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THE

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE,
Established July, IS39,

BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

CONTENTS

OF NO. Ill, VO L. X.
ARTI CLES.

ART.

RACE.

I. Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

By J. G. K ohl,.................................................... 207

II. Origin and H istory o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.
the Danish o f J. F. W . S chlegel, for this Magazine.

Translated from

By the H on. G eorge

P. M arsh, Member o f Congress from Vermont,....................................................... 218
III. The Sugar-Trade o f the W orld— N o. II.— Exporting Countries,,...................... 232
IV. Coinage o f the United States,.................................................. .................................. 240
V.

Post-Office Reform .

By the Hon. W illiam B . M aclay, Member o f Congress

from N ew Y ork ,.............................................................................................................. 250
VI.
Tonnage and N avigation o f the United States,...................................................... 268

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE,
EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC., ILLUSTRATED
W IT H TABLES, AS FOLLOWS :

Cotton, Stocks, Receipts, and Exports in the United States, from 1842 to 1 8 4 4 ,.... 270
Consumption and Value o f Grain in Great Britain in four years,................................... 271
Revenue o f Great Britain for the quarters and years ending January 5th,................... 272
Companies formed in England prior to 1824,.................................................................... 273
Companies projected in England in 1824 and 1825,........................................................ 273
Prices o f Stocks in the N ew Y ork market in 1843 and 1844,...................................... 274
Produce— Quantity arrived on the Hudson, via the Canal, in 1841— 1843,............... 275
Banks o f N ew Y ork State— their condition each year, from 1831 to 1843,.............. 276

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
Antigua Commercial Regulations and Tariff o f Duties,.................................................. 277
Commercial Regulations o f Ports in Cuba,.................................................................. —

278

Mexican Admeasurement o f Vessels,.................... .......................................... ................. 279
Tariff and Stamp Duties at R io Janeiro,........................................................................... 280
New Brunswick Post-Office Regulations,.......................................................................... 280
V O L . X .— N O. I I I .




18

206

Table o f Contents.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.
PAGE.

Commerce o f the United States and Genoa from 1820 to 1843,................................. 281
Shipping and Tonnage engaged in the Commerce o f the United States and Genoa,
from 1799 to 1842,.............................................................................................................. 282
Notes and Remarks on the Commerce o f the United States and Genoa, by C. Ed.
wards Lester, U. S. C.,....................................................................................................... 282
Commerce o f N ew Orleans,.................................................................................................. 283
Exports from the port o f N ew Y ork, in 1842 and 1843,............................................... 284
Foreign and Coastwise Navigation o f N ew Y ork, in 1843,......................................... 285
Arrival o f Passengers in N ew Y ork, from 1835 to 1843,.............................................. 286
Import o f Hides at N ew Y ork from different countries, in 1843,................................. 286
Export o f Hides from N ew Y ork, in each year, from 1836 to 1843,.......................... 286
Commerce and Navigation o f Boston! in 1843.................................................................. 287
Imports o f Foreign and Domestic Coal into Boston, from 1837 to 1843,.................... 287
Corn, Oats, R ye, and Shorts, received at Boston, from 1837 to 1843,......................... 287
Flour received at Boston for each year, from 1837 to 1843,................................... 287
Receipts o f Flour into Boston, by the W estern Railroad, in 1842 and 1843,.... 288
Molasses, Sugar, and Spirits, imported into Boston, from 1838 to 1843,.................... 288
Coffee, imported into Boston, from 1841 to 1843,............................................................ 289
Cotton— Quantity of, received at Boston, from 1837 to 1843,...................................... 289
Hides imported into Boston, in 1843,.................................................................................. 289
Foreign and Coastwise Arrivals and Clearances at Boston, in 1843.................... 289, 290
Quantity o f M ackerel inspected in Massachusetts, in each year, from 1831 to

1843, 290

Canal Commerce at Albany, for 1842 and 1843,............................................................. 291
Lake Commerce o f Cleveland, Ohio,.................................................................................. 292
Steamboats and Vessels belonging to Cleveland, in each year, from 1830 to 1843,. 292
Merchandise imported and exported at Cleveland, in 1843,.......................................... 293
Lead and Copper trade o f Galena,....................................................................................... 294
Lead shipped from Galena and Dubuque, etc., in 1841, 1842, and 1843,.................. 295

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
Twenty-third Annual Report o f N ew Y o rk Mercantile Library Association,........... 296
Twenty-first Annual Report o f Philadelphia Mercantile Library Company,.............. 296
Fourth Annual Report o f Mercantile Library Association o f Baltimore,..................... 297

T H E BOOK T R A D E .
Letters o f Horace W alpole to Sir Thomas M ann ,.......................................................... 298
Various Writings o f Cornelius M atthew s,...,.................................................................... 298
Martineau’s Endeavors after the Christian L ife,................................................................ 298
Hunter’s Sacred Biography,.................................................................................................. 298
Benthamiana.— M oore’s Poetical W orks,.......................................................................... 299
Peabody’s Lectures on Christian Doctrine,........................................................................ 299
Spark’s Letters on the Ministry, Ritual, and Doctrines, o f the Episcopal Church,.. 299




HUNT’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
MARCH,

1844.

A r t . I.— SK E T C H E S OF R U S S IA N COM M E R C E *
TH E

R U S S IA N

EXCHANGE.

T h e Germans corrupted a word o f the Romane family o f languages into
Borse, and the Russians, catching up this germanized Latin word, russified
it into Birsha. Such is the name which they give to every place where
people regularly meet for any purpose whatever, and even to the stands
where the iswoschtschiks are accustomed to wait for fares. It is not suf­
ficient therefore in Petersburgh, to call to the driver o f the sledge into
which you fling yourself to go to ’ Change, “ W ’ Birsha!” — to the E x­
change. T o accomplish your object, you must say, “ W ’ Gollandskija
Birsha ! ” — to the Dutch Exchange. For such is the name given by the
Russians to the large handsome building where the merchants meet in the
Wassili-Ostrow, a name, which probably dates from the earliest infancy o f
Petersburgh, when the Dutch merchants, specially invited and favored by
Peter the Great, were the first who pre-eminently resorted to the Newa,
and probably met on the same spot where the representatives o f all the
commercial nations non' assemble.
The Exchange o f Petersburgh has a situation so splendid and appropri­
ate as rarely falls to the lot o f a handsome edifice. It stands on the ex­
treme point o f Wassili-Ostrow, in the centre o f all the divisions o f the
city, whence in winter, sledges, and in summer gondolas, bring from all
* Russia and the Russians in 1842, by J. G. K ohl, Esq. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
For an article on “ Russia and her Commercial Strength,” see Merchants’ Magazine,,
vol. 5, 1841, page 297 to 321. A lso, an article on “ the Trade o f Foreigners in Russia,”
see vol. 6, for 1842, page 161 to 164. “ Commercial Guilds o f Russia,’’ vol. 6, page 37
to 42, and “ Russian Insolvency Laws,” see page 419 to 425, vol. 6, 1842. For “ Rus­
sian Law o f Copartnery in Trade,” see vol. 6, page 250 to 252. For “ Trade o f the
Russian Empire, embracing progress o f Russian Commerce, Imports and Exports in
1838— Navigation Trade with Europe and America, Commercial Ports, Shipment o f
Exports, & c.,” see also Merchants’ Magazine for September, 1842, vol. 7, page 205 to
225, & c.




209

Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

quarters, their freight o f merchants to transact business here. The point
o f the island forms a fine open place in front o f the building, placed on a
raised foundation ; and on each side o f the noble granite quays, by which it
is protected, the majestic river divides into two large streams which flow
on calmly and placidly, without breakers, to the right and left o f the point.
Several magnificent flights o f granite stairs lead from the margin o f the
shore, for raising and consolidating which, prodigious masses o f stone and
builders’ rubbish were sunk here, down to the river. On the open place
before the exchange, stand, at suitable distance, two thick columnae rostratae, above 100 feet high, in honor o f Mercury, built o f blocks o f gran­
ite, and having ships’ heads o f cast iron inserted in them. These columns
are hollow within, and have iron staircases leading to the top, where are
placed gigantic fire-pans, which, on public illuminations, fling their glare
far and wide.
The immediate environs, and all the approaches to this edifice, in which
business involving the interests o f numberless families and o f a hundred
nations and countries is incessantly transacted, are singularly grand, and
perfectly commensurate with the importance o f the object. It took twelve
years, from 1804 to 1816, to finish the whole o f the works, the Place, the
quays, the stairs, as well as the building itself) an unheard-of-thing in Petersburgh, where a copy o f St. Peter’s at Rome was completed in two
years, and a new imperial palace rose from its ashes in eleven months.
The plan was furnished, and the whole work executed by Thomon, the
architect. An unprejudiced, unprofessional eye might find fault with the
disproportionate smallness o f the columns running round the building,
which is in the ancient Grecian style, and with the breadth and heaviness
o f the roof. The color given to the exterior, a French gray with white
borders, is injudiciously chosen ; a pure white would have formed a more
pleasing contrast with the azure o f the sky, and produced a more beauti­
ful reflection in the waters o f the river. Upon a solid, deeply laid sub­
structure o f blocks o f granite, steps ascend on all sides to the colonnade,
and to the entrances at the opposite ends, over which, in the frontispiece,
are placed colossal groups o f statues.
The party-colored exterior o f the exchange, so far from harmonizing
with the simplicity o f the Grecian style, is further disfigured by a semi­
circular window o f extraordinary size, which has been introduced into the
higher facade. This large window is the only one visible from below,
and from the border o f it issue a great number o f narrow, white, longish
stripes in a radial form, like the partitions o f a fan. The architect proba­
bly conceived, that in this window he was giving his building an extraor­
dinary embellishment, but to me it appeared to be a striking deformity.
It looks precisely as if the canting wheel o f a mill had been walled up in
the front. One cannot conceive how any man could think o f a circular
window in keeping with a style o f architecture in which everything else,
body, towers, and roof, is sharp and angular, and no part o f which exhibits
the cupola or arch form, as in the Arabian, Gothic, and Byzantine style.
An Englishman is no doubt astonished to find, even at the entrance of
this temple o f Mercury, old soldiers acting as sentries, porters, and attend­
ants. It is true, they are highly deserving men, as may be seen by a
row, half a yard long, o f crosses and medals gained beyond the Caucasus
and the Balkan, which decorates their breasts. The inner hall, o f colos­
sal proportions, is lighted from above, and has in front and rear, as well as




Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

209

on both sides, small spaces, separated from it only by arcades. In one o f
the spaces in front is an altar, with lamps perpetually burning before it,
erected for the accommodation o f Greek-Russian merchants. In its half
modern, half antique appearance, it exactly resembles those merchants
themselves, who, before they enter upon business, bow or even kneel be­
fore it, and implore the aid o f all the saints towards the successful issue o f
their plans. As they appear in blue or green fashionable surtouts, but at
the same time with long beards and national Russian physiognomies, so
the altar is composed o f a great number o f highly polished mahogany pil­
lars, adorned with gilt capitals in the newest taste. A carpet fresh from
Paris covers its steps: but it exhibits withal an embrowned antiquated
saint, which no one would think o f modernizing any more than the mer­
chants would venture to apply the razor to their chins.
TH E

M E R C A N T IL E

CLASS

IN

P E T E R S B U R G !!.

The mercantile world o f Petersburgh, which assembles at three every
afternoon in the exchange, both for number and for the importance o f its
transactions, is that which plays a part that gives the decided ton, not
only in Bordeaux and Copenhagen, but beyond the Atlantic, in Baltimore
and Philadelphia, and which, moreover, has respectable and influential
representatives at every solid mercantile place in the world— namely, the
German. Wassili-Ostrow, where the German merchants have whole
rows o f handsome residences, and where almost every public house and
every shop has a German inscription only, is so German, that it might
be considered as a colony o f our nation, and specially as one o f the latest
colonies o f the Hanseatic league and its commercial descendants. The
first houses in Petersburgh after the English, are the German, and the lat­
ter fill nearly the whole o f the second rank ; they are scions o f Bremeners, Hamburgers, Lubeckers, Danzigers, Konigsbergers, and more par­
ticularly o f mercantile families in Riga, Reval, Narva, and W iborg, who
have settled here and founded their credit by their intelligence and the'
solidity o f their character. The nearest German ports, Reval, Narva,
&c., may have contributed most in proportion to these colonies, and their
houses form the actual stock o f the mercantile class o f Petersburgh. There
are very old German houses ; some have been established above a cen­
tury, and date from the infancy o f the city. The tone o f society in these
houses is the most agreeable that can be conceived. The German has
compromised matters in a very sensible way with the Russian. Without
despising him so decidedly as the Englishman, he has adopted many o f
his good qualities, without, however, divesting himself o f his own nation­
ality, retaining his native solidity and polish, which, set off by Russian
ease and adroitness o f manner and northern hospitality, make so much
the stronger an impression. There are, it is true, those who will not
highly commend the rising mercantile generation in Petersburgh, and in­
sist that the colony needs new blood from abroad infusing into it.
Next to the Germans come decidedly the English, who form in various
respects a more distinct colony than the Germans, many o f the latter
having become citizens o f Petersburgh and Russian subjects, or having
always been such, while the former merely belong to the “ foreign
guests,” as they are called, who, in time o f peace, enjoy the advantages
of denizenship, without its burdens. The English mercantile body call
themselves the Petersburgh factory. They have their own chapel, and,




18*

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Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

despising all other nations, but most especially their protectors, the Rus­
sians, they live shut up by themselves, drive English horses and carriages,
go bear-hunting on the Newa, as they do tiger-hunting on the Ganges,
disdain to lift the hat to the emperor himself, and, proud o f their indispensableness and the invincibility o f their fleets, defy everybody, find fault
with everything they see, but are highly thought o f by the government
and by all, because they think highly o f themselves, and reside chiefly in
the magnificent quay named after them, where, however, many wealthy
Russians also have splendid mansions.
Besides these two nations, which are pre-eminently in possession of
the maritime commerce o f Petersburgh, there are likewise Danes, Swedes,
French, Portuguese, Spaniards, and Italians, who have all their represen­
tatives and consuls here ; and there is certainly no city in Europe, ex­
cepting London, in whose trade the nations o f this quarter o f the globe,
without exception, are so interested, as they are in that of Petersburgh.
The national Russian mercantile body form a class totally distinct from
the colonies and factories o f the foreign merchants engaged in maritime
commerce. By means o f their widely extended connections in the interior o f the country, they undertake only the transport and supply of the
native Russian commodities destined for exportation, tallow, corn, timber,
leather, and such articles as are furnished by the Asiatic trade. In the
distribution of the foreign goods imported into Petersburgh, manufactured
or raw materials, fruit, wines, & c., in the interior o f the empire, or in­
deed in Petersburgh itself, they have a very small share, for in all the
towns o f the interior there exist, for these finer productions o f non-Rus­
sian industry, French establishments for articles o f dress and jewelry,
German drug-warehouses, magazines o f materials and o f cloth, French
and German wine-cellars, & c., which are in direct correspondence with
the foreign houses in Petersburgh.
Not a single Russian is engaged in maritime traffic, either in Peters­
burgh or in any other port o f the empire ; they have neither the requisite
knowledge and connections, nor the genuine, intuitive spirit o f commer­
cial speculation. The Russian, with his narrow-minded notions, cannot
divest himself o f his false views o f m on ey; and, like all eastern mer­
chants, he is unable to raise himself to an intellectual consideration of the
times. With him money is not merely an instrument o f trade for the ac­
cumulation o f value and the increase o f credit, but the shining metal ap­
pears to him to be the genuine object o f all traffic ; when it comes into
his possession, therefore, he dislikes to part with it again, and never can
make up his mind to lose it at the right time, in order to prevent greater
loss ; somewhat resembling a stupid chess-player or general, who ima­
gines that the more enemies he has killed or taken, the greater advantage
he has gained, and knows nothing about the tactics o f judiciously con­
ducted retreats, and cleverly repaired losses. The Russian trader wants
to make a positive, palpable profit, if it be but a small one, from every
transaction ; and would assuredly never imitate the American steamboat
proprietor, who carried passengers gratuitously for years, and expended
thousands, till he had knocked up his competitors, and could reimburse
himself for his loan by charging what he pleased.
On the other hand, they enter readily into any speculation which af­
fords a prospect o f profit, without taking much pains to ascertain its so­
lidity. Little do they comprehend the meaning o f the German, when he




Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

211

says, “ Time gained, all is gained,” or the Englishman’s adage, “ Time is
m o n e y b u t like the Arabian merchant mentioned by Burkhardt, they let
years elapse, in hope o f the possibility of avoiding a loss, without calcu­
lating how the interest is meanwhile eating up their capital. Neverthe­
less, there are many— the number o f those with whom the wheel breaks
on their way to the temple o f money is untold— who, in spite o f their
false system, acquire wealth ; and there are in Petersburgh men enough
who look like peasants and are as rich as Croesus ; for so brisk is the\
trade o f that capital, and so extensive the demand for Russian goods
abroad, that a great deal o f money is made by the sale o f them.
It is a circumstance not a little remarkable, that these merchants, not­
withstanding their fondness for money, never take their losses very deeply
to heart; no such thing ever happens as a bankrupt Russian trader put­
ting an end to his life— a catastrophe but too frequent in other countries.
This phenomenon, apparently in contradiction with the preceding obser­
vations, may be attributed chiefly to the levity o f the Russian tempera­
ment, and partly to this, that the Russian merchant, in losing his money,
does not consider his honor as a trader and his credit as a man at all
affected, because for him nothing o f the sort exists. “ Bog S’nim,” -(God
with them !) he says o f his lost moneys, and begins “ S’bogom,” (with
God) his card-house afresh. There are in Petersburgh not a few Rus­
sian merchants, who have more than once saved nothing from the wreck
but their red shirt and their kaftan, and yet stroke their long beards again
upon ’change as thriving men.
TH E

R O T H S C H IL D

O P R U S S IA .

The centre o f the whole traffic o f the Petersburgh Exchange, the sun
around which every thing revolves, the thermometer whose movements
are closely watched by all, the source from which universal life and ac­
tivity is diffused, is a scion o f that remarkable race which has for ages
produced all the wealthiest men of their time. The Rothschild o f Russia
is Baron S., without whom scarcely any great undertaking can be set on
foot. The amount o f the property which he has realized is estimated at
from forty to fifty millions. The capital turned by him annually in mari­
time commerce alone is from thirty to thirty-five millions. He has in­
vested a great deal o f money in landed estates in all parts o f Russia as far
as the Black sea. His shrewd, sparkling eye, his short, stout Napoleon
figure, and his old, simple green surtout, are to be seen daily in the mid­
dle o f the exchange. Near this centre, upon which the strongest light
falls direct from the roof, is the great resort o f the English, German, and
French merchants.
M ODE

OF

D O IN G

B U S IN E S S

IN

TH E

R U S S IA N

EXCHANGE.

In the six side-rooms, the sugar-bakers, and the dealers in tallow, con;,
and timber, have established themselves, without any formal regulation to
that effect; and each class has from habit taken possession o f a particular
spot. These are composed almost exclusively o f Russians, with and with­
out beard, some old men still in kaftans, others in modern French coats.
Between them and the lords o f the sea in the centre, are the German
brokers, with silver marks at the button-hole. Lastly, in the outermost
circles, are the artelschtschiki, a sort o f messengers, for carrying letters
or money, and performing other errands, one o f whom constantly attends




212

Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

every Petersburgh merchant; and these are always Russians, who seem
to be best qualified for that service.
This assemblage o f the, merchants o f Petersburgh is certainly the
largest company o f respectable and polished men that is to be seen in Russia, without order or cross of any kind. Besides those silver marks worn
by the brokers in their business, as a sign that they have been duly ap.
pointed and sworn, and medals o f a pound weight hanging about the necks
o f a few o f the Russian merchants, you perceive no distinctions o f this
sort— nothing but black frocks and simple green surtouts. He who is ac­
customed to move continually among the richly decorated uniforms of
Russian generals and courtiers, or Petersburgh academicians and profes­
sors, whose gold-embroidered coats glitter more with extraordinary merits
than Orion with alphas and betas, may be struck by the sight o f so many
persons in one uniform color, and whose behavior is nevertheless deco­
rous and polite ; he may think it singular, and his eye may feel offended
at the extraordinary scene, but many there are on the other hand, that
will dwell upon it with especial gratification.
The assembly, which, for the rest, is by no means gentlemanlike in all
its elements, and where a fastidious person might take offence at the in­
trusion o f Polish Jews and the occasional intrusion o f Tartars and Bucharians, appears in the highest degree interesting to him who is acquainted
with the interior o f the country, and is capable o f interpreting the echo
o f two or three words uttered in these halls, nay, often only a few panto­
mimic gestures, which extend their influence over vast tracts o f country.
With rapid pencil the broker notes in his book some hundred tons o f tal­
low ; a nodding ensues between both parties, and the death o f hundreds
o f beeves grazing in distant steppes is decided. What messages, what
letters, what hallooing o f herdsmen, what slaughter, what bloodshed, what
toiling and moiling, in consequence o f that simple memorandum and that
silent nod, till the tallow has been transferred from the carcasses o f the
cattle to the cauldrons o f the ssalganes,* from the ssalganes to the vessels
on the Wolga, Oka, Newa, and from the Newa despatched over the East
Sea, the West Sea, and the North Sea, to London ; until at length, in
Dublin, or Glasgow, or God knows what corner o f the earth, late some
evening, a master says to his servant, “ Charles, light the c a n d l e a n d
this product o f such manifold labors, toils, and exertions, passes off into
the general reservoir of all the dissolving elements.
“ Gospodin Muller and Co., will you not give me a commission for a
few sticks ? I think you would be satisfied with my goods,” says a longbearded kaftan to a German surtout, with both hands stuck in the pock­
ets— “ Well, let us see, Gospodin Pawlow ; note down for me twelve hun­
dred masts, largest size, six thousand spars, and one thousand eight hun­
dred oak-planks, eighteen inches broad and two thick,” replies Muller
and Co. ; and away he goes, without betraying any particular emotion, to
give fresh orders. Can Muller and Co. bestow the tenth part o f a single
thought on the flocks o f pigeons and owls which he is driving by this ruth­
less commission from their maternal nests, and of the host o f Hamadryads
who will fall through him under the axes o f the plotniks o f Wologda and
Wiatka ? Can his cold imagination form the most distant conception of
the havoc which his commission will cause in a few days, in those fine
* Tallow-melting establishments in South Russia.




Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

213

aboriginal forests, where the servants o f Nature, the sylphids and the
gnomes, have for ages been laboring and Creating ? What can Muller
and Co. know about this ! In a year and a half—for so long it takes be­
fore the heavy timbers, which the credit o f the merchant up-rooted and
set afloat, can be felled, work their way through the different systems o f
rivers in the interior, and appear in the Newa— Muller and Co. receive
the “ sticks,” enter so much on the credit side, so much on the debit, so
much as received, desire to be advised when the timber arrives in Lon­
don, and then care not a brass farthing what flag will be borne by those
masts which they have torn against their will from their native forests and
launched into a tempestuous life, what quarters o f the globe they will cir­
cumnavigate, on what rocks they will be dashed, and at the bottom o f
what sea they will await their slow decomposition.
Large parcels o f sugar are wanted. Mr. Karigin wants fifty tons, Mr.
Machowsky as much, and Mr. Stanikewitsch is buying all that is offered
him, be the quality what it may. The fair o f Novgorod is approaching,
and the last Charkoff fair has exhausted almost the whole stock on hand.
The Karakalpaks have o f late taken to drinking sugar in their tea ; and
in the country o f the Kirgises, every child asks for a lump to his tschai,
and cries if mamma does not give it immediately. The Bucharians, the
Orenburgers, and the Tartars have heard this cry, and accounts have
reached Petersburgh, that they are on the road for Novgorod in large cara­
vans to take back all the sugar with them. Ha ! what showers o f stripes
now descend on the shoulders o f all the poor slaves in the West Indies!
“ Bestir thee, negro, quick ; break up the ground, cut down the canes, drive
the oxen, work the press, sharp, sharp, that the sweet juice may flo w ; stir
the cauldron, that it may clarify. Put the hogsheads aboard, and now,
jEolus, send thy servants and blow, blow. Be obedient, ye elements, ye
stars show the way, for the Bucharians have sent word to Novgorod, the
Novgoroders have forwarded the message to Mr. Machowsky, in Peters­
burgh, Mr. Machowsky has communicated the information to Mr. Stokes,
Mr. Stokes has written to Hicks and Son, in London, and Hicks and Son
have made it known beyond sea, that the Kirgise boys are crying for sugar,
and will not be pacified without it.”
The hall o f the Petersburgh Exchange is so large, that the bands o f all
the regiments o f the guard might conveniently find their echo in it, but it
is built only for whispers. An audible conversation was never held there.
Nothing is spoken aloud save mere bagatelles. “ How is your good lady ?”
“ Oh, we enjoyed exceedingly, our water-party yesterday ; we were at this
place and that, at such a one’s and such a one’s.” — “ Yes, I admit that
A------ gives an excellent dinner, but I find myself more comfortable at
B’s.” You hear nothing else spoken up. But when you see two persons
put their heads together, talk in the lowest whispers, and pallisade them­
selves in a circle with their backs, so that not a mouse could get into it, be
sure that there was something in the wind, that a bargain has been made,
that the whispering has led to some result.— “ Yes, sir” — “ No, sir” — “ T oo
much— Three thousand— four— twenty— a hundred thousand” — “ Octo­
ber” — “ November” — “ London” — “ Hull” — “ Baltimore” — “ W ell, I will
take it.” “ Done ! that is settled then, Mr. Curtius.” — “ What was this
about ?” “ Mr. Curtius sold 600 lasts o f fine Tula wheat, 200 lasts o f the
best Pleskau linseed, and 300 stone o f Livonian flax to Mr. O ’ Higgins.”
Those 600 lasts o f wheat have been wrung from the toil o f as many poor




214

Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

peasant families. Many a Russian has on their account been driven with
the cudgel to the fields; and how many o f those little never-tiring horses,
whose breed has spread so far northward, have been worked at ploughing
and harrowing, and threshing and carrying, until, smarting with innumerable stripes, they have sunk to the ground. In harvest-time, the people
were obliged to keep at it night and day, mothers, boys, and girls, while
the little infants lay crying in the damp grass, and the sick were left un­
tended in the houses. But what care Messrs. Curtius and O’Higgins for
that! Let the rigid landlords settle their account with Heaven, and then
let them inquire if there are any hungry creatures in London; they will
learn that it always contains more than are to be found in all Russia, and that
in this manner, the hard crust at last reaches the lips o f the English pauper,
who says to himself, “ If my lords were not such marble-hearted statues,
and the Petersburgh merchant did not screw such a profit out o f bread to
keep a carriage for his daughters, and to supply his table with the best
wines, perhaps I, too, might be able to treat myself with a drop more
and after all, he has reason to thank the Russian pameschtschik for not
suffering his people to be idle, and keeping them closely to their work,
which has saved the Englishman at last from famishing.
P R IN C IP A L

A R T IC L E S

OP COM M ERCE.

Besides bread-corn for the English, timber for the Dutch, and tallow for
the Scotch, flax and hemp form an important article for the Petersburgh
Exchange ; though, perhaps, greater quantities o f these goods, as well as
linseed may be shipped from Riga, whose Dwina runs through the heart
o f the flax-producing provinces. The entire system o f this branch o f trade,
with its sworn and exclusively authorized packers, is borrowed from that
established in Riga, the customs o f which are followed in Petersburgh.
While the city is receiving from abroad the fine German and Dutch
linens, which are in such request as to bear a duty o f two hundred dollars
per hundred-weight, prodigious masses o f raw flax and coarse goods, es­
pecially cordage o f the best quality, are despatched from it to all parts of
the globe. Russian cord, shipped in Petersburgh, is found in every petty
shop in the meanest country town in Germany. Whatever is to be well
tied with us must be tied with Russian cord, so that one may literally as­
sert that half Europe is in Russian bonds. In like manner, almost onethird o f all the chains in Europe are forged of Russian iron, which, the
produce o f the vast possessions o f the Demidoffs, the Jakowlews, and
other Russian grandees, who have secured whole branches o f the Ural
range, ranks also as one o f the principal commercial articles o f the port
o f the Newa.
R U S S IA N

IM P O R T S

AND

EXPORTS.

The total value o f the export o f all these raw bulky articles, which are
forwarded by the Russian inland trade, partly in large river-craft, partly
in light sledges and small quick-travelling telegas, and by which more
money is usually made, and more conveniently made, than by the finest
productions o f art, amounts annually, upon an average, to one hundred
and fifty million rubles. In the list o f exports, tallow takes decidedly the
first place, amounting to about one-third o f the whole. Next to tallow
come linen, linseed, hemp, and cordage, to the value o f about a fifth of the
whole ; then corn, nearly the same ; then iron and copper, forming a




Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

215

tenth; hides, one-twentieth; timber, not much less ; and lastly, potash
and oil, constituting considerable fractions.
The value o f the foreign goods imported in fifteen hundred to seventeen
hundred vessels, half o f them English, exceeds that o f the native commo­
dities destined for return cargoes by thirty or forty millions. It is in the
highly privileged port o f Petersburgh alone that this proportion o f the im­
ports to the exports prevails ; for, in all the other Russian ports, the value
of the exports far exceeds that o f the imports. No town o f Germany car­
ries on so brisk a trade with Petersburgh as that which is seated at the op­
posite extremity o f the Baltic, namely, Lubeck, w'hich alone sends an­
nually from sixty to seventy vessels ; that is, as many as the United States,
France, or Sweden, three times as many as Hamburg, and ten times as
many as Bremen.
At the head o f the imports are raw sugar and manufactured cotton
goods ; both together, amount to half the import. Next to them, come
French wines, among which Champagne ranks decidedly first, for in the
shade o f the Russian eagle more Champagne is drank* than coffee, the
amount o f which, in the importation list, is surprisingly low. Peters­
burgh and half the empire which it supplies with coffee, pay no more to
foreigners for this article, than between three or four millions— certainly
less than the kingdom o f Bavaria alone expends upon it. The brother o f
coffee, tea, which is in possession o f the morning as well as evening,
seems to be gradually expelling the former, the use o f which, in respecta­
ble houses, is confined to a single cup after dinner. Foreign tobaccos
are imported to the amount o f about eight millions; silks, four millions ;
fruit, two millions ; and cheese, one million. Many o f these articles may
appear inconsiderable in comparison with the circle supplied by Peters­
burgh, comprehending more than half the empire ; but they are really
abundant, when it is recollected that they are destined for perhaps a few
hundred thousand wealthy persons, nobles, and foreigners, to the exclu­
sion of the innumerable Tschornoi narod.
R U S S IA N D U T IE S .

The hundred and sixty millions o f imports pay in duties about fifty mil­
lions, that is, thirty-three per cent, or one-third o f their total value. There
is no question that if this duty o f one-third were remitted, the activity of
trade would be doubled or trebled. The polished man would then live
not merely one-third, but twice or three times as cheaply ; more millions
would be enabled to participate in the comforts o f life offered by foreign
countries ; and the raw productions o f Russia would be purchased much
more reasonably, and fetched away in much larger quantity than hitherto.
As a natural consequence, agriculture, cattle-breeding, and the manage­
ment of forests would be greatly improved, the population and the income
of the private man would increase, the vital powers o f the empire would
be stirred, and more would everywhere be gained from nature ; roads
and canals would be constructed, landed property would rise in value, the
great estates would split o f themselves into smaller, and the emperor’s
exchequer would be benefited, though at first it might sustain some loss.
The unnatural and expensive fabrication o f many articles, and most o f
them, besides, in a very imperfect state, would cease, an^ the energies o f
* About 600,000 bottles per year, which are sold in Russia for nine million rubles.




216

Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

the people would be more directed to the improvement o f those branches
o f industry which are adapted to their own circumstances and those of the
country, and to the production o f such things as they never can be supplied
with from abroad.
C A P IT A L

EM PLOYED

IN

TRADE.

The whole trade o f Petersburgh with foreign countries employs yearly
a capital o f about three hundred millions. One-fourth o f this sum, from
seventy-five to eighty millions, must be set down to the innostrannlje gostui, the foreign guests, and the remaining two hundred and twenty millions
to the native merchants and subjects o f the empire, (Russians, Germans,
French, Swedes, & c .) There are several houses in Petersburgh, which
turn each o f them from ten to twenty millions a year, the latter amounting
to about one-third o f the whole trade o f Riga.* In spite o f the heavy du­
ties, commerce is rapidly increasing ; it doubled itself in the course of the
first third o f the present century.
In ancient times, the trade between the Newa and foreign countries
was most cultivated by the Hanseatics; after the foundation o f Peters­
burgh, and during the first half o f last century, by the Dutch; and since
that time, by the English. The first ship which entered the new port of
Petersburgh was Dutch, the same in which Peter the Great acquired in
Holland a practical knowledge o f seamanship. She was received with
extraordinary rejoicings and festivities; and whatever she might bring into
the country was exempted from duty for ever. This privilege she enjoyed
till the end o f last century, when she was obliged to discontinue her trips,
because it was found impossible to patch her up any longer so as to be
seaworthy. The first ship that arrives in May, like the swallow proclaim­
ing the return o f spring, is still received with extraordinary demonstra­
tions o f joy, and has various favors granted to her.
R A P ID

IN C R E A S E

OF TH E

COM M ERCE

OF PETERSBU RG H .

In the first years o f its existence, up to 1720, Petersburgh was visited
by no more than from twelve to fifty ships ; between 1720 and 1730 the
number increased from one hundred to two hundred and fifty ; during the
remainder o f the first half o f the century, the average number annually
was from three to four hundred ; in the second half, from seven hundred
to nine hundred; and in the present century it is from twelve hundred to
two thousand. It is not the ukases alone o f Peter the Great, on the one
hand, forbidding the transport o f goods from the interior to Archangel, and
on the other, commanding Archangel merchants to settle in Petersburgh,
and merchants in general o f the interior, to send one-third o f their goods
for exportation from the Newa, that have rendered the commerce o f the
* There are in Petersburgh about one hundred and fifty mercantile houses trading be­
yond s e a ; o f these, there are from twenty to twenty-four English, five French, one
Spanish, and nearly one hundred German. The “ English,” as a merchant once said
to me, “ do the prettiest, roundest, most solid, and most pleasant business.”
t I f some travellers assert that it has increased four and five fold, it is because they
have followed tables in which the amount o f the imports and exports is given in rubles,
without recollecting that the ruble has fallen considerably in value since the commence­
ment o f this century. The number o f ships furnishes a better criterion. A t the conclu­
sion o f the last century, up to 1800, eight hundred or nine hundred vessels annually en­
tered the port o f Petersburgh ; now the arrivals are in general nearly two thousand.




Sketches o f Russian Commerce.

217

city so flourishing. Draw a circle round the governments of Moscow,
Twer, Kaluga, Wiatka, Orel, Tula, Jaroslaw, Kostrorria, Novgorod,
Wladimir, & c., which form the real great Russian heart o f the empire,
and the seat o f that extraordinaly, aspiring, popular movement, and you
will find that the inner port o f the Gulf o f Finland, penetrating deeply into
this main and central mass o f the self-cultivating and rejuvenescent mo.
narchy, offers itself as the nearest and most convenient seaport for im­
portation and exportation, and that Archangel, Reval, and Riga, must,
without those ukases, have been gradual^ forsaken, or at least limited to.
their own particular district. Those ukases merely imparted rather more
celerity and energy to that natural course.
R U S S IA N

C U S T O M -H O U S E .

To the west o f the exchange, on the bank o f the Little Newa, stands
the custom-house, or, as the Russians call it, the Tomoshna, on the quay
of which all ships drawing not more than nine feet water, can conve­
niently load and unload, and near which are large warehouses, filled with
merchandise o f all sorts. Immediately behind the exchange, there is also
a spacious place enclosed with iron railing, in which, also, considerable
quantities o f goods, and some o f them rather ticklish, for instance, sugar,
are stowed away in the open air the whole year round, in all weathers.
You find throughout all Russia, and even in Riga, in the middle o f the
market-place, such preliminary but often long-continued depots o f mer­
chandise as are never met with in other countries. This practice origi­
nates, no doubt, in the ordinary coarseness of the Russian articles o f trade,
timber, hides, tallow, leather, & c., which, upon the whole, are little affect­
ed by the weather, and which may easily be protected by a mat or a thick
tarpaulin. As it served, o f course, to render warehouses less frequent, on
the one hand, and tarpaulins were ready provided on the other, the custom
of covering goods with them began to be extended to more perishable
commodities. You frequently see in that court, lead, copper, iron, sugar,
wines, & c., merely set upon rafters, and covered with tarpaulins, lying
for months together in snow, rain, and sunshine. You find here lead
enough to shoot every rook in the world with a three-pound b a ll; sugar
sufficient to sweeten the Lake o f Ladoga; incense and spices enough to
embalm the whole empire ; woods o f the most different sorts, the elite o f
the forests o f the West Indies and Brazil.
PARROT

AND

M ONKEY

M ARKET.

In spring, soon after the opening o f the navigation, a peculiar kind o f
market is held in this place, behind the exchange, which draws all Petersburgh, and affords an extraordinary and impatiently-awaited pleasure
to young and old, high and low, and to many a skipper the source o f a
profit that is not to be despised. Here aro then exposed for sale, many
of those foreign productions, which the merchants consider as beneath
their attention, and in which the captains o f the ships and sailors speculate
on their own account. Parrots, monkeys, apes, and other rare birds and
animals, are intermingled with the magnificent flowers o f tropical regions.
Sometimes, also, conchylia, and the singular implements and dresses of
foreign nations, are offered for sale here ; nay, now and then, a captain
brings with him a negro boy, if not absolutely to sell him for a slave, at
v o l . x .— n o . n r .
19




218

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

least to obtain a premium for placing him in the service o f some person of
distinction. After the dull, silent, and colorless winter, this busy, many,
tinted scene, the first gift presented by foreign lands to the northern city,
as an earnest o f the commencement o f new business, is particularly grati­
fying, and the goods go off rapidly, especially the screeching and grinning
classes o f them.
C H IN E S E

G OODS I N

R U S S IA .

