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E s t a b lis h e d J u l y , 18 3 9 ,






N U M B E R V.

OF NO. V., VOL. X V .



By General H. A . S. D earborn , o f Massachusetts, author o f “ Ji Memoir o f the Commerce
and N avigation o f the Black Sea, and the Trade and Maritime Geography o f Turkey and
E g y p t'1 etc.,.......................................................................................................................
By a M erchant of N e w Y ork , ............................................................................................................. 446
m . N E W Y O R K : A N D TH E R A IL R O A D EN TE RP RISE : W ith Reference to the Position
and Prospects o f her Commercial Ascendancy—more especially in Relation to the Railroad
Movement. By J ohn B. Je r v is , Esq., Civil Engineer, o f New Y ork,........................................... 456
IV .
M O R AL S OF T R A D E .—W H A T IS M E R C A N T IL E C H A R IT Y 7 By the Rev. J. N.
B e llo w s , A . M.,...........................................................................................................................................463
V . RO B E R T FU LT O N ’ S F IR ST V O Y A G E ,............................................................................................ 468
V I. TH E L A W OF D E BT O R AN D CR ED ITO R IN LO U ISIA N A —No. H .—By F rancis H.
U pton , Esq., Counsellor at Law, lnte o f New Orleans, now o f New Y ork,........ ...........................471
TH E CH ANCES OF SUCCESS IN M E R C A N T IL E L IF E ,................................................. 475
R A IL R O A D F$O M TH E A T L A N T IC TO TH E PA CIFIC ,................................................. 477
IX .
IN D IAN MOUNDS. By Hon. B enjamin F. P o r t e r , o f Alabama,.........................................480
BUSINESS.— 1st. Dealing with Others about Business. 2d. Dealing with the Business itself,.. 482




Digest o f American Cases.—Bank Action.—Bill o f Exchange,..................................................................... 485
Marine Insurance.—Partnership.—Promissory N ote,............................................................................................
Blockade—Decision in the Case o f the Prize Brig Nayade,............................................................................ 486
Advertising Liabilities,................................................................................................................................. .


State o f the Money Market—Tariff—Commerce o f New York—Imports and Exports—Mr. Webster—
Loans—Mexican W ar—Treasury Notes—Tolls on New Y ork and Pennsylvania Canals—Price o f
Leading Products—Boston Bank Dividends—New York Bank Dividends— Commercial Prosperity—
Exchanges on New York—Precious Metals—Leading Imports at New Orleans, etc., etc.,.......... 488-404

VOL. XV.---- NO. V.





The New Russian Tariff—Duties o f Export and Import,...............................................................................
Spanish Import Duties on Cotton,........................................................................................................................


J O U R N A L OF B A N K I N G , C U R R E N C Y A N D F I N A N C E .
Curious Facts in relation to Colonial Currency, compiled from authentic sources,...................................497
The United States Sub-Treasury Bill, (official co p y ,)..................................................................................... 497


OF P O P U L A T I O N .

Progress o f Population in the United States, from the Original Census o f 1790 to 1901. By W illiam
D arby , Author o f a “ Universal Gazetteer,” ........................................................................................... 50t
Population, Revenue, Debts and Power o f European Nations,..................................................................... 505

Department o f Hydrography, Havana,...............................................................................................................
Revolving Light on Stone Q.uay—Newfoundland Shoal,................................................................................
Gull Stream—Longitude o f Brazos Santiago,..................................................................................................
Devil’ s Rocks, Western Islands,...................................................................................................


New Light, Honduras,........................................................................................................................................... 507
N ew Lighthouse, south point o f G otland,........................................................................................................ 507

Western Railroads and Canals.


By J. W . S c ott , Esq., o f Ohio,............................................................. 508

Royal Mail Steam Packet Company,.................................................................................................................. 509
Route traversed by Passengers between England and the west Coast o f South America,......................... 509
A Railway Smoking Saloon,................................................................................................................................ 510
Georgia Railroad and Banking Company,.......................................................................................................... 510
Distances on the Georgia Railroad between Augusta and Atlanta,................................................................ 510
Business o f each Station on the Georgia Railroad in 1846,............................................................................ 511
Receipts, from all sources, o f the Georgia Railroad in 1846,...........................................................................512
Statistics o f the Hartford and New Haven Railroad in 1845-46,.................................................................. 512
Steamboats built in the W est in 1846—Brooklyn Steamboat Ferries,........................................................... 513
Extension o f the Magnetic Telegraph in the United States,............................................................................ 513

J O U R N A L OF M I N I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S .
Nineteenth Exhibition o f the American Institute at Gastle Garden,............................................................ 514
Production o f Coal in the different States o f Europe........................................................................................ 515
Lead Trade o f the West, in 1845,......................... .................................................................................................



Shipping owned in and sailing from Charleston, South Carolina, from 1836 to 1846,..................................517
Virginia Inspections and Export o f Tobacco, from 1836 to 1846.............................. ..............................
Imports and Exports o f Produce, etc., at Cincinnati, in 1845 and 1846........................................................ 519
Exports from Boston o f Cotton Goods, for the year ending May 31,1846..................................................... 520
Prices o f Genesee Flour in New York, for the last twenty-four years.......................................................... ....



Tobacco Smuggling in England.— Benevolent Chinese Merchant,................................................................ 521
Anecdote o f an Edinburgh Merchant.-—Simmonds & W ard’ s London Commercial A gency,..................522
Chinese Opium Trade,........................................................................................................................................... 522
Manufactures o f Dutchess County— Errors Corrected,........................................................... ........................523

Notices o f Thirty-two New W orks, or Editions........................................................................................ 523-528


N O V E M B E R ,


A h isto ry o f navigation and naval architecture was commenced more
than a year since, and the twelfth number had been published in the Nau.
tical Magazine, on the first o f last May, when that valuable periodical
work was suspended. It was the object o f the author to present a condensed account o f the maritime enterprise o f all nations, from the earliest
ages to the present tim e.'
The preceding numbers included the history o f the rise and development
o f the commercial and naval marines o f Egypt, Tyre, Carthage, Greece,
Rome, and other ancient empires, until their extinction, and o f the mod­
ern nations o f Venice, Genoa, Spain, Portugal, Holland, England, France,
Denmark, Sweden, Turkey, and their numerous colonial establishments in
the East and W est Indies, North and South America, and on the coasts o f
Africa and Asia, to the memorable engagement between the fleets o f A d­
miral Keppel and Count D ’ Orvilliers, in 1778.
After the lapse o f several months, the subject has been resumed, and
will be continued, in four numbers, to the ratification o f the treaty o f peace
between the United States and Great Britain, in 1783 ; and it is possible
it may be extended to the close o f the present year, as was originally in­
tended. But if the history o f navigation cannot be immediately prosecuted
through the important period which has elapsed since the establishment
o f our national independence, that o f naval architecture w ill certainly be
concluded in two additional numbers.
So vastly have the commercial and naval fleets o f Europe and o f this
continent been augmented within the last sixty years, and so far have the
bounds o f nautical adventure been extended, in consequence o f the im ­
mensely increased products o f agricultural, manufacturing and mechanical
industry, that it is desirable the respective proportions o f navigation which

4 36

Navigation and Naval Architecture.

the numerous maritime nations have employed, and the credit due to each,
for their enterprise and skill as merchants and mariners, as well as the
brilliant achievements o f their squadrons in war, should be more amply
disclosed than can be immediately accom plished; and, therefore, it may
be found indispensably necessary to defer that portion o f the history to a
period when the requisite time for its completion can be more certainly


“ A rising nation, spread over a wide and fruitful land; traversing all the seas with the
rich productions o f their country; engaged in commerce with nations who feel power and
forget right; advancing rapidly to destinies beyond the reach o f mortal eye.” —J e f f e r s o n .

Spain having concluded, in June, 1779, to take a decided part with
France and Am erica against Great Britain, a joint naval expedition was
determined upon by the courts o f the two form er; and Count D ’ Orvilliers
sailed from Brest, with a large fleet, early in June, for the purpose o f form­
ing a junction with that o f Spain, which was accomplished on the twentyfourth. Their united forces, amounting to sixty-six ships o f the line,
steered for England early in August. Large bodies o f troops had been
previously stationed on the coasts o f Normandy and Brittany; and the
ports in the Channel and Bay o f Biscay were thronged with vessels, for
the apparent purpose o f invading England or Ireland.
D ’ Orvilliers passed Sir Charles Hardy, who was cruising in the Bay o f
Biscay, with nearly forty ships o f the line, without their having the least
knowledge o f each other. Sir Charles had sailed from Spithead on the
sixteenth o f June— the day on which the Spanish manifesto was presented
to the British court. The French fleet appeared otf Plymouth on the even­
ing o f the sixteenth o f August; and if an attempt had then been made
to take that important naval arsenal, it must have been successful; for it
was in an utterly defenceless condition. An easterly storm having com ­
menced on the eighteenth, which continued until the twenty-second, the
fleet was obliged to pass lower down the Channel, and, instead o f return­
ing, cruised off the Land’ s End, the Scilly Isles, and the chops o f the
Channel, until the end o f the month, for the purpose o f intercepting the
fleet o f Sir Charles Hardy on its return ; but he was enabled to gain the
entrance o f the Channel on the thirty-first, in sight o f the combined fleets,
which pursued him as far as Plymouth ; but, in consequence o f the great
sickness which prevailed in the French and Spanish ships, as well as their
impaired condition, and the apprehension o f a gale from the near approach
o f the equinox, Count D ’ Orvilliers deemed it necessary to abandon the
British coast and repair to Brest, early in September. Several o f the pub­
lic and private armed ships o f the United Colonies achieved splendid vic­
tories during the year 1779. Captain John Hasten W illiams had distin­
guished himself as a naval officer in the service o f the colony o f Massa­
chusetts, while commander o f the Republic, o f twelve guns, by the capture
o f a large armed merchant ship, richly laden, which he carried into Bos­
ton ; and having been appointed commander o f the Hozand, o f fourteen
guns, he captured, in February, 1779, the brig Active, o f eighteen guns,
after a vigorous and close action o f thirty minutes. The following May,
he sailed in the ship Protection, o f twenty guns, and, in June, engaged the

Navigation and Naval Architecture.


Admiral Duff, a letter o f marque, o f equal force. T h e action was contin­
ued, at close quarters, for more than an hour, when the British ship was
perceived to be on fire. Captain W illiams immediately hauled off, but had
scarcely disengaged his vessel before the Admiral D uff blew up ; but, by
great exertions, he succeeded in saving fifty-five o f her crew . On his re­
turn, with a crew greatly reduced in numbers, he sustained a running
fight with the frigate Thames, o f thirty-two guns ; and was enabled to in­
jure the enemy so much that he finally sheered off.
In June, 1779, a squadron under the command o f Captain Whipple,
consisting o f the Providence, o f thirty-two guns, the Queen o f France, o f
twenty-eight, and the Ranger, o f eighteen, captured eleven vessels out o f
a commercial fleet o f one hundred and fifty sail, under the convoy o f a ship
o f the line, and several frigates and sloops o f war ; eight o f which arrived
in Boston, the value o f whose cargoes amounted to over a million o f dollars.
Captain John Paul Jones sailed from the roads o f Groaix, on the west­
ern coast o f France, in August, with a squadron consisting o f the Bonne
Homme Richard, o f forty guns, the Alliance, o f thirty-six, the Pallas, o f
thirty-two, the Cerf, o f eighteen, and the V engeance, o f twelve, for the
purpose o f intercepting the Baltic fleets. W h en off Flamborough Head,
on the twenty-third o f September, he discovered the northern commercial
fleet, under convoy o f the Serapis, o f forty-four guns, and the Countess o f
Scarborough, o f thirty-two. The merchant ships took refuge under Scar­
borough Castle. T h e frigates stood out to sea and prepared for action.
It was night before Jones came up with them, when they tacked and stood
towards the shore. H e immediately changed his course with the intention
o f cutting them off. As the Pallas, at the same time, hauled her wind
and stood out to sea, and the Alliance lay to, at a considerable distance,
the Bonne Homme Richard was left alone to contend with the two British
ships. T h e action commenced about seven o ’ clock, within pistol shot.
Several o f the guns in the Bonne Homme Richard having been burst,
Jones determined to grapple with the Serapis, and thus render her supe­
riority less efficient, and prevent the Countess o f Scarborough from firing.
With great difficulty, this object was, at last, so fully accomplished that
the muzzles o f the guns touched each other. In this situation they were
engaged for nearly three hours, and all the guns o f the Bonne Homme
Richard but four, were silenced. Captain Pearson, the commander o f the
Serapis, then attempted to board, but was repulsed ; and soon after, not
being able to bring a single gun to bear, he struck. Captain Jones imme­
diately took possession o f the ship, and removed his crew on board ; and
shortly after, his own ship sunk.
The Pallas, commanded by Captain Cotineau, engaged the Countess o f
Scarborough, while the battle was raging between the Bonne Homme
Richard and the Serapis, and captured her after an action o f two hours.
On the arrival o f Captain Jones in Paris, a sword was presented to
him by the king of France, who also conferred upon him the cross o f the
order o f military m erit; and, by a resolution o f the 27th o f February,
1781, Congress declared that they entertained “ a high sense o f the dis­
tinguished bravery and military conduct o f John Paul Jones, Esq., Captain
in the navy o f the United States, and particularly in his victory over the
British ship o f war Serapis, which was attended with circumstances so
brilliant as to excite general applause and admiration.”
Count D ’ Estaing, who sailed from Boston the third o f November, 1778,


Navigation and Naval Architecture.

arrived at St. Lucia in the afternoon o f the fourteenth o f Decem ber, with
a fleet o f twelve ships o f the line, besides a number o f frigates and trans­
ports which had joined him in the W est Indies, with a land force o f about
nine thousand men. A descent had been made upon that island, the pre­
ceding day, by a squadron under Admiral Barrington, o f five ships o f the
line and three frigates, and a military force commanded by General Mead­
ow s. T h e British ships w ere arranged across Careening Bay, between
two forts, in such a manner as to effectually guard the entrance. In the
afternoon o f the fifteenth, the Count made an attack upon the British
squadron ; but after sustaining a heavy cannonade from the boats and
ships, until dark, he retired, with a loss o f a great number o f men. The
next night he landed his troops in Choc Bay, between Gross-Islet and C a­
reening Bay. On the eighteenth, he advanced, in three columns, upon
the British lines, which extended across the isthmus; but, after three gal­
lant assaults, he was compelled to retreat, with the loss o f four hundred
men killed, and eleven hundred wounded. T h e troops w ere re-embarked
on the twenty-third, and he left the island the next day.
Count D ’ Estaing took the island o f St. Vincent on the eighteenth o f
June ; and his force having been augmented, by the arrival o f a squadron
under D e la Motte Piquet, to twenty-five ships o f the line, twelve frigates,
and ten thousand troops, under Count Dillon, he sailed for Grenada, which
was taken on the third o f July. In the mean time, Admiral Byron, who
had convoyed the W est India commercial fleet through the most exposed
portion o f its route, returned to St. Lucia, where he received intelligence
o f the loss o f St. Vincent, and immediately determined to proceed to that
island with a land force, under Governor Grant, for the purpose o f recov­
ering i t ; but having received information, on his passage, o f the attack
on Grenada, he changed his destination, and steered for that island,
although his armament consisted o f only twenty-one ships o f the line, and
one frigate. H e arrived within sight o f the French fleet on the morning
o f the sixth o f July ; and Count D ’Estaing, having received intelligence
o f his approach, was getting under way. A n action commenced at eight
o ’ clock, and ceased at twelve ; but was again renewed at two, and con ­
tinued, for a great portion o f the time, until evening, without anything es­
sential having been effected on either side.
Three o f the English ships were disabled, and many o f the others sus­
tained considerable damage in their masts and r ig g in g ; and the French
had a great number o f men killed and wounded. In the morning the
Count returned to Grenada, and Admiral Byron proceeded to Antigua.
Count D ’ Estaing having repaired and garrisoned the forts in Grenada,
repaired to St. Francois, where he received despatches from the governor
o f South Carolina, General Lincoln, and the French consul at Charleston,
requesting his co-operation in a proposed attack upon Savannah ; and, as
he had been directed by his sovereign to act in concert with the American
forces whenever an occasion occurred, he despatched two ships o f the line
and three frigates to Charleston, to announce his determination to proceed
to the coast o f Georgia as soon as the requisite arrangements for that pur­
pose could be made.
On the reception o f that cheering intelligence, General Lincoln marched
with all expedition for Savannah, with the troops under his command ; and
orders were given for the militia o f North Carolina and G eorgia to imme­
diately rendezvous near that city.

Navigation and Naval Architecture.


Count D ’Estaing arrived, with twenty ships o f the line, two o f fifty guns,
and eleven frigates, on the first o f September ; but, as the British had
sunk a number o f ships in the channel, and extended a boom across it, to
prevent the French frigates from entering the harbor, and as the large
ships could not approach near the shore, the troops w ere not landed until
the twelfth, and Savannah was not invested until the twenty-third. T h e
siege was vigorously prosecuted until the ninth o f October, when it was
decided to attempt to carry the enemy’ s work by an assault. T w o feints
w ere first made, by a portion o f the militia, and, about day-break, an at­
tack was commenced on the Spring-hill battery, with three thousand five
hundred French troops, six hundred continentals, and three hundred and
fifty o f the Charleston militia, headed by Count D ’Estaing and General
Lincoln. T h ey advanced up to the lines with great firmness, and two
standards w ere planted on the redoubts. At the same moment, Count
Pulaski, with two hundred cavalry, was rushing forward towards the town,
between the batteries, with the intention o f charging in the rear, when he
received a mortal wound. A general retreat then ensued o f the assail­
ants, after they had withstood the enemy’s fire for nearly an hour. Count
D ’Estaing received two wounds, and eight hundred and seventy-eight men
w ere killed or wounded.
Count D ’Estaing re-embarked his troops in about ten days ; but scarcely
had that been accomplished, when a violent gale dispersed the fleets ; and
although he had ordered seven ships o f the line to repair to Hampton
Roads, in Chesapeake Bay, the Marquis de Vaudreuil was the only offi­
ce r who was able to execute that order.
On the tenth o f July, 1780, Chevalier Ternay’ s fleet, consisting o f seven
ships o f the line, two frigates, a cutter, a bomb-ship, and thirty-two trans­
ports, with six thousand French troops, under the command o f Count D e
Rochambeau, arrived at N ew Y ork. At that time, the combined squad­
rons o f Admirals Arbuthnot and Graves, which w ere in the harbor o f
N ew York, amounted to ten sail o f the line ; and Sir H enry Clinton em­
barked eight thousand men for the purpose o f proceeding to Rhode Island ;
but, after reaching Huntington Bay, having ascertained that troops w ere
marching from Connecticut and Massachusetts to join the French army,
and that Washington had crossed the Hudson with the evident intention
o f attacking N ew York, he abandoned the expedition and returned to
that city.
Sir G eorge Rodney, having been appointed to the ch ief command in
the W est Indies, received orders to proceed, in his way thither, with a
strong squadron, to the relief o f Gibraltar, which had been so closely
blockaded since the commencement o f hostilities between Spain and Great
Britain, that the garrison was reduced to great extremity, both with re­
spect to provisions, and munitions o f war. On the eighth o f January,
1780, he fell in with and captured a convoy bound from St. Sebastian’s to
Cadiz, consisting o f fifteen sail o f merchantmen, under the protection o f
a sixty-four, four frigates, and two smaller vessels.
On the sixteenth, he discovered a Spanish squadron o f eleven ships o f
the line, under D on Juan Langara, off Cape St. Vincent, which, being
inferior to him in force, the admiral endeavored to avoid an action ; when
Rodney threw out the signal for a general chase, with orders to engage,
as the ships came up, in rotation, taking, at the same time, the lee-gage,
to prevent a retreat. The engagement was commenced, by the headmost


Navigation and Naval Architecture.

ships, about four o’clock in the afternoon, and their fire was returned by
the Spaniards, with great spirit. Early in the action, the ship San Domingo, o f seventy guns, and a crew o f six hundred men, was blown up, and
all on board perished. Although the night was dark and tempestuous, the
pursuit and battle was continued till two o’clock the next morning, when
the van ship in the Spanish line struck to Rodney. The admiral’ s ship o f
eighty guns, with five o f seventy, w ere taken ; but two o f them w ere
wrecked on the coast, and the British prize officers and crew w ere made
prisoners. Four, only, o f the Spanish ships escaped. After despatching
a large portion o f his fleet to convoy his prizes to England, under the com ­
mand o f Admiral D igby, and executing his commission at Gibraltar, R od­
ney proceeded, about the middle o f February, to the W est Indies. H e
arrived at St. Lucia on the twenty-seventh o f March ; and, having learned
that Admiral D e Guichen, with a fleet o f twenty-three sail o f the line, and
a fifty gun ship, had put to sea, from Martinico, he sailed in pursuit o f him,
with twenty ships o f the lin e ; but the fleets did not meet until the seven­
teenth o f April, when there was a partial engagement, in which several
ships in each line sustained injury ; and, the French fleet having ta­
ken shelter under Guadaloupe, Rodney took a position off Fort Bayol,
where he remained for several days, and then returned to St. Lucia ; but,
receiving intelligence o f the approach o f Admiral D e Guichen’s fleet to
the windward o f Martinico, he put to sea, and got sight o f it on the tenth
o f May ; but D e Guichen avoided an engagement, and returned to M ar­
tinico, and Rodney proceeded to Barbadoes.
A Spanish fleet o f eighteen ships o f the line, under Don Joseph Solano,
arrived o ff Dominique, in June, and, being joined by Admiral D e Guichen
on the tenth, with an equal number, their combined force amounted to
thirty-six sail o f the line.
Admiral Rodney, having been apprised o f the approach o f the Spanish
fleet, had sailed from Barbadoes, for the purpose o f intercepting it before
it joined the French ; but, having failed in that object, he proceeded to
St. Lucia, where he was equally w ell situated for observing and counter­
acting the movements o f the combined fleets, and for self-defence. Ad­
mirals D e Guichen and Solano, however, remained inactive until the fifth
o f July, when they sailed in the n ig h t; but a misunderstanding between
the French and Spanish commanders rendered their junction, and supe­
riority to the British force, inconsequential; and after D e Guichen had
accompanied D on Solano as far as St. Domingo, he left the Spanish fleet
to proceed to Havana, and went to Cape Francois, where he remained
until a large convoy was collected from tbe French islands, and then sailed
directly for Europe.
Admiral Rodney, entertaining a mistaken apprehension thatDe Guichen
was bound to North Am erica, to join Admiral Ternay at Rhode Island, he
sailed immediately, with eleven ships o f the line, and four frigates, for
N ew York.
During these resultless operations o f the fleets in the W est Indies, the
united French and Spanish squadrons in the European seas were more
successful. A large convoy, for the East and W est Indies, sailed from
Portsmouth the latter part o f July, under the protection o f a ship o f the
line and two frigates, which was intercepted, on the ninth o f August, by
the combined fleets, under the command o f Don Louis D e Cordova. The
convoy included, besides merchantmen, eighteen provision, store, and

Navigation and Naval Architecture.


transport ships, which w ere destined for the naval sendee in the W est In­
dies, and five East Indiamen, with arms, ammunition, and a train o f artil­
lery, together with a large quantity o f naval stores for the supply o f the
British squadrons in that quarter. The East India ships, and fifty o f those
bound to the W est Indies, including those chartered by the government,
w ere taken, and carried into Cadiz. The prisoners, including twelve hun­
dred soldiers, amounted to two thousand four hundred and sixty-five. T h e
ships o f war, and a few o f the W est Indiamen, escaped.
Admiral Rodney, having returned from the American coast to St. Lu­
cia, towards the close o f the year, made an attempt to recover the island
o f St. V in cen t; but after landing a number o f soldiers and marines, under
General Vaughan, on the sixteenth o f D ecem ber, it was discovered that
the French w ere in such force, and their works so impregnable, it was
determined to abandon the expedition, and the troops were re-embarked
the next day.
T h e year 1781 was rendered memorable b y the establishment o f that
important maritime league called the “ armed n e u t r a lit y w h e n Russia,
which was the last o f the European nations that entered the career o f
navigation, assumed a most commanding attitude, as the projector and
head o f that formidable and glorious alliance for the vindication o f the



The rapid advancement o f the Muscovites from a semi-barbarous, to the
exalted position o f one o f the mightiest sovereignties o f modern times, is
the most extraordinary and wonderful phenomenon in the annals o f the
human race. Russia, like Rom e, commenced her experiment in marine
enterprise by the construction o f ships o f w a r ; for neither o f those im­
mense empires combined commerce with navigation, until they had caused
the imperial eagles to be respected on the sea, as w ell as on the land, by
the efficiency o f their fleets, and the splendor o f their naval victories.
W hen Peter the Great ascended the throne, in 1696, Archangel was
the only seaport in his dominions ; but he soon perceived that it was ne­
cessary to have squadrons in the Baltic and the Black Sea, to enable him
to resist the assaults o f Turkey on his southeastern frontier, and Sweden
on the northwestern. H e had, however, still more enlightened and en­
larged prospective views than were included within the means o f mere de­
fence against foreign aggression or for successfully prosecuting offensive
wars. H e determined to elevate the character o f his subjects, and in­
crease the resources and power o f his vast domain, by the introduction o f
letters, science, and the arts ; the development o f the products o f agricul­
ture and the mines ; the establishment o f manufactories, and the extension
o f mercantile intercourse with other portions o f the globe. T o accomplish
those grand objects, he invited literary and scientific instructors to fill the
first stations in his public academies, and intelligent navigators and arti­
ficers from Germany, France, and other kingdoms, to seek employment
and honorable rewards in R ussia; and in 1698 he went to Holland and
England, and labored as a carpenter and blacksmith in the dock-yards o f
Sardam and Deptford, to acquire a knowledge o f naval architecture, and
to becom e personally acquainted with the process o f ship-building, in all
its multifarious details. Before his return, he visited the colleges, public
schools, arsenals, and manufactories o f those nations, that he might be en­
abled to have imitated, in his own realm, whatever he discovered that was
best calculated to facilitate the realization, in the most speedy and certain


Navigation and Naval Architecture.

manner, o f the magnificent plans o f improvement which he had conceived
for the aggrandizement o f his empire.
Being involved in a war with Turkey, he established a navy-yard on
the river D o n ; and, in 1705, an eighty gun ship was launched in his pres­
ence ; and, in 1709, he had the proud satisfaction o f beholding two ships
o f the line and a frigate added to his fleet at Azov.
Having regained the provinces o f Ingria and Livonia, and the command
o f the river Neva, at the commencement o f the war with Charles X II., o f
Sweden, he determined to establish a port on the G ulf o f Finland, that he
might obtain a share o f the commerce o f the B a ltic; and, in the year
1703, the foundation o f the city o f Petersburgh was commenced.
Being enabled to put in requisition all the moral and physical resources
o f absolute power, and eager to accomplish the desired object, Peter prose­
cuted the work with such a determined and energetic spirit, and such un­
remitted industry, that, in less than nine years, the seat o f empire was
transferred from M oscow to the new capital. Merchants from other na­
tions w ere encouraged to establish themselves there, and a large number
o f the nobles, traders, artists, and other classes o f Russians, having been
required to erect palaces, houses, stores, and workshops, St. Petersburgh
soon becam e a place o f commercial consequence. Ships o f war were
built, and a victory having been gained in 1714 over the Swedish fleet, in
which the emperor acted in the subordinate capacity o f a captain o f one
o f the large ships, under the orders o f the admiral, he pbtained a com ­
manding influence in the Baltic. In the mean time, every possible exer­
tion was made to increase his marine force in the Black Sea ; and, hav­
ing discovered the great advantages which his subjects had derived from
navigation, and the aid which his naval squadrons in those seas had afforded
in the prosecution o f the wars with the Ottoman empire, and the fiery g e­
nius who swayed the sceptre o f Sweden, he becam e desirous o f opening
a trade with the East, through the Caspian Sea and the river V olga, which
traversed his extensive realm, from M oscow to Astracan.
In conformity to these views, he fitted out a fleet at Astracan, in 1722,
in which was embarked a large body o f troops, for the ostensible purpose
o f chastising some o f the Tartar and Persian tribes who had committed
depredations on his southeastern frontier. This expedition having been
successful, a treaty o f peace was concluded, and several provinces ceded
to Russia, which were highly important acquisitions, in consequence o f the
com m erce which was thus secured with Persia, and all the other oriental
nations, even as far as China ; and the extensive and very valuable fish­
eries w hich w ere speedily established on the borders o f that sea.
As a monarch, Peter I. o f Russia has not been equalled in ancient or
modern times, in scope o f conception, energy o f purpose, indomitable per­
severance, creative genius, and promptness, skill, and vigor, in execution.
In the brief period o f thirty years, he enabled Russia to emerge from a
state o f barbarism, and assume a pre-eminent position among the most
powerful nations o f Europe. H e was, in truth, “ an Anachonsis among
the S c y t h i a n s b u t , instead o f returning from the modern capitals o f
learning and refinement, to the uncivilized regions o f his nativity, a mere
philosopher, as did the unfortunate disciple o f Solon from ancient Athens,
he appeared a crowned sovereign, invested with ample power to command
obedience to his lessons o f instruction. T h e one endeavored to persuade,
while the other peremptorily ordered, his ignorant countrymen to become

Navigation and Naval Architecture.


an enlightened, industrious, prosperous, and mighty p eop le; the future ar­
biters o f the eastern hemisphere.
N o such man has ever before lived. W ith the prescience o f a prophet,
he clearly discerned the distant future in the vast mirror o f past ages ;
and remembering the confidence o f the inspired chieftain o f the Israelites,
he boldly worked onward, undoubting and sanguine, in the glorious frui­
tion o f all his majestic plans for the advancement o f his subjects to the
highest point o f moral and national grandeur. Other princes have exalted
the character o f nations which had already reached an elevated position
in the progress o f civilization. Alexander, H enry IV ., o f France, Fred­
erick II., o f Prussia, and Napoleon, increased the lustre o f their realms
by the splendor o f their victories, the important seminaries which they
founded for the development o f genius, the liberal patronage which they
extended for the advancement o f the industrial arts, and the enlightened
measures which they adopted for improving the condition o f the people ;
but the northern Caesar c re a ted an empire in the midst o f a wilderness,
and reared his magnificent throne on the prostrated customs, ignorance,
prejudices, and rude institutions o f savage tribes, whose unchanged debase­
ment, from the earliest ages, had rendered the appellation o f their common
country the synonyme o f the lowest state o f human degradation. H e did
not, like Constantine, found a new capital as the last city o f refuge for an
illustrious race o f imperial sovereigns, and the destined tomb o f an expir­
ing nation. Instead o f fleeing from internal convulsions, civil war, and
threatened invasion, and abandoning his native land and the graves o f his
illustrious ancestors to ruthless conquerors, in search d f a place o f safety,
in a distant region, he erected a modern Rom e, even far beyond the fabu­
lous borders o f the ferocious Cimbri and Dacians, who had often menaced
the destruction o f the ancient emporium o f the subjugated globe ; and this
has more effectually perpetuated his name and wonderful achievements
than has ever been done by any monument which regal ambition or pub­
lic gratitude and munificence has reared to commemorate the deeds o f man,
or the momentous events o f nations.
The measures which Peter the Great adopted, and energetically carried
into effect, to extend the navigation and com m erce o f Russia, equally
claimed the attention o f his imperial successors ; but Catharine II. accom ­
plished more than all the others. In the year 1769, while her armies
were harassing the Ottomans on the banks o f the Pruth, the Danube, and
the Dniester, and her fleets w ere triumphing in the Black Sea, she resolved
to attack them in the L ev a n t; and measures w ere vigorously prosecuted
for accomplishing that grand object. T h e dock-yards o f Archangel, Cronstadt, and Revel, were thronged with workmen, and the keels o f as many
ships laid, as could be simultaneously built at those several naval estab­
lishments. Officers and seamen, in the mean time, w ere collected from
England, Denmark, and other maritime nations, and, to the astonishment
o f all Europe, two squadrons sailed for the Mediterranean, in September,
which were soon followed by a third, under Vice-Adm iral Elphinstone.
T h e united force consisted o f twenty sail o f the line, six frigates, a num­
ber o f bomb-ketches, galleys, and transports, and displayed, for the first
time, the naval flag o f Russia in the Archipelago,
This fleet was commanded by Admiral Spinidoff; but he was under the
orders o f General Alexius Orlof. The Turkish fleet, under the Capudan
Pasha, Yaffen Bey, had anchored in the harbor o f the island o f Demnos ;


Navigation and Naval Architecture.

but, on the approach o f the Russians, retired to the channel that separates
the isle o f Scio from Anatolia. The Ottoman ships were superior in num­
ber, amounting to over thirty sail, and occupied a strong position behind a
number o f small islands and ledges. The Russians, however, prepared
to attack them on the fifth o f July. As they advanced, the Capudan Pasha,
whose flag was flying on board the Sultan, o f ninety guns, led the van,
and offered battle to Admiral SpinidofF. The ships closed, and the efforts
o f courage w ere terrible on both sides. Showers o f balls and grenades
interchangably crossed the decks o f the two admirals. The Sultan caught
fire, and the Russian commander not being able to disengage himself, they
both blew up together. T h e sea was covered with their smoking frag­
ments. The admirals, and a few o f the officers, were the only persons
w ho escaped the disaster. After this awful calamity, the battle was re­
newed with redoubled fuiy, until dark, when the fleets separated. The
Turks entered the narrow and shoal bay o f Tschesm e, in the peninsula
between the gulfs o f Smyrna and Scola Nova, where some o f their vessels
ran aground, and the others were so crowded together that they could not
act efficiently. The next day, Vice-Adm iral Elphinstone was stationed at
the entrance o f the bay, to prevent the Turks from escap ing; and a num­
ber o f fire-ships having been prepared and placed under the protection o f
a detachment o f four ships o f the line and two frigates, commanded by
Vice-Adm iral Greig, he proceeded, about midnight, to the attack. One
o f the fire-ships having been secured to a Turkish vessel, the whole fleet
was speedily wrapt in flames, and every ship destroyed.
After this unexampled victory, the Russian fleet proceeded to Paros, the
most commanding position in the Grecian seas, as a naval station, being
situated about midway between the M orea and Asia Minor.
Having conquered the Crimea, and extended the bounds o f her empire
from the Don to the Dniester, on the northwestern coast o f the Black Sea,
and to the Kuban on the eastern, Catharine, at last, obtained, by the treaty
o f peace which was concluded with the Sublime Porte, at Kainandgi, in
1774, the free navigation o f the Euxine, and the important right o f pass­
ing the Dardanelles, which had been closed against all nations for two
hundred years. This opened to Russia an immense field for maritime ad­
venture. The cities o f Taganrock on the Sea o f Azov, Senastapol, in the
Crimea, and Cherson, on the estuary o f the Dnieper, were successively
founded ; and, so rapidly did they increase, that the latter, which was com ­
menced in 1778, contained forty thousand inhabitants in 1783. Besides
a large naval force, including many ships o f the line, the Russians had
several hundred sail o f merchant vessels, which traded with the Turkish
ports o f the Black Sea and the Levant.
The internal navigation from the W hite and Baltic, to the Black and
Caspian Seas, was improved, by canals, and the removal o f obstructions
in the Volga, the Don, the Dnieper, and the northern Dwina ; and, ar­
rangements having been made with the Persian Court, highly favorable to
those new commercial emporiums, the Tigris and Euphrates again became
the channels o f intercommunication between the ancient Grecian ports o f
the Euxine, and the Indian Ocean— rivers ever memorable in the history
o f nations, from the facilities o f intercourse which they afforded between
the East and the W e s t ;— gave to “ Nineveh, that great city,” to “ mighty
Babylon,” and magnificent Palmyra, Solomon’ s “ Tadmor in the wilder­
ness,” their wealth, power, splendor, and ever-during renown.

Navigation and Naval Architecture.


T h e American revolution had excited deep interest in all the courts o f
Europe, and the effects o f the war between Great Britain and France and
Spain, were not only severely felt by Holland, but by all the northern na­
tions, in their copnnercial intercourse with the two latter kingdoms. Their
navigation was interrupted, and subjected to vexatious detentions and un­
warrantable captures by the fleets o f Great Britain, as the government
claimed and exercised the right o f searching neutral vessels for articles
contraband o f war, and enemies’ property, which so excited the resent­
ment o f those outraged nations, that Catharine II. at last determined to
adopt measures for protecting her commerce against such audacious and
insulting molestations in future. Negotiations were, therefore, opened
with France, Sweden, and Denmark, in 1780, for maturing a plan that
would enable them to maintain their maritime rights inviolate, which re­
sulted in the memorable treaty o f akmed n e u t r a l it y , by which they
agreed to use force for the security o f their ships against v isit a t io n
a n d search .
Prussia, Austria, Spain, and Holland, soon after united with
those nations in that bold and energetic measure ; and the co-operation o f
the United States having been early requested by Catharine, Congress
adopted the following resolution, on the fifth o f October, 1780 :—
“ H er Imperial Majesty, o f all the Russias, attentive to the freedom o f
commerce and the rights o f nations, in her declaration to the belligerent
and neutral powers, having proposed regulations founded upon principles
o f justice, equity, and moderation, o f which their Most Christian and
Catholic Majesties, and most o f the neutral maritime powers o f Europe,
have declared their approbation ;—
“ Congress, willing to testify their regard to the rights o f commerce,
and their respect for the sovereign who both proposed and the powers who
have approved the said regulation : therefore, Resolved, that the Board o f
Admiralty prepare and report instructions for the commanders o f armed
vessels commissioned by the United States, conformable to the principles
contained in the declaration o f the Empress o f all the Russias, on the
rights o f neutral vessels :
“ That the ministers plenipotentiary from the United States, i f invited
thereto, be, and hereby are respectively empowered to accede to such regu­
lations, conformable to the spirit o f the said declaration, as may be agreed
upon by the Congress expected to assemble, in pursuance o f the invitation
o f H er Imperial Majesty.”
Thus, a power, which, however great in other respects, was still very
inferior in consequence, in a naval point o f view, becam e the dictator to
the world o f a new code o f maritime laws, essentially different from those
w hich had been established for several hundred years among commercial
nations ; and having for their ch ief object, the overthrow o f that sove­
reignty on the ocean which had been arrogated by Great Britain. Every
possible effort was made, by the English ministry, to break up that pow er­
ful and alarming league, but without success ; and, not being in a condi­
tion to contravene the principles which had been so determinedly assumed,
they were, for the time, practically established as a part o f the law o f
The great principle o f the armed neutrality was, that “ free ships
make free goods
and this was so far extended, that it was declared
neutral States had a right to carry on com m erce with nations in a state o f
war, with the same degree o f convenience, ease, and safety, as in time o f


Naval and Mercantile Biography.

peace ; that neutrals had a right to carry and render, free, all things, from
one port o f a belligerent nation to another, without let or impediment, sa­
ving only such articles as were deemed contraband o f war, by the stipu­
lations o f former treaties; and to freely navigate the coasts o f nations at
w a r ; and that by ports blockaded, were to be considered only such as
were so strictly watched by the armed ships o f the powers which invested
them, that to enter would be dangerous.
Great exertions were made by the Empress o f Russia to enable her to
maintain the principles and enforce the regulations which w ere established
by the treaties that had been concluded by all the maritime nations o f the
globe, except- England and Portugal, for the freedom o f navigation, so far,
at least, as regarded her own commercial fleets ; and, twelve ships o f the
line having been built at Cherson, and eight at Cronstadt, the imperial ma­
rine amounted to forty-two ships o f the line for the Baltic, and twelve for
the Euxine, before the close o f the year 1781, when the armed neutrality
fearlessly displayed its flag in all the northern seas, and the Mediterranean.
So eminent were the talents o f Catharine II., so ably were the compli­
cated, difficult, and onerous duties o f her exalted station performed, and so
splendid was her reign, that she has been appropriately designated by the
expressive appellation o f the “ N o r t h e r n S e m i b a m i s . ”
nearch us.

