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MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE. O C T O B E R , 1847. Art. I.— THE COMMERCIAL TREATIES OF THE UNITED STATES: W IT H REFERENCE TO TH E PRO G RE SS O F C O M M E R C IA L FREEDO M . O n the declaration o f independence, in 1776, a new nation sprang into existence, with a government based on new and untried principles, and such as caused the foreign policy o f the government to be different from that o f any o f the existing nations o f the earth. T h e sole object o f gov ernment was avowed to be the protection o f the people at large, and to guar antee that every man should enjoy in peace the fruits o f his own industry, on a footing o f perfect equality, socially and politically. A ll power was admitted to rest with the people, and the federal government possessed no authority, save that which was expressly granted in the instrument which gave it being. T h e powers derived by the government from a constitution matured through the long and anxious deliberations o f the founders o f the Union, in the memorable Congress o f 1776, w ere specified and clearly defined, being such as confined their relations with foreign countries very nearly, i f not quite, to com m ercial subjects. Boundary treaties were, o f course, n ecessary ; but otherwise, the manner, mode, and terms o f inter national com m erce came to be almost the exclusive subjects o f treaties with foreign countries. As a republican Union could have nothing in common with the general policy o f monarchical governments, and was likely to encounter nothing but hostility until the- importance o f its com m erce should command the attention o f Europe, it followed that there was little danger o f “ entangling alliances” in other respects than in granting special commercial advantages to one nation, to the exclusion o f others. A nation o f energetic and enterprising people were just emancipated from the colonial state, and looking round upon a world suddenly opened to their commercial enterprise. Instead o f struggling in the restrictive bonds o f selfish imperial regulations, the nation found itself raised to political equality with all others, but debarred from their intercourse on all sides b y their restrictive systems. In every direction, absurd interdictions met the American merchant. His com m erce, which hitherto had been con fined to the mother country, was cut o ff even from that by the operation The Commercial Treaties o f the United States : 340 o f the British navigation laws, which took effect against the States the moment they ceased to be colonies. Those laws, w hich had been in being for 150 years, had, practically, never been in operation. The prin ciple o f the law was, in brief, that there should be imported into Great Britain no goods, the produce o f Asia, Africa, or Am erica, except in B ri tish vessels ; and goods imported from Europe in vessels o f the conti nent w ere subjected to higher additional rates o f duties than were laid on those imported in British vessels. It is evident that, down to the inde pendence o f the United States, these provisions o f the navigation act were a dead letter; because, in the three quarters o f the world whence foreign shipping was interdicted, there was no shipping owned except by British subjects. Those built within the colonies had all the privileges o f vessels built in E n g lan d ; and, as the Spanish and Portuguese colonies, and the nations o f India, had no vessels, those o f England would have met no competition, had there been no navigation act, which came first practically into operation when the independence o f the United States was acknow ledged ; and, as soon as it produced an influence upon trade, its fate was sealed. As respects the United States, it required a commercial treaty to modify the operation o f the act in this regard. T o enter generally into the commerce o f the world, it becam e necessary to acquire the right by treaty, as the natural right had been destroyed by artificial restrictions. T h e great rivers o f Europe— those channels o f communication formed by nature to promote trade between neighboring countries, as well as to connect distant nations with the ocean, and through it, with remote climes— w ere rendered as impassable by hostile laws as if their channels pre sented natural difficulties to navigation. The United States, a young country, with but little shipping and less capital, distributed among a sparse population, had little to offer in return for the facilities they asked. T h ey demanded that European nations should throw aside the exclusive policy hitherto pursued, and allow United States vessels to visit their wealthy cities, in return for the privilege o f sending their vessels to our comparatively poor and unattractive towns. In a republican government, an equal distribution o f wealth, and the promotion o f the general welfare, in a uniform degree, being the object, trade and commerce,, rather than war and glory, are the means to obtain them. It became, therefore, at the formation o f the government, a matter o f as much importance to fix a rule o f intercourse with all foreign nations, as to define the internal policy o f the federal government. T h e same men who brought so much wisdom to the construction o f our constitution, considered as anxiously the true principles o f fair commercial negotiations between independent States. These principles were, independence, equal fa v o r , and reciprocity, and w ere laid down and proclaimed to the world for the first time in the diplomatic history o f nations, in the preamble to the Treaty o f France, February 6, 1778. That treaty was the foundation o f our commercial intercourse, and bore the same relation to our foreign policy which the Declaration o f Independence did to our internal govern ment ; and it has formed the basis o f all subsequent treaties.* * T REATY BETWEEN FRAN.CE AND THE UNITED STATES, 1778. “ T he United States, willing to fix, in an equitable and permanent manner, the rules which ought to be followed relative to the correspondence and commerce which the two parties desire to establish between their respective countries, States, and subjects, His Most Christian subjects and said United States, have judged that the said end could not be bet With Preference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 341 As the policy o f all monarchical governments is to concentrate great revenues in the hands o f the central power, in order that profuse expendi ture may enlarge the circle o f imperial influence, and extend the patron age o f the crown, so does occasional w ar and large armies becom e a part o f the general system o f such governments. Th# many are to be kept poor to support the few in affluence, and sustain the strength o f the government. It becomes a consequence o f such a system, that the people at large should, neither in war or peace, acquire wealth faster than it can be ab sorbed into the hands o f the government. T h e policy o f such governments has, therefore, ever been to discourage all industry that does not throw its profits into the hands o f a few individuals, manageable by the crown. Through taxation, the general wealth must flow concentratively into the lap o f the executive, and from it, in uninterrupted and corrupt channels, through all official action, down to the lowest officers. T h e government o f France, at present, is a melancholy picture o f this system o f corruption. Thus, the customs department supports 31,400 officials, at an expense o f 37,000.000 o f francs per annum ; and they collect 110,000,000 francs, under a rigid system o f restriction, which, if modified to that o f England, would probably employ but 6,000, instead o f 31,400 persons: but, by cheapening the articles purchased by the people, an amelioration would tend to raise their condition, while it weakened the government by dimin ishing the means o f its corruption. This is a slight indication o f the gen eral tendency o f the p o licy ; and the late detection o f a cabinet minister in corrupt practices, but an example o f its over-action. W hen peace was declared, Congress did not condescend to ask treaties o f foreign powers acknowledging the independence o f the U n ion ; but, as related by Mr. Jefferson, in a letter to Mr. Adams, “ Were willing, by some of the ordinary international transactions, to receive what would imply that acknowledgment. They appointed commissioners, there fore, to propose treaties of commerce to the principal nations of Europe. I was then a member of Congress, was of the committee appointed to prepare the in structions to the commissioners; was, as you suppose, the draughtsman of those actually agreed to, and was joined by your father and Dr. Franklin to carry them into execution. But tire stipulations making part of these instructions, which respected privateering, blockades, contraband, and freedom of the fisheries, were not original conceptions of mine. They had before been suggested by Dr. Frank ter attained than by taking, for the basis o f their agreement, the most perfect equality and reciprocity, and by carefully avoiding all those burdensome preferences which are usually sources o f debate, embarrassment, and discontent; by leaving, also, each party at liberty to make, respecting commerce and navigation, those interior regulations which it shall find most convenient to itself; and by founding the advantages o f commerce solely upon reciprocal utility, and the just rules o f free intercourse; reserving, withal, to each party the liberty o f admitting, at its pleasure, other nations to a participation o f the same advan tages. It is in the spirit o f this intention, and to fulfil these views, that certain negotia tors were appointed— ” & c. &e. Art. 1. There shall be firm, inviolable, and perfect peace, &c. Art. 2. The parties mutually agree not to grant any particular favor to other nations, in respect o f commerce and navigation, which shall not immediately become common to the other party, who shall enjoy the same favor, freely, if the concession was freely made, or on allowing the same compensation, if the concession was conditional. Art. 3. N o greater duty or impost shall be levied, under any circumstances, upon the subjects o f either country, than those o f the most favored nation, and the citizens o f each shall enjoy all the rights, privileges, & c., that are enjoyed by those o f the most favored nation. 342 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States : lin, in some of his papers in possession of the public, and had, I think, been re commended in some letters of his to Congress. I happen only to have been the inserter of them in the first public act, which gave the formal sanction of a public authority. W e accordingly proposed our treaties, containing these stipulations, to the principal governments of Europe. But we were then just emerged from a subordinate condition; the nations had, as yet, known nothing of us, and had not yet reflected on the relations which it might be to their interests to establish with us. Most of them, therefore, listened to our proposals with coyness and reserve Old Frederick alone closing with us without any hesitation. The negotiator o f Portugal, indeed, signed a treaty with us, which his government did not ratify; and Tuscany was near a final agreement. Becoming sensible, however, our selves, that we should do nothing with the greater powers, we thought it better not to hamper our country with engagements to those of less significance, and suffered our powers to expire without closing any other negotiation. Austria, soon after, became desirous of a treaty with us, and her ambassador pressed it often upon m e; but, our commerce with her being no object, I evaded his repeat ed invitations. Had these governments been then apprised of the station we should so soon occupy among nations, all, I believe, would have met us promptly, and with frankness. These principles would then have been established with all; and, from being the conventional law with us alone, would have slid into their engagements with all, and become general.” T h e United States thus took the lead in commercial negotiation, al though they may not lay claim to the paternity o f a system which had its origin in the Congress o f Utrecht— an era remarkable in commercial history for the enlightened views and liberal regulations then embodied in treaty stipulations. Although France was the first to recognise us as a nation— not from friendship to us, but to suit her own selfish antagonism to England— w e have made less progress with her, in a commercial way, than with most other nations, i f w e except Spain, that wretched abode o f despotism and desolation. T h ere now exist 38 treaties between the United States and foreign countries ; o f these, 29 are treaties o f reciprocity, containing the “ favored nation clause,” which stipulates that any concession to one shall be en joyed by all others, freely, if the concession is made freely, and upon pay ing the same equivalent, i f compensation is stipulated. T h e great emi gration which has taken place between the nations o f Europe and the United States, has transferred to the United States a great number o f use ful citizens, and a considerable amount o f property. It has also closely connected the descents o f property in the United States with persons in G er many, and, vice versa, a great number o f the citizens o f the United States inherit property in the countries o f Europe. This has given rise to a new class o f treaties, particularly with those nations which, situated remote from the sea, have no occasion for com m ercial treaties. T h e first treaty with the Netherlands, in 1782, embraced a clause to remove the duties on the property o f emigrants, and to allow the citizens o f the United States to inherit property in the Netherlands, without first obtaining letters o f naturalization. A similar clause was contained in the first French treaty. This was a wise and liberal provision, and did great credit to the foresight o f the negotiators. A s the country advanced, and the intercourse becam e more extended among the citizens o f the new and old world, the necessity o f extending these provisions to other nations becam e more urgent. A s an instance, it may be remarked that the kingdom o f Bavaria contained, in 1837, 4,315,369 inhabitants ; and the emigration from it, in four years, ending with 1839, was 24,507 souls, o f whom 23,978Avent to With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 343 the United States. T h e Bavarian government levied a heavy tax on the money and property carried away, and the amount ascertained as so taxed, was 7,000,000 guilders, or $2,800,000, and was estimated to be about h alf the actual sum, as a great deal w as concealed to avoid the tax. In the other countries o f Germany, similar taxes prevailed. In 1842, Mr. W heaton, the American Minister to Berlin, was charged with powers to conclude special conventions with the German sovereignties for the abo lition o f these taxes, and also o f the droit d’aubaine, or alien duty, charged upon property inherited by aliens. Five German States have acceded to this, and Wurtemburg, Hesse Cassel, Bavaria, Saxony, and Nassau, have abolished the droit d’aubaine and droit de detraction by treaty, as follow s:— Art. 1. Every kind of droit d’aubaine, droit de retraite, and droit de detraction, or tax on emigration, is hereby, and shall remain abolished, between the two con tracting parties, their States, citizens, and subjects, respectively. Art. 2. Where, on the death of any person holding real property within the ter ritories of one party, such real property would, by the laws of the land, descend on a citizen or subject of the other, were he not disqualified by alienage, such citizen or subject shall be allowed the term of twro years to sell the same, which term may be reasonably prolonged according to circumstances, and to withdraw the proceeds thereof, without molestation, and exempt from all duties of detraction. Art. 3. The citizens or subjects of each of the contracting parties shall have the power to dispose of their personal property within the States of the other, by testament, donation, or otherwise ; and their heirs, legatees, and donees, being citizens or subjects of the other contracting party, shall succeed to their said per sonal property, and may take possession thereof, either by themselves or by others acting for them, and dispose of the same at pleasure, paying such duties only as the inhabitants of the country where the said property lies shall be liable to pay in like cases. Art. 4. In case of the absence of the heirs, the same care shall be taken, provi sionally, of such real or personal property as would be taken in a like case of property belonging to the natives of the country, until the lawful owner, or the person who has a right to sell the same, according to article 2, may take meas ures to receive or dispose of the inheritance. Art. 5. If any dispute should arise between different claimants to the same in heritance, they shall be decided, in the last resort, according to the laws, and by the judges of the country where the property is situated. Art. 6. But this convention shall not derogate in any manner from the force of the laws already published, or hereafter to be published, by his majesty the King o f Bavaria, to prevent the emigration of his subjects. B y this means, the movement o f emigration becomes more facile, and the rights o f citizens o f each country to the property o f their kindred in another more secure. T h e following are the heads o f all the treaties made by the federal governm ent:— UNITED STATES FOREIGN TREATIES. F ranck. NEGOTIATORS. D ate o f Treaty. Nature. Feb. 6 ,1 7 7 8 ... Treaty o f Alliance. Annulled 1798................ “ 1778... Amity and Commerce. “ 1798................. N ov. 14,1788.. Convention on Consuls. “ 1798................ Sep. 30, 1800.. Convention—Favored Nations......................... A p . 30,1809... Cession o f Louisiana........................................... June £4,1822.. Commerce and Navigation............................... July 11, 1831.. Indemnity and Duty on W ines......................... N ov. 9,1843.. • Surrender o f Criminals...................................... Feb. 24,1841. • New Article to Treaty o f 1843......................... American. Benjamin Franklin. Benjamin Franklin. Thomas Jefferson. O. Ellsworth. James Monroe. John Quincy Adams. William C. Rives. A. P. Upshur. John C. Calhoun. Foreign. C. A . Gerard. C. A . Gerard. De Montmorin. J. Bonaparte. F. B. Marbois. G. H. de Newville. H. Sebastiani. A . Pageot. A . Pageot. B e l g iu m . Nov., 1 8 4 5 .... Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city.... T . S. Clemson. D ec., 1823........ Commerce and Navigation. R e cip rocity.... W . Tudor. B r a z il . A . Deschamps. Aracaty. 344 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States: C e n t r a l A m e r ic a . NEGOTIATORS. D ate o f Treaty. Dec. 5 ,1825... Commerce and Navigation. N ature. American. Reciprocity----- Henry Clay. Foreign. A . J. Canas. N e th erlan ds. Oct. 8 ,1 7 8 2 ... Amity and Commerce. Reciprocity.............. John Adams. “ 8 .1 7 8 2 ... Recapture o f Vessels........................................... John Adams. Jan. 19,1839* • Treaty o f Commerce........................................... John Forsyth. G. Van Randwiek. G. Van Randwiek. A . Martini. G r e a t B r it a in . N ov., 1 7 8 2 .... Provisional Articles o f Pence........................... B. Franklin. R. Oswald. Sept., 1783... • Treaty o f Peace. Mississippi Free................. B. Franklin. D. Hartley. N ov., 1794-•• • Amity, Commerce, and Navigation............... John Jay. Grenville. Jan. 8, 1802... Modification o f Treaty o f 1794........................ Rufus King. Hawkesbury. Dec. 24, 1814.. Treaty o f Peace— Ghent................................... H. Clay, J.Q . Adams. Gambier. July, 1815....... Treaty to Regulate Commerce. Reciprocity.. Adams, Clay, Gal’tin. Robinson, and GoulA p. 17,1817... Naval Forces on the Lakes............................. Richard Rush. C. Bagot. [bourn. Oct. 20, IS IS .. Definition o f the Right o f Fishing.................... Rush and Gallatin. Robinson, and GoulC. Bagot. [bourn. July 12,1822.. Award o f the Emperor o f Russia..................... H. Middleton. Aug. 6, 1827.. Renewal o f the Treaty o f 1815 for 10 years.. Gallatin. Addington. Sept., 1827... • Reference o f Boundary.................................... Gallatin. Addington. Nov., 1 8 2 7 .... T o carry into effect the Treaty o f Dec., 1814.. Gallatin. Addington. August, 1842.. Northeast Boundary and Slave Trade............ D. Webster. Ashburton. June, 1 8 4 0 .... Oregon Boundary................................................ J. Buchanan. R. Packenham. A l g ie r s . Sept., 1795-.. • Peace and Commerce......................................... J. Donaldson. June20,1815.. Peace and Commerce. Reciprocity.............. S. Decatur. Dec., 1816....... Renewed Treaty. Reciprocity........................ J. Chauncey. V . Hassan. Omar. A u s t r ia . Aug. 29,1829.. Commerce and Navigation. Reciprocity------ M. Van Buren. M ay 16,1832.. Commerce and Navigation. Reciprocity------ J. Hamm. De Leaderer. C h il i . A. Bello. N e w G ranada. March 6,1844.. Mails across Panama......................................... W . M . Blackford. J. Acosta. Ottom an Porte. May 7 ,1 8 3 0 ... Commerce and Navigation. Reciprocity.. . . Commodore Biddle. Hamed. P eru. N ov. 13,1839.. Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.... S. Lamed. Mar. 17,1841.. Convention. Peru to pay $300,000.*............ J. C. Pickett. G. del Rio. Del Rio. Portu gal. A u g .26,1840.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip rocity.... E. Kavanagh. Sept., 1 7 8 3 .... Commerce and Navigation. July, 1799....... “ “ M a y 2 ,1 8 2 8 ... “ “ R ecip ro city .... B. Franklin. “ . . . . J. Q,. Adams. “ . . . . Henry Clay. Garrett. P r u s s ia . Thulemeier. C. Guillaume. Niederstetter. R u s sia . April, 1 82 4.... Pacific Fisheries.................................................. H. Middleton. Dec., 1832....... Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.... James Buchanan. Nesselrode. Nesselrode. S a r d in ia . Nov., 1833*«-• Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city.... N. Nile3. S. de la Marguerite. S ia m . March, 183 3... Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.. . . E. Roberts. T w o S ic il ie s . Oct., 1832........ Indemnity to the United States........................J. Nelson. Dec., 3845........ Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city.... W . H. Polk. De Cassaro. G. Fortunato. C h in a . July, 3,1844... Commerce............................................................. C. Cushing. Tsiyeng. C o l o m b ia . Oct. 3,1824..• Commerce and Navigation. R ecip ro city .... R. C. Anderson. April, 18 2 6 .... Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city.... Henry Clay. June 13,1839.. Commerce and Navigation. R eciprocity.. . . J. C. Pickett. Deo. 10, 1837.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip ro city .... A . Stevenson. P. Gual. D enmark. P. Pederson. E cuador. L . de Saa. Greece. S. Tricoupi. H anover. May 20, 1840.. Commerce and Navigation. R e cip ro city .... II. W heaton. March, 1847... Com. and Nav. Reduce Duties and T o lls ... A . D. Mann. H a n se T D ec.20,1837.. Commerce and Navigation. A. de Berger. De Falcke. ow n s. R eciprocity.... Henry Clay. H. RumpfF. M e x ic o . Jan., 1828....... Limits.................................................................... J. R. Poinsett. April 5,1831.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip rocity.... A . Butler. “ 11,1839. Convention to Adjust C laim s.......................... J. Forsyth. Jan. 20, 1843* • Convention to provide for Payment o f Claims.. W addy Thompson. Estevan. Alaman. Martinez. Bocanegra. M orocco. Jan., 1787....... Peace and Commerce. Reciprocity................ Thomas Barclay. Sept., 183 6 .... Commerce and Navigation. “ •••.......... J. R. Leib. Fennesh. S p a in . Oct. 27,1795.. Aug. 11,1802.. Feb. 2 2 ,18J9.. “ 17,1834.. P eace& N av. U.S. citizens may trade to N .O .. T . Pinckney. Convention on Indemnities............................... C. Pinckney. Cession o f the Floridas....................................... John Q,. Adams. Convention on Indemnities............................... C. P. Van Ness. * N ot ratified till 1845. De la Paz. P. Cavallos. L. de Onis. J. de Heredia. With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 345 M uscat. NEGOTIATORS. D ate o f Treaty. June24,1827.. Commerce and Navigation. Nature. American. R e c i p r o c it y .• E. Roberts. Foreign. Syeed Bin. S weden. April 3, 1783.. Commerce and Navigation. R ecip ro city .... B. Franklin. Sept., 1 8 1 6 .... Com. and Nav. (8 years.) . . . . J. Russell. July, 1827........ “ “ (10 years.) “ . . . . J. S. Appleton. T N ov., 1 7 0 6 .... Peace and Commerce. June, 1 8 0 5 .... “ . “ G. Phillips. D’ Engestrom. Wetterstedt. r ip o l i . Reciprocity............... Joel Barlow. “ ................ T . Lear. Hanan. Caramanby. T u n is . March. 1799... Commerce and Navigation. Feb., 182 4.-... R eciprocity.. . . W . Eaton. S. D. Heap. V Jan., 1835....... Commerce and Navigation. Ibrahim. Sidi Mahmoud. en ezu ela. R ecip ro city .... J. G. A . Williamson. Michelena. W URTEM BURG. April 10, 1844. A b ol’ n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton. Von Maucler. H esse C a ss e l. March, 1844... Abolition o f droit d’ aubaine............................. H. W heaton. Bernstien. B a v a r ia . Jan. 2 1 , 1845 • Abol’ n droit d’aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton. Lerchenfeld. Saxon y. May 14,1845.. Abol’n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton. Minekuitz. N assau . May 2 7 , 1846. . Ahol’ n droit d’ aubaine & droit de detraction.. H. W heaton. Von Roeder. In all these treaties the object is, to settle boundaries, procure indemni ties for damage done to com m erce, and to extend its sphere o f action. T h e only instance o f “ foreign entanglement,” or the entering into obliga tions with foreign powers for an object that had no bearing upon the na tional welfare, and was a mere subscription to a British chimera— a tribute to that presumption ever manifested by Great Britain in her intercourse with other nations— appears to be the clause o f the treaty with Great Britain, in 1842, in reference to the African slave trade. I f any nation w as entitled to set itself up as supreme arbiter, and dictate a course to other nations, that party belongs to the United States, in relation to the African slave trade, inasmuch as that, as colonies, they resisted, to the point o f rebellion, the attempts o f Great Britain to force it upon them, and suppressed it among their first acts as a government, treating it as piracy long before its profits ceased to enrich Liverpool. It is doubtful, if the United States had not first stopped the sale o f slaves here, by English dealers, whether, to this day, England would have abolished the trade. A loss o f profit is a wonderful stimulant to British philanthropy. T h e United States, o f their own act, abolished the slave trade after 1808, and from that time to this there have been no Africans landed in the territories o f the Union. Had all nations done the same thing, the trade would have ceased. That they did not see fit to do so, was no affair o f ours. E n g land prosecuted the trade long afterwards, without molestation from the United States. In the spirit o f our institutions a wise government was content with doing its own duty. T h e trade never flourished so much, as from the ports o f London and Liverpool from 1810 to 1814. In all those years, the government o f England had perfect control o f the seas. H er vessels alone could prosecute the slave, or any other trade, with im punity; and she exercised the belligerent “ right o f sea rch ” freely, pushing it to an abuse that compelled the United States to resist by force. After peace was declared, the “ right o f search,” although strenuously resisted by the United States, w as never abandoned by England ; and when her dimin ishing profit in slave traffic awakened her philanthropy, she discovered that the capabilities o f the vast coast o f Africa for a future trade are al most limitless, she n ow sends $10,000,000 worth o f goods there, per an num. T h e “ right o f search,” based on the slave trade, would give her 346 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States: the control o f those seas ; and unceasingly, and in every shape, has she urged the claim. W h en the W h ig cabinet was about going out o f power, in 1841, Lord Palmerston had succeeded in forming a treaty, by which Austria, Prussia, and Russia, countries concerned very little in the navi gation o f the ocean, and not at all in the African seas, conceded the “ right o f search ” to England. Their accession was valuable to the minister, only, in that it increased the moral pow er with w hich he approached France for her signature; and having obtained that, as he afterwards an nounced in Parliament, he “ f e lt sure o f the United States.” Precisely at that juncture, however, Lord Aberdeen succeeding to the seals o f the foreign office, sent Mr. Packenham to treat with Mr. W ebster on the Maine boundary. T h e treaty which settled that, contained a clause, by w hich each party bound themselves to keep, for five years from dale, a force o f eighty guns, in the African seas, for the suppression o f the slave trade. T h e “ right o f search ” was, however, not relinquished by E n g land. On the arrival o f that treaty in Paris, it had the effect o f prevent ing the Frfench government from signing Lord Palmerston’ s treaty; and they made a new one on the model o f the W ashington treaty, agreeing to keep each a force in the African seas. N ow this clause o f the W ashington treaty, w hich expired in September, 1847, was an instance o f “ entanglement,” in a matter with which the United States had nothing to do. From the jealous manner in w hich the stipulated force was watched by England, to see that it w as always kept full, it was evident that she supposed our small force could not spare the guns, and that especially in time o f w ar it would prove so onerous, that w e should prefer the “ right o f search.” The matter is now, however, at an end. T h e joint forces have been on service in the African seas five years, and the trade is admitted to be greater than ever. Mr. W ebster, in his “ defen ce” o f the treaty, states that the arrangement was designed to carry into effect one o f “ the stipulations o f the treaty o f Ghent, thought binding on us,” and to avoid the “ right o f search,” — as if England had compelled such an alternative. The treaty o f Ghent, article 10, states as follows “ Whereas, the traffic in slaves is irreconcileable with the principles of human ity and justice, and whereas, both his majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is agreed that both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavors to accomplish so desirable an object.” , It is not easy to see why this clause, made in 1814, should involve the alternative, in 1842, o f submitting to the “ right o f search,” on ono hand, or o f keeping a fleet on the African coast, on the other. It does not al lude to A frican slaves particularly, but includes all slaves ; and requires the United States to send a force to Hindostan to check the sale o f children and debtors into slavery, in countries under British rule, as much as it does to send a naval force to the African coast. There are apparently only two ways o f suppressing the slave trade, v iz .: to prohibit the export o f all English goods to Africa, or to colonize the whole coast. A ll the machine ry o f slavery is in full activity, in the interior o f Africa. T h e blacks are captured, brought down, and delivered on the coast, in exchange for L an cashire goods. If, after that, they work on Brazilian plantations as slaves, or on English ones as apprentices, or emigrants, which is the new word, it is nothing to the captors ; they get their pay, and continue their captures for With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 347 future profit. I f no more goods could be had for negroes, none would be brought down to the coast. England would, however, in that case, lose the sale o f her goods. This “ entanglement ” with England about the slave trade, seems to be an anomaly in our treaty system ; and as, after a use less existence, it has expired, it w ill probably not be continued. The commercial prosperity o f the Union is an evidence o f the success ful working o f our system o f treaties, and o f the wisdom o f those princi ples o f equality and reciprocity laid down as a rule by the framers o f the government. The general results o f the business for 1846, show the fol low ing as the proportion o f the foreign trade, done in national and other v essels:— ENTERED. CLEARED. Tons. American............. Foreign................ T o t a l............ Propor- Imported Proportion. goods. tion. 2,151,114 C9.15 $106,008,173 87.11 959,739 30.85 15,683,624 12.89 2,221,028 968,178 Propor- Exported Propor tion. goods. tion. 69.64 $86,550,175 76.26 30.36 76,938,361 23.74 3,110,853 3,189,206 100.00 100.00 $121,691,797 100.00 Tons. $113,488,516 100.00 A system which has produced such results, after seventy years existence as a nation, cannot be w rong in its general principles. Equal rights and reciprocity have given the United States 69.15 per cent o f all the tonnage that arrives, and they bring 87.11 per cent o f all the goods imported, and the vessels o f the Union carry aw ay 76.26 per cent o f all the exports. T h e same general principles have, however, operated differently with dif ferent nations, according to the nature o f the trade, the bearing which the duties levied by the United States had upon the articles o f their respective production, and the degree o f reciprocity stipulated. T h e intercourse be tween Great Britain and the United States, rests upon the treaty o f 1815, which provides perfect reciprocity between the vessels o f the two coun tries, in the direct trad e; that is to say, the productions o f Great Britain may be brought to the United States, in either British or American ves sels, on equal terms, and reciprocally, United States productions may be carried to Great Britain, in the vessels o f either country, without discrimi nation. T h e treaties with the countries o f the North o f Europe, n ego tiated in 18 27 -8, by Mr. Clay, are o f the most liberal construction, and em brace the indirect trade ; that is to say, the United States vessels may g o thither from any country with the products o f any country, and may go thence with the products o f any country to any destination ; and vice versa, the North o f Europe vessels may com e and go on the same terms. Un der these treaties, the tonnage o f those vessels in our ports exceeds that o f our own entered directly to and from those countries. Under the English treaty, our trade with Great Britain seems to have progressed, as indicated in the number o f tons arrived from Great Britain, as follo w s:— 1823. Tons. Amer. vessels....................... British “ ...................... Total............................. 1833. Tens. 119,202 199,177 46,011 111,485 165,213 210,662 Val. o f imports. 1846. Tons. Val. o f imports $33,869,692 2,858,623 374,137 198,373 $37,299,036 6,545,124 $36,728,315 572,510 $43,844,160 T h e tonnage o f the Boston mail steamers was about 20,000 tons for 1846 ; yet the Am erican vessels do nearly all the trade, it appears, m eet ing the English vessels on equal terms on their own ground. T h e result is different, as w e have intimated, with the North o f Europe treaties. In 349 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States: Aprii, 1826, M r. Clay negotiated with Denmark a treaty o f perfect reci procity, embracing the indirect trade. In July, 1827, Mr. Appleton con cluded one with Sweden on the same terms. In D ecem ber, 1827, Mr. Clay perfected one with the H anse T ow ns o f still greater concessions. Article 1 provides :— “ The contracting parties agree, that whatever hind o f produce, manufacture, or merchandise, of any foreign country, can be, from time to time, imported into the United States, in their own vessels, may be also imported in vessels of said free Hanseatic republics, Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh; and that no higher or other duties upon the tonnage or cargo of the vessels, shall be levied or collected, whether the importation be made in the vessels of the United States, or either of the said Hanseatic republics.” Article 4 contains a most extraordinary provision, and one which, under the “ favored nation clause,” it would be difficult to maintain against the claims o f other nations — “ In consideration of the limited extent of the territories of the republics of Lubeck, Bremen, and Hamburgh, and of the intimate connection of trade and navi gation subsisting between these republics, it is hereby stipulated and agreed, that any vessel, which shall be owned exclusively by a citizen or citizens of any or either of them, and of which the master shall also be a citizen of any or either of them, and provided that three-fourths of the crew shall be citizens or subjects of any or either of said republics, or of any or either of the States o f the German confederation, such vessel so owned and navigated, shall, for all purposes of this convention, be taken to be, and considered as, a vessel belonging to Lubeck, Bre men, or Hamburgh.” This most extraordinary provision extended to the subjects o f all the distinct German States, embracing 35,000,000 o f people, the privilege o f Hamburgh citizenship, as far as qualifying them to man vessels in the Am erican trade went. In May, 1828, Mr. Clay concluded a treaty with Prussia. In 1829, Mr. V an Buren negotiated with Austria a treaty co n taining the same provision in regard to the indirect trade. T h e effect o f these treaties may be traced partly by observing the tonnage arrived from each p la c e :— TONNAGE ENTERED THE UNITED STATES. 1846. m Amer’ n. Foreign. F r o m Austria............................... Total. Am er’ n. Foreign. Total. 2,000 4,432 389 15,453 5,019 419 3,502 12,862 7,290 20,152 24,872 1,592 1,375 9,938 281 61,656 5,611 1,794 13,440 281 86,528 31,136 9,290 40,426 33,812 73,842 107,654 4,432 389 13,453 Hanse T o w n s......... ........ T otal................. ...... Prussia....................... Sw eden..................... ........ D e n m a r k ....................... This is a very considerable change in the trade. W hile that in United States vessels has slightly increased, that in foreign vessels has com e largely to exceed it. If, now, w e take the total arrival o f the vessels un der those flags, w e shall see the operation o f the indirect trade :— Where, from. Austrian. Prussian. Swedish. Danish. Russia.............................. 319 Prussia............................. ................... Sweden........................... Danish W est Indies...... Hanse Tow ns................ .................... Holland........................... Hanseatic. ........ 959 9,336 2,105 721 351 542 281 198 1,501 390 293 56,941 399 Total. American. 319 959 9,878 281 491 61,268 1,690 11,145 419 F 3,502 29,018 24,872 21,903 With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. W here from. Belgium.......................... England.......................... France............................ ...... Cfcina.............................. Spain.............................. Spanish islands.............. Cuba................................ Portugal.......................... Sicily.............................. Tuscany.......................... Trieste........................... Turkey........................... T e x a s............................. M exico........................... Brazil.............................. Argentine republic....... Chili................................ Hayti............................... A frica ............................. Sandwich Islands......... T otal.................. ...... Austrian. Prussian. 367 Swedish. Danish. 222 170 587 980 892 2,685 399 247 1,125 544 123 Hanseatic. 352 925 1,582 90 443 300 581 366 255 1,477 149 117 275 150 2,435 150 923 307 444 78 1,139 254 275 154 5,275 63,669 773 434 231 1,844 5,409 21,047 349 Total. American. 1,554 1,987 5,221 308 1,651 791 90 443 881 366 592 1,477 444 494 4,622 404 1,198 461 434 231 12,714 374,137 113,554 18.937 18.001 1,683 156,905 5,128 21,798 3,387 5,019 7,170 21,908 22,410 61,014 5,988 6,560 30,264 9,418 606 97,244 927,430 T h e tonnage o f these nations arriving in the Union, amounts , it ap. pears, to 10 per cent o f the United States tonnage arriving from the same places, after nineteen years operation o f treaties conferring equal privi leges. In the direct trade, however, with Sweden, Prussia, and the Hanse Tow ns, the tonnage o f those countries far exceeds that o f the Uni ted States com ing direct. This account does not embrace the United States tonnage arriving at those ports from other nations, nor the depar tures for other countries— as, for instance, American vessels arriving at Hamburgh from Havana or the Brazils. W hat amount o f that trade the United States vessels enjoy, under the treaties, as an offset to the increase o f foreign tonnage in our ow n ports, does not appear in the official table. It seems that, o f 21,047 Swedish tonnage that arrived in 1846, only 9,336 came from Sweden, and o n ly 7,765 cleared thither; o f 5,275 tons Danish tonnage, only 281 came from Denmark, but 1,128 cleared for there. T h e greatest increase in the foreign tonnage appears to be in the Hanseatic, under the extraordinary stipulation o f Mr. Clay, that vessels owned there, though built elsewhere, and manned hy the citizens o f other coun tries, should be considered Hanseatic vessels. W ith other countries, it is required, that vessels should be built and manned by their own citizens. T h e Hanseatic treaty is probably the nearest approach to free trade ex tant, and nearly as much so as the treaty made by Mr. Pitt, with France, just before the great revolution broke out, or our ow n regulations with that government made at nearly the same period. Its effect is doubtless to facilitate the general com m erce o f the world, and the consumption o f Am erican produce in Germany, by promoting the means o f transportation. It has exerted very nearly the same influence on American trade general ly, in a more moderate degree, as that which the suspension o f the navi gation laws o f France, England, and Belgium, in respect o f corn, exerted on the sale o f Am erican farm produce, in the summer o f 1847. T h e multiplicity o f vessels caused the rate o f freight on flour to fall from 8s. 9d. sterling per barrel, in February, to Is. 6d., in August. At the same time, the price o f flour, in Liverpool, fell from 40s. to 30s. In spite o f this fall, the N ew Y ork shipper was, through the supply o f freight, in relatively the same position to the Liverpool market, in August, as in February. 350 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States : T h e treaty with F rance concluded in 1822, and under w hich our trade with that power is at present regulated, provided for a discriminating duty in favor o f national vessels; as thus, on whatever duty was charged on French goods, arriving in the United States in United States vessels, an additional duty*of not more than 83 75 per ton o f merchandise, should be charged on the same goods arriving in French vessels. T h e quantities that make a ton w ere specified, and also 94 cents per ton, ship’ s register, additional; and reciprocally, United States vessels arriving in France should pay 20 francs extra per ton o f merchandise, and 5 francs per ton o f ship’s register— this treaty to continue two years, and after that to be subject to one year’s notice o f discon tinuance— the discriminating duties on goods to cease one-fourth, at the end o f two years, and one-fourth annually thereafter; consequently, the discrimination ceased in 1829, and the trade is n ow on a basis o f recipro city. T h e discriminating tonnage duty is, however, continued, and is much higher than France charges upon the vessels o f any other nation. British vessels pay but 20 cents, and in ballast nothing. It w ill be ob served, that Hanseatic vessels being, as respects the indirect trade, on the same footing with the United States, and being subjected to a low er ton nage duty in France than United States vessels, they have an actual ad vantage over those o f the United States in going to France for freights. Thus, i f two vessels o f 400 tons each, leave the E lbe for Havre to take freight for the United States, one a German and the other an Am erican, the former w ill b e charged in Havre 72 cents, or $ 2 88 tonnage, and the latter $376, and on arriving in the United States both w ill be on the same terms. Y et this advantage does not appear to have operated much against our trade, as in the above table it w ill be seen that, in 1846, but 5,221 foreign tons came from France, and 113,554 Am erican ; there came, also, 7,678 tons o f French shipping. For a long time, the silks o f France were admitted at nominal duties, and free, and her wines on liberal terms. This did not induce France to modify her absurd discrimination against A m eri can trade, or modify the high taxes she imposes on American produce; yet the tariff o f 1846, which raised the duties o n ' her produce, has been matter o f complaint with her journals. France imposes I f cents per pound on United States cotton— a higher rate than upon that o f other countries— and yet her statesmen talk learnedly o f competing with England in the manufacture, when that country has been obliged to remove the duty from cotton altogether. This tax is not so much a disadvantage to the United States, as it is a burden to French manufacturers. The small degree o f wisdom displayed by France in her com m ercial legislation, places her far behind those nations she affects to rival. T h e trade with the British colonies was not included in the treaty which regulated that with the mother country, and is now regulated by a British order in council, o f 1830, an act o f Congress, and the President’ s pro clamation o f the same year. T h e order in council established certain “ free ports,” to w hich United States vessels might com e direct from the United States, with American products, on the same terms as British ves sels, and might sail thence to any country whatever. T h e act o f C on gress empowered the President to issue a proclamation, opening the U ni ted States ports to colonial vessels whenever he should have evidence that United States vessels were free to visit the colonies. This was done. It has been a cause o f complaint, however, that, while United States vessels could, on pain o f forfeiture, visit only certain enumerated ports o f the colo nies, and one only at one voyage, British vessels might com e from any With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 351 colonial ports and visit,any o f the ports o f the Union, and returning from the Union go to different colonial ports ; and that British vessels, by ma king a freight from England to the W est Indies, can earn another to the United States, and thence another to England, on terms cheaper, by reason o f the triple voyage, than United States vessels can carry their own pro duce to England. It has also been alleged, that the United States trade with the W est Indies has diminished by being supplanted by British ves sels. T h e nationality and tonnage o f the vessels trading to the W est In dies and the British colonies, in 1829 and in 1846, appears to be as fol lows :— TONNAGE ENTERED FROM WEST INDIES, 1829. American. British. French. Spanish. Swed. Danish. Havtien. Total. ...... 815 17,969 ...... 18,784 Swedish W. Indies... ......... 122 13,325 ...... 13.447 Dutch “ ......... 482 43,463 ...... 44,945 Danish “ 32,777 317 British “ 36,094 ............... French W. Indies— Spanish “ .... Cuba....................... Hayti..................... 40,516 ...... 19,179 ...... 99,779 2,091 21,370 200 British N. America.. 88,492 4,409 9,207 137 .... 42 785 8,646 .... 49,860 295 19,416 326 111.627 74 2,931 24,575 92,901 376,970 7,017 10,034 8,783 815 1,299 TONNAGEENTEREDIN 1846. American. British. French. Spanish. Dan. ...... 653 ...... 13,935 ...... 29^018 478 198 ....... 90,484 33,724 British Guiana........ ...... 7,299 6,108 .... 5,275 ...... ...... 270 ...... 51,284 Cuba..................... 650 ...... 2,664 30,264 Hayti.................... ...... 251 ...... 307 91 Honduras................ ...... 5,359 64 .......... . British N. America.......... 850,784 515,879 Total............ Total............ ...... 2,931 411,649 Hanse. Total. 653 13,935 293 29,987 124,208 .... 13,407 5,275 51,554 90 160,309 154 31,067 5,423 1,366,663 1,235,985 556,994 5,526 2,934 505 537 1,802,481 This trade, it w ill be observed, has more than quadrupled, and in every case the increase is largely on the side o f the United States. If, now, w e compare the quantities o f goods imported and exported, w e shall arrive at an approximation o f the manner in which United States interests have been affected under the admitted disadvantages o f the arrangem ent:— 18S9. Amor, vessels. For’ n vessels. Swedish W . I ., 283,049 Dutch “ . 434,717 Danish “ . 2,036,311 British “ . 175,628 French W . I . 756,419 Spanish “ . 884,646 Cuba............... 4,720,151 Hayti.............. , 1,570,288 Honduras....... 64,847 575,066 British N . Am,. Total.......... 7,451,116 1846. Total. 283,049 438,132 2,053,266 240,224 Amer. vessels. For’ n vessels. Total. 2,476 777,992 898,832 4,866,524 1,799,809 64,807 277,542 5,285 397,600 745,010 555,953 12,561 336,813 2,252,316 8,083,911 1,521,692 207,997 826,993 1,110,724 5,285 398,056 752,614 843,678 12,561 348,236 2,277,110 8,159,632 1,542,962 207,997 1,937,717 499,125 11,700,177 14,946,131 1,529,717 16,186,348 3,415 16,955 64,596 21,573 14,186 146,373 229,521 456 7,604 277,725 11,423 24,794 75,721 21,270 352 The Commercial Treaties o f the United Stales: A ll the increase in the imports from the W est Indies, appears to have taken place in American vessels. Before the present arrangement, the trade went through the Danish and Swedish islands to the British islands, but as the Spanish islands furnish the same articles on better terms, the trade with them has increased in a greater degree. T h e domestic exports o f the United States have been as follows to those places :— EXPORTS OF UNITED STATES PRODUCE. 1829. W here to. Swedish W . I . Dutch “ . Danish u . British ** . Brit Guiana... .French W . 1... Spanish “ ... Cuba................ Hayti............... Honduras....... British N. Am . Total. . . . . . . Amer. vessels. For’ n vessels. 1846. Total. $679,212 370,887 1,914,643 1,463 $5,311 8,987 27,367 $684,523 379,874 1,942,010 1,463 990,975 200,248 3,375,563 664,462 12,693 2,654,830 65,664 9,532 343,700 150,525 10,864,976 Amer. vessels. For’ n vessels Total. 69,274 1,056,639 209,780 3,719,263 814,987 12,693 2,724,10-1 $138,121 ................ 263,775 $8 72 919,601 39,851 4,221,598 693,485 464,129 87,539 587,724 30,388 656,101 19,340 4,285,913 428,053 1,089,112 24,901 325,494 ................ 3,536,462 2,506,204 $138,121 264,647 959,452 4,915,083 551,668 618.112 675,441 4,713,966 1,114,013 325,494 6,042,666 580,360 11,545,336 16,488,030 3,830,633 20,318,663 This is a great progress o f trade, and highly advantageous to the United States in every respect. The sales o f produce to the different colonies o f European governments, have greatly increased, and the carrying is 75 per cent in Am erican vessels. W hatever advantages English vessels may have in existing arrangements, superior to those enjoyed by the vessels o f the Union, the effect appears to be only to promote the consumption o f Am eri can produce in the islands, by facilitating the transportation. That policy w hich would seek to prevent British vessels from com ing here to buy farm produce, because England is so selfish as to prevent the United States from buying the products o f her colonies, cannot be considered wise or statesmanlike. An instance o f this short-sighted policy occurred in the plaster trade o f Nova Scotia. T h e quarry was situated at a place remote from the free port, at which alone Am erican vessels w ere allowed to load, while British vessels w ere allowed to go directly to the spot. This was thought a disadvantage to Am erican vessels, while it proved to be so only to the quarry owners, who were deprived o f Am erican customers by this folly. N ow , under the supposition that the whole above quantity o f $20,318,663 o f farm produce was carried in foreign vessels, there would be little wisdom in refusing to sell that produce at all, unless it could be carried in Am erican bottoms. Y et this is the spirit in which navigation laws are enacted. A s it is, the produce is not only sold, but carried, to a considerable extent, in American vessels ; and yet this matter has been a fruitful source o f complaint with certain parties among us. T h e manner in which these laws operate practically, may be gathered from a few facts. T h e famine, which has overtaken England in the last year, has compelled her to abolish the Navigation L aw s in respect to corn, which, until M arch next, may be imported into Great Britain, from any country, in any vessel. T h e effect o f this has been, conjointly with the United States law, allowing goods to pass the United States territory, to and from Canada, in bond, to induce shipment o f flour from Canada to England in Am erican vessels, via the O sw ego Canal and the port o f N ew Y ork— a route 50 cents per barrel cheaper than down the St. Law rence. With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 353 Similar necessities have, also, induced the appointment o f a parliamentary committee to examine into the operation o f the Navigation Laws, in respect to the indirect trade. A short quotation from the evidence o f Mr. Berger, a London merchant in the United States trade, will show the tendency o f this investigation. In answer to the question, “ Have you experienced any inconvenience or loss from the operation o f the Navigation Law s ?” Mr. Berger gives a reply at once comprehensive and specific :— “ The principal inconvenience that we experience is from that clause in the Navigation Law which enacts that goods, not the produce of the United States, shall only be brought from the United States in an English vessel. . There is a large trade carried on, principally from the northern ports of the United Slates, viz., Boston and New York, with Africa, the East Indies, and other parts ; there is a large market there for the produce of those countries, and very frequent op portunities occur, when the markets in this country are bare of those articles, and when it would be most important that they should be brought over here. I speak of such articles as palm oil, ivory, African hides, East India hides, Manilla hemp, East India gums, and African gums, and dye-woods of all kinds; a con siderable quantity of East and West India drugs, Cuba tobacco, annatto, and other articles : all those articles are very valuable, though not much in bulk. “ Are those articles that you have a great trade in ? Yes, a considerable trade both in London and in Liverpool, and those articles can only be imported into this country in British vessels. “ Have you experienced any difficulty in procuring British ships in the northern ports of the United States, Boston and New York? Frequently there has been a difficulty and a delay in getting forward those goods, from the difficulty of getting British ships.” Not that there is any absolute deficiency o f British shipping in these northern ports. But the British ships that frequent New Y ork and Boston are mainly an inferior class o f colonial craft, from Nova Scotia or N ew Brunswick, not adapted to carry the more valuable descriptions o f A m e rican produce, and not always “ in a position to corse across the Atlantic.” “ Generally speaking,” adds the witness, “ they are the worst w hich w e get, and the consequence is an increased rate o f premium on the insurance, an increased length o f voyage, and an increased loss o f interest; and what affects us more than anything else, the risk o f the loss o f the market, w hich the delay and the length o f the voyage entail upon us.” “ Can you give any particular instance of the difficulty of getting British ships, in which to import those particular goods t'iat you have referred to into this coun try ? Y e s : one of our friends writes us here in November last, from Salem, Massachusetts: 1The favorable state of your market would induce me to send about 150 casks of palm oil lately received, was there any British vessel here at this time; and also another parcel of 150 hogsheads, which I daily expect.’ And afterwards he wrote us, ‘ The 150 casks which are mentioned in my last I have sold, there not being a British v e s s e l s o that not only a British ship lost the freight, but we lost the commission.” “ The favorable state o f the British market” is simply a short way of saying that Great Britain very particularly wanted palm oil, at that par ticular moment, and would have been only too happy to pay a handsome price for it. But the Navigation Law s stopped the way. T h e examina tion p roceeds:— “ Can you give another instance ? I can give another instance whiclt affected us. The goods were sent by a ship which bears a good name, but which was a wretched craft—the Duke of Wellington; she was a St. John’s ship, loading at Boston. There were 100 bales of Cuba tobacco which had to be sent round from vol. x v n .— rto. iv. 23 354 The Commercial Treaties o f the United States : New York to Boston ; the ship made a very long passage, and that tobacco, if it could have been shipped by an American vessel, would have been here six weeks before, and would have been sold for 3s. 3d. a pound; but before the time this ship got here, the market declined 2s., and the tobacco is still on hand now, and is not worth more than Is. 3d. a pound. Upon that single transaction there was a loss to the parties interested of £500, or £600. There was another instance in October last. Our correspondent wrote to us in these terms :— ‘ There are at present 1,000 bales of Manilla hemp here, which would go forward were there any British ship.’ W e ha'd to send out a ship from this country; she got into distress, and had to put back to Cork, and those 1,000 bales, not having come for ward, being equal to 250 tons, have since been sold abroad.” T h e colonial policy o f Great Britain, as well as that o f other nations o f Europe, has, however, always had in view the maintenance o f a close monopoly, until recently, when great modifications have been made in it. The monopoly was, moreover, o f a very comprehensive character. It is a monopoly o f supply o f colonial produce, and o f manufacture. T h e colo nies w ere allowed to draw their supplies only from the mother country; they were constrained to carry all their produce to her markets o n ly ; and w ere prohibited from manufacturing themselves, being required to send their raw material to England to be wrought up. Earl Chatham declared in Parliament, that colonists in Am erica had no right to manufacture so much as a nail for a horse-shoe. Under such a system, the colonist was but a slave ; he was working for the benefit o f the subjects at home, while debarred from their political rights. In the course o f time, however, it came to be discovered that the growth o f the colonies was cramped through inefficient supplies, and they were permitted to procure them from other nations, the United States particularly. In 1835, the abolition mania ruined the physical resources o f the colonies ; and as one monopoly led to another, the people o f England w ere allowed to buy no articles similar to those produced in the colonies, except from them. T h e consequence was, that England could consume no more than they could produce, and when the slaves were manumitted the production was reduced. For tim ber, coffee, sugar, & c., the people o f England paid high prices— the dif ferential duties on foreign articles always maintaining the prices at the colonial monopoly rate. This evil led, in 1842, under the reform o f the tariff to the admission o f foreign articles at a less discrimination, taking from the colonies a part o f their fancied advantages in the home market. This has produced a desire on the part the colonists to procure the removal o f the inhibition from recruiting laborers in certain latitudes o f Africa, or, in other words, to renew the slave trade, and it is probable that the privi lege will be granted. The idea o f a inked, black savage, just released from his captors, voluntarily emigrating \o the British W est Indies, is a theory o f British philanthropists, as pleasant as it is preposterous. W hen a system o f protection or close monopoly is begun to be disturbed, the work o f pulling to pieces must be done rapidly. T h e colonies w ere only able to bear the confinement to British markets, because o f the high rates the people o f England were compelled to pay for their produce. A s soon as they becom e exposed to foreign competitors in the English markets, it becom es necessary for them to find more favorable sources o f supply. I f they are compelled to sell cheaper, they must also buy cheaper, and pro cure cheaper and more efficient labor than free blacks will afford. There is no doubt but that the declaration o f the minister, in 1842, that the colo nies must be treated as “ integral parts o f the kingdom,” will be soon ful With Reference to the Progress o f Commercial Freedom. 355 filled. There w ill then be a system o f perfect free trade between E n g land and her dependencies, and the trade o f the latter with foreign countries be put on a liberal footing. T h e most important change in regard to the W est Indies, which sooner or later must take place, is in regard to the Island o f Cuba, a country o f inexhaustible agricultural wealth. So great are its resources, and so fer tile its soil, that the protective system even o f Spain has not been able to ruin it, even although it has supplied its slave population at enormous ex pense, annually, and been drawn upon for large sums to support the waste o f the mother country. From the time when the combined tyranny o f church and state drove the industrious Moors from Spain, the ingenuity o f the Spanish government seems to have been exerted to retard the pros perity o f the kingdom and all its dependencies. T h e gold o f A m erica corrupted court and people ; industry and enterprise languished; com merce was destroyed by barbarous restrictions ; and the wealth and popu lation o f the kingdom wasted away under a rigid system o f “ protection to home industry.” T h e last official census reports 1,511 towns and villages uninhabited and abandoned. In the bishopric o f Salamanca, there w ere formerly 127 towns ; there are now but thirteen. Seville, in the 17th century, had a population o f 300,000, o f whom 130,000 w ere manufactu rers ; at present, the gross population is 96,000. Merida has declined from 40,000 to 5,000. Valencia, according to Escolano, had, in 1600, 600,000 inhabitants, and has now but 130,000. These are indications o f the state o f Spain, when all other nations have advanced through mutual treaties and the effect o f increasing commercial intercourse. T h e spirit o f close monopoly and grinding oppression, w hich has reduced her from the imperial splendor o f Charles V . to her present degradation, has lost her most o f the colonies that he acquired, and has loosened her hold upon Cuba, the inestimable prize on which the eyes o f all nations are fastened. W hile drawing from it annually large revenues and forced loans, the m o ther country has constantly refused to better its condition by a more liberal commercial policy, or to listen to the urgent memorials o f the islanders for the suppression o f the slave trade. Papers, as sound in argument and as bold in remonstrance as w ere addressed by the people o f the colony o f Virginia to England for the prohibition o f the traffic, have gone up from Cuba to the government at Madrid, but without effect. T h e worst fea tures o f the colonial policy are applied to the com m erce o f the island ; and the efforts o f the United States, either by solicitation or countervailing duties, have failed to elicit any modification by treaty o f the restriction on international trade. Thus, as an instance, the duty on a barrel o f flour imported into Cuba from the United States, in an American vessel, is $ 9 50, and from Spain, in a Spanish vessel, $ 2 ; the discrimination being 150 per cent o f the average price o f the flour. These enormous exactions are ruinous to colonial interests, more particularly that the rival ry o f the Brazils, in coffee and sugar, and the United States, in sugar, di minishes the value o f Cuban produce. T h e United States can live with out selling flour to Cuba, but Cuba could ill afford to lose the United States market for sugar. During the last few years, Spain has, to some extent, changed her policy in favor o f her former colonies, and passed reciprocity treaties with Venezuela, Chili, N ew Granada, and M exico. The princi ple is, that o f admitting into Spain the produce o f dissident colonies on low er terms than the same produce o f other nations. Through these 350 The Commercial Treaties o f the United Stales, etc. \ means she hopes to procure from Venezuela as much cotton as will supply the Catalonian cotton-mills, independently o f the United States. In ac cordance with this policy, she seems rather to repel the trade o f the Union than otherwise. In spite o f the disadvantages o f the com m erce with Cuba, and which Spain refuses to ameliorate through treaty stipulation, the trade is large and profitable to the Union. It was as follows, in 1 8 4 6 :— COMMERCE BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES AND CUBA. EXPORTS. American vessels.. Foreign “ .. T o t a l.............. Vessels cleared. No. Tons. 8,451 2,221.028 5,770 968,178 14,221 3,189,206 IM PORT8. Domestic Foreign Total. produce. goods. $4,285,913 $766,122 $5,052,035 428,053 7,048 435,101 $4,713,966 $773,170 $5,487,136 Vessels entered. Goods. No. Tons. 8,111 2,151,114 $8,083,911 5,707 959,739 75,721 13,818 3,110,853 $8,159,632 This is a large trade, and mostly in Am erican bottoms, being a singular instance o f the fact, how little discriminating duties or paper regulations can prevent trade, where it is not absolutely prohibited, from falling into the most capable hands. A fair revenue tariff, in Cuba, would doubtless double the consumption o f Am erican produce in the island, and increase the prosperity o f the Cubans in a similar proportion. It is not improbable that, in a few years, circumstances may place the island under the control o f the Union, when the increase o f white population, the suppression o f the slave trade, internal means o f communication, and external freedom o f commerce, w ill soon make it one o f the most wealthy States o f the world. Although Spanish legislation has been most inimical to Am erican com m erce, the United States do a larger share o f Cuban trade than any other nation. In 1841, the imports into Cuba were as follo w s:— IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF CUBA, From Spain. England. Imports............ $5,295,261 $1,437,199 Exports............ 3,473,630 6,779,438 T o ta l........ $8,768,891 $8,186,637 France. Netherlands. $618,461 $1,010,291 908,605 2,835,917 $1,527,066 $3,846,208 1841. U. States. $5,654,125 5,660,739 A ll others. Total. $3,125,680 $21,340,017 2,329,719 22,954,038 $11,314,864 $10,455,399 $44,294,055 T h e imports and exports o f the United States are $11,314,864, being larger than the trade with the mother country— a strong indication o f the affinity, if it may be so expressed, o f the island for the United States, and showing the inevitable tendency o f unrestricted trade to throw the island into the arms o f the Union. T h e mutual wants and interests are too strong, even for the hostile legislation o f the mother country. In looking back at the great progress w e have made as a commercial nation, through the agency o f reciprocity treaties in opening the previously sealed ports o f Europe to our enterprise, w e find that prosperity has in creased with every concession, made either by ourselves or by foreign powers. T h e Hanseatic treaties, apparently, have operated against our shipping trade, inasmuch as that the amount o f the foreign tonnage is greater in the direct trade. It is, nevertheless, true, that the quantity o f domestic produce sent thither has quadrupled; that is to say, in 1825, it w as $1,144,474, and in 1846, $4 ,003 ,3 15 , T h e trade done in Am erican vessels has gradually increased, but that in foreign vessels faster, to the great advantage o f the growers o f rice, tobacco, and cotton. This has not flowed solely from the privileges that the Hanseatic shipping enjoy, but those advantages have been a means. B y the great German Cus toms Union, or Zollverein, a great diminution took place in the restric tions on the internal trade o f Germany, resulting from w hich was a greatly American Ocean Steam Navigation, etc, 357 increased consumption o f goods and produce, foreign and domestic ; and com ing in aid o f those movements, M r. W heaton, our minister at Berlin, succeeded, in 1839, in procuring a reduction in the duties on rice imported into the Zollverein. An increased import and consumption o f United States rice took place in consequence, and the resulting increase o f revenue to the German Union, disposed them to farther liberal measures. Cotton is admitted free o f du ty; and in 1844, a treaty was concluded, by w hich an important reduction in the duties on tobacco was stipulated, in exchange for a reduction o f duties on certain German goods in the United States. This treaty, unfortunately, was rejected, on the ground, chiefly, that it took from Congress the regulation o f the tariff, and conferred it on the treaty-making power. T h e present tariff'has nearly accomplished the reduction on German goods required by the rejected treaty, and it is to be hoped that a new one may be negotiated. It is matter o f regret that any grow ing disposition in Europe to meet us on more liberal terms, should be chilled by backwardness on our part. T h e business o f 30,000,000 united and prosperous Germans is not to be lightly rejected, more particu larly that, at no distant day, H anover and the Hanse T ow ns must make part o f the Customs Union, and every encouragement should therefore be held out to induce the line o f duties to be brought down to the low level o f those now imposed by Hamburgh, and which are nearly nominal. The Iianse T ow ns make fierce resistance to this Union, but it is questionable whether they will be able to resist it. Art. II.— AMERICAN OCEAN STEAII NAVIGATION: OK, T H E F IR S T A M E R IC A N M A IL S T E A M E R TO B R E M E N . I n the attention lately directed towards the pioneer o f the Am erican line o f ocean steamers, the only point which seems to have occupied the public mind has been, in how many days w ill she reach England ? The great object for which the line was established, seems to have been entirely overlooked, or, perhaps, it was never generally understood. A few words, therefore, on this subject, may not be uninteresting. W h en Congress passed a law authorizing the Postmaster-General to contract for the transportation o f mails to foreign ports, regard was o f course had to England as a principal point. But the Postmaster-General did not consider that England was all the world. On the contrary, he knew that the w hole continent o f Europe was intimately connected with us in com m ercial and social relations; and as an American statesman he could not but feel that, for the keeping up o f those relatioits in the w ay o f correspondence, w e w ere entirely dependent upon England— at her mercy in time o f peace, and to be cut o ff entirely in case o f war. Under this view , and with the further view o f getting as much service out o f the line as possible, he determined upon a route by steamers which should touch at a port in the British channel, and deliver en passant our mail for England, also a mail for Havre, and which should then go on and open direct communication with some suitable point on the continent, from which, independent o f England, and without paying tribute to her, w e might distribute our own mail, and be the vehicle o f our own correspon dence throughout continental Europe. 353 American Ocean Steam Navigation : or, In carrying out these views, he saw spread out before him the great map o f Germany, teeming with a population advanced in all useful arts— with great cities, and large manufacturing districts spread over its surface from the Rhine to the Danube— eager and anxious to cultivate with us, above all other people in the world, the most direct and intimate relations ; and lastly, he had regard to the thousands and tens o f thousands o f G er mans, who had sent out their sons and daughters, “ bone o f their bone and flesh o f their flesh,” to dwell among us, and form part o f the great body o f Am erican citizens. Bremen was indicated as the door o f entrance to this great coun try; and the Senate o f Bremen, on beh alf o f all Northern Germany, made the most liberal offers o f its post-office and harbor free o f all charges. It is understood that the subject o f the terminus received the careful considera tion o f the whole cabin et; and that, looking to it in a national point o f view, and with reference to the greatest national advantages, the Presi dent him self named Bremen ; to w hich the cabinet unanimously assented, believing that this point would open a new and great field for Am erican enterprise. A contract was immediately entered into. On the 7th September, 1846, the keel o f the first United States mail steamer was laid ; and on the 1st June ensuing, the Washington, o f 2,000 tons burthen, left N ew York, car rying the United States mail for Southampton, Havre, and Bremen. M a jo r Ilob b ie, the First Assistant Postmaster-General, was on board to carry out the enlightened views o f the Postm aster-G eneral; and as she left the wharf, thousands cheered her on her mission o f peace. Crossing the Atlantic, and with some reason to expect a friendly recep tion in England, almost before her anchor touched bottom at Southampton, the American Consul came on board with a big hand-bill or circular let ter, from the Lords o f the Treasury, addressed to all postmasters in the country— not, indeed, in so many words, but in effect— “ that, whereas the government o f the United States had undertaken to establish a mail line o f its own, and to carry the letters o f its own citizens, which would de stroy the British monopoly o f Atlantic mail-carrying, and make the A m er ican correspondence independent o f England, and take a great many shillings from their mail, therefore resolved, that every letter arriving or transmitted by the W ashington, be charged one shilling, precisely the same as i f carried by the Cunard steamers.” T h e object o f this, o f course, being, by doubling the postage upon all letters by the Am erican mail, to drive all correspondence into their own line ; and, in good keeping with this illiberal spirit, the rumor was general at Southampton that these same Lords o f the Treasury intended to start the Cunard steamers, now building for Stew Y ork, from Southampton, instead o f Liverpool, so as ef fectually to run off the American line ! And these friendly demonstrations were in return for the courtesy o f our government, in receiving and distributing all letters by the Cunard line free o f all charge or claim o f any kind, for carrying their mails across our territory in sealed boxes, taking their own account o f the contents, and waiving the usual charge o f six cents upon all foreign letters, and in all other post-office matters showing them the extreme o f liberality and courtesy. This touch o f “ British reciprocity,” entirely unexpected to M ajor H obbie, excited the indignation and regret o f all the Americans on b oa rd ; The First American Mail Steamer to Bremen. 359 and the welcom e o f the town o f Southampton was in a quiet way, quite as significant. W hen the first Cunard steamer arrived at Boston, the whole town gave her an uproarious welcom e, as the pioneer in a new and great enterprise. W hen the Sirius appeared at N ew York, our municipal authorities, in the name and on behalf o f the city, gave her a cordial re ception. So in the case o f the Great W estern, and lately o f the first French steamer. But the city o f Southampton, although just at this moment aiming at a reputation for enterprise, and inviting all kinds o f new business, and although acknowledging through the newspapers the benefit o f the line to hotel-keepers and tradesmen, took no notice whatever o f the arrival o f the Washington. True, the Southampton D ock Company did give a dinner on the occasion, but it was as the dock company, and not as citizens o f Southampton, or even as E n glish m en ; and without meaning to undervalue at all their real hospitality and good feeling, but on the con trary acknowledging it in its fullest extent, and even thankful for the small est favors, it would not be too much to say that, as the dock company, and in the way o f business, they would perhaps w elcom e a new line o f steam ers from Botany Bay, or any other place, which brought them an acces sion o f dock dues. At any rate the town o f Southampton, in its corporate capacity, gave no sign o f w elcom e, nor was there any general or public demonstration on the part o f its citizens. A s the account o f the dock company dinner has found its w ay into all our newspapers, as the evidence o f an English w elcom e, while no notice whatever has been taken o f the reception o f the Washington at Bremen, it is due to the Germans, as w ell as to all who have had any part in originating and carrying out this enterprise, to follow the ship to that place. Indeed, it is a great pleasure to do so. T h e North Sea smiled as the ship drew nigh the shores o f Germany. It was the first American steamer that had ever moved upon that sea, and Captain Hewitt piloted her himself. T h e sun broke cheerily as she entered the W eser. T w o steamers, decorated with the flags o f all nations, came down to meet her. Aloft was the star-spangled banner, and streaming in proud and brotherly union, the flag o f the republic o f Bremen, emblazoned with the arms o f the city, a large key, emblematic o f its local position, as holding and ready to open the door o f Germany. With music playing, and cannon firing, the two steamers escorted the Washington to her moorings, at Bremen Haven. T h e port and all the vessels in the harbor were decorated with flags. A deputation o f the municipal authorities came on board, and with a formal address w elcom ed to Germany the first American mail steamer. One o f the attending steamers received on board the mail, M ajor H obbie, the directors o f the company, and other passengers, and followed by a numerous escort, started lor Bremen, thirty miles distant. As she moved up the river, merchant vessels, steamers, lighters, row-boats, sail-boats, and every craft she met, were decked with colors. The W eser fishermen, scattered along the line o f the river, and even the stolid boors, constantly drudging to keep open the channel, smiled a w elcom e ; while at every village the whole population lined the bank, unused to the noisy w elcom e o f a hurrah, but with beaming eyes expressing the deep feeling o f their hearts at this opening o f direct steam communication with Amer ica. It was, in truth, the opening o f a day o f promise. A precious mes senger had arrived, bringing to them the thoughts, wishes, hopes, feelings, and prospects, o f near connections, separated by an immense sea. At 360 American Ocean Steam Navigation: or, short intervals, the same messenger would come a g a in ; at times, indeed, bringing tales o f bereavement and wo, but in the main to scatter jo y and gladness— to cheer the heart o f the toiling peasant by frequent and early intelligence o f the prosperity and thrift o f his friends in Am erica. Approaching Bremen, the escort o f boats becam e more numerous ; and from the ramparts, w hich form on that side the boundary o f the city, the quay was lined with citizens o f all ages and sizes, while the balconies o f the tall houses fronting it, and every window, presented living tableaux, graced by ladies, who, waving handkerchiefs and scattering flowers, w el comed the Am ericans to Bremen. In the balcony o f one house, distin guished by his standing white hair and strongly-marked features, and to the Americans on board remarkable for his striking resemblance to G en eral Jackson, was Burgomaster Smidt, for twenty-six years Burgomaster o f Bremen, and a historic person in E u rop e; having drawn upon himself the jealous eye o f Napoleon for his liberal opinions, and as the head o f disaffection in the Hanse Tow ns. On the fall o f the emperor he had been sent by those towns as a delegate to the Congress o f Vienna, which divided up the continental empires and fixed their territorial limits. The year prece ding, the city o f Bremen had celebrated the twenty-fifth anniversary o f his service as burgom aster; and one o f his sons, resident at Louisville, in Kentucky, went out in the W ashington to join the family gathering on the fiftieth anniversary o f his father’s marriage. But the old burgomaster was not reposing upon his honors, or falling back upon his domestic ties ; on the contrary, he had on him at that moment the full harness o f useful ness. H e had been the master-spirit o f Germany, in bringing about the consummation o f this enterprise ; and among the thousands and tens o f thousands o f German hearts which welcom ed the arrival o f the W ash ing ton, perhaps none beat stronger than his. Escorted by a deputation o f senators, with the crowd opening respectfully before him, he came on board, and in the name and on beh alf o f the city welcom ed the Am ericans to Bremen. In the meantime cannon were firing, and a full band on the quay and on board the steamer was playing the national airs o f Germ any. T h e music ceased, and all at once changed to Yankee Doodle— in that distant region a heart-stirring sound— and to this home tune, the A m er icans, each on the arm o f a burgomaster or senator, were escorted up a staircase, covered with an arbor o f evergreens, to the quay. T h e crowd opened so as to allow a passage to their carriages, and they w ere escorted to their hotels. T o the whole city it seemed a ju b ile e ; and perhaps throughout all Bremen there was not an old woman or child who did not know o f the arrival o f the Washington, and that a joyful event had o c curred for Germany. An early intimation was given, that the Senate o f Bremen intended to make a formal demonstration in honor o f the arrival o f the W ashington; but before this could take place, the “ Hunters’ C lu b ” offered the enter tainment o f a target-firing. This came off' on Sunday, which, according to the custom o f Germany, after morning attendance at church, is devoted to amusement and social enjoyment. The place was an open field, about six miles from the city, surrounded by woods. Entering the barriers, the guests received badges constituting them members o f the club. In the centre o f the field, the most conspicu ous object, and immediately attracting the eye by its fanciful and elegant appearance, was a large circular pavilion, perhaps 200 feet in diameter The First American Mail Steamer to Bremen. 331 on the ground, and rising gracefully, in alternate stripes o f red and white, to a point. On the top o f the staff' waved the American and Bremen flag. Under the canopy was an orchestra, and ranges o f tables with covers for perhaps 2,000 or 3,000 people, arranged with as much neatness and or der as at a hotel. In different parts o f the ground w ere masts to climb, and arrangements for gymnastic and other sports to exercise and amuse. N ext to the pavilion, the ball-room was the most striking feature, which, though but a temporary structure, was large, and tastefully decorated. B e yond was the shooting-ground, and all around w ere the woods for a stroll. A large portion o f the population o f Bremen was there— burgomasters, senators, mechanics, and tradesmen o f every d e g re e ; fathers, mothers, husbands, wives, brothers, sisters and lovers, children and servants, and, forming a striking feature, peasant women in the costumes o f their sepa rate villages, tall and well-formed, with long hair hanging down the back, and glittering plate on the crown o f the head, ail moving harmo niously together— generally knowing each other, free, affable, and s o c ia l; the rich unpretending, and the poor unpresuming, w idening the circle o f human affections. As the entertainment was in honor o f the arrival o f the W ashington, the Americans were the guests o f the day. At the hour for dinner, they w ere brought in from their rambles, and, with Burgomaster Smidt lead ing the way, conducted to places at table. Senators, and others connected with the enterprise, w ere seated near them. T h e tent was hung with Am erican flags, and the dishes before the guests w ere decorated with miniature flags, steam-ships, and emblems commemorative o f the occasion. Throw n among burgomasters, senators, and other dignitaries, the A m er icans were excluded from the society o f the ladies, who graced the other tables, and whose presence gave an air o f elegance, and threw a refine ment over manners, which would perhaps not always be found at a “ targettiling.” W hile at dinner, our hosts, “ the hunters,” with rifles laid aside, but in costume, took their places in the orchestra, and played and sang the national airs o f Germany and Am erica. One, in a fit o f enthusiasm, wrote the Washington Polka, which was played on the spot, and is probably nowin print on its w ay to this country. Another, from the orchestra, in his hunter’s dress, and surrounded by his associate “ hunters,” made a long speech at us in German, which w e could not understand, but in which the frequent use o f the words “ W ashington” and “ Am erica,” the hints o f friends alongside, and the expression o f a thousand eyes, assured us that he wras giving us a “ hunter’ s w elcom e.” M ajor H obbie responded, and had the advantage o f having around him a party wTho understood and ap. preciated the peculiarly felicitous character o f his reply. After dinner, the company again scattered. T h e ball-room was a favorite gatheringplace ; waltzing, gymnastics, and shooting, all had their votaries, and many paired oft' for a stroll in the woods. T h e Americans walked to a beautiful countiy-seat in the neighborhood, and about dark returned to the grounsk T h e hunters w ere waiting for them, drawn up outside o f the tent, for a procession. Places w ere assigned them. Burgomaster Smidt took the arm o f one o f the directors, and, with the band playing W ashing ton’s March, they were escorted across the ground. Reaching the other extremity, the hunters opened, and the guests moved between them, and w ere brought to a stand in front o f a largo illuminated frame-work. Can non were fired, and from the frame-work flashed out, in letters o f fire, the 362 Afnerican Ocean Steam Navigation: or, name o f “ W ashington.” At the same moment, the hunters sent up a shout which shook the air— “ Washington and A m e rica !” Rockets and fire-balls lighted up the darkness o f the scene, and showed all around the stern features o f men and the gentle faces o f women beaming with en thusiasm. A friend, at the request and on behalf o f the Americans, an swered, “ G erm an ia!” T h e hunters took up the word, and as the light died away, the stirring shout from a thousand manly voices— “ Germania and Am erica !” — rung in the ear. The next day, the Senate gave a stately dinner. In the uncertainty as to the time o f the W ashington’s arrival, no invitations had been sent to the interior, but delegates were present from several o f the adjoining States. It was understood that the Crown Prince o f Prussia would have been there, but the Diet was in session at Berlin, and his presence was required at the capital. Prussia was represented by Baron Patow, Secretary for Foreign Affairs, and delegates from Hanover, Brunswick, Oldenburgh, and other States assisted, manifesting that all Northern Germany sympathized in this opening o f direct communication with Am erica. Rarely has there assembled at one board a more respectable or venerable-looking body o f men, or more undivided in sympathy with the cause which brought them together. T h e room was beautifully decorated with the flags o f the dif ferent German States, and at the head, crossing e'ach other, were those o f the United States and Bremen. On the coming in o f the roast, being the point o f the dinner recognized for such purposes, according to the custom o f Germany, the venerable Burgomaster Smidt rose and sa id : — “ H e designated the arrival o f the Washington, on the W eser, as an event which had converted hopes into reality— speculations into facts ; it was this which had brought together those present o f the American and German nations. In all the world,” he said, “ there are no two countries which are so w ell calculated fo r a mutual interchange, as the United States o f Am erica and the United States o f Germany. Neither o f them pos sesses any colonies, nor does either wish for any ; and in this respect, both escape the jealousy o f colonial mother States. “ A s a citizen o f Bremen,” he continued, “ I may well remind you o f the fact, that, after the glorious end o f the Am erican war o f independence, Brem en vessels were the first which unfurled their sails to visit the shores o f the young transatlantic rep u b lic; and as on the W estern horizon o f liberty, one star after another has made its appearance, so the vessels o f Bremen have continued progressively to steer their course in that direction. This fact, as it would appear, has not been forgotten in Am erica, and as i f in return, the United States now send us their first transatlantic steamer, thinking that the best key to Germany is the Bremen k e y ; and in the same spirit,” he concluded, “ in the name o f my fellow-citizens, I offer a hearty w elcom e to the Washington, as the worthy pioneer o f an en terprise which is destined to open a direct intercourse between two great nations.” Perhaps no man ever stood higher in the estimation o f his fellowcitizens, than Burgomaster Sm idt; and the spirit with which his toast was received, showed that the sentiment it contained was no less acceptable than the person who offered it. T o the toast in honor o f the President o f the United States, and o f the H on. Cave Johnson, Postmaster-General, M ajor H obbie responded. H is exposition o f the circumstances under which the line was established— o f The First American Mail Steamer to Bremen. 363 (he large and liberal views o f the Postmaster-General— was listened to with much interest; and the glow ing expression o f his hope, that the mail line to Bremen would be the means o f drawing close together, in the bonds o f amity and mutual good offices, the United States and the great German nation, met a warm response in every heart. Baron Patow, in the name o f the German States, offered as a toast the city o f Bremen ; and, in reminding the company o f the importance o f the ocean as being the great highway which united nations all over the world by commercial intercourse, he begged to offer his good wishes for the further success o f that city, which, in this enterprise, as in many others, had been foremost o f the German States in opening the way. Captain Hewitt’s interesting acknowledgment o f the toast to himself, apologizing for his ship i f there had been any failure to meet their expectations, on the ground that it was only on the 7th o f September preceding, that her keel was laid, and that the carpenters were still at work upon her when she left the dock at N ew York, kindled his audience. Mr. Stephens, the vice-president o f the com pany, acknowledged the powerful co-operation o f the Germans in the en terprise which he had the honor in part to represent, and particularly o f the city o f Bremen. H e might say much o f this city, its historic associa tions, its monuments and public institutions, its enterprise and its hospital ity, but he chose rather to express his admiration for that which it had not. It had no custom-house, nor restrictions o f any kind upon trade. Mr. S. read a letter, signed by all the directors o f the company, requesting o f the Senate their acceptance o f a model o f the W ashington, prepared by M r. W estervelt, the builder. Simultaneously, and unexpectedly to most pre sent, the beautiful model, six feet long, was borne in on the shoulders o f eight native Bremeness, residents in and citizens o f the United States. This was received with a storm o f enthusiasm, when Mr. Oelrichs, an associate director, a native o f Bremen, returned ai’ter years o f absence, and endeared to all present by early ties, put a seal upon the enthusiasm o f the evening by announcing the intention o f the company, that the next ship which came to them should bear the name o f “ Herman,” a name identified with German history and poetry, Herman being the deliverer o f Germ any from the Roman, as W ashington was o f Am erica from the B ri tish yoke. T h e next day the festivity was returned on board the Washington, at Bremen Haven, where the sight o f the ship, its great size, and the beauty o f its accommodations, confirmed and realized all expectations. T h e day ended with a visit to the dock, then in process o f construction, to be the largest in the world, undertaken by the city o f Bremen alone, at an ex pense o f more than a million o f dollars, for the express use o f the A m er ican mail steamers, free o f all dock charges. But the most important feature connected with the reception o f the Washington at Bremen, showing the true appreciation o f the object our government had in view in establishing the line, and in this respect most strongly in contrast with the course o f things in England, was the facility afforded for carrying out the grand scheme o f the Postmaster-General. In Senator Duckwitz, o f the post-office department, Major H obbie found an able and ready coadjutor, full o f enterprise and energy, and competent to treat and arrange upon the “ go-ah ead” system o f our own country. T h e basis o f an arrangement was agreed upon, by which the post-office o f Bremen undertook to distribute our mails over the whole North o f Europe, 364 The Emperor Trajan and Robert Fulton : through Russia, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, over all Germany, and when the railroad should be completed to Trieste, over the G recian Archipelago, around the whole shores o f the Mediterranean, up to Constantinople and the Black Sea, even over to Egypt, and down the Red Sea to India. T h e practical operation o f this would be, that the German resident in Iow a, could go up to the village nearest his farm, drop his letter in the post-office, and, postage paid or not, it would go direct to his friend in the heart o f Silesia, on the banks o f the Danube, or on the borders o f the Black Forest. And this grand scheme for withdrawing the tribute which w e are now paying to England, and making our correspondence indepen dent o f that country— for facilitating the intercourse o f our citizens, and for opening wide the door o f social intercourse, was arrested before exe cution, by the abrupt summons o f M ajor H obbie to London, where, on the sailing o f the Washington from Southampton, he was kept in attendance upon the British government, until it should be the pleasure o f the Lords o f the Treasury to answer his protest against their iniquitous tax upon our mail. Art. H I.— THE EMPEROR TRAJAN AND ROBERT FULTON: T H E C O N N E C T IO N O F T H E I R W O R K S . A G e r m a n philosopher, speaking o f the connection o f things in the present world, by reason o f which every man who works for him self works, at the same time, for the rest o f his race, and every man who works for his fellows works, also, for himself, has expressed, in a b rief soliloquy, the cheering sentiment, which every one may adopt w ho thinks o f his union with this world-wide brotherhood. “ M y existence,” he may say, “ is not in vain and w orthless; I am a necessary link in the great chain, which, from the dawn o f life in the first man, to the full development o f his being, extends into eternity. All the great, the wise, the noble, who have lived among men— those benefactors o f their kind whose names I find distin guished in the w orld’s history— and the larger number still, whose m eri torious works have outlived their names, have all worked for me. I have com e into their harvest on this earth w hich they inhabited. I follow in their footsteps, diffusing blessings. I can assume as soon as I w ill the sublime task o f making our common brother-race more wise and happy. I can continue to build just where they w ere forced to stop. I can bring nearer to its completion the glorious structure which they were obliged to leave unfinished.” This quickening truth discloses itself to us more and more impressively, as w e trace the steps o f human progress in science, politics, and social order— as we see how the hint, or guess, faintly uttered b y one, is verified by another, and perhaps, after revolving centuries, is embodied in some useful and permanent result. This interesting conn ec tion between the workingmen o f our race, separated though they may be from each other by a lapse o f ages, is inscribed by the pen o f history upon the rocky shores o f the Danube, where some noble projects o f the E m peror Trajan have lain, for seventeen hundred years, incomplete and use less, waiting for the genius o f Robert Fulton to arise, and communicate to mechanic art that impulse which w as destined to carryforw ard the royal w ork to a worthy consummation. The Connection o f their Works. 3G5 It may be worth our while to look at these two men, whose enterprises have, o f late, becom e united for the public service, in the promotion o f a common end— whose names are seen, amidst the triumphs o f civilization, stamped upon everlasting memorials. T h e close o f the first century beheld a Spaniard on the throne o f Rom e. He was a native o f Seville, and was at the head o f the army in Germany when the aged Nerva called him to share the cares o f government. The death o f the old emperor soon after occurred, and Trajan was left to reign alone. W hen the eyes o f millions w ere turned towards him with the most profound interest, he proved him self to be adequate to his place, and for nearly twenty years continued to fill the Rom an world with the renown o f his achievements. H is immediate predecessors had professed to main tain the peaceful policy o f Augustus, but their vices rendered them quite incompetent to carry it out with dignity and success. T h e concessions which Augustus had won by diplomacy, they could not keep, either by wisdom or by force. Although they were troubled by incursions on their Eastern borders, yet the Rom an name was most grossly insulted by the barbarians o f D acia, North o f the Danube, who crossed the river, rav aged the country, defeated the legions, and even imposed a tribute on D omitian. At last, the humbled army w ere surprised to see an imperial soldier at their head, marching on foot, sharing their fatigues, and content with their fare. Under the eye o f Trajan, the ancient discipline and valor w ere revived ; and the Dacian king, Decebalus, ranked among the first warriors o f his age, was thrice defeated; his hordes were driven back beyond the Danube ; and his kingdom was reduced to a province c f the empire. The victories o f Trajan, however, would hardly be thought o f now, but for the stony records which proclaim to the traveller along the confines o f Dacia, the bold projects o f the emperor to spread the civilizing arts into those Northern regions, and to naturalize those savage tribes to the R o man life and manners. Indeed, a fresh reminiscence o f his history was brought to light, ten years since, b y a Servian fisherman, who discovered, in the bed o f the river, near the village o f Praona, a bronze bust o f T ra jan. About twenty-five miles above this spot, are yet to be seen the re mains o f that splendid bridge o f stone, which Trajan reared across the Danube, at a point where the river is 2,400 feet in width, guarded it with strong castles at both ends, and fitted it to be a permanent thoroughfare to connect his new conquest with the old dominion. Little did he think that it would ever fall by the hands o f Rom ans ! Least o f all could he imagine that his successor, acknowledging his incapacity to govern so wide a realm, would destroy this noble monument o f imperial power. At this day, the bases o f the castles are visible, and buttresses eighteen feet thick. Eleven piles may be seen in the bed o f the river, at low water. Apollodorus, o f Damascus, the great architect o f the time, whose name is associated with much o f the magnificence o f Rom e, planned and executed this structure, animated, no doubt, by the full belief,that he was “ building for posterity.” Not a long time after the completion o f the bridge, the Northern travel ler o f the second century enjoyed the advantage o f a well-constructed road, extending from the Danube far into the interior o f the savage D acia, ter minating near Bender, about fifty miles from the Black Sea. It was a bold conception o f the emperor, and its traces indicate his faith in the prin ciple, that whatsoever is worth doing at all is worth doing w e ll; for great 366 The Emperor Trajan and Robert Fulton : difficulties were overcome, and in some places it is cut, with signal skill, through solid roar. Seventeen hundred years ago, a man might pass with some degree o f comfort through that land ; but, in these days, if one ven ture to travel there, as he finds him self seated in a carriage o f the rudest form, and jolted over a rough and rutty Moldavian wagon-track, dragged, too, by ponies destitute o f all tackle, except a few frail cords, with many a sigh will he call to mind the signs o f civilization in the days o f Trajan. But special praise is due to the emperor for his efforts to improve the navigation o f the Danube, and to make it subserve, through all time, the interests o f com m erce. As the geographer looks upon the map o f E u rope, and’ beholds this magnificent river, springing up in the very heart of the continent, fed by sixty streams which flow down from the Carpathian and Alpine heights, bringing its constant tribute to the feet o f many an cient and mighty cities,— now boldly pushing its w ay through mountain ramparts, and making forests echo its roar o f waters, and now again spreading itself out into a lake o f beauty, reflecting scenes o f the richest fertility from its glassy bosom, then rolling on, with turbid and rapid vol ume, till, at last, it blends with the waves o f the Euxine, to wash the coast o f Asia,— how can he avoid being filled with admiration at the sight o f such a splendid avenue o f com m erce, and acknowledging the design o f Providence to make it the means o f bringing “ kindreds and tribes” o f men together, in a friendly interchange o f benefits, and uniting them in bonds o f social intercourse ? A g es have rolled away, however, during w hich the scholar, the merchant, the voyager, and the philanthropist, have read, in the records o f geography, that “ the Danube is not navigable to the Euxine, on account o f the cataracts.” T o o true, in deed; but what a melancholy testimony is this to the leaden slowness o f Europe, in the ca reer o f improvement, and to the long, long retrocession o f art, science, and civilization, in the old world ! For, in the reign o f Trajan, there was a spirit o f enterprise, awakened and fostered by his genius, which could mock at such obstacles to its course, as these “ cataracts,” that sank to littleness before the march o f Rom an art. This section o f the Danube, called Eisen Thor, or Iron Gate, on account o f the bold sweep o f the lofty banks, and the enormous rocks o f a ferruginous color which make the river’ s bed, causing the passage to appear as if entirely closed up, ex tending not much further than 7,000 feet, was nearly surrounded, in the time o f Trajan, by a large canal, beautifully chiselled out according to his di rections, designed by him as a lasting boon to Northern Europe. But, alas ! he left no heir to his comprehensive views, and his lofty spirit. His plans w ere abandoned, and this great work was left to dilapidation and ru in ; to be almost choked up by falling stones and earth ; to remain for centuries a monument o f the solemn truth, that the old Roman civilization had then spent its last energies, and that humanity must pause in its ca reer o f progress, to wait for some new impulse, ere it could advance an other step, or gain new triumphs over the gloomy reign o f barbarism. “ Be patient— bide thy time.” This is G od’ s lesson, taught by history to every earnest worker in the cause o f man. It is taught here— “ The night is far spent.” The impulse long waited for, has come at last. It has com e, not from the bosom o f Paganism, but o f Christianity— not from the shores o f the T iber, but o f the Hudson. The mind which grappled successfully with the problem o f applying the expansive power o f steam to navigation, set at work a moral force which has lately reached the bor The Connection o f their Works. 367 ders o f D acia— has broken the deep sleep o f ages— has given to the peo ple new ideas— has kindled a desire for knowledge— has opened new paths to enterprise— has called Art from its tomb to renew its youth— and, having disinterred the ship-canal o f Trajan around the Eisen Thor, is giving to the work its finishing stroke, and causing it to be a connecting link between the commerce o f the W estern and the Eastern world. T h e manner in which steam navigation was commenced on the Danube, it may be w ell to record. T h e first experiment was made, a little more than twelve years since, by M r. Andrews, o f Vienna. T h e want o f pub lic confidence in the practicability o f the plan, was the cause o f much discouragement during three successive years, when the voyage was often made with only a single passenger. At length, a great fair at Semlin roused public curiosity, and 300 persons embarked at Pest. From that day, the project becam e very popular with the Hungarians and the Turks ; and Count Szechenyi, o f Pest, who possesses an ample fortune, has de voted his time, talents, and purse, to its promotion. H e visited England, in order to obtain the best machinery, engaged English engineers, and stimulated Metternich and the Austrian emperor to patronise the work. T h e position thus taken by Austria, is an important one, considered politi cally, as it is asserting a general right to the navigation o f the Danube, raising up a barrier against the ambitious encroachments o f Russia, and bringing Christian and M oslem countries into intimate communication. Immense and far-reaching, as must be the effects o f steam navigation upon the social state o f the world, they w ill never transcend the measure o f the hopes which glowed in the breast o f R o b e r t F u l t o n . His was a great soul. It was ever inditing bright prophecies o f the future. It was a living spring o f philanthropy. Herein lay his great strength to brave disappointments, failures, and neglect. Although the bent o f his genius led him, even in early life, like M ichael Angelo, to seek his amuse ments in the shops o f mechanics, and in works o f art, yet w e see the moral grandeur o f Fulton’ s mind in the fact, that his strongest impulse to action was his earnest sympathy with the fortunes o f his race. “ A uni versal free trade,” says Mr. Colden, his biographer, “ was his favorite theory in political econom y ; and the war system o f the old world, ho con sidered as the cause o f the misery o f the greatest portion o f its inhab itants.” H e cherished a firm belief in the progress o f society, in the ul timate triumphs o f peace, and in the final prevalence o f a spirit o f brother hood amongst the nations o f the earth. The different effects which have flowed from the lives o f Trajan and Fulton, exhibit, in a striking light, how much can be done by science, and how little by war, for the civilization o f mankind. In spite o f all the em peror’ s achievements in Dacia, and his colony o f 30,000 Romans settled there, seventeen centuries have rolled over the inhabitants o f that rude country without beholding one step o f moral progress, or a single change for the better in their social state. The celebrated Tuscan column, reared by Apollodorus in honor o f Trajan, still stands in “ the eternal city,” cov ered with basso-relievos, portraying the appearance and manners o f the Dacians. I f these same figures had all been just carved by the hand o f Powers, they would represent as well the Dacians o f the present day as those o f the age o f Trajan. T h ey wear the same mean costume, and use the same awkward implements o f agriculture. T h ey live in the same vile kind o f straw huts, compared with which, an American log-cabin is a 368 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. palace. T h ey are generally small in stature, ignorant, idle, faithless, clothed in sheep-skins, and either going barefoot or wearing sandals. The cattle o f their farms appear untamed and wild, and their dogs are very wolves as to ferocity. In every point o f character, these Wallachians and Moldavians are" inferior to the inhabitants o f Servia, on the opposite side o f the river, who are more immediately under Turkish rule. W hat a spectacle in the sight o f Christendom ! A nation o f Europe living sev. enteen hundred years without the least sign o f im provem ent! Th eir state is one o f dull and dreary monotony. But a better time is coming. This gloomy night o f barbarism is beginning to pass away. T h e whizzing sound o f the first steamer which disturbed the repose o f these Northern wilds, was the herald o f an auspicious change, and the impulse given to the march o f Christian civilization by the toils o f Robert Fulton, has al ready extended from the banks o f the Hudson to those o f the Danube and the Euxine. M ay Heaven spend it, and “ the stars in their courses” fa vor it, until it shall girdle the earth with a zone o f light, and hasten the era, when no more the separating frith or ocean shall make enemies o f nations, but all— “ Like kindred drops be mingled into one.” Art. IV.— COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES. NUMBER IV , T H E IS L A N D O F N A N T U C K E T . I t is not easy, in all cases, to discover the remote causes o f the local origin o f certain trades and arts, which, ministering to the necessities com mon to all parts o f the earth, yet seem to be indigenous to particular soils. There is no local reason, that has ever been discovered, why Genoa should excel in the manufacture o f velvets, Brussels in lace, Lyons in silk, T o ledo in swords, Cremona in fiddles, Damascus in steel, Manchester in calicoes, Birmingham in buttons, London in porter, or Nantucket in carrying on the business o f the whale fishery. But the world is governed by the same laws that govern individuals ; one man can excel but in one em ployment, and nature seems to have ordained that different arts shall be scattered among different people, that there may be a constant intercourse among mankind. Thus, free trade is the great fundamental law o f social life, and every violation o f it must inevitably be attended with disaster. In parcelling out among the multiform tribes o f the earth the different branches o f industry essential to the happiness o f the whole, Providence seems to have assigned to the little island o f Nantucket the duty o f supplying the rest o f the world with oil for their lamps. A peculiar people w ere raised up for this very purpose, and planted in a position where stern necessity compelled them to the fulfilment o f their destiny. Every circumstance at tending the settlement o f that desolate island appears to have been shaped to a particular end. T here is nothing in the position o f Nantucket which seems calculated to originate and foster the great business for w hich it has been for many years so famous ; but, on the contrary, its barrenness, its remoteness from the main land, the sand-bars by which it is surrounded, the impossibility o f entering its only harbor with a loaded ship, and the difficulty o f fortifying it against the attack o f an enemy, all seem to forbid The Island o f Nantucket. 