As the consumption o f tea, already very considerable, is steadily increas­
ing in Russia, so the number of the Chinese productions which accom­
pany it, is increasing likewise; and the interests o f Russia might possibly
become so intimately blended with those o f China, that ere long a couple
o f Chinese provinces might travel along with them. The first principal
depot for all these things is Irkutzk, the second the market o f Novgorod,
and the third the chief goal o f the whole journey, Petersburgh. The teashops o f Tschaplin brothers, and other houses, are so elegantly adorned
with those productions o f Chinese art and industry, as to resemble Pekin
boudoirs, and at the same so richly stocked, as scarcely to be surpassed by
the first-rate establishments o f the celestial empire. Here you may see
Chinese stuffs embroidered with silver or gold, which sell for several hun­
dred rubles the ell, and yet go off rapidly. The empress took a fancy to
one o f these newly-arrived stuffs, and desired to have some ells o f it. On
learning, however, that the price was two hundred and fifty rubles per ell,
she thought it too high, and did not buy the stuff. Next day she changed
her mind, and sent to the shop for ten ells; but the whole piece, to the
very last remnant, had been meanwhile disposed o f to wealthy subjects.

A

rt.

II.— T H E O R IG IN A N D H IS T O R Y OF

T H E D A N IS H SOUND AND

B E L T -T O L L S *
THE SOVEREIGNTY OF DENMARK OVER THE ADJACENT

SEAS AND

SOUNDS, AND THE SOUND

AND BELT-TOLLS.

F rom the remotest period, the kings o f Denmark have exercised juris­
diction over the seas that bound, and the sounds and bays that penetrate
the Danish territory. There is very ancient evidence, that the authority
over both the adjacent seas and the sounds, was, as well as the soil itself,
subject to partition among the Danish princes. When a garl was invested
with distinct jurisdiction over the Danish islands, (Eidana Garl,) he was
specially charged with the duty o f guarding the coasts with armed vessels,
and the prevention o f piracy in the Danish friths and sounds. The sound
proper, (Oeresund,) was particularly the subject o f such care, because it
was the principal entrance to the Baltic, and frequented by numerous
shoals o f herrings; and foreign vessels repaired thither to participate in
the abundant herring-fishery, and at the same time to traffic with the in­
habitants o f the coast, and also, because freebooters were, by these cir­
* T he Origin and History o f the Right o f Toll upon vessels passing through the Sound
and Belts, translated for the Merchants’ Magazine, from the Danish o f J. F. W . Sehlegel,
(Danmarks og Hertugdommenes Statsret. Thiobenhavn, 1827, D. L, c. vii., § 27 and 28,)
by the H on. G eorge P. M arsh , Member o f Congress from Vermont.




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

219

cumstances, attracted to this famous sound. The Icelandic sagas often
mention predatory expeditions to the sound, and the danger which the
Vikings had to encounter from the Danish armed ships there stationed.
Still less did the government o f Denmark allow armed fleets to pass these
streights, and King Svend Tveskjxg regarded, as a gross invasion of his
rights, the passage oithe Norwegian king, Olaf Tvyggvason, through the
sound, without his license, when the latter visited the Mendish territory, to
obtain possession o f the dower o f Queen Thyra, (A . D. 1000.) The
sovereignty over Oeresund was always considered a royal prerogative,
and King Saint Canute, in a contest with the people of Scania, on occa­
sion o f the imposition o f new taxes, reminded them, that he, being lord
of the friths and sounds, could deny them access to the herring-fishery in
the sound. This they did not venture to dispute, whence we may infer
that this important prerogative was recognized as already established by
prescriptive right, as early as the close o f the eleventh century.
That this prerogative was held to extend to all friths and sounds is
proved by our ancient laws. Thus, the old public law o f Sleswick, (Art.
68 of the ancient text,) declares, that Sliefiord, appertains to the king,
(flumen regis est,) and ascribes to him, for this reason, various prerogatives
over it. The king has also, from the earliest period, exercised the like
rights over Limfiord, although our written laws do not take notice o f them,
until a more recent age. The code o f Zealand, ascribed to King Errick,
declares that the king has sovereignty over Roeskilde Fiord, and other
similar waters.
The king’s extensive prerogative o f wreck is founded upon this sovereign­
ty, and, therefore, when the franchise o f the Strand A^as granted to
bishops, monasteries, or noblemen, the prerogative o f strict wreck was
reserved to the crown. For the same reason, the piscaries in friths, sounds,
and the sea, were considered as a branch of the prerogative, and although
the smaller piscaries were surrendered to the people in general, or the ad­
jacent landed proprietors in severalty, yet the larger fish, such as the stur­
geon, grampus, and whale, are declared in all our law-books to appertain
to the king.
Our kings have always attached particular value to the sovereignty over
the sound, (Egrar Sund,) and next, to that over the Great and Little Belts,
(Beltis Sund and Middelfart Sund,) both because the former, as well as
the two latter, served to bind together the islands and mainland o f Den­
mark, and because they opened a passage to the Baltic, and these three
sounds, so important to the realm, are, according to some, indicated by the
throe lions in the royal arms o f Denmark.
At the commencement of the thirteenth century, when the herring-fishery
on the coast o f Scania, and the navigation of the Baltic had greatly in­
creased, Valdemar Seier took measures for the security o f the passage
through the sound, by the erection o f a light-house at Falsterboe. This
was done in the year 1202, at the request o f the people o f Lubeck, and
probably furnished a new inducement to require the payment o f toll, by
navigators, at the entrance o f the sound, though the toll itself was o f earlier
origin, and has never been paid under the name o f light-money. The
oldest written date o f the payment o f this toll, which we are at present
able to produce, is an exemption from the payment of toll, on passing the
belt, granted by King Christopher the Second, to the monastery o f Soroe,
in the year 1328 ; but, inasmuch as it may be considered a settled point that




220

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt- Tolls.

the sound-toll is much older than the belt-toll, we may hence infer the
great antiquity o f the former.
During the short time that Lubeck and the other Hanse Towns, in the
war with King Valdemar, had obtained the command o f the sound, they
collected the toll as long as they were in possession. When King Albert,
in the war with King Valdemar Atterdag, in the year 1368, had, for a time,
the control o f Scania, he conferred various privileges upon the Hanse
Towns. In these it was provided, among other things, that when a ves­
sel passed the sound with a cargo o f herring, the fish should be free of toll,
but the ship should pay eleven skilling grot. King Albert, who was then
not even complete master o f one side o f the sound, would certainly not
have dared to insist upon this stipulation, unless the sound-toll had then
been generally collected by the kings o f Denmark, as lords ofthe soil on
both sides o f the sound, especially when he was under the necessity of
propitiating his allies, the Hanse Towns, as much as possible. King Erick,
o f Pomerania, unquestionably took efficient measures for enforcing the
punctual payment o f the sound-toll, especially as he, by the grant of new
privileges, endeavored to build up again the commercial town o f Elsineur,
(A . D. 1425.) The ancient fortresses o f Flynderborg and Krogen, in
the vicinity o f Elsineur, then served, as they had long done, for the de­
fence of that unfortified city, and the collection o f the sound-toll. It is
probable that the toll was raised during the reign o f this king, as the
continual wars in which ho was involved must have created a necessity
for money that would be most readily supplied by this means. That a
similar increase took place in the reign o f his successor, King Christo­
pher, o f Bavaria, is certain, because complaints were made on the subject at a congress o f the Hanse Towns in 1447.
Upon the 6th o f August, A. D . 1490, in the reign o f King John, an
important commercial treaty was concluded with Henry V II., o f England,
whereby it was stipulated, that English ships visiting the Baltic should be
required to pass through Oeresund, except when compelled by stress of
weather to pass the belt, in which case they were compelled to pay toll
at Nyeborg. The same king negotiated a treaty with Lubeck, in 1506,
securing to that city its ancient privileges, and accordingly providing that
its citizens should not be compelled to pay higher tolls than they had for­
merly done. This treaty was confirmed the next year, (7th July, 1507.)
From the reign o f King Christian II., we have many documents concerning the toll. This king transferred the place o f paying the toll from
Elsineur to Copenhagen, in order to favor the capital, at the expense of
the former city, which had offended him, and he nominated the famous
Sigbret inspectress-general o f the toll department; but as the change of
the place o f payment gave occasion to much complaint, especially on the
part o f Lubeck, the office was after some time restored to the former
place. The value o f the sound-toll, during the reign o f this king, may
be inferred from Admiral Severin Norbye’s remark to Charles V ., that
Denmark’s gold mine was at Elsineur.
The favorable terms o f passage allowed to the Dutch, which had ex­
cited the jealousy o f the Hanse Towns, and the refusal o f the council of
state, after the death o f King Frederick I., to exclude the Dutch from
participating in the trade o f the Baltic, were the principal cause o f the
exertions o f Lubeck to restore King Christian IL to the throne, after the
so called Counts’ war.




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

221

The treaty between Charles V., as king o f the Netherlands, and King
•Christian III., dated at Speyer, 23d May, 1544, was principally designed
to secure the Dutch navigators against the denial o f passage through the
Danish waters, and the seizure o f ship or cargo. With respect to the
toll, it merely stipulates that it shall be paid, as it had been from ancient
times. It is the more unreasonable to insist, as has been pretended, that
this was the first treaty containing stipulations in regard to the sound-toll,
because the Oeresund toll is not even named in the treaty, in express
words ; and, moreover, as we have already shown, several earlier treaties
are extant, in which this toll is expressly mentioned by name. It is, in
the meantime, certain, that, the Netherlanders considered the king pledged
by this treaty not to increase the rate o f toll to be paid by them, and,
therefore, they always appealed to it in later negotiations, until the treaty
of Christianople, in 1645. King Christian III., however, did not inter­
pret this treaty so literally; for three years afterwards, (in 1548,) when
the Dutch complained of the raising o f the toll, he did not dispute the
fact, but insisted upon his right to exercise the same authority, that other
princes assumed in a much higher degree.
In the reign o f King Frederick II., immediately after that monarch’s
accession, on the 25th o f July, 1560, an important treaty was concluded
with the six so called Wendish towns, Lubeck, Hamburg, Rostock, Stralsund, Wismar, and Lunenburg, whereby a more favorable rate o f toll on
ship and cargo was granted to these cities, than was imposed on the other
Hanse Towns. By this treaty, they were allowed to pass with their ships
through the belt, which had formerly been denied to them, at the same
rates of toll. This treaty, which enters more into detail than any o f the
older ones relating to the sound-toll, has continued to regulate the toll for
those cities quite down to our own times.
As King Frederick II. found, in the course o f the war with Sweden,
that the fortress ofK rogen, at Elsincur, was not sufficiently strong to en­
force the collection of the sound-toll during a naval war, he commenced,
four years after the peace o f Stettin, the construction o f the castle and for­
tress of Kronborg, the erection o f which occupied nine years, and the old
fort was now demolished. The great expenditure required, first by the
war with Sweden, and then by the building o f this fortress, gave occasion
for increasing the rate of toll, which produced some complaint from the
Hanse Towns, as well as England and Holland ; and as Lubeck, m 1582,
appealed to the emperor and the Diet at Augsburg, the king was so highly
incensed, that, in 1583, he again raised the toll for that city, by way o f
retaliation, and it was not reduced until 1590.
During the minority o f Christian IV ., new complaints were laid before
the Danish council o f state, concerning this increase; but, although the
additional toll levied upon Lubeck ships by way o f penalty was re­
mitted, the general tariff o f toll remained unchanged, because the council
of state would not take upon themselves to make any alterations, as the
sound-toll was a matter o f prerogative, and the revenue from that source
belonged exclusively to the royal exchequer.
When Christian IV. assumed the reins o f government, he could not be
induced to consent to any reduction. On the contrary, the expenses o f
the Calmar war compelled him again to raise the rates of sound-toll.
This, both Lubeck and the Dutch resented; and after the former had in
vain appealed to the Emperor Matthias, they formed an alliance on the
19*




223

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

29th o f May, 1613, which was principally designed to act against Den.
mark, though this object is not particularly mentioned in the treaty, and
contributed to the speedy conclusion o f the peace o f Calmar.
The king afterwards, in 1620, reduced the t o ll; but his piu'ticipatien in
the thirty years’ war, and the necessity o f keeping armed alter the peace
■of Lubeck, obliged him to raise the toll again. This took place after the
year 1638.
This increase, and the strict search to which vessels were submitted,
in order to prevent the evasion o f toll, induced the Dutch to take part
with the Swedes in the war which broke out in 1643, and the unfortunate
reverses sustained in this war led the king to regulate the sound-toll in a
manner highly favorable to the Dutch, by the treaty o f Christianople, 13th
August, 1645, and the tariff o f tolls thereby established has not only re­
mained the standard for the Netherlands, but has since been extended to
the other privileged commercial nations. By the so called Redemptiontreaty with Holland, o f the 9th October, 1649, which the royal chamberlain, Oorfitz Ulfeld, concluded at the Hague, the Dutch were exempted for
thirty-six years from the imposition o f toll, in consideration o f an annual
payment'of 350,000 Dutch guilders ; but as this treaty created discontent
in Holland, and was equally unsatisfactory on the Danish side, it was re­
scinded by a later convention o f the 26th September, 1653. The treaty
o f Christianople, which was thus revived, was in the main confirmed, hut
enlarged by various stipulations in the treaty with the states general of
15th June, 1701, limited to a period o f forty years. In 1725, negotiations
for a new commercial convention were opened, and resumed in 1732, but
no treaty was concluded, and that o f 1701 is therefore still in force.
B y the peace o f Stettin, in 1570, the naked right of free passage
through the sound had been conceded to the Swedes. By the peace of
Knserod, in 1613, it was further stipulated, that merchandise transported
by them through the sound should be free o f toll, with the exception of
liquors, but it appears that the bottoms paid to ll; and, with respect to the
then newly founded city o f Crottenburg, Which had been destroyed in the
course o f the war, and the trade o f which King Christian IV . considered
as an invasion o f his right o f toll, it was provided, that when it was re­
built, its privileges should not conflict with this prerogative o f the Danish
king.
By the peace of Bromsebro, 13th August, 1645, a full exemption from
toll, on both ship and cargo, on passing the sound or belts, was first
granted to the Swedes, and they were also privileged from search. In
consequence o f this, according to Magnus Durell, the revenue from the
sound-toll fell, after this treaty, from 500,000 or 600,000 rigsbanksdalers,
to 70,000 or 80,000. By the peace o f Roeskild, in 1658, Denmark had
been compelled to surrender Scania, Holland, and Bleking, and the ces­
sion o f these provinces was confirmed by the peace o f Copenhagen of
the 27th o f May and 6th June, 1660 ; but in the last mentioned treaty,
it was provided,'that the surrender should not be so construed as to con­
fer upon Sweden any right to share in the proceeds of the sound-toll,
though it allowed to the Swedish crown a stipulated remuneration, for
maintaining the lights which had been established on the coasts o f Scania.
As the absolute exemption from toll, for all Swedish subjects, including
those o f the newly acquired provinces, was again recognized, the revenue
from the toll continued much depressed, especially as other nations, and




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-T olh .

223

particularly the Dutch, endeavored, by aid o f a Swedish flag and papers,
to enjoy a fraudulent participation in the same exemption. This was,
however, put an end to by the peace o f Frederiksborg, o f 3d July, 1720,
whereby the Swedes were obliged to pay the same toll as the most fa­
vored nations on passing the sound or belts, in consideration o f which,
the Danes restored all their late conquests. This treaty was confirmed,
both by the treaty o f Jonkiofring, 10th December, 1809, and by that of
Kiel, 14th January, 1814.
On the 5th (15th) November, 1645, and consequently immediately
after the treaty o f Christianople with Holland, and that o f Bromsebro with
Sweden, a convention was concluded with France, by which the French
were allowed the like privileges as the Dutch, in regard to the payment
of toll. By a later commercial treaty, o f 14th (24th) February, 1663, it
was expressly stipulated, that toll should be paid according to the tariff ef
27th September, 1645. At the present time, the treaty of 23d August,
1742, which confirms the former convention in this particular, is in force,
as the rule o f payment for France.
The Wendish maritime towns remained in the enjoyment o f the spe­
cial privileges conceded to them by the Odensee convention, o f 25th July,
1560. The treaty o f the 30th June, 1762, and that o f Gottorp, 27th
May, 1768, conferred upon Hamburg the same privileges, in respect to
the sound-toll, as were enjoyed by the most favored nations.
By the treaty o f 15th (25th) September, 1654, concluded with the Pro­
tector Cromwell, on occasion o f some recent disputes, and regulating
more minutely the navigation o f the sound, it was provided, that the E ng­
lish should pay the same tolls as were exacted o f the Dutch, and this was
confirmed by the treaty o f 13th (23d) February, 1661. After the resto­
ration of Charles II., some difficulties arose, concerning the regulation of
the toll, in the course o f the negotiations with the English government at
Breda, in 1667, which were finally settled by the commercial convention
of the 11th July, 1670, whereby it was again stipulated, that the English
should pay toll according to the same tariff as the Dutch. This conven­
tion is still the standard, and is recognized by the treaty with Great Bri­
tain, dated at Kiel, 14th January, 1814.
The first commercial treaty with Russia, (which did not acquire any
territory bordering on the Baltic until the last century,) was concluded on
the 8th (19th) October, 1782.
It makes the necessary regulations in
respect to the sound-toll, and is still in force.
As the active trade o f Spain with the Baltic, after the loss o f the Neth­
erlands, was inconsiderable, that kingdom did not negotiate for admission
to the class of favored nations until a late period. The commercial con­
vention of 1st July, 1742, between the two powers, does not appear to
have been ratified; and it was therefore first established, in 1792, that
these privileges should be allowed to Spanish ships.
With Portugal, a commercial treaty was concluded at Lisbon, 26th
September, 1766, which confers upon Portuguese ships the privileges o f
favored nations.
The same rules appear to prevail with regard to Naples and Sicily,
according to the treaty o f 16th April, 1748.
xMthough Prussia possesses a very considerable territory bordering
on the Baltic, and towns which carry on an important trade, yet that
kingdom had no commercial treaty with Denmark before 1818. Only

t




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Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

the Wendish towns, which had become subject to Prussia, and those which
the Swedes had occupied in the thirty years’ war, and which had been
transferred to Prussia, enjoyed special privileges in regard to the passage
o f the sound and belts, by virtue o f the convention o f Odensee, of the
25th July, 1563, which the treaty o f Bromsebro, o f 1645, confirmed anew
to those cities. But by the commercial treaty o f 17th June, 1818, all
Prussian ships were allowed to share the same privileges, on passing the
sound, belts, or the Sleswick-Holstein canal, as had been, or should be
granted to the most favored nations, or the native subjects o f Denmark,
in consideration o f the like privileges for Danish ships in the harbors of
Prussia.
And in fine, by the commercial convention o f 1826, the United States
o f America acquired the same privileges as the other nations already
mentioned.
The sound-toll has thus been regulated with the most considerable com­
mercial states, and thereby all complaints o f arbitrary exaction prevented.
TH E

GROUND

OF T H E

R IG H T

OF T O L L .

Both foreign and domestic authors, who have attempted to assign the
grounds o f the right o f sound-toll, appear to have been equally unfortu.
nate in the reasons adduced, and thereby to have given a show o f plausi­
bility to the assumption o f evil-disposed writers, that the exaction o f this
toll was a mere usurpation. They have sometimes insisted, that the toll
ought to be regarded as an equivalent for the expenses o f constructing
and maintaining lights ; sometimes, as a remuneration for the duty which
the Danish government has assumed, o f protecting navigators in these
waters; and sometimes, that it was barely a concession secured to Den­
mark by treaty. Those who allege it to be a usurpation, maintain that
it grew out o f the former abundant herring fishery on the coast o f Scania,
and was perpetuated, as a mere abuse, after the fishery ceased. This last
opinion, which has found supporters even in Denmark, is sufficiently re­
futed by the observation, that a distinction has at all times been made be­
tween the duty paid on the herring fishery, and the merchandise trans­
ported to or from the trading towns of Scania, (which was always collect­
ed on the Scanian side o f the sound,) and the proper transit toll, which has
uniformly been paid on the Zealand side. Nor is it supposable that fo­
reigners would have continued to pay the toll, after its known grounds
had ceased to exist.
The former theories will be found equally fallacious. It is, in the first
place, in the highest degree probable, that the sound-toll was exacted of
navigators long before the establishment of lights was even thought o f ;
and, secondly, the most ancient light is that o f Falsterboe, in Scania,
while the toll has, nevertheless, invariably been demanded at the present
place o f collection on the Zealand side; and, in fine, a distinction has
constantly been made here, as well as elsewhere, between light-money
and toll. The English demand heavy light-money, for the lights main­
tained upon their coast for the benefit o f navigators, but this has never
been exacted or paid under the name o f toll.
It is indeed true, that the kings o f Denmark have always carefully pro­
tected the navigation through the sound, but they have never connected
-the imposition of toll with this duty, vdiich they have voluntarily assumed,




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

225

nor have foreign powers ever made such protection a condition of the payment of toll.
The duty o f paying the toll is much more ancient than the oldest treaty
which recognizes it. There is not one o f these which concedes it to the
Danish crown as a new privilege, or supposes it to have ever been o f
doubtful obligation ; but they all merely settle the manner in which the
toll should be paid thereafter, and recognize the limitation o f the amount,
as a special privilege to the foreign contracting power. How absurd,
then, to make that the foundation o f this right, which was, in fact, but a
consequence o f the exercise o f the right. Moreover, the subjects o f those
powers, which have negotiated no treaty with Denmark in regard to the
toll, instead o f being exempt from its payment, (as they should be, accord,
ing to the doctrine we are considering,) have, on the contrary, always been
obliged to pay a higher rate o f toll, and have been subjected to greate.r
inconveniences in the manner o f payment, than the navigators o f other
nations; as, for example, was the case with Prussia until 1818.
The real main foundation o f the right o f toll is the sovereignty over
Oeresund, which the kings o f Denmark have immemorially exercised.
The sound, in the narrowest part, is scarcely three miles wide. At the
time of the establishment o f this sovereignty, and down to 1658, Scania
>vas under the dominion o f Denmark, which, o f course, commanded the
passage on both sides. The dangerous navigation on the Scanian side,
and the course of the current, have always obliged ships to keep close to
the Zealand coast, and the channel is therefore more effectually com­
manded from that side. In the meantime, the Danish crown took care,
on occasion o f the cession o f Scania to Sweden, to have a special provi­
sion inserted in the treaty, to the effect, that the exclusive right "to the
sound-toll should be reserved to Denmark,* and that the Swedes should be
bound to maintain lights on the coast o f Scania, in consideration o f a
yearly allowance of three thousand five hundred rigsbanksdalers, old cur­
rency. That the sovereignty over Oeresund was not a special and pe­
culiar claim of the Danish crown, but that it extended alike over all bays
and sounds which divide or penetrate the Danish territory, we have al­
ready shown. No other European sound is o f similar configuration and
character to this, except that between Naples and Sicily, and the two
straits of Constantinople ; f but as to the former, the want o f a naval force
is undoubtedly the principal cause which has prevented the Neapolitan
government from enforcing its rights; and in respect to the latter, the
Sublime Porte has long exercised a much greater jurisdiction over them,
that, namely, o f entirely inhibiting passage to and from the Black Sea.j;
But as the naval power o f Denmark is the most ancient, and was long
the most considerable, the government was able to enforce this right
against navigators, whether it chose to forbid them passage altogether, or
* Ita-tamen, ut S. K. Maj. regnumque Svecise nec inde nec quacunque alia de causa
aut qaocunque praetextu ullum jus, vectigal aut fcributum aliquod in Oresundico freto imperandi aut exigendi preetendat.
t The English channel and the straits o f (Gibraltar are too wide to admit o f the en­
forcement o f such a right; besides, the territory on the opposite coasts has generally
been subject to different jurisdictions.
t A narrow channel like Oeresund m a y b e compared to a wide riv er; and for the
navigation of such, the sovereign power has always been considered entitled to demand
toll.




226

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

to allow it upon reasonable terms, such as the payment o f toll, or the like.
The toll, then, ought to be considered as a remnant o f the sovereignty
which the Danish crown anciently exercised to a far greater extent over
the waters adjacent to Denmark, as will be more fully illustrated in the
sequel. The kings o f Denmark have therefore always held themselves
authorized to raise or reduce the toll according to circumstances. When
foreign powers have complained o f the increase o f the rates o f toll, the
answer has uniformly been, at least until the treaty o f Christianople, in
1645, that the king’s sovereignty over Oeresund did not admit foreigners
to set any limits to the exercise o f this prerogative, and this answer has
usually been acquiesced in, as conclusive. As the right to the sound-toll
has been universally recognized, it was considered an evasion of the
right, when foreign navigators took the route o f the Great or Little belt.
This was expressly forbidden to Amsterdam, in 1453, by King Christian I.,
and to the English by the treaty o f 1490, between King John and that na­
tion, except in case o f stress of weather, when toll was to be paid at Nyborg. These passages were also forbidden to the Hanse Towns for a long
period, and they were first permitted to take that route by the convention
o f Odensee in 1560, upon condition of paying the same toll as on passing
the sound.
This universal recognition o f the right o f absolute sovereignty somej
tinms misled the Danish government to the unfounded assumption, that
the taking o f any route to the Russian ports, except by way o f the Danish
sounds, as, for example, that around Norwegian Lapland to Archangel,
was an invasion o f the Danish royal prerogative o f toll, and disputes arose
on this point, with England, both in the reign o f King Frederick II. and
that o f King Christian IV. The seextravagant pretensions serve, at least,
to show the extent and comprehensive nature o f the Danish right o f sove­
reignty at that time.
It is from this almost unlimited right o f sovereignty over Oeresund,
that we can most readily explain the recognition, by foreign maritime pow­
ers, of the like right in the case o f the other sounds ; for, considered by
itself, as a separate and independent claim, it would be liable to great ob­
jections, on account o f the greater width o f the belts, especially the great
belt, in comparison with Oeresund. But when the duty o f paying toll on
passing the sound was once generally admitted, it would naturally be con­
sidered an evasion of the duty, to take the circuitous route through the
Belts, nor would this evasion be tolerated with impunity, because here,
too, the waters were bounded by Danish territory, and Danish fortresses
and ships o f war obliged navigators to pay the toll, which ought to have
been paid at Oerakrog or Elsineur. It was from this view o f the subject
that foreign powers were required to bind themselves by treaty to ab­
stain from passing the belts, except when compelled by stress of weather,
and that this liberty was conceded to them, at a later period, only as a
special favor. It ought to be here observed, that at that period, the mari­
time jurisdiction o f a state was not confined within as narrow limits as
afterwards ; but maritime nations extended their authority, without con­
tradiction, so far as they had the power to enforce it.
The other principal foundation of the right of toll, is immemorial en­
joyment ; for, though possession for a known and arbitrarily fixed period
is not considered as a valid mode o f acquiring title, as between states, yet
immemorial enjoyment (prsescriptio immemorialis) ought to be recognized




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

227

as such ; for this rests upon an entirely different principle from possessory
light, and can as little be discarded in the law of nations as in the muni­
cipal law, without producing inevitable embarrassment and confusion in
the relations of every state with foreign powers. From our historical
view of the sound-toll, it is perceived that the Danish crown has been in
the demonstrable enjoyment o f this right for more than five hundred
years; that even at that remote period, it was treate^not as a novel, but
as an ancient prerogative ; that it has been ever since constantly exer­
cised, without the interposition o f doubt or question touching its legality,
by foreign powers ; and, therefore, that there is a conclusive and irresisti­
ble presumption in favor o f its lawful origin and validity.
Although the obligation assumed by the Danish crown o f protecting
navigators from insult, the construction and maintenance o f excellent
lights, from the Skaw (and before the cession o f Norway, from Lindesnaes) to Bornholm and Christiansbe, which have lately not only been in­
creased in number, but essentially improved in construction and efficiency,
and the ameliorated organization o f the system o f pilotage, ought not to
be considered as the true foundation o f the prerogative o f the sound-toll,
yet it is certain, that the performance o f these services by Denmark has
contributed to increase the readiness o f foreign powers to pay the toll,
and even in so critical a period as the year 1814, to satisfy them that it
was for their common interest to leave Denmark in the undisturbed en­
joyment of this ancient right, which she has exercised in a way so bene­
ficial to the whole commercial world.
So the treaties concerning the sound-toll, though not the ground on
which the right is founded, may be appealed to, as so many proofs, that
the greatest maritime powers have recognized its validity for many cen­
turies, and have only endeavored to secure a certain degree o f modera­
tion in its exercise.
THE RU LES A C C O R D IN G T O W H IC H

T O L L W A S A N C IE N T L Y E X A C T E D , A N D

IS N O W IM P O S E D .

Although it is known, that at a very remote period, toll was paid on
both ship and cargo on passing Oeresund, yet positive data are wanting
as to the rule by which it was estimated. The pecuniary toll, still de­
manded from nations not privileged, was, as appears by authentic docu­
ments, anciently exacted, and was fixed at a rosenoble for the ship on
the passage out, and the like sum on the passage home, but at two rosenobles if the ship was laden. Besides this, the most favored nations
were required to pay an additional toll on certain merchandise, such as
wine and salt. In the reign o f King Christopher, in the year 1447, the
cities of Campen, Ziitphen, and Zwoll, complained o f the toll upon the
bottom and upon wine, as an invasion o f their privileges. In 1476, com­
plaints on account o f the increase o f the sound-toll were presented, at a
diet of the Hanse Towns, by the six Wendish cities, which had formerly
paid only a noble upon the ship, but were now required to pay a toll on
salt, as other navigators did, and this they ascribed to the machinations of
the Dutch. These complaints led to no result. From the receipts given
in the time o f Christian II. to the collector at Elsineur, we learn that
the toll was paid partly in coin, (nobles, Rhenish guilders, and Danish
money,) and partly in kind, (as Rhenish wine, baysalt, & c.) The oldest
tariff of tolls yet discovered is from the reign o f Christian III., in 1558.




228

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

From this we learn, that the ships o f the Wendish towns were greatly
favored, and even that the bottoms were toll free, when furnished with
proper papers to show their nationality, and that no foreigner had any in­
terest in them, but in case o f failure o f legal evidence o f nationality, they
paid one rosenoble ; if they had goods o f foreigners on board, two rosenobles, even though the ownership o f the vessel was proved; and if the
nationality o f neither ship nor cargo was duly shown, three rosenobles.
On Rhenish or other wines, they paid the thirtieth cask, or thirtieth pen­
ny, and the king might elect to receive the toll in kind, or in money; if
laden with salt, they paid six barrels o f that article, and were allowed a
deduction o f one gold guilder from the toll on the residue of the cargo.
The Dutch and the western Hanse Towns, on the other hand, paid in all
cases one rosenoble, when the ship was under one hundred lasts (two
hundred tons) burden, and in ballast, but two rosenobles, if o f greater
tonnage. Upon a ship with cargo o f thirty lasts, they paid one rosenoble
and one golden guilder; from thirty to one hundred lasts, two rosenobles;
and if over one hundred lasts, three rosenobles. On wine and salt, a spe­
cific toll was exacted, according to the same rule as in the case o f Wend,
ish ships. The same tariff was followed with the other Hanse Towns.
Ships coming from France, England, Russia, or Portugal, were required
to pay toll on various other specified articles, and, moreover, it was estab­
lished as a general rule, that they must pay the hundredth penny, or one
per cent, o f the value o f the cargo.*
That both King Christian III., and his successors, Frederick II. and
Christian IV ., considered themselves authorized to increase the rates of
toll at pleasure, either for navigators in general, the vessels o f particular
countries or towns, or upon particular species of merchandise, we have
already noticed. This gave occasion to many discussions, and to conven­
tions, whereby some nations were favored beyond others. The Wendish
towns, the Dutch, and the English, belonged to the class o f favored pow­
ers, at an early period. In the reign o f Christian IV ., the tariff of toll
was repeatedly changed, partly because the sound-toll furnished him the
resources which the nobility denied him, and partly for political reasons.
The Dutch complained particularly o f the high toll imposed on saltpetre,
the later increase o f the toll on bottoms and merchandise, and the new
tonnage toll first introduced after the tariff o f 1629. The convention con.
eluded with the Dutch, in 1641, occasioned the adoption o f a more mod­
erate tariff, which was promulgated the same year.
Upon the conclusion o f the peace o f Christianople, in 1645, a new
tariff o f tolls was adopted, which has since been the fixed standard of
payment, not only for the Dutch, but for all other favored nations.
From an early period, the Dutch, (and at present all the Netherland.
ers,) the English, the Swedes, (since the cessation o f their exemption
from toll, in 1720,) and the French, and more recently, the Spaniards,
Portuguese, Russians, Prussians, (by the treaty o f 17th June, 1818,) and
North Americans, (by the treaty o f 26th April, 1826,) have belonged to
the class o f privileged nations. The Norwegians were considered as
unprivileged, after the conclusion o f the peace o f Kiel, 14th January,
1814, until a commercial treaty was negotiated with Sweden and Nor.
* The toll archives, including the older tariffs, are believed }.o have been destroyed,
when the Swedes took Kronborg castle, in 1658.




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt- Tolls.

229

way, on the 2d November, 1826, since which, although the treaty does
not mention the sound-toll, our government has ordered the toll office at
Elsineur, to put the Norwegians on the footing o f the most favored nanations. It is remarkable, that Danish ships were first declared to be
privileged, by the royal ordinance o f 18th February, 1771. O f these,
vessels licensed for the domestic trade, and those o f the Asiatic company,
are absolutely toll free. The only European ships now treated as un­
privileged, are those o f Lubeck, Bremen, Rostock, (which pay certain
additional specific tolls,) and Oldenburg.
Privileged ships pay the toll established by the tariff o f 1645, so far
as that is now applicable; but in special cases, according to particular
stipulations, (as in the case o f Russia, by the treaty o f 8th (19th) Octo­
ber, 1782,) and upon new kinds of merchandise not specified in the tariff)
a customary toll o f one per cent on the value o f the goods at the place of
exportation.
Unprivileged vessels, at present, pay toll according to the same tariff;
but upon goods, o f kinds not specified in the tariff, (the number of which,
since the establishment o f so many new branches o f manufacture, is great;
while, on the other hand, many articles named in the tariff, no longer oc­
cur in commerce.) one and a quarter per cent, and consequently one
fourth o f one per cent more than privileged ships. Besides this, they
pay the specific toll o f one rosenoble, or its equivalent four and a half
dollars, upon the ship, and the additional tax o f one half dollar, from which
privileged ships are exempt.
Privileged ships have also the following important advantages over the
unprivileged: 1. They have a credit o f three months for the toll, upon
furnishing security; 2. they may omit settling the toll until the home voy­
age, provided rough or tempestuous weather renders it unsafe to put in at
Elsineur; 3. they are exempt from search o f ship and cargo, and the
certificates and ship’s papers, i f regular, are received as full proof, but
with this limitation, that if fraud be discovered, the proper authorities
shall take suitable measures for its future prevention; and, in fine, 4.
they are allowed special advantages in the despatch o f the estimation and
payment o f the toll.
From the toll, we must distinguish the light money, which is four dol­
lars for a loaded ship o f six lasts or over, and two, for a ship o f that ton­
nage in ballast, or a smaller vessel with cargo. But the Dutch and sev­
eral other powers have agreed, that when new lights or beacons shall be
established for the benefit o f navigators, they will contribute, according
to a stipulated rate. W e have already observed, that the Swedish gov­
ernment receives annually 3,500 rigsbanksdalers, out o f the light money,
in consideration o f maintaining the lights on the coast o f Scania, and at
Falsterboe.
To these charges are to be added the clerk’s fees to the officers o f the
toll-office, namely, one half dollar to the director, one dollar to the four
chancellors, which fees entitle the captain to a specification o f the items
of toll, and one half dollar to the custodia o f the seal and the treasurer;
ships liable to visitation pay also to the inspector one dollar. The trans­
lator receives no regular fee, unless his services are required for trans­
lating the ships papers into the language o f the country.
Besides these, is the pauper money, which is both ordinary, being
twelve skillings per last, (from which Danish ships under five, and Swevol. x.— wo., in .
20




230

Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and B elt-Tolls.

dish under fifteen lasts, are exempt,) and extraordinary, being one rigsbanksdaler for each ship, (thirty-two skillings for Danish ships under
eleven, and Swedish under fifteen lasts.) These are paid when a tollclearance is demanded on Sunday, on holidays, or out o f office-hours on
week days, or for speedy dispatch, and in some other cases, where an exemption from the usual formalities is allowed.
By way o f inducement to captains to furnish correct declarations, it
has been an immemorial custom to grant them a gratuity o f four per cent
on the gross amount o f the toll, which is paid out o f the toll-exchequer,
under the name o f foringspenge, (cargo-money.) This payment is sanc­
tioned by the ordinance annexed to the treaty o f the 15th June, 1701.
[Certain regulations, concerning the currency in which the toll should be
paid, for the most part now obsolete, are here omitted.]
For the purpose o f enforcing the due payment o f the toll, a guard-ship
is stationed in the waters o f the sound, during the season o f navigation,
and receives a fee o f four skillings from every ship passing the sound, in
either direction. When a vessel attempts to evade the payment o f toll,
and is forced to bring to, by firing a gun, the captain is obliged to pay
five rigsbankdalers, as powder-money, to the toll-office at Elsineur.
Although the rates o f toll have been considerably reduced below their
ancient standard, and further, by the admission o f most commercial na­
tions to the privileged class, and the change in the mode o f payment, yet
the revenue from this source is nearly as great as before, because, both
the number o f ships passing the sound, and the value o f their cargoes,
have largely increased. In the reign o f Frederick IV ., the greatest (an­
nual) number o f ships passing Oeresund, was 3,435. In 1750, it had in­
creased to 5,000. In 1770, it amounted to 7,736. From 1777 to 1790,
the smallest number (in 1789) was 8,272, and the greatest, 11,233. In
1792, it rose to 12,114. In the succeeding years o f warfare, it was
very variable, and it was only in 1796, that it again amounted to the last
mentioned number. Since the peace o f Paris, the Baltic trade has again
increased, and the annual number o f passages has been from 10,000 to
to 13,000. In 1817, the number o f vessels was 13,170, and in 1824,
13,000.* The greater number o f these vessels are English, (from 2,000
to 3,000,) then Pnissian, (over 1,300,) and next, Swedish and Danish.
Through the seventeenth, and down to the middle o f the eighteenth cen­
tury, the Dutch ships were the most numerous. The revenue from the
toll could not, even in the best years o f the reign o f Christian IV ., be es­
timated at above 300,000 specie dollars, and after the peace o f Bromsebro it fell to 70,000 or 80,000 rigsbanksdalers. It continued at about
this sum, until the close o f the seventeenth century, except that, during
the war with Sweden, while the Swedish exemption from toll was of
course suspended, it rose to 150,000 rigsbanksdalers. After the peace
* A ccording to Nathanson, Danmarks National og Stats, Hnnsboldning, Copenhagen,
1836, the number o f vessels passing the sound, from 1825 to 1835, was as follows :—
1825..................................................
1826,
.......................................
1827,
.......................................
1828,
.......................................
1829,
.......................................
1830,
.......................................

