampton, although just at this moment aiming at a reputation for enterprise, and inviting all kinds o f new
business, and although acknowledging through the newspapers the benefit
o f the line to hotel-keepers and tradesmen, took no notice whatever o f the
arrival o f the Washington. True, the Southampton D ock Company did
give a dinner on the occasion, but it was as the dock company, and not as
citizens o f Southampton, or even as E n glish m en ; and without meaning
to undervalue at all their real hospitality and good feeling, but on the con ­
trary acknowledging it in its fullest extent, and even thankful for the small­
est favors, it would not be too much to say that, as the dock company, and
in the way o f business, they would perhaps w elcom e a new line o f steam­
ers from Botany Bay, or any other place, which brought them an acces­
sion o f dock dues. At any rate the town o f Southampton, in its corporate
capacity, gave no sign o f w elcom e, nor was there any general or public
demonstration on the part o f its citizens.
A s the account o f the dock company dinner has found its w ay into
all our newspapers, as the evidence o f an English w elcom e, while no
notice whatever has been taken o f the reception o f the Washington at
Bremen, it is due to the Germans, as w ell as to all who have had
any part in originating and carrying out this enterprise, to follow the
ship to that place. Indeed, it is a great pleasure to do so. T h e North
Sea smiled as the ship drew nigh the shores o f Germany. It was the
first American steamer that had ever moved upon that sea, and Captain
Hewitt piloted her himself. T h e sun broke cheerily as she entered the
W eser. T w o steamers, decorated with the flags o f all nations, came
down to meet her. Aloft was the star-spangled banner, and streaming in
proud and brotherly union, the flag o f the republic o f Bremen, emblazoned
with the arms o f the city, a large key, emblematic o f its local position,
as holding and ready to open the door o f Germany. With music playing, and
cannon firing, the two steamers escorted the Washington to her moorings, at
Bremen Haven. T h e port and all the vessels in the harbor were decorated
with flags. A deputation o f the municipal authorities came on board, and
with a formal address w elcom ed to Germany the first American mail
steamer. One o f the attending steamers received on board the mail,
M ajor H obbie, the directors o f the company, and other passengers, and
followed by a numerous escort, started lor Bremen, thirty miles distant.
As she moved up the river, merchant vessels, steamers, lighters, row-boats,
sail-boats, and every craft she met, were decked with colors. The W eser
fishermen, scattered along the line o f the river, and even the stolid boors,
constantly drudging to keep open the channel, smiled a w elcom e ; while
at every village the whole population lined the bank, unused to the noisy
w elcom e o f a hurrah, but with beaming eyes expressing the deep feeling
o f their hearts at this opening o f direct steam communication with Amer­
ica. It was, in truth, the opening o f a day o f promise. A precious mes­
senger had arrived, bringing to them the thoughts, wishes, hopes, feelings,
and prospects, o f near connections, separated by an immense sea. At




360

American Ocean Steam Navigation: or,

short intervals, the same messenger would come a g a in ; at times, indeed,
bringing tales o f bereavement and wo, but in the main to scatter jo y and
gladness— to cheer the heart o f the toiling peasant by frequent and early
intelligence o f the prosperity and thrift o f his friends in Am erica.
Approaching Bremen, the escort o f boats becam e more numerous ; and
from the ramparts, w hich form on that side the boundary o f the city, the
quay was lined with citizens o f all ages and sizes, while the balconies o f
the tall houses fronting it, and every window, presented living tableaux,
graced by ladies, who, waving handkerchiefs and scattering flowers, w el­
comed the Am ericans to Bremen. In the balcony o f one house, distin­
guished by his standing white hair and strongly-marked features, and to
the Americans on board remarkable for his striking resemblance to G en ­
eral Jackson, was Burgomaster Smidt, for twenty-six years Burgomaster
o f Bremen, and a historic person in E u rop e; having drawn upon himself
the jealous eye o f Napoleon for his liberal opinions, and as the head o f
disaffection in the Hanse Tow ns. On the fall o f the emperor he had been
sent by those towns as a delegate to the Congress o f Vienna, which divided
up the continental empires and fixed their territorial limits. The year prece­
ding, the city o f Bremen had celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary o f his
service as burgom aster; and one o f his sons, resident at Louisville, in
Kentucky, went out in the W ashington to join the family gathering on the
fiftieth anniversary o f his father’s marriage. But the old burgomaster
was not reposing upon his honors, or falling back upon his domestic ties ;
on the contrary, he had on him at that moment the full harness o f useful­
ness. H e had been the master-spirit o f Germany, in bringing about the
consummation o f this enterprise ; and among the thousands and tens o f
thousands o f German hearts which welcom ed the arrival o f the W ash ing­
ton, perhaps none beat stronger than his. Escorted by a deputation o f
senators, with the crowd opening respectfully before him, he came on
board, and in the name and on beh alf o f the city welcom ed the Am ericans
to Bremen. In the meantime cannon were firing, and a full band on the
quay and on board the steamer was playing the national airs o f Germ any.
T h e music ceased, and all at once changed to Yankee Doodle— in that
distant region a heart-stirring sound— and to this home tune, the A m er­
icans, each on the arm o f a burgomaster or senator, were escorted up a
staircase, covered with an arbor o f evergreens, to the quay. T h e crowd
opened so as to allow a passage to their carriages, and they w ere escorted
to their hotels. T o the whole city it seemed a ju b ile e ; and perhaps
throughout all Bremen there was not an old woman or child who did not
know o f the arrival o f the Washington, and that a joyful event had o c ­
curred for Germany.
An early intimation was given, that the Senate o f Bremen intended to
make a formal demonstration in honor o f the arrival o f the W ashington;
but before this could take place, the “ Hunters’ C lu b ” offered the enter­
tainment o f a target-firing. This came off' on Sunday, which, according
to the custom o f Germany, after morning attendance at church, is devoted
to amusement and social enjoyment.
The place was an open field, about six miles from the city, surrounded
by woods. Entering the barriers, the guests received badges constituting
them members o f the club. In the centre o f the field, the most conspicu­
ous object, and immediately attracting the eye by its fanciful and elegant
appearance, was a large circular pavilion, perhaps 200 feet in diameter




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331

on the ground, and rising gracefully, in alternate stripes o f red and white,
to a point. On the top o f the staff' waved the American and Bremen flag.
Under the canopy was an orchestra, and ranges o f tables with covers for
perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 people, arranged with as much neatness and or­
der as at a hotel. In different parts o f the ground w ere masts to climb,
and arrangements for gymnastic and other sports to exercise and amuse.
N ext to the pavilion, the ball-room was the most striking feature, which,
though but a temporary structure, was large, and tastefully decorated. B e ­
yond was the shooting-ground, and all around w ere the woods for a stroll.
A large portion o f the population o f Bremen was there— burgomasters,
senators, mechanics, and tradesmen o f every d e g re e ; fathers, mothers,
husbands, wives, brothers, sisters and lovers, children and servants, and,
forming a striking feature, peasant women in the costumes o f their sepa­
rate villages, tall and well-formed, with long hair hanging down the
back, and glittering plate on the crown o f the head, ail moving harmo­
niously together— generally knowing each other, free, affable, and s o c ia l;
the rich unpretending, and the poor unpresuming, w idening the circle o f
human affections.
As the entertainment was in honor o f the arrival o f the W ashington,
the Americans were the guests o f the day. At the hour for dinner, they
w ere brought in from their rambles, and, with Burgomaster Smidt lead­
ing the way, conducted to places at table. Senators, and others connected
with the enterprise, w ere seated near them. T h e tent was hung with
Am erican flags, and the dishes before the guests w ere decorated with
miniature flags, steam-ships, and emblems commemorative o f the occasion.
Throw n among burgomasters, senators, and other dignitaries, the A m er­
icans were excluded from the society o f the ladies, who graced the other
tables, and whose presence gave an air o f elegance, and threw a refine­
ment over manners, which would perhaps not always be found at a “ targettiling.”
W hile at dinner, our hosts, “ the hunters,” with rifles laid aside,
but in costume, took their places in the orchestra, and played and sang the
national airs o f Germany and Am erica. One, in a fit o f enthusiasm, wrote
the Washington Polka, which was played on the spot, and is probably nowin print on its w ay to this country. Another, from the orchestra, in his
hunter’s dress, and surrounded by his associate “ hunters,” made a long
speech at us in German, which w e could not understand, but in which the
frequent use o f the words “ W ashington” and “ Am erica,” the hints o f
friends alongside, and the expression o f a thousand eyes, assured us that
he wras giving us a “ hunter’ s w elcom e.”
M ajor H obbie responded, and
had the advantage o f having around him a party wTho understood and ap.
preciated the peculiarly felicitous character o f his reply. After dinner,
the company again scattered. T h e ball-room was a favorite gatheringplace ; waltzing, gymnastics, and shooting, all had their votaries, and
many paired oft' for a stroll in the woods. T h e Americans walked to a
beautiful countiy-seat in the neighborhood, and about dark returned to the
grounsk T h e hunters w ere waiting for them, drawn up outside o f the
tent, for a procession. Places w ere assigned them. Burgomaster Smidt
took the arm o f one o f the directors, and, with the band playing W ashing­
ton’s March, they were escorted across the ground. Reaching the other
extremity, the hunters opened, and the guests moved between them, and
w ere brought to a stand in front o f a largo illuminated frame-work. Can­
non were fired, and from the frame-work flashed out, in letters o f fire, the




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Afnerican Ocean Steam Navigation: or,

name o f “ W ashington.” At the same moment, the hunters sent up a
shout which shook the air— “ Washington and A m e rica !” Rockets and
fire-balls lighted up the darkness o f the scene, and showed all around the
stern features o f men and the gentle faces o f women beaming with en­
thusiasm. A friend, at the request and on behalf o f the Americans, an­
swered, “ G erm an ia!”
T h e hunters took up the word, and as the light
died away, the stirring shout from a thousand manly voices— “ Germania
and Am erica !” — rung in the ear.
The next day, the Senate gave a stately dinner. In the uncertainty as
to the time o f the W ashington’s arrival, no invitations had been sent to
the interior, but delegates were present from several o f the adjoining States.
It was understood that the Crown Prince o f Prussia would have been
there, but the Diet was in session at Berlin, and his presence was required
at the capital. Prussia was represented by Baron Patow, Secretary for
Foreign Affairs, and delegates from Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburgh, and
other States assisted, manifesting that all Northern Germany sympathized
in this opening o f direct communication with Am erica. Rarely has there
assembled at one board a more respectable or venerable-looking body o f
men, or more undivided in sympathy with the cause which brought them
together. T h e room was beautifully decorated with the flags o f the dif­
ferent German States, and at the head, crossing e'ach other, were those o f
the United States and Bremen. On the coming in o f the roast, being the
point o f the dinner recognized for such purposes, according to the custom
o f Germany, the venerable Burgomaster Smidt rose and sa id : —
“ H e designated the arrival o f the Washington, on the W eser, as an
event which had converted hopes into reality— speculations into facts ; it
was this which had brought together those present o f the American and
German nations. In all the world,” he said, “ there are no two countries
which are so w ell calculated fo r a mutual interchange, as the United States
o f Am erica and the United States o f Germany. Neither o f them pos­
sesses any colonies, nor does either wish for any ; and in this respect, both
escape the jealousy o f colonial mother States.
“ A s a citizen o f Bremen,” he continued, “ I may well remind you o f
the fact, that, after the glorious end o f the Am erican war o f independence,
Brem en vessels were the first which unfurled their sails to visit the shores
o f the young transatlantic rep u b lic; and as on the W estern horizon o f
liberty, one star after another has made its appearance, so the vessels o f
Bremen have continued progressively to steer their course in that direction.
This fact, as it would appear, has not been forgotten in Am erica, and as
i f in return, the United States now send us their first transatlantic
steamer, thinking that the best key to Germany is the Bremen k e y ; and
in the same spirit,” he concluded, “ in the name o f my fellow-citizens, I
offer a hearty w elcom e to the Washington, as the worthy pioneer o f an en­
terprise which is destined to open a direct intercourse between two great
nations.”
Perhaps no man ever stood higher in the estimation o f his fellowcitizens, than Burgomaster Sm idt; and the spirit with which his toast was
received, showed that the sentiment it contained was no less acceptable
than the person who offered it.
T o the toast in honor o f the President o f the United States, and o f the
H on. Cave Johnson, Postmaster-General, M ajor H obbie responded. H is
exposition o f the circumstances under which the line was established— o f




The First American Mail Steamer to Bremen.

363

(he large and liberal views o f the Postmaster-General— was listened to
with much interest; and the glow ing expression o f his hope, that the mail
line to Bremen would be the means o f drawing close together, in the
bonds o f amity and mutual good offices, the United States and the great
German nation, met a warm response in every heart. Baron Patow, in
the name o f the German States, offered as a toast the city o f Bremen ;
and, in reminding the company o f the importance o f the ocean as being
the great highway which united nations all over the world by commercial
intercourse, he begged to offer his good wishes for the further success o f
that city, which, in this enterprise, as in many others, had been foremost
o f the German States in opening the way. Captain Hewitt’s interesting
acknowledgment o f the toast to himself, apologizing for his ship i f there
had been any failure to meet their expectations, on the ground that it was
only on the 7th o f September preceding, that her keel was laid, and that
the carpenters were still at work upon her when she left the dock at N ew
York, kindled his audience. Mr. Stephens, the vice-president o f the com ­
pany, acknowledged the powerful co-operation o f the Germans in the en­
terprise which he had the honor in part to represent, and particularly o f
the city o f Bremen. H e might say much o f this city, its historic associa­
tions, its monuments and public institutions, its enterprise and its hospital­
ity, but he chose rather to express his admiration for that which it had not.
It had no custom-house, nor restrictions o f any kind upon trade. Mr. S.
read a letter, signed by all the directors o f the company, requesting o f the
Senate their acceptance o f a model o f the W ashington, prepared by M r.
W estervelt, the builder. Simultaneously, and unexpectedly to most pre­
sent, the beautiful model, six feet long, was borne in on the shoulders o f
eight native Bremeness, residents in and citizens o f the United States.
This was received with a storm o f enthusiasm, when Mr. Oelrichs, an
associate director, a native o f Bremen, returned ai’ter years o f absence,
and endeared to all present by early ties, put a seal upon the enthusiasm
o f the evening by announcing the intention o f the company, that the next
ship which came to them should bear the name o f “ Herman,” a name
identified with German history and poetry, Herman being the deliverer o f
Germ any from the Roman, as W ashington was o f Am erica from the B ri­
tish yoke.
T h e next day the festivity was returned on board the Washington, at
Bremen Haven, where the sight o f the ship, its great size, and the beauty
o f its accommodations, confirmed and realized all expectations. T h e day
ended with a visit to the dock, then in process o f construction, to be the
largest in the world, undertaken by the city o f Bremen alone, at an ex­
pense o f more than a million o f dollars, for the express use o f the A m er­
ican mail steamers, free o f all dock charges.
But the most important feature connected with the reception o f the
Washington at Bremen, showing the true appreciation o f the object our
government had in view in establishing the line, and in this respect most
strongly in contrast with the course o f things in England, was the facility
afforded for carrying out the grand scheme o f the Postmaster-General. In
Senator Duckwitz, o f the post-office department, Major H obbie found an
able and ready coadjutor, full o f enterprise and energy, and competent to
treat and arrange upon the “ go-ah ead” system o f our own country. T h e
basis o f an arrangement was agreed upon, by which the post-office o f
Bremen undertook to distribute our mails over the whole North o f Europe,




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The Emperor Trajan and Robert Fulton :

through Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, over all Germany, and when
the railroad should be completed to Trieste, over the G recian Archipelago,
around the whole shores o f the Mediterranean, up to Constantinople and
the Black Sea, even over to Egypt, and down the Red Sea to India.
T h e practical operation o f this would be, that the German resident in
Iow a, could go up to the village nearest his farm, drop his letter in the
post-office, and, postage paid or not, it would go direct to his friend in the
heart o f Silesia, on the banks o f the Danube, or on the borders o f the
Black Forest. And this grand scheme for withdrawing the tribute which
w e are now paying to England, and making our correspondence indepen­
dent o f that country— for facilitating the intercourse o f our citizens, and
for opening wide the door o f social intercourse, was arrested before exe­
cution, by the abrupt summons o f M ajor H obbie to London, where, on the
sailing o f the Washington from Southampton, he was kept in attendance
upon the British government, until it should be the pleasure o f the Lords
o f the Treasury to answer his protest against their iniquitous tax upon
our mail.

Art. H I.— THE EMPEROR TRAJAN AND ROBERT FULTON:
T H E C O N N E C T IO N O F T H E I R W O R K S .

A G e r m a n philosopher, speaking o f the connection o f things in the
present world, by reason o f which every man who works for him self works,
at the same time, for the rest o f his race, and every man who works for
his fellows works, also, for himself, has expressed, in a b rief soliloquy, the
cheering sentiment, which every one may adopt w ho thinks o f his union
with this world-wide brotherhood. “ M y existence,” he may say, “ is not
in vain and w orthless; I am a necessary link in the great chain, which,
from the dawn o f life in the first man, to the full development o f his being,
extends into eternity. All the great, the wise, the noble, who have lived
among men— those benefactors o f their kind whose names I find distin­
guished in the w orld’s history— and the larger number still, whose m eri­
torious works have outlived their names, have all worked for me. I have
com e into their harvest on this earth w hich they inhabited. I follow in
their footsteps, diffusing blessings. I can assume as soon as I w ill the
sublime task o f making our common brother-race more wise and happy.
I can continue to build just where they w ere forced to stop. I can bring
nearer to its completion the glorious structure which they were obliged to
leave unfinished.”
This quickening truth discloses itself to us more and
more impressively, as w e trace the steps o f human progress in science,
politics, and social order— as we see how the hint, or guess, faintly uttered
b y one, is verified by another, and perhaps, after revolving centuries, is
embodied in some useful and permanent result. This interesting conn ec­
tion between the workingmen o f our race, separated though they may be
from each other by a lapse o f ages, is inscribed by the pen o f history upon
the rocky shores o f the Danube, where some noble projects o f the E m ­
peror Trajan have lain, for seventeen hundred years, incomplete and use­
less, waiting for the genius o f Robert Fulton to arise, and communicate
to mechanic art that impulse which w as destined to carryforw ard the royal
w ork to a worthy consummation.




The Connection o f their Works.

3G5

It may be worth our while to look at these two men, whose enterprises
have, o f late, becom e united for the public service, in the promotion o f a
common end— whose names are seen, amidst the triumphs o f civilization,
stamped upon everlasting memorials.
T h e close o f the first century beheld a Spaniard on the throne o f Rom e.
He was a native o f Seville, and was at the head o f the army in Germany
when the aged Nerva called him to share the cares o f government. The
death o f the old emperor soon after occurred, and Trajan was left to reign
alone. W hen the eyes o f millions w ere turned towards him with the
most profound interest, he proved him self to be adequate to his place, and
for nearly twenty years continued to fill the Rom an world with the renown
o f his achievements. H is immediate predecessors had professed to main­
tain the peaceful policy o f Augustus, but their vices rendered them quite
incompetent to carry it out with dignity and success. T h e concessions
which Augustus had won by diplomacy, they could not keep, either by
wisdom or by force. Although they were troubled by incursions on their
Eastern borders, yet the Rom an name was most grossly insulted by the
barbarians o f D acia, North o f the Danube, who crossed the river, rav­
aged the country, defeated the legions, and even imposed a tribute on D omitian. At last, the humbled army w ere surprised to see an imperial
soldier at their head, marching on foot, sharing their fatigues, and content
with their fare. Under the eye o f Trajan, the ancient discipline and
valor w ere revived ; and the Dacian king, Decebalus, ranked among the
first warriors o f his age, was thrice defeated; his hordes were driven
back beyond the Danube ; and his kingdom was reduced to a province c f
the empire.
The victories o f Trajan, however, would hardly be thought o f now, but
for the stony records which proclaim to the traveller along the confines o f
Dacia, the bold projects o f the emperor to spread the civilizing arts into
those Northern regions, and to naturalize those savage tribes to the R o ­
man life and manners. Indeed, a fresh reminiscence o f his history was
brought to light, ten years since, b y a Servian fisherman, who discovered,
in the bed o f the river, near the village o f Praona, a bronze bust o f T ra ­
jan. About twenty-five miles above this spot, are yet to be seen the re­
mains o f that splendid bridge o f stone, which Trajan reared across the
Danube, at a point where the river is 2,400 feet in width, guarded it with
strong castles at both ends, and fitted it to be a permanent thoroughfare to
connect his new conquest with the old dominion. Little did he think that
it would ever fall by the hands o f Rom ans ! Least o f all could he imagine
that his successor, acknowledging his incapacity to govern so wide a realm,
would destroy this noble monument o f imperial power. At this day, the
bases o f the castles are visible, and buttresses eighteen feet thick. Eleven
piles may be seen in the bed o f the river, at low water. Apollodorus, o f
Damascus, the great architect o f the time, whose name is associated with
much o f the magnificence o f Rom e, planned and executed this structure,
animated, no doubt, by the full belief,that he was “ building for posterity.”
Not a long time after the completion o f the bridge, the Northern travel­
ler o f the second century enjoyed the advantage o f a well-constructed road,
extending from the Danube far into the interior o f the savage D acia, ter­
minating near Bender, about fifty miles from the Black Sea. It was a
bold conception o f the emperor, and its traces indicate his faith in the prin­
ciple, that whatsoever is worth doing at all is worth doing w e ll; for great




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The Emperor Trajan and Robert Fulton :

difficulties were overcome, and in some places it is cut, with signal skill,
through solid roar. Seventeen hundred years ago, a man might pass with
some degree o f comfort through that land ; but, in these days, if one ven­
ture to travel there, as he finds him self seated in a carriage o f the rudest
form, and jolted over a rough and rutty Moldavian wagon-track, dragged,
too, by ponies destitute o f all tackle, except a few frail cords, with many a
sigh will he call to mind the signs o f civilization in the days o f Trajan.
But special praise is due to the emperor for his efforts to improve the
navigation o f the Danube, and to make it subserve, through all time, the
interests o f com m erce. As the geographer looks upon the map o f E u ­
rope, and’ beholds this magnificent river, springing up in the very heart of
the continent, fed by sixty streams which flow down from the Carpathian
and Alpine heights, bringing its constant tribute to the feet o f many an­
cient and mighty cities,— now boldly pushing its w ay through mountain
ramparts, and making forests echo its roar o f waters, and now again
spreading itself out into a lake o f beauty, reflecting scenes o f the richest
fertility from its glassy bosom, then rolling on, with turbid and rapid vol­
ume, till, at last, it blends with the waves o f the Euxine, to wash the coast
o f Asia,— how can he avoid being filled with admiration at the sight o f
such a splendid avenue o f com m erce, and acknowledging the design o f
Providence to make it the means o f bringing “ kindreds and tribes” o f
men together, in a friendly interchange o f benefits, and uniting them in
bonds o f social intercourse ? A g es have rolled away, however, during
w hich the scholar, the merchant, the voyager, and the philanthropist, have
read, in the records o f geography, that “ the Danube is not navigable to
the Euxine, on account o f the cataracts.”
T o o true, in deed; but what a
melancholy testimony is this to the leaden slowness o f Europe, in the ca ­
reer o f improvement, and to the long, long retrocession o f art, science,
and civilization, in the old world ! For, in the reign o f Trajan, there was
a spirit o f enterprise, awakened and fostered by his genius, which could
mock at such obstacles to its course, as these “ cataracts,” that sank to
littleness before the march o f Rom an art. This section o f the Danube,
called Eisen Thor, or Iron Gate, on account o f the bold sweep o f the
lofty banks, and the enormous rocks o f a ferruginous color which make
the river’ s bed, causing the passage to appear as if entirely closed up, ex ­
tending not much further than 7,000 feet, was nearly surrounded, in the time
o f Trajan, by a large canal, beautifully chiselled out according to his di­
rections, designed by him as a lasting boon to Northern Europe. But,
alas ! he left no heir to his comprehensive views, and his lofty spirit. His
plans w ere abandoned, and this great work was left to dilapidation and
ru in ; to be almost choked up by falling stones and earth ; to remain for
centuries a monument o f the solemn truth, that the old Roman civilization
had then spent its last energies, and that humanity must pause in its ca ­
reer o f progress, to wait for some new impulse, ere it could advance an­
other step, or gain new triumphs over the gloomy reign o f barbarism.
“ Be patient— bide thy time.”
This is G od’ s lesson, taught by history
to every earnest worker in the cause o f man. It is taught here— “ The
night is far spent.”
The impulse long waited for, has come at last. It
has com e, not from the bosom o f Paganism, but o f Christianity— not from
the shores o f the T iber, but o f the Hudson. The mind which grappled
successfully with the problem o f applying the expansive power o f steam
to navigation, set at work a moral force which has lately reached the bor­




The Connection o f their Works.

367

ders o f D acia— has broken the deep sleep o f ages— has given to the peo­
ple new ideas— has kindled a desire for knowledge— has opened new
paths to enterprise— has called Art from its tomb to renew its youth— and,
having disinterred the ship-canal o f Trajan around the Eisen Thor, is
giving to the work its finishing stroke, and causing it to be a connecting
link between the commerce o f the W estern and the Eastern world.
T h e manner in which steam navigation was commenced on the Danube,
it may be w ell to record. T h e first experiment was made, a little more
than twelve years since, by M r. Andrews, o f Vienna. T h e want o f pub­
lic confidence in the practicability o f the plan, was the cause o f much
discouragement during three successive years, when the voyage was often
made with only a single passenger. At length, a great fair at Semlin
roused public curiosity, and 300 persons embarked at Pest. From that
day, the project becam e very popular with the Hungarians and the Turks ;
and Count Szechenyi, o f Pest, who possesses an ample fortune, has de­
voted his time, talents, and purse, to its promotion. H e visited England,
in order to obtain the best machinery, engaged English engineers, and
stimulated Metternich and the Austrian emperor to patronise the work.
T h e position thus taken by Austria, is an important one, considered politi­
cally, as it is asserting a general right to the navigation o f the Danube,
raising up a barrier against the ambitious encroachments o f Russia, and
bringing Christian and M oslem countries into intimate communication.
Immense and far-reaching, as must be the effects o f steam navigation
upon the social state o f the world, they w ill never transcend the measure
o f the hopes which glowed in the breast o f R o b e r t F u l t o n . His was
a great soul. It was ever inditing bright prophecies o f the future. It
was a living spring o f philanthropy. Herein lay his great strength to
brave disappointments, failures, and neglect. Although the bent o f his
genius led him, even in early life, like M ichael Angelo, to seek his amuse­
ments in the shops o f mechanics, and in works o f art, yet w e see the
moral grandeur o f Fulton’ s mind in the fact, that his strongest impulse to
action was his earnest sympathy with the fortunes o f his race. “ A uni­
versal free trade,” says Mr. Colden, his biographer, “ was his favorite
theory in political econom y ; and the war system o f the old world, ho con ­
sidered as the cause o f the misery o f the greatest portion o f its inhab­
itants.”
H e cherished a firm belief in the progress o f society, in the ul­
timate triumphs o f peace, and in the final prevalence o f a spirit o f brother­
hood amongst the nations o f the earth.
The different effects which have flowed from the lives o f Trajan and
Fulton, exhibit, in a striking light, how much can be done by science, and
how little by war, for the civilization o f mankind. In spite o f all the em ­
peror’ s achievements in Dacia, and his colony o f 30,000 Romans settled
there, seventeen centuries have rolled over the inhabitants o f that rude
country without beholding one step o f moral progress, or a single change
for the better in their social state. The celebrated Tuscan column, reared
by Apollodorus in honor o f Trajan, still stands in “ the eternal city,” cov­
ered with basso-relievos, portraying the appearance and manners o f the
Dacians. I f these same figures had all been just carved by the hand o f
Powers, they would represent as well the Dacians o f the present day as
those o f the age o f Trajan. T h ey wear the same mean costume, and use
the same awkward implements o f agriculture. T h ey live in the same
vile kind o f straw huts, compared with which, an American log-cabin is a




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Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

palace. T h ey are generally small in stature, ignorant, idle, faithless,
clothed in sheep-skins, and either going barefoot or wearing sandals. The
cattle o f their farms appear untamed and wild, and their dogs are very
wolves as to ferocity. In every point o f character, these Wallachians
and Moldavians are" inferior to the inhabitants o f Servia, on the opposite
side o f the river, who are more immediately under Turkish rule. W hat
a spectacle in the sight o f Christendom ! A nation o f Europe living sev.
enteen hundred years without the least sign o f im provem ent! Th eir state
is one o f dull and dreary monotony. But a better time is coming. This
gloomy night o f barbarism is beginning to pass away. T h e whizzing
sound o f the first steamer which disturbed the repose o f these Northern
wilds, was the herald o f an auspicious change, and the impulse given to
the march o f Christian civilization by the toils o f Robert Fulton, has al­
ready extended from the banks o f the Hudson to those o f the Danube and
the Euxine. M ay Heaven spend it, and “ the stars in their courses” fa­
vor it, until it shall girdle the earth with a zone o f light, and hasten the
era, when no more the separating frith or ocean shall make enemies o f
nations, but all—
“ Like kindred drops be mingled into one.”

Art. IV.— COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.
NUMBER IV ,

T H E IS L A N D O F N A N T U C K E T .

I t is not easy, in all cases, to discover the remote causes o f the local
origin o f certain trades and arts, which, ministering to the necessities com ­
mon to all parts o f the earth, yet seem to be indigenous to particular soils.
There is no local reason, that has ever been discovered, why Genoa should
excel in the manufacture o f velvets, Brussels in lace, Lyons in silk, T o ­
ledo in swords, Cremona in fiddles, Damascus in steel, Manchester in
calicoes, Birmingham in buttons, London in porter, or Nantucket in carrying on the business o f the whale fishery. But the world is governed by
the same laws that govern individuals ; one man can excel but in one em ­
ployment, and nature seems to have ordained that different arts shall be
scattered among different people, that there may be a constant intercourse
among mankind. Thus, free trade is the great fundamental law o f social
life, and every violation o f it must inevitably be attended with disaster. In
parcelling out among the multiform tribes o f the earth the different branches
o f industry essential to the happiness o f the whole, Providence seems to
have assigned to the little island o f Nantucket the duty o f supplying the
rest o f the world with oil for their lamps. A peculiar people w ere raised
up for this very purpose, and planted in a position where stern necessity
compelled them to the fulfilment o f their destiny. Every circumstance at­
tending the settlement o f that desolate island appears to have been shaped
to a particular end. T here is nothing in the position o f Nantucket which
seems calculated to originate and foster the great business for w hich it has
been for many years so famous ; but, on the contrary, its barrenness, its
remoteness from the main land, the sand-bars by which it is surrounded,
the impossibility o f entering its only harbor with a loaded ship, and the
difficulty o f fortifying it against the attack o f an enemy, all seem to forbid




The Island o f Nantucket.

369

the hope o f com m ercial prosperity, and the acquisition o f wealth to the
inhabitants. But God has created nothing in vain ; and this sandy little
island, which did not contain sufficient timber for the construction o f a boat,
and with an immoveable barrier at the mouth o f its harbor, H e destined to
be a great commercial seaport. Outlaws have always been the most suc­
cessful founders o f great empires. Men, who quietly submit to oppression,
have not the stuff in them to make heroes o f ; Nantucket might have re­
mained until this day the home o f the Indian, or, at best, but scantily in­
habited by poor fishermen, like some o f the neighboring islands that are
blessed with a richer soil and more accessible harbors, had not the intolerant laws o f the old colony driven thither a brave-hearted man who
loved the right more than he respected mere magisterial authority. There
is a dash o f romantic adventure connected with the history o f Nantucket
from the day o f its discovery down to the present time. A small crescent
o f pebbly soil just lifting itself above the level o f the ocean, surrounded by
a belt o f roaring breakers, and destitute o f all shelter from the stormy
blasts which sweep over it, there is nothing about it “ but doth suffer a
sea-change
its inhabitants know hardly anything but o f the sea and the
sky. R ocks, mountains, trees and rivers, and the bright verdure o f the
earth, are names, only, to them, which have no particular significance.
T h ey read o f these as othefr people read o f angels and demi-gods. There
may be such things, or there may not. But dreary and desolate as their
island may seem to others, it realizes their ideal o f what the world should
be, and probably they dream that Paradise is just such another place— a
duplicate island, where every wind that blows wafts the spray o f the sea
in their faces.
The first European that discovered Nantucket was Bartholomew G osnold, an English adventurer, w ho, in the year 1602, was on his way to
Virginia from England, with a company o f thirty men, in search o f a site
for a plantation. H e discovered the island, but did not land, and nothing
more was heard o f it until the year 1641, when it was sold to Thomas
M ayhew and his son by the Earl o f Sterling, who claimed ownership o f all
the lands between Cape Cod and the Hudson River. At this time the
island was under the jurisdiction o f the governor o f N ew Y ork. In 1659,
Thom as M ayhew sold the island to nine associates for the value o f thirty
pounds in merchandise and two beaver hats, one for himself and one for
his wife. These primitive associationists, after they had purchased the
island o f Mayhew, then had to purchase a right to live upon it o f its real ow n­
ers, the aborigines, from whom the privilege was obtained without difficulty.
T h e deed o f the Sachems was witnessed by Peter Folger, the ancestor o f
Dr. Franklin, in the following words, which are framed with the simplicity
and directness w hich distinguishes all the writings o f the philosopher, who,
by-the-way, has given a quatrain or two o f his ancestor’s poetry in his
autobiography.
“ I do witness this deed to be a true deed, according to the interpreta­
tion o f Felix, the interpreter ; also, I heard Wanackmamack say, but two
weeks ago, that the sale, made by Nickamore and he, should be good,
and that they would do so, whatever comes o f it. Witness my hand, this
17th o f first month, 1664.
P e t e r F o l g e r .”
Th ese associationists resided, at the time o f their purchase, on the M er­
rimack River, in the town o f Salisbury; and shortly afterwards they reV O L . X V I I.— n o .




iv.

24

370

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

moved to the island with their families, and took possession o f their land,
which was held in common, and has remained so to this day, with a few
exceptions, in the hands o f the descendants o f the original purchasers. The
number o f shares into which the island was divided was twenty-seven ;
these shares were not parcelled off, but are still kept in common, and un­
divided ; and the stock o f the proprietors, sheep, horses, and cows, feed at
large all over the island. T h e first white man, who settled upon the
island, was Thomas M acy, a brave, bold man, and as good as he was
brave ; he was worthy to be the founder o f a new community, and his de­
scendants have proved themselves worthy o f their hardy and virtuous an­
cestor. In the year 1640, Thomas M acy removed from Wiltshire, in
England, to Salisbury, in Massachusetts, where he became the ow ner o f
one thousand acres o f land, and flourished exceedingly. But the pious in­
habitants o f the Bay State, to give additional evidence o f their hatred o f
religious intolerance, for which reason they had left old England in the
beginning, and to promote Christian feelings, passed a law inflicting a fine
o f five pounds for every hour that any one should shelter a Quaker beneath
his roof. W hen a whole island, like Nantucket, could be purchased for
thirty pounds, it will readily be seen that such a price as five pounds an
hour was rather a large price to pay for the privilege o f entertaining a
Quaker, and it may be supposed that the members o f that sect found it
difficult to procure a night’ s lodging. Such appears to have been the. fact,
and yet the good-hearted Thomas M acy did not hesitate, one rainy day,
to allow four wayfaring Quakers to shelter themselves in his barn. Sup­
posing that they stopped there but an hour, this hospitable act would have
cost him twenty pounds, from w hich the largeness o f his heart, and the
liberality o f his nature, may be inferred. But his hospitality cost him more
dearly even than th at; for the G eneral Court, having heard o f his offence,
summoned him to appear before them, probably with an intention o f
hanging him for an example to other evil-doers. But he knew with whom
he had to d e a l ; and, instead o f going to the G eneral Court, he sent them
a letter acknowledging his offence, and to avoid the consequences, put his
family into a small boat, and with the assistance o f a friendly neighbor,
one Edward Starbuck, after many perils, he succeeded in reaching the
island o f Nantucket, where he and his friend were hospitably entertained
by the Indians, who proved to be much better practical Christians than
the pious Pilgrims, who had left the Old W orld to escape the persecutions
o f an intolerant hierarchy. After a few months the companion o f Thomas
M acy returned to Salisbury, and made such representation o f the pleasant
abode he had left, that he induced certain o f his neighbors to return with
him, with their families. And thus the settlement o f the island was com ­
menced. Although it is said that the first settlers found a fertile and vir­
gin soil, which yielded them abundant crops o f corn, yet they had the sa­
gacity to see, at -a glance, that their little island was too circumscribed a
field for their venturesome spirits ; the disposition which drove them from
their bigoted and persecuting neighbors, would not allow them to sit down
contentedly to the cultivation'of their narrow fields. Men, who had sacrificed so much for conscience sake, were well calculated to grapple with
the difficulties with which they found themselves surrounded. Their first
aim was to live honestly; and the next, to live w e l l ; and having gained
the first point, they now looked about to see how they w ere to gain the
other. T h e prospect was not very encouraging, but they soon had the sa-




The Island o f Nantucket.

371

gacity to discover the true field o f their labor. Obed M acy relates, in his
honest and quaint history, that “ in the year 1690 some persons were on
a high hill, afterwards called Folly House Hill, observing the whales
spouting and sporting with each other, when one observed, ‘ There,’ pointing
to the sea, ‘ is a green pasture, where our children’ s grandchildren w ill go
for bread.’ ” ‘The exact time when ships w ere first fitted out for whaling
purposes is not known. The attention o f the original purchasers o f the
island to the whaling business was owing in a certain degree to accident.
A whale came into their harbor, and caused great excitement by his antics ;
he continued three days spouting and floundering about in the little harbor,
and so tempted the people that they determined to capture him. T h ey had
no instrument with which to attack him, but they invented the harpoon,
and, putting o ff in their little cock-boat, made a dead set upon the levia­
than, and succeeded in killing him. This was the commencement o f the
whale fishery in the N ew W orld. W h en the inhabitants had become
sufficiently numerous to build a town, a site was selected, and the gov­
ernor o f N ew York, Francis Lovelace, bestowed upon it the name o f
Sherburne, which it bore until 1792, when it w as changed for that o f
Nantucket. In 1672, the proprietors entered into a contract with James
Lopar, who agreed to carry jon the business o f catching whales from the
shores o f the island in boats. Thus the business was regularly com ­
menced ; but whales getting scarce in time, large vessels w ere fitted out to
g o in quest o f them, but at what time the first expedition was set on foot
is not known ; but whaling from the shore in boats was continued until
the year 1760, when it was wholly abandoned, and, excepting on two
occasions since, no attempt has ever been made to catch whales in that
manner. The first spermaceti whale taken by a Nantucket vessel, was
about the year 1712. In 1715, there w ere six sloops belonging to the
island engaged in the business o f whaling. T h ey w ere small vessels, o f
not more than thirty tons each. T heir success in catching whales had
been so great, that they w ere compelled to send to the neighboring conti­
nent, and even as far as L on g Island, for crew s for their ships ; and in the
year 1745, they shipped a cargo o f oil direct from the island to L on d on ;
and the English government, seeing what a profitable trade their feeble
colony was carrying on in this new business, offered large bounties to in­
duce their merchants at home to engage in it. Several ships having been
fitted out from London, and been successful, interfered in a degree with
the business o f the island ; but the demand for oil, for home consumption,
being continually on the increase, their business did not lessen, and the
island grew in importance ; the inhabitants increased very rapidly, and
their ships w ere constantly grow ing in bulk and in numbers. T h e busi­
ness o f whaling was attempted at many other places, but from some cause
or oilier it was not successful in any place but Nantucket. T h e following
account, taken from M acy’s history o f Nantucket, shows how rapidly the
business o f whaling had increased, and how widely the cruising ground o f
the whalers had spread.
•
T h e following schedule w ill show, as nearly as can be ascertained, the
times when the fishery commenced at some places, previous to the revo­
lutionary war, viz :—
D avis’ Straits, in the year 1746.
T h e island o f D isco, in the mouth o f Baffin’s Bay, in the year 1751.
G u lf o f St. Law rence, in the year 1761.




372

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

Coast o f Guinea, in the year 1763.
W estern Islands, in the year 1765.
Eastward o f the Banks o f Newfoundland, in the year 1765. Coast o f Brazils, in the year 1774.
• T h e business was also carried on in shorter voyages at the Grand
Banks, Cape Verd Islands, various parts o f the W est Indies, in the Bay o f
M exico, the Carribean Sea, and on the coast o f the Spanish Main, & c.
T h e following table shows the number o f vessels, and the quantity o f oil
obtained within the period o f ten years :—
Years.

Vessels.

Barrels.

Years.

Vessels.

Barrels.