369 the hope o f com m ercial prosperity, and the acquisition o f wealth to the inhabitants. But God has created nothing in vain ; and this sandy little island, which did not contain sufficient timber for the construction o f a boat, and with an immoveable barrier at the mouth o f its harbor, H e destined to be a great commercial seaport. Outlaws have always been the most suc cessful founders o f great empires. Men, who quietly submit to oppression, have not the stuff in them to make heroes o f ; Nantucket might have re mained until this day the home o f the Indian, or, at best, but scantily in habited by poor fishermen, like some o f the neighboring islands that are blessed with a richer soil and more accessible harbors, had not the intolerant laws o f the old colony driven thither a brave-hearted man who loved the right more than he respected mere magisterial authority. There is a dash o f romantic adventure connected with the history o f Nantucket from the day o f its discovery down to the present time. A small crescent o f pebbly soil just lifting itself above the level o f the ocean, surrounded by a belt o f roaring breakers, and destitute o f all shelter from the stormy blasts which sweep over it, there is nothing about it “ but doth suffer a sea-change its inhabitants know hardly anything but o f the sea and the sky. R ocks, mountains, trees and rivers, and the bright verdure o f the earth, are names, only, to them, which have no particular significance. T h ey read o f these as othefr people read o f angels and demi-gods. There may be such things, or there may not. But dreary and desolate as their island may seem to others, it realizes their ideal o f what the world should be, and probably they dream that Paradise is just such another place— a duplicate island, where every wind that blows wafts the spray o f the sea in their faces. The first European that discovered Nantucket was Bartholomew G osnold, an English adventurer, w ho, in the year 1602, was on his way to Virginia from England, with a company o f thirty men, in search o f a site for a plantation. H e discovered the island, but did not land, and nothing more was heard o f it until the year 1641, when it was sold to Thomas M ayhew and his son by the Earl o f Sterling, who claimed ownership o f all the lands between Cape Cod and the Hudson River. At this time the island was under the jurisdiction o f the governor o f N ew Y ork. In 1659, Thom as M ayhew sold the island to nine associates for the value o f thirty pounds in merchandise and two beaver hats, one for himself and one for his wife. These primitive associationists, after they had purchased the island o f Mayhew, then had to purchase a right to live upon it o f its real ow n ers, the aborigines, from whom the privilege was obtained without difficulty. T h e deed o f the Sachems was witnessed by Peter Folger, the ancestor o f Dr. Franklin, in the following words, which are framed with the simplicity and directness w hich distinguishes all the writings o f the philosopher, who, by-the-way, has given a quatrain or two o f his ancestor’s poetry in his autobiography. “ I do witness this deed to be a true deed, according to the interpreta tion o f Felix, the interpreter ; also, I heard Wanackmamack say, but two weeks ago, that the sale, made by Nickamore and he, should be good, and that they would do so, whatever comes o f it. Witness my hand, this 17th o f first month, 1664. P e t e r F o l g e r .” Th ese associationists resided, at the time o f their purchase, on the M er rimack River, in the town o f Salisbury; and shortly afterwards they reV O L . X V I I.— n o . iv. 24 370 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. moved to the island with their families, and took possession o f their land, which was held in common, and has remained so to this day, with a few exceptions, in the hands o f the descendants o f the original purchasers. The number o f shares into which the island was divided was twenty-seven ; these shares were not parcelled off, but are still kept in common, and un divided ; and the stock o f the proprietors, sheep, horses, and cows, feed at large all over the island. T h e first white man, who settled upon the island, was Thomas M acy, a brave, bold man, and as good as he was brave ; he was worthy to be the founder o f a new community, and his de scendants have proved themselves worthy o f their hardy and virtuous an cestor. In the year 1640, Thomas M acy removed from Wiltshire, in England, to Salisbury, in Massachusetts, where he became the ow ner o f one thousand acres o f land, and flourished exceedingly. But the pious in habitants o f the Bay State, to give additional evidence o f their hatred o f religious intolerance, for which reason they had left old England in the beginning, and to promote Christian feelings, passed a law inflicting a fine o f five pounds for every hour that any one should shelter a Quaker beneath his roof. W hen a whole island, like Nantucket, could be purchased for thirty pounds, it will readily be seen that such a price as five pounds an hour was rather a large price to pay for the privilege o f entertaining a Quaker, and it may be supposed that the members o f that sect found it difficult to procure a night’ s lodging. Such appears to have been the. fact, and yet the good-hearted Thomas M acy did not hesitate, one rainy day, to allow four wayfaring Quakers to shelter themselves in his barn. Sup posing that they stopped there but an hour, this hospitable act would have cost him twenty pounds, from w hich the largeness o f his heart, and the liberality o f his nature, may be inferred. But his hospitality cost him more dearly even than th at; for the G eneral Court, having heard o f his offence, summoned him to appear before them, probably with an intention o f hanging him for an example to other evil-doers. But he knew with whom he had to d e a l ; and, instead o f going to the G eneral Court, he sent them a letter acknowledging his offence, and to avoid the consequences, put his family into a small boat, and with the assistance o f a friendly neighbor, one Edward Starbuck, after many perils, he succeeded in reaching the island o f Nantucket, where he and his friend were hospitably entertained by the Indians, who proved to be much better practical Christians than the pious Pilgrims, who had left the Old W orld to escape the persecutions o f an intolerant hierarchy. After a few months the companion o f Thomas M acy returned to Salisbury, and made such representation o f the pleasant abode he had left, that he induced certain o f his neighbors to return with him, with their families. And thus the settlement o f the island was com menced. Although it is said that the first settlers found a fertile and vir gin soil, which yielded them abundant crops o f corn, yet they had the sa gacity to see, at -a glance, that their little island was too circumscribed a field for their venturesome spirits ; the disposition which drove them from their bigoted and persecuting neighbors, would not allow them to sit down contentedly to the cultivation'of their narrow fields. Men, who had sacrificed so much for conscience sake, were well calculated to grapple with the difficulties with which they found themselves surrounded. Their first aim was to live honestly; and the next, to live w e l l ; and having gained the first point, they now looked about to see how they w ere to gain the other. T h e prospect was not very encouraging, but they soon had the sa- The Island o f Nantucket. 371 gacity to discover the true field o f their labor. Obed M acy relates, in his honest and quaint history, that “ in the year 1690 some persons were on a high hill, afterwards called Folly House Hill, observing the whales spouting and sporting with each other, when one observed, ‘ There,’ pointing to the sea, ‘ is a green pasture, where our children’ s grandchildren w ill go for bread.’ ” ‘The exact time when ships w ere first fitted out for whaling purposes is not known. The attention o f the original purchasers o f the island to the whaling business was owing in a certain degree to accident. A whale came into their harbor, and caused great excitement by his antics ; he continued three days spouting and floundering about in the little harbor, and so tempted the people that they determined to capture him. T h ey had no instrument with which to attack him, but they invented the harpoon, and, putting o ff in their little cock-boat, made a dead set upon the levia than, and succeeded in killing him. This was the commencement o f the whale fishery in the N ew W orld. W h en the inhabitants had become sufficiently numerous to build a town, a site was selected, and the gov ernor o f N ew York, Francis Lovelace, bestowed upon it the name o f Sherburne, which it bore until 1792, when it w as changed for that o f Nantucket. In 1672, the proprietors entered into a contract with James Lopar, who agreed to carry jon the business o f catching whales from the shores o f the island in boats. Thus the business was regularly com menced ; but whales getting scarce in time, large vessels w ere fitted out to g o in quest o f them, but at what time the first expedition was set on foot is not known ; but whaling from the shore in boats was continued until the year 1760, when it was wholly abandoned, and, excepting on two occasions since, no attempt has ever been made to catch whales in that manner. The first spermaceti whale taken by a Nantucket vessel, was about the year 1712. In 1715, there w ere six sloops belonging to the island engaged in the business o f whaling. T h ey w ere small vessels, o f not more than thirty tons each. T heir success in catching whales had been so great, that they w ere compelled to send to the neighboring conti nent, and even as far as L on g Island, for crew s for their ships ; and in the year 1745, they shipped a cargo o f oil direct from the island to L on d on ; and the English government, seeing what a profitable trade their feeble colony was carrying on in this new business, offered large bounties to in duce their merchants at home to engage in it. Several ships having been fitted out from London, and been successful, interfered in a degree with the business o f the island ; but the demand for oil, for home consumption, being continually on the increase, their business did not lessen, and the island grew in importance ; the inhabitants increased very rapidly, and their ships w ere constantly grow ing in bulk and in numbers. T h e busi ness o f whaling was attempted at many other places, but from some cause or oilier it was not successful in any place but Nantucket. T h e following account, taken from M acy’s history o f Nantucket, shows how rapidly the business o f whaling had increased, and how widely the cruising ground o f the whalers had spread. • T h e following schedule w ill show, as nearly as can be ascertained, the times when the fishery commenced at some places, previous to the revo lutionary war, viz :— D avis’ Straits, in the year 1746. T h e island o f D isco, in the mouth o f Baffin’s Bay, in the year 1751. G u lf o f St. Law rence, in the year 1761. 372 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. Coast o f Guinea, in the year 1763. W estern Islands, in the year 1765. Eastward o f the Banks o f Newfoundland, in the year 1765. Coast o f Brazils, in the year 1774. • T h e business was also carried on in shorter voyages at the Grand Banks, Cape Verd Islands, various parts o f the W est Indies, in the Bay o f M exico, the Carribean Sea, and on the coast o f the Spanish Main, & c. T h e following table shows the number o f vessels, and the quantity o f oil obtained within the period o f ten years :— Years. Vessels. Barrels. Years. Vessels. Barrels. J762............... 15,439 78 9,440 1768.............. ....... 125 19,140 60 119 1763............... 9,238 1769.............. ....... 14,331 1764............... 72 11,983 1770.............. ....... 125 12,754 1765............... 11,512 1771.............. 1766............... 118 7,825 11,969 1772.............. 98 1767............... 108 16,561 In the year 1772, one o f the inhabitants having discovered the secret o f making candles from spermaceti, established a manufactory on the island for that purpose, and greatly increased the business o f the town ; for, previously, the business had been carried on chiefly in Providence, Boston, and Philadelphia. B y the year 1775, as w e learn from a report made to Congress by Thom as Jefferson, there w ere 150 vessels, many o f them large brigs, belonging to Nantucket, and engaged in the whaling business. T h e prosperity o f the town was at its height, its foreign and coasting trade was constantly increasing, and its inhabitants, w ho had hitherto preserved the simple and econom ical habits o f their ancestors, began to indulge in unwonted luxuries, and the ships w hich they sent to London with cargoes o f oil, brought back many articles o f sumptuous fur niture and apparel which they had never known the use o f before. T o what degree o f greatness the island might have arrived, or to what pitch o f luxurious refinement the people might have carried their habits, it is difficult to conjecture; but the grow ing splendor o f the island was sud denly dimmed by the breaking out o f our war o f independence. The great business o f the island was suddenly suspended ; many o f the timid in habitants, to escape the consequences o f the war, left their farms, and re moved into the interior o f N ew York, and those who remained, engaged in other occupations. T h e British made no attack upon the defenceless inhabitants ; but, in 1779, a party o f refugees landed upon the island, and destroyed a great deal o f property— the people having no means o f defend ing themselves, and being religiously opposed to even defensive warfare, quietly looked on while these miscreants plundered their stores and dw ell ing-house's. T h e provincial government levied taxes upon the inhabitants to help pay the expenses o f the war, but none could be collected ; and it w as at last found useless to attempt to make people pay who had not the disposition, even though they had the means. T o no part o f the United States did the tidings o f peace bring more sure jo y than to Nantucket. T h ^ island took no part in the contest, but the people suffered, probably, more than any other place in the colonies. Th eir ships w ere captured, their crew s w ere detained as prisoners, their property had depreciated greatly in value, and the population o f the island, which, on the breaking out o f the war, was near 5,000, at the time o f its close, numbered little more than 4,000. As soon as peace had been de clared, the people o f Nantucket began, with renewed energy, to prosecute 373 The Island o f Nantucket. their old business ; but they w ere soon made to feel the blighting effects o f governmental protection. T h e science o f political econom y was then hardly known even by name, and free trade had not been heard of. The Legislature o f Massachusetts attempted to stimulate the whaling business by offering a bounty for every tun o f oil taken by vessels belonging to the State, while the British government did the same to induce their subjects to engage in a business which had proved so profitable to Nantucket. Several o f the neighboring towns engaged in the business, and many o f the islanders removed to Halifax, being tempted by the liberal bounties offered by the British government, while others removed to England, and established the business at Milford Haven. T h ey probably soon learned, to their cost, that no article o f merchandise can be sold for more than its intrinsic value, and that what they gained by bounties they lost in price. W hile the people w ere allowed to supply the demand for oil, the produc tion o f it was profitable ; but as soon as government, by the offer o f boun ties, caused a greatly increased supply, without affording a corresponding increase in the demand, the business o f course proved disastrous, and the people who engaged in it discovered, too late, that government had been bribing them to their ow n ruin ; and the government might have learned that, to attempt to foster trade by artificial protection, is to kill the goose that lays the golden egg. T o increase the market for their oil, the Nantucket people sent several cargoes to France ; and, as the people o f that country had never used it for the purpose o f illumination, they had to carry lamps with them, and teach the French how to use them ; and afterwards several families removed to Dunkirk, where they established the whaling business, but w ere at last compelled to leave the country, from the difficulties o f the revolution. Soon after the peace, W illiam Rotch, one o f the most active men o f the island, removed to N ew Bedford, and there com m enced the business, and laid the foundation for the prosperity o f that now large and wealthy city. In addi. tion to the whaling business, they sent their ships on sealing voyages; and, in 1791, ships were first sent to the Pacific in search o f sperm whales. T h e first ship that doubled Cape Horn from Nantucket was the Beaver, o f but 240 ton s; she was absent 17 months, and returned with a cargo o f 1,270 barrels o f oil, o f all kinds. In 1796, a ship was sent from the island to Canton, with an assorted cargo, but chiefly o f oil and can dles. It was an experimental voyage, and proved disastrous, as might have been ex pected; but they gained a knowledge o f the Canton trade, w hich was afterwards carried on to a considerable extent, and with profit able results. A t the close o f the century, the inhabitants had increased to very nearly 6,000. The following chronological table o f the rise and progress o f the whale fishery, at Nantucket, is taken, in part, from the “ Historical Society’ s” collection :— PROGRESS OF THE WHALE FISHERY AT NANTUCKET. W hale fishery originated in Nantucket in the year 1690, in boats from the shore. 1715. 1730. 1748. 1756. 6 sloops, 38 tons burthen,'obtained about 600 barrels o f oil, and 11,000 lbs. o f bone. Value..................................................................................... 25 sail, from 38 to 50 tons, obtained annually about 3,700 bbls., at £ 7 per tun— ..................................................................................................... 60 sail, from 50 to 75 tons, obtained 11,250 bbls., at £ 1 4 ......................... 80 sail, 75 tons, obtained 12,000 bbls., at £ 1 8 ............................................ £1 ,100 3,200 19,648 27,600 374 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. 1768. 70 sail, 75 tons, obtained 10,500 bbls., at ,£18............................................ £ 2 3 ,COO N. B. Lost 10 sail, taken by the French, and foundered. 1770. 120 sail, from 75 to 110 tons, obtained 18,000 bbls., at £ 4 0 .................. 100,000 From"! 150 sail, from 90 to 180 tons, upon the coast o f Guinea, Brazil, and 1772 I the W est Indies, obtained annually 30,000 bbls., which sold in the to | London market, at £ 4 4 to £ 4 5 sterling.................................................. 167,000 1775. J N . B. 2,200 seamen employed in the fishery, and 220 in the London trade. 1783. 7 sail to Brazil, from 100 to 150 tons, obtained......................tuns 2,100 5 sail to the coast o f Guinea............................................................. 600 7 sail to the W est Ind ies....,.............................................. .............. 560 1784. 1785. A t £ 4 0 per tun......................... N . B. N o duty exacted in London. 12 sail to Brazil, obtained................................ ......................... tuns 5 to the coast o f Guinea................................................................... 11 to the W est Indies........................................................................ 2,260 16,280 4,000 400 1,000 A t £ 2 3 to £ 2 4 ......................... 5,400 14,500 N . B. The price fell by the exaction o f a duty in London o f £ 1 8 3s. sterling per tun. N ow at sea, 8 to B razil; 2 to the coast o f Guinea; 5 to the W est Indies. Before the war, there were annually manufactured in Nantucket, 380 tons spermaceti candles.* The following table o f the produce o f the whale fishery, between the years 1804 and 1834, is copied from “ M acy’s History o f N antucket:” PRODUCE OF THE WHALE FISHERY, CARRIED ON AT NANTUCKET, BETWEEN THE YEARS AND Year. 1804................ 1805................ 1806................ 1807................ 1808................ 1809................ 1810................ 1811................ 1812........................ 1813........................ 1814................ 1815........................ 1816........................ 1817,...................... 1818................ 1819................ 1820................ 1821................ 1822................ 1823................ 1824................ 1825................ 1826................ 1827................ 1828................ 1829................ 1830................ 1831................ 1832................ 1833................ 1834............... . 1834, Spermaceti. Body—bbls. 4,730 5,459 7,701 7,914 5,602 6,641 5,117 15,355 5,116 774 1,146 636 1,550 15,401 10,496 12,901 11,884 16,190 19,392 25,260 29,355 22,795 11,373 19,529 30,130 23,334 24,509 27,954 21,193 19,965 14,170 Whale. Head—bbls. Bbls. 2,665 2,034 3,084 3,235 2,105 2,695 2,130 6,745 2,475 359 498 284 682 6,813 4,378 5,621 5,027 6,719 8,009 10.803 11,875 8,985 4,951 8.441 13,044 10,159 11,504 13,335 9,695 9,546 6,347 6,718 4,507 15,954 13.959 10,503 7,256 7,929 6,377 2,230 2,567 83 138 2,700 5,771 13,426 11,511 11,736 8,632 5,407 3,808 4,322 7,194 2,402 583 1,033 8,576 7,758 8,568 16,364 5,422 4,747 Whalebone. Lbs. 46,690 13,131 88,554 72,764 49,970 17,092 41,437 43,200 6.266 9,901 796 19,444 65,446 62,403 59,794 38,092 3,197 20,243 22,063 39,596 16,002 5,152 8,662 76,808 67,508 83,206 155,379 49,429 37,137 * This state e f the whale fishery in Nantucket was written in the year 1785. 1804 INCLUSIVE. The Island o f Nantucket. 375 Other towns that had been lured into the business, abandoned it when they found that it was not profitable ; and so, in course o f time, Nantucket becam e once more almost the only port in the Union from which the business was carried on with any degree o f success. The long embargo o f 1807, which prevented the export o f oil, had a depressing effect upon the business, but ships were still sent out in pursuit o f fresh cargoes until 1812, when w a j was again declared against England, and another season o f depression and disaster followed. At this time, there were 116 vessels, whose aggregate capacity was 11,000 tons, be longing to the island ; and the greater part o f them being at sea, many were captured by the enemy, and some were lost. The inhabitants suf fered greatly while the war lasted, from the difficulty o f obtaining food and fuel from the continent; the town, being left entirely unprotected by the government, remained in a state o f neutrality, and feeling themselves under no obligations to support a w ar which was reducing them to starva tion, the inhabitants manfully refused to pay the taxes which government imposed upon them. On the news o f peace, the people immediately began once more to extend their business. During the war, they had lost quite one-half o f their shipping ; many wealthy inhabitants had removed to the continent, but enough remained to revive the commerce o f the to w n ; and in 1821, the tonnage belonging to the island had increased to 27,500 tons, and the inhabitants to nearly 8,000. The subsequent increase o f the town in wealth and population has been moderate, but steady. T h e great hindrance to their prosperity is the bar across the entrance o f their only harbor, w hich prevents a loaded ship from going in or out, and occasions considerable cost and work by ren dering it necessary to load and unload their ships by the means o f lighters. Several attempts have been made to excavate a channel across the bar, but without success ; and, four years since, they constructed a camel for taking loaded ships over this sandy barrier, but the additional expense and risk o f this contrivance operates very seriously upon the com m erce o f the place, and the inhabitants believe that the great day o f their prosperity has passed. T h e following statement o f the industrial resources o f the town is copied from a report made to the Legislature o f Massachusetts, by J. G . Palfrey, the Secretary o f the Commonwealth, in 1846. It was pre pared from the assessors’ reports, and is probably as correct an account as can be given :— Brass foundries, 1 ; value o f articles manufactured, $ 6 ,0 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 4 ,000 ; persons employed, 4. Saddle, harness, and trunk manufactories, 4 ; value o f articles manufactured, $1,950 ; capital invested, $1,000 ; persons employed, 10. Hat and cap manufactories, 1 ; hats and caps manufactured, 60 0; value, $ 6 0 0 ; capital invested, $300 ; persons employed, 1. Cordage manufactories, 1 ; cordage manufactured, 300,000 lbs; value, $ 3 0 ,0 0 0 ; capi tal invested, $10,000 ; persons employed, 30. Oil and sperm candle manufactories, 24 ; oil manufactured, 1,022,019 gallons ; value, $1,279,817 ; candles, 858,581 lbs.; value, $ 2 14,6 45; capital invested, $1,580,417; persons employed, 105. Soap and tallow candle manufactories, 2 ; hard soap manufactured, 11,000 lbs.; soft, 440 bbls.; value o f soap manufactured, $ 7 ,8 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 5 ,0 0 0 ; persons em ployed, 5. Tin-ware manufactories, 7 ; value o f ware, $ 4 ,000 ; capital invested, $ 2 ,0 0 0 ; persons employed, 12. Boots manufactured, 370 pairs; shoes, 2,300 pairs; value o f boots and shoes, $ 4 ,2 0 0 ; males employed, 1 1 ; females employed, 3. Value o f snuff, tobacco, and cigars, manu 376 Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States. factured, $6.00 ; persona employed, 3. Value o f blocks and pumps manufactured, $ 2 ,600 ; persons employed, 10. Candle-box manufactories, 6 ; boxes manufactured, 300,000; value, $ 6 ,6 0 0 ; capital invested, $4,000 ; persons employed, 12. Value o f casks manufactured, $ 4 0 ,0 0 0 ; capi tal invested, $3 0,00 0; persons employed, 65. Establishments for manufacturing coopers’ tools, harpoons, and other whale craft, 14 ; value o f articles manufactured, $ 4 ,2 0 0 ; capital invested, $ 4 ,0 0 0 ; persons employed, 15 Boats built, 117 ; value, $6,775 ; persons employed, 12. Whale oil consumed in manufacturing, 4004|gallons; value, $140 ; anthracite coal con sumed in manufacturing, 200 tons; value, $1,050 ; bituminous coal mined in the United States, 111 chaldrons; value, $ 1 ,0 0 0 ; value o f other articles o f American production, excepting cotton, wool, and iron, consumed in manufacturing, $22,000. Vessels employed in the whale fishery, 7 7 ; tonnage, 26,295; sperm oil imported. 986,868 gallons ; value, $868,443 ; whale oil, 140,269 gallons ; value, $46,756 ; whale bone, 30,708 lbs.; value, $ 1 0 ,3 3 6 ; capital invested, $2 ,66 0 ,0 0 0 ; persons employed,. 1,900. Vessels employed in the mackerel and cod fisheries, 4 ; tonnage, 110; capital invested, $2,000 ; persons employed, 12. Sheep, 7,500; value, $ 1 5 ,0 0 0 ; wool produced, 1,600 lbs.; value, $4,000. Horses, 4 4 2 ; value, $ 3 0 ,3 0 0 ; neat cattle, 1,053 ; value, $ 2 0 ,0 0 0 ; swine, 1,304 ; value, $11,518 ; Indian com or maize raised, 500 bushels; value, $3 00 ; potatoes, 6,000 bushels; value, $1,500 ; other esculent vegetables, 7,000 bushels; value, $ 1 ,4 0 0 ; hay, 3,500 tons; value.. $42,000. Butter, 30,000 lbs.; value, $7,500. W hole amount o f tonnage belonging to the island, 31,652. T h e commercial history o f Nantucket is chiefly important from the great benefits which the nation has derived from the peculiar habits and indus try o f the p eople; for, although other towns have already surpassed her in the extent o f their operations in the whaling business, yet they are chiefly indebted for their greatness to the people o f this island, who were the pioneers in the perilous enterprise o f exploring unknown seas in the search o f whales. From the small amount o f the agricultural productions o f the island, may be seen its capacity for sustaining its inhabitants, and the dis astrous consequences which must always follow any interruption o f their intercourse with the continent. T h e island lies in the parallel o f 4 1 ' north latitude, and o f 70° 7' 56 " west o f G reenw ich. It is crescent shaped, about 14 miles from one extreme to the other, and about 34 miles in breadth; the nearest point to the main land is about 30 miles. T h e entire area o f the island contains nearly 30,000 acres o f land, a small portion o f which, however, is capable o f cultivation. T h e soil is light and sandy, and is entirely destitute o f indigenous trees, but it appears to have been w ell wooded at the time o f its first settlement by the English. It then contained a population o f 1,500 native inhabitants; and the last descendant o f the race died in 1822. Although for many years Quaker ism was the only religion o f the inhabitants, the members o f that sect form but a small part o f the population at present. T h e original settlers w ere Baptists, and that remained the prevailing religious faith o f the people until about the year 1704, when they were gradually converted to Q ua kerism by the appearance among them o f some itinerant preachers o f that doctrine. The schools o f the island had been rather defective, and book learning was held in small estimation by the people until the year 1826, when the late Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin visited the island, and finding that a great number o f his relations did not enjoy such educational privileges as he thought them entitled to, benevolently funded 2,500 pounds sterling for the purpose o f establishing a school, free for all the descendants o f his great ancestor, Tristam Coffin, who was among the first settlers o f the island. This generous act o f the benevolent old admiral opened the eyes The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. 377 o f the people to their necessities, and they immediately began to establish free schools for the education o f their children, and they have now the best organized system o f public schools in the country. At one time, there w ere three banks on the island, but now they have but o n e ; a strange fatality seems to have attended all their banking o p e rations, and their losses by such institutions have been very serious. The town is, or was, built almost entirely o f wood ; the houses w ere old, the streets extremely narrow, and huddled closely together, as if for shelter and the convenience o f social intercourse; there were' at all times large quantities o f oil in the very heart o f the town, and their liability to a con flagration was peculiar and fearful. But the people had been peculiarly favored, up to the year 1835, when the entire value o f property destroyed by lire, from the first settlement o f the town, amounted to $36,000. Since then, the town has suffered most severely by two conflagrations, the last o f which occurred in 1846, and destroyed nearly one-third o f the town, and property to the value o f more than half a million o f dollars. The peo ple have since widened the streets o f their “ burnt district,” and replaced their wooden stores by substantial brick buildings, and the town has lost something o f its quaint and weather-beaten aspect, but it remains an unique town, as it ever must, and its inhabitants a peculiar people. Many disastrous voyages o f their ships, and heavy losses by the low prices o f oil, had led the people to look about them for some other means o f em ployment than the business by which they had always been sustained ; and, just as this great conflagration occurred, they w ere about to try the experiment o f manufacturing cotton, by w hich so many towns in N ew England had been sustained and enriched. A few years ago, they tried the experiment o f manufacturing silk, and there seemed to be a prospect that Nantucket might prove the Lyons o f the N ew W orld. But, through mismanagement, or from some local cause, the enterprise proved unprofit able, and the business was abandoned. T h ey have not given up the project o f a cotton-mill, and as N ew Bedford, the prosperous rival o f N an tucket, is about to engage in this business, it is not improbable that they may yet becom e as famous for their calicoes hereafter, as they have been for their candles. Their ancestral thrift has not been purged from their blood, and it is not in them to sit listless down, and see the world roll on ■ahead o f them in the pursuit o f wealth. Art. V.— THE LAW OP DEBTOR AND CREDITOR IN TENNESSEE. T h e laws o f the several States, which concern merchants to know, are those which govern the relation o f creditor and debtor. T h ese w ill ap pear, imperfectly o f course, by exhibiting the organization o f the judiciary o f the State proposed, the jurisdiction o f its courts, the remedies and modes o f proceeding in them, together with some o f its peculiar statutes, and decisions o f the courts, such as those which concern the limitation o f ac tions, frauds, the registry o f conveyances, the lien o f judgments and exe cutions, interest upon money, negotiable paper, and probably others. T H E COURTS OF TE N N E SSE E . These are Justices o f the Peace, County Courts, Circuit Courts, the 378 The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. Commercial and Criminal Court o f Memphis, Chancery Courts, and the Supreme Court. Justices o f the Peace. The counties are laid o ff into “ civil districts,” in each o f which the people elect two Justices, except in the district where in is the county town, in which three are elected. T h e term o f office o f Justices, is six years. The County Court is composed o f Justices o f the Peace, all meeting in session quarter-yearly, and constituting the “ Quarterly Court,” and three meeting monthly, and constituting the “ Quorum Court.” The Quarterly Court sits the first Mondays o f January, April, July, and O cto ber, the Quorum Court sits the first Mohday o f every month. T h e Jus tices o f the Quorum Court are elected yearly, by all the Justices o f the county, at the first Quarterly Court o f the year. The Circuit Courts. The State is laid o ff into thirteen judicial circuits, each circuit embracing several counties, more or less, with some regard to the amount o f business o f the counties. A Judge for each circuit is elected by the Legislature, for the term o f office o f eight years. T h e Judge resides in his circuit, and holds a court in each county thrice yearly. T h e Circuit Judges are Judges o f the State, and may, by arrangement, interchange the holding o f courts with each other. It has been thought that the sys tem would be improved by the regular interchange o f circuits— thus dimin ishing, to some extent, the influence upon the administration o f the law, o f the prejudices and partialities which are apt to grow out o f the long and frequent intercourse o f judges, lawyers, and suitors. N o material evil o f this kind, has, however, as yet been felt. The Chancery Courts. T h e State is laid o ff into four chancery divi sions, for each o f which a Chancellor is elected by the Legislature, for the term o f office o f eight years. The chancery divisions are sub-divided into chancery districts, some districts consisting o f one county, the others, generally o f several counties. In each district, a court is held twice yearly. The Chancellors o f the divisions are Chancellors o f the State, and may, as Circuit Judges, interchange courts. The Supreme Court. W ith reference to this court the State is divided into three districts, in each o f which a Judge is elected by the Legislature for the term o f office o f twelve years, who together hold a court once yearly, in each o f the districts— at Knoxville, for East Tennessee ; Nash ville, for Middle ; and Jackson, for W est Tennessee. J U R IS D IC T IO N O F T H E C O U R T S . Justices o f the Peace. A Justice o f the P eace has jurisdiction to the extent o f $ 5 0 ; o f debts, demands, and civil injuries, for the redress o f which the laws o f the land furnish remedies, to the extent o f $ 2 0 0 ; upon accounts, liquidated and signed by the party chargeable ; against the obligors o f bonds for the payment o f m on ey; the makers o f promissory notes ; the acceptors and drawers o f bills o f ex ch an ge; the endorsers o f negotiable paper, who have, by the terms o f endorsement, waived demand o f payment and notice o f non-paym ent; and, indeed, to the same extent, ($ 2 0 0 ,) against a party chargeable upon any writing which will support an action o f debt for money at common law. Justices try causes without jury. T h e territorial jurisdiction o f a Justice embraces (with some limi tations) the county in which is his civil district. The County Courts are courts o f ordinary, probate, or surrogate, and The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. 379 o f county police. The Quarterly Courts, consisting o f all the Justices in session, establish and change roads, bridges, and local turnpikes, and ap. point overseers to superintend and keep them in rep air; assess and lay taxes for county purposes; appropriate moneys for county purposes, & c., & c . The Quorum Courts, consisting o f three Justices, take probates o f wills not contested ; qualify execu tors; appoint and qualify administrators o f decedents’ estates, guardians o f minors and lunatics ; and, through their clerks, superintend the settlements o f the accounts o f executors, administrators, and guardians, & c., & c . Contested wills are transferred for trial by jury to the Circuit Courts, and i f established are returned to the County Courts for record, and such further proceedings as may be necessary. T h e County Courts have no jurisdiction o f causes triable by jury. The Circuit Courts are courts o f law, o f general and original jurisdic tion, civil and criminal, o f all causes wherein the parties are entitled to trial by ju r y ; and o f appellate jurisdiction to the decisions o f Justices, and o f the County Courts. T h ey have likewise jurisdiction to assign dower ; partition estates, real and personal, among heirs, legatees, distributees, tenants in com m on ; to order the sale, and distribution o f proceeds, o f es tates o f minors ; some o f which powers properly appertain to, and are concurrent with, the Chancery Courts. The Commercial and Criminal Court o f Memphis is an excrescence upon the judiciary system o f the State. It possesses the jurisdiction and powers o f a Circuit Court, in all cases arising within the three civil dis tricts which em brace and surround Memphis. T h e phrase, cases arising, is construed to mean cases o f Circuit Court cognizance, wherein original process can be personally served upon parties being found within those civil districts. It is thus made a court o f great importance and business, the city o f Memphis being the commercial centre o f a large and populous surrounding country, o f Tennessee, Mississippi, and Arkan sas, and much frequented by the people o f the country around. Much business is otherwise absorbed into that court from the neighboring Cir cuit Courts, by the arrangements o f the lawyers who reside in Memphis. T h e court ought to be, and doubtless will soon be abolished, and the regular Circuit Court o f the county substituted in its place. The Chancery Courts, as their name indicates, are courts o f general equity cognizance, recognizing generally the principles o f equity jurispru dence, and exercising the powers o f the British and Am erican Courts o f Chancery. Modifications o f the practice in chancery have been made b y statutes, conforming to the character o f the people, the spirit o f our insti tutions, the general jurisprudence and judicial organization o f the State, and tending to quicken the progress o f suits to decision. The Supreme Court is purely a court o f appeals and errors, for the cor rection o f the errors o f the Circuit and Chancery Courts, having no ori ginal jurisdiction, and trying no causes by jury. Perhaps, it may be said to exercise a quasi original jurisdiction in cases in chancery transferred to it on account o f the incompetency o f the Chancellors for relationship to the parties, or for other causes o f incompetency. Causes are carried to the Supreme Court from the Circuit and Chancery Courts, by writ o f er ror, or by appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error; generally, by the latter mode, which is o f right, and done during the term o f the inferior court, at which the supposed erroneous decision is made. 380 The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. O F L E G A L P R O C E E D IN G S A N D P R A C T I C E . N o process, original or final, can be had against the body for debt. W hether the efficiency o f legal remedies has been materially diminished by the abolition o f imprisonment for debt, is a matter upon which much difference o f opinion exists in the State. T h e better opinion appears to be, that no serious evil has grown out o f it. In regard to other remedies for enforcing debts and demands, the laws o f Tennessee, it is believed, furnish proceedings and practice as efficacious as do the laws o f any State in the Union. In some o f the counties there is, without doubt, much re missness in the administration o f the law. That is the fault o f the officers, not o f the law. N or is this remissness more serious, probably, than exists in portions o f all the States. Proceedings in Justices’ Courts. Cases before Justices, ordinarily b e gin by “ warrant,” which is a summons commanding the constable to summon the defendant to appear and answer the complaint. T h e consta ble executes it, by making it known personally to the defendant, and ap points the time and place o f trial. T h e time is near or remote, at the option o f the constable, but usually adjusted to suit the reasonable con venience o f the Justice and the parties. T h e place is ordinarily in the civil district in which the defendant resides, or i f the defendant denies the claim, the trial may be had at a place and before a Justice o f the civil district in which the plaintiff resides, i f both parties reside in the same county. At the time and place appointed, the Justice renders judgment according to his notion o f the merits, unless delay be granted for cause. Either party may appeal o f right to the Circuit Court o f the cou n ty ; i f the plaintiff, upon his giving personal security for the c o sts; if the defen dant, upon his giving personal security, in some instances, for the costs, in others, for the payment o f the debt. I f judgment be against defendant, and he does riot choose further to litigate the matter in the Circuit Court, he may have a stay o f execution for eight months. I f no appeal or stay o f execution be obtained, execution may regularly be issued after two days from the rendition o f the judgment. Appeals and stay o f execution will be further explained hereafter. In the Circuit Courts, cases are ordinarily begun by summons, which writ commands the sheriff to summon the defendants to appear and answer the complaint at the next ensuing term o f the court. The service is by making the contents o f the writ known personally to the defendant, and must be at least five days before the court. In chancery, cases are ordinarily begun by sulrpcena, which is similar to a summons, with the copy or an abstract o f the bill, personally served upon the defendant, at least ten days before the court. In the Supreme Court, causes are carried from the Circuit and C han cery Courts, by writ o f error, or appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error, or by writ o f certiorari. It is hardly useful to explain these writs and proceedings. The securities required o f a party to obtain them, will be subsequently mentioned. Appeals, Appeals in nature o f a W rit o f Error, Writ o f Error, Cer tiorari. A n Appeal lies o f right from the decisions o f the Justices o f the P eace to the Circuit Court o f the county. T w o days are allowed for ta king the appeal after rendition o f the judgment by the Justices. The cause stands for trial in the Circuit Court at the first term, i f the ap The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. 381 peal be taken as much as five days before the first day o f the term— if less than five days, it stands for trial at the second term. In the Circuit Court, the cause is tried as an original cause, upon the merits, by jury. T h e Certiorari, in practice in Tennessee, is a writ employed to carry a cause from the judgment o f a Justice o f the P eace to the Circuit Court in cases where the party has been unable, for sufficient legal reason, to take an appeal within the two days allowed for the purpose. It is issued by the Clerk o f the Circuit Court, upon the order o f a Circuit Judge or two Justices o f the P eace, granted upon petition o f the party, verified by his oath, and showing merits, and a sufficient legal reason for failing to appeal, such as inability to attend the trial, and make defence on account o f sickness, high waters, want o f notice o f the time and place o f trial, & c ., & c . T h e power o f two Justices to order the certiorari is limited to the first twenty days after the rendition o f the judgment. I f the party fail to apply for the certiorari until after a term o f the Circuit Court has passed, the petition must show a sufficient legal reason for the delay. T h e rule is, the party shall appeal if he can— if he cannot appeal in time, then he shall apply for the certiorari as soon as he can after becom ing aware that the judgment has been rendered against him. T h e writ o f certiorari is also employed in Tennessee for many other purposes. A cause in the Circuit Court by certiorari, stands during the first term o f the Court subject to be dismissed on motion o f the other party, for want o f sufficient legal reasons for its being granted, apparent upon the face o f the petition. T h e facts stated in the petition are taken to be true, and proof will not be heard to contradict them upon the motion to dismiss. I f not dismissed upon such motion, the cause stands for trial upon its m er its, as an original cause, at the second term. T h e appeal in the nature o f a writ o f error lies in the right to carry a cause, after final judgment in the Circuit Court, from that Court to the Supreme Court. It operates as a writ o f error, differing in these par ticulars : that the appeal in the nature of, <$fc., is taken at the term o f the Circuit Court in w hich final judgment is rendered, is a matter o f right, transfers the w hole cause into the Supreme Court, and closes all further action upon it in the Circuit Court, unless sent back from the Supreme Court, after hearing and judgment on it there. T h e cause, when thus in the Supreme Court, stands much the same as if there by writ o f error. T h e Supreme Court affirms the judgment o f the court below by entering up a like judgment, or corrects the judgment o f the court below , and en ters up such judgment as that court ought to have rendered, or reverses and sends the cause back to the Circuit Court for new trial there. T h e practice in the Supreme Court, upon a cause there by writ o f er ror, is much the same as when there by appeal in the nature, fyc. I f there be no error, the writ is dismissed ; or, i f error which the Supreme Court can correct, it makes the correction, and enters up such judgment as the court below ought to have done ; otherwise, the judgment o f the coui't below is reversed, and the cause sent back to the Circuit Court for new trial. Cases in chancery are taken by appeal from the Chancery to the Supreme Court, or by writ o f error. T h e practice upon the cause, when there, is nearly or quite alike, by whichsoever mode it gets there. T h e Supreme Court either affirms the decree o f the Chancellor by entering up 382 The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. a like decree, or corrects and modifies it by efttering up such decree as the Chancellor ought to have adjudged ; and, in its discretion, proceeds to per fect and execute the decree, or sends the cause back to the Chancellor to be perfected and executed by him in the manner directed by the Supreme Court. T h e writ o f error, in chancery causes, carries up to the Supreme Court all the pleadings, proofs, orders, and decrees. Attachments, which begin proceedings against absconding, removing, or non-resident debtors, by the seizure o f property, are entitled to separate consideration hereafter. The Securities f o r Costs, <Sfc., o f Legal Proceedings. T h e costs in cases at law, abide the event o f the suit. T h e losing party pays. None are required to be paid preliminary to any proceeding. The final judg ment in the cause embraces a judgment for the costs against the losing party, on w hich judgment execution issues in favor o f the successful par ty. Upon the commencement o f a suit, the plaintiff is required to give a bond, with a surety for the costs. The bond is a part o f the record, and i f the plaintiff be cast, may be enforced against the surety by a proceed ing upon it as a record, (b y scire fa cia s,) or as a penal bond at common law. Upon the bonds with sureties, w hich are required to be given by the appellant as the condition o f obtaining an appeal, the surety becomes so far a party to the cause, as that, i f judgment go against the appealing party in the appellate court, it embraces likewise the surety, and execution upon it issues against the appellant and his surety, jointly. T h e warrant, which begins proceedings before Justices o f the Peace, issues without security for costs. I f the cause be taken b y appeal o f the plaintiff to the Circuit Court, the defendant, by application to the court, can require the plaintiff to give personal security for the costs, upon pain o f dismissal o f his appeal, i f not given by a day designated by the court. I f the defendant appeal, such securities are required o f him as will be mentioned hereafter, in speaking o f appeals, dfc. The summons, w hich begins suit in the Circuit Court, and the subpoena, w hich begins in the Chancery Court, issue upon personal security given by the plaintiff, or complainant, for the costs. The responsibility o f the surety offered, is judged o f and decided, in the first instance, by the clerk who issues the process. I f the defendant think the security insufficient for any reason, he may, by application to the court in term, and showing it to be so, require better security, or the cause to be dismissed. An appeal transfers the cause from the inferior to the Superior Court. T h e appellant is in all cases required to give personal security for the costs o f the appeal, and o f the proceedings in the Superior Court. I f the defendant be the appellant, in addition to security for costs, he is required to give personal security for payment o f the debt, or the performance o f the judgment in the following cases : where the judgment is on a bond for m o n e y ; bill o f exchange ; promissory n o te ; written obligations to pay bank notes, bonds, or promissory n otes; written obligations for the delivery o f specific articles ; liquidated accounts signed by the party to be charged. T h e writ o f error issues from the Clerk o f the Superior Court, as mat ter o f right, upon application by either party to the Clerk o f that court, and filing with him a copy o f the record o f proceedings in the inferior The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. 383 court. Security for costs o f the contemplated proceedings in the Superior Court, is required in all instances. The writ does not suspend proceed ings upon the judgment or decree o f the court below , unless so ordered by a Judge o f the Appellate Court. T h e order is made by the Judge upon inspecting a certified copy o f the record, and discovering in it what he thinks material error. Upon making such order, the Judge directs to what extent, and for what purpose security shall be given, and such se curity is required to be given before the writ o f error issues, which sus pends proceedings on the judgment or decree in the inferior court. The writ o f error may issue at any time within two years after final judgment in the inferior court. T h e writ o f certiorari issues upon personal security being given by the party obtaining the writ, to the extent o f double the amount o f the judg ment o f the Justice, for the performance o f such judgment as the Circuit Court may render in the cause. W hen this writ issues for other purposes than as a remedy for an omitted apeal, it is on the order o f a Judge, who prescribes such securities as he may think fit for the protection o f the op posite party. The Progress o f Legal Proceedings. In cases before Justices o f the Peace, the constable designates the time and place o f trial. T w o days are allowed after judgment, to take an appeal, or obtain stay o f execution. I f no appeal or stay be obtained, execution is issuable immediately. T h e execution is returnable in thirty days after issuance, which allows the constable thirty days to make the money. I f judgment be against the defendant, he may obtain a stay o f execution for eight months. This is done by procuring a responsible friend to enter, or cause to be entered, his name on the Justice’ s docket as surety for the payment o f the debt and costs. At the end o f the eight months, an execution may be taken out against the defendant and his stayor, jointly, and the money made out o f the defendant if practicable ; i f not, out o f the stayor. T h e con stable has regularly thirty days after the issuance o f the execution to make the money. In the Circuit Court the summons may be taken out from the Clerk’s office at any time. I f executed on the defendant, five or more days be fore the first day o f the ensuing term, the defendant must cause his appearance to be entered, and the pleadings made up at the first term, and the cause regularly stands for trial at the second term. Such is usually the progress in the Circuit Court o f actions o f debt, and the like, when there is no substantial defence. I f the defendant fail to appear and plead at the first term, judgment final, by default, may be taken at that term in actions o f debt ; in other personal actions, final judgments cannot be had before the second term. In the Chancery Court, the subpoena and copy o f the bill may be taken out from the C lerk’ s office at any time after the bill is filed. I f executed upon the defendant ten or m ore days before the first day o f the ensuing term, the defendant ought to put in his demurrer, plea, or answer, at that term. The demurrer, and the sufficiency o f the plea, may be heard and decided at the term when filed. I f the demurrer be sustained, the cause is at an end ; i f overruled, it may be withdrawn, and a plea or answer be filed. I f the plea be insufficient in substance, it may be heard and dis allow ed at the term when filed, and an answer put in. I f sufficient, its 384 The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Tennessee. truth may be put in issue, and prepared for hearing at the next term, very much in the manner o f an answer. Generally the answer ought to com e in at the first term, a general replication forthwith filed which puts the cause at issue, and the cause be heard at the second term. In practice, however, the progress in Chancery is much more tardy. Either party may interpose obstacles and delay steps, and thus cause the suit to “ drag its slow length along.” Though the statute requires the answer to be in at the first court, it can be omitted with impunity until the next “ rule day,” which is the first M onday o f the month next after the court. Then the case has to stand, for the taking o f testimony, which is all in writing, five months after the issue is made up by the filing o f the replication. T h e replication is a general and formal denial by the complainant o f the truth o f the answer, and assertion o f the truth o f the bill, with a declara tion o f his readiness to prove the one and disprove the other. T h e spe cial replication is not allowed in Tennessee. T h e complainant cannot be coerced to file a replication sooner than the second rule day after the answer is in. T h e first Mondays o f each month are rule days. The mode o f coercin g a replication i s : the defendant enters in the C lerk’ s office, after the answer is in, upon a rule day, a rule requiring the com plainant to file a replication. I f not filed by the next rule day, (a month off,) the defendant may set down the cause for hearing upon the bill and answer, and the statements o f the answer w ill be taken to be true. I f the replication be filed before the cause is set down for hearing on bill and answer, the cause then stands five months for testimony to be taken, b e fore it can be heard. By this delay, the complainant is able to throw the hearing o f the cause beyond the second term, after its commencement. T h e defendant can procure still longer delay. Without stopping to detail the manner, it may be truly stated, that a skilful equity law yer may easily protract the hearing and decision o f a com m on case in Chancery at least tw o years after its com m encem ent. T h e foregoing attempt to sketch the progress o f causes in the Chancery Courts o f Tennessee, is very imperfect and unsatisfactory. W hoever ad ventures upon the task, w ill find it exceedingly difficult to accomplish within reasonable space, or in terms intelligible to the general reader, and, indeed, to the professional reader, not familiar with the Chancery practice in Tennessee. T o conclude— the system o f Chancery practice prescribed by statute, appears to be framed with a view to speed the decision o f causes in equity at the second term after commencement. Such, however, is the essential nature o f the practice incapable o f material change or modification in this respect, that most o f the reforms projected to quicken its progress, xvill end in the disappointment o f those who devise them. It may be added, that parties w ho on both sides wish, may generally speed a decision by the second term. In the Supreme Court all causes stand for trial, and generally are tried and decided, at the first term after they get there. The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific. 385 Art. I I .