“ Retinens vestigia farate.”
T h e importance o f our late national acquisition on the borders o f the

Pacific Ocean, whereby a vast and fruitful territory, in a salubrious climate,
containing one o f the best harbors in the world, is secured for the sup­
ply and protection o f our extensive whaling interest in that quarter, seems
to call for a passing notice o f the distinguished officer by whom the enter­
prise was so promptly conducted, and so happily consummated ; a result
showing that other qualities than personal bravery are necessary to consti­
tute able commanders, as w ell as to the attainment o f great ends ;— that a
knowledge o f human nature, and diplomatic skill, have proved as success,
ful as the sword ; thus humanely averting the sorrows which usually follow
in the train o f the conqueror. And we hope, by recounting some inci­
dents in the life o f this gallant and scientific seaman, w e shall stimulate the
future heroes o f our navy— the guardians o f our commerce— no less with
a high sense o f moral responsibility, than a praiseworthy emulation o f pro­
fessional skill.
J o h n D r a k e S l o a t was born in Goshen, Orange county, N ew
Y ork ; the posthumous son o f Captain John Sloat, whose unfortunate
fate it was to be accidentally shot by a sentinel, near his quarters in Rockland county, just before the close o f the war by which the independence
o f his country was achieved, and in which he served with credit. His
widow survived her sudden bereavement but a short period, and the care
o f this, their only son, devolved on his maternal relatives, who seem to
have been properly impressed with the responsibility they had assumed.
Their protege was w ell instructed in mathematics, and in the rudi­
ments o f an English education— all that our country schools afforded

Commodore John D rake Sloat.


at that period. As his grandfather Drake (a descendant o f a collateral
branch o f the family o f the celebrated admiral and circumnavigator)
was wont to relate the adventures o f his illustrious relative, he did not
fail to inspire his charge with a thirst for travel and enterprise. The
taste thus inculcated, so fully displayed itself in youth as to induce our
young adventurer to quit an endeared fireside for a berth in the navy, that
he might the better gratify his predilection.
This was during our quasi war with France, and in the heyday o f our na­
val successes over the haughty flag o f the Directory. It was at a period, too,
when the revolutionary service o f the sire presented an irresistible claim
for the public employment o f the deserving s o n ; and w e find, by the navy
register, that a midshipman’ s warrant was granted to our-aspirant, on the
twelfth o f February, 1800.
M r. Sloat was ordered to the frigate “ President,” Commodore Truxton, who took command o f her soon after his gallant exploits in the
“ Constellation;” — (the capture o f the French frigates, “ L ’ lnsurgente,”
and “ L a V engeance.” ) It was young Sloat’ s good fortune here, also,
to serve under that strict disciplinarian and accomplished officer, Com­
modore Chauncey, at that time first lieutenant o f the “ President.”
W ith
such models before him, during a lengthened service in the south o f Eu­
rope, he was enabled to lay the foundation o f a professional reputation
which has proved no less creditable to himself than honorable to his
Disappointment, so common in life, soon interposed to blast, for a time,
the prospects o f our naval debutant. The profligate sway o f the D irec­
tory being overthrown, the First Consul, happy to relieve his new-born
power from the difficulties and unpopularity o f an American war, ac­
cepted terms for peace. Those terms, proffered by Mr. Adams, and by
which he expected to retain power, w ere far from being advantageous to
us. By stipulating to restore the national vessels o f France which had
been captured, w e gave up the trophies o f victory, and purchased peace
at the cost o f fourteen millions o f dollars,* (the amount o f her spolia­
tions on our com m erce,) without an equivalent. A bill for compromising
these claims, thus assumed by our government, it will be remembered,
was passed by Congress at its last session, and vetoed by the E x ­
At the reduction o f the navy, which took place upon Mr. Jefferson’ s ac­
cession to the presidency, in 1801, Mr. Sloat took a furlough ; and the
prospect o f active employment being so remote, he, with many others,
neglected to report himself at its expiration ; thereby virtually abandoning
the service. H e had acquired such knowledge o f seamanship as enabled
him to command merchant vessels, w hich he navigated with success long
before he attained his majority. His grandfather Drake having deceased
about this time, bequeathed him a valuable property, including twelve
slaves, which were manumitted as soon as they came into his possession.
Fond o f the sea, he disposed o f his estate, and embarked his all in
a vessel o f which he took command, and sustained great loss during
several successive voyages ; commerce being more o f a lottery during the
European wars than now. Nothing daunted, however, by these frowns
* See Mr. Rice’s able article on French spoliations, in the October number o f this


Naval and Mercantile Biography.

o f fortune, Mr. Sloat pursued the course he had marked out for himself,
with various success, until the war with England, o f 1812, threw him out
o f business. Thus circumstanced, he gladly availed himself o f an offer
made by his old and esteemed friend, Commodore Decatur, to becom e
sailing master o f the frigate “ United States,” with promise o f an early
opportunity to regain his rank. The promise was soon fulfilled; for,
on the 25th o f October, 1812, the British frigate “ Macedonian” was
captured in single combat, under the following circumstances :— The
enemy tenaciously maintained the weather-gage for some time, which
enabled him advantageously to discharge his long guns at a distance be­
yond the reach o f the carronades o f the “ United States.” At length, an
unfortunate manoeuvre o f the enemy enabled Mr. Sloat to bring him to
close quarters, whereby the battle came to a speedy and successful
issue. Though wounded in the face, he did not quit his post during
the action. For his gallantry and skill, at the recommendation o f Com ­
modore Decatur, Mr. Sloat was immediately promoted to the rank o f
T h e “ United States” arrived o ff N ew London, on the fourth o f D ecem ­
ber, where she was blockaded for the remainder o f the war. During the
period which thus intervened, Lieutenant Sloat married a daughter o f the
late James Gordon, Esq., a N orwich merchant o f high respectability.
A t the restoration o f peace, Mr. Sloat took another furlough, and again
engaged in commerce. H e purchased and took command o f the clipper
“ Transit,” and loaded her for France. It so happened that he was
with this schooner at Nantz, at the period when the public life o f the
great Napoleon was closed forever. In order to rescue the Emperor,
several schemes were entertained; and, amongst others, Mr. Sloat ar­
ranged to receive him, with his suite, on board the “ Transit,” and to
transport them to the United States. This plan, so happily alluded to in
the journal o f a French officer, was frustrated by the indecision that
marked the conduct o f the friends o f the Emperor on this occasion, and
w hich eventuated in the surrender o f the fallen hero, to the British block­
ading squadron.
Mr. Sloat was first lieutenant o f the “ Franklin,” under the veteran
Commodore Stewart, during a large portion o f that vexatious cruise in the
Pacific, from 1820 to 1822, while on her borders w ere exhibited continued
scenes o f revolutionary contest.
H e was first lieutenant to Commodore Biddle in the “ Congress” frigate
in 1823, and by great skill saved her when in imminent peril during a
convulsion o f nature which occurred at L a Guayra, in the autumn o f
that year. Mr. David W inton, an aged seaman, now an inmate o f that
invaluable institution, the “ Sailor’s Snug H arbor,” has thus related to us
the circumstances o f i t :—
“ Commodore Biddle was ashore when an earthquake sunk the southwest part
of the city. This was succeeded by a hurricane which drove from their moorings,
and entirely destroyed twenty-two merchant vessels, and a Colombian man-of-war,
with their crew s: five only out of the whole were picked up by a boat from the
Congress. This boat and crew, consisting of a quarter-master and four men, were
lost directly after, in endeavoring to afford further relief.”
“ At the beginning of the blow Mr. Sloat ordered the boatswain to pipe all
hands, when he urged us to obey the officers and stand by the ship— promising fidl
pay and rations till we should reach home, in case the ship was wrecked. W e

Commodore John D rake Sloat.


parted our chain and other cables, excepting the best bower, which so dragged as
to bring us near enough to pitch a biscuit to the rocks. I never have witnessed
so hopeless a prospect as ours at that moment, and thank God we were enabled
safely to ride it out. Soon as the blow abated, Commodore Biddle came on board
on a catamarine,* and praised Mr. Sloat in the highest terms, for his skill in sav­
ing the 1Congress,’ when every other vessel in the port was lost.
“ W e immediately left for Curacoa, to get a supply of cables and anchors, for
the want of which we had to hazard a run on the wash.”
M r. Sloat soon after took command o f the schooner “ Grampus,” on the
African station, where his services in suppressing the slave trade were
highly commended by the Colonization Society. His activity and enter­
prise marked him as an efficient officer, for checking the piracies preva­
lent in the W est Indies in 1 8 24 -5 ; and he was ordered to cruise among
the Windward Islands. W hile at St. Thomas, a fire broke out, and as no
reliance could be placed on the slave population, the city must have fallen
a sacrifice to the flames, but for the intrepidity o f Captain Sloat, his officers
and crew.
A large subscription was made by the inhabitants and tendered, but
which was respectfully declined by Captain Sloat, on behalf o f his officers
and men.
For the following narrative the writer is indebted to the kindness o f an
officer who was attached to the Grampus at the period referred to :—
“ W hile at St. Thomas, in March, 1825, information was obtained by
Governor V on Scholten, that Cofrecinas, a pirate o f celebrity, was o ff Porto
R ico, and he immediately communicated it to Captain Sloat, and laid an
embargo on all vessels in port, that the expedition contemplated for his
capture might not be made known.
“ After cruising in vain for several days, Captain Sloat went into
Ponce, Porto R ico, and had an understanding with the governor o f that
place, that in case he heard any firing along the coast, he was to order his
horsemen to assemble at the spot. T h e next morning a suspicious sail
was seen off the harbor, in a calm, and lest he should recognize and avoid
the “ Grampus,” (for she was w ell known to them all,) a coasting sloop was
filled below with seamen and marines, and sent in pursuit, under the command o f the first lieutenant, now Captain Pendergrast. W hen the breeze
sprung up in the afternoon, Cofrecinas’ piratical vessel was discovered in
an obscure harbor, called B oca de Infiemo. H e first ran for the sloop,
which he knew, and felt sure o f as a prize ; but when within pistol shot to
windward, the signal was given, and the seamen and marines springing
from below, fired a broadside into the astonished pirate, which cleared his
deck for a moment o f all but the undaunted Cofrecinas, who was at the
helm. His men, however, shortly returned to their duty, and they kept up
a running fight for more than an hour, displaying great skill in endeavor­
ing to out-manceuvre the sloop and escape. But after losing several o f his
men, he was forced to run the vessel ashore : the survivors jumped over­
board, and waded through the water, amidst the grape and musketry o f
the sloop, which killed several. T h e sloop had a four pound carronade, as
also had the pirate, but he was unable to fire it, as his men were shot down
whenever they attempted it. On the shore they w ere surrounded by the
soldiers, who, in accordance with the understanding, assembled on hear* A raft made of two logs lashed together.
VOL. XV.---- NO. V.



Naval and Mercantile Biography.

ing the firing, and took the prisoners to St. John, the capital, where they
were all shot by sentence o f a court-martial.”
A gentleman who witnessed the execution, stated, that when they at­
tempted to blindfold Cofrecinas, he spurned the handkerchief and the priest,
and cried in a loud voice, “ I have killed hundreds with my own hands,
and I know how to die.
Fire !”
H e fell, the last and most daring o f
the pirates o f that region. In his vessel were found a few goods, the re­
mains o f the cargo o f a French brig taken a short time before, and whose
crew and passengers he had murdered. The manner in which the in­
formation was obtained which led to the capture o f this pirate may be
worthy o f record. Cofrecinas had taken, only a short time before he was
discovered, the sloop in which he was cruising when captured. The mas­
ter o f the sloop proved to be an old acquaintance, and he appealed to C o­
frecinas to spare his life, his men being compelled to join the pirates ; but
Cofrecinas told him that their rule was to kill all that did not join them,
and that he was unable to save him from his men, but that he could spare
him till sunset. The master o f the sloop then went below and brought
up a demijohn o f wine, and handed it to the pirates, who were feasting on
his provisions— his respite till sunset was confirmed by them. T h ey
asked him i f he could swim, to which, with great presence o f mind, he an­
swered in the negative, and begged not to be thrown overboard, but to
have a more immediate death, which they smilingly promised. H e then
went into his little cabin to collect his thoughts. H e saw that the shore
was about two miles o f f ; it was falling calm, and the pirates carousing
at anchor off Foxardo. H e now cast off the boat from the stern, and
let her drift away. As soon as he supposed they might discover it, he
slipped over the stern very quietly, and swam to the bow. As soon as they
perceived the boat adrift, their attention was absorbed in devising means
to regain her, and the late commander was forgotten in the confusion, or
supposed to be at his prayers in the cabin. H e was an excellent swimmer, and struck out lustily for the shore. H e was soon discovered and
fired at, but dove at the flash, as he told it, and swimming under water, came
up in a different place each time to breathe, and dove again instantly, un­
til out o f reach o f shot. There being no wind, they could not get under
way, and he had secreted the oars, so that the boat could not be used to
overtake him. After sunset he gained the beach, almost exhausted ;
crawled a little w ay up the shore, and slept in the sand until daylight,
when he found his way to St. Thomas, to inform the governor and com ­
mander o f the “ Grampus” o f his adventure. H e accompanied Lieutenant
Pendergrast, and on her recapture, his sloop was immediately restored to
him by Captain Sloat, after repairing the sails, which were riddled by shot,
and the hull, which was but slightly injured.*
* Cofrecinas was visited by the officers in his prison, who found him a young man of
twenty-six or twenty-seven, with a handsome, intelligent countenance, and a very amiable
expression. His eye was o f remarkable brilliancy, and he had all the suavity of the Spa­
nish manner, with a very gentlemanly bearing. He would never have been taken for a
murderer or pirate. Though badly wounded, he was in irons, and a soldier was stationed,
at his bedside; the guards were doubled around the-prison, and unusual precautions taken,
from a knowledge o f his daring and energy: and the officer was made responsible with
his head for the security o f his prisoner. He said that the moment the Americans rose
from the hold o f the sloop, he knew the uniform, and felt that his own men could never
stand before them—his only safety was in flight. He gave great credit to the officers for
the plan and accomplishment o f his capture, and said i f he could escape, he would spend
his life with such men. On being asked how it was that one who was evidently a gen­
tleman of education could be found among such persons as his men, he replied that the

Commodore John D rake Sloat.


T h e following is an extract o f a letter from Lieutenant Commandant
John D . Sloat, commanding United States schooner Grampus, to the S ec­
retary o f the Navy, dated St. Thomas, April 5, 1825 :—
“ Under date of the 19th of March, I had the honor to inform you that I had
visited St. John, Porto Rico, for the purpose of offering our testimony against
the pirates that made their escape from the vessel taken on the south side of the
island, when the captain-general assured me that these miscreants should have
summary justice.
“ On my arrival at this place yesterday, I had the satisfaction to receive the
information that all who made their escape from the vessel (eleven) were shot on
the 30th ultimo. They all, except one, met their fate in the most hardened man­
ner. The celebrated Cofrecinas refused to be blindfolded, saying that he himself
had murdered at least three or four hundred persons, and it would be strange if
by this time he should not know how to die. From his and other confessions,
twenty-eight others have been taken, and seventeen are to be executed in a few
days, and the remainder in a short time after. Those already executed have been
beheaded and quartered, and their parts sent to all the small ports round the island
to be exhibited.
“ This capture is thought by the government of the island to be of the greatest
importance ; and it is believed, from the number taken and convicted, that it will
be for a long time a complete check to piracies about that island.”
The next sea service in which w e find Captain Sloat engaged after his
promotion to a master commander, (w hich took place March 21, 1826,)
was a three years’ cruise in the Pacific, in the sloop o f war St. Louis,
com m encing in 1828. W hile lying at Callao, in the spring o f 1831, a re­
best answer would be a short history o f his life. He was born at Cabo R ox o, (Porto
R i c o ;) —his father was a gentleman o f wealth, but was cheated out o f i t t h a t , instead
o f inheriting a splendid patrimony, he had been compelled to resort to rambling and piracy
to get back what the world owed h im ;—that, some years before, in the beginning o f his
career, he had been robbing, with two negroes, in a canoe ;—that a storm drove them into
an obscure port in St. Domingo, where he was imprisoned more than a year;—that he
became a favorite with the jailer’ s wife and daughter, and was treated like one o f the
fam ily;— that he used to go for wood and water, milk the cows, & c .;—that he secreted a
canoe, and with his two confederates, during a most tremendous storm, such as are com ­
mon in the tropics, they dropped down the river, and at daylight put to sea, and reached
the island o f Mona, exhaustedby fatigue and hunger. There they procured turtle, water,
& c., and, after recruiting their strength, finally reached his native place. They then
took a large boat, engaged the crew to join them, and made some rich captures, all o f
which they gambled away, and then went in pursuitof more, never allowing any witnesses
to remain unless they joined his crew. He said he was the most active man, and the
best runner on the island, and related this incident:— One night, while he was gambling
at a house in the woods, near Cabo R o x o , the police were informed o f it and paid him
the compliment o f sending a captain and twenty soldiers to take h im ;—that the officer
surrounded the house, stationed all his sentinels, and made all his arrangements, without
the suspicions o f any one inside ;—he then knocked at the door with the hilt o f his sword.
Cofrecinas knew the clangor o f the steel, understood the whole by intuition, threw open
the window behind him, jumped beyond the bayonets that met his view, escaped the shot
o f the soldiers, jumped a fence as hmh as he could reach (about seven feet) at a bound,
escaped another volley, and gained the woods, where he laughed them to scorn.
At the capture o f his vessel, when he waded ashore, and avoided the first o f the horse­
men in the confusion, he met a herdsman—he made him exchange clothes and hat with
him, and drove some animals directly to the body o f soldiers in the road. He was
questioned by them about the pirates, and gave plausible, but false information, o f
his scattered band. He passed all but the last soldier, who was accompanied by a boy who
knew Cofrecinas, who was singularly marked from his birth, by having the second and
third fingers o f both hands inseparably joined. _ This caught the boy’s eye, and he told
the soldier that was Cofrecinas. He ordered him at once to halt, but he ran, and the sol­
dier shot him in the neck. He fell, but instantly sprang to his feet, and with his knife
would have soon overcome the soldier and escaped, had not the shot attracted some others.
W hile struggling with the soldier, he was prostrated by a blow from the butt o f a carbine,
which, with others, made his side black from the shoulder to the hip. His hands were
tied, and his feet secured under the body o f the horse on which he was placed; and he
was thus brought, black and blue, to the prison.


Naval and M ercantile Biography.

volution occurred in the government o f Peru, which placed Captain
Sloat in a delicate and peculiar situation, as General L a Fuente, the
ex-vice-president o f the republic, and General Miller, took refuge in
his ship. A n interesting account o f this affair is contained in a letter
from General Miller, dated Callao Bay, April 19, 1831, from which w e
make the following extracts :— “ General Gamarra left Lim a in September
last for Cuzco, in order to suppress a conspiracy in that city. Agreeable
to the constitution, the vice-president, General L a Fuente, took the supreme
command ; his conduct to m y certain knowledge has been correct, honor­
able, and faithful to the state, as w ell as to the president. Unfortunately the
president left his wife at Lima, and she being o f a dictatorial and domi­
neering spirit, wished to rule the vice-president as she had done her hus­
band, who, in fact, never resisted her wishes on any subject. This highspirited and ambitious woman fomented an opposition, which was strength­
ened by false friends o f the president, and some other designing and un­
principled men. Every act o f L a Fuente was construed by these mis­
creants as hostile to the president, and the vilest slanders were invented and
published by the faction. T h e truth is, that the administration o f L a Fu­
ente had increased in popularity by the active and straight-forward course
“ T he president, imposed upon by these artful misrepresentations, was
led to believe that L a Fuente was hostile, and endeavoring to supplant him.
Communications w ere doubtless brought from head-quarters by a Colonel
Videl, to the chiefs and officers o f the garrisons o f this port and Lim a.
That o f the latter was composed o f the battalion o f Zepeta, 700 strong,
some artillery, and 200 cavalry. T h e commanding officer o f Zepeta, and
the artillery, w ere known to act in blind obedience to the heroine, (M rs.
Gamarra,) and for several days the vice-president, ministers and myself,
knew a revolution was meditated. It was determined that Zepeta should
be sent to the south, agreeably to the repeated request o f the president;
and the government, confiding in its innocence, conceived that the most
zealous friends o f Gamarra could have no real interest in deposing the
vice-president, especially as it was known that his anxious desire was to
deliver over the government to the president, who was expected to reach
Lim a in a few days. H ow ever, to the surprise and indignation o f the
friends o f order, the light company o f Zepeta. about 8 o ’clock in the even­
ing o f the 16th inst., entered the house o f G eneral L a Fuente, fired se­
veral shot, and endeavored to force their w ay into the room in which he
w as in bed. A t the alarm, he sprang up, and forcing his way through se­
veral soldiers, effected his escape to the kitchen, and through the chimney
o f w hich he gained the roof, and from thence he was hotly pursued by an
officer, w ho w as shot dead by his own soldiers, they mistaking him for the
vice-president. T h e light company, disappointed o f their object, hastily
returned to their barracks, taking prisoners two friends o f General L a Fuente, who happened to be in the house at the time o f the attack. The
firing o f the shots caused an immediate alarm in the streets adjoining the
vice-president’s house, and cries w ere heard in every direction, o f— ‘ The
battalion o f Zepeta has revolted,’ and the inhabitants fled to their houses
and closed the doors. At this moment I was lying in my bed from fa­
tigue, having been ill for several days. Upon hearing the report from my
aid-de-camp, to whom I had just given orders, as well as to Colonel Allende, to parade on horseback and in disguise, in certain streets o f the city,


Commodore John D rake Sloat.


I immediately mounted, and rode to La Fuente’ s house, ascertained that it
had been attacked by troops, and then rode to the barracks o f the three
companies o f the battalion o f Callao. I could only form two, one being
on guard; and I then sent an officer to the barracks o f Zepeta to ascertain
what had occurred. H e returned with a report that the corps was under
arms, with General Elespron, Prefect o f the Department, at their head, who
sent word that he had taken measures against the person o f General L a
Fuente, in consequence o f his having infringed the constitution. H e requested me at the same time to join him with the troops under my com ­
mand, and adding, that he would hold me responsible for the attendant
evils, i f I did not comply with his wishes. T o such a communication I
made no reply, but sent orders to the cavalry to proceed to Callao, and I
soon followed with the companies o f infantry in the same direction, not
doubting that the governor and garrison o f the castle would act honorably to­
wards the legitimate government which they had sworn to maintain. By this
movement, I prevented compromising the troops, in firing upon each other
in town, and thought to insure possession o f the fortress until information
could be obtained respecting the vice-president, o f whose situation 1 was
then ignorant. T o my astonishment, on my arrival, at three o ’ clock on the
17th, I was refused admittance into the fortifications, and soon after learned
that the governor, Colonel Echeniger, and the garrison, acted in com bina­
tion with the revolutionists o f Lim a. I took possession o f the dismantled
fort o f E l Sol. On the same day a detachment o f 300 o f the revolted
troops were allowed to enter the castles o f Callao, under whose guns w e
w ere placed in the fort o f E l Sol, and I consented to hold an interview
with General Benevedes, who had joined the revolutionists. T h e result
was, I was allowed to com e here and remain on board this vessel, until
the president’ s arrival from the south, or order should be established so as
to allow o f m y proceeding to the capital. I was surprised, on coming
on board this ship, to find General L a Fuente already here. On his
gaining the roof o f the house, it seems that three soldiers, stationed there,
discharged their muskets at him, w ho was closely pursued by an officer,
Lieutenant Bajar, sword in hand. T h ey loaded a second time, and mis­
taking their leader for General L a Fuente, shot him dead. On discover­
ing their mistake, they ceased further pursuit o f the fugitive, and to this
circumstance the vice-president owes his escape. After running to the ex­
treme end o f the quadra on the roofs, and jumping over several brick walls,
he lowered himself into the room o f a carpenter whom he had often em­
ployed. This man clad the general in a suit o f his own, and cut o ff his
mustachios: he handed him also six doubloons, w hich were his a l l;—
conducted him to the house o f a friend, whence he proceeded to Chorrillos,
and there taking a canoe, he came on board this ship, where he is as com ­
fortable as the hospitality o f her generous commander can make him, and
as secure from persecuting assassins as the powerful flag o f the United
States can render him.”
Captain Sloat acted in this business with the advice o f our Legation at
L im a ; and his affording refuge to these distinguished, but unfortunate
functionaries, was approved by our government.
Captain Sloat returned to N ew Y ork in the winter o f 18 3 1 -2 , in the
St. Louis. W h en within six miles o f Sandy H ook he was blown to sea,
and for twenty-one days unable to gain the port o f N ew York. T h e crew
suffered greatly by frost.


Naval and Mercantile Biography.

H e was much engaged, for several succeeding years, in superintendence
o f the coast surveys and the recruiting service, as well as in other profes­
sional duties. H e was advanced to a post-captaincy, the highest grade in
our service, in February, 1837. T h e option having been tendered him by
the department, o f the command o f the frigate “ Potom ac” or o f the Ports­
mouth station, he preferred the latter, where he continued for three years,
commencing in the autumn o f 1840, and during which period he had am­
ple opportunity o f displaying his good taste and skill in naval architecture.
Those proud specimens, the corvettes “ Portsmouth” and “ Saratoga,”
w ere constructed under his supervision ; and he had the satisfaction, also,
to superintend the rebuilding from the keel, o f the “ Congress” frigate, (now
unsurpassed by any vessel afloat,) that he so gallantly saved in the early
part o f his career, and which followed him to the Pacific, and formed a
part o f his late command in that ocean.
Soon after Commodore Sloat left the Portsmouth station, he was offered
the squadron in the Pacific, which he accepted, and joined in the autumn
o f 1844. H e hoisted his broad pennant on board the “ Savannah” frig­
ate, and the success o f his cruise there, will, w e trust, result in lasting
benefits to his couniry, and prove the crow ning glory o f his professional
life. The non-arrival o f Commodore Sloat’ s despatches, obliges us to give
the following extract from the letter o f an officer well known to us, and
which only contains the information received o f the most important move­
ment o f the squadron :—
“ On the sixth of July, all was bustle in the cabin of the Savannah; some four
or five men were busily employed writing letters, proclamations, &c., preparatory
to taking possession of California. It was long after the witching hour of mid­
night, ere I was enabled to catch a short and troubled repose, as all was to be
prepared by six o’clock the following morning, which came as bright and beauti­
ful as a July day of our own favored land. At six o’clock, A. M., Captain Mervine came on board to receive orders, and at seven, he left with a summons to the
military commandant of Monterey to surrender the place forthwith to the arms of
the United States, and also a similar summons to the military governor for the
surrender of all California.
“ At nine, A. M., of the seventh of July, the expedition started from the Sa­
vannah, composed of the boats of the Savannah, Levant, and Cyane, and landed,
without opposition, at the mole. The forces were then marched up a short dis­
tance to the custom-house, where a concourse of the inhabitants were assembled.
Here the marines and men were halted, and the proclamation read to the multi­
tude by Rodman M. Price, Esq., purser of the Cyane, in a loud and distinct man­
ner, which was received with three hearty cheers by those present. The flag of
the United States was then hoisted by acting Lieutenant Edward Higgins, imme­
diately after which a salute of twenty-one guns was fired by the Savannah and
Cyane. The custom-house was then turned into barracks for the United States
forces, and everything settled down quietly.
“ Communications were immediately despatched to Commander Montgomery, of
the Portsmouth, at St. Francisco, at whicli place, and at Zanonia, the United
States flag was hoisted on the morning of the ninth; and before ten days had
elapsed, the whole of California, north of Monterey, was under the flag of the
United States, much to the apparent satisfaction of the people, who hope it will
last, knowing how much better they will be off under the government of the
United States.
“ On the sixteenth of July, Captain Stockton arrived, too late, however, to par­
ticipate directly in taking possession of California.
“ On the twenty-ninth, Commodore Sloat gave up the command to Commodore
Stockton, hoisted his flag on board the Levant, and sailed for the United States,
via Mazatlan and Panama, and we hope to reach the United States in November.”

Commodore John D rake Sloat.


This proclamation is so well expressed, and such a conciliatory spirit
pervades it throughout, that we feel justified in inserting it.

The central government of Mexico having commenced hostilities against the
United States of America, by invading its territory and attacking the troops of the
United States stationed on the north side of the Rio Grande, with a force of seven
thousand men, under the command of General Arista, which army was totally de­
stroyed, and all their artillery, baggage, &c., captured, on the eighth and ninth of
May last, by a force of two thousand three hundred men, under the command of
General Taylor, and the city of Matamoras taken and occupied by the forces of
the United States :—
The two nations being actually at war by this transaction, I shall hoist the stand­
ard of the United States at Monterey immediately, and shall carry it throughout
I declare to the inhabitants of California, that, although in arms with a power­
ful force, I do not come among them as an enemy to California, but, on the con­
trary, I come as their best friend, as henceforward California will be a portion of
the United States, and its peaceable inhabitants will enjoy the same rights and
privileges as the citizens of any other portion of that nation, with all the rights and
privileges they now enjoy, together with the privilege of choosing their own mag­
istrates and other officers, for the administration of justice among themselves;
and the same protection will be extended to them as to any other State of the
They will also enjoy a permanent government, under which life, property, and
the constitutional rights, and lawful security to worship the Creator in a way most
congenial to each one’s sense of duly, will be secure; which, unfortunately, the
central government of Mexico cannot afford them, destroyed as her resources arc
by internal factions and corrupt officers, who create constant revolutions to pro­
mote their own interests and oppress the people.
Under the flag of the United States, California will be free from all such trou­
bles and expenses. Consequently, the country will rapidly advance and improve,
both in agriculture and commerce, as, of course, the revenue laws will be the
same in California as in all other parts of the United States, affording them all
manufactures and produce of the United States free from any duty, and all foreign
goods at one-quarter of the duty they now pay. A great increase in the value of
real estate and the products of California may reasonably be expected.
With the great interest and kind feelings I know the governnment and people
of the United States possess towards the citizens of California, the country can­
not but improve more rapidly than any other on the continent of America.
Such of the inhabitants of California, whether natives or foreigners, as may
not be disposed to accept the high privilege of citizenship, and to live peaceably
under the free government of the United States, will be allowed time to dispose of
their property, and to remove out of the country if they choose, without any re­
striction ; or to remain in it, observing strict neutrality.
With full confidence in the honor and integrity of the inhabitants of the coun­
try, I invite the judges, alcades, and other civil officers, to retain their offices, and
to execute their functions as heretofore, that the public tranquillity may not be
disturbed, at least until the government of the territory can be more definitively
All persons holding titles of real estate, or in quiet possession of lands under
color of right, shall have their titles and rights guaranteed to them. All churches,
and the property they contain, in possession of the clergy of California, shall con­
tinue in the same rights and possession they now enjoy.
All provisions and supplies of every kind, furnished by the inhabitants for the
use of the United States ships or troops, will be paid for at fair rates, and no pri­
vate property will be taken for public use without just compensation at the moment.
Commander-in-chief of the U. S. naval forces in the Pacific Ocean.
U n ite d S t a t e s s h i t S a v a n n a h , Harbor of Monterey, July 6th, 1846.



New Y o r k : and the Railroad Enterprise.

For a description o f this fine territory, which will, probably, one day be
annexed to our galaxy o f republics, and become peopled by the AngloSaxon race, we refer the reader to our article in the April number o f this
work, entitled “ Life in California.”
H a lf a century has nearly elapsed since Commodore Sloat entered the
navy as a midshipman ; and few officers have been so constantly or use­
fully employed. H e has participated in brilliant achievements, and been
associated in duty with a number o f those who have added lustre to our
flag— none o f whom have more zealously or efficiently devoted themselves
to the protection o f our commerce, or have a stronger claim upon the grati­
tude o f our country.





S itu a te d in a favorable latitude on the Atlantic coast, possessing a har­
bor highly eligible for safety and convenience, and o f easy access from the
ocean at all seasons o f the year, for the largest ships, her position is emi­
nently favorable for a coasting and foreign trade. Other Atlantic cities,
however, possessing a liberal share o f advantages, have contested the su­
premacy as the general mart o f Am erican commerce. F or many years,
the foreign com m erce o f the United States was mainly conducted by Bos­
ton, Philadelphia, and N ew York. The latter city enjoyed the advantage
o f the natural and superior tide-water navigation o f the Hudson, extend­
ing its unbroken current one hundred and fifty miles into the in terior;
while Philadelphia and Boston had very limited navigation to the interior.
The two latter cities, however, had, by the bays and inlets in their vi­
cinity, a more extensive coasting trade; and, from earlier settlement, greater
capital and experience, for a long time commanded a greater general com ­
merce than N ew York.
In improving her commerce by increasing facilities for communication
with the interior, by turnpike roads, Philadelphia was early and vigorous
in her efforts, while N ew Y ork can claim to have had very little o f that
kind o f enterprise.. W hen the project for opening canals to the western
and northern lakes was agitated in the State legislature, the representa­
tives from the city, strange as it may seem, w ere opposed to the measure.
It is but just, however, to remark, they regarded the project as too great
for the then limited population, experience, and resources o f the State ; and
when the construction o f about one hundred miles demonstrated the prac­
ticability and importance o f the work, they gave it a vigorous support.
H ow ever favorable the situation for foreign commerce, it is obviously o f
the first importance to a commercial city, that it have extensive and easy
communication with the interior.
Before the canals were completed, that is, the Erie and the Champlain,
N ew Y ork was second to Philadelphia in commercial importance. T h e
completion o f those great works in 1825, opened to N ew Y ork new and
vastly increased commercial advantages. T h e industry o f the State was
greatly stimulated, and it rapidly increased in population, wealth, and
trade. T h e opening o f a navigable communication from the Hudson to

New Y o r k : and the Railroad Enterprise.


the western lakes, gave N ew Y ork the whole o f the direct lake trade, (e x ­
cept the small part occasionally diverted to Canada,) and made the city o f
N ew York, at once, the greatest competitor with N ew Orleans for the
trade o f the great W est. The several canals, and, more recently, rail­
roads, that extend towards and connect with the navigable waters that fall
into the Mississippi, have still further extended the commerce o f N ew Y ork.
Under the impulse thus given, she rapidly advanced in commercial pros­
perity. Vessels fitted out at other Atlantic ports, trading with Europe and
Asia, instead o f carrying cargoes to their own ports, as they had done, now
found their interest in sending them to N ew York, as the great mart o f
American commerce. The duties on imports paid in N ew York, in 1827,
w ere about 67 per cent, and in 1833, about 82 per cent o f the total paid in
the United States ; showing that, in the latter year, four-fifths o f the w hole
imports o f the Union cam e to this port.
This sudden influence on the general com m erce o f the country was not
viewed with indifference by the cities that felt the unfavorable influence
on their relative importance in trade. T h e city o f Philadelphia made vig­
orous efforts to induce the State o f Pennsylvania to go forward in the con ­
struction o f canals, that would develop the resources o f their own State,
and secure, as far as possible, a participation in the western trade. The
State o f Pennsylvania, together with private corporations, proceeded for
several years, with great, i f not with well-directed energy, in the construc­
tion o f works to improve their means o f intercommunication.
At that time, canals were regarded as the best artificial means o f trans­
portation. But neither Pennsylvania, nor any other State, enjoyed such
advantages as N ew York, for forming an easy, navigable channel, to con ­
nect the Atlantic tide with the western lakes. T h e high and dry ridges o f
the Alleghanies, w hich required to be crossed in other States, before they
reached the line o f the N ew Y ork canal, diminished into broad plains, o f
moderate elevation, admitting a canal o f light lockage, with an abundant
supply o f water at command. But, nothing daunted by the formidable ob­
stacles they had to encounter, Pennsylvania proceeded westward, making
canals where the country would permit, and connecting them by railroad,
over ridges where the elevation did not allow o f canals. In this way, she
has formed a mixed system o f artificial communication between Philadel­
phia and Pittsburgh. Though this has greatly improved the facilities o f
Philadelphia in communicating with the interior and westward, it has not
proved a very formidable means o f diverting trade from N ew Y ork. The
trade o f Philadelphia has im proved; but the trade o f the western lakes
has so rapidly increased, and centering mostly in N ew York, the latter
city has been able to maintain an advancing prosperity.
So far as regards water communication with the western lakes, and
through them for the western trade, N ew Y ork has no serious rival except
N ew Orleans. T h e latter city, as she has done, will, no doubt, continue
to take a large share. H er navigation, though at times very good, is, to a
great extent, fluctuating, and her climate unfavorable. The completion o f
the enlargement o f the Erie Canal, by which it will be adapted to an easy
and cheap navigation by vessel^ o f one hundred and fifty tons, that will
proceed directly from the lakes to N ew York, will so enlarge its capacity,
and cheapen transportation, that the econom y in favor o f N ew York, will
carry the point o f divergence where trade w ill divide between N ew York
and N ew Orleans, far down the main tributaries, and, at some points,


New York : and the Railroad Enterprise.

reach the Mississippi river. For salubrity o f climate, and the means o f
cheap and comfortable living, few large cities equal N ew York.
Notwithstanding the superior position o f N ew York, it cannot be doubt­
ed that other Atlantic cities have been gaining in their general commerce.
This has resulted from improvement in their connection with the interior,
and their increase o f capital. B y the former, they have enlarged their
m arket; and by the latter, have been able to open a direct trade with for­
eign countries ; and, consequently, are less dependent on N ew Y ork for
imports. /
N ew Y ork has relied on her canals ; and they have proved a noble re­
liance for both city and State. Under the powerful influence this has
given to her growth and prosperity, and in view o f the strength and supe­
riority o f her position in this respect, it is not surprising she has looked
with great indifference to the influence o f other kinds o f communication.
The noble Hudson and the grand canal have been the pride o f the city
and the State. But a new element o f civilization has been developed;
“ and, however sternly w e may set ourselves against it, the world around
us see the railway as ‘ an epoch’ in the affairs o f mankind.”
It does not appear that railroads have superseded good water communi­
cation, or that the tonnage or revenues o f canals have, in general, been
reduced by railway improvements, nor do w e believe that heavy freight, o f
a character not to be materially affected by a slow transit, can be trans­
ported on a railroad as cheap as by a good water communication. In cor­
roboration o f this, it appears that in England and Belgium, where rail­
ways have been carried to a great extent, the canals still transport, in
general, the great mass o f heavy freight during the season o f navigation.
T here are, notwithstanding, advantages so important to social and com ­
m ercial intercourse, possessed by the railway system, that no commercial
city in this latitude can afford to do without them, or fail to feel the influ­
ence they w ill produce, as competitors with water conveyance. At all
times, the railway is superior in the transit o f whatever requires expedition.
In this respect, no water conveyance can equal it. “ It is not arrested b y
drought, nor suspended b y fr o s t .”
It can traverse high districts where
no water conveyance can be made, and thus new routes open competition
with it, and materially divert trade, that for water conveyance, had sought
a different market. I f not as cheap for heavy goods, it is superior in the
uniformity o f its action ; for, while frost closes navigation from one-quarter
to one-third o f the year, the railway continues to afford, throughout the
year, the means o f cheap and rapid communication.
So long as w e depend on water for commercial intercourse with the in­
terior, the winter must be a season o f suspension. This is very much
against the interest o f the agricultural portion o f the community, who have
little to occupy them on their farms at this season, and w ill readily em­
brace the opportunity that may be opened by railroads, to improve it, by
sending their productions to market. I f the merchants or manufacturers
can replenish their stock during the winter, they w ill save capital, by lay­
ing in less in the autumn ; and the latter w ill especially improve the fa­
cility offered by a railroad, to send their productions to market as fast as
they are prepared. In corroboration o f ’ this position, it is only necessary
to call attention to the winter business o f the W estern Railroad, extending
from Albany (on the way to Boston) one hundred and fifty-six miles, to
W orcester. For the months o f January, February, March, and Decern-

New Y o r k : and the Railroad Enterprise.


ber, the receipts w ere, in 1842, $ 1 1 5 ,3 6 3 ; 1843, $ 1 2 6 ,4 1 3 ; 1844,
$ 1 8 0 ,0 0 0 ; 1845, $ 2 1 2 ,4 8 4 ; the first three months o f 1846, at the rate
o f $265,000 for the winter months o f the year, on the supposition that the
last month w ill have the same ratio o f increase as the first three months.
From this, it appears the winter business o f the road has more than
doubled in four years. It is obvious, however, the citizens o f N ew York
do not generally suppose that railroads can produce an influence that will
materially benefit or injure their commercial prosperity. T o those who
have carefully observed the progress o f the railroad enterprise, this may
seem strange ; but the mystery o f this apathy will be solved, when it is
considered that, ow ing to the great natural advantages o f her position, aided as this has been by the enterprise o f the State, in opening canals to
the western and northern lakes, her growth and prosperity has given a
great field to her enterprise, in grading and paving streets, and building
ships, houses, and stores, to accommodate the demands o f her rapidly in­
creasing trade. Thus far, she has hardly had occasion or time to con­
sider, whether any new development o f the means o f communication could
affect her ; and this is believed to be the cause w hy she has not given se­
rious attention to this subject.
The railway enterprise, as a means o f general communication, is
scarcely twenty years old ; and already its extension and results have out­
stripped the anticipations o f its ablest advocates. On all sides, from sci­
entific journals, and from the newspapers o f the day, we meet accounts o f
the increasing traffic on railways. On several o f the railroads leading
from Boston, the business o f last year was from three and a half to six
times greater in aggregate receipts, and from seven to nine times in num­
ber o f passengers, than originally estimated by the projectors. T h e W e s ­
tern Railroad in Massachusetts, before referred to, when in course o f con­
struction, was regarded by intelligent and sagacious men, as a most for­
lorn and unpromising enterprise ; but it has been regularly increasing in
business since 1842, (the first full year o f its operation,) at the rate o f
about 20 per cent per annum.
For substantial structure, and amount o f investment, Massachusetts has
taken a decided lead in the railroad enterprise ; and what was, by many,
regarded as a doubtful experiment, has proved a good investment o f capi­
tal. It appears from the census o f last year, that the increase o f property
in Boston, from 1840 to 1845, over that o f the previous five years, was
nearly equal to the total cost o f the railroads o f Massachusetts, or about
nineteen millions o f dollars. From the same source, it appears the import
duties paid on goods by the Cunard line o f steamers, in 1840, was less
than $350 per voyage, or, for the eight voyages o f that year, less than
$ 2 ,8 0 0 ; and the same for 1845, was $51,000 per voyage, or, for the
twenty voyages o f the year, $1,020,000. A ll the industrial interests o f
the State have been invigorated, and general prosperity promoted. The
proceeds o f her extensive fisheries and manufactures are carried, with the
utmost facility, in every direction, to meet the wants o f consumers ; and
form the basis o f a greatly increasing general com m erce. T h e total num­
ber o f passengers carried on the roads that diverge from Boston, in 1845,
was nearly 2,400,000, or double the highest estimate for the trade o f the
same time by steamboats on the Hudson River, or nearly three times the
total population o f Massachusetts. Surely the State o f Massachusetts,

N ew York : and the Railroad Enterprise.


and especially the city o f Boston, in their progress, have occasion to re­
gard the railway enterprise as an epoch.
In the State o f Georgia, five hundred and eighty-two* miles o f railway
have been constructed, but at less than half the expense o f the Massachu­
setts railroads. In the western part o f our own State, upwards o f three
hundred miles o f railroad have been constructed, and though o f an indif­
ferent character, and under legal restrictions as to business, have proved
profitable investments, and highly beneficial to social and commercial in­
In England, though railways have been constructed at great expense, in
1845 there were in that country 2,118 miles in operation. T h e receipts
per mile o f railroad, taking the average o f all the roads in the kingdom,
was, in—
1843, ......................................................
1844, ............................................................
1845, ............................................................