J762...............
15,439
78
9,440 1768.............. .......
125
19,140
60
119
1763...............
9,238 1769.............. .......
14,331
1764...............
72
11,983 1770.............. .......
125
12,754
1765...............
11,512 1771..............
1766...............
118
7,825
11,969 1772..............
98
1767...............
108
16,561
In the year 1772, one o f the inhabitants having discovered the secret
o f making candles from spermaceti, established a manufactory on the
island for that purpose, and greatly increased the business o f the town ;
for, previously, the business had been carried on chiefly in Providence,
Boston, and Philadelphia. B y the year 1775, as w e learn from a report
made to Congress by Thom as Jefferson, there w ere 150 vessels, many o f
them large brigs, belonging to Nantucket, and engaged in the whaling
business. T h e prosperity o f the town was at its height, its foreign and
coasting trade was constantly increasing, and its inhabitants, w ho had
hitherto preserved the simple and econom ical habits o f their ancestors,
began to indulge in unwonted luxuries, and the ships w hich they sent to
London with cargoes o f oil, brought back many articles o f sumptuous fur­
niture and apparel which they had never known the use o f before. T o
what degree o f greatness the island might have arrived, or to what pitch
o f luxurious refinement the people might have carried their habits, it is
difficult to conjecture; but the grow ing splendor o f the island was sud­
denly dimmed by the breaking out o f our war o f independence. The
great business o f the island was suddenly suspended ; many o f the timid in ­
habitants, to escape the consequences o f the war, left their farms, and re­
moved into the interior o f N ew York, and those who remained, engaged
in other occupations. T h e British made no attack upon the defenceless
inhabitants ; but, in 1779, a party o f refugees landed upon the island, and
destroyed a great deal o f property— the people having no means o f defend­
ing themselves, and being religiously opposed to even defensive warfare,
quietly looked on while these miscreants plundered their stores and dw ell­
ing-house's. T h e provincial government levied taxes upon the inhabitants
to help pay the expenses o f the war, but none could be collected ; and it
w as at last found useless to attempt to make people pay who had not the
disposition, even though they had the means.
T o no part o f the United States did the tidings o f peace bring more sure
jo y than to Nantucket. T h ^ island took no part in the contest, but the
people suffered, probably, more than any other place in the colonies.
Th eir ships w ere captured, their crew s w ere detained as prisoners, their
property had depreciated greatly in value, and the population o f the island,
which, on the breaking out o f the war, was near 5,000, at the time o f its
close, numbered little more than 4,000. As soon as peace had been de­
clared, the people o f Nantucket began, with renewed energy, to prosecute




373

The Island o f Nantucket.

their old business ; but they w ere soon made to feel the blighting effects
o f governmental protection. T h e science o f political econom y was then
hardly known even by name, and free trade had not been heard of. The
Legislature o f Massachusetts attempted to stimulate the whaling business
by offering a bounty for every tun o f oil taken by vessels belonging to the
State, while the British government did the same to induce their subjects
to engage in a business which had proved so profitable to Nantucket.
Several o f the neighboring towns engaged in the business, and many o f
the islanders removed to Halifax, being tempted by the liberal bounties
offered by the British government, while others removed to England, and
established the business at Milford Haven. T h ey probably soon learned,
to their cost, that no article o f merchandise can be sold for more than its
intrinsic value, and that what they gained by bounties they lost in price.
W hile the people w ere allowed to supply the demand for oil, the produc­
tion o f it was profitable ; but as soon as government, by the offer o f boun­
ties, caused a greatly increased supply, without affording a corresponding
increase in the demand, the business o f course proved disastrous, and the
people who engaged in it discovered, too late, that government had been
bribing them to their ow n ruin ; and the government might have learned
that, to attempt to foster trade by artificial protection, is to kill the goose
that lays the golden egg.
T o increase the market for their oil, the Nantucket people sent several
cargoes to France ; and, as the people o f that country had never used it for
the purpose o f illumination, they had to carry lamps with them, and teach
the French how to use them ; and afterwards several families removed to
Dunkirk, where they established the whaling business, but w ere at last
compelled to leave the country, from the difficulties o f the revolution. Soon
after the peace, W illiam Rotch, one o f the most active men o f the island,
removed to N ew Bedford, and there com m enced the business, and laid the
foundation for the prosperity o f that now large and wealthy city. In addi.
tion to the whaling business, they sent their ships on sealing voyages;
and, in 1791, ships were first sent to the Pacific in search o f sperm
whales. T h e first ship that doubled Cape Horn from Nantucket was the
Beaver, o f but 240 ton s; she was absent 17 months, and returned with a
cargo o f 1,270 barrels o f oil, o f all kinds. In 1796, a ship was sent from
the island to Canton, with an assorted cargo, but chiefly o f oil and can ­
dles. It was an experimental voyage, and proved disastrous, as might
have been ex pected; but they gained a knowledge o f the Canton trade,
w hich was afterwards carried on to a considerable extent, and with profit­
able results. A t the close o f the century, the inhabitants had increased
to very nearly 6,000.
The following chronological table o f the rise and progress o f the whale
fishery, at Nantucket, is taken, in part, from the “ Historical Society’ s”
collection :—
PROGRESS OF THE WHALE FISHERY AT NANTUCKET.

W hale fishery originated in Nantucket in the year 1690, in boats from the shore.
1715.
1730.
1748.
1756.

6 sloops, 38 tons burthen,'obtained about 600 barrels o f oil, and 11,000
lbs. o f bone. Value.....................................................................................
25 sail, from 38 to 50 tons, obtained annually about 3,700 bbls., at £ 7
per tun— .....................................................................................................
60 sail, from 50 to 75 tons, obtained 11,250 bbls., at £ 1 4 .........................
80 sail, 75 tons, obtained 12,000 bbls., at £ 1 8 ............................................




£1 ,100
3,200
19,648
27,600

374

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

1768.

70 sail, 75 tons, obtained 10,500 bbls., at ,£18............................................ £ 2 3 ,COO
N. B. Lost 10 sail, taken by the French, and foundered.
1770. 120 sail, from 75 to 110 tons, obtained 18,000 bbls., at £ 4 0 .................. 100,000
From"! 150 sail, from 90 to 180 tons, upon the coast o f Guinea, Brazil, and
1772 I
the W est Indies, obtained annually 30,000 bbls., which sold in the
to |
London market, at £ 4 4 to £ 4 5 sterling.................................................. 167,000
1775. J N . B. 2,200 seamen employed in the fishery, and 220 in the London
trade.
1783. 7 sail to Brazil, from 100 to 150 tons, obtained......................tuns 2,100
5 sail to the coast o f Guinea.............................................................
600
7 sail to the W est Ind ies....,.............................................. ..............
560

1784.

1785.

A t £ 4 0 per tun.........................
N . B. N o duty exacted in London.
12 sail to Brazil, obtained................................ ......................... tuns
5 to the coast o f Guinea...................................................................
11 to the W est Indies........................................................................

2,260

16,280

4,000
400
1,000

A t £ 2 3 to £ 2 4 ......................... 5,400
14,500
N . B. The price fell by the exaction o f a duty in London o f £ 1 8 3s.
sterling per tun.
N ow at sea, 8 to B razil; 2 to the coast o f Guinea; 5 to the W est Indies.

Before the war, there were annually manufactured in Nantucket, 380 tons spermaceti
candles.*

The following table o f the produce o f the whale fishery, between the
years 1804 and 1834, is copied from “ M acy’s History o f N antucket:”
PRODUCE OF THE WHALE FISHERY, CARRIED ON AT NANTUCKET, BETWEEN THE YEARS
AND

Year.
1804................
1805................
1806................
1807................
1808................
1809................
1810................
1811................
1812........................
1813........................
1814................
1815........................
1816........................
1817,......................
1818................
1819................
1820................
1821................
1822................
1823................
1824................
1825................
1826................
1827................
1828................
1829................
1830................
1831................
1832................
1833................
1834............... .

1834,

Spermaceti.
Body—bbls.

4,730
5,459
7,701
7,914
5,602
6,641
5,117
15,355
5,116
774
1,146
636
1,550
15,401
10,496
12,901
11,884
16,190
19,392
25,260
29,355
22,795
11,373
19,529
30,130
23,334
24,509
27,954
21,193
19,965
14,170

Whale.

Head—bbls.

Bbls.

2,665
2,034
3,084
3,235
2,105
2,695
2,130
6,745
2,475
359
498
284
682
6,813
4,378
5,621
5,027
6,719
8,009
10.803
11,875
8,985
4,951
8.441
13,044
10,159
11,504
13,335
9,695
9,546
6,347

6,718
4,507
15,954
13.959
10,503
7,256
7,929
6,377
2,230
2,567
83
138
2,700
5,771
13,426
11,511
11,736
8,632
5,407
3,808
4,322
7,194
2,402
583
1,033
8,576
7,758
8,568
16,364
5,422
4,747

Whalebone.
Lbs.

46,690
13,131
88,554
72,764
49,970
17,092
41,437
43,200
6.266
9,901
796
19,444
65,446
62,403
59,794
38,092
3,197
20,243
22,063
39,596
16,002
5,152
8,662
76,808
67,508
83,206
155,379
49,429
37,137

* This state e f the whale fishery in Nantucket was written in the year 1785.




1804

INCLUSIVE.

The Island o f Nantucket.

375

Other towns that had been lured into the business, abandoned it when
they found that it was not profitable ; and so, in course o f time, Nantucket
becam e once more almost the only port in the Union from which the
business was carried on with any degree o f success.
The long embargo o f 1807, which prevented the export o f oil, had a
depressing effect upon the business, but ships were still sent out in pursuit
o f fresh cargoes until 1812, when w a j was again declared against England,
and another season o f depression and disaster followed. At this time,
there were 116 vessels, whose aggregate capacity was 11,000 tons, be­
longing to the island ; and the greater part o f them being at sea, many
were captured by the enemy, and some were lost. The inhabitants suf­
fered greatly while the war lasted, from the difficulty o f obtaining food and
fuel from the continent; the town, being left entirely unprotected by the
government, remained in a state o f neutrality, and feeling themselves
under no obligations to support a w ar which was reducing them to starva­
tion, the inhabitants manfully refused to pay the taxes which government
imposed upon them. On the news o f peace, the people immediately began once more to extend their business. During the war, they had lost
quite one-half o f their shipping ; many wealthy inhabitants had removed
to the continent, but enough remained to revive the commerce o f the
to w n ; and in 1821, the tonnage belonging to the island had increased to
27,500 tons, and the inhabitants to nearly 8,000.
The subsequent increase o f the town in wealth and population has been
moderate, but steady. T h e great hindrance to their prosperity is the bar
across the entrance o f their only harbor, w hich prevents a loaded ship
from going in or out, and occasions considerable cost and work by ren­
dering it necessary to load and unload their ships by the means o f lighters.
Several attempts have been made to excavate a channel across the bar,
but without success ; and, four years since, they constructed a camel for
taking loaded ships over this sandy barrier, but the additional expense and
risk o f this contrivance operates very seriously upon the com m erce o f the
place, and the inhabitants believe that the great day o f their prosperity has
passed. T h e following statement o f the industrial resources o f the town
is copied from a report made to the Legislature o f Massachusetts, by J.
G . Palfrey, the Secretary o f the Commonwealth, in 1846. It was pre­
pared from the assessors’ reports, and is probably as correct an account as
can be given :—
Brass foundries, 1 ; value o f articles manufactured, $ 6 ,0 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 4 ,000 ;
persons employed, 4.
Saddle, harness, and trunk manufactories, 4 ; value o f articles manufactured, $1,950 ;
capital invested, $1,000 ; persons employed, 10.
Hat and cap manufactories, 1 ; hats and caps manufactured, 60 0; value, $ 6 0 0 ;
capital invested, $300 ; persons employed, 1.
Cordage manufactories, 1 ; cordage manufactured, 300,000 lbs; value, $ 3 0 ,0 0 0 ; capi­
tal invested, $10,000 ; persons employed, 30.
Oil and sperm candle manufactories, 24 ; oil manufactured, 1,022,019 gallons ; value,
$1,279,817 ; candles, 858,581 lbs.; value, $ 2 14,6 45; capital invested, $1,580,417;
persons employed, 105.
Soap and tallow candle manufactories, 2 ; hard soap manufactured, 11,000 lbs.; soft,
440 bbls.; value o f soap manufactured, $ 7 ,8 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 5 ,0 0 0 ; persons em­
ployed, 5.
Tin-ware manufactories, 7 ; value o f ware, $ 4 ,000 ; capital invested, $ 2 ,0 0 0 ; persons
employed, 12.
Boots manufactured, 370 pairs; shoes, 2,300 pairs; value o f boots and shoes, $ 4 ,2 0 0 ;
males employed, 1 1 ; females employed, 3. Value o f snuff, tobacco, and cigars, manu­




376

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

factured, $6.00 ; persona employed, 3. Value o f blocks and pumps manufactured, $ 2 ,600 ;
persons employed, 10.
Candle-box manufactories, 6 ; boxes manufactured, 300,000; value, $ 6 ,6 0 0 ; capital
invested, $4,000 ; persons employed, 12. Value o f casks manufactured, $ 4 0 ,0 0 0 ; capi­
tal invested, $3 0,00 0; persons employed, 65.
Establishments for manufacturing coopers’ tools, harpoons, and other whale craft, 14 ;
value o f articles manufactured, $ 4 ,2 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 4 ,0 0 0 ; persons employed, 15
Boats built, 117 ; value, $6,775 ; persons employed, 12.
Whale oil consumed in manufacturing, 4004|gallons; value, $140 ; anthracite coal con­
sumed in manufacturing, 200 tons; value, $1,050 ; bituminous coal mined in the United
States, 111 chaldrons; value, $ 1 ,0 0 0 ; value o f other articles o f American production,
excepting cotton, wool, and iron, consumed in manufacturing, $22,000.
Vessels employed in the whale fishery, 7 7 ; tonnage, 26,295; sperm oil imported.
986,868 gallons ; value, $868,443 ; whale oil, 140,269 gallons ; value, $46,756 ; whale­
bone, 30,708 lbs.; value, $ 1 0 ,3 3 6 ; capital invested, $2 ,66 0 ,0 0 0 ; persons employed,.
1,900. Vessels employed in the mackerel and cod fisheries, 4 ; tonnage, 110; capital
invested, $2,000 ; persons employed, 12.
Sheep, 7,500; value, $ 1 5 ,0 0 0 ; wool produced, 1,600 lbs.; value, $4,000. Horses,
4 4 2 ; value, $ 3 0 ,3 0 0 ; neat cattle, 1,053 ; value, $ 2 0 ,0 0 0 ; swine, 1,304 ; value, $11,518 ;
Indian com or maize raised, 500 bushels; value, $3 00 ; potatoes, 6,000 bushels; value,
$1,500 ; other esculent vegetables, 7,000 bushels; value, $ 1 ,4 0 0 ; hay, 3,500 tons; value..
$42,000. Butter, 30,000 lbs.; value, $7,500.
W hole amount o f tonnage belonging to the island, 31,652.

T h e commercial history o f Nantucket is chiefly important from the great
benefits which the nation has derived from the peculiar habits and indus ­
try o f the p eople; for, although other towns have already surpassed her in
the extent o f their operations in the whaling business, yet they are chiefly
indebted for their greatness to the people o f this island, who were the
pioneers in the perilous enterprise o f exploring unknown seas in the search
o f whales. From the small amount o f the agricultural productions o f the
island, may be seen its capacity for sustaining its inhabitants, and the dis­
astrous consequences which must always follow any interruption o f their
intercourse with the continent. T h e island lies in the parallel o f 4 1 '
north latitude, and o f 70° 7' 56 " west o f G reenw ich. It is crescent­
shaped, about 14 miles from one extreme to the other, and about 34 miles
in breadth; the nearest point to the main land is about 30 miles. T h e
entire area o f the island contains nearly 30,000 acres o f land, a small
portion o f which, however, is capable o f cultivation. T h e soil is light
and sandy, and is entirely destitute o f indigenous trees, but it appears to
have been w ell wooded at the time o f its first settlement by the English.
It then contained a population o f 1,500 native inhabitants; and the last
descendant o f the race died in 1822. Although for many years Quaker­
ism was the only religion o f the inhabitants, the members o f that sect form
but a small part o f the population at present. T h e original settlers w ere
Baptists, and that remained the prevailing religious faith o f the people
until about the year 1704, when they were gradually converted to Q ua­
kerism by the appearance among them o f some itinerant preachers o f that
doctrine. The schools o f the island had been rather defective, and book­
learning was held in small estimation by the people until the year 1826,
when the late Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin visited the island, and finding that
a great number o f his relations did not enjoy such educational privileges
as he thought them entitled to, benevolently funded 2,500 pounds sterling
for the purpose o f establishing a school, free for all the descendants o f his
great ancestor, Tristam Coffin, who was among the first settlers o f the
island. This generous act o f the benevolent old admiral opened the eyes




The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

377

o f the people to their necessities, and they immediately began to establish
free schools for the education o f their children, and they have now the
best organized system o f public schools in the country.
At one time, there w ere three banks on the island, but now they have
but o n e ; a strange fatality seems to have attended all their banking o p e­
rations, and their losses by such institutions have been very serious. The
town is, or was, built almost entirely o f wood ; the houses w ere old, the
streets extremely narrow, and huddled closely together, as if for shelter
and the convenience o f social intercourse; there were' at all times large
quantities o f oil in the very heart o f the town, and their liability to a con­
flagration was peculiar and fearful. But the people had been peculiarly
favored, up to the year 1835, when the entire value o f property destroyed
by lire, from the first settlement o f the town, amounted to $36,000. Since
then, the town has suffered most severely by two conflagrations, the last
o f which occurred in 1846, and destroyed nearly one-third o f the town,
and property to the value o f more than half a million o f dollars. The peo­
ple have since widened the streets o f their “ burnt district,” and replaced
their wooden stores by substantial brick buildings, and the town has lost
something o f its quaint and weather-beaten aspect, but it remains an
unique town, as it ever must, and its inhabitants a peculiar people. Many
disastrous voyages o f their ships, and heavy losses by the low prices o f
oil, had led the people to look about them for some other means o f em ­
ployment than the business by which they had always been sustained ;
and, just as this great conflagration occurred, they w ere about to try the
experiment o f manufacturing cotton, by w hich so many towns in N ew
England had been sustained and enriched. A few years ago, they tried
the experiment o f manufacturing silk, and there seemed to be a prospect
that Nantucket might prove the Lyons o f the N ew W orld. But, through
mismanagement, or from some local cause, the enterprise proved unprofit­
able, and the business was abandoned. T h ey have not given up the
project o f a cotton-mill, and as N ew Bedford, the prosperous rival o f N an­
tucket, is about to engage in this business, it is not improbable that they
may yet becom e as famous for their calicoes hereafter, as they have been
for their candles. Their ancestral thrift has not been purged from their
blood, and it is not in them to sit listless down, and see the world roll on
■ahead o f them in the pursuit o f wealth.

Art. V.— THE LAW OP DEBTOR AND CREDITOR IN TENNESSEE.
T h e laws o f the several States, which concern merchants to know, are
those which govern the relation o f creditor and debtor. T h ese w ill ap­
pear, imperfectly o f course, by exhibiting the organization o f the judiciary
o f the State proposed, the jurisdiction o f its courts, the remedies and modes
o f proceeding in them, together with some o f its peculiar statutes, and
decisions o f the courts, such as those which concern the limitation o f ac­
tions, frauds, the registry o f conveyances, the lien o f judgments and exe­
cutions, interest upon money, negotiable paper, and probably others.
T H E COURTS OF TE N N E SSE E .

These are Justices o f the Peace, County Courts, Circuit Courts, the




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The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

Commercial and Criminal Court o f Memphis, Chancery Courts, and the
Supreme Court.
Justices o f the Peace. The counties are laid o ff into “ civil districts,”
in each o f which the people elect two Justices, except in the district where­
in is the county town, in which three are elected. T h e term o f office o f
Justices, is six years.
The County Court is composed o f Justices o f the Peace, all meeting
in session quarter-yearly, and constituting the “ Quarterly Court,” and
three meeting monthly, and constituting the “ Quorum Court.”
The
Quarterly Court sits the first Mondays o f January, April, July, and O cto­
ber, the Quorum Court sits the first Mohday o f every month. T h e Jus­
tices o f the Quorum Court are elected yearly, by all the Justices o f the
county, at the first Quarterly Court o f the year.
The Circuit Courts. The State is laid o ff into thirteen judicial circuits,
each circuit embracing several counties, more or less, with some regard to
the amount o f business o f the counties. A Judge for each circuit is elected
by the Legislature, for the term o f office o f eight years. T h e Judge resides
in his circuit, and holds a court in each county thrice yearly. T h e Circuit
Judges are Judges o f the State, and may, by arrangement, interchange
the holding o f courts with each other. It has been thought that the sys­
tem would be improved by the regular interchange o f circuits— thus dimin­
ishing, to some extent, the influence upon the administration o f the law,
o f the prejudices and partialities which are apt to grow out o f the long
and frequent intercourse o f judges, lawyers, and suitors. N o material evil
o f this kind, has, however, as yet been felt.
The Chancery Courts. T h e State is laid o ff into four chancery divi­
sions, for each o f which a Chancellor is elected by the Legislature, for
the term o f office o f eight years. The chancery divisions are sub-divided
into chancery districts, some districts consisting o f one county, the others,
generally o f several counties. In each district, a court is held twice yearly.
The Chancellors o f the divisions are Chancellors o f the State, and may,
as Circuit Judges, interchange courts.
The Supreme Court. W ith reference to this court the State is divided
into three districts, in each o f which a Judge is elected by the Legislature
for the term o f office o f twelve years, who together hold a court once
yearly, in each o f the districts— at Knoxville, for East Tennessee ; Nash­
ville, for Middle ; and Jackson, for W est Tennessee.
J U R IS D IC T IO N O F T H E C O U R T S .

Justices o f the Peace.

A Justice o f the P eace has jurisdiction to the
extent o f $ 5 0 ; o f debts, demands, and civil injuries, for the redress o f
which the laws o f the land furnish remedies, to the extent o f $ 2 0 0 ; upon
accounts, liquidated and signed by the party chargeable ; against the
obligors o f bonds for the payment o f m on ey; the makers o f promissory
notes ; the acceptors and drawers o f bills o f ex ch an ge; the endorsers o f
negotiable paper, who have, by the terms o f endorsement, waived demand
o f payment and notice o f non-paym ent; and, indeed, to the same extent,
($ 2 0 0 ,) against a party chargeable upon any writing which will support
an action o f debt for money at common law. Justices try causes without
jury. T h e territorial jurisdiction o f a Justice embraces (with some limi­
tations) the county in which is his civil district.
The County Courts are courts o f ordinary, probate, or surrogate, and




The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

379

o f county police. The Quarterly Courts, consisting o f all the Justices in
session, establish and change roads, bridges, and local turnpikes, and ap.
point overseers to superintend and keep them in rep air; assess and lay
taxes for county purposes; appropriate moneys for county purposes, & c.,
& c . The Quorum Courts, consisting o f three Justices, take probates o f
wills not contested ; qualify execu tors; appoint and qualify administrators
o f decedents’ estates, guardians o f minors and lunatics ; and, through their
clerks, superintend the settlements o f the accounts o f executors, administrators, and guardians, & c., & c . Contested wills are transferred for trial
by jury to the Circuit Courts, and i f established are returned to the County
Courts for record, and such further proceedings as may be necessary.
T h e County Courts have no jurisdiction o f causes triable by jury.
The Circuit Courts are courts o f law, o f general and original jurisdic­
tion, civil and criminal, o f all causes wherein the parties are entitled to
trial by ju r y ; and o f appellate jurisdiction to the decisions o f Justices, and
o f the County Courts. T h ey have likewise jurisdiction to assign dower ;
partition estates, real and personal, among heirs, legatees, distributees,
tenants in com m on ; to order the sale, and distribution o f proceeds, o f es­
tates o f minors ; some o f which powers properly appertain to, and are
concurrent with, the Chancery Courts.
The Commercial and Criminal Court o f Memphis is an excrescence
upon the judiciary system o f the State. It possesses the jurisdiction and
powers o f a Circuit Court, in all cases arising within the three civil dis­
tricts which em brace and surround Memphis. T h e phrase, cases arising,
is construed to mean cases o f Circuit Court cognizance, wherein
original process can be personally served upon parties being found within
those civil districts. It is thus made a court o f great importance and
business, the city o f Memphis being the commercial centre o f a large
and populous surrounding country, o f Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkan­
sas, and much frequented by the people o f the country around. Much
business is otherwise absorbed into that court from the neighboring Cir­
cuit Courts, by the arrangements o f the lawyers who reside in Memphis.
T h e court ought to be, and doubtless will soon be abolished, and the
regular Circuit Court o f the county substituted in its place.
The Chancery Courts, as their name indicates, are courts o f general
equity cognizance, recognizing generally the principles o f equity jurispru­
dence, and exercising the powers o f the British and Am erican Courts o f
Chancery. Modifications o f the practice in chancery have been made b y
statutes, conforming to the character o f the people, the spirit o f our insti­
tutions, the general jurisprudence and judicial organization o f the State,
and tending to quicken the progress o f suits to decision.
The Supreme Court is purely a court o f appeals and errors, for the cor­
rection o f the errors o f the Circuit and Chancery Courts, having no ori­
ginal jurisdiction, and trying no causes by jury. Perhaps, it may be said
to exercise a quasi original jurisdiction in cases in chancery transferred
to it on account o f the incompetency o f the Chancellors for relationship to
the parties, or for other causes o f incompetency. Causes are carried to
the Supreme Court from the Circuit and Chancery Courts, by writ o f er­
ror, or by appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error; generally, by the latter
mode, which is o f right, and done during the term o f the inferior court,
at which the supposed erroneous decision is made.




380

The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.
O F L E G A L P R O C E E D IN G S A N D P R A C T I C E .

N o process, original or final, can be had against the body for debt.
W hether the efficiency o f legal remedies has been materially diminished
by the abolition o f imprisonment for debt, is a matter upon which much
difference o f opinion exists in the State. T h e better opinion appears to
be, that no serious evil has grown out o f it. In regard to other remedies
for enforcing debts and demands, the laws o f Tennessee, it is believed,
furnish proceedings and practice as efficacious as do the laws o f any State
in the Union. In some o f the counties there is, without doubt, much re­
missness in the administration o f the law. That is the fault o f the officers, not o f the law. N or is this remissness more serious, probably, than
exists in portions o f all the States.
Proceedings in Justices’ Courts. Cases before Justices, ordinarily b e ­
gin by “ warrant,” which is a summons commanding the constable to
summon the defendant to appear and answer the complaint. T h e consta­
ble executes it, by making it known personally to the defendant, and ap­
points the time and place o f trial. T h e time is near or remote, at the
option o f the constable, but usually adjusted to suit the reasonable con ­
venience o f the Justice and the parties. T h e place is ordinarily in the
civil district in which the defendant resides, or i f the defendant denies the
claim, the trial may be had at a place and before a Justice o f the civil
district in which the plaintiff resides, i f both parties reside in the same
county. At the time and place appointed, the Justice renders judgment
according to his notion o f the merits, unless delay be granted for cause.
Either party may appeal o f right to the Circuit Court o f the cou n ty ; i f
the plaintiff, upon his giving personal security for the c o sts; if the defen­
dant, upon his giving personal security, in some instances, for the costs,
in others, for the payment o f the debt. I f judgment be against defendant,
and he does riot choose further to litigate the matter in the Circuit Court,
he may have a stay o f execution for eight months. I f no appeal or stay
o f execution be obtained, execution may regularly be issued after two days
from the rendition o f the judgment. Appeals and stay o f execution will
be further explained hereafter.
In the Circuit Courts, cases are ordinarily begun by summons, which
writ commands the sheriff to summon the defendants to appear and answer
the complaint at the next ensuing term o f the court. The service is by
making the contents o f the writ known personally to the defendant, and
must be at least five days before the court.
In chancery, cases are ordinarily begun by sulrpcena, which is similar
to a summons, with the copy or an abstract o f the bill, personally served
upon the defendant, at least ten days before the court.
In the Supreme Court, causes are carried from the Circuit and C han­
cery Courts, by writ o f error, or appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error,
or by writ o f certiorari. It is hardly useful to explain these writs and
proceedings. The securities required o f a party to obtain them, will be
subsequently mentioned.

Appeals, Appeals in nature o f a W rit o f Error, Writ o f Error, Cer­
tiorari. A n Appeal lies o f right from the decisions o f the Justices o f the
P eace to the Circuit Court o f the county.
T w o days are allowed for ta­
king the appeal after rendition o f the judgment by the Justices.
The
cause stands for trial in the Circuit Court at the first term, i f the ap­




The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

381

peal be taken as much as five days before the first day o f the term— if less
than five days, it stands for trial at the second term. In the Circuit Court,
the cause is tried as an original cause, upon the merits, by jury.
T h e Certiorari, in practice in Tennessee, is a writ employed to carry a
cause from the judgment o f a Justice o f the P eace to the Circuit Court
in cases where the party has been unable, for sufficient legal reason, to
take an appeal within the two days allowed for the purpose. It is issued
by the Clerk o f the Circuit Court, upon the order o f a Circuit Judge or
two Justices o f the P eace, granted upon petition o f the party, verified by
his oath, and showing merits, and a sufficient legal reason for failing to
appeal, such as inability to attend the trial, and make defence on account
o f sickness, high waters, want o f notice o f the time and place o f trial, & c .,
& c . T h e power o f two Justices to order the certiorari is limited to the
first twenty days after the rendition o f the judgment.
I f the party fail
to apply for the certiorari until after a term o f the Circuit Court has
passed, the petition must show a sufficient legal reason for the delay.
T h e rule is, the party shall appeal if he can— if he cannot appeal in time,
then he shall apply for the certiorari as soon as he can after becom ing
aware that the judgment has been rendered against him.
T h e writ o f
certiorari is also employed in Tennessee for many other purposes.
A cause in the Circuit Court by certiorari, stands during the first term
o f the Court subject to be dismissed on motion o f the other party, for
want o f sufficient legal reasons for its being granted, apparent upon the
face o f the petition. T h e facts stated in the petition are taken to be true,
and proof will not be heard to contradict them upon the motion to dismiss.
I f not dismissed upon such motion, the cause stands for trial upon its m er­
its, as an original cause, at the second term.
T h e appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error lies in the right to carry a
cause, after final judgment in the Circuit Court, from that Court to the
Supreme Court.
It operates as a writ o f error, differing in these par­
ticulars : that the appeal in the nature of, <$fc., is taken at the term o f the
Circuit Court in w hich final judgment is rendered, is a matter o f right,
transfers the w hole cause into the Supreme Court, and closes all further
action upon it in the Circuit Court, unless sent back from the Supreme
Court, after hearing and judgment on it there. T h e cause, when thus in
the Supreme Court, stands much the same as if there by writ o f error.
T h e Supreme Court affirms the judgment o f the court below by entering
up a like judgment, or corrects the judgment o f the court below , and en ­
ters up such judgment as that court ought to have rendered, or reverses
and sends the cause back to the Circuit Court for new trial there.
T h e practice in the Supreme Court, upon a cause there by writ o f er­
ror, is much the same as when there by appeal in the nature, fyc. I f
there be no error, the writ is dismissed ; or, i f error which the Supreme
Court can correct, it makes the correction, and enters up such judgment
as the court below ought to have done ; otherwise, the judgment o f the
coui't below is reversed, and the cause sent back to the Circuit Court for
new trial.
Cases in chancery are taken by appeal from the Chancery to the Supreme Court, or by writ o f error. T h e practice upon the cause, when
there, is nearly or quite alike, by whichsoever mode it gets there. T h e
Supreme Court either affirms the decree o f the Chancellor by entering up




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The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

a like decree, or corrects and modifies it by efttering up such decree as the
Chancellor ought to have adjudged ; and, in its discretion, proceeds to per­
fect and execute the decree, or sends the cause back to the Chancellor to
be perfected and executed by him in the manner directed by the Supreme
Court.
T h e writ o f error, in chancery causes, carries up to the Supreme Court
all the pleadings, proofs, orders, and decrees.
Attachments, which begin proceedings against absconding, removing, or
non-resident debtors, by the seizure o f property, are entitled to separate
consideration hereafter.
The Securities f o r Costs, <Sfc., o f Legal Proceedings. T h e costs in
cases at law, abide the event o f the suit. T h e losing party pays. None
are required to be paid preliminary to any proceeding. The final judg­
ment in the cause embraces a judgment for the costs against the losing
party, on w hich judgment execution issues in favor o f the successful par­
ty. Upon the commencement o f a suit, the plaintiff is required to give a
bond, with a surety for the costs. The bond is a part o f the record, and
i f the plaintiff be cast, may be enforced against the surety by a proceed­
ing upon it as a record, (b y scire fa cia s,) or as a penal bond at common
law. Upon the bonds with sureties, w hich are required to be given by
the appellant as the condition o f obtaining an appeal, the surety becomes
so far a party to the cause, as that, i f judgment go against the appealing
party in the appellate court, it embraces likewise the surety, and execution
upon it issues against the appellant and his surety, jointly.
T h e warrant, which begins proceedings before Justices o f the Peace,
issues without security for costs. I f the cause be taken b y appeal o f the
plaintiff to the Circuit Court, the defendant, by application to the court,
can require the plaintiff to give personal security for the costs, upon pain
o f dismissal o f his appeal, i f not given by a day designated by the court.
I f the defendant appeal, such securities are required o f him as will be
mentioned hereafter, in speaking o f appeals, dfc.
The summons, w hich begins suit in the Circuit Court, and the subpoena,
w hich begins in the Chancery Court, issue upon personal security given
by the plaintiff, or complainant, for the costs. The responsibility o f the
surety offered, is judged o f and decided, in the first instance, by the clerk
who issues the process. I f the defendant think the security insufficient
for any reason, he may, by application to the court in term, and showing
it to be so, require better security, or the cause to be dismissed.
An appeal transfers the cause from the inferior to the Superior Court.
T h e appellant is in all cases required to give personal security for the
costs o f the appeal, and o f the proceedings in the Superior Court. I f the
defendant be the appellant, in addition to security for costs, he is required
to give personal security for payment o f the debt, or the performance o f
the judgment in the following cases : where the judgment is on a bond
for m o n e y ; bill o f exchange ; promissory n o te ; written obligations to
pay bank notes, bonds, or promissory n otes; written obligations for the
delivery o f specific articles ; liquidated accounts signed by the party to
be charged.
T h e writ o f error issues from the Clerk o f the Superior Court, as mat­
ter o f right, upon application by either party to the Clerk o f that court,
and filing with him a copy o f the record o f proceedings in the inferior




The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

383

court. Security for costs o f the contemplated proceedings in the Superior
Court, is required in all instances. The writ does not suspend proceed­
ings upon the judgment or decree o f the court below , unless so ordered
by a Judge o f the Appellate Court. T h e order is made by the Judge
upon inspecting a certified copy o f the record, and discovering in it what
he thinks material error. Upon making such order, the Judge directs to
what extent, and for what purpose security shall be given, and such se­
curity is required to be given before the writ o f error issues, which sus­
pends proceedings on the judgment or decree in the inferior court. The
writ o f error may issue at any time within two years after final judgment
in the inferior court.
T h e writ o f certiorari issues upon personal security being given by the
party obtaining the writ, to the extent o f double the amount o f the judg­
ment o f the Justice, for the performance o f such judgment as the Circuit
Court may render in the cause. W hen this writ issues for other purposes
than as a remedy for an omitted apeal, it is on the order o f a Judge, who
prescribes such securities as he may think fit for the protection o f the op­
posite party.
The Progress o f Legal Proceedings. In cases before Justices o f the
Peace, the constable designates the time and place o f trial. T w o days
are allowed after judgment, to take an appeal, or obtain stay o f execution.
I f no appeal or stay be obtained, execution is issuable immediately. T h e
execution is returnable in thirty days after issuance, which allows the
constable thirty days to make the money. I f judgment be against the
defendant, he may obtain a stay o f execution for eight months. This is
done by procuring a responsible friend to enter, or cause to be entered,
his name on the Justice’ s docket as surety for the payment o f the debt
and costs. At the end o f the eight months, an execution may be taken
out against the defendant and his stayor, jointly, and the money made
out o f the defendant if practicable ; i f not, out o f the stayor. T h e con ­
stable has regularly thirty days after the issuance o f the execution to
make the money.
In the Circuit Court the summons may be taken out from the Clerk’s
office at any time. I f executed on the defendant, five or more days be­
fore the first day o f the ensuing term, the defendant must cause his appearance to be entered, and the pleadings made up at the first term, and
the cause regularly stands for trial at the second term. Such is usually
the progress in the Circuit Court o f actions o f debt, and the like, when
there is no substantial defence. I f the defendant fail to appear and plead
at the first term, judgment final, by default, may be taken at that term in
actions o f debt ; in other personal actions, final judgments cannot be had
before the second term.
In the Chancery Court, the subpoena and copy o f the bill may be taken
out from the C lerk’ s office at any time after the bill is filed. I f executed
upon the defendant ten or m ore days before the first day o f the ensuing
term, the defendant ought to put in his demurrer, plea, or answer, at that
term. The demurrer, and the sufficiency o f the plea, may be heard and
decided at the term when filed. I f the demurrer be sustained, the cause
is at an end ; i f overruled, it may be withdrawn, and a plea or answer be
filed. I f the plea be insufficient in substance, it may be heard and dis­
allow ed at the term when filed, and an answer put in. I f sufficient, its




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The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee.

truth may be put in issue, and prepared for hearing at the next term, very
much in the manner o f an answer. Generally the answer ought to com e
in at the first term, a general replication forthwith filed which puts the
cause at issue, and the cause be heard at the second term. In practice,
however, the progress in Chancery is much more tardy. Either party
may interpose obstacles and delay steps, and thus cause the suit to “ drag
its slow length along.”
Though the statute requires the answer to be in
at the first court, it can be omitted with impunity until the next “ rule
day,” which is the first M onday o f the month next after the court. Then
the case has to stand, for the taking o f testimony, which is all in writing,
five months after the issue is made up by the filing o f the replication.
T h e replication is a general and formal denial by the complainant o f the
truth o f the answer, and assertion o f the truth o f the bill, with a declara­
tion o f his readiness to prove the one and disprove the other. T h e spe­
cial replication is not allowed in Tennessee. T h e complainant cannot
be coerced to file a replication sooner than the second rule day after the
answer is in. T h e first Mondays o f each month are rule days. The
mode o f coercin g a replication i s : the defendant enters in the C lerk’ s
office, after the answer is in, upon a rule day, a rule requiring the com ­
plainant to file a replication. I f not filed by the next rule day, (a month
off,) the defendant may set down the cause for hearing upon the bill and
answer, and the statements o f the answer w ill be taken to be true. I f the
replication be filed before the cause is set down for hearing on bill and
answer, the cause then stands five months for testimony to be taken, b e ­
fore it can be heard. By this delay, the complainant is able to throw the
hearing o f the cause beyond the second term, after its commencement.
T h e defendant can procure still longer delay. Without stopping to detail
the manner, it may be truly stated, that a skilful equity law yer may easily
protract the hearing and decision o f a com m on case in Chancery at least
tw o years after its com m encem ent.
T h e foregoing attempt to sketch the progress o f causes in the Chancery
Courts o f Tennessee, is very imperfect and unsatisfactory. W hoever ad­
ventures upon the task, w ill find it exceedingly difficult to accomplish
within reasonable space, or in terms intelligible to the general reader,
and, indeed, to the professional reader, not familiar with the Chancery
practice in Tennessee.
T o conclude— the system o f Chancery practice prescribed by statute,
appears to be framed with a view to speed the decision o f causes in equity
at the second term after commencement. Such, however, is the essential
nature o f the practice incapable o f material change or modification in this
respect, that most o f the reforms projected to quicken its progress, xvill end
in the disappointment o f those who devise them. It may be added, that
parties w ho on both sides wish, may generally speed a decision by the
second term.
In the Supreme Court all causes stand for trial, and generally are tried
and decided, at the first term after they get there.




The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific.

385

Art. I I .— THE PROJECT OF A RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC.
H O N . Z A D O C K PH A T t ’ s L E T T E R

TO T H E

PEOPLE OP TH E

U N IT E D

STATES.

this is an age o f great events, and such as must be pro­
ductive o f important results to the interests o f mankind. It is the character
o f the men that appear in an age, and stamp the impress o f their bold
and energetic character upon it, which make it marked in history, an
era in human progress. The following letter is from one o f this cast,
the Hon. Zadock Pratt, o f Prattsville ; and on the subject, a most stupen­
dous national work, the bold and able letter will speak its own merits.
It was prepared for the Magazine for last month, but unfortunately too
late for insertion ; it was therefore sent to the National Intelligencer, and
the Union, at W ashington. The plan o f Mr. W hitney has made great
progress in public opinion, and six important States have instructed their
Congressional delegations to vote in its favor.
W hen, at the close o f 1844, w e wrote the following, which appeared in
our January number, w e had certainly no idea that the suggestion therein
contained would be taken up by energetic men, and its feasibility reduced to
a certainty :—
“ T h e English government hope, by commanding the exclusive route to
China over Egypt, by way o f the Nile and the Isthmus o f Suez, (to effect
which, a negotiation is now pending between that power and the Pacha,)
to obtain news several weeks earlier than it can be had in the United
States ; an advantage which will give her merchants control o f the mar­
kets. T heir diplomacy may succeed temporarily in this, but the march
o f events w ill ultimately give the United States the mastery. H er popu­
lation is pushing, with a vigorous, rapid, and unceasing march, along a
line 1,200 miles in extent, westward, towards the shores o f the Pacific.
The occupation o f the vast territory known as the Oregon, is already
going forw ard; and twenty years w ill not have elapsed, before a powerful
State will have sprung up on the shores o f the Pacific. This great tract
o f the Oregon is drained by the Columbia river and the' San Francisco,
w hich debouch upon the ocean at a point six days, by steam, distant from
the Sandwich islands— a group the independence o f w hich is guaranteed ;
whose population is 100,000, mostly American ; the surface, 8,000 square
miles, o f a soil the most fruitful, and a climate unsurpassed in salubrity.
These islands are situated in the middle o f the Pacific, on the great high­
w ay from Oregon to China. T h e great whale fishery o f these regions
is conducted mostly by Americans, numbering 200 vessels, whose annual
product is about $5,000,000. This fleet, in the summer months, cruise
between the islands and the coast o f Japan, for sperm whale, and carry
on a large trade in furs, & c ., w hich are now sold in China, and the pro­
ceeds, in tea, sent home to the United States. The whole o f this vast
trade, and that o f China, via the Sandwich islands, w ill be commanded
by the State o f Oregon.
Those persons are now living who will see a
railroad connecting New York with the Pacific, and a steam com m unica­
tion from Oregon to China. F or the last three centuries, the civilized
world has been rolling westward ; and Americans o f the present age
w ill complete the circle, and open a western steam route with the east.”
Under the energetic guidance o f such men as Pratt and W hitney, this
end bids fair to be speedily consummated.
C e r t a in l y

VOL.

x v ii.— n o .




iv .

25

386

The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific.
TO THE PEOFLE OF THE UNITED STATES.

