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H U N T’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
E s ta b lis h e d J u ly , 1839*

BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

VOLUME X X X .

J U N E , 1854.

CONTENTS

OF

NO.

VI.,

NUMBER V I

VOL. X X X .

ARTICLES.
Ar t.

paok.

I. THE CAMEL AND ITS COMMERCIAL VALUE. By W x . G. K i n g , Esq., N. Y ..........(5)
II. COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES.—No. vtti.—New England: Progress in Popu­
lation, Trade, and Importance—English Hostility to her Navigation Interest—Excision
o f the Newfoundland Colony—Navigation Laws—Whale Fishery—Philip’ s War—Mate
of the Middle Colonies—The South; Effect o f Trade-burdens in Virginia and Carolina—
Charleston—The Mississippi, aud French Progress at the West—Spanish Treaty— Hon­
duras—Export Duties—French Colonies, etc. By E n o c h H a l e , Jr., Esq., N. Y ............. 670
III. COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.—No. xxxvii .—
PITTSBlIRGH: ITS COMMERCE, PRODUCTS, AND MANUFACTURING RE­
SOURCES. By C h a r l e s M c K n i g u t , Esq., Vice-President o f the Mercantile Library
Association, Pittsburgh................................................................................................
683
I V . THE MAINE LAW A FIXED FACT. ITS RESULTS— A NEW ELEMENT IN THE
INDUSTRIAL AND COMMERCIAL INTERESTS OF OUR COUNTRV. By Hon.
N e a l Dow, late Mayor of Portland, Maine............................................................................ 703

J O U R N A L OF M E R C A N T I L E L A W .
Ship-owners—Drafts for repairs of Ship..............................................................................................
The Right of Ship-masters to Flog Sailors............................................................. ..............................
Of the Rights of Married Women to Property......................................................... ...........................
Jurisdiction—Lien—Stevedore—C osts..................................................................................................
Afreightment o f Merchandise......... ....................................................................................................
Damages from Water Pipes.............................................. .............. ........................ . . . . . . ..................

710
711
712
713
714
715

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND R E V I E W :
EM BRACIN G A FIN AN CIAL AND COMM ERCIAL REV IE W OF THE UNITED STATES, E T C .,IL L U S T R A ­
TED W IT H T ABLES, ETC., AS FO L L O W S :

General Review of Commercial Affairs throughout the Country— State o f the Crops, and Con­
dition o f the Money Market—Railroad Liabilities and Investments— Banks of the United
Stales—Banks of New York and New Orleans—Production, Deposits, and Coinage o f Gold,
Silver, and Copper—imports at New York for April aud from January 1st—Cash Duties
Received for Four Months — Imports o f Dry Goods for April and for Four Months from
January 1st—Exports from New York to Foreign Ports for April and from January 1st—
Monthly Statement of Exports o f Domestic Produce from New York for Eleven Months—
Exports from New Orleans, etc., etc............................................................................................. 716-725
New York Cotton Market........................................................................................................................ 725
VOL. XXX.---- NO. VI.




42

658

CONTENTS

O F N O . V I . , V O L.

J O U R N A L OF B A N K I N G ,

CURRENCY,

XXX.

AND F I N A N C E .
PAOR

Corporated wealth in the city o f New Y ork.......................................................................................
Debt and finances of New York City............................................................................. ...................
Debt of Cincinnati, Ohio.—Domestic exchanges in the United States..........................................
Condition of the Bank o f Montreal.—Liability and resources o f banks in South Carolina........
Foreign exchanges......................................................................................................................... •
Issue of an inconvertible currency in Russia.— Increase o f taxable property in Pennsylvania..
Calculations in regard to counting gold coin.—The money o f calculation and o f consumption.
What are consols ?—Suppression of small notes in Virginia...........................................................

727
730
731
733
734
735
73G
736

J O U R N A L OF I N S U R A N C E .
The New England Mutual Life Insurance Company.....................................

COMMERCIAL

STATISTICS.

The iron trade of Great Britain............................................................................. ................................. 742
Export of teas to the United States.— Imports of bread stuffs into Great Britain from Ireland.. . . 743
Commercial importance o f Wilmington, N. C.......................................................................... .. •-------744
Commerce of Honolulu, Sandw ich Islands.—Lumber trade o f Chicago and the State of Michigan. 745
Imports from Russia into the United Kingdom in 1852 and 1853 ...................................................... 746
Grain and Hour trade of the United Kingdom...................................................................................... 746
Foreign trade o f Oswego.—Statistics of the United Kingdom............... .............................................. 747

COMMERCIAL

REGULATIONS.

Commercial treaty betw een France and Belgium.—British coasting trade free............................... 748
The Merchants’ Flour Inspectors in New Orleans............................................................................... 749
Buenos Ayrean commercial decrees.—New tariff at Balize, Honduras.............................................. 750
Cheap postage between New York and Australia............................................................................... 750
Classification of manufactures in Great Britain.—Navigation o f the La Plata................................. 751
The new Australian tariff—An important Treasury Department ruling.......................................... 751

STATISTICS

OF A G R I C U L T U R E , &c.

New York cattle trade for 1853 ...................... ...................................................................................... 752
Production o f cotton in India.............................................................. ...................................................755

STATISTICS

OF P O P U L A T I O N , & e .

Births,deaths, and marriages in Massachusetts..................................................................................... 756
Results of the census o f Great Britain................................................................................. ................. 757
Statistics of Population in California..................................................................................................... 758

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND S T E A M B O A T S T A T I S T I C S .
The steamboat—Massachusetts railroads in 1851-2-3......................................................................... 759
Rates of tolls on the canals of New York in 1854............................................................................... 760
Statistics of the British steam n a v y ....................................................................................................... 762
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.—The railroads of Maine in 1853 ....................................................... 763
The railroads of Virginia.—New railroad switch .............................................................................764
Steamboat engineers and pilots.—Early history o f Lake navigation................................................ 765

NAUTICAL

INTELLIGENCE.

Additionallighthouse at the entrance of Port Philip, also beacon on Swan River.......................... 760
Navigation into Spithead.—The light-ships in the Cattegat.............................................................. 76G
Casualties to British shipping in four years.—Clipper ship Red Jacket........................................... 767

J O U R N A L OF M I N I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S .
Manufactures of Paris............................................................................................................................... 768
Rundle’ s method of separating g o ld ...................................................................................................... 771
Hamilton’ s ship-timber eaw-mill.—Manufacture o f paper from straw and bagging.................... . 772
The glass trade and manufacture.—Manufacture of American steel................................................. 773

MERCANTILE

MISCELLANIES.

Mercantile education at A ntw erp........................................................................................................... 774
Commercial view of temperance.—Growth of Comm erce................................................................. 775
Mercantile Library Association o f San Francisco.—Adulteration o f liquors...................................776
The importance o f getting gold.—Mercantile ambition....................................................................... 777
Elements of success in business.—Slavery for m oney................................................... ..................... 778

TI I E BOOR T R A D E .
Notices o f new Books or new Editions




779-784

H U N T ’ S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE
AND

COMMERCIAL REVIEW.
J U N E ,

1854.

Art. I.— TIIE CAMEL AND ITS COMMERCIAL VALUE *
T h e camel lias been associated in all past historical ages with the Com­
merce and civilization o f mankind. The record o f its services commences
with the patriarchal epoch, and its earliest performances are recorded in
Genesis, the earliest o f books. The Commerce o f Central and Eastern Asia—
from the Mediterranean to the mouth o f the Amour, and from Northern Tar­
tary to the confines o f China and the coast o f the Persian G u lf; and o f
Africa— from the Mediterranean to the Equatorial line, and from the Red
Sea to the Atlantic Ocean— is dependent for its existence upon this animal.
To the advantages which would attend its introduction into the Western
deserts and plains o f this continent, the attention o f the public has o f late
been somewhat drawn. Our predecessors in the vast territories recently
acquired by us were content with the horse which was introduced bv their
forefathers, the Conquestadores. The American conqueror, aiming to ac­
complish his mission o f civilization by Commerce and its train o f conse­
quences, will introduce the camel, and thus fix the second great epoch in
the history o f the domestication o f animals useful to man on this continent.
Symptoms o f this are manifesting themselves in various quarters. Before
the close o f the past year, the acclimation o f the camel was submitted to
the consideration o f Congress by one o f the principal departments o f the
government, whose chief— a gentleman o f great capacity and very compre­
hensive mind— earnestly and forcibly recommended the introduction o f the
anim al; and still later, we find the Legislature o f the State o f New York
giving its aid and sanction to the same project, by the passage o f a liberal
and favorable act o f incorporation o f the “ American Camel Company.”
Mr. Erastus Brooks, one o f the representatives o f this city in the Senate o f
the State, well informed on the subject o f commercial history, and whose

* Secretary o f War’s Report, Dec. 1, 1853. Act o f the New York Legislature to incorporate the
American Camel Company, April 15, 1854.




660

The Cam el: and its Commercial Value.

active intelligence enabled him to appreciate the advantages o f camel trans­
portation, introduced the bill, and under his auspices it became a law.
A s the present time, therefore, would seem to be a juncture at which an
outline o f the natural history o f the camel may gratify legitimate curiosity
and interest, some pains have been taken to collect, from numerous sources,
the following facts, showing very conclusively that the camel is the animal
o f all others best adapted for facilitating and extending commercial inter­
course over the deserts and plains intervening between the Mississippi and
Pacific Ocean.
NATURAL HISTORY OF THE CAMEL.

General Characteristics. The camel, belonging to the class o f ruminants,
is one o f the larger quadrupeds, being six or seven feet from the ground to
the highest part o f the back, and carrying its head, when erect, about nine
feet above the plane o f its position. The carcase weighs about three or four
hundred pounds; but the size and weight are far from being alike in all.
The neck is long and slender, and seems to grow out o f the lower part o f
the body, between the fore legs. The head is small, and the ears sh ort;
the eyes are o f various colors— from a black to almost a white— bright, and
sparkling with instinctive intelligence, and placed on the sides o f the head
in such a manner that the animal can see before, behind, and on every side.
The tail is short and hangs down, with a small bunch at the end. The
legs are long and slender, though their points are stout and strong. The
feet are divided somewhat like those o f an ox, with hoofs on the extreme
points o f the toes; the soles are soft, yielding, and remarkably broad, and,
being made like little cushions, produce a very trifling impression upon a
vacillating surface.
Notwithstanding, however, this softness o f its foot, the camel can walk
over the roughest roads, stones, sharp thorns, and roots o f trees, without
being hurt. Under such circumstances the animal is sometimes provided
with shoes o f sheepskin.
The camel is generally o f a light color, from which it varies to a darkbrown, and sometimes reddish-brown. It is also marked with white spots
or stripes on the forehead and on different parts o f the body. It is subject
to the mange, to cure which the Arabs bedaub it with kitran, or tar. Physi­
ologists, in accounting for the peculiar property o f the camel in resisting
the want o f water, have supposed that it is provided with an additional
stoniach, o f particular conformation, to retain what is imbibed. But it does
not appear that there is a particular reservoir for the purpose; and there
is reason to think that the same end is attained by the singular structure of
the second stomach, being composed o f numerous cells, several inches deep,
the orifices o f which are apparently susceptible o f muscular contraction. It
is conjectured that when the animal drinks, it has the power o f directing
the water into these cells, instead o f allowing its passage into the second
stomach. From the structure o f the second stomach, it neither receives
food in the first instance, nor does it afterward pass into its cavity. The
orifice of the cells composing it are so constructed as to prevent the entrance
o f solid food into them.
O f all animals, the camel is the most ancient, the completest, and the
most laborious slave. It is the most ancient slave, because it inhabits those
climates where men were first polished. It is the most complete slave, be­
cause o f the other species o f domestic animals, such as the horse, the dog,
the ox, the sheep, the hog, we still find individuals in a state o f nature, and




The Camel: au d its Commercial Value.

C61

which have not submitted to man. But the whole species o f camel is en­
slaved, for none of them exist in their primitive state o f liberty and inde­
pendence. Lastly, it is the most laborious slave, because it is never kept
for pomp, amusement, or the use o f the table, like other domestic animals,
but is always made a beast o f burden; its body being regarded as a living
carriage, which its master may load or overload even during sleep. Buffon,
H istoire N aturelle ; Col. Hamilton Smyth’s Supplement to Cuvier; Jardine’s Natural History of Ruminating Anim als; Hue’s Recollections o f a
Journey in Tartary; Pananti’s Residence in Algiers.
Fleece— Fabrics. The camel annually casts its hair, in the spring, and
it ail goes, to the last fragment, before the new comes on. For about 20
days it is as naked as if it had been clean shaved from head to tail. W hile
in this state, it is extemely sensitive to cold, rain, and the annoyance o f flies,
from which latter its keeper is careful to preserve it by the application o f
tar. But by degrees the hair grows again; at first it is extremely fine and
beautiful, and when it is once more long and thick, the camel can brave the
severest frost. The fleece o f an ordinary camel weighs about ten pounds ;
but its color and abundance depend entirely on the particular species o f
camel and the climate which it inhabits. That o f the Arabian camel is thin
and whitish ; that o f the Bactrian camel, thicker and darker-colored. From
the hair a coarse kind o f clothing, almost impermeable to water, is made for
camel drivers and shepherds; and the same commodity, for an analogous
purpose, is used as wrappers o f merchandise long exposed to wet in heavy
rains. But in Persia and the Crimea more valuable manufactures are pro­
duced in narrow cloths o f different colors, and fine stockings, o f which white
are the highest priced. It is wrought into shawls, carpets, and coverings
for the tents o f the Arabs. The Tartar women o f the plains manufacture a
kind o f warm, soft, and light narrow cloth from the hair o f the Bactrian
camel, preserving the natural colors. The hair, o f different colors, is an ar­
ticle o f export from Asia and Africa; its value is proportioned to the fine­
ness and depth o f color, that which is black being the dearest. I I u c ;
Griffith’s Animal K in gd om ; Pallas’ Travels.
M ilk — Flesh. The Arab generally rises before early dawn, and his first
task is to milk his camels, who have been prevented straying away from his
tent during the night, by tying up one o f their legs and fastening it with a
noose; while at the same time he removes a net which is placed so as to
prevent the young camels sucking the mothers, until a certain portion o f
the milk is drawn for the use o f the tent. The milk is excellent, both for
butter and cheese. The natives o f Africa esteem camel’s flesh more than
that o f any other animal. It is related that Heliogabalus had camel’s flesh
served at his banquets, and that he was especially partial to the foot. This
latter dainty the emperor had the honor o f discovering. Hue ; P an anti;
Lord’s A lgiers; Moll, Agriculture de I'Algerie.
F ood — Sustenance. Properties which are denied to the greater portion
o f quadrupeds are possessed by the camel, and in their fullest extent con­
verted to the use o f mankind. It feeds on thistles, on the stunted shrubs
and withered herbage o f the desert, and can pass successive days in total
want o f water, thus seeming as if purposely designed by nature for the
most cheerless and inhospitable regions. It is exceedingly fond o f the huge
succulent leaves o f the cactus, the strong, needle-like thorns seeming to
act upon its leathern palate as an agreeable stimulant. It also munches
with great gusto the dry bones with which the routes in the desert are




662

The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

strewn. On long journeys over a desert destitute o f herbage, a few beans
or flower-balls, or a little barley, suffice to enable it to perform its task.
Pliny’s observation o f camels disturbing the water with their feet is very
just, and it may further be observed that they are a long time in drinking
— first o f all, thrusting their heads a great way above their nostrils into the
water, and then making several successive draughts in the same manner as
pigeons. Over large expanses o f desert, where the soil is dry and powdered
with saline matter, the water, when water there is, is brackish. This want
o f fresh streams is very unfavorable to cattle, but occasions no suffering to
the camel, which delights in salt in every shape. H u e ; M o ll; Richardson’s
Travels; Blofield’s A lgeria ; Kennedy’s Algeria and Tunis.
M otion. The motion o f the camel is unlike that o f most other animals.
Both the feet on the same side are successively raised, and not alternately
like those o f a horse. As it thus advances two common paces o f the horse
at a time, it costs it less exertion to go over the same distance. P an a n ti;
Keatinge’s Travels.
* Intelligence, D ocility, Training. The camel grows up like a child under
the tent o f its master, partakes o f his plenty as well as his penury, enjoys
his songs and understands his bidding. Its docility springs from habit and
reflection— nay, we may almost say from moral feeling ; for it rebels when
its temper is not sagaciously managed. W h en the French went to Algiers
and got possession o f camels, they thought that their obedience might be
enforced like that o f mules and asses, by simple beating; but they soon
showed their conquerors that they were not to be so treated, and that both
their kick and their bite were rather formidable. The Arabs assert that
the animal is so sensible o f ill-treatment, that when this is carried too far,
the inflictor will not find it easy to escape its vengeance.
Eager, however,
to express its resentment, it no longer retains any rancor, when once it is
satisfied; and it is even sufficient for it to believe that it has avenged its
injury. W h en an Arab has excited the rage o f a camel, he throws down
his garments in some place near which the animal is to pass. It imme­
diately recognizes the clothes, seizes and shakes them with its teeth, and
tramples on them in a rage. W hen its anger is thus appeased, it leaves
them, and the owner may then appear and guide it as he wills. There is
no trouble in littering or feeding the camel.
As soon as its load is taken
off, it is turned out to graze on whatever it can find around its owner’s tent,
and never looked after until it is again required to continue its journey. A t
other times it shelters the weary traveler stretched along the sand, watches
over his slumbers, and like the faithful dog, warns him o f the enemy’s ap­
proach. Its instinct enables it to smell the distant water, and it recognizes
the spot with wonderful precision ; it is the very type o f patience, fortitude,
and perseverance ; charged with a heavy load, constantly traveling over the
sand— from which its nostrils, shaped like narrow oblique slits, and provided
with a sphincter muscle like the eyelids, are defended with hairs at their
margins— exposed to hunger, thirst, and the hottest rays o f the sun, it
suffers the fatigue and pain with incomparable meekness; it lies down on
the burning sand, without betraying the least degree o f impatience; while
at all able to support its load, and continue the journey, it strains every
nerve to proceed; it neither flags nor relaxes, until absolutely worn out,
when it falls, to rise no m ore: thus rendering its last breath on the very
spot it ceases to be useful. The camel is occasionally employed in the
plow and other agricultural pursuits, like oxen or horses; and in many