£ 2 ,521, equal to $12,000
2,655 “
2,931 “

Showing the increase o f 1845 over 1843, to be 16 per cent. T h e to­
tal receipts for the three years were $76,000,000, o f which 66-’- per cent
was from passengers. T h e total number o f passengers carried, and miles
o f road in operation, was, in—

Miles o f road.




That for every 100 miles o f road, was equal, in—










Or the increase o f passengers, per mile, was in 1844 over 1842, equal
to 27 per cent.
T h e receipts on the Great W estern Railw ay in England, for the first
six months o f 1846, over the corresponding period in 1845, were £ 6 3 ,1 3 2 ,
or at the rate o f $6 11 ,0 00 per annum.
In Belgium, France, and Germany, the railway enterprise is progress­
ing with great rapidity, working a social as w ell as commercial revolution.
Further statistics might be presented from this and other countries, to
illustrate the progress o f the railroad enterprise ; but the limits o f this ar­
ticle w ill not permit, and it can hardly be necessary. T h e instances o f
unsuccessful railroads are remarkably few, and, it is believed, in most
cases are confined to works that have been undertaken with insufficient
means, carried forward with inadequate skill, or conducted to subserve
some purpose o f speculation, other than that o f a legitimate railroad
T h e statistics above given, show conclusively, that the railway is supe­
rior to all other modes for transporting passengers ; that it maintains a
close competition with water conveyance, in transporting freight; and, as
it is “ not suspended by drought, nor arrested by frost,” it has the advan­
tage o f an uninterrupted communication throughout the year.

Boston Post, September 15th, 1846.

New Y o r k : and the Railroad Enterprise.


In the great struggle that is making by other cities to reach the western
trade, can N ew Y ork afford to remain indifferent to the subject o f rail­
ways ? Without their aid, her movements must be more tardy in the sum­
mer, and suspended during the winter. The latter w ill becom e more im ­
portant as railroads are extended.
Philadelphia feels the insufficiency o f her present mixed system, and is
contemplating a railroad, continuous from that city to Cleveland, on Lake
E rie, a distance o f four hundred and seventy miles, having, it is reported,
no grade exceeding forty.five feet per mile. This is about the same dis­
tance as from N ew Y ork to Buffalo ; and when that road is made, it w ill
open to Philadelphia directly, a large and fertile portion o f Ohio, and make
connection at the best position that is practicable, with Lake Erie. For
at least eight months o f the year, such a road would command most o f
the travel, and for five or six months, the whole business that would centre
on Lake Erie at Cleveland. From Cleveland, railroads w ill eventually
be extended to Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois, which must produce a great
influence on the western trade. With the exception o f three or four sum­
mer months, the lake is liable to be disturbed by severe storms, which will
induce great numbers o f passengers, and more or less o f freight, to take
the railroad, even while the lake is open ; and, for five months, the storms
and ice on the lake w ill send the whole trade over the railroad. In such
event, and nothing to divert its influence, what would be the influence on
N ew Y o rk ? And w e may inquire with solicitude, what can be done to
maintain the commercial ascendancy o f N ew Y ork ? Perhaps our present
relative position cannot be maintained. T h e railway system tends to dif­
fuse commercial advantages far more than water communication, which is,
necessarily, more restricted in its capabilities.
It is not intended to undervalue good water communication, nor to as­
sume the position that the advantages N ew Y ork possesses in this respect,
w ill not sustain her as an important commercial c ity ; but that, while she
has the cheap and slow-moving barge in its season, she ought also to
have the means o f expeditious transit with the interior, for such freight
and passengers as w ill readily pay the small additional charge that may be
necessary at such time ; and, when navigation is arrested by frost, the
power o f uninterrupted communication for all freight and passengers, that
her trade may not lie suspended when rival cities enjoy continual commer­
cial action. It must b e evident to all who watch the movements o f the
times, that without the aid o f railroads, N ew Y ork must lose in her rela­
tive superiority, as the great centre o f American commerce.
It may be inquired, when can railroads be made to benefit N ew York ?
This question w e w ill endeavor to answer in a general way.
T h e N ew Y ork and E rie Railroad project has, for several years, been
struggling for progress, and though it has generally been regarded with
favor by citizens o f N ew York, has at times appeared to be hardly able to
maintain the prospect o f competition within any moderate period o f time ;
but has now been so much invigorated, that strong hopes are entertained
o f its early accomplishment. This work will develop the resources o f an
extensive district o f country, now very much secluded, and bear its com ­
m erce directly to N ew Y ork. It w ill serve a valuable purpose as a com ­
petitor for the western trade.
The N ew Y ork and Harlem Railroad, when it shall be extended to D o ­
ver, in Dutchess county, and connected with the Housatonic Railroad, will


New Y o r k : and the Railroad Enterprise.

greatly facilitate communication between N ew York, and the western part
o f Connecticut and Massachusetts, and the southern and easterly portion
o f Vermont. The N ew Y ork and N ew Haven Railroad, would further im­
prove the connection with the East.
The extension and improvement o f several railroads in N ew Jersey,
particularly those that have a westerly direction from N ew Y ork, w ill fur­
ther enhance the trade and com m erce o f the city.
T h e railroads that form the line from Albany and T roy to Buffalo, re­
quire to be improved, and all restrictions taken from their use. W hen put
in proper condition, the passage from Albany to Buffalo may easily be
made in twelve hours, and freight carried at as cheap a rate as on any
other route in this country o f the same length. This line o f roads, pass­
ing along the route o f the Erie Canal, has in general very easy grades,
and a large proportion o f straight line, circumstances highly favorable for
cheap and rapid transit. A road is projected to run from opposite Buffalo,
in Canada, to opposite Detroit, and the route is reported as highly favor­
able. From Detroit, the Central Railroad across the State o f M ichigan to
St. Josephs, near the south end o f Lake Michigan, is nearly completed,
and is to be immediately put in first-rate condition. W ith the exception
o f two short ferries, this will make a continuous line from Albany o f about
800 miles. The time cannot be considered distant when a railroad w ill
run from Buffalo, along the whole Am erican shore o f Lake Erie, and
thence onward to the Mississippi. The lake shore will, no doubt, afford
an easy grade and favorable line. T h e trade between the lake towns w ill
soon be sufficient to sustain such a road. From this Albany and Buffalo
line, a branch road from Rom e, Oneida county, to Cape Vincent, at the foot
o f Lake Ontario, may easily be connected with Kingston, by which an un­
interrupted communication would be made, with a large and fertile portion
o f Canada. The favorable com m ercial arrangements that now exist be­
tween the two countries, give an important aspect to this p roject; but in­
dependent o f this, it will greatly develop the resources o f that portion o f
this State, through which it will pass.
From Albany and T roy, northward to Lake Champlain, is an important
route for a railroad. It would pass along the vast water-power o f the up­
per Hudson and its tributaries, that would be called into action by the fa­
cilities it would furnish, and greatly increase the population, wealth and
trade o f that district.
The railroads that centre about A lbany and Troy, require a connection
by railroad with N ew Y ork. A .hasty glance at this focus o f northern and
western trade, is sufficient to show the great importance o f this connection.
It is highly fortunate to the city and State o f N ew York, that the valley o f
the Hudson affords a route well adapted to this o b je c t;— a good line and
easy grades, well adapted to a railroad o f cheap and rapid transit, and may
be constructed at reasonable cost. This road should be a first-rate struc­
ture, over which passengers could be conveyed with safety and comfort,
from N ew Y ork to Albany, in four or five hours, and on which freight could
be transported at the cheapest rate. W ith these improvements a passen­
ger from N ew Y ork would be able to reach Buffalo in sixteen to eighteen
hours, and Kingston in Canada in less time, say fourteen to sixteen hours.
Railroads are important, as a means o f developing the resources and en­
couraging the enterprise and industry o f all parts o f our own State, and
those o f other States bordering on us, and whose trade w ill naturally travel


M orals o f Trade.

to N ew York. Manufacturing will com e to the aid o f agricultural industry,
latent sources o f wealth and trade be brought into active operation, and
those now affording a scanty return w ill be made vigorous and highly pro­
ductive. In addition to this, N ew Y ork has a great interest in securing
the best practicable facilities for communicating with Lake Erie. Let the
railroads proposed .be made in a judicious and substantial manner, and
with the superior water communication now enjoyed, and in course o f im­
provement, and this city w ill possess such a means o f cheap, rapid and
uninterrupted transit o f persons and goods, that w ill secure to her the as­
cendancy in the com m erce o f this continent. H er natural situation and
advantages, when properly improved, give her this position.
T h e question now arises, w ill the proposed railroads afford a remunera­
ting profit for the outlay they w ill require ? Experience is the best guide
for this question. In other districts, less favorable for their construction,
and less promising in their business, they have been made entirely suc­
cessful ; and i f the same skill and fidelity is devoted to these, there can be
no doubt o f equal success. Let us take for example those railroads that
have been conducted with a single eye to their legitimate business, and
not those that have been managed for land and stock speculation. T o
those who have been accustomed to travel on, and see the operation o f
business on well conducted railroads, no argument is necessary to convince
them o f their superiority for every purpose o f rapid or uninterrupted tran­
sit, and especially for the ease, safety and rapidity in the transit o f pas­
sengers, over every other mode o f conveyance.
It is not the design o f this paper to urge the particular claims o f any
railroad project. T h e system is viewed as one that mocks the age. Its
progress has startled the most cautious. Its developments are revolution­
izing the social and commercial affairs o f mankind. N o commercial city
can fail to feel its influence. Peculiar circumstances may protract, and
modify for a time, but cannot avert i t ; for benefit or injury, the result is
inevitable. As elsewhere, the system w ill go forward here, and nowhere
is it more important in the results that w ill be secured. T h e time is not
distant, when in N ew Y ork as much anxiety w ill be felt for the comple­
tion o f the lines, as is now felt in other cities and districts, for similar
works. The consideration o f the subject is commended to all who take
an interest in the growth and prosperity o f the city, and the promotion o f
the social and commercial intercourse and prosperity o f the State at large.



C H A R IT Y ?


C H A R IT Y ?

wisdom and Christian duty run parallel with each other ; or
rather, they are the same thing. W h at is interest is duty. W e should
see this, could w e look deep enough into affairs. That which is called
worldly wisdom, an appearance o f sagacity and skill which ends in down­
fall ; a pretence and show o f acuteness, which becomes dull and blunt
when put to use, is so named to distinguish it from real wisdom. This
worldly wisdom is no wisdom at all. It is folly dressed in sober garm ents;
a w olf in sheep’ s clothing ; a bright razor without temper or stuff in i t ;
a false light hung out by those wreckers, the flesh and the devil.
W orldly


M orals o f Trade.

But that course o f action which w e find to be best by experience, those
views and principles which the world has endorsed as genuine paper, that
is wisdom. Those old bank-notes, worn and soiled, that have known ser­
vice, and smell o f circulation, they may be homely and dark, but they
bring the gold from the vault. Such wisdom w e shall find to be one with
Christian duty.
But let us illustrate our statement by bringing forward some practical
precept o f Christianity, and comparing it with the true and the false w is­
dom. Let us discuss the question, W hat is mercantile charity ? W e shall
find, in Mark’s gospel, an appropriate answer by Christ to this inquiry.
T h e young man, who came so eagerly to inquire what he should do to in­
herit eternal life, was told “ to sell whatsoever he had, and give to the
poor, and he should have treasure in H eaven.”
There are frequent allusions made in the newspapers, and in private
circles, in “ Mendon meetings” and radical associations, to our richest
merchants, as guilty o f wrong, because they continue to amass property.
“ Let them retire,” say some, “ and give place to the rising generation ;
they have enough, let them give up business
as i f what is a fortune was
limited or defined by statute. Others cry out for a division o f property,
and question the religious principle o f those who hold large fortunes.
“ There is something w rong,” they say ; “ there is disease in the social
state, it must be made over anew. These inequalities in condition are a
fruitful source o f mischief.”
Does it ever occur to these complainers, w e
ask, that the fault is in those who are too lazy to work ? that the fault is in
those who do not acquire, not in those who do ; that it is better they should
come up than that others should com e down 1
W e do not understand our Saviour to say to the young man who was inquiring the w ay to heaven, that he must sell all his possessions, and give
all the proceeds to the poor ; but he tells him to sell whatsoever he had ;
to sell som ething; to realize some money, and give to the poor. I f he
should sell all his property, and give all to the poor, he would be poor him­
self, and some one else must needs sell his property, and give to him ; and
he again go over the same round o f giving. It would seem that a mo­
ment’s reflection would show that no such meaning could be intended.
T h e instruction is a general instruction to benevolence and charity, and
not a specific w ay o f disposing o f his property.
But what n ow ? W hat is the Christian course for u s? T o become
Christians must you give up your plans o f life, close your business, and
turn to reading the Bible, and attending religious meetings? Not so ; this
would put a speedy stop to all progress and improvement. H e who is the
best merchant is the best Christian. H e who is the best farmer is the
best Christian. H e who is the best anything, is the best Christian. W e
mean to say that he who lives the best life, who performs all his work and
labor, and study, from the highest motives, is the best man and the best
Christian. H ow impossible would it be for any man, whatever his natu­
ral talents might be, to be a good workman in any pursuit, who was under
the government o f his passions. H e might often do extremely well, but
now there is a great mistake, an error, a failure, which blasts his reputa­
tion as a workman, and destroys confidence. W e are not speaking o f
what a man can do, but o f what he w ill do— be likely to do. W hen we say
the best farmer is the best Christian, w e mean that he only can be relied
upon, always to act judiciously and calmly, to consult justice, and honesty,

What is Mercantile Charity 1


and fair dealing, who is a good man— a man o f principle. W e mean that
the highest success in any department o f human action is dependent upon
the principles o f the gospel. W e mean that the fear o f the Lord is the
beginning o f wisdom.
But the question meets us every day, what is duty ? W e all know o f
want and distress w e might help, if w e chose to make the necessary sac­
rifice. W e know o f families in cities that have hardly enough to eat from
day to day, certainly who have nothing ahead. Is it my duty to sell all
my superfluous clothing, to take the carpets from my floors, and sell them
to give to these poor people ? This brings the question right before us.
There are persons who contend that w e should make this sacrifice. W e
say w e should not. But if w e may not do this, what must w e do ? W hat
is duty for you and me— for Christians ? W hat is Christian charity ?
mercantile charity ?
Suppose the case o f the merchant. H e now is charitable, hospitable,
a supporter o f the good institutions o f our time. H e supports his part o f
the various calls upon the charity and liberality o f the public. H e is a
good citizen. Everybody allows this ; but he lives elegantly; there are
many superfluities about him, things he could do without. H e has furniture he rarely uses, clothes he rarely or never wears, pictures whose rich
coloring only occasionally attracts his eye. H e has horses and carriages,
pleasure-grounds, and a park o f d e e r ; he indulges in expensive tastes ;
he visits the great curiosities o f nature in his own country and abroad.
All this is expensive, and costs money. But let us add the character that
belongs to many a merchant o f our time. H e is a good husband and
father ; he is domestic, social, and kind ; he is public spirited and lib era l;
his house is like the palace o f a prince, and his manners are refined and
elegant as any courtier’ s ; he passes by people poorly clad every day ; he
sees hungry and ragged children in the street every day. W ill you, can
you, ask this man to sell his house and lands, and clothe these poorly-clad
people, and these ragged children, and feed them too I
H e gives now to many objects ; but you ask that he give more. H e is
now benevolent; but you insist that he reduce his manner o f living to a
common level, and refuse to enjoy anything in which all others do not
share. N ow suppose that he do this from a sense o f duty;— this man we
have brought forward as an instance, does give up his property and luxu­
ries, and distributes to the poor. It works well for a month, or a year.
There is abundance now where there was w a n t; and it seems that a new
order o f things had been brought about. But, at the end o f a month, or
a year, this benevolence is exhausted ; the means he distributed are used
up. H e himself is poor. T h e great objects to which he formerly gave
’ support now languish; the school, the church, public improvements, the
hospital, the asylum. The wealth that helped to support them is gone. It
has been spread over a large surface where it was felt but a short time.
N ow — now we say the condition o f the poor is worse than ever. They
have spent their principal, and there is no interest now that can accrue.
T h e heart o f the benevolent man is as warm as ever, but he no longer
has the means to second his good intentions. H e is now poor himself,
and there is none to help him.
The case we have supposed, to illustrate what must be the meaning o f
our Saviour in his conversation with the young man, may be shown by a
physical comparison. Suppose this wealth, which, many say, it is unchrisv o l . x v .— n o . v.


Morals o f Trade.

tian for any man to hoard, while there is want and hunger about him— sup­
pose this wealth to be a reservoir o f water which furnishes supply to a
neighborhood. There is enough, in ordinary cases, to supply the common
want. But a drought occurs ; the land is parched. It is proposed to take
the water o f the reservoir, and spread it over the land. It is done. The
effect is hardly perceived, and now there is no water left to supply the do­
mestic purposes o f life. It has all been exhausted in this one act o f ex­
traordinary benevolence, and the people die o f thirst. Thus would it be,
w ere the wealth which now supports our institutions scattered and divided.
And this is no impossible supposition. There are cities supplied by cis­
terns o f water caught from the clouds, where are no wells o f water, like
Madrid. Suppose here that the water kept for that city should, in a time
o f drought, be distributed over the country ; would it be well or ill for the
people ? N ow let the cisterns o f water stand for the men o f wealth in the
community, and it will, at once, be seen that they too supply a want which
it is as essential to supply as that a city be furnished with water. And
again there is another consideration which w ill prevent this equal distri­
bution o f property by the disciple o f Christ. It requires money to make
money. Capital is indispensable to most kinds o f business, especially that
done upon a large scale. True benevolence looks far ahead. It is not
content to give to-day, but contrives how to be generous in the future:
Shall the merchant, then, take from his capital, and feed the hungry and
clothe the naked? Is it not better that he employ his talents in so using
his wealth that a constant stream o f bounty flows from his hand, to bless
thousands, year after year ? H e is God’ s steward. H e must guard the
means entrusted to him from waste and misuse. W ill you ask the farmer
to sell his farm and distribute to the poor, and thus cut o ff all chance o f
future benevolence ? Shall the mechanic sell his tools, the means by
which he works, and makes enough to supply his own wants, and also give
something to the wants o f others ? These are all parallel cases. W e
know that no man will do either o f these a c ts ; but w e ask the question to
discover why he will not do them ; that we may feel we are obeying the
voice o f God, and are not meanly selfish; that w e are yielding to the
plainest dictates o f common sense, and consulting the permanent good o f the
poor and distressed, by taking care o f our property, and husbanding our
resources. N o more shall the merchant distribute his capital, the farmer
his farm, the mechanic his tools, than shall the impatient hand o f thirst,
with axe and spade, dig up the sources o f the fountain, and lay bare and
open to the sun those crevices in the rock, whence now flow out in a con­
stant and small stream, the sparkling water that supplies the common want.
But if you break up the hill and lay it open to the sun, the heat dries up
the moisture, and the air holds it in a state o f solution. It is no longer
visible. It is so widely diffused, that nobody feels it.
Benevolence must be considerate ; regard the future as well as the pres­
ent. The true object o f giving is to help for the future as well as the
present. T h e mere act o f giving is not benevolence. It is charity, some­
times, to withhold giving. Y ou may do the greatest injury, sometimes,
by your careless generosity. W e know very w ell that i f a man is openhanded, and gives to everybody, he will be praised and flattered. But still
w e say such a person may do injury by his very largeness o f heart. It is
easier, too, often, to give than to examine into the claims o f the asker.
Many give to get rid o f trouble ; a small sum removes the object from their

W hat it Mercantile Charily ?


sight, while the money bestowed may only plunge the wretched man
deeper in difficulty and want, by relieving and not helping. Giving with­
out thought, may often encourage idleness in those who ought to engage
in honest labor. I f one escapes too easily from difficulties in which his
own follies have plunged him, he will be less likely to avoid this fault o f
his character in future. God has ordered that the way o f the transgressor
should be hard, and it is often a nice matter to decide when to give with­
out coming between the fault, and that righteous retribution, which is the
m ercy o f heaven to save from further sin.
Let us not say a word to limit or narrow down charitable feelings. Let
us not offer excuses for selfishness and meanness ; and yet it is important
to inquire and settle what is Christian duty towards those who solicit our
aid. W e fear there is less thought upon this subject than there ought to
be. W hen you visit the city, as you walk the streets, towards evening, at
almost every square, you w ill be met by quite young children, who, in pit­
eous tones, ask o f you a few cents to buy bread. I f you turn and offer
them bread from the shop near where you may be, they refuse it. T h ey
want money. W e fear often they are sent out by intemperate parents to
glean a few small coins, that they may be expended in intemperance and
excess. It is hard to turn a deaf ear to the petition o f children ; but is it
not duty to resist these questionable appeals. If one had time, it would be
well to offer to go with them to their homes, and inquire into their case.
Such offers are, generally, refused; sometimes it may be through shame,
and fear o f exposing the wretchedness o f their abode ; but more often refused from fear o f their parents, who dread that their vile objects in send­
ing their children forth should be exposed.
But in the country w e often have difficult questions o f charity to decide.
There is a class o f applicants for charity, quite numerous, who go about
with a written tala o f shipwreck and disaster, and who ask aid to bring
their families from Europe to these hospitable shores. W hat will you do
with them 1 W hat is Christian duty n ow ? W e think it is duty to feed
any one who is hungry, to clothe any one who is naked, when w e have it
in our p ow er; but w e do not believe it is duty to give money for distant
objects, and thus to encourage in our own land a class o f travelling beg ­
gars, who may finally help to people our jails and prisons. T o give a man
money to encourage him in a system o f deception, is not, surely, Christian
W e think w e may avoid much difficulty, and also be at peace in our
consciences, by taking care to support properly all those institutions estab­
lished in our time and by our fathers, for the relief o f indigence, and the
encouragement o f industry. W e do the best service to the poor, indi­
rectly, by looking after the common s c h o o l; by seeing that all children
are properly educated, their faculties trained to enable them to help themselves. This is to avoid the causes o f poverty. But there w ill be cases,
after all, that ask our aid. T h e farm schools and the poor’ s farm are
among the most excellent improvements o f our time. T h ey offer no en­
couragement to idleness ; their doors are open to all the needy.
And now, to com e back to our immediate topic o f inquiry, how far are
w e to give up luxuries w e have earned, to help those who have neglected
to help themselves ? it seems to us a narrow view to suppose any such
course required o f us. W e have attempted to show that wealth is given
to men that they may be stewards o f large bounties. It would seem, by


Robert Fulton’s First Voyage.

the course o f events, that Providence prospers men in trade and commerce,
and useful arts, that colleges may be founded, and hospitals endowed. It
would seem that in somebody’ s hands must be funds for such purposes.
G od’ s stewards have not failed in our day. T h e rich are the benevolent,
and to be poor is to have frien d s. From the words o f our Saviour w e do
not see any precept inculcated but a general lesson o f benevolence ; and
no Christian duty seems to demand o f any man to throw his possessions
into the common stock. N o duty demands it, because it destroys his use­
fulness, and fetters the hand o f bounty.
j. n. b .

W h a t e v e r relates to the introduction into use o f that power which has
becom e the mighty muscle o f the world, moving its entire machinery, must
b e o f the deepest importance. The voyage from N ew York to Albany, o f
the first steamer, opened the door to a progress for the human race, equiv­
alent, at one bound, to the march o f ages. A history o f that voyage, we
care not how minute the detail, must be o f thrilling interest. It was an
experiment, in the success or failure o f which, the comfort and prosperity
o f a great fraction o f mankind were interested.
W e have recently seen, in the Chicago Journal, an article by John Q.
W ilson, Esq., o f Albany, who was himself a passenger with Fulton in the
first experimental voyage, a minute observer o f all its incidents, and an
intelligent witness o f all the facts attending that era in the destinies o f our
race. It is appropriately published in a paper printed at Chicago, a place
which, but for the annihilation o f distance, which steam has achieved,
would, in all probability, have had no existence.
A short synopsis o f the legislative proceedings relating to steam naviga­
tion, precedes the personal reminiscences o f the voyage.
A s early as the year 1787, the legislature o f N ew Y ork passed an act
for granting and securing to John Fitch, the sole right and advantage o f
making and employing, for fourteen years, the steamboat by him invented.
In 1798, that act was repealed, and similar privileges extended to R o b ­
ert R . Livingston, (Chancellor o f the State,) provided that he should, with­
in twelve months, give such proof as should satisfy the Governor, Lieut.
Governor, and Surveyor-General, or a majority o f them, o f his having
built a boat o f at least twenty tons capacity, which should be propelled
by steam, and the mean o f whose progress through the water, with and
against the ordinary current o f the Hudson River, taken together, should not
be less than four miles an hour, in which event he should have the exclu­
sive privilege for the term o f twenty years; but that he should at no time
omit, for the space o f one year, to have a boat o f such construction plying
between the cities o f N ew York and Albany.
In 1803 the preceding act was extended to Robert R. Livingston and
Robert Fulton, for twenty years from the fifth o f April o f that year, and time
for giving the necessary proof required by the act o f 1798, was extended
to tw o years. At the time these acts w ere passed, and particularly the last
one, the privileges were considered about as valuable as i f the legislature
should now grant the exclusive right o f making and using a machine to
fly through the air. The steamboat project was then familiarly denomi­

Robert Fulton's First Voyage.


nated “ the Chancellor's hobby." T h e legislature w ere willing to gratify
the Chancellor’ s whim, without any expectation o f public or private benefit.
It would seem from this that Fitch preceded Fulton ; but the latter made
up by triumphant success for any delinquency in time. T h e rate o f
speed designated as the ordeal o f legislative power, seems ludicrous
enough now, when four and twenty miles the hour is reached.
Judge W ilson resided in the city o f N ew Y ork when Fulton was build­
in g his boat, and frequently saw her on the stocks. She was a queer
looking craft, and excited much attention, and not a little ridicule. W hen
she was launched, and the steam-engine placed in her, that also was looked
upon o f a piece with the boat built to float it. A few had seen one at
work raising the Manhattan water into the reservoir back o f the alms­
house ; but to the people at large, the whole thing was a hidden mystery.
Curiosity was greatly excited. W hen it was announced in the N ew Y ork
papers that the boat would start from the foot o f Cortlandt-street, at six
and a half o ’ clock on Friday morning, the fourth o f September, and take
passengers to Albany, there was a broad smile on every face, as the in­
quiry was made, if any one would be fool enough to go ? A friend o f the
writer, hearing that he intended to venture, accosted him in the street,
“ John, w ill thee risk thy life in such a concern ? I tell thee she is the
most fe a r fu l wild fo w l living, and thy father ought to restrain thee.”
W h en Friday morning came, the wharves, piers, house-tops, and every
“ coigne o f vantage” from which a sight could be obtained, w ere filled
with spectators.
There were twelve berths, and every one was taken through to Albany.
T h e fare was seven dollars. A ll the machinery was uncovered and ex­
posed to view. T h e periphery o f the balance wheels, o f cast iron, some
four or more inches square, ran just clear o f the water. There w ere no
outside guards ; the water and balance wheels being supported by their
respective shafts, which projected over the sides o f the boat. The forward
part was covered by a deck, which afforded shelter to the hands. The
after part was fitted up, in a rough manner, for passengers. The entrance
into the cabin was from the stern, in front o f the steersman, who worked
a tiller as in an ordinary sloop. Black smoke issued from the chimney,
steam hissed from every ill-fitted valve and crevice o f the engine. Fulton
him self was there. His remarkably clear and sharp voice was heard
above the hum o f the multitude and the noise o f the engine ; his step was
confident and decided; he heeded not the fearfulness, doubts, or sarcasms
o f those by whom he was surrounded. T h e whole scene combined, had
in it an individuality and an interest which comes but once, and is remem­
bered for ever.
W hen everything was ready, the engine was set in motion, and the
boat moved steadily but slowly from the w h a rf; as she turned up the river
and was fairly under weigh, there arose such a huzza as ten thousand
throats never gave before. The passengers returned the cheer, but Ful­
ton stood upon the deck, his eye flashing with an unusual brilliancy, as he
surveyed the crowd. H e felt that the magic wand o f success was waving
over him, and he was silent.
W h en coming up Haverstraw Bay, a man in a skiff lay waiting for us.
H is appearance indicated a miller ; the paddle wheels had very naturally
attracted his attention ; he asked permission to come on board. Fulton
ordered a line to be thrown to him, and he was drawn alongside ; he said



Robert Fulton's First Voyage.

he “ did not know about a mill going up stream, and came to inquire about
it.” One o f the passengers, an Irishman, seeing through the simpleminded miller at a glance, becam e his ciceron e; showed him all the ma­
chinery, and the contrivances by w hich one wheel could be thrown out o f
gear when the mill was required to come about. After finishing the ex­
amination, said he, “ That will do ; now show me the mill-stones.” “ O h !”
said the other, “ that is a secret which the master,” pointing to Fulton,
“ has not told us y e t ; but when w e com e back from Albany with a load
o f corn, then, i f you come on board, you’ll see the meal fly.”
kept his countenance, and the miller left.
As w e passed W est Point, the whole garrison was out, and cheered as
w e passed. At Newburgh it seemed as i f all Orange county was collect­
ed there ; the whole side-hill city seemed animated with life. Every sail­
boat and water-craft was o u t; the ferry-boat from Fishkill was filled with
ladies. Fulton was engaged in seeing a passenger landed, and did not
observe the boat until she bore up nearly alongside. T h e flapping o f a
sail arrested his attention, and, as he turned, the waving o f so many hand­
kerchiefs, and the smiles o f bright and happy faces, struck him with sur­
prise ; he raised his hat, and exclaimed, “ That is the finest sight w e have
seen yet.”
Fulton, in his letter to Barlow, (22d August, 1807,) adds to these remi­
niscences : “ My steamboat voyage to Albany, and back, has turned out
rather more favorable than I had calculated. The distance to Albany is
one hundred and fifty miles. I ran up in thirty-two hours, and down in
thirty hours. T h e latter is just five miles an hour. I had a light breeze
against me the whole w ay going and coming, so that no use was made o f
my sails, and this voyage has been performed wholly by the power o f the
steam-engine. I overtook many sloops and schooners beating to the
windward, and passed them as i f they had been at anchor.
“ T h e power o f propelling boats by steam is now fully proved. The
morning I left N ew York, there were not, perhaps, thirty persons in the
city who believed that the boat would ever move one mile an hour, or be
o f the least utility; and while we were putting o ff from the wharf, which
was crowded with spectators, I heard a number o f sarcastic remarks.”
It is w ell known that, at the end o f the voyage, a certificate o f its full
success was given, which w e republish in connection with the above.
Judge W ilson is now the only survivor o f those who joined in that certifi­
cate ; the last one, we believe, now living, who was on board that boat,
whose journey was o f more importance to the Union than any other since
the days o f Columbus :—
“ On Friday morning, at eighteen minutes before seven o ’ clock, the
North River boat left N ew York, landed one passenger at Tarrytown,
(twenty-five miles,) arrived at Newburgh (sixty-three miles) at four o ’ clock
in the afternoon, landed one passenger there, arrived at Clermont, (one
hundred miles,) where two passengers, one o f whom was Mr. Fulton, were
landed, at fifteen minutes before two o ’ clock in the morning, and arrived at
A lbany at twenty-seven minutes past eleven o ’clock, making the time
twenty-eight hours and three-quarters, distance one hundred and fifty miles.
“ The wind was favorable, but light, from Verplanck’ s Point to Wappinger’ s Creek (forty miles ;) the remainder o f the way it was ahead, or there
was a dead calm.
“ T h e subscribers, passengers on board o f this boat, on her first pas-

T he Law o f D ebtor and Creditor in Louisiana.


sage as a packet, think it but justice to state that the accommodations and
conveniences on board exceeded their most sanguine expectations.
“ Selah Strong, G . II. Van W agenen, Thomas W allace, John Q. W ilson, John P. Anthony, Dennis H . Doyle, George W etmore, W illiam S.
H ick, J. Bowman, J. Crane, James Braiden, Stephen N . Rowan.
“ Albany, September 5th, 1807.”
W e cannot forbear two other extracts from Fulton’ s letter ; the first is
a wonderful prophecy, long since realized beyond the highest hopes o f him
who made i t ; the other is another proof how seldom men know the real
value o f their own acts— at least, really great men.
“ It will give a quick and cheap conveyance to merchandise on the M is­
sissippi, Missouri, and other great rivers, which are now laying open their
treasures to the enterprise o f our countrymen.”
‘.‘ However, I will not admit that it is half so important as the torpedo
system o f defence and attack.”
The “ torpedo system” could not have covered the land with prosperity,
and made an empire o f the W est, as the steamboat has done. Every hour
is adding confirmation to Fulton’ s prophecy o f the results o f his boat, as
an abiding, practical benefit, and blessing to mankind; while the torpedo
would be forgotten but for being associated with his name.
W e hope that Judge W ilson will furnish, if in his power, other details
o f this most interesting occasion.


T h e prescription o f the civil law, (answering to the common law stat­

utes o f limitation) is an interesting branch o f the jurisprudence o f Louis­
iana, and important in its operation upon the relation o f debtor and creditor.
The statutes providing for, and regulating the limitation o f actions, have
been justly denominated “ statutes o f repose.”
Provisions o f a like na­
ture have found their way into the systems o f jurisprudence o f every civil­
ized community. They have their origin in that wise policy which sees
the well-being and prosperity o f a community in the suppression o f litiga­
tion, and the quieting o f the titles to property ; and are adopted to meet and
arrest the litigious spirit in man, in the just apprehension that “ lest while
men are mortal, lawsuits should be immortal.”
They have been said to rest upon the legal presumption— arising from
the lapse o f time during which a debt or property has been unclaimed
from the debtor or possessor by the creditor or lawful owner— that the
debt has been paid, but the evidence o f payment has been lo s t; that the
possessor o f property once had a good and sufficient grant, but that his
title has been destroyed.
The interposition o f these provisions, both under the civil and the com ­
mon law, as a bar to a suit for the possession o f property or the recovery
o f a debt, is no longer regarded by the courts as an odious defence, to be
discouraged by a strict construction against the defendant; but the law is
administered in the spirit o f that theory o f its origin, so beautifully ex­
* For the first artiele on the same subject, see Merchants’ Magazine for July, 1846,
(V o l. XV., No. I., p. 70.)


