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H U N T ’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
N O V E M B E R ,

1842.

A r t . I.—LIFE OF TH E HON. JOSEPH HOPKINSON, LL. D.

J oseph H opkinson was bom in the city o f Philadelphia, in the year
1770. His father, an Englishman by descent, though sturdily devoted to
the American cause, from the period when it became distinguished from
that o f the mother country, had enjoyed in full those opportunities o f libe­
ral education which the respectability and wealth o f his family afforded.
A great law yer during the dependence o f the colonies, one o f the firmest
and most ardent o f the statesmen who took part in the revolution, he be­
came, when the constitution was established, one o f its most strenuous and
efficient supporters. Eminent not only as a lawyer, but as a literary
man, his works take a prominent place in the library o f our principal
authors; and though the criticism o f Dr. Rush, that in humor and satire
he was not surpassed by Lucian, Swift, or Rabelais, may be considered
too highly colored, there is no doubt the volumes he left behind him, con­
tain some o f the most witty and pointed essays o f the age. Ample, quick,
versatile in his talents, there was scarcely a subject in the great fields o f
literature and the arts which he had not handled ; and o f no one could it
be said with more truth than o f Francis Hopkinson, that whatever he
touched, he touched gracefully and usefully.
There is a similarity between the history o f Mr. Francis Hopkinson and
his more distinguished son, which must strike the most casual observer.
Both lawyers o f learning, and o f em inence; both distinguished for their
elegance as scholars, and as writers for their brillian cy; both carried
from the bar to the bench in the meridian o f life, and both filling for al­
most the same period o f time the same judicial office ; their lives presented
a coincidence which was caused as much by sameness o f character as by
similarity o f circumstance. The features which distinguish the portrait
o f the father which is placed at the opening o f his works— the tall and
peaked forehead, the small, quick eye, and earnest expression— w ill call
forth in the minds o f those who look on it, the recollection o f his son when
at the same period o f life ; and when it is remembered, that the outward
likeness was sustained and carried out by a similarity o f mind and o f disVOL. VII.— no . v .
34




*•

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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

position far more remarkable, the parallel becomes one o f the most strik­
ing that biography can afford.
Toseph Hopkinson was educated at the University o f Pennsylvania,
where he took his degree a short time after the establishment o f the con­
stitution. Admitted at the age o f twenty-one to the bar in his native city,
he entered at once upon a practice whose extent was commensurate, both
to his ability and to the circumstances in which he was placed. O f the
lawyers o f his peculiar generation, there are none whose names appear in
the reports o f that day so frequently and so prominently as his o w n ; and
in those few trials which possessed interest enough to allow o f their trans­
mission from that day to this, there is scarcely one in which he did not
take part. In the trial o f Mr. Cobbett in the Supreme Court o f Pennsyl­
vania, in 1799, he was the leading counsel, and even at that early period
o f his life, when he was thrown in competition with men whose learning
and experience had placed them for years at the head o f the bar, he ob­
tained a reputation for oratorical ability and legal soundness, which was
excelled by none o f his contemporaries. It was at the same period, that
the ode, “ Hail Columbia,” was written ; an ode, that without the preten­
sion o f any thing besides sound sentiment and true principle, has taken
its place with the Marseilles Hymn, and the Rhine Song, at the head of
National Lyrics.*
On the fourth o f February, 1805, Mr. Hopkinson appeared in the Sen­
ate chamber in defence o f Judge Chase, then under impeachment for high
* “ It was written,” said Judge Hopkinson, in a letter dated a few months before his
death, “ in the summer of 1798, when war with France was thought to be inevitable. Con­
gress was then in session in Philadelphia, deliberating upon that important event, and acts
o f hostility had actually taken place. The contest between England and France was
raging, and the people o f the United States were divided into parties for the one side or
the other, some thinking that policy and duty required us to espouse the cause of repub­
lican France, as she was called ; while others were for connecting ourselves with England,
under the belief that she was the great preservative power o f good government and safe
principles. The violation o f our rights by both belligerents was forcing us from the just
and wise policy o f President*Washington, which was to do equal justice to both, to take
part with neither, but to preserve a strict and honest neutrality between them. The pros­
pect o f a rupture with France was exceedingly offensive to the portion of the people who
espoused her cause, and the violence o f the spirit o f party has never risen higher, I think
not so high, in our country, as it did at that time, upon that question. The theatre was
then open in our city. A young man belonging to it, whose talent was great as a singer,
was about to take his benefit. I had known him when he was at school. On this ac­
quaintance he called on me on Saturday afternoon, his benefit being announced for the
following Monday. His prospects were very disheartening; but he said if he could get a
patriotic song adapted to the tune o f the *President’s March,’ he did not doubt of a full
house ; that the poets o f the theatrical corps had been trying to accomplish it, but had not
been successful. I told him I would try what I could do for him. He came the next after­
noon, and the song, such as it was, was ready. The object o f the author was to get up an
American spirit, which should be independent of, and above, the interests, passions, and
policy o f both belligerents; and look and feel exclusively for our own honor and rights.
N o allusion is made to France or England, or the quarrel between them; or to the question
which is most at fault in their treatment o f us: o f course the song found favor with both
parties, for both were American; at least, neither could disavow the sentiments and feel­
ings it inculcated. Such is the history o f this song, which has endured infinitely beyond
the expectation o f the author, as it is beyond any merit it can boast of, except that o f being
truly and exclusively patriotic in its sentiments and spirit,”




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399

crimes and misdemeanors. Never before, that time, never, perhaps, but
once since, had a trial o f such high and solemn interest occupied the at­
tention o f the country. A member o f the supreme court o f judicature o f
the United States was brought before the highest legislative authority o f
the land, under charge, not o f having been guilty o f treason against the
government, not o f having abused the prerogatives o f his office for per­
sonal aggrandizement, but o f having, in times o f high political excite­
ment, entered into the contest with all the power with which his judicial
functions invested him. In the foremost o f the fight, it was said, he had
thrown the ermine o f ju stice; and there, with his hand upraised against
the chief o f the opposing ranks, had he dared the vengeance o f those who
would have held him within the precincts o f the altar o f which he had
been consecrated a high priest. Other charges there were, but they were
stamped as less worthy o f support,— one o f them by the unanimous vote o f
the Senate, the others by votes far inferior to those by which the chief
topic o f the impeachment was supported ; and on the day on which the
Vice-President took his seat as chief judge in that high court into which
the Senate was then converted, it was understood that Judge Chase, if he
fell at all, was to fall a victim to the spirit o f party which had held so
vehement a sway in his own breast, and which had aggravated to so fierce
a pitch the vengeance o f his antagonists.
In the opening speech o f Mr. Randolph, who had been selected by the
House o f Representatives as the manager o f the impeachment, Judge
Chase had been compared to W arren Hastings, and the trial then in pro­
gress, to the great contest which for seven years had rent asunder both
houses o f the British legislature. In some features there was a similarity.
For years the rafters on which the impeachment in both cases was based,
had been buried till they had become mouldered and sw ollen ; and when
at last they were brought to light, when at last they were laid down as the
structure on which the prosecution was to'b e erected, they were covered
with the excrescences o f fraud and o f obscurity which so long a slumber
had wound round them. Witnesses had forgotten their distinct original
impressions in the lapse o f time, and had mended the garment, which the
wear o f years had defaced, with patches o f whatever color it suited
their partialities to produce. Prosecutors lost the rough homeliness o f the
objects against which their gaze was directed, in the mellow drapery which
time and distance had thrown round them, and both prosecutors and judges,
forgetting the personal rights and immunities o f the defendant at their bar,
took up the charge as an historical abstraction, and except when it was
necessary for the purposes o f invective or personification, dropped from
their view the vivid personal claims o f the man who o f all others was
most interested in their decision.
In the manner in which the two causes were conducted by the prosecu­
tion, there was a wide difference. Never was a more splendid display
o f oratorical might exhibited than that which was collected in the man­
ager’s box at the House o f Lords during the impeachment o f W arren
Hastings. E very department o f rhetoric, from the gorgeous imagery o f
Burke to the steady reasoning o f Fox,— every note in the gamut between
those two distant extremes which from their very opposition so beautifully
harmonized together,— was exhibited in that little knot o f men who had
undertaken the prosecution o f the late governor-general o f India. In the
management o f the impeachment o f Judge Chase, with the exception o f




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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

the late Mr. Randolph, there was not a man o f original or o f distinguish­
ed ability engaged ; and o f all others, Mr. Randolph was the least fitted
for the arrangement and the exposition o f a case so vast in its extent and
so intricate in its features. W ell calculated from his unscrupulous au­
dacity, from his bold invective, from his utter heedlessness o f remote or
contingent probabilities, for the leadership o f a minority in the House of
Representatives, he possessed neither the discipline o f mind, the extent of
learning, nor the power o f argumentation necessary for so great a task as
that which the impeachment o f Judge Chase imposed upon him. It is
said that once after having, among a vast mass o f private and local bills,
disposed o f a resolution for the payment o f the debts incurred in rebuild­
ing the capitol, by moving its reference to the committee o f unfinished
business, a mechanic who had been gazing for some time at the lank and
unhewn limbs, at the roughly sculptured features o f the orator, moved
from the gallery, with a voice that caused the House to lose at once its
self-possession, that Mr. Randolph himself be referred to the same com­
mittee. Unfinished and fragmentary in all that he thought, in all that he
devised, in all that he executed, his speeches, and above all, his famous
speech on Judge Chase’ s prosecution, present a disorderly compound of
materials, sometimes rare but generally worthless, thrown, like the shat­
tered remnants o f a shipwreck on the shore, without system, without har­
mony, and without beauty.
If the prosecution was behind the standard o f that which conducted the
impeachment o f W arren Hastings, such was by no means the case with
the defence. A t its head stood Mr. Hopkinson, then in the opening o f a
career as rapid as it was brilliant; while next to him were placed Robert
Goodloe Harper, one o f the most ingenious and most classical controver­
sialists at the bar, and Luther Martin, who as a debater and as a lawyer
bore a remarkable similitude to Mr. Law , afterwards Lord Ellenborough,
who was the leading counsel in the defence o f Mr. Hastings. Sturdy in
both body and mind, endued with the properties o f a Dacian gladiator in
person, and with a toughness, a coarseness, a vigor o f intellect that could
endure the severest fatigues, could make the most vehement exertions,
could sustain the most protracted conflicts, there was no march too forced
for him to attempt, and no battle too desperate to deter him from its en­
counter. “ That federal bull-dog ” was the title which Mr. Jefferson had
given him at the time he was a member o f the Constitutional Convention;
and i f the epithet was applicable to him then, when he was but a junior
member o f the guard who were circled around the reserved prerogatives
o f the government, it became far more descriptive o f him when in later
days,—when his old fellow-watchmen had dropped o ff or deserted from
around him,— he remained almost the solitary sentinel o f that ancient
standard which had been surrounded by a great and powerful party.
Never till his death, no matter how dark the night was, or how portentous
the omens, or how lonely the post, did he cease to give warning in his
hoarse voice o f the dangers to which his charge was exposed. It was on
Judge Chase’s trial that his ablest speech was made ; and it may safely
be said, that as an example o f strong Saxon reasoning, as an illustration
o f the effect which attends that original force o f mind, which, not content
with overleaping the obstacles in its way, annihilates them in its passage,
it has not its equal except among those great speeches delivered by Mr.
Fox at the time o f the Westminster scrutiny. His client’s cause had




L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

401

become his own, not by a sudden rhetorical transposition thrown off in the
heat o f argument, when for the time being he had lost his own entity in
the great cause he was sustaining,— but from a friendship and commun­
ion o f fifteen years, which had consolidated their attachments, had assim­
ilated their principles, and had united their names. So entire had been
his absorption, so utter the surrender o f the flesh to the spirit, that on the
second day o f his speech he spoke without intermission, without breakfast
or dinner, from the opening o f the session till five in the afternoon ; and
it was only when by a warning that could not be mistaken, his fatigue dis­
played itself, that he becam'e conscious o f the exhaustion he had under­
gone. The effect he produced upon the Senate was tremendous, and on
the 5th article, on which great stress had been laid by the managers, and
which it fell to his lot particularly to defend, the acquittal o f his client
was unanimous.
O f that great auditory there are perhaps none now living to tell the
history o f the trial that for two weeks carried the Senate from its legiti­
mate business, and involved it in the detail o f an action the most intricate
and the most extended. But one o f the senators who sat as judges in that
great impeachment has been left behind from the company which filled
the chairs around the Vice-President; and w e hope that i f ever that ex­
traordinary journal should be published which it is said Mr. Adams has
kept from the opening o f his public life, it will dwell in full on a scene
which is among the most important o f those into which he has entered
during the course o f his remarkable career. The youngest man among
the senators, at that time among the least known, he entered into the trial
with that same vehement partisanship, with that same intense application
that has characterized him in each o f that long train o f public services
which have displayed at the same time the versatility and the waywardness
o f his genius. Directly to his right sat Aaron Burr, then engaged in the
discharge o f the last o f his official duties. But lately returned from that
melancholy field in which his great rival had lost his life and he his cha­
racter,— hated by Mr. Jefferson, because he had yielded to the intrigues
o f the federalists, and for nine long ballotings had divided with him the
choice o f the House o f Representatives for President,— distrusted by the
democrats, because he had submitted, against their unanimous vote, to be
placed in competition for that high station by their antagonists,— shunned
by the federalists, because his hand was red with the blood o f their
leader,— he stood before the people as a ruined and a desperate man, and
each senator, as he looked upon him, knew that he was ready to enter into
the maddest game which reckless and goaded ambition could devise. Yet
even then, in the moment when he was about taking his final leave o f the
capital, where once he could have been among the first, he preserved in
its full serenity that dauntless composure, that severe dignity which so
strongly characterized him in the discharge o f his exterior duties. Never
did his extraordinary power over the passions o f those with whom he had
to deal, manifest itself more singularly than in the conduct o f the trial,
and in the remarkable scene which followed it. One o f the senators who
sat by him said he wished that the tradition o f Mr. Burr’s parting with
the Senate could be preserved, as one o f the most remarkable events ever
witnessed. Another, a strong political antagonist o f the Vice-President’s,
when asked the day after how long Mr. Burr had been speaking when he
took his leave, answered that he could form no idea,— it might have been
34*




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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

an hour, it might have been but a moment,— when he came to his senses,
he seemed to have wakened from a kind o f trance.*
There is something in the manner in which the impeachment o f Judge
Chase and the impeachment o f Mr. Hastings were conducted, which is
illustrative, as far as it goes, o f the antagonist features o f the systems to
which they mutually belonged. In the one case, a man who had trampled
under foot every law, national and municipal, who had committed in
wholesale, crimes which, i f distributed in infinitesimal doses in the mo­
ther country, would have carried the perpetrator to the gallows, who had
corrupted Indian justice, who had pillaged Indian churches, who had
hired out, in a cause the most iniquitous and unfounded, the troops which
were trusted to him for objects the most sacred, was acquitted by a vast
majority, on the plea that flagrant as were his misdeeds, they were en­
tered into for objects so nationally grand as to lose their demerit in their
magnitude. In the other case, a man who had served his country ear­
nestly and nobly ; who, foremost in the great fight o f the revolution, had
staked his ample fortune, his good name, his future welfare ; who in
camp, in the Senate, on missions the most severe and perilous, in parts the
most exposed and trying, had preserved unblotted that fair reputation
which had grown up with him from his boyhood ;— on whose broad arm,
when chairman o f the committee o f safety, Washington had leant in the
most gloomy period o f the battle ;— was impeached, and escaped from
conviction on one charge at least, by a vote lacking not much o f the con­
stitutional majority o f two-thirds, because in the office o f judge o f the su­
preme court he had at one time interfered with the prerogatives o f coun­
sel; at another had dwelt, in a charge to a grand jury, on the political
aspect o f the state. His merits, his character, his history, served rather
to add force to the censure which was pronounced on his errors, than to
mitigate it ; and by his impeachment and trial the rare spectacle was
afforded,— a spectacle which it would be well for this country i f it had
been studied and repeated,— o f that equal distribution o f justice, which
exonerates neither the great from his exaltation, nor the mean from his
insignificance.
Mr. Hopkinson’s success at the bar was as complete as it was rapid.
Appearing at one o f those singular junctures which mark, like the trough
between waves, the interval between the generation just past, and the
generation just following, his talents, which under any circumstances
would have commanded attention and support, arose at once to a promi­
nence which was as just to themselves as it was natural from the bold
relief into which they were thrown. Had Mr. Hopkinson’s name been
connected with commercial law alone, he would have deserved a full and
complete notice in these pages. Arising at a time when the bounda­

* In a letter written to his daughter a few days after, Mr. Burr says, “ There was
nothing written or prepared, except that it was in my mind to say something. It was
the solemnity, the anxiety, the expectation, and the interest which I saw strongly paint­
ed in the countenances o f the auditors, that inspired what I said. I neither shed tears
nor assumed tenderness, but tears did flow abundantly. I am told that some o f the pa­
pers lately make qualified compliments ; thus for instance, referring to Judge Chase’s
trial, ‘ He conducted with the dignity and impartiality o f an angel, but the rigor of a
devil.’ ” — Burr’s Life, II. 360.




L ife o f the H on. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

403

ries o f that great science were as yet, in this hemisphere, unsurveyed ;
entering into practice at a period when our commerce, with the force o f a
torrent which had burst the chains which its mountain home had thrown
over it, poured forward in all points o f the horizon, forcing itself into new
and uncaleulated combinations, perforating every nook o f the sphere that
lay before it, and calling for rules far different from those which in an
earlier period o f history were applicable ;— coming into active life at an
era so critical, so important, his whole energies became for a time devoted
to the great task o f defining the limits and describing the course o f the
stream which had been just called into action. O f his labors— o f the la­
bors o f the great men who stood by him in the work o f reducing to system
and harmony the commercial spirit o f the age— but few records have been
left. The triumphs o f a law yer are confined to a narrow sphere, and no
matter how splendid may be his achievements, how completely he may
eradicate from the husk o f mistake and error the germinal truth that lies
underneath it, or how signally he may compose strifes which for genera­
tions had rent asunder families and clans, or how conclusively he may
determine those great points o f constitutional law whose very doubtfulness
create disunion— there is no arch erected to mark the progress o f his arms,
and no obelisk to show the spot where his victory was consummated. Tile
individuality o f the principle which he has settled becomes lost among the
precedents which surround i t ; and he himself, unless he should be caught
up and canonized by the politician, results back into that countless com­
pany o f great men, who in the infancy o f the world laid the foundation o f
those ancient edifices o f science and o f knowledge under whose shade their
latest descendants will be sheltered.
It w as Mr. Hopkinson’s lot to be transferred into the political arena
before his career at the bar was h alf finished. Identified with the fede­
ralists as one o f the most able and most consistent in their ranks, their first
act, when it was ascertained they had again obtained a majority in the
district o f Philadelphia, was to place him at the head o f their congressional
nomination. W ith a vote which, from its increase over the average o f
his ticket, did honor to his character with those among whom he had lived,
on the second Tuesday in October, 1814, he was elected a representative
to the fourteenth Congress. V ery different was the scene that presented
itself on his entrance into the capitol as one o f the component members o f
the second branch o f the legislature itself, from that into which he entered
when, ten years before, he had appeared as counsel for Judge Chase be­
fore the first branch in its judicial capacity. Mr. Jefferson had fallen
back into that retirement which, no matter how different might have been
the opinion entertained o f his official capacity, sat round him with such
incontestable g ra ce ; and in the seats o f Congress were gathered men o f
another school from those who had assisted in the counsels o f the three
first presidents. With the ten-league boots o f the giant, the thirteen dis­
jointed colonies had stepped forward in harmony and strength; and in
twenty years from the period when Washington had taken office, to preside
over a doubtful and dangerous experiment, the nation had now a name
among the people o f the earth, o f weight and o f distinction. Parties
had arisen and striven; the ranks which once had marched up together
to a desperate revolutionary conflict, had fallen into internal subdivisions
as decidedly marked out in their features as the one great company
which once they had com posed; three administrations, each present­




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L ife o f the H on. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

ing features antagonistical to that which had followed and that which
preceded it, had occupied in turn the seat o f government ; there had been
peace o f a period sufficiently protracted to allow for the nurture o f every
agent which personal ambition or party zeal could create ; there had been
war, first under the great struggle which led to the emancipation o f the
colonies, and secondly, after an interval o f twenty-four years, under a
constitution whose strength to bind a people in the vehemence o f invasion,
or the paroxysm o f defence, had not yet been tried ; and amidst every shock
which exterior or internal convulsions could create, the liberty o f the peo­
ple and the strength o f the government had been unshaken. The warriors
and the statesmen o f the revolution, as a company, had been gathered to
their fathers; and among those in whose hands the ark had fallen—
among those o f whom at that later period it was the lot to enter on that
great heritage to which the energies o f their forerunners had been direct­
ed— there were but few who had shared in the dangers and toils by which
it had been secured. The period o f infancy was past, and though those
peculiar perils which then existed had been survived in safety, a task as
grave and as vital had fallen into the hands o f the guardians by whom the
ripening manhood o f the republic was to be moulded.
N ever since that first memorable Congress whose duty it was to adjust
the then untried machinery o f state, had questions more novel and momen­
tous been crowded together, than those which were presented to the ses­
sion which opened on December 4th, 1815. The war had closed, with the
causes which had induced it. N o longer was Christendom staggering
under the tremendous collision o f the two giant powers o f the old world ;
and by the result o f a single campaign, Berlin decrees had been abrogated,
orders in council withdrawn, and the commerce o f the world once more
open to whomsoever chose to engage in it. The moment the peace o f Paris
was signed, the cause for the war between the United States and Great
Britain was at an end ; and as an armed neutrality was then no longer
required, as each vessel that went to sea was no longer in danger o f being
searched for the discovery o f articles contraband o f war, as the ports o f
Europe were no longer under a reciprocal blockade, the young republic
found itself at an instant loosed from the icy thralls o f a ten years’ em­
bargo, and invited into seas which formerly had been closed by the most
insurmountable barriers. A rapid and extensive trade was at once com­
menced. The southern swamps shone afresh with the golden plumes o f
the rice-plant; the rich flowers o f the tobacco were plaided in rapid luxu­
riance over prairies once deserted ; cotton fields were crowded, after years
o f indolence, with their fleecy burdens; and even in the north, where till
then nothing had been produced except what was necessary for home con­
sumption, the demands o f the foreign market bristled the soil with the
sharp bayonets o f the coarser grains. Like traders who have been sepa­
rated for a season from the mart where their staples can be bartered, the
nations o f the earth, as soon as peace was proclaimed, crowded hastily
together to exchange the hoarded commodities which a ten years’ embargo
had piled together in their warerooms. Prices o f foreign goods fell won­
derfully, for there was no restraint on the free passage o f the high seas.
The manufacturer sent orders for cotton commensurate with the orders he
had himself received for the manufactured goods. The planter found that
articles which once were useless from the surfeit o f their exuberance, be­
came the medium by which he could obtain commodities which had been




L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

405

formerly out o f the sphere o f any but princely fortunes. Had at that mo­
ment the prohibition taritfs been lifted off which had been imposed on the
great commercial nations for purposes connected with a state o f war, each
peasant, each laborer, would have been carried from a state o f compara­
tive indigence, to a position from which, through the multifarious exchange
o f labor, he could have commanded all the necessaries and h alf the luxu­
ries o f the civilized world.
But while it became necessary for Congress to take into consideration
the removal o f those severe restrictions which for years had manacled the
limbs and corroded the flesh o f the country, a new interest had come into
play, which, from its wealth and its power, attracted equal attention. Cut
off through the embargo from trade with the great producing nations o f the
old world, the people had been obliged to provide for their immediate sup­
port the most remote articles o f consumption. Foreign trade had been
half extinguished ; the market for the great American staples had almost
ceased ; the manufactures o f France and Great Britain had been stopped
at their national ports; and a quarantine had been dropped on the ocean,
which prevented all authorized communication with the infected re­
gions. W hat the most discriminative tariff would have failed to effect,
was produced by the paralysis o f embargo. Each disjointed nation, like
the sundered fragment o f a centipede, commenced from the moment o f
its severance to organize in an inferior extent within its individual boun­
daries the same complete organic structure which in a grander degree
had run through the frame-work o f the system when still disunited. A
work o f labor took place from the plantation, or the farm, to the manufac­
tory, because the foreign market for corn and cotton was at an end, and
the foreign supply o f manufactures expired by the same limitation. The
agricultural classes could once have exchanged their superfluous products
with the cutlery o f Sheffield, or the cloths o f Manchester; but as soon as
the embargo fell, no more wheat or cotton was required than was neces­
sary for home consumption, and the discharged laborers were forced to
leave the field where their exertions had once been confined, and supply
in the workshop or the factory the hasty deficiency which the check on
importation had created. Manufactures were carried at a touch from the
sterile soil o f foreign competition, to the rich hot-bed o f embargo. The
shuttle and the loom entered upon their noisy oscillations on fields where
once nothing had been known but the quiet, uniform growth o f the indige­
nous grains o f the north ; the old cumbrous vehicles o f machinery which
had been sufficient for all requisite purposes, in the former phases o f the
nation, gave w ay to the sleek and nimble shafts o f the steam-epgine; and
the floating, exterior population, the men who, without a strong attach­
ment to any branch o f industry, are willing to seize on that temporarily
most profitable, deserted in a trice the weather-beaten ranks o f the agri­
culturists, and took their place in the liveried phalanx o f the factory.
Such was the state in which peace found the coun try; and no matter
how questionable was the policy o f fostering to unnatural luxuriance
manufactures which would alw ays be underbid abroad, it was clear that
to lift up at once the damper o f prohibition would be ruinous. One half
the capital o f the country was involved in the manufacture o f articles
which would be driven from the market by foreign competition ; and though
it was maintained, in the first place, that by the continuance o f the restric­
tions on foreign staples, the consuming classes were obliged to pay in an




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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . _D.

increased degree for whatever was gained by the manufacturers; that the
protected interests themselves, in the second place, were subjected to vio­
lent and ruinous fluctuations ; that the course o f commerce, in the third
place, was checked so far, that the demand from abroad for our own pro­
ductions ceased when the foreign trade was prohibited ; and that, fourthly,
the countries whose productions were thus excluded from our market re­
taliated by excluding ours from their o w n : it was admitted that for the
present an immediate removal o f the protective duties would lead to con­
sequences both disastrous and unnecessary. It would be easy to prepare
the shock and weaken the blow by a gradual descending tariff. It would
have been unjust to have thrown the manufacturers out o f the window,
but it was fair to take them slowly down stairs; and it was on the ground
o f a gradual and methodical reduction from the embargo to a system of
future equal ad valorem duties, that the tariff o f 1816 was carried
through.
W ith all the members from Pennsylvania but two, with the great mass
o f the representation from the northern and middle states, with the whole
South Carolina delegation but one, and with nearly one h alf that o f Vir­
ginia, Mr. Hopkinson formed part o f the majority o f eighty-eight to fiftyfour, which, on April 27, 1816, insured the passage o f the tariff bill.
That he spoke on the occasion more than incidentally, cannot be discov­
ered by the meager reports which the newspapers o f the day afforded.
W ith a subject o f equal, perhaps greater interest, his attention had been
occupied since the opening o f the session : and as a leading member o f the
committee on a uniform national currency, o f which Mr. Calhoun was
chairman, it became his duty to assist in the task o f restoring to the coun­
try, as far as governmental action could restore it, the blessing o f a sound
and equal circulation. On January 8, 1816, Mr. Calhoun, after consulta­
tion with Mr. Dallas, then secretary o f the treasury, reported with the con­
sent o f a majority o f his colleagues,— o f all, it is believed, with the excep­
tion o f Mr. Macon, who acted but for a short time on the committee, and
Mr. Hopkinson,— the bill to incorporate the subscribers to the Bank o f the
United States.
Had the statesmen who presided at the construction o f the late Bank
o f the United States been able to see the melancholy fate which
was to meet that ill-omened institution,— to see its portals crumble
before one generation passed through them, its dome fall in ponderous
ruin upon the thousands who had taken shelter within its shades, its cap­
ital squandered, its name dishonored, its governors disgraced,— had they
been able to see that a few years later, like the Mississippi scheme
and the South sea bubble, it would be ranked among those colossal en­
gines o f fraud which were framed by the cunning o f the few, and fed by
the credulity o f the many,— they would have dropped in haste the stone
with which the edifice was to have been commenced, and rather would
they have left to others the seats they then held, than that through their
agency a disaster so terrible should be fastened on the republic. But few
there were, who in a natal day so splendid as that which ushered in the
Bank o f the United States, were able to press home the reflection that
where no man was responsible, no man could be secure. By the advice
o f a president who once had pronounced it unconstitutional, by the agen­
c y o f a cabinet most o f whom had bitterly opposed it, by the exertions
o f statesmen to whose principles it had stood in diametrical opposition, it




L ife o f the H on. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

407

had been chartered on the ground that so signal would be the remedy it
afforded, it would be unjust and unpatriotic to admit into computation the
items o f individual principle or o f party consistency. The sacrifice was
m ade; and thirty years afterwards the lesson was taught, that in those
great primary rules which have been laid for the governance o f the mo­
ral universe,— in the deduction o f the theorist, no matter how refined, or
the calculations o f the economist, no matter how subtle,— more truth is
to be found by far than in the dictates o f temporary convenience, or in the
promptings o f local interest.
In that great debate which preceded in the house the passage o f the
bill, Mr. Hopkinson took a leading part. Standing on the committee
which reported the charter next to Mr. Calhoun, he became in some
measure the leader o f the opposition; and though every personal influence
which could be enlisted was brought to bear against him,— though it was
pressed on him that as the site o f the bank was in Philadelphia it would
greatly benefit Pennsylvanian commerce, and that as unconstitutionality
was not the objection in his mind, he would be insulting his constituents
should he oppose the bill,— he continued resolute in his opposition from
first to last, never flinching in his post, and both in committee and in the
House maintaining that the charter proposed a hazardous innovation on the
laws o f property, and an unjust interference with the workings o f trade.
“ He was sorry,” he said, in a hastily reported argument on the cutting
down o f the capital, “ to find the plan now proposed so different from that
simple character he approved, as to determine him not to give it even his
feeble support. H e cautioned the House not to be too hasty in acting
upon the present su bject; to weigh it w ell, and coolly to consider it. W e
all feel the present evil, said h e ; and a state o f suffering is not favorable
to deliberation. The late war had been a tremendous shock to all the
institutions o f the country, which had suffered in all its interests, and in
none more than in its financial concerns. Could it, he asked, have been
reasonably expected, as had been suggested, that on the return o f peace
the evil in this respect would have been immediately remedied? No,
he said; great evils require a slow remedy. In this young nation, with
its vast resources and solid wealth, the remedies would come o f themselves,
in a great degree, i f we have patience to wait f o r them : at least, he said,
let us not by our rashness destroy all hope o f remedying the evil.”
It appears to have been customary for the reporters o f those days to
select for presentation such passages only as could be reduced within a
small and manageable compass. At the close o f the extract just given,
it is stated “ that after some general remarks o f this character, Mr. H.
then proceeded to discuss the question immediately before the House.”
The motion pending was on the proposed reduction o f the capital, and
according to the reporter, Mr. Hopkinson continued : “ He was not one
o f those who advocated a bank beyond the principle o f its being a means
o f aiding the government in its fiscal administration. He advocated not
such an institution as an engine o f government; in that shape, he said,
they should (would) get beyond the power o f Congress to establish a
bank. He, therefore, argued, that the government ought to have no con­
cern in the stock o f this bank ; nor, beyond what the value o f its custom
or business gave it, ought the government to have any control over the
bank. There might be occasions when and where, and reasons why, a
government should put stock into a bank ; but as an engine o f power and




408

L ife o f the H on. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

profit, the government ought to have nothing to do with it. There was
great danger, he then argued, in establishing an institution o f this kind,—•
no such engine could be created, much less o f this enormous magnitude,
without danger— as the most beneficial agents, ill applied, become dan­
gerous and destructive.” * The vote on the proposed reduction was 49 to
74 ; and on March 14, 1816, Mr. Hopkinson’ s name was recorded in the
minority, (71 to 80,) on the final passage o f the bill.
V ery slight are the records which remain o f Mr. Hopkinson’s speeches
in the House o f Representatives. Standing, wherever he was, in the first
rank, from his talents, his character, his history,— ready to enter with the
natural enthusiasm o f his temperament into any labor, no matter how fa­
tiguing, into any exertion, no matter how severe, he was both a working
man and a thinking man, and by the energy o f his co-operation as well as
by the wisdom o f his counsel, assisted in those great works o f legislation
which were achieved during his short congressional career. Even in his
latter days, when the chances and changes o f seventy years had wearied
his frame and rough-cast his spirit with the crust which the efflux of
time leaves behind it, no one could look upon him, whether on the bench,
or in the lecture-room, or at his own hearth, without feeling that the wise
and earnest eloquence which in manhood had marked him, had not abated
with his old age. He entered into public life at a period most critical,—
into a House which o f all others was the richest in political ability,— and
yet even there, when in the speaker’s chair sat Mr. Clay, in the meridian
o f his parliamentary glory, and by his side were Mr. Lowndes, Mr. Ser­
geant, Mr. Randolph and Mr. Gaston, Mr. W ebster and Mr. Calhoun,—
he arose in a single session to a level which none had reached except
those remarkable men whose elevation had been the result o f the concen­
trated labors o f a lifetime. W ith him, political distinction had been the
object rather o f temporary impulse, than o f permanent ambition. The
goal had been sought and won, the fleetingness o f the prize had been
proved and felt, and at the close o f the fifteenth Congress, Mr. Hopkinson
left the House o f Representatives to seek that repose in the quiet o f his
country home, which had been denied him in the bustle o f the capitol.
On the 20th o f October, 1828, Mr. Hopkinson, after eight years o f re­
tirement from public life, was commissioned by the President o f the Uni­
ted States as Judge o f the District Court for the eastern district o f Penn­
sylvania. O f his discharge o f the duties o f that high and responsible
station, it is not for us to speak. Fearless under circumstances in which
other men might have wavered ; f resolute and unflinching in the execu­
tion o f his official duties; living in an atmosphere to which the breath of
corruption could not m ount; no one could enter the court-room where he
presided without being struck with what singular sweetness he mingled

* National Intelligencer, report o f Feb. 28, 1816.
t “ The last instance I shall refer to in this course o f the argument,” said Mr. C. J.
Ingersoll, in the Pennsylvania Convention, “ is that o f the learned and venerable Judge
(Mr. Hopkinson) himself, who, I hope he will excuse my assertion, was never a better,
bolder, or more independent judge, than during the considerable period that elapsed be­
tween his nomination and confirmation ; when his tenure was by sufferance o f an antag­
onist party, just coming into power, with no very great forbearance to political oppo­
nents.”




L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . I).

409

the kindness o f his disposition with the severe dignity o f his office. “ The
highest call was made upon you,” said Judge Baldwin to him in the ded­
ication o f his Reports, “ to bring into active requisition all the powers o f
your acute, discriminating mind, your cogent reasoning and sound judg­
ment, as well as the large fund o f legal information, acquired by a long
and active course o f professional experience, in the development and ap­
plication o f the great principle o f federal and state jurisprudence.”
How
ably, how honestly, the call was answered, the labors o f Judge Hopkinson
during fourteen years o f judicial service, fully exhibit. In the words
applied by him, at the commencement o f his judicial career, to Judge
Washington, his great colleague and predecessor, which apply, now that
the speaker himself has finished his earthly course, so truly to both, to the
master as well as the scholar,— He was wise as well as learned; saga­
cious and searching in the pursuit and discovery o f truth, and faithful to
it beyond the touch o f corruption, or the diffidence o f fear. He was cau­
tious, considerate, and slow in forming a judgm ent; and steady, but not
obstinate in his adherence to it. N o man was more willing to listen to an
argument against his opinion; to receive it with more candor; or to yield
to it with more manliness, i f it convinced him o f an error. He was too
honest, and too proud to surrender himself to the undue influence o f any
man, the menaces o f any power, or the seductions o f any interests ; but
he was as tractable as humility to the force o f truth, as obedient as filial
duty to the voice o f reason. W hen he gave up an opinion, he did it not
grudgingly, or with reluctant qualifications and saving explanations; it
was abandoned at once, and he rejoiced more than any one at his escape
from it. It is only a mind conscious o f its strength, and governed by the
highest principles o f integrity, that can make such sacrifices, not only
without any feeling o f humiliation, but with unaffected satisfaction.
Once more, in the convention'which met at Harrisburg on May 2, 1837,
for the amendment o f the Pennsylvania constitution, did Mr. Hopkinson
remove from the quiet o f his official duties, to the more superficial labors
of political life. Elected with his immediate colleagues by a great ma­
jority from the city o f Philadelphia, his talents, his character, his vener­
able age, threw him at once into a position both lofty and commanding.
As chairman o f the judiciary committee, he was to bear the brunt o f the
greatest question submitted to the convention. A judge himself, though
utterly disconnected with the judicial tenure as created by the laws o f
Pennsylvania,— holding his commission under the constitution o f the Uni­
ted States, and bringing into play that mature individual experience with
which so long a judicial life had invested him,— versed in the details o f
law, and in the principles o f justice by a long and successful practice,—
imbued from his position, from his history, from his tastes, with that pure
and equal atmosphere in which lived and breathed the great judges o f the
land before whom once he had pleaded,— he collected in his own person,
not only the experience most fitted for the management o f a question so
grave and important, but the wisdom best calculated to decide it. It was
for the struggle which the charge which was intrusted to him would
excite, that he had reserved his strength. T o crop the luxuriance o f
legislative power was not the tendency o f the age, to rob the executive
o f his prerogatives had not been proposed by the politician; but on the
judiciary, from its defencelessness the most susceptible o f attack, from its
VOL. V II. — n o . v.
35




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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

remoteness, the most liable to odium, the force o f the battle was thrown.
Since the constitution o f 1789 the judiciary were appointed during good
behavior, and though the question o f tenure had not been mooted openly
before the people, though in the election o f members o f the convention the
point had not been held permanently in view, it was found, when the meeting
took place, that the delegates from the west, with but few exceptions, with
many o f the delegates from the more populous counties on the east o f the
mountains, felt themselves pledged by their action at primary meetings of
their constituents, to vote for the abridgment o f the judicial term o f office.
The cord o f party discipline, which on inferior questions had bound the
convention so tightly, was dissolved by the approach o f a principle so
grand as that which the tenure o f the judiciary involved. Mr. Sergeant,
the president o f the convention, was found in the front ranks o f the mi­
nority with his competitor for the chair, Mr. Porter, a decided political
opponent; and in the majority,— among those who were determined at all
hazards to bring down the estate o f the judicial office from life to a term
o f years,— were collected not only the mass o f one party, but the extremes
o f the other. On Judge Hopkinson, as chairman o f the judiciary com­
mittee, fell not only the defence o f the old constitution, but the management
o f the contest, and in a great measure was it owing to his untiring energy,
to his admirable talents, to his consummate prudence, that a large num­
ber were drawn from the ranks o f the reformers, and that a compromise
was effected which carried the essence o f the principles contended for on
the one side, with the aspect o f those which were espoused on the other.
On the 27th o f October, 1837, the majority o f the judiciary committee,
Mr. Hopkinson at their head, reported the article o f the old constitution
on the subject o f the judiciary without amendment in its chief features.
The life tenure o f the judges o f the supreme and inferior courts was
preserved, and though it was well known that a majority o f the conven­
tion considered itself pledged to cut down the office to a term o f years,
the committee itself, a majority o f it being o f a contrary opinion, deter­
mined to present the question in its full force by a report which recom­
mended an adherence in full to the old constitution. As chairman, it be­
came Mr. Hopkinson’s duty to open the subject before the convention. In
a speech which occupied the greater part o f two days, which exhausted
the principal topics brought forward, with a completeness rarely witnessed
in a space so limited, and on a subject so large, he exhibited, with an
ability which animates even the meager skeleton which the reporter has
preserved, the true grounds on which the independence o f the judiciary
must rest. Those who stood by him at the time, can never forget the
power, the splendid pathos o f the appeal with which he opened the discus­
sion. T o stand forth from the shackles o f party, to toss aside the chains
which had been imposed on the free action of the representative, to act
firmly on their own unbiassed determination, was the requisition which
with an authority well belonging to his age and services, he pressed upon
the men who crowded around his sea t; and unless, perhaps, some one o f
those eminent judges who had preserved the integrity o f Pennsylvania
during the alternate shocks o f tyranny and rebellion, had risen from his
grave to tell the generation which followed, o f the grandeur o f the
principle they were about to decide, there could have been no testimony
adduced o f such solemn weight as that which he presented. After dwell­




L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

411

ing for a few moments on the operation o f the proposed amendment on the
functions o f justices o f the peace, he turned to the consideration o f the
point which lay at the root o f the question. Having shown that the life
tenure o f the English judges had been established as one o f the most mo­
mentous concessions from royalty that the great revolution had procured ;
that as long as the office remained under the command o f government,
judges were removed whenever justice was to be violated; that till the
office was made permanent, the liberty and property o f the citizens were
not secure, he proceeded :
“ W e see that these ‘ life-officers,’ as they are reproachfully called, are
not an aristocratical invention, as has been asserted. I f they are odious
to the people, and so we have been assured, it must have been for some
other reason ; there must have been some other means. Th ey are strictly
and truly, historically and practically, founded on a democratic, popular
principle. Their object and effect is, to secure to the people a fearless
and impartial administration o f the laws ; to protect the property and per­
son o f every citizen, from the power, usurpation, caprice, and oppression
o f every department o f the government, o f the legislature as well as o f the
executive— from the hostility and cupidity o f every other citizen who, from
his wealth, his connections, his popularity, or his party influence, may
have the power to injure him ; and finally, in relation to the government
itself, to keep each constitutional power and authority in its right place,
directing and preserving a proper, safe, and uniform action in the whole.
You have granted to your legislature certain, but not unlimited powers,—
they are guarded by wholesome restrictions ; so to your executive: but
all these guards and restrictions are vain and useless, a mere mockery or
delusion, unless you have a third power, independent o f both the others, to
hold them within their prescribed limits. Without this, your legislature
would be as omnipotent as a British Parliament, your governor as un­
shackled as a king. W ill you answer that the check will be found in the
people, at their elections? . This is a plausible and flattering thing, but
what is it in practice ? What is that remedy worth to the injured, op­
pressed, and ruined individual, smitten by the lawless hand o f power ?
Alas ! it will come too la te; it may recognise and condemn the wrong,
but it cannot save the victim s; it may punish the offender, but cannot re­
call the violence, or obliterate its consequences. The people can act up­
on one branch o f the legislature but once a year ; upon the other but once
in four years, and upon the governor but once in three years. W hat
enormities may be perpetrated in these periods! Your constitution may
be violated, your citizens oppressed, all the fancied securities o f your fun­
damental laws, o f your constitutional restraints, broken down by unautho­
rized acts o f legislation; for the legislature is the most irresponsible, en­
croaching, ambitious branch o f your government. The elections give no
protection against these wrongs— no redress for them. Y ou must have a
power to prevent the mischief.\ to arrest it on its first movement, and to undo
what has been wrongfully done. This practical, efficient, conservative
power, can be found only in an independent judiciary ; for this it was
created. The constitution is its pedestal ; it here takes its stand : to the
people on one side, it says, respect and obey your constituted authorities,
your laws, your appointed agents ; submit to the authority which comes
from yourselves, to the powers you have created for your own benefit.
T o these authorities it says, look to your commissions— to the great char­




412

L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopldnson, L L . D .

ter, under and by which you hold your offices; mark and observe the
limits that are traced round y ou .” *
W e do not pretend to analyze the reasoning or to do justice to the elo­
quence o f a speech which, both in argument and in rhetoric, must strike
the observer with attention even in the rude garb which a hasty report
has thrown around it. Not content with exhibiting the utility o f the
structure before him, and displaying the grounds on which it was planted,
he drew from the stores o f his memory the history, not only o f its erection
in the state in which he stood, but o f the formation in other countries o f
those edifices on whose model it was built. The principle on which he
started was, the absolute independence o f the judiciary o f every earthly
influence; and though, together with the remainder o f those who assumed
the same ground, he was forced at a subsequent stage to enter into a com­
promise with the more moderate o f the reformers, he resolutely maintained
to the close the doctrines he held so essential to the freedom and safety o f
the people. It was found on the meeting o f the convention, that there was
a decided majority in favor o f a tenure by term o f years, and as the friends
o f the old constitution soon discovered that by themselves they would be
in an inefficient minority, they adopted the highest scale proposed by the
opposite side o f the house, and with the aid o f a few o f the reformers, estab­
lished, by a vote o f 60 to 48, an amendment which fixed the tenure o f the
judges o f the supreme court at fifteen years, and that o f all other judges
required to be learned in the law, at ten.
T o enter into a full examination o f Judge Hopkinson’ s course in the
convention, would be foreign to our purpose. Going there disconnected
with any one party, feeling that his own judgment was his only master,
instinct with so great a consciousness o f the truth o f the principles he
espoused, that he felt no means to be too laborious, no exertions too engross­
ing, which would be calculated to advance in the minds o f others the
doctrines he himself received as right, he fell, as well from his own great
merit as from the withdrawal o f all competitors, into the front rank o f the
contest. Old yet not weary, conscious o f the accumulated wisdom o f
fifty years public service, yet not exhausted or disgusted with the sphere
which he had surveyed in its valleys as well as in its mountains, there
was not a point o f moment to w hich the deliberations o f the assembly wrere
directed, in which his counsel was not sought for as the verdict o f a man
who carried on his head the crown with which three generations had
invested it. That same great confidence in the virtue o f republican in­
stitutions which had nerved him at the first, nerved him to the end. Not
tightening his heart-strings as he grew older, not distrusting each new
generation that rose up like a mist in the landscape, because in its indis­
tinctness it wanted the durability, the density, or the strength which he
had supposed to belong to his own, he was never willing to despair in
times o f greatest despondency, and always, no matter what might be the
temptations o f party or the bias o f prejudice, carried on the conflict with
that same full concession o f the honest republicanism o f his antagonist’s
opinions, which he had always claimed for his own. Those who recollect
the noble simplicity o f his private life, his undeviating purity o f morals,
his equal and open bearing, his plain and generous hospitality ; those who
* Speech on the Judiciary question.