The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

663

Tartar countries, it is used to draw the coaches o f the kings or princes; but
physiologists remark that when ured in the yoke or harness, the elevation
o f its shoulders is cause o f a waste o f strength; besides, for the purpose o f
traction, it can only be used at all upon fiat ground, its fleshy feet, which
are two in number, and not externally separated, not permitting it to ascend
hills, and draw a carriage after it. It is as a beast o f burden that the camel
is chiefly valuable; and its qualities in this capacity are improved to a great
extent, by the mode in which it is trained. A t the earliest period, the legs
are folded under the body, in which position it is constrained to remain.
Its back is covered with a carpet, weighed down with a quantity o f stones
gradually augm ented; it receives a scanty portion o f fo o d ; it is rarely sup­
plied with water; and in this manner is brought to endure privation.
W h en the time o f trial has elapsed, and it is broke into subservience, it
kneels at the command of the master, who either mounts it himself, or
loads it with a heavy burden; and then trusting to its strength, and the
privations it can suffer, he ventures to traverse the trackless desert. W hen
it lies down to receive its load, it rests upon the callosities o f its breasts and
limbs. It is ridden upon, loaded, or unloaded, either with or without the
pack-saddle ; if without, the rider rides behind the hump, using no manner
o f bridle, guiding the beast only by striking gently with a stick on his neck.
The saddle, when used, is placed upon the withers, in front o f the hump,
and the legs o f the rider, when mounted, rest upon the animal’s neck:
when razzias are made, two men are mounted on each. In rising from its
crouching posture, the camel, which is in general so deliberate in all its
actions, mounts on its hind legs first very briskly, as soon as the rider leans
on his saddle to spring up, and throws him first forward and then back­
ward ; and it is not until the fourth motion, when the beast is entirely on
its legs, that the rider can find his balance. The c imel signifies that it is
sufficiently loaded either by a hiss or a shake o f the h ea d ; it will refuse to
rise if laden with even a half pound beyond its exact burden. A drove of
camels will all rise or lie down, at the word o f command, as if struck by the
same blow. They are made to eat in a cirele, all kneeling down, head to
head, and eye to e y e ; within this circle of heads is thrown the fo ld e r ;
each camel claims its portion, eating that directly opposite to its head.
K enn edy; H u e ; Richardson ; Pananti; Griffith ; L o rd ; Animal Biogra­
p h y ; Campbell’s Letters; Morgan’s Algiers; Denon’s Travels; Ali Bey’s
Travels.
Travel. The progress o f the camel is in general slow, especially when
collected in numbers to compose a caravan ; but its pace is regular and uni­
form, and constitutes no inaccurate measurement o f distance over desolate
regions, where there is no guide. It does not appear that the load o f the
camel materially affects its progress; the chief difference, in that case, lying
in the daily duration o f its march. The camels are tied one after another,
held together by strings in their nose, and are not allowed to graze during
the march. This is an advantage; for much time would otherwise be lost
by the camels cropping herbage by the way. The files are twenty and
thirty in number, and sometimes these files are double. In mountainous
districts, they are untied ; otherwise one camel slipping would draw another
after it, and so the whole line would be thrown into confusion. The oper­
ation of piercing the nose and passing through it a piece o f wood, which is
to serve as a bit, is painful, and causes the animal to utter loud wails. “ Slow
and sure,” has in no case whatever so good an application as it has to the




664

The Cam el: and its Commercial Value.

progress o f the camel’s march. It is in the desert it gives proof o f its pe­
culiar advantages; its long neck, perpendicularly erected, removes its head
from the sand w aves; its eyes, which it keeps half shut, are well defended
by thick eye lids largely provided with h a ir; the construction o f its feet
prevents its treading deep into the sand ; its long legs enable it to pass over
the same space with only half the number of steps o f any other animal, and
therefore with less fatigue. These advantages give it a solid and easy gait
on a ground where all other animals walk with slow, short, and uncertain
steps. In fact, it is only in mounting or descending, or upon a wet and
marshy soil, that it becomes unsteady and unwieldy. Sometimes, when there
are many camels traveling together, the drivers beat drums, and attach small
bells to the knees o f the leading camels, and if it becomes necessary to
quicken their pace, the Arabs strike up a kind o f song which has the effect
o f cheering the whole party and urging them forward. Ali Bey ; Pananti;
H u e ; Richardson.
F oal— Longevity. Though the camel produces but one at a time, or
rarely two, the care which is observed in their multiplication Tenders them
numerous. A caravan will exhibit a thousand, nay, four or five thousand
collected together, an d'a single individual will be the master o f four or five
hundred. The D ey o f Tunis, singly, owns thirty thousand. The period o f
gestation brings no rest to the ca m el; the female is delivered by the way,
at a halt in the desert; the foal may be seen stretched on the ground as if
lifeless, the mother standing over and looking at it. But the foal does not
remain so lo n g ; for in one or two days it will be up on its le g s; in four or
five days, it will be able to run after its dam a part o f a day’s m arch; and
in seven or eight days.it will be able to continue a whole day’s journey. The
cry o f the foal is very much like that o f a child ; in marching it is tied upon
its mothers back ; it remain’s with its mother and sucks a whole year ; it
sucks its mother within four hours after its birth ; the mother sometimes
makes a great noise over her young one. The foal frolics in awkward antics
a few days after its birth, but apparently soon loses its infant mirth. This
is not surprising; for in the first place it has to walk as long a day as its
mother— enough to take the fun out of the little thing ; next, it sees all
its more aged companions very serious and melancholy, and soon imbibes
their sombre air. The she-camels have a foal every other year, but some
few every' year. It is five years before the camel attains maturity. The
training o f the foal commences when about a year o ld ; when first laden
with light weights it will cry, groan, grumble most piteously, and run
off like mad, trying to throw off the load. The camel lives between forty
and fifty years, but it is not unlikely that the duration o f its life depends
upon the treatment it receives. Hamilton Smyth ; Richardson.
Varieties. Notwithstanding our familiarity with the camel, the different
species and varieties are by no means well understood; which produces some
inconsistency in the accounts o f the properties which it possesses. There
are two species so distinct, however, that they cannot possibly be mistaken ;
the one, the Bactrian camel, having two humps on its b a ck ; the other, o f
somewhat smaller size, called the Arabian camel. The hump, which is o f a
fleshy or glandular consistence, but not produced by a curvature of the spine,
is a prominent character o f the whole race. Griffith ; Jardine.
Bactrian Camel. This variety is characterized by two humps— one on the
rump and another above the shoulders. It is larger, stouter, longer of
body and shorter o f limb than the Arabian camel. It is able to carry one




The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

6G5

thousand pounds, and is even sometimes made to carry fifteen hundred pounds
for short journeys, or to escape the tribute which is levied upon single bur­
dens ; an object which is attained by putting the loads o f two or three
camels upon one, when about to enter towns where tribute is collected. The
usual burden in long expeditions is from five hundred to eight hundred pounds,
so disposed that half the weight hangs on each side. Y et under such a
heavy load, if care be taken to feed the animal in proportion to the fatigue to
be supported, it is afterwards sustained on an inconsiderable quantity o f
beans, or a few balls o f barley m'eal daily, thrown on the ground when it
halts. W h ole days, however, may elapse without the animal tasting either
food or water. Travelers frequently speak o f having experienced this in long
marches. Laden with eight hundred weight, it can travel forty miles a day.
It often happens that travelers do not give themselves the trouble to dis­
mount at night in order to sleep. W hen a caravan has reached a fat pas­
ture, the camels disperse themselves this way and that and begin to graze,
while the travelers, astride between their humps, are sleeping as soundly as
if they were in their beds. A single driver will conduct a number o f these
camels, tied one to the tail o f the other. It is stated that this animal can­
not swim, and that it has such a terror o f water as to make it sometimes
impossible to get it into a b o a t; with a raft there is less difficulty.* This
animal abounds in northern, central, and eastern Asia. It was introduced
by the Grand Duke Leopold into Tuscany, where it continues to breed in the
maremmas o f the Pisan territory. Immense numbers o f these animals are
bred in the Tell o f Algeria, a region o f country which includes the table­
lands adjacent to the Mediterranean, and the gentle slopes o f the lesser Atlas.
In parts o f this region snow falls every year, and lies on the ground several
weeks. In Algeria, the price o f a camel o f this variety ranges from eighteen
to thirty dollars. In the city o f Algiers, the trade in camels is chiefly in the
hands o f the Mozabis, a resident tribe. Hamilton Smyth ; Griffith; M o ll;
Pananti; B lofield; Kennedy ; H u e ; Malte-Brun’s G eography: Shaler’s
Sketches o f Algiers.
Arabian Camel. This variety has only a single hump on its back. It is
o f smaller size, less hairy, and still more enduring than the Bactrian camel.
In the rutting season it is subject to fits o f rage and violence, and it is nec­
essary to muffle it. In the same season a species o f bladder hangs from its
mouth, out o f which issues a quantity o f foam.
These animals often fight
among themselves, and their hostility affords great amusement to the Moors
and Turks. The Arabian camel is able to carry, for long journeys, from
three to six hundred pounds. It is supposed the hump serves for its nourish­
ment, as it disappears in the days o f starvation and hunger. It makes about
two thousand two hundred o f its double steps in an hour. This double
step covers about five feet and a half o f our measure. It will march eight
hundred miles in three hundred and twenty two hours, which is at the rate
o f two miles and-a-half per hour. It never stumbles or falls. There is no
necessity either to beat or direct it.
Its pace is slow, but it makes long
strides and will march fifteen or sixteen hours at a stretch. It carries the
women and children o f the Arabs in paniers adjusted on either side. The
Moors and Arabs are oad loaders o f camels, and their contrivances for ad­
* This terror of water is occasioned by want of familiarity with it as a resisting element, and under
the same circumstances is observable in a horse, which has no greater structural ability for swim­
ming than the camel.




666

The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

justing burdens are deficient in ingenuity. Its pace is very steady, and the
traveler may sleep, eat and drink, read and write, on its back ; by spreading
his bed-clothes on the saddle, he will be enabled to change his posture, and
to rest himself so as to avoid the direct force o f the sun’s says. As the ani­
mal walks with long and regular steps, the rider feels the motion no other­
wise than if he were rocked in a cradle. W h en travelers on horseback are
weary and faint from the fatigue o f riding and the excessive heat, the rider
o f the camel will find himself as little exhausted as if he had ridden all day
in a chaise. The saddle is always open above, that it may not hurt the hump
o f the animal. Denham describes it as swimming rivers, with its head fast­
ened to a raft. The female is more valuable than the male, as it contrib­
utes more, by its milk, to the sustenance o f the tribes. The Arabian camel
has spread from Arabia all o^er the northern parts o f Africa, and has long
been essential to the Commerce o f those dry and desert regions. Richard­
son ; K ennedy; Griffith; Pananti; M oll; Blofield; L ord ; M organ;
Cam pbell; Shaler; Major Rennell, in the Transactions o f the Royal
Society; Denham’s Travels; Lamping’s Soldier o f Fortune; Niebuhr’s
Travels; W ilson’s Campaign in E g y p t; Russel’s Barbary States ; Murray’s
Discovery in A frica; McQueen’s Geographical Survey ; Conder’s Travels.
D rom edary. This animal is a sub-variety of the Arabian camel, to which
it stands in the same relation that a thorough-bred racer does to a cart
horse. The hump is without fat, and very small, and its whole shape ex­
hibits an appearance o f strength and spirit. Its habitual pace is a trot,
which it is able to sustain the whole day at about the same speed as the
ordinary trot o f a horse ; but over rough or slippery ground the rate o f
speed is much reduced. The saddle is like a horse’s and covers the hump.
The dromedary is managed by a bridle, which is usually fastened to a ring
fixed in its nostrils. It is unquestionable that this animal can travel one
hundred and even two hundred miles in twenty-four hours. Like the
camel it kneels to receive its load or a rider on its back. A t a certain
signal, it droops its head and neck, so that one can alight and remount,
whenever there is occasion, without making the animal stop. W hen once
fixed in the saddle, the rider has only to give way to the motion o f the
beast, and he soon finds that it is impossible to be more pleasantly mounted
for a long jou rn ey ; especially as no attention is requisite to guide the ani­
mal, except in turning it out o f its straight-forward direction, which very
seldom happens in the desert, and in a caravan. Its pace is light, the
opening angle o f its long legs, and the flexible spring o f its lean foot ren­
dering its trot easier than that o f any horse, and at the same time full as
swift. The sand is truly its element, for as soon as it quits it, and touches
the mud, it can hardly keep upon its feet, and its repeated trips alarm the
rider for the safety o f himself and baggage. The young dromedary is born
blind, and continues so for about ten days. The dromedary is found in
Arabia, in the great African desert, and in all the Barbary states ; but it is
chiefly in the Eastern Sahara that it abounds. Mounted on his dromedary,
dressed out fantastically in various and many-colored harness, with his
sword slung on his back, dagger under the left arm, and lance in his right
hand, the Touarghee warrior sallies forth to war. A very fine dromedary is
six-and-a-half feet in hight. The price o f this animal is from ten to two
hundred times that o f the ordinary camel. N iebuhr; Denon ; Keatinge ;
K en n ed y ; Richardson; Blofield ; L o r d ; M organ; Shaler ; Jackson’s M o­
rocco ; Lyon’s Travels.




The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

667

M ilitary uses. In northern India, the English use camels for the trans­
portation o f munitions o f war. A corps o f mounted dromedaries is also em­
ployed. In Algeria, field-pieces are carried by camels'; the battery devised
for artillery service in the desert is a model of its k in d ; guns, caissons, and
carriages are folded up in the most compact form, ready to be fastened on
the backs o f these animals. Sick men, in their beds, are carried by camels.
The ambulance used by the French army in Africa is a most ingenious con­
trivance. This ambulance, called cacolet, is a species o f pack-saddle, made
o f wood and iron, and adapted for the backs o f camels. The cacolet has on
each side two iron chairs, which fold up within a very small compass ; so
that a camel may depart with a column, carrying boxes o f biscuits, barrels
o f meat, flour, and other provisions, and may bring back sick or wounded
soldiers, to whom these chairs afford a safe and commodious conveyance.
It is necessary that the men should be seated so that they may as nearly as
possible counterbalance each other’s weight. Some o f these iron chairs are
made to spread out at sufficient length to enable a sick or wounded soldier
to lie down. Camel caravans will be unapproachable by mounted Indians,
as the camel, when first seen by horses, inspires uncontrollable terror. K en­
nedy ; N iebuhr; Hamilton S m yth ; Bodichon, Surgeon-General in Africa, in
the Memoires de la Societe Geogrophique ; St. Marie’s Visit to the French
Possessions in Africa.
Acclimation. The natural abode o f the camel is in regions abounding
with sand or gravel, where food is scanty, and exposure to long-protracted
privations unavoidable; and as deserts exist in cold as well as warm cli­
mates, so does the camel. Like man, it adapts itself to every clime, nature
enabling it to endure with equal fortitude the extremes o f heat and cold.
W id ely as it is now dispersed over Asia and northern Africa, there is histor­
ical evidence to show that there was a period when it was a stranger even
in Africa, and when its sphere in Asia was comparatively limited. Now, its
geographical diffusion is equal to that o f most other domesticated animals,
It has followed the radiations o f war, Commerce, and emigration over a stu­
pendous segment o f the earth’s surface, stretching across the whole o f Asia,
and extending as far north as Lake Baikal in Siberia, in the sub-polar climate
comprehended between latitudes 56° and 58°. It is much used in eastern
Europe. In Africa, it resignedly plods its weary way across its entire
breadth, and from the shores o f the Mediterranean to the region o f the trop­
ical rains. These facts demonstrate that the camel is easily acclimated, and
that its habitat is not limited by climate, hut by the nature o f the soil, which
must be suited to the peculiar configuration o f its foot. Hamilton Smyth ;
Griffith ; Jardine; Humboldt’s Views o f Nature.
American Camel Region. Recent explorations demonstrate that the high
table-lands o f Texas, New Mexico, Utah, Sonora, Chihuahua, Durango, and
portions o f Central Mexico are fitted for camel travel; for over those lands
the varieties o f the cactus abound, and the soil is gravelly and sandy; the
climate being at the same time isothermal with that o f the Tell o f Algeria.
This remarkable adaptation did not fail to attract the attention o f Mr. Bart­
lett, late commissioner for running the boundary line between the United
States and Mexico, and the advantages that would be gained by using cam­
els, instead o f mules and horses, as a means o f transportation, often occurred
to him. From proof-sheets o f Mr. Bartlett’s forthcoming work, now in the
press o f the Appletons o f this city, the following extracts are made, with the
author’s courteous permission. Mr. Bartlett thus expresses himself in one
p la ce:—




\

668

The Camel: and its Commercial Value.