The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Louisiana.

pressed by one o f the ablest and most eloquent lawyers o f our age :
“ Tim e is represented as holding a scythe in one hand, and an hour-glass
in the other. W ith the former he is forever destroying our evidences, and
mowing down the monuments o f our possessions. But the wisdom o f the
lawgiver has declared, that with the latter, he shall be continually meting
out the durations o f time at which those evidences and those muniments
shall no longer be necessary.”
By the articles o f the civil code o f Louisiana, prescription is declared
to be o f two kinds: 1st. That by which property is acquired; and 2d.
That by which debts are discharged. First, with regard to the acquisition
o f property.
The duration o f time o f its possession to bar its recovery by the legal
owner, depends—
1st. Upon the nature o f the property.
2d. Upon the character, i f any, o f the titles under which the possessor
holds or claims ; and—
3d. The presence or absence from the country o f the legal owner.
I f the property be immoveable, its possessor may plead prescription as
a bar to the claim o f the real owner, after the lapse o f either ten, twenty,
or thirty years o f possession, according to the circumstances under which
his possession has been held. I f the real owner be all the while present
in the country, his right is prescribed by ten y ea rs; if he be absent, by
twenty; but the possessor, to be entitled thus to prescribe, must be a pos­
sessor in good fa ith , and by a just title; and the term “ just title,” in this
connection, is defined, by the civil law, to mean a title apparently sufficient
to convey the property. W h en the real owner is a part o f the time pres­
ent and a part o f the time absent, it is provided that two years o f absence
shall be reckoned as one o f presence. Thirty years’ possession sustains
a plea o f prescription against the claim o f the real owner, whether pres­
ent or absent, whether the possessor has or has not a just title, and whether
he holds in good or bad faith. And, in this respect, there is a broad dis­
tinction between the provisions o f the civil and those o f the common la w ;
for, by the latter, no length o f possession is sufficient to bar the title o f the
legal owner, unless that possession be adverse to h im ; and to constitute
an adverse possession, good faith, and, if a title, a just title, (under the civil
law definition o f that term,) are absolute pre-requisites. Nothing can be
more unjust than the very general and popular belief, that where the com ­
mon law prevails, as in N ew York, the lapse o f twenty years, or any other
length o f time, during which the rightful owner has neglected to claim his
land, is sufficient, in all cases, to perfect the title o f the possessor, by rais­
in g on his behalf the legal presumption o f a grant. This presumption is
never raised but in favor o f the possessor who has held in good faith, and
where the possession originated in a paper title ; this 'good faith is directly
rebutted, when, upon the exhibition o f that title, it appears, upon its face,
to be absolutely void.
Thus, where the possessor holds lands under a judgment or decree o f
an incompetent court, or a tribunal which, at the date o f the judgment,
was functus officio for the purposes o f rendering such a judgment, or by a
grant from an individual or individuals, in an official capacity, who, at the
date o f this grant, had, by law, no such official capacity, (as a court for
the imposition o f fines and the creation o f forfeitures o f estates, after the
ratification o f the treaty o f peace, or the commissioners o f forfeitures after

The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Louisiana.


such ratification,) the lawful owner, or his heirs, may recover the property
notwithstanding any length o f time during which he or they have neglect­
ed to demand its restoration. But this, as we have seen, is not the case
in Louisiana ; for, by the civil law, thirty years’ possession bars, by pre­
scription, the right o f the legal owner, whatever may have been the char­
acter or origin o f the possession.
Prescription may be pleaded to the claim o f the rightful owner o f slaves
by the possessor who has held them one-half the length o f time required
to sustain such plea against a claim to immoveable property; and pre­
scription may be pleaded to the claim o f the legal owner o f moveable
property, by the possessor who has held the same three years.
W e have seen in what manner the lapse o f time necessary to sustain
the plea o f prescription is affected by the absence o f the legal owner.
W ith regard to the other disabilities to institute a judicial claim, such as
infancy, lunacy, imprisonment, (coverture is not a disability by the civil
law ,) the time only begins to run from the cessation o f such disability.
T h e second general division o f the subject o f prescription by the civil
code, is, That by which debts are discharged.
By the common law, the rules establishing the limitations o f time suf­
ficient to bar the recovery o f debts, are few and simple ; and the statutes
o f the several States have made but little variation from the common law
provisions. Generally, the only division o f debts, in this connection, is
that o f debt by simple contract, and by specialty or record. T o recover
upon the former, no action can be sustained after the lapse o f six years
from the time when the cause o f action accru ed; upon the latter, after
the lapse o f twenty years. By the provisions o f the civil code, debts, as
affected by prescription, are divided into numerous classes, and are dis­
charged, in a longer or shorter time, according to the class in which they
are enumerated. This classification seems, in many instances, purely ar­
bitrary, and it is difficult to perceive why a debt in one class should be
prescribed by the lapse o f ten, five, or three years, rather than one, or
vice versa.
N o action can be sustained to recover fees due a justice o f the peace,
a constable, a notary, or the compensation o f a schoolmaster, or an in­
structor in the arts and sciences, who teach by the month, unless the ac­
tion be brought within one year from the time o f the performance o f the
service. The lapse o f one year, too, prescribes the claims o f inn-keepers
and boarding-house-keepers for b oa rd ; o f retailers, o f workmen, laborers,
and servants ; the claims o f ship-owners for freight, and the claims o f offi­
cers, sailors, and the crew o f ships and vessels, for their wages.
Claims for supplies and materials furnished vessels, are prescribed, too,
by the lapse o f one year ; and this prescription operates upon the items in
account o f supplies and materials furnished, and o f labor or service per­
formed, o f a date older than one year, even though there have been a reg­
ular continuation o f supplies furnished, or o f service or labor done, down
to the time o f the commencement o f the suit. But, as to the claim for
wages o f officers or crews o f vessels, the one year does not begin to run
until the termination o f the voyage.
N o action for slander, or to recover any damage resulting from an of­
fence, or quasi offence, can be brought after the expiration o f one year
from the time when the cause o f action accrued. The lapse o f one year,
too, bars a claim for the non-delivery o f merchandise shipped on board


The Law o f D ebtor and Creditor in Louisiana.

any kind o f a v e s s e l; and also any claim for damage sustained by mer­
chandise shipped on board any kind o f vessel, or for any damage which
may have occurred by reason o f a collision o f any kind o f vessels ; in
these cases, the one year’ s prescription begins to run from the day o f the
arrival o f the ship or vessel.
Claims for arrearages o f rent, for annuities, for alimony, for the hire o f
moveables, or immoveables, are prescribed by the lapse o f three years.
Three years are required, also, to sustain a plea o f prescription to a claim
for money le n t; for the w ages o f overseers, clerks, and secretaries; also
to claims for compensation by schoolmasters or teachers who teach by the
year or quarter; and to the claims o f physicians, surgeons, apothecaries,
judges, sheriffs, clerks, and attorneys.
Bills o f exchange, promissory notes payable to order or to bearer, and
all choses in action which are transferable by endorsement or delivery, are
prescribed by the lapse o f five years from the time when the cause o f ac­
tion accrued upon them.
Actions to annul contracts, testamentary or other acts, for the reduction
o f donations, for the rescission o f partitions, and for the guaranty o f por­
tions, are each and all prescribed by the lapse o f five years ; and the same
time is necessary to sustain a plea o f prescription to a claim for damage
against a builder or architect, for a defect in the construction or design o f
a building.
A ll claims and obligations, not specified in any o f the enumerated
classes, are declared to be barred by prescription in ten years, i f the debtor
be present, and in twenty, i f he be absent.
T h e old common law doctrine that the statute o f limitations, having
once began to run against a debt, is not arrested by the intervention o f
any disability to enforce the claim, (now, in most o f the States, controlled
b y statute or judicial authority,) never found its w ay into the judicial con­
struction o f the civil law prescription. On the contrary, with those quali­
fications which have been before specified, the time during which a disa­
bility to prosecute the claim exists, is, in all cases, deducted from the time
established as necessary to sustain the plea o f prescription.
W ith regard to the revival o f a claim which has been once barred by
prescription, the doctrine o f the civil law is much the same as that which
has recently prevailed in the courts o f common law jurisdiction ; but, as
under the civil law, the lapse o f time is declared to operate a discharge o f
the debt, and not a mere loss o f the remedy to enforce it, a distinct ac­
knowledgment and unequivocal promise to pay, have always been held
necessary to its revival.
IN T E R E S T .

T here are two rates o f interest established by the laws o f L ouisiana;
the legal and the conventional. The legal interest is five per c e n t ; the
conventional is now e ig h t; though, previous to the legislative session o f
1844, it was fixed at ten per cent.
T h e stipulation for, or reservation of, a sum beyond the fixed conven­
tional rate, does not, as in N ew York, involve the loss o f the d eb t; but in
such case, the principal only can be recovered.
Interest is not a necessary incident to a claim for moneys due. It must
b e expressly provided for, or it cannot be recovered, save from the time
whe n a demand o f payment o f the debt is proved to have been made, or

The Chances o f Success in Mercantile L ife.


from the institution o f the suit, which is a judicial demand. This, upon
the principle that interest is o f the nature o f damages for the non-payment
o f money due, and that damages should not be imposed upon a debtor un­
til after he has been put in default by a failure or refusal to comply with
an amicable or judicial demand.

W e certainly take no pleasure, as the conductor o f a journal devoted to
the interests o f commerce, in disparaging the calling o f the m erchant;
but, as the honest advocate o f whatever is calculated to promote his moral
and social well-being, it becomes our duty to lay before him the difficulties
and dangers o f his profession, as well as the varied information so requi­
site to the successful and accomplished merchant.
On the evening o f the 28th o f February, 1840, General H enry A . S.
D earborn delivered an address at an agricultural meeting o f the mem­
bers o f the legislature, in the state-house in Boston, which embraced a
statement touching the chances o f success in mercantile pursuits, that as­
tonished many, and attracted the attention o f business men in all parts o f
the country. W e had frequently seen the statements alluded to quoted in
the public journals and in lectures before mercantile associations, and ag­
ricultural societies ; but, as a report o f the address had only been publish­
ed in some o f the eastern agricultural periodicals, w e had only met with
the single remark o f its author, “ that among one hundred merchants and
traders, not more than three, in the city o f Boston, have acquired independence.”
W e therefore wrote to G eneral Dearborn for a copy o f his re­
marks made in connection with that statement, which he has kindly tran­
scribed, and placed at our disposal. T h e reader will bear in mind that
General Dearborn was speaking to an audience chiefly composed o f culti­
vators o f the earth, and wished to impress upon them the advantages, in
all respects, o f a rural home, and only presented a well established fa c t to
show them how delusive was the youthful dream o f fortune in the hazard­
ous career o f commercial adventure. A s a branch o f industry, and one
o f the most important, General Dearborn considers commercial enterprise,
and national trade, in all its divisions, as deserving the highest commen­
dations ; but, like distinctions in the army and navy, how few obtain the
guerdon o f wealth and honorable fame !
General Dearborn was collector o f the port o f Boston for nearly twenty
years, and was, therefore, enabled to notice the vicissitudes in trade ; and
his statements are confirmed, as w ill be seen, by the remarks o f a Bos­
ton merchant, which are here appended to the extracts from his address.

“ In England the pleasures, and privileges, and blessings, of the c o u n t r y , seem
properly understood and valued. No man there considers himself a freeman un­
less he has a right in the soil. Merchants, bankers, citizens, and men of every
description, whose condition in life allows them to aspire after anything better, are
looking forward always to retirement in the country— to the possession of a gar­
den or a farm, and to the full enjoyment of rural pleasures. The taste of the no­
bility of England is eminently in that direction. There are none of them who,
with all the means of luxury which the most enormous wealth can afford, even
think of spending the year in London, or of remaining in the confinement, noise,


The Chances o f Success in Mercantile L ife.

and confusion of the city, a day longer than they are compelled to do by their par­
liamentary or other public duties.
“ There is, in this respect, a marked difference between England and France.
Formerly the nobility of France were scattered broadcast over the territory, and
had their villas, their castles and chateaux, in all the provinces of the kingdom.
But the monarchs, anxious to increase the splendor of their courts, and to con­
centrate around them all that was imposing and beautiful in fashion, luxury and
wealth, collected the aristocracy in the capital. The natural consequence was,
that the country was badly tilled, and agriculture made no advancement; while
England was making rapid and extraordinary progress in the useful and beautiful
arts of agriculture and horticulture; and now, in her cultivation, presents an ex­
ample of all that is interesting in embellishment, and important in production.
W e are the descendants of England; yet, on these subjects, we have reversed the
order of taste and sentiment which there prevails.
“ Happy would it be for us if our gentlemen of wealth and intelligence would
copy the bright example of the affluent and exalted men of England. If, after
having accumulated immense fortunes in cities, they would carry their riches and
science into the country, and seek to reclaim, to improve, and render it more pro­
ductive and beautiful, Massachusetts might be transformed into a garden, and ri­
val the best cultivated regions on the globe.
“ It is an inexplicable fact, that even men who have grown rich, in any manner,
in the country, should rush into cities to spend their wealth ; and it is equally as
remarkable that those who have accumulated fortunes in the city, shudder at the
idea of going into the country, where wealth might be safely appropriated to pur­
poses of the highest utility, pleasure and refinement.
“ There prevails in this rather too much ignorance, false sentiment, and unwor­
thy prejudice. The city must, of course, be regarded as the proper seat o f active
business, in all the branches of commerce and navigation. But when a large
portion of life has been spent in these harassing pursuits, and men have acquired
the means of competence and independence in the country, why they should not
seek to enjoy the refreshing exercise, the delightful recreations, and the privileged
hours of retirement and reflection, which a rural residence affords, was a mystery
which it was impossible to solve.
“ It was not merely the ungovernable influence of a city life, upon health, com­
fort, and enjoyment, but its pernicious moral influence, was most deeply to be de­
plored. Many an uncorrupted young man from the country, impelled by a reck­
less passion for gain, has there early found the grave of his virtues. But too many
instances might be pointed out, in which the acquisition of property has proved as
great a curse as could have befallen them. The chances of success in trade are
likewise much less numerous, and are more uncertain than men generally believe,
or are willing to allow. After an extensive acquaintance with business men, and
having long been an attentive observer of the course of events in the mercantile
community, I am satisfied that, among one hundred merchants and traders,
not more than three, in this city, ever acquire independence. It was with
great distrust that I came to this conclusion; but, after consulting with an expe­
rienced merchant, he fully admitted its truth. Infinitely better, therefore, would
it be for a vast portion of the young men who leave the country for the city, if
they could be satisfied with a farmer’s life. How preferable would it have been
for many of those who have sought wealth and distinction in cities, if they had
been satisfied with the comforts, innocent amusements, and soothing quietude of
the country; and, instead of the sad tale of their disasters, which must go back
to the parental fireside, the future traveller, as he passed the humble church-yard
in which they had been laid at rest with their laborious ancestors, might truthfully
repeat these emphatic words of England’s gifted bard :—
‘ Some village Hampden, that, with dauntless breast,
The little tyrant o f his fields withstood ;
Some mute, inglorious Milton, here may rest;
Some Cromwell, guiltless o f his country’s blood.’ ”

T h e following confirmatory remarks o f an intelligent gentleman from
Boston, recently appeared in the “ Farmers’ Library

Railroad fr o m the Atlantic to the Pacific.


“ The statement made by General Dearborn appeared to me so startling, so ap­
palling, that I was induced to examine it with much care, and I regret to say I
found it true. I then called upon a friend, a great antiquarian, a gentleman al­
ways referred to in all matters relating to the city of Boston, and he told me that,
in the year 1800, he took a memorandum of every person on Long Wharf, and
that, in 1840, (which is as long as a merchant continues business,) onlyfive in
one hundred remained. They had all, in that time, either failed, or died destitute
of property. I then went to a very intelligent director of the Union Bank (a very
strong bank) ; he told me that the bank commenced business in 1798 ; that there
was then but one other bank in Boston, the Massachusetts Bank, and that the
bank was so overrun with business, that the clerks and officers were obliged to
work until twelve o’clock at night, and all Sundays; that they had occasion to
look back, a year or two ago, and they found, that of the one thousand accounts
which were opened with them in starting, only six remained; they had, in the
forty years, either failed, or died destitute o f property. Houses whose paper had
passed without a question, had all gone down in that time. Bankruptcy, said he,
is like death, and almost as certain; they fall single and alone, and are thus for­
gotten; but there is no escape from it; and he is a fortunate man who fails
“ Another friend told me that he had occasion to look through the probate office,
a few years since, and he was surprised to find that over 90 per cent of all the es­
tates settled there, were insolvent. And, within a few days, 1 have gone back to
the incorporation of our banks in Boston. I have a list of the directors since
they started. This is, however, a very unfair way of testing the rule, for bank
directors are the most substantial men in the community. In the old bank, over
one-third had failed in forty years, and in the new bank, a much larger proportion.
“ I am sorry to present to you so gloomy a picture, and I trust you will instil
into your sons, as General Dearborn recommends, a love of agriculture; for, in
mercantile pursuits, they will fail, to a dead certainty.”

T h e subject of, and necessity for a route to India or Asia, west from
Europe, has been talked of, and speculated upon from time immemorial.
Columbus was in search o f India when he discovered this continent.
Humboldt and others have made great efforts to find a route across this
continent, to communicate with the two oceans, and bring the East and
W est together. England has expended enormous sums, immense toils,
sufferings and deprivations, to find a northwest passage through an ocean
o f perpetual ice. Surveys and explorations have been made across Pan­
ama, Darien, & c ., the last under the authority o f the French government,
under the direction and command o f the highly distinguished engineer, G e­
neral Garella, whose very able report is fully reviewed in the Courrier des
Etats Unis o f 16th September, 1846, showing clearly the impracticability
o f a ship canal or railroad, either at Panama, Darien, or across that part
o f the continent; and even if the geographical and geological formation
would permit, the climate, want o f soil or country to sustain a population,
dangerous navigation, with the impossibility o f forming safe and sufficient
harbors and ports on either side, are insurmountable objections. But w e
have before us the very able report o f Senator Breese, on the project o f A .
Whitney, Esq., o f N ew York, to build a railroad from Lake M ichigan to
the Pacific, from the sale and settlement o f the public lands. T h e C om ­
mittee on Public Lands, to whom the subject was referred, is composed o f
the following distinguished statesmen : Senators Breese, (chairman,) More-


Railroad from, the Atlantic to the Pacific.

head, W oodbridge, Ashley and Chalmers ; who, after a full consideration o f
the whole subject in all its bearings, reported unanimously in its favor, and
introduced a bill setting apart the lands prayed for by the memorialist, to
enable him to carry out his great project. The bill was passed to a se­
cond reading, and with the report ordered printed for the use o f the Senate.
Thus we have before us this mighty project, which will, if carried out, re­
volutionize the entire world, commercially, politically, morally and socially ;
sanctioned and endorsed by a committee o f the Senate o f the United
States, and since (so far as we have been able to learn) has received the
almost unanimous and entire approbation o f the press and the public through­
out the country. Before w e proceed to notice more fully the report, w e
w ill enter into a short explanation, or description o f the commerce o f Asia,
which has been the source and foundation o f all the commerce and wealth
o f the world for centuries past, and which has always, till recently, caused
a continual drain o f the precious metals in exchange for silks, teas, spices,
and the almost exclusive products o f Asia ; and with this great disadvan­
tage, w e find that from the time o f the Phoenicians to the present day, the
countries o f Asia have been the great theatre for the commercial enter­
prise o f the world, and will, undoubtedly, so continue to the end o f time.
It has been possessed and controlled by one nation or people after another,
each fattening upon the golden crop ; city after city has been built up by
this vast commerce, and made its emporium ; from Tyre, “ the queen o f
cities,” whose “ traffickers were the honorables o f the earth,” Palmyra,
Alexandria, Constantinople, V enice and Genoa, Antwerp, Lisbon, Amster­
dam and London, each nation and city has flourished and prospered, and
its loss has been their downfall or decay. England now holds and con­
trols it in her iron grasp— her possessions in India have been a guaranty
o f its continuance, because the distance, time, and immense expense, re­
quired to carry it on, forbade any competition from other nations, and she
w ill not seek to open any new channel, which may shorten distance or les­
sen expense, and raise up competitors. She would undoubtedly oppose the
opening o f any new channel where her vast power and political influence
could be brought to operate against i t ; but in this case it is beyond her
reach— the lands, the way, are our own, and w e have none to consult but
ourselves ; and with this road, what would be our position and picture ?
Europe, with her 250,000,000, 3,000 miles from us on the one side, and
Asia, a little more than 5,000 miles from us, with her 700,000,000, on the
other side, politically and commercially commanding both, and both tribu­
tary to us ; and all the vast, the rich com m erce o f all Asia, which has been
the source o f so much wealth, built up so many cities and empires, caused
so much strife and bloodshed, is now to becom e ou rs; and all passing
through the centre o f our country, and bringing together the entire world,
in free intercourse, as one family. T h e view is almost too vast for the
mind to contemplate ; but the committee have made the plan and the work
plain and clear, and w e are much indebted to it, for the great care and
labor bestowed upon the subject— one o f such vast magnitude and import,
ance, and so novel, requires great courage and foresight in a statesman to
be willing to risk his reputation upon it. Senator Breese has been found
to possess both foresight and courage for the occasion ; and the committee,
together, have supported and sustained him— and to him and his associates,
w ill all mankind be for ever indebted, if this stupendous work is accom ­

Railroad fr o m the Atlantic to the Pacific.

4 79

T h e report referred to classifies the material points involved in this un­
dertaking, under twelve distinct heads, each o f which is argued and exem­
plified in a calm and conclusive manner. T h ey say—
“ The proposition is a startling one, and of vast importance to our country and
to the world; a deliberate consideration of which, naturally resolves it into sev­
eral points, seeming, in the opinion of the committee, to claim attention in the
following order:
“ 1. The power of Congress over the entire subject in all its bearings.
“ 2. The practicability of the proposed work.
“ 3. The adequacy of the means proposed for its accomplishment, and the ex­
pediency of applying such means to this object.
“ 4. The effect of its construction in bringing into demand, and enhancing in
value, the public lands, in every part of the country.
“ 5. Its effect in extending and promoting the interest of agriculture.
“ 6. Its effect in the support, and as a means of enlarging and diversifying the
manufactures of the country.
“ 7. Its effect in developing the mineral resources of the country.
“ 8. Its effect as one of the great arteries of intercourse, in extending the inter­
nal trade and commerce of the whole country.
“ 9. Its effect in extending our commerce with China and the other countries
of Asia, the eastern Archipelago, and other islands in the Pacific, and with the
countries on the western coast of North and South America.
“ 10. Its consequence in fostering the whale and other fisheries in the Pacific,
the bays and rivers thereof; in extending and protecting the mercantile marine in
those seas; and thus forming the most extensive nursery of seamen, and strength­
ening the maritime power of the United States.
“ 11. Its use as a great highway of nations, serving for purposes of travel and
transportation at rates of charge and transit duties to be regulated by ourselves,
being in all respects subject to our power and control, encouraging constant in­
tercourse, and imparting to the citizens of other countries the liberal principles of
our own government.
“ 12, and lastly. The effect that would be produced in a moral, political, and
military point of view to the American Union, by the construction of a railroad
across the continent, to the shores of the Pacific.”
T h e report exhibits a statement, estimating the saving in capital now
employed in the com m erce o f Europe and Am erica with all Asia, and
the countries and islands o f the Pacific, on the cost o f tonnage, alone, to
be $30,498,613. But the great facilities which the road cannot fail to
produce, must so vastly increase commerce, as to require a far greater
amount o f tonnage than at the present time.
T h e following table (I .) from the report, exhibits the tonnage and men
now employed in the com m erce with all Asia and the Pacific, which it is
supposed may be brought over this road ; and T able II. exhibits the
amount o f imports and exports to and from all A s ia :—
I.— Statement o f the number o f vessels, amount o f tonnage, and crews, which
entered and cleared at the ports o f the follow ing countries, from and to ports beyond
the Cape o f Good Hope and the Pacific.

T able



Ships. Tonnage.

England, 1842,...............................
United States, 1845,......................
France, 1833,..................................
Antwerp, 1 8 3 9 ,...............................
Bremen, 1841, ................................
Hamburg, 1841,..............................
The Netherlands, 1840,.................
Russia, with China, est’ d to require


Ships. Tonnage.



















Indian Mounds.
II.— Imports and exports into and from Europe and America, from and to ports
or places beyond the Cape o f Good Hope and the Pacific Ocean.

Great Britain.............................................................................
Antwerp, no statistics ; but the seven ships entered must
have averaged more than $1 00,0 00,...............................
for five ships,..................
for six ships,...................
T he Netherlands,.....................................................................
United States,........................................................................ .
United States, from whale fishery for 1845:
157,700 barrels sperm oil, a 88 cts., $4,374,144 00
“ whale oil, a 33$ «
2,864,494 33
3,195,054 lbs. whalebone, a 33$ “
1,065,018 00









A dd for Russia, overland, with China,.

W e regret that our limits, at this time, w ill not permit us to exhibit the
facts and arguments o f the report in the present, but w e may resume the
subject, however, in a future number.


A w r i t e r in your valuable M agazine, (for September, 1846,) has, as
he intimates, frankly hazarded suggestions on the subject o f Indian Mounds,
and invited the conjectures o f others to the elucidation o f the matter.
T h e same desire to arrive at truth respecting those remains, induces me
to offer the opinions formed with regard to them, after much observation
o f their appearance and structure.
T h e i r S t r u c t u r e . — The structure o f these tumuli, as they have
been called, improperly as I believe, but no doubt from an opinion that
they are simply tombs o f the original inhabitants o f this country, presents
a generally similar aspect, but they vary in size. A great number o f them
are to be seen in this section o f Alabama, and even now, a particular
part o f one o f the streets o f Tuscaloosa, exhibits the semblance o f one o f
these antique elevations. In the neighborhood o f Carthage, a village six­
teen miles from the above named city, is to be found one, its top embracing
an acre o f ground, and covered by forest trees o f very great age. Under
its surface the hand o f the curious has occasionally gone, to drag forth the
relics o f ancient days— bones, pipes, bowls, & c. One remarkable re­
main is, an iron rod, drawn up from a considerable distance, and evidently
not belonging to present times or connected with present uses. These
mounds are commonly pyramidal in shape, and flattened at the top ; un­
questionably, however, the present obtuseness is owing more to time than
the original formation.
T h e i r O b j e c t .— I f I may risk a supposition as to the design o f these
accumulations, it will be found to differ wholly from that o f the correspon­
dent alluded to. I believe that they are records o f some great event,— a

Indian Mounds.


battle, a victory, or other great tribeal success. This opinion is sustained
as well by analogy as by intrinsic evidences.
1. It has been the custom o f all uncivilized people to resort to similar
means to perpetuate the memory o f some event, either useful or extraor­
dinary. Piles o f stone or o f earth have in this way been made landmarks
separating the grounds o f different tribes, the records o f great battles, and
victories, and o f extraordinary inundations. The history o f antiquity is so
full o f instances o f the kind, as to make particular allusion useless.
Am ong the H ebrew s, the Greeks, the Tuscans, before the discovery o f
hieroglyphics and letters, such methods o f recording events were u su al;
and it is but a fair argument from analogy, to infer that like rude monu­
ments, among other rude Indian tribes on this continent, owe their origin
to the same objects.
2. The various remains found in these mounds, go to justify the b elief
that such was the design o f their erection. In them is found not merely
human bones, and not alone articles incident to the dwellings o f such peo­
ple. I f they were in fact cemeteries, nothing would be discovered but the
former, and the barbarian sarcophagus in which they are enclosed. From
positive evidences now at hand, it is proved that the Indians buried their
dead, either in rude coffins o f stones placed together, or in large earthen
jars, o f which the top was subsequently closed. T h e writer has lately
seen one o f these latter, and it is wonderful into how small a space may
be pressed a human body. If, on the other hand, they were not designed
for burying places, but for dwellings, as supposed by your late correspon­
dent, it would seem that the relics should consist alone o f household arti­
cles ; and that it would be difficult to account for the presence o f dead
bodies. The Indians never followed the practice o f burying their dead
amidst their habitations. On the contrary, they selected spots distant and
retired from their homes, always seeking places where the foot o f wild
beast or human foe could never reach. T h e writer has, with some difficul­
ty, climbed to the place where the rude Alibamos once deposited their dead.
It is a high and almost inaccessible cliff on the Alabama river, one side
rising perpendicularly from the western edge o f this stream near the old
town o f Claiborne, and cut o ff from approach on the other side by deep
ravines, over which alone screams the native vulture o f these regions.
H ere, amidst rough, misshapen tablets o f stone, have I labored to exca­
vate the bones o f the Indian, whose voice once awoke the sleeping echoes
o f these wild river hills, but is now as still as the deathly silence o f his
impervious grave. T w o other facts are conclusive against the supposition
that these could have been Indian habitations. In the first place there
has been no proportion whatever to the number o f families inhabiting
these regions ; and in the second, they are not always in situations which
these people would select for residences. Upon the first head, it is suffi.
cient to remark that they do not exist in any regularity, and are not found
in the neighborhood o f places where it is known there w ere extensive
habitations. So far as they are found in situations which are not usually
selected for habitations, it may be said that an intimate acquaintance with
the country but very lately pressed by the Indians’ feet, and with many o f
their habits o f life, justify the declaration that these monuments are most
often found on the banks o f large rivers, or crossing places at these rivers,
in very unhealthy situations. N o people have ever existed more careful
in the selection o f healthful situations for their rude residences, than the
VOL. XV.---- NO. V.


Maxims f o r Merchants and Business M en.

Indians o f the North American continent. In this part o f it, their practice
in that particular is an unerring gu id e; and the emigrant who follows
upon the path o f the westward retreating wild man o f Alabama and Mis­
sissippi, ever knows that he is in an ancient Indian settlement.
In addition, it may be observed, that the articles usually found on exca­
vating such mounds, are such as usually would be present with portions o f
an Indian tribe, emigrating, or on a hunting expedition, or engaged in a
contest with a neighboring race ; arrow-heads, clubs, pipes, water ves­
sels, corn jars, lances, (fee. If, after one o f our late battles in the Creek
nation, or in Florida, the field had been raked up into a pyramidal pile,—
mingling dead bodies, the arms o f the vanquished, and the various articles
commonly found with a nomadic people, the very appearance would be
discovered exhibited now, by the structures we are considering.
I f further surmise may be ventured, I would say that, i f it is true that
our aboriginal Indians are lost portions o f the great body o f emigrating
tribes passing on towards M exico, it would appear probable that these
mounds were rude temples built up towards the supposed region o f the
gods they worshipped, and where they, by human sacrifices, and rude of­
ferings o f matters most useful to themselves in life, propitiated the divine
protection. Similar places o f worship and sacrifice, but o f more finished
construction, w ere found in M exico ; and it is not presuming too much, to
suppose that the fragments o f tribes, lost on their passage through the
country, and afterwards becom ing settled in it, preserved some traces o f
the customs o f the parent nation. On the tops o f these elevations, there­
fore, as upon the tops o f the improved stone edifices o f the more advanced
Mexicans, were probably carried on those awful solemnities o f a barbarian
worship, the recitals o f which fill us with terror.
But enough o f these conjectures. Th ey are thrown out more in the
spirit o f inquiry than controversy, and i f they shall elicit from more w ise
and experienced minds the truth o f the subject, the end o f the writer will
be attained.
b . f. f .





T h i s subject may be divided into two parts :

about business.

1. Dealing with others

2. Dealing with the business itself.




2. The first part o f the general subject embraces the choice and man­
agement o f agents, the transaction o f business by means o f interviews,
the choice o f colleagues, and the use o f councils. Each o f these topics
w ill be treated separately. There remain, however, certain general rules
with respeet to our dealings with others, which may naturally find a place
3. In your converse with the world avoid anything like a juggling dex­
terity. The proper use o f dexterity is to prevent your being circumvented
by the cunning o f others. It should not be aggressive.
4. Concessions and compromises form a large and very important part
o f our dealings with others. Concessions must generally be looked upon
as distinct defeats ; and you must expect no gratitude for them. I am far

On the Transaction o f Business.


from saying that it may not be wise to make concessions, but this w ill be
done more wisely when you understand the nature o f them.
5. In making compromises do not think to gain much by concealing
your views and wishes. Y ou are as likely to suffer from its not being
known how to please or satisfy you, as from any attempt to overreach you,
grounded on a knowledge o f your wishes.
6. D elay is, in som e instances, to be adopted advisedly. It sometimes
brings a person to reason when nothing else cou ld ; when his mind is so
occupied with one idea that he completely over-estimates its relative im ­
portance. H e can hardly be brought to look at the subject calmly, by any
force o f reasoning. F or this disease, time is the only doctor.
7. A good man o f business is very watchful, both over him self and
others, to prevent things from being carried against his sense o f right in
moments o f lassitude. After a matter has been much discussed, whether
to the purpose or not, there comes a time when all parties are anxious that
it should be settled ; and there is then some danger o f the handiest way o f
getting rid o f the matter being taken for the best.
8. It is often worth while to bestow much pains in gaining over foolish
people to your way o f thinking : and you should do it soon. Your reasons
w ill always have some weight with the wise. But if at first you omit to
put your arguments before the foolish, they w ill form their prejudices ; and
a fool is often very consistent, and very fond o f repetition. H e w ill be re­
peating his folly in season and out o f season, until at last it has a hear­
ing ; and it is hard if it does not sometimes chime in with external cir­
9. A man o f business should take care to consult occasionally with per­
sons o f a nature quite different from his own. T o very few are given all
the qualities requisite to form a good man o f business. Thus a man may
have the sternness and the fixedness o f purpose so necessary in the con ­
duct o f affairs, yet these qualities prevent him, perhaps, from entering into
the characters o f those about him. H e is likely to want tact. H e will
be unprepared for the extent o f versatility and vacillation in other men.
But these defects and oversights might be remedied b y consulting with
persons whom he knows to be possessed o f the qualities supplementary to
his own. Men o f much depth o f mind can bear a great deal o f cou n sel;
for it does not easily deface their ow n character, nor render their purposes





10. T h e first thing to be considered in this division o f the subject, is
the collection and arrangement o f your materials. D o not fail to begin
with the earliest history o f the matter under consideration. Be careful
not to give way to any particular theory while you are merely collecting
materials, lest it should influence you in the choice o f them. Y ou must
work for yourself; for what you reject may be as important for you to
have seen and thought about, as what you adopt; besides, it gives you a
command o f the subject, and a comparative fearlessness o f surprise which
you will never have if you rely on other people for your materials. In
some cases, however, you may save time by not laboring much, before­
hand, at parts o f the subject which are nearly sure to be worked out in
11. W hen you have collected and arranged your information, there


Maxims f o r Merchants and Business Men.

comes the task o f deciding upon it. T o make this less difficult, you must
use method, and practise econom y in thinking. Y ou must not weary
yourself by considering the same thing in the same w a y ; just oscillating
over it, as it were ; seldom making much progress, and not marking the
little that you have made. Y ou must not lose your attention in reveries
about the su bject; but must bring yourself to the point by such questions
as these : W hat has been done ? W hat is the state o f the case at pres­
ent ? W hat can be done next ? W hat ought to be done ? Express in
writing the answers to your questions. Use the pen— there is no magic
in it, but it prevents the mind from staggering about. It forces you to
methodize your thoughts. It enables you to survey the matter with a less
tired eye ; whereas, in thinking vaguely, you not only lose time, but you
acquire a familiarity with the husk o f the subject, which is absolutely in­
jurious. Y our apprehension becom es d u ll; you establish associations o f
ideas which occur again and again to distract your attention ; and you b e ­
com e more tired than i f you had really been employed in mastering the
12. W h en you have arrived at your decision, you have to consider how
you shall convey it. In doing this, be sure that you very rarely, i f ever,
say anything which is not immediately relevant to the subject. Beware
o f indulging in maxims, in abstract propositions, or in anything o f that
kind. Let your subject fill the whole o f what you say. Human affairs
are so wide, subtle, and complicated, that the most sagacious man had bet­
ter content him self with pronouncing upon those points alone upon which
his decision is called for.
13. It will often be a nice question whether or not to state the motives
for your decisions. M uch w ill depend upon the nature o f the subject, up­
on the party whom you have to address, and upon your power o f speaking
out the whole truth. W hen you can give all your motives, it will, in most
cases, be just to others, and eventually good for yourself, to do so. I f you
can only state some o f them, then you must consider whether they are
likely to mislead, or whether they tend to the full truth. And for your own
sake, there is this to be considered in giving only a part o f your reason s;
that those which you give are generally taken to be the whole, or, at any
rate, the best that you have. . And, hereafter, you may find yourself pre­
cluded from using an argument w hich turns out to be a very sound one,
w hich had great weight with you, but which you w ere at the time unwill­
ing, or did not think it necessary, to put forward.
14. W h en you have to communicate the motives for an unfavorable de­
cision, you w ill naturally study how to convey them so as to give least
pain, and to insure least discussion. These are not unworthy ob jects;
but they are immediate ones, and therefore likely to have their full weight
with you. Bew are that your anxiety to attain them does not carry you
into an implied falsehood ; for, to say the least o f it, evil is latent in that.
E ach day’ s converse with the world ought to confirm us in the maxim that
a bold but not unkind sincerity should be the groundwork o f all our deal­
15. It w ill often be necessary to make a general statement respecting
the history o f some business. It should be lucid, yet not overburdened
with details. It must have a method not merely running through it, but
visible upon it— it must have method in its form. Y ou must build it up,
beginning at the beginning, giving each part its due weight, and not hur­

Mercantile Law Cases.


rying over those steps which happen to he peculiarly fam iliar to yourself.
Y ou must thoroughly enter into the ignorance o f others, and so avoid fore­
stalling your conclusions. T h e best teachers are those who can seem to
forget what they know full w e ll; who work out results, which have b e ­
com e axioms in their minds, with all the interest o f a beginner, and with
footsteps no longer than his.
16. It is a good practice to draw up, and put on record, an abstract o f
the reasons upon which you have come to a decision on any complicated
su bject; so that if it is referred to, there is but little labor in making your­
self master o f it again. O f course this practice will be more or less ne­
cessary, according as your decision has been conveyed with a reserved or
with a full statement o f the reasons upon w hich it was grounded.
17. O f all the correspondence you receive, a concise record should be
k e p t; which should also contain a note o f what was done upon any letter,
and o f where it was sent to, or put away. Documents relating to the same
subject should be carefully brought together. Y ou should endeavor to es­
tablish such a system o f arranging your papers, as may insure their b e ­
ing readily referred to, and yet not to require too much time and attention
to be carried into daily practice. Fac-similes should be kept o f all the
letters which you send out.
18. These seem little things : and so they are, unless you neglect them.