28G, 87.




Debates o f the Pennsylvania Convention, iv.

L ife o f the H on. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

413

recollect how honestly, when even in the most unrestricted conversation,
he sustained the opinions which he had maintained in youth, in manhood,
in old age, can bear testimony most fully to the utter candor and sim­
plicity o f his character. Ardent and consistent in his public life, yet
without a political en em y ; thoroughly imbued with the spirit o f the
party to which in its lifetime he had belonged, yet still never forgetting
that its great boast was, that it displayed the principles o f the constitution
and no others, he exhibited the rare spectacle o f being presented to the
Senate for the same high judicial station by two successive presidents o f
the United States, o f the most widely divergent politics. “ I am,” he said
once in the Pennsylvania convention, when in the course o f debate the
old federal doctrines were dragged on the floor, “ I am, and always have
been, one o f this persecuted, despised party. There are, it is true, but
few o f us left, but we may claim to be sincere at least, for we have had a
long and severe trial, when, perhaps, we might have been taken into favor
by abandoning our principles. I began with the administration o f W ash­
ington ; I was and am a federalist o f that day and school. I have never
changed, because as yet I have seen nothing better.” * It was during the
administration o f Washington that his principles were first called into
action ; and from the grand and splendid model that was then placed be­
fore him, he drew the rules which governed him in the long career which
followed. It was there that the fountain o f his principles was placed;
and to the doctrines which were then laid down, on the ample, sturdy, and
permanent platform o f republicanism on which the first president had
planted himself, he rested his full and unswerving faith. “ You have
seen the attempts o f the painter and sculptor to represent his i m a g e —
we are tempted to introduce from the speech just quoted another passage,
whose length we know will be excused by its characteristic beauty: “ You
have read o f his achievements, his virtues, his actions, his greatness, on
the pages o f history, and in oft-repeated eulogies o f prose and v erse; but
I tell you in the sobriety o f truth, that none can have a full conception o f
that wonderful man who has not beheld him as he was. I have seen him
standing before the assembled representatives o f these United States. I
have heard him make his communications to them with that calm and
quiet dignity, that power o f virtue and truth, which were peculiarly his
own. * * I would not exchange my personal knowledge, my bright
and proud recollections o f Washington, and the great men o f his time,
honored and trusted by him, for the youth and all the growing prospects
and anticipations o f the youngest politician in this body. The anticipa­
tions o f a politician! W hat are they ? Delusions, disappointments, mock­
eries, all. Let those who are now sailing on the swelling sea o f popu­
larity, with flowing canvass and favoring gales, with the desired port in
view, but look at the wrecks and ruins that lie on that perilous coast;
promises broken, friends betrayed, principles abandoned, and the hope lost
for which all these sacrifices were made. I f perchance he reach the shore,
is he safe ? Does he stand on firm ground ? B y no means ; he totters
on a moving sand, and is carried off by the next swell o f the tide that took
him there. I have seen many successions, at short intervals, o f these
men o f the people, these popular leaders, passing from insignificance to
power, and back again from power to insignificance. T h ey were heard
* Debates o f Pennsylvania Convention.— iv. 305.
35*




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L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

o f no more, for the name o f a fallen politician is extinguished. I f it were
proper, I could bring to your recollection names which were omnipotent
over the spirit o f party, who held the wand o f Prospero, to raise or allay
the storm ; who seemed to hold their power so surely, so firmly, that no
time or accident could impair it, after running a brief race, supplanted by
some new favorite, rejected and scorned. Closing their lives in poverty
and neglect, they now lie in forgotten graves. I have known them repent
their folly in bitter lamentations, not unmixed with remorse at the sacri­
fice o f their integrity. There are doubtless some o f you, who now hear
me, who have witnessed, as I have done, the rise and fall o f these favorites
o f the people. Y ou have seen them ascending slowly and painfully, with
incessant labor and trembling anxiety, to the desired em inence; resorting
to all the arts o f low intrigue, and falsely flattering the pride, the folly,
the very vices o f the people. How hollow and hypocritical was this adu­
lation ; how contemptible was the self-degradation! After a short and
precarious possession o f their power, you have seen them falling suddenly
from their high estate, never to rise again.”
It was Judge Hopkinson’s lot, to reach the confines o f life in freedom
from those infirmities which form the most melancholy feature in human­
ity. Those who sat around him on the 7th o f January, 1842, when in
absence o f Judge Baldwin he opened and adjourned the Circuit Court o f the
United States, will recollect, that though then fourteen years had passed
since he had taken his place on that bench, though for fifty years he had
been enrolled among the counsel who surround it, his eye was as keen, his
voice as clear, his bearing as animated, as when he first filled the judge’s
seat under the silver oar which formed the emblem o f admiralty jurisdic­
tion. For the last time, then, he took leave o f the scene, both o f his an­
cient labors, when in days long past he assisted as counsel in the delibe­
rations o f the first United States judges, o f Judge Iredell, o f Judge Chase,
o f Judge Washington,— whose purity, and learning, and fearlessness, so
w ell he had inherited,— and o f his more recent duties, when as judge
himself he had done such full justice to the chair in which he sat, and the
name to which he succeeded. A t eleven o ’clock that morning, he fell
from his seat in the Athenaeum, where he had been for a few minutes;
and when a few hours afterwards he was carried to his .home, those who
pressed round him to catch the last look o f a great and good man, saw that
on his face the shadows o f death had fallen. One week he lingered; and
on the 15th o f January, 1842, died Joseph Hopkinson, scholar, statesman,
judge, with a name on which never calumny had cast a spot, and with a
character for truth, for kindness, for true greatness, both o f mind and spirit,
which never from the memory o f his generation can be eradicated.
It is suitable that the Merchants’ Magazine should be among those who
hear tribute to Judge Hopkinson, for, with the natural generosity o f his
character, he assisted it in its early struggles, with the wisdom o f his ad­
vice and the honor o f his co-operation. Not here alone, but also in every
furrow in that great harvest in which he was called to labor, was he ready
at any moment, no matter what might be the sacrifice, to place his hand
on the sickle, and to bring to those who were in need that aid which the
earnest kindness o f his nature prompted. There are two or three into
whose hands these pages may fall, who saw him once when travelling
far from home, on a bleak October morning, take from his shoulders,
rapidly— almost stealthily— a cloak, which for years he had worn, and




L ife o f the Hon. Joseph Hopkinson, L L . D .

415

throw it on the back o f a clergyman just about leaving the stage, with
whose scanty clothing, the weather, he thought, might deal roughly ; and
to such, the recollection w ill call forward many others which bear wit­
ness to the same spirit o f sweetness and self-neglect which brought to him
the reverent love o f those among whom he had fallen. Never downcast by
misfortune, never approached by fear, never baffled by difficulty, always
hoping under the darkest sky, always moderate under the most glowing,
never did he, in times the most gloomy and dispiriting, fail in that true
allegiance to his country and to his race, which he had been taught in
the first struggles o f the republic. “ It has not been my lot,” we quote
from Mr. W alsh, than whom no one understood him better, or valued him
more, “ it has not been m y lot to know a man o f sounder principles and
sentiments, kindlier dispositions, steadier affections, finer faculties, better
culture. I f I had ever wavered as an American, his keen, comprehen­
sive, uncompromising patriotism, would have fixed me in the true mood.
O f his great abilities and invariable rectitude as a lawyer, political repre­
sentative, and judge, it would be presumptuous in me to speak now and
here. His taste and attainments in literature rivalled his professional
merits. He wrote on morals, letters, and the arts, as excellently as he
spoke on judicial and political topics : his domestic and social life corres­
ponded in every respect to the p u blic; his position and sympathies at home
rendered his constant, liberal hospitality, grateful to the purest feeling.
His accomplished mind, observant o f all the events, characters, and opin­
ions o f the day, was peculiarly qualified to delight, besides instructing, in
convivial intercourse, by a strong relish for refined society, a cheerful
and vivacious spirit, and a peculiar poignancy o f remark and raciness o f
anecdote. Judge Hopkinson, i f adequately traced and exhibited in his spe­
cial qualities and performances, will enlarge on the natural eye, and take,
like his celebrated father, indefeasible rank among the brightest and best
examples o f American biography.” *
* Great as were the services o f Judge Hopkinson as a statesman, as a commercial law­
yer, and as an admiralty judge, so extended a view o f his life and his times as the present,
would fall without the limits o f this Magazine, were it not for the consideration, that as his
co-operation when living was the greatest honor it possessed, it should be foremost in pay­
ing to him, when gone, that tribute to which his memory is entitled. By his “ Lecture on
Commercial Integrity,” {M er. Mag. Vol. I. p. 377,) he laid down, with a boldness as strik­
ing as the ability which accompanied it, the true and just foundation of commercial deal­
ings; by his “ Examination o f the Policy o f Usury Laws,” (Mer. M ag. Vol. II. p. 16,) he
exhibited with the clearness and beauty so eminently his own, the history and bearing of
the great system o f monetary restraints o f which he treated; and by the constant and in­
valuable abstracts of admiralty decisions, both in his own and other courts, with which he
regularly honored us, he contributed in a great measure to the extension among the com­
mercial community o f that mighty science whose form he had assisted to mould. What­
ever belongs to Judge Hopkinson’s memory belongs to the mercantile world also ; and we
feel justified, therefore, in travelling out of the dry and beaten road of our ordinary business,
in following him to his grave with those offerings which belong to a man both wise and
good.—Ed. Merchants* Magazine.




416

Mehemet A li, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

A kt. II.—MEHEMET ALI, AND THE COMMERCE OF EGYPT.
T he ancient Egyptians not only extended their authority over distant
nations, and established advantageous commercial relations with the
neighboring countries; but they entered, occasionally, upon voyages o f
exploration and discovery, which evinced a spirit o f enterprise and intelli­
gence, characteristic o f a civilized and an enlightened people.

Twenty-one centuries before the Cape o f Good Hope was seen by Diaz,
or doubled by Vasco de Gama, N eco II., who was then Pharaoh o f Egypt,
“ studious o f military renown, and the promotion o f commerce, fitted out
a fleet in the Red S e a ; and having engaged some expert Phoenician
pilots and mariners, he sent them on a voyage o f discovery along the
coast o f A frica. T h ey were ordered to start from the Arabian Gulf, and
come round through the Pillars o f Hercules, (now the Straits o f Gibral­
tar,) in the North sea, (the Mediterranean,) and so return to Egypt.
Sailing, therefore, down the gulf, they passed into the Southern Ocean ; and
when autumn arrived, they laid up their ships and sowed the land. Here
they remained till harvest tim e; and having reaped their corn, they con­
tinued on the voyage. In this manner they occupied two years ; and the
third having brought them by the Pillars o f Hercules to Egypt, they re­
lated that they had seen the sun on their right hand; and by these means
was the form o f A frica first known.” *
W ere history to receive implicit credence, there can be little doubt that
the Egyptians held a direct communication with India at an early period.
W e are assured') that the Pharaonic arms were successfully borne even
to the heart o f India ; and that the conquests o f Sesostris in the Orient,
were far more extensive than those o f Alexander. This account is cor­
roborated in some degree by the various commodities contributed by the
conquered nations to the public treasury o f Egypt, which were annually
recorded at Thebes, and indicate, by their quality, the countries from
whence they were derived.
I f the domination o f the early Pharaohs o f Egypt extended into India, it
is by no means improbable that commercial relations were established
between the two countries ; and that a direct and lucrative trade followed
in the track o f conquest. Though Wilkinson says : “ Whether they had
a direct communication with India at the same early period, or were sup­
plied through Arabia with the merchandise o f that country, it is not pos­
sible now to determine ; but even an indirect trade was capable o f open­
ing to them a source o f immense wealth ; and that productions o f India
did actually reach Egypt, we have positive testimony from the tombs o f
Thebes.” :)
Whatever may have been the commercial relations between Egypt and
India previously to the subjugation o f the Egyptians by Cambyses, it is
pretty evident that the Persians monopolized the most lucrative part o f the
trade with the East thereafter, until the Macedonian conqueror levelled
the walls o f Tyre, overran Syria and Egypt, and founded the city of
Alexandria.
Having shivered the despotic sceptre o f the king o f Persia, and com­
* Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, i. 58.
t Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, i. 226.




t Diodorus,

Mehemet A ll, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

417

pleted his mighty conquests in the East, Alexander diverted the trade o f
India from its long habituated track through the Euphrates and the cities
o f Palmyra, Damascus and Tyre, and turned the golden tide to a more
natural channel, through the valley o f the Nile. There, with an in­
creasing volume, it continued to flow during the successive reigns o f the
Ptolemies and Caesars ; augmenting the wealth o f Egypt, until Alexan­
dria became, in point o f riches, art, learning, and luxury, the second city
o f the world.
“ The principal articles o f oriental traffic,” says Gibbon, “ were splen­
did and trifling; silk, (a pound o f which was esteemed not inferior, in
value, to a pound o f gold,) precious stones, and a variety o f aromatics.”
Egypt, long after its conquest by the Saracens, continued to enjoy a
large share o f the India trade. But, with the gradual declension and
final overthrow o f that nation, which glittered with the brilliancy o f an
eastern star during the ages o f darkness that overshadowed the kingdoms
and principalities o f Europe, the commerce o f India was conducted
through a more circuitous chann el; and, finally, passing around the Cape
of Good Hope, the greater proportion o f it fell, at last, into the hands o f
the English.
The lucrative and seductive trade o f India has ever been an alluring
prize, impetuously contested for by the most enterprising and powerful
nations o f every age. And, as many o f them, one after the other, have
fallen through the corrupting influences o f political intrigue and wealth, it
is impossible, perhaps, at this distance o f time, to determine how far this
golden stream, which has vastly enriched and greatly corrupted every coun­
try through which it has flown, may have contributed to their destruction.
What this brilliant traffic is destined to become eventually, under the do­
mination o f Great Britain, which has already been far more enriched by
it than any other nation; or how long the tottering throne o f that king­
dom will be enabled to withstand the accumulating weight o f wealth,
arising from this trade, and other sources, which is cankering with deadly
poison the morals o f many o f her subjects o f high birth and station, it ia
quite impossible to predict. But while the desolating arm o f British
power sweeps relentless over the Indian isles, with an energy and a heart­
lessness that threatens to bow the ancient empires o f the East before its
avaricious sway, it is to be hoped that good may come o f e v il; and that
civilization, intelligence, and the blessings o f Christianity may succeed the
war-stained tread o f a proud and grasping nation.
In the prosperous and palmy days o f Egypt, when “ twenty thousand
well inhabited cities ” were comprised in the vale o f the Nile, she was
not only celebrated for her abundance o f corn and other agricultural pro­
ducts, but she was rich in flourishing manufactories. Egypt was then,
in every sense, a great producing coun try; and sought, at that period as
now, a foreign market for her redundant products. Her arms having
extended her influence and authority over most o f the then known world,*
not only brought immense wealth to the public treasury, in the form o f
contributions from the vanquished nations, but her commercial intercourse
with foreigners, who purchased her corn and manufactures during the
judicious administration o f her native princes, “ increased the riches o f

* Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, i. 83— 163.




Meliemet A li, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

418

the country, and greatly augmented the revenue o f that period.” * That
she supplied Syria and other neighboring countries with corn to a consider,
able extent, is evident from Scripture.f Indeed, the physical structure
o f the circumjacent countries declare, at the present day, the necessity
that must have ever existed in those countries, while densely populated,
for resorting to the fruitful valley o f Egypt for the great proportion o f their
corn. For, while a large part o f Greece consists o f little else than bro­
ken mountains o f rock and sterile vales, unsuited to the growth o f corn,
Asia Minor is better adapted to the culture o f the vine and fruits, than
w heat; and the swelling hills and winding glens o f Syria, though afford­
ing a luxurious'pasturage for flocks and herds, are comparatively worth­
less for the production o f bread-stuffs ; and nearly the whole o f Arabia
and Libya, together with the country stretching down between Syria and
Egypt, are desert wastes o f sand.
These countries were also partially, or wholly, supplied with Egyp­
tian manufactures. Solomon, it seems, entered pretty deeply into the
yarn:): trade o f E g y p t; and, very likely, during his reign, the sale of
linen yarn in Judea was a royal monopoly. He also had his chariots and
horses^ o f the Egyptians; as did also the kings o f the Hittites and all
the kings o f Syria.
The trade o f the Egyptians with the Phoenicians must have been to a
considerable extent. The Tyrians bought o f them their fine linen and
embroidery ;|| and, doubtless, most o f their corn.
An early and friendly intercourse was established between the Greeks
and Egyptians, which subsisted down to the time o f Alexander’s invasion
o f their country. Consequently they received the victorious Greeks with
much kindness. They hailed them as their deliverers from the tyranny
o f their odious Persian rulers, who had violated their gods, desecrated and
despoiled their temples, and enslaved the people. It was probably this
friendly feeling, mutually felt and expressed, which inspired the confi­
dence o f Alexander in the good faith o f the Egyptians ; and induced him,
at once, to enter upon gigantic schemes for the improvement o f their coun­
try. So mild was the reign o f the immediate successors o f Alexander,
that the Egyptians almost ceased to regret the time when they were gov­
erned by their native princes. The gods o f Egypt were resuscitated, and
the shattered temples were restored with pristine beauty. The arts were
encouraged ; manufactures and commerce flourished ; and many o f the
spoils o f Egypt, abstracted by Cambyses, were returned. The canals and
other public works received the vigilant care o f governm ent; new and
important towns sprung up on the borders o f the Red Sea to facilitate the
trade with India. Alexandria, with a mixed population o f Egyptians
and Greeks, at once became the royal residence ; the seat o f learning
and the arts; and, at length, the most commercial city in the world.
Such was the prosperous and happy condition o f the Egyptians under
the lenient and paternal reign o f some portion o f the Ptolemaic dynasty.
But it was, nevertheless, a remove from that elevation, in the scale o f
nations, enjoyed by their ancestors. Ever after the Persian conquest,
their course was downward. The hand o f tyranny and oppression,

* Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, i. 225.
t 2 Chron. i. 16, 17.
§ Ibid.




t Gen. xli. 57.
11 Ezek. xxxvii. 7.

Mehemet A li, and the Commerce o f E gypt.

419

though varied at different epochs, in form and tensity, ceased not its pres­
sure upon this ill-fated country. The public works gradually went to
decay. Thebes, Memphis, Heliopolis and other important cities in the
upper country, became almost depopulated; dwindled into n eg lect; and
with their gorgeous temples and palaces, sank, at last, into shapeless
heaps o f ruins ! The ancient race and their peculiar religion perished
together. Their splendid tombs have been violated and despoiled ; and,
while the ancient city o f Alexandria is only important as a quarry from
whence materials are drawn for new erections, Bernice and other large
towns coexistent with it, upon the west coast o f the Red Sea, are so oblit­
erated, that scarce a vestige o f them remains. Tim e and the fierce
winds o f the desert have buried almost every trace o f the noble canal that
once connected the Red Sea with the navigable waters o f the Nile.
And when Mehemet A li entered upon the government o f the pachalic o f
Egypt, all commercial intercourse with foreign nations had nearly ceased;
and the policy o f the government had long been dictated by an illiberal
and jealous spirit o f espionage, arrogance, restrictions, and odious exac­
tions.
Volney says, when he was in Cairo in the latter part o f the last century,
the French residents in that city were “ shut up in a confined place, liv­
ing among themselves, with scarcely any external communication ; they
even dreaded it, and went out as little as possible, to avoid the insults o f
the common people, who hated the very name o f Franks, and the insolence
o f the Memlooks, who forced them to dismount from their asses in the
middle o f the streets. In this kind o f habitual imprisonment, they trem­
bled every instant, lest the plague should oblige them to shut themselves
up entirely in their houses, or some revolt expose their quarters to be
plundered; lest the chief o f some party should make a pecuniary de­
mand, or the beys compel them to furnish them with what they wanted,
which was always attended with no little danger.”
The annual extor­
tions from the French residents in Cairo alone, at that period, amounted to
nearly $1 2 ,0 0 0 !
Similar was the condition o f all Frank residents in Egypt, under Mehe­
met A li’s immediate predecessors. Now they enjoy the protection o f the
government, and greater privileges in Egypt than the natives o f the coun­
try. W hile, in the days o f the Memlooks, a stranger in Egypt could
only wear the dress o f a Frank at the peril o f his life, no garb is now more
certain to insure the respect o f the common people than the European
costume. This, however, is not the case among the Turks. For their
prejudice against the “ Christian dogs ” is little less bitter and malevolent
now than in the days o f the crusades ; though their poverty and depend­
ency has modified, in some degree, their manner o f expressing it.
Mehemet A li has in contemplation the construction o f a railroad across
the Itshmus o f Suez. Should this project ever be carried into effect, that
dreary, disagreeable, and sometimes dangerous waste, might be traversed
in three or four hours ; whereas, it now occupies, ordinarily, as many
days. It is true, the danger from robbers, in crossing from Cairo to Suez,
has greatly diminished since the accession o f Mehemet A li to the govern­
ment o f E g y p t; yet, even so late as the winter o f 1840-41, some travel­
lers from India were met and robbed there by the Bedouins and banditti
from the Syrian mountains, whom the English had armed and excited to




420

Mehemet Ali, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

revolt against the pacha’s government. Formerly nothing was more fre­
quent than depredations o f this kind, by the wandering Arabs.
In the winter o f 1779, a caravan was plundered a few miles out o f Suez,
and several o f the party perished in the desert. “ The caravan,” says
Volney,* “ was composed o f English officers, and passengers who had
landed from two vessels at Suez, in their w ay to Europe by Cairo.
“ The Bedouin Arabs o f Tor, informed that these passengers were richly
ladened, resolved to plunder them, and attacked them five leagues from
Suez. The Europeans, stripped stark naked, and dispersed by fear, sepa­
rated into two parties. Some o f them returned to S u e z; the remainder,
to the number o f seven, thinking they could reach Cairo, pushed forward
into the desert. Fatigue, thirst, hunger, and the heat o f the sun, destroy­
ed them one after the other. M. de Saint Germain, alone, survived all
these horrors. During three days and two nights, he wandered in the bare
and sandy desert, frozen at night by the north wind, and burnt by the sun
during the day, without any other shade but a single bush, into which he
thrust his head among the thorns, or anything to drink but his own urine.
A t length, on the third day, perceiving the water o f Berket-el-Hadj, he
strove to make towards i t ; but he had already fallen three times from
weakness, and undoubtedly would have remained where he last fell, but
for a peasant, mounted on a camel, who saw him at a great distance.
This charitable man conveyed him to his dwelling, and took care o f him
for three days with the utmost humanity. At the expiration o f that time,
the merchants o f Cairo, apprised o f his misfortunes, procured him a con­
veyance to that city, where he remained in the most deplorable condition.
His body was one entire wound, his breath cadaverous, and he had scarcely
a spark o f life remaining. By dint o f great care and attention, however,
Mr. Charles Magrellon, who received him into his house, had the satisfac­
tion o f saving him, and even o f re-establishing his health.”
W ere there a railroad between Cairo and Suez, the route through Egypt
would be far more desirable than any other open to the traveller from
Europe to India. As it embraces a distance o f only about eighty miles
o f land carriage between Bombay and London, it is generally preferred
now, although the steamers upon the Red Sea are small, dirty, and dear;
and no little inconvenience and discomforts are experienced by passengers
in crossing the desert.
Trade and commerce has revived in Egypt, under the administration
o f Mehemet Ali, and risen to an importance which is attracting the atten­
tion o f some o f the most intelligent and accomplished merchants in Europe.
The exports consisting mostly o f articles in the raw state, comparatively
little advantage results to the Egyptians from the traffic with other coun­
tries, further than a convenient exchange o f the redundant products o f
their soil, for those foreign manufactured commodities requisite to the most
ordinary comforts o f life. But the opening o f this, no inconsiderable, and
now safe outlet for European manufactures, must be o f much advantage
to those countries which are extensively engaged in converting the raw
material into articles fit for immediate consumption. The manufactories
o f England and France have already realized important benefits from this
traffic; and, were a liberal and enlightened policy, on the part o f the Euro­
pean governments, manifested towards the ruler o f Egypt, the exchange




Volney’s Egypt, i. 141, note.

Mehemet A ll, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

421

o f commodities betwixt the agriculturists o f that country and the manufac­
turing population o f Europe might be increased, perhaps, until the trade
o f Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor, should again assume the commercial
activity and importance which it enjoyed in the most prosperous days o f
Venice, and the other Italian republics.
Egypt is a central point, and communicates easily with every part o f
the world. The fertility and productiveness o f its soil, have been prover­
bial in every age ; and the Turkish empire, though now in a state o f bar­
barism, and rapidly declining into deeper degradation and darkness, com­
prises some o f the fairest and most desirable portions o f the world. This
deplorable, though surpassingly beautiful country, has not only to contend
with the dense darkness that has been gathering with increasing black­
ness upon it for many centuries, but it has also to struggle against the
reprehensible interference o f European nations, which, in their settlements
o f “ eastern affairs,” seek not for the enlightenment and the increasing
moral strength o f Levantine nations, but rather their weakness, insignifi­
cance, degradation, and dependency.
The principal articles o f export from Egypt to Europe are cotton, flax­
seed, coffee, indigo, wheat, maize, rice, beans, spices, ivory, gums, senna,
and ostrich feathers. Many o f the same articles are sent to Constantino­
ple, Smyrna, Damascus, and the larger towns upon the coast o f S y ria ;
while almost the only article o f export to Arabia is corn.
A lucrative trade, to no inconsiderable extent, is carried on with A bys­
sinia, Sennaar, and the circumjacent countries, from which the Egyptians
receive slaves, ivory, ostrich feathers, gold, gums, tamarinds, senna, & c.
in exchange for the coarse manufactures o f Europe, such as cotton, linen
and woollen stuffs, striped silks, soap, carpets, fire-arms, swords, paper,
beads, and other trifling ornaments.
A caravan, from Abyssinia and the interior o f Africa, loaded with
slaves, ivory, gold-dust, gums, parrots, monkeys, and ostrich feathers, ar­
rives in Cairo every year. Another, “ destined for Mecca, sets out from
the extremities o f Morocco, and receives pilgrims even from the river of
Senegal; coasts along the Mediterranean, collecting those o f Algiers,
Tripoli, and Tunis, and arrives by the desert o f Alexandria, consisting of
not less than three or four thousand camels. From thence it proceeds to
Cairo, where it is united with the caravan o f Egypt. They then jointly
set out for Mecca, whence they return in about a hundred days. But the
pilgrims o f Morocco, who have six hundred leagues more to travel, do not
reach home till after an absence o f more than a year.
The lading o f these caravans consists o f Indian stuffs, shawls, gums,’
pearls, perfumes, and especially the coffee o f Yem en.’'-*
The principal importations o f European products, are plain, coarse and
figured muslins, woollen cloth, flannel, silks, crape, velvet, calicoes,
shawls, paper, powder, swords, fire-arms, watches, clocks, earthen and
glass ware, wire, lumber, hardware, beads, copper and brass ware, & c.
From Arabia the Egyptians receive coffee, drugs, spices, and some Indian
commodities. Various kinds o f embroidered work, shawls, handkerchiefs,
amber mouth-pieces for pipes, figs, slippers, tobacco, and carpets, are im­
ported from Constantinople.
The low price o f labor, and almost every article o f Egyptian products,

VOL.

V II. — no .

v.




* Volney’s Egypt and Syria, i. 129.
36

*

,

422

Mehemet A li, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

is remarkable. Wheat is only about twenty to twenty-five cents the
bu sh el; and other products o f the soil are correspondingly low. The
price for day-laborers, men or women, (one being considered as good in
the field as the other,) is from four to seven and a h alf cents per day !—
Mechanics, such as masons and carpenters, realize something more. One
h alf o f this trifling stipend is usually paid in corn, and the other in cash.
The Egyptians, ever a prey to cruel, capricious, and oppressive ty­
rants, stripped and gleaned from year to year, by the tax-gatherers, o f
almost every thing they possessed, have long since sunk into a degraded
mass o f mere “ hewers o f wood and drawers o f water.”
They have no
part or lot in any o f the important mercantile transactions o f the country.
Neither have they the talents or the capital requisite to the successful
achievement o f any considerable commercial enterprise ; and they attempt
nothing o f the kind.
The Arabs and Syrians are equally p oor; nor can they boast o f a
greater degree o f talent, or fitness for mercantile affairs. A ll, alike,
seem involved in the same deep degradation ; poverty-smitten, and entirely
lost to all those high, honorable, and upright feelings, which must ever
actuate successful merchants in all important transactions.
The Turks, though some o f them possess considerable wealth and ca­
pacity for business, are, nevertheless, as a body, many centuries behind
the age, and lagging further in the rear from day to day. Th ey are a
degenerate, indolent, suspicious, sensual r a c e ; and, in all respects dis­
qualified for the successful prosecution o f large commercial enterprises.
The commerce o f the east has rapidly declined under their guidance;
and it has nearly dropped from their hands. There is little or no encour­
agement in the belief that they will ever exhibit, under the present organization o f Turkish society, any great improvement. Consequently, the
pacha o f Egypt, a man o f much more intelligence and general knowledge
o f the world, than he is admitted to possess by his English and other Euro­
pean traducers, was not slow to perceive the advantages that are naturally
to be derived from the permanent establishment o f respectable and wealthy
European merchants in Alexandria and Cairo. He has, therefore, en­
couraged the emigration o f enterpising strangers to Egypt, rather than
repressed it, as was the policy on which his despotic predecessors acted
for many centuries before his time. T o many o f these merchants, he has
granted extraordinary privileges— advantages that are not enjoyed by
his own subjects; and, in all respects, the well-demeaned stranger in
Egypt is protected in his person and property by the government.
In acting thus, Mehemet A li has but imitated the policy o f some o f the
wisest and most intelligent o f the Pharaonic rulers o f Egypt.
Amasis who ascended the Egyptian throne about B. C. 571, and reign­
ed at a period represented as having been most prosperous, both “ with
regard to the advantages conferred by the river on the soil, and by the
soil on the inhabitants, gave great encouragement to foreigners who were
willing to trade with his subjects; and as an inducement to them he
favored their interests, and showed them marked indulgence upon all
occasions.” *
The policy pursued by Psamaticus, Pharaoh o f Egypt, about B. C. 664,
was no less liberal and encouraging towards the Greeks and other fo* Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, pp. 156,180, 182,183.




423

Mehemet A lt, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

reigners, than that which governed the conduct o f Amasis, and that o f
Mehemet A li.
By acting upon principles o f liberality towards strangers resident in
Egypt, the pacha, with equal wisdom and justice, is enabled, as occasion
requires, to avail himself o f the use o f the greater part o f their capital
and their continued influence in his behalf. This is o f much importance
to him, as it facilitates his extensive plans o f improvement, his heavy
commercial operations, as well as his political advancement in Turkey.
Mehemet A li keeps the reins of commerce in his own hands; and is
the most powerful and extensive mercantile operator in his dominions.
This, however much it may have been complained o f by certain o f the
pacha’s enemies, excites no surprise in Turkey. It is no novelty for an
eastern prince to be extensively engaged in commercial affairs.
Solomon, who enjoys considerable reputation for wisdom and wealth,
even to this day, had ships,* and merchants,! and entered pretty largely
into navigation and other commercial operations.^: In Solomon’s time, it
was something to be a merchant, as well as a kin g ; though it might have
required his wisdom and wealth, and the power o f a king, to have achieved
his commercial enterprises with the success that attended the mercantile
operations o f the monarch o f Judea. He is said to have realized from a
single voyage four hundred and fifty talents o f gold.§ The “ business
transactions” o f Solomon were, certainly, enormously large and lucrative;
yet we do not know that any fault was found with him on that account;
particularly, by his own subjects, or the foreigners who, at that period,
might have been permitted to reside in his kingdom. W e are informed,
that he greatly enriched the country, and “ made silver in Jerusalem as
stones, and cedar trees made he as the sycamore trees that are in the low
plains in abundance.” ||
But, say his enemies, “ Mehemet A li monopolizes the trade in the pro­
ducts o f the soil o f Egypt, and regulates the price o f many commodities
o f luxury and convenience, imported from abroad. This is tyranny ; an
odious interference with ordinary affairs, too oppressive to be borne with
composure.”
I f sensitive minds are so shocked at this “ high-handed measure o f the
blood-thirsty tyrant,” as he is not unfrequently called by his English
friends, and this, too, in an uncivilized country, where there are neither
efficient and intelligent native merchants nor capital, what will be said o f
the monopolies o f the emperor o f Austria, the pope o f Rome, the king
o f the French, the queen o f England, and many other o f the monarchs
o f Europe,— where civilization is made a boast of,— and where there is
no want o f intelligent native merchants, and capital in abundance ?
What have the enemies o f the pacha to say o f these monopolies,— not o f
the export trade o f a few hundred bales o f cotton, a few hogsheads o f
flax-seed, a little indigo, a few thousand bushels o f wheat and barley, or
other redundant products o f their respective countries, but monopolies o f
bread, salt, tobacco, and other necessary articles o f daily consumption
among all classes o f their subjects ? These are monopolies o f the artiticles o f home consumption; an odious and oppressive burden, laid upon

* 2 Chron. viii. 18.— 1 Kings x. 22.
§ 2 Chron. viii. 18.




t Ibid. x. 28.
j| 2 Chron. ix. 27.

t Ibid. x.

15.

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Mehemet AH, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

starving, wretched millions, that a few worthless princes may ride in
glass coaches, live in gilded palaces, wasting their miserable lives in corrupting mankind, and in the indulgence o f the basest sensual enjoy­
ments !
“ It is, however, true,” say his traducers, “ that the pacha o f Egypt
is also a monopolist in the articles o f home consumption.”
Indeed, he is ; and mark the difference. W h ile European princes
monopolize the trade in articles o f general consumption, imported from
abroad, for the purpose o f realizing high prices, and fleecing their sub­
jects, the pacha monopolizes in a similar traffic in order to reduce prices,
and to bring the articles o f necessary consumption, imported into Egypt,
within the reach o f his subjects.
“ The blood-thirsty tyrant,” while, in the autumn o f 1840 and winter
o f 1842, the government o f England was waging a destructive, though
unprovoked, war against him— arming the savage tribes o f Syria, and
exciting them to suicidal insurrection— destroying the towns upon the
coast, and burying thousands o f unoffending individuals beneath their
ruins— capturing his vessels and injuring him in every possible w ay,— pro­
tected the resident subjects o f Great Britain from insult or injury in
Egypt, and rendered every facility in his power for the safe and punctual
transmission o f the English mail to and from India through his troubled
dominions!
Let the unprejudiced part o f mankind determine who has the best right
to the name o f Christian in this matter, as well as to the mild appellation
o f “ blood-thirsty tyrant.”
The interference o f Mehemet A li in the mercantile affairs o f Egypt,
amounts to scarcely nothing more than a judicious government control
over the import and export trade o f the country. His peculiar situation
makes it imperative for him to monopolize, to a considerable extent, the
export trade ; for, without wishing at this time to discuss the question of
his right, “ legitimate ” or otherwise, as may be the case, it is a fact,
that he owns nearly the whole o f the soil; and the great bulk o f the sur­
plus products belongs to him. Consequently, like a shrewd and intelligent
man, he controls the foreign market, so far as is practicable, which he is
obliged to seek for the disposal o f this surplus, from the sales o f which,
arises almost the entire revenue o f the country.
N o restrictions are imposed upon the transactions in Egyptian products
except on sales effected with a view to exportation; in which case, the
sales must be made to his agents instead o f the foreign merchant.
A similar state o f things existed in Egypt many centuries before she
sunk to her present deplorable state o f barbarism, ignorance, and wretch­
edness ; and was sanctioned by the people, who were at that period civil­
ized and enlightened.
“ The right o f exportation, and the sale o f superfluous produce to for­
eigners, belonged exclusively to government, as is distinctly shown by the
sale o f corn to the Israelites from the royal stores, and the collection hav­
ing been made by Pharaoh only. And not only was her dense population
supplied with a profusion o f the necessaries o f life, but the sale o f the sur­
plus conferred considerable benefit on the peasant, in addition to the pro­
fits which thence accrued to the state ; and though the government ob­
tained a large profit on the exportation o f corn, and the prices received
from foreign merchants far exceeded that paid to the peasant, still these




Mehemet A li, and the Commerce o f Egypt.