13,146
11,065
12,959
13,278
13.488
13,212

1831,....... , ..................................
1832,...........................................
1833...........................................
1834,...........................................
1835,...........................................

12,946
12,202
10,985
10,605
10,255

The proportion o f Danish vessels is small, varying from five to eight per cent.— Trans.




Origin and History o f the Danish Sound and Belt-Tolls.

231

of Fredericksborg, in 1720, and the extension o f the English trade with
the Baltic, the sound-toll considerably increased. It then rose to 300,000
or 400,000 rigsbanksdalers. In the year 1770, it amounted to 401,000
rigsbanksdalers, old currency. From 1787 to 1796, the annual average
was 578,710 rigsbanksdalers, old currency. In 1806, according to Vogt,
the amount was 558,334 rigsbanksdalers, old currency. Its annual aver­
age may now be computed at 1,000,000 silver rix dollars, or 200,000 sil­
ver rix dollars less than it was at a period less favorable to maritime
commerce.*
From the earliest period, this branch o f the revenue has appertained
to the king’s private exchequer, until 1771, when the king surrendered it
to the national treasury, and in the year 1816, it was transferred to the
commissioners o f the public debt and sinking fund.
Vessels passing the Great Belt pay toll at Nyeborg, and those which
go through the Little Belt, at Fredericia, but in both cases according to
the sound-toll tariff. This rule was adopted by the treaty o f 1490, with
England, and that o f 1560, with the Wendish towns. It is, moreover,
expressly directed by the ordinance o f 7th June, 1708, and stipulated by
the treaty o f 3d July, 1720, with Sweden. During the season o f naviga­
tion, a guard-ship is stationed at Nyeborg, to prevent the evasion o f toll.
The toll at the belt-offices produced, in 1806, according to Vogt, but
8,463 rigsbanksdalers, currency.
L IT E R A T U R E OP T H E

S O U N D -T O L L .

Some scattered contributions to the history o f the sound-toll, may be
gathered from our historical writers, and particularly from A. Hirtfeld,
N. Krag, Resen, and Slange. Suhm, also, furnishes various illustrations.
Among foreign historians, the different treatises on the Hanseatic league,
and especially Sartorius, History o f the Hanseatic Confederation, 3 vols.,
1802-1808, ought to be consulted.
The first writer who attempted a sketch o f the history o f the toll, was,
as far as I know, Lord Molesworth, in his Account o f Denmark, pp.
16-26, which, erroneous as it is, was long treated as an authority, both by
foreign and native historians. This is particularly the case with Holberg,
who, in various passages in his History o f Denmark, and his other works,
communicates some information in respect to the history o f the toll.
Schytte has also been misled by Lord Molesworth, but has furnished some
orginal statistical data. Many inaccuracies are likewise found in Sneedorf’s Statistics o f Denmark, Thaarup’s Statistics, Mandix on the Danish
Chancery, and Vogt on the Finances o f the Danish Government.
Some unimportant information on the history o f the toll, occurs in the
Marquis d’Yves, Beytrage Zur Statistik der Danischen Staaten, but the
documents relating to this subject, there printed, are interesting.
V. Steck’s treatise, Neber den Sundzoll, principally concerns the privi­
leges o f some o f the maritime towns o f Prussia, which were important
before the treaty o f 1818. Rehn’s Historia vectigalis Oresundici, is prin­
cipally borrowed from Holberg, and the author’s own additions contain
many inaccuracies.
Dr. G. L . Baden is the first author, who has industriously collected the
* I cannot reconcile the apparent inconsistency o f this statement with what precedes
it.— Translation.




232

The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

data for the history o f the toll, from the remotest period to the treaty of
Christianople, and the results o f his investigations are found in his Es­
says on the History o f Denmark, vol. ii., pp. 223-260. These I have
endeavored to complete, and they are doubtless susceptible o f further ad­
ditions. His political deduction o f the grounds o f the toll, on the con­
trary, is not satisfactory.
The following works treat on the tariff o f toll, and rules o f collectioife
John Atkinson— The Tariff, or Book o f Rates on Goods passing the
Sound. Glasgow, 1770. 8vo.
De Marien— Tableau des droits et usages relatifs au passaga du Sund.
a Copenhague, 1776.
This work was translated into Danish, with some additions, by A. C.
Alstrup, Copenhagen, 1795. Second edition, 1815.
John Andrew Lesser published in 1803, a German translation from
Alstrup’s Danish version o f this work, with some additions.
Oeresunds Tull Taxa efter Tarifen a f 1645. Stockholm, 1783.
A new and correct Tariff o f Sound-duties, by J. White. Hull, 1795.
N ew edition. Copenhagen, 1806.
T h. E . Bartholius, Taxtbog. Copenhagen, 1805. Also contains the
Sound-toll Tariff, illustrated by notes.
The Sound-toll Tariff, a Manual for Merchants and Seamen. Publish,
ed by Thaarup and Martensen. Copenhagen, 1821. Contains a sketch
o f the origin and history o f the toll, borrowed from Baden’s work.
The tariff has also been printed in Dutch and in German.

A r t . III.— T H E S U G A R -T R A D E OF T H E W O R L D .

(

NUMBER II.

II.

I M P O R T I N G C O U N T R IE S .

T h e countries from which the cane sugar is drawn to supply the de­
mand o f the great market we have been contemplating, are divided, as
has been already remarked, into two groups— the western and the eastern.
Geographically speaking, the Cape o f Good Hope divides these groups, in
our western hemisphere, as the yet scarcely cultivated isles o f the Pacific
do on the opposite meridian ; but the European character o f Mauritius and
Bourbon, and the nature o f their connection with their mother countries,
render it advisable to class them with the western sugar countries.
W E S T E R N GROUP.

These are— the British colonies in the West India islands, and on the
m ain; the French, Spanish, Danish, and Swedish colonies, and the Bra­
zils. Dutch Guiana, as enmeshed in the trammels o f the Dutch colonial
system, can only be regarded as an appendix to Java; and though sugar
is produced in Mexico, Colombia, Guatemala, Peru, and the northern
provinces of La Plata, it is in such small quantities as either not to be ex­
ported at all, or to an amount too trifling to tell on the market.
B r it i s h W e s t I n d ia C o l o n ie s . — In Guiana and Trinidad, there is a
great quantity o f unappropriated land, fit for the culture o f the cane. The
average fertility o f the British West Indies, even o f those old settled




233

The Sugar- Trade o f the World.

islands which are absurdly enough spoken o f as “ worn out,” is, at the
least, equal to the fertility o f any other country. Even in Jamaica, the
canes will ratoon in most places from three to ten years; and in St.
Thomas, in the east, for thirty years. The limited size o f the smaller
islands has this advantage, that it facilitates the carriage to the shipping
port. The numerous water-courses which intersect each other, in the
low and level lands o f Guiana, have given occasion to a system o f canals,
which produce a similar effect. The machinery employed in the colonies
is much greater in quantity, and superior in quality, to that used in any
other sugar countries except the United States. The persevering and
energetic character of Englishmen has rendered the processes of industry,
although still partaking o f the tropical leisureliness, more earnest and
continuous than in countries similarly situated. The manner in which
England has interfered with the supply o f labor, in those colonies, has
alone prevented them from far exceeding the production o f other sugar
countries. A return o f the exports from Jamaica, for a term o f fifty-seven
years, which was submitted to the West Indian committee o f 1842, shows
the effect produced to the former event. The Bourbon cane was intro­
duced into Jamaica in 1799, and greatly increased the yield o f sugar.
The exports o f 1798 amounted to about 96,000 hhds.; o f 1805, to about
150,000 hhds.; and the average o f the nine years, 1799 to 1807, (the
year in which the slave trade was abolished,) were upwards o f 130,000
hhds. The following table will show the effect o f emancipation on all
kinds of West Indian produce :—
Quantities o f Produce imported into Great Britain from the year
inclusive.*

Years.
1831,
1832,
1833,

Population.
Slaves .

Sugar.
Cwts.

Molasses.
Cwts .

G allons•

Rum.

800,000

4,103,800
3,773,456
3,646,205

323,306
553,6G3
686,794

3,843,976
3,524,209
3,601,791
3,306,775
3,520,676
2,824,372
2,214,764
2,151,217

1831 to 1841, loth

Coffee.

Cocoa.

Lbs.

Lbs.

7,844,157
4,713,809
5,109,975

20,030,802
24,673,920
19,008,375

1,491,947
618,215
2,125,656

650,366
507,495
526,535
575,657

5,112,400
5,453,317
4,868,168
4,418,349

22,081,490
14,852,470
18,903,426
15,5.77,888

1,360,355
439,447
1,612,304
1,847,145

638,007
474,307
424,141
430,221

4,641,210
4,021,820
3,780,979
2,770,161

17,588,655
11,485,675
12,797,739
9,927,689

2,149,637
959,641
2,374,301
2,920,298

Apprentices .

1834,
1835,
1836,
1837,

769,000

1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,

750,000

Freemen •

....

In 1842, the exports began to increase ; and the estimated supplies o f
sugar from British possessions, in 1843, as appears from the following
statement, made on the best authority, exceed the supplies o f 1842:—
Tons.
From the British W est India colonies, 190,000 hhds., equal to...........................
Being an inc. o f about 12,000 tons upon 1842, and o f 30,000 tons upon 1841.
From Mauritius,.............................................................................................................
From British India,........................................................................................................

135,000
25,000
60,000

F r e n c h S u g a r C o l o n ie s .— They are Bourbon, Guadaloupe, Marti­
nique, and Cayenne. The total exports o f these colonies, in 1841,
amounted to 90,000 tons. In regard to natural fertility, they are on a
par with the British sugar colonies. In intelligence, skill, and industry,




* Pari. Paper, No. 293, 1842, pp. 1, 2.

20*

234

The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

the French colonists are almost on a par with British. Their machinery
is certainly inferior, both in quantity and quality ; their facilities o f pro­
curing capital are less ; and the plantations are not conducted on that
large scale which best admits o f adopting economical processes. Their
available labor is, at this moment, rather greater ; but the growing feel­
ing against slavery, in France, renders the hold upon their slaves some­
what precarious. They may, ere long, be called upon to go through the
process o f emancipation, with all its difficulties. The French colonies
are also .subjected to heavy duties on their sugar, to favor the beet-root
sugar o f France. T o such an extent has the industry o f the islands been
depressed by these restrictions, that several planters o f Martinique and
Guadaloupe have been known to seek for personal compensation by car­
rying their slaves to Porto Rico, and offering them there to the highest
bidder.* The consequence is, that French colonial sugar costs at home,
on an average, forty francs more than foreign colonial sugar.| That
Bourbon, the French Antilles, and Cayenne, are capable, under favorable
circumstances, o f producing a great deal more sugar than they do at pre­
sent, is beyond a doubt; but their immediate future is too precarious to
allow o f any expectation o f a speedy increase ;— and the abolition o f the
beet-root sugar manufacture will increase the French demand for cane
sugar.
D a n is h W e s t I n d ia C o l o n ie s . — There were 13,000 tons exported
from the Danish West India islands in 1841. Their limited extent ren­
ders it improbable that this quality can be materially increased.
S p a n is h C o l o n ie s .— Cuba and Porto Rico are, with Brazil, the rivals
from whose competition the British West India colonies would, under a
free-trade system, have most to apprehend. The total export o f sugar
from Cuba, in 1841, was 155,000 tons; from Porto Rico, 35,000. There
is much fertile soil in C uba; and, except on the north coast, where the
north winds sometimes damage the canes, the climate is as favorable as
can be conceived for sugar cultivation. The sugar-producers of Cuba
have the benefits o f slave labor, subject to all the drawbacks which the
daily increasing hatred o f the slave trade entails upon that questionable
advantage. In regard to numerical amount o f laborers, Cuba is favorably
circumstanced. In regard to skilful application o f that labor in agricul­
ture, the island is far behind its neighbors.
The sugar-making processes, and the means o f conveyance, are at an
equally low ebb. There is no prospect o f a speedy increase in the sugar
produce o f Cuba, unless from the influx o f foreign capital, and enterprising
and intelligent settlers from the United States. But the dependence o f the
island upon Spain interposes an obstruction. The wretchedly unsettled state
o f the parent country affords little hope o f wise and energetic government
for the colonies. The intriguers who succeed each other at Madrid care
for Cuba only as a means o f replenishing their empty coffers. At the
time Mr. Turnbull visited the island, taxes had just been imposed, under
the name o f a war contribution, amounting to .§2,500,000, the whole of
which was to be remitted to Spain. The insecurity o f property, exposed
to the arbitrary will o f needy rulers, holding a precarious authority, will
deter capitalists from settling in Cuba. The heavy duties on foreign trade
* Turnbull’s Cuba, p. 563.
t Commercial Tariffs and Regulations, part iv., p. 176.




The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

235

will also cramp the development o f the resources o f Cuba. I f a Spanish
and foreign vessel were to arrive at the Havana at.the same time, with
precisely similar cargoes, the charges on the foreign vessel would amount
to $645, the Spaniard paying only $368. This insecurity o f property,
and these paralyzing duties, will remain until Spain be regenerated, or
Cuba become independent; and it is but too probable that, with the exist,
jng population of Cuba, a revolution might make matters worse, instead
of better. Cuba has soil and climate, and a numerous population in its
favor; but the want o f skill and facilities o f communication, and the inse­
curity of property, and the mischievous commercial policy o f the govern­
ment, forbid us to expect any rapid and steady increase in the production
of its sugars. The same remarks hold good o f Porto Rico.
The exports o f molasses and sugar from the West Indies to the United
States, is very large. W e give below the imports o f sugar into the Uni­
ted States, mainly from the West Indies :—
M olasses.

1833,......
1834,......
1835,......
1836,......
1837,
1838,
1839,......
1840.......
1841,......
1842.......

$2,867,986
2,989,020
3,074,172
4,077,312
3,444,701
....................
3,865,285
....................
4,364,234
2,910,791
2,628,519
1,942,575

Duty.
5 cts. per gall.
u
(i
«(
«(
u
it

ic
it
4J mills pr. lb.

Sugar.

Duty.
1833,...... .
$4,752,343
1834,......
5,537,829
1835,......
6,806,174
1836,...... .
12,514,504
1837,......
7,202,668
1838,......
7,586,360
1839,......
9,919,502
1840,
....................
5,580,950
1841,
....................
8,798,037
1842,......
6,370,775

2^ cents per lb.

This presents the principal features o f the trade in these two important
articles o f consumption. The imports o f sugar have fluctuated more
than those o f molasses. On reference to the year 1836, the great in­
crease in value will be seen, and the sudden decrease, particularly in su­
gars. This was created by the vast inflation o f prices, and not by a great
additional quantity. The prices o f sugar and molasses, in N ew Orleans,
ranged as follows, for five years :—
Years.
1835,.......
1836.........
1837,.......

Molasses.

Sugar.

17 a 18 c.
39 a 40 c.
28 a 30 c.

5 a 6 c.
9 a 10 c.
5| a 6J c.

Years.
1838,........
1839,......
1840,......

Molasses.
26 a 27 c.
28 a 30 c.
22 a 24 c.

Sugar,
5 a
54 a
4 a

c.
6£ c.
5 } c.

This exhibits a rise o f more than 100 per cent in one year, and nearly
as great a fall. This is the great mystery in fluctuating imports; prices
make more difference than quantity. The prices in this market vary as
much as they do in other cities. The prices in N ew Orleans, as given
above, affected principally their own crop, and the settlement o f quota­
tions depend on the condition o f all the other markets. The bulk o f the
imported sugar and molasses comes from Cuba. The growth o f the canc
in this country has increased within ten years very heavily. Louisiana
grows the cane very extensively, and is the largest producer o f sugar in
the Union, by many millions o f pounds. With the exception o f Dela­
ware, every state in the Union produces sugar. The United States pro­
duce about half the quantity o f sugar, o f all kinds, that the population
consumes. The crop o f Louisiana sugar, this year, is reported to be ra­
ther limited, compared with previous seasons. The receipts at New Or­
leans up to December 9t.h, 1843, were only 2,376 hhds., against 8,523 in
1842, and 4,994 in 1841.




236

The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

B r a z i l . — There is an almost inexhaustible supply o f excellent sugarland in Tropical Brazil, situated favorably with respect to navigable
streams. Ultimately, the country may produce an enormous quantity of
sugar; but the reluctance o f capitalists to hazard their money in an un­
settled country, the increasing difficulties in the way o f procuring additional slave labor, and the embarrassments attendant on a transition from
a system o f slave labor to one o f free labor, may indefinitely postpone that
day. The population is much more scattered in Brazil than in Cuba, and
the power o f combined labor consequently less. There has been, for
some time, a steadily-increasing demand for sugar in the United States
and European market, and yet it has been insufficient to carry off the
sugar o f Brazil at a price remunerating to the grower. A gentleman long
and intimately acquainted with the trade o f Pernambuco, writes— “ The
exportation o f sugar from Pernambuco, from 1st July, 1840, to 1st July,
1841, was 30,690 tons. From 1st July, 1841, to 1st July, 1842, it was
25,393 tons. This year, it is certainly expected to be no more ; perhaps
it may be less, for cotton has been much more attended to on account of
the remunerating price. The cultivation o f cotton was diminished for
some years, on Account of a kind o f brand or rot in the bushes, which
diminished the returns. This disappeared towards the end o f last year,
and cotton is again becoming a favorite cultivation.” There must be a
general reduction in the prices o f sugar before the demand for it, in the
market o f the world, can be very greatly increased ; and it would appear
that even the existing prices are not sufficient to keep the sugar cultiva­
tion o f Brazil at its present extent.
EASTERN GROUP.

The sugar-exporting countries o f the eastern group are British India,
the Eastern Archipelago, Siam, the southern provinces o f China, and the
Philippine islands. With the exception o f Java and the Philippines, the
sugar cultivation o f all the countries east o f the Malayan peninsula is ex­
clusively in the hands o f the Chinese. This was also the case, till a
comparatively recent period, in Java and the Philippines; but in the former
the entire command o f the trade has been transferred to the Europeans,
and in the latter this transference is taking place. In reality, therefore,
there are only three classes o f sugar-exporting countries in the east—
British India, Java, and the sugar countries, chiefly in the hands o f Chi­
nese, which supply the north o f Asia, and from which a small quantity of
sugar finds its way to Europe through Singapore.
B r it i s h I n d i a . — The exportation o f sugar, at the W est India rate of
duty, can now take place from all parts o f the Bengal and Madras presi­
dencies ; but as yet little, if any, Madras sugar, has made its appearance
in the British market. Madras has barely ceased to be an importing
country, and Bombay and the Straits settlements still are importing coun­
tries. Benares is the great centre o f the Indian sugar-trade ; and the
principal produce is in the Dooabs to the north. The region is well wa­
tered only in the immediate vicinity o f the rivers ; and the great canal of
irrigation, now constructing by the company’s government, will entail
considerable expense at the outset. The canes are cultivated by the ryots,
and sold by them to the sugar manufacturer. The ryots are content with
a low rate o f remuneration, but they are too indolent to be tempted by
higher prices to increase their exertions. The sugar-trade in India has




The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

237

struck root, and will increase, but not rapidly. The countries from which
the principal supplies o f sugar have hitherto been drawn, will not be
those which will yield them when the trade reaches maturity. It is in
the Delta o f Bengal, where this branch o f industry is at present only be­
ginning, that it will ultimately settle. It will be the creation o f British
capital and British colonization, but some time will elapse before capital
flows into this new channel. The exports o f sugar from British India
we re, in 1841, 62,000 tons ; in 1842, 46,600 tons. In the present year,
they are expected to amount to 60,000 tons.
J a v a . — The total exports o f sugar from Java were, in 1839, 50,000
tons; in 1840, 60,000 tons. Java has ample quantities o f fertile land, a
favorable climate, a numerous and industrious population, and, in the Chi­
nese, a large body o f intelligent managers and speculators. Nature has
done her utmost to make it a productive sugar country; and yet, so far
from looking for an increased exportation from that quarter, it is doubtful
whether the present supply can be kept up. The inhabitants o f Java are
obliged to cover a fifth part o f their estates with sugar— the canes pay the
rent. The cane is prepared in private factories, to which money is ad­
vanced by government, which is repaid in raw sugar, received formerly at
the fixed rate o f 21s. 2d. per cwt., and now at 15s. 3d. per cwt. The
sugar is exported to Holland, by the Colonial Association o f the Nether­
lands, at the risk o f the government, and the company accounts to the
government for the proceeds o f the sales. It is only the sugar produced
in addition to the proceeds o f this forced labor that can be sold to the
private merchant. The import duties in Java are 25 per cent for foreign­
ers, and 12 for Dutch merchants. Under this condition, no more than
fifteen Dutch houses, and six or eight French, English, and American
houses, have been enabled to keep their ground in Java against the com­
pany’s monopoly. The producer in Java is entirely at the mercy o f the
company, and its sleeping-partner, the Dutch government. The ambi­
tious project of the late king o f Holland, to give the company a monopoly
of the refining trade in Europe, has been counteracted by the restrictive
duties o f the German Zoll-verein, and prohibitive duties o f Russia. The
company is in debt, and the Dutch refiners are becoming bankrupt. The
cultivators o f Java are obliged to prosecute a branch o f agriculture, with­
out being left free to abstain if they dislike it. And the hands o f the
Dutch government are tied up— it must persevere in this miserable sys­
tem till 1850.
M a n i l l a . — The sugar-cane o f Manilla is represented as most luxu­
riant, exceeding even that o f Otaheite. The natives are not more civil­
ized than the negroes, and not so industrious. The manufacture has
been, until lately, and still is, in a great measure, in the hands o f the
Chinese. Manilla, like Cuba, is paralyzed by its subjection to the Span­
ish government. The same obstacles are opposed to the emigration o f
intelligent and enterprising European or American settlers, and the influx
of European capital. Owing to these circumstances, the exportation o f
sugar from Manilla has not, o f late years, increased by any means in pro­
portion to the increasing demand o f Europe. The average amount, for
these few years back, has been about 25,000 tons.
C h in e s e S u g a r C o u n t r ie s .— O f these, we only know that the Chi­
nese, in their own southern provinces, in Siam, and some o f the islands
of the Eastern Archipelago, produce a great deal o f sugar. East o f Ma­




238

The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

lacca, they appear, with the exception o f the Europeans in Java and
Manilla, to have the whole trade in their hands. The sugar production
o f China is wholly in the hands o f the Chinese. In the Birman empire,
into which they have not yet penetrated, the cane is only cultivated to be
consumed in its natural state. The Chinese sugar districts are the islands
o f Hainan and Formosa, the provinces o f Canton and Fokien, the valley
north o f Canton, leading down to the Yang-tse-Kian, along which the
British' embassy travelled, and the province o f Setchwen. The surplus
produce o f these provinces, o f Siam, and some from Manilla, is carried
by Chinese traders to the northern provinces o f China, and thence dif­
fused as far as the northern limits o f the Chinese empire, and Bokhara.
The amount o f sugar annually produced by the Chinese is considerable,
and increasing; but their A-siatic market is increasing quite as rapidly.
There is no near prospect o f an increased supply for the European mar­
ket from this quarter.
Having subjoined to our review o f the importing countries a tabular
view o f the total imports, as far as ascertained, it seems advisable to close
this section o f our inquiry with a similar table -P roduction of S ugar for E xportation.

Tons.
•British W est India colonies, (1 8 4 2 ,).............................................
British India, (1842,)....... •....................................................................
Mauritius, (1842,).................................................................................

123.600
46.600
33,800

T otal,.................................................................... ...............................................
tSpanish colonies— Cuba,..........................................................................
155,000
“
Porto R ico,..................................................................
35,000
“
Manilla,................ .......................................... ...........
25,000

204,000

215,000
tDutch colonies— Java,................................ ............ ..................................
“
Surinam,........................................................................

60,000
15,000
75.000

^French colonies— Guadaloupe, Martinique, Bourbon, and Cayenne,,
||Danish colonies,........................... .................................................................
ITBrazil,............................................................................................................
**Siam, Penang, Singapore, (nearly)..........................................................
T otal,....................................................................................................................

86.000
13.000
70.000

10.000
673,000

N ote.— T he figures for the British and French colonies are taken from official state­
ments o f “ imports” into the parent country; the rest from statements of “ exports” from
the colonies or country. A t least 5 per cent ought to be added to the two former on ac­
count o f loss during the voyage, or deducted from the latter. Deducting 5 per cent from
all except the French and British sugars, we arrive at a total o f 657,350 tons— a nearer
approach to the total imports into the importing countries than could have been antici­
pated, considering that the tables have been compiled by different persons, and in some
cases from different authorities, and that no account could be obtained o f the imports
into Spain, Portugal, and Italy.

In closing our statements o f the Sugar-Trade o f the World, it affords us
pleasure to refer to an invention, recently perfected, which promises to
effect a complete revolution in the manfacture of this important article ot
commerce.*
* Parliamentary Paper— Trade and Navigation, 17th February, 1843.
t Spanish Official Statements.
§ French Official Statements,
t Dutch Official Statements.
|] Danish Official Statements.
T Collected from the statements o f merchants trading to Brazil.
* * Gathered from various sources— not much to be relied upon.




The Sugar-Trade o f the World.

239

The ordinary process o f making sugar from the cane, is tedious and
expensive, as well as wasteful. T o simplify this process, and save wast­
age of the cane liquor, has been the object o f innumerable experiments,
instituted in various countries at great expense. Citizens o f France have
expended hundreds o f thousands o f dollars in chemical experiments, in
which the greatest chemists o f that country have been industriously and
perseveringly engaged for many years, but without obtaining results at all
adequate to the time and money expended in the investigation. Similar
experiments have been instituted in England and in this country with no
better success. The process now carried on upon sugar plantations, con.
sists in pressing out the juice o f the cane by rolling-mills, and carefully
evaporating it till it has acquired the proper consistency for crystallizing;
lime-water is added during t*tis operation to neutralize any free acid, and
to facilitate the separation o f certain vegetable matters, which, in conse­
quence o f the action o f the lime, rise more readily to the surface, and
admit o f being skimmed off. When duly concentrated, the syrup is run
off into shallow wooden coolers, where it concretes ; it is then put into
barrels with holes in the bottom, through which a quantity o f molasses
gradually drops, and the remaining sugar acquires the granular crystalline
state. It is packed into hogsheads, and comes to us under the name o f
raw or muscovado sugar.
The following is a sketch o f the process by which raw sugar is puri­
fied :— Raw sugar is chosen by the refiner by the fineness and sharpness
of its grain. It is put into a copper pan or boiler, previously charged
with a certain quantity o f lime-water, with which a portion o f bullock’s
blood has been well mixed by agitation, and is suffered to stand a night
to dissolve. Early in the morning, fires are lighted under the pans, and
when the liquor boils, the coagulated alcumen o f the blood rises to the
surface, and carries the impurities o f the sugar with it. The liquid is kept
gently simmering, and continually skimmed, till a small quantity, taken
out in a metal spoon, appears perfectly transparent; this generally takes
from four to five hours. The clear syrup is then run off into a cistern,
the pans are reduced to half their former size, by taking off a movable
front, and a small portion o f the purified syrup returned into e a ch ; the
fires are now increased, and the sugar made to boil as rapidly as possible,
till a small quantity taken on the thumb is capable o f being drawn into
threads by the forefinger; the fires are then damped, and the boiling
syrup carried off in basins to the “ coolers;” a fresh quantity is then
pumped into pans and evaporated as before. In the coolers, the sugar is
violently agitated with wooden oars till it appears granulated. It is upon
this agitation that the whiteness and fineness of grain in the refined sugar
principally depend ; the crystals are thus broken down while forming, and
the whole converted into a granular mass, which permits the colored liquid
saccharine matter to run off, and which would be combined With the solid
if it were suffered to form into larger crystals. This granular texture
likewise facilitates the percolation o f water through the loaves in the af­
ter process, which washes the minutely divided crystals from all retnaining tinge of molasses. Some improvements have been made in this pro­
cess.
That the above process o f refining the sugar produced by the planter
is extremely costly, besides being liable to great wastage, is evident from
the fact that it greatly increases the cost o f the refined sugar. L oaf su­




240

Coinage o f the United States.

gar sells at about twelve cents per pound; whereas, the ordinary sugar
from which it was manufactured, probably cost only six cents per pound.
From this it will readily appear that a process which will produce loaf
sugar upon the plantations, almost directly from the cane, with one simpie operation, and at a less cost than is now necessary to manufacture the
raw sugar, must be a great desideratum. W e are happy to say that this
desideratum has been accomplished by a gentleman residing upon one of
the West India islands, who has spent over fifteen years in investigations
and experiments. His invention is founded upon purely scientific princi­
ples, but consisting chiefly in the practical application o f one well-known
principle in a branch o f science very much neglected. He is now about
to set the newly-invented apparatus in operation on a large plantation in
the West Indies, and in the course o f two or three months we hope to
receive his permission to give the public a more extended idea o f the prin­
ciples o f his invention, with which he has kindly made us acquainted.
Its benefits to the sugar planter will be immense. W e are satisfied that
it will not only enable him to produce loaf sugar at a less expense than he
now manufactures raw sugar, but it will also enable him to increase the
product o f his plantation at least 25 per cent, owing to the ease with
which it will refine what has hitherto been lost in wastage.

A rt . IV.— C O IN A G E OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .

I n a former number o f this Magazine, we furnished a comprehensive view
o f the product o f precious metals since the discovery o f America, which
we compiled from the most authentic and authoritative sources. W e now
proceed to lay before our readers a sketch o f the coinage and monetary
system o f pur own country, derived from the “ Manual o f Gold and Silver
Coins o f ail Nations,” by Jacob R . Eckfeldt and William E . Dubois, assayers o f the mint o f the United States at Philadelphia. At the close of
the present paper, will be found a minute account o f the operations o f the
mint o f the United States and branches, for 1843, and also a series of ta­
bles, exhibiting statements o f the annual amounts o f deposits o f gold, for
coinage, in the United States, the amounts coined annually at the general
institution and branches, from the commencement o f their operations,
until December 31st, 1843, & c., all carefully compiled from the annual
report o f the director o f the mint at Philadelphia, and communicated to
congress by the president o f the United States, January 20th, 1844.
The territory which now bears the name o f The United States, was in
the possession o f savage tribes until the seventeenth century. In 1607,
the first company o f emigrants arrived from Europe, and established the
colony o f Virginia. At intervals o f a few years, new settlements were
made in various other quarters; and before the close o f that century, the
foundations were laid for twelve o f the thirteen colonies, which eventually
became a Union o f free states.
The earliest metallic currency o f each colony consisted chiefly o f the
coins o f its mother country. In Massachusetts, however, (and doubtless
in all the settlements,) specie was so scarce, that for many years it was
common to pay taxes, and to carry on internal trade, by transferring, at




Coinage o f the United States.

241

certain rates, cattle, skins, and the products o f the soil.* Various con­
siderations, enhanced by the inconvenience and uncertainty o f such a me­
dium, induced the Massachusetts colony, in 1652, to establish a mint. The
law enacted for that purpose, provided for the coinage o f shillings, six­
pences, and threepences, to be o f the fineness o f sterling silver, (925
thousandth,) and by a reduction o f weight, to be “ twopence in the shil­
ling o f less valew than the English coyne.” f The mint met with much
opposition from the British crown, whose prerogative was invaded by its
operations, but continued in existence more than thirty years, during
which time a considerable amount o f coin was issued. These coins are
now extremely scarce, and indeed are not to be found except in the cabi­
nets o f the curious. Only the shilling has> been seen at this mint, the
best specimens o f which, at this day, weigh from 64 to 67 grains, and by
a recent assay prove to be 926 thousandths fine ; the intrinsic value,
therefore, is about 16| cents. They are a rude coinage, very thin, and
of various diameters ; and there is some variety in the impressions; but
the date o f 1652, appears on all o f them. The device o f a pine-tree on
one side, has given to the series the common designation o f the “ pinetree coinage.” They were taken in England at a discount o f one-fourth
of their home value.
The example o f Massachusetts was followed by Maryland, where silver
and copper coins were issued in 1662. These pieces were to be equiva­
lent to the British, but in reality were not much heavier than the like de­
nominations coined at Boston.
These were the only issues o f silver coin previous to the independence
of the states. There were, however, various pieces o f copper struck at
different periods; as, in 1694, the half-penny for the Carolinas, a two­
penny piece and penny in 1723, another penny in 1733, and a half-penny
for Virginia in 1773. After the revolutionary struggle o f 1776-82, and
before the establishment o f the national mint, there were various emis­
sions o f silver and copper by states and individuals, which will be noticed
farther on.
As the population and trade o f the colonies increased, foreign gold and
silver coins found their way into the country, and became a part o f the
circulating medium. These were chiefly the guinea, the joe and its half,
the doubloon and pistole, in gold ; the dollar and its parts, the pistareen
and its parts, and the British shilling and sixpence, in silver. French
crowns were not known until the revolution, when they became common.
But of the specie currency, no piece was so well known as the Spanish
American dollar; insomuch that, about the epoch just referred to, it be­
came the effective standard or unit o f our moneys.
The pound o f the colonies was at first the same as the pound sterling
of England, being simply a money o f account. This relation, in process
of time, became greatly altered, in consequence o f excessive issues o f
paper by the colonial authorities ; but as these issues were greater in
some of the colonies than in others, the proportion was very unequal and
------------------------------------- —— —-— -------- —....................................................
* See Felt’s “ Historical A ccount o f the Massachusetts Currency,” 1839. This work
contains much interesting and valuable information.
t The mint indenture or contract required that the shilling should weigh 72 grains,
and the smaller pieces in proportion. A s the English shilling o f those days weighed 93
grains, there appears an unaccountable miscalculation. A n abatement o f one-sixth of
the value would have made 77$ grains.
vol.

x .— y o . in .




21

242

Coinage o f the United States.

complicated. The following were the rates o f the colonial pounds, in
sterling pounds and Spanish dollars, after the revolution :—
New England and
Virginia.
Pound sterling,....
Spanish dollar,....

New York and
North Carolina.

£

s. d.

£

s.

1

6 8

1

15 6§

6

0

8

d.

0

Middle States.
£

1

s.

d.

13
7

4
6

South Carolina
and Georgia.
£

1

s.

0
4

d.

8 8-9
8

Peace was scarcely concluded, before the preliminary step was taken
towards a national coinage. Congress directed the financier o f the con­
federation, Robert Morris, to lay before them his views upon the subject
o f coins and currency. The report was presented early in 1782, and is
stated by Mr. Jefferson to have been the work o f the assistant financier,
Gouverneur Morris. It will be interesting to trace the steps by which
three grand benefits have been secured to this country; the establishment
o f a uniform national currency— the rejection o f mere moneys o f account,
or rather, making them the same with real moneys— and the adoption of
a decimal notation.
All these objects were in the eye o f the assistant financier. He first
labored to harmonize the moneys o f the states ; and found that the yj’j^th
part o f a dollar (Spanish) was a common divisor for the various curren­
cies. Starting with this fraction as his unit, he proposed the following
table o f moneys :—
Ten units to be equal to one penny.
T en pence one bill.
Ten bills one dollar, (about two-thirds o f the Spanish dollar.)
Ten dollars one crown.*
The report contains this observation : “ Although it is not absolutely
necessary, yet it is very desirable, that money should be increased in a
decimal ratio; because by that means, all calculations o f interest, ex­
change, insurance, and the like, are rendered much more simple and ac­
curate, and o f course more within the power o f the great mass o f the peo­
ple.”
The subject was discussed repeatedly in Congress, but no further step
was taken until 1784, when Mr. Jefferson, on behalf o f a committee ap­
pointed for the purpose, brought in a report, disagreeing with that o f the
financier, except as to the decimal system. The following remarks occur
in this document: “ The most easy ratio o f multiplication and division, is
that o f ten. Every one knows the facility o f decimal arithmetic. Every
one remembers, that when learning money arithmetic, he used to be puz­
zled with adding the farthings, taking out the fours, and carrying them on ;
adding the pence, taking out the twelves, and carrying them on ; adding
the shillings, taking out the twenties, and carrying them o n ; but when
he came to the pounds, where he had only tens to carry forward, it was
easy and free from error. The bulk o f mankind are schoolboys through
life. Certainly, in all cases, where we are free to choose between easy
and difficult modes o f operation, it is most rational to choose the easy.
T he financier, therefore, in his report, well proposes that our coins should
be in decimal proportions to one another.”
* This last coin was to be o f gold. He apologized for introducing the name o f crown,
in a country where that emblem had lost favor, by stating that his project was to have
on the coin the representation o f an Indian, with a bow in his left hand, and thirteen
arrows in the right, with his right foot on a crown. (Spark’s Life o f Gouverneur Mor­
ris, i. 273.)




'Coinage o f the United States.