A bank that receives from another bank, for collection, a note endorsed by the
cashier o f that bank, is bound to present the note to the m aker, for payment, at
maturity, and, i f it is not paid, to give notice o f non-paym ent to the bank from
w h ich the note w as r e ce iv e d ; is not bound, unless by special agreem ent, to give
su ch n »tice to the other parties to the note.
P hipps vs. M itbu ry Bank.
2. A party w h o brings an action against a bank that is afterwards restrained by
injunction, from further proceeding in its-business, and whose property and effects
are put into the hands o f receivers, does not, by proving his claim before the re­
ceivers, but w ithout receiv in g a certificate thereof, or taking a dividend, bar his
right to proceed in the action.
W a tson v. Phoenix Bank.
3. In a suit on a demand due from a bank, the plaintiff is entitled to recover
interest thereon from the time o f action brought, although the bank is afterwards
restrained, by injunction, from p roceeding in its business, and its property is put
into the hands o f receivers. 16.

W h e n the draw ee o f a bill o f ex ch an ge, w h o resides in N ew Y ork , w rites a
letter there to the drawer, w h o resides in this State, accep tin g the bill, w h ich w as
drawn in this State, the contract o f a cceptan ce is made in N ew Y ork, and is g ov ­
erned by the law o f that State ; and the bill must be presented there to the a ccep ­
tor for payment.
W orcester B ank vs. W ells.
2. B y the law o f N ew Y ork, an acceptan ce o f a bill o f ex ch a n ge, “ written on
a paper other than the bill, shall not bind the acceptor, e x cep t in favor o f a person

* Selections from Massachusetts Reports.


Mercantile Law Cases.

to w hom su ch accep tan ce shall have been show n, and w h o, on the faith thereof,
shall have received the bill for a valuable consideration.” ; A . drew a bill on B . in
• N ew Y ork, and procured it to be discounted at a b a n k : B . afterwards w rote a let­
ter to A ., a ccep tin g the bill, and A . exhibited the letter to the officers o f the bank.
Held, that the bank could not maintain an a ction against B . on his acceptan ce, lb.
3. A prom ise to a cce p t a bill o f e x ch an ge is a chose in action, on w h ich no one
besides the immediate prom isee can m aintain a suit in his ow n nam e. Ib.

W h e n a part ow ner o f a vessel or its outfits, effects insurance thereon in his ow n
nam e only, and nothing in the p olicy show s that the interest o f any other person
is secured thereby, an action on the p olicy cannot be maintained in the names o f
all the ow n ers, upon parol evidence that such part ow n er w as their agent for pro­
cu rin g insurance, and that his a g e n cy and their ownership w ere know n to the un­
derwriters, and that the underwriters agreed to insure for them all, and that it was
the intention o f all the parties, in m aking the p olicy , to cov er the interest o f all
the ow ners. Finney vs. Bedford Commercial Ins. Co.
2. W h e n insurance is made on a vessel to her port or ports o f d isch arge, the
voyage terminates at the port w here the ca rg o is substantially d ischarged.
vs. Salem Commercial Ins. Co.

When money is lent to part of the members of a firm, who give a note for it in
their own names only, the lender is not a creditor of the firm, although the bor­
rowers apply the money towards payment of the debts of the firm. Green vs.

In a suit on a promissory note, fairly and intelligently given, by way of com­
promise of a claim on the maker for rent of land occupied by him, he cannot de­
fend by giving evidence that he was in peaceable and adverse possession of the
land more than twenty years next before the giving of the note. Cobb v. Arnold.


United States Court (Louisiana.) His Honor Judge McCaleb delivered an
opinion at length in the case of the brig Nayade, libelled as a prize, by the officers
and crew of the United States brig of war “ Somers.”
T h e facts o f the case, as proved, are these : T h e N ayade left the port o f H am ­
bu rg on the 5th o f June, and arrived o ff V e ra C ruz on the 27th o f A ugu st, w hen
an officer from the Som ers boarded her, notified her o f the blockade, w arned her
off, and inquired w hether she stood in need o f provisions or water. T o this in­
quiry the captain replied that he w as not in w ant o f anything. T h e captain o f
the N ayade then steered for H avana. H is ch ie f reason for selectin g that port w as,
that he had been there before, and could enter the harbor w ithout a p ilo t ; besides
w h ich , he w as inform ed by the boarding officer, that another D u tch ship, w arned
off, had g on e to that port. A fte r sailing tow ards H avana forty-eight hours, and
having progressed only 50 m iles on her course, the brig w as totally becalm ed.
T h e captain becam e alarmed lest, from the calm , the adverse current, the very
bad sailing qualities o f his vessel, and the distance (near 1,000 m iles) to H avana,
he should be short o f water, and determined to return to the S om ers to ask the
supply o f w ater that had been offered and declined. H e a ccord in gly turned, on
the m orning o f the 29th A u gu st, towards the squadron, and on the evenin g o f the
sam e day cam e within sight o f land, and shortened sail, so as to keep o ff shore
till m orning, w hen he hoped to see the Som ers, or som e other vessel o f the squad­
ron. O n the m orning o f the 30th he saw the Som ers betw een him and V era

Mercantile Laic Cases.


C ru z, and steered directly for her, varying her course as the Som ers bore off, so
a s continually to head towards her. O n getting within hailing distance o f the
S om ers, the captain o f the N ayade put out his boat and asked leave to g o on
board the form er, w h ich was granted. H e went on board, asked that his passen­
g e rs (four in number) be taken off, and a supply o f water be given. T h e captain
o f the Som ers replied, that having returned after being warned off, his vessel must
b e seized as a prize. T h e Nayade w as then taken to Green Island, her passen­
g ers and com m ercial letters having been handed over to a British vessel to be de­
livered in V e ra C ruz. A fter putting 240 gallons o f w ater on board, in addition to
what she already had, she w as g iv en in charge o f a prize crew , and sailed for
N e w Orleans on the 1st o f Septem ber. O n arriving at the B alize, on the 16th
Septem ber, only 100 gallons o f water w ere left. Notwithstanding a favorable
w ind during the w hole course from V e ra C ruz to this port, so slow a sailer w as
the N ayade, that she w as 16 days on this voyage. T h ere w ere 14 persons in all,
on the N ayade, on her voyage from H am burg, and 15 on her voyage from V era
C ru z to this port.
T h e above facts are proven by the testim ony both o f the captors and the cap­
tured— there being no conflict between them.
T h e cre w o f the N ayade further testify, that there w ere about 250 gallons on
board when they turned back towards the squadron for water— that they had about
1,500 gallons w hen they left H am burg.

His Honor, in the course of his opinion, first stated the general principles of
law applicable to the case, which seemed to demand a condemnation. He next
commented upon the cases cited by the counsel, and the testimony offered. The
fact that made most strongly against the Nayade, was the declaration of the cap­
tain, at the time of being boarded, that he did not want anything. But the board­
ing officer himself testified that he staid on board a very short time, and that the
captain seemed quite bewildered, and at a loss what to do. It further appeared
that this was the first voyage on which he had acted as master. Taking all the
circumstances of the case together, as proved, the Court saw no evidence of bad
faith, nor anything to discredit the testimony of the crew, and concluded that it
was a case of urgent necessity, and that the captain was justified in returning to
obtain a supply of water.
T h e judgm ent is, that the ca rg o be restored free o f c o s t s ; and that inasmuch
a s there w as probable cause o f seizure, the vessel be restored upon payment o f
costs and expenses.


An action was recently brought in one of the Rhode Island Courts by the
publishers of the Providence Herald against Dr. L. S. Comstock of this city,
whose “ Magical Pain Extractor,” “ Balm of Columbia,” and other preparations,
are advertised continually all over the country— from away down-east to the Rio
Grande; and its object was to recover the amount of ceriain bills for advertising,
which had been run up by Dr. Comstock’s agent in Providence. The defence set
up was that the orders for the advertisements had been given by the agent on his
own responsibility, and that the publishers could look only to him for payment;
but the Court ruled that, as the recognized agent of Comstock & Co., he had
authority to make his principal liable for expenses incurred in the management of
the business, and that if his authority was limited, Comstock &. Co. must show
that they had given the publishers notice to that effect.
It is probable that the agents of Comstock & Co., in various parts of the Union,
have run up advertising bills to the amount of thousands, for which, under this
ruling, Comstock & Co. are liable. So with Dr. Brandreth, Messrs. Sands & Co.,
and other dealers in patent medicines. If any of their agents are bad paymasters,
they may expect to have plenty of bills pouring in upon them.


Commercial Chronicle and Review.






T h e state o f the m oney m arket is quite easy.

T h at is to say, on proper secu ­

rities, m oney can be borrowed at a price below the leg al rate o f 7 per cent.


banking institutions loan freely at 6 per cent, and short loans have been m ade
“ at call,” at 5 per cent.

T h is is, in som e degree, o w in g to the causes w h ich w e

have pointed out in form er numbers, v i z : the feeling o f relief w h ich w e m en­
tioned in our Septem ber number as the consequence o f the final settlement o f the
com m ercial policy o f the country, and the conviction that the panics anticipated,
and partially effected, last winter, as the result o f the adoption o f the new com ­
m ercial and financial p olicy, w ere but the baseless fears o f the timid, and the bu g­
bears o f the politician.

A lthough the tariff does not actually take effect until

D ecem ber 1st, its practical operation upon the currents o f business w as felt at
the date o f its passage.

G oods immediately began to be warehoused for the ben­

efit o f low duties after D ecem ber 1st, and buyers o f those goods w h ich are to un­
dergo the greatest reduction hung back under the supposition that they w ould be
cheaper in consequence.

T h e duties on goods w arehoused in B oston for S ep ­

tember amounted to $ 2 40 ,0 0 0 .

T h e m ere fact that such opinions w ere entertained,

sufficed, in som e degree, to insure their c o rre ctn e ss; and prices o f imported
goods fell very low , involving a great sacrifice to the importers.
imported also fell o ff to a very considerable extent.

T h e quantities

T h e follow in g is a statement

o f the imports and exports o f the port o f N ew Y ork , for nine m on th s:—


M ay........................................
D uties,..,.................




$57,891,819 $22,480,549







It is observable that, up to the close of June, and during the time when great
panic was manifested in certain quarters, in relation to the action of the sub­
treasury, and which panic ceased under the wise movement of Mr. Webster in
asking certain specific questions of the finance committee in relation to its ope­
rations, the imports into the country were in excess of last year. That is to

Commercial Chronicle and Review.


say, from January to July, the imports w ere $2,500 ,000 m ore than in the sam e
period o f the previous ysar.

S in ce the close o f June, the imports have been less

than last y e a r ; that is to say, for the quarter ending Septem ber 30th, the imports
into the port o f N ew Y o rk w ere $3,323,053 less than in the same quarter o f 1845.
T h is state o f the im port trade evinces the faot that the political apprehensions en­
tertained from C ongressional actions w ere not com m on to the com m ercial classes,
w h ose operations were, until the definitive action o f C ongress, m ore extensive
than in the previous year.

T h e effect o f anticipated lo w duties has been, not only

to diminish imports, but to throw into warehouse those goods w h ich bear high du­
ties, to avoid the operation o f the new law .

T h e influence o f this upon the m oney

m arket has been to lessen the demand not only for remittances in paym ent o f im ­
ports, but for duties.

U p to the close o f June, the governm ent collected in cash

from the importers o f N ew Y ork, $ 9 ,494 ,430 , against $8,744 ,200 last year, bein g
an increase o f $7 53,2 29.

S in ce June, it has collected $5 ,395 ,724 , against

$7,377 ,367 in the same time last year, being $1,981 ,643 less ; or, in other words,
the importers o f N e w Y ork have had to pay the governm ent, in round numbers,
$2 ,000 ,000 less in the quarter ending Septem ber 30th, than in the sam e period o f

It is also true that, from the clo se o f June, to the first o f O ctober, the gov­

ernm ent diminished its deposits in this city from $5,105 ,918 to $3,211,848, being
$1,894 ,075 drawn from the banks, and sent to N e w Orleans for w ar expenditures.
T h is m oney being drawn from the banks w a s necessarily by them called in
from loans ; and, so far from producing any pressure, m oney continued to becom e

In the first part o f O ctober, the S ecretary made application for a loan,

or rather intimated that he should want four to five millions before January, and
the banks offered it at 6 per cent, and finally at 5 } ; but m ore than 5 per cent w as
refused, inasm uch as that 5 per cent treasury notes w ere a preferable m ode o f
borrow ing, and several m illions, bearing su ch a rate o f interest, w ill float in the
ex ch a n ge w ith service to the com m unity.

W h e n the M ex ica n w ar burst sud­

denly upon the country in M ay last, there was a surplus in the hands o f the g ov ­
ernm ent o f som e $1 1,000,000, and w h ich had been at the com m and o f the treasury
department for m ore than three years, and had been loaned by it to som e fifty
banks, free o f interest, and, at the same tim e, the governm ent had been paying 6
per cent interest on a similar am ount o f its stock outstanding.

T h e circum stance

o f the w ar made it probable that that am ount w ould be absorbed in extra expendi­
tures, and that som e $1 0,000,000 in addition w ou ld be required to m eet current

A cco rd in g ly , on the tw enty-second o f July, a law w as passed, al­

lo w in g o f the issue o f $10,00 0,00 0 o f treasury notes, under the limitation o f the
a c t o f 1837.

T h a t is, the notes to be receivable for all public dues, to be paid at

the end o f the year, to bear not m ore than 6 per cent interest, to be “ purchaseable” on presentation at the depositories o f the governm ent, and the interest to
cease at the end o f the year.

F or a temporary deficit, this w as, undoubtedly, the

best m ode o f p ro c e e d in g ; but it implied that the deficit should be but temporary,
and that the treasury should be in funds in the follow in g year, to m eet the
$1 0,00 0,00 0 o f notes falling due.

Should, how ever, the w ar unfortunately be

prolonged, and the debt increased in amount, the treasury w ould be embarrassed
by the constantly recu rrin g maturity o f these notes, and a stock loan for a term
o f years, w ould be the most desirable.

Som e $2,240 ,000 o f the notes w ere, how ­

ever, issued up to O ctober 1st, at an interest o f 1 m ill per cent per annum, a

4 90

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

m erely nom inal rate, too lo w to support the notes in the market, and they fell to
a discount, w h ich caused them to be returned to the treasury in paym ent o f cu s­

T h e S ecretary then made the application for a loan w hich w e have allu­

ded to above.

T h e position seems to be thus, h o w e v e r : if the anticipations o f a

speedy p eace, w h ich have been indulged in, prove fallacious, the am ount o f w ar
expenditure, and the length o f time it is to continue, b ecom es altogether uncertain.
T h e quantity o f stock w hich the governm ent w ill have to put upon the market,
becom es matter o f conjecture, and consequently, its value speculative.
indisposition to take it at a lo w rate.

H en ce an

Should, how ever, the hopes o f a speedy

peace be promptly realized, the amount o f m oney w hich the governm ent w ill want,
becom es fixed and determined, and its value will depend m ore upon the state o f
the m oney m a rk e t; and, in the present prospect, a 4 per cent stock w ould com ­
mand par.

T h e Secretary refused to g iv e 6 per cent, a fa ct w h ich w ould augur

w ell for his hopes o f peace.

A part from this incident o f the m oney market, and

the state o f the import trade to w h ich w e have alluded, the evidences o f prosperity
are great and increasing.
are the most conclusive.

A m o n g these evidences, the tolls on the public works
O n the great avenues betw een the W estern States and

the A tlantic States, they have been as follow s, up to O ctober 1st:—

N ew Y ork canals, fiscal year, to Oct. 1...........
Penna. works, opening o f navigation to Oct. 1 .






O n the N e w Y o rk canals, the increase is near 20 per cent, and on both, the ex­
cess over last year, increased as the season progressed, stimulated by the en­
hanced foreign export trade.

T h e railroads and other public w orks in all sections

sh ow a similar im provement, g iv in g un errin g indications o f g row in g business a c ­

T h e prices o f the great leading products o f the country have im proved as

f o l l o w s :—
Ashe«, pots............. .
Cotton, fair............
Flour, Ohio............ .
W h eat.................... .
Rye......................... .
Corn, southern......
Beef, mess............. .
Pork, “ ............. .
Iron, pig, No. 1.. ••.
Coal,....................... .

June 10.
3 50 (a) 3 56
3 93 (a) 4 00
1 00 (a) 1 02
. . . (a)
55 ®
6 00 ® 6 50
10 50 (a) . . .
34 00 (a) 36 00
5 00 (a) 6 00

July 14.
3 50 (a) 3 56
3 50 (a) 3 56
7| ©
4 03 (a) 4 09
4 00 (a) 4 061
95 (a) 1 00
92 (a) 97
70 © . . .
70 (a) . . .
55 (a) 56
52 (a) 57
6 50 (a) 7 00
6 37 (a) 7 00
9 37 (a) 9 50
9 62 (a) 9 75
6 (a)
34 00 (5)36 00
32 50 (a) 35 00
00 (a) 550
5 00 (a) 6 00

3 75 © . . .
4 75 (a) 4 87
92 (a) 1 00
73 (a) 73§
67 (a) 68
6 50 (a) 7 00
9 75 (a) •
60 7 7
32 50 © 3 5 00
5 00 © 600

October 20.
4 371© 4 50
10| ® 11
6 37J© 6 50
1 16 © 1 20
79 ©
75 ©
. ■■ ©
10 37 © 1 0 50
7 j©
. •• ©
. •• © . . .

T h e advance in these prices in fa ce o f the large receipts, is sufficient eviden ce
o f the prosperity o f the great interests en ga ged in their production, w h ile the
high freights and active em ploym ent o f the shipping appears alone to ch e ck a
greater animation, and a further advance in prices.

T h e aggregate receipts o f

som e articles o f produce at tide-water on the H udson, from the com m encem ent o f
navigation in 1845 and 1846, to and includ ing the first w eek in O ctober, have
been as fo llo w s :—



W heat.




491,466bush* l,238,646bush.


* O f this quantity about 160,000 bushels were received prior to the new crop coming
into market. T he increase in flour and wheat is equal to 719,042 barrels of flour.


Commercial Chronicle and Review.

These large quantities have been disposed of at advancing prices, and without
being checked by that pernicious disposition to wait for a rise, which has so fre­
quently spoiled the market, and ruined the operators. The large quantities that
come down pass altogether out of the market, and leave it in a healthy state to
receive future crops. The income of tolls on public works, the quantities trans­
ported, and the rise in prices since June, do not alone afford evidence of a fair
state of prosperity. The dividends on banking institutions at the leading points,
afiord the same evidence. The Banks of Boston declare their dividends in April
and October:—

Freeman’ s........................
G lobe...............................
Mechanics’ .....................
Merchants’ .......................
New England..................
Shoe & Leather Dealers’
Traders’ ............................
W ashington....................


October, 1844.
Ain’ t.


October, 1845.






October, 1846.
Am ’t.
31 105,000



April, 1846.
Am ’ t.






The results are as follows:—

1 8 44 .
A p ril................


T o t a l....








In the year 1840, the dividends am ounted to $ 6 0 8 ,4 7 5 , and in 1842, $9 14,0 50.
1840 w as the low est point, and sin ce, the B oston bank profits have increased
$2 97,5 25, or 35 per c e n t ; and the dividends for the last h a lf o f 1846 w ere by far
the largest o f the series.

T h e w inter dividend, o w in g to m anufacturing opera­

tions, is generally the largest.

T h e N ew Y o rk bank dividends present sim ilar re­

T h e y do not make their dividends all in the same month, as do the Boston

institutions; but, generally speaking, the second dividend for the y ea r has been
the largest.

T h e dividends are as fo llo w s :—

* The Boylston Bank is a new one, and its first dividend was in October for the year.
T he capital o f the Freeman’s Bank was increased $50,000, and the Merchants’ Bank,


Commercial Chronicle and Review.


Bank o f N ew Y ork.......
Manhattan bank.............
Merchants’ .......................
Mechanics’ .......................
Bank o f America...........
C ity .................................
North River.....................
Butchers and Drovers’ . .
Mechanics and Traders’ .
Merchants’ E x ch an ge...
Leather Manufacturers’ .
Seventh W ard................
State Bank o f N. York..
Bank o f Commerce........
Mechanics’ Bkg. Assoc..
American Exchange.. . .


1st div. 2d div.




Am ’ t.

Am ’ t.
1st div.



2d div.




Ain’ t;

In addition to their dividends, the B utchers and D rovers’ B ank declared 4 per
cent, or $2 0,00 0 extra, for a dividend om itted in 1842.

T h e w hole dividends

am ount to 7.09 per cent on the w h ole capital, and the am ount is $1 82,511 greater
than in 1845, and the second dividend in 1846 is $ 1 8 ,7 5 6 larger than the am ount
o f the first dividend.
W e have in all these items, the results o f a regularly increasin g prosperity.
T h e panic fears w h ich w ere partially ex cited during the session o f C ongress, w ere
not, it appears, generally participated in.

T h e great com m ercial interests w ere

healthy and active, and the consequences are increased profits to capital and
m eans o f transportation ; and this has been the ca se in the fa ce o f six months o f
“ existing w ar.”

N otwithstanding all the fears engendered, both in relation to

the continuance o f the war, and its probable injurious influences, capital has been
fairly em ployed, and labor in demand.

A great support to confidence has been

the prospect o f the intercourse with E ngland and E urope.

T h ere probably was

never a tim e w h en a com bination o f circum stan ces conspired to throw, to such
an extent, into the lap o f the w estern coun try, the surplus wealth o f E ngland and
E urope, in e x ch a n ge for their produce.

T h e large export o f food that is taking

place, with every appearance o f continuin g still to g row in m agnitude, in the fa ce
o f a disinclination to im port, from various causes, m ay tend, for a season, to make
the precious m etals the best m eans o f rem ittance.

D u rin g the last three years,

the ex ch a n ges have been rem arkably steady, and the m ovem ent o f specie either
w ay has been unimportant.

T h e follow in g are quotations o f exch an ge by each

packet for the last three y e a r s :—


Sept’ r
Sept’ r
Oct’ r
Oct’ r
N ov’ r
N ov’ r
Dec’ r
Dec’ r


Ex. on Lond.
94(2) 9J
9}(a) 9*
9 (a) 9|
8$ (a) S}
71(a) 7§
8 (5) 8*
8\(a) 8?
9 (a) 9|

Ex. on Paris.
5.25 (a) —
5 35 (a)5.321
5.33f (2)5.32J


Ex. on Lond. Ex. on Paris. Ex. on Lond. Ex. on Paris.
5.25 (2)5.233
5.233 (a)...
5.26 (2)5.25
91(2) 9i
93 (2)101
5.26' ■(a 5.25
8 (2) 9
5.25 (2)5.221
5.2' (a) 5.261
84(5) 81
5.27! (2)5.261
8 (2) 8]
10 (2)104i
8 (a) 9



Commercial Chronicle and Review.

Jan’ y 15.
Jan’ y 31.
Feb’ y 15.
Feb’ y 28.
March 15.
March 31.
April 15.
April 30.
May 15.
M »y 31.
June 14June 30.
July 15.
July 31.
Aug’t 15.
Aug’t 30.

Ex. on Lond.
9 ® 91
9 ffl 9}
9 © S}

8|ffi 9

8} ®

8 1 ® 8-f
81® 9
83© 9

8J® 9]

9 0
9 0


9] 0

9 * 0 91
9 ]0 1 O
9 ]0 1 O


Ex. on Paris. Ex. on Lond,
10 0 1 0 ]
9| 01O ]
0 5 .2 8 ]9 2 0 1 0

5 .3 1 2 0 ..



5.2 2 2 0 ..



5.30 05.27$
9 2 0 9]
2 .2 7 2 0 ..
0 5 .2 9“
7 i0 n
5 .2 7 2 0 ..
9 2 0 9|
5.2(1] 0 5 .2 5
9] 0 1 0
5 .2 0 4 0 ..
.. 9 {0 1 0
5.26] 0 5 .2 5
9 010
5.56] 0 5 .2 5
10“0 1 0 ]
10 0 1 0 ]


Ex. on Paris. Ex. on Lond.
0 . . 8. .] 0 8
8 ]0 8
5.25 0 5 .2 3 ]
8 0 81
5.25 0 5 .2 3 ]
8 ] 0 8]
5.25 0 5 .2 3 ]
820 9
5.55 0 5 .2 3 ]
9] 0 1 0
0 5 .295] 0 9]
5.26] 0 5 .2 5
5.25 0 . . . .
9] 0 1 0
5.25 0 . . . •
8 ]0 9
5.26] 0 5 .2 5
7 2 0 8]
5.20 0 5 .2 6 ]
720 8
0 5 .27$
7 " 0 72
7 ] 0 71
0 . . . .7 2 0 8
5.25 0 5 .2 3 ]
830 9



Ex. on Paris.
0 5 .2 6 ]
05.2 7 *
5,25 "0 5 .2 3 ]
0 5 .2 5
5 .2 6 1 0 ....
5.35 0 5.322
5.35 0 5.32$
5 .3 6 ]0 5 .3 5
5.40 0 5 .3 7 *
5 40 0 5 .3 7 $
5.40 0 5 .3 7 $

F or the five months, ending with Septem ber, last year, the export o f specie w as
som e $1 ,200 ,000 .

It has this year been but $ 4 00,0 00.

T h e rate o f e x ch a n g e,

w h ich usually rises towards the close o f the year, w hen cotton bills becom e short,
this year declined under the influence o f the diminished import above alluded to,
and the increase o f produce bills o f other descriptions.

T h e foreign prices o f all

descriptions o f produce are n ow advancing, with every prospect o f large s a le s ;
and, as m oney is cheap, and specie plenty in L ondon, w h ile goods are fallin g here,
a renew ed import o f the precious m etals m ay reasonably be looked for.
It is a remarkable fa ct that, notw ithstanding the vast extension o f com m erce
all over the world, the great increase o f industrial pursuits in E urope, requiring
the use o f capital, and the enorm ous expenditures o f m oney in the construction
o f railroads, that the quantity o f the p recious m etals c o lle ctin g at the great cen ­
tral reservoirs, say L ondon, Paris, N e w Y o rk , and N ew Orleans, are vastly greater
than ever before, and m oney, at all points, is unusually cheap.

A t a late date,

the B ank o f F rance held $4 5,00 0,00 0, m ostly s ilv e r ; the B ank o f E ngland,
£ 1 3 ,4 9 9 ,1 0 2 o f gold, and £ 2 ,6 7 6 ,7 8 8 o f silver.

T h e S co tch and Irish B ank is

£ 3 ,4 1 3 ,1 8 3 o f gold and silver, together, £ 1 9 ,5 8 9 ,0 7 3 , or $97,94 5,36 5 o f the pre­
ciou s metals.

T h e N e w Y o rk banks held $ 8 ,000 ,000 , and the N e w Orleans

banks $6,000,000, m aking altogether, at four com m ercial cities, $ 1 58,9 45,3 65 of
the precious metals, not in use, but reposin g in bank vaults ! w h ile m oney is un­
usually cheap.

T h e failure o f the harvests in E urope, and the superabundance

in the United States o f the produce o f w h ich they stand in need, must, o f n eces­
sity, disturb the usual current o f business, and probably lead to a large import of
the idle masses o f c o in that n o w repose in the banks.
is also continually increasin g.

T h e supply o f the m etals

In the months o f June and July, $10,00 0,00 0 of

R ussian gold arrived at L ondon, and assisted to sw ell the already large am ounts
held by the bank.

A large portion o f that gold w as sent to pay the dividends due

in H olland on the R ussian debt, and, bein g sent to L ondon, w here it w as m ost
valuable, w as drawn against in favor o f Am sterdam .

T h e w h ole aspect o f com ­

m erce is that o f a large and prosperous business, w ith an unusual abundance o f
m oney in the United States.
T h e progress o f business at N e w Orleans, is strikingly Illustrated in the follow ­
in g table, com piled from the annual returns given in the N ew Orleans P rice
C u r r e n t:—


Commercial Chronicle and Review.





C oni,............
Bacon,.......... ..hhds. and tierces,
B eef,....... ..
H em p,.................................. bdls.,
L ea d ,...........
S u g a r, ...........
A ll other,.....


T otal,..










Bacon,.......... ..hhds. and tierces,
H e m p ,......... ........................bdls.,
L ead ,...........
T ob a cco ,......
A ll other,....,













F rom this table, it appears that, o f an increase o f $33,00 0,00 0 in the annual
value received at N ew O rleans, by river, cotton is but $7 ,000 ,000 .

T h e remain­

der is o f general farm produce, o f w h ich Indian corn has reached a value o f
$ 1 ,556 ,181 , or five tim es that o f 1841.

Cotton, from bein g near 60 per cent o f

the whole value, has fallen to 45 per cent o f w h ole value, notwithstanding that it
has increased 50 per cent.
third o f the cotton crop .

T h e sugar crop has b ecom e equal in value to oneT h e n ew im pulse given to shipments by the state o f

affairs in E urope, w ill em inently tend to develop this feature o f N ew Orleans

It is observable that the banking m ovem ent at that point is very m uch

disproportioned to the rapid grow th o f its business, and the banks have kept on
hand, for the last fe w years, an am ount o f specie far in ex cess o f their circulation.
T h is feature o f the great am ount o f specie held by the banl^s in all com m ercial
countries in proportion to their circulation, w ould indicate a m uch less am ount o f
credit transactions.

T h a t is to say, that the bulk o f business, bein g the actual

transfer o f valuable com m odities from hand to hand, represented by bona fide in­
dividual bills, the latter are cancelled nearly as fast as they are created.
channels o f retail trade are w ell supplied with m oney.


T h e am ount o f the latter

required, is, perhaps, less all over the w orld, by reason o f the ruling low prices.
In all m inor individual transactions, m oney is required.
tions, individual bills effect the transfer.

In w holesale transac­

W h e n prices are low , m uch less m oney

is required by an individual for his private use than w hen prices are high.
m ay a ccou n t for large apparent com m erce, with sm all demand for

T h is

Commercial Regulations.




T he following is a table o f the imported and exported articles o f merchandise, at the
entrance or at the exportation o f which the custom-house duties are lessened, or entirely
repealed ; also o f merchandise prohibited up to the present day, the admission o f which
is now authorized :—



Flax, combed and uncombed, by sea and by land,......................................................... 0 75
Hemp, combed and uncombed, per berkovitz,............................................................... 0 50
Tallow, o f all kinds,............................................................................................................ 1 0
Common bones o f all sorts, bleached and unbleached,................................................. Free.

Anchovies and sardines, per pound,.................................................................................
Antimony, red sulphate of,.................................................................................................
Cardamon seeds and grains o f Paradise,.........................................................................
Carmine, per pound,...........................................................................................................
Cloths o f particular fabric, and cloths mixed with cotton,............................................
Cloths employed in oil-mills,.............................................................................................
Cocoa, in bean and in husk, per poud,............................................................................
Cinnamon and cinnamon flower, wild cinnamon, cloves, and wild honey, per poud,
Coral, manufactured,...........................................................................................................
Crustaceous and all shell fish, per pound,........................................................................
Fish, salted or prepared, with the exception o f herrings, anchovies, and sardines,
per pound,.........................................................................................................................
Gauzes and crapes,..............................................................................................................
Indigo, under its denominations known in Russia, per poud,....................................
Indigo powder, per poud,....................................................................................................
Laces, entoilages o f all kinds, per poud,........................................................................
Lacker dye,..........................................................................................................................
Maccaroni o f all kinds, per poud,.....................................................................................
M ace, per pound,................................................................................................................
Mushrooms, pickled or unpickled,...................................................................................
Native purified mineral alkali— phosphate o f soda, per poud,...................................
Nutmegs, per pound,......................................................................................
Ostrich feathers and plumes of all kinds for hats, dyed or undyed, marabout feathers,
birds o f Paradise, and others o f the same kind, plumes for officers, with the box,
Pat^3 o f all kinds, with their pans, per pound,.............................................................
Pearls, manufactured, composition, glass, metal, iris root, and ear pendants, & c .,.
Pepper, English and Jamaica, and cubebs,.....................................................................
Platina, wrought, except when used in arts or manufactures, an ad valorem duty,.
Pomatums o f all kinds, per pound,..................................................................................
Pottery, gilded, silvered, bordered, painted, or in bas-reliefs o f different colors, and
variegated o f all kinds,..................................................................................................









W are o f this kind, which will be imported to part o f 1847, shall not pay more
than 6 silver roubles per pound.
Pottery and Fayence, white, or o f single colors, without gold, or silver, or design,
per poud,........................................................................................................................... 3 4 9 }
Pottery-ware o f this kind, which will be imported to part o f 1847, will not pay
more than 2 roubles 32£ silver copecks per poud.


Commercial Regulations .

Quercitron bark, per pound,.............................................................................................. 0 25
Red sandal o f Brazil, or wood o f Pernambuco, Campeachy wood, or blue sandal,
Japan, or Sapan wood, and wood o f the same kind, under various other names,
in blocks or chips, per berkovitz,....................................................................................
0 80
T he same in dust,............................................................................................................... 3 50
R ocon, per pound,............................................................................................................... 0 75
Saffron, per pound................................................................................................................. 0 40
Saffron, bastard, per poud,................................................................................................... 0 75
Sago, per pound,......................................................................................................
Silks, entoilages,..........................................................................................................
12 0
Soda, carbonate of, crystallized, per poud,..................................................................... 0 30
Soy, and other similar preparations, in bottles,................................................................ 030
Vanilla, per pound,........................................................................................................ ...» 0 35
Verdigris, per poud,.............................................................................................................. 8 0
Extracts o f different woods for dyeing, per poud,........................................................
3 50
W oollen fabrics o f different kinds, per pound,.........................................................
2 80
Y ellow sandal, sumac, fustic, and other woods o f yellow dye, not otherwise named,
in blocks and chips,......................................................................................................... 0 80
T he same in dust,............................................................................................................... 3 50

Marble and bronze antiquities, o f all sizes.
Ornamental marbles o f all colors, such as chimney-pieces, vases, lamps, monuments of
all kinds, when they are works o f art, and have ornaments seulptured upon them, or
fastened upon them in bronze.
Platina, in all its forms.
Platina vases and instruments o f platinum used in workshops. The exportation of pla­
tinum, in all its forms, is duty free through all the custom-houses of the empire.
Sculptured objects o f all kinds, in ivory, wood, or metal, and works o f art in baked clay.
W orks in sculpture o f modern artists, such as statues, busts, bas-reliefs, in marble or
bronze, with their pedestals, if the latter are altogether or partially sculptured.
T he free importation o f all those objects o f art mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs
is only permitted by the custom-house o f St. Petersburgh.

In cases o f doubt as to

whether the articles to be introduced really belong to the category of works of art, the
decision will be left to the Academy o f Fine Arts, who, for that purpose, shall be invited
to assist in the examination o f the said objects.
T he present table will be put in force at the time o f its reception at each custom-house.
Imported merchandise deposited in the custom-houses which have not paid the duty
on the day o f the reception o f the present table, will be released on the payment o f the
duties above mentioned.
The operation o f the present table, except so far as it affects platinum, for which there
is a special proviso, extends to all the custom-houses and barriers where the tariff o f the
28th o f November, 1841, for the regulation o f the commerce o f the empire with Eu­
rope, is in force.
The following royal ordonance, modifying the import duties on cotton, has just been
promulgated by the Spanish government:—
Art. 1. Cotton from foreign ports and colonies, which are not places of production, will
continue to pay the present duty.
2. Cotton coming direct from the foreign ports where it is produced, will pay a cus­
toms duty o f 5 per cent on the valuation o f 256 reals the quintal.
3. I f a vessel arriving at the Havana, or at Puerto Rico, demand the depot of their
cargo without discharging, it shall be granted, on paying a duty of 1 per cent, and the
same amount on leaving, and a duty of 3 per cent at the port of its destination.
4. Cotton coming from the Spanish colonies, and o f Spanish production, will continue
to pay the present duty.
5. The preceding provisions only relate to cotton imported in Spanish bottoms; cotton
in foreign vessels will continue to pay the duties hitherto levied.

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.






1652— Silver shillings, sixpences, threepences, coined at the rate o f six shillings to a
heavy piece o f eight.
1706— The courts o f judicature chancered silver to eight shillings per ounce, in satisfac­
tion o f debts, being nearly at the rate o f six shillings to a light piece o f eight.
1729— Province Bills worth twenty-nine shillings to thejsilver ounce.
1690- 1— First emission o f Province Bills, to pay expenses of the expedition to Canada.
1691— £10,000 o f Province Bills cancelled and burnt.
1701— £9 ,000 o f Province Bills re-emitted.
I;/"Bills o f this period were called “ Old Charter Bills,” and were at the rate o f
six shillings to a heavy piece o f eight.
1702— N ew emission to be cancelled by taxes in two years. 1704, time extended two
years; 1707, three years; 1709, four years; 1710, five years; 1711, six years;
1715, seven years; 1721, twelve years; 1722, thirteen years.
1729— Exchange with Great Britain, 450 per cent advance, or five and a half N ew E ng­
land for one sterling.



First emission o f Province Bills towards defraying expenses o f expedition against
Port Royal, in Nova Scotia.
1715— Exchange with Great Britain, 65 per cent.
1738— Exchange with Great Britain, 400 per cent advance.
C O N N E C T IC U T .

1709— First emission o f Colony Bills.

1680— Value o f silver coin altered by Lord Culpepper, to defraud an English regiment.
1739— Ounce o f silver worth six shillings eightpence ; ounce o f gold £ 5 .

C A R O L IN A .

1739— £40,000 outstanding upon loan, and £12,500 upon funds o f taxes. Exchange at
10 North Carolina for 1 sterling; in drawing upon London, 12 to 14 for 1

C A R O L IN A .

1702— First emission towards defraying expenses o f expedition against St. Augustine.
1711— Emission for expedition against North Carolina Indians.
1715— Emission for expedition against Southern Indians.
1739— About £250,000 outstanding. Exchange with Great Britain, 8 South Carolina
for 1 sterling.
The following is an official copy o f the act passed at the last session o f Congress, n to
provide for the collection, safekeeping, transfer, and disbursement o f the public reve­
nue.” It was approved by the President o f the United States, August 5th, 1846.

Whereas, by the fourth section o f the act entitled “ A n act to establish the Treasury De­
partment,” approved September two, seventeen hundred and eighty-nine, it was pro­
vided that it should be the duty o f the Treasurer to receive and keep the moneys o f the
United States, and to disburse the same upon warrants drawn by the Secretary o f the
Treasury, countersigned by the Comptroller, and recorded by the Register, and not
otherwise; and whereas it is found necessary to make further provisions to enable the
Treasurer the better to carry into effect the intent o f the said section in relation to the
receiving and disbursing the moneys o f the United States:
VOL. XV.— NO. V.


Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House o f Representatives o f the United States o f America
in Congress assembled, That the rooms prepared and provided in the new treasury build­
ing at the seat o f government for the use o f the Treasurer o f the United States, his assist­
ants, and clerks, and occupied by them, and also the fire-proof vaults and safes erected in
said rooms for the keeping o f the public moneys in the possession and under the immedi­
ate control o f said Treasurer, and such other apartments as are provided for in this act as
places o f deposit o f the public money, are hereby constituted and declared to be, the
treasury o f the United States. And all moneys paid into the same shall be subject to the
draft o f the Treasurer, drawn agreeably to appropriations made by law.
5 2. Arid be it further enacted, That the mint o f the United States, in the city o f Phila­
delphia. in the State o f Pennsylvania, and the branch mint in the city o f New Orleans,
in the State o f Louisiana, and the vaults and safes thereof, respectively shall be places o f
deposit and safekeeping o f the public moneys at those points, respectively ; and the
treasurer o f the said mint and branch mint, respectively, for the time being, shall be as­
sistant treasurers under the provisions o f tnis act, and shall have the custody and care o f
all public moneys deposited within the same, and shall perform all the duties required to
•be performed by them, in reference to the receipt, safekeeping, transfer, and disburse­
ments o f all such moneys, according to the provisions hereinafter contained.
§ 3. A nd be it further enacted, That the rooms which were directed to be prepared and
provided within the custom-houses in the city o f New York, in the State o f N ew Y’ ork,
and in the city o f Boston, in the State o f Massachusetts, for the use o f receivers general
o f public moneys, under the provisions o f the act entitled “ A n act to provide for tne col­
lection, safekeeping, transfer, and disbursement o f the public revenue,” approved July
fourth, eighteen hundred and forty, shall be for the use o f the assistant treasurers herein­
after directed to be appointed at those places, respectively ; as shall be also the fire-proof
vaults and safes prepared and provided within said rooms for the keeping o f public mon­
eys collected and deposited with them, respectively ; and the assistant treasurers, from
time to time appointed at those points, shall have the custody and care o f the said rooms,
vaults, and safes, respectively, and o f all the public moneys deposited within the same,
and shall perform all the duties required to be performed by them, in reference to the re­
ceipt, safekeeping, transfer, and disbursements o f all such moneys, according to the pro­
visions o f this act.
§ 4. A nd be it further enacted, That the offices, with suitable and convenient rooms,
which were directed to be erected, prepared, and provided for the use o f the receivers
general o f public money, at the expense o f the United States, at the city o f Charleston, in
3ie State o f South Carolina, and at the city o f St. Louis, in the State o f Missouri, under
the act entitled “ An act to provide for the collection, safekeeping, transfer, and disburse­
ment o f the public revenue,” approved July fourth, eighteen hundred and forty, shall be
for the use o f the assistant treasurers hereinafter directed to be appointed at the places
above named ; as shall be also the fire-proof vaults and safes, erected within the said of­
fices and rooms, for the keeping o f the public money collected and deposited at those points,
respectively ; the said assistant treasurers, from time to time appointed at those places,
shall have the custody and care o f the said offices, vaults, and safes, erected, prepared,
and provided as aforesaid, and o f all the public moneys deposited within the same, and
shall perform all the duties required to be performed by them, in reference to the receipt,
safe-keening, transfer, and disbursement o f all such moneys, according to the provisions
hereinafter contained.
§ 5. A nd be it further enacted, That the President shall nominate, and, by and with the
advice and consent o f the Senate, appoint four officers, to be denominated assistant trea­
surers o f the United States, which said officers shall hold their respective offices for the
term o f four years, unless sooner removed therefrom; one o f which shall be located at
the city o f New York, in the State o f New York ; one other o f which shall be located at
the city o f Boston, in the State o f Massachusetts; one other o f which shall be located at
the city o f Charleston, in the State o f South Carolina; and one other at St. Louis, in the
state o f Missouri. And all o f which said officers shall give bonds to the United States,
with sureties, according to the provisions hereinafter contained, for the faithful discharge
o f the duties o f their respective offices.
§ 6 . A nd be it further enacted, That the treasurer o f the United States, the treasurer o f
the mint o f the United States, the treasurers, and those acting as suen, o f the various
branch mints, all collectors o f the customs, all surveyors o f the customs acting also as
collectors, all assistant treasurers, all receivers o f public moneys at the several land of­
fices, all post-masters, and all public officers o f whatsoever character, be, and they are
hereby required to keep safely, without loaning, using, depositing in banks, or exchang­
ing for other funds than as allowed by this act, all the public money collected by them, or
otherwise, at any time, placed in their possession and custody, till the same is ordered,
by the proper department or officer o f the government, to be transferred or paid o u t: ana
when such orders for transfer or payment are received, faithfully and promptly to make
the same as directed, and to do and perform all other duties as fiscal agents o f the gov­
ernment which may be imposed by this or any other acts o f Congress, or by any regula­
tion o f the Treasury Department made in conformity to la w ; and, also, to do and per­
form all acts and duties required by law, or by direction o f any o f the executive depart­
ments o f the government, as agents for paying pensions, or for making any other dis­
bursements which either o f the heads o f those departments may be required by law to

Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance .


make, and which are o f a character to be made by the depositaries hereby constituted,
consistently with the other official duties imposed upon them.
§ 7. A nd be it further enacted, That the treasurer o f the United States, the treasurer o f
the mint o f the United States, the treasurer o f the branch mint at N ew Orleans, and all
the assistant treasurers hereinbefore directed to be appointed, shall respectively give
bonds to the United States faithfully to discharge the duties o f their respective offices ac­
cording to law, and for such amounts as shall be directed by the Secretary o f the Treas­
ury, with sureties to the satisfaction o f the Solicitor o f the Treasury; and shall, from
time to time, renew, strengthen, and increase their official bonds, as the Secretary o f the
Treasury may direct, any law in reference to any o f the official bonds o f any o f the said
officers to the contrary notwithstanding.
§ 8 . A nd be it f urther enacted, That it shall be the duty o f the Secretary o f the Treas­
ury, at as early a day as possible after the passage o f this act, to require from the several
depositaries hereby constituted, and whose official bonds are not hereinbefore provided
for, to execute bonds, new and suitable in their terms, to meet the new and increased
duties imposed upon them, respectively, by this act, and with sureties and in sums such
as shall seem reasonable and safe to the Solicitor o f the Treasury ; and, from time to
time, to require such bonds to be renewed and increased in amount, and strengthened by
new sureties, to meet any increasing responsibility which may grow out o f accumula­
tions o f money in the hands o f the depositary, or out o f any other duty or responsibility
arising under this or any other law o f Congress.
§ 9. A nd be it further enacted, That all collectors and receivers o f public money, o f every
character and description, within the District o f Columbia, shall, as frequently as they
may be directed by the Secretary o f the Treasury, or the Postmaster General, so to do,
pay over to the Treasurer o f the United States, at the treasury, all public moneys collect­
ed by them, or in their hands; that all such collectors and receivers o f public moneys
within the cities o f Philadelphia and New Orleans shall, upon the same direction, pay
over to the treasurers o f the mints in their respective cities, at the said mints, all public
moneys collected by them, or in their hands; and that all such collectors and receivers o f
public moneys within the cities o f New York, Boston, Charleston and St. Louis,, shall,
upon the same direction, pay over to the assistant treasurers in their respective cities, at
their offices, respectively, all the public moneys collected by them, or in their hands,, to
be safely kept by the said respective depositories until otherwise disposed o f according
to la w ; and it shall be the duty o f the said Secretary and Postmaster General respec­
tively to direct such payments by the said collectors and receivers at all the said places,
at least as often as once in each week, and as much more frequently, in all cases, as they
in their discretion may think proper.
§ 10. A nd be it further enacted, That it shall be lawful for the Secretary o f the Treasury
to transfer the moneys in the hands o f any depositary hereby constituted, to the treasury
o f the United States, to be there safely kept, to the credit o f the Treasurer o f the United
States, according to the provisions o f this act; and, also, to transfer moneys in the
hands o f any one depositary constituted by this act, to any other depositary constituted
by the same, at his discretion, and as the safety o f the public moneys, ana the conve­
nience o f the public service shall seem to him to require ; which authority to transfer the
moneys belonging to the Post-Office Department is also hereby conferred upon the Post­
master General, so far as its exercise by him may be consistent with the provisions o f
existing law s; and every deppsitary constituted by this act shall keep his account o f the
money paid to or deposited with him, belonging to the Post-Office Department, separate
and distinct from the account kept by him o f other public moneys so paid or deposited.
And for the purpose o f payments on the public account, it shall be lawful for the Treasurer
o f the United States to draw upon any o f the said depositaries, as he may think most
conducive to the public interests, or to the convenience o f the public creditors, or both.
And each depositary so drawn upon shall make returns to the Treasury and Post-Office
Departments o f all moneys received and paid by him, at such times and in such form as
shall be directed by the Secretary o f the Treasury or the Postmaster General.
§ 11. A nd be it further enacted, That the Secretary o f the Treasury shall be, and he is
hereby, authorized to cause examinations to be made o f the books, accounts, and money
on hand, o f the several depositaries constituted by this a ct; and for that purpose to
appoint special agents, as occasion may require, with such compensation, not exceeding
six dollars per day and travelling expenses, as he may think reasonable, to be fixed and
declared at the time o f each appointment. The agents selected to make these examina­
tions shall be instructed to examine as well the books, accounts, and returns o f the officer,
as the money on hand, and the manner o f its being kept, to the end that uniformity and
accuracy in the accounts, as well as safety to the public moneys, m aybe secured thereby.
§ 12. And be it further enacted, That in addition to the examinations provided for in the
last preceding section, and as a further guard over the public moneys, it shall be the duty
of each naval officer and surveyor, as a check upon the assistant treasurer, or the collector
o f the customs, o f their respective districts; o f each register o f a land office, as a check
upon the receiver o f his land office; and o f the director and superintendent o f each mint
and branch mint, when separate offices, as a check upon the treasurers, respectively, o f
the said mints, or the persons acting as such, at the close o f each quarter o f the year, and
as much more frequently as they shall be directed by the Secretary o f the Treasury to do
so, to examine the books, accounts, returns, and money on hand, o f the assistant trea­
surers, collectors, receivers o f land offices, treasurers o f the mint and each branch mint,


Journal o f Banicing, Currency, and Finance.

and persons acting as such, and to make a full, accurate and faithful return to the Treasury department o f their condition.
§ 13. A nd be it f urther enacted, That the said officers, respectively, whose duty it is
made, by this act, to receive, keep, and disburse the public moneys, as the fiscal agents o f
the government, may be allowed any necessary additional expenses for clerks, fire-proof
chests, or vaults, or other necessary expenses o f safekeeping, transferring and disbursing
said m oneys; all such expenses of every character to be first expressly authorized by the
Secretary o f the Treasury, whose directions upon all the above subjects, by way o f regu­
lation and otherwise, so far as authorized by law, are to be strictly followed by all tne
said officers: Provided, That the whole number o f clerks to be appointed by virtue o f this
section o f this act shall not exceed ten : and that the aggregate compensations o f the
whole number shall not exceed sixteen thousand dollars, nor shall the compensation o f
any one clerk so appointed exceed eight hundred dollars per annum.
§ 14. A nd be it further enacted, That the Secretary o f tne Treasury may, at his discre­
tion, transfer the balances remaining with any o f the present depositaries, to any other
o f tne present depositaries, as he may deem the safety o f the public money or the public
convenience may require: Provided, That nothing in this act shall be so construed as
to authorize the Secretary o f the Treasury to transfer the balances remaining with any o f
the present depositaries, to the depositaries constituted by this act, before the first day of
January next. And provided that, for the purpose o f payments on public account, out o f
balances remaining with the present depositaries, it snail be lawful for the Treasurer o f
the United States to draw upon any o f tne said depositaries as he may think most con­
ducive to the public interests, or to the convenience o f the public creditors, or both.
& 15. A nd be it further enacted, That all marshals, district attorneys, and others having
public money to pay to the United States, and all patentees wishing to make payment for
patents to be issued, may pay all such moneys to the Treasurer o f the United States, to
the treasurer o f either o f the mints in Philadelphia or N ew Orleans, to either o f the other
assistant treasurers, or to such other depositary constituted by this act as shall be desig­
nated by the Secretary o f the Treasury in other parts o f the United States to receive such
payments, and give receipts or certificates o f deposit therefor.
§ 16. A nd be it further enacted, That all officers and other persons charged by this act,
or any other act, with the safekeeping, transfer, and disbursement o f the public moneys,
other than those connected with tne Post-Office Department, are hereby required to keep
an accurate entry o f each sum received, and o f each payment or transfer, and that i f any
one o f the said officers, or o f those connected with the Post-Office Department, shall con­
vert to his own use, in any way whatever, or shall use, by way o f investment in any kind
o f property or merchandise, or shall loan, with or without interest, or shall deposit in
any bank, or shall exchange for other funds except as allowed by this act, any portion o f
the public moneys entrusted to him for safekeeping, disbursement, transfer, or for any
other purpose, every such act shall be deemed and adjudged to be an embezzlement o f so
much o f the said moneys, as shall be thus taken, converted, invested, used, loaned, depo­
sited, or exchanged, which is hereby declared to be a felony; and any failure to pay over
or to produce the public moneys entrusted to such person, shall be held and taken to be
prima facie evidence o f such embezzlement; and i f any officer charged with the disburse­
ment o f public moneys shall accept or receive, or transmit to the Treasury Department to
be allowed in his favor, any receipt or voucher from a creditor o f the United States, with­
out having paid to such creditor, in suck funds as the said officer may have received for
disbursement, or such other funds as he may be authorized by this act to take in ex­
change, the full amount specified in such receipt or voucher, every such act shall be
deemed to be a conversion by such officer to his own use o f the amount specified in such
receipt or voucher; and any officer or agent o f the United States, and all persons advising
or participating in such act, being convicted thereof before any court o f the United States
o f competent jurisdiction, shall be sentenced to imprisonment for a term o f not less than
six months nor more than ten years, and to a fine equal to the amount o f the money em­
bezzled. And upon the trial o f any indictment against any person for embezzling public
money, under the provisions o f this act, it shall be sufficient evidence for the purpose o f
showing a balance against such person, to produce a transcript from the books and pro­
ceedings o f the treasury, as required in civil cases, under the provisions o f the act en­
titled, “ A n act to provide more effectually for the settlement o f accounts between the
United States and receivers o f public money,” approved March third, one thousand seven
hundred and ninety-seven; and the provisions o f this act shall be so construed as to apply
to all persons charged with the safe-keeping, transfer, or disbursement o f the public
money, whether such persons be indicted as receivers or depositaries o f the sam e; and
the refusal o f such person, whether in or out o f office, to pay any draft, order, or warrant,
which may be drawn upon him by the proper officer o f the Treasury Department for any
public money in his hands belonging to the United States, no matter in what capacity the
same may have been received or may be held, or to transfer or disburse any such money
promptly, upon the legal requirement o f any authorized officer of the United States, shall
be deemed and taken, upon the trial o f any indictment against such person for embezzle­
ment, as prima facie evidence o f such embezzlement.
§ 17. A nd be it further enacted, That until the rooms, offices, vaults, and safes, directed
by the first four sections o f this act to be constructed and prepared for the use o f the Trea­
surer of the United States, the treasurers o f the mints at Philadelphia and New Orleans,

Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance .


and the assistant treasurers at New York, Boston, Charleston, and St. Louis, can be con­
structed and prepared for use, it shall be the duty of the Secretary o f the Treasury to pro­
cure suitable rooms for offices for those officers at their respective locations, ana to con­
tract for such use o f vaults and safes as may be required for the safekeeping o f the public
moneys in the charge and custody o f those officers, respectively: the expense to be paid
by the United States.
And whereas, by the thirtieth section o f the act entitled “ An act to regulate the collec­
tion o f duties imposed by law on tne tonnage o f ships or vessels, and on goods, wares,
and merchandises imported into the Unitea States,” approved July thirty-one, seven­
teen hundred and eighty-nine, it was provided that all fees and dues collected by virtue
o f that act should be received in gold and silver coin only: and whereas also, by the
fifth section o f the act, approved May ten, eighteen hundred, entitled “ An act to amend
the act entitled ‘ A n act providing for the sale o f the lands o f the United States in the
territory northwest o f the Ohio, and above the mouth o f Kentucky r iv e r /” it Was pro­
vided that payment for the said lands shall be made by all purchasers m specie, or in
evidences o f the public debt; and whereas experience has proved that said provisions
ought to be revived and enforced, according to the true and wise intent o f the constitu­
tion o f the United States—
§ 18. A nd be it further enacted, That, on the first day o f January, in the year one thou­
sand eight hundred and forty-seven, and thereafter, all duties, taxes, sales o f public lands,
debts, and sums o f money accruing or becoming due to the United States, and also all
sums due for postages, or otherwise, to the General Post-Office Department, shall be paid
in gold and silver coin only, or in treasury notes issued under the authority o f the United
States: Provided, That the Secretary o f the Treasury shall publish, monthly, in two
newspapers at the city o f Washington, the amount o f specie at the several places o f depo­
sit, the amount o f treasury notes or drafts issued, and the amount outstanding on the
last day o f each month.
§ 19. A nd be it f urther enacted, That on the first day o f April, one thousand eight hun­
dred and forty-seven, and thereafter, every officer or agent engaged in making disburse­
ments on account o f the United States, or o f the General Post-Office, shall make all pay­
ments in gold and silver coin, or in treasury notes, if the creditor agree to receive said
notes in payment; and any receiving or disbursing officer or agent who shall neglect,
evade, or violate the provisions o f this and the last preceding section o f this act, shall, by
the Secretary o f the Treasury, be immediately reported to the President o f the United
States, with the facts o f such neglect, evasion, or violation; and also to Congress if in
session; and if not in session, at the commencement o f its session next after the violation
takes place.
§ 20. A nd be it further enacted, That no exchange o f funds shall be made by any dis­
bursing officers or agents o f the government, o f any grade or denomination whatsoever,
or connected with any branch o f the public service, other than an exchange for gold ana
silver: and every such disbursing officer, when the means for his disbursements are fur­
nished to him in gold and silver, shall make his payments in the money so furnished; or
when those means are furnished to him in drafts, shall cause those drafts to be presented
at their place o f payment, and properly paid according to the law ; and shall make his
payment in the money so received for the drafts furnished, unless, in either case, he can
exchange the means in his hands for gold and silver at par. And it shall be, and is hereby,
made the duly o f the head o f the department immediately to suspend from duty any dis­
bursing officer who shall violate the provisions pf this section, and forthwith to report the
name o f the officer or agent to the President, with the fact o f the violation, and all the
circumstances accompanying the same, and within the knowledge o f the said Secretary,
to the end that such officer or agent may be promptly rempved from office, or restored to
his trust and the performance o f his duties, as to the President may seem just and proper:
Provided, however, That those disbursing officers having at present, credits in the banks,
shall, until the first day o f January next, be allowed tp check on the same, allowing the
public creditors to receive their pay from the banks, either in specie or bank notes.
§ 21. A nd be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty o f the Secretary o f the Treasury
to issue and publish regulations to enforce the speedy presentation o f all government drafts
for payment at the place where payable, and to prescribe the time, according to the differ­
ent distances o f the depositaries from the seat o f government, within which all drafts upon
them, respectively, shall be presented for payment; and, in default o f such presentation,
to direct any other mode and place o f payment w hich he may deem proper; but, in all
these regulations and directions, it shall be the duty o f the Secretary o f the Treasury to
guard, as far as may be, against those drafts being used or thrown into circulation as a
paper currency, or medium o f exchange. And no officer o f the United States shall, either
directly or indirectly, sell or dispose to any person or persons, or corporations, whatso­
ever, for a premium, any treasury note, draft, warrant, or other public security, not his
private property, or sell or dispose o f the avails or proceeds o f such note, draft, warrant
or security in his hands for disbursement, without making return o f such premium, and
accounting therefor by charging the same in his accounts to the credit o f the United
States ; and any officer violating this section shall be forthwith dismissed from office.
§ 22. And be it further enacted} That the assistant treasurers directed by this act to be
appointed, shall receive, respectively, the following salaries per annum, to be paid quarteryearly at the treasury o f the United States, to w i t : the assistant treasurer at New York


Statistics o f Population .

shall be paid a salary o f four thousand dollars per annum ; the assistant treasurer at Bos­
ton shall be paid a salary o f two thousand five hundred dollars per annum ; the assistant
treasurer at Charleston shall be paid a salary o f two thousand five hundred dollars per
annum; the assistant treasurer at St. Louis shall be paid a salary o f two thousand five
hundred dollars per annum ; the treasurer o f the mint at Philadelphia shall, in addition
to his present salary, receive five hundred dollars annually, for the performance o f the
duties imposed by this a c t; the treasurer o f the branch mint at New Orleans shall also
receive five hundred dollars annually, for the additional duties created by this a c t ; and
these salaries, respectively, shall be in full for the services o f the respective officers, nor
shall either o f them be permitted to charge or receive any commission, pay or perquisite,
for any official service, o f any character or description whatsoever; and the making o f
any such charge, ot the receipt o f any such compensation, is hereby declared to be a mis­
demeanor, for which the officer convicted thereof, before any court o f the United States
of competent jurisdiction, shall be subject tp punishment by fine, or imprisonment, or
both, at the discretion o f the court before which the offence shall be tried.
§23. A nd be it further enacted, That there shall be, and hereby is appropriated, to be
paid out o f any money in the treasury not otherwise appropriated, the sum o f five thousand
dollars, to be expended under the direction o f the Secretary o f the Treasury, in such re­
pairs or additions as may be necessary to put in good condition for use, with as little de­
lay as may be consistent with the public interests, the offices, rooms, vaults, and safes
herein mentioned, and in the purchase o f any necessary additional furniture and fixtures,
in the purchase o f necessary books and stationery, and in defraying any other incidental
expenses necessary to carry this act into effect.
§24. A nd be it further enacted, That all acts or parts o f acts which come in conflict
with the provisions o f this act, be, and the same are hereby repealed.
A p p r o v e d , August 6 th, 1846.









T iie first idea o f constructing such a table, was suggested by the results o f a process
undertaken from mere curiosity. That process was performed by taking the sum of the
first census o f 1790, and allowing an increment o f 3 per cent annually ; thus, 3,929,827,
in ten consecutive operations on the principle assumed, gave, for 1800, 5,281,468, which
differed only 23,457 in deficit from the actual returns by the census o f the latter year. I
then carried on the process up to 1840, and found as shown by the subjoined table. T he
thought was then excited to construct a centennial table.
It must be obvious to any person moderately acquainted with the subject, that, in such
a case, no rule can be made absolute ; nor is it o f primary importance that positive ac­
curacy as to numbers should, were it practicable, be obtained. The very remarkable fact
developed by the middle column must excite surprise in the first exhibition, but must also
secure confidence in the general results. This column is based entirely on the original
sum o f 3,929,827, without any regard to the intermediate decennial enumerations.
The first, or left hand column, contains the decennial returns by the census, with the
ratios o f increase during the terms, up to 1840. T he mean ratio during the fifty years,
from 1790 to 1840, inclusive, comes out to a very near fraction, 4.342. This ratio was
then used to deduce the decennial numbers through the subsequent half century.
Even well-informed persons, but who have not paid particular attention to the subject,
may be excusably startled when they read the future increase and enormous mass of
population stated opposite the year 1901, at the foot o f either column. The tables, how­
ever, contain internal evidence o f accuracy as far as the nature o f the case can admit, and
especially by showing that, in the previous half century to 1840, the population had more
than quadrupled. Further, that the so established increase was made under difficulties,
some o f which are removed, and all lessened in their deteriorating effects; whilst, on the
other side, facilities o f transportation by land and water, by steam, roads, and other im­
proved means, are multiplied and multiplying beyond all human anticipation. T he once
terrible danger o f savage warfare is now only matter o f history. In brief, the elements
o f civilized life are indefinitely increased in number and power.
* A s originally published in the National Intelligencer.

Statistics o f Population.



By Census
Ra. o f de1796,
cen. incr.,
Ra. o f in.,
Ra. o f in.,
1 8 2 6 ........................
1830, 12,856,407
Ra. o f in.,
1840, 17,063,353

By an annual
o f 3 p r . ct.

Ann. increment.

Y ears.



1849, ..................
1850, 23,026,694
1860, 31,596,562
1863, ..............
1870, 41,839,588
1880, 55,822,519
1890, 73,977,990
1900, 102,840,201

By Census

B y an annual
increment o f 3
per cent.


increm’ t.


W e have in the preceding table an approximative view o f the population of the United
States through 110 years. The accuracy o f the census o f 1840 has been severely, and
in some respects justly criticised ; but, in regard to the aggregate number o f persons, there
is strong evidence to sustain the general results. I may repeat that, in deducing the


Statistics o f Population.

numbera under the head, “ by an annual increment o f 3 per cent,” the process was con­
tinued throughout on the original basis. T he coincidences shown by the two columns
could not have arisen, except from corresponding accuracy in taking and recording the
Mere numbers, however, though the most material, is only one o f the considerations
which claim our attention. The spread and location o f the people demand the most
attentive inquiry. W e may, in returning to 1790, inquire where did then population
exist ? In answer, it may be observed, that, with not an exception o f one-tenth, the main
spine o f the Appalachian mountains bounded in 1790 the resident population towards
the interior o f the continent. It is safe, therefore, to assume the Atlantic slope, with an
area o f 300,000 square miles, and a distributive population o f about 13 to the square mile,
as the space and number o f people on it when the first census was taken.
Before 1790, scattering settlements had been made on the fountains o f interior rivers;
but, during the decennial period from 1790 to 1800, those settlements greatly increased,
and expanded into the interior basin; and it may be premised that, for reasons too obvious
to specify, Louisiana and Florida come into our general view. By the census o f 1800,
the subjoined sections had a population o f—
Kentucky.............................................................. .........................................persons
T o which add, by supposition, for Western N ew Y ork, Western Pennsylva­
nia, Western Virginia, Michigan, Florida, and Louisiana,............................





This amount for the aggregate population o f the United States on the central basin
may rather excite suspicion o f excess than the contrary. The space embraced by the
extremes o f settlement amounted to about 360,000 square miles, or not 14 persons to 10
square miles. A t the same epoch, N ew Orleans, with perhaps 5,000 inhabitants, was the
only city deserving the title. But the great central valley was reached, and in the next
ten years great was the change. In 1810, excluding that o f the western parts o f New
Y ork, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, the interior population, as shown by the census of that
year, stood as follow s:—
Sq. ms.
Sq. ms.
39,000 Louisiana,............
These elements yield a distributive population o f a very small fraction over two to the
square mile. On the much most densely populated sections, Kentucky, Tennessee, and
Ohio, with a combined area o f 118,000 square miles, the aggregate population expressed
in round numbers o f 917,000, the distributive population did not reach eight to the
square mile.
By the census returns o f 1820, the entire surface designated in the latter table was rep­
resented to possess a distributive population o f about four to the square mile, or an ag­
gregate o f 2,217,464; the population having rather more than doubled in the decennial
period from 1810 to 1820.
In 1830, on the same surface as above, the census reported an aggregate o f 3,672,569;
the ratio o f increase from 1820 to 1830 being about 1 7-10ths; and, though the interior
population had so rapidly increased, still the distribution fell short o f seven to the
square mile.
T he fifth census (o f 1840) was, except that o f 1790, the most important yet taken, as
half a century was embraced by the extremes, and an aggregate o f 5,302,918 inhabitants
was reported by the last enumeration; and yet only a small fraction over ten to the square
mile. W hen we behold a wilderness changed in so few years from a howling waste to
the prosperous aspect presented in 1840, we are inspired with pleasing w onder; and yet,
when we reflect, our conviction must be involuntary that population has only taken its
steps o f infancy, as the density was not then equal to one.sixth of some o f the Atlantic
sections o f inferior soil.


Statistics o f Population.

It may also be called to mind that the combined region under immediate review does
not include all o f “ the western country” embraced by the census o f 1840. Every prin­
ciple applicable to the sections named applies also to the western parts o f N ew Y ork,
Pennsylvania, and Virginia, on which we find recorded on the census tables o f 1840—
Western N ew Y ork,..............................................................................................
Pennsylvania............................... ........................................................
V irginia,.................................................................................................


Amount,............. .......................................................................................
A d d ..............................................................................................................


Total, 1840, on “ western country,” ..........................................


Those parts o f N ew York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, if combined, embrace a length
from northeast to southwest o f 700 miles, and a mean breadth of at least 100 miles—
area, 70,000 square m iles; which, if added to 526,000, yields an entire superficies o f
596,000, or, for all general purposes, we may say 600,000 square miles, and in like man­
ner assume 8,000,000 o f inhabitants ; not yielding a distributive population o f 14 to the
square mile.
Without attempting to compare “ the great W est,” or rather the part o f it under review,
to the most dense part o f the Atlantic border, let us see what would be its aggregate pop­
ulation if equal to that of Pennsylvania in 1840. Pennsylvania, with a superficies o f
about 47,000 square miles, had in 1840 within a fraction o f 1,174,000 inhabitants— a
like proportion on 600,000 square miles would approach 15,000,000— an amount yielding
only 25 to the square mile.
W e might continue these comparative views, and give far stronger illustrations o f the
subject; but we pause, and will close this paper with the follow ing:—
I f a line is drawn from the Gulf o f M exico, along the western borders o f Louisiana,
Arkansas, and Missouri, and from the northwestern angle o f the latter, up the Missouri
river to the Mandan villages, and thence due north to latitude 4 9 °, the space left between
such a line and the Atlantic ocean comprises to a small comparative fraction o f 1,300,000
square miles. W e have already seen that the Atlantic slope contains 300,000 square
miles, which, if deducted from the whole extent, as above, leaves 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f square
miles between the Appalachian mountains and the central line we have traced. This
great central region, by the census o f 1840, had a distributive population differing little
from eight to the square mile.
For the moment, we leave reflections and anticipations to the reader.

R E V E N U E , D E B T S, A N D P O W E R OF E U R O P E A N N A T IO N S .
In England, the number o f inhabitants is 28,000,000, on 90,950 square miles, or 368
per square mile ; in France, the population is 34,700,000, on 154,000 square miles, or 225
per square mile ; in Austria, there are 37,500,000 inhabitants, on 204,000 square miles,
or 184 per square mile ; in Prussia, the population is 15,500,000, on 80,450 square miles,
or 181 per square m ile; in Russia in Europe, the population is 50,500,000, scattered on
the enormous quantity o f 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 square miles, being but 2 J persons to each square

At nearly the same period, the public debt and revenue o f each o f these powers

were as follow s:—





Thus England is indebted to the extent o f thirteen times its revenue, while France and
Russia owe but four times their respective revenues: Austria and Prussia little more than

The relative number o f troops kept up in time o f peace by each nation, holds

about the same proportion— the number o f soldiers in the whole British empire being
410,000; in France, 363,000; in Austria, 424,000; in Prussia, 131,000; and in Rus­
sia, 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .


Nautical Intelligence.





department, under date o f September 9 th, 1846, gives notice to those captains o f

vessels, and all others who use the general directions as given by this establishment, on
their map o f the Atlantic Ocean, published in 1837.
It is necessary to add to this map a sounding, or “ necessity o f look out,” which was
discovered at 3 o’clock o f the evening o f the 23d o f May, in good order, and for its purpose available weather, by Don Gabriel Parez, Captain o f the Spanish merchantman
Leontina, in latitude North 38° 27' and longitude W est from Cadiz 31° 39' 37" by ob­
servation, made immediately after the discovery o f the break on the hidden rock, and
which is worthy o f confidence, as proven by the rate o f the chronometer, tested at the
Island o f Graicosa, (Terceras,) and nevertheless doubted that this dangerous spot is that
which was marked as being in the same latitude, but a little more to the Westward, un­
der the name o f Vigia Chantereau, or R oof o f Princess Isabel, in 1721 and 1728, and
being the same which it previously has, perhaps from carelessness in defining its actual
position, on the part o f navigators, being misplaced.
M adrid , July 4th, 1846.— After the receipt o f the previous note, official information
has been had, that on the 10th to 11th of May, in the same year, the Spanish trading ship
Amphitrite, passing from Havana to Cadiz, discovered a surf-break at a cable’s length,
which was situated in 35° 50' North latitude, and 59° 46' 38" W est longitude from
T he following is a copy o f a letter from the United States Consul at Cardenas, dated
Cardenas, Sept. 8 , 1846 :—
This night, for the first time, will be lighted the Revolving Light on 41 Stone Key,”
(Cayo de Piedras) recently erected hy private enterprise. The elevation is said to be 100
feet Spanish, equal to 92 feet English, above the water. “ Stone Key,” by the chart of
this Bay, is about three Spanish marine miles N. E. by N. from “ Puerta de Y c a c o ;”
“ Cayo Mona” is about 2£ miles N. E . o f “ Stone K ey,” and this last is about 12 or 13
marine miles N. N. E. from this town. It is probable the light may be seen some twenty
miles, or more, in clear and unfoggy atmosphere.
T he proprietors have the privilege o f charging two dollars to all foreign vessels, or ves­
sels coming from sea, and one dollar to each coasting vessel arriving at Cardenas, Matanzas, or Sagua, for eight years; after which, should it have repaid the costs and reasonable
profits, the lighthouse is to belong to the government.
Vessels leaving the Bahama Banks may run boldly for the light, and having made it,
they will know precisely their position, and may run for a port, and often escape an im­
pending “ Norther” or gale setting on the coast. Navigators to these ports will fully un­
derstand this advantage in the winter season.
Respectfully, your obedient servant,
A . S. N IC H O L S, U. S. C. for Cardenas.
W e learn from the Boston Advertiser, that information has been received in that city,
that “ a new and dangerous shoal has been discovered by the Hydrographic party con­
ducting the coast survey in the neighborhood o f Nantucket. This shoal lies about six
miles S. three-quarters W . (by compass,) from the known south shoal, is about 1.9 (one
and nine-tenths) miles in extent in an E . and W . direction, and quite narrow from north
to south. T he least water on it is eight fe e t A sketch, showing the relative positions
o f the two shoals, the soundings in their vicinity, the character o f the bottom, and the
force and direction o f the currents, will be issued from the office o f the coast survey, in a
short time.”

T he exact location o f these shoals has been a subject o f dispute for many

years, and we trust that the question is now about to be definitely settled.


Nautical Intelligence.

A small Knoll having recently grown up on the North Bar in the track o f shipping na.
vigating between the Gull Knoll and the Brake Sand, notice thereof is hereby given, and
that a Black Buoy, marked “ North Bar,” will be laid on the shoalest part of the said
Knoll, in two fathoms at low water spring tides, with the following marks and compass
bearings, v iz .:—
St. Clement’s Church, Sandwich, its breadth open to the Northward of
Woodnessbro’ Church..................................................................................
St. Lawrence Mill, just open to the Northward o f Mount Albion Trees
North Brake Buoy...........................................................................................
North Foreland Lighthouse.......................................... ..................................
Gull Buoy.........................................................................................................
Goodwin Light Vessel....................................................................................
Gull Stream Light Vessel...............................................................................

W . i S.
N. W . \ N.
N. W .
N .J W .
N. E. by E.
E. by S. \ S.
S. W . \ S.

Captain Morgan o f the Brig Jefferson, reports to the N ew Orleans Picayune, that in
all his books and charts o f that coast, Brazos Island is laid down 25 miles too far to the
westward. In several observations during his stay at the Brazos, he ascertained the true
latitude and longitude to be— lat. 26 ° 06' N ., long. 97° 05' W .

H e also further states,

that during his passage to and from Brazos, he found that the currents were governed
entirely by the wind. Strong southeast winds, the current run 1 } to 2 knots north;
strong north winds, current 2 knots south.

W e learn that in a new chart published by

Blunt, the longitude is laid down at 97° 10'.

T H E D E V IL ’S R O C K S , W E S T E R N IS L A N D S .
The following has been transmitted to Lloyd’s. Extract of the log o f the brig Packet,
W illiam Squire, R. N ., Commander, on her voyage from Mauritius to London :—
S unday , August 23, 1846.— “ At 1° 3 0 'A . M . saw the Devil’s Rocks bearing W . S. W .,
distance half a cable’s length— the rocks appearing in three distinct ridges, from 80 to 100
feet in length, and about 10 feet in breadth ; the Eastern and Western ridge formed like
a cock’s comb ; the whole surrounded by large bodies o f kelp or sea weed ; the shoal
water appearing to extend about two miles from the coast; the latitude or longitude in
the chart appearing quite correct. M emorandum — These rocks are in the direct channel
course from the Western Islands.”

N E W L IG H T , IS L A N D O F H O N D U R A S .
On the 17th o f July, 1846, three lights in the shape o f a triangle were exhibited at
Manger Kaye, in lat. 17° 36' N., Ion. 87 ° 67' W ., which were seen from twelve to sixteen
miles distant, in a very squally night. T he light is so placed that by bringing the two
lower lights (which are 75 feet above the level o f the sea) into one, a vessel may shape
her course at a distance o f six miles from the Kaye for English Kaye. The top light of
Manger Kaye is 95 feet above the level o f the sea.

A stone lighthouse, 58 feet high, is erected on the South Point o f Gotland, about a
mile N. E. o f Hoburg.
lasts half a minute.

It shows a revolving light, visible at intervals o f 1$ minutes, and

It stands about 170 feet above the level o f the sea, and is seen from

E . by N. through S. to N. by E. magnetic bearings, at about sixteen sea miles from the

It will be lighted on the 30th September, and be subject to the same regulations as

the other Swedish Lights, as to being lighted and extinguished.


Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

W E S T E R N R A IL R O A D S A N D C A N A L S .



are more movements in the W est towards the construction o f these great instru­

ments o f commerce, than at any time since the collapse o f 1837.

T he W est, since that

time, has gathered up new means, and the East is losing its dread o f Western invest­
ments. Three striking evidences o f the renewed confidence in Western enterprises, at
the East and in Europe, have been recently exhibited.

The first was shown in the action

o f the Indiana bondholders in taking the Wabash and Erie Canal in part payment o f their
bonds, with the obligation to complete it to the Ohio river. T he second is the loan of
•S3,000,0(10 o f English capital, to enable the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company to
carry their great work to Pittsburgh, and ultimately to Cleveland ; and last, in the pur­
chase, by the bond-holders o f Michigan, o f the Central Railroad, to be extended westward
to Lake Michigan.
These are strong evidences o f returning confidence in Western enterprises ; and are,
probably, but the precursors o f far more extensive investments in Western railroads.


taking up the stock o f the Buffalo and Mississippi Railroad Company, and pushing through
a railroad on that most promising o f all the unoccupied railroad routes in the United
States, only waits a favorable turn in the money market. Estimates are now being com­
pleted for the construction o f that portion between Toledo and Chicago.
From Buffalo to Chicago, will exhibit more characteristics of a great trunk road than
any other in the United States. More great works made and being made along the south
shore o f Lake Erie, terminate on the shore o f that lake than any other three hundred
mile line in the United States. The connecting o f these by a great trunk railroad will
be o f immense advantage to these works and to the owners o f the railroad. The south
shore o f Lake Michigan, every one must see, will also concentrate canals and railroads
to *a great extent. There is— there can be no line in the United States, o f the same
length, capable o f concentrating so vast an amount o f travel and trade as that between
Buffalo and Chicago.

Concentrated on the American shore o f Lake Erie, there are now

completed and in operation, o f canal and railroad lines, more than two thousand miles.

Boston to Buffalo,.....................................................................................
Sandusky and M ansfield,.,....................................................................
Sandusky and Cincinnati,*....................................................................
Toledo, Monroe, and Hillsdale,...........................................................


T ota l,............................................................................................



Albany to Buffalo,...................................................................................
Pittsburgh to E rie,..................................................................................
Ohio— from Cleveland to Portsmouth, Athens, Marion, and Pitts­
burgh, ....................................................................................................
Toledo to Covington................................................................................
Toledo to Cincinnati,..............................................................................


Completed and in operation..............................................................
A dd railroads,..............................................................................



* T o be finished next spring.

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics,


O f the Canale, 70 miles from Toledo to Junction is a common trunk, and is counted
Such is the extent o f works brought to Lake Erie for the benefit o f its commerce.
There are now being made, in extension o f these works, 160 miles of canal;— from
Covington to Evansville, Indiana.