The subject of a passage across our continent to the Pacific, is exciting the
attention of the public mind to such an extent, as makes it necessary for every
statesman and citizen interested in the welfare, prosperity, and future greatness
of our country, to examine the subject, for his own satisfaction, at least.
Two routes and modes are proposed to accomplish this great object. One by a
canal or railroad, somewhere from Panama to Tehuantepec, in Mexico, between
latitude north 7° and 16°; and the other, a railroad, from Lake Michigan, through
the Rocky Mountains, to Oregon, on the parallel of about 42 J°, all on our own
territory. I wish first to consider the canal, and see what it would and would
not do, and see how we can build it.
The Hon. Mr. Wheaton, late Minister at Berlin, in his very able letter to the
Secretary of War, shows that he has studied the subject, and made himself ac­
quainted with all the lights then before the world ; and even he leaves all in doubt
and conjecture. If it can be done at all, it must be by the combined efforts and
influence of all the different commercial nations interested. The English review­
ers take the same view, giving to each nation its proportionate interest and influ­
ence, comparative with its amount of commerce with Asia, which, of course,
would give the entire control to England. Would the people of the United States
submit to such control ? And does the constitution provide for the forming and
carrying on such a co-partnership ? Clearly not.
In Gen. Garella’s very able, and the only scientific report of a survey of Panama,
in the years 1842 and 1843, with a corps of engineers, under the orders of the
French government., he takes up and examines the routes of Nicaragua and Te­
huantepec. His estimate for the former is about 148,000,000 francs, for the
latter 151,450,000, and for Panama 149,000,000 to 105,000,000. These estimates
may be considered conjectural, as he says he had no comparison as a basis. It
would be subject to every possible embarrassment; the sparse population of a
lawless character, no security of person or property, and the Mexican government
unable to enforce laws if she had them. A strong military force would be abso­
lutely necessary, from one end to the other, both to support and protect the works
and the commerce. An entire absence of material ; laborers and material to be
taken from a northern clime ; subject to heavy expenses in execution, both from
climate and local position, the former so uncongenial to our citizens as to render
it almost if not quite impossible to sustain them. Therefore, the work could not
be done, protected, or commerce carried on. it is fair to presume the results
would far exceed Gen. Garella’s estimates. In fact, another estimate by him for
Tehuantepec is as high as 181,450,000 francs ; and from all our experience in such
estimates, and the fact that the people of the North cannot live in such a climate,
the winter months so rainy and summer so hot, that no men could work or stand
it, we have good reason to believe that the actual cost would far exceed any estimate
made. Gen. Garella abandons all as inferior, and devotes all his efforts to Panama.
Now, the question is, can we do this work, and how, and what would be the
probable results ? It is, I think, perfectly clear that our government cannot fur­
nish means, nor enter into such a co-partnership. Then, if done, it must be done
by individuals. Would Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond,
Charleston, and even New Orleans, furnish capital to build a thoroughfare, and
population for a city to carry on a commerce under another government, in the
benefits of which they cannot participate, nor derive any income for their capital ?
This is what no business man would do. And now let us see if this would be so.
W e will suppose the canal to be built, and all the commerce of Europe with Asia
passing through it. Europe would furnish her own vessels for both sides— a ship
canal, no transhipment required— and, I ask, what benefit could any city, on all
the Atlantic or Gulf coast, derive from it ? Surely none. In a political point of
view, it would place all the marine, naval and commercial, of all Europe perma­
nently and directly at our doors, in the most commanding position; and, as to our
own commerce with Asia, would it be benefited at all by this change of route ?
Our commerce with Asia is not now large, owing to the fact that climate, dis­
tance, and expense, prevent an exchange of commodities ; which difficulties could
not be removed by a canal. The climate would forbid the passage of our pro­




The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific.

387

duce through it. Nearly all our commerce with Asia is with China, consisting
of teas, silks, & c .; and, mostly consumed north of Charleston, could receive no
benefit from this route, but, on the contrary, would be subject to delays, losses,
dangers, and damages from climate, and any benefit to the small amount which
might, perhaps, be taken directly up the Mississippi as far as the mouth of the
Ohio, would be more than over-balanced by the delays and damage of climate,
which none but those acquainted with the business can understand. And would
the States and cities north of the Gulf furnish means to the amount of some
thirty to fifty millions, and submit to such a tax, barely to put out of their posses­
sion and under another government the route for a commerce which they cannot
participate in or ever control 7 Clearly not. Such, it appears to me, would be
the result of the canal, even with all the success predicted. It would be produc­
tive to us of nothing but evil. W e have declared to the world that we will not
submit to any foreign intervention or control of the affairs of this continent; and,
at the same time, propose to enter into an alliance, offensive and defensive, where­
by we yield the control of the commerce of the world, check and retard our pros­
perity and destiny for half a century, at least, and finally end in a desperate, bloody,
and expensive war.
The object of a canal or railroad is to shorten the route from Europe to Asia,
and, if possible, bring that commerce, which has controlled the world from time
immemorial, across this continent; and, by lessening the expense, shortening the
time and distance,- and facilitating and increasing intercourse, to increase that
commerce by a further and more diversified exchange of commodities. Barely
substituting one route for another could not increase, because that alone could
not create or produce any new means to sustain it. If a new route opens to pro­
duction a wilderness, and thereby increases population, with means to sustain it
and afford an exchange of commodities, it would, of course, increase commerce ;
or a new route which would greatly lessen expenses of transit, save much time,
increase and facilitate intercourse, would naturally increase an exchange of com­
modities, and would also increase commerce.
But neither of these desirable
and all-important results can be gained by a canal, because a canal or railroad
across any part of the isthmus could not open to settlement and production an
extent of wilderness country, as it is not there— Nature here having fixed the
bounds over which the genius of man cannot dominate ; climate, sterility, and all,
obstruct his course. And it could not shorten distance and time, lessen expense,
facilitate and increase intercourse; as I will show there would be no shortening
of distance or time, by giving the exact distances to be performed, both around
the cape and through a proposed canal, as has been given to the public by Mr.
Whitney, and from the authority of Professor Wittish, of the London University :—
To

Valparaiso.

Miles.

From Plymouth to Realijo, via canal,............................................................................
Thence to Valparaiso,..............................

5,578
3,500

•
T o Valparaiso, around Cape H om ,...............................................................................

8,978
9,400

Difference in favor of the canal, only...........................................................................

422

From Sidney to England, via proposed canal,.............................................................. 14,848
“
“
“
via Cape Horn,..................................................................... 13,848
Against ca n a l,......................................................................................................

1,000

From Canton to England, via canal, S. W . Moons,................................................... 15,558
“
“
“
via Cape o f Good Hope, S. W . Moons,.......................... 14,940
Against canal,.......................................................................

618

From Plymouth to Singapore, via canal, N . E. M oon,... ........................................ 16,578
“
“
“
via Cape o f Good Hope, N. E. M oon,................. 14,350
Against canal,..................................................................................................................




2,228

388

The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific.

From this it appears that if the means could be furnished, the canal completed,
no difficulties in its operation and progress, the commerce of Europe with Asia
could never be changed to this route ; and there are further, and almost, if not
quite, insurmountable difficulties yet to name. The climate would not only des­
troy commodities of commerce, but population; a hurricane, navigation ; shoals,
rocks, bars, and no harbors. The Commercial Review of New Orleans, for July,
estimates the destruction of vessels and property for eighteen months’ commerce
of the Gulf at one hundred and fifty vessels ; value, cargo and all, $6,000,000.
And should we alone attempt to get a canal across the isthmus, anywhere, it
would force Europe to try to get a route across Suez or through Russia. But as
we have the route within our own territory which would forever give us the
entire control of the commerce and travel of all the world, and the means costing
us nothing to accomplish it, I think it decidedly and clearly our duty to go at it
at once, and have it done, and not lose all by looking after that which can do us
no good.
Mr. Whitney’s plan for a railroad from Lake Michigan, through the South Pass
of the Rocky Mountains, to Oregon, is so plain and simple that any common
mind can understand it. He asks Congress to appropriate sixty miles wide of the
public lands, from Lake Michigan to the Pacific, for this especial purpose ; and, as
he builds the road, he takes the land to reimburse himself. For eight hundred
miles, the one-half, at the government price, it is estimated, will build the road; the
other half creates a fund for where the lands are poor. When completed, the
road to be free to all the world, except for repairs and operations, to be fixed by
Congress. The distance from the lake to the ocean is twenty-four hundred miles;
the estimated cost, when ready for use, $70,000,000. The number of acres re­
quired is 92,160,000, waste land, 1,200 miles without timber or navigable streams,
and of small value ; and would it ever settle or be of any value without the road ?
Clearly not. Then the question is, shall Mr. Whitney take these lands, and, by
sale and settlement thereof, build this road, or shall they be allowed to fritter away
without any perceptible good ? This great highway of nations, the greatest work
ever done by men or nations; a road which must forever be the thoroughfare be­
tween all Europe and A sia; a work which will bring us together as one family,
binding us with a bond of iron which cannot be sundered— both useful in war and
peace ; a work which will give us the command of and make the commerce of all
the world tributary to us, adding millions of wealth to the nation, and ten-folding
its population ; a work which shall change the condition of all mankind, bringing
all together, as one nation, in free intercourse and exchange of commodities ; a
work which must be the means of civilizing and Christianizing the heathen, the
barbarian and the savage— shall these waste wilderness lands be applied to this
noble, this more than glorious purpose ? I cannot doubt all will say yes.
When we look at the past., and see how civilization has travelled West,bringing
commerce and the useful arts with i t ; when we see that civil and religious liberty
was driven to this continent as its apparent last resting-place ; when we see the
progress and even strides of these United States in wealth and greatness ; when
we see this vast, this rich continent, yet a wilderness before us, the best climate
and country, and under the best government the sun ever shone upon ; more con­
genial to grow the whole man than any other part of the globe ; placed directly
in the centre of the earth— Europe, with more than two hundred and fifty millions
of souls, on the one side, with the Atlantic, three thousand miles, between us, and
on the other side, all Asia, with seven hundred millions of souls, and the Pacific,
a little more than five thousand miles, between us ; and when we know that the
earth does not produce enough to sustain the vast multitudes on either side, and no­
where for them to go but to us ; and when we know that the building of this
great road will open to settlement, production, and intercourse with all parts of the
globe this vast wilderness of twenty-five hundred miles in extent, can we doubt
that it is our destiny and paramount duty to go forward and accomplish it ?
Clearly not.
Mr. Whitney proposes to start his road somewhere on Lake Michigan, where
he can find the lands unoccupied ; and thence cross the Mississippi, near Prairie




The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific.

389

du Chien, in the parallel of about 43°; and thence over to the Missouri, between
Council Bluffs and the Big Sioux; thence to the Pass on a parallel of about 424°;
thence to the best point on the Pacific, St. Francisco, or the Columbia River.
This route or starting point would seem absolutely necessary. First, the route
must be where the rivers can be bridged ; the starting point must be from where
the lands can be made immediately available for means, and where the good land
can furnish means for the part where the land is poor, and to furnish timber for
the road and for buildings where there is none. The plan could not be carried out
from a starting point west of the lake, because there would not be a sufficient
amount of lands on the route to insure success, and because the transportation
o f material to any other point would cost so much as to forbid the work. And it
is not material to the States, as all would join this at or near the Mississippi, making
this the most central for all the Atlantic cities and for New Orleans, and being
about the centre of the continent.
New England and New York would have
their Buffalo and Erie roads through Ohio; Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh and
through Ohio; Baltimore to Wheeling and through Ohio, two hundred miles
nearer than New Y ork; Richmond her direct and best of all routes to Cincinnati,
and then onward; Charleston to Nashville and to Louisville, or direct through the
entire State of Illinois; and New Orleans, with the father of rivers always navi­
gable to the Ohio ; while St. Louis would have the Mississippi and Missouri, and
her railroad up the Missouri Valley, the' first to reach it— all equally located, and
sharing in all its benefits. Thus uniting and bringing all together at one grand
centre ; distant from ocean to ocean from either city not over 3,400 miles, per­
formed at a moderate speed in eight days, and at thirty miles per hour, in five and
a half days, and with the magnetic telegraph out-run the sun by twelve hours;
placing us on the Pacific, directly opposite to all Asia; distant from Japan but 4,000
miles ; from China but 5,400 miles; to Australia but 6,000 miles ; to New Guinea
5,340 miles, and to Singapore 7,660 miles. From London or Liverpool (latitude '
about 50°) to New York is about 3,000 miles, to be added to the above, -when we
have the direct route from Europe to all Asia, and much shorter than any other
route possible to accomplish.
These distances appear so much shorter than those for the route across the
isthmus, that an explanation is required. First, we start from London, latitude
50°, and cross the isthmus, in from 7° to 16° north latitude, and about 90° west
longitude ; thence to Canton, latitude about 23°, and east longitude 1134°, or about
170° of longitude, each degree of longitude full sixty miles, .making from the
terminus of the canal to Canton over 10.200 miles; whereas, from Columbia
river, latitude 464°, to Shanghai, latitude about 32°, and east longitude 122°,
where all the commerce of China would centre, is .1104° of longitude, measu­
ring on this parallel about forty-seven miles each, a distance of 5,400 miles. Thus
it will be seen that for a vessel bound from the terminus of a canal across the
isthmus to China, the shortest and best route would be first to the Columbia river,
and then to China. Thus we see that t t o would gain over that of the isthmus,
from London to China, 3,758 miles, to .OTstralia 2,440 miles, to Singapore 1,398
miles ; and New York gains over Europe about 3,000 miles to all these places.
This seems to be Nature’s route. On this belt, this line around the globe, is al­
most all the population of the world ; on this line is and will be the greatest pro­
duction of breadstuff’s and meat, the sustenance of men and of commerce, adding
wealth to the nation ; the only route which can of itself furnish the means to
build the road, or where the labor of men can make it available. Nature has
here smoothed the way, and opened the mountains to let us pass. Then look at
our picture, our position with this road completed : behold, with one hand we
reach out over the Pacific to the millions of Japan, China, and all Asia, with our
manufactures, our cotton, our tobacco, our hemp, our rice, our flour, our corn,
beef, pork, leather, and all our many and various products, and receive back in
exchange their teas, coffee, sugar, spices, indigo, drugs, silks, and various useful
and curious fabrics, with gold, silver, and precious stones— all, too, with our own
ships and our own men; and with the other hand over the broad Atlantic, to all
Europe, our various products in exchange for theirs, and receive their surplus




390

Application o f Electricity to Ascertaining o f Longitude.

population, to whom we give a home, a country ; while our body draws to it and
controls the rich commerce and wealth of all the world, spreading and circulating
from ocean to ocean, through every artery, through every city from Texas to
Maine; and from the heart, the centre, would spring and flow forth throughout the
whole frame, the whole system, the life, the products of man’s labor, from the
earth, which created, would control and sustain it. The picture is grand, and might
be considered a vision, had it any other foundation than the wilderness earth, which
by the labor of man is to bring forth all we want, and, at the same time, richly re­
ward that labor. It is a great plan, a great work; but we are the people to do
big things. This we have only to commence; it works itself. Build the first
mile, and it prepares the way for another. The settler has the means of free
transit to market, and his labor is wanted on the road; he is at once made inde­
pendent and happy. It is the poor man’s road, his hope and promise. It is the
farmer and mechanic who will receive the greatest benefits ; their small means
and labor on the road could purchase the land for forty to one hundred and sixty
acres; their labor and crops immediately wanted on the road; and if a surplus,
a free transit to market. Villages and cities would spring up, from one end to
the other, all independent and happy, because the free intercourse with all the
world afford a full reward for labor. Then will you take your money and send it
out of our country, to be used against your interest, or will you have the Oregon
road, which will cost you nothing but your votes? Mr. Whitney does not ask
for one dollar in money, nor will he subject any man to one cent of taxation, and
no harm to any; he does not even ask a survey for his route; all he desires is,
that the waste wilderness land may be placed so that by sale and settlement the
means, in money and labor, can be produced to build the road, and when the road
is completed, to be under the control of Congress, of the people, and no dividends.
All this he proposes at his own risk and hazard; and if it fails, the people lose
nothing, as no part of the lands would be granted to him faster than the road is
built. It appears to me that this is no mysterious affair— a plain, simple, business
plan, grand and sublime, but as simple as grand.
I examined this subject nearly three years ago. I then endorsed it, and pre­
sented Mr. Whitney’s first memorial to the 28th Congress. Since that time it
has grown upon the public mind, and I believe the people will have it, and the
sooner the better.
Z. P r a t t .
Praltsville, Greene County, N. Y., August 28th, 1847.

Art. VII.— APPLICATION OF ELECTRICITY TO ASCERTAINING OF LONGITUDE.
TO THE EDITOR OF THE MERCHANTS1MAGAZINE, ETC.
A t the late meeting o f the British Association held at Oxford, in E n g­
land, Mr. Bains, who had so in gfliou sly applied galvanic electricity to
the working o f clocks, stated that he had discovered an economical mode
for generating the electric fluid applied to this purpose. This he accom ­
plished by simply sinking zinc and copper plates in the moist earth,
instead o f acids and saline substances, which developed sufficient electri­
cal action to work a clock, in the place o f weights and springs. Mr.
Bains also showed, some time since, that, by means o f connecting isolated
wires, passing from a central clock worked by electricity, all the other
public clocks in a city could be put in motion, and made to keep precisely
the same time. For instance, if the clock on Trinity Church, or on the
City Hall, w ere put in motion by electricity, and all other public clocks in
N ew Y ork connected with it by isolated wires, they could all be made
to keep precisely the same time. Thus, if the main clock should be kept
perfectly regulated, it would impart the same perfect regularity to all the
rest, and prove o f great convenience to the population at large.




Application o f Electricity to Ascertaining o f Longitude.

391

In all that Mr. Bains has said on the subject, it does not appear that he
thought o f applying electricity to the ascertaining o f longitude. It is
clear, however, that, if a central clock in N ew Y ork can be made to keep
exact time, and make all the other clocks in the city do the same, by the
agency o f electricity passing along wires, that it is only necessary to
extend the wires from the central clock in N ew York to every other townclock throughout the United States, to make them all keep precisely the
same time. Thus, a clock in the city o f M exico, and at the mouth o f the
Columbia River, and in Q uebec, could all be made to tick precisely at the
same moment, and thus show the difference in longitude between these
far-distant and intermediate places, on every day throughout the year.
By recent experiments, the telegraphic wires have been temporarily tried,
by the mere ticking o f magnetic registering machines, compared at the
moment with chronometer time-pieces, for ascertaining differences o f lon­
gitude between Jersey City and Philadelphia, and between the latter city
and Baltimore and Washington. From the success which attended these
brief experiments, no doubt can be entertained o f the practicability o f
working electrical clocks, or chronometers, at distant points, simulta­
neously, on the plan I have suggested.
But it is not alone on land I propose to call public attention to the
utility o f electricity in ascertaining correct longitude, but on board o f ves­
sels at sea also. An electrical chronometer must possess many advan­
tages over all other kinds. It is w ell known that the most difficult thing
to regulate in a chronometer, is its spring, which changes its elasticity by
use, or undergoes change o f action by change o f temperature. Heat expands it, and cold contracts it. T h e most difficult part o f a clock to regu­
late, is its pendulum, w hich w ill elongate by heat, and contract by cold—
in the first instance, causing it to move too slow, and in the second, too
fast. I am aware o f the various ingenious contrivances applied to remedy
these defects, but in none o f them have the experiments proved perfectly
successful. In working a chronometer by electricity, the spring is wholly
dispensed w ith ; or in working a clock by the same agency, the spring,
weights, & c ., are wholly unnecessary, and w e have nothing to guard
against but the expansion o f a simple wheel or two, w hich can be com ­
posed o f substances in a manner more perfect, i f not wholly exempt from
variation in volume b y changes o f temperature. A s the action o f electricity in producing motion is uniform and instantaneous, in given terms, the
oscillations must also be correspondingly uniform, the influence o f heat
and cold to the contrary notwithstanding.
I f electrical clocks or chronometers can be made to work on land, they
can also be made to work with equal facility at sea. The copper sheath­
ing o f a ship’ s bottom, immersed in water, and that almost all the while
salt, would form a powerful surface, in connection with zinc plates favora­
bly disposed o f about the vessel, for the constant and permanent genera­
tion o f an electrical current, sufficient to put a sea-clock or chronometer
in motion, which, in all likelihood, would prove more uniformly correct, as
a time-piece, than any chronometer ever hitherto employed ; and hence a
more correct instrument for ascertaining longitude than anything else in
use. The improvement, at all events, is worthy o f trial, and should be
made under the patronage and authority o f the government. Perfection,
or as near perfection as possible, in chronometer time, is an object o f great
importance to navigation. T h is has been made apparent by the fact that




392

Barbour's Reports o f Cases in Chancery.

vessels have gone ashore, and have been totally wrecked, by very slight
variations in chronometer time.
I trust my remarks may be the means o f directing public attention to
the importance o f the su bject; and that, on trial, electrical chronometer
time-pieces may develop all the utility I hope for them.
a . j .

Art. T ill.— BARBOUR’S REPORTS OF CASES IN CHANCERY.*
C h a n c e l l o r W a l w o r t h ’ s term o f office, and the office o f Chancellor
itself, ended on the first Monday o f July last, by force and virtue o f the
n ew N ew Y ork constitution. H e continues to hear and decide cases now
ready for hearing, until July, 1848. W e may, therefore, look for perhaps
three, or at most four volumes more o f Mr. Barbour’s series o f Chancery
Reports, o f which the present is the first. This volume is printed and got
up in the usual excellent style in which Messrs. Banks & Gould publish
law books. In the contents w e notice two special features o f m erit; one
for which we have to thank the reporter, the other, the learned judge.
W e wish they w ere more common in law reports. In the first place, full
statements o f the arguments o f counsel are given. It is no more than
justice in the reporter, to give briefly the arguments o f counsel on both
sides o f a question. T h ey are an important class o f the officers o f the
court, to whose diligence, learning, and ability, the cause o f justice is
much indebted, for the enlightened and careful consideration with which
cases are decided. T o whom, indeed, shall the poor lawyer look for name
and fame with posterity, after he has “ strutted his brief hour,” like the
actor— after his voice has died from the forum, like the actor from the
theatre— like him, too, living and laboring as he does, only for the present,
to whom shall he look unless to the reporter ? M oreover, the points o f
counsel are as useful in letting the reader fully into the legal aspects o f a
case, as the statement o f facts is in disclosing the circumstances. Indeed,
a volume o f Reports and Cases does not deserve the name, i f it leave the
labors o f counsel “ unhonored and unknown.”
T h e other excellence o f this volume, equally worthy, and greatly need­
ing imitation in this country, is the brevity o f the decisions. W e have no
objection to a long opinion, in its place. W h o can find fault with the
learned length o f Judge Story’ s decision in D e Lovio ns. Bort? or Chan­
cellor K ent’s in Griswold and Waddington? It is edifying to see a great
legal mind battling long and stoutly with a hard case, with the compla­
cen cy o f learned self-confidence, starting up and running down every possi­
ble difficulty and objection. But the ordinary run o f cases does not re­
quire this. It is astonishing how few are the cases directly bearing upon
any point, in comparison with the multitude o f authorities relating to the
subject, but not strictly relevant. Nothing marks the learned, the expe­
rienced, and acute judge, more than a clear, terse, direct, and brief dis­
cussion o f the very point at issue, with not a word wasted upon other
matters, naturally suggested, perhaps, but irrelevant; or i f relevant, too

* Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Chancery of the State of
New York. By O l i v e r L . B a r b o u r , Counsellor at Law. Vol. 1. New York: Banks,
Gould & Co. Albany: Gould, Banks & Gould.




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w ell settled to require a moment’s consideration. O f this sort are the de­
cisions reported by Mr. B arbour; though there are not wanting in the
volume some o f a length to satisfy the most insatiable. In the 650 pages
o f the book, we have the large number o f 170 cases reported. W h y has
Mr. Barbour given us such a volume as only adds some poignancy to the
thought that we have seen nearly the last o f the Chancery Reports ?
F or nearly twenty years Chancellor Walworth has filled the judicial office,
which, following English analogy, entitles the incumbent to be considered
the head o f the profession o f the State. All lawyers think alike, w e be­
lieve, o f the ability, the learning, and the diligence with which its duties
have been discharged. His industry, in fact, is o f that kind which, like
Judge Story’s, and that o f the "old continental jurists, is rather appalling
than encouraging. H e is one o f those men whose element is la b o r; whose
minds find their truest repose, not in inactivity— miscalled rest— but in that
constant exertion which, being most congenial, gives most ease.
Such
industry, united with such ability, yields products which, like the long
series o f W alw orth’s decisions, fill, and always will fill a large place
among the reliable authorities o f the lawyer’ s library.
Always will fill, w e say, for it needs but a glance to see that the late
alterations o f our judiciary system, though they have swept away the old
Court o f Chancery, have not cut a hair’s-breadth into the quick, as far as
the equity principles administered in chancery are concerned, and that
probably they w ill leave untouched many o f even the old forms o f pro­
ceeding. This being the case, as long as mortgages, marriages, trusts,
and wills, which are the leading topics o f this volume, continue in use,
decisions like Chancellor W alworth’ s w ill continue to be needed, and so
will reports o f them like Mr. Barbour’s.

MERCANTILE

LAW

CASES.

IM P O R T A N T DECISION— T H E N A VIG A TIO N A C T OF M A R C H ,

1817.

T h e act o f Congress o f March 1,1817, concerning navigation, adopts, in substance, the English navigation
act o f 12 Charles II., ch. 18.
Q,u. Whether the pleading in this case show the trade in question to be a violation o f the act o f March 1,
18171
I f it was so, the United States are concluded by their cotemporaneous construction o f the act, and longcontinued practice under it, from now denying the legality o f an importation to the United States o f ar­
ticles, the growth, production, or manufacture o f the British East India dependencies, from an English
port in Europe, in vessels owned by British subjects resident in England.
But, if the question be an open one, such trade is not prohibited hy the true meaning and effect o f the
act.
T h e act makes no distinction between one part o f the dominions o f a foreign State and others,—it applies
to the entire country or foreign nation.
Colonies and dependencies, in contemplation o f law, are part and parcel o f the country to which they
appertain ; and privileges and disabilities, made to affect the country, extend alike to both, when it is not
otherwise specially provided or directed.
Products o f colonies, are o f the products o f the country, and there are no citizens, or subjects, or ships o f
colonies, otherwise than as they belong to the entire country.
T he term country in the act o f March 1,1817, embraces the whole o f the dominions o f Great Britain, in­
cluding her East India possessions.
The act is to be regarded as retaliatory and prohibitive in its character, intended to counteract like regula­
tions enforced by other countries against the commerce o f the United States.
It is not alleged or shown that British laws, or regulations o f trade, prohibit the exportation to Great
Britain, from a port in the United States, in an American vessel, o f articles the growth, production, or




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manufacture o f a territory or dependency o f the United States, but not o f the place from which they
are shipped for exportation.
Nor is it alleged or shown that vessels o f the United States are interdicted importing into the United
States, from English ports in Europe, productions, & cMfrom the British East India possessions.
The plea in bar o f the information, declared good, and decree rendered, restoring ships and cargo seized, to
the claimants.
The libel o f information charged that this ship, not being a vessel o f the United States, nor a foreign vessel
truly and wholly belonging to the citizens or subjects o f the British East Indies, on the 22nd o f May,
1847, imported from London into New York, various goods described, being the growth, production, or
manufacture o f the British East Indies, from which place they have usually, since March, 1817, been
shipped for transportation; and by reason whereof, and by virtue o f the act o f Congress o f March 1,
1817, the said ship, her tackle, & c., and the said cargo, became and were forfeited to the United States;
and prayed process, and a decree o f condemnation, &c.
The claimants, averring themselves to be natural born subjects o f the Queen o f Great Britain, and resident
in England, within the United Kingdom, pleaded specially to the libel, that the said ship, at the time,
truly and wholly belonged to them, and still does, and that the British East Indies are, and were at the
time, provinces, and part and parcel o f the United Kingdom o f Great Britain and Ireland, and o f Her
Majesty’ s dominions, and that the said goods were the growth, production, and manufacture o f the do­
minions o f Her Majesty, and were received by them on board said ship at the port o f London, for
transhipment to the port o f New York, and aver the right to make such importation, & c., & c.
T o the special pleas, the District Attorney demurred.

I n the U. S. Circuit Court, Southern District of New York, before the Hon.
Samuel Nelson, Assistant Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and
the Hon. Samuel R. Betts, District Judge. The United States vs. The Ship
Recorder.
The question raised by the issue in law, is, whether the trade in which this
ship was employed, is inhibited by the act of Congress concerning the navigation
of the United States, passed March 1, 1817.
The first section of the act provides, that after the 30th day of September next,
no goods, wares or merchandise shall be imported into the United States, from
any foreign port or place, except in vessels of the United States, or such foreign
vessels as truly and wholly belong to the citizens or subjects of that country of
which the goods are the growth, production or manufacture; or from which such
goods, wares or merchandise can only be, or most usually are, first shipped for
transportation. Provided, nevertheless, that this regulation shall not extend to the
vessels of any foreign nation which has not adopted, and which shall not adopt
a'similar regulation. The second section declares the vessel and cargo, coming
into the United States, in violation of those provisions, forfeited.
It is not stated in the pleadings, nor admitted by the claimants on the argument,
that Great Britain has adopted regulations similar to those established by this a c t;
and the claimants, therefore, in strictness of law, may be entitled to the objection,
that the construction insisted on by the government, does not bring the vessel and
cargo within the condemnation of the statute.
W e think, however, if the navigation laws of Great Britain, notoriously re­
straining the trade in American vessels, with her colonies, within limits more strict
than the regulations of this statute, are not to be judicially noticed by the court,
the provisions of the convention between the United States and Great Britain, of
July-, 1815, must be regarded as part of tiie law of the case ; and in that conven­
tion, Great Britain reserves to herself, and adopts, by implication, regulations sim­
ilar, in this respect, to those established by the act of Congress in question. It
is admitted by the pleadings, that goods, wares, and merchandise, the growth,
production, or manufacture of the British East Indies, have, since the passage of
the act of Congress, been usually shipped for transportation from the ports of the
East Indies.
The District Attorney, on the part of the government, accordingly, contended
that the course of trade attempted in this instance, is prohibited to British vessels
—first, by the direct language of the act of Congress, and secondly, by its intent
and policy, as gathered from antecedent and cotemporaneous facts, leading to its
enactment.
W e think, upon general principles of law, the question is no longer open to




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395

the government upon the construction and bearing of the act of Congress, in this
respect.
In September, 1817, on transmitting the act to the officers of customs through­
out the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury instructed them that “ the
term ‘ country,’ in the first section, is considered as embracing all the possessions
o f a foreign State, however widely separated, which are subjected to the same
executive and legislative authority. The productions and manufactures of a
foreign State, and of its colonies, may be imported into the United States in
vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of such State, without regard to their
place of residence within its possessions.”
This exposition of the act does not appear to have been called in question or
doubted by the United States, until the 30th of June, 1842, when an opinion was
given by the Attorney General on its meaning and operation, which, on the 6th
of July, 1842, was transmitted by the Secretary of the Treasury to the collectors
of the customs.
The Secretary, in his circular, instructs the collectors to be governed thereafter
by the opinion of the Attorney General, and “ to take care that the penalties of
the law are enforced in all cases coming under its provisions.” The seizure in
the present case is made in execution of those instructions.
The Attorney General intimates that the language of the first section of the
act is not entirely free from ambiguity, but declares it his opinion, “ that it does
not in any case authorize an indirect carrying trade by foreign ships.”
“ The proviso was intended to restrain the privilege extended to foreign vessels
in the enacting clause. By this they are allowed where they belong wholly to
the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth or
manufacture, to bring these goods into our ports. By the proviso, this is con­
fined to cases where a reciprocal privilege of the same kind is extended to our
vessels.”
This interpretation of the act is entitled to the highest respect, and if we re­
garded it as removing or meeting the difficulties raised on this issue, we should
give it the most careful consideration. W e should probably feel considerable
hesitancy in accepting as the true key to the interpretation of the act, the idea
put forth in the opinion, that the enacting clause extended a privilege to foreign
vessels, and that the proviso confined it to cases where a reciprocal privilege of
the same kind is extended to our vessels. It rather appears to us the natural
reading of the act gives it a retaliatory and prohibitive character, restrained by
the proviso from being enforced against any nation not having adopted like pro­
hibitions or restrictions against the United States. But we forbear an examina­
tion of this point, because the case submitted to the Attorney General had none
of the features marking this. That was a Belgian vessel, which imported to the
United States a cargo from Buenos Ayres, the products of the latter country, and
the question to be decided was whether such indirect trade was open to her in
articles of foreign growth or production. The Attorney General was of opinion
that the act of March 1, 1817, did not authorize it. The case would have been
opposite if the Belgian ship had been laden at her home port, in Europe, with
productions of a Belgian colony or territory in the East or West Indies or Africa,
and the United States were debarred importing the same goods, except directly
from the place of their production.
There is no evidence before us that the Treasury Department, or the officers
of the customs, have, since the act of 1817, arrested, or questioned importations
of colonial products, made in a vessel of the mother country, from her home port:
and we must regard the cotemporary exposition of the act, given by the Secre­
tary of the Treasury, as the one acquiesced in and practised under by the go­
vernment, from that period, except by the exposition of the Attorney General,
above referred t o ; and there is no evidence before us that his interpretation has
ever been enforced in a case similar to this. W e hold the government, if not
all other parties, now precluded by that long usage, and practical construction of
the law, from questioning its correctness and disturbing the course of its execu­
tion. Admitting that on the face of the act it is doubtful whether the trade now




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Mercantile Law Cases.

attempted to be prosecuted, can be allowed ; or even conceding that the intention
of the statute to the contrary is manifest, and that the Treasury Department
misapprehended and misinterpreted its provisions, in the instructions of Septem­
ber, 1817, we think the settled rules of law, and the principles governing the in­
terpretation of human language, with whatever solemnity, and to whatsoever
purpose it is employed, require us to adopt and adhere to the cotemporaneous
construction, corroborated by an undeviating usage of thirty years, as that which
must be applied to the statute, and govern this case.
W e deem it unnecessary to state arguments or analyze cases supporting the
proposition.
The principle is recognized and illustrated by the highest legal authorities—
(Dwarris on Statutes, 693; Bac. ab. Stat., I., 5 ; 1 Cranch, 229; 5 Cranch, 22 ; 3
Pick. R., 517.)
The Supreme Court of the United States gives the most solemn sanction to
the doctrine, in declaring that a cotemporary exposition of the Constitution, prac­
tised and acquiesced under for a period of years, fixes its construction, ( Stuart
vs. Laird, 1 Cranch, 299,) and in pronouncing the practical construction of a
statute the one which must be enforced, although clearly unauthorized by the
terms of the law itself—(5 Cranch, 22, McKeer vs. Delaney.)
In the first case, the period of acquiescence had been comparatively of short
duration— about twelve years.
The Supreme Court of Massachusetts, in a case most maturely considered, held
“ that a cotemporaneous, is generally the best construction of a statute.
It
gives the sense of a community of the terms made use of by the legislature.
If there is ambiguity in the language, the understanding and application of it,
when the statute first comes into operation, sanctioned by long acquiescence on
the part of the legislature and jbdicial tribunals, is the strongest evidence that it
has been rightly explained in practice. A construction under such circum­
stances, becomes established law.” — (Packard vs. ■Richardson, 17 Mass., 144, 2
Mass. R ., 477-8.)
The navigation law adopted by Congress in 1817, would be one eminently cal­
culated to attract the notice of the business community. It provided for cases of
deep public moment, and most especially as it tended to meet in some degree the
embarrassment our trade suffered from the navigation laws of Great Britain, and
her commercial regulations, affecting the intercourse with her colonies. These
had been topics of agitating interest in the negotiations between the two countries
preceding the war of 1812, and in those leading to the termination of that war,
and the adjustment of new relations of peace.
The 14th Congress, which came into power with the close of the war, must
have been strongly imbued with the common tone of feeling, and familiar with
the state of those commercial regulations as enforced by Great Britain, and their
effect upon the interests of the United States.
The President, in his message to Congress, Dec. 3d, 1816, adverted in strong
language to the state of trade with the British colonies out of Europe ; its partial
and injurious bearing on our navigation, and the refusal of that government to
negotiate on the subject.
The merchants of New York and Portland memorialized Congress on the sub­
ject, urging that importations of goods, &c., into the United States, should be
prohibited, “ except in vessels of the United States, or in vessels built by, and
actually belonging to the citizens or subjects of the nation in which such article
has been produced or manufactured, & c.” (11 Niles’ Register,273,2d sess. 14th
Cong., Doc. No. 81.)
In this aroused state of public opinion, it is not supposable that the exposition
placed by the Secretary of the Treasury on the act of March, 1817, could escape
the notice of the executive and legislative branches of the government, and of
the community at large; and that construction, therefore, under these circum­
stances, stands augmented with presumptions supporting its justness, stronger in
force than even the lapse of thirty years’ acquiescence. It is not to be credited
that tlie President, Congress, and the whole body o f merchants, would permit an




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397

interpretation of this statute, which failed to carry out the spirit and meaning of
its enactment, to govern our trade and revenues: and it is difficult to put a case
where cotemporaneous construction could with more confidence and justness be
relied upon, as the expression of the true meaning of a law. W e feel, therefore,
that we could with great propriety rest the decision of this case upon the appli­
cation of that principle, as recognized and enforced in the authorities referred to,
and supported by the special circumstances surrounding this law. But in a case
presenting a question of grave import to our own mercantile interests, and also
to the relations between the United States and Great Britain, we have considered
it proper to examine the statute itself with attention, aided by the arguments of
the respective counsel, and shall proceed to assign briefly the reasons leading us
to the conclusion that the construction heretofore adopted is correct, and should
be still adhered to.
It seems to be maintained, on the part of the United States, that the act should
be understood to restrain the importation by British vessels, to articles the pro­
duction or manufacture of her European possessions, and to compel the produc­
tions and manufactures of her dependencies out of Europe, to be brought here in
vessels belonging to the place of production or manufacture. This construction
is founded upon the assumed import of the term “ country” employed in the act,
in connection with the supposed policy of the statute to establish a condition of
reciprocity in respect to the navigation and trade of the country, where that was
not already regulated by the convention of July 3, 1815.
It may be admitted that the term “ country ” used in the act, in its primary
meaning, Signifies place, and in a larger sense, the territory or dominions occu­
pied by a community; or even waste and unpeopled sections or regions of the
earth ; but its metaphorical meaning is no less definite and well understood ; and
in common parlance, in historical and geographical writings in diplomacy, legis­
lation, treaties, international codes, not to refer to sacred writ, the word country is
employed to denote the population, the nation, the State, the government having
possession and dominion over it.
Thus,Vattell says, “ the term country seems to be well understood by every
body. However, as it is taken in different senses, it may not be unuseful to give
it here an exact definition. It commonly signifies the State of which one is a
member.” “ In a more confined sense, this term signifies the State, or, even more
particularly, the town or place of our birth.” (Book I., ch. 9,5122.)
When a nation takes possession of a distant country, and settles a colony there,
that country, though separated from the principal establishment, or mother coun­
try, naturally becomes a part of the State, equally with its ancient possessions.
Whenever, therefore, the political laws or treaties make no distinction between
them, everything said of the territory of a nation ought also to extend to its colo­
nies. (Vattell, B. I., ch. 18, § 210.)
The whole of a country possessed by a nation, and subjected to its laws, forms
its territories ; and it is the common country of all the individuals of the nation.
(Ibid., B. I., ch. 19, § 211.)
It is very apparent upon the provisions of the act of 1817, that Congress un­
derstood and used the term country in the enlarged sense given by Vattell. Thus
nation, in the proviso to S. 1 ; foreign prince or State in S. 3 ; and foreign power
in S. 4, all represent, in their connection, the same idea as country in the first
section:— the special designation of citizens or subjects does not mark with more
precision that the law had reference to persons, to political powers and agencies,
than the mere word country— the thing containing being, by a familiar form of
speech, used for that which it contains; and, besides, persons could, with no pro­
priety of language, be styled citizens or subjects of a country, without under­
standing country to mean the State or nation, and not merely a section or portion
of territory belonging to the nation. So, in the preamble to the convention of
1815, countries, territories, and people, are used by the two governments as
having one import, and in the first article, territories is employed as the correllative of inhabitants.
Other instances are frequent in our statutes and treaties, and diplomatic cor­




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Mercantile Law Cases.

respondence, in which foreign countries and territories are referred to as the peo­
ple, State, or nation occupying and governing them.
But in the present case, it seems to us that the phraseology of the first section
of the act, indicates more distinctly even than the use of the ordinary word coun­
try, that the regulation had a view to foreign governments and nations, and their
vessels, and not to the localities within which the individual owners might reside,
or where the vessels might be employed.
The expression of the law is, “ in such foreign vessels as truly and wholly be­
long to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth,
production, or manufacture.”
It has been shown that, by the well-known principles of public law, colonies
are parts of the dominion and country of the parent State, and the inhabitants are
her subjects and citizens.
It follows, as a necessary consequence of that relationship, that there can be
no citizens or subjects of the colonies, as distinct and separate from the mother
country, and that they can possess no shipping, which, in its character, ownership,
or employment, will be foreign to other nations in any sense other than as belong­
ing to their common country. By the English law, none but vessels wholly owned
by British subjects resident within the British dominions can be registered. (Holt
Shipp., ch. 2, \ 3, \5 ; Wilk. Shipp., 240, 248.)
Congress thus most manifestly had reference to the nationality of vessels in
the designation of foreign, because the vessels must truly and wholly belong to
citizens and subjects; terms necessarily importing a State or government to which
such owners appertain.
This consideration furthermore supports the interpretation placed by the court
upon the word country, for the term is introduced into this law in connection with
expressions demonstrating that the shipping interest and products of foreign States
were in contemplation, and not merely the parts or places where the products were
grown, or the ship-owners resided.
The “ act to regulate trade in plaster of Paris,” passed March 3,1817, strongly
imports that this act was intended to have application to the foreign State, and
not any of its particular members or parts, and is a significant exposition of its
scope and purpose in view of Congress.
The subject matter of the two enactments were of a kindred character, and
the latter, if not both acts, was in effect aimed at the restrictions of the British
navigation laws. There were circumstances in the regulation of the Nova
Scotia plaster trade particularly offensive to this country, and Congress, two days
after the law in question, passed a special act, providing “ that no plaster of
Paris, the production of any country, or its dependencies, from which the vessels
of the United States are not permitted to bring the same article, shall be imported
into the United States in any foreign vessel.” (3 U. S. Stat., 361.)
It is to be remarked upon this statute, that it was wholly superogatory, if the
construction now claimed on the part of the United States, to that of March 1st,
is correct; because the interdiction of the latter law being universal, it would
necessarily include this particular description of importation in foreign vessels, it
being denied to vessels of the United States.
It therefore affords a strong presumption that Congress did not intend, by the
act of March l,t o exact and enforce a reciprocity of privileges with foreign
vessels, in the trade to and from foreign countries, in the sense of giving our
vessels the right to bring foreign products from any part of a foreign country from
which the vessels of that country might import them.
It tdenotes, moreover, that Congress considered it necessary to designate de­
pendencies; or places of production, when it was intended to discriminate them
from the mother country ; and also impressively shows that Congress understood
the antecedent act as authorizing the importation of plaster of Paris in foreign
vessels, from countries and their dependencies, from which the vessels of the
United States were not permitted to bring the same article. That such was the
understanding and aim of Congress, is more distinctly manifested by the act passed
the succeeding session, and which will be adverted to again.