243

He found fault with the unit o f Mr. Morris, first, on'account o f its di­
minutive size : “ A horse or bullock o f eighty dollars value would require
a notation o f six figures, to wit, 115,200 units;” secondly, because o f its
want o f correspondence in value, with any known coins. In lieu o f this
the Spanish dollar was proposed, as being o f convenient size, capable o f
easy actual division, and familiar to the minds o f the people. It was add­
ed, that the course o f our commerce would bring us more o f this than
of any other foreign coin ; and besides, the dollar was already as much
referred to as a measure o f value, as the respective provincial pounds.
Upon this basis, it was proposed to strike four coins, v iz :—
A golden piece, o f the value o f ten dollars.
A dollar in silver.
A tenth o f a dollar, also in silver.
A hundredth of a dollar, in copper.
The assistant financier conceded something to Mr. Jefferson’s views,
but adhered to the main principles o f his own scheme. It would be out
of place to enter into the arguments offered on behalf o f each proposition ;
it is sufficient to say that Congress, in 1785, adopted Mr. Jefferson’s re­
port, and in the following year made legal provision for a coinage upon
that basis.*
All these proceedings were, o f course, under the Confederation, which
lasted from 1778 to 1787. An article in that compact provided as fol­
lows : “ The United States, in Congress assembled, shall have the sole
and exclusive right and power o f regulating the alloy and value o f coin
struck by their own authority, or by that o f the respective states.” Some
of the states issued copper coins during that period. How long they con­
tinued current cannot be stated; but at this day, those o f them that re­
main, are in the custody o f coin-collectors. The cent o f Massachusetts
varies in weight from 148 to 164 grains ; the New Jersey piece, 128 to
154 grains; the Connecticut coin is the most irregular, varying from 96
to 144 grains. The Vermont cent o f 1786, weighs about 110 grains.
There are also other varieties, particularly the “ Nova Constellatio,” of
thirteen stars, and another piece with the same significant number o f
rings, conjoined, both o f which were coined in Massachusetts.f
t The interest taken in this subject by General Washington, and his approval o f Mr.
Jefferson’s plan, appear by the following passage in a letter to Mr. Grayson, member o f
Congress:—
“ I thank you for the several articles o f intelligence contained in your letter, and for
the propositions respecting a coinage o f gold, silver, and cop p er; a measure which, in
my opinion, has becom e indispensably necessary. Mr. Jefferson’s ideas upon this sub­
ject are plain and sim ple; well adapted, I think, to the nature o f the case, as he has ex­
emplified it by the plan. W ithout a coinage, or unless some stop can be put to the cut­
ting and clipping o f money, our dollars, pistareens, & c., will be converted, as Teague
says, into five quarters; and a man must travel with a pair o f scales in his pocket, or
run the risk o f receiving gold at one-fourth less by weight than it counts.” (W ritings
of Washington, edited by Sparks, ix. 125.)
The illustrious father o f his country, took a lively interest in the national coinage.
The mint was repeatedly noticed in his messages to Congress. (See Sparks, xii. 25, 32,
53, 63.) It was his practice, whilst president, to visit the institution frequently; the
seat o f government being then at Philadelphia.
t In this place it may be proper to notice a coinage o f silver, bearing the name o f
** J. Chalmers, Annapolis,” and dated 1783. T he specimens reserved in the collection
at the mint, are a shilling, sixpence, and threepence, weighing 57, 27, and 10 grains
respectively; o f course, very carelessly proportioned.




244

Coinage o f the United States.

The constitution o f 1787 arrested all these local issues, and vested the
right o f coinage solely in the general government. The establishment
o f a mint was, however, still delayed. In the well-known report on
moneys, weights, and measures, made to Congress, in 1790, by Mr. Jeffer­
son, then secretary o f state, it was remarked : “ The experiment made
by Congress, in 1786, by declaring that there should be one money of ac­
count and payment through the United States, and that its parts and mul­
tiples should be in a decimal ratio, has obtained such general approbation,
both at home and abroad, that nothing seems wanting but the actual coin­
age, to banish the discordant pounds, shillings, pence, and farthings, of the
different states, and to establish in their stead the new denominations.”
On the 2d April, 1792, a code o f laws was enacted for the establish­
ment and regulation o f the mint, under which, with slight amendments,
the coinage was executed for forty-two years.
The denominations o f coin, with their rates, were as follow s:—
G o l d . The eagle o f ten dollars, to weigh 270 grains, the half and
quarter in proportion ; all o f the fineness o f 22 carats, or 917 thousandths.
S i l v e r . The dollar o f 100 cents, to weigh 416 grains; the half,
quarter, tenth or dime, and twentieth or half-dime, in proportion; the
fineness to be 1485 parts in 1664,* or 892‘4 thousandths.
C o p p e r . The cent, to weigh 264 grains; the half-cent in proportion.
Since the act o f 1792, the following alterations in the standards have
been made :—
On the 14th January, 1793, the weight o f the cent was reduced to 208
grains ; the half-cent in proportion.!
January 26th, 1796. President Washington issued a proclamation (as
he had been empowered to do by law,) that, “ on account o f the increased
price o f copper, and the expense o f coinage,” the cent would be reduced
to 7 dwts. or 168 grains, and the half-cent in proportion. The copper
coins have since remained at this standard.
June 28th, 1834. An act was passed, changing the weight and fine­
ness o f the gold coins, and the relative value o f gold to silver. Before
stating the alterations, it may be proper to observe, that the estimate of
gold as being worth fifteen times as much as silver, which was the orig­
inal basis, was found too low at the market value ; which, although always
fluctuating, was nearer sixteen to one, upon a general average. The ef­
fect o f our legal proportions was to reduce the coinage o f gold, and to
restrain its circulation ; being always at a premium, the coin was imme­
diately exported to Europe, in the course o f trade, and there quickly
wrought into other shapes.
T o provide a remedy for this evil, engaged the attention o f some o f our
* This was an arithmetical nicety, deduced from a weight o f 41G grains, o f which
3 7 )1 grains must be fine m etal; this being considered the average content o f a Spanish
dollar. T he estimate was slightly erroneous, and makes our dollar o f a little less value;
the effect o f which has been beneficial to our national coinage, as the difference, though
not appreciable in ordinary currency, makes a considerable gain upon recoinage in large
sums. See letter o f Dr. M oore, late director o f the mint, to a select committee o f Con­
gress, in 1832.
t The mint was not fully in operation until January, 1795. Before that time it was
rather engaged in experimenting ; hence the variety o f specimens, in silver and copper,
anterior to that date, which are now so much in request among the virtuosi. The most
noted o f these is the Washington cent.




245

Coinage o f the United States.

most eminent statesmen for a series o f fifteen years.* At length, in June,
1834, the weight o f the eagle was reduced by law to 258 grains, (the
parts in proportion,) o f which 232 grains must be fine gold, making the
fineness 21 carats
car. grains, or 8 9 9 ^ /j- thousandths. This was
an increase o f 6T6„yF per cent on the former value o f gold. The silver
coinage was not changed.
The disadvantages o f the complex standards o f fineness, both in gold
and silver, which were difficult to be expressed or remembered, and very
inconvenient in regard to the frequent calculations which were based
upon them, early determined the present director to endeavor to effect an
improvement. The standard o f nine-tenths fine, as adopted in France
and some other countries, was obviously the most simple, and, upon every
consideration, the most suitable. T o bring our silver coins to that proportion, without changing the amount o f fine silver in them, it was only
necessary to put less copper, by 3|- grains, in the dollar, reducing its
weight to 4121 grains. The weight o f the gold was not to be changed,
but the fineness increased about three-fourths o f one thousandth, a differ­
ence far within the scope o f the legal allowance, and o f course hardly
appreciable. These proportions were incorporated in a carefully digest­
ed and consolidated code of Mint Laws, which was enacted by Congress,
in January, 1837. By that act, the eagle is to be 900 thousandths fine,
and to weigh 258 grains; the half and quarter in proportion ; and the
dollar, at the same fineness, to weigh 4121 grains; the parts in proportion.f The allowed deviation in fineness, for gold, is from 898 to 9 02;
for silver, 897 to 903. J
The following is a recapitulation o f the various standards, o f the gold
a n d s i l v e r c o i n s :—
G old E a g l e .

Act o f April 2 ,1 7 9 2 ,....................
Act o f June 2 8 , 1 8 3 4 ,..................
Act o f January 18, 18 3 7 ,............

S il v e r D o l l ar .

Weight.
Grains.

Fineness.
Tlious.

Weight.
Grains.

270
258
25 8

916-7
899-2
900

416
4 ) 2 -5

Fineness.
Thous.
892-4
900

It will be proper, in concluding this article, to explain briefly the or­
ganization o f the mint o f the United States. Until the year 1835, there

----- 1----------------------------------------- * The first movement appears to have been made in 1819, by Mr. Lowndes, as chair­
man o f a committee in Congress, who proposed to raise the value o f gold to 15-6 against
one o f silver. Mr. Gallatin, Mr. Ingham, and Mr. C. P. W hite, proposed very nearly
the same proportion, at different times. Dr. Moore, then director o f the mint, offered a
choice o f 15-777 with a fineness o f eleven-twelfths, or 15-865 with a fineness o f ninetenths. Mr. Sanford’s proportion was 15'9. Eventually, the rate o f 16 to 1, which was
favored by the existing administration, (Gen. Jackson’s,) was adopted. It was feared at
the time that the habitual state o f the market o f precious metals would not justify so high
a valuation. It is a remarkable fact, however, that our gold and silver coins have ever
since that date passed concurrently, without premiums either way. How long this even
pace is to continue will depend upon many contingencies, but especially upon the mining
operations. The effect o f this valuation upon the labors at the mint, has been very de­
cided. During the eight years which have succeeded the change o f ratio, (1831—41,)
the coinage o f gold at the mint and its branches," has been sixteen millions o f dollars,
exclusive o f the recoinage o f pieces o f old standard ; while, in the eight years imme­
diately preceding (1826-33) the amount was less than four millions. T he coinage o f
silver, from 1826 to 1833, was nineteen and a half m illions; from 1834 to 1841, twenty
millions.
t The relative value, therefore, o f silver to gold, is 15-9884 to 1.
t The practical limits here, are, for gold, 899 to 9 0 1 ; silver, 898 to 902.




21*

246

Coinage o f the United States.

was but one institution, which was located at Philadelphia. In that year
three branches o f the mint were created by act of Congress. Two of
these were for the coinage o f gold only, and were to be situated at the
towns o f Charlotte, in North Carolina, and Dahlonega, in Georgia— central points o f the gold mining region. The third branch was for both
gold and silver, and located at N ew Orleans, the commercial emporium
o f the southwest. These three institutions, which, in the view o f the law
are not distinct mints, but rather branches o f the mint, are respectively
managed by superintendents, who are under the control o f the director
of- the parent mint. The branches went into operation in the year 1838.
Their coinage is uniform with that o f the establishment at Philadelphia,
being systematically tested there for approval.
The whole mint establishment, thus constituted, is itself a bureau or
branch o f the treasury department o f the general government, and is
under the supervision o f the secretary o f the treasury.
The coinage at the principal mint in 1843 amounted to $6,530,043 20;
comprising $4,062,010 in gold, $2,443,750 in silver, and $24,283 20 in
copper coins, and composed o f 10,405,233 pieces. The deposites o f gold,
within the year, amounted to $4,107,807, and those o f silver to $2,357,830.
At the New Orleans branch mint, the coinage amounted to $4,568,000 ;
comprising $3,177,000 in gold, and $1,391,000 in silver coins, and com­
posed o f 4,030,239 pieces. The deposites for coinage amounted to
$3,138,990 in gold, and $1,384,320 in silver.
The branch mint at Dahlonega received, during the year, deposites of
gold to the value of $570,080, and its coinage amounted to $582,782 50 ;
composed o f 98,452 half-eagles, and 36,209 quarter-eagles.
The branch mint at Charlotte received deposites o f gold to the value
o f $272,064, and its coinage amounted to $287,005 ; composed o f 44,353
half-eagles, and 26,096 quarter-eagles.
The subjoined tables embrace many details o f interest respecting the
operations o f the several mints ; and, in particular, exhibit the following
facts :—
The whole coinage in the United States, during the past year, amounts
to within a small fraction o f $12,000,000, and exceeds, by more than onehalf, that o f any former year. O f this coinage, more than $8,000,000 is
in gold ; showing a greater proportion to silver than has heretofore been
presented.
The branch mints at Charlotte and Dahlonega have each coined nearly
double the amount which they have reached in any former year, and the
N ew Orleans mint nearly quadruple.
The production o f the gold mines o f the United States, as indicated by
the amount sent to the mints, exceeds that o f any former year.
The following is a statement o f deposits and coinage at the mint of the
United States and branches, for the year ending 31st December, 1843 :—
D eposits of G old.
Mints.
Charlotte, N . C .,... .
Dahlonega, G a .,...
N ew Orleans,.........
Philadelphia,..........
T otal,.......... ..




U. S. coins,
old standard.
........

Foreign coins.

$1,257
26,994

$3,081,962
3,548,632

$28,251

$6,630,594

U. S. bullion. Foreign bullion.
$272,064
........
570,080
........
22,573
$33,198
180,728
351,453
$1,045,445

$384,651

Total.
$272,064
570,080
3,138.990
4,107,807
$8,088,941

247

Coinage o f the United States.
D eposits of S ilver, and T otal of G old and S ilver.
S il v e r .

For. bullion. U. S. bullion.

Mints.
Charlotte, N. C......
Dahlonega, Ga.,.........
New Orleans,..............
Philadelphia,...............

Foreign coins.
........
$1,359,621
2,101,198

$24,699
247,992

8,640

...

$3,460,819

$272,691

$8,640

Total,.

Total gold
and silver.
$272,064
570,080
4,523,310
6,465,637

Total.
$1,384,320
2,357,830

$3,742,150 $11,831,091

The following statement exhibits the value o f gold coined in 1843, and
the number o f eagles, half and quarter eagles, at undermentioned mints :—
G old C oined.
Half eagles. (Quarter eagles.
Eagles.
Pieces.
Pieces.
Pieces-

Mints.
Charlotte, N . C .,................
Dahlonega, Ga.,.................
New Orleans,...................... .......
Philadelphia,.......... ............ .......
T otal,...................... ........

Value.
Dollars■

175,162
75,462

44,353
98,452
101,075
611,205

26,096
36,209
368,002
100,546

287,005
582,782
3,177,000
4,062,010

250,624

855,085

530,853

8,108,797 50

00
50
00
00

A similar statement exhibits the coinage o f silver, at the several mints
of the United States, in 1843 :—
Coinage of S ilver

in

1843.
Value.

Dollars.
Pieces.

Half dollars.
Pieces.

Q,r. dollars.
Pieces.

Dimes.
Pieces.

Half dimes.
Pieces. *

Dollars.

Charlotte, N. C .,.
Dahlonega, G a .,.
New Orleans,....
Philadelphia,........

165,100

2,268,000
3,844,000

968,000
645,600

150,000
1,370,000

1,165,000

1,391,000
2,443,750

T otal,........

165,100

6,112,000

1,613,600

1,520,000

1,165,000

3,834,750

C o p p e r C o i n a g e . — Cents, in 1843, were only coined at the mint in
Philadelphia; amounting to 2,428,320— in value, $24,283 20.
The following statement exhibits the annual amounts o f deposits o f
gold, for coinage, at the mint o f the United States and its branches, from
mines in the United States :—

Period. Virginia.
1824,
1825,
1826,
1827,
1828,
1829, $2,500
1830,
24,000
1831,
26,000
1832,
34,000
1833, 104,000
1834,
62,000
1835,
60,400
1836,
62,000
1837,
52,100
1838,
55,000
1839,
57,600
1840,
38,995
1841,
25,736
1842,
42,163
1843,
48,148

D eposits of Gold at the United States M int.
North
South
AlaCarolina. Carolina.
Georgia. Tennessee, bama.
$5,000
17,000
20,000
21,000
46,000
134.000 $3,500
204.000 26,000 $212,000
294,000 22,000
176,000 $1,000
140,000
458,000 45,000
1,000
216,000
7,000
475,000 66,000
415,000
3,000
380,000 38,000
319,900
100
263,500 42,400
201,400
148,100 55,200
300
83,600
116,900 29,400
1.500
36,000
66,000 13,000
300
6,300
20,300
$500
53,500
91,113
104
4,431
36,804
5,319
139,796
1,212
76,431
3,440
1,863
150,276
5,579
61,629
223
56,619
2,788
4,786
62,873
5,099

Various
sources.

$1,000

12,200
200

13,717
415

Total at
U. S. mint.
$5,000
17,000
20,000
21,000
46,000
140,000
466,000
520.000
678.000
868,000
898,000
698,500
467,000
282,000
171,700
138,500
176,766
248,478
273,587
180,728

$694,642 $2,939,737 $360,881 $2,258,004 $18,304 $17,159 $27,533 $6,316,259




Coinage o f the United States,

248

The following statement shows the deposits o f gold at the branch mints
from the commencement o f their operations to 1843, inclusive :—
%

D eposits of G old at the Branch M ints.

1838,...............
1839,................
1840,...............
1841,...............
1842,...............
1843,...............

Total at the
branch
mints.
$263,400
246,740
249,419
293,639
503,510
864,717

Total depo­
sits of U. S.
gold.
$435,100
385,240
426,185
542,117
777,097
1,045,445

$2,421,425

$3,611,184

Branch mint at Branch mint at Branch mint
Charlotte, JN.C. Dahlonega, Ga. atN. Orleans.
$127,000
$135,700
$700
113,035
6,869
126,836
124,726
121,858
2,835
161,974
129,847
1,818
323,372
5,630
174,508
570,080
22,573
272,064

Total,..

$954,981

$1,426,019

$40,425

The following statement exhibits the amounts o f gold coined annually
at the branch mints, from the commencement o f their operations until
December 31st, 1843 :—
A mount of G old C oined A nnually.
Eagles.

Half eagles. Qr. eagles.

T otal of G old .

Number.

Value.

Pieces.

D ollars.

7,894
18,173
12,834
10,281
8,642
26,096

20,780
41,640
31,828
31,748
36,122
70,449

84,165
162,767
127,055
133,038
159,005
287,005

148,647

83,920

232,567

953,035

20,583
18,939
22,896
30,495
59,608
98,452

13,674
3,533
4,164
4,643
36,209

20,583
32,613
26,428
34,659
64,251
134,661

102,915
128,880
123,310
162,885
309,648
582,782

T otal,.

250,973

62,222

313,195

1,410,420

N ew Orleans— 1838,............
1839,............
“
1840,............
“
1841,............
“
1842,............
“
1843,............

2,500
27,400
175,162

30,400
8,350
16,400
101,075

9,396
26,200
7,380
19,800
368,002

9,396
23,490
217,500
56,600
85,200
18,230
405,500
63,600
644,239 3,177,000

T o ta l,.

205,062

156,225

430,778

792,065

3,908,690

of totals,................

205,062

555,845

576,920

1,337,827

6,272,145

Mints and Periods.

Pieces.

Pieces •

Charlotte, N . C.— 1838,............
“
1839,............
“
1840,...........
“
1841,...........
“
1842,............
“
1843,............

12,886
23,467
18,994
21,467
27,480
44,353

Total,.

P ieces .

Dahlonega, Ga.— 1838,............
“
1839,............
“
1840,............
“
1841,............•
“
1842.............
“
1843,............

Sum

The following statement exhibits the amount o f silver coined at the
branch mints annually, from 1838 to 1843, inclusive
Mints and periods.

Half
dollars.

Quarter •
dollars.

Dimes.

P ieces.

Pieces.

Pieces.

N ew Orleans— 1838,
.......
“
1839,
116,000
“
1840, 855,100
«
1841,
401,000
••
1842,
957,000
“
1843, 2,268,000
Total,.




425,200
452,000
769,000
968,000

Half
dimes.
Pieces.

403,430
1,291,600 1,060,000
1,175,000
935,000
2,007,500
815,000
2,020,000
350,000
150,000

T otal of Silve r .

Number.

Value.

Pieces.

D ollars •

40,243
402,430
240,160
2,467,600
698,100
3,390,300
555,000
3,675,500
890,250
4,096.000
3,386,000 1,391,000

4,597,100 2,614,200 7,046,530 3,160,000 17,417,830 3,814,753

249

Coinage o f the United States.

It would seem, from the official report o f Mr. Patterson, that no coinage o f silver has ever been made at the other branch mints.
The following table shows the total number o f pieces, and the value o f
the same, coined at the several branch mints :—
C h a r l o tt e , N . C.

Years.

D ahlonega , G a .

No. pieces. Val. in dollars.

...
...
..
..
..
..

20,780
41,640
31,828
31,748
36,122
70,449

Total,.

232,567

1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,
1842,
1843,

84,165
162,767
127,055
133,038
159,005
287,005

20,583
32,613
26,428
34,659
64,251
134,661

953,035

N e w O rle an s .

No. pieces. Val. in dollars. No. pieces. Val. in dollars.

313,195

102,915
128,880
123,310
162,885
309,648
582,782

402.430
2,476,996
3,446,900
3,693,730
4,159,600
4,030,239

40,243
263,650
915,600
640,200
1,295,750
4,568,000

1,410,420

18,209,895

7,723,443

The following statement exhibits the coinage o f the mint o f the United
States in several years, from its establishment in 1792, including the coin­
age of the branch mints from the commencement o f their operations, in
1838
Years.
1793,
1794,
1795,
1796,
1797,
1798,
1799,
1800,
1801,
1802,
1803,
1804,
1805,
1806,
1807,
1808,
1809,
1810,
1811,
1812,
1813,
1814,
1815,
1816,
1817,
1818,
1819,
1820,
1821,
1822,
1823,
1824,
1825,
1826,
1827,
1828,
1829,
1830,
1831,
1832,
1833,

G old .

)
}
S

Value.

/Value.

S il v e r .

C opper .

Value.

No. of pieces.

Value.

$71,485 00

$370,683 80

$11,373 00

1,834,420

$453,541 80

102,727
103,422
205,610
213,285
317,760
422,570
423,310
258,377
258,642
170,367
324,505
|437,495
[284,665
,169,375
501,435
497,905
290,435
477,140
77,270
3,175

79,077
12,591
330,291
423,515
224,296
74,758
58,343
87,118
100,340
149,388
471,319
597,448
684,300
707,376
638,773
608,340
814,029
620,951
561,687
17,308
28,575
607,783
1,070,454
1,140,000
501,680
825,762
805,806
895,550
1,752,477
1,564,583
2,002,090
2,869,200
1,575,600
1,994,578
2,495,400
3,175,600
2,579,000
2,759,000

242,940
258,615
1,319,030
189,325
88,980
72,425
93,200
156,385
92,245
131,565
140,145
295,717
643,105
714,270
798,435
978,550

50
50
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
00
00
00
00




50
45
00
00
00
00
00
00
50
50
00
75
00
00
50
00
50
50
50
00
75
50
50
00
70
45
50
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

W hole C oinage .

10,324
9,510
9,797
9,106
29,279
13,628
34,422
25,203
12,844
13,483
5,260
9,652
13,090
8,001
15,660
2,495
10,755
4,180
3,578

40
34
00
68
40
37
83
03
94
48
00
21
00
53
00
95
00
00
30

28,209
39,484
31,670
26,710
44,075
3,890
20,723

82
00
00
00
50
00
39

12,620
14,926
16,344
23,577
25,636
16,580
17,115
33,603
23,620
28,160

00
00
25
32
24
00
00
60
00
00

1,219,370
1,095,165
1,368,241
1,365,681
3,337,972
1,571,390
3,615,869
2,780,830
2,046,839
2,260,361
1,815,409
2,731,345
2,935,888
2,861,834
3,056,418
1,649,570
2,761,646
1,755,331
1,833,859
69,867
2,888,135
5,163,967
5,537,084
5,074,723
6,492,509
3,139,249
3,813,788
2,166,485
4,786,894
5,178,760
5,774,434
9,097,845
6,196,853
7,674,501
8,357,191
11,792,284
9,128,387
10,307,790

192,129
125,524
545,698
645,906
571,335
510,956
516,075
370,698
371,827
333,239
801,084
1,044,595
982,055
884,752
1,155,868
1,108,740
1,115,219
1,102,271
642,535
20,483
56,785
647,267
1,345,064
1,425,325
1,864,786
1,018,977
915,509
967,975
1,858,297
1,735,894
2,110,679
3,024,342
1,741,381
2,306,875
3,155,620
3,923,473
3,401,055
3,765,710

40
29
00
68
40
37
83
53
94
48
00
96
00
53
50
95
50
50
80
00
57
50
50
00
20
45
89
00
00
00
25
32
24
50
00
60
00
00

250

Post-Office Reform.

S tatement of the C oinage of the M int of the U nited S tates , etc.— Continued.
G old .

Years.
Value.
1834, $3,954,270 00
1835, 2,186,175 00
1836, 4,135,700 00
1837,
1,148,305 00
1838,
1,809,595 00
1839,
1,355,885 00
1840,
1,675,302 50
1841,
1,091,597 50
1842,
1,834,170 50
1843, 8,108,797 50

S il v e r .

C opper ,

W hole <uOINAGE.

00
00
00
00
00
61
00
67
90
20

Number of pieces.
Value.
11,637,643
$7,388,423 00
15,996,342
5,668,667 00
13,719,333
7,764,900 00
13,010,721
3,299,898 00
15,780,311
4,206,540 00
11,811,594
3,576,467 61
10,558,240
3,426,632 50
8,811,968
2,240,321 17
11,743,153
4,190,754 40
14,640,582
11,967,830 70

<$39,125,688 00 $62,384,684 90 $979,620 96

284,248,071 $102,489,993 86

Value.
$3,415,002
3,443,003
3,606,100
2,096,010
2,333,243
2,189,296
1,726,703
1,132,750
2,332,750
3,834,750

00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00

Value.
$19,151
39,489
23,100
55,583
63,702
31,286
24,627
15,973
23,833
24,283

It is stated in the Salisbury Watchman, that
there is in Rowan county, North Carolina, the richest gold mine that has
yet been discovered in the United States. It is a small vein, from four to
twelve inches w id e ; many bushels o f the material taken from it, have
overgone $200 to the bushel, and some as high as $500. W e see it also
stated in the Mecklenburg Jeffersonian, that 11,876 dwts. o f gold had been
taken from it by seven hands about a month since. As might be expect­
ed, in so small a vein, the water soon became unmanageable, and they
began again at the surface, and struck a vein parallel to the first, and
nearly as rich as that. These veins, as also all those in that region, are
believed to increase in richness and size as they descend. There are six
or eight other mines in the same region, o f extraordinary richness, and
different in many particulars from the other vein mines in North Carolina.
R

o w a n g o l d m in e s . —

A rt. V.— P O S T -O F F IC E R E FO R M .

I n this article, I propose to demonstrate that the postage o f letters car­
ried not over 30 miles, might be established at 3 cents ; those carried
over 30, and not over 400 miles, at 5 cents ; and those carried over 400
miles, at 10 cents ; and that this reduction can be made without embar­
rassing the post-office department.
“ The idea o f making the post-office department a source o f revenue
to the government, has not been entertained by any one charged with its
management since the termination o f the last war ; during a short period
o f which, an increase o f 50 per cent upon the then rates o f postage was
imposed for revenue purposes. Nevertheless, the principle upon which
it was originally established— that its expenditures should be limited by
its income— has been distinctly engrafted upon all the legislative enact­
ments concerning its organization, and prescribing the duties o f those
charged with their administration.”
But while I fully concede the justice o f this fundamental principle, that
the department is to be sustained by its own revenues, I maintain that it
ever has been, and now is, a source o f revenue to the government, to the
extent o f the cost o f the franking privilege. As it is now conducted, it is
in fact a business monopoly, limiting its profits to the amount o f this cost;
and in this respect, at least, the popular cry o f monopoly now raised against
it, is not without foundation.




Post-Office Reform,.

251

What the cost o f the franking privilege is, appears not to be known to
the department itself—such discrepancies exist in the official reports.
O f the number o f free letters and packets, no mention is made in the
reports o f the postmaster general, since the report dated December 3d,
1842. In that report, it is stated that “ the whole number o f free letters
sent through the post-office annually, so far as the returns of the post­
masters exhibit, is about 3,000,000,” and “ assuming 15 cents as the
average rate o f each letter, if charged' with postage, $450,000 would
be the amount received.” It will be observed that this sum is mentioned
as the amount which would be received from free letters only, and that
their average rate has been set down by the postmaster general at 15
cents each, for the same year in which the average rate o f other single
letters was something less than 12J cents, (as may be calculated
from the estimate o f the postmaster general himself, in his report,
dated January 5,1842,) showing that o f every eight free letters, he has esti­
mated two, as being, if charged, subject to the postage o f double letters.
And mark, further, that this sum o f $450,000, is not all which would be
received from free letters, but only as much as would be received from the
free letters, “ as far as the returns o f the postmasters e x h i b i t i t being
expressly said in the postmaster general’s report, dated December 7th,
1840, that “ the books o f the department furnish no data for determining
the number o f free packets conveyed in the mail, as a large portion o f
them are not entered on the post bills.”
In the “ regulations for the government o f the post-office department,”
printed in 1843, by order o f the postmaster general, section 375 directs
the returns o f free letters in the following words : “ I f the commission on
letters, newspapers, and pamphlets, do not exceed $500 in one quarter,
the deputy postmaster will then set down the number o f free letters re­
ceived by mail for delivery at the office, and carry the amount, at 2
cents each, to his credit.” From this order, we conclude, that deputy
postmasters render an account only o f the number o f free letters, and
sealed packets o f written matter on which they are entitled to charge the
commission o f 2 cents, so that the books o f the department now furnish
no data whatever for ascertaining the annual number o f free newspapers,
pamphlets, and documents, nor the number o f free letters and sealed pack­
ets of written matter which are received by deputy postmasters, nor that
of those which are delivered by deputy postmasters, whose commissions
otherwise exceed $500 per quarter.
In the report already quoted, after setting down $450,000 as the amount
which would be received, if the stated number o f free letters were charged
with postage, the postmaster general adds : “ The loss to the department
does not stop here ; 2 cents are paid to postmasters on each o f these
letters, constituting an annual charge upon the revenue o f $60,000
from which the conclusion seems to be, that our postmaster general has
returns showing that the 2 cents commission amounted to $60,000;
and, from the knowledge o f this fact, calculated the estimated number o f
3,000,000 o f franked letters, forgetting that he had to add to this esti­
mate the number delivered by deputy postmasters, receiving no commis­
sion on free letters, not to mention those received by deputy postmasters
themselves, which, for the purpose o f our argument, should be considered
as a legitimate charge on the department. And it is also probable, from
the round numbers mentioned in the estimate, that the number o f free let­




252

Post-Office Reform.

ters, and the amount o f the commissions thereon, have never been calculated with accuracy by the department. I am thus particular, in order to
show that these numbers are a very low estimate, for in the report of
December 7, 1840, two years before, the postmaster general estimates the
2 cents commission on the free letters and packets, (their number being
estimated at 4,781,359,) sent from the office in Washington city only, du­
ring the session o f thirty-three weeks, at $95,627 ; and Mr. George Plitt,
a special agent o f the department, in his report submitted to Congress,
dated November, 1840, on the subject, says : “ The actual number of
franked packages sent from the post-office o f Washington city, during the
week ending on the 7th o f July last, was 201,534; and the whole number sent during the last session o f Congress, amounted to the enormous
quantity o f 4,314,948. All these packages are not only carried by the
department into every section o f the country, fr e e o f charge, but it is ac­
tually obliged to pay to every postmaster, whose commissions do not
amount to $2,000 per annum, 2 cents for the delivery o f each one. Sup.
posing all the above to have been delivered, the department would lose
for its revenue, for this one. item, upwards o f $80,000, besides paying for
the mail transportation.” O f these last two estimates— adopting that of
Mr. Plitt, which is the less, and in which the number o f free letters and
packets subject to the 2 cents commission is not given as an estimate, but
as the assertion o f a fact— if we suppose that for every two sent from the
office in Washington city, there was one received, we shall have 6,472,422,
as the number o f free letters and packets sent to and from this single
office during a session o f thirty-three weeks ; and estimating these at the
low average o f 12J cents each, they will amount to upwards o f $800,000.
H ow much should we add for the entire free printed matter, and how
much for the free letters and packets, carried by the mails during the rest
o f the year.
Sufficient has been said to show the absence o f correct information on
this subject, and that the estimate o f our present postmaster general is
most probably too low. But admitting his estimate of $450,000 to be
correct, how much shall we add for the free letters and packets delivered
by deputy postmasters, who receive no commission thereon, and how much
for the free printed matter on which no deputy postmaster receives any
commission ? And besides $60,000 paid to deputy postmasters as com­
missions thereon, how much shall we add for advertising the free letters
which are not called for ? this charge amounting in some cases to 4 cents
each, and is never less than 2 cents each.
I venture to complete the estimate o f the present postmaster general,
thus:—
3.000.
000 o f free letters, “ as exhibited by the returns o f dep­
uty postmasters,” at 15 cents each,.......................................... $450,000
Commissions o f deputy postmasters thereon, at 2 cents each,.
60,000
1.000.
000 o f free letters, not exhibited by the returns o f dep­
uty postmasters, at 15 cents each,...........................................
150,000
Cost o f advertising free letters,..................................... ..............
30,000
Free printed matter, if charged at the usual rates,...................
210,000
Total,...............................

900,000

That the number o f free letters here set down as not exhibited by the




Post-Office Reform.

253

returns o f the deputy postmasters, is a low estimate, may be judged from
the fact, that the total revenue which should be collected from free letters
is, in this estimate, less by $200,000 than our former estimate o f the rev­
enue, which should be collected from the free letters sent to and from the
single office in this city.
That the cost o f advertising free letters is here set down at a low esti­
mate, may be judged from the following passage, extracted from the re­
port o f the postmaster-general, dated December 7th, 1840: “ It m aybe
estimated that there has been abstracted from the revenue o f the past
year in the allowance o f the 2 cents to postmasters for the delivery o f free
letters and packets, and the 2 cents paid for advertising free letters, the
sum o f $150,000.” In my estimate, these two items together amount to
only three-fifihs o f this sum.
And that the sum which would be collected from free printed matter, if
paid for at the ordinary rates, is here set down at a very low estimate,
will appear from the fact that the privilege o f franking printed matter is
not confined to those who frank their private correspondence. The gov­
ernors o f the several states may transmit by mail, free o f postage, all
laws and reports, whether bound or unbound, which may be directed by
the legislatures of the several states to be transmitted to the executives
of other states. And every printer o f newspapers may send one paper
to each and every other printer o f newspapers within the United States,
tree o f postage. This last item will, o f itself, we believe, exceed our es­
timated sum. There are upwards o f 1,300 publishers o f newspapers in
the United States, and it is notorious, that some o f them have estimated
their exchange papers at 200 per day. But suppose these newspapers to
be all published once a week only, and that an exchange paper is sent to
one of every other four printers o f newspapers, each printer will transmit,
free o f postage, 16,900 papers annually, and altogether an annual number
of 21,970,000, which, at only 1 cent each, will amount to $219,702, a
sum exceeding my estimate for all free printed matter by nearly $10,000.
The argument is strengthened by the report o f December, 1840. The
postmaster general says, that “ the increase o f revenue from the modifi.
cation and restriction o f the franking privilege, may be estimated at
$250,000.” Now, as this modification and restriction is based on the
supposition, that thereby “ two-thirds o f the mail matter now going free
would be excluded, and what remained would be charged with postage,”
it conclusively follows, that he has in this case estimated the cost o f the
franking privilege at $750,000. And if to this sum we add his estimate
o f $150,000, for commissions to deputy postmasters, and the cost o f ad­
vertising, we shall have at once the amount o f our estimate, besides the
cost o f the franking privilege o f printers o f newspapers, which is express­
ly excluded in his proposed restrictions.
I know o f no other official sources than the reports already mentioned,
from which we can derive information on this subject; and this, it has
been seen, is at once meagre, unsatisfactory, and contradictory.
With these views, I consider it safe to set down $900,000 as a very
low and fair estimate o f the cost o f the franked matter carried by the
mails in the year ending on the 30th day o f June, 1842, the postages
thereon being calculated at the same rates as other matter; and there is
no reason why we should estimate this cost for the year ending on the
30th day o f June, 1843, at a less sum; for the causes which produced in
vol.

x.— no. m .




22

254

Post-Office Reform.

this year a decrease o f the revenue, on paid matter, could have had no
effect on the franking privilege.* The question now is— what revenue
collected from the matter now paying letter postage, would, together with
the revenue which would be collected from franked matter, if it were subject to the same postage rates, be equal to the revenue which is now paid
to the department as postages o f business and friendly letters ?
In considering the amount now paid for postages, I exclude that which
is contributed by newspapers and pamphlets, for reasons which will after­
wards appear.
From the report o f the postmaster general, I learn that the gross reve­
nue o f his department for 1843, was less than that for 1842 by upwards
o f $250,000 ; and he ascribes this decrease o f revenue principally to
“ the operations o f the numerous private posts, under the name o f ex­
presses, which have sprung into existence within the past few years, ex­
tending themselves over the mail routes between the principal cities and
towns, by which and at which, the railroads pass and terminate.” Now,
the numbers of franked matter not being affected by these expresses, its
general proportional cost cannot be duly estimated by comparing it with
the revenue o f 1843 ; I shall, therefore, take the report of the year ending
June 30, 1842, as the basis o f my calculation, in which year the revenue
from letters was $3,953,319 34, and the revenue which would have been
collected from franked matter, at the same rates, was, according to the
estimate, $900,000.
By calculating proportionally, it appears that if all mail matter had duly
contributed to the revenue o f the department, there should have been
$733,103 91 collected as the postage o f franked matter; and, as the
postage o f other matter, only $3,220,215 43, instead o f $3,953,319 34.
So that there has been paid for business and friendly correspondence,
upwards o f $730,000 more than its actual cost, and on this correspondence
the franked letters have been a tax to the same amount. Thus, o f every
$100 paid by the merchant to the post office, he pays $18 50 as a tax to
defray the expense o f free letters; while the retired capitalist, who writes
perhaps but half a dozen letters in a year, contributes scarcely anything—
a tax unequally imposed, as well as unjust in principle.
By a similar calculation it will be found, that, for the year ending June
30, 1843, in which the gross revenue from letters was $3,712,786 23,
there was over $24 contributed towards the expense o f the franking
privilege by every $100 paid for private correspondence. In this year,
the true proportional revenue which should have been contributed by
franked matter, was $724,401 14; and by private correspondence,
$2,988,385 09.
With this view o f the case, it is plain that letter postages may be, to
some extent, reduced, and that the department will, notwithstanding, be
still able to sustain itself by its own revenue, under the same gross expen­
ditures, and at the same extent o f franking privilege, even though the
* T he report o f the postmaster general, dated January 18tb, 1844, is apparently at
variance with my estimate o f the cost o f the franking privilege. During the month of
October, 1843, there passed through the mails 130,744 letters franked by the postmas­
ters or received free by them ; 18,558 letters, franked by members o f Congress ; 85,339
letters, franked by other officers, state or national, and 596,760 free newspapers. But
no estimate for the year can be based on this statement: for, during the month o f Octo­
ber, Congress and many o f the state legislatures were not in session.




Post-Office Reform.