The N ew Y ork and Erie Railroad— say 400 miles.

T he Baltimore and Ohio Railroad— say to Cleveland, 450 miles. The Cleveland and
Cincinnati Railroad— say 250 miles. In all, 1,100 miles of railroad, and 760 miles
o f canal.
R O Y A L M A IL S T E A M P A C K E T C O M P A N Y .
W e have been requested to publish in this Magazine the following particulars o f the
route traversed by passengers between England and the west coasts of South America, as
conveying important information to the American public. This statement is furnished by
E. Chapel, Esq., Secretary o f the “ Royal Mail Steam Packet Company,” 55 Moorgatestreet, London.

T he Steam Ships o f the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company leave Southampton on
the 17th o f every month, and proceed (via Jamaica) to Chagres, where they arrive on the
20th or 21st o f the following month, the passage occupying about 34 days.
Fares.— Half Fore Cabin, £ 5 0 ; W hole do., £ 5 5 ; W hole After Cabin, £ 6 0 ; which
includes board, bedding and linen, steward’s fees, and all other charges, except for wines,
spirits, malt liquors, and mineral waters.
A t Chagres the steamers stop about half a day to land passengers proceeding over land
to Panama, where the steamers o f the Pacific Steam Packet Company embark them for
conveyance to the different ports southward as far as Valparaiso.

On the 25th or 26th o f each month, the return steamer starts from Chagres with the
mails and passengers that have arrived from the Pacific, and proceeds {via Jamaica, Ha­
vana, and Bermuda) to Southampton, where she is due on the 7th o f each month, the
passage occupying about 40 days.
Fares.— H alf Fore Cabin, £ 4 5 ; W hole do., £ 5 0 ; W hole After Cabin, £ 5 5 ; which
includes board, bedding and linen, steward’s fees, and all other charges, except for wines,
spirits, malt liquors, and mineral waters.

By the last-mentioned steamer, which leaves Chagres on the 25th or 26th o f each month,
passengers from the Pacific, for the United States, will reach Havana on the 7th or 8 th
o f the following month, after a passage o f 12 days. Fare, 80 dollars ; which includes
board, bedding and linen, steward’s fees, and all other charges, except wines, spirits, malt
liquors, and mineral waters.
A n American Steamer leaves Havana, monthly, for N ew Orleans; and there are
monthly Sailing Packets, from Havana, to N ew Y o r k ; also many Trading Vessels to the
ports o f the United States generally, the passage fares by which are moderate. Mr. Perry,
Her Britannic Majesty’s Consul at Panama, has (with the consent o f Her Majesty’s Gov­
ernment) been appointed agent for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company at that place;
and every information relative to the passage by the Company’s Vessels may be obtained
from that gentleman, who will likewise receive specie, bullion, jewellery, & c., give printed
receipts as bills o f lading for the same, and provide for their transmission (the usual risks
excepted) to the Bank o f England. The form o f receipts for specie, & c., proposed to be
issued by the Company, has been submitted to several o f the leading insurance offices in
London, and they have expressed their willingness to insure specie, etc., transmitted from
Panama to the Bank o f England, under the conditions therein contained, and at the usual
rates. The charge established upon freights o f specie and bullion, which includes the ex­
penses o f transit across the Isthmus, and all other charges, from delivery to the Company’s
Agent at Panama till delivered at the Bank o f England, is 1J per cen t; upon pearls,
emeralds, and all other precious stones, unset, (being exempt from duty,) 2 J per cent on
their value, also deliverable at the Bank o f England: and upon jewellery subject to duty,
2^ per cent on its value, deliverable at Southampton. Treasure can only be received se­
curely packed in wooden cases.


Railroad , Canal , and Steamboat Statistics .

W e cannot recommend smoking, although we are sometimes guilty o f the practice.
But the moral editor o f the “ American Railroad Journal” assures us that the smoking
portion o f the community is certainly not the least respectable portion— that it is quite
too large to be neglected in providing for the comfort and convenience o f the public.
Notwithstanding all the “ counterblasts” from King James down to Mr. Lane, the practice
holds its sway over men, and the Journal thinks it ever will as long as tobacco grows.
“ There is no use then in denying accommodations to smokers, on the ground o f objec­
tion to the habit by many ; and too many great and good men have smoked and do smoke,
to allow o f any one stigmatising the practice as vulgar or indecent.”
In the United States we believe there is no regular arrangement for this purpose ; but
it will be seen from the following paragraph from an English paper, that it has been in­
troduced into that country, and ample arrangements made to accommodate the “ smoking
public” who travel:—
“ A novelty has recently been introduced on the Eastern Counties Railway in the run­
ning o f a handsome carriage termed a smoking or excursion saloon. In size and form of
build it much resembles the royal carriages on the Great Western, South Western, and
other railways. Its extreme length is 40 feet, the body about 30 feet, the ends being con­
verted into a kind o f open lounge. It runs on six wheels, which are fitted with Adams’
patent bow springs. The internal decorations are o f the most recherche description. The
seats extend the full length o f the sides, and are handsomely covered with morocco
leather. A highly polished mahogany table occupies the centre, the entire fitted with self­
balancing lamps. T he sides are lighted by eight plate-glass windows of unusual size,
while the ends are fitted up with four plates o f looking-glass. Its drapery is composed
o f bright crimson silk formed in very graceful design. The roof presents an exceedingly
chaste appearance. The groundwork is painted white, the mouldings being gilt. The
general furniture is o f richly carved polished mahogany. The exterior is painted a deep
marone color, ornamented with gold etchings and emblazoned with the company’s ciphers.
Passengers using this smoking saloon are to pay first-class fare.”

W e compile from the annual report o f this corporation, the following tabular state­
ment o f its affairs, for the year commencing April 1 st, 1845, and ending April 1st, 1846.
It will be seen that the statements embrace the expenses incurred for making the rail­
road, distance between Augusta and Atlanta, from station to station, the business of each
station, and o f the
The expenses

entire road.
for conducting transportation amounted to.........
“ motive power,.....................................................
“ maintenance o f w a y ,....................................
“ maintenance o f cars,.........................................
Total expenses,..........................................



$136,203 74


Augusta to Belair..................... . ... 10.1
Berzelia................. . . . . 20.8
Dearing.................. .... 28.9
T hom son............... ..... 37.5
Camak................... .... 46.9
Cumming.............. .... 56.8
Crawfordville....... ...... 64.3
Union Point.......... ..... 76.0
Greensboro’ ........... ..... 83.1
Buckhead.............. ..... 95.5
M adison................ ..... 103.3
Rutledge................ .... 112-1

Augusta to Social Circle............ ...
Covington................ ...
Conver’s .................. ...
Lithonia.................. ...
Stone Mountain.... ...
Decatur.................... ...
Atlanta..................... ...
Camak to W arrenton................
Union Point to W oodville........ ...
M axey’s........... ...
Lexington........ ...
Athens.............. ...


Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.


T he following table exhibits:— 1. T he numbers and names o f engines; 2. W eight of
each engine, in tons and decimals; 3. Commencement o f service; 4. Number of miles
run by each engine from April 1, 1845, to April 1, 1846; 5. Total number of miles run
by each engine from beginning o f service to April 1, 1846; 6 . Cost o f repairs to each
engine, from April 1, 1845, to April 1, 1846 ; 7. Total cost o f repairs and improvements
to each engine from beginning o f service to April 1, 1846.



G eorgia..............
W m . Dealing...
W in. Camming.
James Kamalc...
South Carolina..
North Carolina..


May 5, 1837
M ay 5, 1837
Dec’r 2 7 , 1837
Jan’ y 12, 1838
Feb’y 2, 1838
May 29, 1838
Nov’r 6 , 1838
Dec’r24, 1838
Dec’r28, 1838
Mar. 24, 1839
Dec’r 14, 1839
Dec’r 23, 1839
Jan’ y 3, 1845
April 28, 1845
N ov’r 1, 1845
Nov’r 4, 1845
Dec’r 5, 1845

6 ,0 2 1



$571 10
1,315 91








2 ,8 8 8 11





31, 1846.


up and down.
M arietta............................................
Stone Mountain...............................
L ithonia...........................................
Conyer’s ............................................
Social Circle.....................................
M adison...........................................
M axey’s ............................................
W o o d v ille........................................
U nion................................................
W arrenton.......................................
Ben Verdery’s..................................
Pepper Hill.......................................
W ay passengers and freight........




$92,664 98

Freight up.
$4,640 96
5,329 07
5,719 70
483 21
7,914 54
26,022 80
1,305 82
651 08
353 66
367 77
15,918 91
2,170 59
7,525 69
164 07
3,039 55
23,545 57
1,882 87
962 78
1,229 53
350 08

285 14
640 66
112 71

Freight down.
$1 94 08
3,131 28
3,890 17
327 97
2,214 05
5,658 08
792 69
428 71
410 50
394 00
8,634 10
2,207 56
13,398 36
1,096 51
5,316 26
5,812 40
3,689 93
2,482 31
1,381 39
809 07
2,554 45
3,211 70
3,231 82
1,059 47
877 40
123 65

125 61

500 11

53 51

1,474 05

1,207 36
1,048 75
1 ,8 8 6 10

4,858 34
$114,938 09

$80,160 47


Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.





1, 1845,


1, 1846.

Up and


Pas’ grs.

M ay......... 1,5824
Ju ne........ 1,466
J u ly-....... 1,709
A ugust... 1,5584
Septemb’r 2,0914
O ctober.. 2,3944
Novemb’r 1,970
December 2,539
January.. 2,343
February. 2,1024
March..... 2,5964





10,549 03

Freight up.




down Amount.
$20,221 78 $2,968 49
2,968 49
8,487 29
5,141 05
2,968 49
4,891 28
2,968 49
4,629 10
2,968 49
2,968 49
10,526 40
3,310 15
19,781 34
3,310 15
19,469 83
3,310 15
17,045 00
3,310 15
31,892 57
27,234 57
3,310 15

$29,325 54
17,372 46
13,123 43
13,594 74
12,776 26
20,304 65
32,701 67
31,030 39
33,861 92
30,037 89
44,148 53
41,093 76

Totals. 23,9864 $91,459 15 $114,938 09 $190,240 22 $37,671 87 $319,371 24
Total amount as per above table.
Extra trips....................................
Extra baggage, & c.......................
Season tickets............. .................
Lots negroes.................................
Freight between stations............



326,83 1 51
11,489 92

Deduct for Western and Atlantic railroad proportion..........

$315,341 59

H A R T F O R D A N D N E W H A V E N R A IL R O A D .
T he railroad between Hartford and N ew Haven is thirty-six miles in length, and forms
a link in one o f the many railroad and steamboat routes between N ew Y ork and Boston,
which, however, is not very generally adopted by travellers, as the other routes are more
direct and rapid. By this route passengers leave N ew York every morning, by steam­
boat for N ew Haven, a distance o f 78 m iles; at N ew Haven they take the N ew Haven
and Hartford Railroad, 36 miles, for the latter place, which connects with the Hartford
and Springfield road to the latter place, 26 miles further.

From Springfield, the Western

Railroad conveys them to Boston, a distance o f 96 miles.
N ew Y ork and Boston, 238 miles.

Total by this route between

T he report o f the directors o f the Hartford and N ew Haven Railroad Company, re­
cently made to stockholders, at their annual meeting, exhibits the affairs o f that company
in a highly favorable light. It appears that the receipts o f the road from Sept 1, 1845,
to Sept. 1,1846, have been as follows:—
From passengers,.........................................................................................
Mail and expresses,....................................................................................

$155,061 01
61,250 73
12,300 00

Total........................................................................... .........

$228,611 74

Expenses o f operating and maintaining the road, and interests on
bonds and loans,......................................................................................
Nett income for the year,..................................................
Equal to 74 per cent on the amount o f stock issued.

123,483 24
$105,128 50

T he receipts the previous year, from Sept. 1,1844, to Sept. 1,1845, were $176,984 40.
T he extension road was opened for business on the 9th o f December, 1844, and the

Railroad , Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.


directors made the income o f the last nine months o f the year the basis for an estimate
o f the income o f the current year, and the amount was fixed at $210,000.
as will be seen above, have exceeded the estimate, $18,611 74.

The receipts,

T he number o f passengers transported between Hartford and Springfield, exclusive of
way and through travel, has been, during the past year, 45,945. Between Springfield
and N ew Haven, exclusive o f way and through travel, 16,084. W hole number of pas­
sengers transported between all the stations, 196,278 ; o f this large number, not one re­
ceived the slightest injury while on the road.

S T E A M B O A T S B U IL T IN T H E W E S T , IN 1846.
W e find the following statistics in the Cincinnati Advertiser, giving the number o f
Steamboats built at the places named:—

N ew Albany.....................................
St. Louis............................................






T he Advertiser says, there are at this time no less than 750 steamboats on these
rivers, whose tonnage will not fall short o f 160,000 tons, and which have cost, in their
construction and equipment, $12,000,000. What a magnificent picture o f Western pro­
gress is presented in these facts. Our steamboat commerce is only thirty years old, and
a single large boat out o f these 750 vessels, could take the whole annual produce to New
Orleans, which, forty years ago, floated from the W est to that port.
The distance from the city o f N ew Y ork to the city o f Brooklyn, from the different
ferries, is as follows:— South Ferry, 1,300 yards, or 20 yards less than three-quarters o f a
mile ; Fulton Ferry, 731 yards; Catharine-street Ferry, 736 yards, and Jackson-street
Ferry, 707 yards. In 1654, the charge for ferriage o f a foot passenger was three stuyvers; in 1693, eight stuyvers in wampum, or two pence in silver; in 1752, ten grains o f
Sevil silver or Mexican plate, or two pence in bills o f credit. During the revolutionary
w’ar, it was raised to six pence, but it was afterward reduced to two pence. It remained
at this rate till the introduction o f steamboats, when, by an act of the Legislature, the
company was authorized to charge four cents on those boats, while it remained as before
on other craft. This law remains unaltered, though the present company, some years
ago, voluntarily reduced it to three cents, and since February, 1844, they have charged
only two cents.

The first steamboat— the “ Nassau” — was placed on the Fulton ferry in

There are now nine or ten steamboats that are kept in constant use on these fer­

ries during the day, and the Fulton company keep one running the whole night.


From N ew Y ork to N ew Haven, Hartford, Springfield, and Boston,....................
From N ew Y ork to Albany, Utica, Auburn, Syracuse, Rochester, Lockport and
From N ew Y ork to Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington,..............................
From Philadelphia to Harrisburg,.................................................................................
From Boston to Lowell,..................................................................................................
From Boston to Portland, (110 miles— half finished,)...............................................
From Ithaca to Auburn..................................................................................................
From T roy to Saratoga,..................................................................................................
VOL. XV.— NO. v .





Journal o f M ining and Manufactures.


T he Nineteenth Exhibition o f the American Institute, which occurred In the city o f

N ew Y ork, was attended with all those circumstances that were calculated to make such
an event interesting and important. T he Fair, which constituted a prominent part o f
this exhibition, was held in Castle Garden, at the foot o f the Battery ; a structure which,
from its magnitude— furnishing, as it does, an ample theatre, that is believed to be the
largest upon the continent— was peculiarly adapted to the display o f the various articles
that were collected for the occasion. This fortress was appropriately decorated for the
purpose, and the accumulation within its walls o f the innumerable products of agricul­
ture, manufactures, and the useful arts, together with the interest excited by the vast con­
course o f spectators who daily thronged its area, gave to the occasion a more than ordi­
nary interest. The articles o f the fair consisted o f all kinds o f fabrics of art, machines,
models, and inventions connected with the several branches o f domestic industry, and, as
belonging to the general design, there was also an exhibition o f the most approved speci­
mens o f stock that are employed in husbandry, and a display of horticultural and floral
products. During the same time, there was held in the same city, a national convention
o f farmers, gardeners, and silk culturists. A n address by the Honorable Mahlon Dickerson, the president o f the Institute, was also delivered as introductory to the occasion, and
the whole exhibition received that public interest which is due to the importance of the
It can hardly be doubted that the objects o f the American Institute are o f great public
utility. They tend to array in one grand display, the various products and inventions o f
the useful arts; to assemble in the principal commercial city o f the Union those individu­
als who are interested in the same general cause, for mutual consultation; to exhibit the
actual progress o f the nation in the useful arts; to show what inventions have been made,
as well as what improvements have been perfected in former inventions; to grant to the
deserving and ingenious, the testimonials o f merit which their industry would seem to
evok e; and, finally, to collect upon one broad platform, that particular portion o f the com­
munity who are interested in the progress o f the country in those respects, for common
counsel and deliberation.

T he society has been in existence for the last nineteen years,

and it has been, thus far, successful in the objects for which it was originally founded.
Rewards o f merit have been granted to the originators o f the most approved inventions,
consisting o f gold and silver medals, silver cups, diplomas, money and books; and those
testimonials have, doubtless, tended to encourage a salutary spirit of emulous industry.
I f we were to specify any articles which were conspicuous in the exhibition, we might
allude to the elegant specimens o f cabinet furniture, embroidery with the needle, o f great
beauty, various pieces o f carpeting, o f bright color and fine texture, woollen and cotton
cloths, hardware, fire-engines, iron and brass work, and various other products connected
with the arts and trades. The whole scene was enlivened by a fountain which played in
the midst, and by the tone o f the piano, and the music o f the band, that were heard above
the whispers o f the crowd.

The Gothic arches of a portion o f the hall were entwined

with evergreens, and machinery o f various sorts was made to run by the agency of water
that was ingeniously conducted into the place o f exhibition. Am id so large a mass o f
products here collected, it would be difficult, o f course, on a casual inspection, to deter­
mine the actual excellence o f their various kinds, or the value o f the several subjects o f
invention here arrayed; but the whole display was calculated to impress the spectator

Journal o f M ining and M anufactures .


with the extent o f the progress o f the nation in the useful arts, and with the measure of
that domestic industry— the occupation— which furnishes alike the means of subsistence,
and the safeguard against vice, in numerous cases the offspring of idleness. It appeared
as if the merchandise which had been accumulated in the storehouses of the city, had
been drawn from their shelves, and had been deposited in one common receptacle, where
it could be examined at a single view, and thus furnish to the spectator, at one glance,
the most accurate information concerning the material progress of the country. W e hope
that the American Institute, which has been organized upon like principles with those
which have been founded for similar purposes in other parts o f the Union, will continue
to prosper, and accomplish the salutary objects for which it was originally established.

After iron, there is certainly no produce o f the mineral kingdom which exercises a
greater influence upon our commercial relations than coal.
The following is a statistical sketch o f the produce o f that article in the different coun­
tries o f Europe :—
E ngland .— England possesses the richest veins o f coal, both as regards quality and
quantity ; they form a line from southwest to northeast. In Northumberland and Dur­
ham, from the Tweed to the Tees, coal abounds ; at Whitehaven, in the hills o f Cum­
berland, in Yorkshire, and in Lancashire. T he most abundant mines are in Wales.
The consumption o f coal in England and in exportation, is so great that it has often
been asked, if the mines would not be exhausted ? but, according to calculations made,
in proportion to the present consumption, they could not be exhausted under 1500 years—
the yearly consumption in Great Britain is 20,000,000 to 21,000,000 of tons.
T he exportation increased in the following proportions: In 1830, 505,421 tons; in
1832, 588,450 tons ; in 1834, 621,256 tons ; in 1836, 1,401,000 tons; in 1838, 1,413,800
tons; in 1840, 1,621,300 tons; in 1842, 2,120,000 tons; and in 1844, 2,410,000 tons.
The number o f miners exceeds 500,000.
English coal is to be had in every part o f the civilized w orld ; there are deposits at
R io Janeiro, at Odessa, at Archangel, and at Constantinople.
F rance .— France does not produce enough coal for her own consumption, and is obliged
to import. She possesses 250 mines, o f which 182 are worked, and which rendered in 1844,
72.000. 000 cwts. o f coal, to the value o f 21,000,000 francs (.£840,000.) The produce is
increasing, as in 1815, they only rendered 17,000,000 cwts.; 40,000 men are employed
in the mines and traffic belonging to them. In 1842, the importation o f coal into France,
amounted to 16,718,328 cwts.
France imports her coal from Belgium, England, and the Prussian provinces on the
S pain .— Spain draws but slight profit from her abundant mines ; the principal mine is
the Sierra M orena; the produce is not known. They import but little. In some o f the
principal Spanish ports, there are depots of English coal for the steamers.
P ortugal .— In Portugal there are depots at Figuieres, at Coimbra, and near Oporto.
I t a l y .— The principal mines o f Italy, which produce annually from 140,000 to 150,000
cwts., are in the Savoy, and near Genoa. The others scattered over the peninsula, are
of little value, and there are depots o f English coal in the principal ports.
B elgium .— Belgium possesses immense mineral riches; in this country, production in­
creases. In 1831, the produce amounted to 22,800,000 cwts., and in 1844, it reached
84,232,420. In 1844, the exportation amounted to 1,050,000 tons, a value of about
6 .0 0 0 .
0 0 0 florins, (£600,000.)
H olland .— Holland has no coal mines. There is a single mine in the country o f Lim berg. They import all their coal from England, Belgium, and the Prussian provinces.
S witzerland .— Switzerland, though rich in metals, has very little coal, and imports a
quantity from England. The only mine o f any value in this country, is at H ochefeld;
in 1843, it produced 514,969 cwts.
N o rw a y .— Norway has no coal mines.
R ussia — In Russia, the production o f coal does not exceed 800,000 pouds. It seems
that between the Don and the Dnieper, and in Siberia, there are rich coal mines, and the
government are now taking measures to turn them to account.
D enmark .— Denmark has one insignificant mine at Bornholm, and imports nearly all
her coal from England.


Journal o f M ining and M anufactures .

A ustria .— Austria is rich in coal mines, but the produce is not in proportion with the
number o f her mines. The annual produce o f coal in Austria is at least 12,000,000
cwts.; in 1843, it did not exceed 9,000,000. O f this amount, Bohemia produces about
on e-h alf; Moravia* 2,000,000 ; Austria, 1,500,000; Styria, 1,000,000; Carinthia, and
the districts o f Ogragno, a little more than 500,000 ; Hungary, 600,000 ; the coast lands,
(Husten-land,) 60,000; Galicia, 3,000 ; Lombardy, a very small quantity.
Coal mines exist in nearly every province o f the monarchy. In Bohemia there are
veins o f this mineral along the river Beraun, in the north of the districts of Klattan,
Pisen, and Rakovits, to the neighborhood o f Prague. There are coal mines in the Erzge­
birge, in the valleys of the Eger and the Biela, and at the foot of Riesengeberg, from
Sehatzlar to Landskron.
The principal mines o f Moravia are in the district o f Brunr, near Rossitz and Oflovon,
and the coal near the mouth o f the Oder, is o f a superior quality. In the Archduchy
there are mines near Wiener, Neustadt, Klingenfurt, Gubach and G loggnitz; in Styria,
near Leoben and Fohnsdorf; in Carinthia, in the valley o f the Lavan, and in the neigh­
borhood o f Prevali; in Dalmatia ; in Lombardy, in the districts of Oome and Pavia; in
Tyrol, near Haring, and in Hungary, in the Carpathian mountains.
In 1844, Austria exported 773,065 cwts., o f which 702,262 cwts. were sent from B o­
hemia by the Elbe to S axony; 25,433 cwts. to T u rk e y ; 23,210 cwts. to southern Ger­
many, and 20,542 cwts. to Prussia.
P russia .— Prussia possesses 540 coal mines, giving employment to 25,000 workmen.
T he produce, in 1844, amounted to 53,000,000 cwts., or a value o f 4,500,000 dollars,
(.£675,000.) In 1841, Prussia imported 3,864,944 cwts., principally from England.
Her exportation was 6,903,473 to Holland, France, and Poland.
B av aria .— In Bavaria, the produce is not what it might be ; there are 40 extensive
coal mines, principally in her Rhenish provinces— the produce is about 1,200,000 cwts.
S axon y .— In Saxony the mines are worked with zeal— the produce amounts to about
4,000,000 cwts.
There are extensive mines near the forest o f Thuringen.
T he Grand Duchy o f Baden possesses some valuable coal mines.
In the Duchy o f Brunswick there is scarcely a mine.
H anover .— In the kingdom o f Hanover there are coal mines which occupy more than
1 .0 0 0 workmen.
Wurtemberg is poor in this respect. T he Grand Duchy o f Hesse, the Duchy of Nas­
sau, the Grand Duchies o f Mecklembourg and Olembourg do not possess coal mines.
In the electorate o f Hesse there are some valuable mines, producing annually about
900.000 cwts.
Generally speaking, the production o f coal in Europe is susceptible o f being greatly
developed, especially in some parts o f the Austrian dominions. It is true, that during
the last few years, much has been done, but there is still much more to do.
T he produce o f coal in Europe amounts annually, on a rough calculation, to 120,000,000
florins, or £ 1 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 sterling.

T H E L E A D T R A D E O F T H E W E S T , IN 1845.
By a recent number o f the St. Louis Price Current, w'e derive some important infor­
mation respecting the mining o f lead in the W est. It appears that the production of
this article is increasing; the shipments from the Galena mines, alone, during the past
year, amounting to 778,461 pigs— being an increase o f 156,560 pigs over the previous
year. T he production o f the lower mines has been in an equal ratio, the total produce
being estimated at 150,000 pigs.

T he actual demand has, moreover, kept pace with the

increased production ; and the stock on hand at the close o f the year was only 34,500 pigs,
which has nearly all changed hands, and was shipped on the opening of navigation. During
the past year, it opened at $ 3 15 a $ 3 20, and closed at $ 4 00 a $ 4 12$ per cwt.


the latter part o f May the market became depressed, and rates receded to $ 2 95 a $ 2 98,
but soon recovered; and, with occasional slight checks, continued to obtain an upward
tendency until they reached present rates— say $ 4 0 0 a $ 4 1 2 £ per cwt., with but a few
pigs on sale.

The total receipts from the Galena mines, for five years, are as follow s:—

....................... pigs


18 45,

....................... pigs


Commercial Statistics.




S H IP P IN G O F C H A R L E S T O N , S. C.
I t will be seen by reference to former numbers o f the Merchants1 M agazine, that we
have published a complete list o f the shipping owned in the ports o f N ew Y ork, Boston,
and Philadelphia. In the last named cities, the accounts were made out at our request,
through the kindness and under the direction o f the collectors of customs for those ports ;
and in the port o f N ew Y ork by a clerk in the custom-house.
It was our intention to procure similar statements o f the shipping o f all our maritime
ports; but a variety o f circumstances, which it is not necessary to mention in this place,
have prevented, for the present, the fulfilment o f this design.

It will, however, be prose­

cuted in the progress o f our journal.
It will not, perhaps, be considered out o f place here, to remark that we have no local
or sectional views to promote ; and that our design is, as it ever has been, to render the
Merchants’ Magazine national in its objects and its aims ; and to diffuse, as far as practi­
cable, a knowledge o f the commerce and resources o f every region o f country comprised
in the confederacy o f the United States o f North America ; and as commerce legitimately
possesses a universality as wide as the world, we shall continue to gather from every
considerable nation abroad, whatever is calculated to promote the views and extend the
information o f merchants, and, indeed, all professions studying the current history o f the
This train o f remark has been suggested by an article in the “ Charleston (S. C.)
News,” on the means o f increasing the commercial prosperity o f that city, which we
here annex, in connection with a list o f vessels owned in, and sailing from Charleston,
in 1836, ’37, and ’38, as compared with 1845 and ’46.
“ A s it is our purpose to show that the certain means o f increasing the prosperity of
Charleston is the possession o f shipping, connected with the foreign import trade, so w’e
cannot illustrate the subject better than by presenting a comparative view o f the vessels
owned and sailing from this port, with the duties on importations o f 1836, ’ 37, and ’38.
This will prove that our capacity for this purpose wants only development and a field for
action. W e would premise that packet ships, sailing at regular periods from this port
and ports in Europe, will attract the foreign trade, while the irregularity which has cha­
racterized the period o f departure o f those vessels which had been employed in the direct
intercourse between Charleston and European ports, has presented an insuperable im­
pediment to the continuance and stability o f this intercourse. Let our importing mer­
chants be assured o f receiving their goods at nearly regular periods, and Charleston will
gain many advantages as a port o f importation. N o one presumes to contend that our
city can ever present so advantageous a market in which to make purchases of assorted
stocks as N ew Y ork, but between the entire engrossment o f the importing business and
its total absence there is a wide interval. There are many descriptions of merchandise
that the country dealer would prefer to receive direct, through well known responsible
houses in Charleston, than through auctions and jobbers in N ew York. This has been
verified in numerous cases. Let us then endeavor, by giving an impulse to this enter­
prise, to attempt that which is certainly practicable.


Ships— Martha, Harriet and Jessie, Belvidere, Thos. Bennett, Victoria, Florian.— 6 .
Brigs— Alpha, Washington Barge, Catharine, Elm, John C. Calhoun, Hunter, Arabian.— 7.
Schooners— Sarah Ann, Lovely Keziah, Hope, W accamaw, Jas. Hamilton.— 5.


Ships— Medora, Manchester, Victoria, Ocean, Harriet and Jessie, Benj. Morgan, Bel­
videre, Florian.— 9. Brigs— Globe, Alpha, Catharine, Elm, Hunter, Charleston, Pega­
sus, Howell, J. C. Calhoun.— 9. Schooners— R . Habersham, Lovely Keziah, Walter E.
H yer, Abigail, Columbia, Financier.— 6 .


Commercial Statistics .


Ships— Harriet and Jessie, Medora, Thomas Bennett, Benj. Morgan, Liverpool, V ic­
toria, Chicora, Oseola, Belvidere, Commerce, Florian, Helen, Manchester, Congaree.— 14.
Brigs— J. C. Calhoun, Catharine, Hunter, Elm, Homer, Alpha, Howell, Washington
Barge, Lancet, Globe, Charleston, Daniel Webster, Arabian, Delaware, Chili, Arma­
dillo.— 16. Schooners— Financier, Abigail, Jim Crow, South Carolina, Maria.— 5.
T he number o f vessels owned in and sailing from Charleston, from July 1, 1845, to
July 1, 1846, was as follows. T he contrast here is striking.
Ships— Harriet and Jessie, James Calder, Thos. Bennett, Gen. Parkhill, Warsaw, Bel­
videre.— 6 . B rigs— Adela, Magnolia, Arabian, Tower.— 4. Schooners— Esquimaux,
F. A . Brown, John Hancock, Stranger, Zephyr, T . C. Mitchell, Merchant, Isabella.— 8 .
The duties on direct importations into Charleston, during the year 1836,
amounted to..........................................................................................................
In 1837,....................................................................................................................
In 1838,....................................................................................................................
From July 1, 1845, to July 1, 1846, they amounted to only....... ................


“ This shows the intimate connection o f the direct foreign trade with the number o f
vessels owned in Charleston A s the former increased, so did the latter ; as the one de­
creased, so did the other.
“ N ow , in relation to the means o f obtaining a sufficient aggregate of capital, let us sup­
pose from 20 to 25 ships to cost $500,000, what is to preclude separate subscriptions to
a stock, to be raised on shares for the purpose ? I f Charleston, with no difficulty, has
formed by associated capital, a fund o f nearly $ 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 to build a steamship, would
there be any insuperable difficulty in increasing the aggregate five or six fold? W e
imagine not. This is a favorite mode o f forming a fund for the construction and equip­
ment o f vessels, large and small, in the Eastern cities. What is practicable in that quar­
ter o f the Union is attainable in this. T he advantage o f this plan for the ownership o f
vessels is, that it diffuses through several classes o f the community, the interests which be­
come concentrated in one or a few hands, under a more limited proprietorship. This
view o f the subject admits o f being extended, which will be attempted in a future article.”

W e publish below a circular from Charles F. Osborne, Esq., enclosing a tabular state­
ment o f the tobacco exports and inspections o f Virginia, and o f the foreign markets to
which it was shipped.
Richmond, October 8th, 1846.

T he following table exhibits the comparative receipts, exports and stocks of Virginia
tobacco, for the past ten years. In the present, as in our former tables, we take no note
o f shipments coastwise, it being impracticable to obtain these with accuracy.
W e estimate the number o f hhds. o f stemmed tobacco shipped this year at 5,500 hhds.,
the whole o f which were made from tobacco the growth o f Virginia, excepting, perhaps,
about 50 hhds., made from Western tobacco. N o Western tobacco in the leaf has been
exported from hence the past season.
O f the stock on hand, about 2,500 hhds. arc now in progress o f shipment to France,
on account o f the contractors with that governm ent; the remaining 17,560 hhds., is
mainly composed o f low and inferior leaf o f the crops o f 1841, 1842 and 1843, and held
by speculators. The planters hold scarcely any, and the manufacturers are believed to be
bare o f stock. W e quote lugs $ 1 to $ 1 75 ; common leaf, $ 2 50 to $ 4 ; middling do.,
$ 4 50 to $ 5 50 ; good, $ 6 to $ 7 per 100 lbs., with a fair demand. There is no fine to­
bacco on the market.
T he crop now matured and maturing, is represented to be large, although injury has
been sustained by it, from the want o f care in its cultivation and management, in conse­
quence o f the unparalleled sickness which has for some months past prevailed throughout
the country; nevertheless, we think the crop will be o f good quality, and more than an
average in quantity. It is, however, probable that the receipts at the inspections will not
expose the quantity m ade; for at present prices, the lugs and low leaf cannot be brought
to market— the price which these command not paying, in many situations, the cost of


Commercial Statistics,

The opinion here advanced respecting the crop o f tobacco in Virginia, applies with
more accuracy, and in all respects, to the crop o f the Western States o f this Union.
The total receipt at N ew Orleans for the year, is 72,896 hhds., of which 15,000 hhds.
were stemmed tobacco, and our anticipations are, that a like quantity may be expected
the year to come.
Very respectfully,

Showing the quantity o f Tobacco inspected in Virginia, from 1836 to 18 46; the quan­
tity exported, and the foreign markets to which it was shipped; the stock left on hand
on 1st October o f each y ea r; likewise, the quantity o f stems shipped during the same
period, and the foreign markets to which they were shipped.



3,397 710
2,026 378
2,463 738
2,029 2,785
4,005 2,818 556
3,406 5.40C
10,251 1,075


T ob acco.

T ob acco.





T ob acco.






| T obacco.


T ob acco.

Holland. A n tw ’p. Spain, & Tot. ship’ d. Insp’d Stock.
sundr’ s.


T ob acco.




T obacco.


A . D.

T obacco.

and a F ’ce.
and Ireland. market.

29,722 3,186 45,445 14,024
5,166 800 1,636 977 840 1,455
18.991 4,332 36,201 10,475
2,387 1,221 1,970 2,542 1,924 536 60 724
20,828 2,036 44,845 12,397
4,743 616 1.908 319 128 925
18,729 4,031 28,502 4,896
1,115 236 2,317 1,236 919 329 571
27,195 2,189 58,186 13,829
5,268 1,158
876 3,828 1,177 2,028 1361,621
34,442 6,074 56 141 8,719
7,395 1,504 3,843 2,497 2,013 2,026 218 1,672
32,765 3,245 52,156 11,100
3,747 4,573 2,294 7,637 395 1,820
512 136 36,236 2.000 56,788 13,420
4,098 3 013 1,543 6,975 321 4.814,
1.061 63 20,494 2,687 45,886 14.363
605 5 168 1,935 3,810 68S 1,817
17,704 3,18251,113 24,050
4.542 1,422 2.622 1.842 560 1,019
21,045 2,680142,679 19,060
1,6231 l,055i!2,458.2,092 222 1,698!

IM P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S A T C IN C IN N A T I, IN 1845-46.
T he following statement o f the imports and exports o f leading articles at Cincinnati,
for the years ending August 31, 1846 and 1845, is derived from the Cincinnati Price

F lour ........ ....bbls.
Cheese...... ....casks
Cheese...... .. .boxes
Cotton .......


61,480 . 52,204

W heat......
W hiskey.. ......bbls.
S a lt..........
Butter....... ..... kegs
Pig Metal.










Cheese .....
Cheese .....
F lou r.........
L ard ..........





Bacon .......
Bacon........ .. tierces

T he Price Current says, that the foregoing list o f imports does not include anything
that was not. brought to this market by river, canal, or railroad ; and the exports only in­
clude the shipments to southern ports.

T he shipments to the eastern markets, by way

o f the Miami Canal, as well as by Pittsburgh, have been much larger than in any previ­
ous year.

In addition to this, both flats and steamboats have frequently left for N ew


Commercial Statistics,

Orleans without rendering an account o f their cargo, so that the figures under the head of
“ Exports” fall far short o f exhibiting the amount o f produce that has been shipped from
this port. A s our tables now include all the shipments by every conveyance that it is
possible to obtain, we shall hereafter be able to approximate nearer the true amount.

FOR THE YEAR ENDING MAY 3 1 S T , 1 8 4 6 .

T he Boston Shipping List gives a tabular statement o f the quantity of cotton goods ex­
ported from that port during the year ending May 31st, 1846.

The footing stands

62,676 bales and cases coastwise, and 28,316 do. to foreign ports; being an increase of
22,419 bales and cases coastwise, and 2,302 do. to foreign ports. Total exports, foreign
and coastwise, this year, 92,992 bales and cases, against 65,971 last year.
The places to which the largest amounts were shipped are the following:—
T o N ew Y ork, bales and cases,
N ew Orleans,................................
East Indies,...................................
R io Janeiro,...................................


H ong Kong,...................................
Canton and Manilla,.....................
Java and Sumatra,........................
Istapa, Central America,.............
Sandwich Islands,.........................


The remainder was exported, in smaller quantities, to many different places ; among
them are Cronstadt, Gibraltar, Coast o f Africa, Madagascar, Malta, South America, Per­
nambuco, Honduras, California, Cuba, Laguna, St. Domingo, St. Thomas, St. Peters, Gonaives, Cape Haytien, N ew Zealand, Cape de Verds, W est Indies, Maracaibo, Porto Cabello, Guayama, Aux Cayes, & c., & c.


The Buffalo Express furnishes the following table o f the prices o f Genesee flour in the
city o f N ew Y ork, for the last twenty-four years, on the first Wednesday in the months
o f September and December in each year:—



$ 6 50
5 25
5 124
4 624
4 69
5 75
5 50
5 62
5 25
5 874


5 25

$6 624
5 874
5 124
5 124
5 624
7 874
5 374
5 18
6 00
6 374
5 624
4 874


September. December.
$ 3 75
$7 50
7 75
10 00
9 624
9 00
7 624
8 624
6 75
6 25
5 00
4 62
6 50
6 374
3 87|
4 81
4 62



4 75
4 18{

6 874

The table showing that in six years, in September, prices have been lower than at pres­
ent; and in eighteen years, have been higher.

In the December column, the prices are

in each year higher than there is any reason to believe will be the range in 1846. These
two periods have been taken for the purpose o f showing the state o f the market under
the effects o f a full supply from the West, and at a time when the market is controlled by
a demand dependent upon a given supply, without the effect o f additions or arrivals.