— THE PROJECT OF A RAILROAD TO THE PACIFIC. H O N . Z A D O C K PH A T t ’ s L E T T E R TO T H E PEOPLE OP TH E U N IT E D STATES. this is an age o f great events, and such as must be pro ductive o f important results to the interests o f mankind. It is the character o f the men that appear in an age, and stamp the impress o f their bold and energetic character upon it, which make it marked in history, an era in human progress. The following letter is from one o f this cast, the Hon. Zadock Pratt, o f Prattsville ; and on the subject, a most stupen dous national work, the bold and able letter will speak its own merits. It was prepared for the Magazine for last month, but unfortunately too late for insertion ; it was therefore sent to the National Intelligencer, and the Union, at W ashington. The plan o f Mr. W hitney has made great progress in public opinion, and six important States have instructed their Congressional delegations to vote in its favor. W hen, at the close o f 1844, w e wrote the following, which appeared in our January number, w e had certainly no idea that the suggestion therein contained would be taken up by energetic men, and its feasibility reduced to a certainty :— “ T h e English government hope, by commanding the exclusive route to China over Egypt, by way o f the Nile and the Isthmus o f Suez, (to effect which, a negotiation is now pending between that power and the Pacha,) to obtain news several weeks earlier than it can be had in the United States ; an advantage which will give her merchants control o f the mar kets. T heir diplomacy may succeed temporarily in this, but the march o f events w ill ultimately give the United States the mastery. H er popu lation is pushing, with a vigorous, rapid, and unceasing march, along a line 1,200 miles in extent, westward, towards the shores o f the Pacific. The occupation o f the vast territory known as the Oregon, is already going forw ard; and twenty years w ill not have elapsed, before a powerful State will have sprung up on the shores o f the Pacific. This great tract o f the Oregon is drained by the Columbia river and the' San Francisco, w hich debouch upon the ocean at a point six days, by steam, distant from the Sandwich islands— a group the independence o f w hich is guaranteed ; whose population is 100,000, mostly American ; the surface, 8,000 square miles, o f a soil the most fruitful, and a climate unsurpassed in salubrity. These islands are situated in the middle o f the Pacific, on the great high w ay from Oregon to China. T h e great whale fishery o f these regions is conducted mostly by Americans, numbering 200 vessels, whose annual product is about $5,000,000. This fleet, in the summer months, cruise between the islands and the coast o f Japan, for sperm whale, and carry on a large trade in furs, & c ., w hich are now sold in China, and the pro ceeds, in tea, sent home to the United States. The whole o f this vast trade, and that o f China, via the Sandwich islands, w ill be commanded by the State o f Oregon. Those persons are now living who will see a railroad connecting New York with the Pacific, and a steam com m unica tion from Oregon to China. F or the last three centuries, the civilized world has been rolling westward ; and Americans o f the present age w ill complete the circle, and open a western steam route with the east.” Under the energetic guidance o f such men as Pratt and W hitney, this end bids fair to be speedily consummated. C e r t a in l y VOL. x v ii.— n o . iv . 25 386 The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific. TO THE PEOFLE OF THE UNITED STATES. The subject of a passage across our continent to the Pacific, is exciting the attention of the public mind to such an extent, as makes it necessary for every statesman and citizen interested in the welfare, prosperity, and future greatness of our country, to examine the subject, for his own satisfaction, at least. Two routes and modes are proposed to accomplish this great object. One by a canal or railroad, somewhere from Panama to Tehuantepec, in Mexico, between latitude north 7° and 16°; and the other, a railroad, from Lake Michigan, through the Rocky Mountains, to Oregon, on the parallel of about 42 J°, all on our own territory. I wish first to consider the canal, and see what it would and would not do, and see how we can build it. The Hon. Mr. Wheaton, late Minister at Berlin, in his very able letter to the Secretary of War, shows that he has studied the subject, and made himself ac quainted with all the lights then before the world ; and even he leaves all in doubt and conjecture. If it can be done at all, it must be by the combined efforts and influence of all the different commercial nations interested. The English review ers take the same view, giving to each nation its proportionate interest and influ ence, comparative with its amount of commerce with Asia, which, of course, would give the entire control to England. Would the people of the United States submit to such control ? And does the constitution provide for the forming and carrying on such a co-partnership ? Clearly not. In Gen. Garella’s very able, and the only scientific report of a survey of Panama, in the years 1842 and 1843, with a corps of engineers, under the orders of the French government., he takes up and examines the routes of Nicaragua and Te huantepec. His estimate for the former is about 148,000,000 francs, for the latter 151,450,000, and for Panama 149,000,000 to 105,000,000. These estimates may be considered conjectural, as he says he had no comparison as a basis. It would be subject to every possible embarrassment; the sparse population of a lawless character, no security of person or property, and the Mexican government unable to enforce laws if she had them. A strong military force would be abso lutely necessary, from one end to the other, both to support and protect the works and the commerce. An entire absence of material ; laborers and material to be taken from a northern clime ; subject to heavy expenses in execution, both from climate and local position, the former so uncongenial to our citizens as to render it almost if not quite impossible to sustain them. Therefore, the work could not be done, protected, or commerce carried on. it is fair to presume the results would far exceed Gen. Garella’s estimates. In fact, another estimate by him for Tehuantepec is as high as 181,450,000 francs ; and from all our experience in such estimates, and the fact that the people of the North cannot live in such a climate, the winter months so rainy and summer so hot, that no men could work or stand it, we have good reason to believe that the actual cost would far exceed any estimate made. Gen. Garella abandons all as inferior, and devotes all his efforts to Panama. Now, the question is, can we do this work, and how, and what would be the probable results ? It is, I think, perfectly clear that our government cannot fur nish means, nor enter into such a co-partnership. Then, if done, it must be done by individuals. Would Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Richmond, Charleston, and even New Orleans, furnish capital to build a thoroughfare, and population for a city to carry on a commerce under another government, in the benefits of which they cannot participate, nor derive any income for their capital ? This is what no business man would do. And now let us see if this would be so. W e will suppose the canal to be built, and all the commerce of Europe with Asia passing through it. Europe would furnish her own vessels for both sides— a ship canal, no transhipment required— and, I ask, what benefit could any city, on all the Atlantic or Gulf coast, derive from it ? Surely none. In a political point of view, it would place all the marine, naval and commercial, of all Europe perma nently and directly at our doors, in the most commanding position; and, as to our own commerce with Asia, would it be benefited at all by this change of route ? Our commerce with Asia is not now large, owing to the fact that climate, dis tance, and expense, prevent an exchange of commodities ; which difficulties could not be removed by a canal. The climate would forbid the passage of our pro The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific. 387 duce through it. Nearly all our commerce with Asia is with China, consisting of teas, silks, & c .; and, mostly consumed north of Charleston, could receive no benefit from this route, but, on the contrary, would be subject to delays, losses, dangers, and damages from climate, and any benefit to the small amount which might, perhaps, be taken directly up the Mississippi as far as the mouth of the Ohio, would be more than over-balanced by the delays and damage of climate, which none but those acquainted with the business can understand. And would the States and cities north of the Gulf furnish means to the amount of some thirty to fifty millions, and submit to such a tax, barely to put out of their posses sion and under another government the route for a commerce which they cannot participate in or ever control 7 Clearly not. Such, it appears to me, would be the result of the canal, even with all the success predicted. It would be produc tive to us of nothing but evil. W e have declared to the world that we will not submit to any foreign intervention or control of the affairs of this continent; and, at the same time, propose to enter into an alliance, offensive and defensive, where by we yield the control of the commerce of the world, check and retard our pros perity and destiny for half a century, at least, and finally end in a desperate, bloody, and expensive war. The object of a canal or railroad is to shorten the route from Europe to Asia, and, if possible, bring that commerce, which has controlled the world from time immemorial, across this continent; and, by lessening the expense, shortening the time and distance,- and facilitating and increasing intercourse, to increase that commerce by a further and more diversified exchange of commodities. Barely substituting one route for another could not increase, because that alone could not create or produce any new means to sustain it. If a new route opens to pro duction a wilderness, and thereby increases population, with means to sustain it and afford an exchange of commodities, it would, of course, increase commerce ; or a new route which would greatly lessen expenses of transit, save much time, increase and facilitate intercourse, would naturally increase an exchange of com modities, and would also increase commerce. But neither of these desirable and all-important results can be gained by a canal, because a canal or railroad across any part of the isthmus could not open to settlement and production an extent of wilderness country, as it is not there— Nature here having fixed the bounds over which the genius of man cannot dominate ; climate, sterility, and all, obstruct his course. And it could not shorten distance and time, lessen expense, facilitate and increase intercourse; as I will show there would be no shortening of distance or time, by giving the exact distances to be performed, both around the cape and through a proposed canal, as has been given to the public by Mr. Whitney, and from the authority of Professor Wittish, of the London University :— To Valparaiso. Miles. From Plymouth to Realijo, via canal,............................................................................ Thence to Valparaiso,.............................. 5,578 3,500 • T o Valparaiso, around Cape H om ,............................................................................... 8,978 9,400 Difference in favor of the canal, only........................................................................... 422 From Sidney to England, via proposed canal,.............................................................. 14,848 “ “ “ via Cape Horn,..................................................................... 13,848 Against ca n a l,...................................................................................................... 1,000 From Canton to England, via canal, S. W . Moons,................................................... 15,558 “ “ “ via Cape o f Good Hope, S. W . Moons,.......................... 14,940 Against canal,....................................................................... 618 From Plymouth to Singapore, via canal, N . E. M oon,... ........................................ 16,578 “ “ “ via Cape o f Good Hope, N. E. M oon,................. 14,350 Against canal,.................................................................................................................. 2,228 388 The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific. From this it appears that if the means could be furnished, the canal completed, no difficulties in its operation and progress, the commerce of Europe with Asia could never be changed to this route ; and there are further, and almost, if not quite, insurmountable difficulties yet to name. The climate would not only des troy commodities of commerce, but population; a hurricane, navigation ; shoals, rocks, bars, and no harbors. The Commercial Review of New Orleans, for July, estimates the destruction of vessels and property for eighteen months’ commerce of the Gulf at one hundred and fifty vessels ; value, cargo and all, $6,000,000. And should we alone attempt to get a canal across the isthmus, anywhere, it would force Europe to try to get a route across Suez or through Russia. But as we have the route within our own territory which would forever give us the entire control of the commerce and travel of all the world, and the means costing us nothing to accomplish it, I think it decidedly and clearly our duty to go at it at once, and have it done, and not lose all by looking after that which can do us no good. Mr. Whitney’s plan for a railroad from Lake Michigan, through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains, to Oregon, is so plain and simple that any common mind can understand it. He asks Congress to appropriate sixty miles wide of the public lands, from Lake Michigan to the Pacific, for this especial purpose ; and, as he builds the road, he takes the land to reimburse himself. For eight hundred miles, the one-half, at the government price, it is estimated, will build the road; the other half creates a fund for where the lands are poor. When completed, the road to be free to all the world, except for repairs and operations, to be fixed by Congress. The distance from the lake to the ocean is twenty-four hundred miles; the estimated cost, when ready for use, $70,000,000. The number of acres re quired is 92,160,000, waste land, 1,200 miles without timber or navigable streams, and of small value ; and would it ever settle or be of any value without the road ? Clearly not. Then the question is, shall Mr. Whitney take these lands, and, by sale and settlement thereof, build this road, or shall they be allowed to fritter away without any perceptible good ? This great highway of nations, the greatest work ever done by men or nations; a road which must forever be the thoroughfare be tween all Europe and A sia; a work which will bring us together as one family, binding us with a bond of iron which cannot be sundered— both useful in war and peace ; a work which will give us the command of and make the commerce of all the world tributary to us, adding millions of wealth to the nation, and ten-folding its population ; a work which shall change the condition of all mankind, bringing all together, as one nation, in free intercourse and exchange of commodities ; a work which must be the means of civilizing and Christianizing the heathen, the barbarian and the savage— shall these waste wilderness lands be applied to this noble, this more than glorious purpose ? I cannot doubt all will say yes. When we look at the past., and see how civilization has travelled West,bringing commerce and the useful arts with i t ; when we see that civil and religious liberty was driven to this continent as its apparent last resting-place ; when we see the progress and even strides of these United States in wealth and greatness ; when we see this vast, this rich continent, yet a wilderness before us, the best climate and country, and under the best government the sun ever shone upon ; more con genial to grow the whole man than any other part of the globe ; placed directly in the centre of the earth— Europe, with more than two hundred and fifty millions of souls, on the one side, with the Atlantic, three thousand miles, between us, and on the other side, all Asia, with seven hundred millions of souls, and the Pacific, a little more than five thousand miles, between us ; and when we know that the earth does not produce enough to sustain the vast multitudes on either side, and no where for them to go but to us ; and when we know that the building of this great road will open to settlement, production, and intercourse with all parts of the globe this vast wilderness of twenty-five hundred miles in extent, can we doubt that it is our destiny and paramount duty to go forward and accomplish it ? Clearly not. Mr. Whitney proposes to start his road somewhere on Lake Michigan, where he can find the lands unoccupied ; and thence cross the Mississippi, near Prairie The Project o f a Railroad to the Pacific. 389 du Chien, in the parallel of about 43°; and thence over to the Missouri, between Council Bluffs and the Big Sioux; thence to the Pass on a parallel of about 424°; thence to the best point on the Pacific, St. Francisco, or the Columbia River. This route or starting point would seem absolutely necessary. First, the route must be where the rivers can be bridged ; the starting point must be from where the lands can be made immediately available for means, and where the good land can furnish means for the part where the land is poor, and to furnish timber for the road and for buildings where there is none. The plan could not be carried out from a starting point west of the lake, because there would not be a sufficient amount of lands on the route to insure success, and because the transportation o f material to any other point would cost so much as to forbid the work. And it is not material to the States, as all would join this at or near the Mississippi, making this the most central for all the Atlantic cities and for New Orleans, and being about the centre of the continent. New England and New York would have their Buffalo and Erie roads through Ohio; Pennsylvania to Pittsburgh and through Ohio; Baltimore to Wheeling and through Ohio, two hundred miles nearer than New Y ork; Richmond her direct and best of all routes to Cincinnati, and then onward; Charleston to Nashville and to Louisville, or direct through the entire State of Illinois; and New Orleans, with the father of rivers always navi gable to the Ohio ; while St. Louis would have the Mississippi and Missouri, and her railroad up the Missouri Valley, the' first to reach it— all equally located, and sharing in all its benefits. Thus uniting and bringing all together at one grand centre ; distant from ocean to ocean from either city not over 3,400 miles, per formed at a moderate speed in eight days, and at thirty miles per hour, in five and a half days, and with the magnetic telegraph out-run the sun by twelve hours; placing us on the Pacific, directly opposite to all Asia; distant from Japan but 4,000 miles ; from China but 5,400 miles; to Australia but 6,000 miles ; to New Guinea 5,340 miles, and to Singapore 7,660 miles. From London or Liverpool (latitude ' about 50°) to New York is about 3,000 miles, to be added to the above, -when we have the direct route from Europe to all Asia, and much shorter than any other route possible to accomplish. These distances appear so much shorter than those for the route across the isthmus, that an explanation is required. First, we start from London, latitude 50°, and cross the isthmus, in from 7° to 16° north latitude, and about 90° west longitude ; thence to Canton, latitude about 23°, and east longitude 1134°, or about 170° of longitude, each degree of longitude full sixty miles, .making from the terminus of the canal to Canton over 10.200 miles; whereas, from Columbia river, latitude 464°, to Shanghai, latitude about 32°, and east longitude 122°, where all the commerce of China would centre, is .1104° of longitude, measu ring on this parallel about forty-seven miles each, a distance of 5,400 miles. Thus it will be seen that for a vessel bound from the terminus of a canal across the isthmus to China, the shortest and best route would be first to the Columbia river, and then to China. Thus we see that t t o would gain over that of the isthmus, from London to China, 3,758 miles, to .OTstralia 2,440 miles, to Singapore 1,398 miles ; and New York gains over Europe about 3,000 miles to all these places. This seems to be Nature’s route. On this belt, this line around the globe, is al most all the population of the world ; on this line is and will be the greatest pro duction of breadstuff’s and meat, the sustenance of men and of commerce, adding wealth to the nation ; the only route which can of itself furnish the means to build the road, or where the labor of men can make it available. Nature has here smoothed the way, and opened the mountains to let us pass. Then look at our picture, our position with this road completed : behold, with one hand we reach out over the Pacific to the millions of Japan, China, and all Asia, with our manufactures, our cotton, our tobacco, our hemp, our rice, our flour, our corn, beef, pork, leather, and all our many and various products, and receive back in exchange their teas, coffee, sugar, spices, indigo, drugs, silks, and various useful and curious fabrics, with gold, silver, and precious stones— all, too, with our own ships and our own men; and with the other hand over the broad Atlantic, to all Europe, our various products in exchange for theirs, and receive their surplus 390 Application o f Electricity to Ascertaining o f Longitude. population, to whom we give a home, a country ; while our body draws to it and controls the rich commerce and wealth of all the world, spreading and circulating from ocean to ocean, through every artery, through every city from Texas to Maine; and from the heart, the centre, would spring and flow forth throughout the whole frame, the whole system, the life, the products of man’s labor, from the earth, which created, would control and sustain it. The picture is grand, and might be considered a vision, had it any other foundation than the wilderness earth, which by the labor of man is to bring forth all we want, and, at the same time, richly re ward that labor. It is a great plan, a great work; but we are the people to do big things. This we have only to commence; it works itself. Build the first mile, and it prepares the way for another. The settler has the means of free transit to market, and his labor is wanted on the road; he is at once made inde pendent and happy. It is the poor man’s road, his hope and promise. It is the farmer and mechanic who will receive the greatest benefits ; their small means and labor on the road could purchase the land for forty to one hundred and sixty acres; their labor and crops immediately wanted on the road; and if a surplus, a free transit to market. Villages and cities would spring up, from one end to the other, all independent and happy, because the free intercourse with all the world afford a full reward for labor. Then will you take your money and send it out of our country, to be used against your interest, or will you have the Oregon road, which will cost you nothing but your votes? Mr. Whitney does not ask for one dollar in money, nor will he subject any man to one cent of taxation, and no harm to any; he does not even ask a survey for his route; all he desires is, that the waste wilderness land may be placed so that by sale and settlement the means, in money and labor, can be produced to build the road, and when the road is completed, to be under the control of Congress, of the people, and no dividends. All this he proposes at his own risk and hazard; and if it fails, the people lose nothing, as no part of the lands would be granted to him faster than the road is built. It appears to me that this is no mysterious affair— a plain, simple, business plan, grand and sublime, but as simple as grand. I examined this subject nearly three years ago. I then endorsed it, and pre sented Mr. Whitney’s first memorial to the 28th Congress. Since that time it has grown upon the public mind, and I believe the people will have it, and the sooner the better. Z. P r a t t . Praltsville, Greene County, N. Y., August 28th, 1847. Art. VII.— APPLICATION OF ELECTRICITY TO ASCERTAINING OF LONGITUDE. TO THE EDITOR OF THE MERCHANTS1MAGAZINE, ETC. A t the late meeting o f the British Association held at Oxford, in E n g land, Mr. Bains, who had so in gfliou sly applied galvanic electricity to the working o f clocks, stated that he had discovered an economical mode for generating the electric fluid applied to this purpose. This he accom plished by simply sinking zinc and copper plates in the moist earth, instead o f acids and saline substances, which developed sufficient electri cal action to work a clock, in the place o f weights and springs. Mr. Bains also showed, some time since, that, by means o f connecting isolated wires, passing from a central clock worked by electricity, all the other public clocks in a city could be put in motion, and made to keep precisely the same time. For instance, if the clock on Trinity Church, or on the City Hall, w ere put in motion by electricity, and all other public clocks in N ew Y ork connected with it by isolated wires, they could all be made to keep precisely the same time. Thus, if the main clock should be kept perfectly regulated, it would impart the same perfect regularity to all the rest, and prove o f great convenience to the population at large. Application o f Electricity to Ascertaining o f Longitude. 391 In all that Mr. Bains has said on the subject, it does not appear that he thought o f applying electricity to the ascertaining o f longitude. It is clear, however, that, if a central clock in N ew Y ork can be made to keep exact time, and make all the other clocks in the city do the same, by the agency o f electricity passing along wires, that it is only necessary to extend the wires from the central clock in N ew York to every other townclock throughout the United States, to make them all keep precisely the same time. Thus, a clock in the city o f M exico, and at the mouth o f the Columbia River, and in Q uebec, could all be made to tick precisely at the same moment, and thus show the difference in longitude between these far-distant and intermediate places, on every day throughout the year. By recent experiments, the telegraphic wires have been temporarily tried, by the mere ticking o f magnetic registering machines, compared at the moment with chronometer time-pieces, for ascertaining differences o f lon gitude between Jersey City and Philadelphia, and between the latter city and Baltimore and Washington. From the success which attended these brief experiments, no doubt can be entertained o f the practicability o f working electrical clocks, or chronometers, at distant points, simulta neously, on the plan I have suggested. But it is not alone on land I propose to call public attention to the utility o f electricity in ascertaining correct longitude, but on board o f ves sels at sea also. An electrical chronometer must possess many advan tages over all other kinds. It is w ell known that the most difficult thing to regulate in a chronometer, is its spring, which changes its elasticity by use, or undergoes change o f action by change o f temperature. Heat expands it, and cold contracts it. T h e most difficult part o f a clock to regu late, is its pendulum, w hich w ill elongate by heat, and contract by cold— in the first instance, causing it to move too slow, and in the second, too fast. I am aware o f the various ingenious contrivances applied to remedy these defects, but in none o f them have the experiments proved perfectly successful. In working a chronometer by electricity, the spring is wholly dispensed w ith ; or in working a clock by the same agency, the spring, weights, & c ., are wholly unnecessary, and w e have nothing to guard against but the expansion o f a simple wheel or two, w hich can be com posed o f substances in a manner more perfect, i f not wholly exempt from variation in volume b y changes o f temperature. A s the action o f electricity in producing motion is uniform and instantaneous, in given terms, the oscillations must also be correspondingly uniform, the influence o f heat and cold to the contrary notwithstanding. I f electrical clocks or chronometers can be made to work on land, they can also be made to work with equal facility at sea. The copper sheath ing o f a ship’ s bottom, immersed in water, and that almost all the while salt, would form a powerful surface, in connection with zinc plates favora bly disposed o f about the vessel, for the constant and permanent genera tion o f an electrical current, sufficient to put a sea-clock or chronometer in motion, which, in all likelihood, would prove more uniformly correct, as a time-piece, than any chronometer ever hitherto employed ; and hence a more correct instrument for ascertaining longitude than anything else in use. The improvement, at all events, is worthy o f trial, and should be made under the patronage and authority o f the government. Perfection, or as near perfection as possible, in chronometer time, is an object o f great importance to navigation. T h is has been made apparent by the fact that 392 Barbour's Reports o f Cases in Chancery. vessels have gone ashore, and have been totally wrecked, by very slight variations in chronometer time. I trust my remarks may be the means o f directing public attention to the importance o f the su bject; and that, on trial, electrical chronometer time-pieces may develop all the utility I hope for them. a . j . Art. T ill.— BARBOUR’S REPORTS OF CASES IN CHANCERY.* C h a n c e l l o r W a l w o r t h ’ s term o f office, and the office o f Chancellor itself, ended on the first Monday o f July last, by force and virtue o f the n ew N ew Y ork constitution. H e continues to hear and decide cases now ready for hearing, until July, 1848. W e may, therefore, look for perhaps three, or at most four volumes more o f Mr. Barbour’s series o f Chancery Reports, o f which the present is the first. This volume is printed and got up in the usual excellent style in which Messrs. Banks & Gould publish law books. In the contents w e notice two special features o f m erit; one for which we have to thank the reporter, the other, the learned judge. W e wish they w ere more common in law reports. In the first place, full statements o f the arguments o f counsel are given. It is no more than justice in the reporter, to give briefly the arguments o f counsel on both sides o f a question. T h ey are an important class o f the officers o f the court, to whose diligence, learning, and ability, the cause o f justice is much indebted, for the enlightened and careful consideration with which cases are decided. T o whom, indeed, shall the poor lawyer look for name and fame with posterity, after he has “ strutted his brief hour,” like the actor— after his voice has died from the forum, like the actor from the theatre— like him, too, living and laboring as he does, only for the present, to whom shall he look unless to the reporter ? M oreover, the points o f counsel are as useful in letting the reader fully into the legal aspects o f a case, as the statement o f facts is in disclosing the circumstances. Indeed, a volume o f Reports and Cases does not deserve the name, i f it leave the labors o f counsel “ unhonored and unknown.” T h e other excellence o f this volume, equally worthy, and greatly need ing imitation in this country, is the brevity o f the decisions. W e have no objection to a long opinion, in its place. W h o can find fault with the learned length o f Judge Story’ s decision in D e Lovio ns. Bort? or Chan cellor K ent’s in Griswold and Waddington? It is edifying to see a great legal mind battling long and stoutly with a hard case, with the compla cen cy o f learned self-confidence, starting up and running down every possi ble difficulty and objection. But the ordinary run o f cases does not re quire this. It is astonishing how few are the cases directly bearing upon any point, in comparison with the multitude o f authorities relating to the subject, but not strictly relevant. Nothing marks the learned, the expe rienced, and acute judge, more than a clear, terse, direct, and brief dis cussion o f the very point at issue, with not a word wasted upon other matters, naturally suggested, perhaps, but irrelevant; or i f relevant, too * Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Court of Chancery of the State of New York. By O l i v e r L . B a r b o u r , Counsellor at Law. Vol. 1. New York: Banks, Gould & Co. Albany: Gould, Banks & Gould. 393 Mercantile Law Cases. w ell settled to require a moment’s consideration. O f this sort are the de cisions reported by Mr. B arbour; though there are not wanting in the volume some o f a length to satisfy the most insatiable. In the 650 pages o f the book, we have the large number o f 170 cases reported. W h y has Mr. Barbour given us such a volume as only adds some poignancy to the thought that we have seen nearly the last o f the Chancery Reports ? F or nearly twenty years Chancellor Walworth has filled the judicial office, which, following English analogy, entitles the incumbent to be considered the head o f the profession o f the State. All lawyers think alike, w e be lieve, o f the ability, the learning, and the diligence with which its duties have been discharged. His industry, in fact, is o f that kind which, like Judge Story’s, and that o f the "old continental jurists, is rather appalling than encouraging. H e is one o f those men whose element is la b o r; whose minds find their truest repose, not in inactivity— miscalled rest— but in that constant exertion which, being most congenial, gives most ease. Such industry, united with such ability, yields products which, like the long series o f W alw orth’s decisions, fill, and always will fill a large place among the reliable authorities o f the lawyer’ s library. Always will fill, w e say, for it needs but a glance to see that the late alterations o f our judiciary system, though they have swept away the old Court o f Chancery, have not cut a hair’s-breadth into the quick, as far as the equity principles administered in chancery are concerned, and that probably they w ill leave untouched many o f even the old forms o f pro ceeding. This being the case, as long as mortgages, marriages, trusts, and wills, which are the leading topics o f this volume, continue in use, decisions like Chancellor W alworth’ s w ill continue to be needed, and so will reports o f them like Mr. Barbour’s. MERCANTILE LAW CASES. IM P O R T A N T DECISION— T H E N A VIG A TIO N A C T OF M A R C H , 1817. T h e act o f Congress o f March 1,1817, concerning navigation, adopts, in substance, the English navigation act o f 12 Charles II., ch. 18. Q,u. Whether the pleading in this case show the trade in question to be a violation o f the act o f March 1, 18171 I f it was so, the United States are concluded by their cotemporaneous construction o f the act, and longcontinued practice under it, from now denying the legality o f an importation to the United States o f ar ticles, the growth, production, or manufacture o f the British East India dependencies, from an English port in Europe, in vessels owned by British subjects resident in England. But, if the question be an open one, such trade is not prohibited hy the true meaning and effect o f the act. T h e act makes no distinction between one part o f the dominions o f a foreign State and others,—it applies to the entire country or foreign nation. Colonies and dependencies, in contemplation o f law, are part and parcel o f the country to which they appertain ; and privileges and disabilities, made to affect the country, extend alike to both, when it is not otherwise specially provided or directed. Products o f colonies, are o f the products o f the country, and there are no citizens, or subjects, or ships o f colonies, otherwise than as they belong to the entire country. T he term country in the act o f March 1,1817, embraces the whole o f the dominions o f Great Britain, in cluding her East India possessions. The act is to be regarded as retaliatory and prohibitive in its character, intended to counteract like regula tions enforced by other countries against the commerce o f the United States. It is not alleged or shown that British laws, or regulations o f trade, prohibit the exportation to Great Britain, from a port in the United States, in an American vessel, o f articles the growth, production, or 394 Mercantile Law Cases. manufacture o f a territory or dependency o f the United States, but not o f the place from which they are shipped for exportation. Nor is it alleged or shown that vessels o f the United States are interdicted importing into the United States, from English ports in Europe, productions, & cMfrom the British East India possessions. The plea in bar o f the information, declared good, and decree rendered, restoring ships and cargo seized, to the claimants. The libel o f information charged that this ship, not being a vessel o f the United States, nor a foreign vessel truly and wholly belonging to the citizens or subjects o f the British East Indies, on the 22nd o f May, 1847, imported from London into New York, various goods described, being the growth, production, or manufacture o f the British East Indies, from which place they have usually, since March, 1817, been shipped for transportation; and by reason whereof, and by virtue o f the act o f Congress o f March 1, 1817, the said ship, her tackle, & c., and the said cargo, became and were forfeited to the United States; and prayed process, and a decree o f condemnation, &c. The claimants, averring themselves to be natural born subjects o f the Queen o f Great Britain, and resident in England, within the United Kingdom, pleaded specially to the libel, that the said ship, at the time, truly and wholly belonged to them, and still does, and that the British East Indies are, and were at the time, provinces, and part and parcel o f the United Kingdom o f Great Britain and Ireland, and o f Her Majesty’ s dominions, and that the said goods were the growth, production, and manufacture o f the do minions o f Her Majesty, and were received by them on board said ship at the port o f London, for transhipment to the port o f New York, and aver the right to make such importation, & c., & c. T o the special pleas, the District Attorney demurred. I n the U. S. Circuit Court, Southern District of New York, before the Hon. Samuel Nelson, Assistant Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and the Hon. Samuel R. Betts, District Judge. The United States vs. The Ship Recorder. The question raised by the issue in law, is, whether the trade in which this ship was employed, is inhibited by the act of Congress concerning the navigation of the United States, passed March 1, 1817. The first section of the act provides, that after the 30th day of September next, no goods, wares or merchandise shall be imported into the United States, from any foreign port or place, except in vessels of the United States, or such foreign vessels as truly and wholly belong to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth, production or manufacture; or from which such goods, wares or merchandise can only be, or most usually are, first shipped for transportation. Provided, nevertheless, that this regulation shall not extend to the vessels of any foreign nation which has not adopted, and which shall not adopt a'similar regulation. The second section declares the vessel and cargo, coming into the United States, in violation of those provisions, forfeited. It is not stated in the pleadings, nor admitted by the claimants on the argument, that Great Britain has adopted regulations similar to those established by this a c t; and the claimants, therefore, in strictness of law, may be entitled to the objection, that the construction insisted on by the government, does not bring the vessel and cargo within the condemnation of the statute. W e think, however, if the navigation laws of Great Britain, notoriously re straining the trade in American vessels, with her colonies, within limits more strict than the regulations of this statute, are not to be judicially noticed by the court, the provisions of the convention between the United States and Great Britain, of July-, 1815, must be regarded as part of tiie law of the case ; and in that conven tion, Great Britain reserves to herself, and adopts, by implication, regulations sim ilar, in this respect, to those established by the act of Congress in question. It is admitted by the pleadings, that goods, wares, and merchandise, the growth, production, or manufacture of the British East Indies, have, since the passage of the act of Congress, been usually shipped for transportation from the ports of the East Indies. The District Attorney, on the part of the government, accordingly, contended that the course of trade attempted in this instance, is prohibited to British vessels —first, by the direct language of the act of Congress, and secondly, by its intent and policy, as gathered from antecedent and cotemporaneous facts, leading to its enactment. W e think, upon general principles of law, the question is no longer open to Mercantile Law Cases. 395 the government upon the construction and bearing of the act of Congress, in this respect. In September, 1817, on transmitting the act to the officers of customs through out the United States, the Secretary of the Treasury instructed them that “ the term ‘ country,’ in the first section, is considered as embracing all the possessions o f a foreign State, however widely separated, which are subjected to the same executive and legislative authority. The productions and manufactures of a foreign State, and of its colonies, may be imported into the United States in vessels owned by the citizens or subjects of such State, without regard to their place of residence within its possessions.” This exposition of the act does not appear to have been called in question or doubted by the United States, until the 30th of June, 1842, when an opinion was given by the Attorney General on its meaning and operation, which, on the 6th of July, 1842, was transmitted by the Secretary of the Treasury to the collectors of the customs. The Secretary, in his circular, instructs the collectors to be governed thereafter by the opinion of the Attorney General, and “ to take care that the penalties of the law are enforced in all cases coming under its provisions.” The seizure in the present case is made in execution of those instructions. The Attorney General intimates that the language of the first section of the act is not entirely free from ambiguity, but declares it his opinion, “ that it does not in any case authorize an indirect carrying trade by foreign ships.” “ The proviso was intended to restrain the privilege extended to foreign vessels in the enacting clause. By this they are allowed where they belong wholly to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth or manufacture, to bring these goods into our ports. By the proviso, this is con fined to cases where a reciprocal privilege of the same kind is extended to our vessels.” This interpretation of the act is entitled to the highest respect, and if we re garded it as removing or meeting the difficulties raised on this issue, we should give it the most careful consideration. W e should probably feel considerable hesitancy in accepting as the true key to the interpretation of the act, the idea put forth in the opinion, that the enacting clause extended a privilege to foreign vessels, and that the proviso confined it to cases where a reciprocal privilege of the same kind is extended to our vessels. It rather appears to us the natural reading of the act gives it a retaliatory and prohibitive character, restrained by the proviso from being enforced against any nation not having adopted like pro hibitions or restrictions against the United States. But we forbear an examina tion of this point, because the case submitted to the Attorney General had none of the features marking this. That was a Belgian vessel, which imported to the United States a cargo from Buenos Ayres, the products of the latter country, and the question to be decided was whether such indirect trade was open to her in articles of foreign growth or production. The Attorney General was of opinion that the act of March 1, 1817, did not authorize it. The case would have been opposite if the Belgian ship had been laden at her home port, in Europe, with productions of a Belgian colony or territory in the East or West Indies or Africa, and the United States were debarred importing the same goods, except directly from the place of their production. There is no evidence before us that the Treasury Department, or the officers of the customs, have, since the act of 1817, arrested, or questioned importations of colonial products, made in a vessel of the mother country, from her home port: and we must regard the cotemporary exposition of the act, given by the Secre tary of the Treasury, as the one acquiesced in and practised under by the go vernment, from that period, except by the exposition of the Attorney General, above referred t o ; and there is no evidence before us that his interpretation has ever been enforced in a case similar to this. W e hold the government, if not all other parties, now precluded by that long usage, and practical construction of the law, from questioning its correctness and disturbing the course of its execu tion. Admitting that on the face of the act it is doubtful whether the trade now 396 Mercantile Law Cases. attempted to be prosecuted, can be allowed ; or even conceding that the intention of the statute to the contrary is manifest, and that the Treasury Department misapprehended and misinterpreted its provisions, in the instructions of Septem ber, 1817, we think the settled rules of law, and the principles governing the in terpretation of human language, with whatever solemnity, and to whatsoever purpose it is employed, require us to adopt and adhere to the cotemporaneous construction, corroborated by an undeviating usage of thirty years, as that which must be applied to the statute, and govern this case. W e deem it unnecessary to state arguments or analyze cases supporting the proposition. The principle is recognized and illustrated by the highest legal authorities— (Dwarris on Statutes, 693; Bac. ab. Stat., I., 5 ; 1 Cranch, 229; 5 Cranch, 22 ; 3 Pick. R., 517.) The Supreme Court of the United States gives the most solemn sanction to the doctrine, in declaring that a cotemporary exposition of the Constitution, prac tised and acquiesced under for a period of years, fixes its construction, ( Stuart vs. Laird, 1 Cranch, 299,) and in pronouncing the practical construction of a statute the one which must be enforced, although clearly unauthorized by the terms of the law itself—(5 Cranch, 22, McKeer vs. Delaney.) In the first case, the period of acquiescence had been comparatively of short duration— about twelve years. The Supreme Court of Massachusetts, in a case most maturely considered, held “ that a cotemporaneous, is generally the best construction of a statute. It gives the sense of a community of the terms made use of by the legislature. If there is ambiguity in the language, the understanding and application of it, when the statute first comes into operation, sanctioned by long acquiescence on the part of the legislature and jbdicial tribunals, is the strongest evidence that it has been rightly explained in practice. A construction under such circum stances, becomes established law.” — (Packard vs. ■Richardson, 17 Mass., 144, 2 Mass. R ., 477-8.) The navigation law adopted by Congress in 1817, would be one eminently cal culated to attract the notice of the business community. It provided for cases of deep public moment, and most especially as it tended to meet in some degree the embarrassment our trade suffered from the navigation laws of Great Britain, and her commercial regulations, affecting the intercourse with her colonies. These had been topics of agitating interest in the negotiations between the two countries preceding the war of 1812, and in those leading to the termination of that war, and the adjustment of new relations of peace. The 14th Congress, which came into power with the close of the war, must have been strongly imbued with the common tone of feeling, and familiar with the state of those commercial regulations as enforced by Great Britain, and their effect upon the interests of the United States. The President, in his message to Congress, Dec. 3d, 1816, adverted in strong language to the state of trade with the British colonies out of Europe ; its partial and injurious bearing on our navigation, and the refusal of that government to negotiate on the subject. The merchants of New York and Portland memorialized Congress on the sub ject, urging that importations of goods, &c., into the United States, should be prohibited, “ except in vessels of the United States, or in vessels built by, and actually belonging to the citizens or subjects of the nation in which such article has been produced or manufactured, & c.” (11 Niles’ Register,273,2d sess. 14th Cong., Doc. No. 81.) In this aroused state of public opinion, it is not supposable that the exposition placed by the Secretary of the Treasury on the act of March, 1817, could escape the notice of the executive and legislative branches of the government, and of the community at large; and that construction, therefore, under these circum stances, stands augmented with presumptions supporting its justness, stronger in force than even the lapse of thirty years’ acquiescence. It is not to be credited that tlie President, Congress, and the whole body o f merchants, would permit an Mercantile Law Cases. 