From my experience o f nearly three years with horses, mules, asses, and oxen,
and with wagons, carts, and packs, I do not hesitate to hazard the opinion that
the introduction o f camels and dromedaries would prove an immense benefit to
our present means o f transportation, that they would be a great saving to animal
life, and would present facilities for crossing our broad deserts and prairies not
possessed by any other domestic animals now in use.
Elsewhere Mr. Bartlett ad d s:—
The entire route from the Mississippi to California, particularly that south o f
Santa Fe by the Gila, where there are no mountains to cross, and also the great
highway over the table-lands o f Mexico, are well adapted to his habits. But he
would be most useful on those long jornadas and deserts where there is either no
water, or where it is so brackish that mules and horses will not drink it. There
are peculiarities in the arid plains and deserts o f North America which seem to
fit them for the habits o f the camel. His favorite food in Africa is beans and
chopped straw. Now it is a well-known fact that, however barren our deserts,
they abound in mesquit bushes, or chapporal, which shrub bears a most nutritious
bean. Whether this plant attains a bight o f three feet on the desert or twenty
in the bottom lands, it is equally prolific. Mules and cattle feed on them when
they cannot get grass or corn; yet they never thrive on them, but on the con­
trary, lose flesh. Other peculiarities are the salines and salt lakes which abound
on the arid plains, as well as on the slopes towards both oceans. When driven
to great extremities mules will sometimes drink this salt or brackish water; but
I have driven them fifty or sixty miles without water, yet on reaching a saline not
one in ten would touch it. T o camels, brackish water is as acceptable as if from
the purest fountains.
Hum boldt’s New Spain; Bartlett’s R eport; Humboldt’s Tableau des
Bandes Isothermales.
N ational importance. In view o f the vast plains, destitute o f herbage
and water, which stretch across the American camel region— o f the ineffi­
ciency o f the means o f transportation now in use— o f the obstruction and
frequent defeat o f the pursuit o f mounted Indians— and o f the superior and
peculiar capabilities o f the camel, the Secretary o f W ar, in his late report,
presses with great urgency upon the attention o f Congress the expediency
o f making an appropriation from the national treasury for the importation of
a sufficient number o f the different varieties o f this animal. The report
says:—
The absence o f navigable steams in a large portion o f our recently acquired
territory, and the existence o f the vast arid and mountainous regions, described
in another part o f this report, have entailed upon the government a very heavy
charge for the transportation o f supplies, and for the services, o f troops stationed
along our new frontier, and operating against the predatory and nomadic Indians
o f those regions. The cost o f transportation within that country for purposes
connected with military defence, amounted, in the year ending June, 1853, to
$451,775 07.
The modes o f transportation now used— wagons drawn by horses, mules, or
oxen— besides being very expensive, are necessarily circuitous on the routes
traveled, slow, and generally unsatisfactory, as to prompt inquiry for means
which may be attained with better results. In any extended movement, these
wagon trains must depend upon grass for forage, and their progress will seldom
average more than twelve miles per day; and it often happens, in traversing the
country just referred to, that long spaces are encountered in which there is neither
grass nor water, and hence the consequence must be severe privation and great
destitution o f the animals employed, if not the failure o f the expedition. These
inconveniences are felt in all movements between the distant parts o f that section,
and seriously obstruct, sometimes actually defeat the pursuit o f the mounted In­
dians o f the plains who, by their intimate knowledge o f the places where the
the small supplies o f water and grass are to be found, are ably to fly across the




The Camel: a u d its Commercial Value.

6G9

most arid regions after having committed depredations on our frontier population,
or upon the trains o f merchants and emigrants.
Beyond the difficulties here contemplated in connection with transportation to
the interior, it is proper to look to those which would arise in the transportation
o f supplies for the defence o f our Pacific coast in a contingency o f a war with a
maritime power. Our experience has been confined to a state o f peace and to
the use o f routes o f communication which pass beyond the limits o f our territory.
Reasoning from the difficulties which have been encountered in supplying points
where it was necessary only to traverse a part o f the space which lies between
the Pacific coast and the points o f supply, it may be claimed as a conclusion that
it would not be practicable with the means now possessed to send across the
continent the troops, munitions, and provisions which would be required for the
defence o f the Pacific coast. A railroad, such as has been contemplated to con­
nect by the most eligible route the Mississippi River with the Pacific coast, would
but partially remove the difficulties. Tt would serve to transport troops, and to
supply depots along the route and at the extremity o f the line, but there would
still be vast regions o f the interior too remote from its depots materially to feel
its effects.
On the older continents, in regions reaching from the torrid to the frozen
zones, embracing arid plains and precipitous mountains covered with snow, camels
are used, with the best results. They are the means o f transportation and com­
munication in the immense commercial intercourse with central Asia. From the
mountains o f Circassia to the plains o f India they have been used for various
military purposes, to transmit dispatches, to transport supplies, to draw ordnance,
and as a substitute for dragoon horses.
Napoleon, when in Egypt, used with marked success the dromedary, a fleet
variety o f the same animal, in subduing the Arabs, whose habits and country
were very similar to those o f the mounted Indians o f our western plain. I learn,
from what is believed to be reliable authority, that France is about again to adopt
the dromedary in Algeria, for a similar service to that in which they were so suc­
cessfully used in Egypt.
For like military purposes, for express, and for reconnoissances, it is believed
the dromedary would supply a want now seriously felt in our service; and for
transportation with troops rapidly moving across the country, the camel, it is be­
lieved, would remove an obstacle which now serves greatly to diminish the value
and efficiency o f our troops on the western frontier.
For these considerations, it is respectfully submitted that the necessary provis­
ion be made for the introduction o f a sufficient number o f both varieties o f this
animal to test its value and adaptation to our country and our service.— Gen. JeJferson Davis's Report, Dec. 1, 1853.
Transportation o f the camel in ships. The camel is much more manage­
able in ships than the horse, not retaining, as the latter animal does, a rigid
position, but going down on its knees, and yielding to the motion o f the
vessel. The late Mr. Raymond, o f menagerie celebrity, imported over five
hundred camels in his life-time into the United States. H e never lost a
single camel, by accident or disease, at sea.
In conclusion, we think that the facts adduced in this article demonstrate
the superior organization o f the Camel, and that, as a beast o f burden, it is
better fitted to subserve the wants o f man over a large extent of the national
domain, than either the horse or the mule, the only means o f transportation
now in use, or likely to be, for many years to come, unless well considered
private enterprise shall assist in carrying out the views o f the projectors o f
the domestication o f the Camel on this continent.




670

Commerce o f the United. States.

Art. II.— COMMERCE OF TIIE UNITED STATES.
NO. V III.
new

E n g l a n d : p r o g r e s s in

p o p u l a t io n

, t r a d e , a n d i m p o r t a n c e — En g l i s h h o s t i l i t y t o h e r

NAVIGATION IN T E R E S T — EXCISION OF T H E NEW FOUNDLAND COLONY— NAVIGATION LA W S — W H ALE
f is h e r y —

Ph i l i p ’ s

w ar

— state

of

the

m id d l e

c o l o n ie s — t h e

sou th

:

effect

of

trade

BURDENS IN V IR O IN IA AND CAROLINA— CH ARLESTON— TH E MISSISSIPPI AND FRENCH PROGRESS AT
T H E W E S T — SPANISH T R E A T Y — HONDURAS— E X P O R T D U TIES— FRENCH COLONIES, E T C .

W ith the year 1670, half a century had elapsed since the commencement
o f the settlement at Plymouth. The growth o f New England, and o f the
other colonies settled within that time, is presented in the following com ­
parative series o f actual enumerations, combined with proximate statements,
which we have made out from various data, o f their population for the sev­
eral periods indicated:—

1624.
Plymouth.........................
Massachusetts..................
Connecticut........................
Rhode Island.................... ....................
New England............

180

New Y ork ........................
Virginia...........................
Maryland.........................
Total*.......................

2,730

1654.

1671.

549
7,912
200

....

2,941
16,026
3,186
1,959

9,410
35,644
8,000
3,500

2,100

8,661

24,112

56,554

200
4,000

—

500
10,000
200

1,300
25,000
1,000

3,500
42,000
20,000

6,300

19,361

51,412

122,054

1610.
300
1,800

...

1637.

Some estimates give a much higher population to Connecticut and Rhode
Island, in 1673 ; but the report o f the Governor and Assembly o f those
colonies in 1680, to the Board o f Trade, and all the documents o f the pe­
riod, sustain the amounts stated above.
The commercial progress o f New England had begun at this time to ex­
cite much attention in Britain. The term N ew England was understood,
we would remark, at this time, and for a period long subsequent, indeed
down to the time o f the Revolution, to refer almost exclusively to Massa­
chusetts, which embraced the territory o f Maine within her limits, and to
which New Hampshire had, by the voluntary action o f her people, united
herself. H er preponderance in extent, population, Commerce, wealth, and
political power, was such as to give entire character to the section, and cast
its other members into the shade.
Plym outh, the present colony, was almost entirely confined to the near
fishery, pursued in boats and ketches, and farming. It had no foreign or
distant trade whatever, and but a small coasting trade, a small part o f which
was along Long Island Sound, and as far even as New Y o r k ; but it was
confined mostly to Boston and the extended Massachusetts shore. The
country a little back o f the original settlement was still a wilderness.
* Barbadoes, the most populous of the British West India colonies, was said to contain, in 1670,
about 50,000 whites and above 100,000 negroes. This estimate was undoubtedly exaggerated ; yet
the island was very thickly populated—more so, indeed, than most parts o f Europe, exclusive o f
large towns. The area o f Barbadoes is but 106,470 acres. Cuba had, in 1680, about 40,000 inhabtants.




Commerce o f the United States.

671

O f Connecticut, the statement o f the authorities in 1680, gave a popula­
tion o f 10,000, slowly increasing, divided in 26 towns.
There were about
30 slaves. The trade at that period was mostly with Boston and New
York, and was carried on by 20 petty merchants in 24 small vessels, and
the imports did not exceed £9 ,000 . The property o f the whole corporation
was valued at £110,000.
The answer o f Rhode Island to the inquiries o f the Board o f Trade in
1680, states that that colony had no foreign Commerce, and no trade with
the Indians. Their coast was little frequented, and not at all at that time,
by pirates or privateers. W ith their neighbors they had some little inter­
course. The principal place o f trade was N ew port; they had no shipping
except a few sloops.- Like Connecticut and Plymouth, they received the
little amount o f foreign articles imported mostly from Boston. The princi­
pal exports o f the colony were horses and provisions, which went to the
W est Indies; and the imports were a small quantity o f the produce o f Barbadoes, for their own use. There were several persons who dealt in buying
and selling, but they could not properly be called merchants. The want o f
these, o f men of considerable estate, was the great obstruction to trade.
They were sensible that the fishing business might prove very profitable,
were there men o f property willing to carry it on.
There were about 500
planters, and as many men in other pursuits. There were o f late few or no
emigrants, except that a few negro slaves had been imported. The popula­
tion was divided in 9 towns.
It was undoubtedly the case, that the colonies endeavored in the reports
at this, as at other times, to put their importance at as low a standard as
possible, in order to avert the establishment o f a revenue system and other
interference in their concerns, by England. It is said that the sloops alluded
to were larger than the average size of brigs o f the present day, and that at
this time, or later, a considerable business was carried on by the Rhode
Islanders in the slave-trade between Africa and the W est Indies. It is cer­
tain, however, that all the three colonies named were •yet in a condition
very humble compared with the progress that had been made by Massa­
chusetts.
To the importance o f the latter, the addition made by New
Hampshire was, except territorially, quite inconsiderable, the security o f the
latter being the whole object o f the union on their part.
They, however,
contributed most o f the masts and timber exported to England.
Live oak
and other kinds o f oak, white and red oak staves, hoops, shingles, and clap­
boards, were prepared by the New. Hampshire farmers in large quantities,
during the winter, and were exchanged for manufactured goods.
Although England rejoiced in the possession o f a colony in this section
so well advanced, and promising to be of so much benefit to her as Massa­
chusetts, there were serious drawbacks to her gratification.
Although it
should seem the commercial progress o f the colony would have been matter
o f unalloyed satisfaction, there were points therein involved which excited
anything but a pleasing humor,
Massachusetts had already a large and
rapidly growing navigation interest, and was evidently aiming— in spite o f
the efforts o f the home government to limit her progress in this direction—
to become a great navigating pow er; to save to herself the freights paid on
the export of her own or other products abroad and on the return o f the
foreign products obtained in exchange. H er commercial seemed on a level
with her political aspirations, which, it had already been noted, looked di­
rectly toward independence. She would finally rival England in the carry­




672

Commerce o f the United States.

ing trade, and, if not restrained, would entirely drive her ships from the
ocean. Sir Josiah Child, a leading political writer o f the day, pointed out
to the government and to the merchants, the jealousy o f both being very
easily excited, the direful result in view. In a work published by him, on
the state o f the colonies, about 1670, he remarks:—
“ O f all the American plantations, his majesty has none so apt for the
building o f shipping as New England, nor none comparably so qualified for
the breeding o f seamen, not only by reason o f the natural industry o f the
people, but principally by reason o f their cod and mackerel fisheries; and,
in m y opinion, there is nothing more prejudicial, and in prospect more dan­
gerous to any mother-kingdom, than the increase o f shipping in her colonies,
plantations, or provinces.”
The general progress o f the colonies in importance, but more especially
the jealousy excited by the appearance o f a navigating interest within
them able to withstand, and to exhibit even a remarkable vitality, in face of
the discouragements placed in its way, induced the formation o f a permanent
Board o f Commissioners o f Trade and Plantations in 1671.
The first act
o f this new commission was to send out a circular, to the governors o f all
the plantations, territories, and islands o f the W est Indies— a name still in
common use for all America— belonging to Great Britain, demanding to
know the condition at that time o f the several dependencies under those
officials in regard to all their material concerns. W h at they particularly in­
sist upon is, “ to know the condition o f New England, which, appearing to
be very independent as to their regard to England or his majesty, rich and
strong as they now were, there were great debates in what style to write
to them, for the condition o f that colony was such that they were able to
contest with all other plantations about them, and there was a fear of their
breaking from all dependence on this nation.”
The various measures to which the fears thus excited gave rise for greater
restraint upon colonial Commerce, together with privileges conceded for the
joint purpose o f advancing the prosperity o f England and o f exercising a
soothing influence upon the colonists, irritated by these restraints, will be
noticed in the order o f time, as likewise the effect by them produced upon
the mind, the action, and the material prosperity o f America.
The progress o f New England in the Fisheries had heretofore been re­
garded with high favor, as the blindest could not but see that this resource
had been the means not only o f lightening the expenses o f colonization here
upon its patrons in England, but that it had furnished the settlements an
efficient means o f self-support, where else the possibility o f at all maintain­
ing them would have been very equivocal.
Neither could it escape atten­
tion, that although the interest established in this pursuit was the great
basis o f the objurgated shipping interest o f the colonies, the wealth derived
from the former was becoming o f benefit to England and her other colonies,
and was likely, if unrestrained, to raise their trade with the fishing colonies
to the utmost importance. So much too were all the present concerns and
the prospects o f New England wound up in this pursuit, that the English
government, unestablished in its supremacy on either continent, would not
have dared, had it wished, to abolish or restrain the privilege, knowing as it
did the peculiar readiness o f the New Englanders to resist the least encroach­
ment upon their rights or liberties, and being already impressed with a fear
that their aim was at ultimate independence.
The measures o f restraint
were therefore directed solely against the outward employment o f the




Commerce o f the United States.

673

shipping thus created, leaving its great source unaffected. Y et even had it
not been the occasion o f building up for her a navigating interest, the ad­
vancement o f New England in the fisheries must at this time have excited
the uneasy reflections o f the home government. The fisheries had been re­
garded as a main support of their shipping interest a lso; but the rapid
progress o f the colonies in this pursuit, simultaneously with a remarkable
and continuous decline on their own part, threatened entire annihilation to
this school for British seamen. From 400 English ships employed in the
cod fishery at Newfoundland in 1622, the number had decreased in 1670,
to 80 ships. New England meanwhile had been encouraged by her suc­
cess to push her efforts beyond the banks o f N ewfoundland; and in the
latter year some o f her vessels, for the first time, visited the coast o f Labrador,
where the avocation was thereafter regularly carried on.
Other causes, as well as the advance o f New England, however, contrib­
uted to the decline o f the English fishery in America. One o f these was the
increasing liberty in Catholic countries to eat flesh in Lent and on fish-days.
Another, was the successful rivalry o f the French fishery at Nova Scotia.
But the cause to which the English writers mainly attributed their misfor­
tune, was the increasing boat fishery carried on by their own people settled
at Newfoundland. Here was a point at which they could safely strike.
The English merchants had for a long time been generally ill-disposed to­
ward any attempt at legitimate colonization o f that island, and were as little
willing to favor the squatter fishermen occupying a portion o f its shores.
Both interfered too much with their ship fishery. A n appeal o f these set­
tlers to the government for a colonial charter and protection against the
ship fishermen, who paid no respect to their rights or interests, had been
successfully opposed by the merchants.
They were quite ready to second
the views and efforts o f Child, who in the same work already alluded to,
depicted the evils to England o f the establishments at Newfoundland.
“ W ithout a remedy, it would happen to us,” he said, “ in a few years in
that country as it hath done with regard to the fishery at New England,
which so many years since was managed by English ships from our western
ports, as the Newfoundland fishery at present chiefly i s ; but as the planta­
tions o f New England increased, that fishery fell entirely to the people
there.”
H e feared the total extinction, from the Newfoundland settlements, o f the
British fishery and o f their nursery o f seamanship, the loss o f which would
really have ruined forever their commercial and naval, and, o f course, their
political supremacy. For the injury thus done and threatened, the settle­
ments in question afforded, it was declared scarcely the slightest compensa­
tion. The provisions and clothing required by them were supplied wholly
by New England and Ireland. In view o f this state o f things, Child coolly
advised the excision of the settlements at Newfoundland.
So all previous
efforts to colonize that island were to be regarded as attempts made by
England to undermine her own prosperity, and all the money expended in
these purposes, as treasure worse than thrown away. The same considera­
tions, carried to their legitimate conclusion, should have suggested also the
good policy o f undoing all that had been accomplished in New England,
and o f giving over that region again to the undivided possession o f the heirs
o f Massasoit and Canonicus.
The lords o f the sagacious Board o f Trade and Plantation, whose only
interference with the affairs o f America seems to have been to inflict mutual
VOL. xxx.— no . v i.
'
43