425

last derived great benefit from its sale, and the money thus circulated
through the country tended to improve the agricultural classes.” *
This monopoly, as it is called, o f the pacha, is therefore no novelty or
modern usurpation o f Mehemet A l i ; nor is it an extraordinary thing to
see a prince in the old world in possession and actual owner o f the soil o f
as large, or even a larger territory, than is comprised in the whole o f
Egypt. The English nobility, as well as those o f the continental states
o f Europe, rent their lands to the peasantry after the manner o f the
pacha o f E g y p t; though, generally, at a much higher rate.
The monarchs o f Egypt, ever since the days o f Joseph, perhaps, have
held the right o f the soil o f this country in their own hands. Anciently,
“ the peasants rented the arable land belonging to the kings, the priests,
and the military classes for a small sum, and employed their whole time
in the cultivation o f their farms. The laborers who cultivated land for
the rich peasant, or other landed proprietors, were superintended by the
steward or owner o f the estate, who had authority over them, and the
power o f condemning delinquents to the bastinado ; and the paintings o f
the tombs frequently represent a person o f consequence inspecting the
tillage o f the field, either seated in a chariot, walking, or leaning on his
staff, accompanied by a favorite dog.” *
A similar state o f things exists in Egypt at the present day. And,
however odious it may appear in the eyes o f certain o f “ her majesty’s
loyal subjects,” scenes not much dissimilar, may be daily witnessed
among the peasantry upon the estates o f the nobility and rich landholders
o f England.
Under existing circumstances, it is difficult to conceive what the pacha
o f Egypt can well do to improve the country and ameliorate the condition
o f its wretched and inconceivably degraded population, more than he is
seduously endeavoring to effect. Oppressed and hemmed in by the com­
bined powers o f Europe, as he is, he is certainly doing far more for the
improvement o f his dominions than was accomplished by his predecessors
during many centuries. H e has cleared away the rubbish o f supersti­
tion that religiously repelled all innovation upon long established cus­
toms and prejudices, and is desirous to let the light o f intelligence and
civilization dawn upon the darkness which has long clouded the vale o f
Egypt in a night o f ignorance and oppression. H e has invited intelli­
gent foreigners to enter the public service, and has assigned to them im­
portant places o f honor and trust. He has sent many o f the youth o f
Egypt to England, France, and other states o f Europe, to be educated.
Some o f them have completed their education and returned; and are
now engaged in school-keeping, or otherwise occupied in the public ser­
vice. T h ey are in daily communication with the inhabitants, and can
hardly fail to exercise a beneficial influence upon their countrymen. He
has established manufactories o f various kinds, and endeavored to give
employment to his subjects in some o f those branches o f industry for
which the ancient Egyptians were so renowned; but, because his mills,
set up in the sands o f Egypt, by some renegade English speculators, do
not possess all the perfection and finish o f the machinery in operation in
the large manufacturing towns o f Great Britain, and, thus far, have not

* Wilkinson’s Ancient Egyptians, 2d series, i. 22, 24.
26*




t Ibid. i. 34, 35.

426

Meliemet A li, and the Commerce o f E gypt.

been attended with those lucrative and happy results that have so enriched
the spinners o f Manchester, John Bull calls him “ an old foolish knave”
and a “ blood-thirsty tyran t!”
The pacha o f Egypt is neither a “ foolish knave” nor a “ blood­
thirsty tyrant.”
On the contrary, he is one o f the most enlightened and
liberal-minded men in the Turkish empire. And, could he have full
scope for the exercise o f his genius, unrestrained by the combined powers
o f European sovereigns, now fearfully arrayed in all their splendor and
might against the liberties o f mankind, he would do more to regenerate
his country, and to sustain it from that total ruin and final dissolution,
which, under the present organization o f its government, speedily awaits
it, than any other man in Turkey, or even all the foreign princes who
have affected so much sympathy and regret at its rapid decline.
The government o f France might have sustained him in his conquests
over Syria and Candia, and had promised to do so. The French nation
were ready, i f necessary, to make the fulfilment o f those assurances to
the pacha the issue o f a general European war. But her rulers, being
influenced by the same reprehensible principles that dictated the policy
adopted by the interfering powers in the difficulties which existed between
the sultan o f Turkey and Mehemet A li, proved faithless to the veteran
pacha o f Egypt, and humbled France before the world. The conduct of
the French government in reference to “ the settlement o f Eastern affairs,”
can scarcely appear in any other light than that o f dishonor and humilia­
tion. A brave and warlike nation with 600,000 troops in the field, all
armed to the teeth— possessing a large naval force— the Turkish and
Egyptian fleets, together with all the resources o f Egypt and Syria at its
command—-dishonorably breaks from its sacred assurances given to Me­
hemet A li; leaves him a prey to the vindictive tyranny and oppression
o f the black league o f Europe, humbles itself at the scornful feet o f Eng­
land, and, at last, creeps into the black league at the back door !
Shade o f Napoleon 1 W h y was that humiliating period in the history
o f France selected for the restoration o f thy long absent ashes to the
bosom o f thy degenerate country ? W h y were they not permitted to
remain lonely and undisturbed upon that flinty bed, though a stranger’s,
around which the mighty ocean roars, which thou, in thy early career
over the despotic thrones o f Europe, so much resembled ? A la s ! thou,
too, became a despotic tyrant— an usurper o f the liberties o f mankind ;
and the wrath o f heaven fell upon thee, and wasted the splendor o f thy
ill-exerted power— cursed thee with an exile’s death, and a prisoner’s
g ra v e !




“ A single step into the right, had made
This man the Washington o f worlds betrayed ,*
A single step into the wrong, has given
His name a doubt to all the winds o f heaven.”

Commercial Legislation.

427

A r t . Ill-C O M M E R C IA L LEGISLATION.

R ecent events connected with trade, have given rise to opinions which
before were unknown, or had existed only in the minds o f those who were
regarded as mere theorists, without the ability to reduce to practice.
Commercial men have considered their profession as a peculiar and
highly proper subject o f legislation, i f not as entirely the creature o f
statutory law. This opinion is sustained by the almost unanimous policy
of modern times, and hence the extreme reluctance with which men listen
to the opposite doctrine. The object o f this article is not so much to sus­
tain either opinion, as to trace their origin ; yet it may be proper to ob­
serve, that the danger lies on the side o f too much legislation, rather than
too little. A large portion o f the legislation o f the country is connected
with trade. Those who are but partially acquainted with the means by
which favorite measures and plans are dignified and rendered important,
and finally placed on our statute books, must be aware, that the general
utility o f them, in many instances is exceedingly questionable. Our legis­
lative assemblies are thronged by men, who, having some project to per­
fect, are sedulous in their efforts to present it in a favorable aspect to those
to whom is intrusted the delicate and important duty o f making laws.
To the efforts o f such men, may be attributed the numerous laws which
are o f no public benefit. Legislators ought to listen to the representations
of these persons with great caution. T h ey do not come declaring that
such a measure w ill greatly benefit them, or their friends, but with inge­
nious declarations o f attachment to the public welfare. Now, what is
clearly for the public good, would hardly awaken such feelings in such
men; patriotism is too rare a quality to be developed in such quantities.
The passage o f a tariff law or bank charter, affects, in one w ay or another,
the condition o f a majority o f merchants ; and can they, in their efforts,
forget themselves in their devotion to the public good ? A stable course
of legislation can never obtain in our country, where the legislators are
so frequently changed by the w ill o f the people. Trade, made dependent
on legislation is, therefore, extremely precarious and uncertain. There is
no business in which stability is so necessary to success as trade. Hence
the propriety o f separating as much as possible commerce and law.
Their union sprang from the grasping spirit o f the monarchs who flour­
ished immediately subsequent to the downfall o f the Roman empire. As
the advantages and profits o f trade became known, it was the policy o f
Venice, Portugal, Spain, England, and Holland, to divert them from indi­
viduals to the public use. This was effected by monopolies, for which a
bonus was paid ; by charters, reserving to the crown a portion o f the pro­
fits ; and lastly, by a union o f civil power and commercial pursuits. The
formation o f the Portuguese, Dutch, and English companies for trading to
the Indies, are notable instances o f the latter custom. The rivalries, too,
to which modern commerce gave rise, during the fourteenth, fifteenth, and
sixteenth centuries, laid the foundation o f that most complicate o f all hu­
man systems— laws for the protection o f trade and labor. T h e mutual
jealousies which the nations o f Europe entertained, introduced innumera­
ble plans for the destruction o f each other. Their hopes o f individual
advancement and prosperity, seem to have been in proportion to their
ability to destroy a rival. England, adopting the exclusive policy o f the




428

Commercial Legislation.

continental states, pursued with ardor a system which promised to impair
the commerce o f its rivals in proportion as its own was increased.
The first departure in England from the free trade policy was in the
year 1337, during the reign o f Edward III. In the year 1335, an act was
passed permitting free trade ; but two years after it was repealed, and it
was made felony to carry any wool out o f the realm. It was also pro­
vided, that no clothes made beyond the seas should be brought into the
realm. This was the commencement o f the protective policy which
England has pursued with constancy for five centuries. It is worthy
o f remark, that the woollen manufacture has been the special object of
attention, yet less proficiency has been made in it than in many other de­
partments. It was also during the reign o f Edward III. (1360) that the
exportation o f corn was forbidden, except to Calais and Gascoign. This
act may he justly regarded as the germ o f the corn laws, which for a long
period have been the cause o f great agitation, and more than once threat­
ened the existence o f the government. N or have the etfects o f the system
been confined to the kingdom o f Great Britain;— they have determined the
pursuits, mingled in the prosperity and adversity o f the states o f Europe
and Am erica. B y the influence o f this single act, the German peasant
has been led to learn the use o f the spindle and loom, and the citizen o f
N ew England has abandoned the plough and the spade to become the ten­
ant o f the mill.
In the seventeenth year o f the reign o f Richard II. (1393) the free ex­
portation o f corn was again permitted ; but in the reign o f Henry VI.
(1435) it was provided, that corn being at small price, viz, wheat at
6s. 6d., and barley at 3s. per quarter, m ay be carried forth out o f the
realm without license.
In the third year o f Edward IV ., the first corn law, as the phrase is
now understood, was passed. It provided, that corn should not be brought
into the realm until it exceeded a certain price. It seems that the agri­
culturists believed themselves aggrieved by the laws which permitted
the importation o f grain and prohibited its export. This is one o f the
great objections to laws for the regulation o f trade— that some w ill suffer
by their operation.
The modern system o f raising a revenue, and affording protection to
manufactures was not discovered, or at least not acted upon, until the first
year o f James II., when a duty was laid on wine, ale, beer, tobacco, & c.
Protection and revenue, however, as the object o f decrees and legisla­
tion, were secondary— the primary object having been to supersede their
rivals in discoveries, commerce, and manufactures. T h ey were used for
the continent o f Europe, for the same purposes that armed ships and men
were in the seas o f the East and W est Indies. A n act passed in the fourth
year o f Edward IV . (1464) established this point:— “ It is declared, that
merchandises from the Duke o f Burgundy’s countries are prohibited, un­
til English-wrought cloths are received there.” Retaliatory laws were
then enacted by the various commercial governments o f Europe. In the
seventeenth year o f the same reign it was enacted, that “ all merchants,
aliens, and victuallers, shall employ their money upon the merchandise o f
this realm .”
This law was re-enacted in the third year o f Henry VIII.
It is not our purpose to give the legislation o f England on matters con­
nected with commerce, but merely to show the origin o f the restrictive
system.




Commercial Legislation.

429

The history o f ancient commerce, so far as it has come to us, is com ­
paratively free o f the restrictions which have encumbered modern trade.
In determining the value o f legislative restrictions, we are destitute o f the
benefit o f experience, and can only rely on such arguments as are within
our reach. W e shall endeavor to show, that trade is based on natural
laws, and when left to itself will operate to the advantage o f the world.
Trade originates in the disposition which all men possess, to dispose
o f that o f which they have too much, f o r that o f which they have too little.
This we may consider a natural law. It is observed in all countries and
among all grades o f men. The savage exchanges his valuable furs,
gems, gold, and silver, for valueless beads and toys. The necessities o f
men, again, compel them to engage in trade. I f all could consistently
produce every thing necessary for use, the inducement for the interchange
o f values, would be materially lessened. A s it is, the tea, sugar, coffee,
and fruits, o f tropical climates, are joyously exchanged for the produc­
tions o f more frigid zones. It seems as if the Creator intended trade as
one o f the natural employments o f man, or he would have confined his
wishes to the productions o f his own locality, or made every part o f the
world capable o f furnishing all within the limit o f human desires. Every
thing, we may safely conclude, is intended to conduce to the welfare o f
the human family ; yet, without the intervention o f trade, each individual
must be confined to a small portion o f the world’s products.
Trade, or an exchange o f values, we contend, is a part o f the great
volume o f natural law, which God has published for the inspection and
government o f his creatures. Now, can it be possible, that it is o f such a
character, that our true interests require us to alter or amend it ? W hen
left unrestricted, we may infer, its blessings w ill be diffused, as the light,
the rain, and the dew, vivifying all creation.
The earth searched, or tilled by the hand o f enterprise and industry, is
the origin o f the elements o f trade. The farmer at his plough, the hunter
in the forest, the hardy fisherman in the smooth stream, or on the wide
ocean, each obeying the great law o f nature which prompts all to provide
for their own wants, bring these elements within our grasp. The farmer
exchanges the product o f the field for that o f the forest or the ocean. This
is trade. Neither conventional nor municipal law is necessary to enable
men to engage in it with advantage to themselves and to the world. If,
as citizens o f the world, rather than as denizens o f a town, city, district,
or state, we meet all mankind in the markets o f commerce, at liberty to
exchange our values with whom and for what we please, the greatest
possible stimulus is given to industry, enterprise, and skill. But when
by human intervention the farmer, the merchant, the mechanic, and the
manufacturer, are confined to their several districts, the inducement to
effort is materially diminished. W hat but the hope o f gain, could have
induced the Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Dutch, to have penetrated
unexplored seas and bays, and led them to commence and continue a dan­
gerous traffic with the savages o f the East and W est Indies ? In propor­
tion as commerce is fettered by the restrictions o f art, the energies o f men
are diminished. W e need but look to China, for an example in point.
Forbidden to trade with other nations, and confined within their own ter­
ritories, they have ever manifested a degree o f imbecility and weakness,
unlike the vigor and strength o f character visible in the people o f those
countries where a freer intercourse is tolerated.




Resources o f the United States.

430

The advantage o f liberal principles, can hardly be over-estimated in
generating feelings o f independence and self-reliance. Accustomed to
act for themselves in trade, as now in most other kinds o f industry, men
would soon learn to place confidence in their own calculations, while the
absence o f law would permit business to act in a natural, and o f course,
healthy manner.
The ryot, in India, is the object o f commiseration, because he is com­
pelled to cultivate such grounds, and for such purposes, as l\is govern­
ment dictates; yet it is hardly more liberal or just to render the transfer
o f the soil’s products onerous, or to prohibit it entirely.
The people o f this country would not permit a foreign government to
determine the value o f the property they hold, i f it were attempted in an
open m anner: but Great Britain, by her legislation, is continually aiming
at this object. Our government does the same. She makes war on the
staple interests o f this country— she makes war on her manufacturing
establishments. Our wheat spoils in our granaries, or remains unpur­
chased in our storehouses; her paupers starve— her operatives rebel.
Am id the contention, commerce ceases to be a high and honorable pursuit,
and partakes o f the qualities o f envy and deception. A s trade depends
upon the amount o f the excess o f local production in the world, and as its
object is merely to equalize this excess, it is apparent that freedom, in
place o f restriction, is to be desired.

A r t . IV.-RESOURCES OF THE UNITED STATES.

T he amount o f products o f various sorts throughout our own Republic,

as developed by the statistics that have been recently taken under the
sanction o f an act o f Congress, w ill hardly surprise those who have close­
ly observed the industrious character o f our people, the number o f our
population, and the resources o f our territorial domain. It is scarcely
too much to say that this domain, stretching in a broad expanse through
various degreees o f latitude, and producing abundantly the fruits o f a
cold as w ell as a tropical climate, is not exceeded by that o f any tract o f
territory upon the face o f the globe, o f the same extent, in its capacity o f
production; and it is in truth remarkable that the measure o f products
exhibited by these returns has been yielded by a soil, which but a little
more than two centuries ago was first opened to the light o f civilization.
It is also somewhat singular that up to the date o f the act ordering the
census to be taken, the actual products o f the country were known only
by the sudden estimates o f travellers, or fugitive accounts that could
scarcely have been considered authentic, from the desultory mode in
which they were obtained, with the exception o f those that have been
derived by the government, regarding the condition o f certain limited
departments o f those products. Indeed, it but recently pressed itself upon
the public mind, that in order to a safe and understanding legislation re­
specting the various interests o f the country, it was most natural and
proper to collect the facts connected with the amount o f our products, in
order to understand thoroughly their aggregate value, as well as the rela­
tive proportion borne to each other by their several kinds. It is with a




Resources o f the United States.

431

view o f exhibiting, in a brief form, the result o f these returns, that we
devote the present paper to a consideration o f the resources o f the
country.
It can hardly be denied that one o f the most interesting, as well as sin­
gular features o f our national territory, is the variety o f resources that
are spread out by the soil, climate, and other natural advantages o f its
several parts. The rugged configuration o f the land in the six states o f
New England, as well as in a portion o f N ew York, together with the
abundance o f water power which prevails in those states, as well as the
comparative density o f their population, render them highly favorable to
the existence o f all kinds o f manufacture that are worked by ma­
chinery, and accordingly it is here that we find this branch o f industry
the most generally and successfully prosecuted. Reaching western New
York, we arrive upon an alluvial soil that is highly favorable to the pro­
duction o f the ordinary crops that are produced in the more temperate
portion o f our own climates, extending in a broad belt that includes the
middle states, westward to the banks o f the Mississippi. Crossing this
belt at the south we reach another belt, whose termini are Florida and
Arkansas, yielding the cotton, the sugar-cane, the tobacco, and the rice,
besides many o f the tropical fruits. The greater portion o f this domain
conceals within its hills the most valuable sorts o f minerals, which may
be deemed almost essential to the successful prosecution o f the various
kinds o f manufactures and the trades. Beyond the skirts o f our settled
territory, and in what is now uncultivated wilderness, are the furs which
abound in the greater portion o f the Indian territory, besides other articles
obtained from the woods, and denominated products o f the forest. T o
these we may add the products o f commerce and the fisheries, obtained
exclusively by the labor o f our seventeen millions o f people. It is these
four branches o f our products, agriculture, commerce, and the manufac­
tures, as well as the wealth yielded by the forest and the fisheries, that
comprise the different departments o f the statistical returns.
Let us take a brief view o f the real value o f some o f the more promi­
nent products o f the country, and we find that this value is now very
great, and is likely to be much increased. B y the returns, it appears that
our mines have yielded two hundred and eighty-six thousand nine hun­
dred and three pounds o f cast iron, and one hundred and ninety-seven
thousand two hundred and thirty-three pounds o f iron, in bars. Coal, the
next in point o f importance o f our mineral productions, has been yielded
by our soil to the value o f eight hundred and sixty-three thousand four
hundred and eighty-nine tons o f the anthracite, each ton embracing about
twenty-eight bushels, and o f the bituminous we have raised twenty-seven
millions six hundred and three thousand one hundred and ninety-one
bushels. O f domestic salt we have produced six millions one hundred
and seventy-nine thousand one hundred and seventy-four bushels, and
thirty-one millions two hundred and thirty-nine thousand four hundred
and fifty-three pounds o f lead, besides other mineral products o f less
value. O f our agricultural staples, the soil has yielded eighty-four mil­
lions eight hundred and twenty-three thousand two hundred and seventytwo bushels o f w heat; o f oats one hundred and twenty-three millions
seventv-one thousand three hundred and forty-one bushels, and o f Indian
corn three hundred and seventy-seven millions five hundred and thirtyone thousand eight hundred and seventy-five. O f manufactures we pos-




432

Resources o f the United Slates.

sess one thousand two hundred and forty cotton establishments, and one
thousand four hundred and twenty for the manufacture o f wool. As the
agents for the transaction o f our foreign and domestic commerce, we have
one thousand one hundred and eight commercial houses engaged in for­
eign trade, two thousand eight hundred and eighty-one employed in the
commission business, and fifty-seven thousand five hundred and sixty-five
retail drygoods, grocery, and other stores. These items will tend to
show us the magnitude o f the interest which has been developed by the
statistical returns.
W e direct our attention, in the first place, to the agriculture o f the
country, that constituting, in our judgment, the most important branch of
our domestic enterprise, because it yields most directly the means o f sub­
sistence, and furnishes the basis o f commerce, manufactures, and many
o f the mechanic arts. W e regard, with unfeigned satisfaction, the in­
creased attention that appears to be directed to this branch o f industry.
T h e great bulk o f the community appear at last to be convinced' tha‘
agriculture furnishes the most safe and stable species o f employment, and
the most independent and delightful occupation to the man o f thrift, as
w ell as to the man o f taste. Its extension with us has probably been as
rapid as that o f any other branch o f national enterprise, and this exten­
sion has probably been attributable as much to the advance o f coloniza­
tion into the states o f the west, by which new tracts o f fertile soil have
been brought under cultivation, as t o . the increase o f the production of
new and valuable agricultural staples that are required in our own coun­
try, and also in foreign com m erce; the increase o f our population, more­
over, having furnished pressing motive for the cultivation o f the soil, in
the demands which are thus made for the necessary means o f subsistence.
One o f our most prominent staples, that o f wheat, is yielded in the mid­
dle states, and those o f the west. Reaching the state o f Delaware we
arrive at a climate that can be made to yield the cotton in a small quan­
tity, that is increased as we advance further south ; the states o f Mary­
land and Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama,
Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, Arkansas and Florida, being highly
favorable to the production o f the same staple. In the amount o f sugar
produced from the cane, Louisiana stands first, although it is yielded in
considerable quantities in some o f the other states, and most o f the more
northern states produce it from the sugar maple. O f rice, South Caro­
lina yields the greatest abundance, while it also grows in less quantity in
Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Tennessee, Florida, and even
in the more northern states o f Virginia and Kentucky. In the produc­
tion o f tobacco, Virginia also stands first, and it is followed in successive
order by Kentucky, Tennessee, Maryland and North Carolina.
The several products o f agriculture, as classed by the official tables of
statistical returns, consist o f what is termed live-stock, cereal grains, and
other miscellaneous crops, cotton, sugar, silks, & c., and under these gen­
eral heads are embraced the prominent articles o f horses and mules, neat
cattle, sheep, swine, poultry o f various kinds, wheat, barley, oats, rye,
buckwheat, flax, tobacco, rice, cotton, silk, sugar, cords o f wood, the
products o f the dairy and the orchard, wine, and home-made or family
g ood s; and the amount o f those different sorts o f production is given, as
well as their value, so that at a single glance we can discern the measure
o f the agricultural interest in the different states. It is well known that




Resources o f the United States.

433

one o f the most prominent agricultural staples o f the north and west is
wheat, while those o f the south and south-west consist o f cotton, tobacco,
sugar and r ic e ; and it is o f the utmost importance that the various kinds
o f these different species o f product, as well as their value and amount,
should be made known, in order that we may have some data upon which
to base the legislation o f the country respecting those interests, and also
some guide for their distribution. It is evident by the very order o f Pro­
vidence, that a considerable portion o f the states o f our union must be es­
sentially agricultural states. Possessing ample tracts o f the richest soil,
which invite the pursuits o f husbandly, and afford the surest means o f
subsistence, they hold out by their natural advantages, and by the
facilities which are provided by the navigable streams that water them, as
well as by railroads and canals, furnishing easy and safe markets for
their products, the largest motives for colonization and improvement.
Within this domain is included the greater portion o f the country reaching
from N ew York to the territory o f Florida, and from these two points
westward to the remotest boundaries o f the United States.
In the pursuit o f agriculture we are, in effect, advancing the other
great interests o f the country, a fact which we are too apt to forget in dis­
cussing any single interest with exparte views. W e will take the mere
subject o f commerce, which is supposed to be inimical to the other inter­
ests o f the nation, and what a mighty spring is given to the internal trade
of the country by agricultural enterprise, looking at the actual condition
of the transportation o f agricultural products upon the principal lines o f
commercial communication, both at the east and w est! How large a por­
tion o f the freights is furnished by the agriculture o f the south to the ships
which are continually plying from its ports to the inland marts o f our
own territory, and to the prominent cotton markets abroad ! O f the ves­
sels that are daily taking in their cargoes in the harbors o f Charleston and
New Orleans, and the intervening ports, it is safe to say, that the princi­
pal portion o f those freights is derived from the cotton, sugar, tobacco, and
rice as well as the other agricultural staples o f the surrounding territory.
The same is the case with the commerce o f the Mississippi; and we find
the numerous steam-ships and flat-boats which ply upon that river during
the season o f navigation, are laden with the agricultural produce o f the
states that border its banks, or that are sent down through the interior by
(he Ohio. The commerce o f the lakes is maintained moreover in a great
measure by the transportation o f the agricultural produce o f the great
states o f Ohio, Illinois and Michigan, lying upon their borders, to the
eastern markets; and the same may be said o f the canal and railroad
transportation o f the greater number o f the states, as well as o f our coast­
wise trade. Furthermore, if we examine the decks and holds o f the ships
which are constantly setting sail from our commercial towns, both at the
east and south, we find that agriculture supplies the great bulk o f the cargoes which are exported abroad. It is agriculture indeed that gives
the life-blood to the trade and commerce o f the country, and is doubtless
as important to the solid vigor o f commercial enterprise, as nutritious food
to the health o f the human body. Withdraw this resource from our
commerce, and the veins and arteries o f the commercial system would
sink into a state o f collapse, exhibiting the cadaverous and pallid hue o f
disease and starvation. O f the amount o f the several species o f agricul­
tural products yielded by the country, we are furnished with full data
VOL. v n .— n o . v .
37




434

Resources o f the United States.'

by the statistical returns, which, although perhaps not entirely accurate,
present as complete a statement as could, under the circumstances, have
been furnished. By a table compiled from these returns, it appears that
we have produced during the year ending the first o f June, 1840, the
products, a statement o f which we here subjoin, with their amount.
AGRICULTURE.

Live-stock.
Horses and mules............................................................................... 4,335,669
Neat cattle........................................................................................ 14,971,586
Sh eep................................................................................................. 19,311,374
Swine................................................................................................. 26,301,293
Poultry o f all kinds— estimated value....................................... $9,344,410
Cereal Grains.
N o. o f Bushels o f W heat............................................................. 84,823,272
B a r le y .............................................................. 4,161,504
O a ts .'........................................................... 123,071,341
R y e ................................................................. 18,645,567
Buckwheat....................................................... 7,291,743
Indian corn.................................................. 377,531,875
Various Crops.
Number o f pounds o f W o o l......................................................... 35,802,114
H op s........................................................... 1,238,502
W a x ............................................................... 628,303f
Bushels o f Potatoes...................................................................... 108,298,060
Tons o f H ay ..................................................................................... 10,248,108f
Hemp and f la x ....................................................................... 95,251|
Tobacco, Cotton, Sugar, <0j-c.
Pounds ofT ob a ccog a th ered ....................................................... 219,163,319
R ice ................................................................................. 80,841,422
Cotton gathered.......................................................... 790,479,275
Silk cocoons........................................................................... 61,552i
Sugar made................................................................. 155,100,809
Cords o f wood sold............................................................................. 5,088,891
Value o f the produce o f the D a ir y ......................................... $33,787,008
O rchard....................................... $7,256,904
Gallons o f W ine made........................................................................ 124,734
Value o f home-made or family good s..................................... $29,023,380
The next topic to which we would advert, as nearly akin to that o f agri.
culture, and bearing the same relation to it as the fine to the useful arts,
is the science o f horticulture ; and it is doubtless a source o f gratification
to perceive, that the subject has been deemed o f sufficient importance as a
national interest, to demand a separate department o f the census. This
interesting branch o f husbandry is one, which, while it is useful as a pro­
ductive labor, is also improving to the mind, in the highest degree. The
partitioning and laying out o f grounds into tasteful forms, having reference
to the beautiful as well as to the useful; the fashioning o f well gravelled
walks, and shaded beds; the cultivation o f fruits and flowers, and the de­
coration o f well-apportioned parterres, with all the adornments which
providence in lavishing its bounties upon the earth has supplied; while
they are attended with a chastening o f the moral sentiments, are also cal-




Resources o f the United States.

435

culated to awaken emotions o f gratitude to their Author. For the culti­
vation o f this species o f horticultural improvement, we enjoy in our own
country ample motives and means, not only in the richness o f our soil,
but in the variety o f scenery which nature supplies.
W e are gratified, we again repeat, that the government has directed its
attention to horticultural science, so far as to make it an item o f their re­
turns ; and we believe that the public attention will be turned to the sub­
ject in coming time, from the gradual and improving taste o f the country ;
that the aspect o f our rural scenery will be improved in the tasteful em­
bellishment o f those grounds which now slumber like the vineyard o f the
sluggard, choked with briers and thorns, or i f cultivated at all, are im­
proved without reference to any principle o f taste. W e perceive, that the
tables to which we have so often referred, give the value o f the produce
o f the gardens and nurseries, as follows :—
Horticulture.
Marketgardeners...................................... $2,601,196
Nurseries andflorists..............................
$593,534
Number o f men employed........................................................................8,553
Capital invested............................................................................... $2,945,774
Value o f produce o f

Another species o f production, the amount o f which is embraced in the
census, is denominated the products o f the forest; within which term are
included all those products that are obtained in a raw state, both from the
forest itself and the wild animals with which it abounds; and they are
divided into the several articles o f lumber, tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin, pot
and pearl ashes, skins and furs, ginseng, and all other productions o f the
native wilderness. The most o f these articles, it is well known, consti­
tuted very important staples o f export during our early colonial depend­
ence, and before the condition o f the country or the means o f the people
would warrant any very marked attention to agricultural enterprise ;
lumber having been exported in a considerable quantity to the West In­
dies, under British auspices, and furs and ginseng forming prominent
articles o f commerce in the English and French colonies, both at the east
and w est; the former constituting the principal trade between Canada
and France, during the first years o f the Canada colonization. Although
the cultivation o f more productive branches o f enterprise, has diminished
their interest in our own country to minor importance, still, it is even now
of no inconsiderable amount. This diminution, however, is more sensibly
felt in the single article o f furs and peltries, probably, than in any other,
in consequence o f the lessening o f the number o f the fur-bearing animals,
from which the trade during the existence o f the early French, English,
and American fur companies derived their profits, as well as from the mo­
nopoly o f the Hudson Bay Company, that has o f late years advanced into
the domain that was formerly roamed by the American traders, driving
them, by a species o f underselling and commercial intrigue, away from
their ancient hunting grounds. O f the amount o f this species o f product,
and also its value, we are enabled to give a full return from the census.
Products o f the Forest.

Value o f lumber produced,......................................................$12,943,507
Barrels o f tar, pitch, turpentine, rosin ........................................... 619,106
Tons o f pot and pearl ash es,.............................................................. 15,935^




436

Resources o f the United States.

Skins and furs— value produced................................................. $1,065,869
Ginseng and all other productions o f the forest— value........... $526,580
Number o f men employed................................................................... 22,042
W e now arrive at the subject o f the manufactures which are produced
in our own country— a subject which it must be admitted has increased to
enormous magnitude, when we remember the short period since it was
first commenced. The manufacturing system o f the country, receiving
national protection during the first Congress, yet deriving its origin as a
system from the mind o f Alexander Hamilton, about the year 1791, has
now swollen to an amount that is second to that o f England alone ; and
it embraces all those various sorts o f products which are wrought by
machinery, as well as by the trades. And what a field o f successful en­
terprise is unfolded to us in this department o f American labor, not merely
in those manufactures which are wrought out within the walls o f our fac­
tories, but the various products o f the trades, and by the numerous kinds
o f handicraft w ork !
It is only about fifty years since the manufacturing system o f the coun­
try began to attract to itself any considerable degree o f the public atten­
tion ; we can scarcely fail to be surprised, that besides the one thousand
two hundred and forty cotton factories, and the one thousand four hundred
and twenty for the manufacture o f wool, may be added mixed manufac­
tures to a considerable amount. T o these, we superadd various other
manufactures o f machinery, hardware, cannon, and fire-arms; those o f the
precious metals, tobacco, hats, caps, bonnets, leather, the tanneries, sad­
dleries, A c . ; soap and candles, distilled and fermented liquors; those o f
various metals, granite, & c . ; bricks and lime, powder, drugs, medicines,
paints and dyes, glass, earthenware, sugar, chocolate, paper, cordage,
musical instruments, carriages and wagons, mills, ships, furniture, and
houses, o f all o f which the returns exhibit a very great amount.
There is something in the genius o f our people, the spirit o f our insti­
tutions, or the local circumstances in which we are placed, that has
directed the public enterprise into those channels o f effort which have
referred more particularly to the useful rather than the ornamental; and
it is here that the mechanical industry o f the country has wrought out its
most effective triumphs. The vessels which are constructed in our dock­
yards, it is admitted on all hands, are, in their model, beauty o f finish,
and speed, superior to those o f the same class that are launched upon the
waters o f the most advanced nations o f E u rope; and it is equally well
known, that our machinists have supplied some o f the principal govern­
ments abroad with railroad engines, and despatched two beautiful steam­
ships, on special contract, to the Russian government. So, also, in the
inferior articles o f manufacture, such as domestic implements, and those
o f the different trades, and the various sorts o f hardware, it is found, that
our own enterprise and skill have succeeded in fully equalling those o f
like sort that are manufactured abroad. The same is the case with the
various manufactures o f the country that are worked by machinery.
Although we have not equalled the products o f foreign looms in the manu­
facture o f woollen and cotton, we need not be informed, that notwithstand­
ing the difference in the price o f labor between our own sparsely settled
country and the over-crowded nations o f Europe, we have recently made
rapid advances in the production o f the various articles o f manufacture,




Resources o f the United States.

437

and bid fair to becom e soon a form idable rival to the m anufacturing inter,
ests o f G reat Britain ; even now com peting with them in low -priced cot­
tons in the foreign markets. W e here subjoin a list o f the articles w hich
are the products o f ou r m anufacture, com piled from the census.

Manufactures.
M achinery , V a lu e o f m achinery m a n ufactu red.....................$10 ,9 8 0 ,5 8 1
N u m ber o f men em p loyed ............................................... 13,001
H a r d w a r e , C utlery , & c ., V a lu e o f m anufactured.............. $ 6 ,4 5 1 ,9 6 7
N o . o f men em p loyed................................5 ,4 92
N umber of cannon and sm all - arm s ,
N u m ber o f Cannon cast............................................................................. 274
Sm all-arm s m a d e ........................................................ 88,073
Men em p loyed.................................................................. 1,744
P recious M etals , V a lu e m anufactured..........................................$ 4 ,73 4 ,9 6 0
N u m ber o f m en e m p lo y e d ..................................... 1,556
V arious M etals , V a lu e m anufactured..........................................$ 9 ,7 7 9 ,4 4 2
N u m b er o f men e m p lo y e d ..................................... 6 ,6 77
G ranite , M arble , & c ., V a lu e m anufactured- • • •..................$ 2 ,4 4 2 ,9 5 0
N u m ber o f men em p loyed........................... 3,734
B ricks and L ime , V a lu e m a n u fa ctu red ..................................... $ 9 ,7 3 6 ,9 4 5
N u m ber o f men em p loyed ..................................... 22,807
Capital invested in preceding m anufac­
tures ............................................................... $ 2 0 ,6 2 0 ,8 6 9
2,585
W ool, N u m ber o f fulling m ills................................
W oo lle n m anufactories.................................................................. 1,420
V a lu e o f m anufactured good s........................................ $ 2 0 ,6 9 6 ,9 9 9
N u m ber o f persons em p loyed......................................................21 ,34 2
Capital in v ested ...................................................................... $ 1 5 ,7 6 5 ,1 2 4
C otton , N u m ber o f cotton m a n u fa ctories............................................. 1,240
S p in d le s ..................................................................................... 2,284,631
D y ein g and printing establishm ents.......... ................................ 129
V a lu e o f m anufactured a r t i c l e s .......................
$ 4 6 ,3 5 0 ,4 5 3
N u m ber o f persons em p loyed ..................................................... 72,119
Capital invested.....................................................................$ 5 1 ,1 0 2 ,3 5 9
S ilk, N u m ber o f pounds reeled, thrown, or other silk m a d e . . . . 15,745^
V a lu e o f the s a m e ..................................................
$ 1 1 9 ,8 1 4
N u m ber o f m ales e m p lo y e d .................................
246
fem ales and ch ild re n .......... .............................................521
Capital invested................................................................................$ 2 7 4,3 7 4
F lax , V a lu e o f manufactures o f fla x ........................... .................... 322,205
N u m ber o f persons em p loyed........................................................ 1,628
Capital invested.............................................................................. $ 2 0 8,0 8 7
M ixed M anufactures , V a lu e o f prod u ce..................................... $ 6 ,5 4 5 ,5 0 3
N u m ber o f persons em ployed................... 15,905
Capital in v ested ....................................... $ 4 ,36 8 ,9 9 1
T obacco, V a lu e o f m anufactured a rticles,...................................$ 5 ,8 1 9 ,5 6 8
N u m ber o f persons em p loyed ................................................ 8,384
Capital invested..................................................................$3 ,43 7 ,1 9 1
H ats , C aps , B onnets , & c ., V a lu e o f hats and caps manu­
factu red..................................... $ 8 ,7 0 4 ,3 4 2
V a lu e o f straw bonnets m anu­
factu red....................................... $ 1 ,47 6 ,5 0 5
37*




438

Resources o f the United States.

H a t s , C aps , B onnets, & c ., N u m ber o f persons em p loyed................20,176
Capital in v ested ...............................$ 4 ,4 8 5 ,3 0 0
L eather , T anneries , S addleries , & c .
N u m ber o f ta n n eries....................................................................... 8,229
Sides o f sole leather tanned................................................. 8,463,611
upper do
do
................................................. 3 ,781,868
N u m ber o f men em p loyed.......................................................... 26,018
Capital invested.................................................................... $ 1 5 ,6 5 0 ,9 2 9
A ll other m anufactures o f leather, saddleries, & c ............ 17,136
V a lu e o f m anufactured a rticles..................................... $ 3 3 ,1 3 4 ,4 0 3
Capital invested.................................................................... $ 1 2 ,8 8 1 ,2 6 2
S oap and C andles , N u m ber o f pounds o f soa p....................... 49,82 0 ,4 9 7
N u m ber o f pounds o f tallow c a n d le s .. 17,904,507
N u m ber o f pounds o f sperm aceti and
w ax c a n d le s ................................................. 2,936,951
N u m ber o f men e m p lo y e d ................................... 5,641
Capital invested............................................ $ 2 ,7 5 7 ,2 7 3
D istilled and F ermented L iquors .
N u m ber o f d is tille rie s..................................................................... 10,306
ga llon s p rodu ced............................................ 4 1 ,4 0 2 ,6 2 7
b re w e rie s ......................................................................... 406
gallon s p r o d u c e d ............................................ 2 3 ,267,730
men em p loyed.......................................................... 12,223
Capital invested...................................................................... $ 9 ,1 4 7 ,3 6 8
P owder M ills , N u m ber o f pow der m ills.......................
137
Pounds o f gu npow der............................................ 8 ,9 77 ,3 4 8
N u m ber o f m en em p loyed .................................................. 496
Capital invested......................................................... $ 8 7 5 ,8 7 5
D rugs, M edicines , P ain ts , and D ye s .
V a lu e o f m edicinal drugs, paints, dyes, & c ...................$ 4 ,1 5 1 ,8 9 9
V a lu e o f turpentine and varnish produced....................... $ 6 6 0,8 2 7
N u m ber o f men e m p loy ed ............................................................ 1,848
Capital invested....................................................................... $ 4 ,5 0 7 ,6 7 5
G lass , E arth enw are , & c .
N u m ber o f gla ss-h ou ses....................................................................... 81
34
cutting establishm ents................................................
m en em p loyed ............................................................... 3,236
V a lu e o f m anufactured articles, including lookingglasses ................................................................................... $ 2 ,8 9 0 ,2 9 3
Capital invested....................................................................... $ 2 ,0 8 4 ,1 0 0
N u m ber o f potteries............................................................................. 659
V a lu e o f m anufactured articles....................................... $ 1 ,10 4 ,8 2 5
N u m ber o f men em p loyed ............................................................ 1,612
Capital in v ested ............................................................................ $55 1,4 3 1
S ugar R efineries , C hocolate , & c .
N u m ber o f sugar refineries....................................................................43
V a lu e o f p r o d u c e .....................................................................$ 3 ,2 5 0 ,7 0 0
chocolate m anufactured......................................... $ 7 9 ,9 0 0
confectionery m ad e............................................ $ 1 ,1 4 3 ,9 6 5
N u m ber o f men em p loyed............................................................. 1,355
Capital invested...................................................................... $1,76 9 ,5 7 1
P a I'e r , N um ber o f paper manufactories..................................................... 426




Resources o f the United States.