397 interpretation of this statute, which failed to carry out the spirit and meaning of its enactment, to govern our trade and revenues: and it is difficult to put a case where cotemporaneous construction could with more confidence and justness be relied upon, as the expression of the true meaning of a law. W e feel, therefore, that we could with great propriety rest the decision of this case upon the appli cation of that principle, as recognized and enforced in the authorities referred to, and supported by the special circumstances surrounding this law. But in a case presenting a question of grave import to our own mercantile interests, and also to the relations between the United States and Great Britain, we have considered it proper to examine the statute itself with attention, aided by the arguments of the respective counsel, and shall proceed to assign briefly the reasons leading us to the conclusion that the construction heretofore adopted is correct, and should be still adhered to. It seems to be maintained, on the part of the United States, that the act should be understood to restrain the importation by British vessels, to articles the pro duction or manufacture of her European possessions, and to compel the produc tions and manufactures of her dependencies out of Europe, to be brought here in vessels belonging to the place of production or manufacture. This construction is founded upon the assumed import of the term “ country” employed in the act, in connection with the supposed policy of the statute to establish a condition of reciprocity in respect to the navigation and trade of the country, where that was not already regulated by the convention of July 3, 1815. It may be admitted that the term “ country ” used in the act, in its primary meaning, Signifies place, and in a larger sense, the territory or dominions occu pied by a community; or even waste and unpeopled sections or regions of the earth ; but its metaphorical meaning is no less definite and well understood ; and in common parlance, in historical and geographical writings in diplomacy, legis lation, treaties, international codes, not to refer to sacred writ, the word country is employed to denote the population, the nation, the State, the government having possession and dominion over it. Thus,Vattell says, “ the term country seems to be well understood by every body. However, as it is taken in different senses, it may not be unuseful to give it here an exact definition. It commonly signifies the State of which one is a member.” “ In a more confined sense, this term signifies the State, or, even more particularly, the town or place of our birth.” (Book I., ch. 9,5122.) When a nation takes possession of a distant country, and settles a colony there, that country, though separated from the principal establishment, or mother coun try, naturally becomes a part of the State, equally with its ancient possessions. Whenever, therefore, the political laws or treaties make no distinction between them, everything said of the territory of a nation ought also to extend to its colo nies. (Vattell, B. I., ch. 18, § 210.) The whole of a country possessed by a nation, and subjected to its laws, forms its territories ; and it is the common country of all the individuals of the nation. (Ibid., B. I., ch. 19, § 211.) It is very apparent upon the provisions of the act of 1817, that Congress un derstood and used the term country in the enlarged sense given by Vattell. Thus nation, in the proviso to S. 1 ; foreign prince or State in S. 3 ; and foreign power in S. 4, all represent, in their connection, the same idea as country in the first section:— the special designation of citizens or subjects does not mark with more precision that the law had reference to persons, to political powers and agencies, than the mere word country— the thing containing being, by a familiar form of speech, used for that which it contains; and, besides, persons could, with no pro priety of language, be styled citizens or subjects of a country, without under standing country to mean the State or nation, and not merely a section or portion of territory belonging to the nation. So, in the preamble to the convention of 1815, countries, territories, and people, are used by the two governments as having one import, and in the first article, territories is employed as the correllative of inhabitants. Other instances are frequent in our statutes and treaties, and diplomatic cor 398 Mercantile Law Cases. respondence, in which foreign countries and territories are referred to as the peo ple, State, or nation occupying and governing them. But in the present case, it seems to us that the phraseology of the first section of the act, indicates more distinctly even than the use of the ordinary word coun try, that the regulation had a view to foreign governments and nations, and their vessels, and not to the localities within which the individual owners might reside, or where the vessels might be employed. The expression of the law is, “ in such foreign vessels as truly and wholly be long to the citizens or subjects of that country of which the goods are the growth, production, or manufacture.” It has been shown that, by the well-known principles of public law, colonies are parts of the dominion and country of the parent State, and the inhabitants are her subjects and citizens. It follows, as a necessary consequence of that relationship, that there can be no citizens or subjects of the colonies, as distinct and separate from the mother country, and that they can possess no shipping, which, in its character, ownership, or employment, will be foreign to other nations in any sense other than as belong ing to their common country. By the English law, none but vessels wholly owned by British subjects resident within the British dominions can be registered. (Holt Shipp., ch. 2, \ 3, \5 ; Wilk. Shipp., 240, 248.) Congress thus most manifestly had reference to the nationality of vessels in the designation of foreign, because the vessels must truly and wholly belong to citizens and subjects; terms necessarily importing a State or government to which such owners appertain. This consideration furthermore supports the interpretation placed by the court upon the word country, for the term is introduced into this law in connection with expressions demonstrating that the shipping interest and products of foreign States were in contemplation, and not merely the parts or places where the products were grown, or the ship-owners resided. The “ act to regulate trade in plaster of Paris,” passed March 3,1817, strongly imports that this act was intended to have application to the foreign State, and not any of its particular members or parts, and is a significant exposition of its scope and purpose in view of Congress. The subject matter of the two enactments were of a kindred character, and the latter, if not both acts, was in effect aimed at the restrictions of the British navigation laws. There were circumstances in the regulation of the Nova Scotia plaster trade particularly offensive to this country, and Congress, two days after the law in question, passed a special act, providing “ that no plaster of Paris, the production of any country, or its dependencies, from which the vessels of the United States are not permitted to bring the same article, shall be imported into the United States in any foreign vessel.” (3 U. S. Stat., 361.) It is to be remarked upon this statute, that it was wholly superogatory, if the construction now claimed on the part of the United States, to that of March 1st, is correct; because the interdiction of the latter law being universal, it would necessarily include this particular description of importation in foreign vessels, it being denied to vessels of the United States. It therefore affords a strong presumption that Congress did not intend, by the act of March l,t o exact and enforce a reciprocity of privileges with foreign vessels, in the trade to and from foreign countries, in the sense of giving our vessels the right to bring foreign products from any part of a foreign country from which the vessels of that country might import them. It tdenotes, moreover, that Congress considered it necessary to designate de pendencies; or places of production, when it was intended to discriminate them from the mother country ; and also impressively shows that Congress understood the antecedent act as authorizing the importation of plaster of Paris in foreign vessels, from countries and their dependencies, from which the vessels of the United States were not permitted to bring the same article. That such was the understanding and aim of Congress, is more distinctly manifested by the act passed the succeeding session, and which will be adverted to again. Mercantile Law Cases. 399 The grievance under which our navigation labored, clearly was not the carry ing trade of the East India colonies of Great Britain, nor the direct trade between them and the United States. Those subjects were embraced in the then re cent convention of 1815, and we had given and accepted stipulations regulating both. ” T ’ -ve right, as to us, to carry on the coastdependencies, expressly agreeing that the vessels of the United States should not carry any article from the ports to which they are admitted to any port or place except to some port or place in the United States, where it should be unladen. (Art. 3.) In the message of the President to Congress, and the memorials of merchants, before cited, no reference is made to British regulations of the East India trade, as injurious to us or objectionable ; nor is it suggested that the carrying trade of Great Britain from her colonies is cause of complaint, on our part, further than that it indirectly aggravated the injury of our exclusion from the direct trade. But what Mr. Madison and the merchants point to as oppressive to our naviga tion, is its total exclusion from a direct trade with the colonies. The President says:—“ The British government, enforcing, now, regulations which prohibit a trade between its colonies and the United States, in American vessels, whilst they permit a trade in British vessels, the American navigation suffers according ly ; and the loss is augmented by the advantage which is given to the British competition over the American, in the navigation between our ports and the ports in Europe, by the circuitous voyage enjoyed by the one and not enjoyed by the other.” (Message, Dec. 3, 1816.) This wrong, of course, was committed in respect to other dependencies of Great Britain than the East Indies ; for the retaliatory act of April 18, 1818, (3 U. S. Stat., 432, 52,) specially passed to countervail the English colonial naviga tion laws, (14 Niles’ Reg., I ll ,) saves all the provisions of the convention of July 3, 1815, (5 2, proviso.) Congress, in the first measure adopted, seemed to stop at the same point of restriction to which our trade had been subjected by foreign powers, and to intend that law to be applicable to all nations with whom we had commercial inter course. They in substance adopted the English Navigation Act, of 12 Charles II., ch. 18. It was notorious that the operation of the act of 1817, under the proviso, would in effect be limited to the British navigation. (Reeve Shipp., Pt. 1, 107; 1 Chitty’s Comm. L., ch. 6. That this act was not designed to meet the mischiefs suffered by our trade under the regulations of the British colonial policy, is therefore indicated plainly by the after act of March 3, 1817 ; and it appears to us is demonstrated by the provisions of the “ act concerning navigation,” passed April 18, 1818, (3 U. S. Statutes, 432,) and the two acts supplementary and in addition thereto, passed May 15, 1820, and May 6,1822, (3 U. S. Statutes, 602 and 681.) These sta tutes, with the most rigorous inhibitions of the introduction of the productions of British colonies into the United States in British vessels, directly or indirectly, when not allowed to be imported with equal privileges in vessels of the United States, are plainly limited to the British West India and North American depen dencies. (Report of committee, 11 Niles’ Register, 111.) W e think these vari ous enactments, made under the suggestion of the Executive, at the instance of our shipping merchants, accompanied by earnest diplomatic efforts and expostula tions, in respect to the trade with the English dependencies in North America and the West Indies, conclusively support the meaning originally applied to the act of March 1, 1817, and which we adopt: that it does not render illegal the trade attempted in this instance. W e perceive nothing in the provisions of the second clause of the first section of the act of March 1, 1817, bearing upon this question. The information avers that the productions of the East Indies have usually been first shipped for transportation from the ports of the East Indies, and the plea in substance admits the fact. 400 Mercantile Law Cases. Yet, as already indicated, the act, in our judgment, does not exact a direct trade from the port of production, or usual shipment, when the importation is in a vessel belonging to the country in which the goods are produced. It places no limitation of place upon her right to bring the productions of her own country. If a foreign ship engages in such carrying trade, the act might probably re quire that her voyages should be from a home port, which should also be the country from which such goods, wares, or merchandise can only be, or most usually are, first shipped for transportation, but we do not undertake to define the effect or application of this clause further than to say, it does not restrain the ex portation in vessels owned by citizens or subjects of the country, to the port of production or usual shipment in that country. W e are also led to observe upon the proviso, that it does not appear upon the pleadings, or any regulations of trade made by Great Britain, which we have examined, that she prohibits the importation, in vessels of the United States, of the productions of our territories or dependencies, shipped from a port of the United States to which they had been transported from the place of production. Nor does it appear that vessels of the United States are prohibited by the British government importing to this country, from England, goods, wares, or merchandise, the growth, production, or manufacture of her East India dependencies. As already intimated, therefore, there is ground for doubt whether, upon the construction of the act assumed on the part of the government, a case is made showing any violation of its provisions, by the importation in question. Without adverting to many other topics of argument, opened by the case, and discussed by counsel, in our judgment, the defence made by the special pleas, is a bar to the action, and the demurrer taken on the part of the United States must be overruled. The following decree will accordingly be entered in the cause : It being considered by the court, that the matter specially pleaded by the claim ants to the libel, and information filed in this cause, amounts in law to a bar thereof, and to the prosecution aforesaid for the matters in the said libel specified— It is ordered by the court, that judgment be rendered for the claimants, upon the demurrer interposed on the part of the plaintiff to the plea aforesaid. It is further ordered by the court, that the said ship, her tackle, apparel, and furniture, and the cargo in the pleadings specified, be discharged from arrest in this cause, and be delivered up to the claimants therein. M E R C H A N D ISE SOLD ON T IM E . In the Superior Court, (City of New York.) Albert Woodhull and others, vs. David M. Wilson & Co. This was an action to recover $837, being the price of iron sold to the defend ants. In 1846, the plaintiffs, through a broker, sold to the defendants a quantity of iron, and, at the time of the sale, a memorandum was made containing the date and price, and marked “ 4 months.” The plaintiffs delivered the iron, and in a few weeks after sent to the defendants for their note at four months from the date when the goods were delivered. The defendants refused to give the note, and this action was instituted. The defendants offered to pay the amount before the four months had expired, but the plaintiffs refused to take it unless the costs of the suit were also paid. For the defence, it was alleged that the defendants pur chased the goods on four months credit without any understanding between the parties that they should pass their note for it. On the part of the plaintiffs it was shown that “ 4 mouths” on a memorandum of sale means that a note is to be given payable iiffour months, and that it was customary for purchasers, under such cir cumstances, to give such notes. On the other hand, witnesses were called who testified that no such general custom existed in the iron trade, although purcha sers do frequently give their notes to convenience sellers. The court charged the jury that the sole question they had to pass upon, was whether, according to gen eral custom, the transaction meant a credit by book account or a credit on a note at four months, and as they found this fact so would they find for the plaintiffs or defendants. The jury brought in a verdict for plaintiffs for $866 damages and costs. Commercial Chronicle and Review. 401 COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW. COMMERCIAL AFFAIRS IN ENGLAND AND THE UNITED STATES— CONDITION OF THE BANK OF ENG LAND----RATES OF STERLING AND FRANCS IN NEW YORK, FOUR LAST YEARS---- QUARTERLY IM PORTS INTO NEW YORK FOR LAST NINE YEARS— SHIPMENT OF MEXICAN DOLLARS TO LONDON— THE REVULSION IN ENGLAND— ITS INFLUENCE— -THE CRISIS OF 1836-7 — THE MONEY MAR KET— BANK LOANS OF NEW YORK CITY— THE GERMAN TRADE— W EEKLY AND MONTHLY RE CEIPTS OF COTTON AT PRINCIPAL PORTS OF THE UNITED STATES, IN 1846-7 — EXPORTS OF COTTON FOR ALL THE PORTS IN THE UNITED STATES— SALES OF COTTON— PRICES, AND RATE OF FREIGHT— IMPORT INTO, AND EXPORT OF COTTON FROM NEW YORK, 1846-7 — WEEKLY AND MONTHLY RECEIPTS OF COTTON, AND GRAND TOTAL FOR FOUR YEARS, ETC., ETC. D u r i n g the month which has elapsed since the date of our last number, the general state of business has been active and lucrative. The imports have been large, money easy, country trade very animated, and internal exchanges in a satis factory state. The export trade has, however, not been so satisfactory. The financial affairs of England, so long laboring under a great expenditure of capital in railroads, simultaneous with a considerable deficit in the crops, and an insuffi cient supply of the raw materials, have reached a crisis which has operated un favorably on American interests; although it has not been productive of those disastrous bankruptcies, which a collapse in the London market was wont, in for mer years, to inflict upon the commerce of the United States. It has been the case that, notwithstanding the universal cry of “ good crop s,p rices have been sustained in England at points very much higher than those of last year, conse quently inducing continued imports and accumulating stocks in the hands of large houses, even beyond the very considerable quantities taken for consumption. These large arrivals of food, in connection with the considerable importation of foreign produce and moderate export of goods, operated unfavorably upon ex changes, and promoted a gradual decline in the bullion of the bank. At the date of our last, the returns were brought down to July 24, when the bullion held was £9,770,347, and the bank minimum rate of interest was 4 f per cent. In the following week, the demand for specie was large. The government shipped £100,090, gold, to the Cape of Good H ope; the Messrs. Rothschild sent £244.863, in silver, to Paris ; and £70,000 was taken by the Cambria for New York. When this state of affairs appeared in the accounts on Saturday night, July 31, a special meeting of the directors was called for Monday, and they raised the rate of in terest to 5 per cent. This produced a panic in the market, particularly among those corn houses whose obligations were large. Wheat fell 8s. to 10s. per quar ter, and a number of failures resulted, further depressing the market; and when the directors met at the regular meeting on Thursday, August 5, they again raised the rate of interest to per cent, the leading features of the bank stand ing as follows:— Periods. July 2 4 . .. “ 3 1 ... Aug. 7 . . . Securities. Public. Private. Deposits. Public. Private. £11,636,340 15,325,476 4,503,516 8,326,452 11,636 340 15,724,129 4,503,809 8,316,271 11,663,280 16,302,175 5,570,606 7,885,897 Nett circulation. 19,752,345 19,711,269 19,504,877 Notes on hand. R ’ te for bills. Bullion. 30 60 90 ds. ds. ds. 4,216,445 9,776,347 5 5£ 3,774,675 9,331,250 5| 6 61 3,946,245 9,252,820 5| 6 6| The advance of the rate of interest affected favorably the foreign exchanges for the moment, but the pressure continued very severe, and the failures caused V O L . X V I I .— N O. I V . 26 Commercial Chronicle and Review. 402 the protest of a great amount of American bills drawn upon the insolvent houses. These bills were, however, to a very considerable extent, covered by friends in London, who held bills of lading; and the advices reaching New York by the Guadalquiver steamer, on Sunday, the 29th, afforded opportunity to houses here to make arrangements by the packet of the 1st. For this purpose, the demand for bills became active, and the rates advanced, being as follows for several pack ets, for four years :— PRICE OF STERLING AND FRANCS IN NEW YORK. 1844. 1845. 1847. 1846. London. Paris. London. Paris. London. Sept’ r 14, 9 } © 9§ 5.23}® 5.22} 9 5 ® 10 5.22}® 5.21} 9 1 ® 10 i Sept’ r 30, 8 1 © 9 } 5.25 ® ■■■ ■ 9|® 10 5.22}® 5.21} 9 3 0 1 0 1 O ct’ r 15, 9 ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25 9 }® 1 0 5.22}© 5.21} 9 | ® 1 0 i Oct’ r 31, 8 } ® 85 5 .2 7 }® . . . . 93 © 1 0 } 5.21}®5.20 9J® 9} 1 N ov’r IS, 7 5 ® 7| 5.35 © 5 .3 2 } 95 ® 1 0 } firstname.lastname@example.org 8 ® 9 1 N ov’r 30, 8 ® 81 5.33}® 5.32} 9 }® 1 0 5.25 0 5 .2 2 } 8 1 ® 8 1 i D ec’r 14, 8 4 ® »J 5.33305.32} 9| ® 10 5 .2 2 }® . . . . 8 ® 81 1 D ec’r 31, 9 ® 9 } 5 .2 7 }® 10 ® I 0 } 5 .2 1 }® . . . . 8 ® 9" : Jan’ y 15, 9 ® 9| 5 .28j® 5.2 7} 10 ® 1 0 } 5 .2 1 }® . . . . 8 4 ® 8| 1 Jnn’ y 31, 9 ® 9 } 5.321®5.30 9 }® 1 0 5.23J05.22} 8}® 8} 1 Feb’v 15, 9 ® 9} 5.321®5.30 9 } ® 1 0 } 5.25 © 5.23} 8 ® 81 1 Feb’ y 28, 8 | ® 9 5.30'® 5.28| 9 }® 1 0 5.25 © 5 .2 3 } 8 4 ® 8| 1 Mar'h 15, 8 ® 8} 5 .3 1 }® . . . • 9 }® 1 0 5.25 ®5.23| 8 } ® 9 I Mar’ h 31, 8 } ® 8 } 5.30 ® 5 .2 7 } 9 } ® 9| 5.25 © 5 .2 3 } 9 :1 ® 10 1 9 } ® 93 i April 15, 8 } ® 8 } 2 .2 7 }® . . . . 9 } ® 9 f 5.26}®5.25 9 }® l0 ' : April 30, 8 4 ® 9 5.28J05.27} 9 ® 9 } 5.26}® 5.25 May 15, 8 } ® 9 5 . 2 7 } ® - . . . 9 1 ® 9} 5.25 ® . . . . 9 }® io : May 31, 8 J ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25 9 }® 1 0 5.25 ® . . . . 8 }® 9 i June 14, 9 ffi 9} 5 264® . . . . 9 }® 1 0 5.26}®5.25 7 l © 8} : June 30, 9 ® 9 } 5.20}® 5.25 9|© 10 5.20 ® 5 .2 6 } 7 } f f l 8 1 July 15, 9 } ® 9} 5 27}® 5.2C } 9 1 ® 10 5.21}® 5.27} 7 ® 7 } 1 July 31, 9 1 ® 9} 5.26}® 5.25 10 ® 1 0 } 5.27}® 5.25 7 } © 71 1 A u g't 15, 9 }® 1 0 5.23|®5.221 10 ® 10} 5.25 ® . . . . 7 1 © 8 1 A u g't 30, 9| ® 10 5 . 2 2 } ® . . . . 9| ® 10j 5.25 ® 5 .2 3 } 8 1 © 9 i Sept’r 8...................................................................................... London. 9m h 81(3)9 8 "( 2>8 £ sm n ow n C>](2)6f 53(5)6} 5 (2) 5j 5](S)6 5}(a)5'i 43(3)5} 23(3)4} 3 a(5)4£ 5 (3)5$ 6 (2 )6] 63(3)7} 63(5) 7} 51(5)6} 53(2 )6] 5}(a)6l 5] ( 2) 6] 6 (5)6] 63(5) 7 “ 8£ ( 2)9 Paris. 5.30 (5)5.283 5.30 (5)5.281 5.31f (2)5.30 5.37](2)5.32i 5.40" (2)5.37] 5.41] (2)5.40“ 5.42] (2)5.41] 5.45 (2)5.421 5.433(5)5 42a 5.40 (3)5.37\ 5.40 (2)5.381 5.41](@5.40 5.45 (2)5.43 5.48](2)5.45 5.43] (2>5.42] 5 36] (a) 5.35 5.32^(2)5.30 5 3l](2>5.28] 5.33] (2)5.321 5.321(2)5,31] 5.3-4(2)5.31] 5.33] (2)5.32] 5.33] (2)5.324 5.31] (2)5.30 5.2G] 0 5 .2 5 It is observable that, during the year 1844, the utmost variation in sterling bills was 1} per cent, except for the packet of November 15, which was the low est point for that year, cotton going forward freely after the fall importation had subsided. Throughout the year 1845, the rates were still more uniform. The lowest point was in April, when it stood at 9 a 94, and the highest in the first week of August, 10 a 104. For the year 1846, the export of farm produce was greater, and the rate fell gradually from 9 J a 10, in September, to 7 a 74. the low est point, in July, when it again advanced, and reached 9 a 94, in September, to commence the past year. From that time it fell gradually to 34 a 4 4, in April, under very large exports of farm produce, united to high prices of cotton, which kept up the amount to be drawn for notwithstanding the diminished quantity of that article sent forward. Since that time, under the effect of increasing importation of goods, and falling prices of farm produce, together with the usual diminution of cotton bills, as the year drew to a close the price advanced, until the close of Au gust, when the news of the disasters in London, with the dishonor of many bills, caused a rapid demand for the packet of the 1st, as well as a diminution of supply by the amount of the suspected bills. It always happens, however, that the in creased supply of bills, based on the new cotton, after the fall importations are done, causes a decline in bills. In 1846, they fell from 94 a 10, to 8 a 84, in No vember; last year, from 9 a 94, they fell to 5 a 54. This year, the crop opens at prices much higher than last year, and with favorable prospects of an enhanced consumption. The importations have, however, been larger at this port, being for several years, quarterly, as follows:— Commercial Chronicle and Review. 403 QUARTERLY IMPORTS INTO TIIE PORT OF NEW YORK. 1839 .......... 1840 .......... 1841 .......... 1842 .......... 1843 .......... 1844 ......... 1845 .......... 1846 ......... 1847 .......... 1st. 2d. 3d. $28,110,918 16,940,786 21,938,890 20,687,030 8,705,765 19,030,605 17.393,829 19,684,597 21,655,747 $22,748,183 10,647,872 18,786,421 18,724,686 16,124,910 19,659,357 16,533,469 17,6961123 28,295,521 $31,598,322 17,854,920 23,285,626 9,722,287 15,455,745 26,690,218 23,859,702 21,386,014 28,564,796 4th. Total. $14,621,364 $97,078,687 11,402,346 56,845,924 11,312,078 75,268,015 6,251,552 55,415,555 10,022,106 50,308,526 9,860,282 75,240,412 11,545,400 69,332,399 11,502,856 70,269,792 .............................................. The importations at the port of New York, alone, exceed, by $7,200,000, the amount for the quarter ending September 30, last year; and for the three quarters, the imports have been $78,516,054, against $58,766,934— an excess of near $20,000,000. Of this excess, however, $9,000,000 has been specie, leaving $11,009,000 more of goods to be paid for than last year. This process of im porting goods instead of specie, increased towards the close of the quarter, and was promoted by the failures referred to, which sent up bills nearly to the specie point. The high price of silver, in Paris, also allowed of shipments of Mexican dol lars and five franc pieces, and some $200,000 went forward. The latest advices gave the price of Mexican dollars in London 58}d. per ounce, 1,000 weighing about 866 ounces. The price being here par a I premium, the following pro forma will show the resulting exchange :— FRO-FORMA ACCOUNT OF A SHIPMENT OF MEXICAN DOLLARS, FROM NEW YORK TO LONDON. $10,000, cost at N ew Y ork 4 per cent premium.......................................... Shipping charges............................................................................ $ 6 60 Marine insurance at 4 per cent, and policy, $ 1 25................. 51 87 --------- $10,025 00 58 47 $10,083 47 $10,090, weighing 8,660 ounces, sold at 584d..... Deduct landing charges, portages, & c ..................... Freight, § per ce n t; primage, 5 per cent................ Commission, 4 per cen t; brokerage, | per cent.... ...................... £ 0 0 15s. 3d. 8 4 1 13 2 2 --------- A dd interest, 63 days, at 5 per cent....................................................... £ 2 ,097 6s. lid . 22 1 6 £2,075 5s. 5d. 17 8 2 £2,093 3s. 7d. The above $10,083 47, drawn against the same, would give an exchange of 10 8}. The whole of this great panic and disastrous revulsion, in London, produced little or no influence upon the markets of New York and Boston. No effect, whatever, was apparent, other than the advance indicated in the price of bills under the purchases of houses anxious to protect their bills on the other side. These facts show such strength of position, and such abundance of means on the part of the United States merchants, as affords matter of congratulation, and con trasts favorably with the events ten years ago, when a similar apprehended crisis in London spread bankruptcy throughout the Union. It may be interesting to recall the leading events of that period. The abundant corn harvests, and conse 404 Commercial Chronicle and Review. quent low prices that had prevailed from 1832 up to 1836, had allowed of the spread of a spirit of great speculation. Joint stock banks multiplied almost with out limit; the Bank of England promoted abundance of money to facilitate the negotiation of the government loan of £20,000,000, for West India emancipation; and the plenteousness of capital produced by all these causes had affected the value of credit all over the world. The facilities of credits obtained in London, had promoted the sale of British merchandise on time in all countries, and the United States availed itself freely, not to say recklessly, of these advantages, or, more properly, disadvantages, and the London market was flooded with American paper, corporate, as well as private. The three leading names, v iz.: Wildes, Wilson, and Wiggins, had run up enormous obligations on American account, mostly for goods bought in Lancashire, and sold in the interior of the United States on credit, to whomsoever would buy. This general cheapness of money in England, had, notwithstanding the abundance of the harvests, operated unfa vorably on exchanges, and the bullion in the bank, which had stood at £10,900,000, October, 1833, gradually and steadily fell to £4,032,000, February, 1837. This great decline continued through years of most abundant harvests, and was solely the result of cheap money in London, or, in other words, England’s loaning more capital than she could spare. In the summer of 1836, the low state of bullion and unfavorable exchanges alarmed the bank. Not only had England sold of her own goods largely, on credit to the United States, but she had accepted bills for French silk and wines, bought in those years very largely, and consumed here on credit. The value of silks imported in 1836, was $22,980,212, against $5,932,243, in 1830; of wines, $4,332,034, against $1,535,102. The aggregate imports were $189,980,031, against $70,876,920; an increase of near $120,000,000, without any material increase in exports. This system was the first to attract the atten tion of the English bank, and the following letter appeared publicly, addressed by an eminent private house to its correspondents in this country:— “ L ondon, August 20, 1836. “ D e a r S ir — W e were informed to-day, by an active, intelligent director of the Bank of England, that more British capital has been absorbed by American and continental houses, than can be spared without injury to the commercial and manufacturing interests of this country; that the directors of the bank have de cided that they will take measures to check the sale of such securities by refu sing to discount bills of exchange drawn in those countries on houses here, how ever high may be their standing and credit. “ This decision places all houses in jeopardy that do business with American dealers in British merchandise, because remittances are usually made in bills of exchange on such houses ; and if the decision referred to is rigidly enforced, such remittances will be unavailable till due. Under these circumstances, we deem it prudent to state, that we do not feel bound to continue our usual facilities to deal ers in British merchandise, and that we reserve to ourselves the right of regula ting them according to circumstances. W e hope this decision will not be rigidly enforced; and if not, that we shall be able to act with more liberality than we now think probable. It is desirable that our correspondents should be made ac quainted with this state of things, that they might be governed by it in making out orders for merchandise the ensuing season, which, we hope, Will be unusual ly small.” This intimation was carried strictly into effect by the bank, and a large amount of American bills rejected. The same stringent measures of the bank caused a fall in produce, thus diminishing the value of American remittances, and cotton Commercial Chronicle and. Review. 405 and other commodities were sold at ruinous losses. The fall was the greater that the general level of prices had been raised on a paper basis. The demand for money, in the United States, to remit to meet rejected drafts, became very ur gent, and the rate of discount rose in New York to 3 per cent per month. The inadequate remittances, and fall of produce in England, compelled the leading American houses to apply to the bank for assistance, and finally extensive insol vency resulted both there and here. The circumstances, as respects the Bank of England, are now somewhat similar here. Bullion is running alarmingly low ; but it is by buying American produce, not selling goods on credit, that the diffi culties have been created. The capital of England was then “ absorbed by Amer ican and continental houses,” through loans and credits ; it has now, to a much greater extent, been absorbed in railroads ; and it does not appear that it can be liberated for the use of “ commercial and manufacturing interests ” by any action o f the bank. The capital has not been sent out of the country,but has been con sumed in it ; and American produce, to a large amount, has been sold there, at prices raised high through the large demand and deficient home supply, and not through any purely speculative action. These sales have drawn bullion largely on American account, as well as for the continent. Prices continued very high down to the latest dates; and as the continental harvests were about coming for ward, and prices falling in Europe, it is evident that an increased influx of corn and a further drain of bullion would result, unless prices should fall in England. W e find that the sudden action of the bank crushed the corn houses, and knocked down prices in the large cities, in a degree that must check imports for the mo ment, and allow the bank to breathe. Inasmuch, however, as that the English demand is still large for foreign grain, having been at the rate of 12,000,000 bushels per month, for July and August, and the supply of home-grown food for the coming year will by no means suffice for the home consumption, it is reasonable to expect a rally in prices, and that little loss will be sustained after all, by Amer ican shippers, who, by protecting their bills, saved the produce from being “ slaughtered ” in a panic-struck market. Beyond this, a London money pressure does not affect us. One of the leading New York houses, Prime, Ward & Co., unfortunately stopped ; but this circumstance was owing not altogether to gen eral causes ; and a disastrous result from the course pursued was probably fore seen by James G. King, Esq., who retired from the firm last winter. The money market has been but little disturbed during the month. In the early part of August the large customs receipts causing a demand for specie for duties, under the supposition that it would be sent to New Orleans for disbursement, promoted a little uneasiness, more particularly that the imports of specie had be come small during the week ending August 27th; however, the Secretary of the Treasury effected a transfer of some $2,000,000 to New Orleans, without being compelled to send the specie, which was abundant at that point. This produced relief, and as the receipts at the custom-house declined subsequently, money be came more easy, more particularly that it was understood that whatever might be the continuance or result of the war, specie could be obtained there in sufficient abundance Without sending any thither. The city banks, at the August quarter, were, however, considerably extended, and have since “ held up,” more or less. The leading features of the city banks were as follows :— 406 Commercial Chronicle and Review. BANKS OF NEW YOEK CITY. Specie. Circulation. Deposits. $870,798 1,322,945 560,618 747,954 850,856 214,913 90,050 317,310 210,510 45,811 217,645 368,305 844,179 185,406 72,072 1,079,327 303,647 314,967 13,051 162.105 628,181 132,498 170,222 1,046,362 $255,061 268,437 255,255 480,182 372,813 277,532 277,321 196,559 244,101 158,445 257,764 $1,955,853 1,926,081 2,408,646 2,093,756 2,088,244 746,878 767,245 1,111,807 973,846 237,634 725,342 1,221,018 1,625,866 461,339 352,232 2,477,834 778,258 886.604 44,613 919,878 1,322,107 640,577 606,010 1,522,814 Loans. American Exchange Bank... ...... Bank o f America.................... “ f Commerce................ “ New Y ork................ “ State o f New York., Butchers’ and Drovers’ .......... Chemical................................. City......................................... . Fulton..................................... Greenwich.............................. Leather Manufacturers’ .......... ...... Mechanics’.............................. Mechanics* Association......... Mechanics’ and Traders’ ...... Merchants’ .............................. Merchants’ Exchange........... National........ ........................ Dry D o c k ................................ North R iver........................... Phoenix.................................... Seventh W ard ....................... Tradesmen’s........................... Union................ ................... $3,598,791 2,380,913 3,826,240 1,233,822 477,568 2,286,171 530,500 3,680,057 1,870,625 373,321 2,294,528 1,096,988 564,395 362,953 165,436 332,906 232,239 237,619 68,579 416,265 411,943 299,601 271,802 432,067 City.......................................... Country.................................... $10,769,732 $6,838,475 $27,892,482 8,888,592 1,213,392 19,253,208 Total........................................ $11,983,124 $25,091,683 $36,781,080 If we compare the city banks with a former return, say November, 1846, we will find them greatly extended, as compared with the country banks:— CITY BANKS. Loans. Specie. Circulation. Deposits. November, 1846...... August, 1847............ $38,533,810 48,030,987 $7,113,070 10,769,732 $6,192,514 6,838,475 $22,812,755 27,892,482 Increase................... $9,497,177 $3,656,662 $645,961 $5,079,727 $16,076,008 19,253,208 $7,816,411 8,888,592 COUNTRY BANKS. November, 1846....... August, 1847............ [ $33,416,381 32,709,690 $1,925,314 1,213,392 $706,691 $711,922 Increase................... $3,177,200 $1,072,151 The city banks have increased their loans nearly 20 per cent, while a diminu tion has taken place in those of the country ; yet a great increase has taken place in the circulation of the latter. This large amount of city loans produces an extra demand for money, and causes tightness in the market whenever the banks loan less than they receive, and this is always the case when they have reached a maximum. The cotton crop is now in a position of great health, and promises to become still stronger for the future. That is to say, supply is now barely proportioned to the actual regular consumption of the "world in usual years, and the price is not, as in 1836-7, and 1838-9, dependent upon large sales of goods by England, on credit, to sustain its price. On the other hand, the largely diminished consump Commercial Chronicle and Review. 407 tion of Europe and England last year, under the pressure of short harvests, has not prevented a doubling of the price in Liverpool. For the week ending August 3, 1847, the price was 6J a 8 for uplands, and 6j per cent for money, against 3| a 5J for cotton, and 34 per cent for money, in the same week of 1846. The circumstances that checked consumption last year on the continent of Europe, will apply, for the coming year, with far less force; and it is probable that, were the raw material abundant, the quantity taken into use would be far greater than usual, to compensate, in some degree, the short purchases of the last year. It is, however, becoming pretty evident that the new crop will not meet the average quantity; and, therefore, the high prices that may rule will operate as a bar to the renewal of the usual quantity taken by spinners. This is, for the coming year, a misfortune ; more particularly in its application to the German States, inasmuch as it may retard that substitution of muslins for coarse linens, which, of late years, has made such rapid progress, and which has chiefly been brought about by the low comparative price at which cottons can be furnished. The Germans con sume large quantities of coarse linen cloths, made mostly by hand in the homes of the farmers who raise the flax. In their families it goes through all the opera tion, from planting the flax to bleaching the cloth. The extension of the cotton manufacture, and the low price of the raw material, have gone a great way to wards supplanting those cloths ; at least the surplus, which is purchased up by the agents of city merchants, from the small farmers, for the city trade. A high price for the raw material, for two years in succession, will retard this progress, the ex tent of which is indicated in the following table of articles'consumed in the Zollverein, in the year 1845, as compared with the average quantities for the five years ending with 1841 :— Cotten. cwt. Cotton Yarn. ciot. Average, five years,........ 1845 .................................. 200,091 352,884 443,887 574,303 Increase............................ 242,796 221,419 Tobacco. cwt. R ice. cwt. W h ale Oil. cwt. Total. cwt. 196,351 390,383 120,456 243,990 245,179 437,271 1,114,961 2,119,834 194,032 123,534 192,092 1,004,873 These quantities have nearly doubled, and the value increased from $14,884,814 to $26,519,289. The cotton yarn is mostly o f English manufacture, and has in creased but 60 per cent, while the raw cotton consumption increased some 120 per cent, showing that the progress of cotton spinning has been faster than of cloth manufacture. W e recognise the fact, however, that the whole consumption o f cotton in the German Union, in 1845, was about equal to 286,428 bales, of 400 pounds each, more than the quantity consumed in the United States in 1842. With a population of 30,000,000 souls, coming rapidly into the use of cotton, there is every reason to suppose that the consumption, at no distant day, will be as large in the German States as in Great Britain. In relation to the cotton crop of the United States, we annex the annual tables, compiled by the senior partner of the cotton house of Wright & Lewin, o f New York 408 Commercial Chronicle and Review. S T A T E M E N T SHOWING T H E W E E K L Y , M O N T H L Y , A N D T O T A L R E C E I P T S O F 'C O T T O N I N T O T H E PRINCIPAL P O R T S O F TH E UNITED STATES, F R O M TH E 1S T SEPTEM BER, 1846, T O 3 lS T AUGUST, 1847. Date. 1846—Sept. 5 ............ “ 12............ “ 19............ “ 26............ T otal Sept......... Oct. “ “ “ “ 3 ..-...10............ 37............ 24............ 3 1 ....... Total Oct........... N ov. 7 ............ “ 14............ “ 21............ “ 28............ T otal N ov.......... D ec. “ “ “ 5............ 12............ 19............ 26............ T otal D ec........... 1847—Jan. “ « “ “ 2 ............ 9 ............ 16............ 23............ 30---------- T otal Jan........... Feb. “ “ “ 6 ............ 13............ 20............ 27............ T otal F eb........... “ 13............ •* 20............ “ 27............ T otal M a r c h ...• “ “ “ T otal 10............ 1 7 ....... 24............ A p ril........ N< O. Mobile. Florida Georgia. S. Caro. N. Caro. W . Tot. 454 38 670 522 1,684 962 149 853 1,174 32 3,170 .. 3,610 214 1,508 2,367 5,699 2.859 706 SCO 2,768 7,193 1,107 ... 6,831 5,885 3,891 32 907 5,828 23 15,971 7,794 1,419 930 6,250 1,592 11,615 24 20,411 707 700 2,494 3,746 15,785 33 23,465 479 507 5,952 11,140 14,207 42 32,327 1,879 665 6,389 13,346 13,856 36,135 4,902 1,872 17,846 40,310 122 63,257 1,955 350 11,601 8,781 34 23.910 46,631 2,961 386 8,259 11,473 40 49,780 26,661 4,066 647 8,221 22,340 16,238 51,588 76 6,555 892 9,731 11,876 25,316 216 54,586 2,275 34,992 51,188 366 98,227 15,537 10,732 1,452 13,498 10,885 90 62,423 25,766 9,885 2,945 14,473 9,937 30,843 135 68,218 4,765 12,798 23,882 14,809 10,221 50 66,525 17.177 5,640 7,005 11,534 84 23,268 64,708 14,802 42,577 47,774 103,759 52,603 359 17,797 5,641 9,400 11,208 27,049 105 71,200 6,862 13,678 13,642 32,867 9,456 107 76,612 8,604 10,537 13,046 19,915 21,451 106 73,659 19,768 8,392 12,762 13,250 31,221 219 85,612 26,031 8,833 9,091 12,852 21.751 4)1 78,969 51,246 63,998 948| 132,803 98,725 38,332 6,889 12,544 12,902 31,182 26,246 463 90,226 7,780 9,221 13,665 78,677 24,226 23.560 225 16,623 6,682 11,620 9,541 27,849 358 72,673 6,525 9,372 20,083 16,645 7,963 209 60,802 47,559 39,269 103,345 83,074 27,876 1,255| 19,512) 10,861 14,563 24,296 69,237 15,556 7,083 5.644 3,730 16,736 8,539 16,085 15,040 32,013 4,699 5,719 6,388 4,284 4,148 2,216 2,514 1,813 10,691 6,184 4,680 4,000 4,915 7,503 4,036 7,951 4,839 439 319 520 429 53,342 29.195 35,197 40,022 19,779 3,571 4,473 4,726 4,567 1,109 1,538 4,270 3,747 24,329 5,127 6,507 6,614 4,576 1.707! 130 126 250 114 31,372 26,902 38,333 32,328 56,400 21,090 17,337 10,664 22,824 620 18,723 7,959 8,787 4,896 8,557 48,922 3,836 2,681 1.722 1,874 1,175| 1,703 2,373 1,772 1.972 2,309 557 J,635 2,523 1,925 1,102 97 80 9$ 65 64 30,524 20,734 21,530 17,515 15,888 11,288 380 678 509 263 10,129 7,742 5,608 6,006 6,627 6,783 2,681 27.705 597 402 359 439 7,689 6,029 4 356 5,874 1,830 302 154 250 214 628 1,788 490 361 527 43S 466 189 172 528 1,008 84 T otal July......... 11,500 1,835 796 2,169 707 976 6,483 2,784 1,114 1,372 1,092 6,362 405 60 59 50 39 T otal Jun e........ July 3 ............ “ 10............ w 17............ “ 24............ “ 31............ 486 782 203 789 2,260 1,548 A u g. 7 ............ “ 14............ “ 21............ “ 31............ 224 58S 357 4,99] 169 189 146 187 2,289 461 1,981 151 226 750 2,088 1,559 196 612 862 535 3,764 T otal Aug....... . 6,161 691 Grand T o t a l----- 3 3,215 7,556 3 705,979 324,408 127,852 235,462 350,200 ... 461 33,717 54,128 77.593 109,920 146,055 128,309 192,686 242,466 294,054 348,64© 202,585 411,083 479,281 545,800 610,514 261,874 681,714 758,326 831,985 917,597 996,566 386,052 1,086,792 1.165,469 1,238,143 1,298,944 302,378 1,352,28G 1,381,481 1,416,678 1,456,700 1,488,072 1,514,974 1,553,307 1,585,635 1,616,159 1,636,893 1.658 423 1,675.938 1,691,826 106,191 1,699.515 1.705,544 1,709.900 1^715,774 23,948 4,381 1,694 4.107 3,230 2,689 1,720,155 1.721.849 1,725,956 1,729.186 1,731,875 16,101 36 618 1,085 4,191 1,662 17,746 128,935 208 15 21 1J584 4,854 10,553 17,746 157,756 M ay 1............ “ 7 ............ “ 35............ “ 22............ “ 29............ T otal M ay.......... June 5 ............ “ 12............ “ 19............ “ 26............ 3,332 2,994 1,872 3,252 M. T o t’ l Gr. T ot’ l, 1,626 2,089 5,444 8.928 1,740,034 1,749,962 18,087 6,061 1,749962 1,749,962 409 Commercial Chronicle and Review. The crop of Texas is this year, it appears, but 8,317 bales, against 27,008 bales last year, and 25,169 bales in that previous. STATEMENT SHOWING THE COMPARATIVE RECEIPTS AND EXPORTS OF COTTON, FOR ALL PORTS IN THE UNITED STATES, AS MADE UP IN NEW YORK ON THE 1846-47, and 1st OF EACH MONTH, FOR THE YEARS 1845-46. EXPORTS. Date. 1846. ■October 1, Nov. 1,__ Dec. 2 ,.... 1847. Jan. 1,__ Feb. 2 ...... March 2,.. April 1,.... May 4 , . . . June 1,..... July 1...... Aug. 3,..... •Sept’ber 1, Receipts from 1st Sep’ ber, 1846. Receipts from 1st Sep’ ber, 1845. 14,189 102,800 317,485 44,763 175,376 413,689 9,350 17,288 50,992 4,638 13,760 42,228 568,909 927,249 1,248,606 1,426,102 1,603,721 1,696,120 1,733,187 1,751,651 1,767,084 605,604 891,352 1,190,584 1,516,131 1,806,230 1,960,778 2,010,159 2,047,349 2,082,176 124,381 221,524 317,537 436,674 561,098 621,415 680,740 752,875 815,661 63,477 100,747 117,523 137,317 183,392 193,678 205,023 217,729 239,018 T o Great Britain. North Other Foreign of Europe. Ports. France. 2,809 1,956 4,672 6,418 7,187 10,048 12,033 18,132 23,735 33,028 38,898 47,888 55,478 62,871 74,354 Total Total from 1st from 1st Sep. 1846,, Sep.1845, to date. to date. 28,645 96,266 223,520 18,753 42,138 110,455 224,580 371,088 24,689 489,891 43,444 383,847 597,168 47,492 506,287 663,461 823,703 56,442 856,368 1,010,158 72,980 82,652 945,633 1,191,076 83,803 1,025,044 1,400,652 89,571 1,123,046 1,570,751 93,150 1,222,183 1,654,832 ESTIMATED SALES OF COTTON IN NEW YORK— PRICES— RATE OF FREIGHT. 1845—6. Date. Sales. •Sept. 15, 30, Oct. 14, 31, Nov. 15, 29, Dec. 15, 31, Jan. 15, 31, ■Feb. 16, 28, Mar. 14, 31, April 15, 30, M ay 15, 30, June 15, 30, July 15, 30, Aug. 15, 31, 12,600 20,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 14,000 11,000 7,500 6,000 8,000 12,500 17,000 14,000 10,000 13,000 13,000 23,000 20,000 30,000 13,000 12,500 15,000 12,000 25,000 Fair Up’ lnds. Fair Orleans. 6*a 8i 8|a9 8ia84 9 a9i 84a8J 9 a9 j 84a84 8|a9 74a7f 8ia8J 7|a7| 84a8f 8 a84 8|a9 7}u8 84a8i 74a7J 84a84 74a7i 84a84 74a7} 8*a84 8 a84 8fa9 84a84 9 a9J 84a84 94a94 8 a84 9 a94 8Ja8f «4a94 8 a84 8fa9 8 a84 8Ja9 8 aP4 ' 8fa9 8 a84 8ja9 8 aS§ 9fa9 gJaSJ 9 a94 S}a9 94a9| 94a9J 9 }a l0 1846-7. Freight to Liverpool. rd. sq. 1-4 1-4 3-8 3-8 5-16 5-16 3-16 3-16 3-16 3-16 1-4 1-4 1-4 3.16 3-16 1-4 5-16 3-8 3-8 1-4 7-32 3-16 3-16 1-4 5-16 5-16 7-16 7-16 3-8 3.8 1-4 3-16 3-16 1-4 5-16 5-16 5-16 3-16 1-4 5-16 3-8 1-2 1-2 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-16 5-16 Sales. Fair U pl’ nds. Fair Orleans. Freight to Liverpool. sq. rd. 9,500 23,500 25,000 30,000 12,000 15,000 24,000 20,000 25,500 33,500 18,000 7,500 23,000 16,000 11,000 13,000 12,000 6,000 7,500 9,500 8,000 22,500 24,500 20,000 94a 94 9JalO 10 alC4 104 a l 04 10 a l 04 9Jal0 10 4 a l 0 J 11 al 14 1 1 4a l2 134al34 I24al24 lO Ja ll 114all|12 al24 12 al24 13 al3 4 13 al34 124al2| 12 a ]24 124al24 1 2 ial24 124al2| 13 al3| 12|al3 9JalO 10 a l 04 104a... 10 4 a l 04 10 4 a l 0 | 10 al04 iC J a ll 1 1 4 a... 12 a l2 f 13|al4 1 2 fa l3 12 al24 12Jal3 13 al34 13 a l34 13Jal44 13|al4 134al34 12 frl3 13 aI34 12fal3 13 a!34 134al3| 13 al34 3-16 3-16 3-16 1-4 3-8 7-16 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-8 3-4 5-8 3-8 3-8 3-16 3-16 3-16 3-16 1-4 5-16 7-16 1-4 1-8 1-4 3-16 3-16 5-16 1-2 5-8 7-16 3-8 7-16 3-8 3-8 Id. 3-4 1-2 1-2 1-4 1-4 1-4 1-4 5-16 3-8 9-16 3-8 3-16 This table presents a remarkable advance in prices as the certainty of a short crop developed itself, amid advancing freights, enormous prices, and threat ened revulsions in the money market of England. In 1846, the fluctuation in freights was from 1-4 to 5-16. This year, square bales have fluctuated between 1-4 and 3-4, and round bales 1-4 a Id. The prices have closed as follows, in New Y ork:— 410 Commercial Chronicle and Review, 1844. I n f e r io r ,........... O r d in a r y ,....... .. M id d lin g ,_____, G o o d d o .,....... .. M id d . F a ir ,.... F a ir ,.................... Fully F a i r , .. .. G o o d F a ir ,...., F i n e ,.................. Upi’ ds. 4A a41 5 a54 5| a 6 61a6i 6 fa 6 | 6|a7i 7| a 7 4 7| a8 1846. 18 4 § . . Mob. & N. 0 . . . a 61 6 4 a 61 7 | a 7| 74a 7 } 7M 4 7| a 8 8 a 81 81a84 84a 81 8 fa 8 | 9 a 94 9 a94 10 a l l none. n on e. Mob. & N. O. 44a4J 54a54 5 ia ftJ 6£a6| 7 a7i 7 fa 8 84a9 1847. Mob. & Upl’ ds. N. O. none. none. 74a7! 71a 8 8 a81 81a 8 4 8 ia 9 8 fa 8 4 9 1 a 94 8| a 9 91a94 9 }a l0 9 1 a ... 1 0 £ a l l none. 1 1 4 a l2 n on e. 1 2 $ a l3 Upi’ ds. ..a 6 $ 64a6} 7 a7* These rates are nearly double what they were for the year 1844. ing table gives the import and export at this port:— MONTHLY IMPORT OF COTTON INTO NEW YORK, FROM SEPT. 2,876 2,198 2,849 4,633 4,713 3,844 9,059 3,955 3,452 2,187 6,463 7,847 1,251 453 492 1,873 3,454 2,432 6,039 5,412 5,294 5,153 5,888 3,913 T otal.............. 54,076 41,654 10,103 | tf3 e 3,444 5,238 9,996 4,963 4,256 7,500 6,215 3,080 5,276 2,543 6,728 2,525 61,764 B O P 3 5,331 55 6,872 99 9,860 205 12.846 550 8.836 908 19.896 1,522 11,605 1,320 4.134 745 7,605 288 5,584 130 4,853 36 1,905 3 99,327 5,861 1, 1846, < » 35 r 5‘ "o p’ a . . 109 •• 2 0 0 10 ... 20 ... 1 02 . . . 8 10 104 .. 62 ... 103 ... TO AUG. a 68 .. .. 31, 1847. i-3 c th. lor ports. 1846— September. October........ N ovem ber. December . 1847—January . . . . February . . . M arch.......... April............ May.............. Ju n e............ July............. A u gu st....... 5 El P 250 ... 1.599 3,571 4,368 4,858 3.688 3,863 4.681 2,612 7,544 3,069 O 53 exas. m s 0 tr 5* The follow oston. 5$ Mobile and N. O. ... a l 0 4 lO la lll 114a lll 12 a l 2 1 1 2 4 a l2 1 13 a l3 1 1 3 4 a l4 1 4 4 a l5 n o m in a l. Uplands. none. lO ia ll U g a llf llfa l2 I2 1 a l2 f 1 2 4 a l2 i 13 a l 3 i 1 3 4 a ... none. 818 488 659 626 566 1,326 746 293 610 696 .. 20 10 .. .. .. .. 14 .. 126 o © p 14,20*2 15,568 25,680 29.0S2 27,203 41,396 38,672 21,600 27,309 19,093 31,512 74 234 .. 531 .. 20,1 01 380 656 68 7,359 170 311,418 STATEMENT SHOWING THE MONTHLY EXPORT OF COTTON FROM NEW YORK, FROM SEPTEMBER 1846, Liverpool, Date. to Au g u s t Scot- Other land. British ports. Total to Great Britain. 3 Sept., 1846....... O ct., « .. ........ Nov., “ ...... Dec., “ ...... Jan., 1847 ....... Feb., “ ....... March, “ ...... April, “ ...... .. .. .. .. .. .. June, July, Aug., .. .. .. “ “ “ ...... .... ....... Total ......... Date. Sept., 1846 ....... O c t ., “ ....... N ov., “ ....... D ec., “ ....... Jan., 1847 ....... Feb.. “ ...... March, “ ...... April, “ .... May, “ .... June, “ .... July, “ .... Aug., “ . . . . T otal.... 6,647 11,486 3,740 3,089 5,117 1,96(1 982 6,521 5.508 6,822 ... 52,342 160 270 60 100 261 . . . 146 . . . .... 184 15 . . . ........... ... . .. ... 97 739 . .. . .. 557 Havre. Mar- Other T otal to seilles. French France. ports. 4,090 1,383 7,077 11,646 4,001 3,235 5,301 1,975 982 1,521 5,508 6,919 4,554 3,245 3,575 4,165 2,285 384 1,283 758 ........ 637 337 2,722 9,142 110 ... 471 ... 53,638 36,701 3,643 .... .... .... 50 404 4,938 4.528 4,333 4,215 3,326 1 ,8 6 8 1 ,8 6 8 3,454 1,354 3,454 1,354 454 North o f Total to North South o f Europe. o f Europe. Europe. Holland. Belgium. 501 140 50 218 344 851 419 138 152 151 279 750 211 1,355 1,590 782 747 319 1,018 G66 124 239 3,876 1,558 1,832 549 1,122 294 855 1,735 879 2,422 218 944 4,746 2,809 2,183 1,954 2,930 1,076 1,946 2,905 2,316 3,226 494 1,334 8,901 1,199 606 57 1,804 2,924 1,131 3,243 11,677 17,154 32,074 7,998 ... 1, 31, 1847. .. . . . 277 447 2,722 9,613 40,798 Grand total. 13,036 8,700 13,421 20,595 11,327 8,180 11,660 5,645 4,208 2,462 9,841 25,433 134,508 411 Commercial Chronicle and Review. FO LL O W IN G TABLE G IV E S THE TO TALS, A T W EEK LY THE 1844. R E C E IP T S END OF EACH OF CO TTO N, THE M O N TH LY AND GRAND W E E K , FO R FO U R YE A R S . QC TH E 1847. 1846. VV. Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. Gr. Tot. W . Tot. M. T o t’ l Gr. T ot. Date. September 5 ............ 4 ,5 7 8 10,0 32 10.0 32 1,684 6 ,8 7 8 1,684 4,578 6 ,8 7 8 1 2 ................ 1 9 ................ 215................ 4,361 8 ,4 6 3 12,994 Total Sept............ October 3 ...................... 3 0,3 96 “ “ 1 0 ...................... 17 ..................... 2 4 ..................... 3 1 ..................... “ “ “ “ Total O ct.............. November 7 ................ 1 4 ................ 2 1 ................ 2 8 ................ “ “ “ T otal N o v ............ D ecem ber 5 ................ 1 2 ................ 1 9 ................ 2 6 ................ “ “ “ Total D ec............. January 2 ...................... 9 ...................... 1 6 ..................... 2 3 ...................... 3 0 ...................... “ “ “ “ Total Jan.............. February 6 ................... 1 3 ................... 2 0 ................... 2 7 ................... “ “ “ Total F eb.............. March 6 ........................ “ “ »* 1 3 ........................ 2 0 ........................ 2 7 ........................ Total M arch........ April 3 ............................ 1 0 ........................... 1 7 ........................... 2 4 ........................... “ “ “ T otal A pril.......... May 1 ...................... 2 3 ,4 92 2 3,3 39 36,981 3 7,7 39 4 2,4 47 4 4,2 27 5 1,6 00 53,658 6 4 ,9 62 2 5 1 .997 3 3 2 .69 2 117 ,710 14,118 12,200 8,341 8 ,5 1 2 Total June........... July 3 ............................. 6 1 ,7 44 “ “ “ 1 0 .............................. 1 7 .............................. 2 4 ............................. 3 1 ........... .............. 6 ,9 7 9 3 .9 2 3 3 ,7 0 9 4 .2 6 2 3 .4 9 5 Total Ju ly ............ 1 8,873 1 4 ..................... 2 1 ..................... 3 1 ...................... 2 .5 8 6 5,921 3,711 4 ,5 6 9 Total A u g ............ 2 0 ,2 8 2 “ “ “ “ “ “ ' “ 1 , 8 24,668 1, 8 66 .43 0 1 , 8 87,030 1 ,9 08 ,69 0 1 ,9 27 ,20 3 1, 9 77.413 1 , 9 81 ,33 6 1, 9 85.045 1, 9 89.307 1 ,9 92 ,80 2 1 ,9 9 5 388 2 , 0 01,309 2 , 0 05.020 2 ,0 0 9 ,5 8 9 4 89 ,59 2 530,784 585,781 6 47,850 62,4 23 6 8,2 18 6 6 525 64,7 08 6 99,910 7 65,926 8 28.010 8 83,702 9 58 ,62 4 71200 76,6 12 73.6 59 8 5,6 12 78,969 1 ,0 43,179 1 , 118.898 1, 188,722 1 , 271,118 9 0 2 26 78,6 77 72,673 60,8 02 1 , 3 36,906 1, 4 19 ,77 7 1, 4 88 ,14 8 1, 5 55,679 5 3.3 42 2 9,1 95 3 5 197 4 0.0 22 1 , 6 16 ,63 3 1, 6 67 ,62 8 1, 722,956 1, 7 82,273 3 1.3 72 2 6,9 02 38.3 33 3 2 328 1. 8 33.246 1, 8 65 ,02 2 1 , 908,474 1,9 40 ,26 5 1 ,9 5 9 ,0 2 0 30,524 20.734 21,5 30 17,515 15.888 1 . 9 69,925 1 ,9 79 .40 8 1 ,9 85 .79 5 1,9 92,520 7,689 6.029 4 ,3 5 6 5,874 2 .0 06,486 2 . 013.132 2 . U17,791 2 . 0 23,899 2 .0 31,592 4,381 1.694 4 ,1 0 7 3,2 3 0 2 ,6 8 9 4 .9 3 8 ,2 , 036,530 4 ,6 9 4 ,2 .0 41.924 3,491 2 ,0 44,715 13,460 2 , 0 58,175 1,626 2,0 8 9 5,4 4 4 8 ,9 2 8 44,4 64 4 1 ,1 9 2 5 4,9 97 6 2.0 69 5 2,0 60 66,0 16 62,0 84 5 5,6 92 74,9 22 8 4.5 55 75,7 19 69,824 82.3 96 6 8 .7 8 8 82.871 68,371 67.531 60,9 54 5 0.9 95 55,3 28 59,317 50,9 73 31,7 76 4 3,4 52 31.791 18,755 10,9 05 9 ,4 8 3 6 ,3 8 7 6 ,7 2 5 3 5,2 02 3 3 ,5 0 0 11.513 2 , 3 58,667 9 ,0 2 3 2 .3 67 .69 0 7 ,8 M i2 ,3 75.5 29 5 ,6 5 2 2 , 381,181 3 .0 0 6 2 , 3 84 ,18 7 13,966 6 .6 4 6 4 ,6 5 9 6 .1 0 8 17 ,6 9 3 3 4,0 27 31,379 1,691 2,654 3 ,0 1 8 1 3 .9 3 2 24,301 2 . 