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Commerce o f the United States.

injury upon England and her colonies, adopted the benevolent scheme thus
presented to them. The order to depopulate Newfoundland was given in
1670, and Sir John Berry was sent with a sufficient force to perform the
noble work o f driving out the fishermen and burning their dwellings; and
to make the desolation effectual, emigration thither from that time forward
was forbidden.
The order was maintained in effect for six years, the de­
vastation not being within that time made complete, as the task was not so
easy a one as had perhaps been anticipated. The island was large and re­
fuge easy. The work o f ejection required to be perpetually done over, as
those who were driven out in great part returned again, and found little
trouble in raising new huts for themselves as good as they had occupied
before. O f course, the troublesome proceedings against them in no wise in­
creased their disposition to befriend and assist the ship fishery and fisher­
men o f England. Those fully expelled, resorted to the French settlements
adjacent, or to New England, and continued the business.
The affair was
the means also o f drawing the attention o f those disposed to emigrate to­
ward Newfoundland, a desire was excited to share in the supposed profits
o f the interdicted settlement and fishery, and complaint was made that, in
spite o f the order, the emigration to Newfoundland continued unabated.
The vessels in the Newfoundland fishery from England had increased
from 80 in 1670, to 270, carrying 10,800 men, in 1674. In 1677, 102
vessels, value o f catch £1 ,738 ,0 00 . New England had in the distant fish­
eries, in 1676, 665 vessels o f 25,650 tons, and 4,405 men, the amount of
their annual catch being 400,000 cwt., valued at about $1,000,000. The
increase o f English vessels may have been in some degree due to the de­
population o f the island o f Newfoundland, so far as it had been effected,
but was the result, undoubtedly, in a much greater measure, o f the Dutch
war, and o f the failure o f the herring fishery on the coast o f Sweden, by
which events the southern countries o f Europe were mainly deprived o f their
large supplies usually received from Holland and Sweden, and an opening
to their markets made for the English. New England also profited largely
from the same cause, and began that trade to Spain, Portugal, and Italy,
which became afterward so considerable, and continued in full activity until
after the opening o f the present century.
Child mentions as an effect o f the Navigation Laws at this time, that the
shipping o f England in the trade with America had become greatly increased,
two-thirds o f all the English tonnage being thus employed, and affording
the means o f sustenance to about 200,000 persons in England. Yet, while
gaining thus rapidly in a single direction, an event sure to happen from the
growth o f the colonies in no inconsiderable degree, if at all less than under
the present system, had no attempt been made to force trade thither, Eng­
land was as a consequence o f her unfriendly policy towards Europe, losing
her markets in France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and Turkey. The first named
o f these countries, which had also been vigorously engaged for some years
in a policy regarding her manufactures corresponding with that o f England
concerning her shipping, was rapidly supplanting her in the market o f the
others. Nay, she intruded so far into the market of England herself, that
in 1678, Parliament found it necessary to com ply with the urgent solicita­
tions o f the merchants, and to prohibit all trade with France, unless they
were willing the protective system o f France should triumph over that of
England. In order, therefore, to stop what was in those times considered a
loss to England, in the apparent balance o f trade against her in the account




Commerce o f the United States.

675

with France o f £1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 yearly, such an inhibition was declared for the
period o f three years.
The effect exercised by the colonization and growth o f America upon the
Commerce o f both England and France, is seen in the increase o f their ship­
ping, (fee., within that period, mainly due to this cause apart from all re­
strictive policies.
Between 1626 and 1676 the tonnage o f England had
trebled or even quadrupled. She had now above 40,000 tons employed in
the African or slave trade between Guinea and the W est Indies ; her cus­
toms had multiplied three-fold, and her postage, it was said, twenty-fold.
The French had 40 trading vessels for every one twenty or thirty years pre­
viously. America might have conferred much greater benefit upon both
powers than they had realized. Instead o f being a cause o f limiting the
intercourse o f the European nations with each other, she should have been
the fertile occasion o f its increase.
H ad such a system prevailed, England
in the healthy development o f her great interests would have had no reason
for the alarm which the mere appearance o f a shipping interest in Massa­
chusetts occasioned, after she had sacrificed her Commerce with the conti­
nent o f Europe, to force it to a concentration upon America.
The whale fishery o f Massachusetts commenced about the opening o f this
period. W hales abounded on and about the shores o f the island o f Nan­
tucket, and some few had been taken by the residents o f that island. In
1672, the town o f Nantucket made a contract with one James Lopar, by
which the municipality and Lopar became a joint monopoly for the pursuit
o f the business. The agreement insured to Lopar one-third the profits, also
ten acres o f land, commonage for two cows, twenty sheep, and one horse, with
necessary wood and water. A fine o f 5s. for each whale killed was imposed
upon all persons infringing the monopoly right.
Such an assumption and
grant by a small village was certainly in contravention o f the charter o f the
colony o f Rhode Island, if not o f that o f Massachusetts. Holland had at
this time about 200 whaling ships, England about 100. The latter paid 6s.
a ton bounty on oil taken by her own fishermen, and was favorable to the
pursuit in the colonies, oil being then much in demand and o f high value.
In 1673 the first •post-rider between Boston and New York commenced,
leaving the latter city once every three weeks.
The population o f Boston
was then about 4,000, o f New York about 2,500. This event indicates the
progress o f emigration from New England to the middle region, and the in­
crease o f Commerce between these sections. The first P ost- Office in the
colonies was established by the Massachusetts General Court, at Boston, in
1677, Thomas Heyward being appointed postmaster.
It will be remem­
bered that a M in t had also been established in Massachusetts, which Charles
was disposed to suppress.
The royal dislike o f this institution the General
Court, in 1677, attacked through his esophagus, by the present o f ten bar­
rels o f cranberries, two hogsheads o f samp, and three thousand codfish. The
royal epicure was vanquished.
In 1675 the scourge o f Philip’s war fell upon New England, lasting gen­
erally till late in 1676, and in some parts till 1678. A leading cause o f
this dreadful contest was the unfair dealing practiced by a great many o f the
whites employed in trading with the Indians. On the long and wild fron­
tier behind the settlements o f New Hampshire and Maine, the fur trade was
extensively carried on, and there can be no doubt that by the generality o f
the white traders there, every possible advantage was taken o f the Indians,
in the purchase both o f peltry and land, and in the prices attached to the




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Commerce o f the United States.

articles ot payment. Rum was a leading commodity employed in the traffic,
and its effects were as pernicious, in every aspect, as in every other case where
it has been introduced into the Indian trade. The avidity for gain o f many
o f the traders, and even o f respectable merchants, had led to the supplying
o f the Indians, in violation o f law, with fire-arms, which indeed enabled a
larger supply o f furs, but the gain thus effected to a few, the evil o f the practice
as afterwards felt, far more than compensated to the mass.
The savages,
thus armed, were far more formidable, notwithstanding the increased strength
o f the colonies, than in the Pequod and Narragansett wars. It seemed, in­
deed, problematical, so severe was the crisis, whether the Indians would not
execute upon New England the fate to which the Lords o f Trade and Plan­
tation had consigned Newfoundland. Many towns were burned, and a vast
amount o f property in house and field destroyed. The diminution o f wealth
was seriously felt in all New England.
The settlements in Massachusetts
upon the Connecticut River, formed thus far outwardly for the advantage of
communicating with the towns below and with the ocean, were nearly all
destroyed. In Maine over 100 miles o f coast was cleared o f settlers, and a
considerable number o f vessels were captured in the harbors and rivers.
Over twenty vessels, mostly from Salem, were captured by surprise in 1677,
but were recovered. The people o f New Hampshire were glad, after their
best efforts to subdue the red men, to effect a peace with those vindictive
assailants, on condition o f paying to them what they would not concede to
England, an annual tribute. The tribute was regularly paid until the next
war in 1687. Such were the effects mainly due to the introduction o f a
vicious system in trade, and such the proof that in all intercourse with other
men, the balance o f profit is on the side o f fair dealing.
t A t about the time o f the close o f this war, which was not entirely finished
up till 1678, Charles revived his designs against New England. One of the
most serious complaints proffered against Massachusetts was that o f evading
the Navigation A ct, alleged by the English merchan s. To this the colonial
legislature had responded that the act in question involved taxation without
representation, and was, therefore, unjust and illegal. It was determined,
however, that the act should be enforced, and the delayed project was re­
newed by a special customs system with the proper officials, as in England,
and o f abolishing all the New England charters and uniting them under a
royal government. W illing, in the meantime, to limit the influence o f Mas­
sachusetts, the claims o f that colony to the province o f Maine were decided
against her in England, in 1677, but she at once bought out the right o f the
heirs o f Gorges, the successful contestants. In 1680, New Hampshire, much
against the will o f her people, was separated from Massachusetts, and formed
into the fifth provincial government o f New England.
M iddle C olonies. The capture o f the New Netherlands by the English
in 1664, brought the whole Atlantic coast o f the United States, for the first
time, under British dominion.
Since that period about one-third o f the
Dutch inhabitant, the total population being then about 3,000, had removed
on account, mainly, o f the tyranny exercised over them. Some had returned
to Holland, and some had gone to other Dutch colonies, but a large portion
accepted the invitation o f the proprietors o f Carolina, who gave them a free
passage thither.
W a r again occurring, a small Dutch fleet, in 1673, easily retook New
York, New Jersey and Delaware also submitting. Peace between England
and Holland, in 1674, on the basis o f mutual restoration o f conquests, re­




Commerce o f the United States.

677

consigned the province and its dependencies to the tender mercies of the
avaricious duke.*
After coming into final possession o f the English, the colony o f New Y ork
began to prosper, notwithstanding misgovernment. Emigration, which had
before set in from New England, continued, and other English subjects ar­
rived, though the illiberality o f the duke put a great restraint on the move­
ment thither, and drove nearly all foreigners seeking the English settlements
to other colonies. The culture o f the soil was now greatly attended to, and
W h eat became a leading product o f the province. The amount o f wheat
exported in 1678 was 60,000 bushels; the other exports were peas, beans,
pork, tobacco, and peltry, the trade with the Indians o f the interior being
still kept up. The chief markets were England and the W est Indies, a
growing intercourse existing also with New England. The imports in 1678,
amounted to the value o f £ o 0,000 sterling. The improvement was soon
made o f converting the grain into flour, and thenceforward, the bolting,
packing, and exportation o f flour and meal became the leading business o f
the city o f New York, supporting, indeed, much the greater part o f the
population. So dependent was the interest o f the city felt to be upon this
business, that an act o f the provincial authorities secured to it the monopoly
thereof, a measure causing afterward much collision between the urban and
rural population, if we may so designate the two interests. The distillation
o f spirits from grain had been commenced prior to 1676, as in that year an
order was adopted, forbidding the consumption o f any grain for that pur­
pose, unless unfit for other use. The city or town o f New York had now
twelve streets and 384 houses.
Cartoret, the governor o f New Jersey, attempted in 1675 to establish a
direct trade between that province and New England, wishing to effect the
independence o f the former o f the Duke o f York’s colony. Andros, the
tyrant o f New York, however, warmly opposed the project, claiming for his
master the right to render New Jersey tributary to New York, and that it
should have no trade except that with or through the medium o f the latter.
In 1680, however, the claims o f the duke were decided in England un­
favorably, and New Jersey became thenceforth the second province o f the
middle region.
The settlers o f New Jersey were mostly from New York
and New England, and resorted more to agriculture than to Commerce,
finding a soil so congenial to that pursuit. A large emigration o f quakers
from England now ensued.
S outhern C olonies . A m ong the causes o f dissatisfaction felt in Vir­
ginia, in regard to the course o f Charles II., was his sanction o f the aristo­
cratic government o f Berkeley and his peculiarly formed legislature. Un­
equal taxes, embarrassing to the interests o f the colonists were laid, and the
salaries o f the royal officers were obtained by the odious measure o f a per­
manent duty on exported tobacco, relieving them thus of all dependence upon
the people. The act was felt with greater severity from the extreme low
price at which tobacco had for a long time been sold, and which was alone
enough to occasion uneasiness in the colony.
Perhaps in time o f ordinary prosperity these taxes would have been
quietly borne, or would have excited no more commotion than was exhibited
* In 1672 was formed the famous league between Louis XIV . o f France, and Charles II. o f Eng­
land, to crush the Dutch Republic, which defeated their efforts and came out o f the contest with real
glory. England made peace in 1674, France continuing the war till 1678, Holland, alter the English
peace, being aided by Sweden.




678

Commerce o f the United States.

in the equally or worse misgoverned province o f New York. Under the
circumstances the event— to which, indeed, the influences o f political misdi­
rection and an Indian war contributed, but none we believe so efficaciously
as the depression o f their staple product— was Bacon’s civil war in 1676.
During this formidable insurrection, Jamestown, the capital o f Virginia, was
burned by the popular party, and never again rose.
A year or two later, on the restoration o f order, the assembly attempted
the desperate expedient o f entirely suspending the tobacco cultivation for a
year, to give time for the stock on hand to be exhausted.
The act was
negatived by the crown out o f regard, o f course, to its revenues. The col­
onists, however, formed an association to enforce the act, despite the veto,
by destroying all tobacco planted within the period o f interdiction. The
authorities interfered, and the excitement rose again nearly to the point of
rebellion, but was subdued by some vigorous action on the part o f the gov­
ernment. Independence, even, was at this time within the contemplation o f
the Virginians, who were becoming quite as disloyal as the New Englanders,
whose turbulance they had formerly contrasted, as a basis for favors to them­
selves, with their own quiet and dutiful deportment.
Another act passed at this time by the Virginian assembly, aimed to pro­
mote the condensation into towns o f the scattered population o f the colony,
for the purpose o f introducing the business of manufacturing, in order to
relieve the public distress by a variation o f pursuit. Although this precise
policy had in the earlier days o f the colony been warmly encouraged by the
English government and the old proprietary, as the means o f lessening the
expenditure upon them, and o f making the plantation sooner remunerative,
the scheme was now disrelished in England as calculated to injure their own
manufactures, and Charles promptly negatived this act also.
There would
indeed have been little objection to manufactures o f a certain sort, which
England could not make, but the design o f the colonists went beyond this
point. Manufactures beside would not pay the revenue derived to the crown
from tobacco, and it was therefore preferred that Virginia should continue
absorbed in the culture o f the weed which the first Charles and his father
had endeavored to suppress; such species o f rough manufacture as America
could undertake, beneficially to England, being left to the northern colonies,
which lacked the advantages of soil enjoyed by those o f the south. The
defeat o f their scheme added much to the irritation o f the Virginians, and
was, no doubt, a means o f essential injury. The forcible formation o f towns
would indeed have been impolitic, neither was Virginia in a proper state to
attempt manufactures as a leading pursuit; the cultivation o f the soil was
then as now her natural and best resource. Yet, unquestionably, the colony
was quite as able and felt quite as much o f a necessity for the introduction
o f some kinds o f manufacture as New England, and the withdrawal o f a
portion o f its planters from the over-crowded production o f tobacco, for
which the market was then very limited, compared to its present capacity,
would certainly have not only afforded a present relief, but would have per­
manently advanced all the other interests o f the colony.
According to Governor Berkeley, the importation o f slaves into Virginia,
for the seven years preceding 1671, amounted to but two or three cargoes.
The number o f negro slaves, in 1673, he estimated at 2,000, in a popula­
tion o f 40,000.
The amount o f customs derived in England from tobacco, imported from
Virginia in 1676, was .-£135,000.




Commerce o f the United States.