439

P aper , V a lu e o f produce ................................ ................................. $ 5 ,6 4 1 ,4 9 5
all other m anufactures o f paper, playing
cards, & c ............................................................. $ 5 1 1 ,5 9 7
N u m ber o f men em p loy ed ............................................................. 4,726
Capital invested...................................................................... $ 4 ,7 4 5 ,2 3 9
P rinting and B inding , N u m ber o f printing o f fic e s .. . . -................ 1,552
N u m ber o f b in d eries.......................................... 447
N u m ber o f daily n ew spapers......................... 13S
w eek ly new spapers.................. 1,141
semi and tri- w e e k ly .................... 125
periodicals....................................... 227
men em p loyed........................ 11,523
Capital invested.................................... $ 5 ,8 7 3 ,8 1 5
C ordage , N u m ber o f rope w a lk s ................................................................. 388
V a lu e o f produ ce................................................................$ 4 ,0 7 8 ,3 0 6
N u m b er o f men em p loy ed ...................................................... 4 ,4 64
Capital invested................................................................ $ 2 ,4 6 5 ,5 7 7
M usical I nstruments , V a lu e p rodu ced.......................................... $ 9 2 3 ,9 2 4
N u m b er o f men em p loyed................................ 908
Capital invested.......................................... $ 7 3 4 ,3 7 0
C arriages an d W agons , V a lu e produced............................... $ 1 0 ,8 9 7 ,8 8 7
N u m ber o f men em p loy ed .................... 21 ,99 4
Capital invested.................................. $ 5 ,5 5 1 ,6 3 2
M ills , N u m ber o f flouring m ills..................................................................4 ,3 6 4
B arrels o f flour m a n u fa ctu red ............................................ 7,4 04 ,5 6 2
N u m ber o f grist m ills.................................................................. 23,661
saw do...................................................................... 31 ,65 0
oil
do............................................................................ 843
V a lu e o f m anufactures........................................................ $ 7 6 ,5 4 5 ,2 4 6
N u m ber o f men em p loyed.......................................................... 60 ,78 8
Capital invested.................................................................... $ 6 5 ,8 5 8 ,4 7 0
S hips , V a lu e o f ships and vessels built........................................ $ 7 ,0 1 6 ,0 9 4
F urniture , V a lu e o f furniture m ade........................................... $ 7 ,5 5 5 ,4 0 5
N u m ber o f men em p loyed................................................ 18,003
Capital invested............................................................ $ 6 ,9 8 9 ,9 7 1
H ouses, N u m ber o f brick and stone houses bu ilt............................... 8,429
wooden houses...................................................... 45 ,68 4
men em p loyed.........................
85,501
V a lu e o f constructing or b uildin g.. ........................... $ 4 1 ,9 1 7 ,4 0 1
A ll other M anufactures not enum erated .
V a l u e ..........................................................................................$ 3 4 ,7 8 5 ,3 5 3
Capital invested................................................................... $ 2 5 ,0 1 9 ,7 2 6
T otal C apital invested in m anufactures............................. $ 2 6 7 ,7 2 6 ,5 7 9
Another department o f the census is devoted to loca l co m m e rce ; and
in its returns we are presented with an interesting field o f investigation.
T h e active agents o f the com m erce o f a country, or those whose business
it is to bu y and to sell the several products o f foreign or dom estic growth,
com prise a large body o f men respectable by their numbers and their in­
fluence. T h e system o f com m erce, as a full com m ercial system, governed
b y certain w ell-defined and fixed principles, and b y uniform rules, in a ll
its relations and dependencies, reaches through the entire circle o f the




440

Resources o f the United States.

interest o f a country, and involves the most prominent matter o f national
legislation. The relative position and local circumstances o f foreign
countries, their productions, the laws by which they are governed, as well
as the international regulations which control the carriage o f merchandise
from port to port, are each calculated to call forth the keen discernment
o f mercantile men, and their strongest powers o f forecast and judgment.
W e may judge somewhat of the amount o f this interest in our own coun­
try by the statistical returns, which we here subjoin :—
COB1MERCE.

Number o f commercial houses in Foreign trade.............................. 1,108
Commission business................ 2,881
Capital invested........................................................................... $119,295,367
Retail dry goods, grocery, and other stores..................................... 57,565
Capital invested.......................................................................... $250,301,799
Lumber yards and trade.......................................................................... 1,793
$9,848,307
Capital invested.................
Number o f men employed................................................................... 35,963
Internal transportation— no. o f men employed............................... 17,594
................................. 4,808
Butchers, packers, & c.
do
Capital invested............................................................................ $11,526,950
Another interest which occupies a separate department o f the returns
is the fisheries ; an interest, that from the earliest period has been one o f
great value, employing a large number o f men, and maintaining a con­
siderable portion o f the coastwise trade. Besides the enterprise that has
been pursued along our coast, and the neighboring shores, taking the fish
o f a smaller sort, the whale fishery has, as our readers well know, been a
source o f great wealth to some o f the principal towns along the seaboard
o f N ew England, and it now involves a large number o f men, and a considerable amount o f capital. W e shall content ourselves by merely giv­
ing the aggregate amount o f the returns o f this interest, as developed by
the census, which is, o f course, exclusive o f that large quantity o f fresh
fish o f the smaller size, that is consumed in the country, and taken in the
interior and surrounding waters :—
Fisheries.
Number o f quintals smoked or dried fish....................................... 773,947
Barrels pickled fish........................................................ 472,359|
Gallons Spermaceti o il.............................................. 4,764,708
W hale andother fish oil............................. 7,536,778
Value o f whale-bone and other productions o f fisheries.. . $1,153,234
Number o f menemployed...................................................................... 36,584
Capitalinvested.............................................................................. $16,429,620
The next and last department o f the table o f statistical returns to which
w e shall refer, is devoted to the exhibit o f the productions o f the mines;
such as iron, lead, gold, and other metals, coal, salt, granite, marble, and
other stone ; and we are here ushered into a view o f the mineral resources
which lie hidden within the recesses o f our own soil. W e were before
aware, indeed, that Pennsylvania contained large masses o f the most valu­
able coal, and that Missouri had even its iron mountain; that Wisconsin,
and Illinois, and Missouri, and Iowa, were invested with the richest mines
o f lead, and that salt was produced in large quantities in the interior o f




Resources o f the United States.

441

Western New York, and even tinctured the springs o f some o f the more
western states ; that granite and marble, and even gold, which furnished
a reservation in the charters o f the early navigators, an article that was
supposed o f right to belong to the crowns from which they issued, all
slumbered in the s o il: but o f the exact amount o f these several metals
produced, we could only learn from such returns as we have here pre­
sented to us. The single articles o f iron and coal are o f the greatest
value to the country, and could hardly be dispensed with among us, where
so much machinery is used, both upon our lines o f inland transportation,
as well as in our various manufactories. O f the much sought for article
of gold, it appears that the states o f Virginia, North Carolina, South Caro­
lina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Tennessee, and even Illinois, yield
it in greater or less amount. WTe give the following returns o f the cen­
sus, which develop the proportions o f the different sorts o f minerals pro­
duced, as well as the capital invested in working the different mines :—
MINES.

Iron.
C ast, Number o f furnaces........................................................................... 804

Tons produced..................................................................... 286,903
Bab , Number o f bloomeries, forges, and rolling m ills......................... 795

Tons produced...................................................................... 197,233
Tons o f fuel consum ed........................................................... 1,528,110
Number o f men employed, including mining operations.. . . 30,497
Capital invested.................................................................... $20,432,131
Lead.
Number o f smelting-houses, counting each fire, one............................ 120
Number o f pounds produced........................................................ 31,239,453
Number o f men employed...................................................................... 1,017
Capital invested.............................................................................. $1,346,756
Gold.
Number o f smelting-houses........................
157
Value produced.................................................................................... $529,605
Number o f men employed...................................................................... 1,046
Capital invested................................................................................. $234,325
Other Metals.
Value produced..............................................
$370,614
Number o f men em p loyed........................................................................... 728
Capital invested......................................................................................$238,980
Coal.
A nthracite , Tons raised, (28 bushels each,)...............................

863,489
Number o f men employed............................................. 3,043
Capital invested.................................................... $4,355,602
B ituminous, Number o f bushels raised................................... 27,603,191
Men employed.................................................................... 3,768
Capital invested...................................................... $1,868,862
Domestic Salt.
Number o f bushels produced......................................................... 6,179,174
Men employed........................................................................................... 2,365
Capital invested............................................................................... $6,998,045




442

Resources o f the United States.

Granite, Marble, and other Stone.
Value produced............................................................................... $3,695,884
Number o f men em p loyed.................................................................... 7,859
Capital invested............................................................................. $2,540,159
It may be safely alleged that our own country possesses much larger
natural advantages than those o f Great Britain, not only in the extent o f
our territory, and its lines o f inland communication by rivers and lakes,
and the fertility o f our soil, but in the various mineral products which
every year is developing to the ligh t; and it is equally clear that consid­
ering the period in which our enterprise has been permitted independent
action, we have made much more rapid advances in the various de­
partments o f national industry, being second only to that empire in com­
mercial and manufacturing power, and we have advanced in this respect
within the lapse o f only a little more than fifty years o f self-government.
The census, whose aggregate we have given, shows us the value o f
our own industry and the important bearing which it must exercise upon
our commerce. The report o f the secretary o f the treasury for 1849,
exhibits the value o f the domestic exports o f the United States during that
year at one hundred and thirteen millions, eight hundred and ninety-five
thousand, six hundred and thirty-four dollars, all the produce o f our own
country. O f this value there was o f the produce o f the sea, three mil­
lions, one hundred and ninety-eight thousand, three hundred and seventy
dollars; o f the forest, five millions, three hundred and twenty-three thou­
sand and eighty-five dollars; o f agriculture, eighteen millions, five hun­
dred and ninety-three thousand, six hundred and ninety-one; besides that
o f cotton to the amount o f sixty-three millions, eight hundred and seventy
thousand, three hundred and seven dollars; that o f tobacco, nine millions,
eight hundred and eighty-three thousand, nine hundred and fifty-seven
dollars; and other agricultural products amounting to one hundred and
seventy-seven thousand, three hundred and eighty-four dollars. O f our
manufactures, we have exported to the amount o f six millions, four hun­
dred and twenty-five thousand, seven hundred and twenty-two dollars, be­
sides o f articles o f manufacture not enumerated, to the amount o f four
hundred and three thousand, four hundred and ninety-six dollars; and
seven hundred and forty thousand, three hundred and five dollars o f all
other articles. Taking this estimate as accurate, we may judge some­
what o f the existing and increasing influence exercised by our own domes­
tic products upon the commerce o f the country and their reciprocal bearing.
W e doubt not that the policy that is to be pursued respecting the va­
rious productive interests o f the nation, as well as its finance, will be
worthy o f their magnitude and importance and o f the character o f our
government. It has been our design in this article merely to exhibit the
amount o f the various interests o f the nation, as developed by the census,
and not to enter into any party discussion regarding the policy that is to
be pursued concerning them. W e trust, what we doubt not will be the
case, that the facts exhibited by the returns will be thoroughly studied by
our legislators, and that they w ill establish a frame o f policy upon them,
beneficial alike to the agricultural, manufacturing, and commercial inter­
ests. It has been our design, as we before remarked, merely to set forth
the resources o f our country, as developed by the last census, a noble
commentary upon the industry o f the people, the spirit o f our government,
and a source o f well-grounded and honest pride to every genuine patriot.




Laws relative to Debtor and Creditor.

443

A r t . V.—LAWS RELATIVE TO DEBTOR AND CREDITOR.

XVI.
IO W A

T E R R IT O R Y .

ORGANIZATION AND JURISDICTION OF THE COURTS.

T he judicial power o f the territory o f Iowa is vested in a supreme
court, district courts, probate courts, and in justices o f the peace. The
supreme court consists o f a chief justice and two associate judges, any
two o f whom form a quorum, and who hold a term at the seat o f govern,
ment, on the first Monday o f January annually. The judges o f the ter­
ritory hold their offices during the term o f four years. The said territory
is divided into three judicial districts, and one o f the judges o f the supreme
court resides in each district, and holds a district court twice in every
year in each county composing his respective district. The said supreme
and district courts, respectively, possess a full chancery as well as a
common law jurisdiction.
PROCESS.

All writs and process issued by any court in the territory, must run in
the name o f the United States, and bear test in the name o f the presiding
judge, and be sealed with the seal o f the said court. Suits for the col­
lection o f debts are commenced, either—
1st. B y summons ; or,

2d. By capias ad respondendum ; or,
3d. By attachment.
By a summons, which the clerk o f the court issues on the filing o f a
pracipe by an attorney, or on the filing, by any person or persons, o f his,
her, or their account, single bill, promissory note or due-bill, the defendant
is commanded to appear and answer the complaint o f the plaintiff on the
first day o f the term.
In all actions founded on contract, and in actions o f trespass for taking
personal property, and for trespass upon lands, a capias ad respondendum
may be the first process, provided the affidavit o f the plaintiff, or some
credible person, containing the following particulars, be first filed with the
clerk who is to issue the same.
1st. The affidavit must state, (either absolutely, or as deponent has
been credibly informed and verily believes,) that there is an indebtedness
of the defendant to the plaintiff, and that at least a certain amount (naming
it) is due.
2d. That the defendant has removed his property (or a portion thereof)
from the territory, or concealed, or otherwise disposed o f the same, with
intent (in either case) to defraud his creditors.
3d. That the defendant has within the territory, money, or other pro­
perty, or things in action, which cannot be reached by writ o f attachment,
and that he is about to abscond, with intent to defraud his creditors, as
defendant verily believes.
Every defendant arrested under a writ o f capias ad respondendum, may
be discharged upon executing to the sheriff o f the county a bond, with
sufficient security, in a penal sum equal to the amount mentioned in the
writ, conditioned that the defendant will appear at the return day o f the
said writ, and not depart without permission o f the cou rt; which bond




444

Laws relative to Debtor and Creditor.

shall be filed with the clerk who issued the writ. I f the defendant appear
agreeably to the conditions o f the bail bond, he may at any time there­
after, on motion, be discharged from custody, and the securities on his bail
bond released from liability by filing special bail, in a penalty equal to the
amount endorsed on the capias, conditioned that i f judgment in the action
be rendered against the said defendant, he shall pay the amount thereof,
or surrender himself on the issuing o f a writ o f execution against his
body.
W hen any action founded on contract shall have been commenced, or
shall be about to be commenced in the district court o f any county in the
territory, a writ o f attachment, shall be issued by the clerk o f the said court,
upon an affidavit being filed in his office, containing the following requi­
sites :
1st. It must state that something is due from the defendant to the plain­
tiff, and as nearly as practicable the exact amount.
2d. It must state, that (as defendant verily believes) the said debtor is
a non-resident o f the territory, or that he is in some manner about to dis­
pose of, or remove his property, with intent to defraud his creditors, or that
he has absconded, so that the ordinary process o f law cannot be served
upon him.
Such writs o f attachment, however, shall not issue in any case, until
there shall, also, be filed in the office o f the said clerk, a bond, with suffi­
cient sureties, to be by him approved, conditioned that the plaintiff shall
pay any damages which may be awarded to the defendant, in any suit
which said defendant may bring on the said bond, for damages sustained
for a wrongful suing out o f such writ o f attachment.
Upon affidavit filed in the office o f the clerk who issued the writ o f at­
tachment aforesaid, at any time before the return day o f the said writ,
stating that, as defendant verily believes, a certain person (naming him)
has property o f the defendant in his possession, or that he is indebted to
the said defendant, provided such indebtedness is not for daily labor, the
said clerk shall issue a summons to such person as garnishee, reciting the
above facts, and requiring him to appear at the time and place when and
where the said writ o f attachment is to be returned. The said garnishee
shall stand accountable to the said plaintiff for all the property or credits
o f the defendant in his hands at the time o f the service o f the writ, or
which may come into his hands after the service o f the said writ.
Creditors whose demands amount to not more than fifty dollars, and not
less than five dollars, may sue their debtors by attachment before a jus­
tice o f the peace in the following cases :
1st. W here the debtor is not a resident of, nor residing within the
county.
2d. W here the debtor has absconded, or concealed himself, or so ab­
sented himself from his usual place o f abode, that the ordinary process of
law cannot be served upon him.
3d. W here the debtor is about to remove his property out o f the county,
so as to hinder and delay his creditors.
4th. W here there is good reason to believe that the debtor is about
fraudulently to remove, convey, or dispose o f his property, or effects, so
as to hinder or delay his creditors.
A n y creditor wishing to sue his debtor by attachment as aforesaid, must
file his affidavit, or the affidavit o f some credible person, stating, that the




Laws Relative to D eltor and Creditor.

445

defendant is justly indebted to him in a sum above five dollars ; and also
stating the belief o f the affiant in one or more o f the facts, which entitles
the plaintiff to sue by attachment.
BILLS OF EXCHANGE.

When any foreign bill o f exchange, which may be drawn for any sum
of money, and expresses that value has been received, shall be duly pre­
sented for acceptance or payment, and protested for non-payment or nonacceptance, the drawer or endorser thereof, due notice being given o f such
non-payment or non-acceptance, shall pay said bill, with legal interest,
from the time such bill ought to have been paid, until paid, together with
the costs and charges o f protest.
Any bill o f exchange drawn upon any person, or body politic or cor­
porate, out o f the territory, but within the United States or their territo­
ries, for the payment o f money, and expressed to be for value received,
shall be duly presented for payment or acceptance, and protested for non­
payment or non-acceptance, the drawer or endorser thereof, due notice
being given o f such non-acceptance or non-paymeet, shall pay said bill,
with legal interest, from the time such bill ought to have been paid, until
paid, and five per cent damages in addition, together with costs and
charges o f protest.
PROMISSORY NOTES.

A ll promissory notes, bonds, due-bills, and other instruments o f writing,
made by any person, body politic or corporate, whereby such person or
persons promise to pay any sum o f money, or articles o f personal pro­
perty, or any sum o f money in personal property, or acknowledge any
sum o f money to be due, or articles o f personal property to be due, shall
be taken to be due and payable to the person to whom the said note, bond,
bill, or other instrument o f writing is made ; and any such note, bond, bill,
or other instrument in writing, made payable to any person, shall be as­
signable by endorsement thereon, under the hand o f such person, and o f
his assignee, in the same manner as bills o f exchange, so as absolutely to
transfer and vest the property thereof in each and every assignee succes­
sively ; and any assignee may institute and maintain the same kind o f an
action for the recovery o f any such note, bond, bill, or instrument in writ­
ing, as might have been maintained by the original payee or obligee.
Every assignor, or his heirs, executors, or administrators, on every such
note, bond, bill, or other instrument in writing, shall be liable to the action
of the assignee thereof, or his executors or administrators, i f such assignee
shall have used due diligence by the institution and prosecution o f a suit
against the maker or makers o f such assigned note, bond, bill, or other
instrument in w riting; but i f such suit would be unavailing against the
maker or makers, then such assignee may recover against such assignor,
as i f due diligence by suit had been used.
EXECUTION.

Real estate sold under execution in the territory may be redeemed by
the defendant at any time before the expiration o f twelve calendar months
from the day o f sale, by re-paying to the plaintiff the purchase money,
and ten per cent in addition ; and any person who may be a judgment
creditor o f the said defendant at the expiration o f the said twelve months,
VOL. V II. — no . v .
38




Lights and Shadows o f Mercantile Life.

446

m ay within three calendar months thereafter redeem said real estate, by
paying to the plaintiff in execution the amount for which said land was
sold, and ten per cent added thereto. The following property is exempt
from sale under execution :— One cow , one calf, one horse, or yoke o f cat­
tle, five sheep, five head o f hogs, household and kitchen furniture not to
exceed in value thirty dollars, one stove fixed up in the house, one bed and
the necessary bedding therefor for every two in the family, farming uten­
sils not exceeding in value fifty dollars, one months’ provisions for the
support o f the family, all mechanics’ necessary tools, and all private
libraries.
CONVEYANCES.

A ll deeds and conveyances o f lands, tenements, or hereditaments, situ­
ate, lying, and being within the territory, which shall hereafter be made
and executed in any other territory, state, or country, may be acknow­
ledged, proved and certified according to, and in conformity with the laws
and usages o f the territory, state, and country in which such deeds or
conveyances were acknowledged or proved, and they shall be as effectual
and valid in law, as though the same acknowledgment had been taken,
or proof made within the territory, or in pursuance o f the laws thereof.
T h e execution and delivery o f all deeds and conveyances in the territory
are considered prima fa c ie evidence o f their execution and delivery, and
the party denying the same must do it under oath.

A r t . VI.—LIGHTS AND SHADOWS OF MERCANTILE LIFE.
I I I .— T H E M E R C H A N T IN H IS S T U D Y .

“ ’ Tis not unknown to you, Antonio,
H ow much I have disabled mine estate
By sometimes showing a more swelling port
Than all my means would grant countenance.”
M erchant

of

V e n ic e .

C o l o n e l B e e r s retired to his study, where, indeed, for more than a
week he had spent the greater part o f every night. Here he resolved to
obtain, i f possible, a calm and dispassionate view o f his situation, and to
seek whatever o f fortitude or hope might yet be within his reach. The
fearful anxieties with which his spirit had wrestled ever since the cheer­
less dawn, breaking tardily and heavily upon his sleepless pillow, were
for the most part silenced, if not subdued. The overburdened spiritual
energies had well-nigh exhausted themselves. The severe mental con­
flict o f the evening, heightened, as we have seen, to almost insufferable
intensity by the remorse engendered by the scene around him, was over
for the present; for the voice o f love, mild and full o f hope, had mingled
in the wild uproar, and the strong spirit o f the man within him, started up
at the unwonted call, and, feeling that there was yet something in life
worth struggling for, had conquered. Poor man 1— in what a sea o f ago­
ny had he been swimming, and with what stem energy had he been buf­
feting with its waves o f fire, for weary days and wearier nights, with no
mild guiding-star to beam upon the almost shoreless despair, while the
winds, prophetic o f ruin, were moaning and howling in the distance ! But




Lights and Shadows o f Mercantile L ife.

447

now, whether it was the natural calm which sometimes follows intense
excitement, or whether the influence, the words, the prayers o f his daugh­
ter had opened to him an avenue o f comfort amid the gloom, he felt
strangely tranquil in mind ;— nay, strong enough to look the many-head­
ed fiend that haunted him in the face, and ask what his real power over
him might be.
He sat down, without agitation, before his writing-desk, and applied
himself steadily to the study o f a schedule o f liabilities and assets which
he had drawn up with his own hand not many days before. W hile thus
employed, we may be fairly justified in saying a few words to our read­
ers concerning his character and situation.
Julian Beers was a proud man ; but his pride, in the best sense in which
the world employs the designation, was an honorable emotion. It was,
indeed, the pride o f station, o f reputation, o f wealth ; but it was based, in
intention at least, upon strict integrity o f character. He would have
shrunk from the thought o f a mean and dishonorable action, as from the
touch o f a serpent, f ie knew no softer name for dishonesty, and he would
have scorned the wealth which is to be won in doubtful or base courses
o f business. As a merchant, therefore, he was a man o f principle, not
surely o f the highest and noblest sort, but still a man o f principle. For
years he had toiled manfully in his profession, and had won a considerable
fortune— as fortunes go— and an enviable name. He at length found
himself in the first class o f his order, and his pride was abundantly grati­
fied, by the respect and confidence which everywhere greeted him.
The pride o f wealth, as wealth increased, grew upon him, and assailed
him with many temptations, from which the man o f an humbler sphere is
exempt. That exorbitant thirst for splendor, luxury, and display, which
characterizes communities like ours, in times o f great zeal, or fancied
prosperity, had led him to aspire to the distinction which his family now
occupied in the fashionable world. The gayest season might have been
dull i f the popular fam ily o f Colonel Beers had not been among the first
to lead and to sustain it. It is true, that misgivings sometimes haunted
his breast, that the fortune invested in enterprises which fire and flood,
the hazards o f trade, the prostration o f confidence, or a reckless touch
upon the springs o f the political machine, might at any time seriously
impair, i f not destroy, ought not to be lavished as freely upon the baubles
of worldly show and pleasure as i f it were the income o f a millionaire.
But the tide rolled on, glittering, swelling, ever higher, ever stronger ;
and once on, it requires a stouter heart and rougher hand than his to get
out. Much, indeed, was sacrificed to mere vulgar glitter, much to the
veriest puppetry o f gilt and pasteboard— much to a despicable sort o f'
vanity which oftentimes brings its own sting along with it. Yet, although
Colonel Beers felt this to be the case, he excused himself with the thought
that it was a state o f things which he had no concern in causing, which
he could not mend, and which must be tolerated with the greatest share
o f complacency at command.
But this was not the most dangerous rock, which threatened to make
shipwreck o f his safety. There was another far more fatal, because
wholly unseen, in the bosom o f that wide whirlpool o f reckless adventure,
into which society had been drawn almost beyond recall. The old, cau­
tious, regular movements o f trade, had given place to a novel and more
enticing system. The spirit o f speculation was abroad, and its influence




448

Light and Shadows o f Mercantile L ife.

was felt in every department o f the business world. An inflated currency
gave encouragement to every kind o f scheme for making haste to be rich
— ruinous importations to supply fancied demands, which even the extreme
o f extravagance could not render real, successive creations o f imaginary
wealth by means o f bubbles, which, though o f air, became enormous ere
they burst; these, and a thousand features o f the times like them, which
w ill suggest themselves to the recollection o f every reader, were too truly
prophetic o f the future. But the spirit o f bold enterprise entered the
minds o f even the wisest and most cautious, and amidst the universal fer­
ment caused by the simultaneous operation o f so many puffing machines,
stoical, indeed, was the mind, and cold the heart, which could refuse to
hazard something.
Along with an undue expansion o f his regular business, Colonel Beers
had ventured largely in one o f the most brilliant and promising specula­
tions o f the day. These w ere the foundations on which he had latterly
essayed to build the temple o f his fortune, and he now felt them swelling
and sinking beneath his feet, while the edifice itself, tottering to its fall,
threatened every moment to crush him. Far and wide over land and
wave, to the east and west, to the north and south, the chain o f his correspondence extended, and his semi-annual importations flew from his
warehouses, as it were, on the wings o f the wind. Heavy discounts, and
long credits, rendered easy and general by the fatal facilities which the
banks afforded everywhere to everybody, sustained for a long time the
bright delusion, and all hearts beat high, and all tongues waxed eloquent
with the hope o f splendid fortunes, realized almost by the toss o f a copper.
But by and by, alas ! the sober certainty o f protested notes, and exten­
sive country failures, startled men into suspicion and reflection. In pro­
portion as facilities were withdrawn, the fall o f the million jobbers, scat­
tered “ thick as leaves” everywhere over the land, became accelerated.
Then commenced the crash in the distant cities ; then in those more n ear;
then the metropolis itself began to ring with harsh iron-tongued rumors
o f her proudest houses; confidence gave place to universal caution and
distrust, and the dark leaden clouds rolled heavily over the firmanent,
charged with the black and sulphurous artillery o f the tempest. Black,
indeed, almost rayless was the firmament, which, for a short period, had
hung over Julian Beers. A bolt or two had already scathed the green­
ness o f his fortune ; every moment might bring the unmitigated fury and
the overthrow. Had his adventures run only in the regular channel
o f his business, he might, perhaps, have defied the storm— he now felt, at
least, that in that case there was a possibility that all his engagements
might have been protected. But that speculation !—
The originators o f it, many o f them at least, had saved themselves;
some o f them had realized fortunes by it. But Colonel Beers, deceived
by its unusual popularity, had entered into it as it approached the crisis.
That crisis soon came. It was as destructive as it was unlooked for in
its movements, and he now stood among the vanishing bubbles o f the ex­
ploded air castle. T o him this was the finishing blow, and he felt it to be
so. In the pressure o f his difficulties, before he could realize the proba­
bility o f others still more severe, he had been led to adopt expedients
which in the ordinary course o f business he would have repudiated. But
a desperate man o f the world, who, in his selfishness, can scarcely realize
the sacredness o f his trusteeship— the man o f the world, who is not sus-




Lights and Shadows o f Mercantile L ife.

449

tained by those highest and truest principles which nerve the mind en­
lightened by religion, and quickened by religious feeling, w ill oftentimes
clutch with eagerness after the very phantoms which are luring him to
his ruin. In the protracted agony o f his situation, he went on, day after
day, making the most serious sacrifices in order to sustain himself. But
such sacrifices generally render the eventual ruin only the more certain
and deadly. And such the sacrifice proved to be in his case.
His daughter, the mild, meek, beautiful Em ily, had read much o f what
was in his heart on that fearful night, but she had not read the whole.
There was one purpose there, not suddenly inspired, but the result o f
many, many hours o f agony, o f which he dared not even then be fully
conscious himself. It had floated in ghastly indistinctness through his
mind, and the effort to drive it away, though strong at first, had become
feeble with every visitation, until at last he almost hugged it to his heart
as his speediest refuge. W hat that purpose was, it matters not now.
Suffice it to say that in those still and lonely morning hours, it came not
back, for the holiness o f prayer had laid the fiend to rest.
He sat for a long time absorbed in the study o f the documents before
him, and when he arose, it was with a cheek and brow o f deadly pale­
ness. He paced the floor, at first with a step somewhat languid, then
rapidly and with some show o f agitation. He sat down again and smote
the paper with his open hand, and exclaimed, “ A ll, a l l scattered to the
winds o f heaven! Great God ! can I be calm— can I live under a state
o f things so dreadful— I, Julian Beers, with the cold civility, with the
sneer o f the world upon me ? And for this I have toiled— for this— pov­
erty, want, and wretchedness with m y helpless, miserable family !”
His feelings became too strong for words. He leaned upon his clench,
ed hands, and— we will not say wept, for the manhood o f Julian Beers,
was strong— but the convulsive movement o f the chest and the workings
o f the countenance told that even tears might be a relief.
But there was no help for it. Ruin was upon him “ as a strong man
armed,” and his spirit must bend before it, or break. The proud, fallen
merchant was alone with his own heart, and with his God. The world,
as yet, knew not o f his overthrow ; but the next morning, or, perhaps,
the next, would ring it into the greedy ears o f the great idol he had wor­
shipped. He felt the terrible agony under which he had almost sank
once that night, rolling in upon his soul. He feared to remain any longer
alone. W ith a confused brain and tottering step he sought his bed-cham­
ber, and lay down, hopeless o f sleep, by the side o f one whose dreams
were scarcely less dreadful than his waking thoughts.
In the mean time, how fares it with Mr. Ockham ? W e shall glance at
his situation in our next number.

Commerce, as well as life, has its auspicious ebbs and flows that baffle
human sagacity, and defeat the most rational arrangement o f systems, and
all the calculations o f ordinary prudence. Be prepared, therefore, at all
times, for commercial revulsions and financial difficulties, by which thou­
sands have been reduced to beggary, who before had rioted in opulence,
and thought they might bid defiance to misfortune.
38*




Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

450

MONT HL Y

COMME RCI AL

CHRONI CLE .

Perhaps there never was a time in our commercial history when so great an amount
o f capital remained unemployed in the busy season o f the year, as during the past few
weeks. Great difficulty has been experienced in placing money so as to yield any in­
come whatever. It has been offered by capitalists to those large moneyed houses in
Wall-street, accustomed to receive deposites on interest, or rather, as it is expressed, to
take in money “ at call,” at reasonable rates o f interest, at 5 per cent per annum ; and
but small quantities have been used at that rate, from the impossibility o f employing it
in a manner that would yield a profit greater than that. This arises from many causes,
the most prominent o f which are— 1st, the want o f confidence in stocks even o f those
states in which hitherto the greatest reliance has been placed; and, 2d, of the greatly
diminished demand for money in mercantile operations. The discredit o f stock securi­
ties grows mostly out o f political causes. Contending parties have o f late years made
financial and commercial legislation an instrument o f furthering their own views, by
making large promises o f relief and protection to the people on the one hand, and of
throwing discredit on their opponents on the other. This disposition has been gradually
developed in the progress o f events, until either party has become radical in its views of
fiscal affairs. The one has been driven back upon direct taxation, rigid economy, and a
specie currency; while the other avows a policy o f almost unlimited indirect taxation,
liberal expenditure, and that worst o f all currencies, a government paper currency. The
line between these parties has been more distinctly drawn in New Y ork, than elsewhere;
but may give a true indication o f the general position o f affairs, because it is from New
York that the whole Union takes its cue. From N ew York emanated the bank mania
which spread over the Union with such rapidity, in the few years preceding the disasters
o f 1836-7. The success o f the Erie canal was made, in all other states, the argument
for immense public works, which have plunged many o f the states in debt, defalcation,
and dishonor. The same fever reacting upon New York, caused the projection o f many
new public works o f vast magnitude, as well as the enlargement of the Erie canal, at a
cost far above what any reasonable trade on its bosom can or ought to be burdened with.
A ll these undertakings pushed the debt o f the state, in 1841, to an extent at which it
became evident that to complete existing works, on the plan on which they were com­
menced, would carry it to an amount greater than could be met by the avails o f any
reasonable increase o f business on the works in progress o f improvement and construc­
tion. Here a line was drawn. One party were in favor o f prosecuting the works at
any and every hazard, and to depend upon the income to be derived from them for the
payment o f the interest and the gradual extinguishment o f the principal. This policy,
however, appeared so hazardous, especially when the trade of the whole union was
laboring under depression, and other states had been forced even to the verge o f repudia­
tion by the embarrassments created by following a similar course, that a prominent
member o f the party, avowing it in the legislature, seceded from it, and professed him­
self unwilling to increase the debt. The opposite party, being in the ascendancy, not
only decided not to increase the debt, but to levy a tax o f one mill on every $100 of
valuation, to raise $600,000 in order to meet any possible contingency that might arise
to jeopardize the prompt fulfilment o f the faith o f the state. They then authorized the
borrowing o f $3,000,000, at 7 per cent interest, to pay all floating claims, and to prevent
any dilapidation o f the unfinished works. The proceeds o f the tax were sacredly pledged
to the payment o f the interest on this debt, and the redemption o f its principal. On
these terms the money was obtained at par, when no other state, not even the federal




451

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

government, could borrow money at any rate. The last sum, o f $250,000, was taken re­
cently at par. In 1841, before the adoption o f these means, the stocks o f the state o f
New York fell to exceedingly low rates ; but immediately on their promulgation the
market value o f the stocks began to rise, until the latter part o f August, at which time
it became apparent, from the manner o f electioneering, that the election was to turn upon
the financial policy o f the state. The party in power showed a disposition to persevere
in their measures o f the last session o f the legislature ; while their opponents hoped to
gain power by throwing the odium o f a tax upon their antagonists, and by flattering the
people that the vast schemes o f public improvement would be continued through the
further use o f the credit o f the state. A t this point capitalists began to pause. A change
in the state financial policy during the present disastrous state o f the national credit
would be fatal to the interests o f all those connected with New York stocks. The
threatened repeal o f the mill tax was considered as a species o f repudiation, inasmuch
as it was upon the faith o f that tax that the state had borrowed on its 7 percent stock. This
view o f the case, although it did not induce any extensive desire to sell, prevented invest­
ments. Men o f wealth had rather let their funds lie idle for 30 days, than run the risk o f a
disastrous loss. The prices o f all other state stocks, as well as those o f most New Y ork banks,
would seriously feel the effects o f a new cause o f distrust in the empire state. The federal
government itself is in nearly as bad a condition in regard to its finances as most o f the
states, and for nearly the same reasons; viz, that party politics have seized upon its
financial affairs, in order to make them a stepping stone to political aggrandizement.
The expenditures o f the treasury have been pushed with an unsparing hand, while part
of its revenue was for a season diverted, under the pretence o f relieving the states
therewith, and the remainder jeopardized by the enactment o f a tariff, which savors far
more o f protection and prohibition than o f revenue. The expenditures, by these means,
being in excess o f the revenue, the debt has swollen in 18 months from about $5,000,000
to over $31,000,000 ; and the treasury being in arrears with its creditors, has no credit
to negotiate the loan authorized. Its treasury notes are taken for temporary investment
by banks and moneyed men, because by new enactments they now bear interest, when
not paid after maturity, and are also receivable for customhouse dues. T he laws in re­
lation to the existing revenues o f the department are open to repeal or modification the
moment that a new party comes into power.

A ll these combined causes have operated

against investments in stocks.
The demand for money for commercial purposes has greatly decreased from what it
formerly was, for many reasons. The prices o f commodities are less than half o f former
rates, requiring therefore a volume o f currency diminished in a similar ratio. The quan­
tity o f money has indeed been reduced by the explosion and curtailment o f many o f the
banks o f the Union, but perhaps not in a degree proportioned to the fall in prices. The
decline in values has been gradual since 1839, and may be illustrated in the following
table o f quantities, according to the census o f that year, and the current prices in the
New Y ork market:—
1839.
Average quantity produced.
Cotton................. ...lbs. 450,000,000
Flour..................... bbls. 22,000,000
W ool....................... lbs. 50,000,000

1842.
P rice.
0 14
9 50
0 50

Value.
$63,500,000
209,000,000
25,000,000

Total.................................................................... $297,500,000

Price.
0 08
4 00
0 30

Value.
36,000,000
88,000,000
15,000,000
$139,000,000

This gives a difference o f $158,500,000 in the quantity o f currency required for the
interchange o f three articles only o f agricultural produce. It is true, that a large portion
o f the flour and wool is consumed by the growers; what proportion, it is difficult to




452

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

arrive at exactly. The proportion o f currency requisite, however, holds good, and ex.
tends to all other articles ; showing, that from this cause alone, a great diminution in the
quantity o f money required for business purposes would be experienced. The fall in
values is brought about, in the first instance, by the stagnation growing out o f the shock
given to the banking system, which has heretofore been the instrument of commerce, and
enhanced by the abundant crops o f almost all articles o f agricultural produce. The ex.
treme low prices which now exist, say $ 4 50 for flour in the N ew Y ork market, at this
season o f the year, can, even if sales are effected, leave but very, little surplus in the hands
o f farmers and planters, either to pay old debts or to purchase supplies; hence, a de­
creased demand and fall o f prices, is apparent in most domestic and imported articles.
The diminished trade and reduced profits, become apparent in cities in the small divi­
dends o f the banks, and the shrinking value o f rents and real estate. In the city o f New
Y ork this latter result is made fearfully apparent in the relative value o f real and per­
sonal estate as assessed, for a series o f years, as follows :—
A ssessed V alue

of

R eal

and

P ersonal E state

A mount

1830.

Taxation........... ...
Population......... . . .
Taxation...........
Population.........

in the

and

C it y

of

N ew Y

ork , w ith the

P opulation .

1836.
$233,742,303
75,758,617

1839.
196,940,134
69,942,296

$218,723,703

$309,500,920

$266,882,430

1840.
187,121,464
65,721,699

1841.
186,350,948
64,843,972

1842.
176,489,012
61,294,559

.. $252,843,163

$251,194,920

$237,783,571

1835.
$850,000
256,007

1836.
$1,085,130

1839.
$1,352,832
312,710

1840.
$1,376,280
322,000

1841.
$1,394,136
335,000

1842.
$1,500,000
343,900

Total............. $125,388,518
..
..

T o ta l.............

T axes

1835.
$143,732,425
74,991,278

Real estate.......
Personal estate.

Real estate.........
Personal estate .

of

1830.
$509,178
203,007
...

In six years, from 1830 to 1837, the value o f property rose 150 per cent, and has fallen
back 60 per cent. Real estate in particular, is now scarcely 20 per cent higher than in
1835, and is now 24 percent less than in 1836; and the assessments are still high for the
actual value o f the property, as measured by its productiveness. Low as values have
fallen, there is as yet no confidence that the lowest points have been touched; hence,
but little disposition to embark in mercantile enterprise. Moreover, the recent tariff law
enacted, has by no means tended to promote present activity in trade. Without taking
into view, in any degree, its ultimate influence upon the welfare o f the country, we have
only to look to its effect upon passing events. Its first operation was to cause prices,
o f those articles on which heavy duties had been laid, to rise rapidly. That is to say,
importers, taking into view the present state o f affairs throughout the union, saw but lit­
tle opportunity o f being able to continue the imports under the advanced duties; hence,
they asked more for the stocks on hand. This operating upon a sluggish business, grow­
ing out o f very low prices o f produce, served only to check operations; while, on the
other hand, prices o f domestic articles, under the increasing quantities and diminished
foreign demand, have been falling. T he following are two tables— the first, showing
comparative prices o f imported articles at N ew Y ork and Boston ; and the other, the
rates o f domestic produce at similar periods in three leading cities:—




Monthly Commercial Chronicle.
P rices

of certain

A rticles

in

N ew Y

ork and

PASSAGE OF TH E

B oston

453
before and after the

T A R IF F .

BOSTON.

A ugust 20.

Old Sable Iron......... .88 00 a 90 00
75 a 78
Swedish ...................
22 a 25
Scotch Pig............... .
14 a 18
Molasses, Cuba......... .
IG a 19
“
P. R ........
33 a 34
Wine, Malaga......... .
“
white, Lisbon .
40 a 60
“
Oporto......... .
65 a 1 75
28 a 35
Catalonia................. .
Madeira..................... 2 50 a 3 00
Brandy, Otard......... . 1 40 a 1 50
“
Rochelle...... . 1 00 a
Rum, St. Croix........ ..
80 a 95
Gin, Scheidam........ .
70 a 80
“ Crown.............. .
90 a 95
Sugar, Havana white
7 a 8 50
“
“
brown 5 25 a 6 50
“
Brazil, white.
6a7
26 a 28
Cloves..................... .
Salt, Turks Island... 1 87 a 2 00
Prices

of

N EW

October 8.

— a 95
78 a 80
27 a 30
18 a 20
18 a 23
36 a 40
40 a 70
1 50 a 2 00
35 a 40
3 00 a 3 50
2 00 a 2 25
1 50 a 1 60
95 a 1 05
90 a 95
1 00 a 1 12
8 50 a 10 00
6 a 7 50
7 50 a 8 00
29 a 30
2 a 2 12

89 a 90
79 a 80
23 a 24 50
17 a 19
18 a 20
28 a 30
—
—
28 a 30
50 a 1 75
1 30 a 1 70
90 a 95
60 a 65
— a 95

Boston.

N . York. N . Orleans.

6
5
5
1

00
75
75
17
28
8 00
—
9 50

4 75
4 50
—

90
30
9 00
5 00
8 00

7J

3 00
32
3 50

7

4 50
12 (HI
3 00

October 8.