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399

The grievance under which our navigation labored, clearly was not the carry­
ing trade of the East India colonies of Great Britain, nor the direct trade between
them and the United States. Those subjects were embraced in the then re­
cent convention of 1815, and we had given and accepted stipulations regulating
both.
” T
’ -ve right, as to us, to carry on the coastdependencies, expressly agreeing that
the vessels of the United States should not carry any article from the ports to
which they are admitted to any port or place except to some port or place in the
United States, where it should be unladen. (Art. 3.)
In the message of the President to Congress, and the memorials of merchants,
before cited, no reference is made to British regulations of the East India trade,
as injurious to us or objectionable ; nor is it suggested that the carrying trade of
Great Britain from her colonies is cause of complaint, on our part, further
than that it indirectly aggravated the injury of our exclusion from the direct
trade.
But what Mr. Madison and the merchants point to as oppressive to our naviga­
tion, is its total exclusion from a direct trade with the colonies. The President
says:—“ The British government, enforcing, now, regulations which prohibit a
trade between its colonies and the United States, in American vessels, whilst
they permit a trade in British vessels, the American navigation suffers according­
ly ; and the loss is augmented by the advantage which is given to the British
competition over the American, in the navigation between our ports and the ports
in Europe, by the circuitous voyage enjoyed by the one and not enjoyed by the
other.” (Message, Dec. 3, 1816.)
This wrong, of course, was committed in respect to other dependencies of
Great Britain than the East Indies ; for the retaliatory act of April 18, 1818, (3
U. S. Stat., 432, 52,) specially passed to countervail the English colonial naviga­
tion laws, (14 Niles’ Reg., I ll ,) saves all the provisions of the convention of July
3, 1815, (5 2, proviso.)
Congress, in the first measure adopted, seemed to stop at the same point of
restriction to which our trade had been subjected by foreign powers, and to intend
that law to be applicable to all nations with whom we had commercial inter­
course. They in substance adopted the English Navigation Act, of 12 Charles
II., ch. 18. It was notorious that the operation of the act of 1817, under the
proviso, would in effect be limited to the British navigation. (Reeve Shipp., Pt.
1, 107; 1 Chitty’s Comm. L., ch. 6.
That this act was not designed to meet the mischiefs suffered by our trade
under the regulations of the British colonial policy, is therefore indicated plainly
by the after act of March 3, 1817 ; and it appears to us is demonstrated by the
provisions of the “ act concerning navigation,” passed April 18, 1818, (3 U. S.
Statutes, 432,) and the two acts supplementary and in addition thereto, passed
May 15, 1820, and May 6,1822, (3 U. S. Statutes, 602 and 681.) These sta­
tutes, with the most rigorous inhibitions of the introduction of the productions of
British colonies into the United States in British vessels, directly or indirectly,
when not allowed to be imported with equal privileges in vessels of the United
States, are plainly limited to the British West India and North American depen­
dencies. (Report of committee, 11 Niles’ Register, 111.) W e think these vari­
ous enactments, made under the suggestion of the Executive, at the instance of
our shipping merchants, accompanied by earnest diplomatic efforts and expostula­
tions, in respect to the trade with the English dependencies in North America
and the West Indies, conclusively support the meaning originally applied to the
act of March 1, 1817, and which we adopt: that it does not render illegal the
trade attempted in this instance.
W e perceive nothing in the provisions of the second clause of the first section
of the act of March 1, 1817, bearing upon this question.
The information avers that the productions of the East Indies have usually
been first shipped for transportation from the ports of the East Indies, and the plea
in substance admits the fact.




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Mercantile Law Cases.

Yet, as already indicated, the act, in our judgment, does not exact a direct
trade from the port of production, or usual shipment, when the importation is in
a vessel belonging to the country in which the goods are produced. It places
no limitation of place upon her right to bring the productions of her own country.
If a foreign ship engages in such carrying trade, the act might probably re­
quire that her voyages should be from a home port, which should also be the
country from which such goods, wares, or merchandise can only be, or most
usually are, first shipped for transportation, but we do not undertake to define the
effect or application of this clause further than to say, it does not restrain the ex­
portation in vessels owned by citizens or subjects of the country, to the port of
production or usual shipment in that country.
W e are also led to observe upon the proviso, that it does not appear upon the
pleadings, or any regulations of trade made by Great Britain, which we have
examined, that she prohibits the importation, in vessels of the United States, of
the productions of our territories or dependencies, shipped from a port of the
United States to which they had been transported from the place of production.
Nor does it appear that vessels of the United States are prohibited by the
British government importing to this country, from England, goods, wares, or
merchandise, the growth, production, or manufacture of her East India dependencies.
As already intimated, therefore, there is ground for doubt whether, upon the
construction of the act assumed on the part of the government, a case is made
showing any violation of its provisions, by the importation in question.
Without adverting to many other topics of argument, opened by the case, and
discussed by counsel, in our judgment, the defence made by the special pleas, is a
bar to the action, and the demurrer taken on the part of the United States must
be overruled.
The following decree will accordingly be entered in the cause :
It being considered by the court, that the matter specially pleaded by the claim­
ants to the libel, and information filed in this cause, amounts in law to a bar
thereof, and to the prosecution aforesaid for the matters in the said libel
specified— It is ordered by the court, that judgment be rendered for the claimants,
upon the demurrer interposed on the part of the plaintiff to the plea aforesaid.
It is further ordered by the court, that the said ship, her tackle, apparel, and
furniture, and the cargo in the pleadings specified, be discharged from arrest in
this cause, and be delivered up to the claimants therein.
M E R C H A N D ISE SOLD ON T IM E .

In the Superior Court, (City of New York.) Albert Woodhull and others, vs.
David M. Wilson & Co.
This was an action to recover $837, being the price of iron sold to the defend­
ants. In 1846, the plaintiffs, through a broker, sold to the defendants a quantity of
iron, and, at the time of the sale, a memorandum was made containing the date
and price, and marked “ 4 months.”
The plaintiffs delivered the iron, and in a
few weeks after sent to the defendants for their note at four months from the date
when the goods were delivered.
The defendants refused to give the note, and
this action was instituted. The defendants offered to pay the amount before the
four months had expired, but the plaintiffs refused to take it unless the costs of
the suit were also paid. For the defence, it was alleged that the defendants pur­
chased the goods on four months credit without any understanding between the
parties that they should pass their note for it. On the part of the plaintiffs it was
shown that “ 4 mouths” on a memorandum of sale means that a note is to be given
payable iiffour months, and that it was customary for purchasers, under such cir­
cumstances, to give such notes. On the other hand, witnesses were called who
testified that no such general custom existed in the iron trade, although purcha­
sers do frequently give their notes to convenience sellers. The court charged the
jury that the sole question they had to pass upon, was whether, according to gen­
eral custom, the transaction meant a credit by book account or a credit on a note
at four months, and as they found this fact so would they find for the plaintiffs or
defendants. The jury brought in a verdict for plaintiffs for $866 damages and costs.




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

401

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.
COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS IN ENGLAND AND THE UNITED STATES— CONDITION OF THE BANK OF ENG­
LAND----RATES OF STERLING AND FRANCS IN NEW YORK, FOUR LAST YEARS---- QUARTERLY IM­
PORTS INTO NEW YORK FOR LAST NINE YEARS— SHIPMENT OF MEXICAN DOLLARS TO LONDON—
THE REVULSION IN ENGLAND— ITS INFLUENCE— -THE CRISIS OF

1836-7 —

THE MONEY MAR­

KET— BANK LOANS OF NEW YORK CITY— THE GERMAN TRADE— W EEKLY AND MONTHLY RE­
CEIPTS OF COTTON AT PRINCIPAL PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES, IN

1846-7 —

EXPORTS OF

COTTON FOR ALL THE PORTS IN THE UNITED STATES— SALES OF COTTON— PRICES, AND RATE
OF FREIGHT— IMPORT INTO, AND EXPORT OF COTTON FROM NEW YORK,

1846-7 —

WEEKLY

AND MONTHLY RECEIPTS OF COTTON, AND GRAND TOTAL FOR FOUR YEARS, ETC., ETC.

D u r i n g the month which has elapsed since the date of our last number, the
general state of business has been active and lucrative. The imports have been
large, money easy, country trade very animated, and internal exchanges in a satis­
factory state. The export trade has, however, not been so satisfactory. The
financial affairs of England, so long laboring under a great expenditure of capital
in railroads, simultaneous with a considerable deficit in the crops, and an insuffi­
cient supply of the raw materials, have reached a crisis which has operated un­
favorably on American interests; although it has not been productive of those
disastrous bankruptcies, which a collapse in the London market was wont, in for­
mer years, to inflict upon the commerce of the United States. It has been the
case that, notwithstanding the universal cry of “ good crop s,p rices have been
sustained in England at points very much higher than those of last year, conse­
quently inducing continued imports and accumulating stocks in the hands of large
houses, even beyond the very considerable quantities taken for consumption.
These large arrivals of food, in connection with the considerable importation of
foreign produce and moderate export of goods, operated unfavorably upon ex­
changes, and promoted a gradual decline in the bullion of the bank. At the date
of our last, the returns were brought down to July 24, when the bullion held was
£9,770,347, and the bank minimum rate of interest was 4 f per cent. In the
following week, the demand for specie was large. The government shipped
£100,090, gold, to the Cape of Good H ope; the Messrs. Rothschild sent £244.863,
in silver, to Paris ; and £70,000 was taken by the Cambria for New York. When
this state of affairs appeared in the accounts on Saturday night, July 31, a special
meeting of the directors was called for Monday, and they raised the rate of in­
terest to 5 per cent. This produced a panic in the market, particularly among
those corn houses whose obligations were large. Wheat fell 8s. to 10s. per quar­
ter, and a number of failures resulted, further depressing the market; and when
the directors met at the regular meeting on Thursday, August 5, they again
raised the rate of interest to
per cent, the leading features of the bank stand­
ing as follows:—
Periods.
July 2 4 . ..
“ 3 1 ...
Aug. 7 . . .

Securities.
Public.
Private.

Deposits.
Public.
Private.

£11,636,340 15,325,476 4,503,516 8,326,452
11,636 340 15,724,129 4,503,809 8,316,271
11,663,280 16,302,175 5,570,606 7,885,897

Nett circulation.
19,752,345
19,711,269
19,504,877

Notes on
hand.

R ’ te for bills.
Bullion. 30 60 90
ds. ds. ds.
4,216,445 9,776,347
5 5£
3,774,675 9,331,250 5|
6 61
3,946,245 9,252,820 5|
6 6|

The advance of the rate of interest affected favorably the foreign exchanges
for the moment, but the pressure continued very severe, and the failures caused
V O L . X V I I .— N O. I V .




26

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

402

the protest of a great amount of American bills drawn upon the insolvent houses.
These bills were, however, to a very considerable extent, covered by friends in
London, who held bills of lading; and the advices reaching New York by the
Guadalquiver steamer, on Sunday, the 29th, afforded opportunity to houses here
to make arrangements by the packet of the 1st. For this purpose, the demand
for bills became active, and the rates advanced, being as follows for several pack­
ets, for four years :—
PRICE OF STERLING AND FRANCS IN NEW YORK.

1844.

1845.

1847.

1846.

London.
Paris.
London.
Paris.
London.
Sept’ r 14, 9 } © 9§ 5.23}® 5.22} 9 5 ® 10 5.22}® 5.21} 9 1 ® 10 i
Sept’ r 30, 8 1 © 9 } 5.25 ® ■■■ ■ 9|® 10 5.22}® 5.21} 9 3 0 1 0 1
O ct’ r 15, 9 ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25
9 }® 1 0 5.22}© 5.21} 9 | ® 1 0 i
Oct’ r 31, 8 } ® 85 5 .2 7 }® . . . . 93 © 1 0 } 5.21}®5.20
9J® 9} 1
N ov’r IS, 7 5 ® 7| 5.35 © 5 .3 2 } 95 ® 1 0 } 5.21}@5.20
8 ® 9 1
N ov’r 30, 8 ® 81 5.33}® 5.32} 9 }® 1 0 5.25 0 5 .2 2 } 8 1 ® 8 1 i
D ec’r 14, 8 4 ® »J 5.33305.32} 9| ® 10 5 .2 2 }® . . . .
8 ® 81 1
D ec’r 31, 9 ® 9 } 5 .2 7 }®
10 ® I 0 } 5 .2 1 }® . . . .
8 ® 9" :
Jan’ y 15, 9 ® 9| 5 .28j® 5.2 7} 10 ® 1 0 } 5 .2 1 }® . . . .
8 4 ® 8| 1
Jnn’ y 31, 9 ® 9 } 5.321®5.30
9 }® 1 0 5.23J05.22} 8}® 8} 1
Feb’v 15, 9 ® 9} 5.321®5.30
9 } ® 1 0 } 5.25 © 5.23} 8 ® 81 1
Feb’ y 28, 8 | ® 9 5.30'® 5.28| 9 }® 1 0 5.25 © 5 .2 3 } 8 4 ® 8| 1
Mar'h 15, 8 ® 8} 5 .3 1 }® . . . • 9 }® 1 0 5.25 ®5.23| 8 } ® 9 I
Mar’ h 31, 8 } ® 8 } 5.30 ® 5 .2 7 } 9 } ® 9| 5.25 © 5 .2 3 } 9 :1 ® 10 1
9 } ® 93 i
April 15, 8 } ® 8 } 2 .2 7 }® . . . .
9 } ® 9 f 5.26}®5.25
9 }® l0 ' :
April 30, 8 4 ® 9 5.28J05.27} 9 ® 9 } 5.26}® 5.25
May 15, 8 } ® 9 5 . 2 7 } ® - . . . 9 1 ® 9} 5.25 ® . . . .
9 }® io
:
May 31, 8 J ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25
9 }® 1 0 5.25 ® . . . .
8 }® 9 i
June 14, 9 ffi 9} 5 264® . . . . 9 }® 1 0 5.26}®5.25
7 l © 8} :
June 30, 9 ® 9 } 5.20}® 5.25
9|© 10 5.20 ® 5 .2 6 } 7 } f f l 8 1
July 15, 9 } ® 9} 5 27}® 5.2C } 9 1 ® 10 5.21}® 5.27} 7 ® 7 } 1
July 31, 9 1 ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25 10 ® 1 0 } 5.27}® 5.25
7 } © 71 1
A u g't 15, 9 }® 1 0 5.23|®5.221 10 ® 10} 5.25 ® . . . . 7 1 © 8 1
A u g't 30, 9| ® 10 5 . 2 2 } ® . . . .
9| ® 10j 5.25 ® 5 .2 3 } 8 1 © 9 i
Sept’r 8......................................................................................

London.

9m

h

81(3)9
8 "( 2>8 £

sm n
ow n
C>](2)6f
53(5)6}
5 (2) 5j
5](S)6
5}(a)5'i
43(3)5}

23(3)4}
3 a(5)4£
5 (3)5$
6 (2 )6]
63(3)7}
63(5) 7}
51(5)6}
53(2 )6]
5}(a)6l

5] ( 2) 6]

6 (5)6]
63(5) 7 “

8£ ( 2)9

Paris.
5.30 (5)5.283
5.30 (5)5.281
5.31f (2)5.30
5.37](2)5.32i
5.40" (2)5.37]
5.41] (2)5.40“
5.42] (2)5.41]
5.45 (2)5.421
5.433(5)5 42a
5.40 (3)5.37\
5.40 (2)5.381
5.41](@5.40
5.45 (2)5.43
5.48](2)5.45
5.43] (2>5.42]
5 36] (a) 5.35
5.32^(2)5.30
5 3l](2>5.28]
5.33] (2)5.321
5.321(2)5,31]
5.3-4(2)5.31]
5.33]
(2)5.32]
5.33]
(2)5.324
5.31] (2)5.30
5.2G] 0 5 .2 5

It is observable that, during the year 1844, the utmost variation in sterling
bills was 1} per cent, except for the packet of November 15, which was the low­
est point for that year, cotton going forward freely after the fall importation had
subsided. Throughout the year 1845, the rates were still more uniform. The
lowest point was in April, when it stood at 9 a 94, and the highest in the first
week of August, 10 a 104. For the year 1846, the export of farm produce was
greater, and the rate fell gradually from 9 J a 10, in September, to 7 a 74. the low­
est point, in July, when it again advanced, and reached 9 a 94, in September, to
commence the past year. From that time it fell gradually to 34 a 4 4, in April,
under very large exports of farm produce, united to high prices of cotton, which
kept up the amount to be drawn for notwithstanding the diminished quantity of that
article sent forward. Since that time, under the effect of increasing importation of
goods, and falling prices of farm produce, together with the usual diminution of
cotton bills, as the year drew to a close the price advanced, until the close of Au­
gust, when the news of the disasters in London, with the dishonor of many bills,
caused a rapid demand for the packet of the 1st, as well as a diminution of supply
by the amount of the suspected bills. It always happens, however, that the in­
creased supply of bills, based on the new cotton, after the fall importations are
done, causes a decline in bills. In 1846, they fell from 94 a 10, to 8 a 84, in No­
vember; last year, from 9 a 94, they fell to 5 a 54. This year, the crop opens at
prices much higher than last year, and with favorable prospects of an enhanced
consumption. The importations have, however, been larger at this port, being
for several years, quarterly, as follows:—




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

403

QUARTERLY IMPORTS INTO TIIE PORT OF NEW YORK.

1839 ..........
1840 ..........
1841 ..........
1842 ..........
1843 ..........
1844 .........
1845 ..........
1846 .........
1847 ..........

1st.

2d.

3d.

$28,110,918
16,940,786
21,938,890
20,687,030
8,705,765
19,030,605
17.393,829
19,684,597
21,655,747

$22,748,183
10,647,872
18,786,421
18,724,686
16,124,910
19,659,357
16,533,469
17,6961123
28,295,521

$31,598,322
17,854,920
23,285,626
9,722,287
15,455,745
26,690,218
23,859,702
21,386,014
28,564,796

4th.

Total.

$14,621,364 $97,078,687
11,402,346
56,845,924
11,312,078
75,268,015
6,251,552
55,415,555
10,022,106
50,308,526
9,860,282
75,240,412
11,545,400
69,332,399
11,502,856
70,269,792
..............................................

The importations at the port of New York, alone, exceed, by $7,200,000, the
amount for the quarter ending September 30, last year; and for the three quarters,
the imports have been $78,516,054, against $58,766,934— an excess of near
$20,000,000. Of this excess, however, $9,000,000 has been specie, leaving
$11,009,000 more of goods to be paid for than last year. This process of im­
porting goods instead of specie, increased towards the close of the quarter, and
was promoted by the failures referred to, which sent up bills nearly to the specie
point.
The high price of silver, in Paris, also allowed of shipments of Mexican dol­
lars and five franc pieces, and some $200,000 went forward. The latest advices
gave the price of Mexican dollars in London 58}d. per ounce, 1,000 weighing
about 866 ounces. The price being here par a I premium, the following pro­
forma will show the resulting exchange :—
FRO-FORMA ACCOUNT OF A SHIPMENT OF MEXICAN DOLLARS, FROM NEW YORK TO LONDON.

$10,000, cost at N ew Y ork 4 per cent premium..........................................
Shipping charges............................................................................
$ 6 60
Marine insurance at 4 per cent, and policy, $ 1 25.................
51 87
---------

$10,025 00

58 47
$10,083 47

$10,090, weighing 8,660 ounces, sold at 584d.....
Deduct landing charges, portages, & c .....................
Freight, § per ce n t; primage, 5 per cent................
Commission, 4 per cen t; brokerage, | per cent....

......................
£ 0 0 15s. 3d.
8 4 1
13 2 2

---------

A dd interest, 63 days, at 5 per cent.......................................................

£ 2 ,097 6s. lid .

22 1

6

£2,075 5s. 5d.
17 8
2
£2,093 3s.

7d.

The above $10,083 47, drawn against the same, would give an exchange of
10 8}.

The whole of this great panic and disastrous revulsion, in London, produced
little or no influence upon the markets of New York and Boston. No effect,
whatever, was apparent, other than the advance indicated in the price of bills
under the purchases of houses anxious to protect their bills on the other side.
These facts show such strength of position, and such abundance of means on the
part of the United States merchants, as affords matter of congratulation, and con­
trasts favorably with the events ten years ago, when a similar apprehended crisis
in London spread bankruptcy throughout the Union. It may be interesting to
recall the leading events of that period. The abundant corn harvests, and conse­




404

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

quent low prices that had prevailed from 1832 up to 1836, had allowed of the
spread of a spirit of great speculation. Joint stock banks multiplied almost with­
out limit; the Bank of England promoted abundance of money to facilitate the
negotiation of the government loan of £20,000,000, for West India emancipation;
and the plenteousness of capital produced by all these causes had affected the
value of credit all over the world. The facilities of credits obtained in London,
had promoted the sale of British merchandise on time in all countries, and the
United States availed itself freely, not to say recklessly, of these advantages, or,
more properly, disadvantages, and the London market was flooded with American
paper, corporate, as well as private. The three leading names, v iz.: Wildes,
Wilson, and Wiggins, had run up enormous obligations on American account,
mostly for goods bought in Lancashire, and sold in the interior of the United
States on credit, to whomsoever would buy. This general cheapness of money
in England, had, notwithstanding the abundance of the harvests, operated unfa­
vorably on exchanges, and the bullion in the bank, which had stood at £10,900,000,
October, 1833, gradually and steadily fell to £4,032,000, February, 1837. This
great decline continued through years of most abundant harvests, and was solely
the result of cheap money in London, or, in other words, England’s loaning more
capital than she could spare. In the summer of 1836, the low state of bullion
and unfavorable exchanges alarmed the bank. Not only had England sold of her
own goods largely, on credit to the United States, but she had accepted bills for
French silk and wines, bought in those years very largely, and consumed here on
credit. The value of silks imported in 1836, was $22,980,212, against $5,932,243,
in 1830; of wines, $4,332,034, against $1,535,102. The aggregate imports were
$189,980,031, against $70,876,920; an increase of near $120,000,000, without
any material increase in exports. This system was the first to attract the atten­
tion of the English bank, and the following letter appeared publicly, addressed by
an eminent private house to its correspondents in this country:—
“ L ondon, August 20, 1836.
“

D e a r S ir — W e were informed to-day, by an active, intelligent director of the

Bank of England, that more British capital has been absorbed by American and
continental houses, than can be spared without injury to the commercial and
manufacturing interests of this country; that the directors of the bank have de­
cided that they will take measures to check the sale of such securities by refu­
sing to discount bills of exchange drawn in those countries on houses here, how­
ever high may be their standing and credit.
“ This decision places all houses in jeopardy that do business with American
dealers in British merchandise, because remittances are usually made in bills of
exchange on such houses ; and if the decision referred to is rigidly enforced, such
remittances will be unavailable till due. Under these circumstances, we deem it
prudent to state, that we do not feel bound to continue our usual facilities to deal­
ers in British merchandise, and that we reserve to ourselves the right of regula­
ting them according to circumstances. W e hope this decision will not be rigidly
enforced; and if not, that we shall be able to act with more liberality than we
now think probable. It is desirable that our correspondents should be made ac­
quainted with this state of things, that they might be governed by it in making
out orders for merchandise the ensuing season, which, we hope, Will be unusual­
ly small.”
This intimation was carried strictly into effect by the bank, and a large amount
of American bills rejected. The same stringent measures of the bank caused a
fall in produce, thus diminishing the value of American remittances, and cotton




Commercial Chronicle and. Review.

405

and other commodities were sold at ruinous losses. The fall was the greater
that the general level of prices had been raised on a paper basis. The demand
for money, in the United States, to remit to meet rejected drafts, became very ur­
gent, and the rate of discount rose in New York to 3 per cent per month. The
inadequate remittances, and fall of produce in England, compelled the leading
American houses to apply to the bank for assistance, and finally extensive insol­
vency resulted both there and here. The circumstances, as respects the Bank of
England, are now somewhat similar here. Bullion is running alarmingly low ;
but it is by buying American produce, not selling goods on credit, that the diffi­
culties have been created. The capital of England was then “ absorbed by Amer­
ican and continental houses,” through loans and credits ; it has now, to a much
greater extent, been absorbed in railroads ; and it does not appear that it can be
liberated for the use of “ commercial and manufacturing interests ” by any action
o f the bank. The capital has not been sent out of the country,but has been con­
sumed in it ; and American produce, to a large amount, has been sold there, at
prices raised high through the large demand and deficient home supply, and not
through any purely speculative action. These sales have drawn bullion largely
on American account, as well as for the continent. Prices continued very high
down to the latest dates; and as the continental harvests were about coming for­
ward, and prices falling in Europe, it is evident that an increased influx of corn
and a further drain of bullion would result, unless prices should fall in England.
W e find that the sudden action of the bank crushed the corn houses, and knocked
down prices in the large cities, in a degree that must check imports for the mo­
ment, and allow the bank to breathe. Inasmuch, however, as that the English
demand is still large for foreign grain, having been at the rate of 12,000,000
bushels per month, for July and August, and the supply of home-grown food for the
coming year will by no means suffice for the home consumption, it is reasonable
to expect a rally in prices, and that little loss will be sustained after all, by Amer­
ican shippers, who, by protecting their bills, saved the produce from being
“ slaughtered ” in a panic-struck market. Beyond this, a London money pressure
does not affect us. One of the leading New York houses, Prime, Ward & Co.,
unfortunately stopped ; but this circumstance was owing not altogether to gen­
eral causes ; and a disastrous result from the course pursued was probably fore­
seen by James G. King, Esq., who retired from the firm last winter.
The money market has been but little disturbed during the month. In the early
part of August the large customs receipts causing a demand for specie for duties,
under the supposition that it would be sent to New Orleans for disbursement,
promoted a little uneasiness, more particularly that the imports of specie had be­
come small during the week ending August 27th; however, the Secretary of the
Treasury effected a transfer of some $2,000,000 to New Orleans, without being
compelled to send the specie, which was abundant at that point. This produced
relief, and as the receipts at the custom-house declined subsequently, money be­
came more easy, more particularly that it was understood that whatever might be
the continuance or result of the war, specie could be obtained there in sufficient
abundance Without sending any thither. The city banks, at the August quarter,
were, however, considerably extended, and have since “ held up,” more or less.
The leading features of the city banks were as follows :—




406

Commercial Chronicle and Review.
BANKS

OF NEW YOEK CITY.

Specie.

Circulation.

Deposits.

$870,798
1,322,945
560,618
747,954
850,856
214,913
90,050
317,310
210,510
45,811
217,645
368,305
844,179
185,406
72,072
1,079,327
303,647
314,967
13,051
162.105
628,181
132,498
170,222
1,046,362

$255,061
268,437
255,255
480,182
372,813
277,532
277,321
196,559
244,101
158,445
257,764

$1,955,853
1,926,081
2,408,646
2,093,756
2,088,244
746,878
767,245
1,111,807
973,846
237,634
725,342
1,221,018
1,625,866
461,339
352,232
2,477,834
778,258
886.604
44,613
919,878
1,322,107
640,577
606,010
1,522,814

Loans.

American Exchange Bank... ......
Bank o f America....................
“ f
Commerce................
“
New Y ork................
“
State o f New York.,
Butchers’ and Drovers’ ..........
Chemical.................................
City......................................... .
Fulton.....................................
Greenwich..............................
Leather Manufacturers’ ..........
......
Mechanics’..............................
Mechanics* Association.........
Mechanics’ and Traders’ ......
Merchants’ ..............................
Merchants’ Exchange...........
National........ ........................
Dry D o c k ................................
North R iver...........................
Phoenix....................................
Seventh W ard .......................
Tradesmen’s...........................
Union................ ...................

$3,598,791

2,380,913
3,826,240
1,233,822

477,568
2,286,171

530,500
3,680,057
1,870,625
373,321
2,294,528
1,096,988

564,395
362,953
165,436
332,906
232,239
237,619
68,579
416,265
411,943
299,601
271,802
432,067

City..........................................
Country....................................

$10,769,732 $6,838,475 $27,892,482
8,888,592
1,213,392 19,253,208

Total........................................

$11,983,124 $25,091,683 $36,781,080

If we compare the city banks with a former return, say November, 1846, we
will find them greatly extended, as compared with the country banks:—
CITY BANKS.

Loans.

Specie.

Circulation.

Deposits.

November, 1846......
August, 1847............

$38,533,810
48,030,987

$7,113,070
10,769,732

$6,192,514
6,838,475

$22,812,755
27,892,482

Increase...................

$9,497,177

$3,656,662

$645,961

$5,079,727

$16,076,008
19,253,208

$7,816,411
8,888,592

COUNTRY BANKS.

November, 1846.......
August, 1847............

[ $33,416,381
32,709,690

$1,925,314
1,213,392

$706,691
$711,922
Increase...................
$3,177,200
$1,072,151
The city banks have increased their loans nearly 20 per cent, while a diminu­
tion has taken place in those of the country ; yet a great increase has taken place
in the circulation of the latter. This large amount of city loans produces an extra
demand for money, and causes tightness in the market whenever the banks loan
less than they receive, and this is always the case when they have reached a
maximum.
The cotton crop is now in a position of great health, and promises to become
still stronger for the future. That is to say, supply is now barely proportioned to
the actual regular consumption of the "world in usual years, and the price is not,
as in 1836-7, and 1838-9, dependent upon large sales of goods by England, on
credit, to sustain its price. On the other hand, the largely diminished consump­




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

407

tion of Europe and England last year, under the pressure of short harvests, has
not prevented a doubling of the price in Liverpool. For the week ending August
3, 1847, the price was 6J a 8 for uplands, and 6j per cent for money, against
3| a 5J for cotton, and 34 per cent for money, in the same week of 1846. The
circumstances that checked consumption last year on the continent of Europe,
will apply, for the coming year, with far less force; and it is probable that, were
the raw material abundant, the quantity taken into use would be far greater than
usual, to compensate, in some degree, the short purchases of the last year. It is,
however, becoming pretty evident that the new crop will not meet the average
quantity; and, therefore, the high prices that may rule will operate as a bar to the
renewal of the usual quantity taken by spinners. This is, for the coming year, a
misfortune ; more particularly in its application to the German States, inasmuch
as it may retard that substitution of muslins for coarse linens, which, of late years,
has made such rapid progress, and which has chiefly been brought about by the
low comparative price at which cottons can be furnished. The Germans con­
sume large quantities of coarse linen cloths, made mostly by hand in the homes
of the farmers who raise the flax. In their families it goes through all the opera­
tion, from planting the flax to bleaching the cloth. The extension of the cotton
manufacture, and the low price of the raw material, have gone a great way to­
wards supplanting those cloths ; at least the surplus, which is purchased up by the
agents of city merchants, from the small farmers, for the city trade. A high price
for the raw material, for two years in succession, will retard this progress, the ex­
tent of which is indicated in the following table of articles'consumed in the Zollverein, in the year 1845, as compared with the average quantities for the five
years ending with 1841 :—
Cotten.
cwt.

Cotton Yarn.
ciot.

Average, five years,........
1845 ..................................

200,091 352,884
443,887 574,303

Increase............................

242,796

221,419

Tobacco.
cwt.

R ice.
cwt.

W h ale Oil.
cwt.

Total.
cwt.

196,351
390,383

120,456
243,990

245,179
437,271

1,114,961
2,119,834

194,032

123,534

192,092

1,004,873

These quantities have nearly doubled, and the value increased from $14,884,814
to $26,519,289. The cotton yarn is mostly o f English manufacture, and has in­
creased but 60 per cent, while the raw cotton consumption increased some 120
per cent, showing that the progress of cotton spinning has been faster than of
cloth manufacture. W e recognise the fact, however, that the whole consumption
o f cotton in the German Union, in 1845, was about equal to 286,428 bales, of 400
pounds each, more than the quantity consumed in the United States in 1842.
With a population of 30,000,000 souls, coming rapidly into the use of cotton, there
is every reason to suppose that the consumption, at no distant day, will be as large
in the German States as in Great Britain.
In relation to the cotton crop of the United States, we annex the annual tables,
compiled by the senior partner of the cotton house of Wright & Lewin, o f New
York




408

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

S T A T E M E N T SHOWING T H E W E E K L Y , M O N T H L Y , A N D T O T A L R E C E I P T S O F 'C O T T O N I N T O T H E PRINCIPAL
P O R T S O F TH E UNITED STATES, F R O M TH E 1S T SEPTEM BER, 1846, T O 3 lS T AUGUST, 1847.

Date.
1846—Sept. 5 ............
“ 12............
“ 19............
“ 26............
T otal Sept.........
Oct.
“
“
“
“

3 ..-...10............
37............
24............
3 1 .......

Total Oct...........
N ov. 7 ............
“ 14............
“ 21............
“ 28............
T otal N ov..........
D ec.
“
“
“

5............
12............
19............
26............

T otal D ec...........
1847—Jan.
“
«
“
“

2 ............
9 ............
16............
23............
30----------

T otal Jan...........
Feb.
“
“
“

6 ............
13............
20............
27............

T otal F eb...........
“ 13............
•* 20............
“ 27............
T otal M a r c h ...•
“
“
“
T otal

10............
1 7 .......
24............
A p ril........

N< O. Mobile. Florida Georgia. S. Caro. N. Caro. W . Tot.
454
38
670
522
1,684
962
149
853
1,174
32
3,170
..
3,610
214
1,508
2,367
5,699
2.859
706
SCO
2,768
7,193
1,107
...
6,831
5,885
3,891
32
907
5,828
23 15,971
7,794
1,419
930
6,250
1,592
11,615
24
20,411
707
700
2,494
3,746
15,785
33 23,465
479
507
5,952
11,140
14,207
42 32,327
1,879
665
6,389
13,346
13,856
36,135
4,902
1,872
17,846
40,310
122
63,257
1,955
350
11,601
8,781
34
23.910
46,631
2,961
386
8,259
11,473
40
49,780
26,661
4,066
647
8,221
22,340
16,238
51,588
76
6,555
892
9,731
11,876
25,316
216
54,586
2,275
34,992
51,188
366
98,227 15,537
10,732
1,452
13,498
10,885
90 62,423
25,766
9,885
2,945
14,473
9,937
30,843
135
68,218
4,765
12,798
23,882 14,809
10,221
50
66,525
17.177
5,640
7,005
11,534
84
23,268
64,708
14,802 42,577
47,774
103,759 52,603
359
17,797
5,641
9,400
11,208
27,049
105 71,200
6,862
13,678
13,642
32,867
9,456
107 76,612
8,604
10,537
13,046
19,915 21,451
106 73,659
19,768
8,392
12,762
13,250
31,221
219
85,612
26,031
8,833
9,091
12,852
21.751
4)1
78,969
51,246
63,998
948|
132,803 98,725 38,332
6,889
12,544
12,902
31,182 26,246
463 90,226
7,780
9,221
13,665
78,677
24,226 23.560
225
16,623
6,682
11,620
9,541
27,849
358 72,673
6,525
9,372
20,083 16,645
7,963
209
60,802
47,559
39,269
103,345 83,074 27,876
1,255|
19,512)
10,861
14,563
24,296
69,237

15,556
7,083
5.644
3,730

16,736
8,539
16,085
15,040

32,013
4,699
5,719
6,388
4,284

4,148
2,216
2,514
1,813
10,691

6,184
4,680
4,000
4,915

7,503
4,036
7,951
4,839

439
319
520
429

53,342
29.195
35,197
40,022

19,779

3,571
4,473
4,726
4,567

1,109
1,538
4,270
3,747

24,329
5,127
6,507
6,614
4,576

1.707!
130
126
250
114

31,372
26,902
38,333
32,328

56,400

21,090

17,337

10,664

22,824

620

18,723
7,959
8,787
4,896
8,557
48,922

3,836
2,681
1.722
1,874
1,175|

1,703
2,373
1,772
1.972
2,309

557
J,635
2,523
1,925
1,102

97
80
9$
65
64

30,524
20,734
21,530
17,515
15,888

11,288
380
678
509
263

10,129

7,742

5,608
6,006
6,627
6,783
2,681
27.705

597
402
359
439

7,689
6,029
4 356
5,874

1,830
302
154
250
214
628

1,788
490
361
527
43S
466

189
172
528
1,008
84

T otal July.........

11,500
1,835
796
2,169
707
976
6,483

2,784
1,114
1,372
1,092
6,362

405
60
59
50
39

T otal Jun e........
July 3 ............
“ 10............
w 17............
“ 24............
“ 31............

486
782
203
789
2,260

1,548

A u g. 7 ............
“ 14............
“ 21............
“ 31............

224
58S
357
4,99]

169
189
146
187

2,289
461

1,981
151
226
750
2,088

1,559
196
612
862
535
3,764

T otal Aug....... .

6,161

691

Grand T o t a l-----

3

3,215

7,556

3

705,979 324,408 127,852 235,462

350,200




...
461

33,717
54,128
77.593
109,920
146,055
128,309
192,686
242,466
294,054
348,64©
202,585
411,083
479,281
545,800
610,514
261,874
681,714
758,326
831,985
917,597
996,566
386,052
1,086,792
1.165,469
1,238,143
1,298,944
302,378
1,352,28G
1,381,481
1,416,678
1,456,700
1,488,072
1,514,974
1,553,307
1,585,635
1,616,159
1,636,893
1.658 423
1,675.938
1,691,826
106,191
1,699.515
1.705,544
1,709.900
1^715,774
23,948

4,381
1,694
4.107
3,230
2,689

1,720,155
1.721.849
1,725,956
1,729.186
1,731,875
16,101

36

618
1,085
4,191
1,662

17,746

128,935

208
15
21

1J584
4,854
10,553
17,746

157,756

M ay 1............
“
7 ............
“ 35............
“ 22............
“ 29............
T otal M ay..........
June 5 ............
“ 12............
“ 19............
“ 26............

3,332
2,994
1,872
3,252

M. T o t’ l Gr. T ot’ l,

1,626
2,089
5,444
8.928

1,740,034
1,749,962
18,087

6,061 1,749962 1,749,962

409

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

The crop of Texas is this year, it appears, but 8,317 bales, against 27,008 bales
last year, and 25,169 bales in that previous.
STATEMENT SHOWING THE COMPARATIVE RECEIPTS AND EXPORTS OF COTTON, FOR ALL PORTS IN
THE UNITED STATES, AS MADE UP IN NEW YORK ON THE

1846-47,

and

1st OF EACH MONTH, FOR THE YEARS

1845-46.
EXPORTS.

Date.

1846.
■October 1,
Nov. 1,__
Dec. 2 ,....
1847.
Jan. 1,__
Feb. 2 ......
March 2,..
April 1,....
May 4 , . . .
June 1,.....
July 1......
Aug. 3,.....
•Sept’ber 1,

Receipts
from 1st
Sep’ ber,
1846.

Receipts
from 1st
Sep’ ber,
1845.

14,189
102,800
317,485

44,763
175,376
413,689

9,350
17,288
50,992

4,638
13,760
42,228

568,909
927,249
1,248,606
1,426,102
1,603,721
1,696,120
1,733,187
1,751,651
1,767,084

605,604
891,352
1,190,584
1,516,131
1,806,230
1,960,778
2,010,159
2,047,349
2,082,176

124,381
221,524
317,537
436,674
561,098
621,415
680,740
752,875
815,661

63,477
100,747
117,523
137,317
183,392
193,678
205,023
217,729
239,018

T o Great
Britain.

North
Other
Foreign
of
Europe. Ports.

France.

2,809 1,956
4,672 6,418
7,187 10,048
12,033
18,132
23,735
33,028
38,898
47,888
55,478
62,871
74,354

Total
Total
from 1st
from 1st
Sep. 1846,, Sep.1845,
to date.
to date.

28,645
96,266
223,520

18,753
42,138
110,455

224,580
371,088
24,689
489,891
43,444 383,847
597,168
47,492
506,287
663,461
823,703
56,442
856,368 1,010,158
72,980
82,652
945,633 1,191,076
83,803 1,025,044 1,400,652
89,571 1,123,046 1,570,751
93,150 1,222,183 1,654,832

ESTIMATED SALES OF COTTON IN NEW YORK— PRICES— RATE OF FREIGHT.

1845—6.
Date.

Sales.

•Sept. 15,
30,
Oct. 14,
31,
Nov. 15,
29,
Dec. 15,
31,
Jan. 15,
31,
■Feb. 16,
28,
Mar. 14,
31,
April 15,
30,
M ay 15,
30,
June 15,
30,
July 15,
30,
Aug. 15,
31,

12,600
20,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
14,000
11,000
7,500
6,000
8,000
12,500
17,000
14,000
10,000
13,000
13,000
23,000
20,000
30,000
13,000
12,500
15,000
12,000
25,000

Fair
Up’ lnds.

Fair
Orleans.

6*a 8i 8|a9
8ia84 9 a9i
84a8J 9 a9 j
84a84 8|a9
74a7f 8ia8J
7|a7| 84a8f
8 a84 8|a9
7}u8
84a8i
74a7J 84a84
74a7i 84a84
74a7} 8*a84
8 a84 8fa9
84a84 9 a9J
84a84 94a94
8 a84 9 a94
8Ja8f «4a94
8 a84 8fa9
8 a84 8Ja9
8 aP4 ' 8fa9
8 a84 8ja9
8 aS§ 9fa9
gJaSJ 9 a94
S}a9
94a9|
94a9J 9 }a l0

1846-7.
Freight to
Liverpool.
rd.
sq.