255

numbers o f paid matter should not be increased in consequence o f this
reduction.
It is at the same time certain, that, without an increase o f paid matter,
the rates cannot be reduced to that extent which petitioners now demand,
without supplying the deficiency from the funds o f the public treasury;
and against this principle, which has met with some distinguished advo­
cates, I protest, for similar reason as that which induced me to demand
that the expense o f the franking privilege should be paid from the public
funds. Just in proportion to the extent they use the mails, should individ­
uals be required to contribute to the expenditures o f the department;
whereas, if the whole or any part o f the cost of their correspondence was
appropriated from the treasury, every poor citizen, as well as the retired
capitalist, would be necessarily required to contribute towards this ex­
pense as much as the merchant, who, for every one o f their letters, per­
haps writes a thousand.
The proper enquiry therefore is, what are the lowest rates o f postage
by which the same amount of revenue can be collected?
The advocates o f a greatly reduced postage tariff-, generally point to
the example o f England as a proof o f its practicability, where the tariff
imposes on single letters, for whatever distance they are carried, a uniform
rate, about one third o f what we pay for our lowest grade ; and where,
notwithstanding this enormous reduction from an average postage equal
to our own, there was, the first year thereafter, realized a net revenue o f
$2,250,000.
W e must be cautious, however, in following its example, as our case is,
in various respects, widely different. In England, the gross amount o f
postages varied little for twenty years previous to the reduction, notwith­
standing population and commerce was estimated to have increased with­
in this period upwards o f 40 per cent. Whereas, in this country, the
postages have been quadrupled in the same length o f time ; and, since
1789, when the department was first instituted, have increased from an
annual sum less than $38,000 to about $4,500,000.
Such, too, is the sparseness o f our population, and the immense geo­
graphical extent o f our country, that with our present high tariff, our ex­
penditures have for the last seven years so much exceeded the receipts
as to embarrass the department; while the post-office o f the united king­
dom, when its average postage tariff was very nearly the same as our own,
contributed to government a clear revenue o f nearly $8,000,000.
It is also to be remembered, that the penny postage system was adopted
in England mainly from the representation that the reduced uniform rate
would be followed by so great an increase in the number o f letters post­
ed, that the net revenue o f the crown would sustain no diminution in con­
sequence. Whereas, it appears from the late English papers that the
revenue o f the post-office for the last fiscal year was less than the net
revenue o f the fiscal year preceding; thereby showing that, at the end of
less than three years, the consequent increase in the number o f letters had
reached its maximum, and settling the net revenue by the penny system
at about $2,700,000, only 344 per cent o f the net revenue before the re­
duction, when it was about $7,900,000.
From the official reports, however, o f the results o f the penny system,
as far as they relate to an increase in the number o f letters, we may de­
rive some valuable lessons.




256

Post-Office Reform.

“ In a week preceding the 24th November, 1839, under the old and
high rates o f postage, there were posted 1,585,973 letters. At this rate
for the year, the annual number would be 82,470,596. But as it appears,
from the documents accompanying the report o f the postmaster general,
dated December, 1842, this number included the franked letters, o f the
amount o f which we have no distinct information, we set down the annual
number o f chargeable letters, as estimated by the committee o f parlia­
ment, at 77,500,000.”
“ The gross revenue for the year preceding 5th January, 1839, under the
old rates o f postage, was $11,262,134.” * This is the last year o f which
we have complete annual returns o f the revenue under the former postage
rates.
It hence appears that the average rate o f each letter on which postage
was charged, was 14-rVV cents. But as this number is based on an esti­
mate o f the real number o f letters, as plainly appears from the documents
accompanying the report o f December, 1842, we may set down the ave­
rage rate o f a single letter, before the reduction o f postage, at 12| cents;
which will be the case, if we suppose that o f every twelve chargeable let­
ters, two o f them were charged with double postage.
This is the true method o f calculating the average ; and we take this
opportunity to caution others against drawing any conclusion from an ave­
rage o f the former rates, as given at length by the postmaster general.
“ The number o f single chargeable letters delivered, which annually
pass through the post-office o f the United States, has heretofore been es­
timated at 24,507,994.” This estimate, taken from the report o f the post­
master general, dated December, 1843, is that furnished in the year 1836,
as appears from the report to the senate, dated January 5, 1843, in which
lie says : “ I submit a table exhibiting the present rates o f postage, and
the distances and probable number o f letters, and amount received upon
each class o f letters, compiled from data furnished by this department in
1836.” [And that this table actually relates to the mail matter o f 1836,
will afterwards appear.]
Letters.

5,328,600
7,992,890
5,328,600
3,992,896
1,865,008

Miles.

carried not over
it
it
it
it

it
it
il

over

30
80
150
400
400

at 6 cents,
it
“ 10
“ 12J it
“ 181 it
it
“ 25

Amount.

$319,716
799,289
666,075
748,668
466,252

24,507,994 total letters.
Total revenue,
$3,000,000
It hence follows that the average rate o f a single chargeable letter de­
livered in the United States, in 1836, was somewhat over 124 cents; and
this average being nearly the same as the average in the United King­
dom before the reduction o f postage, we may conclude that a reduction of
our postage rates to a rate or rates equivalent to the uniform reduced post­
age o f the United Kingdom, would be followed by an equal increase of
correspondence.
The penny rate o f the United Kingdom commenced on January 10th,
1840, and, forming an average from the number o f letters delivered in the
third week o f each month for a year, commencing with the week ending
* Report o f the postmaster genera], dated December 2, 1843.




Post-Office Reform.

257

on the 23d of February, 1840, (as given in the report o f the postpiaster
general, dated December, 1842,) vve find that the average number o f let­
ters, delivered weekly, during the first year o f the penny postage, was
3,282,085, being an increase o f an average o f 1,696,112 letters w eekly;
if we take the number o f letters delivered in the week ending November
24, 1839, which was 1,585,973, as the former weekly average. The in­
crease o f letters was, therefore, about 107 per cent on the former number.
This per centage o f increase is based on numbers representing the let­
ters actually delivered, and o f course including franks during the existence
of the franking privilege. W e may, therefore, consider it as a safe esti­
mate o f what would have been the increase on chargeable letters, if the
franking privilege had not been abolished ; for we can hardly suppose
that franked letters would have increased in an equal ratio.
It is much to be regretted that the official returns o f the posto-ffice in
the United Kingdom do not exhibit the number o f letters carried now and
formerly at the former different grades o f distance ; for we might then
deduce with accuracy the rates o f increase in the number o f letters, ac­
cording to the different rates of reduction on the postage, and be furnished
thereby with sure rules to guide us in calculating the effects o f any pro­
posed reduction on our present postage rates.
W e are happily, however, enabled to make one other calculation, on
this subject, from the following statement in the report o f December, 1842 :
“ The rate o f postage in the London district averaged 2id. for each
letter, before the changes previous to January, 1840 ; at present, the
postage o f each letter averages about lid . The gross receipts in 1838
(the last complete year under the old rates) were (after deducting certain
receipts for general post letters) £118,000.”
Now, 12,137,143 letters, at 2 Id. each, will represent the former annual
revenue of £1 1 8 ,0 0 0 ; and by adding the monthly returns contained in
the same report, we find that the actual number o f letters which passed
through the London district post in the year ending January 2,1841, was
(exclusive o f all general post-office letters) 20,305,915, being an increase
of 8,168,772, and showing that a reduction o f 46| per cent on the rate,
was followed by an increase o f over 67 per cent on the former number o f
letters.
Whatever may be the estimates o f the number o f letters now carried
by the mails o f the United States, at the several different grades o f dis­
tance,— the expresses already mentioned must have had such a disturbing
influence on their ordinary proportion,— it would be wrong to depend upon
them as a sufficient test o f any proposed reduction on the present rates o f
postage, especially if the proposed reduction was so great as to destroy
the influence o f the expresses. And as our future calculations will be
based on the supposed truth o f this hypothesis, we shall first estimate the
future revenue o f the department on the basis o f the revenue for the year
ending June 30, 1842.
In the fourth page o f the report already quoted, dated January 5, 1843,
the postmaster general says :
“ In the foregoing estimate o f income and expenditure, I have adopted
the amount o f mail matter In 1836, and the amount o f expenditure for
1842. There has been no account taken o f the number o f letters which
passed through the mail during the last year. An estimate o f the num­
ber may be made by the amount o f letter postage received during the




22 *

258

Post-Office Reform.

year 1842. That amount was $3,953,319 34. T o produce this sum,
would require 32,295,972 letters charged with postage to have been de­
livered through the mail.”
This estimate shows that the average rate o f single chargeable letters,
delivered in 1842, was 12 t3„4j- cents, an average about a quarter o f a cent
less than the average o f 1836. W e shall compute the estimate of the
postmaster general thus :—
Miles.

Letters.

7,021,886
10,532,815
7,021,887
5,261,731
2,457,657

ca rried not over
it
it
ii

“

ov er

30 at 6 cts. ea ch ,
((
80 i t 10
a
150 i i 12i
a
400 U 181
a
400 a 25

Amount

$421,313
1,053,281
877,735
986,574
614,414

16
50
87
56
25

1 o 2 4_
at an avera ge o f
$3,953,319 34
32,295,976
1411 0 0
And on the supposition that the postage o f letters carried under 30 miles
be reduced to 5 cents, and all over that distance at 10-cents, the postmas­
ter general, in this same report, gives the following estimate o f the pro­
bable result:—
“ Postage on 7,021,900 letters at 5 cents,......... ..
$351,095 00
.................. 2,527,407 20
“
25,274,072
“
10 “
Add 20 per cent for probable increase o f 10-cent letters, 505,481 55.”

By this estimate, the gross revenue from chargeable letters will be
$3,383,983 75.
T o complete properly the total aggregate revenue, we shall have to add
to this amount the sum which should be paid from the treasury, as the
postage o f franked matter at the ordinary rates. This sum we estimated
at $900,000 for 1842. And as we cannot calculate on an increase of
this matter, in consequence o f reduced rates, we shall have to estimate
its future amount under this estimate o f the postmaster general, by
supposing it reduced in the proportion o f the former gross revenue
($3,953,319) to the future gross revenue ($2,878,502) from the same
number o f letters. It will thus be found to amount to $655,310; and
the total aggregate revenue from letters and franked matter, will be
$4,039,294, a sum exceeding the revenue from letters in 1842 by $85,974.
So that, according to the estimate by the present postmaster general of
the increase o f letters in consequence o f this reduction, the department
will, if our views o f franked matter be adopted, be still able to sustain
itself at these reduced rates o f letter postage. And it is to be remember­
ed that the postmaster general remarks, that “ others, whose opinions are
entitled to respectful consideration, estimate a greater increase, varying
from 20 to 50 per cent.”
But as this estimate is founded on the returns o f 1842, and the rates
are not reduced sufficiently to destroy the influence o f the expresses, we
cannot depend on it with that certainty which is desirable.
Such is the present influence o f these expresses, and so much does it
"continue to increase, that we may reasonably expect a farther decrease of
postage revenue during the current fiscal year ; and that the department
will, if its present principles be continued, be compelled to lessen its pub­
lic utility by abandoning all the unprofitable routes. Nor is it to be won­
dered that the prohibitory laws are universally disregarded, as long as the




\

Post-Office Reform.

259

present exorbitant rates are maintained— unjust, also, inasmuch as they
exact from commercial and friendly letters a sum, as we have already
shown, exceeding $730,000 over and above the expenditures on their ac­
count incurred.
I have already established the proposition, that a reduction o f our post­
age rates to a rate equivalent to the uniform reduced postage o f the Uni­
ted Kingdom, would be followed by an equal increase o f correspondence.
Of course, its truth depends on the proviso, (which, we believe, will not
be controverted,) that the number of letters now carried by the expresses
and by other means, bears the same proportion to the number carried by
the mails, as existed in England previous to the adoption o f the penny
system.
Now the increase o f letters in the United Kingdom was, for the first
year, 107 per cent ; and we may therefore expect, that on the 32,295,976
chargeable letters now delivered in the United States, there would be an
increase o f 34,556,694 letters for the first year, in consequence o f the
supposed adoption o f an equivalent uniform rate.
Let us suppose 3 cents in this country to be, in its effects o f securing
an equal increase o f correspondence, equivalent to one penny sterling in
the United Kingdom.
Now, if all letters were charged 3 cents, there would be a reduction on
the 6-cent letters, of 50 per cen t; on the 10-cent letters, 70 per ce n t; on
the 12i-cent letters, 76 per cent; on the 18J-cent letters, 84 per cent;
and on the 25-cent letters, 88 per cent.
In the absence o f all tangible data, I will suppose the increase o f let­
ters delivered at the different grades o f distance to be in proportion to this
reduction per cent on the rates; and the number of letters, at the uni­
form rate o f 3 cents, will stand thus :—
On
it
a
tt
tt

a

7,021,886 letters, an increase of 5,320,609 or 75f per cent.
tt
tt
it
10,532,815
11,173,263 a 106
it
a
tt
8,087,326 u 115
7,021,887
tt
tt
tt
6,698,006 a 127
5,261,731
it
a
it
2,457,657
3,277,490 t t 1331
32,295,976

it

tt

34,556,694

tt

107

tt

On an examination o f this increase per cent, one would be ready to
suppose there was an undue increase on the 6-cent letters, (and if there
was, observe, that on lessening this per centage on the 6-cent letters, we
must proportionally extend the per centage o f increase on the other let­
ters to make up the definite number o f increase, v iz: 34,556,694;) but
from the returns of the London district post, it has been already shown,
that a reduction of 46J per cent on a rate o f 24 pence sterling was fol­
lowed by an increase o f over 67 per cent.
It cannot, therefore, be far from the truth, to say that the larger deduc­
tion of 50 per cent on the 6-cent letters will increase the number 75J
per cent, and, it being remembered, that if the estimated increase on the
6-cent letters is too much, the estimated increase on the other letters must
be too low in proportion; this estimate may be safely taken as a basis o f
further calculation.
Now this estimate of the increase per cent on the number o f letters, is
very nearly one-half more than the reduction per cent on the present




260

Post-Office Reform.

rates, if they were reduced, as here supposed, to the uniform rate of 3
cents. I f it were exactly 50 per cent, we should have an increase of 75
per cent, instead o f 75J ; 105, instead o f 106 ; 114, instead o f 115 ; 126,
instead o f 127 ; and 132, instead o f 133J.
W hence it may be established as a safe proposition, that when the re­
duction o f postage on a given rate, is not less than 50 per cent, it will be
follow ed by an increase o f letters on this rate at a per centage one-half
greater than the per centage o f reduction on the rate.
So that, on reducing the 6-cent letters to 3 cents, there will be an in­
crease o f 75 per cent on their number; the 10-cent letters to 5 cents, also
75 per cent; the 124-cent letters to 5 cents, 90 per cen t; the 181-cent
letters to 5 cents, 110 per cent; and the 25-cent letters to 10 cents, 90
per cent on their present number. By this estimate there will be a gross
increase o f 27,495,519 letters, being an average o f 85 per cent, o f in­
crease on the present number; and the gross revenue will be
$2,976,786 13. The account stands thus :—
Letters—
Present number. Increased number.

7,021,886
10,532,815
7,021,887
5,261,731
2,457,657
32,295,976

5,266,415
7,899,611
6,319,698
5,787,904
2,221,891

(75 per cent,)
66
(75
)
66
(90
)
(110 66
)
66
(90
)

27,495,519 (85

66

at
“
“
“
“

) “

3 cents,
5 “
5 “
5 “
10 “

$368,649
921,621
667,079
562,481
466,954

03
30
25
75
80

5 nearly, $2,976,786 13

It will be remembered that this estimate is based on the returns of
1842, where the gross revenue from letters was $3,953,319 34 ; so that
the first year o f the reduced tariff would (nothing else considered) pro­
duce a deficit o f $976,533 21. And allowing that the annual increase of
letters in consequence o f the reduction o f postage will be 15 per cent,
there will be, for the second year, a deficit o f $530,015; and for the
third year, $16,520.
This is a moderate estimate o f the annual increase ; for we learn from
the postmaster general’s report for 1842 (pages 750, 753,) that the an­
nual increase in the United Kingdom, for the second year after the re­
duction o f postage, was 21 per cent.
If we proceed with the estimate for a fourth year, instead o f a deficit,
there will be a surplus o f $574,000.
But I am not disposed to depend on an annual increase to this extent;
the probability being that the letters now diverted from their legitimate
course, would, say in two or three years at the utmost, find their proper
channel, and that the subsequent rate o f increase would continue, as heretofore, no more than sufficient to enable the department to extend its ope­
rations as the public exigency might demand.
Indeed, the late news from England shows, as we have already re­
marked, that at the end o f three years after the adoption o f the penny sys­
tem, the net revenue had become stationary at about 34 per cent o f the
former net revenue.
It should be observed that I use the proposition relative to the increase
o f letters, only where the reduction o f the rates is not less than 50, nor
over 731 per cent. I have already shown, in the case o f the London dis­




Post-Office Reform.

261

trict post, that a reduction of46J per cent on the postage rate was follow,
ed by an increase o f letters o f only 67 per cent, instead o f 6 9 /„ according
to the proposition; and it is very certain that a very small reduction in the
rates would be followed by no increase whatever in the number o f letters.
I do not presume to determine the precise extent o f reduct ion on the rates
at which the increase o f letters would commence ; but think it very pro­
bable that a change o f the present rates of 6, and 12j cents, to 5 and 10
cents, being a reduction o f 161 per cent in the former case, and 20 per
cent in the latter, would not sensibly affect the present number o f letters,
whilst it would considerably lessen the present gross revenue. The pro­
bability is, that after that extent o f reduction on the rates which first be­
gins to operate as a cause o f increase in the letters, a greater reduction
on the rates would be followed by an increase o f letters in a much greater
ratio than the ratio of increase on the reduction o f rates; and that, after
reaching a certain extent o f reduction on the rates, the ratio o f increase
of letters would be very little affected by a still greater reduction on the
rates. And, for this latter reason, it is no objection to our proposition to
say, that according it a reduction o f 100 per cent on the ratio, would pro­
duce an increase o f letters of only 150 per cent. By the penny system, in
England, I have shown from official sources, which cannot be contradict­
ed, that the average increase o f letters for the first year after the reduc­
tion, was not ten times, or seven times, or even four times their former
number, as is commonly stated in our newspapers— but only 107 per cent
of that number. W e may reasonably suppose, that those w hom England
are deterred from writing a letter by the postage o f one penny, would be
also deterred by the price o f paper and ink, were the postages abolished
altogether; and that (newspapers not being considered) the main effect
of this hypothesis would be, that “ no cure, no pay” handbills, and such
like matter, which does not now pass through the mails at all, would be
thrust in their faces under the appearance o f friendly correspondence.
I shall now test the proposition relative to the increase o f letters, by ap­
plying it to the hypothesis o f the postmaster general, that a uniform rate
of 10 cents on all letters carried over 30 miles, would be followed by a
probable increase o f 20 percent on this class o f letters. On the 10-cent
letters there would certainly be no increase ; nor can we calculate on an
increase o f either the 6-cent or the 12j-cent letters, the reduction not be­
ing over 20 per cen t; on the 18f-cent letters, the reduction being 46§ per
cent, the increase would be 67 per cent, (as in London district post,)
while on the 25-cent letters, the reduction being 60 per cent, there would
be an increase o f 90 per cent, according to my proposition. This in­
crease would amount to 5,737,251 letters, which, on the present number
of 25,274,090, is about 22T\ per ce n t; a percentage only 2TT7 more than
the low estimate o f the postmaster general— being a difference so small,
that I cannot but conclude that the estimated increase o f letters in conse­
quence o f the adoption o f my proposed rates, must certainly meet the ap­
probation o f the present postmaster general.
Let us now estimate the probable result o f the adoption o f the uniform
rate of 5 cents. In this case, we can calculate upon no increase o f the 6cent letters; and on the 25-cent letters, the reduction on the rates being
80 per cent, there will be a probable increase o f 120 per cent, according
to my proposition.




262

Post-Office Reform.

Increase.

Letters.

7.021.886
10,532,815
7.021.887
5,261,731
2,457,657

at 5 cents,
7,899,611
6,319,698
5,787,904
2,949,188

it

(or 75 per cent,)
“
( “ 90
)
“
( “ 110
)
“
)
( “ 120

ii

a

a

a

a

a

a

Gross revenue.
$351,094 30
921,621 30
667,079 25
552,481 75
270,342 25

32,295,976 22,956,401
$2,762,618 85
This estimate shows a deficiency in the gross revenue of—
($3,953,319 34— $2,762,618 8 5 ) = $ 1,190,700 49,
being a deficiency greater than that which would be produced from the
adoption o f my proposed tariff by $214,167 28. And, as it appears tome
that this deficit cannot be sustained by the department without an appro­
priation from the treasury, it is unnecessary to consider farther the effects
o f this uniform rate. I may observe, however, that it has not the recom­
mendation o f reducing the 6-cent letters to a rate sufficiently low as to remove the temptation to evade the postage laws in the thickly settled portions o f our country; whilst my proposed rate o f 3 cents, besides being
sufficient and just, would actually increase the revenue from this class of
letters, viz
($368,649 03— $351,094 3 0 = $ 17,554 73.)
I shall now consider the probable effects o f the adoption o f the bill
proposed in the senate by the Hon. Mr. Merrick, testing it by the same
plan o f calculation.
By this bill, single letters carried under 100 miles are to be charged
5 cents, and all over that distance, 10 cents. In this case, as in the last,
there would be no probable increase o f the 6-cent letters. On the 10cent letters there would be 75 per eent o f increase. On a portion of the
12j-cent letters, the reduction on the rate being 60 per cent, the increase
would be 90 per ce n t; but on the remaining portion, there would be no
probable increase, the reduction on their rate being only 20 per cent.
On the 18|-cent letters, the increase would be 67 per cent, the reduction
on their rate being only 46? per cent. And on the 25-cent letters, the
reduction o f rate being 60 per cent, the increase will be 90 per cent.
In the report transmitted to the senate, by the postmaster general, dated
January 5th, 1843, it is estimated that when the number o f letters, under
30 miles, was 5,328,600, the number o f letters carried over 30 to 100
miles, 9,515,390 ; we may therefore conclude, that when the number of
letters carried under 30 miles is (as in 1842) 7,021,886, the number of
letters carried over 30 to 100 miles is 12,539,125. Now, the number of
letters carried over 30 to 80 miles being 10,532,815, it appears that the
letters carried over 80 to 100 miles is 2,006,310 ; and the number of let­
ters carried over 80 to 150 miles being 7,021,887, that the number of let­
ters carried over 100 to 150 miles is 5,015,577.
The gross revenue under this bill, will, therefore, stand thus:—
Letters.

7,021,886
10,532.815+
i 2,006,310+
£ 5,015,577
5,261,731+
2,457,657+

Increase.

at
7,899,611 (or 75 per cent..)
«
1,805,679 ( “ 90
)
3,525,360
( “ 67
2,221,891 ( “ 90

32,295,976+15,452,541




tt
u

)
)

tt
tc
tt
ce
tt

5 cehts.
5 tt
5 a
10 t t
10 t t
10 t c

$351,094
921,621
190,599
501,557
878,709
466,954

30
30
45
70
10
80

$3,310,536 65

263

Post-Office Reform.,

For convenient reference, I subjoin a table o f these results, as far as
they exhibit the gross revenue that will be obtained from chargeable let­
ters, delivered at the present and the different proposed rates; and, also,
the deficit for the first year under the reduced rates.
Miles .

P r esen t T a r if f .

Not over Rates.

P. M. G.’ s T ’ r if f .

M e r r ic k ’ s T ’ ff . U niform R a t e . Proposed T ’ r ’ ff .

Revenue. Rates. Revenue. Rates. Revenue. Rates. Revenue- Rates. Revenue-

Dollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.
6 cts. 421,313 5 cts. 351,094 5 cts. 351,094 5 cts. 351,094 3 cts. 368,649
30
921,621 5
10
1,053,281 10
1,053,281 5
921,621 5
921,621
80
—
—
—
—
—
—
5
5 190,599 —
too
877,736 10
702,189 10
l 501,558 5
667,079
12a
667,079 5
150
878,709 5
986,575 10
878,709 10
552,482 5
552,482
181
400
Over
614,414 10
466,955 10
466,955 5
270,342 10
25
466,955
400
Total,.

3,953,319

Deficit, the first year,. . .

3,452,228

3,310,536

2,762,618

2,976,786

501,091

642,783

1,190,701

976,533

In the above table, the revenue under the tariff proposed by the post­
master general, is estimated on the basis o f my proposition on the increase
of letters. It will be perceived that the total revenue thus exceeds his
own estimate by $68,244.
I proceed with my argument on the supposition that the lowest tariff
which will be sufficient to cover the expenditures, is that which Congress
should adopt.
My proposed tariff has this two-fold advantage over all the others : 1st,
it will produce a greater revenue on the first class o f letters; and, 2d, it
will remove all objections to the adoption o f the prepayment system ; for,
under it, a double charge on letters not prepaid will in no case exceed the
present rate.
It is not liable to the objection that may be urged against the tariffs
proposed by the postmaster general and Senator Merrick— that the rates
are not sufficiently low as to destroy the influence o f the expresses— an
objection o f so great weight, as to make doubtful the estimated increase
in the number o f letters under their tariffs.
My proposed rates are, moreover, low enough to satisfy the just de­
mands o f the public, and render the penal laws on postage no longer op­
pressive and odious; and, for this reason, (besides the two-fold advantage
already mentioned,) I prefer them to the proposed uniform rate o f 5 cents.
Better to adopt a tariff which will probably bear a further reduction in
future years, than one which is in any degree likely to become a burden
on the public treasury, or else need to be altered to higher rates.
From the documents accompanying the report o f the postmaster gen­
eral, dated December 3d, 1842, I learn that o f the 52,681,252 letters
which passed through the London general post for the year ending Febru­
ary 27th, 1841, (the first complete year under the new system,) 48,130,159
were prepaid, or about 91 per cent o f the whole number, whilst formerly
there was only 14 per ce n t; being a difference o f 77 per cent in favor o f
the new system. There is no reason why the prepayment system should
not be followed by the same effects here. Now, the postmaster general,
in his report, dated January 18th, 1844, says, “ the number o f dead let­
ters returned to the general post-office, may be stated at not less than

1, 200, 000. ”




264

Post-Office Reform.

On this number, 77 per cent will be $924,000, which, at the average of
5 cents each, will produce an additional revenue o f $46,200.
T o secure the full benefit of the prepayment system, labels or receipts
o f postage should be introduced. They will, as Sir Rowland Hill pre­
dicted, in the case o f England, “ simplify and accelerate the posting of
letters, both to the public and the post-office ; will secure prepayment, by
relieving messengers from the temptation to purloin the postage ; will
register accurately the receipts o f the postage revenue, and afford, for
the first time, an effectual check upon the receivers; will economise the
trouble o f paying postage, to suit everyone’s taste and convenience.; and,
lastly, will effect a voluntary forestalment o f the revenue.”
The postmaster general proposes that the lowest rate o f letter postage
(which, according to the reduction here suggested, would be 3 cents)
should be imposed on drop letters.
This proposition appears to me to be reasonable ; and would, in com­
bination with the prepayment system, withdraw these letters from their
present course, as far as their now incz'eased number is the effect o f the
expresses. Their present annual number is estimated in the report last
named, at 1,026,504. On every one o f those which would hereafter pass
through the regular mails, the department would receive an average of
4 cents more than it does at present; while each o f those which would
remain “ drop letters,” would contribute 2 cents additional. This would
add at least $20,000 to the revenue.
Justice to the department would seem to require that an extra charge
o f 2 cents should be imposed on every letter which has been advertised,
to defray their extra cost. From an authentic statement, already quoted,
I set down the amount which would be thus added to the revenue at not
less than $60,000.
T o recapitulate— by these modifications o f the tariff I have proposed,
there would be added to the revenue—
From dead letters, by the prepayment system,..........................
From “ drop letters,” by the charge o f 3 cents,........................
From the extra charge on advertised letters,.............................

$46,200
20,000
60,000

Making a total addition to the revenue,.....................................
This will reduce my former estimated deficit to ........................

$126,200
850,333

The estimated deficit, without these modifications, b e in g .. . .

$976,533

T o meet the deficit the first year after the reduction, I ask for no ap­
propriation from the treasury to the aid o f the department: I ask only for
the just payment to the department, from the public funds, o f the expense
o f the $900,000 to which it has been this year subjected on account of
the franking privilege— a privilege (whatever might be said o f it) that
was granted by Congress for the benefit, not o f letter-writers only, but
the entire public ;— and, for every year afterwards, the actual cost o f the
free letters carried by the mails during the preceding fiscal year; their
cost being calculated at the same rates as other letters. I take this stand,
solely because I consider my estimate a very safe one, and likely to pro­
duce, rather than a deficit, a surplus o f nearly $50,000. For, if we sup­
pose the real cost o f the franked matter to have been always in the same
proportion to the real cost of paid matter, it will be found that the latter




Post-Office Reform.

265

has, since the organization o f the department, contributed to the legiti­
mate expenses o f the government about seventeen millions o f dollars ; and,
this being the case, we might surely stretch a point to effect such a per­
manent public good. Speaking o f the new English system, I find it said
in the report o f the postmaster general, December 3d, 1842, “ it is im­
possible to doubt that the domestic, social, moral, and commercial effects
of the change have been as extensive as they are beneficial— as produc­
tive of public advantage as they have been conducive to individual hap­
piness.”
But as a call for assistance from the treasury, even on this strong ground,
would be a dangerous precedent, I should be reluctant to recommend any
tariff which would require it. Happily for ns, it is not necessary.
I have already stated that the first year after the adoption o f the pre­
payment system, the paid letters in the London general post were 91 per
cent of the entire number; the unpaid letters, o f course, being 9 per cent.
Now, my estimates having been formed on the number o f letters delivered
— if unpaid letters be charged at double rates, it is plain that, to find the
true revenue, there should be 9 per cent added to my former estimate of
the revenue. This per centage wdll produce the additional sum o f
$267,910, so that, for the first year after the reduction o f postage, there
would be an actual surplus revenue o f over $300,000.
If we suppose the number o f free letters to remain the same, their pro­
portional cost under my proposed tariff will be found to bo $363,626.
The following table exhibits the gross revenue, according to the fore- '
going estimates, for the first three years after the adoption o f the reduced
rates. The column marked P, expresses the sums that would be added
to the revenue by the adoption o f the pre-payment system, supposing that,
of all the chargeable letters delivered, there were for the first year 9 per
cent not pre-paid, for the second year 6 per cent, and- for the third year
only 3 per cent.
Annual incr
1st year,
2d “
3d “

(P.1

Free letters,

Drop lettors, &c. Total revenue. Surplus.

$2,976,786
$267,910 $9 00 000 $126,200
$4,270,896 $317,577
2,976,786 $446,518
205,398 363,626
126,200
4,118,528 165,209
3,423,394 513,495
118,104
363,626
126,200
4,544,729 591,520

It will be remembered that these estimateshave all been founded on
the returns o f the year 1842, in which year the greatest amount for letter
postage was received ; and that in that year the number o f chargeable
letters delivered at the several rates o f postage, continued in the same pro­
portion as in 1836. This I consider the only proper foundation whereon
to base estimates o f the effects o f a tariff sufficiently reduced as to destroy
the influence o f the expresses ; and to have been properly adopted by the
postmaster general himself in his report, dated January 5, 1843 ; though I
do not for a moment suppose but that the actual number o f letters in 1842
was in a very different proportion from my estimate, for in that year the
expresses had already exerted a most disturbing influence. It will be ob­
served, also, that they rest on the supposition that the franking privilege,
the expense o f transportation, and the compensation to deputy postmasters,
will remain the same.
In order that no objection may remain unanswered, let us now examine
the late report o f the postmaster general, dated January 16, 1844.
“ From the returns as made for the month o f October, 1843, estimating
the same amount o f mail matter for each month in the year, it appears
vol. x.— no. in .
23




266

Post-Office Reform.

(A ) that 4,126,692 letters rated at 6 cents, 5,553,924 letters rated at 10
cents, 4,710,900 rated at 12$ cents, 5,369,556 letters rated at 18} cents,
and 4,506,480 letters rated at 25 cents, (total letters chargeable with
postage, 24,267,552) pass through the mails in each y e a r; from which
should be deducted the number o f dead letters returned to the general postoffice. This number may be stated at not less than 1,200,000.” And the
gross number o f letters received at the post-offices which failed to make
returns, he estimates in the same manner to be 747,792. T o find, there­
fore, the true number (D ) o f chargeable letters delivered at the different
rates, I shall add this number (B ) when divided in the ratio o f the letters
received, and then deduct the 1,200,000 dead letters (C ) when divided in
the same manner, thus :—
(A.)
4,126,692
5,553,924
4,710,900
5,369,556
4,506,480

(B.)
127,303
171,074
145,182
165,525
138,708

(C.)
204,287
274,526
232,976
265,623
222,588

24,267,552

747,792

1,200,000

(D.)
4,049,708
5,450,472
4,623,106
5,269,458
4,422,600

a
a
a
a
a

6 cents,
10
“
12}
u
18}
a
25

23,815,344 a 14}

it

$242,982
545,047
577,888
988,023
1,105,650

48
20
25
38
00

$3,459,591 31

I f the month o f October (the fourth month in the fiscal year) is a cor­
rect monthly average, it thus appears that, during the current fiscal year,
23,815,344 chargeable letters will be delivered from the post-office, at an
average o f 14} cents each, producing a revenue o f $3,459,591, a sum
$253,195 less than the similar revenue of the year ending June 30,1843 ;
the revenue of w'hich year was also less than the revenue from letters in
the fiscal year preceding by over $240,000. The average rate o f each
single letter (for the number o f letters here estimated are stated in the
report to be single letters) is 2 cents greater than our estimated average
o f England, before the reduction, so that it can no longer be said that the
English postage was “ the heaviest in the world ; in comparison with
which the so much complained o f American postage is but a mite.” —
[Madisonian o f Feb. 3, 1844.]
I f we compare the number o f letters here estimated for the current
year with the number that wras delivered in 1836, we shall have a most
convincing argument in favor o f reduced rates. T o make the compari­
son properly, 1 set down the number o f chargeable letters that should
have been delivered in 1836, to produce the estimated revenue therefrom
in 1844, viz :— $3,459,591.

1816.
6.144.925
9,217,377
6.144.925
4,604,589
2,150,721

1844.
4,049,708
5,450,472
4,623,106
5,269,458
4,422,600

Increase.

664,869
2,271,879

Per cent

Decrease.

10+
1054+

2,095,217
3,766,905
1,521,819
.......
.......

Per cent.

34+
40 }+
24|+
......
......

These results are exactly such as we expected. The letters rated at
25 cents, which are still but little affected by the expresses, have increased
105 per cent, which is the ordinary increase in course o f time, as maybe
seen by comparing the gross postage income in 1836, namely $3,398,455,
with the gross postage income in 1828, which was $1,664,759. And if
we suppose that, in the absence o f the expresses, the letters at the other
rates would have increased in the same proportion, say 100 per cent, the




267

Past-Office Reform.

revenue from letters in 1844 would be exactly $8,000,000, a sum exceed­
ing the probable actual revenue by $2,540,000 : a supposition not so very
unlikely when we are told that the letters carried by the expresses for a
single commercial house in New York, to and from Boston only, would, if
carried by the mails, cost $3,000 annually.
*
This shows conclusively, the safety o f my estimated ratio o f increase
in the number o f letters ; it having been based on the increase o f letters
in the United Kingdom, where expresses had no existence, and where
the laws effectually compelled all letters to be carried by the mails.
The greatest opposition to a reduction o f letter postage comes from
deputy postmasters, whose compensation would thereby be reduced. T o
remedy this, if necessary, I would propose that they should be allowed
the same per centage on fr e e letters as if they were charged at the or­
dinary rates ; a proposition not unjust, when we consider that, if iny views
be entertained, they will be subjected to the extra trouble o f calculating
the postage o f free matter at the same rates as other matter. By this
measure their compensation will, even for the first year after the reduc­
tion, be very nearly the same as at present.
As some check to the abuse o f the franking privilege, provision might
be made that whoever might receive a franked letter or package, should
pay therefor to the postmaster who delivers it, the 2 cents now paid him
by the department, unless the said 2 cents may have been pre-paid. This
small charge would relieve the department o f a burden, amounting, at the
lowest estimate, to $60,000. A proposition has been made to me by a
distinguished member o f the senate, that the franking privilege on printed
matter should be entirely abolished. This measure would effectually
“ tend to arrest the concentration at the seat o f government o f those in­
fluences which, for some time past, appear to have directed and controlled
the politics o f the country, and to add to that stimulus which aggravates
political excitements.”
The penal laws seem, to a considerable extent, to have been engrafted
on our statutes, from the universal example o f foreign countries. W e
seem to have overlooked the fact that, in these countries, a fraud against
the post-office is a fraud against the national revenue; while, in this
country, the department seeks only to sustain itself by the collection o f a
sum equal to its current expenses. Inasmuch, therefore, as they relate
to the transportation o f printed matter otherwise than through the mails,
newspapers and magazines being articles o f merchandise, they certainly
should be abolished.
I have no doubt but the postage of printed matter might be advanta­
geously reduced. My examination, however, furnishes no data whereby to
calculate the amount. All distinction in the rates for printed matter
should be abolished, and the rates equalized according to size or weight.
A M E R IC A N M A N U F A C T U R E S IN C A N A D A .
The Toronto Herald says, the imports from the United States into the port o f T o ­
ronto, from the 6th to the 25th o f July, were 930 packages, the duties on which will
amount to between £ 7 5 0 and £ 8 0 0 .

Some cotton fabrics o f the United States have

been imported, and this is probably a trade that will increase, unless the Provincial
Parliament augment the duty on the present rates.

T he coarser cotton goods o f the

United States are likely to rival the manufacture o f Great Britain in this market.




268

Tonnage and Navigation o f the United States.

A rt . VI.— T O N N A G E A N D N A V IG A T IO N OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .

O ur attention has been called to an expression in an article furnished
by a correspondent in the November number o f this Magazine, Vol. 9,
page 445, on “ our Shipping,” where it is stated as a “ fact, that, owing to
circumstances connected with our treaties, it is found that the commerce,
both to and from our own country, is carried on in a good measure by
British ships.” This is a great mistake, and should have been corrected
before. The fact is, that in the year 1842, by official reports, the commerce to our country, or, in other words, the imports, wasTarried on near
800 per cent more in American ships than in British and all other foreign
ships united ; and the commerce from our country, or its exports, was car­
ried on near three hundred and fifty per cent more in American ships.*
The change has been less in ten years than most imagine. Thus, in 1830,
our imports and exports in American vessels were §129,918,457 ; but in
British and other foreign vessels but §14,807,971 ; and in 1840, in Ameri­
can vessels, §198,424,609 ; but in British and all others, only §40,802,856.
W e find in a speech o f the Hon. Levi Woodbury, o f New Hampshire,
on “ the state o f our tonnage, freights and commerce with foreign powers,”
delivered in the senate o f the United States, April 14, 1842, a number of
tables, compiled by that gentleman from the reports o f the secretary of
the treasury, exposing the error into which our correspondent has fallen,
viz : “ that our commerce is carried on in British ships.” In the speech
alluded to, Mr. Woodbury shows clearly, from official documents, that the
tonnage coming from the northern British provinces, by short voyages,
and often with little beside passengers, is made to appear ten or eleven
times as great as it really is in quantity, so far as employed in carrying
produce and merchandise. W e subjoin two tables from the appendix to
Mr. Woodbury’s speech, which will, we trust, as they are compiled from
official documents, by the former secretary o f the treasury, set history
, right on this subject :•—
1.— Tonnage, American and Foreign, clearing fo r foreig n ports, from all the United
States, and several separate States.