97 50
80
27
19
22
33

a 1
a 85
a 29
a 20
a 23
a 35
__
—
30 a 40
80 a 3
1 75 a 2
1 50 a 1
75 a 85
— a 1

—

00
50

00
50
55
12

—

7 50 a 9
4 a 6
- a 7
26 a 27
24 a 24

L eading A gricultural Products, A ugust 10,
A ugust 10.

Flour, Southern....... 6 25
“
Western....... 6 00
“ via New Orleans 5 75
Wheat......................
—
28
Oats, Southern.........
Beef, mess................ 9 25
“ No. 1.............. 7 00
Pork, clear............... 10 50
7
Lard.........................
Rice.......................... 3 00
Wool, American....
37
Lead, pig.................. 3 50

YO RK .

August 20.

75
75
25

8a 9
5 50 a 7 25
7 a 7 25
28 a —
28 a 30

50

October 15, 1842.
October 15.

and

Boston.

4 62
4 50
4 50
—
25
8 00
6 00
10 50
8
2 50
37
3 75

N. York. N. Orleans.

4 37
4 25
4 37
92
24
7 50
—
8 37

3 50
3 00
—
50
25
8 50
5 00
8 00

n

6

3 00
30
3 50

4 25
12 00
3 00

The first table shows an aggregate average advance o f 12 per cent in the imported
articles; and the last an aggregate average decline o f 16 percent: making a difference
to the agricultural producer, between what he sells and that which he buys, of 28 per
cent. So violent a fluctuation in the short space o f a few weeks, could have no other
effect than that o f paralyzing the markets, and enhancing the indisposition to employ
capital in new enterprises.
The imports o f foreign goods have greatly diminished in this posture of affairs, and the
homeward-bound packet ships have, even at this usually busy season, but very trifling
freights. Some o f our finest packet ships have returned to port with scarcely 10 per
cent of the freights they brought some two or three years since at this season o f the
year. Several o f them, from Liverpool, have come in with scarcely five hundred dollars
freight. In the winter o f 1839, a year indeed o f large imports, three packets out o f
Liverpool for New York were lost, with the following cargoes and freights:—
St. Andrew.
Value cargo................ 1,200,000
“
freight.............
12,500

Pennsylvania.
1,300,000
13,500

Oxford.
520,000
3,250

Total three Ships.
3,020,000
29,250

Here was an average o f over nine thousand dollars’ freights ; and this fall the average
will be but a very small per cent o f that sum.




454

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

This immense falling off in import business, has produced a sensible effect upon foreign
bills o f exchange, which probably have never been lower than now, at this period of the
year, which is that just previous to the forwarding o f the new crops, and when the ex­
port o f the precious metals takes place, if at all.
R ates

of

S terling B ills

in

N e w Y oke , from J ule■ to N ovember,
OF YEARS.

1836.
Ju ly......... 74 a 7 f
A u g u st.. .
a 74
September 7^ a 8
O ctob er.. 8 a 84
November 8 ^ a 94

19 a 20
2 0 a 21
14 a 15
15 a 16

Import
“
Export
“

goods..
specie.
goods.
specie

1836.
176,570,154
13,400,881
124,338,704
4,324,336

Import
“
Export
“

goods.
specie
goods.
specie

1837.
2 0 a 22

1838.
74 a 8
74 a 8
9 a 94
10 a 10|
94 a 94

1839.
8£ a 9

9
94
9
9

a 9^
a 10
a 94
a 94

1840.
74 a 8
7 f a 84
7 f a 84
8J a 9
8| a 9

foe

1841.

A SERIES

1842.

84 a 8 J
8| a 9

64 a 6 J

94 a 9 f
9 f a 104
10 a 104

64
74
7
5

a
a
a
a

7
84

74
6

1837.
130,482,803
10,506,414
111,443,127
5,976,249

1838.
95,970,288
17,747,116
104,973,051
3,513,565

1839.
156,496,956
5,595,176
112,251,673
8,776,743

1840.
.. 98,258,430
..
8,882,813
.. 123,669,932
..
8,416,014

1841.
122,957,544
4,988,633
111,817,476
10,034,332

1842.
!95,000,000
5,000,000
104,000,000
8 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

The rates o f bills for 1837, were during the suspension o f the New Y ork banks, and
are, o f course, quoted in the depreciated currency o f that year. The imports and exports
for 1842 are estimates, as the official returns are not yet made. In the fall o f 1839, when
the United States Bank finally stopped payment, a great flow o f specie took place ; that
institution up to August kept the rates down, by drawing, as it afterwards appeared, on
its own credit. During all that time, however, it was a constant shipper of c o in ; and
sent forward, from July to December, over $3,000,000, on its own account, from Phila­
delphia and New Y ork, being the proceeds o f its post notes sold, and also of its exchange
bills. W hen that fictitious supply ceased the rate rose, until three of the N ew York
banke took a N ew York state loan o f $1,500,000 five per cent stock on time, and send­
ing it forward drew against it, sufficiently to check the shipment of coin. In the follow­
ing year, which was one o f small import and large export, the movement o f specie was
about equal the export, being mostly for dividends and bank payments. In 1841, the
export was less than during the previous year, and the import larger, making a difference
o f $31,000,000 in the balance: accordingly exchange rose at the close o f the year, and
specie went forward freely, until the bills drawn against the new crops made their ap­
pearance ; but the drain was so great, that the banks becoming alarmed, repeated their
movement o f 1839, in relation to supplying the market with bills; happily, however,
there was but little occasion for this help. During the present year, a fair amount of
exports has been sent forward, but owing to the continued contraction of the banks,
causing a derangement o f business, the imports have been smaller— hence the balance
due the United States, notwithstanding that large sums are due foreign creditors for the
interest and principals o f loans heretofore had. In addition to an apparent balance due,
it has become requisite for the foreign manufacturers to send forward specie in the pur­
chase o f cotton. The dilapidation o f the southern banks and the fall in exchange have
become so great, that the old system o f buying on bills o f credit, and discounting the
sixty-day bills on N ew York, cannot be pursued; and it is requisite to send forward
specie to make the purchase, from France, England, and N ew York. This has been
done already, to the extent o f probably $ 1,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 , and will continue in some degree.
The plenteousness o f money, both in England and on the continent, favors this opera-




455

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

tion; and it will be enhanced by the probability o f a renewed activity in the home mar­
ket of England, growing out o f the low prices o f food, a powerful element o f manufac­
turing prosperity. This affords a favorable view for cotton-growers ; but the large har­
vests o f England do not offer so much prospect o f a vent for our superabundant agricul­
tural produce in that quarter. It has been stated, however, that the harvest o f France
is deficient, as also that o f the Mediterranean coast o f the southern countries o f Europe.
France is, generally speaking, a grain and food importing country, both on her own ac­
count and to supply her colony o f Algiers, as well as those o f the West Indies. In rela­
tion to the import o f grain into France, we have compiled, from official sources, the fol­
lowing table, showing the quantities o f grain imported into France, as well as the
sources from whence it is drawn. According to an article in our September number, on
the Trade o f France, it will be observed, that the years 1832-6-40 were years of the
largest import; we, therefore, take those years with the export for 1840 :—
W

heat imported into

F rance

for a series of year s , w ith the export for

1832.

Where from .
Russia, (litres,)............
Sweden,........................
Denmark,.....................
Prussia,.........................
Mecklinbergh Schwerin,
Hanse Towns,.............
Holland,........................
Belgium,.......................
England,........................
Portugal,........................
Spain,............................
Austria,.........................
Sardinia,........................
Two Sicilies,...............
Tuscany,......................
Roman States,............
Switzerland,................
Germany,....................
Greece,..........................
Turkey,........................
Egypt,........................... ..
Algiers,.........................
Barbary States,...........
United States,..............
Brazils,.........................
Other countries,...........

86,368,277
521,850
6,986,200
39,459,689
—
38,996,207
6,731,050
5,578,412
52,280,025
119,060
6,158,401
21,063,010
55,092,136
43,937,335
16,364,773
—
100,895
16,518,249
4.124,360
34,230,540
--701,780
16,180
356,200
—
100

Total litres, — ..
“ bushels,..
Value— francs,..
“
dollars,.

435,701,729
12,448,620
87,140,346
16,338,814

Import.
1836.
59,677,359
—

1,906,550
1,576,500
—

4,426,102
564,684
29,380
1,330,757
215,500
2,110,300
32,023,559
25,013,903
14,048,975
9,411,399
—
75
2,683,486
—

1,793,860
—
565,685
1,161,959
—

—
556
158,540,589
4,529,729
31,708,117
5,845,271

1840.
44,577,475
—
8,010,630
11,634,090
6,019,400
27,531,070
2,622,683
15,251,089
6,426,777
—
11,255,297
1,357,250
53,585,340
4,067,949
20,596,169
8,358,262
111,214
3,978,033
—
13,976,880
6,867,310
400
—

58,400
—
74,000
246,359,158
7,038,849
49,271,944
9,238,389

Flour Import and the Export fo r 1840.
—
—
—
Algiers,........................
—
—
—
Brazils,......................... ..
—
—
—
Gaudaloupe,................
6,020,909
U. States, (kilog.)......
9,904,585
95
—
—
—
Martinique,..................
847,032
4,377,151
670,237
Other countries,..........
Total
“
“
“

kilog.......
bbls.........
francs,....
dollars,...




14,382,736
158,210
5,033,954
943,866

670,332
6,823
234,616
43,986

6,867,941
60,870
2,403,779
450,708

1840.
Export.
1840.
—

720
—
8,120
—
—
—
1,081,342
12,493,394
344,358
22,212
—
33,021,386
120
—
—
970,942
425
—
—

—
11,073,115
3
910
103,800
248,085
59,368,932
1,553,398
11,873,786
2,226,334
9,587,560
562,231
3,421,588
—
4,031,019
4,134,822
21,737,220
239,109
4,347,444
815,145

456

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

This table gives us the fact, that in three years here quoted, wheat and wheat flour
equivalent to an annual average o f 8,143,339 bushels o f wheat, were imported into
France, and nearly all for French consumption. The year 1840 was the year o f the
largest export from the United States, and was one o f short crops in England and France
also. Last year the crops were also small, and a succession o f defective crops have
largely reduced the stocks in the granaries o f Europe. This year the harvest o f England
is sufficient for its own use, while that o f France is short, as well as that o f Spain.
These facts, in connection with the abundance o f money in Europe, interest being for
the first time for many years, at 3 per cent in Paris, leads to the conclusion that prices
will so rise as to afford a market for American flour, more especially to supply the
240,000 barrels necessary for the French colonies. The flour imports o f France, it ap­
pears, are mostly from the United States.
This state o f affairs on the continent, as well as that in England, is likely to lead to a
demand for American produce, more especially as the prices are so low as to compete
successfully with the agricultural produce o f Europe. This produce, both for England
and the continent, must be paid for in specie— a fact practically evinced by the present
low state o f the exchanges with Europe, at this season o f the year, when usually they
rule highest. The precious metals are now flowing in from Europe in answer to the
low state o f sterling bills, o f which the best descriptions have been sold as low as
per
cent, nominal premium ; a rate which will allow o f their purchase for the purpose o f im­
porting their proceeds in specie. Favorable as are the foreign exchanges at this point, they
are still more so at the leading points o f the south, being at a nominal discount o f 1£ a 2
per cent at N ew Orleans, where also sight bills on N ew York are at a heavy discount,
a fact which, as indicated in our last number, has led to the export o f specie from this
city to that point to an amount ranging from $1,500,000 to $2,000,000 ; the amount
afloat, at one time, being so great as to induce the insurance offices to decline further
risks for the present. Large sums in specie have arrived at N ew Orleans direct, for the
purchase o f cotton ; and also at this point, both on speculation and for employment.
Such a movement at this season o f the year, when usually it goes abroad, is indicative
o f a larger import, as the produce moves forward to the points o f sale in accumulating
quantities. The flow o f specie may be so large to this side as to cause some uneasiness
to the Bank o f England, but it is now beyond her power to control it. The demands
upon her are not the proceeds o f loans that may be checked at pleasure, or the conse­
quence o f high prices there, which may be reduced by a restringent policy ; but they
are the proceeds o f produce at low prices, which must be had to keep in motion the
manufacturing interests. It is one o f the moving causes that is undermining the whole
paper system, and will oblige England to keep her currency on a level with that of the
rest o f the world with which she holds commercial intercourse. In the few years pre­
ceding the late revulsion, attempts were made to spread the paper system on the conti­
nent o f Europe, and some progress was made therein, many new banks having been es­
tablished in France, Belgium, and some other countries. These were, however,
speedily overtaken by disaster, and now that the paper system in the United States has
been nearly destroyed, and the manufacturing supremacy of England, (the support of
her paper system,) done away with by successful rivalry, there remains but another
short crop to put a finish to that pernicious system. The present state o f affairs in this
country promises a period o f solid prosperity, which can in future be but little influenced
by convulsions abroad.




United States Tariff.

COMME RCI AL

457

REGULATI ONS .

T A RIFF OR R A T E OF DUTIES
P AYABLE ON GOODS, W A R E S , A N D M ERCHANDISE IM PORTED INTO T H E UN ITED STA TE S, FROM AN D
A F T E R T H E 3 0 T H D A Y OF AU GU ST, 1 8 4 2 , ACCORDING TO ACT OF CONGRESS OF T H A T D A T E .

Compiled fo r the Merchants’ Magazine, b y H e n r y D o a n e , clerk in the Square Yard department o f the
Customhouse, New York.

Absynthe, extract o f....... cts. per gal.

60

Acacia............................................... free
Acetate o f lead, or white lead, dry
or ground in oil,.
___ '
Acids. Benzoic,...
Citric,.................
Muriatic,white & yellow,
[►perct.
Nitric,.................
Oxalic,.................
Pyroligneous,.....
Tartaric,.............

4

20

5
1
Sulphuric, or oil o f vitriol, per lb.
A ll others not otherwise enumer20
ated,...............
20
Acorns,..................
Adhesive felt, for covering ships’
free
bottoms,..
20
Adhesive plaster, salve,..
30
A d zes,..............................
African or Cyenne, or Chili pep10
pers,...............................
Agates, plain,..................
20
| per cent
do
bookbinders,......
Alabaster, ornaments o f... ...per cent
30
Alcornoque bark,.............................. free
Ale,oth’rwise than in bottles, per gal.
15
Ale, in bottles (no duty on bottles,)
per gal.,............................................
20
[Twelve o f the common size porter
bottles are estimated as containing
2£ gallons.]
Ale, in casks,......................... per gal.
15
A llspice,.................................. per lb.
5
do.
oil of........................ percent
20
Almonds,..................................per lb.
3
do.
oil of,........................per lb.
9
do.
paste...................... per cent
25
Aloes,................................................... free
Alum,..
.per lb.
A m ber,............................... .per cent
20
do. beads,.................... .per cent
25
do. oil o f....................... •per cent
20
Ambergris,........................... .per cent
20
Amethysts,.......................... .per cent
7
Ammonia,............................ .per cent
20
do.
preparations of, not otherwise enumerated,........... .per cent
20
Ammunition, viz—
Canister shot,................ "I
Cannon balls,................
Chain shot,.................... - per lb.
1
Grape shot,....................
Langrage,......................
VOL. V II.— NO. V .




Lead shot,.............................per lb.
4
Gunpowder,.........................per lb.
8
Anatomical preparations, specially
imported,......................................... free
Anchors, and all parts thereof,per lb.
2£
Anchovies, in bbls., pickled, per bbl. 1 00
do. otherwise than in bbls., pr. ct.
20
Angora goats’ wool, or camels’ hair,
per lb.
1
Animals specially imported,........ .
free
Annatto,................................. per cent
20
Anise seed,............................per cent
20
do. cordial, so called,........per gal.
60
do. oil o f............................per cent 20
Antimony, crude,............................... free
do. preparations of........ per cent
20
Antique oil, perfumery,.........per cent 25
Antiquities, specially imported,......... free
Not specially imported, according to
the materials o f which they are
composed.
A nvils,...................................... per
lb.2£
All goods,wares, or merchandise, the
growth, produce, or manufacture
o f the United States, exported to
a foreign country, and brought
back to the United States; and
books,and personal and household
effects, (not merchandise,) o f citi­
zens o f the United States, dying
abroad,............................................. free
Apothecaries glass measures, with
engraved lines. {See glass.)
do. vials and bottles, not exceed­
ing the capacity o f six ounces
each,................................per gross 1 75
do. exceeding the capacity o f six
ounces, and not exceeding 16 oz.
each,................................per gross 2 25
Apparatus.-----Philosophical instru­
ments, books, maps, and charts,
statues, statuary, busts and casts of
marble, bronze, alabaster, or plas­
ter o f Paris, paintings, drawings,
engravings, etchings, specimens o f
sculpture,cabinets o f coins, medals,
gems and all other collections o f
antiquities ; provided the same be
specially imported in good faith
for the use (and by the order) of
any society incorporated or estab­
lished for philosophical or literary
purposes,or for the encouragement
o f the fine arts, or for the use and

39

458

Commercial Regulations .

by the order o f any college, academy, school, or seminary o f learning
in the United States,..................... free
Appartus, philosophical, not specially
imported, according to the materials o f which they are composed.
Apparel, wearing, in actual use, and
other personal effects, not merchandise, professional books, instruments, implements, and tools
o f trade, occupation, or employ­
ment o f persons arriving in the U.
States,.............................................. free
Aqua ammonia, or spirits o f harts20
horn,.................................. per cent
20
Aquafortis,.............................per cent
20
do. mellis,.......................... per cent
free
Arabic, gum,......................................
60
Arrack,................................... per gal.
Argentine alabata, or German silver,
in sheets or otherwise, unmanu30
factured,............................ per cent
do. manufactures of, not otherwise
30
enumerated,...................... per cent
5
Argent vivum,...................... per cent
A rgol,................................................... free
Arms, fire, except muskets and ri­
30
fles,.....................................per cent
30
do. side,..............................per cent
20
Arrowroot,............................ per cent
A rsenic,.................................per cent
20
Articles, the growth, produce, or
manufacture o f the United States,
free
its territories or fisheries,.............
Articles composed wholly or chiefly,
in quantity, o f gold, silver, pearl,
and precious stones, according to
materials.
Articles, all not free, and not subject
20
to any other specified duty,..pr. ct.
Articles manufactured from gold,
silver, brass, iron, steel, lead, cop­
per, pewter, tin, German silver,
bell-metal, zinc, and bronze, not
30
otherwise enumerated,....per cent
Articles, all imported for the use o f
the U. States,.................................... free
Artificial feathers, or parts thereof,
per cent
25
do. flowers, d o................. per cent
25
Assafcetida, gum,............................... free
Asses skin,.............................per cent
25
do. imitation of,.................per cent
25
Avaroot,................................................. free
Arbusson, carpeting,.............sq. yard
65
Augers,...................................per cent
30
A w l hafts,.....................
percent 30
A w ls,.............................................. percent30
A x e s ,..................................... per cent
30
3
Bacon,.............................. ........ per lb.
Baggage, personal, in actual use,... free
Bagging, cotton,.......................squareyd. 4
Bags, Grass,....................... ’ .per cent
25
Gunny,.......................... squareyd. 5




Bags, W oollen,.........
W orsted,........
Carpet,...........
Baizes,.......................
Balls— billiard,..........
Cannon,.........
Musket, lead,
Iron,..............
W ash,...........
Balsams, all not in a crude state,
per cent
do. all kinds o f cosmetics, per cent
do. o f T olu,...........
Balm o f Gilead,.......
Bamboos— unmanufactured,.............
Canes, mounted,per cent
Bananas, in bulk,....
do. preserved in sugar, brandy.
or molasses,..........
Barilla,.......................
Bark— Cork tree,....
Peruvian,......
Barley,......................
do. pearl,.............
Band-iron, slit or rolled,......... per lb.

40
30
30

14
20

1
4
1
30
25
25
25
25
free
30
free
25
free
free
free
20
2
24

Bar-iron, in bars or bolts, when man­
ufactured in whole or in part, by
rolling,.............................. per ton 25 00
do. not manufactured in part or
whole, by rolling,............ per ton 17 00
Barwood,.......................................... free
Barytes, sulphate of,......................perlb.
4
Bastard files,......................... per cent
30
Bassoons,................................per cent
30
Baskets, o f wood, ozier, palmleaf,
willow, straw, or grass,...per cent
25
Bass, rope,......................................perlb. 6
30
Battledors,.............................. per cent
Bay wax, or myrtle wax,...per cent
20
Bayonets,................................per cent
30
Beads,wax, amber, composition, and
25
all others not enumerated,...pr. ct.
Beans, Tonkay,Vanilla, and
all
others,............................... per cent
20
Beaver. {See fu r.)
25
Bed feathers,....................... per cent
30
do. screws,......................... percent
Bed sides. (<See carpeting.)
Beef,................................................ perlb. 2
Beer, in bottles,.................... per gal.
20
15
do. otherwise than in bottles,
“
Beeswax, bleached or unbleached,
15
per cent
35
Bellows,................................per cent
30
do pipes,....................... per cent
30
Bell— cranks,.......................per cent
Metal, old, for remanufact’ng, free
Parts o f old bells,.................... free
35
Belts— sword leather,........ per cent
Sword,embroidered with gold
or silver thread, done with
20
a needle,..............per cent
20
Benzoic, acid, or Flor Benzoin, pr. ct.
20
Benjamin, gum,...................per cent

United States Tariff.
Bed-spreads, or covers made o f waste
ends and scraps o f printed calicos
se.wed together, not subject to reg­
ulations on cotton cloths,..per cent
30
25
Bergamot, oil of,.................. per cent
Berries— all used for dye,................ free
Juniper,................ per cent
20
All others,.......................... free
Bezoar stones,...................... per cent
20
Bichromate o f potash,......... per cent
20
Binders’ boards, paper,.......... per lb.
3
Binding— Carpet,................. per cent
30
C otton,................ per cent
30
W oollen a component
part,.................. per cent 40
Worsted & silk,..per cent
30
25
Linen,.................. per cent
Birds,...................................... per cent
20
Bismuth and oxide bismuth,per cent
20
£
Black ivory or bone,........... per cent
Lamp,...........................per cent
20
Black lead pencils,...............per cent 25
Lead pots,...................per cent 20
Lead powder,............ per cent 20
Lead crucibles,...........per cent 20
do.
Glass bottles, not exceeding
the capacity o f 1 qrt. each, pr. gro. 3 00
do.
exceeding 1 quart,...... pr. gro. 4 00
Blacking, shoe and boot,....per cent
20
2£
Blacksmiths’ hammers,..........per lb.
Bladders,.................................. per lb.
20
Blankets, woollen, cost not exceed­
ing 75 cents each at the place
whence imported, and dimensions
not exceeding 7 2 x 5 2 inches each,
nor less than 4 5 x 6 0 ,....... per cent
15
do. Goats’ hair, or Mohair, per ct.
20
do. all other woollen,........per cent
25
4
Blue vitriol,............................. per lb.
Boards in the rough, not planed nor
wrought into any shape for use—
per cent
20
do. wrought into shapes that fit
them, respectively, for any specific
or permanent use without further
manufacture, shall be deemed as
manufct’d wood, and pay....pr. ct.
30
Bobbinet, cotton lace,..........per cent
20
Bobbin,....................................per cent 30
Bobbin wire. (See wire.)
Bookings,.................. per square yard
14
Bodkins— ivory,.....................per cent 20
Bone,.................... per cent 20
30
Metallic,............... per cent
Bohea tea, when imported in Ameri­
can vessels from place o f produc­
tion,............................................. .
free
Boiler plates. (See iron.)
Bologna sausages,................. per cent 25
Bolt rope...Tarred,................ per lb.
5
Untarred,...............per lb.
4£
Bolting cloth, silk,................. per cent 20
Bone tips,............................... per cent
5
Bone...W hale, rosettes.........per cent
20




Bone, Whale, o f for’ n fisheries, p. ct.
do.
manufactures o f whalebone
not otherwise enumerated,pr. cent
Bonnets... Leghorn,chip,grass,straw,
or made.from any vegetable... sub­
stance
per cent
Bonnets— silk or satin,............. each 2
do. whalebone,fur, or leather,pr. ct.
do. cotton,........................... per cent
do. hair,............................... per cent
Bonnet wire, or canetitle, if covered
with silk,............................... per lb.
do. covered with cotton thread or
other materials,......................per lb.
Books— Blank, bound,............. per lb.
Unbound,............................... per lb.
Printed in the English language, or
o f which English forms the text,
when bound,......................per lb.
Unbound, or in sheets,.........per lb.
Provided,That whenever the import­
er shall prove to the satisfaction
o f the collector when the goods
are entered, that any such book
has been printed and published
abroad more than one year and
not republished in this country;
or has been printed and published
abroad more than five years before
such importation : then, and in
such case, such books shall be ad­
mitted at one half the above rate
o f duties. Provided that the said
terms o f one year, or five years,
shall in no case commence or be
computed at and from the day be­
fore the passage o f this act.
do. Latin and Greek, or in which
either language forms the text,
when bound,......................per lb.
U nbound,.............................. per lb.
On books printed in Hebrew, or
o f which that language forms
the text, when bound,...per lb.
Unbound,.............................. per lb.
All printed in foreign languages,
Latin, Greek, and Hebrew ex­
cepted, when bound or in
boards,....................per vol.
In sheets or pamphlets........ per lb.
Editions o f works in the Greek,
Latin, Hebrew, or English lan­
guages, which have been print­
ed 40 years prior to the
importation,............ per vol.
Reports o f legislative committees
appointed under foreign.govern­
ments,
per vol.
Polyglots, Lexicons, and Diction­
aries,.................................. per lb.
Engravings or plates, with or with­
out letter press, bound or un­
bound,...................... per cent
Maps and charts,............ percent

459
12£
20

35
00
35
40
35
12
8
20
15

30
20

15
13

10
8

5
15

date of
5

5
5

20
20

460

Commercial Regulations .

B’ks, Professional, belonging to per­
sons arriving in the U.States, in
actual use,................................... free
Boots and bootees, men’s, leather,
wholly or partially manuf’d,...pair 1 25
50
Boots— women’s, do. do....... pair
do. children’ s, do. do ............pair
15
do. silk or satin, laced, for women
75
do. children, do. do.
25
Boot webbing— Cotton,..
30
25
Flax,.............................
20
Hemp,..........................
Borax, or Tinea!,...........
25
Botany, specimens of, specially imfree
ported,...........................
Bottles-Apothecaries, not exceeding
the capacity o f 6 oz. each, per gro. 1 75
Exceeding 6 oz., and not exc’ding
the capacity o f 16 oz. each, pr.g. 2 25
Perfumery and fancy vials and
bottles, uncut, not exceeding the
capacity o f 4 oz. each, per gross 2 50
do. do. exceeding 4 oz., and not
exceeding in capacity 16 ounces
each,.............................per gross 3 00
Black and green, and jars, exc’ding 8
oz., and not exceeding in capacity
1 quart each,....... ........... per gross 3 00
Exceeding 1 quart each, per gross 4 00
Cut and engraved. (See glass.)
Demijohns and Carboys, o f the ca­
pacity o f half a gal. or less,...each
15
Exceeding half a gal., and not ex­
ceeding 3 gallons,.............each
30
Exceeding 3 gallons,............ each
50
Bougies, gum-elastic,.......... per cent
30
Boxes— Gold or silver, musical, ja­
panned, (dressing,) all wood, or
sand, o f tin,........................per cent 30
Tortoise shell, paper snuff-boxes,
japanned or not, or paper fancy
boxes,.............................. per cent 25
Box boards, paper,.................per lb.
3
Bracelets— Gold or set, or gilt. (See
jew elry.)
Hair, human, or other,...per cent,
25
Other, not oth’ rwise enum’ ted, “
30
Braces and bits— carpenters’,or parts
thereof,................................ per cent 30
do. or suspenders o f silk, with buck­
les or without,cotton, or worst­
ed,
per cent
35
W oollen, if made on frame, pr. ct.
40
I f made by needle,........ per cent 50
Indiarubber or in part, costing less
than $ 2 per doz., to be valued
30
as costing $ 2 ,............per cent
Leather,........................... per cent
35
Brads— not exceeding 16 ounces to
the 1000,......................... per 1000
5
E xc’ding 16 oz. to the 1000,pr.lb.
5
Braids— Curls, chains, and ringlets,
made o f hair, for ornaments for




headdresses,......................percent
25
Braids, Silk, for
do........per cent
30
Straw, or other vegetable substan­
ces for making bonnets,per cent 35
Brandy, o f all proofs,....... per gallon 1 00
Brass— in sheet or rolled,...per cent
30
In pigs or bars,............................... free
Battery or hamm’d kettles, per lb.
12
30
Screws,................................ per lb.
W ire,................................. per cent
25
Old, and fit only to be remanuf’d, free
Other manufactures of, not other­
wise enumerated,........ per cent
30
Braziers’ rods, and round or squar’d
iron, 3-16ths to 10-16ths o f an inch
diameter,..............................per lb.
2£
Brazil W ood, in stick,..................... . . free
Ground,..............................per cent
30
Brazilletto W ood, in stick,.............. free
Ground,...............................per cent
30
Brazil Pebbles, prepared for specta­
cles,.................................. per gross 2 00
Bread Baskets, japanned, plated, or
silver,.................................. per cent 30
Bricks and paving tiles,.........per cent 25
Britannia W are,..................... per cent
30
Bridle Bits,............................. per cent 30
Bridles,....................................per cent
35
Brimstone, crude, and flour sulphur, free
Roll,.....................................per cent 25
Bristles,.................................... per lb.
1
Bronze, manufactures of, not other­
wise enumerated,.............. per cent 30
Liquor, gold or bronze color,pr.ct.
20
Powder,..............................per cent 20
Brooms and brushes o f all kinds, “
30
Brown Spanish Dye,...............per lb.
1
Ground in oil,..................... per lb.
1£
Brown Smalts,.......................per cent 20
Buckles, metallic, of all sorts,per ct.
30
Buffalo cloth, cotton goods manufac­
tured by napping or raising, cut­
ting or shearing, if costing less
than 35 cents the square yard, to
30
be estimated at 35 cents, per cent
30
Bugles, musical instruments,..pr. ct.
•25
20
Building stones,.................. .per cent
4
Bullets, lead,........................
1
Iron,.......... .....................
20
Bulrushes,............................ .per cent
free
Bulbs, or bulbous roots,....
Bullion,................................ _x...... free
30
Bunting,............................... .per cent
free
Burr stones, unwrought,....
20
Wrought,......................... .per cent
25
Burgundy pitch,.................. .per cent
4
Busts— Lead,......................
30
Marble,..'......................... .per cent
20
Other, not otherwise specified, “
5
Butter,..................................
30
Buttons— Metal of all kinds,per cent
I f costing less than $ 1 per gross,
to be valued at $ 1 — all others,

United States Tariff.

461

Caps— Leather,................. ...per cent
o f whatever materials com­
35
25
Silk, for ornaments to women’s
posed, .......................... per cent
headdresses,..............
30
N ote. Lastings, prunellas, and sim­
Linen, made by hand,.. .per cent
40
ilar fabrics, and mohair, or worst­
Cap.pieces, for stills,.........
ed cloth, black linen, canvass,
30
Capes, lace, sewed,..........
figured satin, figured, brocaded, or
40
Carbines,............................
Terry velvet, when imported in
30
Carbonate o f Soda,...........
strips, pieces, or patterns, o f the
20
Carbuncles,........................
size and shape, exclusively o f but­
7
Carboys, not exceeding in. capacity
tons,.................................. per cent
£ gallon,......................
Button Molds, o f whatever materials
15
Exceeding A gallon and not excomposed,...................................percent25
ceeding 3 gallons,....
Butcher Knives,............................. percent30
30
Exceeding 3 gallons,....
Butt Hinges, iron,................... per lb.
50
2J
Cards— Playing,................
Brass,.......................................... percent30
25
30
Visiting, blank, for printing,pr. lb.
Cabinet wares,.............................. percent
12
5
do.
for carding wool and cotton,
Cables, tarred,...........................per lb.
per
cent.
Untarred,............................... per lb.
30
4J
Carpeting— Arbusson, Wilton, TreCables, iron or chain, or parts there­
of,............................................per lb.
ble
Ingrain,
Saxony,
per
sq.
yd.
65
2J
Brussels and Turkey,pr.square yd.
Cajeput Oil,....................................percent20
55
Venetian and Ingrain,... per sq. yd.
Cakes, linseed,.............................. percent20
30
Calf-skins, raw, salted or pickled in
All other kinds o f carpets or car­
a raw state,.................................percent
peting o f wool, hemp, flax, or
do. and seal-skins, tanned & dress­
cotton,or parts of either,or other
material, not otherwise speci­
ed,................................. per dozen 5 00
fied,.........................................percent30
Calomel, and all preparations o f mer­
25
Also, bedsides, and other portions
cury, ..................................per cent
o f carpets or carpeting,shall pay
Camblets, o f goats’ hair or mohair,
20
the rate o f duty herein imposed
per cent
on carpets or carpeting o f simi­
Cameos, real or imitation,...per cent
7J
1
lar character.
Camels’ Hair,............................per lb.
20 do. Oilcloth, stamped, printed, or
do. do. pencils,............ per cent
painted,.............per square yard
Camomile Flowers,.......................percent20
35
5
O f straw,.................................. :.per cent30
Camphor, crude,....................... per lb.
20
Hearth Rugs, all,.......................percent40
Refined,................................. per lb.
free
Carpet Bags,.................................. percent30
Camwood, in stick,...........................
Carriages of all descriptions,and parts
Canary seed,...................................percent20
Candlesticks,pewter,silver,tin,porce­
thereof, and furniture, not other­
wise specified,........................... percent30
lain, marble, stone, alabaster,brass
Carui, oil o f carraway seed, per cent
earthen ware,bronze,gilt,gold,iron,
20
japanned, or plated,.,
30
Casement Rods,* iron,.................. perlb. 24
do. cut glass,................
Cases, fish skin,............................ percent20
45
do. bone or ivory,.......
20
Casks, em pty,............................... percent30
6
Candy,............................
Cassada R oot,..................................... free
Cassia,............................................ perlb. 5
Canetitle, or bonnet or cap wire,—
W hen covered with silk,....per lb.
12
Oil of,......................................... percent20
Castana Nuts,............................... perlb. 1
do
do. cotton thread, or other
20
materials,................
8
Castings— o f plaster,............per cent
Candles— T allow,..........
4
O f vessels o f iron, not otherwise
Wax, spermaceti, or spermaceti &
specified,................................ perlb. 14
8
All other caslings than vessels not
wax mixed,............
30
otherwise specified,.........per lb.
1
Canes,walk’g, not in the rough, pr.ct.
On glazed or tinned hollow ware,
Cannon, brass,...............
30
and castings,.......................... perlb. 24
1
Iron ,...........................
free
Sad, or smoothing irons, butt
Cantharides,...................
2 50
hinges, and hatters’ and tailors’
Canton Crapes,.............
7
pressing irons,....................... perlb. 24
Canvass, Russia, for sails,square yd.
40
Provided, That all vessels and cast­
Caps and Bases, made by hand,pr.ct.
Chip,............................
35
ings, as above, which shall be
30
partly manufactured after the cast­
Cotton, wove,............
Fur,.............................
35
ings,or havi’g handles,rings,hoops,
30
Kilmanock wool,.......
or other additions, o f wro’ t iron,
Silk,............................
30
shall pay the same duty as on the




39*

462

Commercial Regulations.

wrought iron, if it shall amount
to more than the duty on cast­
ings.
Castor Beans,.................................percent20
40
Oil,.................................. per gallon
Castors— Brass, iron, wood, or me­
30
ta llic............................per cent
I f with glasses, see glass for sepa­
rate duty on the cruets.
Castorum,........................................percent20
Cast-iron vessels. (See castings.)
Catechu. (See gum.)
Catgut,............................................ percent15
Catsup, or catchup,.......................percent30
Caustic,.......................................... percent20
10
Cayenne Pepper,....................per lb.
Cedar W o o d ,..................................percent15
Cement, Roman,........................... percent20
60
Cerise, a cordial,................ per gallon
Chafing Dishes, copper, iron, and
30
tin ,..................................... per cent
Chain Cables,..........................per lb.
2J
Chains— iron, breeching, log, halter,
4
and trace,........................per lb.
Other smaller iron chains than
cables,................................ per lb.
4
Chairs, sitting,.......................... per lb.
30
Chalk— white,.............. ...................... free
Tailors’ and red,.......................percent20
Chandeliers— brass or other metal,
30
per cent
45
O f cut glass,.........................per lb.
O f glass not cut, according to the
materials. (See glass.)
Charts, loose or in books,....per cent
20
Specially imported,......................... free
9
Cheese,......................................per lb.
Chemical preparations, not oth’ rwise
enumerated,........................... percent20
Salts, do. do......................... percent20
Chenille Cords, cotton being a com­
ponent part,............................... percent30
60
Cherry Rum, cordial,....... per gallon
20
Chessmen— ivory or bone,...per cent
W o o d ,.........................................percent30
10
Chili Pepper,............................. per lb.
China W a r e ,................................. percent30
Chinese Floor Matting, o f flags, jute,
or grass,...................................... percent25
Chamois Skins, dress’d, not colored,
per dozen 1 00
30
Chisels, socket and others,..per cent
Chlorometers. (See glass.)
Chloride o f Lime,......................... perlb. 1
Chocolate,...................................... perlb. 4
20
Chromate o f Potash,............ per cent
4
do.
Lead,.................. per lb.
Chromic— yellow ,......................... percent20
A cid,........................................... percent20
Chronometers, box........................percent20
Chrysolites,.....................................percent 7
Coffee, in American vessels, from
place o f production,........................ free
Coiar, rope, untarred,............. per lb.
44




Clay— un wrought,..............................
Ground or prepared,.......per cent
Coral, or Spartateen,........... per cent
Cigars,.......................................... per
Cinchona,Cinchonine, and Cinnabar,
per cent
Cinnamon,................................... per
Oil of,.................................per cent
Circingle, webb, woollen,...per cent
O f Indiarubber,................ per cent
Citric Acid. (See acids.)
Citron— natural state, or preserved,
per cent
Oil of,................................. per cent
Clasps— set in gold or silver, pr. cent
In other metal,................. per cent
O f hair,..............................per cent
Cloaks— according to material.
do. Pins, metallic,.............per cent
Clocks,................................... per cent
Cloth— Indiarubber, wool being a
compon’t part o f chief value, pr.ct.
W oollen,............................per cent
Other, according to materials.
per cent
Bolting,....................
Oil, for floors, patent, stamped,
printed or painted,...pr. sq. yard
Oil, for hats, aprons, & c.,
“
Clothing, ready made, except wove
on frames,..........................per cent
Cloves,....,................ .................per lb.
Oil of,.................................... per lb.
Coaches, or parts thereof, and coach
furniture,............................per cent
Coach Lace, all kinds of,....per cent
Coal,......................................... per ton
do. Hods, copper or iron,..per cent
Coatings, according to materials..
do. goats’ hair or mohair, per cent
Cobalt,................................... per cent
Cochineal,...........................................
Coculus Indicus,.................. per cent
Cocks, metallic and wood,, per cent
Cocoanuts, in bulk,............................
Cocoa,....................................... per lb.
Codilla, or tow o f flax and hemp,
per ton
Codfish, dry,................... per 112 lbs.
Coffee,.................................
do. Mills,.........................
Coiar, hemp,......................
Coins— gold and silver,.. .
Cabinets of, specially imported,,...
do. not specially imported, per ct.
Coke, or culm o f coal,...... .per bush.
Cold Cream, as cosmetics,, per cent
Colocynth,.......................... .per cent
Cologne W ater,................. .per cent
Colors, Water,...................
Combs— Currv,......... ......... •per cent
Hair, all kinds,..............
Commode handles and knobs, glass.
(See glass.)
do.
o f metals,................

free
20
20
lb.40
20
lb.25
20
40
30

25
20
20
30
25
30
25
40
40
20
35
12£
50
8
30
30
35
1 75
30
20
20
free
20
30
free
1
20 00
1 00
free
30
25 00
free
free
20
5
25
20
25
20
30
25

30

United States Tariff.
Comforters, woollen,.......... per cent
30
Compasses, mariners’ , ........ per cent
30
Coney W ool or Fur. (See fu r.)
Confectionery,all kinds except sugarcandy,............................... percent
25
Copper— in pigs, bars, ore, plate, or
sheets for sheathing vessels ; but
none is to be so considered except
that which is 14 inches wide by
48 long, and weighing from 14 to
free
34 ounces per square foot,...........
In any shape for the use o f the
mint, or old, for remanufact’g, free
Manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,.......................per cent
30
Bottoms, cut round, and bottoms
raised at the edge, and still-bot­
toms cut round & turned up on
the edge, and parts thereof;—
and on plates or sheets weigh’g
more than 34 ounces to the sq,
foot, commonly called braziers’
30
copper,...........................per cent
4
Bolts, rods, nails, and spikes, pr.lb.
Patent sheathing metal, composed
2
part o f copper,...
2
Copperas,....................
Copal. {See gum.)
5
Cordage— tarred,.......
Untarred,................
4i
60
Cordials,......................
20
Coriander S eed,.........
2
Copperas, or green vitriol,.... per lb.
Cork, bark o f tree, unmanufactur’d, free
30
Corks,..........................
Other manufactures of,....per cent
25
7
Cornelian,....................
10
Corn,............................
25
Corrosive Sublimate,.
25
Cosmetics,...................
Cotton Bagging, for cotton bales,
per square yard
4
Cotton— bobbinet, bobb’ t lace, laces,
except coach lace, quillings and
insertings, usually known as trim20
ming laces,.............
do. all manufactures of, or o f which
cotton shall be a component part,
not dyed, color’ d, print’d, or stain­
ed, not exceeding in value 20 cts.
per square yard, shall be valued at
20 cents per square yard, per cent
30
The same if dyed, color’d, printed,
or stained, in whole or in part, not
exceeding in value 30 cts. per sq.
yard, shall be valued at 30 cents
per square yard, (excepting as
30
follows,)............................ per cent
do. velvets, cords, moleskins, fus­
tians, buffalo cloths,or goods man­
ufactured by napping or raising,
cutting or shearing, not exceeding
in value 35 cents per square yard,
which shall be valued at 35 cents




per square yard,...........per cent
Raw, or not manufactured, pound
All manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,........................per cent
Twist, Yarn, and Thread, un­
bleach’d and uncolor’d, the true
value o f which at the place
whence imported shall be less
than 60 cents per lb., shall be
valued at 60 cents per lb., and
pay duty,........................per cent
The same, bleach’d or color’d, the
true value o f which at place
whence imported shall be less
than 75 cents per lb., shall be
valued at 75 cents per lb., and
pay............................
Counters— Bone, Ivory, Pearl, and
R ice,......................... — per cent
Gold, Silver, or other metal, p. c.
Court Plaster,...................
Covers, Oil Silk Hat, made up, p. c.
Cowage, or Cow Itch,.... ...per cent
Cowries, Shells,..............