1-4
1-4
3-8
3-8
5-16
5-16
3-16
3-16
3-16
3-16
1-4
1-4
1-4
3.16
3-16
1-4
5-16
3-8
3-8
1-4
7-32
3-16
3-16
1-4

5-16
5-16
7-16
7-16
3-8
3.8
1-4
3-16
3-16
1-4
5-16
5-16
5-16
3-16
1-4
5-16
3-8
1-2
1-2
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-16
5-16

Sales.

Fair
U pl’ nds.

Fair
Orleans.

Freight to
Liverpool.
sq.
rd.

9,500
23,500
25,000
30,000
12,000
15,000
24,000
20,000
25,500
33,500
18,000
7,500
23,000
16,000
11,000
13,000
12,000
6,000
7,500
9,500
8,000
22,500
24,500
20,000

94a 94
9JalO
10 alC4
104 a l 04
10 a l 04
9Jal0
10 4 a l 0 J
11 al 14
1 1 4a l2
134al34
I24al24
lO Ja ll
114all|12 al24
12 al24
13 al3 4
13 al34
124al2|
12 a ]24
124al24
1 2 ial24
124al2|
13 al3|
12|al3

9JalO
10 a l 04
104a...
10 4 a l 04
10 4 a l 0 |
10 al04
iC J a ll
1 1 4 a...
12 a l2 f
13|al4
1 2 fa l3
12 al24
12Jal3
13 al34
13 a l34
13Jal44
13|al4
134al34
12 frl3
13 aI34
12fal3
13 a!34
134al3|
13 al34

3-16
3-16
3-16
1-4
3-8
7-16
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-8
3-4
5-8
3-8
3-8
3-16
3-16
3-16
3-16
1-4
5-16
7-16
1-4
1-8

1-4
3-16
3-16
5-16
1-2
5-8
7-16
3-8
7-16
3-8
3-8
Id.
3-4
1-2
1-2
1-4
1-4
1-4
1-4
5-16
3-8
9-16
3-8
3-16

This table presents a remarkable advance in prices as the certainty of a
short crop developed itself, amid advancing freights, enormous prices, and threat­
ened revulsions in the money market of England. In 1846, the fluctuation in
freights was from 1-4 to 5-16. This year, square bales have fluctuated between
1-4 and 3-4, and round bales 1-4 a Id. The prices have closed as follows, in
New Y ork:—




410

Commercial Chronicle and Review,

1844.
I n f e r io r ,...........
O r d in a r y ,....... ..
M id d lin g ,_____,
G o o d d o .,....... ..
M id d . F a ir ,....
F a ir ,....................
Fully F a i r , .. ..
G o o d F a ir ,....,
F i n e ,..................

Upi’ ds.
4A a41
5 a54
5| a 6
61a6i
6 fa 6 |
6|a7i
7| a 7 4
7| a8

1846.

18 4 § .
.
Mob. &
N. 0 .
. . a 61
6 4 a 61
7 | a 7|
74a 7 }
7M 4
7| a 8
8 a 81
81a84
84a 81
8 fa 8 |
9 a 94
9 a94 10 a l l
none. n on e.

Mob. &
N. O.
44a4J
54a54
5 ia ftJ
6£a6|
7 a7i
7 fa 8
84a9

1847.

Mob. &
Upl’ ds.
N. O.
none.
none.
74a7!
71a 8
8 a81
81a 8 4
8 ia 9
8 fa 8 4
9 1 a 94
8| a 9
91a94
9 }a l0
9 1 a ... 1 0 £ a l l
none. 1 1 4 a l2
n on e. 1 2 $ a l3

Upi’ ds.
..a 6 $
64a6}
7 a7*

These rates are nearly double what they were for the year 1844.
ing table gives the import and export at this port:—
MONTHLY IMPORT OF COTTON INTO NEW YORK, FROM SEPT.

2,876
2,198
2,849
4,633
4,713
3,844
9,059
3,955
3,452
2,187
6,463
7,847

1,251
453
492
1,873
3,454
2,432
6,039
5,412
5,294
5,153
5,888
3,913

T otal..............

54,076

41,654

10,103

|
tf3
e
3,444
5,238
9,996
4,963
4,256
7,500
6,215
3,080
5,276
2,543
6,728
2,525
61,764

B
O
P
3
5,331
55
6,872
99
9,860
205
12.846
550
8.836
908
19.896 1,522
11,605 1,320
4.134
745
7,605
288
5,584
130
4,853
36
1,905
3
99,327

5,861

1, 1846,
<
»
35
r
5‘ "o
p’
a
. . 109
•• 2 0 0
10
...
20
...
1 02 . . .
8

10

104
..
62

...
103
...

TO AUG.

a

68

..

..

31, 1847.
i-3

c

th. lor
ports.

1846— September.
October........
N ovem ber.
December .
1847—January . . . .
February . . .
M arch..........
April............
May..............
Ju n e............
July.............
A u gu st.......

5
El
P
250
...
1.599
3,571
4,368
4,858
3.688
3,863
4.681
2,612
7,544
3,069

O

53

exas.

m

s
0
tr
5*

The follow­

oston.

5$

Mobile
and N. O.
... a l 0 4
lO la lll
114a lll
12 a l 2 1
1 2 4 a l2 1
13 a l3 1
1 3 4 a l4
1 4 4 a l5
n o m in a l.

Uplands.
none.
lO ia ll
U g a llf
llfa l2
I2 1 a l2 f
1 2 4 a l2 i
13 a l 3 i
1 3 4 a ...
none.

818
488
659
626
566
1,326
746
293
610
696

..
20
10
..
..
..
..
14
..
126

o
©
p
14,20*2
15,568
25,680
29.0S2
27,203
41,396
38,672
21,600
27,309
19,093
31,512

74

234

..

531

..

20,1 01

380

656

68

7,359

170

311,418

STATEMENT SHOWING THE MONTHLY EXPORT OF COTTON FROM NEW YORK, FROM SEPTEMBER

1846,
Liverpool,

Date.

to

Au g u s t

Scot- Other
land. British
ports.

Total to
Great
Britain.

3

Sept., 1846.......
O ct.,

«

..

........

Nov., “ ......
Dec., “
......
Jan., 1847 .......
Feb., “
.......
March, “ ......
April, “ ......

..
..
..
..
..
..

June,
July,
Aug.,

..
..
..

“
“
“

......
....
.......

Total .........
Date.

Sept., 1846 .......
O c t .,

“

.......

N ov., “ .......
D ec., “ .......
Jan., 1847 .......
Feb.. “ ......
March, “ ......
April, “ ....
May, “ ....
June, “ ....
July,
“ ....
Aug., “ . . . .
T otal....




6,647
11,486
3,740
3,089
5,117
1,96(1
982
6,521
5.508
6,822

...

52,342

160 270
60 100
261 . . .
146 . . .
....
184
15 . . .
...........
...
. ..
...

97
739

. ..
. ..

557

Havre.

Mar- Other T otal to
seilles. French France.
ports.

4,090
1,383
7,077
11,646
4,001
3,235
5,301
1,975
982
1,521
5,508
6,919

4,554
3,245
3,575
4,165
2,285

384
1,283
758
........
637

337
2,722
9,142

110

...

471

...

53,638

36,701

3,643

....
....
....
50
404

4,938
4.528
4,333
4,215
3,326

1 ,8 6 8

1 ,8 6 8

3,454
1,354

3,454
1,354

454

North o f Total to North South o f
Europe.
o f Europe.
Europe.

Holland.

Belgium.

501
140
50
218
344
851
419
138
152
151
279

750
211
1,355
1,590
782
747
319
1,018
G66
124
239
3,876

1,558
1,832
549
1,122
294
855
1,735
879
2,422
218
944
4,746

2,809
2,183
1,954
2,930
1,076
1,946
2,905
2,316
3,226
494
1,334
8,901

1,199
606
57
1,804
2,924
1,131

3,243

11,677

17,154

32,074

7,998

...

1,

31, 1847.

.. . . .

277

447
2,722
9,613
40,798
Grand
total.

13,036
8,700
13,421
20,595
11,327
8,180
11,660
5,645
4,208
2,462
9,841
25,433
134,508

411

Commercial Chronicle and Review.
FO LL O W IN G

TABLE

G IV E S

THE

TO TALS, A T

W EEK LY

THE

1844.

R E C E IP T S

END OF EACH

OF

CO TTO N,

THE

M O N TH LY

AND

GRAND

W E E K , FO R FO U R YE A R S .

QC

TH E

1847.

1846.

VV. Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. M. T o t’ l Gr. T ot.
Date.
September 5 ............
4 ,5 7 8
10,0 32
10.0 32
1,684
6 ,8 7 8
1,684
4,578
6 ,8 7 8
1 2 ................
1 9 ................
215................

4,361
8 ,4 6 3
12,994

Total Sept............
October 3 ......................

3 0,3 96

“
“

1 0 ......................
17 .....................
2 4 .....................
3 1 .....................

“
“
“
“

Total O ct..............
November 7 ................
1 4 ................
2 1 ................
2 8 ................

“
“
“

T otal N o v ............
D ecem ber 5 ................
1 2 ................
1 9 ................
2 6 ................

“
“
“

Total D ec.............
January 2 ......................
9 ......................
1 6 .....................
2 3 ......................
3 0 ......................

“
“
“
“

Total Jan..............
February 6 ...................
1 3 ...................
2 0 ...................
2 7 ...................

“
“
“

Total F eb..............
March 6 ........................
“
“
»*

1 3 ........................
2 0 ........................
2 7 ........................

Total M arch........
April 3 ............................
1 0 ...........................
1 7 ...........................
2 4 ...........................

“
“
“

T otal A pril..........
May 1 ......................

2 3 ,4 92
2 3,3 39
36,981
3 7,7 39
4 2,4 47

4 4,2 27
5 1,6 00
53,658
6 4 ,9 62

2 5 1 .997

3 3 2 .69 2

117 ,710
14,118
12,200
8,341
8 ,5 1 2

Total June...........
July 3 .............................

6 1 ,7 44

“
“
“

1 0 ..............................
1 7 ..............................
2 4 .............................
3 1 ........... ..............

6 ,9 7 9
3 .9 2 3
3 ,7 0 9
4 .2 6 2
3 .4 9 5

Total Ju ly ............

1 8,873

1 4 .....................
2 1 .....................
3 1 ......................

2 .5 8 6
5,921
3,711
4 ,5 6 9

Total A u g ............

2 0 ,2 8 2

“
“
“
“

“
“
'

“




1 , 8 24,668
1, 8 66 .43 0
1 , 8 87,030
1 ,9 08 ,69 0
1 ,9 27 ,20 3

1, 9 77.413
1 , 9 81 ,33 6
1, 9 85.045
1, 9 89.307
1 ,9 92 ,80 2

1 ,9 9 5 388
2 , 0 01,309
2 , 0 05.020
2 ,0 0 9 ,5 8 9

4 89 ,59 2
530,784
585,781
6 47,850

62,4 23
6 8,2 18
6 6 525
64,7 08

6 99,910
7 65,926
8 28.010
8 83,702
9 58 ,62 4

71200
76,6 12
73.6 59
8 5,6 12
78,969

1 ,0 43,179
1 , 118.898
1, 188,722
1 , 271,118

9 0 2 26
78,6 77
72,673
60,8 02

1 , 3 36,906
1, 4 19 ,77 7
1, 4 88 ,14 8
1, 5 55,679

5 3.3 42
2 9,1 95
3 5 197
4 0.0 22

1 , 6 16 ,63 3
1, 6 67 ,62 8
1, 722,956
1, 7 82,273

3 1.3 72
2 6,9 02
38.3 33
3 2 328

1. 8 33.246
1, 8 65 ,02 2
1 , 908,474
1,9 40 ,26 5
1 ,9 5 9 ,0 2 0

30,524
20.734
21,5 30
17,515
15.888

1 . 9 69,925
1 ,9 79 .40 8
1 ,9 85 .79 5
1,9 92,520

7,689
6.029
4 ,3 5 6
5,874

2 .0 06,486
2 . 013.132
2 . U17,791
2 . 0 23,899
2 .0 31,592

4,381
1.694
4 ,1 0 7
3,2 3 0
2 ,6 8 9

4 .9 3 8 ,2 , 036,530
4 ,6 9 4 ,2 .0 41.924
3,491 2 ,0 44,715
13,460 2 , 0 58,175

1,626
2,0 8 9
5,4 4 4
8 ,9 2 8

44,4 64
4 1 ,1 9 2
5 4,9 97
6 2.0 69

5 2,0 60
66,0 16
62,0 84
5 5,6 92
74,9 22

8 4.5 55
75,7 19
69,824
82.3 96

6 8 .7 8 8
82.871
68,371
67.531

60,9 54
5 0.9 95
55,3 28
59,317

50,9 73
31,7 76
4 3,4 52
31.791
18,755

10,9 05
9 ,4 8 3
6 ,3 8 7
6 ,7 2 5

3 5,2 02

3 3 ,5 0 0

11.513 2 , 3 58,667
9 ,0 2 3 2 .3 67 .69 0
7 ,8 M i2 ,3 75.5 29
5 ,6 5 2 2 , 381,181
3 .0 0 6 2 , 3 84 ,18 7

13,966
6 .6 4 6
4 ,6 5 9
6 .1 0 8
17 ,6 9 3

3 4,0 27

31,379

1,691
2,654
3 ,0 1 8
1 3 .9 3 2
24,301

2 . 3 85 ,87 8
2 ,3 88 ,53 2
2 ,3 91,550
2 , 4 05 ,48 2

34,2 76

4 1 1 ,0 6 3
4 79 ,28 1
5 45 ,80 6
6 1 0 ,5 1 4
261,874
6 81 ,71 4
7 58 ,32 6
8 3 1 ,9 8 5
9 1 7 ,5 9 7
9 96 ,56 6
3 86 ,05 2
1, 0 8 6 ,7 9 2
1, 165,469
1,2 38 ,14 2
1,2 9 8 ,9 4 4
3 0 2 ,3 7 8
1 . 3 52 .28 6
1 , 3 81,481
1 , 4 16 ,67 8
1 , 4 56 ,70 0
1 57,756
1 ,4 8 8 .0 7 2
1,514 974
1. 5 5 3 ,3 0 7
1, 5 8 5 ,6 3 5
128.935
1,6 1 6 .1 5 9
1, 6 36 .89 3
1, 6 58 ,42 3
1, 6 7 5 , 93.8
1, 6 9 1 ,8 2 6
106.191

176,747

12.416 2 .3 2 4 ,3 6 8
11 . 3 3 2 ;2 . 3 35 ,70 0
6 , 02312 . 3 41 ,72 3
5.431 2 , 3 47,154

1 46,055
1 92,686
2 42 ,46 6
2 94 ,05 4
3 48 ,64 0

2 02 .58 5

2 26,594

3 7 . 7 4 5 i2 . 2 05.418
2 9 .8 1 8 2 ,2 35 ,23 6
29,321 2 ,2 64 ,55 7
2 5,7 25 2 .2 9 0 .2 8 2
2 1,6 70 2 , 3 11,952

33,7 17
5 4,1 28
7 7 ,5 9 3
1 09,920
128,309

284,561
1.9 98 ,63 3
2 .0 61,198
2 . 124,812
2 . 167,673

144,279
1, 941.381
1. 9 5 3 , 5 8 !
1 . 9 61 ,92 2
1,9 70 ,43 4

46,6 31
49,7 80
5 1,5 88
54,5 86

3 12 .49 4
1. 6 79 .09 2
1, 7 6 2 , 6(51
1. 841,441
1, 9 07 ,56 7

2 60 ,10 6

2 0 4 .79 7

5 .............................
1 2 .............................
1 9 .............................
2 6 .............................

91,0 66
62,565
63.614
42.861

2 9 5 ,2 9 4
3 50 ,71 8
399,476
4 45,128

47,757
55.424
4 8,7 58
45,6 52

4 8 54
10,553
17,746
17,746

3 10.774

1 05.358 1 , 2 26,524
116,773 1 , 34 .3 ,297
1 24,909 1 , 468,206
109 , 7 9 9 , 1, 5 78,005

3 2 9 ,5 6 2
1 , 6 54 ,46 2
1 , 7 05 .81 4
1 , 7 47,737
1, 7 90 ,98 0

15,971
20,411
2 3 ,4 6 5
3 2 327
36,1 35

2 0 2 ,7 2 2

8 36 ,94 7
5 5,1 94
879,513
4 2,5 66
68.1 28 947,(539
80.951 1, 0 28 ,59 0
9 2.5 76 1 , 121,166

1 01.087
83,5 69
78,7 80
6 6.1 26

85,5 87
110,495
1 48,322
197,881
2 47 ,53 7

2 3,1 73
24,9 08
37,8 27
4 9,5 59
4 9,6 56

2 47,247
5 37 ,77 8
6 11 ,33 9
7 01.664
7 81 ,75 3

4 56 ,83 9

7 8 , 4 4 8 : 1 . 4 07.304
6 0 .9 8 8 , 1 , 4 68,292
6 2 .9 43 1 ,5 31 ,23 5
5 4 .9 4 8 1 , 5 86,183

T otal M ay............
June

85,4 51
73,561
90,3 25
8 0,0 89

3 ,1 7 0
5 ,6 9 9
7 ,1 9 3

135,467
2 71 .27 9
3 20,963
3 78,868
4 52,327

3 39 ,41 3
1, 0 89.956
1 , 172,347
1,253.491
1 , 3 28 ,85 8

3 0 3 ,4 3 0

7 ..............................
1 5 ..............................
2 2 ..............................
2 9 ..............................

“
“
“

43,4 70
49,6 84
5 7,9 05
73,4 59

2 3 080
4 2 ,7 1 3
62,4 14

13,048
19,633
19,701
62,4 14

79,8 18
111,774
141,743
179,262
2 27 ,80 9

3 29 ,42 6

6 6 ,3 05
764,389
6 6,0 82
830.471
5 2 ,4 75
8 8 2 946
0 7 ,1 15
950,061
6 2 ,5 78 1 ,0 12 ,63 9

6 8 .2 79
5 1 ,3 52
4 1 ,9 23
4 3 ,2 43

2 3,8 23
31,9 56
2 9,9 69
3 7,5 19
4 8,5 47

2 7 3 ,0 6 5
4 80,593
5 63.316
6 33 ,56 4
6 9 S .084

3 5 4 .205

7 7,3 17
82,391
81,144
7 5 ,3 67

18,676
30,521
5 5,9 95

123,267
238,621
290.221
3 43 ,87 9
408,841

1 9 1 ,932
7 1 ,7 52
82,723
7 0,2 48
6 4,5 20

11,798
11,845
25,4 74
55,9 95

53,8 88
77.2 27
1 14,208
151,947
194,394

121,551

3 3 ,6 88
4 1,7 62
2 0,6 00
2 1,6 60
18,573

“

8 ,9 3 9
17,402
3 0,3 96

1, 6 9 9 ,5 1 5
1, 7 05 .54 4
1, 7 0 9 ,9 0 0
1, 7 1 5 ,7 7 4
2 3 ,9 4 8
1 , 7 20 ,15 5
1, 7 21.849
1 , 7 25 ,95 6
1 ,7 2 9 ,1 8 6
1 , 7 31 ,87 5
16,101
1, 7 33.501
1, 7 35 ,59 0
1, 7 40 ,03 4
1 ,7 4 9 ,9 6 4
18.087

412

Commercial Statistics.

C O M M E R C IA L

STATISTICS.

T R A D E A N D C O M M E R C E OF N E W O R L E A N S .
THE ANNUAL STATEMENT

OF

THE

COMMERCE OF NEW ORLEANS.

T he “ N ew Orleans Prices Current and Commercial Intelligencer,”

o f Sept. 1,

1847, contains, as usual, the annual statement o f the commerce of that city, prepared with
the usual skill and accuracy ; and, agreeably to our custom, we proceed to lay it before
the readers o f the “ M erchants’ M agazine ,” in as condensed a form as the nature o f the
subject will admit.
Similar accounts o f the trade and commerce o f N ew Orleans for
previous years, from 1831 to the present time, will be found in this Magazine, Vol. II.,
p. 349 ; Vol. IV., p. 388 ; Vol. V., p. 471 ; Vol. V II., p. 390 ; Vol. IX., p. 568 ; Vol. X I., p.
415 ; Vol. X III., p. 369 ; Vol. XV., p. 404 ; etc.
EXPORTS OF COTTON FROM NEW ORLEANS, FOR SIX YEARS, COMMENCING ON THE
BER, AND ENDING ON THE

1ST OF SEPTEM­

31sT OF AUGUST.

Cotton.— Bales.
W h it h e r ex p orted .

Liverpool,............................
London,...............................
Glasgow and Greenock,...
Cowes, Falmouth, & c......
Cork, Belfast, & c.,.............
Havre,.................................
Bordeaux,............................
Marseilles,...........................
Nantz, Cette, and Rouen,
Amsterdam,........................
Rotterdam and G hent,....
Bremen,...............................
Antwerp, & c .,....................
Hamburg,.......... .................
Gotten burg,.........................
Spain and Gibraltar,.........
Havana, Mexico, & c .,... .
Genoa, Trieste, & c.,..........
China,..................................
Other foreign ports,. . . . . . . .
N ew Y ork,..........................
B osto n ,...............................
Providence, R . I . , .............
Philadelphia,......................
Baltimore,...........................
Portsmouth,........... ............
Other coastwise ports,.......
Western States,..................
T o t a l ,.......................

1816-7. 1815-6. 1844-5. 1844-4. IS42-4. 1S41-2.
367,810
48
10,598
6,102
810
90,103
330
3,323
1,963
595
4,369
2,912
7,466
4,376
17,705
9,376
30,542

521,953
159
17,893
8,134
14,181
146,153
2,315
6,806
4,254
2,019
53
3,419
7,838
3,585
3,877
1,679
29,800
52,607

529,675
2,025
36,213
17,975

6,579
25,187
75,546
470
13,582
7,288
3,491
1,437
2,500

8,050
74,757
111,666
5,783
13,690
5,507
2,769
910
5,000

112,995
2,314
7,857
1,854
1,253
2,355
9,211
7,196
9,123
1,630
821
62,083
27,201
2,353
2,267
52,880
75,357
78
6,784
3,640
1,053
2,423
6 000

724,508 1,054,857

984,616

488,817
518
21,263
14,895
2,182
107,973
1,418
7,462
3,127
1,360
512
2,770
8,499
3,156
402
33,151
19,704
1,208
82,814
72,400
211
6,919
4,698
4,136
3,280
2,500

62,481
61
35,831
15,939
2,926
159,658
2,861
9,982
8,374
2,593
2,173
13,303
17,693
13,664
114
401
21,177
17,662
4,303
1,342
48,036
73,891
674
3,253
3,278

393,990
38
15,574
10,740
1,108
161,103
2,247
16,992
2,930
584
2,907
6,369
5,209
5,678
286
78
12,818
10,610

3,000
2,000

174
31,215
54,062
1,910
2,846
1,703
2,658
3,716
1,722

895,375 1,088,870

749,267

RECAPITULATION.
W h it h e r exported.

Great Britain,....................
France,................................
North o f Europe,................
S. o f Europe and C h in a ,..
Coastwise,..........................
Total




1846-7.

1845-6. 1844-5. 1844-4. 1842-4. 1841-2.

385,368
95,719
26,297
57,623
159,501

562,320
159,528
28,841
84,086
220,082

585,888
125,020
33,035
92,458
148,215

527,675
119,980
17,907
52,855
176,958

679,438
180,875
50,882
43,543
134,132

421,450
183,272
21,207
23,506
99,832

724,508 1,054,857

984,616

895,3751,088,870

749,267

Commercial Statistics,

413

EXPO RTS OF TOBACCO FROM NEW O RLEAN S, FOR S IX Y E A R S , COMMENCING ON T H E 1S T OF SEPT EM B E R , AND ENDING ON TH E 3 1 S T OF AUGUST.

Tobacco.— Hogsheads.
Whither exported.
Liverpool,...........................
London,..............................
Glasgow and Greenock,...
Cowes, Falmouth, & c......
Cork, Belfast, & .C .,.................
Havre,..................................
Bordeaux,............................
Marseilles,..........................
Nantz, Cette, and Rouen,
Amsterdam,.......................
Rotterdam and G h en t,...
Bremen,...............................
Antwerp, & c .,....................
Hamburg,............................
Gottenburg,.........................
Spain and Gibraltar,.........
Havana, M exico, & c .,.. . .
Genoa, Trieste, & c.,.........

1846-7. 1845-6. 1844-5. 1S43-4. 1842-3. 1841-2.
3 ,3 7 4
5 ,1 7 3

8 ,9 7 6
1 2 ,8 8 8

4 ,9 4 7
6 ,4 7 5

8 ,8 0 8
8 ,2 9 1

6 ,7 8 8
9 ,8 5 1

6 ,9 3 0
7 ,2 1 2

1 ,1 4 8

2 ,6 4 1

1 ,1 3 1

5 ,4 2 4

1 0 ,7 9 8

6 ,8 2 7

1 ,1 5 9
242
2 ,0 9 6

2 ,2 1 5
1 ,0 6 7
1 ,0 0 6

3 ,5 1 4
1 ,5 6 5
3 ,9 3 4

4 ,8 4 6
1 ,1 5 6
5 ,1 0 2

4 ,6 4 8
2 ,3 3 2
4 ,6 6 5

4,037"
1 ,0 0 4
1 ,9 3 3

568
4 ,4 4 6
1 ,6 5 2
403
949
1 1 ,7 9 5

451
1 ,1 0 4
6 ,3 2 8
4 ,2 9 4
181
943
9 ,8 4 3

5 ,0 4 6

2 ,3 7 5

50
1 ,0 1 4
1 2 ,0 1 2
3 ,8 6 2
786
909
6 ,7 4 9
903
3 ,0 0 1

3 ,7 7 5
917
9 ,6 0 2
2 ,1 7 8
2 ,3 0 3
734
1 0 ,6 8 1
1 ,6 0 1
1 ,5 5 6

2 ,7 0 0
2 ,9 3 3
7 ,8 8 8
5 ,6 5 7
1 ,4 7 7
963
4 ,4 9 6
1 ,0 6 3
1 ,7 6 0

1 ,1 3 8
1 ,8 8 2
8 ,9 9 7
3 ,6 9 0
3 ,4 0 1
946
7 ,2 0 4
981
550

Other foreign ports,..........
N ew Y o r k ,.........................
Boston,................................
Providence, R. I . , .............
Philadelphia,......................
Baltimore,...........................
Portsmouth,........................
Other coastwise ports,.......
Western States...................

1 ,0 0 8
5 ,4 5 8
2 ,6 6 4

298
4 ,8 4 8
913

794
6 ,9 3 6
4 ,9 3 8

1 ,1 7 7
6 ,9 6 0
2 ,5 8 5

217
1 0 ,5 3 3
3 ,6 5 0

516
7 ,0 9 0
2 ,3 5 1

2 ,7 7 9
301

1 ,0 3 0
427

2 ,5 3 6
478

1 ,2 8 6
1 ,1 6 7

2 ,8 4 5
2 ,4 3 3

936
208

115

217

2 ,1 4 5

1 ,1 0 0

2 ,1 9 4

225

T ota l,..........................

5 0 ,3 7 6

6 2 ,0 4 5

6 8 ,6 7 9

8 1 ,2 4 9

8 9 ,8 9 1

6 8 ,0 5 8

RECAPITU LA TIO N .

Whither exported.
Great Britain,......................
France,................................
North o f Europe,..............
S. o f Europe and China,...
Coastwise,...........................
T ota l,..........................

1846-7. 1845-6. 1844-5. 1843-4. 1842-3. 1841-2.
9 ,6 9 5
3 ,4 9 7
8 ,0 1 8
1 7 ,8 4 9
1 1 ,3 1 7

2 4 ,5 0 5
4 ,2 8 8
1 3 ,3 0 1
1 2 ,5 1 6
7 ,4 3 5

1 2 ,5 5 3
9 ,0 1 3
1 9 ,0 5 1
1 1 ,0 2 9
1 7 ,0 3 3

2 2 ,5 2 3
1 1 ,1 0 4
2 0 ,1 7 5
1 4 ,3 4 9
1 3 ,0 9 8

2 7 ,4 3 7
1 1 ,6 4 5
2 1 ,6 1 8
7 ,5 3 6
2 1 ,6 5 5

2 0 ,9 6 9
6 ,9 7 4
2 0 ,2 5 2
9 ,0 5 3
1 0 ,8 1 0

5 0 ,3 7 6

6 2 ,0 4 5

6 8 ,6 7 9

8 1 ,2 4 9

8 9 ,8 9 1

6 8 ,0 5 8

EXPO RTS OF SUGAR FROM NEW O RLEANS, FO R T H R E E Y E A R S , (UP TH E R IV E R EX C EP T ED ,) COMMENCING OX T H E 1ST OF S E P TE M B ER , AND ENDING ON T H E 3 1 S T OF AUGUST.

Whither exported.
N ew Y o r k ,................. .£ .
Philadelphia,......................
Charleston, S. C.,...............
Savannah,...........................
Providence and Bristol,....
Boston,................................
Baltimore,............................
Norfolk, Richmond and )
Petersburg, V a.,........... \
Alexandria, D. C ..,...........
M o b ile ,...............................
Apalachicola & Pensacola,
Other ports,.........................
T o t a l,.........................




1846-7.

Hbds.

Bbls.

1845-6.

1844-5.

Hhds.

Bbls.

Hhds.

Bbls.

1 6 ,7 5 4
1 1 ,6 5 3
3 ,1 4 7
1 ,3 5 2

802
653
647
58

3 3 ,0 6 8
2 1 ,8 0 4
3 ,4 1 2
1 ,0 6 2

2 ,4 4 8
2 ,4 2 1
1 ,1 9 8
65

4 9 .4 4 2
2 1 ,3 9 2
4 ,4 2 6
782

6 ,7 9 4
1 ,4 2 2
95
10

695
5 ,9 8 1

43
395

3 ,2 0 8
9 ,1 4 3

1 ,2 8 8
1 ,6 7 2

6 ,0 6 2
1 2 ,5 6 4

543
480

4 ,8 0 6

966

3 ,9 9 7

1 ,2 1 5

4 ,5 0 0

208

156
3 ,7 8 3
1 ,4 1 5
371

1 ,0 3 8
473
76

175
5 ,7 3 9
1 ,0 6 7
533

1 ,0 2 0
158
8

201
3 ,5 3 4
838
760

668
102
239

5 0 ,1 1 3

5 ,4 5 1

8 3 ,2 0 8

1 1 ,4 9 3

1 0 4 ,5 0 1

1 0 ,5 6 1

414

Commercial Statistics.

EXPO RTS OF MOLASSES FROM N EW O RLEAN S, FO R T H R E E T E A R S , (L'P T H E R IV E R EX C EP T ED ,) COMMENCINS ON T H E 1ST OF SE P TE M B ER , AND ENDING ON T H E 3 l s T OF AUGUST.

1816-7.
Whither exported.
N ew Y ork ,.........................
Philadelphia,....................
Charleston, S. C.,...............

1841-5.

Bbls.

Hhds.

Bbls.

Hhds.

Bbls.

2,842
60

15,861
4,512
3,238
1,752

3,002
580
2

9.875
2,418

1,472
2,124
547

34,322
11,575
5,610
2,686
1,051
14,221
10,943

Providence and B ristol,...
22
Boston,................................
337
Baltimore.............................
Norfolk, Richmond, and )
252
Petersburg, Y a............... (
Alexandria, D. C.,..............
M o b ile ,...............................
Apalachicola & Pensacola,
.........................
Other ports,540
T otal,...........................

1845-6.

Hhds.

413
3,348

579
318
185

17,515
13,925
6,328
2,214
280
1,402
5,181

3,225

27

3,767

96

6,029

423
13,464
2,039
671

95
76
391

84
5,218
1,795
881

67,214

7,094

94,415

511
6,497
2,565
286

4,053

10

4,703

42,208

EXPO RTS OF FLO O R, PO RK, BACON, LA R D , B E E F , L E A D , W H IS K E Y AND CORN, FROM NEW ORLEANS,
FOR TWO Y E A R S , COMMENCING T H E 1ST OF SEP TE M B ER , AND ENDING T H E 3 1 s T OF AUGUST.

1846-7.
FLOUR.

PO R K.

BACON.

LARD.

BEEF.

LEA D .

W H IS K E Y .

CORN.

Bbls.

Bbls.

Hhds.

Kegs.

Bbls.

Figs.

Bbls.

Sacks.

Destination.

N ew Y ork .........
63,877
77,828 3.480 209,945 9,167
B oston,..............
96,500
76,755 2,379 165,513 9,053
Philadelphia,.....
13,290
5,247
852 53,377
564
Baltimore,.........
3,630
17,167
1,159 23,251
556
Charleston,......
7,720
1,004 2,874
5,362
150
Other coast.ports
38,380 11,033 11,092 12,813 2,943
Cuba,..................
43,050 1,092
1,015 144,002
467
Other for’gn pts, 1,053,030 40,394 3,053 293,714 29,096

339,560
123,917
135,489
9,962
465
1,000
149
13,716

8,210 107,890
1,162
139,678
4,856
15,324
7,103
3,253
8,180
800
33,005
43,842
........ 133,798
743 2,076,228

Total.............. 1,319,507 230,520 25,904 907,977 51,996 624,258 63,259 2,520,813

1845-6.
FLOUR.

Destination.

Bbis.

N ew Y ork ,........
83,854
Boston,............... 122,148
Philadelphia,....
250
B altim ore,...........................
Charleston,........
11,476
Other coast.ports
68,441
Cuba...................
7,094
Other for’gn pts, 279,931
Total,.............

PO RK.

Bbls.

BACON.

H hds.

LARD.

Kegs.

BEEF.

Bbls.

88,228 2,873 204,323 5,162
89,164
846 190.504 3,501
29,783 1,238 69,153
99
19,523
729 39,619
446
2,828 1,962
5,607
.275
13,434 12,720 20,671 4,490
1,005
610 92,336
391
28,354
64 168,621 43,798

LEAD.

W H IS K E Y .

Pigs.

Bbls.

CORN.

Sacks.

309,681 4,098 172,186
139,304
150 2S9,523
70,113
647
3,671
11,961
2,175
1,000
4,620 8,982 87,953
8,460 41,869 175,582
.......................................
174,086
260 211,674

573,194 272,319 21,042 790,904 58,162 718,285 58,181 941,589

A T A B L E SHOWING T H E R EC EIPTS OF T H E P RIN CIPA L A R TIC LES FROJfc T H E IN TE R IO R , A T NEW
O RLEAN S, DURING T H E Y E A R ENDING 3 1 S T AUGUST, 1 8 4 7 , W IT H T H E IR ESTIM ATED AVERA GE,
AND T O T A L V A L U E , ALSO.

Articles.
Apples,......................
Bacon, assorted,......

4(

it

“
hams,...........
“
in bulk,...... .............................. lbs.
Bagging....................
Bale Rope,................
Beans,........................
Butter,.......................
“ ......... .....
Beeswax,...................




Amount.
39,612
28,607
8,325
14,518
425,163
60,982
56,201
24,536
51,384
872
1,109

Average.
$ 3 00
60 00
30 00
65 00
00 06
10 50
6 00
4 00
5 00
20 00
40 00

Value.
$118,836
1,716,420
249,750
943,670
25,509
640,311
337,206
98,144
256,920
17,440
44,360

415

Commercial Statistics,
Articles.

Beef,............................................
U
44 dried,................................
Buffalo Robes,...........................
Cotton,........................................
Corn-meal,..................................
44 in ear,................................
“ shelled,.............................
Cheese,........................................
Candles, „ ...................................
Cider,............ 1.............................
Coal, Western,...........................
Dried Apples and Peaches,......
Feathers,.....................................
Flaxseed,.....................................
Flour,...........................................
Furs,.................. hhds., bundles and boxes
Hem p,.........................................
Hides,..........................................
Hay,,._.........................................
Lard,...........................................
“ ..................................bbls. and tierces
c(
Leather,.....................................

Lime, Western,.........................
Lead,...........................................
“ bar,...........................kegs and boxes
Molasses, (estimated crop ,)...
Oats,.....................................bbls. and sacks
Onions,.......................................
“ Castor,..................................
“ Lard,.....................................
Peach Brandy,..........................
Potatoes,.....................................
Pork............................................
((
“ in bulk,.............................
Porter and A le,.........................
Packing-Yarn,...........................
Skins, Deer,...............................
41 Bear,...............................
Shot............................................
Soap,...........................................
Staves......................................... ............. M.
Sugar, (estimated crop,)..........
Spanish Moss,...........................
T allow ,.......................................
Tobacco, leaf,.................... .......
“
strips,........................
“
chewing,...........kegs and boxes
u
T w in e,.......................... bundles and boxes
Vinegar.......................................
.......... bbls.
W in dow Glass,........................
W heat,................................. bbls. and sacks

Total
Total
Total
Total

value,......................

in 1845-6,............
in 1844-5...............
in 1843-4,.......




Amount.

32,738
21,230
49,000
55
740,669
88,159
619,576
2,386,510
57,429
8,496
477
356,500
8,770
3,498
962
1,617,675
328
60,238
98,342
95,231
1,151
143
117,077
275,076
3,718
5,994
659,129
1,291
6,000,000
588,337
7,185
3,637
1,439
2,573
72
142,888
302,170
9,452
8,450,700
1,363
2,193
1,784
71
3,992
4,361
2,000
140,000
5,990
6,658
44,588
11,000
3,930
1,001
1,334
1,059
126,553
3,805
833,649

Average.

$10
16
00
60
44
3
1
2
3
3
3
00
2
25
9
5

00
00
07
00
00
50
10
00
50
50
00
75
50
00
00
50

15 00
1 25
3 00
30 00
80 00
23 00
4 00
20 00
1 00
2 75
15 00
00 24
00 90
2 00
20 00
20 00
22 00
16 00
2 00
12 00
40 00
00 06
7 50
5 00
20 00
15 00
18 00
2 60
25 00
70 00
4 00
20 00
55 00
100 00
12 50
3 00
7 00
4 00
10 00
4 00
2 30

Value.

$327,380
339,680
3,430
3,300
32,589,436
308,505
681,533
4,773,020
201,001
29,736
1,431
267,375
21,925
87.450
8,658
8,897,213
600,000
903,570
122,927
285,693
34,530
11,440
2,692,771
1,100,304
74,320
5.994
1,787,854
19,365
1,440,000
529,503
14,370
72,740
28,780
56,936
1,152
285,776
3,626,040
378,080
507,042
10,222
10,965
35,680
1,065
71,856
11,338
50,000
9,800,000
23,960
133,160
2,452,340
1,100,000
49,125
3,003
9,338
4,236
1,265,530
15,220
1,917,392
.......5,500,000

416

Commercial Statistics.

M ONTHLY A R R IV A L S OF SHIPS, H A RKS, B R IG S, SCHOONERS AND STEAMBOATS, A T NEW ORLEANS '
FOR TWO Y E A R S , FROM I s T SEPTEM BER TO 3 1 s T AUGUST.

1846-7.
Months.

1845-6.

St’mSteam SteamShips. B’rks. Brigs. Sch’s. ships. Tot. boats. Ships. B ’ ks. Brigs. S ch’s. T ot. boats.

September,............
October,.................
November..............
December...............
January...................
February,...............
M arch,...................
April,......................
M a y ,.....................
June,......................
July.........................
A ugust,..................

37
78
67
72
78
42
83
86
77
51
53
45

12
30
35
45
64
34
53
41
51
38
30
18

19
31
63
62
91
63
72
45
87
54
52
24

42
80
63
43
99
85
105
86
166
101
67
52

Total.................. 769 451 663

7
7
9
8
6
5
1
6
11
19
16
14

117
226
237
230
338
229
314
264
392
263
218
153

141
177
281
337
346
298
317
293
284
251
174
125

980 109 2,9814,024

24
86
81
80
67
29
67
110
60
44
52
43

7
25
22
49
77
21
24
40
30
25
24
33

7
20
33
48
74
36
33
47
27
42
39
41

14
26
39
42
62
50
32
37
61
30
61
64

52
157
175
219
280
136
156
234
178
141
176
181

164
234
220
245
298
293
299
294
271
184
151
117

743 377 447 5182,085 2,770

•COMPARATIVE A R R IV A L S , EXPO RTS AND STOCKS OF COTTON AND TOBACCO, A T N EW O RLEAN S, FOR
T E N Y EA R S— FROM 1ST S EP TEM B ER , EACH Y E A R , TO D A TE.

Cotton.— Bales.
Years.

1846-47,......
1845-46,...... .
1844-45,......
1843-44,.......
1842-43,........
1841-42,.......
1840-41........
18 39-40,.......
1838-39,.......
1837-38,.......

Tobacco.— Hogsheads.

Arrivals.

Exports.

Stocks.

Arrivals.

Exports.

Stocks.

740,669
1,053,633
979,238
910,854
1,089,642
740,155
822,870
954,445
578,514
742,720

721,508
1,054,857
984,616
895,370
1,088,870
749,267
821,228
949,320
579,179
738,313

23,493
6,332
7,556
12,934
4,700
4,428
14,490
17,867
10,308
9.570

55,588
72,896
71,493
82,435
92,509
67,555
53,170
43,827
28,153
37,583

50,376
62,045
68,679
81,249
89,891
68,058
54,667
40,435
30,780

22,396
17.923
7,673
4,859
4.873
2,255
2,758
4,409
1,294
3,834

3 i) j 5 o o

C O M M E R C E B E T W E E N T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D B R A Z I I .
The following is a statement o f the commerce between the United States and the Bra­
zils, from 1830 to 1845, inclusive, from official documents,each year ending 30th Septem­
ber, until 1842, from which period the official year ended the 30th June :—
Exports.

Imports.

1830......... .....
1831.........
1832......... ......
1833.........
1834..........
1835..........
1836..........
1837..........

$2,491,460
2,375,829
3,890,845
5,089,693
4,729,989
5,574,466
7,210,190
4,991,983

$1,843,239
2,076,095
2,054,794
3,272,101
2,059,351
2,608,656
3,094,936
1,743,209

Exports.