1820.
1. Tonnage
ti
M
2.
it
3.
ti
it
if
4.
“
5.

6.
7.
8.

a
it
a
a
n
a
a

clearing in all our for’gn trade— American,
not A m erican,.............. ................... ...........
from Maine— American,............................
from Maine— not A m erican,....................
from Massachusetts— A m erican,.............
in vessels not A m e rica n ,...,,.....................
from four great southern p’ ts— American,
from them— not Am erican,......................
cleared to England and dependencies—
American,................................................
to them— not American,............................
clearing to England— A m erican,....... .
not American,..............................................
clearing to Brit, W . Indies-—American,.
not A m erican,..............................................
to Brit. North A m . colonies— American,
not American,..............................................

1830,

1840.

+804,947
100,541
{111,854
520
129,741
1,170
{140,122
55,514

971,160
133,436
91,629
165
148,124
5,176
231,152
70,266

1,647,009
712,363
82,534
74,619
187,995
58,765
494,191
165,594

{315,418
31.136
128,729
19.546
22,083

343.299
72,589
192,714
58,589
2,395

868,520
529,213
3S8.512
129,213
78,224

112.223
3,169

117,171
14,267

357,073
401,805

* See Reports o f the Secretary o f Treasury for Statistics o f Commerce in 1842.
1 In 1821.
t In 1822.




Tonnage and Navigation o f the United States.

269

1.— Tonnage, American and Foreign, clearing fo r foreig n ports, from all the United
States, and several separate States— Continued.

1820.

1830.

1840.

9. Tonnage to N ew Brunswick and Nova Scotia, not
including Canada— American,.......
72,000
1,523
501
“
to same— not American,............................
153,412
none.
none.
ii
clearing to Canadas— A m erican ,............
none sep. none sep. 300,000
10.
ti
not American,..............................................
none sep. none sep. 234,522
«<
clearing to Hanse Towns— American,...
14,728
17,840
11.
17,308
«
not American,..............................................
4,091
10,262
42,324
<
«
clearing
to
Danish
and
Swedish
West
12.
Indies— American vessels,...................
76,073
72,495
29,903
it
in vessels not American,............................
1,496
1,833
1,197
it
clearing in all our foreign trade— American, 1834,....
13.
1,074,6.70
tt
not American,............. ....................................
568,052
clearing from Maine— American, 1833,........................................
14.
65,488
not American,...................................................................................
98,735
clearing from Massachusetts— American,....................................
15.
183,631
31,299
not American,..... ........................ —....................................................
clearing from four great southern ports— American, 1832,......
16.
197,673
not A m erican,................ ................................................. ..................
135,497
2.-^Freights in American and Foreign bottoms, from all the United States, and with
some other pow ers separately.

1820.
1. All exports and imports in Am . vessels,
“
“
for.
“
2. All exports and imports to Great Bri­
tain and depend., in Am. vessels,...
All exports and imports in those not
Am erican,............................ ..............
'3. Exports o f domestic origin to G. Bri­
tain and depend., in Am. vessels,...
Exports o f domestic origin to Great
Britain and her .dependencies, in
vessels not American,......................
4. Exports o f domestic origin to England
alone, in American vessels,.............
Exports o f domestic origin to England
alone, in vessels not A m erican ,....
5. Exports o f domestic origin to British
Am . colonies, in American vessels.,
Exports o f domestic origin to Br. Am .
colonies, in vessels not A merican,..
6. Imports from British American colo­
nies, in American vessels,...............
Imports from British American colo­
nies, in vessels not A m erican,..........
7. All exports and imports with Hanse
Towns, in American vessels,.........
All exports and imports with Hanse
Towns, in vessels not A merican,.-.
8. All exports from Massachusetts, in
American vessels,..............................
A ll exports from Massachusetts, in
vessels not Am erican,......................
9. All imports into Massachusetts, in
American vessels,..............................
All imports into Massachusetts, in
vessels not A m erican,...................... *

1840.

141,676,552

48,900,330

88,192,344

10,967,036

9,552,535

21,359,423

118,449,618

23,741,505

51,099,758

6,802,718

5,965,563

13,214,299

13,423,452

18,762,926

41,904,969

5,544,733

5,010,094

10,046,808

1,959,271

3,581,72.7

4,124,157

50,065

68,304

1,771,809

459,490

645,937

1,431,264

31,214

4,366

576,503

12,637,369

2,728,810

1,451,777

485,330

1,469,348

.5,268,17.7

112,442,474

7,115,047

9,231,728

42,297

98,147

954,533

14,647,778

10,345,947

15,813,560

178,954

107,597

.700,298

+ In 1821

* In 1822.




1810.

§137,679,899 §129,918,457 §198,424,609
17,701,'923
14,807,971
40,802,856

23*

270

Monthly Commercial Chronicle*

2.— Freights in American and Foreign bottoms, from all the United States, and with
some other powers separately— Continued.

1820.
10. Exports, domestic, from Massachu­
setts, in American vessels,..............
Exports, domestic, from Massachu*
setts, in vessels not American,....... .
11. Exports from Maine, in American ves­
sels,............... ........ *...... .................
Exports from Maine, in vessels not
American,................................ ......... *
12. Imports into Maine, in Am . vessels,..
“
in for.
“
13. Exports o f domestic origin from four
great southern ports, in Am . vessels,
Exports o f domestic origin, from four
great southern ports, in vessels not
A m e r ica n ,......,.................................

1830.

1840.

3,632,985

3,548,910

5,504,441

5,662

51,042

763,717

*1,043,949

640,146

959,903

7.499
*972,795
7.499

3,289
555,036
17,630

50,000
504,183
124,475

*12,490,286

21,966,327

49,396,959

7,422,783

6,285,685

13,299,769

Note.—A ll our exports and imports in 1832, in American vessels, were $137,124,119 ;
in foreign ones, about $27,000,0000.
* In 1821.

MONTHLY COMMERCI AL CHRONI CLE,
S ince our last number, the state o f money affairs has undergone a considerable change.
T he elements then in motion to produce an increased demand for m oney, we pointed
out. These grew mainly out o f the peculiar position o f the cotton crop, and the raging
speculation which, in our number for September, we alluded to as likely to take p] ace
A s the crop came gradually forward, affording each day new evidence o f a great falling
o ff in the quantity produced, the movement was greatly accelerated.

T he greatest efforts

were made to hold the cotton here j and, by artificially increasing the actual scarcity in
England, force up prices rapidly. T he situation o f the crop is now as follows, as com­
pared with the previous years:—
R eceipts, S tocks, and E xports of C otton in the United S tates, from S ept. 1 to date.

Receipts,................................. .......
Exports to Great Britain,.............
“
France,........................
Total exports,.................................
Stock,....................................... ........

1842.

1841

1844.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

906,544
321,072
169,858
537,329
305,218

1,333,801
592,769
173,851
835,359
371,559

1,008.039
252,396
102,868
374,583
510,992

325,762
340,373
70,983
460,776

D e c - in 1844

The decrease o f exports to Great Britain has been 340,373 bales, and the total de­
crease is 460,776 bales, worth $13,823,186.

This represents the sum by which the

amount o f bills has been diminished this year from last. A t the same time, the stock on
hand has been increased 139,433 bales, which is held here at high prices, and is worth
$5,577,320.

T he stock now held is worth $20,439,680, against a value for that of last

year o f $11,146,770.

H ence, there is a difference o f $23,116,190 between the amount

o f m oney supplied by cotton sold last year, and the amount required to hold it this.
This is a vast sum o f m on ey ; and the fact that it has been applied to this cotton move­
ment without producing other effects upon the money market than a temporary rise in
the value o f money, to 6 a 7 on stock loans, about the 1st o f February, when the New
Y ork banks were making their returns, is an evidence not only o f the small amount of
business doing, compared with former years, but also o f the small disposition among
regular dealers to borrow money for the conduct o f their business.




A t the close o f Janu­

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

271

ary, considerable speculation had been induced in stocks by the abundance o f money,
among people o f comparatively small means.

H ence the demand for money, from that

source*, was large ; and the movement o f the banks to contract, caused high rates to be
paid for money to ■“ carry” stocks, rather than have them sacrificed.

T he moment this

pressure was passed, or relieved by supplies derived from neighboring cities, the rate o f
money fell back to 4 per cent for choice lines o f discount, and 4£ a 5 on stocks.
foreign bills, there has been but little alteration.
9f, the latter rate with difficulty obtained.

In

The rate has fluctuated -between 9 and

Tire supply, owing to the limited exports of

cotton, was small ^ and the leading houses furnished the market at 9^ a 9£.

The news

from Liverpool to the 13th, however, bringing advices o f a farther rise in cotton, and
from N ew Orleans to the 3d o f February, that English buyers o f cotton were drawing
at sixty days, induced an immediate disposition to ship, to take advantage o f the then
low freights, high rates o f bills, and relieve the money-market. Since then, bills have
been falling, and are dull at 8 f a 9^, and money abundant.
The state o f the English markets is such as to induce hopes o f a most extensive trade
for the coming year. The price o f food is cheap; money abundant, at
a 2 per ce n t;
the India and China markets for British goods rapidly increasing, and those in Europe
showing better features.

Under the present system o f money affairs in England, the

price o f food is an important element in the consideration o f the home market for manu­
factures.

In illustration o f this fact, we will state that the usual estimates of the con­

sumption o f grain in England, o f all sorts, is 74,281,250 quarters, or 594,250,000 bushels.
The following will show the money required for the purchase o f this food, according to
the average prices o f four successive years:—
C onsumption and V alue of Grain in G reat B ritain in F our Y ears.
C onsumption .
Quarters.
Price.
s.
d.

W heat,.... 22,940,000
Oats,......... 33,652,500
Barley,..... 12,670,000
Rye,.......... 1,300,000
Beans and
peas,.... 3,718,750
Total,... 74,281,250

39

4
22
0
29 11
30 4
36

8

1817.

1835.
Value.

£
45,115,333
37,017,750
18,952,208
1,971,666

Price.

6,817,708 38
,£109,874,666

The year 1835 was a year o f prosperity.

Value.

s. d.
55 10
23 1
30 4
34 9
.

1819.
Price.

Value.

£
s. d.
64,040,833 70 6
38,840,593 26 6
19,216,166 39 1
2,258,750 34 9

£
80,863,500
44,589,562
24,759,291
2,258,750

7,065,625 41 2

7,654,427

£131,421,968

£160,125,010

In 1837, there was a sum equal to

.£21,547,302 more money required to be taken from the earnings o f the people, to buy
bread, than in 1835.

T he deficit harvest o f 1838 sent the prices up in 1839 immensely,

and the aggregate value o f bread consumed was swollen to £160,125,010, or £50,250,000
in excess o f that o f 1835. This immense sum was turned from the purchase o f manu­
factured goods, to be absorbed in food. T he population was considerably increased in
these four years— we make no allowance for increased quantity consumed on that ac­
count.

T he year 1839 was one o f unparalleled distress; and we may estimate its m ag­

nitude when we remember that the whole declared value o f British goods exported in
1842, was but £51,634,623. Hence, by the rise in bread, a sum equal to the annihila­
tion o f the whole export trade was taken from the home demand. In the fall o f that
year, (1839,) the consequence o f that distress was evinced in the following expressive
paragraph from the Paris “ Commerce,” in October, 1839 :—
“ A meeting o f bankers was held on Friday, at Messieurs Hottinguer’s, for the purpose
of deciding on the expediency o f renewing the operation o f the 50,000,000 francs loaned
to the Bank o f England, when the bills should become due. T he decision was favorable
to the renew al; it being objected that, if the Bank o f England were called upon to
reimburse those bills, the establishment would be obliged to suspend payment in specie.”




272

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

T he fate o f the English bank, and o f the paper system o f Great Britain, with all the
fearful consequences attendant upon its overthrow, hung upon the decision of a few
Parisian bankers.

W hat a commentary is this upon the harmonizing influence of extend,

ed com m erce! From that time to the present, the bank has been regaining its strength;
and modified duties upon foreign provisions, and better harvests at home, have all tended
to reduce the prices o f food, and thereby to improve the internal trade o f the country.
T he present prices, as compared with those above, are as follow s:—
Consumption.
Quarters .

Price.
s•

Value.
£

W heat,..........................................
O ats,........................
Barley,..............................................................
R y e ,..................................................................
Beans,..............................

22,940,000
33,652,500
12,670,000
1,300,000
3,718,750

52
18
27
28
28

51,194,000
31,973,675
17,004,500
1,820,000
5,156,250

T otal,...............................................

74,281,250

£107,148,425

Here is a sum equal to £52,976,906 more means applicable to the home trade in man­
ufactures, than was the case in 1839. Already the influence o f this state o f affairs is
beginning to be perceptible in the increase o f revenue; and, as the year advances, will
be still more so.

T he returns o f the revenue o f the kingdom, for the years ending Janu-

-ary 5, have been as follow s:—
R evenue of G reat B ritain for the Q ualters and Y ears ending January 5 th.
Quarters.

Years.

1843,

1844.

1841.

1844,

£4,214,089
3,022,008
1,561,754
1,886,163
257,212
141,000
40,000
21,537

£4,766,968
3,030,771
1,523,653
1,868,857
454,415
143,000
30,000
11,917

£19,075,310
11,407,304
6,491,100
4,273,592
571,056
605,000
133,000
579,411

$19,073,219
11,794,807
6,426,155
4,190,486
5,249,260
592,000
117,500
1,634,741

Total ord. revenue,.................., £11,143,763 £11,829,581 £43,135,773
50,136
107,097
511,411
Imperial and other m oney,...
235,247
332,060
682,681
R ep. o f advances,...................

£49,078,168
168,528
825,247

Customs,.....................................
E xcise,......................................
Stamps,.....................................
T a x e s,.......................................
Property tax,....................
Post-office,................................
Crown lands,............................
M iscellaneous,........................

Total incom e,........—

. £11,486,107 £12,211,777

£44,329,865

£50,071,943

T he customs for the last quarter, it will be observed, show a large increase.

For the

year, it is not so apparent; because, in the former year, a large amount, derived from
imported grain, was not received this.
was the greater.

H ence, the consumption o f other dutiable goods

T he excise duties, which are taxes upon English produce, show agreat

and flattering increase ; and the result was, that the year’s revenue showed a surplus of
more than £900,000, o f which one-fourth was applied to the extinguishment o f the na­
tional debt— an event which had not previously transpired in many years.
T he increased consumption o f goods favors, in an eminent degree, the demand for
American raw produce; more especially as the superfluity o f money in England will
not, as in former years, find vent in foreign stock loans.

In the two former periods of

great abundance o f money, the redundant capital o f Britain found employment in foreign
stocks, and in great joint stock company speculations at home.

This is a result seem­

ingly inevitable, v iz : that money, like every other commodity, will go from a country
where it is cheap to one where it will pay a better profit.

T he above table shows that

when a rise in food takes place, that fact o f itself causes a demand for money at hom e;
which, when released from that employment by a fall in prices, must seek other direc­
tions.

This, in an eminent degree, occurred in 1825 and 1838.




In the former period,

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

273

the gambling in stocks reached a prodigious amount, and is arrived at with a considerable
degree o f accuracy by parliamentary returns.

Previous to the year 1824, the following

companies were instituted; and most o f them are yet in existence, paying fair profits:—
C ompanies formed in E ngland prior to 1824.
Companies.

No.

Canal,.............. 63
D ocks,............
7
Insurance,...... 25
Waterworks,..
16
4
Bridges,...........
Gas,.................. 27

Shares.

Capital.

Companies.

175,374 £12,202,096
57,582
6,164,590
329,841 20,488,948
39,760
2,973,170
31,731
2,452,017
35,194
1,630,700

R oads,.............
Miscellaneous,

N o.

Shares.

7
7

7,472
17,580

Total,............ 156

Capital.

494,969
1,530,000

764,534 £47,936,486
$239,682,430

In 1824-25, the rage for stock-gambling was excessive, and resulted in the projection
of the following companies :—
C ompanies projected in 1824-25.
No.
No. shares.
Companies.
537,200
Mining,....... .................................
203,940
Gas,.............. ..........*.....................
651,000
Insurance,....... .............................
686,500
Investment,...... ......... .................
54
542,210
Canal and Railroad,.................... .........
67
125,120
Steam,........................................... .........
85,000
26
164,900
Building,....................................... ........
674,000
Provision,......................................
292
2,294,350
Miscellaneous,.............................. ........
5,294,220

T otal,...............................

Capital.
£38,370,000
12,077,000
35,820,000
52,600,000
44,051,000
8,555,500
10,450,000
13,781,000
8,360,000
148,109,600
£372,173,100
$1,860,865,500

Most o f these miscellaneous companies are South American, East Indian, colonial,
Since 1824, companies requiring £800,000,000 have been projected in this man­

&c.

ner by parliamentary agents and speculators.

O f all this, about £80,000,000 has been

actually laid out, o f which £60,000,000 has been railroads.

In those years, the loans o f

foreign government stocks amounted to £53,000,000, o f which more than one-half has
been lost by failures o f the governments.

This was the experience o f British capitalists

when money becom e so abundant in 1835.

A t that time, the United States began to

contract loans ; and the utmost confidence being felt in the honor o f the Anglo-Saxon
race, such a vent for money was eagerly availed of.

The feeling prevalent at that time

is expressed in the following paragraph from an influential London jou rnal:—
“ Seeing, therefore, that money will find its way from countries where it is o f low
value, into countries where it is o f high value, and the longer we live the more facile and
extensive will be the operations in this kind o f business, what description o f foreign secu­
rities would, when sold in the English stock market, result in the most beneficial conse­
quences to the permanent productive interests o f England? W e say, without hesitation,
but on very mature reflection, those o f the great American republic— first, because prop­
erty is better secured and more firmly fenced in, not only by the operation o f the English
law engrafted on their institutions, but by a general feeling o f commendable pride per­
vading all grades o f society, to maintain the honor o f the nation.”
Then follow other reasons, showing the firm reliance then entertained in the good faith
of the American character.

This feeling led to the investment o f some $200,000,000

in American securities; and the rise o f the price o f bread, in 1837, developed those dis­
tresses which resulted in the failure o f many o f our states. This shock has been almost
fatal to British confidence in foreign securities; and the question now is, what direction
will the masses o f money accumulated in London find employment ?

The late events

in China and India have opened a vast field o f enterprise; and it is not unlikely that
large amounts o f capital will be applied to the development o f new markets, in that quar­




274

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

ter o f the world, for British goods— an effect which, for the present, is likely to promote
the sale o f American products in Britain.

O f cotton goods, particularly, the export to

China, during the past year, has been large.
W hite cottons.

Colored.

Total.

1843— 11 months exp. to India and China,...yds. 179,208,183 21,212,134 200,420,317
1842—
“
“
“
“ 125,302,943 19,483,329 144,786,272
Increase,...................................................yds.

53,905,240

1,729,805

55,634,045

This increased export to Asia, in eleven months, is 300 per cent more than the entire
export o f cottons to the United States in a whole year— 1841— a fact which develops the
capacity o f those markets to consume English goods.
T he abundant m oney o f England cannot again find employment in American securi­
ties, until some steps have been taken by the delinquent states towards the discharge of
the claims upon them. Although money in England is plenty at 1j a 2 per cent, and in
this country at 4 a 5 per cent., yet 6 per cent dividend-paying stocks are under par.
P rices of S tocks in the N ew Y ork M arket .
Rate. Redeemable.

United States,...... ..
it
..
it
..
It
..
N ew Y o rk ,.......... ..
..
«»
..
u
..
a
..
tt
..
n
..
a
..
a
..
11
..
Ohio,...................... ..
“ ..................... ..
..
Kentucky,............. ..
Illinois,.................
Indiana,................. ..
Arkansas,............. ..
Alabama,............... ..
it
..
Pennsylvania,....... ..
Tennessee,........... ..
N ew Y ork city ,.. ..
it
..
ii
..
ii
..

54
6
6
5
7
6
6
54
5
5
5
5
5
44
6
6
5
6
5
6
6
5
5
6
7
7
5
5

1844
1844
1862
1853
1848-49
1850-54-60
1861-62-67
1860-61-65
1845
1 8 4 6 -7 -8 -9
1850-51-57
1855-58
1859-60-61
1849-58
1850
1856-60
1850-56
1870
25 years.

1857
1852
1850
1858-70

April, 1843.

a
a
a
112
a
105 a
103 a
103 a
97 a
97 a
a
a
93 a
94 a
87 a
69 a
67 a
54 a
89 a
23 a
25 a
281 a
50 a
a
41 a
a
107 a
106 a
94 a
94 a

113
106
105
105
98
98

94
95
88
70
68
55
894
234
26
30
60
42
n o

108
95
95

October.

101
102 J
1144
103
107
107
107
102
99
99
98
99
91
944
95
824
974
354
35
38
60
58
61
90
111
107
99
994

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a

1024
1154
1034
108
1074
1074
1024
100
100
100
99
99
93
94 J
954
83
98
3r4
354
45
67
60
614
92
112
108
994
100

February.

a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
a
100 a
114 a
111 a
a
994 a

1024
1154
103
1074
106
1074
1034
1004
100
101
1014
100
92
95J
97
92
1024
424
34
57
87
80

102
1024
1154
104
1084
109
108
104
101
1014
1024
1024
101
98
97
984
99
1024
424
37
60
92
82
664
102
112
100
100

It is no doubt true that one great reason for this low price o f stock is the great amount
floating upon the m arket; but that, in its turn, is traceable to the fact that, instead ot
any continued absorption o f permanent investments o f the stockholders in former years,
there has been rather a disposition, on the part o f cautious capitalists, to get clear of
them.

Hence, the quantity in the hands o f speculators increases, rather than otherwise.

T he first element in the accumulation o f means, in this country, is a rise in agricultural
produce, o f which the abundance this year has by far exceeded all precedent.

The fob

lowing is a table o f the quantities arrived at tide-water, on the Hudson river, for three




275

Monthly Commercial Chronicle,
P roduce arrived on the H udson, via the Canal.
1841.
Quantity.
1,180,000
177,720,349
46,385
1,028,576
110,542,839
21,408
43,093

1842.
Quantity.
358,700
150,657,900
36,765
361,589
55,268,500
17,280
44,824

1843.
Quantity.
635,809
177,402,600
29,334,485
586,013
28,385
17,596
77,739

115,150
18,113
14,171,081
16,157,653
3,617,075
1,667,492
781,055
8,070
119,762
121,010
663,375
556,013
39,290
32,397
498,697
296,842
850,702
3,571,334
966,263
298,096

79,235
21,437
19,004,613
19,182,930
3,255,148
1,577.555
928,347
32,224
366,111
522,993
1,212,517
789,814
23,732
23,664
1,141,068
49,600
1,117,900
2,411.930
2,096,360
743,800

63,777
47,467
24,336,260
24,215,700
6,216,400
2,069,095
758,597
46,572
184,016
1,168,153
543,956
702,654
14,056
22,883
671,000
61,000
1.860,000
4,343,300
1,206,900
835,800

2,022,770
1,856,900
769
130
2,018
445
212
574
2,729
155

711,403
2,015,050
684
641
2,788
2,867
206
844
3,651
185

863,255
1,684,300
924
954
2,065
3,735
238
975
15,506
201

12,863
60
8,045
15,985

10,645
370
8,816

13,507
949
6,528
23,773

Forest,.................................
Agriculture,..........................
Manufactures,.....................
Other articles,......................
Merchandise,.......................

449,095
270,240
17,891
36,953
155

321,480
293,177
16,015
35,769
185

416,153
343,582
29,493
44,854
201

Total,.......................
Value,......................

774,334
$27,225,322

666,226
$22,751,013

834,283
$28,376,599

The Forest—
Furs and peltry,.................
Boards and scantling,.......
Shingles,.............................. .....................M.
Timber,............................... .
Staves,..................................
W ood ,..................................
Ashes,................................. .
A griculture—
Pork,.....................................
B eef,....................................
Cheese,.................................
Butter and lard,...................
W ool.....................................
Flour,...................................
Wheat, .................................
R ye,........... ..........................
Corn,.....................................
Barley,.................................
Other grain,..........................
Bran and shipstuff,..............
Peas and beans,..................
Potatoes,..............................
Dried fruit,...........................
Cotton,..................................
T obacco,..............................
Clover and grass-seed,.......
Flaxseed,..............................
Hops,....................................
Manufactures—
Domestic spirits,................ ............. gallons
Leather,................................
Furniture,.............................
Bar and pig lead,................
Pig iron,...............................
Iron-ware,...........................
Domestic woollens,...........
Domestic cottons,..............
Salt,.......................................
Merchandise,.......................
Other Articles—
Stone, lime, and clay,.......
Gypsum,..............................
Mineral coal,.......................
The aggregates were as follows:—

P roperty and V alue cleared at A lbany and T roy , on the E rie and C hamplain C anals.
16,413
123,294
165,044
162,715
“
tons,.......................
$37,265,595 $42,258,488
“
value,.....................
789,920
999,327
837,049
Tons arrived and cleared,.
$60,016,608 $70,634,087
Value
“




276

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

The progress o f business is here very great, particularly in agricultural products, of
which the quantities have enormously increased. The value has, however, not increased
in proportion to the quantity. T he tonnage and value o f agriculture in each year was
as follow s:—
A gricultural P roduce.
Years.

Tons.

1843,..........................................................
1842,..........................................................
1841,.........................

Value.

343,582
293,177
270,240

Per ton.

$18,121,927
15,662,889
16,994,948

$ 5 2 80
53 50
70 75

T he valuations are those o f the prices in Albany, at the time o f their arrival.

It will

be observed that the decline in aggregate value is about 30 per cent since 1841, which
was a year o f comparatively good business.

This large decline in the money value of

that which constitutes the chief means o f the people o f the United States, is an insu.
perable bar to an extended business, more especially when we consider the contracted
state o f bank credits.
T he leading features o f the banks o f N ew Y ork state have been as follows for a series
o f years, and for the last three quarterly returns:—
B anks of N ew Y ork S tate.
Loans.
D ollars.

Capital.
Dollars.

•Tan’ry,
1831, 27,555,264
1836, 31,281,461
1837, 37,101,460
1838, 36,611,460
1839, 36,801,460
1840, 52,028,781
1841, 51,630,280
1842, 44,310,000
1843, 43,950,137
August,
1843, 43,019,577
November,
1843, 43,369,152
February,
1844, 43,649,887

Stocks.
D olla rs.

Specie.
Dollars.

57,689,704
395,809 2,657,503
72,826,111
803,159 6,224,646
79,313,188 1,794,152 6,557,020
60.999J70 2,795,207 4,139,732
68,300,486
911,623 9.355,495
67,057,067 5,464,120 7,000,529
69,230,130 6,738,000 6,536,240
56,380,073 10,291,239 5,329,857
52,348,467 12,446,087 8,477,076

B al.due b’ ks. Circulation.
D ollars.
D ollars.

4,310,936
3,892,314
2,630,569
2,025,292
1,222,158
1,031,419
1,302,000
883,099
7,771,112

17,820,408
21,127,927
24,198,000
12,460,652
19,373,149
14,220,304
18,456,230
13,949,504
12,031,871

Deposits.
D ollars.

19,119.338
20,088,685
30,883,179
15,221,860
18,370,044
20,051,234
20,678,279
17,063,774
19.100.415

58,593,081 12,320,987 14,091,779 10,611,940 14,520,843 24,679,230
61,534,129 11,665,311 11,502,789 4,941,076 17,213,101 27,387,160
65,418,762 11,052,458 10,086,542 5,343,347 16,335,401 29.026.415

Since the August return, some new banks, under the free law, have been organized •
and the capital has therefore been enhanced.

The deposits o f the banks, as far as

regards the United States funds, have varied as fo llo w s:—
Due United States by

American Exchange Bank,.........................
Bank o f America,.........................................
Merchants’ Bank,..........................................
Total due United States,,

August.

$265,102
2,632,935
1,135,347
$4,033,384

November.

February.

$265,102
489,025
887,633

$119,280
168,947
1,392,354

$1,641,760

$1,680,511

T he deposits o f the banks on individual account are very large, and have nearly reach­
ed the enormous amount at which they stood in 1837.

It is to be observed, however,

that in that year the deposits were a consequence o f the enormous loans ; and were, for
the most part, applicable to the discharge o f those loans, o f which they were then in the
proportion o f 40 percent. T hey are now in the proportion o f 60 per cent, and are three
times the amount o f specie on hand ; whereas, in 1837, they were four times the specie
— a fact which shows the deposits now to be more o f the character o f actual money,
deposited for want o f investment; and not, as then, merely another phase o f discounts,
and applicable only to the discharge o f prior loans.




Commercial Regulations.

277

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
A N T IG U A C O M M E R C IA L R E G U L A T IO N S A N D T A R IF F OF DUTIES.
W

e

give b elow , from an official source, an abstract o f an act for laying a duty upon

goods, wares, and m erchandise, n ot being o f the grow th, produce, or m anufacture of

the United Kingdom o f Great Britain, imported into the island o f Antigua__passed
February 16, 1843:—■
1. A ct to be in force from the 5th o f April, 1843, to the 5th o f April, 1845, and until
the next meeting thereafter o f the Council and Assembly o f the island.
2. Levies duties as per schedule.
3. Importers not to land goods, without permit from the treasurer.
4. Masters o f vessels required to present duplicate reports to the treasurer, answer
questions, & c., before breaking bulk. N ot complying, or making fraudulent reports,
liable to penalty, on conviction.
5. Bill o f entry to be delivered, containing name o f importer, ship, and master there­
of; quantity and quality o f goods; marks, numbers, &.c.
6. The importer being unable to make perfect entry, goods to be landed, and subject­
ed to examination, in presence o f the treasurer, and perfect entry to be made thereof
within three days. In default o f said entry, goods to be taken possession o f by the treas­
urer ; and, at the expiration o f one month, perfect entry still defaulting, to be sold for
the satisfaction o f duties and other expenses.
7. Treasurer empowered to examine all persons, on oath, concerning importations of
goods enumerated in schedule.
8. Treasurer empowered to seize goods enumerated in schedule, which may he im­
ported and landed without permit, and, after ten days, to sell them at public auction.
If claimed within ten days, and the landing thereof appears to have been without inten­
tion o f fraud, goods to be restored, on payment o f duties and charges. I f not so appear­
ing, goods to be condemned.
9. Drawback to be allowed on re-exportation o f goods, the value w hereof is not less
than twenty-five pounds currency.
10. Goods can be warehoused in bond, on securities for treble the amount o f duties
payable thereon. W hen sold in bond, bond and securities to be renewed.
11. W hen the duties are payable on the value, the importer to give declaration there­
of ; said declaration to be verified by the treasurer, according to law.
12. Penalty to be imposed for making false declaration.
13. Duties to be paid in sterling money, or its equivalent in foreign coins. Imperial
weights and measures to be used. Duties to be paid in proportion, for greater or less
quantities.
14. Articles subject to duties under this act, exempt from other duties under any other
act of the island.
15. Treasurer to receive 5 per cent on sums collected.
16. Deputy treasurer invested with the same powers as are conferred on the treasurer.
Table o f Duties.
Articles.
Duties.
Ale, beer, cider, perry, and porter, in bulk,................................................... per tun $ 7 20
“
“
bottled, for every dozen quart-bottles,...........
12
Asses,.............................................................................................
per
head
2 40
Beef and pork, salted or cu re d ,.............................................................................. percwt.1 44
Bread or biscuit,.......................................................................................... per 100 lbs.
48
Butter,........................................................................................................................... percwt.1 92
Candles, wax, sperm, or composition,......................................................per 100 lbs.
60
Candles, tallow,.......................................................................... .................
“
96
Cheese,.........................................................................................................................percwt.1 20
Flour, wheat,............................................................................... per barrel o f 196 lbs.
72
Fish, dried, salted, or sm oked,.................................................................................percwt. 24
,perbbl.
Fish, pickled,....................... ..................,.......................................................
48
Hams, bacon, dried beef, and tongues, whether pickled or d ried ,......... per cwt.
1 92
Horses, mares, and geldings,.......................................................................,per head
7 20
V O L . X . -----N O . I I I .




24

278

Commercial Regulations,
Table o f Duties— Continued.

Articles.
Duties.
Lard,.............................................................................................................. per 100 lbs. $ 0 96
Meal, or other flour, not wheat,..............................................per barrel o f 196 lbs.
60
“
“
“
............................................................ per puncheon
2 40
M ules,.................................................................................................................per head
4 80
Oil, blubber, fins, and skins, the produce o f fish and creatures living in the
sea,....................................................................................... for every £ 1 0 0 value
19 20
Peas, beans, calavances, barley, oats, Indian corn, and all other grain, per bush.
6
R ic e ,................................................................................................................... per cwt.
48
Soap,....................................................................................................................
“
96
Spirits, brandy, and all other spirits and cordials, (except rum,)......... per gallon
48
T obacco, leaf, unmanufactured,.............................................. for every £ 1 0 0 value 72 00
“
manufactured,...............................................................
“
“
96 00
W ines, whether bottled or not,...............................................
“
“
24 00
W ood — for every 1,000 feet o f white pine or other lumber, by superficial mea­
sure o f one inch thick,...........................................................................................
3 36
W ood — for every 1,000 feet o f pitch pine lumber, by superficial measure, o f one
inch thick,.................................................................................................................
5 04
W o o d — shingles, cypress,............................................................................. per 1,000
1 92
“
shingles, white cedar, pine, and other shingles,.............................
“
96
“
w ood hoops and hoop-poles,...............................................................
“
1 20
“
red or white oak staves and heading,...............................................
“
3 36
And after these rates, for any greater or less quantity, on such goods, re­
spectively.
On all goods, wares, and merchandise, not hereinbefore enumerated, except
such as are comprised or referred to in the subjoined table o f exceptions,
an ad valorem duty o f 5 per cent.

Table o f Exemptions.
Except the following, which shall not be liable to any duty under this act, v iz : Coin,
bullion, diamonds, neat cattle, and all other live stock not hereinbefore enumerated, fruit
and vegetables, fresh hay and straw, cotton, w ool, ice, fresh fish, fresh meat, turtle, poul­
try, salt, drugs, manures, and provisions and stores o f every description, imported or sup­
plied for the use o f her majesty’s land and sea forces.

[C O M M E R C IA L R E G U L A T IO N S OF P O R T S IN CUBA.
The following orders, making Cardenas, Marie], and Sagua La Grande, in Cuba,
ports o f entry on certain conditions, and relating to exports and tonnage duties in ports
o f the island, have been officially communicated to the department o f state, and are
published under date, Washington, Jan. 18, 1844, for the benefit o f those whom it may
con cern :—
“ By virtue o f the Royal order, in concurrence with their excellencies, the captain
general and secretary o f the royal treasury o f this island, in reference to a proposition
considered by the comptrollers thereof, and with a view to open new avenues to the ag­
riculture and commerce o f the country, and to facilitate the exportation o f its produc­
tions, as a provisional measure, subject to such alterations as may be suggested by ex­
perience, it has been ordered, that Cardenas, Mariel, and Sagua La Grande be ports of
entry from the first o f January next, on the following conditions :—
Privileges for the ports o f Mariel and Cardenas—
1st. Spanish vessels from Spanish ports may enter at said ports, discharge their car­
goes, and load with produce, according to regulations now in force.
2d. Vessels o f any nations whatever will be admitted in ballast, to load with sugar
and other productions.
3d. Spanish and foreign vessels from foreign ports will be admitted with the following
articles, v iz : joist, boards, plank, staves, hoops, empty hogsheads, hogshead heading
and shooks, barrels, shingles, sugar box shooks, iron, tin, or zinc moulds, for claying su­
gar, hempen linen, or hemp bags, rope o f ditto, salt beef, salt pork, salt, and codfish, alewives, and mackerel, iron nails, steam engines for sugar grinding, machinery for ditto,
spare pieces for ditto, boilers and tanks for ditto, bricks.
4th. I f the vessels abovementioned, bring other articles than those specified in the




Commercial Regulations.

279

preceding article, they will not be admitted without first discharging the prohibited arti­
cles, at some port where such articles are admitted.
Privileges o f the ports o f Sagua:—
This port being open for the exportation o f produce only under any flag, and for any
destination, vessels may enter in ballast, to load with the productions o f the country.
Which, by order o f his excellency the secretary o f the royal treasury, is hereby an­
nounced for the information o f the public.
The above is dated Havana, November 24, 1843, and signed James Valdes, secretary
ad interim.
In the order o f the 18th instant o f his excellency the Count o f Villanueva, secretary of
the treasury, transmitted to the sub-collectorship in this city, and to the different branches
thereof, under my charge, the following publication is ordered to be m ad e:—
“ At a meeting on the 12th instant o f their excellencies the captain general and secre­
tary o f the treasury, to examine and aet upon a proposition, which, at the instance o f
the latter, was formally brought forward by the executive departments, and in concur­
rence with the comptrollers o f the treasury; in order to modify, as much as possible, the
duties on the principal products o f the country in its present state o f depression, and
those o f tonnage on vessels employed in the exportation o f them ; anticipating the ap­
probation o f the throne, which has been memorialized by the treasury department on
these and other remedies o f great and well known ev ils; and expecting that from the
constant protection and solicitude o f her majesty’s government, it will regard with favor
the provisional measures imperiously demanded by circumstances, and adopted in a
manner consistent with the wants o f the revenue, their excellencies resolved that, sub­
ject to the approval o f the superior government, from the 1st o f January next, there
should be observed in all the custom-houses in this island where this order in season
should arrive, and in the others, from the receipt thereof, the following rules :—
1st. Every box o f sugar exported shall pay, in Spanish vessels, five, and, in foreign
vessels, six reals.
2d. Every quintal o f coffee in Spanish vessels, for Spanish ports, shall pay three reals;
in Spanish vessels for foreign ports, four reals; and in foreign vessels for foreign ports,
four and one-half reals.
3d. Molasses and rum are declared to be free o f export duty.
4th. T he vessels which depart with entire cargoes o f molasses, will be exempted from
tonnage duty.
5th. Foreign vessels that take more than one thousand boxes o f sugar, will pay six
reals per ton, register measurement; and Spanish vessels, two and one-half reals.
6th. The same modification o f tonnage duty will be made in favor o f vessels that
take more than two thousand bags o f coffee, or more than three hundred pipes o f rum.
W hich, by order o f his excellency the Count o f Villanueva, secretaiy o f the treasury,
is hereby announced for the information o f the public.
The foregoing notice is dated December 12th, 1843, and signed James Valdez, secre­
tary ad interim, and published at Matanzas, 21st December, 1843, for the information of
the mercantile community, in pursuance o f said order, by Mediavilla, deputy collector
at Matanzas.
M E X IC A N A D M E A S U R E M E N T OF V E SSELS.
Information has been received at the department o f state at Washington, that, by a
decree o f November 8th, 1843, the regulations for the admeasurement o f vessels estab­
lished by a prior decree dated July 1st, 1842, have been abolished by the Mexican gov­
ernment, and the regulations formerly in force, have been re-established and confirmed.
As the decree o f July, 1842, augmented the tonnage about seventy-five per cent, an
equivalent reduction is the consequence o f the new order. The present method o f mea­
suring vessels in Mexican ports is restored to that established by the circular o f 21st
October, 1826, and is as follow s:—
The scale employed is that o f Burgos. T he rates between the foot at Paris, and that
of Burgos, is as 6 to 7 ; between that o f London and Burgos,, as 10.97 to 12, or 100 L on­
don make 109.38 Burges.
The scale being thus adapted to that o f Burgos, the one-half o f the length o f the ves­
sel from the stem to the stern-post, and o f the keel, shall be taken and be multiplied by
three-fourths o f the breadth o f beam, one half o f the floor timbers, and of the depth of
the hold ; the product thereof, shall be divided by 70.19, and the quotient be deemed
the true burden or tonnage on which the duties are payable.