463
30
3
30

25

25

20
30
30
40
20
20
2 50
20
Crash, Hemp,...................
1
Cranks, Cast Iron,...........
4
Wrought Iron, for mills, & c. pound
40
Cravats, ready made, by hand, p. c.
25
Crayons,...........................
25
Crayon Pencils, Lead,....
Cremor Tartar, or Cream o f Tartar, free
Crepe Lisse, {See silks.)
30
Crockery,............................ .per cent
1 00
Crosscut Saws,....................
35
Crowns, Leghorn Hat,...... .per cent
20
Crucibles, Black Lead,...... .per cent
2 00
Crystals, W atch,................
45
Glass, for seals,...............
20
Stone and Orange,......... .per cent
20
Cubebs,................................ .per cent
20
Cudbear,.............................. .per cent
20
Cummin Seed,.................... .per cent
25
Curls, Hair, o f all kinds,... .per cent
10
Curled Hair, for mattresses, per cent
3
Currants, Zante,..................
30
Cutting Knives,.................. .per cent
Cutlery, all kinds, not otherwise specified, or o f which any of the me30
tals form a component part,...p. c.
Cyanide o f Iodine, Potassium, or
20
Z in c ,................................ .per cent
Dates,...... .............................
Demijohns and Carboys, not exceeding in capacity half gallon each,
each
Over half gallon, and not exceeding three gallons,........ ...... each
Exceeding three gallons,
Dentrifices,.......................... .per cent
Diamonds, Set, or not,....... .per cent
Glaziers’, Set,.................. .per cent

30
1
30
15
30
50
25

n

25

464

Commercial Regulations .

Diaper, Linen,......................per cent
25
H em p,............................... per cent
20
C otton,.............................. per cent
30
20
Dice— Ivory, Horn, or Bone, per ct.
Directions for Patent Medicines, (See
books.)
30
Dirks,..................................... per cent
8
Distilled Vinegar,.................... gallon
30
Dividers, metallic,................ per cent
Dolls, Dressed, Leather,............. )
. 30
Paperheads, W ax, W ood, ^P'c '
Dominoes, Bone, Horn, or Ivory,
20
per cent
25
Down, all kinds for beds,...per cent
20
Dragon’s B lood,.................... per cent
20
Drawing Pencils, camel’s hair, p. c.
Drawings, specially imported,.......... free
20
Other,.................................per cent
30
Drawer Knobs, metallic,....per cent
20
Ivory, or Bone,................. per cent
30
W o o d ,................................per cent
Glass, (See glass.)
30
Drawing Knives,...................per cent
Drawers, Guernsey, wool or cotton,
30
made on frames,...........per cent
30
Knit, without needlework, per ct.
Silk, made up wholly or in part
40
by hand,........................ per cent
25
Drillings, Linen, colored or not, p. c.
20
Hemp,................................per cent
Drugs, Dyeing, not otherwise enu­
merated,....................................... free
20
Other, not otherwise specified, p.c.
Duck, all sailduck,.........square yard
7
1
Dutch Pink,.............................. pound
25
Dutch Metal, in leaf,...........per cent
Dyeing Articles, berries, nuts, and
vegetables, used principally for
composing dyes,............................. free
Dyewoods, in stick,........................... free
Ground,......................................percent20
Earth, all ochery earths for paints,
1
dry,.....................................pound
Ground in oil,..................... pound
li
Earthenware,................................. percent30
Ebony, Unmanufactured,................. free
Manufactures of,.......................percent30
Elastic Garters, made o f elastic wire,
covered with leather, with metal
clasps,......................................... percent35
Elephants’ Teeth,.............................. free
Embroidery, in gold or silver, fine or
half fine, when finished ; other
than clothing,........................ percent20
In gold or silver, on clothing which
is finished in whole or in part,
50
per cent
Emeralds,....................................... percent 7
Emery,................................................. free
Emetic, Tartar,............................. percent20
Engravers’ Copper, prepared or pol­
ished,.......................................... percent30
Engraved Lines, for music paper,
25
per cent




Engravings and Plates, bound or un­
bound, with or without letter
20
paper,................................. per cent
Epaulettes and Wings, gold or silver, free
Plated, gilt, mi fin, cotton, per ct.
30
W o o l,................................. per cent
40
Epsom Salts, or sulphate magnesia,
per cent
20
Escutcheons, of m etal,........per cent
30
Essences, all not otherwise enume­
rated, ................................. per cent
25
Ether, Nitric, Sulphuric,....per cent
20
Extracts, all not otherwise enume­
rated, ................................. per cent
25
Eyes and Rods, for stairs,...per cent
30
Fans, o f every description,..per cent
25
Fancy Soap, washballs, and shaving
soap,................................... per cent
30
Fancy Vials and bottles uncut, not
exceeding the capacity o f four
ounces each,.......................gross 2 50
Over four ounces, and not exceeding sixteen ounces,.....
3 00
Fearnought Cloth,.............. .per cent
40
Feathers, Ornamental, and parts
thereof,........................ .per cent
25
for beds,........................... .per cent
25
Felt, Patent Adhesive, for ships’ bottoms,................................
free
Felts, or Hat Bodies, made in whole
or part o f w ool,...............
18
Felting, Hatters’,................ .per cent
40
Fiddles,................................. .per cent
30
30
Fifes,..................................... .per cent
F id s,..................................... .per cent
30
Figures, ornaments o f alabaster and
spar,.............................. .per cent
30
Metallic, ornamental do..,.per cent
30
Specially imported as works of
free
art,................................
2
F igs,......................................__ pound
1
Filberts,................................
30
Files,..................................... .per cent
20
Filtering Stones,................. .per cent
Firearms, other than muskets and
rifles,............................ .per cent
30
Crackers and Fireworks, per cent
20
20
Firewood,............. ............... .per cent
Fish, foreign caught, dry or smoked,
112 lbs. 1 00
Mackerel and Herring, pickled or
salted,................................barrel 1 50
Salmon, pickled,..................barrel 2 00
All other pickled in barrels, barrel 1 00
Preserved in oil, such as Sardines,
20
per cent
Pickled, other than in barrels or
20
half barrels,...............
free
Fresh,............................
20
Glue, called Isinglass,. ...per cent
30
Hooks,..........................
30
Sauce,...........................
20
Skins, R aw ,..................
20
Skin Cases,..................

United States Tariff.
Fisheries o f the United States, all
the products of,............................... free
Fishing Nets, Seines,............. pound
7
Lines, Hemp,.................... per cent 20
“
Flax,...................... per cent 25
“
Silk,..........................16 oz. 2 50
Flags, floor matting made of, per ct.
25
Flageolets,............................ per cent
30
Flannels, all except Cotton, sq. yd.
14
Flasks or Bottles that come in Gin
cases, (See glass.)
Powder, Metallic,.............per cent 30
Leather,............................. per cent 35
Horn,................................. percent
20
Flat Irons, without wrought iron
handles,................................ pound
2£
Flats for makinghats and bonnets,p.c.
35
Flax, unmanufactured,................ ton 20 00
All manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,........................ per cent 25
Flies, Spanish, Cantharides,............. free
Flints, ground or not,........................ free
Floor Oilcloths, stamped, printed, or
painted,................... square yard
35
Matting, made o f flags, jute, or
grass,..............................per cent 25
Mats, o f whatever material com­
posed,............................. per cent 25
Flor Benzoin,.........................per cent 20
Floss, Silk, or Chenille, if purified
from gum, dyed, and prepared
for manufacture,............per cent 25
Cotton, (See cotton.)
Flour, Wheat,.............................. cwt.
70
“
o f other grain,.......... per cent 2 0
“
Sulphur,............................. ... free
Flower Water, Orange,....... per cent 20
Flowers, Artificial, or parts thereof,
per cent
25
Flutes o f all kinds,................per cent 30
Foils, Fencing,...................... per cent 30
Forks, metallic or wood,....per cent 30
Other, according to materials.
Forge Hammers,..................... pound
2£
Fossils,................................................ free
Frames, or Sticks, for umbrellas or
parasols,......................... per cent 30
Cruet, Quadrant, Silver Cruet, p.c.
30
Frankincense, Gum, crude, per cent
15
Fringes, for coach makers or uphol­
sterers, o f cotton, or cotton and
silk,................................. per cent 30
wool being material o f chief value,
per cent
40
Merino,...............................per cent 30
Frizettes, H a ir,..................... per cent 25
Silk,.................................... per cent 30
Frocks, Guernsey, W oollen, per ct.
30
Furniture, Coach, o f all kinds, p. c.
30
Furniture, Calico or Chintz, (See
cottons.)
Oilcloth, made on Canton or cot­
ton flannel,.............square yard 1 6
Other Furniture, Oilcloth, sq. yd.
10




465

Furs o f all kinds, onthe skin, un­
dressed,
percent 5
Dressed on the skin,........per cent
25
Hatters, dressed or undressed, on
the skin,................................. perskin25
Fur Hats, Caps, Muffs, and Tippets,
per cent
35
Other manufactures of, not speci­
fied,.........................................percent35
Fur Hat Bodies, Frames, Felts, man­
ufactured, put in form, or trimmed,
or otherwise,.............................. percent25
Fustic, in S tick,................................. free
Ground,..................................... percent20
Galbanum, Gum,..........................percent15
Galls, Nut,.......................................... free
Gamboge, Gum, crude,.......per cent
15
Game, prepared for food, in cases or
otherwise,.............................. percent25
Bags, Leather,.......................... percent35
“
T w in e,.................. percent
20
Garnets, Glass,.........................pound
45
A precious stone,......................percent 7
Imitation,.................................. percent
Garden Seeds,.................................... free
Gelatine, for clarifying,.......per cent
30
Gems,............................................. percent 7
Gentian R oot,..................................... free
German Silver, or Argentine Alabata, in sheets or otherwise, not
manufactured,.......................percent30
Manufactures of,.......................percent30
30
Gilt Bases and Capitals,......per cent
Gilt Jewelry o f all kinds,...per cent
25
“ Paper,..................................... percent25
“ Other ware, metallic, and o f all
kinds,................................... percent30
“ W ood,.....................................percent30
Gimp, Cotton or Silk,.........per cent
30
30
W ire being a component part, p.c.
Gin— First and Second Proof, gallon
60
65
Third,.................................... gallon
70
Fourth,.................................. gallon
Fifth,..................................... gallon
75
90
Above Fifth Proof,..............gallon
2
Ginger R oot,.............................pound
4
Ground,................................. pound
Preserved,.................................. percent25
Essence of,................................ percent25
Gin Cases,..................................... percent30
With bottles, (See glass.)
Ginseng,.............................................. free
Girandoles o f metal, or glass and
metal,..........................................percent30
Glass o f Antimony,......................percent20
Giraffe Cloth, Cotton,..........per cent
30
Glass— Articles o f plain, moulded, or
pressed glass, weighing eight
ounces each or under, except
tumblers,........................... pound
12
Do. do. weighing over 8 ounces
each,.................................. pound
10
Tumblers, plain, moulded, or
pressed,.............................pound
10

466

Commercial Regulations.

Glass— All plain, moulded, or press’d
glass, when stoppered, or the
bottoms ground or puntled, an
additional duty o f........... pound
A ll articles o f moulded or pressed
glass, cut, roughed, or polished
in part or parts thereof, and all
other articles o f flint glass, not
otherwise specified, shall pay
the duty chargeable on articles
o f cut glass, o f the description
and class to which they may
severally belong.
Bottles or Jars, black or green, exceeding 8 ounces, and not ex­
ceeding in capacity one quart
each ,................................... gross 3
Do. exceeding the capacity o f one
quart,.................................. gross 4
Demijohns and Carboys, holding
half a gallon or less,..........each
Do. exceeding half a gallon, and
not more than 3 gallons,...each
Do. exceeding 3 gallons,...... each
Perfumery and Fancy Vials and
Bottles, uncut, not exceeding
the capacity o f four ounces
each,................................... gross 2
Do. do. exceeding 4 ounces each,
and not more than 16 ounces
in capacity,........................ gross 3
Apothecaries’ Vials and Bottles,
not exceeding 6 oz. each, gross 1
Do. exceeding 6 oz., and not ex­
ceeding 16 oz.................... gross 2
Cut— Chandeliers, Candlesticks,
Lustres, Lenses, Lamps, Prisms,
and parts o f same,...........pound
Drops, Icicles, Spangles, and Or­
naments, used for mountings,
pound
Plate Glass, polished, not silvered,
not exceeding 1 2 x 8 ,...sq. foot
over 1 2 x 8 not ex. 14x10, sq. foot
“ 14 x1 0 “
16 x1 1, sq. foot
“ 16X11 “
1 8 x l3 ,s q . foot
“ 18 x1 2 “
2 2 x 1 4 ,sq. foot
“ 2 3 x 1 4 ,..................... pel- cent
It Silvered, an addition o f 20 per
cent to be added to the above
duties.
If Framed, a duty of....... per cent
Note— On all cylinder or broad
glass, weighing over 1 00 pounds
per 1 00 square fe e t; and on all
crown glass weighing over 160
pounds per 1 00 square fe e t;—
there shall be an additional duty
on the excess at the same rate
as herein imposed.
Cylinder or Broad W indow Glass,
not exceeding 8 x l 0 ,...sq. foot
over 8 x 10 not ex. 1 0 x 1 2 , sq. foot
“ 10 x1 2
“
10x14, sq. foot




4

00
00
15
30
50

50

00
75
25

45

45
5
7
8
10
12

30

30

2
24
34

over 10 x1 4 “
11 x1 6, sq. foot
“ 11x16 “
12 x1 8 , sq. foot
“ 1 2 x 1 8 ,...................... sq. foot
Crown W indow Glass, not exceeding 8 x 1 0 ,......
over 8 x 10 not ex. 1 0 x 1 2 , sq. foot
“ 10 x1 3
“
1 4 x1 0, sq. foot
“ 14X10
“
1 6 x1 1, sq. foot
“ 16X11
“
1 8 x1 2, sq. foot
“ 1 8 x 1 3 ,..........
Provided, That all glass imported
in sheets or tables, without ref­
erence to form, shall pay the
highest duty laid on the differ­
ent descriptions o f window glass.
Cut— All vessels, wares, and man­
ufactures of cut glass, when the
cutting on the article does not
exceed one third the height or
length thereof, a duty of...pound
Exceeding one third and not over
half,...................................pound
W hen the cutting extends to or
exceeds half,.................... pound
A ll articles of glass not specified,
so connected with other mate­
rials as to render it impractica­
ble to separate it, and determine
its weight,.....................per cent
Paintings on Glass,..........per cent
Porcelain Glass or Glass Colored
Watch Crystals,.................... gross
Glauber’s Salts,.................... per cent
Glaziers’ Diamonds, Set,....per cent
Globes, (See glass.)
Gloves— Angora, Worsted, Cotton,
W oollen, and Silk, made on
frames,...........................per cent
Men’s Leather,.................... dozen
W om en’s Leather, Habit,...dozen
Children’s do. do. do...........dozen
W omen’s Extra, and demi length
Leather,........................
Children’s do. do. do......
G lue,.....................................
Fish, or Isinglass,... per cent
Goats’ Hair or W ool, Thibet and
Angora,........................
Or Mohair unmanufactur’ d, pound
All other,.........................
Or Mohair, manufactures of, p. c.
Goatskins, R aw ,................ per cent
Tanned and Dressed,__ ...dozen
Tanned and Not Dressed ...dozen
Gold Epaulettes and W ings,............
Beaters’ Britne,................ .per cent
Beaters’ Skins,................ per cent
Coin and Bullion,..........
Dust,................................
Or Silver Lace, even if mi fin,
per cent
L e a f,................................ per cent
Paper, in sheets, strips, or other
form,.............................

4
5
6

34
5
6

7
8
10

25
35
45

25

:i2 0030
20
25

30
1 25
1 00
50

75
5
20
1
1
1
20
20

2 50
1 00

free
20
20

free
free
15
20
124

United States Tariff.
Gold— Laces, Galloons, Tresses,
Tassels, Knots and Stars, gold
or silver, fine or half fine, per ct. 15
Articles embroidered in gold or
silver, fine or haif fine, when
finished, other than clothing,
per cent
20
Watches, or parts thereof not spe­
cified,............................ per cent
7£
Golo Shoes, or Clogs, o f W ood,
per cent
30
Do. do. Leather,................per cent
35
Gowns, made up by hand, o f what­
50
ever material,.................... per cent
Grapes,...................................per cent
20
Grass Bags,........................... per cent
25
Cables or Cordage, Untarred, lb.
Cloth,..................................per cent
25
Flats and Braids, for bonnets,
per cent
35
Hats or Bonnets,..............per cent
35
Mats,.................................per cent
25
Grass— Manilla, Sisal, or Coiar, ton 25 00
Grindstones,............................... free
Guava Jelly,.......................... per cent
25
Guernsey Frocks, W ove,...per cent
30

G
"”’ S, j....... »

Guaiacum, (See gum.)
Guitars,.................................. per cent
Strings, Catgut,................ per cent
Gum Elastic, Crude,................. free
All articles manufactured there­
from,...............................percent
Gum Benzoin or Benjamin, Frankin­
cense, Myrrh, Galbanum, Gam­
boge,..............................per cent
Arabic, Assafoetida, Shellac, Tragacanth, Senegal, Caoutchouc,
Lac D ye,............................ free
Gums and other resinous substances,
when not crude, and not other­
wise enumerated,............. per cent
Guns, except Muskets and Rifles,
per cent
Gun Locks,...........................per cent
Gunpowder,..............................pound
Gypsum, Plaster o f Paris,........ free
Hackles,.................................percent
Hair, Angora, Goats’ and Camels’hair,............................ per pound
Made up for headdresses, such as
Bracelets, Chains, Ringlets,
Curls, Braids,................ per cent
Belts, Gloves, Nets,........ per cent
Human Hair, cleaned and pre­
pared for use,................per cent
Do. and other, uncleaned and un­
manufactured,..............per cent
Haircloth, or Seating,..... per cent
Curled, for mattresses,....per cent
Hats,....................
per cent
Powder, perfumed or not, per cent
Pencils, for Drawing,...... per cent




30
15

30

15

25
30
30
8
30
1

25
25
25
10
25
10
35
20
20

467

Harness, or Saddlery,..........per cent
30
Hammers, Blacksmiths’ ,........ pound
2£
All others not specified...per cent
30
Handkerchiefs, Cotton, Linen, or
Grass, according to materials—
But if made up or finished by
hand,..............................per cent
40
Hangers,................................per cent
30
Hangings o f Paper for walls, or in
patterns for fireboards,....per cent
35
Hardware— Articles made o f the
different metals, not otherwise
enumerated, or o f which the met­
als form a component part, not
otherwise specified,........ per cent
30
Hare’s Hair, or Fur, (See fu r.)
Hareskins, Undressed,........ per cent
5
Dressed,.............per cent
25
Harlem Oil,.......................... per cent
20
Harness Furniture,.............. per cent
30
Common tanned or japanned Sad­
20
dlery, ............................ per cent
Other articles o f Saddlery, per cent
30
Harps and Harpsichords,....per cent
30
Strings, Gut,................. ...per cent
15
Wire, Brass, or Copper,...... do.
25
W ire, Silvered or Plated,...do.
30
Hartshorn, or Ammonia,....per cent
20
Hatchets, Handled or not,...per cent
30
Hat Bodies, in whole or in part
wool,........................................ each
18
Hats or Bonnets, for men, or wo­
men, or children, o f Leghorn, or
any other vegetable substance,
per cent
35
o f Hair, Whalebone, or Leather,
per cent
35
o f Fur, or Caps,................ per cent
35
o f Colton Cloth, made up, per ct.
40
Silk or Satin, for men,...........each 1 00
“
“
for wom en,....each 2 00
o f W o o l,.................................. each
18
Hat Bodies or Felts, made in
whole or in part o f wool, each
18
Hautboys,..............................per cent
30
Head Dresses, or ornaments made
o f hair,...........................per cent
25
o f Silk, (See silk.)
Head Matter, (See oil.)
Hearth Rugs, all kinds,...... per cent
40
Hemp Seed,......................... per cent
20
“
“ Oil,...................... gallon
25
“ All manufactures of, not oth­
erwise specified,...per cent
20
“ Raw, or unmanufact’d, ton 40 00
Herrings, Pickled or Salted in bar­
rels,....................................barrel 1 50
In kegs, or otherwise, ....per cent
20
Smoked or Dry,...............112 lbs. 1 00
Hides, Raw or Salted, o f all kinds,
per cent
5
Tanned, (See leather.)
Hinges, Butt, Cast Iron,.........pound
2£
I
“
Other,..................... per cent
30

468

Commercial Regulations .

Hobbyhorses, W ood ,......... .per cent
30
Other, according to materials.
Hods, Coal, metallic,......... .per cent
30
H oes,................................... .per cent
30
Hones,................................. .per cent
20
Honey and Honey water,.. .per cent
20
Hooks, Fish,....................... .per cent
30
Hooks and Eyes, metallic, per cent
30
Reaping, or Sickles, iron or steel,
30
per cent
2£
Hoop Iron,................................ pound
“
“ ready for use,...per cent 30
20
H op s,..................................... per cent
Horn Combs o f all kinds,...per cent
25
Horn T ips,............................per cent
5
“ Plates, for lanterns, per cent
20
“ Ox, and other horns, per cent
5
Horse Hair, Uncleaned and Unmanufactured,......................... per cent
10
Hosiery— W oollen, or Cotton, or
Worsted,........................... per cent
30
Hose Leather,...................... per cent
35
Hosiery, Linen Thread,..... per cent
25
Household Furniture, o f persons who
come to reside in the U. States,
pay according to the materials o f
which they are composed.
Human Hair, Uncleaned or Unmanfactured,............................ percent
10
Hydriodate o f Potash,........ per cent
20
Hydrometers o f Glass, (See glass.)
Imitation o f Precious Stones, other
than Glass,........................ per cent
7£
Do. Glass (See glass.)
India Grass,.................................ton 25 00
India Rubber, in bottles, sheets, or
otherwise Unmanufactured,..... free
Suspenders, if costing less than $ 2
per doz., to be 1valued at $ 2 ,
30
per cent
A ll manufactures of, not otherwise
enumerated,.......
30
Indigo,.........................
5
Indian Meal,...............
20
Ink and Ink Powder,.
25
Inkstands, Earthen or Metallic, p. c.
30
“
Leather,....
35
“
Glass, (See glass.)
Instruments, Philosophical, not spe­
cially imported, duty according
to materials o f which composed.
Specially imported,....................... free
Instruments, Musical, all kinds, p. c.
30
Iodine,...................................per cent
20
20
Ipecachuana,........................ per cent
Iris Root, or Orris R oot,................... free
Iron Anchors and parts thereof, ma­
nufactured in whole or in part,
pound
2^
Anvils, Wrought,................pound
2£
“
Cast,
................ pound
1
Axletrees, or parts thereof, pound
4
Bars or Bolts, made wholly or in
part by rolling,....................ton 25 00




Iron— Bars or Bolts, not manufact. in
whole or in part by rolling, ton 17
Blooms, Loops, Slabs, or other
form less finished than iron in
bars or bolts, and more advanc’d
than pig iron, (except castings,)
shall be rated as iron in bars or
bolts, and pay duty accordingly.
Provided also:— That iron import­
ed prior to the third day of
March, 1843, in bars or other­
wise, for railways or inclined
planes, shall be entitled to the
benefits o f existing laws exempt­
ing it from duty, on proof of its
having been actually and perma­
nently laid down for use on any
railway or inclined plane prior
to the third day of March, 1843,
and all such iron imported from
and after the date aforesaid,
shall be subject to and pay the
duty on rolled iron.
In Pigs,...................................... ton 9
Vessels o f Cast Iron, not otherwise
specified,.......................... pound
Castings o f Iron, all other, do. do.
pound
Glazed or Tinned Hollow Ware
and Castings, and Sad Irons or
Smoothing Irons,............pound
Hatters’ and Tailors’ Press’g Irons,
pound
Cast Iron Butt Hinges,.......pound
Wire o f Iron or Steel, not exceed­
ing No. 14,...................... pound
Do. do. over 14, not over 25, lb..
Do. do. over 2 5 ,.................. pound
Do. if silvered or plated, per cent
Iron Round or Square, or Braziers’
Rods o f 3-16ths to 10-16ths of
an inch diameter, inclusive, lb.
Iron Nail or Spike Rods, and Nail
Plates, slit, rolled, or hammer’d,
pound
Iron in sheets, (except Taggers’
iron ,)................................. pound
Hoop Iron,............................pound
Iron, Slit, Rolled, or Hammered,
for band iron,................... pound
Scroll Iron, or Casement Rods, lb.
Cables, or Chains, or parts there­
of, manufactured in whole or in
part, o f whatever diameter ; the
link being o f the form peculiar
to chains for cables,....... pound
On all other chains o f iron, not
otherwise specified, the links be­
ing twist’d or straight, and when
straight of greater length than
those used in chains for cables,
per cent
Blacksmiths’ Hammers,..... pound
“
Sledges,..........pound

00

00
1£
1

2£
2£
2^
5
8
11
30

2£

2£
2£
2£
2£
2£

2£

30
2£
2£

United States Tariff’.
Iron— Spikes, cut or wrought,..... lb.
3
3
Cut Nails,............................ pound
Nails, wrou’ ht iron, and Axletrees,
or parts thereof,................pound
4
Mill Irons and Mill Cranks, o f
wrought iron,................... pound
4
Wrought Iron, for ships, locomo­
tives, and steam engines, pound
4
Iron Chains, other than chain ca­
bles,................................... pound
4
Malleable Iron or Castings, pound
4
Tubes or Pipes for steam, gas, or
water, made o f band or rolled
iron,................................... pound
5
Mill Saws, Crosscut Saws, and
Pit Saws,............................ each 1 00
Taggers’ Iron,.................. per cent
5
Provided— That all articles par­
tially manufactured, not other­
wise provided for, shall pay the
same rate o f duty as if wholly
manufactured:
Provided also— That articles man­
ufactured from steel, sheet, rod,
hoop, or other kinds o f iron,
shall not pay a less duty than is
chargeable on the material o f
which it is composed, in whole
or in part, paying the highest
rate o f duty, either by weight or
value, and a duty o f 15 per cent
ad valorem on the cost o f the ar­
ticle added thereto.
Old or Scrap Iron,.................. ton 10 00
Note— Nothing to be deemed Old
Iron that lias not been in actual
use, and fit only to be remanu­
factured ; and all pieces o f iron,
(except old) o f more than six
inches in length, or o f sufficient
length to be made into spikes
and boits, shall be rated as Bar,
Bolt, Rod, or Hoop Iron, as the
case may be, and pay duty ac­
cordingly.
Provided also— That all vessels o f
cast iron, and all castings o f
iron, not rough as from the
mould, but partially manufac­
tured after the casting, or with
handles, rings, hoops, or other
additions o f wrought iron, shall
pay the same duty as herein im­
posed on other manufactures o f
wrought iron not herein enu­
merated, if that shall amount to
more than the duty on castings.
All manufactures o f iron, steel, or
other metals, partly finished,
shall pay the same rate o f duty
as if entirely finished.
Knitting, Netting, Sewing, Darn­
ing, Tambouring, and all other
kinds o f Needles,........ per cent
20
VOL. V II.— NO. V .




469

Iron— A ll manufactures of, not other,
wise enumerated, of which iron
is a component part, a duty of
per cent
30
Tinned and Japanned Saddlery of
all descriptions,........... per cent
20
Iron Liquor,.................... per cent
20
Screws, called W ood Screws, lb.
12
Screws o f Iron, all other, per cent
30
30
Scythes and Sickles,.......per cent
Shovels and Spades,....... per cent
30
Shot,......................................pound
1
Combs for the Hair,........ per cent
25
Cap or Bonnet Wire, if covered
12
with silk,.......................... pound
Do. do. covered with cotton,...lb,
8
Do. do. with thread, or other mate­
rials,...................................pound
8
Isinglass, or Mica,-for lanterns,...lb.
20
Issue Peas,
)
.
Issue Plaster, 1 ..................Per cent
20
Ivory, as Elephants’ Teeth,.............. free
Manufactures of,............... per cent 20
Black or Bone Black,........ pound
£
Jacks, part o f pianoforte,....per cent
30
“
Clothiers’,...................per cent 30
Jack Screws,..........................per cent 30
Jack Chains,............................ pound
4
Jalap,......................................per cent 20
Japanned and Common Tin Sad­
dlery, o f all kinds,.........per cent 20
Wares, other, not specified, per ct.
30
Jellies,.....................................per cent 30
Jerk Beef,................................ pound
2
Jet, Real,................................per cent 20
“ Composition,.................. per cent 20
Jewelry o f Gold, Silver, or Platina,
and Gold and Silver Leaf, p.c.
20
Gilt, Plated, or Imitation, per cent
25
Joints, India, Rough,........................ free
Made into canes, wholly or partly
finished,......................... per cent
30
Jostick or Jos Light,.............per cent 20
Juice o f Lemons, Limes, or Oranges,
per cent
20
Jujube Paste,......................... per cent 30
Juniper Berries,..................... per cent 20
Junk, Old,........................................... free
Kaleidescopes,....................... per cent 30
Kalydor, a Cosmetic,............per cent 25
K elp,................................................... free
Kentledge, (See iron)................ton 10 00
Kermes,.............................................. free
Kettles— Brass Battery, or Hammer­
ed, .................................... pound
12
Cast Iron, Glazed or Tinned,...lb.
2£
H
Other, o f Cast Iron,............ pound
Tin or Copper,.................. per cent 30
Brass Cast,......................... per cent 30
Keys, o f all kinds,................. per cent 30
Kid Skins, or Morocco, Tanned and
Dressed,............................dozen 1 50
Tanned and Not Dressed, dozen
75
Dressed and Not Colored, dozen 1 00
40

470

Commercial Regulations.

60
Kirschen Wasser or Water,...gallon
Knitting Needles,................. per cent
20
30
Knives, Cutting, for hay or straw,p.c.
30
Drawing, Currying, and others,p.c.
Knobs o f Metal,............................ percent30
“
o f Glass, (See glass.)
30
Knockers, o f metal,............per cent
Labels— printed. (See paper.)
30
For decanters, o f metal...per cent
Lac-Dye,............................................. free
Lacc— Thread and Insertings, pr. ct.
15
15
Gold, silver, fine or half fine, p. ct.
Silk,.................................... per lb. 2 50
Bobbinet,.......................... per cent
20
Cotton Laces,Quillings and Insert­
ings, usually known as Trim­
ming Laces,.......................... percent20
Fabrics for wear, made up by the
40
needle,...................
per cent
Veils, Silk,.........................per lb. 2 50
Lacquered W are,..........................percent30
Ladies’ Worked Caps, trimmed or
not,.............................................percent40
Ladles, o f all sorts,...................... percent30
Lake, a paint,................................ percent20
20
Lampblack,.......................... per cent
Lamps— o f metal,.........................percent30
Glass. (See glass.)
Lancets,......................................... percent30
Lancet Cases,................................percent25
20
Lantern Leaves, or horn plates, p. ct.
20
Lapis Calaminaris, or Spelter, pr. ct.
20
do. Infernalis and Tutia,...per cent
3
Lard,.........................................per lb.
Lastings,...............................per cent
20
I f Instings, prunellas, and similar fab­
rics, not specified, shall be import­
ed in strips, pieces, or patterns o f
the size and shape suitable for the
manufacture, exclusively, o f but­
tons, shoes, or bootees, it shall pay
5
per cent
Latches,............................... per cent
30
Lamb-Skins— tanned and dressed,
per dozen 1 50
75
Tann*d and not dressed,per dozen
Tann’d and dress’d, not color’d, “ 1 00
25
Laudanum,............................ per cent
Lavender and do. Flowers, pr. cent
20
3
Lead— in pigs and bars..........per lb.
Old and scrap,.....................per lb.
14
Pipes, shot, and lead in sheets, or
in any other form not herein
4
specified,..........................per lb.
25
Combs, for the hair,....... per cent
Acetate,orChromateof,or Litharge
or White Lead, dry or ground in
oil,.................................... per lb.
4
Black Lead Pencils and Crayons,
25
per cent
Busts,................................... per lb.
4
Type Metal, or Stereotype Plates,
per cent
25
25
Types, new or old,.........per cent




Lead Pots, Black or Crucibles, pr. ct.
Ore,................................... per cent
Leather— Tann’ d,Sole,or Bend,p.lb.
Upper, not otherwise specified, “
Patent,..............................per cent
Gloves, men’s,...............per dozen 1
Manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,...................... per cent
Leaves o f trees, for dyeing,.............
Not used for dyeing,.......per cent
Palm,...............................................
Leeches,..............................................
Lees o f W ine, liquid,........ per cent
Crystallized as Tartar,..................
Leghorn Hats, Bonnets, and Caps,
and all parts thereof, such as fiats,
braids, plaits, crowns, and brims,
per cent
Lemons— in bulk...............................
In boxes, or otherwise,...per cent
Lemon— Oil of,................... per cent
Juice,................................ per cent
P eel,.................................per cent
Essence of,.......................per cent
Lents, or Lentils,..............................
Leopard Skins, raw or dressed, pr.ct.
Limes— in built,.................................
Otherwise,........................per cent
Juice, and Oil of,............per cent
Lime, Acetate of, or Citrate of, pr.ct.
Lines, Fishing— Hemp,...... per cent
"Flax,.................................. percent
Silk, cotton, or worsted,..per cent
Linens— bleached, or unbleached, or
colored, and all manufactures of
flax, not otherwise specified, pr.ct.
T ape,................................per cent
Handkerchiefs, if made up by
hand,.............................per cent
Linseed,................................per cent
Oil of, cakes, and meal,., .per cent
Lint, cotton,.........................per cent
Liqueurs, Cordial,............ per gallon
Liquor, Iron, Purple, Bronze, Red,
and Seppia,.....................percent
Liquor Cases, wood,.......... per cent
Bottles of. (See glass.)
Liquorice— Paste,............... per cent
R oot,...............................................
Juice,................................;per cent
Litharge, dry or ground in oil, per lb.
Loadstones,......................... per cent
Loaf-Sugar, or pulverized,..... per lb.
I f syrup o f sugar-cane be entered
under the denomination o f mo­
lasses, or any other appellation
than syrup o f sugar or o f sugar­
cane, it is liable to forfeiture.
Lotions— Cosmetics,___
Lozenges,.......................
Locks, made o f metal or wood, p. ct.
Logwood,........................
Extract of,..................