Imports.

1838......... ......
1839.........
1840..........
1841..........
1842..........
1843..........
1844..........
1845..........

$3,191,238
5,292,955
4,297,296
5,948,814
3,947,658
6,883,806

$2,657,194
2,637,485
2,506,574
3,517,273
2,601,502
1,792,288
2,818,252
2,837,950

The following is a statement o f the tonnage, American and foreign, employed in the
commerce between the United States and the Brazils, from 1830 to 1845, inclusive, from
official documents, each year ending 30th September, until 1842, from which period the
fiscal year ends the 30th June:—

1830,
1831,
1832,
1833,
1834,
1835,
1836,
1837,

American tonnage.
E nt.
Dop'd.

Foreign tonnage.
E v t.
Dop'd.

American tonnage.
Ent.
Dop'd.

Foreign tonnage.
Ent.
Dep'd.

38,005
29,855
31,222
35,024
34,900
34,720
39,259
25,122

248
1,360
3,314
208
3,089
753
4,341
5,766

23,037
34,457
32,588
41,684
37,058
32,466
48,550
50,230

276
2,367
5,578
4,503
5,593
2,179
14,802
2,481

44,450
36,892
30,439
49,736
37,092
39,269
45,533
19,576




601 1838,
203 1839,
356 1840,
1,017 1841,
1,977 1842,
2,554 1843,
3,062 1844,
4,107 1845,

30,623
39,431
34,189
47,604
33,778
32,066
46,250
40,716

1,601
3,183
1,764
3,101
2,643
1,395
1,816
2,077

Commercial Regulations.

COMMERCIAL

417

REGULATIONS.

T H E B R IT IS H P A S S E N G E R A C T .
A mong the various matters which have been legislated on during the last session o f the
British Parliament, is that relating to the conveyance or carriage o f passengers by sea.
The subject being one o f importance to merchants, ship-owners, &c., in the United States,
as well as other nations, we publish it in the Merchants’ M agazine, complete, so that all
whom it may concern shall have full cognizance o f its provisions:—
AN ACT TO AMEND THE PASSENGERS’ ACT, AND TO MAKE FURTHER PROVISION FOR THE CARRIAGE
OF PASSENGERS B Y SEA.

Whereas, by an act passed in the session o f Parliament holden in the fifth and sixth
years o f the reign o f her present Majesty, entitled “ A n A ct for regulating the Carriage o f
Passengers in Merchant Vessels,” it is amongst other things provided, that the said act
shall not extend to any ship carrying less than 30 passengers, and it is expedient that the
said act should be amended in that respect: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most
Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent o f the lords spiritual and temporal,
and commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority o f the same,
That the said recited act shall hereafter extend, and the same is hereby extended, to the
case o f every ship carrying any passenger on any such voyage as in the said recited act is
mentioned: provided that when the number o f passengers carried in any such ship shall
not bear to the registered tonnage thereof a greater proportion than that o f one passenger
to every 25 tons, so much and such parts only as are next hereinafter specified o f the said
recited act shall extend, and are hereby extended, to the case o f any such ship; that is to
say, such parts thereof as relate to the recovery o f money in certain cases by way o f return
of passage-money; or as relate to subsistence-money; or as relate to compensation to be
made for the loss o f passage; or as relate to the giving receipts for money received for or
in respect o f any passage to North A m erica; or as relate to the receipt o f money for or in
respect o f any such passage by any person as agent, not having a written authority from
his principal to act in that capacity; or as relate to the inducing o f any person by any
fraud or false pretence to engage any such passage; or as relate to any prosecution or
other proceeding at law for the recovery o f such passage or subsistence-money, or o f such
compensation as aforesaid, or for the infliction o f any fines or penalties in respect o f any o f
the matters or things aforesaid: provided, also, that if in any suit, action, prosecution, or
other legal proceeding, under the said recited act, any question shall arise whether any
ship proceeding on any voyage did or did not carry a greater number o f passengers than
aforesaid in proportion to the tonnage thereof, the burden o f proving that the number of
passengers so carried in proportion to the tonnage o f the ship was not greater than that o f
one person to every 25 tons, shall lie upon the person against whom any such suit, action,
or other legal proceeding may be brought, and failing such proof, it shall for any such pur­
pose as aforesaid be taken and adjudged that the number o f passengers so carried did ex­
ceed that proportion.
ARTICLES OF FOOD.

2. And whereas it may from time to time be necessary that for the articles o f food
mentioned in the said recited act, or for some o f them, other equivalent articles should be
substituted: Be it enacted, that it shall be lawful for Her Majesty’s Colonial Land and Em igration Commissioners for the time being, acting under the authority o f one o f Her Majes­
ty’s principal Secretaries o f State, from time to time, by any notice or notices for that pur­
pose, issued under the hands o f any two o f such commissioners, and published in the “ L on­
don Gazette,” to substitute for any o f the articles o f food mentioned in the said recited act
any other article or articles o f food, as to the said commissioners shall seem meet, and any
such notice or notices from time to time to alter, amend, or revoke, as occasion may re­
quire : provided, always, that all the clauses and provisions in the said recited act contained
respecting the articles o f food therein mentioned shall extend, and are hereby extended, to
the case o f such substituted articles.
3. And be it enacted, that all articles o f food required by the said recited act, or by any
such notice or notices as aforesaid, to be laden on board any ship carrying passengers,
shall, before such ship shall be cleared out, be furnished and laden on board by and at the
expense o f the owner or charterer o f such ship, for the purposes in the said recited act pro­
vided, and shall be o f a quality to be approved o f by the emigration officer at the port o f
VOL.

X V IX .-----N O .




IV .

27

418

Commercial Regulations.

clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, by the offi­
cer o f customs from whom a clearance shall be demanded ; and that in case of any default
herein, the owner, charterer, or master o f such ship shall be liable to the payment of a
penalty not exceeding fifty pounds.
THE CARRIAGE OF GUNPOWDER, ETC.

4. And be it enacted, that in any ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said reci­
ted act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passen­
ger to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, it shall not be lawful to put on
board or carry as cargo any gunpowder, vitriol, or green hides, and that no such ship
having on board as cargo any such articles as aforesaid shall be allowed to clear out or
proceed on her voyage.
PROPER LIGHT AND VENTILATION.

5. And be it enacted, that for the purpose o f insuring a proper supply o f light and air in
every ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said recited act mentioned a greater
number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passenger to every 25 tons o f the re­
gistered tonnage o f such ship, the passengers shall, at all times during the voyage, (weather
permitting,) have free access to and from the between-decks by each hatchway situate
over the space appropriated to the use o f such passengers: provided, always, that if the
main hatchway be not one o f the hatchways appropriated to the use o f the passengers, or
if the natural supply o f light and air through the same be in any manner unduly impeded,
it shall be lawful for the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or,
where there is no such officer, or in his absence, the chief officer o f customs at the port
from which a clearance shall be demanded, to direct such other provision to be made for
iffording light and air to the between-decks as the circumstances o f the case may, in the
judgment o f such officer, appear to require, which directions shall be duly carried out to
liis satisfaction; and in case o f any default herein, the master o f the said ship shall be lia­
ble to the payment o f a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds sterling.
SHIPS TO BE SURVEYED, AND NOT TO BE CLEARED UNLESS SEAWORTHY.

6. And be it enacted, that the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assist­
ant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, the officer o f customs from whom
a clearance shall be demanded, shall in all cases require any ship fitted or about to carry
passengers on any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned to be surveyed, at
the expense o f the owner or charterer thereof, by two or more competent surveyors, to be
duly authorized and approved of, either by the Commissioners o f Colonial Lands and Emi­
gration, or by the Commissioner o f Customs, as the case may be ; and if it shall be report­
ed by such surveyors that they have surveyed such ship, and that such ship is not in their
opinion seaworthy, so as to be fit in all respects for her intended voyage, such ship shall
not be cleared out until the same or two other surveyors appointed as aforesaid shall re­
port that such ship has been rendered seaworthy, and in all respects fit for her intended
voyage: provided, always, that the precautions for ascertaining the seaworthiness o f ships,
and their state o f repair and efficiency for their intended voyages respectively, shall in all
respects, and without distinction, be the same for foreign as for British ships.
SHIPS TO BE PROPERLY MANNED.

7. And be it enacted, that unless it shall be proved to the satisfaction o f the emigration
officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his
absence, the officer o f customs from whom a clearance shall be demanded, that such ship
as aforesaid is manned with a full complement o f men, such ship shall not be cleared out.
CERTIFICATE THAT ALL REQUIREMENTS HAVE BEEN COMPLIED WITH.

8. And be it enacted, that no ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said recited
act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passenger
to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, shall be allowed to clear out or
proceed on her voyage until the master thereof shall have obtained from the emigration
officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in
his absence, from the officer o f customs, from whom a clearance shall be demanded, a
certificate under his hand that all the requirements, as well of this act as the said recited
act, so far as the same can be complied with before the departure of said ship, have been
duly complied with.
SHIPS PUTTING IN TO REPLENISH PROVISIONS, ETC.

9. A nd be it enacted, that if any ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said re­
cited act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one pas­
senger to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, shall put to sea, and shall




Commercial Regulations.

419

afterwards put into or touch at any port or place in the United Kingdom, it shall not be
lawful for such ship to leave such port or place until there shall have been laden on board,
as herein before is mentioned, such further supply o f pure water, wholesome provisions, of
the requisite kinds and qualities, and medical stores, as may be necessary to make up the
full quantities o f those articles required by the herein before recited act, or this act, for the
use o f the passengers during the whole o f the intended voyage, nor until the master of the
said ship shall have obtained from the emigration officer, or his assistant, or, where there
is no such officer, or in his absence, from the officer o f customs, as the case may be, at
such port or place, a certificate to the same effect as the certificate herein before required
to enable the ship to be cleared out; and in case o f any default herein, the master o f the
said ship shall be liable to the payment o f a penalty not exceeding one hundred pounds
sterling.
IN CASE SHIP IS WRECKED, ETC., A PASSAGE TO BE PROVIDED B Y SOME OTHER VESSEL.

10. And be it enacted, that in case any ship carrying passengers on any such voyage
as in the said recited act is mentioned, shall be wrecked or otherwise destroyed, and shall
thereby or by any other cause whatsoever be prevented from landing her passengers at the
place they may have respectively contracted to land, or in case such ship shall put into
any port or place in a damaged state, and shall not within a reasonable time be ready to
proceed with her passengers on her intended voyage, after having been first efficiently re­
paired, and in all respects put into a sound and seaworthy condition, then, and in any o f
such cases, such passengers respectively shall be provided with a passage by some other
equally eligible vessel to the port or place at which they respectively may have originally
contracted to land; and in default thereof within a reasonable time, such passengers re­
spectively, or any emigration officer in their behalf, shall be entitled to recover, by sum­
mary process, before any two or more justices o f the peace, in like manner as in the said
recited act is provided in the cases o f moneys thereby made recoverable, all moneys which
shall have been paid by or on account o f such passengers, or any of them, for such pas­
sage, from the party to whom the same may have been paid, or from the owner, charterer,
or master o f such ship, and also such further sum, not exceeding five pounds, in respect o f
each such passage, as shall in the opinion o f the justices who shall adjudicate on the com­
plaint, be a reasonable compensation for any loss or inconvenience occasioned to any such
passenger, or his or her family, by reason o f the loss o f such passage.
HOW CHILDREN ARE TO BE COMPUTED.

11. And in order to remove doubts which have arisen in the construction o f the said
recited act, Be it enacted, that, for the purpose o f determining the number o f persons
which according to the said act can be carried in any ship in proportion to the registered
tonnage thereof two children under the age o f fourteen years shall be computed as one
person, and that children under one year shall not be included in such computation: pro­
vided, always, that if any ship shall carry upon any such voyage as in the said recited act
is mentioned a greater number o f persons, computed as aforesaid, in proportion to the regis­
tered tonnage thereof, than in the proportion in the said recited act mentioned, the master
o f such ship shall, for and in respect o f every person constituting such excess, be liable to
the payment o f a penalty not exceeding five pounds sterling.
RECOVERY OF PENALTIES.

12. And be it enacted, that all penalties imposed by this act shall be sued for and re­
covered by such persons only, and in such and the same manner, as in the said recited act
is provided in the case o f the penalties thereby imposed.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT FOR PASSAGE MONEY.

13. A nd whereas, in many cases, persons having received under the requirements o f the
said recited act contract tickets or written acknowledgments for money in respect o f pas­
sengers to North America have afterwards been induced to part with the same, whereby
they have been deprived o f the means o f enforcing their rights under such contract tickets:
Be it enacted, that any owner, charterer, or master o f a ship, or any passage broker or
other person, who shall induce any person to part with, render useless, or destroy any such
contract ticket or acknowledgment for passage money as aforesaid during the continuance
o f the contract which it is intended to be evidence, shall be liable in each case to a penalty
not exceeding five pounds.
EMIGRATION OFFICERS.

14. And be it enacted, that the officers known as government emigration agents may
henceforward be styled “ Emigration O f f i c e r s a n d that all powers, functions, and privi­
leges vested in such government emigration agents by the said recited act, or by any other
act, shall vest in and be exercised by the “ emigration officers ” for the time being, in like
manner as if they bore the designation o f government emigration agents.




420

Commercial Regulations.
DEFINITION OF TEEMS.

15. And be it enacted, that whenever the term “ passenger ” or “ passage ” is used in
this act, it shall be held not to include or extend to the class o f passengers or passages
commonly known and understood by the name o f “ cabin passengers ” and “ cabin pas­
sages
and that the term “ ship ” shall include and mean every description o f vessel,
whether British or foreign, carrying passengers upon any voyage to which the provisions
o f the said herein before recited Passengers’ Act, or this act, shall for the time being extend.
16. And be it enacted, that this act may be amended or repealed during the present
session o f Parliament
COLLISION O F VESSELS.
This has always been a fruitful subject o f discussion, as to the rules which ought to
obtain, in deciding where the loss should fall. It was formerly, more than at present, a
matter o f frequent litigation, and gave rise to some very interesting opinions of the Adm i­
ralty and common law courts.
These opinions, running through a long series o f years,
and founded on a variety o f circumstances, have at length become pretty well established,
and from their applicability to almost every case which arises, prevent legal disputes.
These rules, founded, as it will be seen, on good sense, are chiefly as follows
W here a collision arises from physical causes, beyond the control o f the party inflicting
the injury, and without fault in any one, the party injured must bear his own loss, with­
out contribution or apportionment.
Vessels in motion, meeting each'other, should observe the following particulars:
T he vessel sailing with a free wind must get out o f the way o f one sailing closehauled.
The vessel on the starboard tack has the right to keep her wind, and the one on the
larboard tack must bear up or heave about at her peril.
T he vessel to windward is to keep away when both vessels are on the same course in
a narrow channel, and when there is danger o f getting foul.
A steamer must, as a general rule, give way to a vessel with sails; she is considered
as always having a free wind, and will be required to manage accordingly.
A vessel entering a crowded harbor must, at her peril, keep a proper check on her way,
in coming to anchor.
W e have been led to write out these simple directions, because the liability and duty o f
a vessel meeting another, are frequent matters o f inquiry.
Not long since, a vessel dropping down the Penobscot in the night, with the tide, (as is
usual in that river,) came into collision with another vessel, anchored in shore, (as also is
usual,) and it was disputed whether the vessel inflicting the injury should pay the loss.
It was finally considered that the vessel dropping down ought to be governed by the same
rule as a vessel entering p ort; and if, by not checking or directing his way, the master o f
the vessel in question came in collision with the vessel at anchor, then his vessel should
be liable for the damages.
This matter was not the subject o f judicial adjudication, but
the parties acquiesced in the application o f the above principle to their case, and settled
it accordingly.— Newburyport Herald.

A N E W G E R M A N F R E E P O R T.
Late advices from Germany communicate a fact o f some interest to.the mercantile world.
It announces to the mercantile and shipping interests the important fact o f the rights and
privileges o f a free port having been accorded to a district on the Weser, where the small
stream, the Geeste, runs into the liver. This place is very near Bremen Haven, where all
vessels o f heavy burthen bound to Bremen are obliged to bring up. The Hanoverian gov­
ernment is deepening the water at, and in the approaches to, Harbourg, it is believed, with
the intention o f making Harbourg also a free port.

B R E A D S T U F F S A D M IT T E D IN T O D E N M A R K F R EE .
The king o f Denmark has issued an ordonnance declaring that, during the excessive
dearness o f the first necessaries o f life, and in deference to the wishes o f the State, the
territories o f which are washed by the Elbe, articles o f grain, roots, potatoes, flour, meal,
and other alimentary products o f the mill, ascending the Elbe, whatever may be the des­
tination, shall be free o f the customs duties to which such articles have been subject in
passing before Lauenburg, until the end o f September, 1847.




421

Nautical Intelligence.

NAUTICAL

INTELLIGENCE.

LIGH T-H OU SE O N H A R T L E P O O L HEUGH.
commissioners o f the pier and port o f Hartlepool hereby give notice that, acting
onder the sanction o f the corporation o f Trinity House, London, they have erected, in
connection with the purposes o f the said pier, and for the general advantage o f the port,
a light-house on the Heugh, or Headland, at Hartlepool, in the county o f Durham, from
which a fixed white light will be exhibited on the evening o f the 1st October, 1847, and
continued every night from sunset to sunrise.
T he light will bear by compass from Souter Point, on the coast o f Durham, S. 4 W .,
distance 17 sea miles, and from Staith’s Old Nab, on the Yorkshire coast, N . W . by N „
distant 16J sea miles; and will be seen at any place along the coast within these points,
and seaward, during clear weather, at a distance o f 15 m iles; the light being o f the first
©rder, and at an elevation o f 84 feet above the level o f high water spring tides.
There will also be exhibited from the same tower, at night, (underneath the principal
light,) from half-flood to half-ebb, a Tidal light, o f a red color; and during the day, at
half-flood, a red ball will be hoisted to the top o f a mast, on the tower, where it will re­
main until half-ebb.
The light will be free o f any charge whatever to the trade.
The stationary light on the pier-head o f the old harbor will be shown as heretofore ; but
the tide light, in connection therewith, will, after the 30th o f September next, be discon­
tinued.
T he fixed green light, which, under the like sanction, has been shown on each pier o f
the W est harbor, from sunset to sunrise, and also the two red lights which have been ex­
hibited in one, bearing N. W ., as leading tide lights into the W est harbor, will be con­
tinued as beforeLaL 54° 41' 51 " N . Lon. 1° 10' 19" o f Greenwich.
T

he

L IG H T -H O U S E ON PO VER ROCK, N E A R IS T R IA .
D epartment

of

S tate , July, 1847.

Information has been received from the Austrian government, that a new light-house
has been erected on the Pover Rock, near the Punta di Fromontore, in Istria, consisting
o f a fixed light on a stone tower, at the height o f 85 feet above the rock, and 107 feet
above the level o f the se a ; visible in clear weather, at the distance-of sixteen miles, from
the deck o f a vessel.
The Pover Rock presents a large surface, and is situated near the S. W . extremity o f
the province o f Istria, on the Western side o f the Adriatic Sea, in lat. 44° 46' N., and
ion. 13° 53' 23 " E. o f the meridian o f Greenwich.
P L Y M O U T H SOUND.
The beacon upon the East end o f the breakwater, and the red and white beacon upon
Plymouth Hoe, presenting more distinct objects than those which have been heretofore
nsed as the leading marks for the Eastern channel into the sound, notice is hereby given,
That, on the 31st December next, the sea marks on the citadel wall will be obliterated, and
the following used as the leading mark up to the breakwater, viz.:—
The beacon on the East end o f Plymouth Breakwater on with the red and white bea­
con upon Plymouth Hoe.
M O O T A P IL L Y SHOAL.
Lieutenant Fell, o f the Indian navy, employed in surveying part o f the Coromandel
coast, has discovered an error in the position assigned, in Horsburg’s Directory, 5th edi­
tion, Vol. I., p. 99, to the shoalest part o f the Mootapilly Bank, on which there is 2J fa­
thoms. This shoal patch is therein stated to be in lat. 15° 25' J N., and only five miles dis­
tant from the shore ; whereas, according to Lieutenant Fell, it is ten miles off the coast,
and in lat. 15° 23' 15" N. The difference so pointed out, may be of importance to ships of
considerable draught approaching the position o f the shoal patch described.




422

Nautical Intelligence.
W IN T E R BEACON S IN T H E LA PP E G R U N D .

From the beginning of next winter, the Lappegrund, Northward o f Kronborg Point,
will be marked with the following winter beacons, when the present summer beacons are
removed in consequence o f ice, viz.:—
1. O n the N orth E nd, F rontins L appegrdnden.— A beacon, with red staff and a red
balloon, instead o f the present red painted buoy, with iron rod, and a red balloon.
2. On the M iddle of the E ast S ide of L appegrdnden.— A beacon, with red staffi,and
two brooms, instead o f the present black buoy.
3. F ronting the S outheast E nd op L appegrunden.— A beacon, with red staff, and a
broom, instead o f the present beacon, with black staff and a broom.
4 C lose .to the W est S ide of the B lock -H odse.— A beacon, with striped staffs and
broom, like the one now in use.
F IX E D SIN G LE L IG H T A T C A LIC U T .
Notice is hereby given, that a fixed single light will be exhibited at Calicut, from the
15th instant, on a column o f masonry, 105 feet above the level o f the sea.
The column, which is white, may be seen from the deck o f a ship, at a distance o f about
14 or 15 miles during the day time, and the light, which is a small one, may be distin­
guished at a distance o f about 9 o f 10 miles during the night.
The Calicut shoal bears from the light-house N. N. E., distance about 1 } miles.
T he best anchorage for shipping is in 5 fathoms; with the light-house bearing from E.
to E. N. E.
There is 3$ fathoms near the Western edge o f the Calicut shoal, but vessels passing the
port, either by day or night, should not come under 5 fathoms; this depth will carry them
well clear o f the shoal.
The light will not be exhibited from the 20th May to the 10th August o f each year.

L IG H T-H O U SE A T T H E P O R T O F C O R U N N A .
Notice has been received at the Department o f State, (Washington, August 30th,) from
the Spanish government, through its Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington, that the
light-house at the port o f Corunna has been furnished with a new revolving light o f the
third order, placed on the old tower, called the “ Tower o f Hercules,” one mile distant
from the town, in latitude 43° 22.', and longitude o f 2 ° 14' E. o f Cadiz, corresponding
with 4° 3' W . o f Greenwich. T he light is placed 363 feet above the sea at high tide. It
shows one light nearly constant, visible 12 miles in clear weather, accompanied by bright
flashes, visible 20 miles. The lights appear in the following order: a weak fixed light for
107 seconds, eclipse for 30 seconds; very bright light for 13 seconds, eclipse for 30 sec­
onds ; and so on continuously, the whole o f the changes being completed in three minutes.

P U E R T O R IC O — N E W L IG H T A T S A N JU A N .
The new light has been exhibited at the entrance o f the harbor o f San Juan, in lat.
18° 29' N., Ion. 66° 7' W . o f Greenwich, at the height o f 187-feet above the level o f the
sea. It revolves in eight seconds, and may be seen twenty miles.

M ISSISSIPPI R IV E R .
T he Mississippi River takes its rise in latitude 48° north, and discharges its waters
into the Gulf o f Mexico in latitude 29° 5'. It flows through a channel 3,300 miles lon g ;
its course is south, nearly 14° east; its width averages about half a mile. Its width does
not increase with the volume o f water, but is about the same at Galena, 1,600 miles above
the mouth, as at New Orleans, where the volume is six times as great. It is 645 yards
wide at Vidalia, Louisiana. It drains an area o f 300,000 square miles. Its mean velocity
at the surface, for the year, opposite Vidalia, is 1.88 miles per hour. (Opposite St. Louis,
its velocity is about three miles per hour.) Its mean depth, per annum, across the entire
channel, at the same place, (Vidalia,) is about 60 feet. The mean velocity is reduced
about 15 per cent by friction against the bottom. The total amount o f water discharged,per annum, in.cubic feet, is 8,902,118,940,000.— [P ro f. Forshey.




423

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
R A I L W A Y M O V E M E N T ON T H E C O N T IN E N T .
W e publish, below, an interesting communication from C. E dwards L ester , Esq., the
United States Consul at Genoa, relating to the great railway movement on the Continent
o f Europe— a subject o f almost universal interest at the present time. The information
conveyed in the accompanying paper will be read with pleasure by the thousands o f our
citizens who annually visit the continent; and we may, we trust, be pardoned the seem­
ing vanity o f annexing the letter o f Mr. Lester enclosing the particulars o f the progress o f
this great movement abroad, as it contains an important fa d touching the best method of
sending letters and papers to Italy, etc.*
G enoa, 9th August, 1847.
M r. H unt — D ear S i r : I am again in the regular receipt o f your invaluable Magazine,

which I have so long depended on, that I cannot now dispense with it.

I have sent the

last complete set o f it, winch I brought with me from America, to Naples, for the service
o f that government, and I have applications for the numbers, as fast as they arrive, from
all quarters. It is now regarded throughout Europe as our best authority. M any o f its
articles are now translated for the principal Italian journals. By this steamer, and the
last which preceded, you will have received files o f the Corriere M ercantile, o f Genoa,
with a request from the editor to exchange. T he Corriere is one o f the best commercial
journals in Italy. I hope you will exchange, and forward the Magazine to the editor, a3
you send mine— via the Havre steamer.!
G erman

and

T he accompanying article on the “ G reat

I talia n J unction R a il w a y ,” is compiled from authorities on which the ut­

most reliance can be placed; and probably you will not be able readily to lay your hand
on the same materials without waiting a considerable time.
Truly, your friend and servant,
C. E dwards L ester.
G R E A T G ERM A N A N D IT A L IA N JU NCTIO N R A I L W A Y ,
(A NEW, AND THE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM ENGLAND TO ITALY AND INDIA,) FROM LAKE CON­
STANCE TO THE LAGO MAGGIORE, W ITH A BRANCH FROM SARGAUS TO WALLENSTADT.

Main Line, 143 miles— Branch, 7 miles. Capital, 75,000,000 francs, (£3,000,000)— in
150,000 shares, o f 500 francs (£ 2 0 ) each— deposit, 50 francs (£ 2 ) per share ; with a
guarantee o f interest from the governments o f Sardinia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and
Baden.
The proposed railway is, perhaps, the most important that has ever claimed the sup­
port o f European capitalists; for, while conferring unequalled advantages, from its geo­
graphical position— political as well as commercial— upon Great Britain, Northern and
Central Europe, and Italy, it is at the same time calculated to afford to its proprietors a
remuneration unsurpassed by (if not exceeding) that yielded by the most successftil under­
takings now in operation.
It will traverse the three cantons o f St. Gall, the Grisons, and C icin o; commencing at
Rorschach, on Lake Constance, it will ascend the Rhine, by Rheineck, Sargaus, Reiehnaud, as far as Dissentis; whence, entering the Val Cristallina, and crossing the Alps by
a tunnel, 3J miles in length, it will descend by the Val Bleguo to Qlivone, Biasca, and
along the Cicino to Bellinzona and Locarno, on the Lago Maggiore, where it will termi­
* W e hope Mr. Lester receives letters from this country for less than the cost (.$2 50)
ofthe present communication, covering less than three sheets o f thin letter-paper. For a
former communication, from the same source, we paid $ 4 50.
t The French steamer, I mean. Do not send anything by the American steamers, the
postage is too dear— say three times that o f the French.




424

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

nate. From Sargaus, a branch will be carried to Wallenstadt, which will command the
traffic from Glarif, Zurich, and other places.
It will form the indispensable connecting link between the great lines o f Germany,
which, from the ports o f the Baltic and the German Ocean, advancing southward, con­
verge to the Lake o f Constance; and those o f Italy, which, from the ports of the Mediter­
ranean and Adriatic, advancing northward, converge to the Lago Maggiore.
The German railways branching o ff from Lake Constance, may be enumerated as
follows:—
1. T he B aden R a il w a y (authorized) from Constance to Radolfzell, Engen, Doneschingen, Willingen, and the Valley o f the Kinsig, to Offenburg, where it joins the Great
Baden Railway, (now open,) which, on the one hand, proceeds to Manheim and Frank­
fort, and, on the other, to the great French line from Strasburg to Paris. From Frank­
fort, various lines, all authorized, and most o f them in active construction, will lead to
Cassel, Hanover, and Hamburg, as, also, to the great lines o f Belgium and Holland.
2 . T he W urtemburg R a il w a y (in active construction) from Friedricshafen, by R avensburg, Biberach, Ulm, Geisstingen, and along the Neckar to Stutgard and Louisburg;
with branches, on the one hand, to Heilbroun, (the starting-point o f the steamboats upon
the N eckar;) and on the other, to Bruchsal, there joining the Great Baden Railway,
above mentioned.
3. T he B avarian R a il w a y (in active construction) from Lindau, by Kempten and
Kaufbeuren, to Augsburg. A t Augsburg, one line (now open) proceeds to Munich, where
an extension will be made to meet the line projected from Salzburg to Lintz, the Danube,
and V ienn a; another proceeds to Donauworth, Nordlingen, Nuremberg, Erlangen, and
Bamberg. From Bamberg, lines lead, in one direction, to Cobourg and Cassel, Hanover,
Hamburg, and Bremen ; in another, to Hof, Altenburg, and Leipsic ; whence various lines
(now open) diverge to Dresden, Magdeburg, Brunswick, Hanover, and Berlin, as, also, to
Stettin and other ports on the Baltic.
4. T he S wiss R a il w a y s from Romaushom to Zurich, (lately authorized,) and that (in
course o f construction) from Zurich to Bale.
T he Italian railways branching o ff from the Lago Maggiore, may be stated as follows:—
1. T he S ardinian R a il w a y (in active construction) from Arona, b y Novaro and Ales­
sandria, to Genoa. From Alessandria, one line (also in active construction) is carried to
Turin, whence it will be extended through Upper Piedmont and N ice, to connect with the
railways o f the South o f F rance; and another is projected to Piacenza, there to join those
o f Lombardy, Tuscany, and Romagna.
2. T he R a il w a y (lately authorized) from Bellinzona to Lugano and Chiapo, on the
frontiers o f Lombardy, destined to join, at Como, the railway to Milan. From Milan,
the line to Verona, Vicenza, and Venice, is nearly executed; and another is projected
to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and Bologna, where it will join the lines (lately authori­
zed by the Pope) from Bologna, Ancona, Rome, and Ceprano, on the confines o f the
Kingdom o f Naples. From Ceprano, a line is intended to be made to Capua, there join­
ing the railway now open to Naples. From Naples, a line to Barletta has been authori­
zed, and an extension is contemplated from the free port o f Brindisi, on the southeastern
extremity o f that kingdom.
W hile connecting the German with the Italian States, the proposed railway will furnish
the 28,000,000 population o f the Zollverein with a safe and expeditious outlet to the
Mediterranean, which is absolutely necessary for their commercial prosperity. It will
likewise form part o f the great channel o f communication between England, Alexandria,
and India ; for, as soon as continuous lines are established from Genoa to Ostend, and
from Marseilles to Boulogne, the journey from Alexandria to London, via Genoa, will be
shorter than that via Marseilles, as the following table will sh ow :—
Miles.

Hours.

Alexandria to Marseilles................................................................................
Marseilles (by Paris) to Boulogne........................
Boulogne to L ondon.................... '.........................................

1,450
750
110

161
25
5

Total.........................................................................................................

2,310

191

Alexandria to Genoa...............................................................................
Genoa to Ostend, via Arona, Constance, Offenburg, Manheim, Treves,
Luxemburg, and Brussels......... .................................................................
Ostend to L ondon.........................................................

1,330

148

808
152

29
8

Total..........................................................................................................

2,290

185

Being a saving in distance o f 20 m iles; time, 6 hours.




425

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

This calculation is based on the supposition that, in both cases, the journey will be per­
formed at the rate o f 9 miles an hour by sea, and 30 by land ; and that the steamer to and
from Marseilles will always be able to take the shortest course, which is through the straits
o f Bonifazio ; but these are often impracticable, especially in winter— and when so, the
voyage becomes several hours longer.
W hen the railways authorized and projected from the North o f Italy to Ancona, or
Brindisi, are completed, this saving in time will be still greater. For instance:—
Miles.

Hoars.

Alexandria to London, via Marseilles, (as above).................... . .............

2,310

191

A ncona to Bellinzona, Ostend, and London.......... ....................................

1,140

126
42

..............

2,270

168

Brindisi to Genoa, Ostend and London....................................... ..............

1,660

93
60

Total.........................................................................................................

2,490

153

Being an average, as compared with the route via Marseilles, o f 23 hours by Ancona, and
3 8 hours by Brindisi.
Thus, in the journey to and from Alexandria, there will be a difference, in the one case,
o f two, and in the other, o f three days, which must ultimately cause the route via Mar­
seilles to be superseded ; and as the line through the Tyrol, even if possible, would be too
circuitous and expensive, owing to the various chains o f mountains it would have to cross,
it is evident that the intercourse between Great Britain and her possessions in the East
will be maintained by means o f the present undertaking.
N o comparison has been made between the route via Genoa and that via Trieste, as it is
deemed unnecessary. Trieste cannot even contend with Marseilles; for, though it is nearer
Alexandria than either Marseilles or Genoa, it has no advantage over them in point o f
tim e, owing to the proverbial difficulty and uncertainty o f the navigation o f the Adriatic.
A s to the remainder o f the journey to be performed by land, the route from Trieste to
London is far longer than from Marseilles or Genoa, and it lies across a mountainous
country, wholly unfit for direct railway communication.
The proposed railway has, moreover, another merit, which should not be disregarded—
that o f establishing a new route to India, upon neutral ground, independent alike o f
France as o f Austria. (I f I had time, I would extend this article ; but what I should say
will immediately suggest itself to those readers o f the Merchants’ Magazine who are fa­
miliar with the political relations o f Europe.)
The provincial committee, formed at Turin, under the most favorable circumstances,
have had the whole country between the Lake o f Constance and the Lago Maggiore care­
fully surveyed, by engineers o f the greatest eminence, and have likewise obtained the ne­
cessary grants from the governments o f three Swiss cantons, through which the projected
railway passes.
The line selected is indisputedly the most practicable and the most desirable that can
be planned for the passage o f the Alps, and its great advantages have been fully recog­
nized by engineers appointed by the governments o f Sardinia and Bavaria to report upon
the subject, previous to conceding their powerful support.
The valleys o f the Rhine, Bleguo, and Cicino, along which it passes, are placed by na.
ture so favorably that they form the shortest possible route from the Lake of Constance to
the Lago Maggiore, and are only separated by one ridge, unusually easy of access.
The grants obtained from the three cantons contain various conditions, singularly favor­
able to the undertaking, among which may be noted:—
1. The exclusive grant for 75 years.
2. Successive renewal o f the grant, or the purchase by the government o f the railway, at
a valuation.
3. Exemption o f the railway from all impost and taxes.
4. Exemption o f imported materials required for the railway from all impost and taxes.
5. Full power to fix the price o f transport o f passengers and goods, so long as the divi­
dend does not exceed 12 per cent.
6. Unrestricted management o f the line, and appointment o f the company’s officers.
7. Compulsory power to take lands required for the railway.
8. Settlement by arbitration o f all disputes between the company and the conceding
governments.




4-26

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics,

Although the above conditions, and the intrinsic merit o f the line, are alone sufficient
to warrant the assertion that the proposed railway will yield most ample remuneration for
the capital invested, still the governments o f Sardinia, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and Baden,
wishing to promote the execution o f the present enterprise, have resolved to guarantee,
within certain limits, 3J per cent interest upon the capital o f the company.
The active support thus given by these several governments to a line which, in its whole
length, traverses a country not their own, and entirely independent, is sufficient to show
the vast importance attached to it upon the continent.
The proposed undertaking, however, can scarcely prove less advantageous to England
than to the continent; and the provincial committee, notwithstanding the present mone­
tary depression, hope to obtain the co-operation o f British capitalists in the formation o f a
powerful and bona fide company to carry it out.
I f I had time, I would show the vast advantages that would accrue to our own com­
merce by this gigantic undertaking. In a word, it will open all Central Europe to our
American ports. From time to time, I may note (in other articles) the bearings and pro­
gress o f this enterprise.
c. e . l .
S T A T IS T IC S OF T H E S O U T H C A R O L IN A R A IL R O A D S IN 1846.
T he following is a statement o f the number o f passengers conveyed upon the Railroad
between Charleston, Hamburg, and Columbia, with the amount received for freight
and passage, from 1st January to 31st December, 1846:—
PASSAGE.

Pass’rs. Amount.
2,012 $6,391 27
6,159 43
1,684
7,226 18
2,008
8,786 36
7,753
1,973
6,359 36
1,673
4,979 05
1,555
4,752 85
1,505
4,232 23
1,421
4,205 77
2,399
8,192 77
2,285
8,605 24
3,687 11,215 15

Up 1and down.
Pass’rs.
Amount.
4,349 $13,859 03
3,706
13,303 79
4,584
16,309 80
15,667
19,153 78
4,597
14,919 83
11,462 87
3,855
3,421
20,094 08
9,147 34
3,269
11,788 46
3,624
5,092
17,684 65
18,412 04
5,033
6,839
21,308 53

T otal,......................... 34,181 $96,348 54 29,955 i$81,095 66

64,136 $177,444 20

Months.

January,...............
February,............ .........
M arch,................ ..........
April,....................
M ay,.................... .........
June,....................
Ju ly,.................... .........
August,................ .........
September,.......... .........
O ctober,..............
November,..........
D ecem ber,.......... .........

Pass’ rs.
2,022
2,576
2,624
1,866
1,764
2,203

3,153

Up.
Amount.

$7,467
7,144
9,083
10,377
8,560
6,483
5,341
5,915
7,582
9,491
9,806
10,093

D own.

76
36
62
42
47
82
23
11
69
88
80
38

FREIGHT.

Months.
January..................
February,...............
March,...................
April,..................... .......
M ay,.......................
June,....................... .......
July,.......................
August,................. ........
September,............ ........
O ctober,................ ........
November,.............
December,............. .......
Total,.................. ......

Up.
Amount.

18,204 41
7,241 91
9,520 29
20,916 28
26,948 31
12,999 42
$172,290 96

D own.
Amount.

$9,389
9,168
10,192
8,469
9,110
5,531
7,166
5,704
10,647
33,951
39,796
30,174

65
01
33
68
01
38
75
57
32
15
14
97

$179,398 96

U p and down.
Amount.

$18,876
19,724
30,608
26,674
22,018
12,773
14,283
15,224
31,563
60,899
55,868
43,174

14
29
26
09
50
29
13
86
60
46
91
39

$351,689 92

Total Amount.
Fr’ t <£* passage.

$32,735
33,029
46,918
45,827
36,938
24,236
24,377
24,372
43,352
78,584
74,280
64,482

17
03
06
87
33
16
21

20
06
11
95
92

$529,134 12

Received for freight and passage, as above,.....................................................
“
for through tickets sold by Georgia Railroad Co., the past year,

$529,134 12
12,200 67

Total freight and passage,....................................................................................
Received for transportation o f the mails for the past year,..........................
“
for rents, storage, and other minor sources,.....................................

$541,334 79
39,746 76
7,999 97

Total receipts for the year,..................................................................................

$589,081 52




427

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.,

STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF BALES OF COTTON RECEIVED IN CHARLESTON, B Y THE RAILROAD,
FROM JANUARY 1 TO DECEMBER 3 1 , 1 8 4 6 .

Months.

January,.
February,...............
March,...................
April,.....................
M ay,.......................
June,.......................
Ju ly,.......................
August,..................
September,...........
October,.................
Novem ber,...........
December,.............
T ota l,................

Hamburg.
4 ,3 1 4

Aiken.

4,478
5,202
3,106
6,849
3,650
6,365
4,649
7,229
14,117
18,901
15,998

31
11
34
15
00
33
00
00
50
88
7

540
177
345
53
1
54
3
15
348
688
444

242
58
185
91
44
00
2
8
227
332
208

21
63
23
78
00
17
00
56
91
95
100

83
47
161
46
00
5
8
7
135
920
135

5,395
5,558
3,854
7,132
3,695
6,474
4,662
7,315
14,968
21,024
16,892

346

2,949

1,679

557

1,744

102,133

94,858

B l'kvilie. M idway. Br’chvilie. W a y H. R . T ot. H. R.
281
282
13
197
5 ,1 6 4

77

TABLE — CONTINUED.

Months.

Columbia. 'Gadsden. L ew isville. Or’ ngeb’g. W a y C. B. Total C. B.

January,.............
February, ...........
M arch,.................
April....................
M ay,....................
June,....................
July,.....................
August,................
September...........
October,..............
November,..........
December,..........

3,271
3,829
5,399
2,820
4,034
2,636
2,205
1,537
3,772
14,902
15,112
9,641

950
282
339
90
371
154
9
36
190
1,241
963
386

226
220
147
662
275
40
145
00
00
564
731
319

149
101
80
205
65
00
00
00
00
174
237
79

404
860
68
219
131
108
258
12
138
1,023

Total, .........

70,158

5,011

3,329

1,090

G. Total.

853

5,000
5,292
6,033
4,996
4,876
2,938
2,617
1,585
4,100
17,904
17,519
11,278

10,164
10,687
11,591
8,850
12,003
6,633
9,091
6,247
11,415
32,872
38,543
28,170

4,550

84,138

186,271

476

STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF PACKAGES AND PIECES FORWARDED ON THE RAILROAD, (U P ,)
FROM 1S T JANUARY TO 3 1 S T DECEMBER, 1 8 4 6 .

January,.................
February,...............
March,....................
April,......................
M ay, .......................
June,..................... ........................
July.......................... ............
A ugust,..................
September,............
October,.................. .........................
November,..............
Decem ber,.............