280

Commercial Regulations*
T A R IF F A N D S T A M P D U TIE S A T RIO JA N E IR O .

By a law passed 21st October, to be in rigor from the commencement o f next year,
the duty on salt is to be 240 reis per allegre; tonnage duties to be increased to 50 reis
per ton, daily, for all foreign vessels, with the exception o f those in ballast, or arriving
for refreshments, which will only pay 30 reis; while those in distress will, as heretofore,
be free. Stamp duties are likewise to be charged upon all promissory notes, and foreign
and inland bills, as specified in the subjoined table, and at the rate o f 1-5 per cent upon
outward, and 1-10 per cent upon inward freight.

A t the foot, is also a note o f altera­

tions, made 28th October, in the tariff valuation o f different articles.
T able for the payment of S tamp D uties, applicable to I nland B ills, & c.

Not ex­
All bills of ceeding
200|I
50||
500||
900||
500|| 2,000||
2,000|| 5,0001|
5,000|| 8,000||

2 months
date100 reis.
160 “
400 “
1,900 “
2,400 “

Longer
period.
160 reis.
320 “
1,000 “
3,000 “
5,000 «

Not ex­
All bills of ceeding
8,000|| 11,300||
11,000|| 14,0001|
14,000|| 17,000||
17,000|| 20,000||
20,000(1 and upw’d,

2 months
Longer pe­
date.
riod.
3,400 reis. 7,000 reis.
4,400 “
9,000 «
5,400 “
11,000 “
6,400 “
13,000 «
7,400 “
15,000 “

Foreign bills to pay one-half.
T he following are the alterations in the tariff referred t o :—
180 reis.
500 reis. Soap, Mediterranean, per lb .,.
Composition candles, per lb.,..
other qualities, per lb.,..
120 “
Pitch, coal, per bbl.,................ ■ 2||
Steel, per quintal,..................... 10j|
300 “
“
Powder, coarse, per lb.,..........
600 “
Tar, American,.......................... 3{]500 “
“
fine, per lb.,..............
Cigars, per 100,....................... • 3 1|

N E W B R U N SW IC K P O S T -O F F IC E R E G U L A T IO N S .
Official notice has been given by John Howe, deputy postmaster-general for New
Brunswick, that on and from the 5th January next, all letters conveyed by post in British
North America will be chargeable by weight, according to the scale now in operation as
regards letters to and from the United Kingdom. On and from the same date, the frank­
ing privilege o f the deputy postmaster-general, in respect to colonial newspapers and
printed sheets, will cease ; and there will then be charged for all such newspapers and
printed sheets, (not exceeding two ounces in weight,) when sent to any town in Nova
Scotia, New Brunswick, Canada, or Prince Ed ware’s island, one halfpenny per sheet; to
any other British colony, when not intended to pass through the United Kingdom, one
halfpenny per sheet; to any foreign country, the (United States excepted,) whether intended to passthrough the United Kingdom, or not, one halfpenny per sheet; to the
United States, by the land-post, via St. Andrews or W oodstock, one penny per sheet,
which postages, except on such newspapers as are addressed to towns in Nova Scotia,
N ew Brunswick, Prince Edward’s island, or Canada, must be prepaid by the senders, or
the newspapers cannot be forwarded. Newspapers to the United Kingdom, when con­
veyed by Her Majesty’s packets, will not be liable to any inland or packet postage. The
limitation as to weight does not apply to newspapers addressed to the United Kingdom;
but any colonial newspaper sent by post to any other place, and exceeding the weight of
two ounces, will be liable to postage as a pamphlet. Pamphlets and other publications,
printed in the United Kingdom, in British North America, or in the British W est Indies,
not exceeding sixteen ounces in weight, sent by post to any place in British North Amer­
ica, or in the United States, or in the British W est Indies, without passing through the
United Kingdom, will be liable to an inland postage o f one penny per ounce, in addition
to any charge for sea postage.

N o pamphlets or printed publications, exceeding the

weight o f sixteen ounces, can be forwarded through the post.




281

Commercial Statistics.

COMMERCIAL S TATI STI CS.
COM M ERCE OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S A N D G E N O A .
Comparative Table o f the Commerce o f the United States and Genoa, from 1820 to
1843, compiled from the records o f the Consulate o f the United States at Genoa, and
authentic commercial information obtained from the Custom-House, and from other
Consulates at Genoa, fo r the Merchants' M agazine, by C. Edwards Lester, Esq.,
United States Consul at Genoa.
Year.

Inward cargo.

Value.

1820 Sugar, tea, nankeens, East In-

Outward cargo.
W ine,

oil,

anchovies,

Value.
glass-

$514,000

$68,800
Wine, oil, soap, rags, marble,

1821 Cotton, tobacco, pepper, flour,
436,500

127,000
Light freight, many in ballast to

1822 Cotton, tobacco, pepper, drugs,
763,169
1823 Codfish, coffee, sugar, flour, and

3,000
Opium, spices, wine, rags, and

624,927
1824 West India woods and East In-

4,000
Oil, pepper, almonds, velvet, and

625,829
1825 Pepper, logwood, pimento, bees-

47,000
Steel, almonds, rags, fruits, pep-

268,408

292,700
Opium, and large cargoes of

1826 The same, with a few new ar623,900
542,323
1828 Staples o f the U. States, with
hides, staves, sugar, & c.,----1829 Cotton, rum, nankeens, sugars,
fish,............................................
1830 Cargoes generally o f sugar, cotton, and tobacco,....................
1831 Same cargoes, with large quantitles o f pepper,......................
1832 Little variations o f cargoes, in
quantity or kind,.....................
1833 Little variations o f cargoes, in
quantity or kind,.....................
1834 Little variations o f cargoes, in
quantity or kind,.....................
1835 Large quantities o f tobacco,
cotton, and pepper,................
1836 Large quantities o f tobacco,
1837
1838 Cotton, rapidly increasing, and
tobacco,................... ...............
1839 Cotton, rapidly increasing, and

65,250
Nearly all in ballast, fruits and

1827 T obacco, cocoa, sugar, cotton,
493,900

54,740
Gil, hemp, lead, steel, and velvets,........................ .................. 143,100
Pepper, fruits, silks, velvets, & c., 75,834

418,280
Generally in ballast,...................

60,000

Generally with pepper,..............

66,046

Generally with pepper and fruits,

15,200

Generally with spices and fruits,

32,600

441,800
519,558
783,000
556,100
61,300
694,824
29,700
199,200
Generally

with

fruits exten-

467,000
393^500
Generally with fruits.

49,700
17,800
43^600

407,000
Cotton, pepper, fruits, and mul-

73,550
124,800
1840 Cotton, tobacco, cocoa, sugar,
and assorted cargoes,............. 1,420,801
Generally in ballast.
27,860
1841 Cotton, tobacco, cocoa, sugar,
and assorted cargoes.............. 821,680
Spices to E. I. or Sicily, for fruits. 60,500
1842 Cotton, tobacco, cocoa, sugar,
and assorted cargoes.............. 1,085,222




668,500

24*

282

Commercial Statistics,

A Statement o f the number o f Vessels and Tonnage engaged in the commerce o f the
United States and Genoa, from 1799 to 1842, compiled from official sources fo r the
Merchants’ M agazine, by C. Edwards Lester, United States Consul at Genoa.

Years.
1799,........
1800,*....... .......
1801,t .......
1802,t....... .......
1803, §......
1804, ||......
1805,H.....
1806,a....... .......
1807,6.......
1808,c. ......
1809, d ......
1810, e .......
1811,/.....
1812.........
1813,........
1814,........
1815,g ......
1816.........
1817,.........
1818,.........
1819.........
1820,A.......

No. of vessels.
i
12
19
23
4

Tons.
304
2,326
3,506
3,080
522
170

3
9
1

378
1,187
152

3

370

2

386

5
5
17
10
2
12

532
1,141
1,995
1,838
233
3,290

Years.
1821,.......
1822,.......
1823,.......
1824,.......
1825,.......
1826,.......
1827,.......
1828,.......
1829,.......
1830,.......
1831,.......
1832,.......
1833,.......
1834,.......
1835,.......
1836,.......
1837,.......
1838........
1839,.......
1840,.......
1841,.......
1842,.......

.........
.......
........
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......

.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......
.......

No. of vessels.
19
24
23
22
17
9
25
21
21
18
27
24
19
22
12
17
13
16
17
49
24
37

Tons.
3,179
4,206
4,199
4,970
3,039
3,804
4,832
4.375
4,225
3,852
5,165
5,161
3,430
3,905
2,332
2,890
2,663
3,310
4,006
5,666
7,892
10,164

N otes and G eneral R emarks.
* Immense increase o f com m erce-^tw o vessels reported as driven back to Genoa by
British cruisers.
t Large increase in codfish trade— sold high— speculations made extensively in Yan­
kee notions.
t Less tonnage-, but m ore vessels.
§ Falling off in'eomm erce— much flour and codfish.
|| Only one vessel— ready sale, at high prices, for her Yankee notions.
IT N o vessels this year.
b Always ready sale for cargoes.

a Commerce revives a little.
c Only one vessel.
d None.

e Our disturbed affairs with Great Britain and France injured our commerce. The
three vessels reported this year were captured in the Mediterranean by French priva­
teers, and two sold in this port by decree o f Napoleon, and one liberated.
/ W ar with Great Britain destroys our commerce on the Mediterranean in 1812,1813,
and 1814.
g Commerce begins to revive; and from this time the pepper trade with Genoa has
generally been carried on by American vessels, which have been able to control it nearly
to the exclusion o f other nations.
h In 1820 begins Mr. Campbell’s consulship, when the books o f the consulate are
kept in much better order.
R emarks .
1. Generally it will appear, from this table, that our vessels have made cash trade with
Genoa, buying only a small proportion o f the value o f their inward cargoes.
2. But the amount o f our purchases here cannot be judged o f by the reports of the
cargoes carried away.

It is probable that Genoa has always furnished a very large pro­

portion o f the velvet consumed in the United States. I find, for example, that some
years, when little or no velvet is reported as carried away in our ships, quantities to the
amount o f fifty, one hundred, and even two hundred thousand dollars, have been sold by
the Genoa manufacturers to American merchants.

This information I got from the man­

ufacturers themselves. It has been sent often to Leghorn for reshipment to Marseilles,
and taken overland to Havre, to go by packets.




■283

Commercial Statistics.

3. I find that a large proportion o f our trade with Genoa has been carried on by Boston
and Salem merchants. Some years, more than half the vessels entering into this port
have been owned by Robert Shaw, o f Boston.
4. Assorted cargoes have always done wbll here.

It is the opinion o f the principal

merchants here, who have been familiar with the American trade, that assorted cargoes
brought to this port, in American vessels, have averaged at least 20 or 25 per cent profit,
often paying the freight; and they have generally met with a most ready sale.
5. Those vessels which have left so generally in ballast, have usually got freight in
neighboring ports, or gone to Sicily or Malaga for fruits; but, at almost any period o f the
year, the products o f Genoa could be purchased on advantageous terms, and a cargo
taken with safety. M accaroni and vermicelli, and candied fruits, are always sold low
here, and always command a ready sale in America. Genoese lemons are the largest
and best in the world.

They ripen late, and keep better than those o f any other Medi­

terranean country, and command a higher price at home.

Marble is sure always to pay

a fine freight when purchased here, and yields a profit besides. I f our merchants, instead
of ordering their masters to make immediate remittances home, would leave them at
liberty to purchase a cargo o f such articles as appear, by the Boston or N ew Y ork price
currents, to be selling well, they would often experience the greatest advantage.
trade with G enoa should be made essentially a barter trade.

Our

A n assorted cargo should

be sent out, in exchange for other articles; and greater advantage, by far, could be ex­
perienced than by selling for cash, and buying again.

Besides, the Porto Franco system,

in operation here, affords great advantages; for often cargoes can be bought here which
pay no duty to enter Porto Franco, and taken to the United States, at very large profits.

C O M M E R C E OF N E W O R L E A N S .
W e cheerfully give place to the following letter from Samuel S. Littlefield, Esq., one
of the editors o f the N ew Orleans Price Current, correcting an error into which we had
inadvertently fallen, in the statement we gave o f the commerce o f N ew Orleans for
1843:—
P rice C urrent O ffice, }
F reeman H unt, Esq.
N ew Orleans, January 29, 1844.
£
Dear Sir— Y our valuable Magazine, for December, came under my notice a day or
two since; and you will pardon me if I point out an important error into which you have
fallen in your notice o f the commerce o f N ew Orleans, compiled from our annual state­
ment for 1843, under the head o f “ remarks.”

After giving the various tables o f imports,

exports, &e., you remark as follow s:— “ It seems, from the foregoing statements, that for
the year ending September 1st, 1843, the imports into N ew Orleans are valued at ten
and a half millions o f dollars, which, o f course, falls short o f the real amount.”

N ow ,

the very considerable error into which you have fallen, consists in your having mistaken
the amount imported in specie alone asVm estimate o f the total value o f imports. In
my “ general remarks,” the following passage occurs :—
“ Specie has flowed in upon us even in superabundance, and from all quarters ; and
our progressive table, which we adopted early in the season as an item o f some consid­
erable interest, shows imports into this city, since the first o f September last, o f nes’-'y
ten and a half millions o f dollars, a sum which, large as it is, is doubtless short o f the
real amount some hundreds o f thousands, in parcels received, but not reported.”
This, you will at once perceive, has exclusive reference to the imports o f specie.

As

regards the “ value o f imports into N ew Orleans for the year ending September 1st,
1843,” I went no farther than the specie, as above stated, and the value o f the most
.prominent articles received from the interior; which latter, according to a table which




284

Commercial Statistics.

you will find in the annual statement, amounted, in round numbers, to about fifty.four
millions o f dollars. Add to this the amount o f specie, and you have a total o f sixty-four
millions and a half o f dollars, exclusive o f all the imports o f merchandise by sea, whether
from foreig n countries or United States ports, except cotton from Texas.

N o record

exists o f the value o f the immense supplies o f manufactured and other goods brought
to our city from coastwise ports, from the extremity o f Maine to the G u lf o f Mexico.
Could this be ascertained, and added to the amount o f foreign merchandise received, it
would, with the other items above stated, probably give, as the “ value o f imports into
N ew Orleans, for the year ending September 1st, 1843,” instead o f “ ten and a half
millions,” a grand total o f at least eighty millions o f dollars.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
S A M U E L S. L IT T L E F IE L D .

COM M E R C E OF N E W Y O R K .
E xtorts from the P ort of N ew Y ork in 1842 and 1843.
A Statement o f E xports from the port o f N ew York, fo r the year commencing January
1 st, 1843, and ending December 31st, 1843, compared with same time in 1842.
1843.
1842.
Quantities.
8,361
15,016
31,778
43,041
3,879
2,584
24,195
36,048
2,002
6,999
4,451
7,154
10
10
Brandy, pipes.............
258
169
“
h a lfp ip es....
113
123
“
qr. casks......
26,939
48,034
Butter, firkins.......
11,856
11,384
Candles, sperm, bxs..
9,234
23,326
“
tallow, bxs..
25,752
28,947
Cassia, mats and cases
5,217
8,964
Cheese, casks............
62,112
20,688
“
boxes...........
4,312
1,561
Clover-seed, tierces..
675
118
Cochineal, ceroons...
5,532
13,071
Cocoa, bags................
230
32
Coffee, casks..............
531
234
“
bbls.................
18,514
19,401
51,301
155,795
Corn,
bushels.............
6,814
6,084
Corn-meal, hhds.........
25,806
28,715
“
bbls..........
2,559
1,725
169,214
164,354
Cotton, b a le s............
Dom. cotton goods,
19,729
30,435
bales and cases....
Dye woods—
7,014
6,927
-Logwood, tons......
1,718
1,281
Fustic, tons...........
408
196
Nicaragua, to n s....
33,941
40,559
Fish— Dry cod,cw ts.
4,649
Mackerel, bbls.
3,859
4,517
5,898
Herring, bbls..
3,066
4,131
Flaxseed, tierces........
274,881 325,869
Flour— Wheat, bbls..
8,798
10,617
Rye, bbls......
12
71
Gin, foreign, pipeB....
Articles.
Apples, bbls...............
Ashes, pot, bbls.........
“
pearl, bbls......
Beef, pickled, bbls....
“ dried, cwts......




Articles.
Gunpowder, k eg s....
Hams &. bacon, cwts.
Hides, N o ...................
Hops, bales................
Indigo, cases..............
Lard, kegs..................
Lumber—
Shooks, hhd. and
pipe, N o .............
Boards and plank,
M. feet...............
Staves and head­
ing, M .................
Hoops, M ...............
Shingles, M .-........
Nails, casks................
Naval stores—
Rosin, bbls.............
Sp. o f Turp., bbls.
Turpentine, bbls...
Oils—
Olive, baskets and

1841.
1842,
Quantities,
8,233
4,405
8,235
5,627
53,633
31,286
2,842
5,296
41
137
154
330
188,687
155,085

23,579

26,535

4,748

4,831

3,239
1,000
1,761
9,248

4,155
859
1,169
6,344

82,844
1,702
35,374
202,039

58,481
1,175
27,465
188,206

962
1,208
«Linseed, gall.........
14,800
14,300
W hale, gall........... 2,567,916 2,445,806
Sperm, gall.............
472,563 275,227
Pepper, bags..............
1,692
2,187
Pimento, bags............
11,864
5,247
Pork, bbls...................
78,947
48,962
Rice, tierces...............
19,307
28,100
Rum, foreign, punch.
1,200
568
1,573
“ American, bbls.
1,767
6,100
Saltpetre, bags..........
1,339
972
659
Silks, packages.........
24,810
Soap, boxes................
33,960
Sugars—
841
266
White Hav., boxes

285

Commercial Statistics.
E xports from the P ort of N ew Y ork, etc.— Continued.
A Statement o f E xports from the port o f N ew York, etc.— Continued.

2,356
1,115
18,643

3,033
793

9,142
3,808

8,920

22,540

r— 4

2,857
5,511
343
9,066

1841.

1842,

Quantities.

GO

1841.

Articles.
Sugars—
Brown Hav., boxes
Manilla, & c., bags..
Muscovado, hhds..
Refined, cw t.........
Teas—
Souchong and other black, pckgs..
Hyson skin, pckgs.
Hyson and Y oung
Hyson, pckgs....

Articles.
Teas—
Gunp’ wder and Imperial, pckgs......
Tobacco, leaf, hhds..
“
leaf, bales,
cases, & c.
**
manf., kegs
W halebone, cwts......
W heat, bushels.........
W hiskey, bbls......... ..
W ool, bales................

Quantities.

10,709
6,771

13,326
7,701

12,989
11,799
14,521
44,885
70
64

12,863
11,702
11,013
100,323
1,159
1,000

N avigation of N ew Y ork— 1843.
The following statement o f the number o f vessels and passengers which arrived at
the port o f N ew Y ork from foreign countries, during the year 1843, is furnished by Mr.
Thorn, United States revenue boarding-officer :—

American,..........
British,................
French,...............
Bremen,.............
Norwegian,.........
Swedish,.............
Sicilian,.....*......
Hamburg,...........
Danish,................
Russian,..............
Dutch,.................
Belgian,..............
Columbian,.........
Neapolitan,....... .
Prussian,....... .
Texan,........... .
Sardinian,...... .
Italian,....... .........
Genoese,....... .
Venezuelian,......
Spanish,..... *......
Hanoverian,........
Mexican,....... .
Total,.........

Vessels arrived from Foreign Countries.
Ships.
Barques.
Brigs.
Schrs. St’mers. Galliots. Sloops.
3
402
515
0
153
288
i
0
0
8
18
184
56
5
4
3
0
0
0
4
0
0
0
0
16
25
9
3
0
0
0
6
0
5
1
0
5
0
0
13
24
2
0
0
0
0
1
5
0
0
0
4
6
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
2
2
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
2
15
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
3
1
0
1
2
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
1
0
0
439

232

789

355

6

8

3

Total.
1,362
271
11
53
12
44
6
12
6
2
6
4
5
3
18
1
2
2
l
2
4
4
1
1,832

Comparing these results, says the Journal o f Commerce, with the arrivals in 1842,
we find there has been an aggregate diminution o f 130. T he number o f American
arrivals is 23 less; British, 114 less; Swedish, 5 less; Belgian, 10 less; Hamburg, 6
less; Dutch, 5 le s s ; Italian, 3 le ss; Norwegian, 4 less; Sicilian, 1 le ss; Russian, 2
less; Venezuelian, 1 less; French, 1 more ; Bremen, 10 m o re ; N ew Grenada, 4 m ore;
Neapolitan,! m ore; Prussian, 1G m ore; Sardinian, 1 m ore; Spanish, 3 more.

T he

greatest falling off is in British vessels, viz : from 389 to 27 1; and the greatest relative
increase in Prussian, v iz : from 2 to 18.
Passengers.
The number o f passengers who arrived here in 1843, from foreign countries, was
46,302. The following schedule shows the number o f passengers arrived in each year
since 1834:—




286
Year.
1835,.......
1836,.......
1837,.......
1838,.......
1839........

Commercial Statistics,
Whole No. of arr.
2,094
2,293
2,071
1,790
2,159

No. of pass. Year.
35,303
1840,.......
60,541
1841........
1842,.......
57,975
25,581
1843,.......
48,152

Whole No. of arr. No. of pass.
1,953
62,793
2,118
57,337
1,962
74,014
1,832
46,302

T he arrivals, both o f vessels and passengers, were less last year than the average of
the last nine years.
Coastwise Arrivals in 1843.
Months.

January,....
February,...
M arch,.......
A pril,..........
M ay............
June,..........
July,...........
A ugust,......
September,.
October,___

Ships. Bques. Brigs. Sclirs. Total. Months.

24

15

63

20

26

13

11

10

5

65
72
56

16
23
28
17
9
14

9

74

11
3
3
5
3

56
53
35

44
35

170
152
245
313
348
399
372
306
409
379

272
263
341
384
447
489
456
361
467
431

Ships. Bques. Brigs. Schrs. Total.

N ovem ber,. 18
D ecem b er,.. 18

5
4

53
52

386
287

462
361
4,734
1,832

W hole number, as above,.......
W hich, added to the foreign,..

Makes a total, for the year, of......... 6,566
W hole number last year,................... 5,765
Increase,....................................

801

N o t e .— In the above, there are no sloops included; which, if added to the many

schooners from Philadelphia and Virginia, loaded with wood and coal, which are never
boarded, (owing to the remoteness o f the points at which they come in,) would make
the number much greater.
I m ports of H ides a t N e w Y ork — 1843.

A Statement o f the number o f Hides imported into N ew York from different places,
fo r the year commencing January 1st, 1843, and ending December 31st. Also, the
total exports in each year, from 1836 to 1843.
From

Total.

A ntw erp,.......................................
Africa,.............................................
Angostura,.....................................
Buenos Ayres,...............................
Calcutta,.........................................
Carthagena,...................................
Carolina, North and South,........
California,.......................................
Chili,...............................................
Central America,..........................
Curacoa,..
Florida,....,..
Georgia,......
Honduras,...
L a Guayra,..
M obile,.......
M exico........

6,662
32,406
54,408
50,319
23,300
38,062
3,230
502
4,255
32,370

3,153
4,620
4,300
992
6,259
2,790
25,819

From

Total.

Monte V ideo,................................
Maranham,....................................
Maracaibo,.....................................
N ew Orleans,................................
Pernambuco,.................................
Para,.........................................—
Rio Grande,...................................
Rio Grande, horse,.
St. Domingo,..
Virginia,.........
W est Indies,..
U nknown,.
T o dealers,....................................

37,266
4,860
5,551
22,020
77
1,898
66,835
67
264
185
3,387
2,508
215,066

Total, 1843,....................I.
Same time, 1842,......... .

653,431
635,631

E x p o r ts op H ides fro m N e w Y o r k .

T he following table shows the exports o f hides from the port o f N ew Y ork in each
year, from 1836 to 1843, inclusive :—
Y ear.

Number.

1836,.......................................................................................................... ..................
1837..
.
1838..
.
1839..
.
1840..
.
1841..
.
1842..
.
1 8 4 3 ;..................... ......................................................................................................




109,273
99,356
25,695
24,186
31,325
4,245
31,286
53,663

287

Commercial Statistics.
C O M M E R C E A N D N A V IG A T IO N OF B O ST O N , 1843.

The following statements exhibit the imports into Boston o f some o f the principal ar­
ticles o f merchandise during the year 1843, commencing on the 1st o f January, and
ending on the,31st o f D ecem ber:—
Year.
1843,.......
1842,.......
1841,.......
1840,.......

I mports of D omestic
Tons.
Bushels.
150,813
117,451
90,276
121,800
124,041
110,932
92,370
73,847

C oal into Boston.
Year.
Tons.
1839,........
90,485
1838,........
71,364
80,557
1837,.......

Bushels.
144,475
107,625
109,275

Of imports for 1843, there was received from Philadelphia 103,295; Rondout, 8,601;
Havre de Grace, 1,638; Rhode Island, 1,564; other places, 2,353 tons o f coal.
Year.
1843,.......
1842.........
1841,.......
1840.........

Tons.
5,050
11,014
12,754
9,110

Imports of F oreign C oal.
Chaldrons. Year.
1839,........
17,800
18,460
1838,........
27,187
1837.........
25,753

Tons.
5,880
10,344
11,873

Chaldrons.
26,277
16,661
29,691

The foreign coal in the above years is principally from Liverpool, Newcastle, Cardiff,
Sidney, Pictou, & c.
The quantity o f corn, oats, rye, and shorts, received at the port o f Boston, from dif­
ferent places, in 1843, and total o f each year, from 1837 to 1843, was as follow s:—
Oats.
Corn.
Bye.
From
Shorts.
Bush .
Bush.
Bush.
Bush.
399,750
5,321
New Orleans,.................................
1,092
1,192
Mobile,............................................
Elizabeth city,................................
92,380
Fredericksburg,............................
19,400
Rappahannock,..............................
•.....
30,373
Alexandria......................................
15,780
Georgetown,..................................
12,833
Other ports in Virginia,................
57,809
2,721
378,839
742
Baltimore,......................................
65,510
13,250
Ports in Delaware,........................
33,392
5,559
298,841
40,165
10,913
300
Salem, N. J.,..................................
153,573
8,050
137,726
New Y ork,.....................................
18,220
13,816
34,624
300
19,439
A lban y,..........................................
12,600
15,350
1,050
Other ports in N ew Y ork ,..........
109,040
6,881
8,004
1,450
Western railroad,..........................
400
900
Ports in Connecticut,....................
34,250
M aine,...........................................
80
Nova Scotia,..................................
Total,
“
“
“
“
“
“

1843,.......................
1842,.......................
1841,.......................
1840,.......................
1839,.......................
1838,......................
1837,......................

1,540,306
1,835,163
2,044,129
1,868,431
1,574,038

468,032
393,474
056,502
437,948
439,141
443,657
405,173

25,953
39,122
34,128
48,026
48,624
102,473
86,391

40,751
91,723
44,047
57,037
52,755
49,082
48,634

The total quantity o f flour received at the port o f Boston for each year, from 1837 to
1843, ending 31st o f December, was as follows :—
Year.
1843................................................
1842,...............................................
1841,,.............................................




Barrels.
610,964
609,460
574,223

Year.
Barrels.
1839,...............................................' 451,667
1838,............................................... 379,704
1837,............................................... 423,246

288

Commercial Statistics.
R eceipts

of

1843.

Months.

January,.........................
February,........................
M arch,............................
A pril,...............................
M a y ,..............................
June,................................
July,..................................
August,............................
September,......................
O ctober,.........................
N ovember,.....................
December,......................

Halves equal to __

F lour

into

Boston,

Bbls. Half bbli
1,247
64
318
46
208
1,652
995
68
11,628
783
4,792
325
11,358
167
7,859
148
10,171
263
32,374
412
32,815 1,171
6,395
209
121,604 3,924
1,962

by the

W estern R ailroad.

Months.

1842.

Bbls. Half bbls.

January,.......................
February,.....................
M a rch ,........................ •
A p ril,...........................
M a y ,...........................
June,............................
July,.............................
August,........................
September,................. .
October,...................... .
N o v em b er,................ ..
December,...................

••••»•
199
4,152
3,860
6,973
4,782
21,048
30,088
15.867
1,116

Halves equal to...

87,085
768

123,566 bbls.
1843,.................................................
1842,.................................................
T otal,.....................................................................

144
32
69
258
632
390
11
1,536

87,853 bbls.
123,566 barrels.
87,853
«
211,419

T he imports o f molasses into Boston, in hbds., was—
65,660
In 1841,.
In 1838,.
1842..
72,267
1839..
79,546
1843..
1840..

“
78,062
73,991
63,675

T he imports o f spirits during the year ending December 31,1843, have been—
1,559 packages, containing 129,348 gallons.
41
“
........
2,692
205,641
Same period, 1842,
44
4C
“
1841
........
4,143
323,019
4C
41
“
........
4,282
413,654
1840
Cl
Ci
Cl
431,438
1839,
Cl
44
3,686
302,090
Deficiency compared with 1839,,
44
il
4,970
60
Foreign spirits exported 1843,..
44
il
44
1843,.
6,033
273,758
Domestic
44
Cl
“
1842,.
122
7,737
Foreign
44
ll
(4
447,352
1842,.,
8,899
Domestic
“
“
1841,..
323,019
4,143
Foreign
44
ti
44
626,498
....
11,461
1841,..
Domestic
Compared with 1841, there jB a falling off in the traffic 10,511 packages, equal to
670,789 gallons.
T he importation o f sugar into the Port ° f Boston, for the year ending December 31,
1843, has been as fo llo w s:—
Countries.
C u b a ,............................................
Manilla................................................................................
Dutch W est Indies,.................................
Spanish W est Indies,........................................................
British East Indies,.............................................
Brazilian ports,....................................................................
Danish W est Indies,..........................................................
British American colonies,...............................................
South Seas,.....................................

Ibrown.
17,552,954
4,295,123
18,965
1,504,221
200
8,007
250,360
15,518
9,817

I.bs. white.
1,131,731
294
.......
.......
.......
920
.......
9,459
.......

T otal,.....................................................................
23,655,165
“
1842,...........................................................
29,541,675
“
1841,...........................................................
31,990,342
“
1840,...........................................................
29,978,674
English refined, imported in 1843,.................................................................

1,142,404
8,695,237
11,252,061
9,704,821
223,467




289

Commercial Statistics.
I mportations of Coffee into Boston for the
Countries.
Holland,............................. ........
Batavia,............................. ........
........
Hayti,................................ ........
Cuba,................................. ........
Porto R ico,....................... ........
Porto Cabello,................. ........
........

Pounds.
147,000
234,466
1,440
8,441,931
1,017,150
105,562
1,726,068
170,405

year ending December 31,1843.
Countries.
Pounds.
B razil,........................................
4,008,252
A frica..........................................
77,256
Chilian ports,__ ........................
126,560
575
Danish W est Indies,................
St. Thom as,...............................
15,100

Total, 1843,......................

16,071,665
18,508,040
12,245,390

Imports for 1842,.............
“
1841..............

The quantity o f cotton received at the port o f Boston during the year ending Decem ­
ber 31, 1843, is as fo llo w s:—
Bales.
From
From
73,022
Demerara,.
New Orleans,...
24,428
Mobile,..............
16,739
Total,.
Charleston,......
15,565
In 1842,........
Savannah,..........
20,704
1841,.........
Florida,..............
1840,.........
505
New Y ork ,.......
25
1839,........
Philadelphia, ...
1838..........
17
North Carolina,.
10
1837,........
Virginia,.............
29
M a in e ,..............
The imports o f hides, in 1843, were as follows :—
Hides.
From
From
Sandwich islands,.........................
Buenos Ayres and Monte Video, 100,353
1,154 R io Janeiro,...................................
Para,................................................
12,554
St. Domingo and Port au Prince,
46,695
M o b ile ,..........................................
Chili,................................................
2,935
Savannah,......................................
Pernambuco,..................................
Charleston,....................................
628
Gonaives,........................................
7,303
Florida,........................................
Porto Cabello and La Guayra,...
1,211
St. Thom as,....................................
158
Curacoa,..........................................
6,175
Coastwise,...............................
San Juan,.......................................
5,530
Truxillo, ........................................
T otal,...................................
33,245
California,......................................
870
Maracaibo,....................................

Bales.
46
151,000
119,670
131,860
138,709
94,361
96,636
82,684

Hides.
12,323
300
48,401
6,105
6,061
300
816
299,117
11,690
310,807

W e give below a table embracing the arrivals and clearances o f each month o f the
past year, (1843:)—
Arrivals.
F o r e ig n .

January,....
February,..
March,......
A p ril,........
M a y ,.........
June,.........
July,..........
A ugust,....
September,
October,....
November,.
December,.
Total,...

Ships. Barques. Brigs.
29
5
9
6
15
4
9
33
4
3
44
5
59
11
13
8
10
57
18
14
47
21
45
21
21
48
18
19
31
52
14
39
7
7
40
4
--- ---—
154
508
128

C o a st w ise .

Schrs.
4
3
13
72
101
121
139
115
113
108
75
34
—
898

Ships. Barques.
15
10
6
26
2
23
4
10
7
15
24
16
13
12
8
8
6
8
3
7
6
8
3
10
—
--- ■
97
153
128
154

Total number o f arrivals for the year 1843,. 225
VOL. X .---- NO. I I I .
25




307

Brigs.
32
28
44
48
60
93
80
50
77
63
56
33
—
664
508
1,172

Schrs. Sloops.
125
2
74
3
169
8
257
8
341
12
478
14
438
16
335
15
510
29
518
15
403
9
267
4
------ . ___
3,915 135
898
4,813

135

290

Commercial Statistics.

O f the above, 2 ships, 5 barques, 100 brigs, 750 schooners, were British ; 2 barques, 2
brigs, Sicilian ; 2 brigs Russian; 1 brig French; 1 brig Spanish ; 1 brig Bremen. The
remainder were American.
Clearances.
F o r e ig n .

Ships. Barques. Brigs. Schrs.
8
10
2G
12
5
4
14
8
3
18
25
7
4
11
47
64
G
10
58
98
12
8
44
107
11
49
121
8
116
8
11
43
7
8
4G
117
101
8
14
40
15
41
8
87
4
15
47
55

C o a st w ise .

Ships. Barques.
27
13
10
21
5
14
5
9
4
10
9
11
2
9
6
13
15
14
27
21
20
18
16
10

Brigs.
39
28
48
39
47
70
57
50
44
51
38
33

Schrs. Sloops.
48
61
i
3
105
140
2
183
7
144
9
161
7
148
12
158
12
165
8
143
14
89
1

156
77

163
146

544
481

1,545
885

76

Total number o f clearances for the year 1843, 233

309

1,025

2,430

76

January,...
February...
M arch,......
A p r il,........
M a y ,.........
June,..........
July,..........
August,__
September,
O ctob er,...
November,
December,.
T otal,...

77

14G

481

885

O f the above, 2 ships, 5 barques, 103 brigs, 745 schooners, were British ; 2 barques,
2 brigs, Sicilian; 1 barque, 1 brig, S w edish; 2 brigs Russian ; 1 brig French ; 1 brig
Spanish; 1 brig Bremen, and the remainder American.
T he above are exclusive o f a large number o f wood-coasters, and vessels sailing under
licenses, and which neither enter nor clear at the custom-house. The disparity between
the arrivals and clearances is owing to this fact. A great number o f vessels arrive which
do not clear at the custom-house before sailing.
During the year, the royal mail steamships Caledonia and Acadia, running between
Boston and Liverpool, have entered and cleared at the custom-house five times each.
The Hibernia has entered five, and cleared four times. T he Britannia has entered and
cleared three times. T he Columbia entered and cleared twice, and was lost on her pas.
sage to Halifax, July 2d.
There have also been in port during the year, (having arrived from foreign ports,) Brit­
ish steamship North America, steamers Portland and Penobscot, H . B. M. surveying
steamship Columbia, and H. B. M. frigate Spartan. A lso, a number o f vessels belong­
ing to our own navy.

Q uantity

of

M ackerel inspected in M assachusetts .

T he following returns from the inspector general exhibit the quantity o f mackerel in­
spected in this state for the year 1843, estimated in barrels; and also the total amount
inspected in each year, from 1831 to 1843, inclusive:—
No. 1.
No. 2.
No. 3.
Total.
Towns.
2,852
16,328
Gloucester,....
10,489
2,987
9,346
5,078
2,149
2,119
Boston,............
1,116
3,039
6,461
2,306
Cohasset,......
1,017
2,597
5,928
H in g h a m ,___
2,314
1,343
1,220
3,043
5,606
W ellfleet,.......
5,361
1,187
1,403
Newbury port,.
2,771
Total in each year.
721
1,112
3,375
1831,......... ...... 383,559
1,542
T r u r o ,............
901
1,085
3,117
1832,......... ...... 212,452
1,131
Provincetown,
2,396
1833,......... ...... 212,946
1,040
399
957
Y arm outh,__
962
2,373
1834,......... ...... 252,884
940
471
Dennis,...........
510
1,421
665
246
1835,......... ...... 194,450
Barnstable,....
365
1836,......... ...... 176,931
675
227
1,267
Rockport.........
322
100
549
1837,......... ...... 138,157
127
Scituate,.........
82
268
1838,......... ...... 108,538
99
449
Chatham,........
176
416
1839.......... ...... 73,018
153
87
Plymouth,........
25
1840,......... ...... 50,992
13
47
9
D u x b u ry ,........
1841,......... ...... 55,537
9
2
11
B ev e rle y ,........
1842.......... ...... 75,543
64,451
1843.......... ...... 64,451
Total, 1843




Commercial Statistics.