679

M aryland, in this decenniad, was in the enjoyment o f internal tranquil­
lity, generally, and was progressing in commercial and other prosperity.
The Carolinas. The northern province had been settled just about
1663, and the southern colony was formed in 1670. The early emigrants
were mostly from Barbadoes and New York. In 1671, a number o f slaves
were brought to South Carolina, from Barbadoes, by the governor, Sir John
Yeamans, slave-labor being thus introduced from the outset. This official
was removed from his post, in 1672, on a charge o f carrying on all the
little trade o f the colony, using the company’s means, for his own private
advantage.
The progress o f these colonies, especially o f the northern ones, was slow.
The aristocratic constitution devised by John Locke was set up over both of
them, in 1670, and remained in partial operation about twenty years, being
all the while in extremely ill favor with the settlers. Both their interests
and those o f the proprietors were injured by the attempt to establish privi­
leged orders, and by the excessive taxation, and the heavy restrictions upon
trade.
The dissatisfaction o f North Carolina reached the point o f insurrection in
1677. The immediate occasion o f the outbreak was, the attempt to enforce
the revenue laws imposed by or under authority o f this constitution, for the
benefit o f the proprietors, against a vessel from New England.
The people
took up arras in support of the smuggler, or rather in defence o f free-trade,
and imprisoned the president and six o f his council. For several years
thereafter, the government and the trade o f the colony, was under the pop­
ular management, and tranquillity prevailed.
In 1680, the town o f C harleston was founded, and was immediately
declared the capital o f South Carolina. During the first year, thirty metro­
politan dwellings were erected.
A war with the Indians in that colony
occurred at the same time, lasting a year. A price was set on Indian pris­
oners, by the colony, and many o f them were shipped to the W est Indies,
and sold there as slaves.
T he W est. The French in Canada, having o f late become quite pros­
perous in regard to trade, agriculture, and population, were pushing their
researches into the far W est, in order to extend their fur trade, and to be
beforehand with the English in the occupation o f that vast region. They
saw and determined to improve the immense advantages o f trade offered by
the grand Lake system, connecting with their own splendid river, the St.
Lawrence. Advantages so palpable, so easily availed of, in their situation,
could indeed have been scarcely neglected. The small-pox occurring among
the Indians connected with them, in 1670, swept away with its destructive
wing above half the numbers o f these tribes, and for a while, in a great
measure suspended the trade; but the French still pursued their schemes.
In 1670, they ascended the Lakes as far as Michigan, and erected Fort
Detroit, as a trading station, the only one, except that at Michilimackinack,
existing in the whole W est, at the site o f the present city o f that name.
The position mid-way on the Lake extension, and contiguous to the great
regions o f Ohio and Indiana, was exceedingly well chosen for its purpose.
It would seem indeed to have required little penetration to discern that
whichever power should gain final possession o f the W est, that point, or
one near, would be covered by a large city.
In 1672, Fort Frontenac, now Kingston, at the union of Ontario and St.
Lawrence, and the first post established upon the Lake, was erected both as




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Commerce o f the United States.

a trading station, and as a means o f overawing the Iroquois, o f Hew York,
and other tribes thereabouts. The same year, Father Marquette and M.
Joliet, a merchant o f Quebec, were sent to examine the resources o f the
upper region, and if possible to reach the great M ississippi river, heard o f
from the Indians. They proceeded in a canoe up the St. Lawrence, and
through Lakes Ontario, Erie, St. Clair, Huron, and Michigan, to Green Bay.
The next year they pushed up Fox river, emptying into that bay, nearly
to its head. Proceeding thence about a league by land to the upper waters
o f the Wisconsin river, they sailed downward, until their little canoe floated
upon the waters o f the Mississippi. It was considered that by ascending
the stream the passage to China and the East might be effected, and that
its lower terminus communicated with the other ocean, through the G ulf o f
Mexico. They took the downward course as the easiest, and passing the
Ohio and Missouri mouths, reached the Arkansas, nearly two-thirds o f the
way from the Wisconsin to the embouchure o f the Mississippi. Here they
found the Indians possessed o f some European articles, which they consid­
ered rightly must have been obtained by trade, at some not far distant
point, if not here, with either the Mexican Spaniards or the Virginian Eng­
lish. The provisions o f the adventurers being nearly exhausted, they re­
turned with much difficulty against the strong tide, and reached Lake
Michigan at Chicago, by way o f the river Illinois.
The Mississippi was now neglected, until 1618, when the famous L a
S alle , who had gone to France to obtain aid in its exploration, returned,
and at once set out with the utmost enthusiasm upon his undertaking.
H e thought, as a matter o f certainty, that the great chain o f lakes, or rivers
running from them, must afford the means o f a western passage to the
South Sea, and consequently to China and India. T o verify this belief
was his grand object. On Lake Ontario he constructed a barge o f ten tons,
“ the first ship that ever sailed on that fresh-water sea,” and proceeded to
Niagara, accompanied by Tonti, and Father Hennepin, worthy co-adven­
turers. Here he inclosed a small spot on the New Y ork side, with pali­
sades, and remained there for the winter, to attend to the fur-trade. A
stronger fortification was afterward erected at this trading station, (the
fourth within the range o f the Lakes,) and the present American fort occu­
pies its site. As his vessel could not pass the falls, La Salle built another
on Lake Erie, in 1679, called the “ Griffin,” and proceeded through the
other Lakes to Green Bay, where he established another, the sixth French
trading station to the Lakes, at St. Joseph’s river. Here he loaded his
little vessel with furs, and sent her back, awaiting her return, but she was
never again heard of. In December he proceeded westward to the Illinois,
and down that river, erecting another fort at or near the present town o f
Peoria, in the center o f Illinois State, which he called Creve-Cmir, the
Broken-Hearted, in allusion to his misfortunes in the loss o f the Griffin, and
from the mutinous temper o f his men. Here he remained till March, 1680,
and then returned to Canada, for men and funds, Hennepin meantime
passing up the Mississippi, to St. Anthony's Falls, and returning by way of
the Wisconsin. The Mississippi had thus been explored from its source to
the river Arkansas.
O utward A ffairs of the C olonies . A treaty was effected at Madrid,
in 1670, between England and Spain, explanatory o f the American relations
o f those powers, as regulated by the last general treaty o f peace; and from
this exclusive reference to America, it being the first European treaty o f that




Commerce o f the United States.

681

kind, it has usually been known as the American Treaty. Some difficulties
had arisen between these nations, regarding the trade o f their colonies, the
English bucaneering in the W est Indies and the logwood colony o f H ondu­
ras. It was stipulated that each should retain its present possessions in
America, and that no Commerce should thereafter be carried on between
one nation and the colonies o f the other, nor between their respective ports
in America, unless either king should see fit to grant future permission
therefor in regard to his own dominions. The vessels o f either might enter
the colonial ports o f the other, under stress o f weather, on account of acci­
dent, or to escape the pursuit o f pirates, and for these causes only, and
when so entered, should be well received, protected, and allowed to pur­
chase supplies. If three or four vessels came together, they were to inform
the governor o f the place o f the reason o f their entry, and to depart at his
order. The protection which the bucaneers had enjoyed under the English
flag and commission, for preying upon Spanish Commerce, (granted in
period o f war but still used,) was withdrawn.
This treaty had not the effect o f cutting off trade entirely, as intended,
between the English and Spanish colonies, though o f course it increased the
difficulties o f its prosecution. In one mode it furnished that trade some
additional security, by reducing the danger to be feared by the bucaneers,
who, preferring the robbery o f the Spaniards, both for its superior value
and their enmity as Englishmen to that nation, were careless in peace,
when all were their enemies, upon whom they preyed. W hile England
chose to take no decided part against them, their profession was still suf­
ficiently enticing to retain a large number in its pursuit. But as her active
hostility, united to that o f Spain, and other nations having possessions or
Commerce in that region, was too powerful to withstand, they were now
mostly obliged to seek a new calling. The treaty, by its general terms and
its silence in regard to the particular case o f Honduras, was considered on
the part o f the English, to confirm them in the possession o f the territory
occupied there, and to establish the right, wherever before used, o f cutting
and exporting logwood in that quarter. A large number of the pirates,
therefore, on finding their occupation gone, considered this an eligible point
o f settlement, and affording the means of a lucrative pursuit, and following
their former associates thither, much enlarged the settlements. There were
engaged, at this time, in the exportation o f logwood, cut by the settlers
here, from England, Jamaica, and Massachusetts, about one hundred sail o f
ships annually. Sir Thomas Lynch, the governor o f Jamaica, stated in
1670, that this settlement in Yucatan, “ annually increased his majesty’s
customs and the national commerce, more than any other o f his majesty’s
colonies.”
The Spanish government, however, had never recognized the English as
having any legitimate possession or occupation in these parts, regarding the
logwood cutters as a few interlopers who m ight easily be expelled at any
time, and not worthy o f being the object of any serious negotiation. They
had no intention to concede any such privilege as the English assumed to
have been granted. W hen, therefore, the logwood settlements had become
sufficiently important to merit attention, and the claims o f the English were
heard, Spain resolved to dispossess the intruders. She began in 1674, by
seizing the English ships found near the Campeachy coast, laden with log­
wood, but did not directly disturb the settlers, until 1680, when they were
forcibly expelled, and the Spanish dominion fully reclaimed. It was, how­




682

Commerce o f the United States.

ever, only a few months before the ejected cutters had effected a relodge­
ment in their old positions, and entered again upon the business as briskly
as before.
Parliament considering the colonies now fit objects o f taxation, determin­
ed to impose customs duties on all their outward trade with other parts than
England. A n act passed in 1672 provided that all vessels which may
lawfully trade in the plantations, taking on board any commodities and not
giving bond and proper security to unlade them in England, shall pay cer­
tain specified rates on sugars, tobacco, ginger, cocoa-nut, indigo, logwood,
fustic, and cotton-wool. Tobacco alone, o f these articles, was any consider­
able product o f the colonies within the United States, the rest o f the act
applying mainly to the W est Indies and Honduras. Tonnage and pound­
age duties had been imposed, and extended to every dominion o f the crown,
at the Restoration, but this was the first act levying a regular tariff o f duties
upon the colonies, and implying the establishment in America o f a customs
system.
The exclusive African companies, for the importation o f negro-slaves into
America, a few o f which came to the continental colonies, while the vast
bulk went to the W est Indies, had been ruined in England, by war and
misconduct. The fourth and last was established in 1672, the king and
his brother and successor o f York being stockholders. The amount o f cap­
ital was fixed at $111,000. The great importation o f slaves into the W est
Indies, effecting a rapid development o f the islands there belonging to Eng­
land, correspondingly enlarged the natural theater o f trade, the wealth and
importance o f the continental provinces. Barbadoes, which had begun to
export sugar in 1646, only, required in 1676, for the exportation o f that
article o f her produce, 400 vessels, averaging 150 tons each, a total o f
60,000 tons. The growth o f the W est India dominions o f other powers,
afforded also great advantages to those colonies, in the enlargement o f the
means o f a most profitable contraband trade.
F rench C olonies. The progress o f the French colonies in America, at
this time, formed a striking contrast to that o f the English. Although
Canada was made the basis o f such extensive aims in North America, little
beyond mere exploration and the fur-trade was effected. Canada itself was
prosperous only by comparison with her former condition, and was still a
weak province. The W est India settlements were expanding, but still the
great W est India Company had by its bad management, and the dishon­
esty o f its agents, become inextricably involved. The government, there­
fore, in 1674, assumed its debts, amounting to 3,523,000 livres, ($634,140,)
reimbursed its capital, o f 1,287,185 livres, ($231,693,) and resumed propri­
etorship o f all the French-American colonies. The charter o f the Dutch
W est India Company expiring in 1674, a renewal o f its privileges was
granted.
O ther C otemporary E vents. The English settled in the Bahama
Islands, and the Danes St. Thomas, W . I., in 1672. The Spaniards, after
many efforts, in 1679, conquered and settled Old California.
The English, as well as the French were at this period in search o f the
Northwest Passage. Captain Gillam had been dispatched on this object,
in 1667, by a private company in London, this being the first attempt from
England since 1633, and had opened the first trade o f any account at H ud­
son’s Bay. The prospect o f profit thus opened in that direction, led to the
formation, in 1669 o f the Hudson's B a y Company, an association o f lords,




Pittsburgh.

683

gentlemen, and merchants, with a capital o f £ 1 0,50 0. In 1610, the com ­
pany sent out Gillam again on a voyage o f trade and discovery.
The debate upon the freedom o f the seas, was still going on in Europe,
the antagonist disputants being Holland and England. The writers o f the
former still maintained the old and invincible principle sustained by their
statesmen o f former times— the complete right o f all nations to make use o f
the great highways provided for them by nature; while the English con­
troversialists upheld, with the usual tenacity o f error, the claim o f broad
exclusions and selfish guardianships.

Art. III.— COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.
NO. X X X V II;

PITTSBURGH.
HER MANUFACTURES, COMMERCE, AND RAILROAD POSITION.

I n the article published in the April number o f the Merchants' Magazine
we ventured the opinion, and endeavored to give substantial ground for it,
that Pittsburgh was destined by nature, with the aid o f capital and art, for
three great purposes: 1st, as a manufacturing city ; 2d, as a supplier o f coal
for all time to large portions o f the North, South, and W e s t; and, 3d, as a
distributor to the W est o f the goods, manufactures, and merchandise o f the
East and foreign countries, and a distributor to the East o f the produce,
stock, and industrial products o f the W est.
This opinion, we think, is fairly, logically, and necessarily deduced from a
consideration o f the various elements which have always built up wealthy
and powerful commercial and manufacturing districts; from a careful survey
o f her geographical position, climate, relations to the W est, East, North, and
South; her numerous and cheap water communications; and from the na­
ture and varied character o f the surrounding country, and the wonderful
subsoil and surface resources for which, when fully developed, she will be the
outlet and beneficiary.
W e have already, at some length, considered the first two branches o f our
subject, and after having given some account o f the amount and variety o f
her present multiform products, we will address ourselves to the discussion
o f the last branch.
And here, at the outstart, it is proper to observe that it is cause for regret
that this city, or its merchants, have never deemed it necessary or useful to
collect, record, and statedly publish exact and reliable statistics o f her imports
and exports ; the establishment, extension, condition, and variety o f her man­
ufactures and Com m erce; the consumption o f raw material, and the kind,
quality, and distribution o f the various converted fabrics. It is by the peri­
odical and persevering collection o f such valuable statistics that public atten­
tion is directed and influenced, that population and capital are attracted, and
that the full measure o f a city’s wealth and power is widely known and ap­
preciated. The absence o f such a system, while it makes the task of a vol­
unteer more arduous, at the same time renders it more necessary. W e are
glad, therefore, to be able to announce the late organization o f a Merchants’




684

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S tates:

Exchange, one o f the earliest and most important duties o f which will be to
gather for publication important commercial and industrial statistics. It is
our desire to present only a fair, moderate, and, we think, reliable account o f
the various branches o f Pittsburgh manufacture.
Considering the abundance and variety o f raw material, the many facilities
for a cheap conversion into the merchantable product, the proximity and re­
quirements o f an ever-increasing and ever more accessible market, it is diffi­
cult to account for the neglect o f many branches o f manufacture there, which,
it must be obvious to the slowest comprehension, must o f necessity yield a
speedy, sure, and very fair return. Capital is sadly needed, and must come
from abroad. Pittsburghers see clearly and know well the advantages for
and the profits resulting from the establishment o f certain branches, yet such
have been the business additions and money requirements caused by the
completion o f railroads, and the great increase o f western demand, that every
available dollar is actively employed. It is patent to all that present manu­
factures, multiplied in number and varied in amount as they are, will be as
nothing to what there will be in twenty or thirty years. W e have already
mentioned the peculiar fitness there is in establishing locomotive, passenger,
and freight car factories, for railroad bar and railroad supplying factories, for
woolen and flour mills, for factories o f wood-screws, heavy and fine cutlery
and hardware, copper and brass wire and small work for carriages, wagons,
&c., and in fact establishments o f every description which require chiefly the
employment o f metals or wood, which are costly in manufacture, and which
need near and good markets and cheap and speedy conveyance thither. If
some of the many companies in New England, whose small dividends have
lately been exposed in the public prints, would change the locality and
direction o f their investments, it would most assuredly be a profitable
change.
There are now in Pittsburgh and immediate vicinity, 20 rolling mills, hav­
ing 176 puddling furnaces, 121 heating furnaces, and 253 nail machines,
consuming annually 82,500 tons o f pig metal, 16,350 tons o f blooms and
scraps, and 6,275,000 bushels o f coal; producing 395,000 kegs o f nails and
spikes, and an aggregate product o f 80,800 tons o f merchantable iron and
nails, employing $4,775,000 o f invested and working capital, and 2,720
hands.
Included in the above is one small rolling mill at Brownsville, which is
owned and has a warehouse in Pittsburgh; one mill for rolling “ imitation
Russia ” sheet-iron, situated on the Monongahela, which has an agency for
the sale o f its products at Pittsburgh; one very extensive forging mill, which
rolls much o f the iron it consumes, and three mills which chiefly produce
spring, American blister, and plow steel, elliptic springs, hammered axles,
vices, anvils, cultivator teeth, &c., &c., and one T-rail mill, consuming 9,000
tons o f metal per annum.
The demand for iron products o f every variety has been o f late unprece­
dentedly large, and notwithstanding the excessive cost o f pig metal and
blooms, the various mills and factories are overpressed with work, and all the
rolling mills, with but one temporary exception, are running “ double turn,”
as it is called, or night and day. The quality and finish o f the iron and
nails manufactured excels most that are imported, and is fully as good as any
that are made at home. From 20 to 30 puddling furnaces will be added
during the coming summer, and a number o f nail machines erected; and if
Congress is not again troubled by the prosperity o f American skill and in­




685

Pittsburgh.

dustry, and is content to let alone the present ad valorem tariff, which, by
an unforseen combination o f accidents, has ceased to work harm, the iron
trade will most probably continue active and prosperous for years to come.
Most o f the furnaces in Pennsylvania which were sold out by the sheriff on
account o f the paralyzing effect o f a competition between foreign pauper and
American free and well-paid labor, are now again in blast. Although not
exactly a Pittsburgh interest, yet, as much o f the stock is owned there, and
it is situated near it, it may not be out of place to mention in this connection
a mammoth rail mill which will go into operation about the first o f May.
The chartered capital is $1,000,000. The company own thousands o f acres
o f timber, coal, and iron ore lands. They have eight coke furnaces, with ca­
pacity to turn out 720 tons o f pig iron per w eek; have 60 puddling furnaces,
5 scrap furnaces, and 12 rail pile furnaces ; they have 4 “ squeezers,” run by
separate engines of 80-horse power, 4 sets o f rolls run by separate engines o f
150-horse power, one engine o f 150 horse power for rail mill, and a fourth
engine o f 60-horse power for machine shop. The machinery is o f the most
perfect and ponderous character, and when in full operation will be able to
turn out 120 tons o f rails every 24 hours, which can be cheaply transported
either East or W est. This, we believe, is the largest rail mill in the world.
There is one copper smelting establishment, consuming 1,000 tons o f Lake
Superior ore, and producing over 500 tons o f refined metal in the form o f
“ cake ” and ingots. In connection there is a copper rolling mill, producing
annually 350 tons brazier’s sheets, 25 tons locomotive “ flue strips,” and 40
tons o f copper-pressed bottoms, all which, at the present prices o f copper,
would be worth $700 cash per net ton o f 2,000 lbs. A n extensive brass
foundry has just been added for the manufacture o f brass metal and sheets,
but no estimate o f course can yet be made o f the annual yield. Pittsburgh
is very largely interested in the copper business in all its varieties and rela­
tions. Her citizens claim to be the pioneers in Lake Superior copper mining.
They, in connection with a few Boston capitalists, owned and worked the
first mine, the celebrated “ Clift',” which is now yielding such enormous quan­
tities o f copper. Many o f the companies have been formed from Pittsburgh
capitalists; and the appended table will show how many mines are, in great
part, owned or controlled there:—
Company.
No. of shares,
Pittsburgh and Boston Mining Co.
6,000
North American ..........................
National.........................................
Ohio Trap Rock.............................
North Western...............................
R idge............................................
Meadow.........................................
Adventure.....................................
Iron C ity ................................... . .
Fire Steel...................................... . . 10,000
Colling............................................ . . 10,000
Eureka........................................... . . 10,000
Pittsburgh..................................... . . 20,000
Arctic.............................................
Bluff...............................................
Pittsburgh and Isle Royal............. . . 10,000

Present value
per share.