20
20
6
8
35
25
35
free
20
free
free
20
free

35
free
20
20
20
20
25
free
20
free
20
20
20
20
25
30

25
25
40
5
20
30
60
20
30
25
free
20
4
20
6

25
20
20
30
free
25

United States Tariff.
Lookingglasses, according to size or
weight. (See glass.)
Lookingglass Frames-----if gilt, on
metal,..................................... percent
If wood, or gilt on wood, per cent
I f metal,.................................... percent
Lump-Sugar,..................................perlb.
Lunar Caustic,.............................. percent
Lustres— cut glass,.......................perlb.
Other, according to materials o f
which they are made.
Lutes, musical instrument,..per cent
Licopodium,..............
per cent
Lye, Soda,..................................... percent
Macaroni,...................................... percent
M ace,.............................................perlb.
Maccassar Oil, cosmetic,...per cent
Machinery, models of, and other in­
ventions,.......................................... free
Mackerel, pickled,.......... per barrel 1 50
Madder, and Madder R oot,.............
free
Magic Lanterns, and similar articles
composed o f tin, glass, copper,
wood, & c.,................................. percent
Magnesia,...................................... percent
Carbonate of,............................. percent
Sulphate of, or Epsom Salts, pr. ct.
Mahogany,......................... per cent
Maize,................................per bush.
Mallets, o f w ood,..........................percent
Malt,....................................per cent
Manganese,........................per cent
Manilla Grass, or H em p,....per ton
Manufactured T obacco, other than
snuff and cigars,.............
10
Manufactures o f the United States
free
and territories,...............
do. of Iron, partly finished, liable to
the same rate o f duty as if finish30
ed,.................................... .per cent
Manufactures o f the following articles not otherwise enumerat’d—
30
Brass,............................... .per cent
30
Bell Metal,....................... .per cent
30
Bronze,............................ .per cent
25
Cork,................................ .per cent
30
.per
cent
Copper,............................
30
Cotton,............................ .per cent
25
F lax,...............................
35
Fur,.................................. .per cent
25
Glass,............................... .per cent
20
Goats’ Hair, or Mohair,. ..per cent
30
Gold,................................ . per cent
30
German Silver,.............. •per cent
25
Horse Hair & Human Hair, pr.ct.
20
Hemp,............................. .per cent
30
Iron,................................. .per cent
30
Indiarubber,.................. ...per cent
30
Lead,............................... . per cent
35
Leather,.......................... .per cent
30
Marble,............................ .per cent
30
Pewter,............................ .per cent
Ozier, Palmleaf, W illow, and
25
Straw,......................... ■per cent




471

Manufactures of—
Steel,.........................
per cent
30
Silver,.........................................percent30
Silk,........................per 16 ounces 2 50
T in ,............................................percent30
Worsted, or Combed W ool, pr. ct.
30
W o o l,......................................... percent40
Worsted and Silk,...........per cent
30
Zin c,...........................................percent30
Stone,.........................................percent30
Maps and Charts,..........................percent20
Marble Busts, not specially import­
ed, ....................
per cent
30
Unmanufactured, — ....... per cent
25
Marbles, for children’s play,per cent
30
do. Stone.................................percent30
Marmalade,................................... percent30
Marrowgrease, for soap,..... per cent
10
Mastic,........................................... percent15
Matches, for pocket lights,..per cent
30
Mathematical Instruments, specially
imported,.................................... free
Ivory and bone,........................ percent20
A ll other,................................... percent30
Mats, Table and other, o f whatever
materials composed,........per cent
25
Matting, Floor, not otherwise speci.
fied,.............................................percent25
Mattresses, Hair— duty to be assess­
ed on material on which the
highest duty is paid. See sec­
tion 20 o f tariff.
Moss,
do.
do.
do.
Meal, Indian,.................per 112 lbs.
20
Oatmeal,....................................percent20
Meats, preserved, or prepared in
cases,.......................................... percent25
Measures, glass,engrav’d. (See glass.)
Mercury,and preparations therefrom.
per cent
25
Merino Shawls, made o f combed
w ool,.......................................... percent30
Metal, plated,............................... .percent30
Metallic Slates, paper or tin, per cent
30
Plus,........................................... percent30
Merino Cloth, entirely o f combed
wool,...........................................percent30
Mica, or Isinglass,........................ percent20
Millinery, o f all kinds,........per cent
40
Millsaws,.................................... each 1 00
Millstones— rough,............................ free
Made up,...................................percent20
Mills, Coffee,.................................percent30
Miniature Cases, ivory,........per cent
20
do.
Sheets, ivory,....per cent
20
Mineralogy, specimens of,...........
free
Mitts, cotton, woollen,........ per cent
30
Modelling, specially imported,........ free
Not specially imported, according
to materials o f which they are
composed.
Models of inventions,....................... free
Mohair— Camblets, Blankets, Coat­
ings, and all other manufactures

472

Commercial Regulations.

o f goats’ hair or mohair, per ct.
20
Twist, or Twist composed o f mo­
hair and silk,.................. per lb. 2 00
Molasses,.....................per lb., (mills)
4*
M orocco Skins tanned and dress’d—
Goats’ ........................ per dozen 2 50
Kid,............................per dozen 1 50
20
Morphine,..............................per cent
Mortars, Apothecaries’ , composition,
30
brass,w’ood, marbie, or stone, pr.ct.
20
Moss, Iceland,...................... per cent
10
For Mattresses,................per cent
Mother o f Pearl, and Shells,........... free
Articles made o f pearl, not other­
20
wise enumerated,.........per cent
25
Moulds, Button,...................percent
30
Mouse Traps, wood or wire, per cent
35
Muffs, fur,..............................per cent
Mules,....................................per cent
20
Muriates, Gold, Tin, and Strontian,
20
per cent
20
Muriatic Acid,white or yellow, pr.ct.
Music Paper, with lines,....per cent
25
Bound in b’ ks,in the Eng. lang. lb.
20
Musical Instruments, o f all kinds,
30
per cent
15
Instrument Strings, Catgut, pr. ct.
Mushroom Sauce,.........................percent30
20
Musk,.................................... per cent
Muskets,............................. per stand 1 50
Parts o f,..................................... percent30
Mustard, ground,......................... percent25
Seed,.......................................... percent 5
Myrrh, crude,................................ percent15
Not crude,.................................percent25
3
Nails, iron, cut,........................per lb.
4
Wrought, iron,.....................per lb.
Brass,......................................... percent30
4
Copper,..................................per lb.
Zinc,...........................................percent30
Nail Rods, iron, slit, rolled, or ham­
mered,...............................per lb.
n
2A
Plates,................................... per lb.
Neatsfoot Oil, and all animal oils,
20
per cent
Needles o f all kinds,...........per cent
20
Nets, Fishing and Dip, (not seines,)
hemp,..........................................percent20
N ickel,................................................ free
Nitre, crude,...................................... free
Partially refined,..................per lb.
2
Wholly refined,....................per lb.
Noyeau,............... ............. per gallon
60
Nutgalls,............................................. free
Nutmegs,..................................per lb.
30
Nutria Skins. {See skins.)
Nuts o f all kinds, except for dyeing,
per lb.
1
Nux Vomica,...................................... free
Oakum and Junk,.............................. free
Oats,.................................. per bushel
10
Oatmeal,................................per cent
20
1
Ochre, dry,............................. per lb.
Ground in oil,.....................per lb.
1*




Ochre, Brown, Blue, Red, & Yellow
Eartlis, for paints, to be consider­
ed as Ochres.
Oilcloth— Floor, printed, painted, or
35
stamped,........... per square yard
Furniture, made on Canton or cot­
ton flannel,....... per square yard
16
Other furnitureoilcloth, pr. sqr.yd.
10
O f linen, silk, or other materials,
used for hat covers,aprons,coach
curtains, or similar purposes,—
per square yard
12£
Medicated,........... per square yard 12A
Aprons, Hat Covers, &c., made up
by hand,........................... per cent 40
Oil— Harlasm,.......................... per cent 20
Palm,............................................... free
30
O f Cloves,.......................... per lb
Linseed, Hempseed, and Rapeseed,'.......................... per gallon
25
Animal and Neatsfoot,...per cent
20
Maccassar, a cosmetic,...per cent 25
All other essential oil3, not other­
wise enumerated,.........per cent
20
Castor, or Palma Christi, per gal.
40
Olive, in casks,.............per gallon
20
do. in bottles, or betties, pr. ct.
30
All other olive oils, not salad and
not otherwise specified, per cent
20
Spermaceti, of foreign fisheries,—
per gallon
25
Whale, or other fish oil not sperm
o il,.............................. per gallon
15
Sweet, o f Almonds,...........per lb.
0
Stones,............................. percent
20
Old— or Scrap Iron, having been
actually in use, and fit only to
be remanufactured,....... per ton 10 00
Brass, Copper, and Pewter,......... free
Lead,..............................
H
Olives,................................
30
Opium,................................
75
Oranges, not in bulk,......... .per cent
20
Orange Peel,.....................
20
Ores, specimens o f Copper
free
Other, not oth’rwise specified, p.ct.
20
Organs,............................... •per cent
30
Ornaments— o f Alabaster, or Spar,
30
per cent
Other, according to materials of
which composed.
Ornamental Feathers,for headdresses
or parts thereof,.............. .per cent
25
Orpiment,........................... .per cent
20
Orrisroot,.............................
free
Ostrich Plumes, real or artificial,—
25
per cent
Otto o f Roses, or Oil o f Roses, pr. ct.
25
Oysters,............................... per cent
20
Packthread,........................
6
Paint Brushes,.................... per cent
30
Paintings on Glass,........... per cent
30
20
Other,........................ ...... •per cent
Specially imported,........
free

United States Tariff.
Paintings o f American artists,......... free
Paints— Ochrey Earths, used in the
composition o f painters’ colors,
1
dry,..............................per lb.
do. ground inoil,........ per lb.
White Lead,....................... per lb.
4
1
Paris W hite,....................... per lb.
Not otherwise enumerated, per ct.
20
Palmleaves,......................................... free
Pamphlets. (See books.)
30
Pannel Saws,........................ per cent
Paper— Bank Folio, Quarto Post o f
all kinds, Letter, & Bank Note,
per lb.
17
Antiquarian, Demy, Drawi’g, Ele­
phant, and Double Elephant,
Foolscap, Imperial, Medium,
Pot, Pith, Royal, Super Royal,
15
and Writing,....................per lb.
Copperplate, Blotting, Copying,
Colored, for labels and needles,
Marbled, Fancy Colored, Mo­
rocco,Pasteboard,Pressing B’ds,
Sand Paper, Tissue Paper, and
all gold and silver paper,wheth­
er in sheets or strips,......... per lb. 12^
Paper Gilt, or covered with metal
other than gold or silver, pr. ct.
25
Colored Copperplate,Printing, and
Stainers,............................ per lb. 10
Binders’ Boards, Box Boards, Mill
Boards, Papermakers’ Boards,
Sheathing, Wrapping, and Car­
tridge,................................ per lb.
3
All paper envelopes,wheth’r plain,
ornamental, or colored,...per ct.
30
All Billetdoux,................. per cent
30
Fancy Note Paper, o f whatever
form or size, when o f less size
30
than letter-paper,........ per cent
Music Paper, with lines, Paper
Snuff-Boxes, japanned or not,
and other fancy paper boxes,—
per cent
25
Paper Mache, articles made of, pr.ct.
30
Paper Hangings, or paper for
Screens, or Fireboards, per cent
35
Blank, or Visiting Cards,...per lb.
12
Playing Cards,................ per pack
25
Asses Skin, and imitation thereof,
per cent
25
On all other paper not otherwise
enumerated,....................per lb.
15
Engravings or Plates, bound or
unbound, in books,with or with­
out letter-press,..........per cent
20
Maps and Charts,..........percent
20
Parasols,Umbrellas,and Sun Shades,
silk or cotton,............. per cent
30
do. Frames or Sticks,...per cent 30
Parchment, or Vellum,....... per cent
25
Pastel, or W oad,................... per lb.
1
Paste, Jujube and other,... .per cent
30
Paste Work— imitation o f jewelry, “
n




473

Paste, Almond...............
25
Paving Tiles,..................
25
Stones,........................
20
Pearl, Mother o f,..........
free
Pearls— precious stones, not set,p.ct.
7
M ock,................................ percent
7£
Set as jewelry. ( See jewelry.)
2
Pearl, Barley or hulled,........per lb.
Peas,..................................... per cent
20
Pencils— black and red lead, per ct.
25
Camels’ hair,....................per cent
20
Pencil Cases o f all kinds,...per cent
30
30
Penknives,........................... percent
Pens, Metallic,.................... per cent
30
Pepper, Black,....................... per lb.
5
Cayenne, African, and Chili, pr.lb.
10
Perfumery,...........................per cent
25
Uncut Vials and Bottles, not ex­
ceeding 4 ounces each,...pr. gro. 2 50
Exceeding 4, and not exceeding
16 ounces,..................per gross 3 00
Percussion Caps,................. per cent
30
Peruvian Bark,.................................. free
Pestles and Mortars, stone, marble,
and composition,.............percent
30
Petticoats, ready made, by hand, “
50
20
Pewter,................................. per cent
Articles of, or o f which it forms a
component part, not otherwise
30
enumerated,................. percent
Old and only fit to be remanufac­
tured,.......................................... free
Philosophical Apparatus— specially
imported for any society estab­
lished for scientific and literary
purposes,.................................... free
Not so imported, to pay duty ac­
cording to materials of which
composed.
Phosphorus,..........................per cent
20
Lights,in glass bottles. (See glass.)
Pianofortes.............................per cent 30
Pickles, Capers and Sauces, per cent
30
Pimento,.................................. per lb.
5
Pin Cases— metallic,.............per cent 30
Bone, Ivory, Pearl,...........per cent 20
Cushions, made up by hand, pr.ct.
40
Pink, Dutch,......................... per cent 20
Pink Saucers,........................ per cent 30
Pins— called Pound Pins,....per lb.
20
Solid headed, and all other pack­
age Pins, not exceeding 5000 to
the pack o f 12 papers,...... pack
40
Greater or less quantity, same pro­
portion.
Pipes— Smoking, Clay,.........per cent 20
Stone, do......................... per cent 30
W ooden, (casks)...............per cent 30
Pit-Saws,................................... each 1 00
Pitch, Burgundy,................ per cent
20
Plaits, o f straw or any vegetable sub­
stances for making boqnets, pr. ct.
35
Planks, rough,.......................per cent 30
Plantain Bark,............................ ton 25 00

40*

474

Commercial Regulations.

Plaster o f Paris— unground,............ free
20
Plaster o f Paris— ground,....per cent
Court,.................................per cent
30
Busts of, and Ornaments, per cent
20
20
Platapina,.............................. per cent
Plate, Silver, metal plated in sheets,
per cent
30
Plated Carriage and Harness Furni­
ture, .............................. per cent
30
Epaulettes, Moulding, or Wire,
per cent
30
Plates, Copper, suitable for sheath­
ing ships, that is, 14 by 48 in.,
and weighing 14 to 34 ounces
per square foot,.......................... free
Plates o f Copper, prepared for the
engraver,................................percent30
Platina, not manufactured,................ free
“
Crucibles,..... ..per cent
20
Playing Cards,............................ pack
25
Plumes, Artificial or Real, per cent
25
Pocket Books, Leather,.-per cent
35
Polishing Stones,................................ free
Pomatum,...................................... percent25
25
Pomegranates, Preserved,...per cent
Peel of,...................................... percent20
Poppies,......................................... percent20
Porcelain,...................................... percent30
Pork,...............
pound
2
Porphyry,....................................... percent20
Portable Desks,.............................percent30
Porter, in bottles, (bottles pay no
duty,)................................ gallon
20
[By a circular from the comptrol­
ler, Nov. 23,1838, twelve com­
mon porter bottles are estimated
to contain 2J gallons porter.]
Porter, other than in bottles, gallon
15
Potash, (and Chromate and Bi-Chro­
mate of,)........................... per cent
20
Pots, Black Lead,................per cent
20
Poultry, Preserv’d and Prepar’d, p.c.
25
20
Pounce,................................. per cent
Potatoes,...................................bushel
10
Powder— Bronze, or Black Lead,
per cent
20
Gun,......................................pound
8
Hair,................................. per cent
20
Ink,................................... per cent
25
Powder Puffs,.......................per cent
30
Precipitate, R ed,..................per cent
25
Precious Stones,..................per cent
7
Imitations thereof, and composi­
tions o f glass, or paste on cam­
eos, and imitations thereof, p. c.
74
Preparations, Chemical, not other­
wise specified,...........................percent20
Preserves, Comfits, and Sweetmeats,
preserved in sugar or brandy, p.c.
25
Prints or Plates,............................percent20
Prunes,..................................... pound
3
Punk, or Spunk,...........................percent20
Pumice Stone,.................................... free
Purple Tin Liquor,.............-per cent
20




Puttv,.................................
14
Pyroligneous A cid,...........
20
Quadrants and Sextants,.. ..per cent
30
Quassia, in sticks,.............
free
Quicksilver,.......................
5
Quills, Not Prepared,.......
15
Prepared,.......................
25
Quinine, and Sulphate of, ..... ounce
40
RaOT, o f every kind,........
i
Raisins, Muscatel or Bloom, in boxes
or jars,........................
3
All other,.......................
2
Rape Seed Oil,..................
25
Rattans, Unmanufactured,
free
Raven’s Duck,................square yard
7
Raw Silk,...........................
50
Razors,................................
30
Razor Cases and Strops, Metal or
W ood.........................
30
o f Leather,.....................
35
25
Red Lead,..........................
4
Sanders,.........................
30
Liquor, or Seppia,........
20
Reeds, Unmanufactured,..
free
Manufactured,...............
30
Reticules, if made up by hand, p. c.
40
Rhubarb,............................
free
Ribbons, Silk or Satin,.....
2 50
R ice,................................... .per cent
20
Rings, Metallic,................. .per cent
30
Gold, {See jew elry.)
Rochelle Salts,.................. .per cent
20
R ocoa,................................. .per cent
20
Rods, Braziers’, o f 3-16ths to 10-16th
o f an inch diameter, inclusive, lb.
2.1
Roman Cement,................. .per cent
20
Vitriol, Sulphate o f Copper, per c.
20
20
Rope, made o f hides,......... .per cent
Roots o f all kinds, (not otherwise
specified,).......................
free
R osew ood,.......................... .per cent
15
Rosin,................................... .per cent
15
Rouge, Cosmetic,............... .per cent
Rubies,................................. .per cent
Rugs, W oollen,.................. .per cent
Hearth, all sorts,............ .per cent
Rules, Metallic or W ood,.. per cent
Bone or Iv ory,............... .per cent
Rum— First and Second Proof, gall.
Third,...............................
Fourth,.............................
Fifth,..............................
Above Fifth,..................
Cherry,.............................
Russia Crash,...................... .per cent
Duck,.......................... square yard
Diaper and Sheetings,... per cent
R y e ,.....................................
Sabres,................................. per cent
Saddlery, composed o f metals, p. c.
Common Tin’d and Japan’d, p. c.

25
7
40
40
30
20
60
65
70
75
90
60
20
7
20
15
30
30
20

United States Tariff.
Saddles,.......................
Saddle Trees,.............
Sad Irons,..................
Saffron,........................
Sago,............................
Sail Duck,...................
Sal Ammoniac,..........
Salad Oil, in Bottles

35
30
24
20
20
7
20

or Betties,
per cent
30
Salmon, pickled in barrels,........ bbl. 2 00
Dry or Smoked,___.......... 112 lbs. 1 00
20
Sal Soda,.....................
8
Salt,............................. ............56 lbs.
Salts— Epsom, Glauber, and R o.
20
chelle,.....................
Saltpetre or Nitrate o f Potash, Crude, free
Partially Refined,..,
4
2
Wholly Refined,....
Sand Stones,..............
20
20
Sardines, in oil,..........
free
Sarsaparilla,................
free
Sassafras,....................
15
Satin W ood,...............
Sauces, o f all kinds not otherwise
30
enumerated,........... .......... per cent
30
Saucepans, Metallic,.,
25
Sausages, Bologna,....
Saws— Mill, Crosscut.. and Pit, each 1 U0
Scagliola Tables, or slabs inlaid, etc.
per cent
30
30
Scalebeams,...............
Scrap or Old Lead,................. pound
“
“ Old Iron,.......................ton 10 00
30
Screws, Brass,.......................... pound
W ood, so called, made o f iron, lb.
12
All other, not otherwise specified,
per cent
30
Sealskins, Tan’d and Dress’d, dozen 5 00
Sealing W a x ,........................ percent
25
Seines,...................................... pound
7
Seppia, or Iron Liquor,........ per cent
20
Seneca R oot,...................................... free
Sewing Silk,............................ 16 oz. 2 00
Sheepskins, Tan’d and Dres’d, doz. 2 00
Do. do. and Not Dressed,..... doz. 1 00
Shell, Tortoise,.....................per cent
Shell and Fancy Boxes, not other­
wise enumerated,..............per cent
Sextants, according to materials.
Shades, Sun, Silk,.................per cent
Shaddocks, otherwise than in bulk,
per cent
Shaving Soap,....................... per cent
Shawls, Silk,............................ pound 2 50
Sheathing Copper, in sheets o f 14
by 48 inches, weighing 14 to 34
ounces to the square fo o t,............ free
Sheathing Metal, composed partly
2
of copper,..............................pound
30
Sheet Brass, Rolled,.............per cent
Sheets, W illow, used in making.bon­
35
nets,....................................per cent
25
Sheetings, Linen,..................per cent
20
Russia Hem p,...................per cent




475

Shellac,............................................ .
free
Shells, C ocoa,....................... per cent 20
Other,..................................per cent 20
Shirts made up byhand,....per cent
50
W ove,.................................per cent
30
Shoe Horns,...........................per cent 20
“ Thread,....................... per cent
25
30
Shoes, Horse,........................ per cent
Shoes or Pumps, Men’s, wholly or
30
partially manufactured,........... pair
Shoes, Boots, or Bootees, Children’s,
wholly or in part manufact’d, pair
15
Shoes or Slippers, W omen’s, wholly
or partly manufaeturecTbf leath­
er, prunella, or other material,
except silk,...........................pair
25
Also— W omen’s Double Soled
Pumps and Welts, wholly or
40
partly manufactured,........... pair
Shoes or Slippers,, Silk or Satin, for
women or men,........................pair
30
Do. do. o f India Rubber, not other­
wise specified,..........................pair
25
Note— Lastings, Prunellas, and
similar fabrics, not specified,
when imported in strips, pieces,
or patterns, o f the size and
shape suitable for the manufac­
ture, exclusively, o f buttons,
shoes, or bootees,.......... per cent
5
Shot Bags and Belts, leather mount­
ed ,..............
percent
35
Shot, Iron, Cast,..................... pound
1
“ Lead,...............................pound
4
Shovels, Iron, Steel, and Brass,
per cent
30
Shrub, a Cordial,..................... gallon
60
Shumac, or Sumac,.......................... free
Side Arms,............................. per cent 30
Sieves— W ood or W ire,....... per cent 30
Hair,....................................per cent 30
Silk, Raw, comprehending all silks
in the gum, whether in hanks,
reeled, or otherwise,....... pound
50
Bolting Cloths,.................. per cent 20
Umbrellas, Parasols, Sun Shades,
Caps for women, Turbans, Or­
naments for headdress, Aprons,
Collars, Caps, Cuffs, Braids,
Curls, Frizettes, Chemisettes,
Mantillas, Pelerines, and other
articles made up by hand in
whole or in part, and not other­
wise provided for,.......... per cent 30
Shirts and Drawers, made up
wholly or in part,......... per cent
40
Sewing Silk, Silk Twist, or Twist
composed o f silk and mohair,
pound 2 00
Pongees, and Plain White Silks,
for printing or coloring...pound 1 50
Silk Floss, and other similar silks,
purified from the gum, dyed and
prepared for manufacture, per cent
25

476

Commercial Regulations.

Silk or Satin Shoes and Slippers, for
women or men,........................ pair
30
Silk or Satin Lac’d Boots or Bootees,
for women or men,................. pair
75
Silk or Satin Shoes or Slippers, for
children,.................................... pair
15
Silk or Satin Lac’d Boots or Bootees,
for children,..............................pair
25
Silk Hats, for men,.................... each 1 00
Silk or Satin Hats or Bonnets, for
w om en ,............................... each 2 00
A ll other articles o f silk, made up
by hand in whole or in part,
and not otherwise provided for,
per cent
30
W ire, covered with silk, for bon­
12
nets,................................... pound
Silk and Worsted combined, manu­
factures of,....................per cent
30
I f any silk manufactures shall be
mixed with gold and silver or
other metal,..................per cent
30
Silk and Cotton, manufactures of,
to be estimated on either material
which shall produce the highest
duty.
Silver, Bullion,.................................... free
Epaulettes or W ings,.................... free
Articles made up of, not otherwise
30
enumerated,................... per cent
Quick, (V if Argent)..........per cent
5
Nitrate of,...........................per cent
20
W ire and Plated,..............per cent
30
Plated metal in sheets,...per cent
30
German, unmanufactured, per ct.
30
L ea f,................................... per cent
20
Sisal Grass,................................... ton 25 00
Skates,....................................per cent
30
Skivers, Tanned or Dressed,...dozen 2 00
Skins o f all kinds, not otherwise spe­
cified, pickled, and in casks,p.c. 20
Calf and Seal Skins, Tanned and
Dressed,.............................dozen 5 00
Sheep, do. do........................dozen 2 00
Goat, or M orocco, do. do...dozen 2 50
Kid Skins, or M orocco, do. do. doz. 1 50
Goat or Sheep Skins, Tanned and
Not Dressed,.................... dozen 1 00
Kid and Lamb, do. do.........dozen
75
Skins tanned and dressed other­
wise than in color, to w it:—
Fawn, Kid, and Lamb, usually
known as Chamois,..........dozen 1 00
Fish, for Saddlers, other than Seal,
per cent
20
Slates,..................................... per cent 25
Slate Pencils,......................... per cent 20
Smalts,....................................per cent
20
12
Snuff,........................................ pound
Snake Root,....................................... free
Soap— Castile, Fancy, Marseilles,
Naples, Perfumed, Shaving,
Washballs, or Windsor, per ct.
30
Other Hard Soap, not specified, lb.
4




50
Soap, Soft,.................................barrel
“ Stuffs and Stocks,...... per cent
10
Socks, Linen,........................ per cent 25
H em p ,................................per cent
20
W oollen or Worst’d, or both, made
on frames,...................... per cent
30
30
Cotton............. .................. per cent
S o d a ,......................................per cent
20
5
Soda A sh ,......................... per cent
Preparations o f Soda,....... per cent
20
Soles, Felt,.............................per cent
40
Cork,...................................per cent
25
Soy, an East Indiasauce,...per cent
30
Spanish Brown, Dry,............... pound
1
Ground in oil,........................ pound
1$
Spanish Flies,..................................... free
Sparteric,................................ per cent 35
Spectacles,..............................per cent 30
Spectacle Cases, Metallic, per cent 30
Leather,.............................. per cent 35
Paper,................................ percent
25
S hell,.................................. per cent 20
Spectacle Glasses, not set,....... gross 2 00
Spelter,....................................per cent 20
Spermaceti Oil,........................ gallon
25
Spermaceti Candles, or sperm and
wax mixed,...........................pound
8
4
Spikes, Copper,........................ pound
Iron,...................................... pound
3
Composition,.......................per cent 30
Spike Rods,............................... pound
2$
Spirits, Distilled from grain or other
materials— First and Second
Proof,....................
gallon
60
Third Proof,......................... gallon
65
Fourth Proof,....................... gallon
70
Fifth Proof,.......................... gallon
75
A bove Fifth Proof,.............. gallon
90
Spirits o f Turpentine,..............gallon
10
Sponges,................................. per cent 20
Spoons, Metallic,.................. per cent 30
Horn or Shell,....................per cent 20
Spunk or Punk, an article...like tin­
der,
per cent 20
Sprigs, not exceeding 16 to the thou­
sand,
thousand
5
Exceeding 16 to the thousand, lb.
5
Springs for wigs,....................per cent 30
Springs o f Brass Wire, used for ma­
king wigs,...........................per cent 30
Spy Glasses,........................... per cent 30
Squares, Metallic, or W ood, per cent
30
Square Wire, used for the manufac­
ture o f stretchers for umbrellas,
and cut in pieces not exceeding
the proper size,............... per cent 12$
Squills or Scillae,..................per cent 20
2
Starch,....................................... pound
Statues and Specimens o f Statuary,
specially imported,........................ free
Do. do. otherwise imported, v iz :—
Plaster or Alabaster,....... per cent 20
Brass, Bronze, Marble, Metal,
or W ood,...................... per cent 30

United States Tariff.
Staves, Rough,.....................per cent
Ready for use,..................per cent
Steel— Cast, Shear, or German, in
bars,...............................112 lbs.
All other, in bars,............112 lb3.
Wire, not exceeding No. 14,...lb.
“ over 14 and not ex. 25,...lb.
“ over No. 2 5 ,.................... lb.
Articles manufactured from steel,
or steel being a component part
thereof, not otherwise specified,
Stereotype Plates,................. per cent
Sticks, Walking, in rough,...............
Finished into Canes,.........per cent
Or Frames for umbrellas and para­
sols,................................. per cent
Stiffeners, o f Hair, for cravats,
per cent
Still Bottoms, and parts thereof, (See
copper.)...............................per cent
Stock Locks,..........................per cent
Stone Ware,...........................per cent
Stones, Burr, Unwrought,.................
“
Wrought,........per cent
Grind,...............................................
Oil,...................................... per cent
Rotten,.............................................
Polishing,........................................
Hones,................................ per cent
Precious,.............................per cent
Imitation o f Precious,..... percent
Straining W eb, Cotton,........ per cent
Straw Baskets,.......................per cent
Straw Flats, Braids, Plaits, Spartere,
or W illow Squares, used for ma­
king hats or bonnets,...per cent
Manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,........................ per cent
For hats, in its natural state,
per cent
Straw Carpets, and Carpeting,.........
Matting,............................. per cent
Stretchers for parasols or umbrellas,
Strings, for musical instruments, o f
catgut or whipgut, and all other
strings or threads o f similar mate­
rials,.................................... per cent
Sugar, Raw, or Brown, not advanc’d
beyond its raw state by claying,
boiling, clarifying, or other pro­
cess,................................... pound
Or Syrup o f Sugar, or o f Sugar
Cane,.................................pound
Brown, Clayed,.................... pound
All other, when advanced beyond
the raw state by claying, boiling,
clarifying, or other process, and
not yet refined,................ pound
Refined, whether Loaf, Lump,
Crushed, or Pulverized; and
when, after being refined, they
have been tinctured, colored, or
in any way adulterated,...pound
Sugar Candy,....................... pound




20
30
1 50
2 50
5
8
11

30
25
free
30
30
20
30
30
30
free
20
free
20
free
free
20
7
7^
30
25

35
20
20
30
25
30

15

2£
2^
2£

4

6
6

Note.— I f syrup o f the cane or
o f loaf sugar is entered as mo­
lasses, or any other appellation
than syrup o f sugar, it is liable
to seizure and confiscation. (See
regulations o f comptroller of
treasury.)
Sugar M olds,....................... per cent
Sulphate o f Quinine,.............. ounce
Magnesia,.........................percent
Sulphur, flour of,................................
Sulphuric A c id ,...................... per lb.
Ether,............................... per cent
Sumac,................................................
Suspenders— Braces o f all kinds ex­
cept Indiarubber,........per cent
Indiarubber, in no case to be val­
ued at less than $ 2 per dozen,
even if costing less,...... per cent
Suspender W ebbing, o f Indiarubber,
per cent
Swans’ Down,.......................per cent
Swan Skin, undressed,........ per cent
Sweetmeats,.......................... per cent
Sword Blades,....................... per cent
Knots o f silver or gold lace, pr. ct.
do. o f silk or worsted, per cent
Swords,.................................. per cent
Syrup o f Sugar-Cane, in casks, p. lb.
Tablecloths, according to materials.
Tables, with marble tops, slabs, or
ornaments,......................... per cent
Tacks, Brads, or Sprig3, not exceed­
ing 16 oz. to the 1000,...pr. 1000
Over 16 ounces,................... per lb.
Tinned,.............................. per cent
Taggers’ iron,....................... per cent
Tallow ,......................................per lb.
Candles,................................ per lb.
Tamarinds, preserved in sugar or
molasses,..........................percent
Tapers, paper, cotton wick, or wax,
per cent
Tapes— Cotton,.....................per cent
Leather,............................. per cent
Linen,................................ per cent
Tailors’, in silver cases,...per cent
Tapioca,...............................percent
Tarred Cordage,......................per lb.
Tartaric A cid,....................... per cent
Tartar, crude,.....................................
Tartar Emetic,.....................percent
Teas, when imported in American
vessels from places o f production,
Teapots, metallic, China, or earth­
en,.....................................per cent
Teeth, except elephants,... .per cent
Teazles,................................per cent
Telescopes,..........................per cent
Teutenague,........................................
Boxes,...............................per cent
Thermometers,....................per cent
Thimbles, metallic,............ per cent
Bone or ivory,.................per cent

477

30
40
20
free
1
20
free
35

30
30
25
20
25
30
15
30
30
2£

30
5
5
30
5
1
4
25
30
30
35
25
30
20
5
20
free
20
free
30
5
20
30
free
20
30
30
20

478

Commercial Regulations .

Thread, Cotton, Twist, or Yarn, on
spools, or otherwise, unbleached
and uncolored, the true value o f
which, at the place whence im­
ported, shall be less than 60 cents
per lb., shall be valued at 60 cents
25
per lb.................................. per cent
Thread, if bleached or colored, cost­
ing less than 75 cts., to be valued
at 75 cents,........................ per cent
25
Thread, Flax,...................... per cent
25
Laces and Insertings,....... per cent
15
Tiles, Paving,...................... per cent
25
Timber, rough,......................per cent
20
Tin, in bars, pigs, or blocks, per cent
1
Foil,....................................percent
2£
In plates or sheets,..........per cent
2^
Taggers’, .......................... per cent
2£
All manufactures of, or o f which it
is a component part, not other­
wise specified,..............per cent
30
Tinctures o f all kinds, not otherwise
25
enumerated,...................... per cent
Tinned or japanned common Sad­
dlery,.................................. per cent
20
Tips o f Horns,.................... per cent
5
Tips and Runners for parasols, me­
30
tal,..................................... per cent
Tippets, Fur,.........................per cent
35
T obacco, manufactured, other than
10
snuff and cigars,............. per lb.
Unmanufactured,.............. per cent
20
Toilette Glasses, and vials. (See glass.)
25
Tolu, Balsam of,.................. per cent
Tongues, Reindeer & Neats’ , smok­
ed,...................................... per cent
20
Tongues and Sounds, o f foreign fishenes,..................................per cent
20
Tonkay, or Tonqua Beans, per cent
20
Tools and implements o f trade, o f
persons arriving in the U. States,
in actual use,...........
free
Tooth-Brushes, bone, or ivory, or
shell,..........................
30
Tooth-Powder,............
20
Tooth-Picks, bone, ivory, shell, and
quill,....................
20
Metallic,..................
30
Topaz, real,.................
7
Imitation,.................
7i
Tortoise Shell,...........
5
T ow , Codilla, o f Flax or Hemp, ton 20 00
Toys, metal, paper, wood,..per cent
30
Trace Chains, or parts thereof, pr. lb.
4
Trees,...............................
free
Trusses,with iron or metallic springs,
o f Indiarubber,........
30
I f leather be the material o f chief
value,........... ..........
35
Tumblers. (See glass.)
Turmeric,........................
free
Turquoises,..................... .
7
Turpentine,.....................
25
Spirits of,......................
10




20
Turtles,.................................. per cent
Twine, untarred,....................per lb.
6
Twist, cotton. (See thread.)
Twist, o f silk, or composed of silk
and mohair,........... per 16 ounces 2 00
Types, new or old,..............per cent
25
Type Metal and Stereotype Plates,
per cent
25
Umbrellas, Parasols, & Sun Shades,
silk,............................... per cent
30
Cotton, or other materials, pr. cent
30
Furniture of, if metallic, per cent
30
do. if bone or ivory,...... percent
20
Valencias, worsted and silk, per cent
30
Vanilla Beans,...................... per cent
20
Varnishes o f all kinds,........ per cent
20
Vases, Porcelain, for ornaments or
flower stands,................... per cent
30
Vegetables, if principally us’d in dye­
ing, or composing dyes,................ free
Veils, silk, lace,....................... per lb. 2 50
Cotton L ace,.................... per cent
30
Vellum, or Parchment,....... per cent
25
Velvet— Cotton, Cords, Moleskins,
Fustians, Buffalo cloths, goods
manufact’d by napping or rais­
ing, cutting or shearing, not ex­
ceeding in value 35 cents per
square yard, to be valued at 35
cents per square yard, and pay
duty,.............................. per cent
30
Silk,......................................per lb. 2 50
Velveteens. (See velvet.)
Venison Hams, preserved,....per lb.
3
Verdigris,.............................. per cent
20
Vermicelli,............................ per cent
30
Vermillion,............................ per cent
20
Vials, all uncut fancy and perfumery,
not exceeding 4 ounces each in
capacity,........................ per gro. 2 50
Exceeding 4 oz., and not exceed­
ing in capacity 16 oz. each,—
per gross 3 00
Vials and Bottles, apothecaries’ , not
exceeding the capacity o f 6 oz.
each,.......................... . per gross 1 75
Exceeding 6, not over 16, pr. gro. 2 25
Vices,..................................
30
Vinegar,.............................. per gallon
8
Violins,................................
30
Strings, Catgut,.............
15
Visiting Cards,..................
12
Vitriol— Oil o f Sulphuric Acid, p. lb.
1
Blue, Sulphate o f Copper,..per lb.
4
2
Green, and Copperas,.. __ per lb.
Wafers,...............................
25
Waiters— metallic, wood, or japanned,.............................
30
Leather,..........................
35
30
Walking Canes, mounted, ...per cent
Rough,............................
free
Warming Pans,................
30
Watches, and parts thereof, per cent
Glasses or Crystals,...... .per gross 2 00

United States Tariff,
Water Colors,.................... .per cent
20
W ax Beads,........................ .per cent
25
Bees’, bleached or not,... •per cent
15
Wax, Sealing,.................... ■per cent
25
Shoemakers,....... ........... .per cent
15
Tapers,............................ .per cent
30
Wearing Apparel, actually in use,... free
All other, except Gloves, Mitts,
Socks, Stockings, wove Shirts
and Drawers, and all similar
manufactures, made on frames;
Hats,Bonnets,Shoes & Bootees,
imported in a state ready to be
used as clothing, by men, wo­
men, or children, made up ei­
ther by the tailor, manufacturer,
50
or seamstress,................ per cent
All articles worn by men, women,
or children, other than above
specified or excepted, o f what­
ever materials composed, made
up wholly or in part by hand, p.ct.
40
Webbing— Cotton, or Indiarubber, 44 30
Worsted or W oollen, made on
frame,............................percent
30
Wedgewood W are,.............per cent
30
W eld,................................................... free
Whalebone, foreign fishery, per cent
12£
Whale Oil,
“
44 per gallon
15
25
Wheat,.............................. per bushel
“ Flour,....................112 pounds
70
Whetstones,.......................... per cent
20
35
Whips,................................... per cent
Whiskey— 1st and 2d proof,... gal Ion 60
3d,.......................... gallon
65
4th ,........................ gallon
70
5 th ,........................ gallon
75
A bove 5th,........... gallon
90
White Lead, dry or ground in oil, lb.
4
1
Whiting, or Paris W hite,....... per lb.
Wick, Cotton or W ick Yarn, as Cot­
ton Yarn.
Wigs,..................................... per cent
25
Willow Sheets, for hats,....per cent
35
For making baskets or covering
demijohns,.................... per cent
20
Window Glass. (See glass.)
Windsor Shaving Soap, and all other
perfumed,...........................per cent
30
Wings & Epaulettes, o f gold or silv’r, free
Plated,...............................per cent
30
Wines— Madeira,Sherry,San Lucas,
&. Canary,in casks or bott’s, gal.
60
Champagne,......................... gallon
40
Port, Burgundy, and Claret, in
bottles,..............................gallon
35
Port and Burgundy, in casks, gal.
15
Teneriffe, in casks or bottles, gal.
20
Claret, in ca sk s,..................gallon
6
White Wines, not enumerated, o f
France, Austria, Prussia, Sar­
dinia, Portugal and possessions,
7£
In casks,...................gallon
In bottles,................gallon
20




479

On Red Wines, not enumerated,
o f France, Austria, Prussia, Sar­
dinia, and Portugal and its pos­
sessions—
In casks,................gallon
6
In bottles,..............gallon
20
On White & Red Wines o f Spain,
Germany, and the Mediterra­
nean, not otherwise enumerat’d,
In casks,................ gallon 12£
In bottles,.............. gallon 20
Sicily, Madeira, and Marsala, in
casks or bottles,................gallon
25
Other W ines o f Sicily, in casks or
bottles,...............................gallon
15
A ll other not enumerated, & other
than those o f France, Austria,
Prussia, Sardinia, and Portugal
and its possessions—
In casks,.................gallon 25
In bottles,.............. gallon 65
All imitations o f wines, brandies,
or spirits, shall pay the highest
rate o f duty applicable to the
genuine article.
Nothing above contained, to inter­
fere with subsisting treaties with
foreign nations.
Bottles containing wine, to pay
separate duty.
W ine Lees, Liquid,.............per cent
20
Crystallized, (crude Tartar,)........ free
Winter Bark, or Canella Alba, p. ct.
20
Wire— Brass or Copper,... .per cent
25
Iron or Steel, not exceeding No.
14,...................................... per lb.
5
Over No. 14, not over No. 25, lb.
8
Over No. 25,.........................per lb. 11
30
Silvered or Plated,.......... per cent
Cap or Bonnet, covered with silk,
per lb.
12
“ Cover’ d with Cotton Thread,
or other material,...per lb.
8
Square, for umbrella stretchers,
and in pieces not exceeding the
proper length,... per cent
12$
W oad or Pastel,........................per lb.
1
W ood o f all kinds,in sticks, for Dyes, free
“
44
Ground, per cent
20
W ood— Fire,....................... per cent
20
Quassia,........................................... free
Rose, Mahogany,Satin, and Ce­
dar,
per cent
15
All manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,...................... per cent
30
W ool— Angora, Goats’, or Camels,
Combed or Worsted, manufac­
tures of, not otherwise specified,
per cent
30
On the Skin, to be estimated as to
weight and value the same as
other wool, and to pay the same
duty.
On coarse wool, unmanufactured,

480

Commercial Regulations .

the value whereof at the last
port or place whence exported
to the United States, shall be
seven cents or under per pound,
there shall be levied a duty of—
per cent
W ool— On all other unmanufactured
wool a duty of........... per cent
And in addition,............. per lb.
Provided, That when wool o f differ­
ent qualities o f the same kind or
sort is imported in the same bale,
bag, or package, and the aggregate
value o f the contents o f the bale,
bag, or package shall be appraised
by the appraisers at a rate exceed­
ing seven cents per pound, it shall
be charged with a duty in conform­
ity to such appraisal.
Provided further, That when wool o f
different qualities, and different
kinds or sorts is imported in the
same bale, bag, or package, the
contents o f the bale, bag, or pack­
age shall be appraised at the value
o f the finest or most valuable kind
or sort, and a duty charged there­
on accordingly.
Provided, also, That if bales o f differ­
ent qualities are embraced in the
same invoice, at the same price,
the value o f the whole shall be ap­
praised according to the value o f
the bale o f the best.
I f any wool be imported having in
it dirt, or any material or impuri­
ties other than those naturally be­
longing to the fleece, and thus be
reduced in value to seven cts. per
pound, or under, the appraisers
shall appraise said wool at such
price as in their opinion it would
have cost had it not been so mix­
ed with such dirt or impurities, and
a duty shall be charged thereon in
conformity to such appraisal.
W oollen, or W oollen and Worsted
Drawers, Shirts, Mitts, Gloves,
Caps, Bindings, Hosiery, and all
such articles, made on frames,
not otherwise specified, per cent
Yarn,.................................per cent
W oollen and Worsted Yarn, per ct.
Bags,.................................. per cent
Bindings, made on frames, per ct.
W ool Hats, or Hat Bodies,...... each
W ool.— All manufactures o f wool, or
o f which wool shall be a compo­
nent part, except Carpetings, Flan­
nels, Bookings, Baizes, Blankets,




5
30
3

Worsted Stuff Goods, ready-made
Clothing, Hosiery, Mitts, Gloves,
and goods made on frames, pr. ct.
Worsted Stuffs, made o f combed
wool, and manufactures o f Wors­
ted and Silk, combined,...per cent
Yarn— Twist or Thread,Cotton, un­
bleached and uncolor’d, the true
value o f which, at the place
whence imported, shall be less
than 60 cents per pound, shall
be valued at 60 cts. per pound,
and pay a duty of........ per cent
Bleached or Colored, the true val­
ue o f which,at the place whence
imported, shall be less than 75
cents per pound, shall be valued
at 75 cents per pound, and pay
a duty of........................ per cent
All other Cotton, Twist, Yarn,
and Thread, on Spools or other­
wise,..............................percent
Worsted and W o o l,.......................
Spun, for making Cordage, per lb.
Y ellow Ochre, dry,............... per lb.
Ground in Oil,.................... per lb.
Zante Currants,......................per lb.
Zinc— in Sheets,................. per cent
Sulphate o f ; White Vitriol; p. ct.
Oxide of,...........................per cent
A ll manufactures of, not otherwise
specified,.......................per cent

40

30

25

25

30
30
6
1
1$
3
10
20
20
30

The following provision in the tariff law is
annexed, by reason o f its importance to
the mercantile community.
It is the
20th section o f the law.

30
30
30
40
30
18

There shall be levied, collected, and paid
on each and every non-enumerated article,
which bears a similitude, either in material,
quality, texture, or the use to which it may
be applied, to any enumerated article
chargeable with duty, the same rate of duty
which is levied and charged on the enu­
merated article which it most resembles, in
any o f the particulars before mentioned;—
and if any non-enumerated article equally
resembles two or more enumerated articles,
on which different rates o f duty are chargea­
ble, there shall be levied, collected, and
paid, on such non-enumerated article, the
same rate o f duty as is chargeable on the
article which it resembles paying the high­
est duty; and on all articles manufactured
from two or more materials, the duty shall
be assessed at the highest rates at which
any o f its component parts may be charge­
able.

481

Commercial Statistics.
Rate at which Foreign Moneys and Cunency are taken at the Customhouse.
Cents.