291

C A N A L COM MERCE A T A L B A N Y .
T he following statement o f merchandise left at Albany, on the Erie and Champlain
canals, and the value o f each article, during the years 1842 and 1843, is derived from an
official sou rce:—

1842.
T he Forest—
Furs and peltry,...........
Boards and scantling,..
Shingles,......................... .......... M .
T im ber,.......................... ............feet
Staves,............................
W oo d ,.......................................cords
Ashes,............................ .......... bbls.

Quantity.
341,500
82,160,800
22,463
17,989
23,741
11,444
25,583

1841.

Quantity.
Value.
$341,500
319,700
1,109,171 89,102,800
33,086
73,804
2,513
3,598
142,451
24,108
54,360
10,876
537,243
37,785

Value.
$319,700
1,381,094
111,665
540
192,861
51,661
935,179

A griculture—
Pork,.............................. .......... bbls.
Beef,................................
Cheese,.......................... ............ lbs.
Butter and lard,.............
W o o l,............................ ....................
Flour,..............................
W heat,............................
R ye,.................................
Corn,............................... ..................
Barley,............................

42,480
7,793
8,840,685
9,820,600
2,129,300
1,117,821
187,442
15,952
252,599
387,160
649,890
587,900
11,043
15,547
476,100
30,000
1,027,200
1,336,650
410,260
382,500

$297,360
42,862
530,441
982,060
638,790
5,795,902
198,688
8,933
141,456
174,222
211,214
82,306
9,662
3,887
33,327
3,000
143,808
120,299
8,205
41,143

27,018
25,402
8,165,200
7,455,800
3,212.500
1,297,897
138,542
18,881
114,628
350,451
475,401
420,316
4,411
14,905
311,100
14,000
1,347,700
2,136,200
464,300
342,500

$283,698
133,361
449,087
745,580
867,375
5,918,410
138,542
13,028
65,338
189,265
142,621
58,844
4,411
3,726
24,888
1,890
148,247
149,534
9,286
23,975

Domestic woollens,...... ...........
Domestic cottons,.........
Salt,................................. ............
Merchandise,................ ............

463,087
987,550
357
310
101
108
121
292
756
118

$115,772
171,663
71,490
21,690
2,506
7,557
268,043
116,630
9,570
35,408

522,975
973,800
389
626
14
24
84
319
9,624
68

$156,893
219,106
77,820
50,096
428
1,677
201,600
159,400
130,616
23,678

Other A.rticles
Stone, lime, and clay,.. .......... tons

4,798

$9,596
26
34,399
513,504

7,058
281
1,824
10,258

$20,173
1,407
10,943
20,632

$2,261,327
9,467,565
784,921
557,525
35,408

218,628
188.976
13,920
19,421
68

$2,992,700
9,370,398
997,636

413,120 $13,106,746

441,013

$14,238,567

Bran and shipstuff,.......
Peas and beans,............
Potatoes,........................
Dried fruit,..................... ............lbs.
Cotton,........................... ............
T ob a cco,........................ ....... .........
Clover and grass seed,.. ..................
Flaxseed,........................
Hops,.............................. ............

M anufactures—
Domestic spirits,...........
Leather,.......................... ............lbs.
Furniture,....................... ...........tons
Bar and pig lead,.......... .................

5

Mineral coal,..................
Sundries,........................ .............

6,880
6,419

A ggregates—
Forest,........................... ............tons
Agriculture,..................
Manufactures,..............
Other articles,............... ................. .
Merchandise,............... .............
Total,................




209,377
180,900
4,623
18,102
118

854,155
23,678

292

Commercial Statistics.
L A K E C O M M E R C E OF C L E V E L A N D , OHIO.

A correspondent at Cleveland, Ohio, has furnished us with the subjoined official ex­
hibit o f the lake commerce at the port o f Cleveland for 1843 ; and to show how favor­
ably it contrasts with the business in 1830, an extract from Williams’ N ew Y ork R e­
gister is subjoined, embracing an account o f the trade o f that year.

Also, a statement

showing the number o f vessels and steamboats, and their tonnage, belonging to the
port o f Cleveland, from 1830 to 1843, inclusive.
T he tables furnish important data for the Congress o f the United States, in the disussion on the improvement o f the western waters.

It is stated in the Cleveland

Herald, that the half completed works, at that place, are fast going to decay and ruin.
Portions o f the wooden piers are so dilapidated and insecure, that severe storms endan­
ger their permanency ; and we submit it to Congress if a commerce that now reaches
over $11,000,000 annually, should not receive at least a proportionate share o f the
protection and fostering care bestowed on the seaboard by the general government.
The following statement o f produce cleared in 1830, at Cleveland, Ohio, which town
is situated at the junction o f the Ohio canal with Lake Erie, is particularly interesting
to the people o f this state, as it shows the commencement o f a commerce which must
accumulate rapidly, and principally flow through the western canal o f this state :—
Salt, barrels,....................................
Fish, “
Millstones, p a ir ,.............................

23,404
4,482
10

Gypsum, tons,....................................
Merchandise, tons,............................

85
1,461

T he following articles o f property have arrived at Cleveland, by way o f the canal,
during the year 1830 :—
W heat, bushels,........................................................................................................ 170,689
Coal, tons,..................................................................................................................
5,100
Flour, barrels,........................................................................................................... 32,988
W hiskey, barrels,....................................................................................................
2,442
Pork,
“
873
Beef,
“
148
Linseed oil, casks,....................................................................................................
802
Pot and Pearl ashes, tons,......................................................................................
104
T he above arrivals, via canal, may be considered as the principal articles exported
from Cleveland, during the year 1830.
Statement showing the number o f vessels and steamboats belonging to the port o f
Cleveland, their tonnage, and the number o f arrivals and departures, from the year
1830 to 1843, inclusive.

Belonging to
Years.
1830,....
1831,....
1832,....
1833,....
1834.....
1835,....
1836,....
1837,....
1838,....
1839.....
1840,....
1841,....
1842,....
1843,......

Steamb’ ts. Schrs. Sloops.
2
i
12
i
14
4
21
5
i
22
4
i
i
27
5
3
29
5
4
31
3
7
48
6
50
11
3
49
11
3
7
54
3
66
2
7
2
5
67
3
4
74




the

Brigs.

i
2
2
2
2
2
4
6
5

Pout

Cleveland.
Arr. of vess. Dep. of vess.
exclusive of exclusive of
Ships. Tonnage. steamboats. steamboats.
1,029
213
218
355
350
497
498
794
790
838
835
3,962
878
870
921
920
951
950
i
1,050
1,054
i
1,024
1,029
1,344
9,504
1,344
1,366
1,364
1,412
8,671
1,418
1,432
9,386
1,382
of

Commercial Statistics,

29S

■Statement showing the Principal A rticles imported and exported at the port o f Cleve­
land during the year 1843. A lso, the whole number o f arrivals and departures, the
number o f vessels belonging to the District o f Cuyahoga, and the aggregate tonnage.

I mports.

Salt,.............
Lumber, .... ...feet
Shingles, ...
Fish.............
Plaster,........
n
...tons
Shingle-bolts,cords
Merchandise,..tons
ti
pkgs.
Furniture,...
U
tons
S e e d s ,...... - casks
Limestone,.. cords
Cedar-posts, ..N o .

Quantity.
Value.
Quantity.
Value.
79,103 $93,934 81 Leather,.........sides
5,550 $16,650 00
1,504,215
15,040 00
“
.........rolls
1,147
34,410 00
3,539
8,847 50 Cast-iron stoves,...
1,178
14,136 00
23,232 00 C astings,.........lbs.
5,808
91,991
3,679 64
3,972
00
2,648
Water-lime,..bbls.
1,281
2,562 00
50
250 00 Nails, ............kegs
1,151
5,755 00
437
2,622 00 Marble,........pieces
10,926 00
1,821
8,1261
“
......... tons
7
315 00
40,769
Lehigh coal,..........
206
2,472 00
5,712,392 00
Burr blocks,...N o.
1.163
1,325 (
1,500 00
16 J
Oil,................ casks
100
3,000 00
8,274 00 C lo c k s ,......-boxes
1,379
645
16,125 00
155
9,300 00
319
1,595 00
T otal,............. . .......... $5,991,651 95
5,296
662 00

E xports.
Quantity.
Value.
•Quantity
Value.
W heat,........ .bush.
724,211 $564,884 58 Black walnut lumFlour,..........
596,878 2,268,136 40
h e r ,.......... M. ft.
193
$2,895 00
Pork.............
16,638
116,466 00 Brooms, ....d o z e n
2,420
3,639 00
Corn, .......... .bush.
196,747
68,861 45 T a llo w ,.........bbls.
14,960 00
1,496
O a ts,...........
11,158
2,343 18 Hollow-ware, .tons
10,290 00
147
W hiskey,...
11,245
73,092 50 Glass,............boxes
8,610
12,915 09
Salt,.............
19,862 12 Fruit,..............bbls.
16,726
3,250
3,250 00
Lard,...........
52,512 00 Oil, linseed and
17,504
Butter,..........
12,076
48,304 00 lard,...........bbls.
45,275 00
1,811
Seeds,..........
3,293
1,008
29,637 00 Fish,.......................
5,040 00
Ashes,......... casks
5,207
114,554 00 Merchandise,.pkgs
15,534
881,935 00
Beef,...........
7,623
38,115 00
555 (
“
tons
B ea n s,.........
291
727 50 B e e r,.............bbls.
43
215 00
C heese,........
15
1,059,563
47,680 33 P rod uce,........tons
600 00
Tobacco,.... hhds.
2,227
267,240 00 Saleratus, ...boxes
392
1,960 00
B acon,.........
110
862,964
38,833 38 Starch.,..................
220 00
Coal, (7,843 tons
Hemp,.............tons
34J
2,760 00
used by steamSoap,............boxes
330
1,980 00
boats,)......
33,504 00 Candles,.................
89
11,168
267 00
Grindstones,
40
700
8,880 00 Beeswax,. ...casks
2,400 00
S taves,....... ...M .
969
11,626 00 Live hogs,........No.
750
3,000 00
W ool,........... sacks
304,640 00 Plaster,......... bbls.
234
409 50
8,704
Feathers,....
1,460
1,061
547 75
19,098 00 B arley,.........bush.
No
3,911
10,755 25
N a ils,.........
6,361
Total,............... .......... $5,502,108 94
31,805 00
Iron,.............
4,200
336,000 00

E xports
Flour, ......... ■bbls.
Pork,............
W heat,........ bush.
Corn,............
Grindstones, .tons
Bacon,..........
B arley,....... bush.
Lard,............ .kegs
B e e r ,...........
Fish, ...........
Coal,.............
Hollow-ware
Cheese, ......




to

Canada,

included in tee above.

Quantity.
Value.
49,362 $187,575 60jlron,...........
4,812
33,684 00 Fruit,.......... . .bbls.
90,689
70,737 42 Starch,...... .boxes
78,481
27,468 35 Black walnut lum118
1,416 00 ber,........ .M. ft.
40,511
1,823 on Salt,...........
413
154 87 Beef, ..........
705
2,115 00 Brooms,.,.. •dozen
20
100 00 T allow ,......
50 00 Hemp,........
10
1,459
4,377 80 Seeds,....... ..bbls.
5
350 00; Merchandise,pkgs.
5,211
234 50
Total,.

25*

Quantity. Value.
29
$2,320 oa
91
91 00
63
126 00
17
396
67
99
29
344
63
512

255
444
335
148
230
2,760
567
19,926

00
50
00
50
0.0
00
00
00

294

Commercial Statistics.

T otal amount o f exports in 1842,.............................................................
“
“
“
1843,..............................................................
Balance in favor o f 1842,..............................................................

$5,851,898 5G
5,502,108 94
$349,789 62

This balance may be accounted for by the falling o ff in our foreign exports.

Had our

trade with Canada in 1843 been equal to 1842, our total exports would have amounted
to $6,161,736 2 5 ; which is shown as follow s:—
Exports to Canada in 1842,........................................................................
“
1843,......................................................................

$1,016,976 05
357,348 74

A dd total exports in 1 8 4 3 ,.............................................................

$659,627 31
5,502,108 94

T otal,........................................................................ '................

$6,161,736 25

Value o f wheat, flour, and pork, shipped to Canada in 1842,..............
«
“
«
“
“
«
1843,..............

$961,954 31
291,997 02
$669,957 29

W hole number o f vessels arrived in 1843,.......................... ................
“
steamboats arrived in 1843,............................ .........
W hole number o f vessels departed in 1843,...........................................
“
steamboats departed in 1843,....................................
W hole number o f vessels entered from Canada in 1843,....................
“
vessels cleared for Canada in 1843...........................
T otal number o f vessels belonging to the district o f Cuyahoga,..........
“
steamboats
“
“
“
.........
Am ount o f tonnage,...........................................................
Number o f men employed,..............................................

1,382
1,100
---------1,432
1,100
---------184
176
---------82
4

-------

2,482

2,532

360

86

9,386 8-95 tons.
565

L E A D A N D C O P PE R T R A D E OF G A L E N A .
W e are indebted to an esteemed friend, (says the Missouri Republican,) for the
following statement o f the export o f lead from Galena, in pigs and bars, and o f copper.
W e would be glad if we could arrive at statements equally satisfactory, from the mine8
in the southern part o f this state.
T he following statement we understand as embracing all the shipments from the
mines on the Upper Mississippi, via the river. T he statement comes now just oppor­
tunely, as it will make manifest to Congress something o f the necessity o f providing for
the improvement o f the navigation o f the Mississippi at the Des Moines Rapids. Here
is about a million o f property o f one kind which has to cross these rapids, which is sub­
jected to all the dangers, delays and losses incident to the dangers o f navigation, and
also has to bear the burden o f the increase o f charges growing out o f these dangers.
Besides, it will be seen by this statement that each o f these items are growing rapidly,
notwithstanding the obstacles they have to contend with, and in despite o f the neglect
with which government has ever treated them. For it may with propriety be said, that
government has at no time aided in the extension or advancement o f the mining inter­
est ; her operations, generally, have been to throw clogs and obstacles in the way o f the
operator.
T he products o f the mines are, however, but one o f the many which that country
affords. W e regret that we have not at hand the means to show the amount o f agri­
cultural products shipped from points above the rapids. But it is a fact well known to
the dealers in this city, that after supplying the mines and the emigration, this country
affords a large surplus. This surplus is yearly increasing, and the day is not far distant
when it will furnish an amount o f agricultural products more than equal to its mineral
wealth. A ll these things, we trust, will not fail to produce a proper effect on Congress.




Commercial Statistics.

295

Statement o f the shipments o f L ead from Galena and Dubuque, and all other points on
the Upper M ississippi, fo r 1841, 1842, and 1843.

1841.
Mouths.
M arch,........
A pril,.........
M ay,..........
Ju n e,.........
July,...........
August,......
September,.
O ctober,....
November,.

452,814
Small lead,
equal to.
Sholink’gs.
Shipped to
the lakes,

1842.

1841.

No. steam- Keels
No. steam- Keels
No. steam- Keels
Pigs lead. boats. towed. Pigs lead. boats. towed. Pigs lead. boats. towed.
4,080
4
i
28
13
80.125
91,296
23
7
65,080
27
3
73,449
17
91,233
28
14
46,515
33
122,224
48
3
57,110
18
19
37,959
20
2
74,475
45
58,820
19
12
54,436
20
10
77,333
40
37,257
16
16
43,250
15
20
67,233
28
14
16,092
8
10
39,081
25
17
45,400
23
14
46,286
12
14
54,941
21
12
67,473
29
11
50,640
13
6
17
26,472
11
33,734
14
6

2,750
7,840

143

108

447,859

195

88

561,321

840

2,410
5,000

25,000

15,400

244

55

Total,......... 463,404
473,699
584,131
Pigs W isconsin copper, 1,400, equal to 95,000 lbs.
G alena, Dec. 15th, 1843.
A . B. C hambers— Dear Sir :— Above I hand you a statement o f the shipments o f lead
made from this section o f the country this season, compared with that o f 1841 and 1842,
together with the number o f steamboat departures, and number o f keels and barges
towed ; showing 561,321 pigs against 447,859 pigs in 1842, and in small bar lead, 2,410
pigs against 840 pigs; showing an actual increase in the shipments of... 115,032 pigs.
T o which should be added that stopped by ice in 1842, none o f which
reached St. Louis prior to 10th April, 1843,..............................................
25,142
Making an actual increase in the supply o f.............. .................................... 140,174
That made into shot, say 5,000 pigs, has gone to supply the lake borders, as well as
the lead shipped that way. T he steamboat arrivals show an increase o f 49 over 1842,
being 244 against 195.
The article o f W isconsin copper is attracting notice, and will becom e a valuable arti.
cle in the trade o f this country. Our shipments this year amount in value to, say
$11,000, and will, I think, in 1844, double that amount. In the Boston market it com ­
mands the same price as Peruvian copper, and with one house has the preference over it.
The value o f the lead exported from here this year may be set down at 563,731 pigs
o f 70 lbs.=39,461,171 lb s.; at $ 2 2 7 £ ,......................................................... $937,202 00
And copper,........................................................................................................
11,000 00
$948,202 00
Our means o f transportation have been remarkably low throughout the season, ow­
ing to the high water which removed the obstructions at the Rapids, reducing freight to
7, 8, and 10 cents per 100; and, up to within a few days o f the closing o f our naviga­
tion, they did not exceed 20 to 25 cents. Such would invariably be the case if C on­
gress would remove the obstructions at the rapids.
Respectfully, y ou rob’ t servant.
The Western Gazette, printed at Galena, in publishing the accompanying table and
letter, remarks:—
“ The above statistics furnish gratifying evidence o f the growing prosperity and in­
creasing wealth o f this interesting portion o f the north west. During the past year, the
shipments o f lead were far greater than any previous year, and all branches o f trade and
industry in the mining region have experienced more substantial prosperity than ever be­
fore. Our merchants, although more numerous, have realized larger profits than at any
former period, and all others, engaged in different avocations, been proportionably bene­
fited. This section o f country holds out strong inducements to emigrants. Its abun­
dant mineral and agricultural resources give it a superiority over almost every other.
Those resources are yet undeveloped, comparatively, and their intrinsic value can be ap­
preciated only by those who shall avail themselves o f them,”




296

Mercantile Miscellanies.

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
N E W Y O R K M E R C A N T IL E L IB R A R Y A S S O C IA T IO N .

T he Twenty-third Annual Report o f the Board o f Directors of the Mercantile Library
Association, read by the president on the evening o f the 9th o f January, 1844, has been
published, which, together with the treasurer’s report, proceedings o f the annual meeting,
and a list o f the members, occupies thirty octavo pages. The report is able and inter­
esting, and breathes throughout a liberal and enlightened spirit. T he twenty-second
annual report states the aggregate number o f members to be three thousand three hun­
dred and seventy-two.

From this number, deducting the stockholders o f Clinton Hall

Association, who, though entitled to the privilege o f the library, are not members, two
hundred and ninety-two, and honorary members one hundred and fifty, leaves the num­
ber o f paying members, as stated in the previous report, two thousand nine hundred and
thirty.

From this number, deduct withdrawals in 1843, and accounts closed, which ex­

pired in 1842 and 1843, in accordance with an article in the constitution, in all one
thousand one hundred and eighty-one, leaving one thousand seven hundred and fortynine members, to which add the new members o f the past year, and we have at the
present time two thousand five hundred and one paying members.

T he present num­

ber o f honorary members is one hundred and fifty-six ; stockholders o f Clinton Hall As­
sociation two hundred and ninety-two.

From the treasurer’s report, it appears that the

receipts for the year ending September 31, 1843, have been $4 ,355 , and the expendi­
tures $4 ,466 .

Four hundred and twenty-one volumes have been added to the library

during , the past year, by purchase, and forty-four by donation ; making a total, taking
the statement o f 1842 as a basis, o f twenty-five thousand one hundred and forty-nine
volumes.

W e annex a list o f the officers for 1844, elected at the annual meeting, as

follow s:—
Charles E. Milnor, President'.; John C. Clark, Vice President; George Grundy,
Corresponding Secretary; Charles M. W heatley, Recording Secretary; Benjamin P.
Kissam, Treasurer.

Anthony Halsey, Roswell E. L ockw ood, Elias B. Mullany, John

Loines, Henry K . Bull, John H. Earle, Cornelius L . E-veritt, Directors.
M E R C A N T IL E L IB R A R Y C O M P A N Y OF P H IL A D E L P H IA .
T he Directors o f this Association, in their Twenty-first Annual Report, presented at
B meeting o f the stockholders, January 9th, 1844, advert with high gratification to the
continued prosperity o f the Association.

They say, with justice, that the proudest an­

ticipations o f its enlightened founders, must be more than realized by its present attitude,
and the great powrer. for usefulness, which it exerts in the city o f its location.

Nearly a

quarter o f a century has elapsed since the institution was established. A few hundred
volumes, at the commencement, have swelled into nearly nine thousand valuable works ;
and the records exhibit the gratifying fact, that the entire library is taken out for perusal
in every year.

T he number o f volumes added, since the former report, is four hundred

and nineteen.

T he number taken out for perusal, ten thousand .two hundred and sixty.

It is also supplied with twenty magazines and other periodicals.

T he treasurer’s report,

exhibiting the fiscal affairs o f the company, shows the disbursements during 1843, for
books and periodicals, to be $8 79 43, and ordinary expenses $1 ,405 85, and the re­
ceipts from fines, contributions, dividends, & c., $2 ,210 88 ; leaving at the present time
in the treasury, and in investment at interest, the sum o f $3,725 46, which can be
made immediately available for building, or other purposes.

It is contemplated to erect

a building expressly for the use o f this Association, and from the spirit evinced by the




297

Mercantile Miscellanies,

Association, no doubt is entertained that this object, so desirable, will be accomplished.
T he following gentlemen compose the list o f officers for 1844:—
Thomas P. Cope, President; John Fausset, Treasurer; John J. Thompson, Secre­
tary; James Cox, Librarian.

Thomas P. Cope, Isaac Barton, Charles S. W ood, Joseph

Patterson, Robert F. W alsh, Joseph C. Grubb, J. L. Erringer, J. J. Thompson, William
L. Schaffer, W illiam E. Bowen, J. V. Williamson, C. H. W elling, Marmaduke M oore,
Directors.
M E R C A N T IL E L IB R A R Y A S S O C IA T IO N OF B A L T IM O R E .
W e have received from the President o f this Association, the Fourth Annual Report
of the Board o f Directors.

It is a brief but business-like document, furnishing a compre­

hensive view o f the management and condition o f the institution during the past year,
with such suggestions as occurred to the directors while officially charged with the con­
duct o f its business.

Though the Association has not increased in point o f numerical

strength, during the year ending November 9th, 1843, yet its general condition is one
o f soundness, strength, and prosperity.

On the whole, it has much cause to consider it­

self fortunate, as from its foundation to the present time, it has gone steadily forward
in its career.

The number o f active members, at the date o f the third annual report,

was three hundred and twelve ; from this number, sixty-seven are deducted for resigna­
tions, and twenty-nine for transfers to the honorary members book, leaving two hundred
and sixteen names on the r o ll; the number o f members added the present year is
eighty-seven, making a total o f three hundred and three members.

44 Unless,” says the

report, 44 the Association continues to increase for at least four years more, at something
near the rate o f the first three years o f its existence, it will not adequately represent the
strength o f the class o f which its active membership is composed, nor though more rap­
idly in its rising will it be comparatively as strong as its sister Association in N ew Y ork,
which counts fourteen times our strength in a city o f little more than three times the
population o f our own.” T he number o f books in the library, according to the last re­
port, was two thousand eight hundred and te n ; the number, at present, is three thou­
sand six hundred and ten ; making an increase during the year o f eight hundred vol­
umes.

O f this number, five hundred and thirteen have been purchased, two hundred

and fifty-four presented, and thirty-three volumes o f periodicals and papers bound.
From the treasurer’s report, we learn that the total revenue from actual and honorary
subscriptions, lectures, and other sources, amounted to $1,936- 90, which, with the bal­
ance remaining on hand from last year, made a total o f $2,141 63. O f this sum, there
was expended for books, periodicals, and binding, $6 40 64, and for rent, salary, furni­
ture, & c., $1,149 79, leaving a cash balance o f $351 22.

The Association has besides

a fund o f $500, set apart for contingencies during the second year o f its existence, and
invested in city stock.

T he amount received from the sale o f tickets to the lectures,

was $1,522 ; o f which, $6 07 was paid lecturers, and for other expenses $514, leaving
a profit o f $4 00.

W e are gratified to notice the name o f our worthy friend, W . G. L y-

ford, Esq., editor o f the Commercial Journal, added to the list o f honorary members, a
tribute o f respect eminently due to that gentleman, in consideration o f his services to the
commercial community, as well as for good offices rendered the Association on various
occasions.

T he following gentlemen were elected officers o f this Association for the

term o f one year, from November 10th, 1843:—
v
Charles Bradenbaugh, President; Upton H. Stephens, Vice President; Joseph T.
England, Corresponding Secretary; John K. Carrington, Recording Secretary; Robert
H. Lowry, Treasurer.

Henry W inter, George F. Thomas, John J. W ight, Henry E.

Thomas, Edmund Jacobsen, H . Ballard Johnston, John R. L ow e, Directors.




298

The Booh Trade.

THE BOOK TRADE.
1-— L etters o f Horace Walpole, Earl o f Orford, to Sir Thomas Mann, H is Britannic
M ajesty's Resident to the Court o f Florence, from 1760 to 1785. N ow first published
from the original M SS. Concluding series. In 2 volumes. V ol. 1, 8vo., pp. 421.
Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
In 1842, the enterprising publishers o f the present volume reprinted from the London
edition the first series o f W alpole’s letters, in four large and handsome octavo volumes.
In presenting these new letters, they state that the second volume may be shortly expect­
ed, which will complete the series to Horace M ann; and that, in bringing them out in
this form, it has been their desire that the purchasers o f the four previous volumes should
be able to complete their sets in a form to match.

T o those who have read the former

series, we need say nothing in the way o f commendation; but to those who have not,it
will, we presume, be satisfactory to know that but one opinion is entertained by those at
the head o f literary criticism in England.

W e consider them models o f epistolary wri­

ting, abounding in proofs o f the author’s intimate perceptions o f human nature, and his
clear views o f public affairs. They are full o f wit, pleasantry, and information, and
written with singular neatness and sprightliness.
2.

— The Various W ritin gs o f Cornelius M atthew s; embracing the M otley Booh, Be.
hemoih, the Politicians, Poem s on M an in the Republic, Wakendah, P uffer Hopkins,
Miscellanies, Selections from A rcturus, and International Copyright. Svo., pp. 370.
N ew Y o rk : Harper &, Brothers.
T he present volume embraces the complete works o f Mr. Matthews, which have be­

fore been published in various forms, and widely circulated.

These writings have been

exposed on the one hand to unjust criticism, and on the other to extravagant praise.
Mr. M ., however, holds a clever p e n ; and many o f the papers are in a vein o f quiet
humor, and at the same time free from that disgusting vulgarity supposed by some to be
an indispensable requisite o f wit.

There is considerable force in tbe arguments adduced

in the speech and lecture at the close o f the volume, in favor o f an international copy­
right, but not enough to convince us either o f the justice or expediency o f the measure.
W e have no idea that, if adopted, it would benefit American authors a penny; and sure
are we that a large majority o f the American people would be deprived, in a great mea­
sure, o f those inspirations o f genius bestowed on the gifted for the benefit o f the many.

3.

— Endeavors after the Christian L ife. A Volume o f Discourses.
12mo., pp. 291. Boston : James Munroe & Co.

By J ames Mar-

tineau.

It is refreshing, in the midst o f the sectarian controversies o f the time, to take up a
work pregnant with the inner heart o f human life and faith.

Those who, in devout

reading o f books and men, look rather for that which is Christian, than that which talks
o f Christianity, will find in this volume no faint impression o f the religion by which all
should desire to live and die.

T he discourses in the volume have no formal connection,

but were prepared at different times, and “ in different moods o f meditation;” and are
related to each other only by their comm on direction towards the great end o f responsible
existence. Without any apparent effort for effect in style, they are at once models of
elegant and graceful composition.

4. — Sacred B iography ; or, the H istory o f the Patriarchs.

To which is added, the
H istory o f Deborah, Ruth, and Hannah, and also the H istory o f Jesus Christ. Being
a Course o f Lectures delivered in the Scotch Church, London-W all. By H enry
H unter, D. D. In one volume, 8vo., pp. 596. N ew York : Harper & Brothers.
A n e w edition o f an old and popular work.

It is too well known in the religious world

to require any other notice than the mere announcement o f its appearance in the present
neat and attractive garb.




The Book. Trade .
5.

299

— Benthamiana; or, Select E xtra cts from the W orks o f Jeremy Bentham. W ith an
Outline o f his opinions on the Principal Subjects discussed in his W orks. Edited
by John H ill B urton, Advocate. 12mo., pp. 446. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
This handsomely printed volume contains several hundred extracts from the volumi­

nous works o f the utilitarian philosopher.

The brilliant wit, the lively illustration, the

spirited eloquence, and the expressive clearness in many o f the passages embraced in
this collection, are scarcely excelled by any writer in the English language. Several o f
the passages in this selection contain pretty ample illustrations o f the author’s method o f
reasoning, and o f the conclusions to which he arrived on many o f the subjects which he
most prominently discussed.
6.

— The P oetical W orks o f Thomas Moore. Collected by himself.
volume. 18mo., pp. 518. Philadelphia : Carey & Hart.

Complete in one

The American publishers have compressed in one volume the entire contents o f the
London edition, in ten volumes. T o each are prefixed autobiographical sketches, and
anecdotes connected with the poems in that volum e; and, in order to present these in
their proper connection, and elucidate clearly the author’s allusions, they have marked
the beginning o f each volume o f the English edition, adopting Mr. M oore’s arrangements
throughout the entire work.

A t the close, are several pages o f songs and pieces which

have been omitted in the London edition, which render the present the most complete
yet published.

7. — Lectures on Christian Doctrine.
Church, Portsmouth, N . H.

By A ndrew P. Peabody, Pastor o f the South
l2m o., pp. 227. Boston : James Munroe & Co.

These lectures, we are informed in the brief preface, are not offered to the public as
a full compend o f Christian doctrine, or as a fair exhibition o f the positive side o f the
author’s own faith; but simply as a discussion o f the prominent points at issue between
the Unitarian and the Calvinistic portion o f the Christian church. The object o f the
author, as stated in the opening lecture, is to exhibit a fair and candid view o f the points
in which Unitarians differ from other Christians, and o f the grounds on which their pe­
culiar views rest.

Reference is o f course made to the creeds o f others, but generally in

a kindly tone and manner.
8.

— Letters on the M inistry, Ritual, and Doctrines o f the Protestant Episcopal Church,
addressed to the Rev. William E . W y a tt, D. D., Associate M inister o f St. P au l’s
Parish, Baltimore, # c . By Jared Sparks, formerly Minister o f the First Indepen­
dent Church o f Baltimore. 12mo., pp. 240. Boston : James Munroe & Co.
These letters were elicited by a sermon o f Dr. W yatt, exhibiting some o f the principal

doctrines o f the Protestant Episcopal Church in the United States, several years since,
and are, o f course, o f a controversial character, but are written in a very catholic and
liberal spirit. T he subjects discussed are the ministry, ritual, and authority o f the church
in controversies o f faith; the doctrinal character o f the thirty-nine articles; the doctrine
of the Trinity, as held by the Episcopal Church, & c. The high moral and intellectual
character, as well as critical acumen o f the author, will doubtless secure for the work
the candid perusal o f many who may not assent to the force o f his arguments, or the
correctness o f his conclusions.
NEW YORK BOOK-TRADE SALE.
The thirty-ninth semi-annual sale o f Messrs. Bangs, Richards & Platt, will commence on
Tuesday, the 26th o f March, and continue until the close o f the week. The catalogue (of
one hundred and fifty six octavo pages) contains an unusually valuable collection o f new and
standard works in every department o f literature and science, stationery, plates, &c. In run­
ning over the catalogue, we notice contributions from all the leading publishers and book­
sellers in the United States, who generally attend these sales; which, ^affords us pleasure
to say, are conducted by the present worthy and intelligent proprietors in a manner that gives
universal satisfaction to all concerned.




300

The Book Trade.

[W e give below a list o f the works published in pamphlet form since the commencement
o f the present year. These works crowd upon us so fast, that we have been compelled to
adopt the plan o f giving the title-page in full, number o f pages, name o f the publishers, &c.
In this way, we shall be able hereafter to notice all the works of this class that we receive,
without encroaching upon the original design o f our Journal. The plan will, we have no
doubt, prove satisfactory to the publishers o f cheap literature, and the readers o f the Mer­
chants’ Magazine, inasmuch as it will furnish a catalogue o f nearly all the new works that
appear. It will be seen that most o f the works, the titles o f which are given below, are re­
prints o f English literature, or translations from foreign languages.]
1. — Tables o f Interest, determining, by means o f Logeslic Squares, the Interest in every Whole
Sum up to Ten Thousand Dollars, fo r any length o f time not exceedingfour hundred days, at
the Rates o f Six and Seven per cent. New York : W iley & Putnam.
2. —Arabella Stuart. A Romance from English History. By G. P. R. James, Esq., author
o f “ Darnley,” “ Morley Ernstein,” “ The False Heir,” etc. No. 26 “ Library of Select
Novels.” 8vo., pp. 142. New York: Harper & Brothers.
3. —Mr. Cheever's Lectures on the Pilgrim's Progress, and on the Life and Times o f John
Bunyan. Nos. 1, 2, and 3. pp. 132. New York: W iley & Putnam. 1844.
4. —New Sketches o f Every-Day Life. A Diary. Together with Strife and Peace. By Frederika Bremer. Translated by Mary H ow itt . 8vo., pp 134. New York: Harper &
Brothers.
5. — The Mothers o f England: their Influence and Responsibility. By M rs. E llis, author of
“ The Women o f England,” “ Sons o f the Soil,” “ The Wives of England,” etc. 8vo.,
pp. 122. New York: Henry G. Langley.
6. — The Ministry o f Men in the Economy o f Grace, and the Danger o f Overvaluing it. A
Sermon preached before the University o f Oxford, October 25th, 1840. By E dward Haw­
kins, I). D., Provost o f Oriel College, and Canon of Rochester. 8vo., pp. 41. New York:
D. Appleton & Co.
7. -r-£ S. D. Treasure Trove. A Tale. By S amuel L over, Esq., author o f “ Handy
Andy,” “ Rory O More,” etc. 8vo., pp. 173. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
8. — The American in Paris during the Summer. A Picture o f Parisian L ife in the Court,
the Salons, and the Family Circle ; its Sports, Amusements, and Festivities. By J ules Janin . 8vo., pp. 117. New Yrork: Burgess, Stringer & Co.
9. — The Yemassee. A Romance o f Carolina. By W . G. S imms, LL. D., author o f “ Guy
Rivers,” “ Martin Faber,” etc. In 2 vols. Harper’s Pocket Edition of Select Novels.
18mo., pp. 222 and 242. New Yqrk : Harper & Brothers.
10. — St. Patrick's Purgatory. An Essay on the Purgatory, Hell, and Paradise, current during
the Middl# Ages. By T homas W right, M. A., F. R. S. 8vo., pp. 88. New York: J.
Winchester.
11. —E l Dorado; being a Narrative o f the Circumstances which gave rise to Reports, in the Fif­
teenth Century, o f a Splendid City in South America, to which that name was given, and which
led to many enterprises in search o f i t ; including a Defence o f Sir Walter Raleigh, in regard
to the relations made by him respecting it, and a Nation o f Female Warriors, in the vicinity of
the Amazon, etc. With a Map. By J. A. Van H euvel. 8vo , pp. 153. New YTork : J.
Winchester.
’
12. — Memoirs o f Silvio P ellico; or, My Pinsons. Translated from the Italian. By M. J.
Smead. and H. P. L efebre. New York : Henry G. Langley.
13. — A Biography o f John Randolph o f Roanoke, with a Selection from his Speeches. By
Lemuel Sawyer , formerly o f North Carolina, and for sixteen years an associate in Con­
gress with Mr. Randolph. 8vo., pp. 132. New Y ork : Burgess, Stringer & Co.
14. — The Kitchen Directory, and American Housewife; containing the most Valuable and
Original Receipts in all the various branches o f Cookery, together with a Collection o f Miscel­
laneous Receipts, etc. 12mo., pp. 144. Mark H. Newman.
15. — The Hierarchical Despotism. Lectures on the Mixture o f Civil and Ecclesiastical Power
in the Government o f the Middle Ages, in illustration o f the NatiCre and Progress o f Des­
potism in the Romish Church. By Rev. George B. Cheever. 12mo., pp. 120. New
York : Saxton & Miles.
16. — Travels in the Californios, and Scenes in the Pacific Ocean. B y T homas J. Farnham, author o f “ Travels in the Great Western Prairies,” etc. 8vo., pp. 96. New YTork :
Saxton & Miles. 1844.
17. — The Salamander. A Naval Romance. By E ugene S ue. Translated from the French.
By Henry W illiam H erbert, author o f “ Cromwell,” “ The Brothers,” etc. 8vo., pp.
115 Newr Y^ork : J. Winchester.
18. — The Female Blue-Beard; or, L e Morne au-Diable. By E ugene S ue, author of the
“ Myste'rics o f Paris.” 8vo., pp. 115. New YTork: J. Winchester.
19. — Colonel de Survitte. A Tale o f the Empire— 1810. By E ugene S ue. Translated from
the French by T somas Pooley, Esq. 8vo., pp. 60. New YTork : J. Winchester.
20. — Charles de Bourbon, Lord Constable o f France. A Historical Romance. By A lphonse
R oger. Translated from the French. By Edward S. Gould. 8vo. New York: J.
Winchester.