$145
75
30
28
18
6 50
4
3
2
2 25
3
1
1 50
1
1
4

Amt. held in
in Pittsburgh.

Total.

2,000
7,000
3,000
4,500
4,000
7,500
4,500
4,000
7,500
8,000
9,000
6,000
15,000
6,000
7,000
8,000

$290,000
525,000
90,000
126,000
72,000
48,250
18,000
12,000
15,000
18,000
27,000
5,000
22,500
6,000
7,000
32,000

Held in Pittsburgh...............
Held by Pittsburghers in other cities, about.

$1,313,750
418,250

Total, in round numbers . . . .

$1,732,000




686

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S ta tes:

There is in Pittsburgh an establishment called “ Eagle Steel W orks,” man­
ufacturing cast steel o f all varieties, bar, shear, and sheet. They have three
converting furnaces, five heating furnaces, and 18 melting furnaces. They
employ about 60 hands, many o f them imported from England, and con­
sume annually 750 tons o f iron, one-third o f which is Swedish. The steel
produced by these works has been repeatedly tested, and is found fully equal
to the best English imported. Their extensive file factory has been aban­
doned, but many file shops are now conducted by their former workmen.
There are, as nearly as can be ascertained, 38 foundries which cast iron.
They may be divided into two classes, those which make chiefly steamengines, and those which make hollow ware, grates, and stoves, heavy and
light machinery, car wheels, mill geering, iron fronts and railing, wagon
boxes, sadirons, school furniture, plow castings, decorative and fancy work,
and innumerable other useful articles. O f the former there are 9 ; some
very extensively engaged in this branch, while others partake o f the business
o f both classes. In the manufacture o f steam-engines they consume yearly
3,200 tons wrought iron, 9,250 tons o f pig, employ 640 hands, and produce
120 steam-engines every year. Net capital, $545,000. Five o f these engine
shops have boiler yards attached, producing not less than 250 boilers an­
nually. There are besides five more boiler yards in the city, carried on as
an independent business. They manufacture 240 boilers per annum, weigh­
ing on an average 5,000 lbs. each, employ 130 hands, and have a capital o f
$125,000. O f the second class o f foundries there are 29, consuming yearly
19,275 tons o f pig, employing 825 hands, and having a net capital o f
$775,000. Many o f these are very extensive, manufacturing the heaviest
mill geering, cotton and sugar mills and presses, copper mining machinery,
railroad castings, chilled wheels, shafts, machiues for punching, drilling, and
planing iron, &c., &c. One owns the patent for drilled rollers, and is the
exclusive provider for the whole United States. Another owns the right for
Pennsylvania and Maryland to manufacture Fisk’s metallic burial cases, which
will employ a large number o f skillful hands ; three have, in connection with
their foundries, freight-car factories, and produce 450 per annum ; two or
three are exclusively engaged in making cotton machinery, and a like num­
ber in making grates and stoves ; two make locks, latches, scales, and mal­
leable castings. The heaviest establishment o f all is the Fort Pitt W orks,
and deserves a somewhat special mention. Besides their regular heavy and
elaborate products, they have done much work for government. Some years
since they built two iron steamships o f 400 tons burden each, the “ Geo. M.
Bibb,” submarine propeller for the G ulf o f Mexico, and the “ Jefferson” rev­
enue cutter, which was taken apart and transported to Lake Ontario, and is,
we believe, still living and in active service. From 1842 to 1847 there were
cast, bored, and mounted at these works 633 cannon, weighing 1,787 tons,
and 22,189 shot and shell for cannon and howitzers, weighing 541 tons.
During the years 1851, 1852, and 1853 they cast and bored 76 cannon,
weighing 305 tons, and are now engaged on a government order for 21
guns o f the heaviest caliber, called “ Columbiades,” having a ten-inch bore,
and throwing a 124-pound shot. Lieut. Bodman, o f the army, and for some
time connected with this establishment, is the inventor o f a new and import­
ant principle in the casting o f ordnance. The cannon is cast hollow, and a
constant and ever-renewed stream o f water forced in, thus cooling the interior
first, instead of, as was the old plan, casting solid, and allowing the outside
to cool first. The effects are more equal strain, and more density and tough­




687

Pittsburgh.

ness where such qualities are most needed. Cannon cast by both methods
have been subjected to most powerful tests, and the result has been that
those cast on the new principle bear five and six times the number o f charges
o f those cast by the usual method. In 1853 these works consumed 2,'225
tons pig iron, 1,000 tons wrought iron, employed 260 hands, and produced
10 blast cylinders, 10 large, first-class steam-engines, 300 tons boilers, and
150 freight cars, besides other important work. There have been built also
at other works two steam revenue cutters, one steam frigate, one submerged
propeller for Lieut. Hunter, and one large river steamer, all o f iron. O f the
fates or condition o f these various steamers we have no knowledge. The
amount o f pig iron, blooms, and scraps consumed in Pittsburgh would be,
from the foregoing estimate, which is as close as can be arrived at—
Steam-engine foundries........................................................... tons.
All other foundries..........................................................................
Bolling m ills....................................................................................

9,250
19,275
98,850

Total...........................................................................................

127,375

It would be impossible to make any estimate even approximating the
truth o f the amount o f wrought iron consumed by the various factories o f
Pittsburgh, but it would rise to many thousand tons.
There are in Pittsburgh ten flint or crystal-glass factories, with fifteen fur­
naces, all in full operation night and day, engaged in the manufacture o f all
varieties o f table and ornamental glassware, druggists’ jars, tinctures, &c.
They have a net capital o f $650,000, employ 600 hands, and consume an­
nually 600,000 bushels coal, 400 cords wood, 650 tons lead, 550 tons soda
and pearl ash, 250 tons fire clay, 1,500,000 feet boards, 600 tons o f straw
and hay, and 1,300 tons o f sand.
Fourteen window-glass furnaces, with a net capital o f $400,000, employ­
ing 600 men and boys, consuming 725,000 bushels coal, 5,510 cords wood,
4,550,000 feet lumber, 1,750 tons soda, and producing annually 145,000
boxes glass, worth near $580,000. Included in the above are six furnaces
situated at various distances from Pittsburgh on the Monongahela, but which
are chiefly owned, their business transacted, and their products sold at Pitts­
burgh. The products o f these latter furnaces generally go under the denom­
ination o f “ country glass,” and are inferior in quality to what is called, in
contradistinction, “ city glass.” Some o f the window-glass factories are at
present making glass o f great beauty and size, also fine varieties o f plate,
Boston, concave, and show-window glass.
Eleven phial and bottle factories, with a net capital o f $260,000, em­
ploying 650 men and boys, consuming 275,000 bushels coal, 5,280 cords
wood, 2,750,000 feet o f lumber, and 880 tons sod a; and producing an­
nually 176,000 boxes o f every variety o f black and green bottles, flasks,
phials, &c., worth, at present rates, $385,000. There are 8 window glass
and 1 bottle factory, which, being at present out o f blast, are not included
in the estimate.
There are 5 cotton factories, running 29,300 spindles, 671 looms, and
consuming yearly 6,350,000 lbs. cotton, 375,000 bushels coal, 120,000 lbs.
starch, and 10,000 gallons o i l ; employing 1,350 hands, chiefly girls, and
producing annually 7,794,000 yards cloth, 5,594,000 lbs. cloth, yarn, car­
pet chains, &c., o f value equal to $1,231,000. A bout 200 looms will be
added during the coming summer, which would make the annual consump­
tion o f cotton altogether equal to 16,000 bales.




688

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S tales:

There are 2 very extensive establishments manufacturing locks, latches,
coffee, and paint mills, counter, hatch, hay, and railroad scales, malleable
castings, &c., &c.
Capital invested, $ 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 : consume 1,600 tons pig
metal, besides many tons o f copper and zinc, in the manufacture o f brass
for keys, lock facings, &c., and a large amount o f wrought-iron ; employ
400 hands, and produce goods annually to the amount o f $450,000, which
are distributed from Mexico, on the southwest, to Nova Scotia, on the north­
east, including both Canadas.
There are 13 forges and heavy blacksmithing works, many o f them using
steam and forging-hammers, consuming 15,000 tons o f bloom and wroughtiron yearly; employing 350 hands, and a net capital o f $400,000, and
manufacturing large quantities o f railroad axles, hog chains, anchors, chain
cables, cranks, shafts for steamboats, and sugar mills, tobacco screws, bridge
work, and heavy jobbing for steamboats and railroads.
There are 6 establishments, all employing steam, and o f a largely in­
creased custom and capacity every year, which manufacture in all axes,
hatchets, shovels, spades, hoes, hay and manure forks, mill and cross-cut
saws, picks, mattocks, &c. They have in all a net capital o f $200,000 ;
consume 200 tons o f best steel, 2,500 tons o f wrought-iron, and employ 300
hands. O f the two which make axes, one will produce 12,000 dozen, and
the other 2,000 dozen yearly.
There is another factory making vices alone, and still another making
solid box-vices, hammered axles, crowbars, sledges, hammers, timber, mill,
cotton, and tobacco screws, <fcc.
There are 5 separate establishments for founding brass, which among
them make bells, every variety o f common and patent cocks, metallic pack­
ing, locomotive castings and moldings, decorative works, &c.
Eight more or less extensive factories for working copper, making copper
tubing, pipes, vessels, engine and steamboat work, &c.
There are several establishments which are extensively engaged in making
Britannia, japanned, sheet-iron, and tin ware, and which send their products
throughout the W est and South, and to the lakes.
Also, one large steam-shop for making heavy tools and machines, such
as planing machines and turning lathes for dressing iron, punching and
drilling machines, slide rests, &c.
There are 4 large factories for making fire and burglar proof safes, heavy
locks, vault doors, and iron shutters, which employ about 150 hands, have
a net capital o f $160,000, and, beside their jobbing work, make annually
1,600 safes, which, at an average value o f $60, would be worth $96,000.
These safes are extensively distributed throughout the W est, have been re­
peatedly tested, and are reputed to be as good as any made elsewhere.
There are 2 rifie-barrel factories, consuming 75 tons o f best and toughest
iron, and making, at an average o f 12 lbs. for each barrel, 12,500 per
annum.
There are 4 whitelead factories, with capacity to produce 240,000 kegs o f
lead every year, worth, at current prices, $500,000.
Also, about 70 tons
o f litharge, and a large amount o f redlead.
There are 2 soda factories in Pittsburgh, and 1 in Tarentum, near by, which
sends its products there for sale. The largest o f these has an invested capi­
tal o f $80,000, employs 100 hands, consumes yearly 18,000 tons o f mate­
rial, coal, limestone, salt, sulphur, <fcc., and manufactures 60 barrels or 10




Pittsburgh.

689

tons daily, 1,500 tons yearly. As over 3,000 tons o f soda are consumed in
Pittsburgh yearly, it does not send much of its product abroad.
There are 3 linseed oil mills using steam, consuming 30,000 bushels o f
seed per annum, at a cost o f $1 40 per bushel, and yielding 1,500 barrels
o f oil, which is almost entirely consumed in the home market.
There are in all, without including 6 situated away some little distance,
but which transact their business at Pittsburgh, 38 breweries, 17 o f which
employ steam. The net capital o f the 38 would fully amount to $650,000,
manufacturing, at the very lowest calculation, 90,000 barrels o f ales and
beers in this proportion— 50,000 o f ale and porter, 25,000 o f lager beer,
and 15,000 o f light common beer. They consume annually 300,000 bush­
els o f barley, and 1,000 bales, or 200,000 lbs. o f hops. In addition to this
product in liquid, 100,000 bushels o f malt are made, and in great part sold
in the Eastern market.
There are 3 flouring mills, with 19 run o f stone, consuming 1,800,000
bushels o f wheat per annum, and manufacturing 360,000 barrels o f flour,
which has a most excellent reputation, both in this country and at Liver­
pool.
Capital, $300,000.
The want o f communications by which wheat
in great quantities could be procured and the manufactured product trans­
mitted to markets, has hitherto confined the number o f mills to 3 ; but as
Pittsburgh is posed right in the heart o f the most magnificent wheat region
in the country, as railroads passing through fruitful wheat districts are com­
ing there, as power is very cheap, and as there is a chance o f 5 Eastern
markets, all nearly equidistant, and all quickly and cheaply reached on the
completion o f various lines o f railroad now in process o f building, that place
would seem to be peculiarly fitted for the erection o f steam flouring m ills;
and doubtless in the course o f five years the present number will be quad­
rupled.
There are 5 mills for the extensive manufacture o f crackers and pilot or
navy bread; 3 employing steam, and 2 not.
The aggregate yearly con­
sumption would be at least 16,000 bbls. o f flour, and the product would rise
above 40,000 bbls. The water, bran, and soda crackers, sweet and butter
biscuit, made by these mills have a wide celebrity, and are largely distrib­
uted both East and W est.
There are at present in operation 7 steam tanneries, manufacturing into
every variety o f common and patent leather, 25,000 hides yearly, amount­
ing in value to $212,000.
The department o f japanning is a new feature
in the leather trade there, which, from a small commencement, now amounts
to nearly one-half o f all the leather manufactured, with a rapidly increasing
demand. In addition, there are a number o f smaller concerns, some that
manufacture sheep, morocco, and calf skins, to the value o f $70 or $80,000
more. Pittsburgh, as a market for the country-tanned leather, is increasing
daily, offering to country tanners the most promising inducements, which
bid fair to make her a chief Western center for leather and hides.
There are 13 planing mills operated by steam, with a capital o f $260,000,
producing flooring boards, &c., equal to over 10,000,000 feet annually.
This planed and dressed lumber goes as far W est as St. Louis, and as far
South as New Orleans.
Thirteen steam saw-mills, which, at an average yield o f 1,500,000 feet,
would produce nearly 20,000,000 feet o f sawed lumber per annum. Pitts­
burgh is now the cheapest lumber market, for all varieties, in the whole
United States; and every railroad which will be built through W estern
44
V O L. X X X .-----NO. V I.




690

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States:

Pennsylvania will largely increase her supply and variety.
The lumber
trade o f the Alleghany is now immense.
The whole valley which is wa­
tered by that river and its tributaries is covered for hundreds o f miles with
the densest and most luxuriant forests, chiefly o f white and yellow pine,
spruce, hemlock, and poplar, with a fair interspersement o f asli and hickory.
W h en this region is fully cleared o f its almost limitless and valuable sur­
face growth, it will become one o f the most exuberantly fruitful districts in
our country— distinguished as that country is for its fertile soil and prodigal
production— and offers very many inducements to settlers from the East and
from foreign countries.
Land, on account o f its being hitherto shut out from markets and so
closely covered with forests, is ridiculously cheap ; the country is beautiful,
and the climate healthful and temperate.
The Alleghany Valley, Sunbury, and Erie, Warren and Franklin, and Erie
and Pittsburgh roads, which will shortly be built, will intersect and lay open
the iron ore, limestone, coal, and lumber stores o f this magnificent region
throughout its whole extent, and cannot fail to cover it at no distant day
with a crowded, thrifty, and industrious population. The Alleghany Val­
ley road alone will largely increase the lumber trade o f Pittsburgh, and
will also convey much o f it to New Y ork and Eastern Pennsylvania. A
few lumbermen alone in North Ridgeway township offer, if freights be favor­
able, to send over 10,000,000 feet. The amount o f sawed lumber coming
down the Alleghany and its tributaries, the Clarion, French Creek, Tionista,
Conewango, and others, is estimated at from 150 to 175,000,000 feet an­
nually, chiefly white pine, 200,000,000 pine shingles, 30,000,000 lath, and
20,000,000 cubic feet of square timber. The lumber rafts are prepared at
the saw mills, which will number over 200, running from one to eight saws;
they are then floated down with the spring freshet.
A bout one-third of
- them are stayed and distributed at Pittsburgh; the remaining two-thirds
are sold to the different towns and cities on the Ohio, as far down as the
mouth.
The Valley o f the Monongahela, which is now being opened throughout
its entire extent by the Connellsville Railroad and by slack-water naviga­
tion, grows a different and more solid character o f timber, chiefly the tougher
varieties o f oak, hickory, ash, cherry, poplar, locust, and bird’s-eye m aple;
so that almost every variety o f wood used for manufacturing can be ob­
tained at Pittsburgh at little more than half the cost which its scarcity
compels elsewhere.
This is a very important consideration in the estab­
lishment o f such branches o f manufacture as consume large quantities of
wood, and must, as soon as Pittsburgh resources and advantages become
better and more widely known, attract there many large workshops in
branches o f production not yet conducted.
The time appears to be rapidly passing away when peculiar favor should
attach to a product because it is o f Eastern m ake; and Western merchants
are beginning to find that they are as well served nearer home. The saving
in freight and in cost o f construction o f very many Eastern products, such as
carriages, wagons, cars, locomotives, &e., &c., when they can be built just
as well and cheaper, and when they can be immediately launched on a very
cheap water route, must eventually lead to the establishment o f many va­
rieties o f manufacture which are now found nowhere west o f the Alleghany
Mountains. A m ong the branches which consume much wood, are—
1st. The cabinet furniture business, which is carried on extensively at




Pittsburgh.