3 85 ,87 8 2 ,3 88 ,53 2 2 ,3 91,550 2 , 4 05 ,48 2 34,2 76 4 1 1 ,0 6 3 4 79 ,28 1 5 45 ,80 6 6 1 0 ,5 1 4 261,874 6 81 ,71 4 7 58 ,32 6 8 3 1 ,9 8 5 9 1 7 ,5 9 7 9 96 ,56 6 3 86 ,05 2 1, 0 8 6 ,7 9 2 1, 165,469 1,2 38 ,14 2 1,2 9 8 ,9 4 4 3 0 2 ,3 7 8 1 . 3 52 .28 6 1 , 3 81,481 1 , 4 16 ,67 8 1 , 4 56 ,70 0 1 57,756 1 ,4 8 8 .0 7 2 1,514 974 1. 5 5 3 ,3 0 7 1, 5 8 5 ,6 3 5 128.935 1,6 1 6 .1 5 9 1, 6 36 .89 3 1, 6 58 ,42 3 1, 6 7 5 , 93.8 1, 6 9 1 ,8 2 6 106.191 176,747 12.416 2 .3 2 4 ,3 6 8 11 . 3 3 2 ;2 . 3 35 ,70 0 6 , 02312 . 3 41 ,72 3 5.431 2 , 3 47,154 1 46,055 1 92,686 2 42 ,46 6 2 94 ,05 4 3 48 ,64 0 2 02 .58 5 2 26,594 3 7 . 7 4 5 i2 . 2 05.418 2 9 .8 1 8 2 ,2 35 ,23 6 29,321 2 ,2 64 ,55 7 2 5,7 25 2 .2 9 0 .2 8 2 2 1,6 70 2 , 3 11,952 33,7 17 5 4,1 28 7 7 ,5 9 3 1 09,920 128,309 284,561 1.9 98 ,63 3 2 .0 61,198 2 . 124,812 2 . 167,673 144,279 1, 941.381 1. 9 5 3 , 5 8 ! 1 . 9 61 ,92 2 1,9 70 ,43 4 46,6 31 49,7 80 5 1,5 88 54,5 86 3 12 .49 4 1. 6 79 .09 2 1, 7 6 2 , 6(51 1. 841,441 1, 9 07 ,56 7 2 60 ,10 6 2 0 4 .79 7 5 ............................. 1 2 ............................. 1 9 ............................. 2 6 ............................. 91,0 66 62,565 63.614 42.861 2 9 5 ,2 9 4 3 50 ,71 8 399,476 4 45,128 47,757 55.424 4 8,7 58 45,6 52 4 8 54 10,553 17,746 17,746 3 10.774 1 05.358 1 , 2 26,524 116,773 1 , 34 .3 ,297 1 24,909 1 , 468,206 109 , 7 9 9 , 1, 5 78,005 3 2 9 ,5 6 2 1 , 6 54 ,46 2 1 , 7 05 .81 4 1 , 7 47,737 1, 7 90 ,98 0 15,971 20,411 2 3 ,4 6 5 3 2 327 36,1 35 2 0 2 ,7 2 2 8 36 ,94 7 5 5,1 94 879,513 4 2,5 66 68.1 28 947,(539 80.951 1, 0 28 ,59 0 9 2.5 76 1 , 121,166 1 01.087 83,5 69 78,7 80 6 6.1 26 85,5 87 110,495 1 48,322 197,881 2 47 ,53 7 2 3,1 73 24,9 08 37,8 27 4 9,5 59 4 9,6 56 2 47,247 5 37 ,77 8 6 11 ,33 9 7 01.664 7 81 ,75 3 4 56 ,83 9 7 8 , 4 4 8 : 1 . 4 07.304 6 0 .9 8 8 , 1 , 4 68,292 6 2 .9 43 1 ,5 31 ,23 5 5 4 .9 4 8 1 , 5 86,183 T otal M ay............ June 85,4 51 73,561 90,3 25 8 0,0 89 3 ,1 7 0 5 ,6 9 9 7 ,1 9 3 135,467 2 71 .27 9 3 20,963 3 78,868 4 52,327 3 39 ,41 3 1, 0 89.956 1 , 172,347 1,253.491 1 , 3 28 ,85 8 3 0 3 ,4 3 0 7 .............................. 1 5 .............................. 2 2 .............................. 2 9 .............................. “ “ “ 43,4 70 49,6 84 5 7,9 05 73,4 59 2 3 080 4 2 ,7 1 3 62,4 14 13,048 19,633 19,701 62,4 14 79,8 18 111,774 141,743 179,262 2 27 ,80 9 3 29 ,42 6 6 6 ,3 05 764,389 6 6,0 82 830.471 5 2 ,4 75 8 8 2 946 0 7 ,1 15 950,061 6 2 ,5 78 1 ,0 12 ,63 9 6 8 .2 79 5 1 ,3 52 4 1 ,9 23 4 3 ,2 43 2 3,8 23 31,9 56 2 9,9 69 3 7,5 19 4 8,5 47 2 7 3 ,0 6 5 4 80,593 5 63.316 6 33 ,56 4 6 9 S .084 3 5 4 .205 7 7,3 17 82,391 81,144 7 5 ,3 67 18,676 30,521 5 5,9 95 123,267 238,621 290.221 3 43 ,87 9 408,841 1 9 1 ,932 7 1 ,7 52 82,723 7 0,2 48 6 4,5 20 11,798 11,845 25,4 74 55,9 95 53,8 88 77.2 27 1 14,208 151,947 194,394 121,551 3 3 ,6 88 4 1,7 62 2 0,6 00 2 1,6 60 18,573 “ 8 ,9 3 9 17,402 3 0,3 96 1, 6 9 9 ,5 1 5 1, 7 05 .54 4 1, 7 0 9 ,9 0 0 1, 7 1 5 ,7 7 4 2 3 ,9 4 8 1 , 7 20 ,15 5 1, 7 21.849 1 , 7 25 ,95 6 1 ,7 2 9 ,1 8 6 1 , 7 31 ,87 5 16,101 1, 7 33.501 1, 7 35 ,59 0 1, 7 40 ,03 4 1 ,7 4 9 ,9 6 4 18.087 412 Commercial Statistics. C O M M E R C IA L STATISTICS. T R A D E A N D C O M M E R C E OF N E W O R L E A N S . THE ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE COMMERCE OF NEW ORLEANS. T he “ N ew Orleans Prices Current and Commercial Intelligencer,” o f Sept. 1, 1847, contains, as usual, the annual statement o f the commerce of that city, prepared with the usual skill and accuracy ; and, agreeably to our custom, we proceed to lay it before the readers o f the “ M erchants’ M agazine ,” in as condensed a form as the nature o f the subject will admit. Similar accounts o f the trade and commerce o f N ew Orleans for previous years, from 1831 to the present time, will be found in this Magazine, Vol. II., p. 349 ; Vol. IV., p. 388 ; Vol. V., p. 471 ; Vol. V II., p. 390 ; Vol. IX., p. 568 ; Vol. X I., p. 415 ; Vol. X III., p. 369 ; Vol. XV., p. 404 ; etc. EXPORTS OF COTTON FROM NEW ORLEANS, FOR SIX YEARS, COMMENCING ON THE BER, AND ENDING ON THE 1ST OF SEPTEM 31sT OF AUGUST. Cotton.— Bales. W h it h e r ex p orted . Liverpool,............................ London,............................... Glasgow and Greenock,... Cowes, Falmouth, & c...... Cork, Belfast, & c.,............. Havre,................................. Bordeaux,............................ Marseilles,........................... Nantz, Cette, and Rouen, Amsterdam,........................ Rotterdam and G hent,.... Bremen,............................... Antwerp, & c .,.................... Hamburg,.......... ................. Gotten burg,......................... Spain and Gibraltar,......... Havana, Mexico, & c .,... . Genoa, Trieste, & c.,.......... China,.................................. Other foreign ports,. . . . . . . . N ew Y ork,.......................... B osto n ,............................... Providence, R . I . , ............. Philadelphia,...................... Baltimore,........................... Portsmouth,........... ............ Other coastwise ports,....... Western States,.................. T o t a l ,....................... 1816-7. 1815-6. 1844-5. 1844-4. IS42-4. 1S41-2. 367,810 48 10,598 6,102 810 90,103 330 3,323 1,963 595 4,369 2,912 7,466 4,376 17,705 9,376 30,542 521,953 159 17,893 8,134 14,181 146,153 2,315 6,806 4,254 2,019 53 3,419 7,838 3,585 3,877 1,679 29,800 52,607 529,675 2,025 36,213 17,975 6,579 25,187 75,546 470 13,582 7,288 3,491 1,437 2,500 8,050 74,757 111,666 5,783 13,690 5,507 2,769 910 5,000 112,995 2,314 7,857 1,854 1,253 2,355 9,211 7,196 9,123 1,630 821 62,083 27,201 2,353 2,267 52,880 75,357 78 6,784 3,640 1,053 2,423 6 000 724,508 1,054,857 984,616 488,817 518 21,263 14,895 2,182 107,973 1,418 7,462 3,127 1,360 512 2,770 8,499 3,156 402 33,151 19,704 1,208 82,814 72,400 211 6,919 4,698 4,136 3,280 2,500 62,481 61 35,831 15,939 2,926 159,658 2,861 9,982 8,374 2,593 2,173 13,303 17,693 13,664 114 401 21,177 17,662 4,303 1,342 48,036 73,891 674 3,253 3,278 393,990 38 15,574 10,740 1,108 161,103 2,247 16,992 2,930 584 2,907 6,369 5,209 5,678 286 78 12,818 10,610 3,000 2,000 174 31,215 54,062 1,910 2,846 1,703 2,658 3,716 1,722 895,375 1,088,870 749,267 RECAPITULATION. W h it h e r exported. Great Britain,.................... France,................................ North o f Europe,................ S. o f Europe and C h in a ,.. Coastwise,.......................... Total 1846-7. 1845-6. 1844-5. 1844-4. 1842-4. 1841-2. 385,368 95,719 26,297 57,623 159,501 562,320 159,528 28,841 84,086 220,082 585,888 125,020 33,035 92,458 148,215 527,675 119,980 17,907 52,855 176,958 679,438 180,875 50,882 43,543 134,132 421,450 183,272 21,207 23,506 99,832 724,508 1,054,857 984,616 895,3751,088,870 749,267 Commercial Statistics, 413 EXPO RTS OF TOBACCO FROM NEW O RLEAN S, FOR S IX Y E A R S , COMMENCING ON T H E 1S T OF SEPT EM B E R , AND ENDING ON TH E 3 1 S T OF AUGUST. Tobacco.— Hogsheads. Whither exported. Liverpool,........................... London,.............................. Glasgow and Greenock,... Cowes, Falmouth, & c...... Cork, Belfast, & .C .,................. Havre,.................................. Bordeaux,............................ Marseilles,.......................... Nantz, Cette, and Rouen, Amsterdam,....................... Rotterdam and G h en t,... Bremen,............................... Antwerp, & c .,.................... Hamburg,............................ Gottenburg,......................... Spain and Gibraltar,......... Havana, M exico, & c .,.. . . Genoa, Trieste, & c.,......... 1846-7. 1845-6. 1844-5. 1S43-4. 1842-3. 1841-2. 3 ,3 7 4 5 ,1 7 3 8 ,9 7 6 1 2 ,8 8 8 4 ,9 4 7 6 ,4 7 5 8 ,8 0 8 8 ,2 9 1 6 ,7 8 8 9 ,8 5 1 6 ,9 3 0 7 ,2 1 2 1 ,1 4 8 2 ,6 4 1 1 ,1 3 1 5 ,4 2 4 1 0 ,7 9 8 6 ,8 2 7 1 ,1 5 9 242 2 ,0 9 6 2 ,2 1 5 1 ,0 6 7 1 ,0 0 6 3 ,5 1 4 1 ,5 6 5 3 ,9 3 4 4 ,8 4 6 1 ,1 5 6 5 ,1 0 2 4 ,6 4 8 2 ,3 3 2 4 ,6 6 5 4,037" 1 ,0 0 4 1 ,9 3 3 568 4 ,4 4 6 1 ,6 5 2 403 949 1 1 ,7 9 5 451 1 ,1 0 4 6 ,3 2 8 4 ,2 9 4 181 943 9 ,8 4 3 5 ,0 4 6 2 ,3 7 5 50 1 ,0 1 4 1 2 ,0 1 2 3 ,8 6 2 786 909 6 ,7 4 9 903 3 ,0 0 1 3 ,7 7 5 917 9 ,6 0 2 2 ,1 7 8 2 ,3 0 3 734 1 0 ,6 8 1 1 ,6 0 1 1 ,5 5 6 2 ,7 0 0 2 ,9 3 3 7 ,8 8 8 5 ,6 5 7 1 ,4 7 7 963 4 ,4 9 6 1 ,0 6 3 1 ,7 6 0 1 ,1 3 8 1 ,8 8 2 8 ,9 9 7 3 ,6 9 0 3 ,4 0 1 946 7 ,2 0 4 981 550 Other foreign ports,.......... N ew Y o r k ,......................... Boston,................................ Providence, R. I . , ............. Philadelphia,...................... Baltimore,........................... Portsmouth,........................ Other coastwise ports,....... Western States................... 1 ,0 0 8 5 ,4 5 8 2 ,6 6 4 298 4 ,8 4 8 913 794 6 ,9 3 6 4 ,9 3 8 1 ,1 7 7 6 ,9 6 0 2 ,5 8 5 217 1 0 ,5 3 3 3 ,6 5 0 516 7 ,0 9 0 2 ,3 5 1 2 ,7 7 9 301 1 ,0 3 0 427 2 ,5 3 6 478 1 ,2 8 6 1 ,1 6 7 2 ,8 4 5 2 ,4 3 3 936 208 115 217 2 ,1 4 5 1 ,1 0 0 2 ,1 9 4 225 T ota l,.......................... 5 0 ,3 7 6 6 2 ,0 4 5 6 8 ,6 7 9 8 1 ,2 4 9 8 9 ,8 9 1 6 8 ,0 5 8 RECAPITU LA TIO N . Whither exported. Great Britain,...................... France,................................ North o f Europe,.............. S. o f Europe and China,... Coastwise,........................... T ota l,.......................... 1846-7. 1845-6. 1844-5. 1843-4. 1842-3. 1841-2. 9 ,6 9 5 3 ,4 9 7 8 ,0 1 8 1 7 ,8 4 9 1 1 ,3 1 7 2 4 ,5 0 5 4 ,2 8 8 1 3 ,3 0 1 1 2 ,5 1 6 7 ,4 3 5 1 2 ,5 5 3 9 ,0 1 3 1 9 ,0 5 1 1 1 ,0 2 9 1 7 ,0 3 3 2 2 ,5 2 3 1 1 ,1 0 4 2 0 ,1 7 5 1 4 ,3 4 9 1 3 ,0 9 8 2 7 ,4 3 7 1 1 ,6 4 5 2 1 ,6 1 8 7 ,5 3 6 2 1 ,6 5 5 2 0 ,9 6 9 6 ,9 7 4 2 0 ,2 5 2 9 ,0 5 3 1 0 ,8 1 0 5 0 ,3 7 6 6 2 ,0 4 5 6 8 ,6 7 9 8 1 ,2 4 9 8 9 ,8 9 1 6 8 ,0 5 8 EXPO RTS OF SUGAR FROM NEW O RLEANS, FO R T H R E E Y E A R S , (UP TH E R IV E R EX C EP T ED ,) COMMENCING OX T H E 1ST OF S E P TE M B ER , AND ENDING ON T H E 3 1 S T OF AUGUST. Whither exported. N ew Y o r k ,................. .£ . Philadelphia,...................... Charleston, S. C.,............... Savannah,........................... Providence and Bristol,.... Boston,................................ Baltimore,............................ Norfolk, Richmond and ) Petersburg, V a.,........... \ Alexandria, D. C ..,........... M o b ile ,............................... Apalachicola & Pensacola, Other ports,......................... T o t a l,......................... 1846-7. Hbds. Bbls. 1845-6. 1844-5. Hhds. Bbls. Hhds. Bbls. 1 6 ,7 5 4 1 1 ,6 5 3 3 ,1 4 7 1 ,3 5 2 802 653 647 58 3 3 ,0 6 8 2 1 ,8 0 4 3 ,4 1 2 1 ,0 6 2 2 ,4 4 8 2 ,4 2 1 1 ,1 9 8 65 4 9 .4 4 2 2 1 ,3 9 2 4 ,4 2 6 782 6 ,7 9 4 1 ,4 2 2 95 10 695 5 ,9 8 1 43 395 3 ,2 0 8 9 ,1 4 3 1 ,2 8 8 1 ,6 7 2 6 ,0 6 2 1 2 ,5 6 4 543 480 4 ,8 0 6 966 3 ,9 9 7 1 ,2 1 5 4 ,5 0 0 208 156 3 ,7 8 3 1 ,4 1 5 371 1 ,0 3 8 473 76 175 5 ,7 3 9 1 ,0 6 7 533 1 ,0 2 0 158 8 201 3 ,5 3 4 838 760 668 102 239 5 0 ,1 1 3 5 ,4 5 1 8 3 ,2 0 8 1 1 ,4 9 3 1 0 4 ,5 0 1 1 0 ,5 6 1 414 Commercial Statistics. EXPO RTS OF MOLASSES FROM N EW O RLEAN S, FO R T H R E E T E A R S , (L'P T H E R IV E R EX C EP T ED ,) COMMENCINS ON T H E 1ST OF SE P TE M B ER , AND ENDING ON T H E 3 l s T OF AUGUST. 1816-7. Whither exported. N ew Y ork ,......................... Philadelphia,.................... Charleston, S. C.,............... 1841-5. Bbls. Hhds. Bbls. Hhds. Bbls. 2,842 60 15,861 4,512 3,238 1,752 3,002 580 2 9.875 2,418 1,472 2,124 547 34,322 11,575 5,610 2,686 1,051 14,221 10,943 Providence and B ristol,... 22 Boston,................................ 337 Baltimore............................. Norfolk, Richmond, and ) 252 Petersburg, Y a............... ( Alexandria, D. C.,.............. M o b ile ,............................... Apalachicola & Pensacola, ......................... Other ports,540 T otal,........................... 1845-6. Hhds. 413 3,348 579 318 185 17,515 13,925 6,328 2,214 280 1,402 5,181 3,225 27 3,767 96 6,029 423 13,464 2,039 671 95 76 391 84 5,218 1,795 881 67,214 7,094 94,415 511 6,497 2,565 286 4,053 10 4,703 42,208 EXPO RTS OF FLO O R, PO RK, BACON, LA R D , B E E F , L E A D , W H IS K E Y AND CORN, FROM NEW ORLEANS, FOR TWO Y E A R S , COMMENCING T H E 1ST OF SEP TE M B ER , AND ENDING T H E 3 1 s T OF AUGUST. 1846-7. FLOUR. PO R K. BACON. LARD. BEEF. LEA D . W H IS K E Y . CORN. Bbls. Bbls. Hhds. Kegs. Bbls. Figs. Bbls. Sacks. Destination. N ew Y ork ......... 63,877 77,828 3.480 209,945 9,167 B oston,.............. 96,500 76,755 2,379 165,513 9,053 Philadelphia,..... 13,290 5,247 852 53,377 564 Baltimore,......... 3,630 17,167 1,159 23,251 556 Charleston,...... 7,720 1,004 2,874 5,362 150 Other coast.ports 38,380 11,033 11,092 12,813 2,943 Cuba,.................. 43,050 1,092 1,015 144,002 467 Other for’gn pts, 1,053,030 40,394 3,053 293,714 29,096 339,560 123,917 135,489 9,962 465 1,000 149 13,716 8,210 107,890 1,162 139,678 4,856 15,324 7,103 3,253 8,180 800 33,005 43,842 ........ 133,798 743 2,076,228 Total.............. 1,319,507 230,520 25,904 907,977 51,996 624,258 63,259 2,520,813 1845-6. FLOUR. Destination. Bbis. N ew Y ork ,........ 83,854 Boston,............... 122,148 Philadelphia,.... 250 B altim ore,........................... Charleston,........ 11,476 Other coast.ports 68,441 Cuba................... 7,094 Other for’gn pts, 279,931 Total,............. PO RK. Bbls. BACON. H hds. LARD. Kegs. BEEF. Bbls. 88,228 2,873 204,323 5,162 89,164 846 190.504 3,501 29,783 1,238 69,153 99 19,523 729 39,619 446 2,828 1,962 5,607 .275 13,434 12,720 20,671 4,490 1,005 610 92,336 391 28,354 64 168,621 43,798 LEAD. W H IS K E Y . Pigs. Bbls. CORN. Sacks. 309,681 4,098 172,186 139,304 150 2S9,523 70,113 647 3,671 11,961 2,175 1,000 4,620 8,982 87,953 8,460 41,869 175,582 ....................................... 174,086 260 211,674 573,194 272,319 21,042 790,904 58,162 718,285 58,181 941,589 A T A B L E SHOWING T H E R EC EIPTS OF T H E P RIN CIPA L A R TIC LES FROJfc T H E IN TE R IO R , A T NEW O RLEAN S, DURING T H E Y E A R ENDING 3 1 S T AUGUST, 1 8 4 7 , W IT H T H E IR ESTIM ATED AVERA GE, AND T O T A L V A L U E , ALSO. Articles. Apples,...................... Bacon, assorted,...... 4( it “ hams,........... “ in bulk,...... .............................. lbs. Bagging.................... Bale Rope,................ Beans,........................ Butter,....................... “ ......... ..... Beeswax,................... Amount. 39,612 28,607 8,325 14,518 425,163 60,982 56,201 24,536 51,384 872 1,109 Average. $ 3 00 60 00 30 00 65 00 00 06 10 50 6 00 4 00 5 00 20 00 40 00 Value. $118,836 1,716,420 249,750 943,670 25,509 640,311 337,206 98,144 256,920 17,440 44,360 415 Commercial Statistics, Articles. Beef,............................................ U 44 dried,................................ Buffalo Robes,........................... Cotton,........................................ Corn-meal,.................................. 44 in ear,................................ “ shelled,............................. Cheese,........................................ Candles, „ ................................... Cider,............ 1............................. Coal, Western,........................... Dried Apples and Peaches,...... Feathers,..................................... Flaxseed,..................................... Flour,........................................... Furs,.................. hhds., bundles and boxes Hem p,......................................... Hides,.......................................... Hay,,._......................................... Lard,........................................... “ ..................................bbls. and tierces c( Leather,..................................... Lime, Western,......................... Lead,........................................... “ bar,...........................kegs and boxes Molasses, (estimated crop ,)... Oats,.....................................bbls. and sacks Onions,....................................... “ Castor,.................................. “ Lard,..................................... Peach Brandy,.......................... Potatoes,..................................... Pork............................................ (( “ in bulk,............................. Porter and A le,......................... Packing-Yarn,........................... Skins, Deer,............................... 41 Bear,............................... Shot............................................ Soap,........................................... Staves......................................... ............. M. Sugar, (estimated crop,).......... Spanish Moss,........................... T allow ,....................................... Tobacco, leaf,.................... ....... “ strips,........................ “ chewing,...........kegs and boxes u T w in e,.......................... bundles and boxes Vinegar....................................... .......... bbls. W in dow Glass,........................ W heat,................................. bbls. and sacks Total Total Total Total value,...................... in 1845-6,............ in 1844-5............... in 1843-4,....... Amount. 32,738 21,230 49,000 55 740,669 88,159 619,576 2,386,510 57,429 8,496 477 356,500 8,770 3,498 962 1,617,675 328 60,238 98,342 95,231 1,151 143 117,077 275,076 3,718 5,994 659,129 1,291 6,000,000 588,337 7,185 3,637 1,439 2,573 72 142,888 302,170 9,452 8,450,700 1,363 2,193 1,784 71 3,992 4,361 2,000 140,000 5,990 6,658 44,588 11,000 3,930 1,001 1,334 1,059 126,553 3,805 833,649 Average. $10 16 00 60 44 3 1 2 3 3 3 00 2 25 9 5 00 00 07 00 00 50 10 00 50 50 00 75 50 00 00 50 15 00 1 25 3 00 30 00 80 00 23 00 4 00 20 00 1 00 2 75 15 00 00 24 00 90 2 00 20 00 20 00 22 00 16 00 2 00 12 00 40 00 00 06 7 50 5 00 20 00 15 00 18 00 2 60 25 00 70 00 4 00 20 00 55 00 100 00 12 50 3 00 7 00 4 00 10 00 4 00 2 30 Value. $327,380 339,680 3,430 3,300 32,589,436 308,505 681,533 4,773,020 201,001 29,736 1,431 267,375 21,925 87.450 8,658 8,897,213 600,000 903,570 122,927 285,693 34,530 11,440 2,692,771 1,100,304 74,320 5.994 1,787,854 19,365 1,440,000 529,503 14,370 72,740 28,780 56,936 1,152 285,776 3,626,040 378,080 507,042 10,222 10,965 35,680 1,065 71,856 11,338 50,000 9,800,000 23,960 133,160 2,452,340 1,100,000 49,125 3,003 9,338 4,236 1,265,530 15,220 1,917,392 .......5,500,000 416 Commercial Statistics. M ONTHLY A R R IV A L S OF SHIPS, H A RKS, B R IG S, SCHOONERS AND STEAMBOATS, A T NEW ORLEANS ' FOR TWO Y E A R S , FROM I s T SEPTEM BER TO 3 1 s T AUGUST. 1846-7. Months. 1845-6. St’mSteam SteamShips. B’rks. Brigs. Sch’s. ships. Tot. boats. Ships. B ’ ks. Brigs. S ch’s. T ot. boats. September,............ October,................. November.............. December............... January................... February,............... M arch,................... April,...................... M a y ,..................... June,...................... July......................... A ugust,.................. 37 78 67 72 78 42 83 86 77 51 53 45 12 30 35 45 64 34 53 41 51 38 30 18 19 31 63 62 91 63 72 45 87 54 52 24 42 80 63 43 99 85 105 86 166 101 67 52 Total.................. 769 451 663 7 7 9 8 6 5 1 6 11 19 16 14 117 226 237 230 338 229 314 264 392 263 218 153 141 177 281 337 346 298 317 293 284 251 174 125 980 109 2,9814,024 24 86 81 80 67 29 67 110 60 44 52 43 7 25 22 49 77 21 24 40 30 25 24 33 7 20 33 48 74 36 33 47 27 42 39 41 14 26 39 42 62 50 32 37 61 30 61 64 52 157 175 219 280 136 156 234 178 141 176 181 164 234 220 245 298 293 299 294 271 184 151 117 743 377 447 5182,085 2,770 •COMPARATIVE A R R IV A L S , EXPO RTS AND STOCKS OF COTTON AND TOBACCO, A T N EW O RLEAN S, FOR T E N Y EA R S— FROM 1ST S EP TEM B ER , EACH Y E A R , TO D A TE. Cotton.— Bales. Years. 1846-47,...... 1845-46,...... . 1844-45,...... 1843-44,....... 1842-43,........ 1841-42,....... 1840-41........ 18 39-40,....... 1838-39,....... 1837-38,....... Tobacco.— Hogsheads. Arrivals. Exports. Stocks. Arrivals. Exports. Stocks. 740,669 1,053,633 979,238 910,854 1,089,642 740,155 822,870 954,445 578,514 742,720 721,508 1,054,857 984,616 895,370 1,088,870 749,267 821,228 949,320 579,179 738,313 23,493 6,332 7,556 12,934 4,700 4,428 14,490 17,867 10,308 9.570 55,588 72,896 71,493 82,435 92,509 67,555 53,170 43,827 28,153 37,583 50,376 62,045 68,679 81,249 89,891 68,058 54,667 40,435 30,780 22,396 17.923 7,673 4,859 4.873 2,255 2,758 4,409 1,294 3,834 3 i) j 5 o o C O M M E R C E B E T W E E N T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D B R A Z I I . The following is a statement o f the commerce between the United States and the Bra zils, from 1830 to 1845, inclusive, from official documents,each year ending 30th Septem ber, until 1842, from which period the official year ended the 30th June :— Exports. Imports. 1830......... ..... 1831......... 1832......... ...... 1833......... 1834.......... 1835.......... 1836.......... 1837.......... $2,491,460 2,375,829 3,890,845 5,089,693 4,729,989 5,574,466 7,210,190 4,991,983 $1,843,239 2,076,095 2,054,794 3,272,101 2,059,351 2,608,656 3,094,936 1,743,209 Exports. Imports. 1838......... ...... 1839......... 1840.......... 1841.......... 1842.......... 1843.......... 1844.......... 1845.......... $3,191,238 5,292,955 4,297,296 5,948,814 3,947,658 6,883,806 $2,657,194 2,637,485 2,506,574 3,517,273 2,601,502 1,792,288 2,818,252 2,837,950 The following is a statement o f the tonnage, American and foreign, employed in the commerce between the United States and the Brazils, from 1830 to 1845, inclusive, from official documents, each year ending 30th September, until 1842, from which period the fiscal year ends the 30th June:— 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837, American tonnage. E nt. Dop'd. Foreign tonnage. E v t. Dop'd. American tonnage. Ent. Dop'd. Foreign tonnage. Ent. Dep'd. 38,005 29,855 31,222 35,024 34,900 34,720 39,259 25,122 248 1,360 3,314 208 3,089 753 4,341 5,766 23,037 34,457 32,588 41,684 37,058 32,466 48,550 50,230 276 2,367 5,578 4,503 5,593 2,179 14,802 2,481 44,450 36,892 30,439 49,736 37,092 39,269 45,533 19,576 601 1838, 203 1839, 356 1840, 1,017 1841, 1,977 1842, 2,554 1843, 3,062 1844, 4,107 1845, 30,623 39,431 34,189 47,604 33,778 32,066 46,250 40,716 1,601 3,183 1,764 3,101 2,643 1,395 1,816 2,077 Commercial Regulations. COMMERCIAL 417 REGULATIONS. T H E B R IT IS H P A S S E N G E R A C T . A mong the various matters which have been legislated on during the last session o f the British Parliament, is that relating to the conveyance or carriage o f passengers by sea. The subject being one o f importance to merchants, ship-owners, &c., in the United States, as well as other nations, we publish it in the Merchants’ M agazine, complete, so that all whom it may concern shall have full cognizance o f its provisions:— AN ACT TO AMEND THE PASSENGERS’ ACT, AND TO MAKE FURTHER PROVISION FOR THE CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS B Y SEA. Whereas, by an act passed in the session o f Parliament holden in the fifth and sixth years o f the reign o f her present Majesty, entitled “ A n A ct for regulating the Carriage o f Passengers in Merchant Vessels,” it is amongst other things provided, that the said act shall not extend to any ship carrying less than 30 passengers, and it is expedient that the said act should be amended in that respect: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most Excellent Majesty, by and with the advice and consent o f the lords spiritual and temporal, and commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority o f the same, That the said recited act shall hereafter extend, and the same is hereby extended, to the case o f every ship carrying any passenger on any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned: provided that when the number o f passengers carried in any such ship shall not bear to the registered tonnage thereof a greater proportion than that o f one passenger to every 25 tons, so much and such parts only as are next hereinafter specified o f the said recited act shall extend, and are hereby extended, to the case o f any such ship; that is to say, such parts thereof as relate to the recovery o f money in certain cases by way o f return of passage-money; or as relate to subsistence-money; or as relate to compensation to be made for the loss o f passage; or as relate to the giving receipts for money received for or in respect o f any passage to North A m erica; or as relate to the receipt o f money for or in respect o f any such passage by any person as agent, not having a written authority from his principal to act in that capacity; or as relate to the inducing o f any person by any fraud or false pretence to engage any such passage; or as relate to any prosecution or other proceeding at law for the recovery o f such passage or subsistence-money, or o f such compensation as aforesaid, or for the infliction o f any fines or penalties in respect o f any o f the matters or things aforesaid: provided, also, that if in any suit, action, prosecution, or other legal proceeding, under the said recited act, any question shall arise whether any ship proceeding on any voyage did or did not carry a greater number o f passengers than aforesaid in proportion to the tonnage thereof, the burden o f proving that the number of passengers so carried in proportion to the tonnage o f the ship was not greater than that o f one person to every 25 tons, shall lie upon the person against whom any such suit, action, or other legal proceeding may be brought, and failing such proof, it shall for any such pur pose as aforesaid be taken and adjudged that the number o f passengers so carried did ex ceed that proportion. ARTICLES OF FOOD. 2. And whereas it may from time to time be necessary that for the articles o f food mentioned in the said recited act, or for some o f them, other equivalent articles should be substituted: Be it enacted, that it shall be lawful for Her Majesty’s Colonial Land and Em igration Commissioners for the time being, acting under the authority o f one o f Her Majes ty’s principal Secretaries o f State, from time to time, by any notice or notices for that pur pose, issued under the hands o f any two o f such commissioners, and published in the “ L on don Gazette,” to substitute for any o f the articles o f food mentioned in the said recited act any other article or articles o f food, as to the said commissioners shall seem meet, and any such notice or notices from time to time to alter, amend, or revoke, as occasion may re quire : provided, always, that all the clauses and provisions in the said recited act contained respecting the articles o f food therein mentioned shall extend, and are hereby extended, to the case o f such substituted articles. 3. And be it enacted, that all articles o f food required by the said recited act, or by any such notice or notices as aforesaid, to be laden on board any ship carrying passengers, shall, before such ship shall be cleared out, be furnished and laden on board by and at the expense o f the owner or charterer o f such ship, for the purposes in the said recited act pro vided, and shall be o f a quality to be approved o f by the emigration officer at the port o f VOL. X V IX .-----N O . IV . 27 418 Commercial Regulations. clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, by the offi cer o f customs from whom a clearance shall be demanded ; and that in case of any default herein, the owner, charterer, or master o f such ship shall be liable to the payment of a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds. THE CARRIAGE OF GUNPOWDER, ETC. 4. And be it enacted, that in any ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said reci ted act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passen ger to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, it shall not be lawful to put on board or carry as cargo any gunpowder, vitriol, or green hides, and that no such ship having on board as cargo any such articles as aforesaid shall be allowed to clear out or proceed on her voyage. PROPER LIGHT AND VENTILATION. 5. And be it enacted, that for the purpose o f insuring a proper supply o f light and air in every ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said recited act mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passenger to every 25 tons o f the re gistered tonnage o f such ship, the passengers shall, at all times during the voyage, (weather permitting,) have free access to and from the between-decks by each hatchway situate over the space appropriated to the use o f such passengers: provided, always, that if the main hatchway be not one o f the hatchways appropriated to the use o f the passengers, or if the natural supply o f light and air through the same be in any manner unduly impeded, it shall be lawful for the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, the chief officer o f customs at the port from which a clearance shall be demanded, to direct such other provision to be made for iffording light and air to the between-decks as the circumstances o f the case may, in the judgment o f such officer, appear to require, which directions shall be duly carried out to liis satisfaction; and in case o f any default herein, the master o f the said ship shall be lia ble to the payment o f a penalty not exceeding fifty pounds sterling. SHIPS TO BE SURVEYED, AND NOT TO BE CLEARED UNLESS SEAWORTHY. 6. And be it enacted, that the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assist ant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, the officer o f customs from whom a clearance shall be demanded, shall in all cases require any ship fitted or about to carry passengers on any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned to be surveyed, at the expense o f the owner or charterer thereof, by two or more competent surveyors, to be duly authorized and approved of, either by the Commissioners o f Colonial Lands and Emi gration, or by the Commissioner o f Customs, as the case may be ; and if it shall be report ed by such surveyors that they have surveyed such ship, and that such ship is not in their opinion seaworthy, so as to be fit in all respects for her intended voyage, such ship shall not be cleared out until the same or two other surveyors appointed as aforesaid shall re port that such ship has been rendered seaworthy, and in all respects fit for her intended voyage: provided, always, that the precautions for ascertaining the seaworthiness o f ships, and their state o f repair and efficiency for their intended voyages respectively, shall in all respects, and without distinction, be the same for foreign as for British ships. SHIPS TO BE PROPERLY MANNED. 7. And be it enacted, that unless it shall be proved to the satisfaction o f the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, the officer o f customs from whom a clearance shall be demanded, that such ship as aforesaid is manned with a full complement o f men, such ship shall not be cleared out. CERTIFICATE THAT ALL REQUIREMENTS HAVE BEEN COMPLIED WITH. 8. And be it enacted, that no ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one passenger to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, shall be allowed to clear out or proceed on her voyage until the master thereof shall have obtained from the emigration officer at the port o f clearance, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, from the officer o f customs, from whom a clearance shall be demanded, a certificate under his hand that all the requirements, as well of this act as the said recited act, so far as the same can be complied with before the departure of said ship, have been duly complied with. SHIPS PUTTING IN TO REPLENISH PROVISIONS, ETC. 9. A nd be it enacted, that if any ship carrying on any such voyage as in the said re cited act is mentioned a greater number o f passengers than in the proportion o f one pas senger to every 25 tons o f the registered tonnage o f such ship, shall put to sea, and shall Commercial Regulations. 419 afterwards put into or touch at any port or place in the United Kingdom, it shall not be lawful for such ship to leave such port or place until there shall have been laden on board, as herein before is mentioned, such further supply o f pure water, wholesome provisions, of the requisite kinds and qualities, and medical stores, as may be necessary to make up the full quantities o f those articles required by the herein before recited act, or this act, for the use o f the passengers during the whole o f the intended voyage, nor until the master of the said ship shall have obtained from the emigration officer, or his assistant, or, where there is no such officer, or in his absence, from the officer o f customs, as the case may be, at such port or place, a certificate to the same effect as the certificate herein before required to enable the ship to be cleared out; and in case o f any default herein, the master o f the said ship shall be liable to the payment o f a penalty not exceeding one hundred pounds sterling. IN CASE SHIP IS WRECKED, ETC., A PASSAGE TO BE PROVIDED B Y SOME OTHER VESSEL. 10. And be it enacted, that in case any ship carrying passengers on any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned, shall be wrecked or otherwise destroyed, and shall thereby or by any other cause whatsoever be prevented from landing her passengers at the place they may have respectively contracted to land, or in case such ship shall put into any port or place in a damaged state, and shall not within a reasonable time be ready to proceed with her passengers on her intended voyage, after having been first efficiently re paired, and in all respects put into a sound and seaworthy condition, then, and in any o f such cases, such passengers respectively shall be provided with a passage by some other equally eligible vessel to the port or place at which they respectively may have originally contracted to land; and in default thereof within a reasonable time, such passengers re spectively, or any emigration officer in their behalf, shall be entitled to recover, by sum mary process, before any two or more justices o f the peace, in like manner as in the said recited act is provided in the cases o f moneys thereby made recoverable, all moneys which shall have been paid by or on account o f such passengers, or any of them, for such pas sage, from the party to whom the same may have been paid, or from the owner, charterer, or master o f such ship, and also such further sum, not exceeding five pounds, in respect o f each such passage, as shall in the opinion o f the justices who shall adjudicate on the com plaint, be a reasonable compensation for any loss or inconvenience occasioned to any such passenger, or his or her family, by reason o f the loss o f such passage. HOW CHILDREN ARE TO BE COMPUTED. 11. And in order to remove doubts which have arisen in the construction o f the said recited act, Be it enacted, that, for the purpose o f determining the number o f persons which according to the said act can be carried in any ship in proportion to the registered tonnage thereof two children under the age o f fourteen years shall be computed as one person, and that children under one year shall not be included in such computation: pro vided, always, that if any ship shall carry upon any such voyage as in the said recited act is mentioned a greater number o f persons, computed as aforesaid, in proportion to the regis tered tonnage thereof, than in the proportion in the said recited act mentioned, the master o f such ship shall, for and in respect o f every person constituting such excess, be liable to the payment o f a penalty not exceeding five pounds sterling. RECOVERY OF PENALTIES. 12. And be it enacted, that all penalties imposed by this act shall be sued for and re covered by such persons only, and in such and the same manner, as in the said recited act is provided in the case o f the penalties thereby imposed. ACKNOWLEDGMENT FOR PASSAGE MONEY. 13. A nd whereas, in many cases, persons having received under the requirements o f the said recited act contract tickets or written acknowledgments for money in respect o f pas sengers to North America have afterwards been induced to part with the same, whereby they have been deprived o f the means o f enforcing their rights under such contract tickets: Be it enacted, that any owner, charterer, or master o f a ship, or any passage broker or other person, who shall induce any person to part with, render useless, or destroy any such contract ticket or acknowledgment for passage money as aforesaid during the continuance o f the contract which it is intended to be evidence, shall be liable in each case to a penalty not exceeding five pounds. EMIGRATION OFFICERS. 14. And be it enacted, that the officers known as government emigration agents may henceforward be styled “ Emigration O f f i c e r s a n d that all powers, functions, and privi leges vested in such government emigration agents by the said recited act, or by any other act, shall vest in and be exercised by the “ emigration officers ” for the time being, in like manner as if they bore the designation o f government emigration agents. 420 Commercial Regulations. DEFINITION OF TEEMS. 15. And be it enacted, that whenever the term “ passenger ” or “ passage ” is used in this act, it shall be held not to include or extend to the class o f passengers or passages commonly known and understood by the name o f “ cabin passengers ” and “ cabin pas sages and that the term “ ship ” shall include and mean every description o f vessel, whether British or foreign, carrying passengers upon any voyage to which the provisions o f the said herein before recited Passengers’ Act, or this act, shall for the time being extend. 16. And be it enacted, that this act may be amended or repealed during the present session o f Parliament COLLISION O F VESSELS. This has always been a fruitful subject o f discussion, as to the rules which ought to obtain, in deciding where the loss should fall. It was formerly, more than at present, a matter o f frequent litigation, and gave rise to some very interesting opinions of the Adm i ralty and common law courts. These opinions, running through a long series o f years, and founded on a variety o f circumstances, have at length become pretty well established, and from their applicability to almost every case which arises, prevent legal disputes. These rules, founded, as it will be seen, on good sense, are chiefly as follows W here a collision arises from physical causes, beyond the control o f the party inflicting the injury, and without fault in any one, the party injured must bear his own loss, with out contribution or apportionment. Vessels in motion, meeting each'other, should observe the following particulars: T he vessel sailing with a free wind must get out o f the way o f one sailing closehauled. The vessel on the starboard tack has the right to keep her wind, and the one on the larboard tack must bear up or heave about at her peril. T he vessel to windward is to keep away when both vessels are on the same course in a narrow channel, and when there is danger o f getting foul. A steamer must, as a general rule, give way to a vessel with sails; she is considered as always having a free wind, and will be required to manage accordingly. A vessel entering a crowded harbor must, at her peril, keep a proper check on her way, in coming to anchor. W e have been led to write out these simple directions, because the liability and duty o f a vessel meeting another, are frequent matters o f inquiry. Not long since, a vessel dropping down the Penobscot in the night, with the tide, (as is usual in that river,) came into collision with another vessel, anchored in shore, (as also is usual,) and it was disputed whether the vessel inflicting the injury should pay the loss. It was finally considered that the vessel dropping down ought to be governed by the same rule as a vessel entering p ort; and if, by not checking or directing his way, the master o f the vessel in question came in collision with the vessel at anchor, then his vessel should be liable for the damages. This matter was not the subject o f judicial adjudication, but the parties acquiesced in the application o f the above principle to their case, and settled it accordingly.— Newburyport Herald. A N E W G E R M A N F R E E P O R T. Late advices from Germany communicate a fact o f some interest to.the mercantile world. It announces to the mercantile and shipping interests the important fact o f the rights and privileges o f a free port having been accorded to a district on the Weser, where the small stream, the Geeste, runs into the liver. This place is very near Bremen Haven, where all vessels o f heavy burthen bound to Bremen are obliged to bring up. The Hanoverian gov ernment is deepening the water at, and in the approaches to, Harbourg, it is believed, with the intention o f making Harbourg also a free port. B R E A D S T U F F S A D M IT T E D IN T O D E N M A R K F R EE . The king o f Denmark has issued an ordonnance declaring that, during the excessive dearness o f the first necessaries o f life, and in deference to the wishes o f the State, the territories o f which are washed by the Elbe, articles o f grain, roots, potatoes, flour, meal, and other alimentary products o f the mill, ascending the Elbe, whatever may be the des tination, shall be free o f the customs duties to which such articles have been subject in passing before Lauenburg, until the end o f September, 1847. 421 Nautical Intelligence. NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE. LIGH T-H OU SE O N H A R T L E P O O L HEUGH. commissioners o f the pier and port o f Hartlepool hereby give notice that, acting onder the sanction o f the corporation o f Trinity House, London, they have erected, in connection with the purposes o f the said pier, and for the general advantage o f the port, a light-house on the Heugh, or Headland, at Hartlepool, in the county o f Durham, from which a fixed white light will be exhibited on the evening o f the 1st October, 1847, and continued every night from sunset to sunrise. T he light will bear by compass from Souter Point, on the coast o f Durham, S. 4 W ., distance 17 sea miles, and from Staith’s Old Nab, on the Yorkshire coast, N . W . by N „ distant 16J sea miles; and will be seen at any place along the coast within these points, and seaward, during clear weather, at a distance o f 15 m iles; the light being o f the first ©rder, and at an elevation o f 84 feet above the level o f high water spring tides. There will also be exhibited from the same tower, at night, (underneath the principal light,) from half-flood to half-ebb, a Tidal light, o f a red color; and during the day, at half-flood, a red ball will be hoisted to the top o f a mast, on the tower, where it will re main until half-ebb. The light will be free o f any charge whatever to the trade. The stationary light on the pier-head o f the old harbor will be shown as heretofore ; but the tide light, in connection therewith, will, after the 30th o f September next, be discon tinued. T he fixed green light, which, under the like sanction, has been shown on each pier o f the W est harbor, from sunset to sunrise, and also the two red lights which have been ex hibited in one, bearing N. W ., as leading tide lights into the W est harbor, will be con tinued as beforeLaL 54° 41' 51 " N . Lon. 1° 10' 19" o f Greenwich. T he L IG H T -H O U S E ON PO VER ROCK, N E A R IS T R IA . D epartment of S tate , July, 1847. Information has been received from the Austrian government, that a new light-house has been erected on the Pover Rock, near the Punta di Fromontore, in Istria, consisting o f a fixed light on a stone tower, at the height o f 85 feet above the rock, and 107 feet above the level o f the se a ; visible in clear weather, at the distance-of sixteen miles, from the deck o f a vessel. The Pover Rock presents a large surface, and is situated near the S. W . extremity o f the province o f Istria, on the Western side o f the Adriatic Sea, in lat. 44° 46' N., and ion. 13° 53' 23 " E. o f the meridian o f Greenwich. P L Y M O U T H SOUND. The beacon upon the East end o f the breakwater, and the red and white beacon upon Plymouth Hoe, presenting more distinct objects than those which have been heretofore nsed as the leading marks for the Eastern channel into the sound, notice is hereby given, That, on the 31st December next, the sea marks on the citadel wall will be obliterated, and the following used as the leading mark up to the breakwater, viz.:— The beacon on the East end o f Plymouth Breakwater on with the red and white bea con upon Plymouth Hoe. M O O T A P IL L Y SHOAL. Lieutenant Fell, o f the Indian navy, employed in surveying part o f the Coromandel coast, has discovered an error in the position assigned, in Horsburg’s Directory, 5th edi tion, Vol. I., p. 99, to the shoalest part o f the Mootapilly Bank, on which there is 2J fa thoms. This shoal patch is therein stated to be in lat. 15° 25' J N., and only five miles dis tant from the shore ; whereas, according to Lieutenant Fell, it is ten miles off the coast, and in lat. 15° 23' 15" N. The difference so pointed out, may be of importance to ships of considerable draught approaching the position o f the shoal patch described. 422 Nautical Intelligence. W IN T E R BEACON S IN T H E LA PP E G R U N D . From the beginning of next winter, the Lappegrund, Northward o f Kronborg Point, will be marked with the following winter beacons, when the present summer beacons are removed in consequence o f ice, viz.:— 1. O n the N orth E nd, F rontins L appegrdnden.— A beacon, with red staff and a red balloon, instead o f the present red painted buoy, with iron rod, and a red balloon. 2. On the M iddle of the E ast S ide of L appegrdnden.— A beacon, with red staffi,and two brooms, instead o f the present black buoy. 3. F ronting the S outheast E nd op L appegrunden.— A beacon, with red staff, and a broom, instead o f the present beacon, with black staff and a broom. 4 C lose .to the W est S ide of the B lock -H odse.— A beacon, with striped staffs and broom, like the one now in use. F IX E D SIN G LE L IG H T A T C A LIC U T . Notice is hereby given, that a fixed single light will be exhibited at Calicut, from the 15th instant, on a column o f masonry, 105 feet above the level o f the sea. The column, which is white, may be seen from the deck o f a ship, at a distance o f about 14 or 15 miles during the day time, and the light, which is a small one, may be distin guished at a distance o f about 9 o f 10 miles during the night. The Calicut shoal bears from the light-house N. N. E., distance about 1 } miles. T he best anchorage for shipping is in 5 fathoms; with the light-house bearing from E. to E. N. E. There is 3$ fathoms near the Western edge o f the Calicut shoal, but vessels passing the port, either by day or night, should not come under 5 fathoms; this depth will carry them well clear o f the shoal. The light will not be exhibited from the 20th May to the 10th August o f each year. L IG H T-H O U SE A T T H E P O R T O F C O R U N N A . Notice has been received at the Department o f State, (Washington, August 30th,) from the Spanish government, through its Minister Plenipotentiary at Washington, that the light-house at the port o f Corunna has been furnished with a new revolving light o f the third order, placed on the old tower, called the “ Tower o f Hercules,” one mile distant from the town, in latitude 43° 22.', and longitude o f 2 ° 14' E. o f Cadiz, corresponding with 4° 3' W . o f Greenwich. T he light is placed 363 feet above the sea at high tide. It shows one light nearly constant, visible 12 miles in clear weather, accompanied by bright flashes, visible 20 miles. The lights appear in the following order: a weak fixed light for 107 seconds, eclipse for 30 seconds; very bright light for 13 seconds, eclipse for 30 sec onds ; and so on continuously, the whole o f the changes being completed in three minutes. P U E R T O R IC O — N E W L IG H T A T S A N JU A N . The new light has been exhibited at the entrance o f the harbor o f San Juan, in lat. 18° 29' N., Ion. 66° 7' W . o f Greenwich, at the height o f 187-feet above the level o f the sea. It revolves in eight seconds, and may be seen twenty miles. M ISSISSIPPI R IV E R . T he Mississippi River takes its rise in latitude 48° north, and discharges its waters into the Gulf o f Mexico in latitude 29° 5'. It flows through a channel 3,300 miles lon g ; its course is south, nearly 14° east; its width averages about half a mile. Its width does not increase with the volume o f water, but is about the same at Galena, 1,600 miles above the mouth, as at New Orleans, where the volume is six times as great. It is 645 yards wide at Vidalia, Louisiana. It drains an area o f 300,000 square miles. Its mean velocity at the surface, for the year, opposite Vidalia, is 1.88 miles per hour. (Opposite St. Louis, its velocity is about three miles per hour.) Its mean depth, per annum, across the entire channel, at the same place, (Vidalia,) is about 60 feet. The mean velocity is reduced about 15 per cent by friction against the bottom. The total amount o f water discharged,per annum, in.cubic feet, is 8,902,118,940,000.— [P ro f. Forshey. 423 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS. R A I L W A Y M O V E M E N T ON T H E C O N T IN E N T . W e publish, below, an interesting communication from C. E dwards L ester , Esq., the United States Consul at Genoa, relating to the great railway movement on the Continent o f Europe— a subject o f almost universal interest at the present time. The information conveyed in the accompanying paper will be read with pleasure by the thousands o f our citizens who annually visit the continent; and we may, we trust, be pardoned the seem ing vanity o f annexing the letter o f Mr. Lester enclosing the particulars o f the progress o f this great movement abroad, as it contains an important fa d touching the best method of sending letters and papers to Italy, etc.* G enoa, 9th August, 1847. M r. H unt — D ear S i r : I am again in the regular receipt o f your invaluable Magazine, which I have so long depended on, that I cannot now dispense with it. I have sent the last complete set o f it, winch I brought with me from America, to Naples, for the service o f that government, and I have applications for the numbers, as fast as they arrive, from all quarters. It is now regarded throughout Europe as our best authority. M any o f its articles are now translated for the principal Italian journals. By this steamer, and the last which preceded, you will have received files o f the Corriere M ercantile, o f Genoa, with a request from the editor to exchange. T he Corriere is one o f the best commercial journals in Italy. I hope you will exchange, and forward the Magazine to the editor, a3 you send mine— via the Havre steamer.! G erman and T he accompanying article on the “ G reat I talia n J unction R a il w a y ,” is compiled from authorities on which the ut most reliance can be placed; and probably you will not be able readily to lay your hand on the same materials without waiting a considerable time. Truly, your friend and servant, C. E dwards L ester. G R E A T G ERM A N A N D IT A L IA N JU NCTIO N R A I L W A Y , (A NEW, AND THE SHORTEST ROUTE FROM ENGLAND TO ITALY AND INDIA,) FROM LAKE CON STANCE TO THE LAGO MAGGIORE, W ITH A BRANCH FROM SARGAUS TO WALLENSTADT. Main Line, 143 miles— Branch, 7 miles. Capital, 75,000,000 francs, (£3,000,000)— in 150,000 shares, o f 500 francs (£ 2 0 ) each— deposit, 50 francs (£ 2 ) per share ; with a guarantee o f interest from the governments o f Sardinia, Bavaria, Wurtemberg, and Baden. The proposed railway is, perhaps, the most important that has ever claimed the sup port o f European capitalists; for, while conferring unequalled advantages, from its geo graphical position— political as well as commercial— upon Great Britain, Northern and Central Europe, and Italy, it is at the same time calculated to afford to its proprietors a remuneration unsurpassed by (if not exceeding) that yielded by the most successftil under takings now in operation. It will traverse the three cantons o f St. Gall, the Grisons, and C icin o; commencing at Rorschach, on Lake Constance, it will ascend the Rhine, by Rheineck, Sargaus, Reiehnaud, as far as Dissentis; whence, entering the Val Cristallina, and crossing the Alps by a tunnel, 3J miles in length, it will descend by the Val Bleguo to Qlivone, Biasca, and along the Cicino to Bellinzona and Locarno, on the Lago Maggiore, where it will termi * W e hope Mr. Lester receives letters from this country for less than the cost (.$2 50) ofthe present communication, covering less than three sheets o f thin letter-paper. For a former communication, from the same source, we paid $ 4 50. t The French steamer, I mean. Do not send anything by the American steamers, the postage is too dear— say three times that o f the French. 424 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. nate. From Sargaus, a branch will be carried to Wallenstadt, which will command the traffic from Glarif, Zurich, and other places. It will form the indispensable connecting link between the great lines o f Germany, which, from the ports o f the Baltic and the German Ocean, advancing southward, con verge to the Lake o f Constance; and those o f Italy, which, from the ports of the Mediter ranean and Adriatic, advancing northward, converge to the Lago Maggiore. The German railways branching o ff from Lake Constance, may be enumerated as follows:— 1. T he B aden R a il w a y (authorized) from Constance to Radolfzell, Engen, Doneschingen, Willingen, and the Valley o f the Kinsig, to Offenburg, where it joins the Great Baden Railway, (now open,) which, on the one hand, proceeds to Manheim and Frank fort, and, on the other, to the great French line from Strasburg to Paris. From Frank fort, various lines, all authorized, and most o f them in active construction, will lead to Cassel, Hanover, and Hamburg, as, also, to the great lines o f Belgium and Holland. 2 . T he W urtemburg R a il w a y (in active construction) from Friedricshafen, by R avensburg, Biberach, Ulm, Geisstingen, and along the Neckar to Stutgard and Louisburg; with branches, on the one hand, to Heilbroun, (the starting-point o f the steamboats upon the N eckar;) and on the other, to Bruchsal, there joining the Great Baden Railway, above mentioned. 3. T he B avarian R a il w a y (in active construction) from Lindau, by Kempten and Kaufbeuren, to Augsburg. A t Augsburg, one line (now open) proceeds to Munich, where an extension will be made to meet the line projected from Salzburg to Lintz, the Danube, and V ienn a; another proceeds to Donauworth, Nordlingen, Nuremberg, Erlangen, and Bamberg. From Bamberg, lines lead, in one direction, to Cobourg and Cassel, Hanover, Hamburg, and Bremen ; in another, to Hof, Altenburg, and Leipsic ; whence various lines (now open) diverge to Dresden, Magdeburg, Brunswick, Hanover, and Berlin, as, also, to Stettin and other ports on the Baltic. 4. T he S wiss R a il w a y s from Romaushom to Zurich, (lately authorized,) and that (in course o f construction) from Zurich to Bale. T he Italian railways branching o ff from the Lago Maggiore, may be stated as follows:— 1. T he S ardinian R a il w a y (in active construction) from Arona, b y Novaro and Ales sandria, to Genoa. From Alessandria, one line (also in active construction) is carried to Turin, whence it will be extended through Upper Piedmont and N ice, to connect with the railways o f the South o f F rance; and another is projected to Piacenza, there to join those o f Lombardy, Tuscany, and Romagna. 