2,776 pieces and packages
<i
It
2,536
(f
ff
5,788
tf
ft
3,828
it
it
2,646
ff
it
1,827
it
ti
885
If
it
3,113
it
ff
8,617
17,748
it
it
6,352
it
ft
4,787

(1

T otal,..............

it

from 29 Vessels.
it
“
24
ft
“
30
ft
“
25
it
“
34
“
“
34

“

22

ft

“
“

27
28

ft

“

55

ft

“
“

31
41

“

380

it

tf
if

tf

STATEMENT OF ARTICLES RECEIVED B Y THE RAILROAD, AND FORWARDED TO OTHER PLACES, IN
THE YEAR ENDING 3 1 s T DECEMBER, 1 8 4 6 .

tt
W aste,....................................
it
Y a rn ,.....................................
ff
Dom estics,............................
ft
W o o l,....................................
ft
Fur skins...............................
ft
Rags,.....................................
ff
Pink root, ginseng, &c., ....
Feathers, roots and w ax,.... __hags

Total,........




6,822

22

31

W ax and merchandise,.... ............. bbls. 34
W a x ,...................................
1
W ax and merchandise,,...
6
Merchandise,......................
114
ff
Indigo,.................................
7
Merchandise,......................
24
Bellows,...............................
10
Trunks................................
7

619
35

6
4
3

22
1,353

9,120

428

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.
N E W Y O R K C A N A L R EVEN U E.

By a statement submitted to the N ew Y ork Legislature, September 20th, 1847, from
the Commissioners o f the Canal Fund, it appears that the amount of revenue from canal
tolls, including the sum of §38,946 49 paid by the Railroads, for the fiscal year com ­
mencing on Sept. 1, 1846, and ending Aug. 31, 1847, is.............................$3,459,404 82
Rents o f surplus water.........................................................................................
1,500 00
Interest on current deposits ir, banks,..............................................................
10,000 00

Expenses o f collection, superintendence and ordinary repairs,......................

$3,470,904 82
600,000 00

$2,870,904 82
Deduct for sinking funds,............................................................... $1,650,000
Payment to the Treasury o f the State, under sec. 7, art. 3 ,.....
200,000
-------------- 1,850,000 00
Surplus,.......................................................................................................... $1,020,904 82
L E N G T H OF S T E A M B O A T N A V IG A T IO N ON T H E P R IN C IP A L RIV E RS.
Mississippi, from the Gulf o f M exico to St. Anthony’s Falls........................ miles
Missouri, from its mouth to the foot o f the Rapids..................................................
Red River, to head o f navigation.................................................................................
Ohio, to Pittsburgh.........................................................................................................
Arkansas, to mouths o f the Neosho and Verdigris..................................................
Tennessee, to Chattanooga............................................................................................
Wabash, to Lafayette...........................
Illinois, to Ottawa........................
Cumberland, to Nashville..............................................................................................
Osage................................................................................................................................

2,200
2,000
1,100
1,000
630
485
300
250
200
200

A steamboat, leaving Pittsburgh and going to N ew Orleans, and being there chartered
to go up the Missouri as high as the Rapids, and thence returning to Pittsburgh, will per­
form a r e g u l a r v o y a s e o f about 8,450 miles, a distance nearly equal to crossing the A t­
lantic three times.
SPAR K A R R E S T E R FO R R A IL W A Y S .
The Railroad Journal says:— “ The value o f this appendage to the locomotive has been
thoroughly tested, and found to surpass anything o f the kind, for that purpose, in use in
this country. A n evidence o f the estimation o f its value may be found in the fact, that
nearly four hundred o f them have been made within the past four years. W e saw six o f
them nearly completed, on a visit to the manufactory, a few days since, to fill an order for
the “ Cardenas Railroad,” in Cuba— another order was recently filled with nine o f them,
made o f copper, for the “ Havana and Guienas Railroad,” on the same island— and fifteen
others were sent to the different roads in Cuba last year. These spark arresters are also,
we understand, very generally used on the railroads in the Southern States, where cotton
is transported. They are, also, a certain preventive o f accidents by fire from sparks, as
well as great relief to passengers— and should be used on every locomotive in the country.
There has not been, we understand and believe, a single accident from fire, arising from
sparks from the locomotive, where this arrester has been used— while on some roads, fires,
causing great loss o f property, were not uncommon before the introduction o f the ‘ spark
arrester ’ o f French, Baird & Campbell, o f Philadelphia.”
C O S T OF R U N N IN G S T E A M B O A T S O N W E S T E R N R IV E RS.
The Oswego Times says the cost o f running a steamboat on the western rivers, is six
times greater than the cost incurred upon the lakes. For proof o f this, the Times ex­
hibits the following statements:—
“ T he capital invested in the vessels o f the Upper Lakes, is estimated at $6,000,000,
and the cost o f running them (exclusive o f insurance and interest on the capital) is stated
to be about one-third o f their value. T he capital invested in the steamboats o f the Valley
o f the Mississippi, is $16,188,561, and the cost o f running them (exclusive of insurance
and interest) is estimated at $32,700,000, or more than double their value.”




Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance,

429

JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY AND FINANCE.
G O LD A N D S IL V E R COINS : T H E IR V A L U E IN U N IT E D S T A T E S M O N E Y .
T h e following is the current value in Federal M oney o f those gold and silver coins in
most general circulation here, derived from J. Thompson’s Pictorial C hart:—
GOLD COINS.

Eagle, American,......................... $ 1 0
00
H alf Eagle, do.,.........................
5
00
Half Eagle, do., 1798 and 1 8 3 3 ,.. 5 25
2
50
Qr. Eagle, d o .,........................
Doubloon, Spanish,......... $ 1 5 60 a 16 75
H alf Doubloon, do.,.........
7 80 a 8 37
Qr.
do.
do.,.........
3 90 a 4 12
Eighth do.
do.............................
1 90
Doubloon, Colombian,.....
15 50 a 15 75
Eighth do.
do.,............................
I 87
15 50 a 15 75
Doubloon, Mexican,.........
Doubloon, N ew Granadian, 15 50 a 15 75
15 50 a 15 75
Doubloon, Equador,.........
HalfDoubloon,Central Am erica,...
7 75
Quarter Doubloon, Peruvian,..........' 3 87
H alf Joe, Portugal, (by w t ) ... 7 90 a 8 50
Moidore,
do.
d o ...... 4 70 a 6 40
Sovereign,
English, 1844,....
4 83
Sovereign, Dragon, do., 1824,....
4 80
H alf Sovereign,
do.,..................
2 41
Guinea,
do.,..................
5 00
H alf Guinea,
do.,..................
2 50

One-third Guinea, English,.......
One Mohur, East Indies,................
Double Louis D ’Or, France,............
Louis D ’ Or,
do.,........... ..
Forty Francs,
do.................
Tw enty Francs,
do.,..............
Hundred Livre, Sardinia,................
Twenty Livre,
do.,....................
T en Scudi, R om e,.............................
Twenty Livre, Italy,.........................
Quadruple Ducat, Austria,..............
Sovereign,
do......................
Five Roubles, Russia,.......................
Double Frederick D ’Or, Prussia,....
Double Christian D ’ Or, Denmark,.
T en Thalers, Hanover,....................
Five Thalers, do.,...........................
T w o and a half Thaler, Hanover,
T en Thalers, Saxony,.......................
T en Guilders, Netherlands.............
Five Guilders,
do.,....................
Ducat,
d o.....................

$ 1 66
6 75
9 00
4 50
7 66
3 83
19 15
3 83
10 00
3 83
8 80
6 50
3 90
7 80
7 80
7 80
3 90
1 95
7 80
4 00
2 00
2 20

S IL V E R COINS.

Dollar, American,................................$ 1 00 Scudi, Sicily,........................................$ 0
Halves and Quarters, in proportion.
Five Livre, Italy...............................
0
Dim e,..................................................... 0 10 T w o Livre, do.,.................................... 0
H alf D im e ,.......................................... 0 05 One Livre, do.,................................... 0
Dollar, Spanish, Mexican, and Pe­
Five Livre, Sardinia........................... 0
do.,............................... 0
ruvian................................................ 1 00 One Livre,
Halves, Quarters, Eighths and Six­
Florin, Westphalia,............................. 0
teenths, in proportion.
Florin,BrunswickandLunenburg,... 0
Dollar, Brazil,...................................... 1 00 Florin, Tuscany,................................. 0
Four Reals o f La Plata,..................... 0 35 Florin, Hanover,................................... 0
Head Pistareen,..................................
0 18 Double Thaler, Baden.......................
I
do.,......................... 1
Cross Pistareen,.................................. 0 16 Crown Thaler,
English Crown,...................................^ 1 15 Thaler o f Baden and Hanover,........ 0
English Half Crown,.......................... 0 57 Thaler o f Prussia,.........................
0
Bank Token, (three shillings Eng.)
0 50 Double Thaler, do.,............................. 1
Rupee, East India,.............................. 0 40 Imperial Thaler o f Austria,................ 0
British Colonial Quarter D ollar,....
0 23Rouble, Russia,................................... 0
English Shilling,................................. 0 23 Crown Dollar o f Bavaria,.................
1
English Sixpence,............................... 0 11 Double Guilder,
do........................ 0
English Fourpence,............................. 0 07 German Crown,..................................
1
English Threepence........................... 0 05 Crown Thaler, Hesse,......................... 1
Tenpence, Irish,.................................. 0 12 Guilder o f Nassau.............................. 0
French C row n .................................. 1 07 Third o f a T h aler,............................. 0
French Half Crown,........................... 0 50 Quarter Florin, Netherlands,...........
0
Five Francs, French,.......................... 0 93 Thirty-six Grotes, Bremen,................ 0
T w o Francs,
do.,............................
0 35 Six Grotes, Hanse T ow ns,................ 0
One Franc,
do.,............................
0 17 Specie Dollar, Norway,.....................
1
H alf Franc,
do.,............................
0 08 Specie Dollar, S w ed en ,..,................ 1
Quarter Franc, do.,.............................. 0 04 Specie R ix Dollar, D en m ark ,..,..... 1




93
93
35
17
93
17
48
48
20
50
32
04
66
66
32
97
65
04
72
04
04
36
20
08
30
04
04
04
04

430

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.
F R E E B A N K S OF T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K :
T H E IR CIRCULATION AND SECU R ITIES.

J. Thompson, exchange broker, has, with a vast deal o f labor and research, prepared
and published, in his “ Bank Note List Reporter,” o f September 9th, several valuable ta­
bles, showing the circulation o f each free bank in the State o f N ew Y ork, and also the
amount o f securities on deposit with the Comptroller for such circulation.
The public should bear in mind that no fr e e bank can issue a dollar o f circulation, ex­
cept it be secured, registered, and countersigned, in the Comptroller’s office ; thus guard­
ing the public (provided the securities are good) against loss.
Mr. Thompson has divided these banks into four classes. The first class are secured
wholly by N ew Y ork State stocks— making their notes safe under any event.
The second class are secured by bonds and mortgages, and N ew Y ork State stocks.
In case o f the failure o f this class, these notes would be worth from 90 to 100 cents on
the dollar.
The third class are secured in part by Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan stocks.
They are, at present, well managed and safe ; but should they fall into bad hands and fail,
there would be a loss o f from 10 to 40 per cent on their notes.
O f the fourth class, we are glad there are but few. The owners o f these should sub­
stitute good securities with the Comptroller for their foreign stocks, or wind up.
I . BANKS SECURED W H O LLY B Y NEW Y O R K S T A T E 8TOCK.

Amenia Bank....................................................................
Bank o f Commerce, in N ew Y ork..............................
Bank o f N ew Rochelle...................................................
Commercial Bank, Albany.............................................
Drovers’ Bank, Cataraugus county..................................
Exchange Bank, Buffalo...................................................
Merchants’ Bank, Chatauque c o u n t y .....................
Farmers’ and Mechanics’, Ogdensburgh.......................
Fulton Bank, in N ew Y o rk ...........................................
Hungcrford’s Bank...........................................................
Long Island Bank............................................................
Mechanics’ Banking Association...................................
Merchants’ Bank, Canandaigua.....................................
Merchants’ Bank, Erie county.......................................
Merchants’ Bank, Poughkeepsie....................................
Merchants’ and Farmers’ Bank, Putnam county.........
N ew Y ork State Stock Security Bank.......................
N ew Y ork Stock Bank, Durham...................................
North River Bank, N ew Y ork......................................
Oliver Lee & Co.’s Bank......................................
Prattsville Bank................................................................
Suffolk County Bank........................................................
Unadilla Bank....................................................................
Warren County Bank......................................................
W hite’s Bank, Buffalo......................................................
Franklin County Bank.....................................................
Chemical Bank..................................................................
CuylePs Bank....................................................................
Champlain Bank...............................................
Northern Bank o f N ew Y ork ..........................................
Bank o f Bainbridge.............................
Farmers’ Bank, Chatauque county.................................
State Bank at Saugerties...................................................
Atlas Bank o f N ew Y ork..........................................
Rochester Bank.................................................................
American Bank, Chatauque county..............................
Commercial Bank, Alleghany county...........................
Bank o f Saratoga Springs..............................................
Franklin Bank, Chatauque county.................................
Northern Exchange Bank................
Bowery Bank.....................................................................




Circulation.
$77,179
350,000
50,382
105,500
100,000
27,996
201,000
394,586
250,400
63,992
175,147
367,458
86,666
25,000
129,998
115,350
28,471
107,922
455,000
200,000
100,000
94,097
85,595
189,500
50,000
94,970
321,052
58,869
105,000
173,005
93,000
84,997
62,881
50,000
50,600
49,995
49,995
49,995
49,995
65,000
109,000

Deposit.
$78,082
350,000
50,382
170,000
100,000
28,000
204,000
394,677
256,141
64,000
175,153
369,750
86,666
25,000
130,000
115,600
31,800
108,159
455,099
200,000
100,000
95,215
85,600
189,540
50,000
94,970
325,106
59,870
105,000
173,005
93,000
85,000
62,883
50,000
50,604
50,000
50,000
50,000
50,000
65,000
110,000

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

431

II . BANKS SECURED B Y NEW Y O R K S T A T E STOCKS, AND BONDS AND MORTGAGES.
Bonds and
N ew Y o rk
Circulation.
Mortgages.
State Stock.
$
1
6
,1
0
0
$
1 0 4 ,9 5 2
$ 1 1 4 ,2 0 2
Ballston Spa Bank...................................
5 0 ,0 0 0
1 6 ,5 5 0
6 6 ,5 3 7
Bank o f Vernon.......................................
2 7 ,5 5 0
5 5 ,0 0 0
8 2 ,5 5 0
Bank o f Whitestown...............................
3 3 ,6 7 9
5 0 ,6 9 2
8 4 ,3 3 7
Black River Bank....................................
1 0 9 ,0 2 0
4 4 ,3 7 0
6 4 ,6 5 0
Commercial Bank, T roy.........................
3 0 ,9 6 9
3 1 ,7 1 0
6 1 ,1 0 1
Exchange Bank, Lockport.....................
6 5 ,9 8 6
2 8 ,9 0 0
3 7 ,1 0 0
Farmers’ Bank, Amsterdam....................
1 5 7 ,0 4 5
1 4 ,0 0 4
1 6 4 ,0 0 0
Luther Wright’s Bank.............................
5 0 ,0 0 0
1 5 ,0 0 0
3 5 ,0 0 0
Kirkland Bank..........................................
1 3 1 ,4 3 8
3 7 ,9 7 0
9 3 ,6 6 8
Mohawk Valley B an k............................
1 9 ,3 9 8
8 ,9 0 0
1 0 ,5 0 0
Palmyra Bank...........................................
2 0 2 ,0 1 5
5 ,9 2 2
1 9 6 ,2 0 2
Patchin Bank............................................
2 5 ,8 3 7
1 ,5 0 0
2 4 ,3 3 7
W hite Plains Bank....................................
3 9 ,3 6 6
1 9 ,3 2 5
2 0 ,0 4 7
W ooster Sherman’s Bank.......................
9 9 ,9 9 3
1 3 ,6 0 0
8 6 ,4 0 0
Chester Bank.............................................
III.

BANKS SECURED B Y NEW Y O R K STA TE STOCKS, STOCKS OF OTHER ST A T ES , AND BONDS AND
MORTGAGES.

Circulation. Bonds and N ew Y o rk

Stocks of
mortgages. State stock. oth. States.

$61,851 $35,600
Agricultural Bank...............................................
90,400
38,850
Albany Exchange Bank.....................................
63,500
37,355
Bank o f Albion....................................................
50,000
31,018
Bank o f A ttica.....................................................
79,998
32,220
Bank o f Central N ew Y ork..............................
111,672
54,300
Bank o f Dansville...............................................
78,750
Bank o f Lowville................................................
39,900
81,103
36,790
Bank o f Silver Creek..........................................
170,500
85,263
Bank o f Syracuse................................................
Bank o f Waterville..............................................
100,005
31,300
230,000
118,650
Commercial Bank, Rochester...........................
48,700
Farmers’ Bank, Hudson....................................
96,500
Exchange Bank, Genesee..................................
49,620
29,551
Farmers’ and Drovers’ Bank, Somers.............
58,226
18,400
18,918
Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank, Genesee........
42,348
Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank, Rochester...
63,881
20,000
Fort Plain Bank..................................................
81,437
42,375
James’ Bank.........................................................
45,943
69,258
76,543
Lockport Bank, and Trading Company.........
66,060
41,600
20,050
Merchants’ and Fanners’ Bank, Ithaca............
Middletown Bank...............................................
77,245
46,500
Pine Plains Bank................................................
34,200
87,326
Powell Bank........................................................
111,052
48,560
American Exchange Bank................................. . 327,955
Delaware Bank...................................................
102,806

$24,900
15,000
26,000
14,628
25,000
41,000
34,000
34,000
20,000
43,661
81,450
10,000
5,000
9,000
5,000
25,000
9,597
19,200
3,455
15,000
24,900
10,000
42,575
100,000
58,000

$32,000
58,000
9,000
15,000
34,000
50,000
30,000
20,000
100,000
30,000
70,000
50,000
20,000
50,000
28,000
26,000
48,326
18,000
34,000
21,000
20,000
68,304
15,000
380,666
66,978

IV . BANKS SECURED B Y BONDS AND MORTGAGES, AND STOCKS OF OTHER STA TES.
Bonds and
Stocks o f
Circulation.
mortgages.
oth. States.

Bank o f Corning...................................
Bank o f Kinderhook............................
Genesee County Bank..........................
Washington County Bank...................

43,190
58,764

$25,550

$70,000

41,090
46,000
29,031

57,000
25,000
50,000

U N IT E D S T A T E S C U STO M S R E V E N U E .
T he new tariff went into operation on the 1st o f December last; the nett proceeds
under it (after deducting all expenses o f collection,) actually paid into the Treasury during
the first nine months o f its operation, were $92,961,333 2 8 ; being greater, by the sum o f
$3,176,018 57, than the sum paid into the Treasury during the same period o f nine




432

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

months, under the tariff o f 1842; and exhibiting a gain, at the same ratio o f increase, o.
§4,224,691 42, o f the first twelve months, under the tariff o f 1846, as compared with
the tariff o f 1842.
T he gross proceeds received by the Collector are much greater, as the expenses of col­
lection are deducted before the money is paid into the Treasury, and recorded by the
Register.
The following statement exhibits the receipts into the Treasury, (made up at the
Treasury Department, Register’ s Office, Sept. 15,1845,) from customs, during the under­
mentioned periods:—
From the 1st October, 1845, to 1st July, 1846,................
§17,850,735 73
From the 1st October, 1846, to 1st July, 1847,............................................
17,594,038 08
From the 1st December, 1845, to 31st August, 1846; and from the 1st o f December,
1846, to 31st August, 1847, to wit:—
During the month o f December, 1845................................................................ §1,289,484 97
From 1st January to 30th June, 1846,.............................................................. 13,657,944 96
During the months o f July and August, 1846,............................................... 4,847,884 78
§19,795,314 71
During the month o f December, 1846,............................................................. §1,451,076 00
From the 1st January to 30th June, 1847,........................................................ 13,952,845 86
During the months o f July and August, 1847,............................................... 7,557,411 42
§22,961,333 28
T H E H O L L A N D B U D G E T OF R E C E IP T S A N D E X P E N S E S .
T he annual budget o f expenses for 1848 amounts to 71,530,835 florins, and for 1849
to 71,135,067 florins. T o this sum must be added, for each o f the two years, 500,000
florins, destined to cover unforeseen expenses.

T he budget is divided into eleven heads,

as follow s:—

1848.
F lo rin s.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
9.
10.
11.

T he King’s household..........................
Colleges o f State...................................................
Ministry o f Foreign Affairs...............................
Ministry o f Justice..............................................
Ministry o f Interior.............................................
Protestant worship, & c .......................................
Popish worship, & c.............................................
Marine.....................................................................
(A .) National debt....,*......................................
(B.) Finances......................................................
W a r ................................................*......................
Colonies.................................................................

1,250,000
652,939
541,933
2,490,734
4,464,458
1,644,896
562,478
5,545,632
36,294,040
6,315,129
11,675,000
88,696

1849.
Flo rins.

1,250,000
650,939
540,933
2,491,364
4,318,608
1,649,896
562,376
5,352,632
36,274,715
6,878,909
11,675,000
88,695

T he budget o f receipts for 1848 has been fixed at the sum of 71,679,514 florins, divi­
ded into thirteen heads, v iz :—
Flo rins.

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.

Direct taxes............................................................
Excise..............................................
Indirect taxes..........................................................................................
Import and export duties.......................................................................
Guarantee for bullion, & c ......................................................................
Domains...................................................................................................
Post-office.................................................................................................
Potteries...................................................................................................
Hunting and fisheries.............................................................................
Produce o f sales, & c ..............................................................................
Rentes charged on Belgium.................................................................
Reimbursements for the rentes o f the East Indies..........................
Pay o f the Colonial Administration....................................................




18,748,800
18,871,020
9,384,000
4,716,000
139,772
1,384,522
1,330,000
400,000
100,000
1,754,000
400,000
9,800,000
4,650,000

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

433

Thus, a population o f about 3,000,000 souls, already with a monstrous debt, amounting
to 1,228,942,511— 00 florins, the annual interest payable on which already amounts to a
sum o f 36,294,000— 00 florins, will have to pay the State, annually, the sum of 71,679,514
florins, which is at the rate o f almost 48 florins per head when paupers and children (say
one-third) are deducted.
%
T H E BAN K OF ENGLAND.
F r a n c is H a l l , Esq., one o f the proprietors o f the “ Commercial Advertiser,” while on

a visit to England, was favored with an opportunity o f examining “ the interior and exte­
rior o f this mighty engine, which guides, in some measure, the commerce and political
movements o f Europe, if not o f the world.” Although we have published, in former vol­
umes o f the Merchants’ Magazine, descriptions o f the bank, the account of Mr. Hall is so
brief, and yet comprehensive, we cannot resist the temptation o f copying it entire:—
The Bank o f England is an immense structure, covering five acres o f ground, having
no windows in either o f its fronts, but receiving light from above, or from its courts. It is
open for business at nine in the morning, and continues open until five in the afternoon—
employing during these hours between nine hundred and one thousand persons. A t seven
o ’clock in the evening a detachment o f soldiers are marched from the “ Tow er ” into the
bank, where they mount guard until seven o’clock the next morning.
The bank has a capital o f eighteen millions sterling, and is managed by governors, & c.
Its notes are never re-issued by the bank, after being presented for payment. They may
continue in circulation for any time, and pass from one bank to another; but, when pre­
sented to the bank for specie, the name o f the person presenting must be endorsed, with
his residence; then, after a careful examination, the note is paid and cancelled.
The printing, binding, & c., required by the bank and its branches, are done within the
building by the most approved methods. T he steam-presses and all the machinery are the
best that can be obtained in England or Scotland.
So admirably arranged is everything, from the engine-room to the <£bank parlor,” that
every room resembles a beautiful toy shop. N o “ stoker ” or engine “ driver ” is required
to attend the fire or look after the engine during the day. The fire is fed in the same
manner that wheat is ground. In the morning a sufficient quantity is put into the “ hop­
per,” and that sends a regular supply into the grates or stoves, and nothing farther is re­
quired. The water is supplied in the same w a y ; and should there be any want of water,
by accident or otherwise, an alarm is sounded by a whistle.
Each note is printed on what is called one sheet o f paper; the lowest denomination is
five pounds, the highest one thousand. The paper is first counted to those whose duty it
is to “ wet it down.” This is done by a steam process. After the paper is in a proper
state to be worked, it is locked up in boxes and sent to an officer, who recounts it. It is
then counted again in parcels o f one hundred sheets, and put into boxes, which are locked
and placed in a sliding case ready for the pressmen, who are at work above. These
sheets are drawn up and printed, and returned in the same manner; every sheet worked
registers itself, and it is as well known in the room below, what number A . B. is printing
above, as by himself. If, by accident, A. B. “ spoils a sheet,” it must be marked as such,
and every particle o f the spoiled sheet sent down. Every note or bill passes through the
hands o f two sets o f pressmen. First, they are printed without the number and date.
Secondly, the number and date are added, when they are ready for the finishing touch,
the signature o f one o f the cashiers. One o f the most ingenious pieces o f mechanism I
have ever seen is that used to mark the number on each bill. There is no change o f
number by hand, but all is done by this machine, and by steam-power.
W hen the bills have passed through the hands o f the printers, they are sent to the dry­
ing room, where they are again counted and dried ; they are then put up into convenient
packets, and sent to the cashier’ s room, for signature. Thence they go to the register’s
department, and from that office are brought back to “ the treasury.” Here they are kept
in fire-proof iron cases, which cover all the sides o f the room. T he room itself is fire­
proof, there being only one thing that can bum, the counter. On one side o f this room
the cases are filled with gold, tied up in bags, and on the other the bills in packages, con­
venient for the “ paying tellers.” There are two large locks to each case, and the keys
are kept by separate officers, so that both must be present before any sum can be re­
moved. I held in my hand, while in this room, two millions sterling, all ready to be put
in circulation.
V O L. X V II .— N O . IV .




28

434

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

Each day from thirty to thirty-six thousand bills are printed. The ink is made in the
bank, and it is o f such a peculiar composition that, by its effect, together with that of the
high-sized paper, the “ blankets” used on the presses require to be washed by steam at
least once a day. T he highest number o f the notes is 99,999. W hen that number is
reached, they return to No. 1, with a new date. The pressmen and most of the machinists
receive .£3 per week ; the females in the binding and ruling rooms, from fifteen shillings
to one pound per week.
The clerks are paid good salaries after they have been some years in the service o f the
bank. They commence, however, at a low rate, but soon become “ higher graduates,”
with an increased salary in the bank, or are transferred to one o f its branches. The plan
o f personal security is frequently observed, as in the United States ; but I was infonned
that there is an institution called the “ guarantee fund,” by which an individual, paying
so much per month, becomes a member, and this institution is security for its members—
thus securing the bank against loss, or the painful alternative o f calling on personal secu­
rity in case o f mal-administration.
In one o f the rooms ninety-seven clerks are employed, whose business it is to examine
the notes by register, and so minute and accurate is the concern that it is known in the
bank what notes are out, and who received them ; and it is the practice o f all bankere, in
town or country, to take the number o f each note before it is paid, and to whom paid.
This is a work o f time, but it gives great security.
In the bank there is a department called the weighing-room. Here two gentlemen are
employed weighing sovereigns by steam. T he scales are so constructed as to drop the
light coin on the left, the full weight on the right. Those that fall on the left are taken
out and cut by a machine, and returned to the local bank or individual from which they
cam e; they are then sold to the bank for bullion, to be recoined.
There are several families residing in the bank, who have very comfortable accommo­
dations. There is also a bank kitchen, as well as bank parlor. This is for the accom­
modation o f the directors on duty, who may wish a cup o f coffee, or a beef-steak, &c.

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.
P E R U V IA N S IL V E R M IN E S.
F IR S T DISCOVERY OF T H E MINES— CA RELESS MODE OF WORKING THEM— MINE-OW NERS AND MINE
LABO RERS--- AMALGAMATION AND REFINING----PRODUCE OF T H E MINES.

W e compile from Tschudi’s “ Travels in Peru, during the years 1835-1842,” the fol­
lowing particulars o f the silver mines, etc., o f that country :—
History relates that about two hundred and fifteen years ago, an Indian shepherd, named
Huari Capcha, tended his flocks on a small pampa, to the southeast o f the Lake of Llauricocha, the mother o f the great river Amazon. One day, when the shepherd had wan­
dered farther than usual from his hut, he sought a resting-place on a declivity of the Cerro
de Santiestevan, and when evening drew in, he kindled a fire to protect himself against
the cold ; he then lay down to sleep. W hen he awoke on the following morning, he was
amazed to find the stone beneath the ashes o f his fire melted, and turned to silver. He
joyfully communicated the discovery to his master, Don Jose Ugarte, a Spaniard, who
owned a hacienda in the Quebrada de Huariaca. Ugarte forthwith repaired to the spot,
where he found indications o f a very rich vein o f silver ore, which he immediately made
active preparations for working. In this mine, which is distinguished by the name o f
La Descubridora, (the discoverer,) silver is still obtained. From the village of Pasco,
about two leagues distant, where already productive mines were worked, several rich mineowners removed to Llauricocha; here they sought and discovered new veins, and estab­
lished new mining works. The vast abundance o f the ore, drew new speculators to the
sp ot; some to work the mines, and others to supply the necessary wants o f the increasing
population. In this manner was rapidly founded a city, which, at times, when the pro­
duce o f metal is very large, counts 18,000 inhabitants.
In Cerro de Pasco, there are two very remarkable veins o f silver. One o f them, the
Veta de Colquirirca, runs nearly in a straight line from north to south, and has already
been traced to the length o f 9,600 feet, and the breadth o f 4 1 2 ; the other vein is the Veta
de Pariarirca, which takes a direction from east-southeast to west-northwest, and which
intersects the Veta de Colquirirca precisely, it is supposed, under the market-place o f the




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

435

city,
rts known extent is 6,400 feet in length, and 380 feet in breadth. From these
large veins numberless smaller ones branch off in various directions, so that a net-work o f
silver may be supposed to spread beneath the surface o f the earth. Some thousand open­
ings or mouths (bocaminas) are the entrances to these mines. Most o f these entrances are
within the city itself, in small houses; and some in the dwellings o f the mine-owners.
Many o f them are exceedingly shallow, and not more than five hundred deserve the name
o f shafts. All are worked in a very disorderly and careless w a y ; the grand object o f
their owmers being to avoid expense. The dangerous parts in the shafts are never walled
up, and the excavations proceed without the adoption o f any measures o f security. The
consequence is, that accidents caused by the falling in o f the galleries are o f frequent oc­
currence ; and every year the lives o f numbers o f Indian miners are sacrificed. A mel­
ancholy example o f the effects o f this negligence is presented by the now mined mine of
Matagente, (literally Kill Peopled in which three hundred laborers were killed by the fall­
ing in o f a shaft. Tschudi descended into several o f the mines, among others, the Descubridora, which is one o f the deepest, and always felt that he had good reason to congrat­
ulate himself on returning to the surface o f the earth in safety. Rotten blocks o f wood
and loose stones serve for steps, and, where these cannot be placed, the shaft, which, inmost
instances, runs nearly perpendicular, is descended by the help o f rusty chains and ropes,
whilst loose fragments o f rubbish are continually falling from the damp walls.
The mine laborers, all o f whom are Indians, are o f two classes. One class consists o f
those who work in the mines all the year round without intermission, and who receive
regular wages from the mine-owners;— the other class consists o f those who make only
temporary visits to Cerro de Pasco, when they are attracted thither by the boyas.* This
latter class o f laborers are called maquipuros. Most o f them come from the distant pro­
vinces, and they return to their homes when the boya is at an end. The mine laborers are
also subdivided into two classes, the one called barreteros, whose employment consists in
breaking the ore ; and the other called hapires, or chaquiris, who bring up the ore from
the shaft. The work allotted to the hapires is exceedingly laborious. Each load consists
o f from fifty to seventy-five pounds o f metal, which is carried in a very irksome and in­
convenient manner in an untanned hide, called a capicho. The hapire performs his toil­
some duty in a state o f nudity, for, notwithstanding the coldness of the climate, he be­
comes so heated by his laborious exertion, that he is glad to divest himself o f his clothing.
A s the work is carried on incessantly day and night, the miners are divided into parties
called puntas, each party working for twelve successive hours. A t six o’clock, morning
and evening, the puntas are relieved. Each one is under the inspection o f amayor-domo.
W hen a mine yields a scanty supply o f metal, the laborers are paid in m oney; the barre­
teros receiving six reals per day, and the hapires only four. During the boyas the laborers
receive, instead o f their wages in money, a share o f the ore. The Indians often tiy to
appropriate to themselves, surreptitiously, pieces o f o r e ; but to do this requires great cun­
ning and dexterity, so narrowly are they watched by the mayor-domos. Nevertheless,
they sometimes succeed. One o f the hapires related to me how he had contrived to car­
ry off a most valuable piece of silver. He fastened it on his back, and then wrapping
himself in his poncho, he pretended to be so ill, that he obtained permission to quit the
mine. T w o o f his confederates, who helped him out, assisted him in concealing the treas­
ure. The polvorilla, a dark powdery kind o f ore, very full o f silver, used to be abstracted
from the mines by the following stratagem :— the workmen would strip off their clothes,
and having moistened the whole o f their bodies with water, would roll themselves in the
polvorilla, which stuck to them. On their return home they washed o ff the silver-dust, and
sold it for several dollars. But this trick being detected, a stop was soon put to i t ; for, •
before leaving the mines, the laborers are now required to strip, in order to be searched.
The operation o f separating the silver from the dross, is performed at some distance
from Cerro de Pasco, in haciendas, belonging to the great mine-owners. The process is
executed in a very clumsy, imperfect, and, at the same time, a very expensive manner.
The amalgamation o f the quicksilver with the metal, is effected by the tramping of horses.
The animals employed in this way, are a small ill-looking race, brought from Ayacucho
and Cuzco, where they are found in numerous herds. The quicksilver speedily has a fatal
effect on their hoofs, and, after a few years, the animals become unfit for work. The sepa­
ration o f the metals is managed with as little judgment as the amalgamation, and the waste
o f quicksilver is enormous. It is computed that on each mark of silver, half a pound of
quicksilver is expended. The quicksilver, with the exception of some little brought from
* A mine is said to be in boya when it yields an unusually abundant supply of metal.
Owing to the great number o f mines in Cerro de Pasco, some o f them are always in this
prolific state. There are times when the boyas bring such an influx o f miners to Cerro de
Pasco, that the population is augmented to double or triple its ordinary amount.




436

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

Idria and Huancavelica, comes from Spain in iron jars, each containing about seventy-five
pounds weight o f the metal. In Lima, the price o f these jars is from sixty to one hundred
dollars each, but they are occasionally sold as high as one hundred and thirty-five or one
hundred and forty dollars. Considering the vast losses which the Peruvian mine-owners
sustain, by the waste o f quicksilver, and the defective mode o f refining, it may fairly be
inferred, that their profits are about one-third less than they would be under a better system
o f management.
In Cerro de Pasco, there are places called boliches, in which the silver is separated from
the dross by the same process as that practised in the haciendas, only on a smaller scale.
In the boliches, the amalgamation is performed, not by horses, but by Indians, who mix
the quicksilver with the ore by stamping on it with their feet for several hours in succes­
sion. This occupation they usually perform barefooted, and the consequence is, that
paralysis and other diseases caused by the action o f the mercury, are very frequent among
the persons thus employed. The owners o f the boliches, who are mostly Italians, are not
mine proprietors. They obtain the metal from the Indians, who give them their huachacas*
in exchange for brandy and other articles. On the other hand, the owners o f the boliches
obtain the money required for their speculations from capitalists, who make them pay an
enormous interest. Nevertheless, many amass considerable fortunes in the course o f a
few years; for they scruple not to take the most unjust advantage o f the Indians, whose
laborious toil is rewarded by little gain.
The law requires that all the silver drawn from the mines o f Cerro de Pasco, shall be
conveyed to a government smelting house, called the Callana, there to be cast into bars of
One hundred pounds weight, to be stamped and charged with certain imposts. The value
o f silver in Cerro de Pasco, varies from seven to eight dollars per mark. The standard
value in Lima is eight dollars and a half.
It is impossible to form anything like an accurate estimate o f the yearly produce o f the
mines o f Cerro de P asco; for a vast quantity o f silver is never taken to the Callana, but
is smuggled to the coast, and from thence shipped for Europe. In the year 1838, no less
than 85,000 marks o f contraband silver were conveyed to the seaport o f Huacho, and
safely shipped on board a schooner. The quantity o f silver annually smelted and stamped
in the Callana is from 200,000 to 300,000 marks—seldom exceeding the latter amount.
From 1784 to 1820,1826, and 1827, the amount was 8,051,409 m arks; in the year 1784, it
was 68,208 marks; and in 1785, 73,455 marks. During seventeen years it was under
200,000 marks ; and only during three years above 300,000. The produce o f the mines
is exceedingly fluctuating. The successive revolutions which have agitated the countiy,
have tended very considerably to check mining operations. On the overthrow of Santa
Cruz, Don Miguel Otero, the most active and intelligent mine-owner o f Cerro de Pasco,
was banished; an event which had a very depressing influence on all the mining transac­
tions o f that part o f South America. Within the last few years, however, mining has re­
ceived a new impetus, and attention has been directed to the adoption o f a more speedy
and less expensive system o f amalgamation.

M A N U F A C T U R E OF STO C K IN G S.
A London journal, in an article upon foreign manufactures, has the following item in
relation to the making o f stockings:—
‘‘ It is not generally known, that the Chinese knit a considerable quantity o f silk stock­
ings by the hand, many o f them as fine as twenty guage, the quality which was generally
made in Europe previous to the year 1720. A very large quantity o f cotton stockings are
also hand-knitted in Hindostan, it being a general manufacture at Musilapatam, and in
those vicinities where the Dutch and Tweed factories were established, though they are
now under the dominion o f the. British. The received opinion is, that the Portuguese
taught the Hindoos, as well as the Chinese, this art. Cotton stockings, as fine as thirtyfour guage, are knit in India. They are beautiful articles, being made o f hand-spun cot­
ton, which is much leveller in the thread than mill-spun yarn. It is, in general, considered
in the East, that spinning machinery is in its infancy; and in this opinion, a few o f the
ablest operative spinners o f Manchester fully coincide, they being o f opinion that the
method first pursued by the colleague o f Arkwright will finally supersede the draw frame
and mule spring.
* Huachacas are the portions o f ore which are distributed among the Indians at the time
o f the boyas, instead o f their wages being paid in money.




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

437

M A M M O T H S T A R C H F A C T O R Y IN M IC H IG A N .
W e learn from the “ Detroit F ree P ress," that Mr. Mawbry Chamberlain, o f Vermont,
removed to Almont, Lapear County, Michigan, about two years since. Mr. C. carried on
the business extensively in Vermont, and is still interested in two large establishments,
managed by his brothers, near Windsor, Vt.

It seems that he has now erected a factory

in Almont, to carry on the manufacture o f starch on a more extensive scale than at any
similar factory at the East.
The factory is 214 feet long, and 40 feet wide, including an L. The main building is
134 feet long— 14 o f which are used for an engine-room— and is two stories high. T he
lower part has 64 tubs, holding about 600 gallons each, giving a total o f 28,400 gallons.
The L part is 80 feet long, by 40, o f brick, one and a half stories high, for a potato-bin.
Loaded teams drive up a platform into the second story ; and, following a circle, 13 teams
can unload at a time, through trap-doors over the bin, which is calculated to hold 40,000
bushels. One hundred and thirty loads have been received in a day, making a total of
4,000 bushels.
In the second story o f the principal building is an oven, 100 feet long by 18 wide, for
drying the starch— or rather, I should say, an oven o f 200 feet by 9, as there is a division
in the centre, with doors some 10 feet apart. In the oven, there are sets o f pans, one
above the other, which can be turned at pleasure. It is heated from the steam works, and
conductors o f heat are carried in tin pipes all over the building. The whole machinery is
a specimen o f so much ingenuity, that I cannot describe it. Y ou must visit it— it is worth
the journey. The proprietor, who is a gentleman much beloved here, kindly allows stran­
gers to go through the establishment, and does not confine it to the sign, “ no admittance,”
as at similar works in New England.
The potatoes are shovelled from a bin into a hopper, where there is water constantly
running into it, and there they are as thoroughly washed by machinery, as a cook could
do it for your dinner. Then, by the action o f the machinery, they are separated from
the dirt, stones, and sticks, and pass on to two cylinder graters, at the rate of 100 bushels an
hour. From the graters, by the action o f machinery, they go into the sieve that separates
the starch from the potato. The pulp then passes into four large cisterns, and then, again,
machinery pumps it into the 64 large tubs or cisterns, before alluded to, for settling.
Then the water is drawn off, and the starch, by a forcing-pump, is carried into the second
story, and, when settled, put into the oven I have before spoken of, which is calculated to
bake a day’s work— being the starch from 1,000 bushels, or 60,000 lbs. o f potatoes. T he
starch is packed in casks, and shipped East. The cost o f the factory is $12,000.
Considerable starch was made last season, but the rotting o f some 30,000 bushels o f
potatoes last fall, curtailed the quantity anticipated. This large quantity o f the raw mate­
rial was thrown away. It served to feed many cattle and hogs o f the neghborhood for
some months. The pulp remaining as worthless, is used in fattening hogs, which the
proprietor has in a yard adjoining.
T he factory price for potatoes is 10 cents a bushel. Mr. C. has contracted with various
farmers to the amount o f 400 acres. The average number o f bushels raised last year on
an acre was 275. Allowing the same this year, it will amount to over 100,000 bushels;
but this is not half the quantity wanted. Farmers were unwilling to contract, fearing the
rot. Present indications are good for the crop. A ll varieties are used, even the Rohan.
It takes the fall and winter to destroy the potatoes, then wheat and com are used for
the same purpose. The quantity made from the potato per year will not be far from
1,000,000 lbs., or 400 tons. It sells for $ 5 a hundred in New York.