691

Pittsburgh, and forms an important interest amounting annually to over
$500,000, and employing 420 hands. There are very large establishments
o f the most complete description, with all the modern appliances o f steam,
in the construction o f common furniture and chairs.
Their principal mar­
kets are Ohio, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Kentucky, and Tennessee. There are
at least 15 smaller establishments, which, although they produce largely,
yet have a more limited and local market. There are many additional fac­
tories, with and without steam, which consume an immense amount of
wood, and which distribute their products throughout the W est, as well as
W . Pennsylvania— barrels, kegs, boxes, tubs, buckets, looking-glass frames,
trunks, detached carpentry and joinery work, <fcc., &c. Details would re­
quire entirely too much space.
There are 7 carriage manufacturers who send their products abroad,
chiefly to Tennessee and Kentucky. They have a net capital o f $320,000,
employ 325 hands, and produce about 1,200 o f omnibuses, coaches, car­
riages, phaetons, barouches, and buggies per year.
Many specimens o f
their fine work, which have been purchased by citizens o f Louisville, Nash­
ville, and other Western cities, have given great satisfaction, and are fully
equal in style, finish, appearance, and endurance, to the best o f Eastern
manufacture. This branch o f business, on account o f cheapness o f iron,
wood, conveyance, &c., is destined to a large increase.
There are 2 very extensive wagon factories, where are manufactured every
year an almost incredible number o f light and heavy wagons o f every de­
scription, drays, carts, trucks, &c. Most o f their products g o far W est—
many o f the wagon and timber wheels to Texas and the South. The larger
o f these establishments supplied our army while in Mexico with most o f
the camp and baggage wagons, gun-carriages, &c.
There are at present only 2 pork and packing establishments, but these
capable o f the slaughter and curing o f 75,000 hogs per season.
The
slaughter and packing during the last season was small, owing (besides
other causes) to want o f confidence in prices; and over 60,000 head that
should have been packed there, were sent to various points East. For the
Same reasons which have operated against the establishment o f so many
new branches o f business there, viz., the absence o f Western and Eastern
communications in every direction, this great department o f W estern trade
has as yet been trifling; but there are now indications that it will be in
future a very prominent branch.
There are certainly many advantages to
induce large investments.
The climate is in the highest degree favorable;
the cost o f delivering large numbers o f hogs there by the various roads now
rapidly being hurried to completion, will be sm all; and we are credibly in­
formed that hogs can be brought to Pittsburgh from Western Ohio at an
expense o f only 5 cents per head more than to Cincinnati; cost o f handling
and transhipment is less than it is at points farther W e s t; salt is nowhere
else so cheap; Pittsburgh market is the best for the sale o f offal, grease,
ribs, feet, &c., and it is a most excellent distributing point, as the cured
product can be shipped at all seasons o f the year, either by canal or railroad,
to various Eastern markets.
There are 21 rectifying distilleries, which prepare for market over 40,000
barrels o f whisky per annum ; also 1 establishment for the manufacture o f
alcohol, and 1 o f neutral spirits. The main supply o f raw whisky, which in
times past was obtained from the Monongahela region, is now chiefly derived
from the Ohio Valley and Cincinnati, although the product still bears the
name o f “ Monongahela W hisky.”




692

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S ta tes:

On the Alleghany River and tributaries, and throughout the whole coun­
try surrounding Pittsburgh, are situated numerous salt works. As near as
can be ascertained, there are now in operation about 40 w ells; annual
product for the best and most flourishing, about 30,000 bushels ; for the
least productive, 6,000. Besides these, there are 70 which are at present
lying idle.
To prove productive, they are bored near a plentiful supply o f
bituminous coal, o f which large quantities are used to evaporate the water
and to crystallize the salt. The quality o f the salt thus produced is equal
to any other, whether obtained at home or abroad, as the annexed analysis
by Prof. Booth, o f salt taken from the works o f Mr. Peterson, in Alleghany
County, Penn., will testify :—

Varieties.

Chloride o f Chloride
Sulphate of
sodium, or
of
Muriate magnesium,
common magneof
or Epsom
salt.
sium.
lime.
salts.

Fine salt, Alleghany Co., P a .. 98.87
Liverpool rock....................... 98.55
Turks Island........................... 93.85

0.51
0.08
3.47

0.62
none
....

none
0.16
none

Sulphate
o f lime, Impurity,
or plaster chiefly
o f Paris, sand.

trace trace
1.21 ................
2.68 little sand

Besides the numerous factories and branches o f manufacturing interest
enumerated and described somewhat at length above, there are others
which may deserve some special mention, without, however, any detail. To
w it:—
One factory with over 60 complicated machines, and employing 50 hands,
for making blue cut tacks, brads, shoe, clout, and finishing nails, iron and
copper rivets, &c. One for making nuts and bolts o f all varieties and
sizes.
One star candle factory and mill, employing 18 hydraulic presses, for
the purpose o f expressing from lard the oleine and stereine. Over 10,000
barrels o f lard are used annually, the oleine o f which is converted into lard
oil, and the stereine into star candles.
One which makes all sizes o f wrought spikes, small and large rivets, &c.
One factory situated at Brighton, but having stock and warehouse at Pitts­
burgh, for making all sizes o f wire, rivets, sieves, safes, &c. Three or four
factories o f agricultural and gardening implements.
Six paper-mills at Pittsburgh and neighborhood. Six rope-walks for the
manufacture o f hemp and manilla rope, twine, &c.
Three extensive estab­
lishments for sawing, cutting, and dressing stone, making burr mill­
stones, &c.
One establishment exclusively engaged in making railroad spikes, by a
lately patented and wonderfully efficient machine, turning out from 5 to 7
tons o f spikes every day. One very large mill for the manufacture o f oil­
cloth, window shades, <fcc.
Two chemical works for the manufacture o f nitric and sulphuric acid.
Two extensive gas works, one in Pittsburgh and one in Alleghany, charging
only $1 80 per 1,000 cubic feet.
Three water works, two for Pittsburgh
and one for Alleghany.
All o f the above employ steam in their operations.
Also, we may pass with a mere mention, many minor establishments,
which in the aggregate add much to the value o f Pittsburgh products.
From 10 to 20 furnaces for the conversion o f coal into coke. Factories for
woolen goods, woven garments, and crash ; for cards used in cotton and
woolen machinery; for harness, trunks, riveted hose, and saddlery hard­
ware ; for sickles, surgical, dental, and surveying instruments; for earthen,




Pittsburgh.

693

stone, and yellow Rockingham w are: for fire, building brick, tiles, and mar­
ble work ; for the manufacture o f Chilson’s furnaces, and for copperizing
iron ; for the manufacture o f gas and water pipes, chandeliers, oil, lard, and
fluid lam ps; for bellows, Venetian blinds and shutters, lead pipe— and,
finally, yards where are made in large numbers flats, canal, and keel boats,
barges, steam tugs, and boating work generally.
Steamboat building, though mentioned last, is one o f the most important
branches o f Pittsburgh manufacture, and in their construction, equipment,
and management, employs an immense number o f artisans o f many different
trades. The effect o f railroads thus far constructed has been greatly to in­
crease, rather than diminish the river trade. Numerous steamers arrive
daily, laden to the guards with the cereals and other produce o f the South
and West.
Contrary to expectation, and owing to the great demand for river ship­
ment at points on the Western waters, freights are high, steamboats are
selling at a greatly advanced price, and the numerous boat builders are
driven to the wall with work, and are hotly pressed to fill their orders.
Chiefly on account o f the great abundance o f the required varieties o f tim­
ber, and o f other materials usually employed in building, steamers are built
better and cheaper at Pittsburgh and vicinity than at any Western port,
and, in consequence, more are built and fitted out there than at any other
two or three cities in the W est.
For the year 1853, 59 were enrolled on the custom-house books of Pitts­
burgh ; and in 1854, the number o f new boats launched, some o f them of
unusual size, power, and carrying capacity, will rise above 80. The im ­
provements which have o f late years attended the construction, the adorn­
ment, and the appointments o f river steamers, for burden and for passengers,
have been numerous and o f great value.
The very large and powerful
boats which have lately been launched as passenger packets between Pitts­
burgh and Cincinnati, are superb specimens o f workmanship, with furniture
and decorations o f the most gorgeous and elaborate order, and complete in
all that can administer comfort or pleasure to the traveler.
These splendid
floating palaces are over 250 feet in length, have an actual carrying capacity
o f from 800 to 1,000 tons, cost from $60,000 to $80,000 each, and move with
great ease and swiftness. A boat is now being built at one o f the yards
for the St. Louis trade, o f 1,080 tons burden by custom-house measure­
ment, but o f an actual carrying capacity o f full 1,700 tons. This immense
boat will cost, finished and equipped, no less than $80,000. There are
other boats now in process o f construction, which are designed and built on
an entirely new plan, with the purpose o f carrying large amounts o f freights
on very little water.
They will have each two wheels at the stern, two
powerful double engines, will be o f unusual breadth o f beam, and so ar­
ranged as to carry from 3 to 500 tons on 3 feet o f water.
I f this experi­
ment should prove successful, o f which there can be little doubt, it will
be o f inestimable aid to the Pittsburgh carrying trade in seasons o f low
water.
Pittsburgh boats are all built on the high-pressure principle, and will
average about 300 tons by custom-house measurement, to which fully onehalf must be added for actual carrying capacity, making an average o f 450
tons each.
Owing to the irregular method by which in this department W estern
custom-house books are kept, it is almost impossible to arrive at, with any




694

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S ta tes:

accuracy, the aggregate living steam tonnage o f Pittsburgh. The official
report on Commerce and Navigation, published by the Treasury Depart­
ment, for 1852, records the steam tonnage o f various Western cities
th u s:—
Permanent
ste’ m ton’ge.

Louisville,
"Wheeling,
Cincinnati
Chicago ..

Permanent

Bte’m ton’ge.

32,646
57,182
12,764

11,818 St. Louis................
4,280 Pittsburgh............
10,238 I Baltimore (Eastern)
11,993 |

This table is manifestly disproportioned and full o f error. The amount
o f steam tonnage registered on the custom-house books at Pittsburgh is—
To June 30, 1853....................................................................
To January 1, 1854................................................................
Add one-half for actual carrying capacity

70,268 tons
75,505 “
113,257

“

W h ich we understand to be the aggregate steam tonnage o f boats originally
built and owned there.
If, as is the duty o f the custom-house officer, the
tonnage o f boats condemned, sunk, or sold out o f the district, were deducted
from the above amount, the aggregate tonnage would be very materially
reduced.
Our account o f Pittsburgh would be incomplete, did we not mention
some few o f the public edifices which add beauty to the city, give many
conveniences to citizens, and many o f which serve also as mementoes o f the
generosity o f the benevolent.
There have been lately completed two covered market-houses, which for
propriety o f design, excellence o f arrangement, and general commodiousness,
are not surpassed anywhere.
A new custom-house, built in the Greek style, o f freestone, with a beauti­
ful post-office and United States court-rooms, and costing $115,000, has
just been occupied, and Pittsburgh importers have their duties levied from
their own custom-house.
A United States marine hospital has been finished two years, and is now
occupied. Three hospitals, erected and sustained by private charity, have
lately gone into operation. A very beautiful house o f refuge, capable o f
lodging with comfort 450 inmates, is now receiving the finishing touches.
Excepting a moderate appropriation by the State, this fine edifice will be a
monument o f private munificence.
Three costly Gothic churches will be completed during the present year
— one for the Presbyterians, one for the Methodists, and one for the Roman
Catholics. This last will be a structure o f unusual splendor and size, and
capable o f containing 8,000 persons.
A t convenient distances from the cities on the Alleghany and Motiongahela, are situated the Alleghany and Pittsburgh poor-houses, while a third
for the country will shortly be completed.
The court-house, with county jail attached, is a noble and imposing
building o f stone, and has been very much admired. Its cost was over
$ 200, 000 .

The penitentiary for W est Pennsylvania, looking like some old feudal
castle, with its turreted walls, is a State institution, and is situated in
Alleghany City.
The United States arsenal and government machine shops, with officers




Pittsburgh.

695

houses attached, occupy some beautiful and tastefully decorated grounds
near the city lines, on the Alleghany River.
Each city has also very extensive rural cemeteries, with delightful shades,
running waters, commanding prospects, and rare and costly shrubbery. In
the absence as yet o f shaded public grounds, these cemeteries are the fre­
quent resort o f both citizens and strangers. There is a reasonable hope
that a large area o f waste common, now lying in the center o f Alleghany,
will be shortly converted into shaded public parks.
In event o f a consoli­
dation o f the two cities and adjacent boroughs, a bill for which is now be­
fore the Pennsylvania Legislature, it is probable that the bridges between
the cities will be free, and these grounds immediately improved.
The third position, that Pittsburgh is destined for much Commerce, and
as a distributor, both for the East and W est, the limited space yet remain­
ing for us, compels to treat as briefly as possible.
A careful study o f the map o f the United States, a survey o f the great
natural highways o f the North, South, and W est, and o f the directions and
tendencies o f advancing population and trade; a consideration, moreover,
o f the position o f the chief seaboard cities, and the related directions o f the
growing centers o f Western population and Commerce, between which two
groups o f cities there must always be an interchange o f commodities and
values, will most clearly demonstrate the commercial value o f the position
o f Pittsburgh. W e do not fear claiming too much. Occupying a central
point between the North and South, situated at the base o f the western
slope o f the Alleghany Mountains, at the conjunction o f three navigable
rivers, which give her command o f 20,000 miles o f cheap navigation, and
that too at a most convenient distance and proper direction from five im­
portant Eastern cities, Pittsburgh stands the door o f the West. W h ere she
does not lie in a direct line between Eastern cities and their opposites in the
W est, her cheap water navigation, which terminates with her, and gives
choice o f five markets, will procure her large quantities o f freight and much
travel for points beyond her.
The various railroads which will shortly be completed, and which will
connect her in the directest line with every important city, either East or
W est, as low down in latitude as W ashington on the one side, and Memphis
on the other, are expected to benefit her in divers ways. It is apparent that
railroads may go through even a large place which has no local advan­
tages, where freight breaks no bulk, and where there is no object for any
stoppage in transitu, and still receive no large accession o f population, or in­
crease in value or influence ; but where a city has already become a trade
center and busy mart o f Commerce and manufacture, and the market o f a
large region o f country unusually abounding in agricultural and mineral
wealth, every completed road increases her population, her wealth and pow­
er, makes an additional section o f country dependent on her, enlarges the
market for her produce and manufactures, and advances her material wel­
fare in many unexpected ways.
Most undoubtedly, to her position at the one extremity o f river naviga­
tion, Pittsburgh, without (until very lately) a single railroad, owes whatever
commercial importance she is possessed of, and is the main cause why rail­
roads have been projected and built with reference to h e r ; and if that river
were navigable the whole year round for heavy draught steamers, no num­
ber o f railroads that could be built would ever be able to approach it in the
carriage o f freight or in value to Pittsburgh.




696

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S ta tes:

Their position, with reference to water navigation, is building up Chicago
and Buffalo at each extremity o f the lakes ; it has built New Orleans and
New York in part.
A t seasons o f good water, heavy freights are carried from Pittsburgh to
St. Louis and Nashville for 25 cents per 100 lbs.; to New Orleans and
Dubuque, for from 30 to 40 cents per 100 lbs.; and no railroad, no matter
how cheaply it may be constructed or how low its running expenditures
may be reduced to, will ever be able to compete with water navigation at
such rates.
It is a fixed and well known law of Commerce, that unless
certain influential causes operate in attracting trade out o f regular courses,
it will seek the nearest and cheapest way to market, and so intelligent and
sensitive is it that, other things being equal, as soon as better and cheaper
transportation facilities are afforded, as soon as freight can be carried one
cent cheaper per 100 lbs., and more especially if time, rates, and distance be
favorable, so soon will it give immediate recognition o f the fact, and com­
mence to flow in those courses.
Cheapness, certainty, and safety, are alike required by shippers and re­
ceivers. Pennsylvania and' her chief cities, Philadelphia and Pittsburgh,
have been exceedingly negligent in providing those commercial avenues
which would secure to them the vast trade o f the Ohio and Mississippi val­
leys ; nor did they prepare to move until the far-seeing sagacity and farreaching enterprise o f New York and Baltimore, were preparing to enter
with their roads and drain the domain belonging o f nature to them. B e­
cause cheap freight and travel communications were not provided through
Pennsylvania, much o f the passengers and produce of the country west of
her were diverted from their direct courses to New York, via Toledo, San­
dusky, Cleveland, and Buffalo.
The effect o f one road, although not yet completed and scarce yet in work­
ing order, in drawing back this trade into its lineal directions, is already
manifested in the last published import and export reports o f those lake
cities.
The Ohio River is the great channel in which most o f the produce and
bulky freightage o f the great Western valleys would flow, provided it offered
a regular, certain, and cheap navigation at all seasons o f the year, and if at
its terminus such artificial avenues are afforded as would carry from it that
which is destined for the East, and to it that which is destined for the
W est. It is great cause for wonder that so little has as yet been done to
improve the navigation o f that great national highway.
W h en we know the large results that would ensue from an improved con­
dition o f that and other western rivers— that ten populous, wealthy, and in­
fluential States, six large western cities, and, on the completion o f roads now
being built, five great eastern cities are more or less immediately interested
in its constant and unembarrassed navigation, it is a legitimate subject for
astonishment that no more earnest, united, and persistent endeavor has been
made to secure for it the attention and favorable legislation o f Congress.
W h en single States or western corporations can procure whole millions o f
acres for measures o f only sectional importance and limited benefits, what
valuable aid, if urgently and unitedly demanded, could not an organized and
co-operative combination o f such States and cities secure ?
Pittsburgh, although the last first-class city to move in the matter o f rail­
roads— those wonderful agents for advancing civilization and Commerce, and
for uniting in close and amicable connection distant sections— has yet so




Pittsburgh.