Mercantile M iscellanies .



pure, liberal-minded, and enlightened statesman, and political economist, D r,
Bowring, in the British House o f Commons, recently called the attention o f government


to the crimes and other evils originating in the high duties levied by the government o f
England on tobacco. The following is an extract from his speech on that occasion:—
“ The evidence which the committee reported to the House showed that the seizures for
smuggling tobacco in May, 1846, were 538 ; while for spirits there were only 171 ; tea
11 ; silk 1 0 ; and 26 for all other articles. It appears, also, from that evidence, that the
offence was greatly increasing. W hile the number o f convictions for the year ending
January, 1843, was 436; in 1846 they had increased to 872, being an augmentation, in
the space o f only four years, o f upwards o f 2 0 0 per cent, while the increase of convic­
tions in Scotland was 451 per cent, and in Ireland it was 252 per cent, and the people
would continue to be farther demoralized so long as the high duties were maintained.
The persons so convicted very rarely paid any penalties; they suffered imprisonment, and
the committee had ascertained that the average period o f their incarceration was three
months, or ninety days, and the expense o f maintaining them averaged from 4d. to 6 d.
per day, exclusive o f the cost o f prosecution or other charges which preceded their being
conveyed to jail. The offence was spreading very rapidly among our sailors, the evidence
proving that two-thirds o f all the sailors engaged in our ships were systematically en­
gaged in breaking the la w ; it was proved that whole cargoes were landed in the Thames,
and openly carted through the streets in the very heart o f the city, and in the open day.
It was proved before the committee that one large poulterer imported largely from abroad
in crates made from twisted tobacco leaves, (a laugh) which were passed hy the custom­
house officers, and they frequently assisted in sending them to their destination. Schools
were opened in large numbers where the art o f smuggling was regularly taught to youths,
a system o f education which was the prolific cause o f great crimes. Those high duties
also entailed a very considerable expense upon the public revenue. The coast guard
amounted to 6 ,0 0 0 men, and 66 cruisers were employed at a cost to the country o f between
600,000/. and 700,000/., a great part o f which might be saved if the duty upon tobacco
were reduced to a reasonable scale: yet although such an enormous force was employed,
it was proven to the committee that as much tobacco was smuggled into the country as
passed through the custom-house and paid the duty. T he honorable member proceeded
to argue that the injustice done to the small dealers by the present system of duties was
multitudinous and cruelly oppressive, and it appeared to him that there was no way o f
settling the question but by a large reduction o f the duties.”

B E N E V O L E N T C H IN E S E M E R C H A N T .
Percy, in his anecdotes, gives an instance o f generosity on the part o f a Chinese mer­
chant, o f the name o f Shai-king-qua, who had long known a Mr. Anderson, an English
trader, and had large transactions with him.

It appears that Mr. Anderson met with

heavy losses, became insolvent, and at the time o f his failure owed his Chinese friend
upwards o f eighty thousand dollars. Mr. Anderson wished to come to England, in the
hopes o f being able to retrieve his affairs; he called on the Hong merchant, and in the
utmost distress, explained his situation, his wishes, and his hopes.

The Chinese listened

with anxious attention, and having heard his story, thus addressed him : “ My friend A n­
derson, you have been very unfortunate ; you lose a ll; I very sorry ; you go to England ;
if you more fortunate there, you come back and p a y ; but that you no forget Chinaman
friend, you take this, and when you look on this, you will remember Shai-king-qua.” In
saying these words, he pulled out a valuable gold watch, and gave it to Anderson.
Mr. Anderson took leave o f his friend, but he did not live to retrieve his affairs, or to
return to China.

W hen the account o f his death, and o f the distress in which he had left

his family, reached Canton, the Hong merchant called on one of the gentlemen o f the


M ercantile M iscellanies .

factory who was about to return to Europe, and addressed him in the following manner:
“ Poor Mr. Anderson dead ! I very sorry; he good man ; he friend, and he leave two
childs ; they poor— they have nothing— they childs o f my friend ; you take this for them ;
tell them Chinaman friend send i t !”

A nd he put into the gentleman’s hand a sum of

money for Mr. Anderson’s children, amounting to several hundred pounds.

A N E C D O T E O F A N E D IN B U R G H M E R C H A N T .
It is stated in a foreign paper, that a merchant, in prosecuting his morning tour in the
suburbs o f Edinburgh, found, as he walked along, a purse containing a considerable sum
o f money. He observed a lady at a considerable distance, who, he thought, would be
the owner and loser. Determined to be correct in the party to whom he delivered it, he
fell upon a strange, yet ingenious plan to effect this. He resolved to act the part of a
“ poor distressed tradesman,” and boldly went forward, hat in hand, and asked alms.
This was answered with a polite “ G o aw ay! I have nothing to give you.” T he poor
man, however, persisted in his entreaties until he had got assistance for his “ famishing
wife and children,” the lady, from reasons, no doubt, similar to Mrs. Maclarty’s, at
last condescended ; but, to her dismay, found that the wherewith was gone. The mer­
chant, now satisfied that he was correct, with a polite bow returned the purse, with an
advice that in future she would be more generous to the distressed and destitute.

L O N D O N C O M M E R C IA L A G E N C Y .
W e would direct the special attention o f business men to the extensive foreign agency
establishment o f Messrs. Simmond 3 & Ward, o f London, who occupy the same position
in that great mercantile city, as our Harnden, Pomeroy, &c. For very many years, they
have now devoted their attention to the improvement o f the business arrangements with
foreign countries. They have agents in every leading town and British colony, and
whether the matter to be transacted be the transmission o f funds, the sale or purchase of
merchandise, the appointment o f agents, the consignment of goods, the publication of
new works, or the procuring o f English goods, all comes within the scope o f their exten­
sive agen cy; and we can speak from experience o f the promptitude and high standing
o f their house, with which we have long been in correspondence.

The Rev. Mr. Pohlman gives the following summary statement o f this inhuman
“ In the city o f A m oy alone, there are as many as one thousand opium shops, where
the drug can be purchased; and facilities are afforded for reclining to smoke it. T o give
an idea o f the drain o f specie from the country, on account of opium, it need only be
mentioned that the annual sale o f opium at the port o f A m oy alone, averages one million
two hundred thousand dollars ; and that there are, along the coast o f this single province,
four other smuggling depots. T he total annual drain on the finances o f the country is
estimated at twelve millions o f dollars.”

E r r a t a .— The reader o f the article on the “ Manufacturing Industry of the State of

N ew Y ork,” in the October number o f this Magazine, is requested to substitute the fol­
lowing sentence, for the 12th, 13th, and 14th lines from the top o f page 371: “ The first
factory in 1814, was erected by Peter A . Schenck, Abraham H. Schenck, and H . & S.
Cowing, the latter o f whom eventually assigned their interest to their associates.”


value o f the wool consumed at the Glenham factory, stated on page 374 at $70,000, was
$73,000, and the quantity consumed is erroneously stated, on page 375, at 173,000
pounds; it should be 190,000, as correctly stated on the previous page. It is usual to
charge all errors to the printer ; these, however, were committed by the writer, as we
have ascertained by reference to his manuscript.

The Book Trade,





— Essay on the Progress o f Nations in Productive Industry, Civilization, Population, and Wealth,
illustrated by Statistics o f M ining, Agriculture, Manufactures, Commerce, Banking, Revenues, In­
ternal Improvements, Emigration, Mortality, and Population. By E z r a G. Seaman . Detroit: M.
Geiger &. Co. N ew York : Baker & Scribner.
W e have here a volume o f nearly five hundred pages, written, as w e are informed by the author,
at intervals, during the last fifteen years, when h e was not occupied with professional business, and
w ithout any definite object in view . It covers a w ide range o f subjects, and embodies a large amount
o f statistics, w hich are brought dow n to the present time, and introduced w ith a view o f illustrating
the author’s speculations. T h e volum e is divided into seventeen chapters. T h e two first are devoted
to a consideration o f the “ Law s o f Nature
four more to Civilization, in its history and progress ;
w hich are followed by several chapters on metals, paper money, foreign commerce, manufactures,
population—in short, to all the principal departments and products o f human industry. T h e author
has, in the course o f his inquiries, discussed the influence o f the law s o f nature, o f education, o f
climate, and o f government, civil, military, and ecclesiastical, upon the human mind, and upon the
destiny and progress o f man. His object has been to connect political econom y w ith statistics ; to
bring the rules and principles o f the former to the text and established facts o f the latter; and to try
them, as far as practicable, by the severe test and certain standard o f the principles o f mathematics.
T h e volume contains m uch information on tl\e subjects discussed; and, although w e should be far
from assenting to all the conclusions and deductions o f the author, w e can find m uch that is sug­
gestive and u s e fu l; and, w hatever m ay be the opinion entertained o f the soundness o f the view s
w hich he has presented in the work, no one w ill refuse to credit the author for the pains-taking
research and industry evinced in its production.

— The Water-Cure in Chronic D isease. A n Exposition o f the Cause, Progress, and Terminations
o f Various Chronic D iseases o f the D igestive Organs, L u ngs, N erves, Limbs, and Skin, and o f
their Treatment by Water, and other H ygienic Means. By James Manley G ully , M. D., Licentiate
o f the Royal College o f Surgeons, and Fellow o f the Royal Physical Society, Edinburgh; Fellow
o f the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society, London, etc. N ew York : W ile y &■ Putnam.
T h is w ork is divided into three parts. In the first, the origin, progress, and terminations o f chronic
diseases in general, are delineated and explained, and the deduction made, that no disease becom es
chronic, unless the central organs o f nutrition are affected. In the second part, this is further d evel­
oped in the history o f individual chronic diseases, the explanation o f the pathology o f each o f w h ich
is given, and also the reasons for the water treatment applicable to each. Part third treats o f the
m ode in w hich the water-cure operates in producing its beneficial results; and in bringing forward
the details o f the water-cure, the rationale o f each process is given, and the circumstances w hich
regulate their application stated. T h e statements are drawn from the experience o f the author, in
an extensive field o f practical observation, during four years’ residence at Malvern. T h e w hole work
bears the impress o f a highly cultivated m in d ; and all the statements appear to be made w ith a
frankness and candor w ell calculated to elicit the credence o f unbiassed minds, and, indeed, all vfho
are not dogmatically wedded to old prejudices. It is the ablest and best written work touching the
“ water-cure” that we have met w it h ; and it does not appear to be written so m uch to catch the
hopeful invalid, as to enlighten him as to the nature o f his disease, or the mode in w h ich the water
plan is to relieve it.

— The Early Jesuit M issions in N orth A m erica; Compiled and Translated from the L etters o f the
French Jesuits, with N otes. By Rev. W illiam Ingraham K ip , M. A., Corresponding Member o f
the N ew Y ork Historical Society. N ew Y o rk : W ile y & Putnam’ s Library o f American Books.
It is truly said, by the author o f these interesting volumes, that no page o f our country’s history is
more touching and romantic, than that w hich records the labors and sufferings o f the Jesuit mission­
aries. Marquette, Joilet, Brebeuf, .Toques, Lallem and, Rosies, and Marest, are names the W est should
ever hold in remembrance. Most o f them w ere martyrs to their faith—but few “ died the common
death o f all m en,” or slept in church-consecrated grounds. T h e editor and translator has made a
valuable contribution to the historic literature o f the country, and the publishers have very judiciously
added it to their valuable collection o f Am erican books. T h e narrative o f facts it contains are full
o f romantic interest, and fully illustrate the trite but just remark, that “ truth is stranger than fiction.”

4 — Owen Gladin's Wanderings in the Isle o f W ight. B y O ld H um phrey , author o f “ Addresses,”
“ Observations,” “ Thoughts for the Thoughtful,” “ Homely Hints,” “ Old Sea Captain,” etc., etc.
N ew Y o r k : Robert Carter.
T h e “ Wanderings in the Isle o f W ight” are written in the same sententious, homely, and agreea­
ble style that characterises everything from the prolific pen o f Old Humphrey. There is an individu­
ality, and kindness o f heart, running through the old man, that interests all readers, and inspires one
w ith a desire o f shaking him by the hand. Although deeply tinctured with a religious spirit, for the
most part cheerful, there are fe w that w ill not read these sketches w ith pleasure.


— The Rainbow, f o r 1847.
W ile y & Putnam.

The Book Trade ,
Edited by A . J. M c Donald .

Albany : A . L . Harrison.

N ew Y o rk :

T h e plan o f this new annual is unique, happily conceived, and, on the w hole, w ell carried out.
T h e design for its composition was, to imagine each State o f the Union to be a garden, from w hich
som e flowers w ould be culled, and the w hole be formed into a bouquet. After m uch labor, the flowers
have been gathered from nineteen States, and, as the contributors are so wide-spread, so different in
their styles, and yet, like a bed o f tulips, each possessing such peculiar beauty o f color— their com ­
bined tints are called the “ Rainbow .” T o drop the editor’s metaphor, the volume consists o f poems,
tales, and sketches, o f varied interest and merit, from “ dwellers” in nineteen o f the States. T h e ar­
ticles are mostly original. Several o f the engravings are pretty, and the volume is handsomely
printed on a firm, snow -w hite paper, and bound most superbly. T h e few faults o f the w ork w ill,
doubtless, be corrected in a future volume, w h ich w e hope w ill be induced by the success o f the
present. It is, emphatically, a national work, and, on that account, as its influence must be for good,
w e earnestly hope that it may be successful.


— On H eroes, Hero-W orship, and the H eroic in H istory. Six Lectures. Reported with Emenda­
tions and Additions. By T homas C a r l y l e . N ew York : W ile y &. Putnam.
T h e publishers have done w ell to introduce this comparatively new, but w ell-know n work, into
their series o f “ Choice Reading.” It appears, from a characteristic note o f Carlyle, that he has
“ read over, and revised into a correct state, for Messrs. W ile y & Putnam, o f N ew York,” the present
w o r k ; “ w ho are hereby authorized, they, and they only, so far as he can authorize them, to print and
vend the same in the United States.” T h e book is “ Carlyle all over.”


— The Poetical W orks o f Thomas Moore. Complete in one Volum e. Illustrated w ith Engravings
from Drawings by eminent Artists. N e w Y o rk : D. Appleton &. Co. Philadelphia: George S.

It w ould be a work o f supererogation on our part, w ere w e capable, to attempt anything like a
criticism on the poetical works o f Moore, “ that m atchless compeer o f song.” But w e may be per­
mitted to speak o f the present edition in its material composition, as a specimen o f “ book-making.”
W e had supposed that the A ppletons had done all that could w ell be done to improve the typo­
graphic art in this country, and give form and beauty to their publications, during the last four or five
years ; but w e w ere mistaken, as this volume w ill convince any one w h o w ill take the trouble— we
mean enjoy the pleasure—o f examining it, as it must ever be a pleasure to persons o f taste to look
upon works o f art w hich so nearly approach the highest ideal o f material perfection. It is our deliberate
opinion that this is the most perfect book that has ever been produced by “ the trade” in the United
States; and it deserves a high rank as a m odel for the profession. T h e paper is o f the finest texture,
and the type o f the most perfect cast. T h e steel plate illustrations equal, i f not surpass, the best that
h ave adorned the most popular English or Am erican annuals. T h e publishers seem to have spared
no expense to reach a degree o f excellence equal, to say the least, to that attained by the leading
publishers o f London. In this volum e o f seven hundred and fifty-seven royal octavo pages, w e have
the complete poetical works o f Moore, embracing the English edition o f ten volumes, w ith the ten
prefaces w hich accom pany them. N o one, how ever fastidious, w ill ever think o f purchasing any
o^ier for a library.


— The R o se : or, Affection's G ift, f o r 1847. Edited by E mily M a r s h a l l . Illustrated w ith ten
elegant Steel Engravings. N ew York: D. Appleton & Co.

T h is unpretending little annual has made its annual appearance for a long time. T h e tales pos­
sess an interest independent o f that w hich is derived from startling incidents and striking characters.
T h e moral influence w h ich poetry and fiction always exert w hen produced by real genius, w ill be
recognized as one o f the c h ie f recommendations o f the collection impressed upon the snow y w hite
leaves o f this handsomely bound volum e. “ T h e embellishments,” says the editor, “ have all been
engraved by first-rate artists, and exhibit an unusual degree o f novelty and variety in the subjects.”
It is, on the w hole, a neat and pretty gift-book.”
9 . — Poems. By A m elia . N ew Y o r k : D. Appleton & C o .
T h is is the second edition o f these poems, som ewhat enlarged by the addition o f several o f the
author’ s more recent productions. T h e first edition was published in one o f the W estern States; but
the more than ordinary merit o f the poems soon attracted the notice o f the discriminating everywhere,
and secured at once for the W estern poetess a place among the “ poets and poetry o f Am erica.”
M any o f the pieces are really beautiful, and all evince that purity o f thought, mingled w ith a depth
and delicacy o f feeling, w hich are the general accompaniments o f true poetical inspiration. T h e
publishers have lent the volum e, w hat it so w ell deserves, the aid o f a handsome material dress, in
every particular.
10. — Sacred Meditations. By P. L . U. B oston : W aite. Pierce & Co.
11. —Loncst Thou M e l or, The Believer's Companion in his H ours o f Self-Examination. B y the Rev.
D aniel W is e . Boston : W aite, Pierce &. Co.
T w o pretty volumes, o f a religious and devotional character, and designed as tokens o f remem­
brance between pious friends.

The Book Trade.


12. — Two L ives, or To Seem and To Be. By M aria J. M cIn tosh , author o f “ Conquest and Self Con­
quest,” “ Praise and Principle,” “ W om an an Enigma,” & c. New Y o r k : D. Appleton & Co.
W e should have no hesitation in employing the strongest language o f commendation in regard to this
book. It is a good one in every sense o f the word. The interest o f the narrative is sustained throughout,
and it is written in an elegant and graceful style,— but after all, its chief excellence consists in its moral ard
social teachings, which will call forth a response from the “ holy place” in every human heart. The writer
o f such a book requires no copy-right law to protect her from foreign authorship.
13. — Lectures on Anatomy and Physiology, with an Appendix on Water-Cure. By M a ry S. G o r e .
N ew Y ork : Harper & Brothers.
T h e lectures o f Mrs. Gore, delivered from time to time, have been listened to w ith interest, and
not, w e presume, without profit, to her countrywom en. T h e y are, she states, the fruits o f earnest
study and inquiry, pursued through many difficulties. She com menced the study o f water-cure in
cases o f female weakness in 1832, and, ten years later, its use in fevers, and continued her efforts till
she obtained a knowledge o f the practice o f Priessnitz. Since then, she has practised water-cure
w ith remarkable success. She is desirous, and pledges herself to do all in her power to educate w o ­
men to prevent and cure disease. She says— “ Several brave and true women have already determined
to qualify themselves for water-cure physicians, and the writer has reason to hope that she shall live
to see at least one woman practising water-cure in each city in the U nion.” Although w e are not
converts, or wedded to any “ universal panacea,” w e hope she may live to see m any; for w e believe
that one kind and intelligent woman, in sickness, is worth a dozen M. D .’ s ; and that water, in its
various applications to the system, both as a preventative and a cure, is far more efficacious than the
pernicious system o f drugging, w hich, thank Heaven, is rapidly giving place to a larger experience,
and the more liberal view s o f the Eclectic. W e sincerely commend these lectures to the attention o f
women ; as we feel quite sure that a careful study o f them w ill be attended w ith the most important
benefits to the race.
14. —Altorian ; or. Incidents o f L ife and Adventure in the Rocky Mountains. By an Amateur. E d­
ited by J ames W atson W e bb . 2 vols., 12mo. N ew York : Harper & Brothers.
T h e reading public are indebted to Colonel W ebb, o f the Courier and Enquirer, for these highly
interesting sketches o f Indian habits, incidents o f the chase, and descriptions o f the regions w here
the scene o f the narrative is laid. In the introductory “ Dedication,” from the pen o f the editor, w e
are informed that they were written by a British officer, w h o visited the United States in 1832, between
w hom and Colonel W . a similarity o f tastes and pursuits produced an intimacy, that gradually ripened
into an enduring friendship. T h e dedicatory remarks o f Colonel W ebb are interesting, and should
not be passed over ; and the w ork “ will be found, on perusal, one o f the very fe w w hich exhibits the
native o f our forests as he was, and still is, w here he roams uncontaminated b y his intercourse w ith
civilized man, in the boundless regions o f the northwest.”
15. — A n Inductive and Practical System o f Double E n try Book-Keeping, on an E ntirely Mew Plan ;
having a General Rule, deduced from the Definition o f Debtor and Creditor, applied to the Journal­
izing o f all Transactions : containing Twelve Sets o f Books f o r imparting a General Knowledge o f
the Science, with Numerous and Varied Entries, and Illustrating Single and Partnership Business,
both Prosperous and A d v erse; also, Approved Forms o f Auxiliary Books ; a Set o f Steamboat Books ;
a Vocabulary o f Commercial Terms ; Practical Forms f o r Keeping Books in D ifferent Branches o f
Business ; Commercial Calculations ; a Table o f Foreign Coins and Moneys, o f Accounts, etc. D e ­
signed f o r the Use o f Private Students, Schools, and Practical Accountants. By A . F. & S. W . C r it ­
tenden , Accountants. Philadelphia: E. C. & J. Biddle.
T h e contents and d& ign o f this w ork are fully explained in the title-page, quoted above ; w hich
leaves us nothing further to say on that head. Th ere have been many excellent books o f this class
published during the last five or six years; and it is, perhaps, fair to presume that the last is the best.
T h e execution o f the present w ork is highly creditable to all concerned ; and, as far as w e can judge,
it seems to be w ell adapted to the purposes o f imparting a thorough knowledge o f the principles and
practice o f book-keeping, in all its varieties. T h e commercial tables, in the latter part o f the volum e,
w ill add to its value as a reference-book for the counting-house.
16. — Prince's Manual o f Roses, comprising the most Complete H istory o f the Rose, including every
class, and all the most admirable varieties that have appeared in Europe and America ; together with
ample information on their Culture and Propagation. By W illiam Ro b e rt Prince , Proprietor o f
the Linnaan Botanic Garden and Nurseries at Flushing, and author o f the Treatises on H orticul­
ture, on Fruits, and on the Vine. N ew York : Clark & Austin.
T h e author o f this book has enjoyed rare advantages o f acquiring a thorough knowledge o f the
subjects discussed in this treatise. W illiam Prince, the grandfather o f the author, w e are told, was
the first American amateur w h o formed an extensive collection o f roses by making importations;
and his son, the father o f the present Mr. Prince, continued to enlarge the collection annually, w ith
the finest varieties obtainable from foreign clim es ; and formed, in connection w ith the author, a most
perfect collection o f our native species and varieties. Alm ost every variety o f the rose is described,
and all the necessary information for their culture and propagation is imparted in a clear and com pre­
hensive manner.


The Book Trade.

17. —A n Examination o f the Testimony o f the Four Evangelists by the Rules o f Evidence administered
in Courts o f Justice. With an Account o f the Trial o f Jesus. By S imon G rkknleaf , L L . D.,
R oyal Professor o f La w in Harvard University. B oston: C. C. Little and James Brown.
T h e w ell-know n and high reputation o f the author o f this volume, as an acute, profound, and
learned jurist, w ill insure for it a careful and respectful study. It has been prepared with the design
o f applying those severe tests o f legal evidence w hich are used in courts o f law , in order to establish
the truth o f the narratives o f the four Evangelists; and it is, perhaps, unnecessary to state that he
has executed the task w ith decided ability and success. T h e importance o f the subject will scarcely
be denied, and it is appropriately dedicated to the members o f the legal profession. T h e North Am e­
rican R eview for October, 1846, has an article o f some twenty or thirty pages, based on G reenleaf’ s
work, in connection w ith Strauss’ s “ L ife o f Jesus,” w hich the writer opens w ith a very just com pa­
rison o f these eminent scholars. O f the former, the R eview says—“ It is the production o f an able
and profound lawyer—a man w h o has grown grey in the halls o f justice and the schools o f juris­
prudence—a writer o f the highest authority on legal subjects, w hose life has been spent in weighing
testimony and sifting evidence, and whose published opinions on the rules o f evidence are received
as authoritative in all the English and Am erican tribunals—for fourteen years the highly-respected
colleague o f the late Mr. Justice Story, and now the honored head o f the most distinguished and
prosperous school o f English law in the w orld.”
18. — The Opal; a Pure G ift f o r the Holidays, fo r 1847. Edited by J ohn K e ese . W ith illustrations by
J. G. Chapman. New Y ork: J. C. Riker.
This is the third year o f the publication o f this beautiful annual. The original plan o f a work combining
the highest order o f excellence with the purest thoughts and sentiments, has been faithfully adhered to by
the editor and publisher. And each new issue has afforded evidence o f improvement, where there was
room for it. The success which has marked the progress o f this work, confirms the remark o f a recent
English critic, that a great change has occurred in the spirit o f belles lettres writing o f late years; and that
to be popular, it must be adorned with moral grace, or dignified with just sentiments. The illustrations,
nine in number, though o f varied merit, are all creditable to the skill o f the artist, who is scarcely excelled
in his line. “ Nature’s Pet,” on the illustrated title, is charmingly executed, in the countenances o f the
figures. “ The Wasted Fountains,” graphically delineates the emotions o f the soul, under the circumstances,
and happily portrayed in the spiritual and poetical letter-press illustration o f Miss Ann C. Lynch. “ The
Summer Stream” and “ The Sentinel” are capital. “ The W idow ,” which is rather stiff, is accompanied
by a poem on “ Worship,” however, that makes us forget any defect in the picture. It breathes, in the manly
verse o f Whittier, the great thoughts o f a “ pure and undefiled religion.” W e regret that we have not
space to speak more at length o f the diiFerent articles in prose and verse, none o f which are below
mediocrity, and many o f them are equal to the best efforts o f the best writers. Among the list o f con­
tributors, w e may name Mrs. E. Oakes Smith, Ann C. Lynch, Mrs. L . II. Sigourney, Mrs. Sarah J. Hale,
Mrs. Francis S. Osgood, and Longfellow, Tuckerman, Pierpont, Whittier, C. Edwards I.ester, Rev. James
Shroeder, Sprague, Olin, and Stone, all well-known and favorite authors, besides others o f undoubted merit,
whose articles have previously given so much satisfaction,—and we have no hesitation in adopting the re­
mark o f the editor, “ that they are equal, in point o f literary excellence, to the best efforts o f foreign writers
in a similar vein, and in many instances exhibiting a rare ingenuity o f style and conception.” Ou the whole,
w e consider it the Gift-Book o f the season.
19. — The Memorabilia o f Swedenborg; or, the Spiritual World Laid Open. N ew York : John Allen.
It is well known, we believe, that Prof. Bush, an able theologian and learned scholar, has become a con­
vert to the doctrines o f the “ New Church,” and a believer in the alleged revelations o f Emanuel Sweden
borg. Dr. W ood admits, what few have ever denied, that Swedenborg was an honest man ; and however
much we may consider him mistaken, all who have the least knowledge o f Dr. Bush, will not for a mo
ment entertain a doubt as to the entire sincerity and honesty o f his purpose in advocating the claims o f
this remarkable man. The “ Memorabilia” consists o f selections from the writings o f Swedenborg, with
notes and annotations by his learned disciple. These writings are published in numbers, under the general
title o f “ the Swedenborg Library.” W e have read several o f the numbers, and we confess that we have
been deeply interested in them, and we have no doubt that many who are not prepared to embrace his sys­
tem, will find much that accords with their highest intuitions.
20. — Thoughts. Selected fro m the W ritings o f the R ev. William E llery Channing. Boston: W illiam
Crosby & H. P. N ichols.
T h e writings o f the late Dr. Channing are full o f the aphoristic style o f expression, in w hich he
both delighted and excelled. One o f Dr. Channing’ s thoughts, w hich the compiler has selected as
the motto, is happily illustrated in these “ apples o f gold in pictures o f silv e r :”— 4Sometimes a single
word, spoken by the voice o f genius, goes far into the heart. A hint, a suggestion, an undefined
delicacy o f expression, teaches more than we gather from volum es o f less-gifted m en.” Every one
has experienced the truth o f this rem ark; and no one can read these detached thoughts without ac­
quiring purer aspirations and higher h o p e s ; and w e earnestly trust it m ay “ introduce some to an
acquaintance w ith this great benefactor to our minds, w ho, through sectarian fears, might be repelled
from the larger w ork.”

The Book Trade.


21.— The Mayflower, fa r 1817. Edited by Mrs. E. Oakhs S m it h , author o f “ Eiches W ith ou t W ings,”
“ Sinless Child,” “ W estern Captive,” “ Trne Child,” etc., etc. Boston : Saxton & Kelt.
This beautiful annual, edited by E. O. Smith, is one o f the most interesting souvenirs w e have
seen. It is neatly executed, and illustrated by Sartain in his best manner. T h e literary contents, in
point o f variety and interest, far surpass the average contributions to works o f the kind. T h e arti­
cles by Mrs. Oakes Smith are distinguished by a rare union o f metaphysical insight and poetic beauty.
Mr. Helfenstein has also done him self more than usual credit in the Mayflower. “ Knickerbocker
vs. Pilgrim,” by C. F. Hoffman, is in the author’ s happiest vein, and charm ingly unfolds m any truths
w hose significance partial historians w ill do w ell to ponder. T h e poems are generally o f a high or­
der. Miss Sedgwick’ s sweet moralizing, and Mr. M ’Cracken’ s rare wit, agreeably diversify the w ork ;
and w e commend it to our readers as a truly valuable as w ell as tasteful gift-book.
22.—L ives o f Eminent English Judges o f the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Edited by W .
~ N. W klsby , Esq., M . A., Recorder o f Chester. Philadelphia : T . & J. W . Johnson.
T h e present work comprises a series o f valuable biographical sketches o f some o f the most distin­
guished judges o f Great Britain. T he greater part o f those sketches were prepared by the author,
although a small portion was written by the late Edmund Plunkett Burke, afterwards C h ief Justice
o f St. Lucie. T h e volume w ill commend itself to the attentive perusal o f the members o f the legal
profession, as well as to all those w ho desire to become acquainted w ith those distinguished lights o f
jurisprudence, w hich have adorned the annals o f the bench and bar o f England. It is published in a
handsome style, and w ill be found a valuable contribution to the legal, as w ell as the general librqjy.
It embraces memoirs o f Sir Matthew Hale, Lord Keeper W hitelocke, Lord Nottingham, Sir John Holt,
Lord Harcourt, Lord Macclesfield, Lord King, Lord Talbot, Lord H ardwicke, Sir W illiam Blackstone,
Lord Bathurst, Lord Mansfield, Lord Camden, Lord Thurlow , and Lord Ashburton.
t t . —H istory o f the Conquest o f Peru by the Spaniards. B y Don T elesforo D e T rueba y C osio ,
author o f “ T h e L ife o f Hernan Cortez,” etc. Philadelphia: Carey &. Hart’s “ Library for the
People,” No. IV.
Although the days o f bloody conquest are fast passing aw ay before the lights o f a truer civilization,
and the “ ancient divinities o f Violence and W rong are retreating to their kindred darkness,” the his­
tories and detail o f events w hich have marked the onward steps o f man through the wilderness o f
savage passions, w ill be read w ith interest, and not, perhaps, without profit, until long ages have cre­
ated a new order o f conquests and triumphs, and man be “ born again” to a new and a more divine
humanity. T h e “ Conquest o f Peru” forms a part o f the history o f the r a c e ; and the account given
o f it in this volume exhibits many o f those elements o f c h a r a c t e r s courage, heroism, devotion, etc.,
w'hich shall, in the fu tu re, God-directed, shine w ith a lustre immeasurably transcending the pigmy
conceptions o f the present. Five volumes o f this series o f books “ for the people” have been pub­
twenty more, in the departments o f history, biography, voyages, and travels, all o f an inte­
resting and instructive character, are announced by the publishers.
24.— The Scholar, the Jurist, the A rtist, the Philanthropist. A n Address before the Phi Beta Kappa
Society o f Harvard University at their Anniversary, A u gu st 21th, 1846. B y C h arles Sumner .
B oston : W illiam D. Ticknor & Co.
T h e idea o f this discourse was most happily conceived, and beautifully and eloquently has it been
developed by the mind o f the author. Pickering, Story, Allston, Channing—men w hose days were
covenanted to “ Knowledge, Justice, Beauty, Love, the comprehensive attributes o f God” —are here
represented as the “ low ly and mortal ministers o f lofty and immortal truth— as the Scholar, the Ju­
rist, the Artist, the Philanthropist.” Leaving the mere biographical details, Mr. Sumner portrays with
great eloquence and power the varied, but harmonious mission o f these men, and exhibits to our view
those elements o f character that constitute true sublimity. A more fitting theme for the occasion,
and a mind more capable o f appreciating its lofty inspirations o f wisdom and goodness, could scarcely
have been conceived.
25.— The Wedding G i f t ; or, The D uties and Pleasures o f Domestic L ife. Boston: Gould, Kendall
& Lincoln.
T h is miniature volum e includes two choice compilations for the conjugal pair, and the domestic
retreat—one entitled “ T h e Marriage R in g ; or, H ow to Make Home Happy,” from the writings o f
John Angell James, a writer esteemed for his many practical writings, and the other a collection o f
some o f the neatest fragments o f poetry and prose to be found in the language, by different authors,
but all relating to the affections and pleasures o f domestic life.
26 — The Mourner Consoled; containing The Cypress Wreath. By Rev. R ufus G r isw o ld . The
Mourner's Chaplet. By J ohn K e ese . B oston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.
Another miniature volume, embracing a collection o f consolatory pieces, in prose and verse, de­
signed for those w h o mourn the loss o f children and friends. T h e “ Cypress W reath” is made up
partly o f short extracts in prose, w ith a few poems, and the “ Mourner’ s Chaplet” entirely o f poetry.
T h e selections are generally in good taste ; and the two works combined form a very appropriate offer­
ing o f sympathy for bereaved friends.


The Book Trade,

27. — Chambers''s Information f o r the People^ a Popular Encyclopedia. First American edition. W ith
Numerous Additions, and more than live hundred engravings. Philadelphia: G. B. Zeiber Sc Co.
N ew Y ork : Burgess, Stringer & Co.
Three numbers o f this w ork have already been published in this country, and it is to be completed
in eighteen ; making, altogether, eighteen hundred imperial octavo pages, in tw o volum es, o f nine
hundred pages each. T h e plan o f the work is thus set forth in the publishers’ advertisement:—
“ T h e w ork will be edited by an accom plished American scholar, w ho, without impairing in the
slightest degree the integrity o f the original text, w ill add such notes, and make such corrections and
additions as are necessary to adapt it to the wants o f the American public. T h e plan on w hich the
w ork is formed, is to select only the subjects on w hich it is important that a people, w ho feel the value
o f sound education, should be well informed. T h e minutiae o f biography, topography, scientific tech­
nicalities, and other matters to w hich there may be only need for occasional reference, are dismissed ;
and thus, w hat usually fills the greater part o f an Encyclopedia is at once got rid of. There only re­
mains a series o f articles on the most important branches o f Science, Physical, Mathematical, and
M oral: Natural History, Political History, Geography, and General Literature. A ll is given w hich,
i f studied, and received into the mind, w ould make an individual, in the common walks o f life, a
well-informed man—w hile, w ith a few exceptions, only that is omitted w hich is not needed as a part
o f the standing knowledge o f any person, whatever, besides those for w hom it may have a profes­
sional or local interest.”
W e shall take occasion to refer to this valuable w ork in a future number o f our Journal.
28. — The Analogy o f R eligion, N atural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course o f N ature. To
which are added. Two B r ie f D issertations on Personal Identity, and on the N ature o f Virtue. By
J oseph Bu tl e r , D. C. L., Lord Bishop o f Durham, and Daniel W ilson , D. D., Bishop o f Calcutta.
W ith an Account o f the Character and W ritings o f Bishop Butler. By Samuel Fa ir f ax , D. D.,
Lord Bishop o f Gloucester. N ew Y ork: Robert Carter.
T h is great w ork o f Bishop Butler has ever been regarded by theologians a master-piece o f argu­
ment ; and, to quote from the criticism o f that em inent prelate, the Bishop o f Calcutta, there is in
his writings a vastness o f idea, a reach and generalization o f reasoning, a native sympathy and gran­
deur o f thought, w h ich command and fill the mind. He grasps firmly his topic, and insensibly com ­
municates to his readers the calmness and conviction w hich he possesses him self. Patient, silent,
unobtrusive investigation, was his forte ; and his powers o f invention were as fruitful as his judgment
w as sound. Probably no book in the compass o f theology is so full o f the seeds o f things, to use the
expression o f a kindred genius, (Lord Bacon,) as the “ Analogy.”


— Pithy Papers on Singular Subjects. By O ld H umphrey , author o f “ Observations,” “ W alks In
Lon don,” “ Country Strolls,” “ Thoughts for the Thoughtful,” etc. N ew Y o r k : Robert Carter.
T h is little volum e, w h ich contains some forty or fifty “ pithy” papers from the pen o f “ Old Hum
phrdy,” w hose several publications have been noticed in the Merchants’ Magazine, as they have
re-appeared in this country, fully sustains the reputation o f the author as a shrewd observer o f human
nature and human life, in their ever-varying aspects. It is written in a hom ely, sententious, Franklin­
like style, and strongly marked w ith that individuality that rivets the attention, w hile it w ins upon
the hearts, o f a large class o f readers.
30 _T he D iscourses and L etters o f Lou is Cornaro, on a Sober and Temperate L ife. With a B iog­
raphy o f the Author. By P iero M aroncelli , and Notes and an Appendix, by J ohn B u rd ell .
N ew Y ork : Fow ler & W ells.
Cornaro was born in Padua in 1467, and died in 1565, in the ninety-ninth year o f his age. So says
the biography— a statement that gives great force to his discourses and letters on a sober and temper­
ate life. I f a man w ith the lights o f the fifteenth century could prolong existence, in the enjoyment
o f good health, to near a century, w hat ought not man to do in this respect, with all the superadded
light w hich science and experience have furnished in this nineteenth century l
31 .— The Count o f Monte-Cresto. By A lexand er D umas . W ith elegant illustrations, by M. V alen ­
t in . 2 volumes. N ew Y o r k : Burgess, Stringer & Co.
W e have not read this last novel o f D um as; and, although it occupies nearly six hundred closely
printed pages, it is asserted by the French reviews to have thrown “ Hugo, Balzac, and Sue, in the
shade.” It is full o f brilliant scenes, and the conception o f the plot is both striking and original. So
says one w h o has read it.
32.— The Floral Fortune-Teller, a Game f o r the Season o f Flowers. B y Miss S. C. Edgarton. Bos­
ton : A . Tompkins.
Fortune-telling, in one w ay or another, is almost co-eval w ith tim e; and nearly everything in
the heavens above, and the earth beneath, has been adopted as its oracle. T h e fair author o f this
little volum e has consulted the “ floral apostles” respecting the mysteries o f our earthly destiny.
T h e simplest flow er o f the valley, as w ell as the more pretending one o f the cultivated garden, are,
in her mind, “ clothed w ith the mantles o f prophets,” and utter “ a language that is as familiar as
household words.” Questions are propounded, and the answering oracles are “ drawn from the
purest w ells o f English” and German poetry. Shakspeare, W ordsworth, Coleridge, Tennyson,
Goethe, Southey, Campbell, Burns, and many more, are all laid under contribution, and “ come at
ca ll,” w ith their inspirations, to aid the prophetess in her efforts to reveal the character and future
fortunes o f those w h o worship at her shrine.