Florin or guilder, o f Bohemia,.................................................................. 48
40
do.
Frankfort,....................................
do.
Nurembergh,.............................................................. 40
do.
.
Elberfeldt,.................................................................. 38 and 36 1-2
do.
Leipsig,....................................................................... 40
do.
Netherlands,............................................................... 40
do.
Augsburgh,
or Bavaria,.......................................... 40 36-100
do.
St. Gall, without consular certificate,.................... 40 36-100
Rix dollar or thaler, o f Prussia,.............................................................. 68 29-100
do.
Bremen,.............................................................. 78 47-1000
do.
Saxony,..............................................................
69
do.
Leipsig,......................................
69 and 77
do.
Denmark,........................................................... $ 1 00
Marc banco, o f Hamburgh,........................................................................ 33 1-3
do.
do.
current,.......................................................... 28
Franc,............................................................................................................... 18 708-1000
Rupee, o f Madras,............................................................
44
Pagoda,.......................................................................................................... $ 1 84
Sicca rupee, o f Calcutta,............................................................................... 50
Leghorn, Tuscan, and Florence livre,......................................................
6 1-3 to the doll.
Louis d’ or,..............................................................................
78 46-100
Tares allowed by law
P er cent

... 12
... 15
...
5
... 10
.. 20
.. .
8
... 10
...
2

On sugar in casks, except loaf,.........................................
Boxes,..................................................................
Bags or Mats,.....................................................
Cheese in hampers or baskets,....................................
Boxes,..................................................................
Candles in boxes,...........................................................
Chocolate in boxes......................................... ...............
Cotton in bales,..............................................................
Zeroons,..............................................................
Glauber Salts in casks,.....................................................
Nails in casks,....................................................................
Sugar Candy in boxes,......................................................
Soap in boxes,....................................................................
Shot in casks,......................................................................
Twine in casks,................ ................................................
Bales,..................................................................

...

6

...

8
8
10
10
3
12
3

...

...
...
...
...
...

On other goods, according to invoice or actual weight. It is optional with the im.
porter, at the time o f making his entry, to have invoice tare allowed, the collector con­
senting thereto.

C O MME R C I A L

S TATI STI CS.

COM M ERCE OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S , IN 1841.
Statistical View o f the Commerce o f the United States, exhibiting the Value o f Imports
from , and Exports to, each foreign country, during the year ending on the 31s£ o f
September, 1841; derived from the report o f the Secretary o f the Treasury commu­
nicating the annual statement o f the Commerce and Navigation o f the United States,
as required by A ct o f Congress.
VALUE OF EXPORTS.
value of
countries.

imports .

Russia,............................................ §2,817,448
Prussia,...........................................
36,119
Sweden,.......................................... 1,209,881
Swedish W est Indies,..................
19,760

VOL. VII.— NO. V.




41

Domestic
Produce.
§146,118
149,211
563,766
165,184

Foreign
Produce.
§879,611
26,765
38,553
3,707

Total.
§1,025,729
175,976
602,319
168,891

60-1

Commercial Statistics.

482

VALUE OF
COUNTRIES.

IM PORTS.

Denmark,............................ .........
Danish W est Indies,.......... .........
Holland,.............................. .........
Dutch East Indies,.......... .........
Dutch W est Indies,..........
Dutch Guiana,...................
Belgium,............................
Ilanse T ow ns,..................
E nglan d,........................... .........
Scotland,...........................
Ireland,...............................
Gibraltar,...........................
Malta,................................. ......
Cape o f Good H ope,........ ......
British East Indies,.......... .........
British W est Indies,.......... .......
British Honduras,.............. ......
British Guiana,.................. ..........
British American Colonies,.........
Australia,...........................
France,...............................
French W est Indies,........ ..........
French Guiana,................. ..........
Miquelon, and French fisheries,
Ilayti,.................................. ..........
Spain,..................................
TenerifFc and the other Canaries,
Manilla, and Philippine Islands,
Cuba,.................................. ....... .
Other Spanish W est Indies,.......
Portugal,............................ .........
Madeira, ............. .............
Fayal and the other Azores,.......
Cape de Verd Islands,.... ..........
Italy,................................... .........
Sicily,................................. .........
Sardinia,............................ .......
T rieste,..............................
Turkey,..............................

8,791
1,075,530
1,638,022
266,425
500,197
35,793
374,833
2,449,964
45,730,007
850,887
81,921
21,079
1,461
17,155
1,236,641
855,122
232,244
18,228
1,968,187
86,706
23,933,812
198,216
55,416

T e x a s,................................
M exico,.............................
Venezuela,........................
N ew Grenada,................ ........
Central America,............ ..... .
Brazil,................................
Argentine Republic,........ ..........
Cisplatine Republic,........ ..........
C hili,..................................
Peru,................................... ..........
Patagonia,......................... ..........
South America generally, ..........
China,............................... ..........
Europe generally,........... .........
Asia generally,................. ..........
Africa generally,............. ..........
W est Indies generally,... .........
South Seas,.....................
Sandwich Islands,........... .........
Uncertain places,............. ..........

1,809,684
1,310,696
144,654
733,906
11,567,027
2,560,020
286,568
229,519
16,093
42,661
1,151,236
588,057

.....

418,606
614,872
38,114
395^026
3,284,957
2,012,004
144,117
186,911
6,302,653
1,612,513
345,234
1,230,980
524,376
27,269
3,985,388
167,318
408,955
38,440
47,630
848

V ALU E OF E X P O R T S .

Bom. Prod.
110,424
769,908
2,237,444
178,876
298,699
37,900
1,673,726
4,110,655
44,184,357
1,920,506
60,872
1,020,931
27,869
51,324
532,334
3,191,683
141,864
381,332
6,292,290
63,784
18,410,367
381,556
43,701
2,257
1,093,634
386,001
12,290
75,450
5,107,011
721,845
114,443
107,905
13,137
66,926
731,411
474,470
47,000
1,258,776
200,934
516,255
886,513
532,419
50,562
78,616
2,941,991
509,007
140,031
846,410

78,981
715,322
41,938
252,209
582,441
255,222
394,634

For. Prod.
24,364
82,587
277,478
224,150
34,194

52,980
179,612

Total.
134,788
852,495
2,514,922
403,026
332,893
37,900
1,823,882
4,560,716
47,555,577
1,935,824
60,872
1,119,920
48,939
51,324
963.201
3,231,994
193,216
382,601
6,656,563
176,341
21,766,755
422,522
44,041
2,257
1,155,557
413,820
15,789
262,786
5,739,082,
749,932
121,764
128,275
18,922
80,152
912,318
486,062
47,000
1,311,756
380,546

292,041
1,150,107
230,083
59,873
71,297
575,282
152,939
16,193
256,578

808,296
2,036,620
762,502
110,435
149,913
3,517,273
661,946
156,224
1,102,988

150,156
450,061
3,371,220
15,318
98,989
21,070
430,867
40,311
'
51,382
1,269
364,273
112,557
3,356,388
40,966
340
61,923
27,819
3,499
187,336
632,071
28,087
7,321
20,370
5,785
13,226
180,907
11,592

485,494
506,819
54,327
9,013
99,931

78,981
1,200,816
41,938
759,028
636,768
264,235
494,565

T otal,............... $127,946,177 $106,382,722 $15,469,081 $121,851,803




Statement o f the Commerce o f each State and Territory o f the United States, commencing on the Jst day o f October, 1840, and ending on
________________________________________________________the 30th day o f September, 1841.
VALUE

OF

IM P O R T S .

T O RIES.

Maine,..........................................
N ew Hampshire,........................

Pennsylvania,.............................
Maryland,..................................
District o f Columbia,.................
Virginia,.......................................
North Carolina,..........................
South Carolina,..........................
Georgia,.......................................
Alabam a,......... ........................ .
Louisiana,...................................

Florida,.......................................




Foreign
Vessels.

$574,664 $126,297
61,585
12,116
246,739
18,835,492 1,482,511
5,663
333,929
293,221
2,768
66,688,750 9,024,676
396
1,919
9,840,354
506,344
2,088
1,188
5,348,866
752,447
23,400
53,863
25,320
351,917
5,629
214,731
1,217,955
339,476
299,977
149,030
410,358
120,461
8,141,088 2,115,262
9,563
1,755
7,523
137,608
33,875
116,712

192
28,469

Total.

$700,961
73,701
246,739
20,318,003
339,592
295,989
75,713,426
2,315
10,346,698
3,276
6,101,313
77,263
377,237
220,360
1,557,431
449,007
530,819

EXPORTS.
FOREIGN PRODUCE.

American
Vessels.

Foreign
Vessels.

$1,029,905
7,476
264,005
6,469,302
264,799
580,210
19,660,881
19,166
3,990,504
38,585
3,536,202
616,044
5,155,618
348,410
5,579,971
1,802,850
6,317,512

$48,728 $1,078,633
$1,649 $11,283
$12,932 $1,091,565
10,261
2,785
42
45
87
10,348
264,005
13,982
13,982
277,987
928,390
7,397,692 3,663,945 425,706 4,089,651 11,487,343
1,477 ' 266,276
12,189
12,189
278,465
19,138
599,348
599,348
4,618,727 24,279,608 6,668,917 2,191,308 8,860,225 33,139,833
19,166
19,166
414,359
723,782
23,856
4,404,863
747,638
5,152,501
■ 38,585
38,585
1,252,958
111,089
4,789,160
46,917
158,006 4,947,166
148,791
2,819
764,835
4,496
1,677
769,331
473,292
1,328
5,628,910
48
1,376
5,630,286
34,646
383,056
383,056
2,431,421
8,011,392
7,841
24,051
31,892
8,043,284
300
196
1,893,167
3,696,017
496
3,696,513
8,464
4,652,314 10,969,826
2,981
11,445 10,981,271

Total.

American
Vessels.

10,256,350 26,071,660 6,793,958 32,865,618 1,012,054
11,318
708,367
84,747
793,114
7,523
137,800
33,875
145,181

Total o f the
Domestic
and Foreign
Produce.

88,529
19,393

Foreign
Vessels.

509,811

Total.

1,521,865 34,387,483
793,114

88,529
14,435

33,828

88,529
225

2,576

2,801

36,629

113,221,877 14,724,300 127,946,177 82,569,389 23,813,333 106,382,722 12,239,249 3,229,832 15,469,081 121,851,803

483

T o t a l ...................................

American
Vessels.

OF

Commercial Statistics.

Massachusetts,............................
Rhode Island,.............................
Connecticut,................................
N ew Y ork,..................................

VALUE
DOMESTIC PRODUCE.

ST A T E S AN D T E R R I­

484

Commercial Statistics,

DOM ESTIC E XP O R T S OF TH E U N ITED S T A T E S , IN 1841.
Summary Statement o f the Value o f the Exports o f the Growth, Produce, and Manu.
facture o f the United States, during the year commencing on the ls£ day o f October,
1840, and ending on the 30th day o f September, 1841.
TH E

SEA.

Fisheries— Dried Fish, orCod Fisheries,........................................... $602,810
Pickled Fish, or River Fisheries, (Herring, Shad, Salmon, and
M ackerel,)...................................................................................
148,973
Whale and other Fish O il,.......................................................... 1,260,660
343,300
Spermaceti Oil,.............................. ,................................................
W halebone,..,..................................................................................
259,148
Spermaceti Candles,........................................................................
231,960
-----------------$2,846,851
TH E

FOREST.

Skins and Furs,...................................................................................
Ginseng,................................................................................................
Product o f W ood—
Staves, Shingles, Boards, Hewn Tim ber,..............$2,549,812
Other Lumber,............................................................
266,175
Masts and Spars,...............................
58,991
Oak Bark and other Dye,.........................................
153,519
A ll Manufactures o f W ood,......................................
548,308
Naval Stores, Tar, Pitch, Rosin, and Turpentine,
684,514
Ashes, Pot and Pearl,...............................................
573,026
-----------------

993,262
437,245

4,834,345
6,264,852

A G R IC U L T U R E .

Product o f Animals—
Beef, Tallow, Hides, Horned Cattle,.......................
Butter and Cheese,....................................................
Pork (Pickled) Bacon, Lard, Live Hogs,.................
Horses and Mules,.....................................................
Sheep,...........................................................................

904,918
504,815
2,621,537
293,143
35,767
-----------------

4,360,180
Vegetable Food—
W heat,.........................................................................
822,881
F lour,........... . .............................................................. 7,759,646
Indian Corn,...............................................................
312,954
Indian Meal,...............................................................
682,457
Rye Meal,....................................................................
138,505
Rye, Oats, and other small grain and pulse,.........
159,893
Biscuit, or Shipbread,.................................................
378,041
64,402
Potatoes,......................................................................
Apples,.........................................................................
48,396
R ice,............................................................................. 2,010,107
----------------- 12,377,282
T obacco,..........................................
Cotton,..............................................
A ll other Agricultural Products—
Flaxseed,...........................................................................................
Hops,.................................................................................................
Brown Sugar,...................................................................................

16,737,462
12,576,703
54,330,341
50,781
28,823
23,837
103,441

M AN U FACTU RES.

Soap, and Tallow Candles,...............................................................
Leather, Boots and Shoes,.................................................................
Household Furniture,.............................................
Coaches and other Carriages,.................................................................
Hats,......................................................................................................
Saddlery,...................................................................................................
W ax,..........................................................................................................
Beer, Porter, and Cider,.........................................................................




494,577
193,583
310,105
60,456
100,725
22,456
74,120
59,133

Commercial Statistics.
Spirits from Grain,...................................
Snuff and T obacco,..................................
Lead,...........................................................
Linseed Oil, and Spirits o f Turpentine,,
Cordage,...................................................
Iron— Pig, Bar, and Nails,....................
Castings,................................................
All manufactures of,............................
Spirits from Molasses,.............................
Sugar, R efin ed,.......................................
Chocolate,..................................................
Gunpowder,...............................................
Copper and Brass,.....................................
Medicinal Drugs,......................................
Cotton Piece Goods— Printed and Colored,................
White...........................................................................
Twist, Yarn, and Thread,........................................
All manufactures of,........................................
Flax and Hemp— Cloth and Thread,......................
Bags, and all manufactures of,...................... .
Wearing Apparel,.....................................................
Combs and Buttons,..................................................
Brushes,.................................. ...................................
Billiard Tables and Apparatus,.................................
Umbrellas and Parasols,...........................................
Leather and M orocco Skins, not sold per pound,.
Printing Presses and T ype,......................................
Fire Engines and Apparatus,..................................
Musical Instruments,..................................................
Books and M aps,.......................................................
Paper and Stationery,...............................................
Paints and Varnish,......... ..........................................
Vinegar,......................................................................
Earthen and Stoneware,...........................................
Manufactures o f Glass,.............................................
Tin,.......... ........................... ....... ..........................
Pewter and Lead,.................................................
Marble and Stone,.......................... .'........ .............
Gold and Silver, and Gold Leaf,........................
Gold and Silver Coin,............................................. .
Artificial Flowers and Jewelry,..............................
Molasses,....................................................................
Trunks,........................................................................
Bricks and Lime,... ..................................................
Domestic Salt,....................................... ...................
Articles not enumerated—
Manufactured,........................................................
Other Articles,........................................................

485
$97,150
873,877
96,748
52,162
31,582
138,537
99,904
806,823
371,294
1,348,974
2,606
146,934
72,932
136,469
--------------$5,591,147

$450,503
2,324,839
43,503
303,701
3,122,546
2,764
10,636
77,907
47,548
2,590
996
7,699
38,689
561
22,439
16,119
40,620
83,483
40,578
12,957
6,737
43,095
3,751
20.546
33.546
2,452
2,746,486
10,013
7,999
1,916
14,064
62,765
-------------- 6,481,502
626,857
823,566
-----------

1,450,423

$106,382,722
T R A D E OF G R E A T B R IT A IN A N D H E R COLONIES.
In a late debate in the British parliament on the subject o f colonial duties, Lord Stan,
ley said— “ He had before him a return o f the amount o f trade between our different
colonial possessions and Great Britain; and he called upon the house to look not merely
to its value in figures, but to consider how large a proportion o f it was carried on directly
with this country. In 1837, the total amount o f imports into our British North American
possessions was £3,844,000, and in 1838, £3,648,000, or, upon the average o f two
41*




486

Commercial Statistics.

years, £3,700,000 ; o f which only £700,000 in each o f these two years was from foreign
countries, the remainder being a trade exclusively in our own hands, and the produce
o f British manufactures.
“ The total amount o f the trade o f our British colonial possessions with Great Britain,
representing the imports o f British North America, the W est Indies, and Australia, was
no less in 1837 than £10,261,000, and in 1838, £10,580,000; o f which only about
£2,000,000 did not come directly from Great Britain, the produce o f British manufac.
ture. Our returns from the same colonies amounted in 1837 to £11,056,000, and in
1838 to £12,054,000 ; and these returns were considerably increasing. Compared with
this, what was any other trade we had with any other country on the face o f the globe ?
In British North America, with a population not exceeding 1,340,000 souls, there had
been a consumption o f our manufactures at the rate o f 39s. 9d. per head; while in the
United States— whose trade he would by no means depreciate, but rather increase and
extend— with 17,000,000 o f people, the consumption o f British manufactures did not
exceed, on an average, £7,235,000, or at the rate o f 8s. 5d. per head. And although
our imports from the United States had gone on increasing, our exports had decreased.
In 1839 we took o f their manufactures 060,000,000, and they received from us
$65,000,000; in 1840 our import trade into the United States fell, from whatever
cause, from $65,000,000 to $33,000,000.”
W IN E T R A D E OF OPORTO.
From recent accounts published in the London Times, it appears that the wine trado
is in a very low condition, with increasing stocks, and no prospect o f riddance. Let the
following statement speak for itself:—
The Douro vintage o f 1841 was as follows—
Pipes.
First quality,..,................................................................................................................. 58,063
Second quality,................................................................................................................. 10,190
Third quality,................................. ...............................s................................................. 7,165
Inferior quality,................................................................................................................ 2,456
77,894
The stocks remaining in Oporto, Villa Nova, and the vicinity, from former
years were.....................................................................................................................153,287
The old wines in the north o f Portugal, besides,....................................................... 20,907
In the London D ock s,.................................................................................................... 23,000
T otal , .....................................................................275,000

Here is the astounding fact that on the 31st o f December, 1841, there was in Oporto,
in the wine country north of Portugal, and in London, (deducting last year’s sale,) a
quarter of a million pipes o f port wine, for which no probable vent was afforded, the
annual production (about 80,000 pipes) being so far beyond the annual export. A quar­
ter of a million o f pipes! The pipe contains about twenty-five cubic feet o f fluid. The
quantity of port wine, therefore, in existence (independently o f private cellars,) is about
6,250,000 cubic feet, or enough to float all the navies o f Europe! N ow , the lowest cal­
culation at which the interest upon capital thus locked up, leakage, and charge for
storage can be taken, is ten per cent. Many wine houses at Oporto have stocks of
from 1000 to 2000 pipes, upon which they are, therefore, sustaining an annual loss of
from £2,000 to £5,000. The price o f port wines has come down immensely. Wine
that sold some time since for 130 milreis (say £ 2 5 ) the pipe, may now be bought for
60 milreis, (from £ 1 3 to £1 4.) But this avails but little for the reduction o f the stocks.
The great bulk o f the exports go to England; yet last year, the export to England did
not exceed 21,000 pipes, and in few years do they exceed 30,000. Compare this with
the annual production o f 80,000 pipes.




487

The Book Trade.

T HE

B OOK

TRADE.

1.— The American Almanac and Repository o f Useful Information fo r the year 1843.
David H. Williams. 12mo. pp. 334.

Boston:

The fourteenth annual issue o f this standard work is before us, and as usual, contains a
great variety of useful information. For the last twelve years it has been conducted by
Mr. Joseph E. Worcester, o f Cambridge, and its reputation as a valuable and accurate
summary o f general knowledge, is attributed chiefly to his exertions. The statement of the
publisher will be admitted by all who are acquainted with its character, that “ it has mer­
ited the large share o f public favor which it has received, both as a manual of reference,
and a record o f facts, carefully collected and arranged, o f much immediate interest, and
of permanent value as a contribution to statistical science, and the general policy of the
country.” The present volume is the fourth o f which the present editor has had the
charge, who seems to have preserved, with fidelity, all its characteristic features. The
astronomical department is under the charge o f Professor Pierce, who managed the same
department in the volume for 1842, and whose name affords sufficient assurance that it will
be found as full and as accurate as in former years.
2.

— The United States’ Almanac ; or Complete Ephemeris, for the year 1843; wherein the
Sun’s rising, setting, (fee., are given for six different parallels o f Latitude, embracing the
whole extent o f the U nion; also a collection o f such Tables as are of most frequent use
among Engineers, for the determination o f Latitude, Time, e tc.; a complete census of
the United States, from the official report just presented to congress, including the popu­
lation of every Town, County, Territory, and State, arranged in alphabetical order; the
principal officers o f the government, and the variqus departments, with their compensa­
tions ; a view of all the State Debts, and the various purposes for which they were con­
tracted ; and numerous Statistics, relative to Commerce, Manufactures, Agriculture, &c.
By J ohn D ownes, late o f the North Eastern Boundary Survey. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler.

The full titlepage quoted, by no means furnishes a complete index to the great variety
and vast amount o f information embraced in this volume o f more than three hundred pages
of closely printed matter. The portions o f the work devoted to the engineer and practical
astronomer will be found particularly valuable, and from the established reputation o f the
author, we presume very accurate. Although the plan o f this new candidate for public
favor is somewhat similar to that o f the “ American Almanac,” so large a portion of the
matters introduced, are so entirely different, that it would seem almost indispensable to
those who value works o f record and reference to possess both. The fact is, that half a
dozen volumes o f the kind might be published without embracing the one half that would
be interesting and useful.
3. — The Laics o f the different Slates and Territories o f th£ United States on Imprisonment for
Debt. By A sa K inne. New Y ork : J. S. Voorhies. 1842.
W e heartily thank Mr. Kinne for placing before us the laws o f all the states and territo­
ries, as they now exist, touching that relic of barbarism—imprisonment for debt, or poverty.
It clearly shows, that in some form or other, the poor debtor is in every state, save one, in
the power o f the creditor. The Christian minister, who does not raise his voice against an
evil so hostile to the spirit o f the gospel he preaches, fails, in our opinion, to fulfil the entire
objects o f his mission to his fellow-man; and the Christian layman, who avails himself of
the privilege guarantied to him by the unhallowed law, by incarcerating in the walls of
the prison, or otherwise depriving him o f his heaven-derived birthright—liberty—has
not learned the spirit o f the Christian doctrine aright—and is deficient in the common
sympathies o f humanity. The pen o f the republican patriot, the philanthropist, and the
Christian,, should be wielded in holy crusade against this glaring infringement of human
rights.
4. —Ellen Leslie, or the Reward o f Self-Control.

New Y ork: Dayton <fe Newman.

This is the fifth o f a series o f “ Tales for the Young, or Lessons for the Heart, by Aunt
Kitty.” The moral influence o f the stories is unexceptionable, and the writer seems to
understand, and sympathize with, the workings o f the young mind.




488
5 — The G ift: 1S43.

The Book Trade .
A Christmas and New Year’s Present.

Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.

The mechanical execution o f this work is excellent; and the engravings, all original,
generally rise far above mediocrity. W e have never seen any thing sweeter or more ex­
quisite than the vignette face on the titlepage. It is a perfect gem. The “ lace cap” is a
neat specimen o f the art; equal, if not superior, to the very best of the English annuals.
The “ Gift” is in every respect an American work. The contributions are by American
authors,—and the illustrations (eight in number) by American artists. There are twentythree articles, o f various but general excellence. Many o f these are o f a higher order of
merit than usually characterize our annuals. There is but one or two pieces, that might,
perhaps, have been omitted, or their place supplied with articles of greater value or inter­
est. But where all are so good, it would perhaps be deemed invidious to particularize. It
is on the whole equal, if not superior, to any that have preceded it ; and we have no hesita­
tion in pronouncing it the Gift o f the season.
6. — The Christian Souvenir; an Offering for Christmas and the New Year.
I saac F. S hepard . Boston: David H. Williams.

Edited by

This souvenir “ comes before the public as a stranger, with the warm hope that they
who harbor it may thereby receive a spirit o f light, of beauty, and of love,” and we bid it a
hearty welcome, confident that it will find many fervent hearts and cultivated intellects
to appreciate its solid worth. The editor has succeeded in a great measure in his endea­
vor “ to improve on all who have gone before him, by combining what shall be attractive,
sparkling and chaste, in polite literature, with a high degree of utility and religious value.”
It contains forty-two original pieces, in prose and verse, mostly from well-known authors,,
and is illustrated by six engravings, viz:—Mar Johannan, painted by C. Hubbard, engraved
by J. G. Kellogg. Illustrated titlepage, designed by H. Billings, and engraved by J. An­
drews. The Noonday Rest, and the Sisters o f Bethany, by O. Pelton. Perils of the
Deep, painted by F. Birch, engraved by Rawdon, Wright, Hatch, & Smellie. Holy
Hours, painted by N. Southworth, and engraved by G. F. Storm. The subjects of the
illustrations are good, and the literary department as a whole is not surpassed by any of
the annuals, English or American. Varied as are the pieces, they possess a high degree
o f interest, and are chosen with excellent taste and a nice discrimination. The worthy
publisher has liberally contributed to the external finish and beauty of the work ; and the
typography is in the best style o f the Boston press.
7.

— The Rose o f Sharon: A Religious Souvenir, for 1843. Edited by Miss S arah C. E dgerBoston: A. Tompkins.

to n .

The present is, we believe, the fourth annual blossoming of this “ Rose of Sharon,” and in
our judgment, it greatly exceeds in merit, as it certainly does in its mechanical appearance,,
any o f its predecessors. The letter-press is beautiful, but we cannot in justice to even our
humble ideal of the beautiful and correct in the art, say much in favor of the illustrations.
The subjects o f the engravings are, however, well chosen, and the literary department
Atones in a measure for the imperfect execution. “ The Dweller Apart” has an interest
aside from its intrinsic excellence, as the latest work o f the fair writer’s pen, now a
“ dweller” in the world of spirits. “ The Unfulfilled Mission of Christianity,” by Horace
Greeley, breathes the pure spirit o f the gospel o f peace and good-will to men.” “ The
Actual,” by Henry Bacon, is full o f truth and beauty, and yearning aspirations after a
higher and better life in the living present,—the actual of the intellectual and the spiritual man.
8.

— Christ our Law. By M rs . C aroline F r y , author of “ The Listener,” “ Christ our Ex­
ample,” “ The Jubilee o f the Lord,” <fec. New York: Robert Carter. 1842.

This treatise is based on the popular doctrine o f natural depravity, the vicarious atone­
ment, the infinite evil o f sin, and the supreme deity o f Christ. It is the declared desire of
the author “ to simplify and comprehend the great first principles of the law o f God in the
gospel o f Jesus Christ : to unravel the tangled thread in which the awakened spirit finds
itself involved in its researches after truth; and to draw out, from the beginning to the end,
the curiously wrought, but never broken tissue.” She admits, however, the fallibility of
human judgments, and maintains that our strongest statements should be attempered with
persuasion, and borne out with argument, and submitted to “ proof, and held with toler­
ation.” The work will find favor with the advocates of “ moderate Calvinism,”




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489

9.—The Adventures o f Captain John Smith, the Founder o f the Colony o f Virginia. By the
author of “ Uncle Philip’s Conversations.” 10.— The Adventures o f Henry Hudson. By
the same author. New Y ork: D. Appleton
Co.
These two volumes are the first o f a series o f books to appear at convenient intervals,
under the title o f “ A lib ra ry for my Young Countrymen.” The design of which is to pre­
sent books o f a higher value than is usually afforded in the tales and stories that flood the
country. It is to embrace volumes o f biography, history, travels, & c., and as it is designed
especially for American youth, the subjects selected will be mainly American; although
profitable and interesting lessons are not to be excluded from the series, from whatever
quarter they may be derived. As in the volumes o f biography before us, the best practical
examples will be given to “ our young countrymen,” to call them up to a pure and lofty
energy. The writer considers that all education, to be good, must be based upon Christian
principle; that the heart must be cultivated, as well as the understanding; and therefore,
whatever is placed in this series, will be found on the side of Christianity. The lives of Hud­
son and Smith are rich in incidents “ stranger than fiction,” and far more instructive. The
style of “ Uncle Philip” is peculiarly adapted to the taste and capacity of the young, with­
out being puerile, or less attractive to the more cultivated intellect o f the advanced reader.
11. —The Odd Fellows' Offering: 1843. Edited by P aschal D onaldson. New York: Sam­
uel A. House & Co.
A homely exterior sometimes covers a warm and generous heart, and why may not an
odd name, like the apples o f gold in pictures o f silver, modestly conceal beneath its honest
folds much o f the good and the true 1 It certainly does, in our estimate, in the present
instance, for if there is “ any praise, any virtue,” in friendship, love, and truth, and in the
<c diffusion of the principles of benevolence and charity,” tnen is the institution which bears
the unique title given to this serial, worthy o f all acceptation. But it is the “ Offering”
that claims our notice at this time, and not the society whose literature it is designed to
represent. The typography o f the “ Offering” is certainly beautiful, and the literary de­
partment respectable; the articles, o f varied interest, are deeply imbued with the true moral
sentiment; and the engravings are pretty good ; they do not, however, come up to even
our imperfect ideal o f the art. On the whole, however, we commend the work to the
“ fraternity,” and to those who are curious to learn the principles and the history o f the
Order; the “ secrets” o f course, excepted, which, we will venture to sa y ,<c do not compromit those high and exalted duties we owe to our God, our country, and ourselves.”
12. —Hydriatics ; or Manual o f the Water Cure, especially as practised by Vincent Pressnitz, in Graefenberg. Compiled and translated from the writings of Charles Munde, Dr.
Gertel, Dr. Bernhard Herschel, and other eye-witnesses and practitioners. By F rancis
G reeter. 12mo. pp. 198. New Y ork: William Radde. 1842.
The Allopathic, and the Homoeopathic systems, acknowledge the existence of a healing
power in the organism which they endeavor to succour; but the theory of the vjater cua'e
addresses itself to this power exclusively, and with the rejection o f every specific means,
finds the universal auxiliary for exciting and strengthening the vital power in cold water
alone, variously applied and assisted by sudations. The present essay is designed to re­
commend cold water, if not as a universal nostrum, yet as the most universally useful, and,
in a great many cases, at least, exclusive means for the prevention and radical cure of dis­
eases, and invigoration o f body and mind. The effects o f the method, as related in this
volume, as connected with the rise and progress o f this institution in Graefenberg, are truly
astonishing, and at least, entitle the water cure to an unprejudiced consideration.
13—Rienzi, the Last o f the Tribunes.
per number.

No. 8 o f Harpers’ Library o f Select Novels.

25 cents

The unfitness o f a degenerate and corrupt people for the enjoyment o f freedom is strik­
ingly exemplified in the historical events which form the basis o f this admirable romance,
and it teaches a great political lesson, which cannot be too deeply pondered. Bulwer has
thrown around it all the magic o f his great genius, to make it the more impressive. W ho
would recognise the fickle and miserable populace w'hom Rienzi vainly undertook to re­
deem from bondage, as the descendants of the stern and virtuous old Romans of the repub­
lic 1 This work is profoundly instructive.




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14. — The Complete Poetical Works o f Robert Burns: with Explanatory and Glossarial Notes,
and a Life o f the author. By J ames C urrie , M. D. The first complete American edition!
18mo. pp. 573. New York: D. Appleton
Co. 1842.
In reprinting the poetical works o f one so distinguished, and so universally admired as
Burns, the publishers deemed it their duty to collate the various editions of his works, and
to collect together the various poems which are the admitted productions of the poet, so as
to render the present edition more complete than any that has preceded it. This edition,
the most beautiful and perfect that has yet been published in this country, was edited by
one o f the most gifted living authors o f Scotland; and to make the dialect and allusions
fully acceptable to the American reader, glossarial definitions, and notes illustrative of the
manners and customs which are described, are added—not heaped together at the end, tofatigue the patience o f the reader, but subjoined to their respective pages, where they may
be seen at a glance, in connection with the text.
15. — XJncas and Miantonomoh ; an Historical Discourse. By W illiam L. S toke, Author of
the “ Life of Brant,” “ Life and Times o f Red Jacket,” &c. 18mo. pp. 209. New York:
Dayton & Newman. 1842.
This discourse was delivered by the author on the fourth o f July, 1842, on the occasion
o f the erection o f a monument to the memory of Eneas, “ the white man’s friend, and first
chief o f the Mohegans.” Like every thing from the pen o f Mr. Stone, touching the his­
tory, character, habits, and manners o f the aborigines o f America, it evinces the same
careful and untiring research, the same faithful appreciation o f Indian character, and the
same ardent desire to do ample justice to a race o f men rapidly receding before the influ­
ence o f Anglo-Saxon power,—a race that must ere long live only in the records of the
biographer and historian.
16. — rI he Book o f Religions ; comprising the views, creeds, sentiments, or opinions o f all the
principal religious sects in the world, particularly o f all Christian denominations in Eu­
rope and America ; to which are added church and missionary statistics, together with
biographical sketches. By J ohn H ayw ard , author o f the New England Gazetteer. 12mo.
pp. 432. New York: Dayton & Newman.
The design of Mr. Hayward in the preparation o f this work, is to exhibit to his readers,
with impartiality and perspicuity, as briefly as their nature will permit, the views, creeds,
sentiments, or opinions of the various religious sects or denominations in the world; but
more especially to give the rise, progress, and peculiarities o f the principal schemes or sys­
tems o f religion which exist in the United States at the present day. To accomplish this
design, the editor obtained from those he deemed the most intelligent and candid among
the living defenders o f each denomination, full and explicit statements o f their religious
sentiments, such as they believe and teach. The work will serve as a manual for those
who are desirous o f acquiring, with as little trouble as possible, a correct knowledge of the
tenets o f religious faiths, presented for the consideration o f mankind, and enable them
almost at a glance to compare one creed or system with another, and each with the scrip­
tures, and the dictates o f reason, or the “ light which lighteth every man that coineth into
the world,” and thus to “ judge for themselves what is right.”
17. — Ormusd’s Triumph ; oi' the Fall o f Ahriman.
Alexander V. Blake. 1842.

A Drama.

12 mo. pp. 100.

New York:

The machinery o f this poem is taken principally from the ancient religion of the Persians,
the theology o f Zoroaster, the leading doctrine o f which was a belief in the existence of
two beings, Ormusd and Ahriman, the spirit o f goodness and the spirit of evil. These
spirits are the principal dramatis personae of the drama. In addition, the principles of
truth, liberty, love, temperance, industry, & c. are introduced as the followers of Ormusd;
and superstition, intemperance, and despotism, as followers o f Ahriman. The subject of the
poem, divested of allegory, is the progress and improvement o f the human m ind; “ its object
being to give a clearer and more definite idea o f the nature o f that improvement,” says the
author, “ than is perhaps, generally professed ; to show o f what it rightly consists, its true
elements, and the condition to which it may, and probably will elevate our race.” The
work is in keeping with the spirit o f the age, and is indicative o f the increase of those who
yearn alter a more perfect development of the true and the perfect in humanity.




The Book Trade.
IS.—History o f the United States, or Republic o f America. By E mma W
443. Philadelphia: A. S. Barnes & Co.

491
illard .

8 vo . pp.

It is evidently the design o f the author o f this history o f our country, by clear arrange­
ment, and devices addressed to the eye, to aid the faculties o f the student to seize and hold
fast the frame-work o f an important subject, that future facts may naturally find and keep
their own place in the mind, and the whole subject rest there in philosophical order. The
plan of this history is chronologically exhibited in the front of the titlepage. Maps are
included between the periods of the work, coinciding in time with the branches of the sub­
ject, and sketches on the maps picture the events there expressed in words. A compre­
hensive chronology o f the most important events in the history of America, from its dis­
covery to the death o f President Harrison, is given in the first part o f the volume, and the
history is brought down to the possession, by the constitution, o f the presidency by Mr. Tyler.
Appended to the history is the constitution o f the United States, and a vast number of
questions to each chapter.
19 —Julia o f Baice ; or the Days o f Nero. A Story o f the Martyrs. By the author of the
“ Merchant’s Daughter,” “ Virginia,” “ Christmas Bells,” etc. New York: Saxton ite
Miles.
This tale is connected with some o f those tragical events which have made the reign of
Nero a proverb among men, and the author appears to have given a faithful and condensed
view of the history and spirit o f the time, avoiding those minute details which the pen of
one of the most profound historians o f antiquity has preserved. Not, however, omitting
altogether the disgusting atrocities o f the age, he has touched them as lightly as possible,
choosing rather to sacrifice somewhat of the interest which might otherwise have been thrown
around the narrative, than sully his page with impurity. The author displays no ordinary
power in the development o f the narrative, which possesses a deep interest, and the style is
at once simple, chaste, and graceful.
20.—Principalities and Poivers in Heavenly Places. By C harlotte E lizabeth , with an
introduction by Rev. Edward Beckersteith. 12mo. pp. 296. New Y ork: John S. Taylor
& Co. 1842.
The author o f this volume delights to penetrate the “ dark valley and shadow ” that hides
from human vision the spirit-land. Reverence, marvellousness, and faith in the unseen
shadowings of eternity, with a mixture o f enthusiasm and bigotry, make up the strong points
in her character, as indicated in the productions of her prolific and untiring pen. Differing
as we do with her in sentiment, still we find in her writings the materials of thought and
many sparkling coruscations o f a fervid and truly poetical imagination. The volume
before us is divided into two parts. The first treats o f “ evil spirits,” in which she
maintains their existence and describes their character, their power, and their employ­
ment—their daring, cunning, cruelty, activity, knowledge; and closes with the “ doom of
Satan and his angels.” The second part is devoted to an account o f the good spirits, “ or
holy angels,” which she describes with great minuteness, without however claiming to have
conversed with them, after the manner o f Swedenbourg.
21.—Dissertations on the Prophecies relative to the Second Coming o f Jesus Christ. By G eorge
Duffield , pastor o f the first Presbyterian Church at Detroit. 12mo. pp. 434. New Y ork:
Dayton & Newman. 1842.
The dissertations embraced in this volume are the substance o f part o f a series of lectures
delivered in the winter o f 1841-2, to the people o f his charge, and are “ given to the public
in compliance with the desire expressed by many to have them in some referable and per­
manent form.” The writer discards the reasoning and speculations o f the statesmen and
politicians of the day, who think that they descry in the march o f improvement, the increase
of light, and the very posture of nations, the pledges that earth shall be redeemed, and
liberty, virtue, science, bless the human race,—and “ looks to the more sure word of pro­
phecy as the best and safest guide for our researches into the future.”
22.—Gems from the American Poets. New Y ork : D. Appleton & Co. 1842.
This beautiful little volume contains about one hundred and fifty from among the best
poems o f our most distinguished poets. The selection is made with admirable taste and
judgment, and the volume forms one of the series o f “ Appleton’s Miniature Library,”
which, altogether, embraces the very gems o f English literature.




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23. —Memoir o f M rs. Mary Lvndie Duncan ; being recollections o f a daughter.
mother. 12rno. pp. 268. New York: Robert Carter. 1S42.

By her

Those who delight to mark the early development o f genius, and of Christian purity and
piety, will find in this little volume rich and abundant materials of thought, connected with
the intellectual and spiritual culture o f one whose earthly career was brief, but whose
mind advanced with peculiar energy towards the fulfilment of its high mission to the goal
o f its immortal inheritance in the “ spirit-land.” The memoir exhibits a rare combina­
tion o f the excellencies o f a woman, whose piety, natural dispositions, intellectual attain­
ments, accomplishments, and personal attractions, would, if held separately, have distin­
guished their possessor in society, but when united in one individual, like the colors in the
heavenly bow, each shed a lustre on the other.
24. —First Impressions ; or Hints to those who icould make home happy. By M rs. E llis,
author o f “ Women o f England,” “ Daughters o f England,” etc. New York: D. Ap­
pleton & Co.
Another o f the admirable series o f “ Tales for the People and their Children,” which we
cannot too strongly commend to their attention. In the machinery of agreeable narrative,
every-day practical “ hints” and moral truths are conveyed, that if received into honest
hearts, will indeed make “ home happy.”

LOUISVILLE M ERCANTILE LIBRARY.
A member o f the College o f Teachers says—“ During a visit of a few days to the city
o f Louisville, among other objects o f interest, I have spent a few very agreeable hours
in looking over the well-stored shelves o f the Mercantile Library. I was prepared to find
it a good one, but my expectations were much exceeded. Though but half a year old, it
contaiifs the best collection o f English books I have ever met with. The valuable donations
o f the citizens, who have shown a noble liberality in giving o f their best and most cherished
volumes, and the well-chosen purchases o f the president, Mr. Bucklin, render it one of the
most choice and excellent collections in the United States, and its 3,000 volumes far exceed
in value many of 10,000 or 15,(XX). As but a part o f the subscription has been expended,
the library will receive further large augmentations, and be a just subject o f pride and
pleasure to those who have so liberally promoted its formation. T o the young men of the
city it is literally invaluable ; for a small sum annually they enjoy advantages for study
equal to the wealthiest, and have an access to the stores o f learning and genius which
would have filled the heart o f a Franklin with ecstasy. The taste and judgment which
have characterized the previous purchases are a guaranty for the future; and it cannot but
gratify every friend o f human improvement to see books and lectures, here and elsewhere,
substituted for the demoralizing excitement o f the theatre and the gaming-table.”
F rancis’ s M anifold W riters.—The manifold writers o f Mr. Lewis Francis, advertised
in the Merchants’ Magazine Advertiser, is an excellent article. W e have used it, and find
it to be a great saving o f time and expense, and would therefore recommend it to business
men as a very useful invention. A letter, duplicate, and even a triplicate, may be made
with as much ease as a single letter, without even the necessity of using an inkstand or a
pen. The writing is perfectly indelible. Time will not diminish its brightness. It must
prove highly valuable to merchants who desire to preserve facsimile copies of their corres­
pondence without the labor or expense o f copying.

To C orrespondents.—W e have received several answers to the problems in accountant­
ship, which appeared in the September number of the Merchants’ Magazine. They will be
attended to in our next. An “ Analysis o f Bookkeeping, as a Branch of General Edu­
cation,” by Mr. Thomas Jones, accountant, will also be published in the December
number.