P A S T E B O A R D SHOES.
The “ Artisan” describes a specimen o f cheatery in shoes, of which we had heard, but
never supposed to be a fa ct:—
“ The shoes are o f the coarse brogan kind, such as sell at retail for $ 1 00 and $ 1 25.
W hat is usually the sole, is, in this case, only very thin poor leather— it may be sheep­
skin. The welt is very thiek coarse leather, to which both upper leather and sole are
sewed or pegged; the deficiency inside is supplied by thick yellow pasteboard. The shoes
thus appear to have very good stout soles. A very little wear carries away the thin skin
of a sole, and the yellow pasteboard presents itself, and the cheatery is thus exposed too
late for the purchaser. W e have seen all this— but we do not put it under the head o f new
inventions.”




433

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.
M IN E OF C O B A L T A N D N IC K E L.

Nickel, from its scarcity, and the place it has taken in our manufactures in the formation
o f an alloy, as a substitute for silver, besides being applied to various other purposes in the
metallic arts, has become a valuable and important metal. Its produce, as a conlmercial
metal, has hitherto been confined to some valuable mines in Saxony, which (now at a
depth o f 450 feet,) are said to be declining in produce, while the cost o f production has
, greatly increased. A t Chatham, in the State o f Connecticut, there is a mine o f cobalt
and nickel, first discovered and worked by some German settlers, for cobalt, but finding
that nickel greatly preponderated— a metal whose properties were then unknown, and for
which ihere was no market— the miue was abandoned. It afterwards became the pro­
perty o f Governor Seth Hunt, who, after about three years’ exploration, during which period
he obtained a considerable quantity o f cobalt, abandoned it from the same cause. T he
strata in which the veins are situated is a soft mica slate formation, of the same kindly
nature as those which occur in the valuable mines o f Saxony, being much softer near the
lode, which is always considered a promising feature. There seems to be no doubt as to
the lodes continuing, or even improving, in depth; and from the present commercial value
o f both metals, the judicious working o f this mine cannot but Ire attended with the most
profitable results.
A POUND OF C O T T O N A N D H A L F A POUND OF IRON.
The following paragraph is not n e w ; we have seen it in print a hundred times, more or
less; but as we do not recollect having recorded it in the pages o f the Merchants’ Maga­
zine, and as it contains such an amount o f information respecting the various processes
that a pound o f cotton had to undergo, before it appeared in the form o f muslin, we venture
to copy it, although it may seem rather trite to a large portion o f our readers:—
“ The cotton came from the United States to London. From London it went to Man­
chester, where it was made into yam. From Manchester it was sent to Paisley, where it
was woven. It was then sent to Ayrshire, where it was tamboured. After this it was
conveyed to Dumbarton, where it was hand-seeded, and again returned to Paisley, from
whence it was sent to Kurfew, a distant part o f the country, to be bleached ; and then it
was again returned to Paisley, and afterwards returned to London by coach. It is calcu­
lated that this article was two years in getting to market from the time it was packed in
this country, till the cloth arrived at the merchant’s warehouse in L ondon; and that it
travelled 3,000 miles by sea and 920 miles by land ; and, also, that it contributed to the
support o f no less than 150 persons, who were necessarily engaged in the carriage and
manufacture o f the small quantity o f cotton, by which its value was increased to two thou­
sand per ce n t!”
“ Half a pound o f iron can be manufactured into 10,000 hair-springs, for watches, each
worth two dollars, or $20,000 for what originally cost only two to three cents. This is a
vastly greater increase o f value bestowed by labor, than in the above case, o f a pound o f
cotton.”
U N IT E D M E X IC A N M IN IN G A S S O C IA T IO N .
From the report o f the Association, recently made at its half-yearly meeting in London,
we gather the following particulars o f its affairs, which will be interesting to mining interests
generally:—
“ It appears that in the mine o f Rayas, a considerable outlay had been incurred to keep
the water out, so that the works might be prosecuted, and by the last report it had con­
siderably diminished. The ore raised had been 52,462 cargoes, and the amount o f receipts
$11,831. T he coinage o f 1845 had been $729,820, and for 1846, $757,680, showing
an increase o f $27,860. W ith respect to the new mines, the directors had taken no de­
cisive steps, but would act with caution. The works had been greatly impeded by the
scarcity o f quicksilver, and the difficulty o f transit from the coast, owing to the unsettled
state o f the country. The general operations o f the past year had produced $71,400, less
the expenses, $29,850, leaving a balance o f $41,550, or in sterling £7 ,444 3s. lid . The
amount o f good property abroad had been estimated at $1,336,526, or £239,514 sterling.
The surplus cash in hand was £4,719 17s. 3d.”




Mercantile Miscellanies,

MERCANTILE
THE

439

MISCELLANIES.

M E R C A N T IL E

C H A R A C TE R .

FROM THE PHILADELPHIA EVENING BULLETIN.

I n all free countries, the merchants have played a distinguished part. In old Venice
they were already dukes and princes at a period when the nobility-of other lauds were
military chieftains. Florence owed her wealth and power to her merchants. It was com.
merce that raised Amsterdam to greatness. The merchants o f England sit in her House
o f Lords, and hold the destinies o f the realm in their potent hands. In fact, as civiliza­
tion advances, commerce asserts her rightful claims to superior consideration over the
rude and often unlettered military chieftain ; and the men who develop the resources o f a
nation, and increase intelligence, as well as add to its physical comforts, are deservedly
ranked highest as benefactors o f mankind. It would be a curious study to trace, if we
had time, the struggle in England between the mercantile interest and the landed aris­
tocracy, the one seeking to obtain its due weight in government, the other laboring to
keep down its aspiring rival. But the merchant, in the end, conquered the feudal baron.
And had it not been for her merchants, England would long since have succumbed in one
or another o f her foreign wars. But for their gigantic resources, freely placed at the ser­
vice o f the State, Napoleon would have burnt her dock-yards and pulled down Westmin­
ster Hall.
The character o f the true merchant deserves all o f this eulogium. But in speaking o f
the merchant, we allude to the liberal and intelligent commercial man, not to the mean
and narrow-minded. A merchant o f enlarged views, like Abbot Lawrence, o f Boston,
has no superior in any walk o f life ; and there are men o f the same stamp in Philadelphia,
though, perhaps, it would be indelicate to name them here. Such a man, especially if en­
gaged in a foreign trade, is really better informed for all the higher purposes o f legislation,
and has altogether more comprehensive view’s, than most o f our professed statesmen. His
business relations force him to keep up with the changes in other countries. He must
know the settled and unsettled condition o f their governments, their native products and
manufactures, the habits and mode o f life o f the people, else he cannot make shipments
with any prospect o f success. In the late difficulty with Brazil, when all persons begun
to inquire respecting that empire— and wre must say that the general ignorance regarding
Brazil, considering its immense resources, and the feet that it is the United States o f South
America, is very reprehensible— the shipping merchants were the only class o f our citizens
who could furnish any correct account o f the people and government there. W e would
give more for the opinion o f an able merchant on any affair relating to our foreign rela­
tions, than for that o f all the lawyers, politicians, and professed statesmen we have, if we
except one or tw'o illustrious names.
So o f our merchants o f intelligence engaged in the Western trade. T hey do not con­
fine themselves to the mere acquisition o f a fortune, to the amassing cent per cent, but en­
large their minds by a knowledge o f the peculiarities and resources o f the great W est.
Their business frequently calling them abroad, they have opportunities to compare the so­
cial condition o f Europe w'ith that o f America, the relative progress o f inventions in each,
the spread o f intelligence, the extension o f liberal principles, and all those other great
questions in which every generous and observing mind may be presumed to take an inter­
est. Unfortunately, all do not avail themselves o f these advantages. There are, and we
speak it with regret, merchants who neglect those occasions for improving the mind and
heart, who make money their god, and who spend a long life with every energy devoted
solely to acquiring that gold which is only to be a subject o f quarrel among their descend­
ants. Such persons are like crazed wanderers, passing through a pleasant country, and
taking no note o f the beautiful scenery around, so intensely are they absorbed in their
childish and foolish thoughts; or, like the man in the Pilgrim’s Progress, who raked
among dust and ashes for dross, while an angel overhead vainly offered him a golden
crown. For nothing is more true, than that an undivided attention to the acquisition of
wealth stifles our social sympathies, debases the intellect, and lays up, as the scriptures
solemnly express it, “ much store o f sorrows ” for after days. The man who makes him­
self a slave to money, wins for his prize the Dead Sea apple— “ golden without, but ashes
within.”




440

Mercantile Miscellanies.
L A W S F O R T H E C O L L E C T IO N O F D E B TS.

In republishing the following remarks, which originally appeared in the “ Dry-Goods
Reporter,” we are not prepared to express an opinion as to the propriety o f repealing all
laws for the collection o f debts, and placing the credit system entirely on the basis of
character, although we have frequently heard experienced merchants and business men
express opinions in accordance with the views entertained by the writer. T he discussion
o f the subject can do no harm, and will, perhaps, tend to promote the interests o f debtor
and creditor, which, in our view, are identical:—
The opinion that the creditor community would suffer less loss, and that business opera­
tions would be placed on a sounder basis, by the abolition o f laws for the collection of
debts, seems, o f late years, on the increase, though we know o f no trial that has been
given to this new scheme o f reformation; we are aware that no precedent for it can be
found among any o f the nations o f antiquity. The Roman and Grecian laws w’ere espe­
cially severe and rigorous, and the laws o f the Hebrews were clear, simple, and efficient,
and in nothing do they differ so much from our own as in these characteristics.
Imprisonment for debt was unknown among them, and they were equally free from
those long and expensive modes o f procedure for the collection o f debt, (which are known
to many o f our readers to their cost.) A m ong the Israelites a debtor might be sold as a
bound slave for the payment o f his debts. All modern nations have, we believe, without
exception, laws on this subject o f more or less rigor, but none less than our own State.
The question, however, is not as to the perfection or imperfection o f our own laws,
but whether the interest o f the whole community would be advanced by their entire aboli­
tion, leaving each party to the good faith, pecuniary responsibility, and integrity o f the one
with whom he deals. Such a movement would, doubtless, be attended with a very salu­
tary influence upon the system o f credit so extravagantly extended in our business com ­
munity ; its effect would be to awaken more caution in the seller as to the character and
responsibility o f the buyer, as well as to check a spirit o f wild speculation, always the
result o f great facilities for obtaining credit. In this its influence would be healthy and
most desirable. Our own experience has led us to the conclusion that a rogue will only
pay what and when he pleases, and the honest man will pay as soon as he can, and all
that he can.
The national bankrupt law o f 1841 was no doubt abused to a very great extent, but
still quite an army o f honest and willing but unfortunate debtors were enabled, through
its operations, to again commence the world, wiser and better men ; men who had the
disposition to pay, but who were crushed under a load o f debts, judgments, and credit­
ors’ bills, and who were as much debarred from the exercise o f their talents, even to gain
a respectable livelihood (to say nothing o f paying their debts,) as the poor Indian was,
when incarcerated at Albany, in default o f the payment o f a certain number o f beaver
skins, (then taken as currency,) whose common-sense remark strikes home, “ that the
prison was a mighty bad place to catch beaver!”
A wrong view is often taken of the
operation of the bankrupt law. It is true we find that $441,000,000 o f indebtedness was
liquidated, and that the assets were small. The State o f N ew Y ork came in for
$172,000,000 o f this sum, and the Southern District alone was represented by debtors to
the amount o f $120,000,000, from which $140,000 were realized, after deducting
$110,000— only $110,000, for legal and judicial proceedings!
The amount o f loss to creditors, nominally, was very large ; but it is a question by no
means clear whether the creditor is not in a better position now than before the passage of
that act.
Although we believe no law should be made which will be retrospective in its opera­
tions, yet we think that the bankrupt law was in force just long enough to achieve all the
mischief which could accrue from it, and was repealed before its beneficent workings
could be appreciated. And to those who take a different view o f this subject, we can
only urge that a vigorous prevention would be preferable to a wonderful cure wrought by
this act.
It is true, that under a total abolition o f all laws for the collection of debts, designing
men would be found who would lay themselves out to cheat and practise upon the credu­
lity o f the unsuspicious. But are we free from this now ? Do the various laws, as
they exist, protect the merchant now ?
W e have laws, it is true, and any one who has
had occasion to collect a debt by legal process can fully appreciate their beauties. That
a stringent law against false representation, and the total abolition of all laws coercing,
would do a vast deal towards the regulation o f credits and trade generally, is the opinion
o f many o f our shrewd and experienced merchants.




Mercantile Miscellanies.
MAMMON

AND

441

MANHOOD:

A HOMILY FOB MERCANTILE MEN.

The Scripture speaketh not in vain in saying, that “ the love o f money is the root o f all
evil,” for there is not an evil under the sun, to the commission o f which men are not prompt­
ed by the love o f money ; and yet, notwithstanding all the light on this subject given in
the Scriptures, and confirmed by general experience, men everywhere are occupied in the
constant and keen pursuit o f wealth, and the prime object with the many is to obtain it,
and to push their families forward in the unhappy race o f avarice and aggrandizement.
For money, men sacrifice domestic comfort, health, character, and even hazard life itself;
for it they are guilty o f fraud, deception, and robbery. For money, they sacrifice friend­
ship, gratitude, natural affection, and every holy and divine feeling. For money, man be­
comes a creeping, crawling, obsequious creature, instead o f walking erect as the offspring
o f man. Mammon and Manhood are incompatible. W hy all this anxiety about money ?
W hy this constant fever, this pushing and driving in order to obtain it ? Even because
men form a false estimate o f L ife and its elements. “ A man’ s life consisteth not in the
abundance o f the things which he possesseth.” He who would live, must stir up the di­
vine fire that is in him, to consume selfishness, and to dispense the light and heat to all
around. Money he may seek in moderation, as a means, not as an end; and in order to pre­
serve his manhood, he must leam to practise self-denial and economy, and lobe contented
with small things ; above all, he must remember that God has set honor upon his labor,
by appointing man to live by labor; labor is truly honorable, and however mean the oc­
cupation may be, if honest, it is never disgraceful. Instead, therefore, o f sinking Man­
hood in the pursuit o f Mammon, by creeping, crawling, and bending to every one whom
you may imagine can help you forward in the race o f worldly advancement, stand erect,
determine in the strength o f God to be a M a n , to buy the truth at whatever cost,
and never sell it for any price ; to labor at any work, if needful, to speak what is in thy
heart, and never to creep, and crawl, and mutter. God helps those who help themselves.

M E T H O D IN T R A D E C A R R IE D T O P E R F E C T IO N :
OR, THE MANNER OF CONDUCTING BUSINESS IN A DRY-GOODS STORE IN PHILADELPHIA.

W e find the following interesting account o f the mode o f conducting business arrange­
ments in a dry-goods store in Philadelphia, in the columns o f a Southern Journal. Pre­
cision in such matters begets thrift and prosperity, and we hope the precepts o f the an­
nexed article may be universally carried out in business communities:—
The amount o f sales made at this store, is about $300,000 annually; each department
in the store is alphabetically designated. The shelves and rows o f goods in each depart­
ment are numbered, and upon the tag attached to the goods, is marked the letter o f the
department, the number o f the shelf and row on that shelf to which such ‘piece o f goods
belongs. The cashier receives a certain sum extra per week, and he is responsible for all
worthless money received. Books are kept, in which the sales of each clerk are entered
for the day, and the salary o f the clerk cast, as a per centage on each day, week and
year, and, at the foot o f the page, the aggregate o f the sales appear, and the per centage
that it has cost to effect these sales, is easily calculated for each day, month or year. The
counters are designated by an imaginary color, as the blue, green, brown, & c., counter.
The yard-sticks and counter-brush belonging to it, are painted to correspond with the im­
aginary color o f the counter; so, by a very simple arrangement, each o f these necessaries
is kept where it belongs ; and should any be missing, the faulty clerks are easily known.
All wrapping paper coming into the store is immediately taken to a counter in the base­
ment, where a lad attends with a pair o f shears, whose duty it is to cut the paper into
pieces to correspond with the size o f the parcels sold at the different departments, to which
he sees that it is transferred. All pieces too small for this, even to the smallest scraps, are
by him put into a sack, and what is usually thrown away by our merchants, yields to this
systematic man some $ 2 0 per year. In one part o f the establishment is a tool closet, with
a work-bench attached ; the closet occupies but little space, yet in it we notice almost
every useful tool, and this is arranged with the hand-saw to form the centre, and the
smaller tools radiating from it in sun form ; behind each article is painted, with black paint,
the shape o f the tool belonging in that place.
It is, consequently, impossible that anything should be out o f place except through de­
sign ; and if any tool is missing, the wall will show the shadow without the substance.
Such is the salutary influence exerted by order, that those who enter this employ habitu­




442

Mercantile Miscellanies.

ally careless and reckless, are reformed entirely; and system, which before was irksome,
has become to them a second nature. The proprietor’s desk stands at the farther end o f
the store, raised on a platform facing the front, from which he can see all the operations in
each section o f the retail department. From this desk run tubes, connecting with each
department o f the store, from the garret to the cellar, so that if a person in any depart­
ment, either porter, retail or wholesale clerk, wishes to communicate with the employer,
he can do so without leaving his station. Pages are kept in each department to take the
bill o f parcels, together with thewmoney paid ; and return the bill receipted, and change,
if any, to the customer. So that the salesman is never obliged to leave the counter ; he
is at all times ready either to introduce a new article, or watch that no goods are taken
from his counter, excepting those accounted for.
His peculiar method o f casting the per centage o f a clerk’s salary on his sales, enables
him at all times, (coupling it with the clerk’s general conduct, and the style o f goods he is
selling,) to form a just estimate o f the relative value o f the services o f each, in proportion
to his salary. By the alphabetic arrangement o f departments, numbering o f shelves, and
form o f the tools, any clerk, no matter if he has not been in the store more than an hour,
can arrange every article in its proper place, and at any time, if inquired of respecting, or
referred to by any clerk, the proprietor is able to speak understanding^ o f the capabilities
and business qualities o f any o f his employees. He has brought up some o f the best mer­
chants at present engaged in the trade, who do honor to the profession as well as their
tutor.

W H A T A M E R C H A N T SHOULD BE.
FROM GILBERT’ S LECTURES ON ANCIENT COMMERCE.

A merchant should be an honorable man. Although a man cannot be an honorable man
without being an honest man, yet a man may be strictly honest without being honorable.
Honesty refers to pecuniary affairs; honor refers to the principles and feelings. Y ou may
pay your debts punctually, you may defraud no man, and yet you may act dishonorably.
Y ou act dishonorably when you give your correspondents a worse opinion of your rivals
in trade than you know they deserve. Y ou act dishonorably when you sell your commo­
dities at less than their real value, in order to get away your neighbor’s customers. Y ou
act dishonorably when you purchase at higher than the market price, in order that you
may raise the market upon another buyer. Y ou act dishonorably when you draw accom­
modation bills, and pass them to your banker for discount, as if they arose out o f real
transactions. Y ou act dishonorably in every case wherein your external conduct is at va­
riance with your real opinions. Y ou act dishonorably if, when carrying on a prosperous
trade, you do not allow your servants and assistants, through whose exertions you obtain
your success, to participate in your prosperity. Y ou act dishonorably if, after you have
become rich, you are unmindful o f the favors you received when poor. In all these cases
there may be no intentional fraud. It may not be dishonest, but it is dishonorable con­
duct.

C O M M E R C E OF T H E C A P E OF GOOD HOPE.
Papers lately received, furnish us with some interesting details o f the trade o f the colony,
extracted from the annual report o f the committee o f the Commercial Exchange for the
years 1846-7. According to the comparison made in this document, it appears that the
value o f imports has exceeded those o f the previous year by ,£124,860 9s., o f which £50,000
was specie for military expenditure. The exports, it is stated, have fallen below 1845-6,
by £29,882 13s. 6d. The great increase in local consumption is established by the fact
that, whereas the collections o f the customs department last year were not more than
£85,119 17s. 5d., they have risen this year to the amount o f £100,759 12s. lOd.— an im­
provement nearly equal to 18 per cent. The tables o f export show a decrease in the arti­
cles o f aloes, tallow, and wine, and an increase in wool, skins, hides, and ivory. The
number o f vessels visiting the colony was less by 144 than those reported in the former
year, and this decrease was attributed to the comparative suspension o f the guano trade,
and the fines hitherto enforced under the provisions o f the Merchant Seamen’s Act.

HI3 T he judicious reader o f our “ Commercial Chronicle and Review,” will have read
lbs., for bales, in a table o f “ exports o f cotton from the United States,” on page 295, of
the September number; also, on page 296, first line, “ England,” for the United States.




The Book Trade.

THE

443

BOOK T R A D E .

1. — Commentaries on the Laws o f E n gla n d ; in F our Books ; with an Analysis o f the
Work. By S ir W illiam B lackstone, Knt., one o f the Justices o f the Court o f Com­
mon Pleas. W ith the Last Corrections o f the Author, and Notes from the TwentyFirst London Edition. W ith Copious Notes, Explaining the Changes in the Law Ef­
fected by Decision on Statute, down to 1844. Vol. I. By J. F. H ar gr ave , o f Lincoln’s
Inn, Barrister at Law. Together with Notes, adapting the work to the American Stu­
dent. By J ohn L. W endell, late State Reporter of New York. 4 vols., 8vo. New
Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
Any notice o f Blackstone’s Commentaries, at this late day, would be, on our part, a
work o f supererogation. It is a standard o f the highest authority, and the contents o f the
work must be familiar to every well-read law student in the land. It becomes us, there­
fore, at this time, to speak only o f the present edition, which, we have no hesitation in
saying, is the best and most perfect that has yet been published. It comprises all that is
valuable in the editions o f Christian and Chitty, and the proprietors have rendered it the
most perfect that has hitherto appeared; and, without injuring the integrity o f a work
which has taken a high and permanent place in our standard literature, to present, both
to non-professional readers and to students, a complete and faithful guide to the principles
o f the laws o f England as they are now administered. T o this end, they have provided
ample time for preparation, and have not thrown upon one editor the overwhelming labor
and responsibility o f reviewing critically the entire body o f the la w ; a task to which, it
may safely be said, the acquirements o f no single lawyer o f the present day would be ade­
quate, to such extent and complexity has the system attained, and so universal is the cus­
tom o f confining professional study and practice to some particular branch o f the law'.
Each book has, therefore, been confided to a distinct editor, practically conversant with
the subject to which it relates. The text o f this classical work is preserved without muti­
lation or addition, and has been rendered as pure and correct as possible, by being collated
with that o f the edition published in 1783, which was "prepared by Dr. Burn, from the
copy containing the author’s last corrections. The author’s notes and references, also,
have been carefully verified in every possible instance. The editors have, in their notes,
endeavored, in the first place, to correct the few original oversights of the author; in the
next place, to state the alterations in the law since the time o f Blackstone, so far as they
affect the text; and, lastly, to expand such passages as did not seem sufficiently full, and
to explain such as did not seem sufficiently clear for an elementary work. T o the above
have been added notes, adapting the work to the American student, by showing the law
as it exists in this country under our institutions, and as it has been changed by legislative
enactments, particularly in the State o f New York ; and also pointing out the diversities
in the common lawr, as held in England and in this country, in the few instances in which
a difference prevails. These notes are by John L. W endell, Esq., late State Reporter of
N ew Y ork, and editor o f the last American edition o f “ Starkie on Slander.”
2. — Beauties o f the Bible, Selected from the Old and New Testaments, with Various
Remarks and B r ie f Dissertations. Designed fo r the Use o f Schools and the Im­
provement o f Youth. By E zra S ampson. 18mo., pp. 366. N ew Y o rk : Harper &
Brothers.
W e are not remarkably partial to “ Beauties,” selected for our admiration, especially
those o f the Bible ; but, in our school-boy days, we read from this collection o f scriptural
extracts, and as it is more convenient, and contains so many interesting narratives, sub­
lime and beautiful passages from “ holy writ,” we can see no objection to its introduction
into our common and other schools. Several attempts have been made, since its first ap­
pearance, in 1800, to prepare similar w orks; but in our judgment this is the least excep­
tionable— indeed, it is the bq^t compilation o f the kind that has yet been made.




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The Book Trade.

3. — Louis the Fourteenth, and the Court o f France in the Seventeenth Century. By
Miss P ardoe, author o f 44The City o f the Sultan,” etc. In 2 vols., 12mo., pp. 1,067.
N ew Y o r k : Harper &, Brothers.
The reign o f Louis XIV., o f France, is regarded by the writer o f this work, and, we
believe, very generally, politically, socially, and morally, as the most striking which that
country has ever known. Mis3 Pardoe does not pretend to give a complete historical re­
cord o f the century o f Louis X IV ., as the term would be understood by statesmen and
politicians. She passes lightly over the campaigns, the battles, and the intrigues o f the
several European cabinets. Her aim was simply to display, more fully than had been
done before, the domestic life o f the 44 Great Monarch,” and pass in review the wits, the
beauties, and the poets o f his court.

For this purpose, she selects, from the stores of the

many biographies o f the time, all that may tend to perfect the portraiture. The materials
for the work were ample, and she has grouped only such facts and anecdotes as were fully
authenticated, either by one o f the chroniclers o f the time, or verified by some competent
recent authority. T he work will be more interesting to a larger class of readers, than the
elaborated history, with all its tedious details. The volumes are well printed, and illustra­
ted with handsome and appropriate engravings.
4.

— Story o f the Battle o f Waterloo. By the Rev. G. R. G leig , M. A . 12mo., pp.
310. New Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
W e have no great sympathy for parsons who carry the Bible in one hand and the Sword
in the other; or Rev. authors, who become the historians o f war, and waste their energies
and expend their genius in the glorification o f military heroes. Such ministers of the
“ Prince o f Peace” seem to us out o f their element— they appear to be fulfilling a mission
somewhat at variance with that divine one for which they were sent. But if the Rev.
Mr. Gleig is as much at home in sermonizing, as in relating the story o f the battle o f W a ­
terloo, he must be an eloquent and popular preacher, for he has really given us a very
graphic and thrilling account o f the events o f that memorable battle. W e have read
enough o f the work to satisfy us that it contains the most comprehensive and readable
account o f the campaign that has yet been published, and as such w’e commend it to those
who have little time to throw away on more detailed descriptions.
5.

— Napoleon; H is Arm y and H is Generals; their Unexampled M ilitary Career.
W ith a Sketch o f the French Revolution. By an American. Illustrated with numer­
ous elegant engravings. l2m o., pp. 422. New Y ork : Leavitt, T row & Co.
The present volume is designed, no doubt, to gratify a taste in the public mind for mili­

tary exploits, which the existing war with M exico has created, or rather revived, in this
country. Of the utility o f such publications, in fostering a correct and Christian spirit in
society, it is quite unnecessary for us to speak. The design o f the work, so far as the
compiler is concerned, is to give the reader a faithful narrative o f those great military
operations, which agitated Europe for a period o f twenty years. In the prosecution o f
this object, he appears to have consulted previous works on the subject, and has presented
a condensed, but comprehensive narrative o f the events, and men who figured most con­
spicuously in those scenes o f blood and murder. In drawing from Scott, Lockhart, Clark,
and other English authors, comments upon the political character and acts o f Napoleon,
evidently partaking o f the natural feelings o f those writers, have judiciously been avoided;
thus leaving the naked narrative for every one to study with an unbiassed mind.
6.

— Chambers'1 Miscellany o f Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. Edited by R obert
Boston: Gould, Ken­
dall & Lincoln. New Y ork : Berford & Co.
C hambers, author o f the “ Cyclopedia o f English Literature.”

W e have received the first two numbers o f this popular work, which is to be repub­
lished here in thirty numbers, uniform, in size and style, with the Edinburgh edition.
Three numbers complete a volume o f over 500 pages o f useful and entertaining matter,
suited to every class o f readers.
o f ten volumes.




The thirty numbers, when completed, will form a series

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7. — The Public M en o f the Revolution. Including Events from the Peace o f 1783 to
the Peace o f 1815. In a Series o f Letters. By the late Hon. W illiam S u llivan ,
LL. D. W ith a Biographical Sketch o f the Author, and Additional Notes. By his
son, J ohn T . S. S ullivan . 8 vo., pp. 463. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
Thirteen years have elapsed since this work was first published in the life-time of the
author. A t that period, it attracted a large share o f the attention o f the public mind, and
was a fruitful topic o f discussion in political and literary circles; and the impressions it
made upon our mind, in regard to certain prominent men (particularly Mr. Jefferson) o f
the revolution, have often recurred to us with a freshness that time has not been able to
efface.

W e heartily thank all concerned, for re-producing a work so well calculated to

shed light upon the characters and motives o f the men most conspicuous in the early po­
litical history o f our institutions. Mr. Sullivan was a Federalist, and, o f course, an apolo­
gist for that party, which has long since been merged in new organizations of republican­
ism. It is due to the worthy patriots and disinterested statesmen who composed the
Federal party, that their motives should be known, and the principles they advocated un­
derstood ; and we are, therefore, we repeat, glad that this work has been re-produced, at
a time and in a form that will be likely to secure for it a permanent place in all our pub­
lic libraries. W e consider it a most valuable contribution to the political history o f the
country, and one which reflects a more faithful picture o f the public characters o f that
epoch, than any yet made to our literature.
8. — Tim 's Fortnight Ramble, and other Poems. By T homas M ackellar , author o f
“ Droppings from the Heart.” 12mo., pp. 2l6. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
The leading poem, which occupies little more than one-half the volume, though some­
what desultory, is the most readable that we have met with for a long time. It is written
in an agreeable vein, and embraces the descriptive, the humorous, and the pathetic, and
the transition from one to the other is easy and natural. In the domestic and miscella­
neous pieces, which occupy the remaining pages, pure and generous sentiments are ex­
pressed in chaste and simple words. Indeed, without great pretension, Mr. Mackellar is a
poet that will “ gather in ” a class o f readers that any poet might be proud to acknowledge
as his admirers.
9.

— Passages from the H istory o f Liberty.
Ticknor & Co.

18mo., pp. 278.

Boston: William D.

W e like the title o f this book ; and we like the subject, and the manner o f treating it.

A portion, the first, is devoted to the early Italian reformers, who labored for liberty,
peace, and their country ; another, John de W ycliffe ; and another, to the reforms of Sa­
vonarola ; and the closing part to the war o f the communities o f Castile. The author
hardly deems it necessary to explain the connection between the passages, drawn all from
one great stream o f history, which are embraced in his little volume. The efforts o f the
first Italian reformers, he justly considers as illustrations o f the isolation and trials o f the
dark ages; WyclifFe’s work, as a work o f natural principles, just beginning, in his time,
to be acknowledged by his countrymen o f England; Savonarola’s reforms, as expressing
the desires for peace and purification, which were in all true hearts, during a period o f so
much strife and so many stains, as that period o f transition from the middle ages to our
modern times; and finally, the Castilian war, as one among numerous histories concern­
ing the same desires for juster principles and larger life.

The author has brought to his

work those rare qualities o f mind and heart, which alone impart a value and give an in­
terest to it. W ith no mean culture o f the intellect, a comprehensive mind, and a heart
strong in the love o f history, the author groups, as it were, the ideas o f history, rather
than the incidents and details, and thus furnishes us with a book o f suggestions for men
o f thought.

Facts are useful in their place; but, without philosophic deduction, they are

like the body without the soul— o f little or no account.




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10. — Appleton's Railroad and Steamboat Companion; being a Travellers' Guide through
N ew England and the Middle States, with Routes in the Southern and Western
States, and also in Canada. Form ing, likewise, a Complete Guide to the W hite
Mountains, Catskill Mountains, etc., Niagara F ills, Trenton Falls, etc., Saratoga
Springs, and other W atering-Places, etc., etc. Illustrated with numerous Maps and
Engravings. By W . W illiam s . 18mo., pp. 235. N ew Y ork : D. Appleton &. Co.
In the preparation o f this work, the compiler has wisely, we think, abandoned the old
plan o f filling the pages with tables o f routes, which, from their complexity, it is so diffi­
cult to trace or understand; and, instead o f a general map, the accompaniment o f the old
guides— which, from the smallness o f the scale on which it is graduated, is of very little
use in a railroad car, and which, from its size, and the necessity o f its being opened and
re-opened, folded and re-folded, is extremely inconvenient in a crowded conveyance— for
this work, maps o f the several routes are engraved ; and where it is a long one, the route
has been continued on another map, in such a way as to be easily understood. The whole
arrangement o f the information embodied in this book, is admirably adapted to the pur­
poses for which it was intended; and the materials, which appear to have been gathered
from the most authentic sources, and the result o f actual observation, furnish information
that is at once recent and reliable. It is, in our opinion, the best guide-book that has yet
been published in this country.
11. — The Principles o f Nature, H er Divine Revelations, and a Voice to Mankind. By
and through A ndrew J ackson D av is , the “ Poughkeepsie Seer,” and “ Clairvoyant.”
In Three Parts. 8vo., pp. 782. New Y o rk : S. S. Lyon & W m . Fish bough.
This is certainly an extraordinary work— the most, perhaps, that has appeared during
the present century. It purports to “ consist o f the consecutive reasonings and revelations
o f a spirit freed, by a certain physical process, the philosophy o f which is explained, from
the obstructing influence o f the material organization, and exalted to a position which
gave access to a knowledge o f the structure and laws o f the whole material universe.”
Aside from this claim, it is a most remarkable production, and would be so considered, if
it had been put forth without such pretensions, which we do not mean to say are not wellfounded. For boldness c f conception, and comprehensiveness o f plan, so far as we know,
it is without a parallel in the history o f literature, philosophy, and religion. It discusses
all these subjects with the most perfect freedom. W e learn thus much by the casual read­
ing o f parts. It has, o f course, received from reviewers all sorts o f treatment. The re­
ligious sentiments it inculcates, have been denounced as infidel by the great body of ortho­
dox theologians, and, o f course, lauded by free-thinkers as the very essence of truth. It
seems to take in the whole range o f human knowledge, and, not content with our earth,
the author visits other planets and other worlds, and discourses to us o f their inhabitants
and their peculiarities. But this is not the place, had we space, to give an idea of the
contents o f the volume, much less to express an opinion o f its claims to credence as a
revelation o f nature, or its merits as a production o f the human mind. W e have no fear,
however, o f commending it to the curious, although that is scarcely necessary, as they, no
doubt, are much in advance o f us on this head. The friends o f old and well-established
truth, have nothing to fear from whatever errors Mr. Davis may have “ r e v e a l e d f o r
we believe, with one o f his axioms, “ that any theory, hypothesis, philosophy, sect, creed,
or institution, that fears investigation, openly manifests its own error.”
12. — The History, Manners, and Customs o f the North American Indians.
245. New Y o r k : Robert Carter.

ISmo., pp.

This is a reprint from a work published by the “ London R eligious Tract Society," and
appears to be compiled from the works o f our countryman, Catlin. It abounds in picto­
rial illustrations o f Indian life and scenery, more spirited in design than beautiful in exe­
cution.

The English author has adopted the familiar form o f the dialogue, and the Amer­

ican editor has omitted such parts o f the work as seemed to him irrelevant, or not well
authenticated.




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The Book Trade.
13.

— Reminiscences o f Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Robert Southey. By J oseph C ot ­
l2mo., pp. 378. New Y o rk : W iley & Putnam.
These brief memorials o f Mr. Coleridge and Mr. Southey, were written by Mr. Cottle,
the same individual who, more than half a century before, contributed his efforts to as­
tle .

sist and encourage them, in their first entrance on a literary life. T he work is founded
on letters and various memoranda, that, for the most part, had lain in a dormant state for
many years, and which were preserved as mementos o f past scenes personally interesting,
but without, in the first instance, the least reference to ultimate publication. Such is the
account we derive from the statements o f Mr. Cottle. Those who delight to study the
history o f the human mind, in its moral and intellectual developments, will find in these
pages a rich legacy o f rare and varied instruction. The private letters of Coleridge and
Southey, undoubtedly disclose a faithful portrait o f the intellectual life o f two o f the most
eminently gifted men to be found in the annals o f English literature— o f men, to quote
from a letter o f Southey to Cottle, who “ write in sincerity, and with the desire o f teach­
ing others so to think and to feel, as may be best for themselves and the community, and
laboring as much in their vocation as if they were composing sermons, or delivering them
from the pulpit.”
— Woman, H er Education and Influence. By Mrs. H ugo R eid . W ith a General In­
troduction. By Mrs. C. M. K irkland . “ Can man be free, and woman be a slave ?”
W ith numerous illustrations. 18mo., pp. 100. N ew Y ork : Fowler & W ells’ Phreno­
logical Cabinet, 131 Nassau-street.

14.

This is an excellent work, and one that cannot be too generally read and studied, not
only by women o f all ages and conditions, but by every intelligent friend o f human pro­
gress, o f either sex. T he original work, we were not surprised to learn, had been trans­
lated into the principal languages o f Europe, and deservedly gained for the author a sub­
stantial reputation. Following an introductory chapter from the pen o f Mrs. Kirkland,
Mrs. Reid’s essay is divided into eleven chapters, in which she treats o f the imperfections
o f society; the power o f female influence ; woman’s sphere; domestic duties; woman’s
claims to equal rights; injustice o f laws relating to w om an; education of woman, e tc.;
which she discusses with great force, clearness, and ability. Mrs. K.’s introduction, and
the additions made to the present issue, render it the most desirable edition o f the work
that has yet been published.
15. — The True Story o f M y L ife : a Sketch. By H ans C hristian A ndersen. Trans­
lated by M a r y H o w itt . 18mo., pp. 298. Boston: James Munroe & Co.
N o literary labor, says Mrs. Howitt, is more delightful to me than translating the beau­
tiful thoughts and fancies o f Hans Christian Andersen.

The true story o f his life, she

adds, will not be found the least interesting o f his writings; for it furnishes the key, as it
were, to all the rest; and the treasures that it unlocks will be found to be possessed o f an
additional value, when viewed through the medium o f this introduction.

The fact that

Mrs. Howitt saw fit to translate the work, will be a sufficient inducement for many to read
the volum e; which, we confess, we have not yet found time to d o ; but one who has, and
in whose judgment we place the most implicit confidence, assures us that it is one o f the
most interesting and instructive books o f the day.

The original author has a personal

interest, not only in the London edition, but in the American reprint; so that every copy
sold will add something to his coffers or comfort.
— Solitude Sweetened; or, Miscellaneous Meditations on Various Religious Subjects,
W ritten in Distant P arts o f the World. By J ames M eikle , late Surgeon at Corneth.
l2m o., pp. 286. N ew Y o rk : Robert Carter.
This work is highly recommended by a large number o f the orthodox clergy, for “ the

16.

warm spirit o f living devotion which breathes through it,” and as exhibiting “ a very happy
talent in the author, in deducing from the phenomena o f nature, and from the ordinary
occurrences o f life, much religious instruction, in an' unostentatious and pleasing style.”
embraces one hundred and forty-seven meditations on various subjects.




It

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The Booh Trade.

17. — The History o f Sunday-Schools, and o f Religious Education, from the Earliest
Times. By L ewis G. P r a y . 12mo., pp. 262. Boston: William Crosby & H. P .
Nichols.
The design o f this little volume is to furnish a brief history o f religious education, from
the earliest times down to the establishment o f Sunday-schools, and to trace their rise,
progress, and influence. In the preparation o f the work, accuracy and brevity, rather
than fulness, completeness, or originality, seem to have been kept in view, and the author
has brought oat the most important facts prominently, and within a narrow compass. It
will be interesting to the friends and patrons o f Sunday-schools, who will doubtless find
a confirmation o f their faith in the benefits which are likely to arise from the countenance
and extension o f Sunday-schools, and religious education in general.
18. — The Organization o f Labor and Association. By M atth ew B riancourt . Trans­
lated by F rancis G eo . S haw . 18mo., pp. 102. N ew Y o rk : W m . H. Graham.
The subject o f association, on the plan o f Charles Fourier, is ably discussed in this
pamphlet. The miseries o f the present condition o f society are pointed ou t; and, in a
few pages, the author displays “ the very simple mechanism o f the organization o f labor,”
and finally attempts to demonstrate, that this organization is conformable to the views o f
the Creator. That some change is to take place in the condition o f man, and in the pros­
pects o f society, and a higher, purer state attained on earth, we have no doubt; but we
are not prepared to say, that this change is to be effected by the principles supported in
the present volume, or through the instrumentality o f Fourier’s theory o f association.
19. — Relics from the W reck o f a Former W o rld ; or, Splinters Gathered on the Shores
o f a Turbulent Planet. P roving, to a Demonstration, the Vast Antiquity o f the
Earth, and the E xistence o f Animal L ife o f the most Fantastic Shapes, and the most
E legan t Colors, Rivalling those o f the Rainbow, Millions o f Years before the A p ­
pearance o f Man. W ith an Appendix on the Scenery in a Patch o f Infinite Space.
To which is added, Accounts o f the most Wonderful Bodies and Substances that have
Fallen from Heaven, in all A ges o f the W orld, with an Analysis o f Each. Illus­
trated with Engravings. 8vo., p p .-------. New York : W . H. Graham.
W e have given the extraordinary title-page in full, and i f it does not excite the mind of
the curious, anything that we may add will not, surely. From the preface, which will be
read (if for no other reason) because it is brief, even briefer than the title, we learn, that
the work is intended to furnish a general view o f the leading appearances o f physical na­
ture, the economy o f the heavens and the earth, deduced from Milner’s 44 Gallery o f N a ­
ture,” Mantell’s “ Medals o f Creation,” and other authentic sources.

The realities o f

creation certainly surpass, in grandeur and sublimity, the most imposing fictions o f ro­
mance.
20. — Poems. By G eorge H. C a l v e r t . 12mo., pp. 125. Boston: W . D. Dickinson & Co.
Mr. Calvert, i f not a great poet, gives utterance to 44thoughts that breathe and words
that burn.”

In other words, he writes, because he has something to say— and no man of

that character leaves the purpose o f his mission entirely unfulfilled. The smallest insect,
and the minutest particle o f the great globe, are parts o f a whole, without each o f which
that whole would be incomplete.

The same statement can be applied, with equal truth,

to the world o f mind. The pieces in this volume, although mostly fragmentary, embody
thoughts and feelings that cannot fail o f leaving their impress upon the mind that is pre­
pared to receive jthem.
21.

— The Arabian N ights’ Entertainments.

N ew Y o rk : C. S. Francis & Co.

W e can only repeat, on receipt o f the present part, our admiration o f the admirable
style in which this edition o f a universally popular work has been re-produced by the
American publishers.
well executed.




T w o parts more will complete the series.

T he illustrations are