2. T he R a il w a y (lately authorized) from Bellinzona to Lugano and Chiapo, on the frontiers o f Lombardy, destined to join, at Como, the railway to Milan. From Milan, the line to Verona, Vicenza, and Venice, is nearly executed; and another is projected to Piacenza, Parma, Modena, and Bologna, where it will join the lines (lately authori zed by the Pope) from Bologna, Ancona, Rome, and Ceprano, on the confines o f the Kingdom o f Naples. From Ceprano, a line is intended to be made to Capua, there join ing the railway now open to Naples. From Naples, a line to Barletta has been authori zed, and an extension is contemplated from the free port o f Brindisi, on the southeastern extremity o f that kingdom. W hile connecting the German with the Italian States, the proposed railway will furnish the 28,000,000 population o f the Zollverein with a safe and expeditious outlet to the Mediterranean, which is absolutely necessary for their commercial prosperity. It will likewise form part o f the great channel o f communication between England, Alexandria, and India ; for, as soon as continuous lines are established from Genoa to Ostend, and from Marseilles to Boulogne, the journey from Alexandria to London, via Genoa, will be shorter than that via Marseilles, as the following table will sh ow :— Miles. Hours. Alexandria to Marseilles................................................................................ Marseilles (by Paris) to Boulogne........................ Boulogne to L ondon.................... '......................................... 1,450 750 110 161 25 5 Total......................................................................................................... 2,310 191 Alexandria to Genoa............................................................................... Genoa to Ostend, via Arona, Constance, Offenburg, Manheim, Treves, Luxemburg, and Brussels......... ................................................................. Ostend to L ondon......................................................... 1,330 148 808 152 29 8 Total.......................................................................................................... 2,290 185 Being a saving in distance o f 20 m iles; time, 6 hours. 425 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. This calculation is based on the supposition that, in both cases, the journey will be per formed at the rate o f 9 miles an hour by sea, and 30 by land ; and that the steamer to and from Marseilles will always be able to take the shortest course, which is through the straits o f Bonifazio ; but these are often impracticable, especially in winter— and when so, the voyage becomes several hours longer. W hen the railways authorized and projected from the North o f Italy to Ancona, or Brindisi, are completed, this saving in time will be still greater. For instance:— Miles. Hoars. Alexandria to London, via Marseilles, (as above).................... . ............. 2,310 191 A ncona to Bellinzona, Ostend, and London.......... .................................... 1,140 126 42 .............. 2,270 168 Brindisi to Genoa, Ostend and London....................................... .............. 1,660 93 60 Total......................................................................................................... 2,490 153 Being an average, as compared with the route via Marseilles, o f 23 hours by Ancona, and 3 8 hours by Brindisi. Thus, in the journey to and from Alexandria, there will be a difference, in the one case, o f two, and in the other, o f three days, which must ultimately cause the route via Mar seilles to be superseded ; and as the line through the Tyrol, even if possible, would be too circuitous and expensive, owing to the various chains o f mountains it would have to cross, it is evident that the intercourse between Great Britain and her possessions in the East will be maintained by means o f the present undertaking. N o comparison has been made between the route via Genoa and that via Trieste, as it is deemed unnecessary. Trieste cannot even contend with Marseilles; for, though it is nearer Alexandria than either Marseilles or Genoa, it has no advantage over them in point o f tim e, owing to the proverbial difficulty and uncertainty o f the navigation o f the Adriatic. A s to the remainder o f the journey to be performed by land, the route from Trieste to London is far longer than from Marseilles or Genoa, and it lies across a mountainous country, wholly unfit for direct railway communication. The proposed railway has, moreover, another merit, which should not be disregarded— that o f establishing a new route to India, upon neutral ground, independent alike o f France as o f Austria. (I f I had time, I would extend this article ; but what I should say will immediately suggest itself to those readers o f the Merchants’ Magazine who are fa miliar with the political relations o f Europe.) The provincial committee, formed at Turin, under the most favorable circumstances, have had the whole country between the Lake o f Constance and the Lago Maggiore care fully surveyed, by engineers o f the greatest eminence, and have likewise obtained the ne cessary grants from the governments o f three Swiss cantons, through which the projected railway passes. The line selected is indisputedly the most practicable and the most desirable that can be planned for the passage o f the Alps, and its great advantages have been fully recog nized by engineers appointed by the governments o f Sardinia and Bavaria to report upon the subject, previous to conceding their powerful support. The valleys o f the Rhine, Bleguo, and Cicino, along which it passes, are placed by na. ture so favorably that they form the shortest possible route from the Lake of Constance to the Lago Maggiore, and are only separated by one ridge, unusually easy of access. The grants obtained from the three cantons contain various conditions, singularly favor able to the undertaking, among which may be noted:— 1. The exclusive grant for 75 years. 2. Successive renewal o f the grant, or the purchase by the government o f the railway, at a valuation. 3. Exemption o f the railway from all impost and taxes. 4. Exemption o f imported materials required for the railway from all impost and taxes. 5. Full power to fix the price o f transport o f passengers and goods, so long as the divi dend does not exceed 12 per cent. 6. Unrestricted management o f the line, and appointment o f the company’s officers. 7. Compulsory power to take lands required for the railway. 8. Settlement by arbitration o f all disputes between the company and the conceding governments. 4-26 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics, Although the above conditions, and the intrinsic merit o f the line, are alone sufficient to warrant the assertion that the proposed railway will yield most ample remuneration for the capital invested, still the governments o f Sardinia, Bavaria, Wurtemburg, and Baden, wishing to promote the execution o f the present enterprise, have resolved to guarantee, within certain limits, 3J per cent interest upon the capital o f the company. The active support thus given by these several governments to a line which, in its whole length, traverses a country not their own, and entirely independent, is sufficient to show the vast importance attached to it upon the continent. The proposed undertaking, however, can scarcely prove less advantageous to England than to the continent; and the provincial committee, notwithstanding the present mone tary depression, hope to obtain the co-operation o f British capitalists in the formation o f a powerful and bona fide company to carry it out. I f I had time, I would show the vast advantages that would accrue to our own com merce by this gigantic undertaking. In a word, it will open all Central Europe to our American ports. From time to time, I may note (in other articles) the bearings and pro gress o f this enterprise. c. e . l . S T A T IS T IC S OF T H E S O U T H C A R O L IN A R A IL R O A D S IN 1846. T he following is a statement o f the number o f passengers conveyed upon the Railroad between Charleston, Hamburg, and Columbia, with the amount received for freight and passage, from 1st January to 31st December, 1846:— PASSAGE. Pass’rs. Amount. 2,012 $6,391 27 6,159 43 1,684 7,226 18 2,008 8,786 36 7,753 1,973 6,359 36 1,673 4,979 05 1,555 4,752 85 1,505 4,232 23 1,421 4,205 77 2,399 8,192 77 2,285 8,605 24 3,687 11,215 15 Up 1and down. Pass’rs. Amount. 4,349 $13,859 03 3,706 13,303 79 4,584 16,309 80 15,667 19,153 78 4,597 14,919 83 11,462 87 3,855 3,421 20,094 08 9,147 34 3,269 11,788 46 3,624 5,092 17,684 65 18,412 04 5,033 6,839 21,308 53 T otal,......................... 34,181 $96,348 54 29,955 i$81,095 66 64,136 $177,444 20 Months. January,............... February,............ ......... M arch,................ .......... April,.................... M ay,.................... ......... June,.................... Ju ly,.................... ......... August,................ ......... September,.......... ......... O ctober,.............. November,.......... D ecem ber,.......... ......... Pass’ rs. 2,022 2,576 2,624 1,866 1,764 2,203 3,153 Up. Amount. $7,467 7,144 9,083 10,377 8,560 6,483 5,341 5,915 7,582 9,491 9,806 10,093 D own. 76 36 62 42 47 82 23 11 69 88 80 38 FREIGHT. Months. January.................. February,............... March,................... April,..................... ....... M ay,....................... June,....................... ....... July,....................... August,................. ........ September,............ ........ O ctober,................ ........ November,............. December,............. ....... Total,.................. ...... Up. Amount. 18,204 41 7,241 91 9,520 29 20,916 28 26,948 31 12,999 42 $172,290 96 D own. Amount. $9,389 9,168 10,192 8,469 9,110 5,531 7,166 5,704 10,647 33,951 39,796 30,174 65 01 33 68 01 38 75 57 32 15 14 97 $179,398 96 U p and down. Amount. $18,876 19,724 30,608 26,674 22,018 12,773 14,283 15,224 31,563 60,899 55,868 43,174 14 29 26 09 50 29 13 86 60 46 91 39 $351,689 92 Total Amount. Fr’ t <£* passage. $32,735 33,029 46,918 45,827 36,938 24,236 24,377 24,372 43,352 78,584 74,280 64,482 17 03 06 87 33 16 21 20 06 11 95 92 $529,134 12 Received for freight and passage, as above,..................................................... “ for through tickets sold by Georgia Railroad Co., the past year, $529,134 12 12,200 67 Total freight and passage,.................................................................................... Received for transportation o f the mails for the past year,.......................... “ for rents, storage, and other minor sources,..................................... $541,334 79 39,746 76 7,999 97 Total receipts for the year,.................................................................................. $589,081 52 427 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics., STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF BALES OF COTTON RECEIVED IN CHARLESTON, B Y THE RAILROAD, FROM JANUARY 1 TO DECEMBER 3 1 , 1 8 4 6 . Months. January,. February,............... March,................... April,..................... M ay,....................... June,....................... Ju ly,....................... August,.................. September,........... October,................. Novem ber,........... December,............. T ota l,................ Hamburg. 4 ,3 1 4 Aiken. 4,478 5,202 3,106 6,849 3,650 6,365 4,649 7,229 14,117 18,901 15,998 31 11 34 15 00 33 00 00 50 88 7 540 177 345 53 1 54 3 15 348 688 444 242 58 185 91 44 00 2 8 227 332 208 21 63 23 78 00 17 00 56 91 95 100 83 47 161 46 00 5 8 7 135 920 135 5,395 5,558 3,854 7,132 3,695 6,474 4,662 7,315 14,968 21,024 16,892 346 2,949 1,679 557 1,744 102,133 94,858 B l'kvilie. M idway. Br’chvilie. W a y H. R . T ot. H. R. 281 282 13 197 5 ,1 6 4 77 TABLE — CONTINUED. Months. Columbia. 'Gadsden. L ew isville. Or’ ngeb’g. W a y C. B. Total C. B. January,............. February, ........... M arch,................. April.................... M ay,.................... June,.................... July,..................... August,................ September........... October,.............. November,.......... December,.......... 3,271 3,829 5,399 2,820 4,034 2,636 2,205 1,537 3,772 14,902 15,112 9,641 950 282 339 90 371 154 9 36 190 1,241 963 386 226 220 147 662 275 40 145 00 00 564 731 319 149 101 80 205 65 00 00 00 00 174 237 79 404 860 68 219 131 108 258 12 138 1,023 Total, ......... 70,158 5,011 3,329 1,090 G. Total. 853 5,000 5,292 6,033 4,996 4,876 2,938 2,617 1,585 4,100 17,904 17,519 11,278 10,164 10,687 11,591 8,850 12,003 6,633 9,091 6,247 11,415 32,872 38,543 28,170 4,550 84,138 186,271 476 STATEMENT OF THE NUMBER OF PACKAGES AND PIECES FORWARDED ON THE RAILROAD, (U P ,) FROM 1S T JANUARY TO 3 1 S T DECEMBER, 1 8 4 6 . January,................. February,............... March,.................... April,...................... M ay, ....................... June,..................... ........................ July.......................... ............ A ugust,.................. September,............ October,.................. ......................... November,.............. Decem ber,............. 2,776 pieces and packages <i It 2,536 (f ff 5,788 tf ft 3,828 it it 2,646 ff it 1,827 it ti 885 If it 3,113 it ff 8,617 17,748 it it 6,352 it ft 4,787 (1 T otal,.............. it from 29 Vessels. it “ 24 ft “ 30 ft “ 25 it “ 34 “ “ 34 “ 22 ft “ “ 27 28 ft “ 55 ft “ “ 31 41 “ 380 it tf if tf STATEMENT OF ARTICLES RECEIVED B Y THE RAILROAD, AND FORWARDED TO OTHER PLACES, IN THE YEAR ENDING 3 1 s T DECEMBER, 1 8 4 6 . tt W aste,.................................... it Y a rn ,..................................... ff Dom estics,............................ ft W o o l,.................................... ft Fur skins............................... ft Rags,..................................... ff Pink root, ginseng, &c., .... Feathers, roots and w ax,.... __hags Total,........ 6,822 22 31 W ax and merchandise,.... ............. bbls. 34 W a x ,................................... 1 W ax and merchandise,,... 6 Merchandise,...................... 114 ff Indigo,................................. 7 Merchandise,...................... 24 Bellows,............................... 10 Trunks................................ 7 619 35 6 4 3 22 1,353 9,120 428 Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics. N E W Y O R K C A N A L R EVEN U E. By a statement submitted to the N ew Y ork Legislature, September 20th, 1847, from the Commissioners o f the Canal Fund, it appears that the amount of revenue from canal tolls, including the sum of §38,946 49 paid by the Railroads, for the fiscal year com mencing on Sept. 1, 1846, and ending Aug. 31, 1847, is.............................$3,459,404 82 Rents o f surplus water......................................................................................... 1,500 00 Interest on current deposits ir, banks,.............................................................. 10,000 00 Expenses o f collection, superintendence and ordinary repairs,...................... $3,470,904 82 600,000 00 $2,870,904 82 Deduct for sinking funds,............................................................... $1,650,000 Payment to the Treasury o f the State, under sec. 7, art. 3 ,..... 200,000 -------------- 1,850,000 00 Surplus,.......................................................................................................... $1,020,904 82 L E N G T H OF S T E A M B O A T N A V IG A T IO N ON T H E P R IN C IP A L RIV E RS. Mississippi, from the Gulf o f M exico to St. Anthony’s Falls........................ miles Missouri, from its mouth to the foot o f the Rapids.................................................. Red River, to head o f navigation................................................................................. Ohio, to Pittsburgh......................................................................................................... Arkansas, to mouths o f the Neosho and Verdigris.................................................. Tennessee, to Chattanooga............................................................................................ Wabash, to Lafayette........................... Illinois, to Ottawa........................ Cumberland, to Nashville.............................................................................................. Osage................................................................................................................................ 2,200 2,000 1,100 1,000 630 485 300 250 200 200 A steamboat, leaving Pittsburgh and going to N ew Orleans, and being there chartered to go up the Missouri as high as the Rapids, and thence returning to Pittsburgh, will per form a r e g u l a r v o y a s e o f about 8,450 miles, a distance nearly equal to crossing the A t lantic three times. SPAR K A R R E S T E R FO R R A IL W A Y S . The Railroad Journal says:— “ The value o f this appendage to the locomotive has been thoroughly tested, and found to surpass anything o f the kind, for that purpose, in use in this country. A n evidence o f the estimation o f its value may be found in the fact, that nearly four hundred o f them have been made within the past four years. W e saw six o f them nearly completed, on a visit to the manufactory, a few days since, to fill an order for the “ Cardenas Railroad,” in Cuba— another order was recently filled with nine o f them, made o f copper, for the “ Havana and Guienas Railroad,” on the same island— and fifteen others were sent to the different roads in Cuba last year. These spark arresters are also, we understand, very generally used on the railroads in the Southern States, where cotton is transported. They are, also, a certain preventive o f accidents by fire from sparks, as well as great relief to passengers— and should be used on every locomotive in the country. There has not been, we understand and believe, a single accident from fire, arising from sparks from the locomotive, where this arrester has been used— while on some roads, fires, causing great loss o f property, were not uncommon before the introduction o f the ‘ spark arrester ’ o f French, Baird & Campbell, o f Philadelphia.” C O S T OF R U N N IN G S T E A M B O A T S O N W E S T E R N R IV E RS. The Oswego Times says the cost o f running a steamboat on the western rivers, is six times greater than the cost incurred upon the lakes. For proof o f this, the Times ex hibits the following statements:— “ T he capital invested in the vessels o f the Upper Lakes, is estimated at $6,000,000, and the cost o f running them (exclusive o f insurance and interest on the capital) is stated to be about one-third o f their value. T he capital invested in the steamboats o f the Valley o f the Mississippi, is $16,188,561, and the cost o f running them (exclusive of insurance and interest) is estimated at $32,700,000, or more than double their value.” Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance, 429 JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY AND FINANCE. G O LD A N D S IL V E R COINS : T H E IR V A L U E IN U N IT E D S T A T E S M O N E Y . T h e following is the current value in Federal M oney o f those gold and silver coins in most general circulation here, derived from J. Thompson’s Pictorial C hart:— GOLD COINS. Eagle, American,......................... $ 1 0 00 H alf Eagle, do.,......................... 5 00 Half Eagle, do., 1798 and 1 8 3 3 ,.. 5 25 2 50 Qr. Eagle, d o .,........................ Doubloon, Spanish,......... $ 1 5 60 a 16 75 H alf Doubloon, do.,......... 7 80 a 8 37 Qr. do. do.,......... 3 90 a 4 12 Eighth do. do............................. 1 90 Doubloon, Colombian,..... 15 50 a 15 75 Eighth do. do.,............................ I 87 15 50 a 15 75 Doubloon, Mexican,......... Doubloon, N ew Granadian, 15 50 a 15 75 15 50 a 15 75 Doubloon, Equador,......... HalfDoubloon,Central Am erica,... 7 75 Quarter Doubloon, Peruvian,..........' 3 87 H alf Joe, Portugal, (by w t ) ... 7 90 a 8 50 Moidore, do. d o ...... 4 70 a 6 40 Sovereign, English, 1844,.... 4 83 Sovereign, Dragon, do., 1824,.... 4 80 H alf Sovereign, do.,.................. 2 41 Guinea, do.,.................. 5 00 H alf Guinea, do.,.................. 2 50 One-third Guinea, English,....... One Mohur, East Indies,................ Double Louis D ’Or, France,............ Louis D ’ Or, do.,........... .. Forty Francs, do................. Tw enty Francs, do.,.............. Hundred Livre, Sardinia,................ Twenty Livre, do.,.................... T en Scudi, R om e,............................. Twenty Livre, Italy,......................... Quadruple Ducat, Austria,.............. Sovereign, do...................... Five Roubles, Russia,....................... Double Frederick D ’Or, Prussia,.... Double Christian D ’ Or, Denmark,. T en Thalers, Hanover,.................... Five Thalers, do.,........................... T w o and a half Thaler, Hanover, T en Thalers, Saxony,....................... T en Guilders, Netherlands............. Five Guilders, do.,.................... Ducat, d o..................... $ 1 66 6 75 9 00 4 50 7 66 3 83 19 15 3 83 10 00 3 83 8 80 6 50 3 90 7 80 7 80 7 80 3 90 1 95 7 80 4 00 2 00 2 20 S IL V E R COINS. Dollar, American,................................$ 1 00 Scudi, Sicily,........................................$ 0 Halves and Quarters, in proportion. Five Livre, Italy............................... 0 Dim e,..................................................... 0 10 T w o Livre, do.,.................................... 0 H alf D im e ,.......................................... 0 05 One Livre, do.,................................... 0 Dollar, Spanish, Mexican, and Pe Five Livre, Sardinia........................... 0 do.,............................... 0 ruvian................................................ 1 00 One Livre, Halves, Quarters, Eighths and Six Florin, Westphalia,............................. 0 teenths, in proportion. Florin,BrunswickandLunenburg,... 0 Dollar, Brazil,...................................... 1 00 Florin, Tuscany,................................. 0 Four Reals o f La Plata,..................... 0 35 Florin, Hanover,................................... 0 Head Pistareen,.................................. 0 18 Double Thaler, Baden....................... I do.,......................... 1 Cross Pistareen,.................................. 0 16 Crown Thaler, English Crown,...................................^ 1 15 Thaler o f Baden and Hanover,........ 0 English Half Crown,.......................... 0 57 Thaler o f Prussia,......................... 0 Bank Token, (three shillings Eng.) 0 50 Double Thaler, do.,............................. 1 Rupee, East India,.............................. 0 40 Imperial Thaler o f Austria,................ 0 British Colonial Quarter D ollar,.... 0 23Rouble, Russia,................................... 0 English Shilling,................................. 0 23 Crown Dollar o f Bavaria,................. 1 English Sixpence,............................... 0 11 Double Guilder, do........................ 0 English Fourpence,............................. 0 07 German Crown,.................................. 1 English Threepence........................... 0 05 Crown Thaler, Hesse,......................... 1 Tenpence, Irish,.................................. 0 12 Guilder o f Nassau.............................. 0 French C row n .................................. 1 07 Third o f a T h aler,............................. 0 French Half Crown,........................... 0 50 Quarter Florin, Netherlands,........... 0 Five Francs, French,.......................... 0 93 Thirty-six Grotes, Bremen,................ 0 T w o Francs, do.,............................ 0 35 Six Grotes, Hanse T ow ns,................ 0 One Franc, do.,............................ 0 17 Specie Dollar, Norway,..................... 1 H alf Franc, do.,............................ 0 08 Specie Dollar, S w ed en ,..,................ 1 Quarter Franc, do.,.............................. 0 04 Specie R ix Dollar, D en m ark ,..,..... 1 93 93 35 17 93 17 48 48 20 50 32 04 66 66 32 97 65 04 72 04 04 36 20 08 30 04 04 04 04 430 Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. F R E E B A N K S OF T H E S T A T E OF N E W Y O R K : T H E IR CIRCULATION AND SECU R ITIES. J. Thompson, exchange broker, has, with a vast deal o f labor and research, prepared and published, in his “ Bank Note List Reporter,” o f September 9th, several valuable ta bles, showing the circulation o f each free bank in the State o f N ew Y ork, and also the amount o f securities on deposit with the Comptroller for such circulation. The public should bear in mind that no fr e e bank can issue a dollar o f circulation, ex cept it be secured, registered, and countersigned, in the Comptroller’s office ; thus guard ing the public (provided the securities are good) against loss. Mr. Thompson has divided these banks into four classes. The first class are secured wholly by N ew Y ork State stocks— making their notes safe under any event. The second class are secured by bonds and mortgages, and N ew Y ork State stocks. In case o f the failure o f this class, these notes would be worth from 90 to 100 cents on the dollar. The third class are secured in part by Arkansas, Indiana, Illinois, and Michigan stocks. They are, at present, well managed and safe ; but should they fall into bad hands and fail, there would be a loss o f from 10 to 40 per cent on their notes. O f the fourth class, we are glad there are but few. The owners o f these should sub stitute good securities with the Comptroller for their foreign stocks, or wind up. I . BANKS SECURED W H O LLY B Y NEW Y O R K S T A T E 8TOCK. Amenia Bank.................................................................... Bank o f Commerce, in N ew Y ork.............................. Bank o f N ew Rochelle................................................... Commercial Bank, Albany............................................. Drovers’ Bank, Cataraugus county.................................. Exchange Bank, Buffalo................................................... Merchants’ Bank, Chatauque c o u n t y ..................... Farmers’ and Mechanics’, Ogdensburgh....................... Fulton Bank, in N ew Y o rk ........................................... Hungcrford’s Bank........................................................... Long Island Bank............................................................ Mechanics’ Banking Association................................... Merchants’ Bank, Canandaigua..................................... Merchants’ Bank, Erie county....................................... Merchants’ Bank, Poughkeepsie.................................... Merchants’ and Farmers’ Bank, Putnam county......... N ew Y ork State Stock Security Bank....................... N ew Y ork Stock Bank, Durham................................... North River Bank, N ew Y ork...................................... Oliver Lee & Co.’s Bank...................................... Prattsville Bank................................................................ Suffolk County Bank........................................................ Unadilla Bank.................................................................... Warren County Bank...................................................... W hite’s Bank, Buffalo...................................................... Franklin County Bank..................................................... Chemical Bank.................................................................. CuylePs Bank.................................................................... Champlain Bank............................................... Northern Bank o f N ew Y ork .......................................... Bank o f Bainbridge............................. Farmers’ Bank, Chatauque county................................. State Bank at Saugerties................................................... Atlas Bank o f N ew Y ork.......................................... Rochester Bank................................................................. American Bank, Chatauque county.............................. Commercial Bank, Alleghany county........................... Bank o f Saratoga Springs.............................................. Franklin Bank, Chatauque county................................. Northern Exchange Bank................ Bowery Bank..................................................................... Circulation. $77,179 350,000 50,382 105,500 100,000 27,996 201,000 394,586 250,400 63,992 175,147 367,458 86,666 25,000 129,998 115,350 28,471 107,922 455,000 200,000 100,000 94,097 85,595 189,500 50,000 94,970 321,052 58,869 105,000 173,005 93,000 84,997 62,881 50,000 50,600 49,995 49,995 49,995 49,995 65,000 109,000 Deposit. $78,082 350,000 50,382 170,000 100,000 28,000 204,000 394,677 256,141 64,000 175,153 369,750 86,666 25,000 130,000 115,600 31,800 108,159 455,099 200,000 100,000 95,215 85,600 189,540 50,000 94,970 325,106 59,870 105,000 173,005 93,000 85,000 62,883 50,000 50,604 50,000 50,000 50,000 50,000 65,000 110,000 Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. 431 II . BANKS SECURED B Y NEW Y O R K S T A T E STOCKS, AND BONDS AND MORTGAGES. Bonds and N ew Y o rk Circulation. Mortgages. State Stock. $ 1 6 ,1 0 0 $ 1 0 4 ,9 5 2 $ 1 1 4 ,2 0 2 Ballston Spa Bank................................... 5 0 ,0 0 0 1 6 ,5 5 0 6 6 ,5 3 7 Bank o f Vernon....................................... 2 7 ,5 5 0 5 5 ,0 0 0 8 2 ,5 5 0 Bank o f Whitestown............................... 3 3 ,6 7 9 5 0 ,6 9 2 8 4 ,3 3 7 Black River Bank.................................... 1 0 9 ,0 2 0 4 4 ,3 7 0 6 4 ,6 5 0 Commercial Bank, T roy......................... 3 0 ,9 6 9 3 1 ,7 1 0 6 1 ,1 0 1 Exchange Bank, Lockport..................... 6 5 ,9 8 6 2 8 ,9 0 0 3 7 ,1 0 0 Farmers’ Bank, Amsterdam.................... 1 5 7 ,0 4 5 1 4 ,0 0 4 1 6 4 ,0 0 0 Luther Wright’s Bank............................. 5 0 ,0 0 0 1 5 ,0 0 0 3 5 ,0 0 0 Kirkland Bank.......................................... 1 3 1 ,4 3 8 3 7 ,9 7 0 9 3 ,6 6 8 Mohawk Valley B an k............................ 1 9 ,3 9 8 8 ,9 0 0 1 0 ,5 0 0 Palmyra Bank........................................... 2 0 2 ,0 1 5 5 ,9 2 2 1 9 6 ,2 0 2 Patchin Bank............................................ 2 5 ,8 3 7 1 ,5 0 0 2 4 ,3 3 7 W hite Plains Bank.................................... 3 9 ,3 6 6 1 9 ,3 2 5 2 0 ,0 4 7 W ooster Sherman’s Bank....................... 9 9 ,9 9 3 1 3 ,6 0 0 8 6 ,4 0 0 Chester Bank............................................. III. BANKS SECURED B Y NEW Y O R K STA TE STOCKS, STOCKS OF OTHER ST A T ES , AND BONDS AND MORTGAGES. Circulation. Bonds and N ew Y o rk Stocks of mortgages. State stock. oth. States. $61,851 $35,600 Agricultural Bank............................................... 90,400 38,850 Albany Exchange Bank..................................... 63,500 37,355 Bank o f Albion.................................................... 50,000 31,018 Bank o f A ttica..................................................... 79,998 32,220 Bank o f Central N ew Y ork.............................. 111,672 54,300 Bank o f Dansville............................................... 78,750 Bank o f Lowville................................................ 39,900 81,103 36,790 Bank o f Silver Creek.......................................... 170,500 85,263 Bank o f Syracuse................................................ Bank o f Waterville.............................................. 100,005 31,300 230,000 118,650 Commercial Bank, Rochester........................... 48,700 Farmers’ Bank, Hudson.................................... 96,500 Exchange Bank, Genesee.................................. 49,620 29,551 Farmers’ and Drovers’ Bank, Somers............. 58,226 18,400 18,918 Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank, Genesee........ 42,348 Farmers’ and Mechanics’ Bank, Rochester... 63,881 20,000 Fort Plain Bank.................................................. 81,437 42,375 James’ Bank......................................................... 45,943 69,258 76,543 Lockport Bank, and Trading Company......... 66,060 41,600 20,050 Merchants’ and Fanners’ Bank, Ithaca............ Middletown Bank............................................... 77,245 46,500 Pine Plains Bank................................................ 34,200 87,326 Powell Bank........................................................ 111,052 48,560 American Exchange Bank................................. . 327,955 Delaware Bank................................................... 102,806 $24,900 15,000 26,000 14,628 25,000 41,000 34,000 34,000 20,000 43,661 81,450 10,000 5,000 9,000 5,000 25,000 9,597 19,200 3,455 15,000 24,900 10,000 42,575 100,000 58,000 $32,000 58,000 9,000 15,000 34,000 50,000 30,000 20,000 100,000 30,000 70,000 50,000 20,000 50,000 28,000 26,000 48,326 18,000 34,000 21,000 20,000 68,304 15,000 380,666 66,978 IV . BANKS SECURED B Y BONDS AND MORTGAGES, AND STOCKS OF OTHER STA TES. Bonds and Stocks o f Circulation. mortgages. oth. States. Bank o f Corning................................... Bank o f Kinderhook............................ Genesee County Bank.......................... Washington County Bank................... 43,190 58,764 $25,550 $70,000 41,090 46,000 29,031 57,000 25,000 50,000 U N IT E D S T A T E S C U STO M S R E V E N U E . T he new tariff went into operation on the 1st o f December last; the nett proceeds under it (after deducting all expenses o f collection,) actually paid into the Treasury during the first nine months o f its operation, were $92,961,333 2 8 ; being greater, by the sum o f $3,176,018 57, than the sum paid into the Treasury during the same period o f nine 432 Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. months, under the tariff o f 1842; and exhibiting a gain, at the same ratio o f increase, o. §4,224,691 42, o f the first twelve months, under the tariff o f 1846, as compared with the tariff o f 1842. T he gross proceeds received by the Collector are much greater, as the expenses of col lection are deducted before the money is paid into the Treasury, and recorded by the Register. The following statement exhibits the receipts into the Treasury, (made up at the Treasury Department, Register’ s Office, Sept. 15,1845,) from customs, during the under mentioned periods:— From the 1st October, 1845, to 1st July, 1846,................ §17,850,735 73 From the 1st October, 1846, to 1st July, 1847,............................................ 17,594,038 08 From the 1st December, 1845, to 31st August, 1846; and from the 1st o f December, 1846, to 31st August, 1847, to wit:— During the month o f December, 1845................................................................ §1,289,484 97 From 1st January to 30th June, 1846,.............................................................. 13,657,944 96 During the months o f July and August, 1846,............................................... 4,847,884 78 §19,795,314 71 During the month o f December, 1846,............................................................. §1,451,076 00 From the 1st January to 30th June, 1847,........................................................ 13,952,845 86 During the months o f July and August, 1847,............................................... 7,557,411 42 §22,961,333 28 T H E H O L L A N D B U D G E T OF R E C E IP T S A N D E X P E N S E S . T he annual budget o f expenses for 1848 amounts to 71,530,835 florins, and for 1849 to 71,135,067 florins. T o this sum must be added, for each o f the two years, 500,000 florins, destined to cover unforeseen expenses. T he budget is divided into eleven heads, as follow s:— 1848. F lo rin s. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 9. 10. 11. T he King’s household.......................... Colleges o f State................................................... Ministry o f Foreign Affairs............................... Ministry o f Justice.............................................. Ministry o f Interior............................................. Protestant worship, & c ....................................... Popish worship, & c............................................. Marine..................................................................... (A .) National debt....,*...................................... (B.) Finances...................................................... W a r ................................................*...................... Colonies................................................................. 1,250,000 652,939 541,933 2,490,734 4,464,458 1,644,896 562,478 5,545,632 36,294,040 6,315,129 11,675,000 88,696 1849. Flo rins. 1,250,000 650,939 540,933 2,491,364 4,318,608 1,649,896 562,376 5,352,632 36,274,715 6,878,909 11,675,000 88,695 T he budget o f receipts for 1848 has been fixed at the sum of 71,679,514 florins, divi ded into thirteen heads, v iz :— Flo rins. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. Direct taxes............................................................ Excise.............................................. Indirect taxes.......................................................................................... Import and export duties....................................................................... Guarantee for bullion, & c ...................................................................... Domains................................................................................................... Post-office................................................................................................. Potteries................................................................................................... Hunting and fisheries............................................................................. Produce o f sales, & c .............................................................................. Rentes charged on Belgium................................................................. Reimbursements for the rentes o f the East Indies.......................... Pay o f the Colonial Administration.................................................... 18,748,800 18,871,020 9,384,000 4,716,000 139,772 1,384,522 1,330,000 400,000 100,000 1,754,000 400,000 9,800,000 4,650,000 Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance. 433 Thus, a population o f about 3,000,000 souls, already with a monstrous debt, amounting to 1,228,942,511— 00 florins, the annual interest payable on which already amounts to a sum o f 36,294,000— 00 florins, will have to pay the State, annually, the sum of 71,679,514 florins, which is at the rate o f almost 48 florins per head when paupers and children (say one-third) are deducted. % T H E BAN K OF ENGLAND. F r a n c is H a l l , Esq., one o f the proprietors o f the “ Commercial Advertiser,” while on a visit to England, was favored with an opportunity o f examining “ the interior and exte rior o f this mighty engine, which guides, in some measure, the commerce and political movements o f Europe, if not o f the world.” Although we have published, in former vol umes o f the Merchants’ Magazine, descriptions o f the bank, the account of Mr. Hall is so brief, and yet comprehensive, we cannot resist the temptation o f copying it entire:— The Bank o f England is an immense structure, covering five acres o f ground, having no windows in either o f its fronts, but receiving light from above, or from its courts. It is open for business at nine in the morning, and continues open until five in the afternoon— employing during these hours between nine hundred and one thousand persons. A t seven o ’clock in the evening a detachment o f soldiers are marched from the “ Tow er ” into the bank, where they mount guard until seven o’clock the next morning. The bank has a capital o f eighteen millions sterling, and is managed by governors, & c. Its notes are never re-issued by the bank, after being presented for payment. They may continue in circulation for any time, and pass from one bank to another; but, when pre sented to the bank for specie, the name o f the person presenting must be endorsed, with his residence; then, after a careful examination, the note is paid and cancelled. The printing, binding, & c., required by the bank and its branches, are done within the building by the most approved methods. T he steam-presses and all the machinery are the best that can be obtained in England or Scotland. So admirably arranged is everything, from the engine-room to the <£bank parlor,” that every room resembles a beautiful toy shop. N o “ stoker ” or engine “ driver ” is required to attend the fire or look after the engine during the day. The fire is fed in the same manner that wheat is ground. In the morning a sufficient quantity is put into the “ hop per,” and that sends a regular supply into the grates or stoves, and nothing farther is re quired. The water is supplied in the same w a y ; and should there be any want of water, by accident or otherwise, an alarm is sounded by a whistle. Each note is printed on what is called one sheet o f paper; the lowest denomination is five pounds, the highest one thousand. The paper is first counted to those whose duty it is to “ wet it down.” This is done by a steam process. After the paper is in a proper state to be worked, it is locked up in boxes and sent to an officer, who recounts it. It is then counted again in parcels o f one hundred sheets, and put into boxes, which are locked and placed in a sliding case ready for the pressmen, who are at work above. These sheets are drawn up and printed, and returned in the same manner; every sheet worked registers itself, and it is as well known in the room below, what number A . B. is printing above, as by himself. If, by accident, A. B. “ spoils a sheet,” it must be marked as such, and every particle o f the spoiled sheet sent down. Every note or bill passes through the hands o f two sets o f pressmen. First, they are printed without the number and date. Secondly, the number and date are added, when they are ready for the finishing touch, the signature o f one o f the cashiers. One o f the most ingenious pieces o f mechanism I have ever seen is that used to mark the number on each bill. There is no change o f number by hand, but all is done by this machine, and by steam-power. W hen the bills have passed through the hands o f the printers, they are sent to the dry ing room, where they are again counted and dried ; they are then put up into convenient packets, and sent to the cashier’ s room, for signature. Thence they go to the register’s department, and from that office are brought back to “ the treasury.” Here they are kept in fire-proof iron cases, which cover all the sides o f the room. T he room itself is fire proof, there being only one thing that can bum, the counter. On one side o f this room the cases are filled with gold, tied up in bags, and on the other the bills in packages, con venient for the “ paying tellers.” There are two large locks to each case, and the keys are kept by separate officers, so that both must be present before any sum can be re moved. I held in my hand, while in this room, two millions sterling, all ready to be put in circulation. V O L. X V II .— N O . IV . 28 434 Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. Each day from thirty to thirty-six thousand bills are printed. The ink is made in the bank, and it is o f such a peculiar composition that, by its effect, together with that of the high-sized paper, the “ blankets” used on the presses require to be washed by steam at least once a day. T he highest number o f the notes is 99,999. W hen that number is reached, they return to No. 1, with a new date. The pressmen and most of the machinists receive .£3 per week ; the females in the binding and ruling rooms, from fifteen shillings to one pound per week. The clerks are paid good salaries after they have been some years in the service o f the bank. They commence, however, at a low rate, but soon become “ higher graduates,” with an increased salary in the bank, or are transferred to one o f its branches. The plan o f personal security is frequently observed, as in the United States ; but I was infonned that there is an institution called the “ guarantee fund,” by which an individual, paying so much per month, becomes a member, and this institution is security for its members— thus securing the bank against loss, or the painful alternative o f calling on personal secu rity in case o f mal-administration. In one o f the rooms ninety-seven clerks are employed, whose business it is to examine the notes by register, and so minute and accurate is the concern that it is known in the bank what notes are out, and who received them ; and it is the practice o f all bankere, in town or country, to take the number o f each note before it is paid, and to whom paid. This is a work o f time, but it gives great security. In the bank there is a department called the weighing-room. Here two gentlemen are employed weighing sovereigns by steam. T he scales are so constructed as to drop the light coin on the left, the full weight on the right. Those that fall on the left are taken out and cut by a machine, and returned to the local bank or individual from which they cam e; they are then sold to the bank for bullion, to be recoined. There are several families residing in the bank, who have very comfortable accommo dations. There is also a bank kitchen, as well as bank parlor. This is for the accom modation o f the directors on duty, who may wish a cup o f coffee, or a beef-steak, &c. JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES. P E R U V IA N S IL V E R M IN E S. F IR S T DISCOVERY OF T H E MINES— CA RELESS MODE OF WORKING THEM— MINE-OW NERS AND MINE LABO RERS--- AMALGAMATION AND REFINING----PRODUCE OF T H E MINES. W e compile from Tschudi’s “ Travels in Peru, during the years 1835-1842,” the fol lowing particulars o f the silver mines, etc., o f that country :— History relates that about two hundred and fifteen years ago, an Indian shepherd, named Huari Capcha, tended his flocks on a small pampa, to the southeast o f the Lake of Llauricocha, the mother o f the great river Amazon. One day, when the shepherd had wan dered farther than usual from his hut, he sought a resting-place on a declivity of the Cerro de Santiestevan, and when evening drew in, he kindled a fire to protect himself against the cold ; he then lay down to sleep. W hen he awoke on the following morning, he was amazed to find the stone beneath the ashes o f his fire melted, and turned to silver. He joyfully communicated the discovery to his master, Don Jose Ugarte, a Spaniard, who owned a hacienda in the Quebrada de Huariaca. Ugarte forthwith repaired to the spot, where he found indications o f a very rich vein o f silver ore, which he immediately made active preparations for working. In this mine, which is distinguished by the name o f La Descubridora, (the discoverer,) silver is still obtained. From the village of Pasco, about two leagues distant, where already productive mines were worked, several rich mineowners removed to Llauricocha; here they sought and discovered new veins, and estab lished new mining works. The vast abundance o f the ore, drew new speculators to the sp ot; some to work the mines, and others to supply the necessary wants o f the increasing population. In this manner was rapidly founded a city, which, at times, when the pro duce o f metal is very large, counts 18,000 inhabitants. In Cerro de Pasco, there are two very remarkable veins o f silver. One o f them, the Veta de Colquirirca, runs nearly in a straight line from north to south, and has already been traced to the length o f 9,600 feet, and the breadth o f 4 1 2 ; the other vein is the Veta de Pariarirca, which takes a direction from east-southeast to west-northwest, and which intersects the Veta de Colquirirca precisely, it is supposed, under the market-place o f the Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. 435 city, rts known extent is 6,400 feet in length, and 380 feet in breadth. From these large veins numberless smaller ones branch off in various directions, so that a net-work o f silver may be supposed to spread beneath the surface o f the earth. Some thousand open ings or mouths (bocaminas) are the entrances to these mines. Most o f these entrances are within the city itself, in small houses; and some in the dwellings o f the mine-owners. Many o f them are exceedingly shallow, and not more than five hundred deserve the name o f shafts. All are worked in a very disorderly and careless w a y ; the grand object o f their owmers being to avoid expense. The dangerous parts in the shafts are never walled up, and the excavations proceed without the adoption o f any measures o f security. The consequence is, that accidents caused by the falling in o f the galleries are o f frequent oc currence ; and every year the lives o f numbers o f Indian miners are sacrificed. A mel ancholy example o f the effects o f this negligence is presented by the now mined mine of Matagente, (literally Kill Peopled in which three hundred laborers were killed by the fall ing in o f a shaft. Tschudi descended into several o f the mines, among others, the Descubridora, which is one o f the deepest, and always felt that he had good reason to congrat ulate himself on returning to the surface o f the earth in safety. Rotten blocks o f wood and loose stones serve for steps, and, where these cannot be placed, the shaft, which, inmost instances, runs nearly perpendicular, is descended by the help o f rusty chains and ropes, whilst loose fragments o f rubbish are continually falling from the damp walls. The mine laborers, all o f whom are Indians, are o f two classes. One class consists o f those who work in the mines all the year round without intermission, and who receive regular wages from the mine-owners;— the other class consists o f those who make only temporary visits to Cerro de Pasco, when they are attracted thither by the boyas.* This latter class o f laborers are called maquipuros. Most o f them come from the distant pro vinces, and they return to their homes when the boya is at an end. The mine laborers are also subdivided into two classes, the one called barreteros, whose employment consists in breaking the ore ; and the other called hapires, or chaquiris, who bring up the ore from the shaft. The work allotted to the hapires is exceedingly laborious. Each load consists o f from fifty to seventy-five pounds o f metal, which is carried in a very irksome and in convenient manner in an untanned hide, called a capicho. The hapire performs his toil some duty in a state o f nudity, for, notwithstanding the coldness of the climate, he be comes so heated by his laborious exertion, that he is glad to divest himself o f his clothing. A s the work is carried on incessantly day and night, the miners are divided into parties called puntas, each party working for twelve successive hours. A t six o’clock, morning and evening, the puntas are relieved. Each one is under the inspection o f amayor-domo. W hen a mine yields a scanty supply o f metal, the laborers are paid in m oney; the barre teros receiving six reals per day, and the hapires only four. During the boyas the laborers receive, instead o f their wages in money, a share o f the ore. The Indians often tiy to appropriate to themselves, surreptitiously, pieces o f o r e ; but to do this requires great cun ning and dexterity, so narrowly are they watched by the mayor-domos. Nevertheless, they sometimes succeed. One o f the hapires related to me how he had contrived to car ry off a most valuable piece of silver. He fastened it on his back, and then wrapping himself in his poncho, he pretended to be so ill, that he obtained permission to quit the mine. T w o o f his confederates, who helped him out, assisted him in concealing the treas ure. The polvorilla, a dark powdery kind o f ore, very full o f silver, used to be abstracted from the mines by the following stratagem :— the workmen would strip off their clothes, and having moistened the whole o f their bodies with water, would roll themselves in the polvorilla, which stuck to them. On their return home they washed o ff the silver-dust, and sold it for several dollars. But this trick being detected, a stop was soon put to i t ; for, • before leaving the mines, the laborers are now required to strip, in order to be searched. The operation o f separating the silver from the dross, is performed at some distance from Cerro de Pasco, in haciendas, belonging to the great mine-owners. The process is executed in a very clumsy, imperfect, and, at the same time, a very expensive manner. The amalgamation o f the quicksilver with the metal, is effected by the tramping of horses. The animals employed in this way, are a small ill-looking race, brought from Ayacucho and Cuzco, where they are found in numerous herds. The quicksilver speedily has a fatal effect on their hoofs, and, after a few years, the animals become unfit for work. The sepa ration o f the metals is managed with as little judgment as the amalgamation, and the waste o f quicksilver is enormous. It is computed that on each mark of silver, half a pound of quicksilver is expended. The quicksilver, with the exception of some little brought from * A mine is said to be in boya when it yields an unusually abundant supply of metal. Owing to the great number o f mines in Cerro de Pasco, some o f them are always in this prolific state. There are times when the boyas bring such an influx o f miners to Cerro de Pasco, that the population is augmented to double or triple its ordinary amount. 436 Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. Idria and Huancavelica, comes from Spain in iron jars, each containing about seventy-five pounds weight o f the metal. In Lima, the price o f these jars is from sixty to one hundred dollars each, but they are occasionally sold as high as one hundred and thirty-five or one hundred and forty dollars. Considering the vast losses which the Peruvian mine-owners sustain, by the waste o f quicksilver, and the defective mode o f refining, it may fairly be inferred, that their profits are about one-third less than they would be under a better system o f management. In Cerro de Pasco, there are places called boliches, in which the silver is separated from the dross by the same process as that practised in the haciendas, only on a smaller scale. In the boliches, the amalgamation is performed, not by horses, but by Indians, who mix the quicksilver with the ore by stamping on it with their feet for several hours in succes sion. This occupation they usually perform barefooted, and the consequence is, that paralysis and other diseases caused by the action o f the mercury, are very frequent among the persons thus employed. The owners o f the boliches, who are mostly Italians, are not mine proprietors. They obtain the metal from the Indians, who give them their huachacas* in exchange for brandy and other articles. On the other hand, the owners o f the boliches obtain the money required for their speculations from capitalists, who make them pay an enormous interest. Nevertheless, many amass considerable fortunes in the course o f a few years; for they scruple not to take the most unjust advantage o f the Indians, whose laborious toil is rewarded by little gain. The law requires that all the silver drawn from the mines o f Cerro de Pasco, shall be conveyed to a government smelting house, called the Callana, there to be cast into bars of One hundred pounds weight, to be stamped and charged with certain imposts. The value o f silver in Cerro de Pasco, varies from seven to eight dollars per mark. The standard value in Lima is eight dollars and a half. It is impossible to form anything like an accurate estimate o f the yearly produce o f the mines o f Cerro de P asco; for a vast quantity o f silver is never taken to the Callana, but is smuggled to the coast, and from thence shipped for Europe. In the year 1838, no less than 85,000 marks o f contraband silver were conveyed to the seaport o f Huacho, and safely shipped on board a schooner. The quantity o f silver annually smelted and stamped in the Callana is from 200,000 to 300,000 marks—seldom exceeding the latter amount. From 1784 to 1820,1826, and 1827, the amount was 8,051,409 m arks; in the year 1784, it was 68,208 marks; and in 1785, 73,455 marks. During seventeen years it was under 200,000 marks ; and only during three years above 300,000. The produce o f the mines is exceedingly fluctuating. The successive revolutions which have agitated the countiy, have tended very considerably to check mining operations. On the overthrow of Santa Cruz, Don Miguel Otero, the most active and intelligent mine-owner o f Cerro de Pasco, was banished; an event which had a very depressing influence on all the mining transac tions o f that part o f South America. Within the last few years, however, mining has re ceived a new impetus, and attention has been directed to the adoption o f a more speedy and less expensive system o f amalgamation. M A N U F A C T U R E OF STO C K IN G S. A London journal, in an article upon foreign manufactures, has the following item in relation to the making o f stockings:— ‘‘ It is not generally known, that the Chinese knit a considerable quantity o f silk stock ings by the hand, many o f them as fine as twenty guage, the quality which was generally made in Europe previous to the year 1720. A very large quantity o f cotton stockings are also hand-knitted in Hindostan, it being a general manufacture at Musilapatam, and in those vicinities where the Dutch and Tweed factories were established, though they are now under the dominion o f the. British. The received opinion is, that the Portuguese taught the Hindoos, as well as the Chinese, this art. Cotton stockings, as fine as thirtyfour guage, are knit in India. They are beautiful articles, being made o f hand-spun cot ton, which is much leveller in the thread than mill-spun yarn. It is, in general, considered in the East, that spinning machinery is in its infancy; and in this opinion, a few o f the ablest operative spinners o f Manchester fully coincide, they being o f opinion that the method first pursued by the colleague o f Arkwright will finally supersede the draw frame and mule spring. * Huachacas are the portions o f ore which are distributed among the Indians at the time o f the boyas, instead o f their wages being paid in money. Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. 437 M A M M O T H S T A R C H F A C T O R Y IN M IC H IG A N . W e learn from the “ Detroit F ree P ress," that Mr. Mawbry Chamberlain, o f Vermont, removed to Almont, Lapear County, Michigan, about two years since. Mr. C. carried on the business extensively in Vermont, and is still interested in two large establishments, managed by his brothers, near Windsor, Vt. It seems that he has now erected a factory in Almont, to carry on the manufacture o f starch on a more extensive scale than at any similar factory at the East. The factory is 214 feet long, and 40 feet wide, including an L. The main building is 134 feet long— 14 o f which are used for an engine-room— and is two stories high. T he lower part has 64 tubs, holding about 600 gallons each, giving a total o f 28,400 gallons. The L part is 80 feet long, by 40, o f brick, one and a half stories high, for a potato-bin. Loaded teams drive up a platform into the second story ; and, following a circle, 13 teams can unload at a time, through trap-doors over the bin, which is calculated to hold 40,000 bushels. One hundred and thirty loads have been received in a day, making a total of 4,000 bushels. In the second story o f the principal building is an oven, 100 feet long by 18 wide, for drying the starch— or rather, I should say, an oven o f 200 feet by 9, as there is a division in the centre, with doors some 10 feet apart. In the oven, there are sets o f pans, one above the other, which can be turned at pleasure. It is heated from the steam works, and conductors o f heat are carried in tin pipes all over the building. The whole machinery is a specimen o f so much ingenuity, that I cannot describe it. Y ou must visit it— it is worth the journey. The proprietor, who is a gentleman much beloved here, kindly allows stran gers to go through the establishment, and does not confine it to the sign, “ no admittance,” as at similar works in New England. The potatoes are shovelled from a bin into a hopper, where there is water constantly running into it, and there they are as thoroughly washed by machinery, as a cook could do it for your dinner. Then, by the action o f the machinery, they are separated from the dirt, stones, and sticks, and pass on to two cylinder graters, at the rate of 100 bushels an hour. From the graters, by the action o f machinery, they go into the sieve that separates the starch from the potato. The pulp then passes into four large cisterns, and then, again, machinery pumps it into the 64 large tubs or cisterns, before alluded to, for settling. Then the water is drawn off, and the starch, by a forcing-pump, is carried into the second story, and, when settled, put into the oven I have before spoken of, which is calculated to bake a day’s work— being the starch from 1,000 bushels, or 60,000 lbs. o f potatoes. T he starch is packed in casks, and shipped East. The cost o f the factory is $12,000. Considerable starch was made last season, but the rotting o f some 30,000 bushels o f potatoes last fall, curtailed the quantity anticipated. This large quantity o f the raw mate rial was thrown away. It served to feed many cattle and hogs o f the neghborhood for some months. The pulp remaining as worthless, is used in fattening hogs, which the proprietor has in a yard adjoining. T he factory price for potatoes is 10 cents a bushel. Mr. C. has contracted with various farmers to the amount o f 400 acres. The average number o f bushels raised last year on an acre was 275. Allowing the same this year, it will amount to over 100,000 bushels; but this is not half the quantity wanted. Farmers were unwilling to contract, fearing the rot. Present indications are good for the crop. A ll varieties are used, even the Rohan. It takes the fall and winter to destroy the potatoes, then wheat and com are used for the same purpose. The quantity made from the potato per year will not be far from 1,000,000 lbs., or 400 tons. It sells for $ 5 a hundred in New York. P A S T E B O A R D SHOES. The “ Artisan” describes a specimen o f cheatery in shoes, of which we had heard, but never supposed to be a fa ct:— “ The shoes are o f the coarse brogan kind, such as sell at retail for $ 1 00 and $ 1 25. W hat is usually the sole, is, in this case, only very thin poor leather— it may be sheep skin. The welt is very thiek coarse leather, to which both upper leather and sole are sewed or pegged; the deficiency inside is supplied by thick yellow pasteboard. The shoes thus appear to have very good stout soles. A very little wear carries away the thin skin of a sole, and the yellow pasteboard presents itself, and the cheatery is thus exposed too late for the purchaser. W e have seen all this— but we do not put it under the head o f new inventions.” 433 Journal o f Mining and Manufactures. M IN E OF C O B A L T A N D N IC K E L. Nickel, from its scarcity, and the place it has taken in our manufactures in the formation o f an alloy, as a substitute for silver, besides being applied to various other purposes in the metallic arts, has become a valuable and important metal. Its produce, as a conlmercial metal, has hitherto been confined to some valuable mines in Saxony, which (now at a depth o f 450 feet,) are said to be declining in produce, while the cost o f production has , greatly increased. A t Chatham, in the State o f Connecticut, there is a mine o f cobalt and nickel, first discovered and worked by some German settlers, for cobalt, but finding that nickel greatly preponderated— a metal whose properties were then unknown, and for which ihere was no market— the miue was abandoned. It afterwards became the pro perty o f Governor Seth Hunt, who, after about three years’ exploration, during which period he obtained a considerable quantity o f cobalt, abandoned it from the same cause. T he strata in which the veins are situated is a soft mica slate formation, of the same kindly nature as those which occur in the valuable mines o f Saxony, being much softer near the lode, which is always considered a promising feature. There seems to be no doubt as to the lodes continuing, or even improving, in depth; and from the present commercial value o f both metals, the judicious working o f this mine cannot but Ire attended with the most profitable results. A POUND OF C O T T O N A N D H A L F A POUND OF IRON. The following paragraph is not n e w ; we have seen it in print a hundred times, more or less; but as we do not recollect having recorded it in the pages o f the Merchants’ Maga zine, and as it contains such an amount o f information respecting the various processes that a pound o f cotton had to undergo, before it appeared in the form o f muslin, we venture to copy it, although it may seem rather trite to a large portion o f our readers:— “ The cotton came from the United States to London. From London it went to Man chester, where it was made into yam. From Manchester it was sent to Paisley, where it was woven. It was then sent to Ayrshire, where it was tamboured. After this it was conveyed to Dumbarton, where it was hand-seeded, and again returned to Paisley, from whence it was sent to Kurfew, a distant part o f the country, to be bleached ; and then it was again returned to Paisley, and afterwards returned to London by coach. It is calcu lated that this article was two years in getting to market from the time it was packed in this country, till the cloth arrived at the merchant’s warehouse in L ondon; and that it travelled 3,000 miles by sea and 920 miles by land ; and, also, that it contributed to the support o f no less than 150 persons, who were necessarily engaged in the carriage and manufacture o f the small quantity o f cotton, by which its value was increased to two thou sand per ce n t!” “ Half a pound o f iron can be manufactured into 10,000 hair-springs, for watches, each worth two dollars, or $20,000 for what originally cost only two to three cents. This is a vastly greater increase o f value bestowed by labor, than in the above case, o f a pound o f cotton.” U N IT E D M E X IC A N M IN IN G A S S O C IA T IO N . From the report o f the Association, recently made at its half-yearly meeting in London, we gather the following particulars o f its affairs, which will be interesting to mining interests generally:— “ It appears that in the mine o f Rayas, a considerable outlay had been incurred to keep the water out, so that the works might be prosecuted, and by the last report it had con siderably diminished. The ore raised had been 52,462 cargoes, and the amount o f receipts $11,831. T he coinage o f 1845 had been $729,820, and for 1846, $757,680, showing an increase o f $27,860. W ith respect to the new mines, the directors had taken no de cisive steps, but would act with caution. The works had been greatly impeded by the scarcity o f quicksilver, and the difficulty o f transit from the coast, owing to the unsettled state o f the country. The general operations o f the past year had produced $71,400, less the expenses, $29,850, leaving a balance o f $41,550, or in sterling £7 ,444 3s. lid . The amount o f good property abroad had been estimated at $1,336,526, or £239,514 sterling. The surplus cash in hand was £4,719 17s. 3d.” Mercantile Miscellanies, MERCANTILE THE 439 MISCELLANIES. M E R C A N T IL E C H A R A C TE R . FROM THE PHILADELPHIA EVENING BULLETIN. I n all free countries, the merchants have played a distinguished part. In old Venice they were already dukes and princes at a period when the nobility-of other lauds were military chieftains. Florence owed her wealth and power to her merchants. It was com. merce that raised Amsterdam to greatness. The merchants o f England sit in her House o f Lords, and hold the destinies o f the realm in their potent hands. In fact, as civiliza tion advances, commerce asserts her rightful claims to superior consideration over the rude and often unlettered military chieftain ; and the men who develop the resources o f a nation, and increase intelligence, as well as add to its physical comforts, are deservedly ranked highest as benefactors o f mankind. It would be a curious study to trace, if we had time, the struggle in England between the mercantile interest and the landed aris tocracy, the one seeking to obtain its due weight in government, the other laboring to keep down its aspiring rival. But the merchant, in the end, conquered the feudal baron. And had it not been for her merchants, England would long since have succumbed in one or another o f her foreign wars. But for their gigantic resources, freely placed at the ser vice o f the State, Napoleon would have burnt her dock-yards and pulled down Westmin ster Hall. The character o f the true merchant deserves all o f this eulogium. But in speaking o f the merchant, we allude to the liberal and intelligent commercial man, not to the mean and narrow-minded. A merchant o f enlarged views, like Abbot Lawrence, o f Boston, has no superior in any walk o f life ; and there are men o f the same stamp in Philadelphia, though, perhaps, it would be indelicate to name them here. Such a man, especially if en gaged in a foreign trade, is really better informed for all the higher purposes o f legislation, and has altogether more comprehensive view’s, than most o f our professed statesmen. His business relations force him to keep up with the changes in other countries. He must know the settled and unsettled condition o f their governments, their native products and manufactures, the habits and mode o f life o f the people, else he cannot make shipments with any prospect o f success. In the late difficulty with Brazil, when all persons begun to inquire respecting that empire— and wre must say that the general ignorance regarding Brazil, considering its immense resources, and the feet that it is the United States o f South America, is very reprehensible— the shipping merchants were the only class o f our citizens who could furnish any correct account o f the people and government there. W e would give more for the opinion o f an able merchant on any affair relating to our foreign rela tions, than for that o f all the lawyers, politicians, and professed statesmen we have, if we except one or tw'o illustrious names. So o f our merchants o f intelligence engaged in the Western trade. T hey do not con fine themselves to the mere acquisition o f a fortune, to the amassing cent per cent, but en large their minds by a knowledge o f the peculiarities and resources o f the great W est. Their business frequently calling them abroad, they have opportunities to compare the so cial condition o f Europe w'ith that o f America, the relative progress o f inventions in each, the spread o f intelligence, the extension o f liberal principles, and all those other great questions in which every generous and observing mind may be presumed to take an inter est. Unfortunately, all do not avail themselves o f these advantages. There are, and we speak it with regret, merchants who neglect those occasions for improving the mind and heart, who make money their god, and who spend a long life with every energy devoted solely to acquiring that gold which is only to be a subject o f quarrel among their descend ants. Such persons are like crazed wanderers, passing through a pleasant country, and taking no note o f the beautiful scenery around, so intensely are they absorbed in their childish and foolish thoughts; or, like the man in the Pilgrim’s Progress, who raked among dust and ashes for dross, while an angel overhead vainly offered him a golden crown. For nothing is more true, than that an undivided attention to the acquisition of wealth stifles our social sympathies, debases the intellect, and lays up, as the scriptures solemnly express it, “ much store o f sorrows ” for after days. The man who makes him self a slave to money, wins for his prize the Dead Sea apple— “ golden without, but ashes within.” 440 Mercantile Miscellanies. L A W S F O R T H E C O L L E C T IO N O F D E B TS. In republishing the following remarks, which originally appeared in the “ Dry-Goods Reporter,” we are not prepared to express an opinion as to the propriety o f repealing all laws for the collection o f debts, and placing the credit system entirely on the basis of character, although we have frequently heard experienced merchants and business men express opinions in accordance with the views entertained by the writer. T he discussion o f the subject can do no harm, and will, perhaps, tend to promote the interests o f debtor and creditor, which, in our view, are identical:— The opinion that the creditor community would suffer less loss, and that business opera tions would be placed on a sounder basis, by the abolition o f laws for the collection of debts, seems, o f late years, on the increase, though we know o f no trial that has been given to this new scheme o f reformation; we are aware that no precedent for it can be found among any o f the nations o f antiquity. The Roman and Grecian laws w’ere espe cially severe and rigorous, and the laws o f the Hebrews were clear, simple, and efficient, and in nothing do they differ so much from our own as in these characteristics. Imprisonment for debt was unknown among them, and they were equally free from those long and expensive modes o f procedure for the collection o f debt, (which are known to many o f our readers to their cost.) A m ong the Israelites a debtor might be sold as a bound slave for the payment o f his debts. All modern nations have, we believe, without exception, laws on this subject o f more or less rigor, but none less than our own State. The question, however, is not as to the perfection or imperfection o f our own laws, but whether the interest o f the whole community would be advanced by their entire aboli tion, leaving each party to the good faith, pecuniary responsibility, and integrity o f the one with whom he deals. Such a movement would, doubtless, be attended with a very salu tary influence upon the system o f credit so extravagantly extended in our business com munity ; its effect would be to awaken more caution in the seller as to the character and responsibility o f the buyer, as well as to check a spirit o f wild speculation, always the result o f great facilities for obtaining credit. In this its influence would be healthy and most desirable. Our own experience has led us to the conclusion that a rogue will only pay what and when he pleases, and the honest man will pay as soon as he can, and all that he can. The national bankrupt law o f 1841 was no doubt abused to a very great extent, but still quite an army o f honest and willing but unfortunate debtors were enabled, through its operations, to again commence the world, wiser and better men ; men who had the disposition to pay, but who were crushed under a load o f debts, judgments, and credit ors’ bills, and who were as much debarred from the exercise o f their talents, even to gain a respectable livelihood (to say nothing o f paying their debts,) as the poor Indian was, when incarcerated at Albany, in default o f the payment o f a certain number o f beaver skins, (then taken as currency,) whose common-sense remark strikes home, “ that the prison was a mighty bad place to catch beaver!” A wrong view is often taken of the operation of the bankrupt law. It is true we find that $441,000,000 o f indebtedness was liquidated, and that the assets were small. The State o f N ew Y ork came in for $172,000,000 o f this sum, and the Southern District alone was represented by debtors to the amount o f $120,000,000, from which $140,000 were realized, after deducting $110,000— only $110,000, for legal and judicial proceedings! The amount o f loss to creditors, nominally, was very large ; but it is a question by no means clear whether the creditor is not in a better position now than before the passage of that act. Although we believe no law should be made which will be retrospective in its opera tions, yet we think that the bankrupt law was in force just long enough to achieve all the mischief which could accrue from it, and was repealed before its beneficent workings could be appreciated. And to those who take a different view o f this subject, we can only urge that a vigorous prevention would be preferable to a wonderful cure wrought by this act. It is true, that under a total abolition o f all laws for the collection of debts, designing men would be found who would lay themselves out to cheat and practise upon the credu lity o f the unsuspicious. But are we free from this now ? Do the various laws, as they exist, protect the merchant now ? W e have laws, it is true, and any one who has had occasion to collect a debt by legal process can fully appreciate their beauties. That a stringent law against false representation, and the total abolition of all laws coercing, would do a vast deal towards the regulation o f credits and trade generally, is the opinion o f many o f our shrewd and experienced merchants. Mercantile Miscellanies. MAMMON AND 441 MANHOOD: A HOMILY FOB MERCANTILE MEN. The Scripture speaketh not in vain in saying, that “ the love o f money is the root o f all evil,” for there is not an evil under the sun, to the commission o f which men are not prompt ed by the love o f money ; and yet, notwithstanding all the light on this subject given in the Scriptures, and confirmed by general experience, men everywhere are occupied in the constant and keen pursuit o f wealth, and the prime object with the many is to obtain it, and to push their families forward in the unhappy race o f avarice and aggrandizement. For money, men sacrifice domestic comfort, health, character, and even hazard life itself; for it they are guilty o f fraud, deception, and robbery. For money, they sacrifice friend ship, gratitude, natural affection, and every holy and divine feeling. For money, man be comes a creeping, crawling, obsequious creature, instead o f walking erect as the offspring o f man. Mammon and Manhood are incompatible. W hy all this anxiety about money ? W hy this constant fever, this pushing and driving in order to obtain it ? Even because men form a false estimate o f L ife and its elements. “ A man’ s life consisteth not in the abundance o f the things which he possesseth.” He who would live, must stir up the di vine fire that is in him, to consume selfishness, and to dispense the light and heat to all around. Money he may seek in moderation, as a means, not as an end; and in order to pre serve his manhood, he must leam to practise self-denial and economy, and lobe contented with small things ; above all, he must remember that God has set honor upon his labor, by appointing man to live by labor; labor is truly honorable, and however mean the oc cupation may be, if honest, it is never disgraceful. Instead, therefore, o f sinking Man hood in the pursuit o f Mammon, by creeping, crawling, and bending to every one whom you may imagine can help you forward in the race o f worldly advancement, stand erect, determine in the strength o f God to be a M a n , to buy the truth at whatever cost, and never sell it for any price ; to labor at any work, if needful, to speak what is in thy heart, and never to creep, and crawl, and mutter. God helps those who help themselves. M E T H O D IN T R A D E C A R R IE D T O P E R F E C T IO N : OR, THE MANNER OF CONDUCTING BUSINESS IN A DRY-GOODS STORE IN PHILADELPHIA. W e find the following interesting account o f the mode o f conducting business arrange ments in a dry-goods store in Philadelphia, in the columns o f a Southern Journal. Pre cision in such matters begets thrift and prosperity, and we hope the precepts o f the an nexed article may be universally carried out in business communities:— The amount o f sales made at this store, is about $300,000 annually; each department in the store is alphabetically designated. The shelves and rows o f goods in each depart ment are numbered, and upon the tag attached to the goods, is marked the letter o f the department, the number o f the shelf and row on that shelf to which such ‘piece o f goods belongs. The cashier receives a certain sum extra per week, and he is responsible for all worthless money received. Books are kept, in which the sales of each clerk are entered for the day, and the salary o f the clerk cast, as a per centage on each day, week and year, and, at the foot o f the page, the aggregate o f the sales appear, and the per centage that it has cost to effect these sales, is easily calculated for each day, month or year. The counters are designated by an imaginary color, as the blue, green, brown, & c., counter. The yard-sticks and counter-brush belonging to it, are painted to correspond with the im aginary color o f the counter; so, by a very simple arrangement, each o f these necessaries is kept where it belongs ; and should any be missing, the faulty clerks are easily known. All wrapping paper coming into the store is immediately taken to a counter in the base ment, where a lad attends with a pair o f shears, whose duty it is to cut the paper into pieces to correspond with the size o f the parcels sold at the different departments, to which he sees that it is transferred. All pieces too small for this, even to the smallest scraps, are by him put into a sack, and what is usually thrown away by our merchants, yields to this systematic man some $ 2 0 per year. In one part o f the establishment is a tool closet, with a work-bench attached ; the closet occupies but little space, yet in it we notice almost every useful tool, and this is arranged with the hand-saw to form the centre, and the smaller tools radiating from it in sun form ; behind each article is painted, with black paint, the shape o f the tool belonging in that place. It is, consequently, impossible that anything should be out o f place except through de sign ; and if any tool is missing, the wall will show the shadow without the substance. Such is the salutary influence exerted by order, that those who enter this employ habitu 442 Mercantile Miscellanies. ally careless and reckless, are reformed entirely; and system, which before was irksome, has become to them a second nature. The proprietor’s desk stands at the farther end o f the store, raised on a platform facing the front, from which he can see all the operations in each section o f the retail department. From this desk run tubes, connecting with each department o f the store, from the garret to the cellar, so that if a person in any depart ment, either porter, retail or wholesale clerk, wishes to communicate with the employer, he can do so without leaving his station. Pages are kept in each department to take the bill o f parcels, together with thewmoney paid ; and return the bill receipted, and change, if any, to the customer. So that the salesman is never obliged to leave the counter ; he is at all times ready either to introduce a new article, or watch that no goods are taken from his counter, excepting those accounted for. His peculiar method o f casting the per centage o f a clerk’s salary on his sales, enables him at all times, (coupling it with the clerk’s general conduct, and the style o f goods he is selling,) to form a just estimate o f the relative value o f the services o f each, in proportion to his salary. By the alphabetic arrangement o f departments, numbering o f shelves, and form o f the tools, any clerk, no matter if he has not been in the store more than an hour, can arrange every article in its proper place, and at any time, if inquired of respecting, or referred to by any clerk, the proprietor is able to speak understanding^ o f the capabilities and business qualities o f any o f his employees. He has brought up some o f the best mer chants at present engaged in the trade, who do honor to the profession as well as their tutor. W H A T A M E R C H A N T SHOULD BE. FROM GILBERT’ S LECTURES ON ANCIENT COMMERCE. A merchant should be an honorable man. Although a man cannot be an honorable man without being an honest man, yet a man may be strictly honest without being honorable. Honesty refers to pecuniary affairs; honor refers to the principles and feelings. Y ou may pay your debts punctually, you may defraud no man, and yet you may act dishonorably. Y ou act dishonorably when you give your correspondents a worse opinion of your rivals in trade than you know they deserve. Y ou act dishonorably when you sell your commo dities at less than their real value, in order to get away your neighbor’s customers. Y ou act dishonorably when you purchase at higher than the market price, in order that you may raise the market upon another buyer. Y ou act dishonorably when you draw accom modation bills, and pass them to your banker for discount, as if they arose out o f real transactions. Y ou act dishonorably in every case wherein your external conduct is at va riance with your real opinions. Y ou act dishonorably if, when carrying on a prosperous trade, you do not allow your servants and assistants, through whose exertions you obtain your success, to participate in your prosperity. Y ou act dishonorably if, after you have become rich, you are unmindful o f the favors you received when poor. In all these cases there may be no intentional fraud. It may not be dishonest, but it is dishonorable con duct. C O M M E R C E OF T H E C A P E OF GOOD HOPE. Papers lately received, furnish us with some interesting details o f the trade o f the colony, extracted from the annual report o f the committee o f the Commercial Exchange for the years 1846-7. According to the comparison made in this document, it appears that the value o f imports has exceeded those o f the previous year by ,£124,860 9s., o f which £50,000 was specie for military expenditure. The exports, it is stated, have fallen below 1845-6, by £29,882 13s. 6d. The great increase in local consumption is established by the fact that, whereas the collections o f the customs department last year were not more than £85,119 17s. 5d., they have risen this year to the amount o f £100,759 12s. lOd.— an im provement nearly equal to 18 per cent. The tables o f export show a decrease in the arti cles o f aloes, tallow, and wine, and an increase in wool, skins, hides, and ivory. The number o f vessels visiting the colony was less by 144 than those reported in the former year, and this decrease was attributed to the comparative suspension o f the guano trade, and the fines hitherto enforced under the provisions o f the Merchant Seamen’s Act. HI3 T he judicious reader o f our “ Commercial Chronicle and Review,” will have read lbs., for bales, in a table o f “ exports o f cotton from the United States,” on page 295, of the September number; also, on page 296, first line, “ England,” for the United States. The Book Trade. THE 443 BOOK T R A D E . 1. — Commentaries on the Laws o f E n gla n d ; in F our Books ; with an Analysis o f the Work. By S ir W illiam B lackstone, Knt., one o f the Justices o f the Court o f Com mon Pleas. W ith the Last Corrections o f the Author, and Notes from the TwentyFirst London Edition. W ith Copious Notes, Explaining the Changes in the Law Ef fected by Decision on Statute, down to 1844. Vol. I. By J. F. H ar gr ave , o f Lincoln’s Inn, Barrister at Law. Together with Notes, adapting the work to the American Stu dent. By J ohn L. W endell, late State Reporter of New York. 4 vols., 8vo. New Y o rk : Harper & Brothers. Any notice o f Blackstone’s Commentaries, at this late day, would be, on our part, a work o f supererogation. It is a standard o f the highest authority, and the contents o f the work must be familiar to every well-read law student in the land. It becomes us, there fore, at this time, to speak only o f the present edition, which, we have no hesitation in saying, is the best and most perfect that has yet been published. It comprises all that is valuable in the editions o f Christian and Chitty, and the proprietors have rendered it the most perfect that has hitherto appeared; and, without injuring the integrity o f a work which has taken a high and permanent place in our standard literature, to present, both to non-professional readers and to students, a complete and faithful guide to the principles o f the laws o f England as they are now administered. T o this end, they have provided ample time for preparation, and have not thrown upon one editor the overwhelming labor and responsibility o f reviewing critically the entire body o f the la w ; a task to which, it may safely be said, the acquirements o f no single lawyer o f the present day would be ade quate, to such extent and complexity has the system attained, and so universal is the cus tom o f confining professional study and practice to some particular branch o f the law'. Each book has, therefore, been confided to a distinct editor, practically conversant with the subject to which it relates. The text o f this classical work is preserved without muti lation or addition, and has been rendered as pure and correct as possible, by being collated with that o f the edition published in 1783, which was "prepared by Dr. Burn, from the copy containing the author’s last corrections. The author’s notes and references, also, have been carefully verified in every possible instance. The editors have, in their notes, endeavored, in the first place, to correct the few original oversights of the author; in the next place, to state the alterations in the law since the time o f Blackstone, so far as they affect the text; and, lastly, to expand such passages as did not seem sufficiently full, and to explain such as did not seem sufficiently clear for an elementary work. T o the above have been added notes, adapting the work to the American student, by showing the law as it exists in this country under our institutions, and as it has been changed by legislative enactments, particularly in the State o f New York ; and also pointing out the diversities in the common lawr, as held in England and in this country, in the few instances in which a difference prevails. These notes are by John L. W endell, Esq., late State Reporter of N ew Y ork, and editor o f the last American edition o f “ Starkie on Slander.” 2. — Beauties o f the Bible, Selected from the Old and New Testaments, with Various Remarks and B r ie f Dissertations. Designed fo r the Use o f Schools and the Im provement o f Youth. By E zra S ampson. 18mo., pp. 366. N ew Y o rk : Harper & Brothers. W e are not remarkably partial to “ Beauties,” selected for our admiration, especially those o f the Bible ; but, in our school-boy days, we read from this collection o f scriptural extracts, and as it is more convenient, and contains so many interesting narratives, sub lime and beautiful passages from “ holy writ,” we can see no objection to its introduction into our common and other schools. Several attempts have been made, since its first ap pearance, in 1800, to prepare similar w orks; but in our judgment this is the least excep tionable— indeed, it is the bq^t compilation o f the kind that has yet been made. 444 The Book Trade. 3. — Louis the Fourteenth, and the Court o f France in the Seventeenth Century. By Miss P ardoe, author o f 44The City o f the Sultan,” etc. In 2 vols., 12mo., pp. 1,067. N ew Y o r k : Harper &, Brothers. The reign o f Louis XIV., o f France, is regarded by the writer o f this work, and, we believe, very generally, politically, socially, and morally, as the most striking which that country has ever known. Mis3 Pardoe does not pretend to give a complete historical re cord o f the century o f Louis X IV ., as the term would be understood by statesmen and politicians. She passes lightly over the campaigns, the battles, and the intrigues o f the several European cabinets. Her aim was simply to display, more fully than had been done before, the domestic life o f the 44 Great Monarch,” and pass in review the wits, the beauties, and the poets o f his court. For this purpose, she selects, from the stores of the many biographies o f the time, all that may tend to perfect the portraiture. The materials for the work were ample, and she has grouped only such facts and anecdotes as were fully authenticated, either by one o f the chroniclers o f the time, or verified by some competent recent authority. T he work will be more interesting to a larger class of readers, than the elaborated history, with all its tedious details. The volumes are well printed, and illustra ted with handsome and appropriate engravings. 4. — Story o f the Battle o f Waterloo. By the Rev. G. R. G leig , M. A . 12mo., pp. 310. New Y o rk : Harper & Brothers. W e have no great sympathy for parsons who carry the Bible in one hand and the Sword in the other; or Rev. authors, who become the historians o f war, and waste their energies and expend their genius in the glorification o f military heroes. Such ministers of the “ Prince o f Peace” seem to us out o f their element— they appear to be fulfilling a mission somewhat at variance with that divine one for which they were sent. But if the Rev. Mr. Gleig is as much at home in sermonizing, as in relating the story o f the battle o f W a terloo, he must be an eloquent and popular preacher, for he has really given us a very graphic and thrilling account o f the events o f that memorable battle. W e have read enough o f the work to satisfy us that it contains the most comprehensive and readable account o f the campaign that has yet been published, and as such w’e commend it to those who have little time to throw away on more detailed descriptions. 5. — Napoleon; H is Arm y and H is Generals; their Unexampled M ilitary Career. W ith a Sketch o f the French Revolution. By an American. Illustrated with numer ous elegant engravings. l2m o., pp. 422. New Y ork : Leavitt, T row & Co. The present volume is designed, no doubt, to gratify a taste in the public mind for mili tary exploits, which the existing war with M exico has created, or rather revived, in this country. Of the utility o f such publications, in fostering a correct and Christian spirit in society, it is quite unnecessary for us to speak. The design o f the work, so far as the compiler is concerned, is to give the reader a faithful narrative o f those great military operations, which agitated Europe for a period o f twenty years. In the prosecution o f this object, he appears to have consulted previous works on the subject, and has presented a condensed, but comprehensive narrative o f the events, and men who figured most con spicuously in those scenes o f blood and murder. In drawing from Scott, Lockhart, Clark, and other English authors, comments upon the political character and acts o f Napoleon, evidently partaking o f the natural feelings o f those writers, have judiciously been avoided; thus leaving the naked narrative for every one to study with an unbiassed mind. 6. — Chambers'1 Miscellany o f Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. Edited by R obert Boston: Gould, Ken dall & Lincoln. New Y ork : Berford & Co. C hambers, author o f the “ Cyclopedia o f English Literature.” W e have received the first two numbers o f this popular work, which is to be repub lished here in thirty numbers, uniform, in size and style, with the Edinburgh edition. Three numbers complete a volume o f over 500 pages o f useful and entertaining matter, suited to every class o f readers. o f ten volumes. The thirty numbers, when completed, will form a series 445 The Book Trade• 7. — The Public M en o f the Revolution. Including Events from the Peace o f 1783 to the Peace o f 1815. In a Series o f Letters. By the late Hon. W illiam S u llivan , LL. D. W ith a Biographical Sketch o f the Author, and Additional Notes. By his son, J ohn T . S. S ullivan . 8 vo., pp. 463. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart. Thirteen years have elapsed since this work was first published in the life-time of the author. A t that period, it attracted a large share o f the attention o f the public mind, and was a fruitful topic o f discussion in political and literary circles; and the impressions it made upon our mind, in regard to certain prominent men (particularly Mr. Jefferson) o f the revolution, have often recurred to us with a freshness that time has not been able to efface. W e heartily thank all concerned, for re-producing a work so well calculated to shed light upon the characters and motives o f the men most conspicuous in the early po litical history o f our institutions. Mr. Sullivan was a Federalist, and, o f course, an apolo gist for that party, which has long since been merged in new organizations of republican ism. It is due to the worthy patriots and disinterested statesmen who composed the Federal party, that their motives should be known, and the principles they advocated un derstood ; and we are, therefore, we repeat, glad that this work has been re-produced, at a time and in a form that will be likely to secure for it a permanent place in all our pub lic libraries. W e consider it a most valuable contribution to the political history o f the country, and one which reflects a more faithful picture o f the public characters o f that epoch, than any yet made to our literature. 8. — Tim 's Fortnight Ramble, and other Poems. By T homas M ackellar , author o f “ Droppings from the Heart.” 12mo., pp. 2l6. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart. The leading poem, which occupies little more than one-half the volume, though some what desultory, is the most readable that we have met with for a long time. It is written in an agreeable vein, and embraces the descriptive, the humorous, and the pathetic, and the transition from one to the other is easy and natural. In the domestic and miscella neous pieces, which occupy the remaining pages, pure and generous sentiments are ex pressed in chaste and simple words. Indeed, without great pretension, Mr. Mackellar is a poet that will “ gather in ” a class o f readers that any poet might be proud to acknowledge as his admirers. 9. — Passages from the H istory o f Liberty. Ticknor & Co. 18mo., pp. 278. Boston: William D. W e like the title o f this book ; and we like the subject, and the manner o f treating it. A portion, the first, is devoted to the early Italian reformers, who labored for liberty, peace, and their country ; another, John de W ycliffe ; and another, to the reforms of Sa vonarola ; and the closing part to the war o f the communities o f Castile. The author hardly deems it necessary to explain the connection between the passages, drawn all from one great stream o f history, which are embraced in his little volume. The efforts o f the first Italian reformers, he justly considers as illustrations o f the isolation and trials o f the dark ages; WyclifFe’s work, as a work o f natural principles, just beginning, in his time, to be acknowledged by his countrymen o f England; Savonarola’s reforms, as expressing the desires for peace and purification, which were in all true hearts, during a period o f so much strife and so many stains, as that period o f transition from the middle ages to our modern times; and finally, the Castilian war, as one among numerous histories concern ing the same desires for juster principles and larger life. The author has brought to his work those rare qualities o f mind and heart, which alone impart a value and give an in terest to it. W ith no mean culture o f the intellect, a comprehensive mind, and a heart strong in the love o f history, the author groups, as it were, the ideas o f history, rather than the incidents and details, and thus furnishes us with a book o f suggestions for men o f thought. Facts are useful in their place; but, without philosophic deduction, they are like the body without the soul— o f little or no account. 446 The Book Trade. 10. — Appleton's Railroad and Steamboat Companion; being a Travellers' Guide through N ew England and the Middle States, with Routes in the Southern and Western States, and also in Canada. Form ing, likewise, a Complete Guide to the W hite Mountains, Catskill Mountains, etc., Niagara F ills, Trenton Falls, etc., Saratoga Springs, and other W atering-Places, etc., etc. Illustrated with numerous Maps and Engravings. By W . W illiam s . 18mo., pp. 235. N ew Y ork : D. Appleton &. Co. In the preparation o f this work, the compiler has wisely, we think, abandoned the old plan o f filling the pages with tables o f routes, which, from their complexity, it is so diffi cult to trace or understand; and, instead o f a general map, the accompaniment o f the old guides— which, from the smallness o f the scale on which it is graduated, is of very little use in a railroad car, and which, from its size, and the necessity o f its being opened and re-opened, folded and re-folded, is extremely inconvenient in a crowded conveyance— for this work, maps o f the several routes are engraved ; and where it is a long one, the route has been continued on another map, in such a way as to be easily understood. The whole arrangement o f the information embodied in this book, is admirably adapted to the pur poses for which it was intended; and the materials, which appear to have been gathered from the most authentic sources, and the result o f actual observation, furnish information that is at once recent and reliable. It is, in our opinion, the best guide-book that has yet been published in this country. 11. — The Principles o f Nature, H er Divine Revelations, and a Voice to Mankind. By and through A ndrew J ackson D av is , the “ Poughkeepsie Seer,” and “ Clairvoyant.” In Three Parts. 8vo., pp. 782. New Y o rk : S. S. Lyon & W m . Fish bough. This is certainly an extraordinary work— the most, perhaps, that has appeared during the present century. It purports to “ consist o f the consecutive reasonings and revelations o f a spirit freed, by a certain physical process, the philosophy o f which is explained, from the obstructing influence o f the material organization, and exalted to a position which gave access to a knowledge o f the structure and laws o f the whole material universe.” Aside from this claim, it is a most remarkable production, and would be so considered, if it had been put forth without such pretensions, which we do not mean to say are not wellfounded. For boldness c f conception, and comprehensiveness o f plan, so far as we know, it is without a parallel in the history o f literature, philosophy, and religion. It discusses all these subjects with the most perfect freedom. W e learn thus much by the casual read ing o f parts. It has, o f course, received from reviewers all sorts o f treatment. The re ligious sentiments it inculcates, have been denounced as infidel by the great body of ortho dox theologians, and, o f course, lauded by free-thinkers as the very essence of truth. It seems to take in the whole range o f human knowledge, and, not content with our earth, the author visits other planets and other worlds, and discourses to us o f their inhabitants and their peculiarities. But this is not the place, had we space, to give an idea of the contents o f the volume, much less to express an opinion o f its claims to credence as a revelation o f nature, or its merits as a production o f the human mind. W e have no fear, however, o f commending it to the curious, although that is scarcely necessary, as they, no doubt, are much in advance o f us on this head. The friends o f old and well-established truth, have nothing to fear from whatever errors Mr. Davis may have “ r e v e a l e d f o r we believe, with one o f his axioms, “ that any theory, hypothesis, philosophy, sect, creed, or institution, that fears investigation, openly manifests its own error.” 12. — The History, Manners, and Customs o f the North American Indians. 245. New Y o r k : Robert Carter. ISmo., pp. This is a reprint from a work published by the “ London R eligious Tract Society," and appears to be compiled from the works o f our countryman, Catlin. It abounds in picto rial illustrations o f Indian life and scenery, more spirited in design than beautiful in exe cution. The English author has adopted the familiar form o f the dialogue, and the Amer ican editor has omitted such parts o f the work as seemed to him irrelevant, or not well authenticated. 447 The Book Trade. 13. — Reminiscences o f Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Robert Southey. By J oseph C ot l2mo., pp. 378. New Y o rk : W iley & Putnam. These brief memorials o f Mr. Coleridge and Mr. Southey, were written by Mr. Cottle, the same individual who, more than half a century before, contributed his efforts to as tle . sist and encourage them, in their first entrance on a literary life. T he work is founded on letters and various memoranda, that, for the most part, had lain in a dormant state for many years, and which were preserved as mementos o f past scenes personally interesting, but without, in the first instance, the least reference to ultimate publication. Such is the account we derive from the statements o f Mr. Cottle. Those who delight to study the history o f the human mind, in its moral and intellectual developments, will find in these pages a rich legacy o f rare and varied instruction. The private letters of Coleridge and Southey, undoubtedly disclose a faithful portrait o f the intellectual life o f two o f the most eminently gifted men to be found in the annals o f English literature— o f men, to quote from a letter o f Southey to Cottle, who “ write in sincerity, and with the desire o f teach ing others so to think and to feel, as may be best for themselves and the community, and laboring as much in their vocation as if they were composing sermons, or delivering them from the pulpit.” — Woman, H er Education and Influence. By Mrs. H ugo R eid . W ith a General In troduction. By Mrs. C. M. K irkland . “ Can man be free, and woman be a slave ?” W ith numerous illustrations. 18mo., pp. 100. N ew Y ork : Fowler & W ells’ Phreno logical Cabinet, 131 Nassau-street. 14. This is an excellent work, and one that cannot be too generally read and studied, not only by women o f all ages and conditions, but by every intelligent friend o f human pro gress, o f either sex. T he original work, we were not surprised to learn, had been trans lated into the principal languages o f Europe, and deservedly gained for the author a sub stantial reputation. Following an introductory chapter from the pen o f Mrs. Kirkland, Mrs. Reid’s essay is divided into eleven chapters, in which she treats o f the imperfections o f society; the power o f female influence ; woman’s sphere; domestic duties; woman’s claims to equal rights; injustice o f laws relating to w om an; education of woman, e tc.; which she discusses with great force, clearness, and ability. Mrs. K.’s introduction, and the additions made to the present issue, render it the most desirable edition o f the work that has yet been published. 15. — The True Story o f M y L ife : a Sketch. By H ans C hristian A ndersen. Trans lated by M a r y H o w itt . 18mo., pp. 298. Boston: James Munroe & Co. N o literary labor, says Mrs. Howitt, is more delightful to me than translating the beau tiful thoughts and fancies o f Hans Christian Andersen. The true story o f his life, she adds, will not be found the least interesting o f his writings; for it furnishes the key, as it were, to all the rest; and the treasures that it unlocks will be found to be possessed o f an additional value, when viewed through the medium o f this introduction. The fact that Mrs. Howitt saw fit to translate the work, will be a sufficient inducement for many to read the volum e; which, we confess, we have not yet found time to d o ; but one who has, and in whose judgment we place the most implicit confidence, assures us that it is one o f the most interesting and instructive books o f the day. The original author has a personal interest, not only in the London edition, but in the American reprint; so that every copy sold will add something to his coffers or comfort. — Solitude Sweetened; or, Miscellaneous Meditations on Various Religious Subjects, W ritten in Distant P arts o f the World. By J ames M eikle , late Surgeon at Corneth. l2m o., pp. 286. N ew Y o rk : Robert Carter. This work is highly recommended by a large number o f the orthodox clergy, for “ the 16. warm spirit o f living devotion which breathes through it,” and as exhibiting “ a very happy talent in the author, in deducing from the phenomena o f nature, and from the ordinary occurrences o f life, much religious instruction, in an' unostentatious and pleasing style.” embraces one hundred and forty-seven meditations on various subjects. It 448 The Booh Trade. 17. — The History o f Sunday-Schools, and o f Religious Education, from the Earliest Times. By L ewis G. P r a y . 12mo., pp. 262. Boston: William Crosby & H. P . Nichols. The design o f this little volume is to furnish a brief history o f religious education, from the earliest times down to the establishment o f Sunday-schools, and to trace their rise, progress, and influence. In the preparation o f the work, accuracy and brevity, rather than fulness, completeness, or originality, seem to have been kept in view, and the author has brought oat the most important facts prominently, and within a narrow compass. It will be interesting to the friends and patrons o f Sunday-schools, who will doubtless find a confirmation o f their faith in the benefits which are likely to arise from the countenance and extension o f Sunday-schools, and religious education in general. 18. — The Organization o f Labor and Association. By M atth ew B riancourt . Trans lated by F rancis G eo . S haw . 18mo., pp. 102. N ew Y o rk : W m . H. Graham. The subject o f association, on the plan o f Charles Fourier, is ably discussed in this pamphlet. The miseries o f the present condition o f society are pointed ou t; and, in a few pages, the author displays “ the very simple mechanism o f the organization o f labor,” and finally attempts to demonstrate, that this organization is conformable to the views o f the Creator. That some change is to take place in the condition o f man, and in the pros pects o f society, and a higher, purer state attained on earth, we have no doubt; but we are not prepared to say, that this change is to be effected by the principles supported in the present volume, or through the instrumentality o f Fourier’s theory o f association. 19. — Relics from the W reck o f a Former W o rld ; or, Splinters Gathered on the Shores o f a Turbulent Planet. P roving, to a Demonstration, the Vast Antiquity o f the Earth, and the E xistence o f Animal L ife o f the most Fantastic Shapes, and the most E legan t Colors, Rivalling those o f the Rainbow, Millions o f Years before the A p pearance o f Man. W ith an Appendix on the Scenery in a Patch o f Infinite Space. To which is added, Accounts o f the most Wonderful Bodies and Substances that have Fallen from Heaven, in all A ges o f the W orld, with an Analysis o f Each. Illus trated with Engravings. 8vo., p p .-------. New York : W . H. Graham. W e have given the extraordinary title-page in full, and i f it does not excite the mind of the curious, anything that we may add will not, surely. From the preface, which will be read (if for no other reason) because it is brief, even briefer than the title, we learn, that the work is intended to furnish a general view o f the leading appearances o f physical na ture, the economy o f the heavens and the earth, deduced from Milner’s 44 Gallery o f N a ture,” Mantell’s “ Medals o f Creation,” and other authentic sources. The realities o f creation certainly surpass, in grandeur and sublimity, the most imposing fictions o f ro mance. 20. — Poems. By G eorge H. C a l v e r t . 12mo., pp. 125. Boston: W . D. Dickinson & Co. Mr. Calvert, i f not a great poet, gives utterance to 44thoughts that breathe and words that burn.” In other words, he writes, because he has something to say— and no man of that character leaves the purpose o f his mission entirely unfulfilled. The smallest insect, and the minutest particle o f the great globe, are parts o f a whole, without each o f which that whole would be incomplete. The same statement can be applied, with equal truth, to the world o f mind. The pieces in this volume, although mostly fragmentary, embody thoughts and feelings that cannot fail o f leaving their impress upon the mind that is pre pared to receive jthem. 21. — The Arabian N ights’ Entertainments. N ew Y o rk : C. S. Francis & Co. W e can only repeat, on receipt o f the present part, our admiration o f the admirable style in which this edition o f a universally popular work has been re-produced by the American publishers. well executed. T w o parts more will complete the series. T he illustrations are