697

speedily recovered her lost ground that there is nothing on that point, and.
no road proceeding from her in any direction left to desire. A ll that re­
mains for her is to await the completion and beneficial consequences of the
many roads now in process o f completion, to observe the direction and rela­
tions o f western Commerce, to carefully guard against all that may do injury
to her interests or divert her trade, and to stimulate, cherish, and aid all that
may prove tributary and o f value to her.
Beside the River Ohio, Pittsburgh is the terminus o f the Monongahela,
now navigable as far as Brownsville, but which, when three more dams now
being built are completed, will be navigable for first-class steamers as far as
Fairmount, Va. The tonnage for 1853 passing over the Monongahela slack
water improvement amounted to 577,941 tons, and the number o f through
and way passengers upwards o f 100,000. W h en completed there must be
a very large increase. She is also the terminus o f the Alleghany River, now
navigable at certain seasons as far as Franklin. A company has just been
chartered this spring for its improvement by dams. The probability is that
it will be made navigable at all seasons as far as the Kiskiminitas. I f that
river be then slackwatered to Johnstown, at the foot o f the mountains, then
commencing at Holidaysburg on the thither side o f the mountains, and if the
Juniata be slackwatered as far as the Susquehannah and Harrisburgh, it
would offer a channel fully as cheap and far more commodious than the
great New Y ork and Erie Canal, the pride o f New York.
Pittsburgh is also the terminus o f the main line o f State works from Phil­
adelphia to Pittsburgh, canal and railroad. A bill for the sale o f this whole
line has been most warmly and intelligently discussed, and has just passed
the House by a vote o f 64 to 30, and will most undoubtedly pass the Senate.
The whole line will be sold for eleven millions o f dollars, and the Central
Road, in connection probably with some western roads, will become the
purchasers.
There are other canals, both in Pennsylvania and Ohio, which give cheap
channels for freight throughout a broad and populous country, and which
connect Pittsburgh with the Lakes.
In order to estimate the value o f the position of Pittsburgh as a railroad
center and a distributing point, it will be necessary to take a hurried and
comprehensive survey o f the various roads which will converge to her from
all directions, and which are now being rapidly pushed to completion.
There are altogether now nine distinct and independent routes which do
or will enter Pittsburgh. Two o f these, the Ohio and Pittsburgh Road and
the Pennsylvania Central, are now completed. The Cleveland and Pitts­
burgh Road is completed to Wellsville on the Ohio, and at present employs
between that point and Pittsburgh keel-boats for her freight, and steamboats
for her passengers. The others have abundant means, and will be speedily
constructed.
Five o f these roads will be trunk lines, and will have many important
tributaries and connections, and all will be good paying roads as soon as
finished. Those stretching out to the W est are—
1.
The Ohio and Pennsylvania Road, in successful operation throughout
its whole length to Crest Line, a distance o f 187 miles, penetrating the rich
wheat regions o f Ohio, and forming many important connections. A t A l­
liance it meets the Pittsburgh aud Cleveland Road, at Londonville the Mt.
Vernon and Springfield Road, at Crest Line the Sandusky and Cleveland
Roads running to Cincinnati. Its continuations thence are in two important




698

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States:

directions, one by the Ohio and Indiana route to Fort W ayne, thence by an
air-line road directly to Chicago, making the shortest possible route for the
whole northwest country to W ashington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and even
to New York. Another road which it will meet at Fort W ayne, and o f
whose value to it and to Pittsburgh it is impossible to exaggerate, is the
great Fort W ayne and Mississippi Road, proceeding due west from Fort
W ayne, crossing the Mississippi River at or near Lacon, and terminating at
the mouth o f the La Platte River ; a stupendous undertaking— traversing a
country now but sparsely settled, but which, when fully populated and cul­
tivated, will become the garden o f the world. The other direction is to St.
Louis by the Bellefontaine and Indiana Road to Terre Haute, thence in an
air line to St. Louis, a charter for which link has at length been obtained
from Illinois. This route, especially if the Pacific Railroad should terminate
at St. Louis, will be a most important one for Pittsburgh. Although not
yet stocked, and having few connections as yet, the business and travel on
the Ohio and Pennsylvania Railroad is steadily increasing. In each instance,
except in cost, the estimate of its managers has been exceeded:—

Receipts for March, 1853 . . . .
Receipts for March, 1854 . . . .

$38,743
81,150

Increase..............................

42,407

Receipts in 1st quarter of 1853.
Receipts in 1st quarter of 1854.
Increase, 113 per cen t........

$94,858
202,295
107,436

2. The Pittsburgh and Steubenville Road, proceeding due west from
Pittsburgh, crossing the Ohio at Steubenville, where it is continued by the
Steubenville and Indiana Road to Columbus, where it becomes connected
with a perfect network o f Ohio and Indiana roads which radiate in every di­
rection, and thence proceeding in the most direct practicable route to St.
Louis. This road will be finished in about a year, and will be a most ex­
cellent passenger route, as it is the straightest line from St. Louis, and that
immense tract o f country lying due west from Pennsylvania, to Philadelphia,
N ew York, and Boston.
Another very important branch will be the Maysville and Pittsburgh
Road, which, at the former town on the Ohio, unites with a road extending
by way o f Lexington through Kentucky and Tennessee to Memphis, on the
Mississippi. This road will evidently, from a mere survey o f the route, be
o f great importance, and will, especially if a route to the Pacific start from
Memphis, be fruitful in good results to Pittsburgh.
3. The Cleveland and Pittsburgh Road is already in operation to W ellsville on the Ohio River, between which Point and Pittsburgh keel-boats are
employed to carry its freight, and a steamboat to carry its passengers. One
branch is now being built from W ellsville to Bridgeport, opposite W heeling,
and another toward Pittsburgh, either to enter into Pittsburgh by a separate
road controlled by its company, or by a junction with the Ohio and Penn­
sylvania Road at Beaver. This road and its branches cannot fail in bringing
a large accession o f business and travel to Pittsburgh, which will be felt in
all her commercial relations, and add largely to her position as a point de­
sirable for eastern connections. Even now, when yet unfinished, and having
freight subjected to transhipment at Wellsville, it does a large and increas­
ing business with Pittsburgh. The tonnage carried by it from that point
alone for 1853 was 15,000 tons; the tonnage for 1854, estimating from its
increase in the first quarter o f the year, will be considerably over 30,000
tons, at least four-fifths o f which will be Pittsburgh manufactured articles.




Pittsburgh.

699

4. The Cleveland and Mahoning Road, now being built, will penetrate the
fertile and populous region known as the “ Western Reserve,” will give a
closer connection with Cleveland and the Lakes, and will for much o f the
distance diverge but gradually from the Cleveland and Pittsburgh Road,
with which, however, it cannot interfere. It will be completely finished in
1 8 5 5 ; it will create a very large local trade, and will secure a large portion
o f the trade and travel centered at Cleveland and destined for points east and
southeast o f it. It will either connect at Newcastle with a branch o f the
Ohio and Pittsburgh Road, or will com e directly into Pittsburgh by a separ­
ate road now projected and discussed.
5. The Pittsburgh and Erie Road is a project which has had various and
fluctuating fortunes, but is now supported by such energetic and responsible
men, and has such a firm and generous financial basis, that it will be imme­
diately pushed to completion. It will serve to develop a rich agricultural
and mineral country, will give a most direct northern connection with the
Lakes, and will be a duct for Pittsburgh coal and manufactures to the lake
country and the Canadas. Its route has been finally located through Mercer,
and it will meet the Ohio and Pittsburgh branch at Newcastle.
6. The Chartiers Valle} road is a route 25 miles in length, which proceeds
from Pittsburgh on the south, keeps along a valley widely celebrated for its
picturesque beauty and mineral resources, and unites with the Hempfield
Road at Washington, Pa. It has just been put under contract, will be
finished in one year, and is considered o f more importance and dignity than
a mere local branch. It is built to counteract the injurious withdrawal o f
freight and travel by means o f the Hempfield route, a road which issues from
the roads centering at W heeling, proceeds due east, leaves Pittsburgh to the
north, and unites with the Pennsylvania Central at Greensburg. It will en­
jo y a large local trade, and will be beside a much-traveled link uniting Pitts­
burgh and the West.
7. On the northeastern side proceeds a road which Pittsburghers are ac­
customed to regard with peculiar favor, simply because— independent o f its
through travel and freightage, which will be immense, and its more distant
connections, which will be many and important— it divides, from one end to
the other, one o f the most magnificent districts in our country, one which is
richer in resources than any other; which has hitherto remained a wilder­
ness only because it has been inaccessible and without market facilities, and
which, above all, will make Pittsburgh its chief outlet. The vast stores o f
iron ore, coal, limestone, salt, &c., the boundless forests o f many and valua­
ble varieties o f timber which are so bountifully deposited from one end o f
the Alleghany Valley even up to the New York line, we have already at­
tempted to do some justice to. W h en cleared o f its timber it will become
a most luxuriant agricultural region ; and a careful writer for the New York
Tribune, who has traversed thoroughly the entire valley, predicts that, such
are its capabilities for supporting a dense, thrifty, and industrious popula­
tion, that before the year 1900 it will coptain 2,000,000 inhabitants. From
the numerous roads now projected and being built to drain this prolific val­
ley, we think this no unlikely result. This Alleghany Valley Road meets
the New York State line at Ceres, and the New York and Erie Road, o f the
same gauge, at Olean, and by another branch at Corning. The Buffalo and
Pittsburgh Road will come into it at Johnsonburg. The Genessee Canal,
Rochester and Pittsburgh, and Attica and Alleghany Roads will unite with
it at Olean. A mere glance at the map will demonstrate the importance




1 00

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United S ta tes:

and value o f these connections, the immense range o f country which they
open to Pittsburgh, the excellent connection with the Ohio River which it
offers to New York, Boston, Albany, Rochester, and Buffalo, as also the
character o f the rich and fruitful region which will in great part make Pitts­
burgh its entrepot.
On the east, the various roads, either contemplated or in progress, will,
when finished, place Pittsburgh in the closest and straightest possible concection with Washington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, New York, and Boston ;
and first in importance is—
8.
The Pennsylvania Central, a most admirably constructed road, con­
nects Pittsburgh with Philadelphia in the straightest possible line allowable
by Pennsylvania geography, and with Baltimore by a course not so direct.
This road, scarcely yet finished, with only one track, and controlled by two
parties, is yet transacting an immense business. Its revenues for the year
1853, while yet unprovided with adequate rolling stock, with comparatively
few connections, and with numerous old-fashioned inclined planes to be
overcome, were over $3,000,000. Its results to Pittsburgh are already be­
yond the most sanguine anticipations o f its friends, and its promise for the
future is most brilliant. A few days since, 1,700 through passengers were
received in Pittsburgh by two trains, while 1,500 has not been an unusual
number. During the month o f March there was transported from Pittsburgh
to Philadelphia by this road 11,300 tons, to Baltimore, 1,801. It has not
only succeeded in causing a reversion o f freights and travel into their direct
and natural channels, but it has also drawn them from courses in which
they have long flowed, and which seemed to be their natural ones. Thus,
in the month o f March, this road carried east vast quantities o f freight from
St. Louis, which has heretofore reached the eastern markets through New
Orleans, via Ocean. Thousands o f barrels o f flour marked “ Peru Mills, 111.,”
have also gone by this route. B y a comparison o f the March exhibits o f
some o f the most important and flourishing roads in our country, some idea
may be formed o f the immense business which this road will shortly be able
to accom plish:—
Hudson River Road.,
New York Central..,
Southern Michigan. . .
New York and Erie.,
Central Pennsylvania

Receipts for March, 1853.
...
$119,803
324,511
87,144
...
371,499
...
310,955

March, 1854.

$174,240
416,847
149,495
476,316
486,184

W h en it is remembered that this is a new road, with not a single branch,
and that the receipts from way passengers and freight on the Columbia Road
are not included in the above estimate, the result must be as surprising as
it is gratifying to its friends. Before five years have elapsed, it is highly
probable that two other excellent parallel routes will unite Pittsburgh with
Harrisburgh, and three more Harrisburgh with Philadelphia. The former
are, one by the Connellsville Road as far as Fairfield, thence by the Chambersburgh and Alleghany Road to the former place, and thence by the Cum­
berland Valley Road to Harrisburgh; and one by the Alleghany Valley
Road as far as Brookville, thence by a new route, the Sinnemahoning and
Pittsburgh, to the Sunbury and Erie Road, and by that road to Harrisburgh.
The three roads to connect Harrisburgh with Philadelphia are, first, the
Dauphin and Susquehannah Road, uniting with the Reading Road at Port
Clinton; second, the Lebanon Valley Road, coming into the Reading Road




Pittsburgh.

'J'O l

at R eading; and third, the Philadelphia and Pine Grove Road, corning into
the Norristown Road at Norristown. These roads are all more than merely
projected, and all o f them will be needed for State and for inter-state trade
and travel.
9.
The Connellsville Road, part o f which is under contract, proceeds from
Pittsburgh in a southeastern direction, follows the course o f the Youghiogheney through a valley unusually abounding in ore, limestone, coal, marble,
and forests o f most valuable timber, as far as W ill’s Creek, thence it takes
an east, and then a south direction, and unites with the Baltimore and Ohio
Road at Cumberland, a distance altogether o f 147 miles. This road is justly
considered by Pittsburgh as one o f great interest and overshadowing impor­
tance, as it develops a very valuable portion o f the State, for which she will
be the outlet and market, and gives the most direct practical connection with
the Baltimore and Washington. Tw o shorter routes to Washington City
are projected, and will most probably soon be built. One, called the “ M a­
nassas Gap Road,” diverging from the Connellsville at a point called
“ Myers’s Mills,” in Somerset County, Pa., and coming in at Alexandria, and
the other called the “ Metropolitan Road,” commencing at Harper’s Ferry,
on the Baltimore and Ohio Road, and proceeding in a straight course to
W ashington. Both o f these routes will be much straighter, and o f course
nearer than that by way o f the Baltimore and Ohio Road. The Connells­
ville is heartily supported both by Baltimore and Pittsburgh, and will be
pushed with vigor and speed to completion.
This is the ninth and last road o f those converging at Pittsburgh; and
these avenues, when finished, together with the natural ones so often alluded
to, and those abundant supplies and supports o f industiy which lie so closely
around her borders and within her ready and cheap control, must constitute
Pittsburgh for all time to come a center and radiating point o f manufactures,
Commerce, and travel, scarcely susceptible o f over-estimation.
There is a growing desire in a large portion o f Pennsylvania to become
more closely and directly connected with New York City, which will always
be the great metropolis, financial, and trade center o f this Union, and n o­
where is that desire more heartily felt and more clearly manifested than in
Pittsburgh, and the indications now are that the largest liberality and the
most generous spirit will prevail in the State counsels, aud that New York
will have free and unembarrassed passage for her travel and her trade in all
desired directions through Pennsylvania, and also unrestricted liberty to o b ­
tain in the least costly and most direct manner such o f her mineral wealth
as she may stand in need of. If the teeming and wealth-burdened soil o f
this State be owned by her citizens, and if, as has been said, “ the future
millionaires o f the country are among the coal mines and ore deposits o f
Pennsylvania,” the opinion must and will shortly, if it do not already obtain,
that her true policy and wisest course is to lay open through all her borders
the mineral wealth and resources o f the State, to grant the most plenary
license to all o f whatever State, who, by increasing avenues, make sale o f her
products, and so to increase her markets and the facilities for reaching them
in the most direct manner, as to stimulate and add vigor and activity to her
mining and manufacturing industry. There are already' many projects for
giving free passage to New York through Pennsylvania— some in connection
with the Central route, others with the Sunbury and Erie, and others again
independent o f both. These measures will soon mature, and will most likely
receive the support o f two-thirds o f both houses o f the legislature. Probably




702

Commtrcial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

the best route possible, all circumstances considered, is that by the New Jer­
sey Central to Easton, thence to Allentown, thence, by the only link yet to
be constructed, to Port Clinton, thence by the Dauphin and Susquehannah
Road to Harrisburgh, and thence by the Central Road to Pittsburgh and
the Ohio Valley. This road is completed all but 30 miles, and will be 160
miles nearer to Cincinnati, Louisville, and St. Louis, than by the New York
and Erie Road.
In conclusion, it may be in place to state that much o f the future pros­
perity, usefulness, and influence o f Pittsburgh will depend on the wisdom,
liberal views, and enlightened policy o f Pennsylvania legislation ; and what­
ever could with truth have once been said o f that policy, and notwithstand­
ing the hasty and ill-advised complaints which have been lately made o f it,
yet it is clearly and abundantly manifest that the decided tendency o f the
people o f Pennsylvania and their representatives now is to the utmost liber­
ality and largeness o f view in favor o f the development o f the resources o f
the State, and a consideration o f the interests o f the whole rather than those
o f a class or section— o f allowing each city and locality to depend on its own
energy, foresight, and natural or acquired advantages for its share o f busi­
ness, trade, and travel, and in opposition to burdensome restrictions and un­
reasonable shackles on Commerce.
The present Legislature is near the close o f a most arduous session, and has
established many measures o f great public benefit and importance. The late
sale o f the main line o f the public works— which, it is allowable to hope, is
but the “ beginning o f the end ” — will at once sweep off a large portion o f
the public debt and its concomitant taxation; and before another year, the
decided probabilities are that a general railroad law, as liberal in its provis­
ions as that o f New York and other States— a more favorable mining and
manufacturing law— an enlargement o f banking capital and a sound curren­
cy, so as to meet the exigencies o f a growing mechanical and manufacturing
population, similar in its arrangement to the banking laws o f New Y ork and
Wisconsin, and a repeal o f the oppressive and odious usury law which, as it
stands, is an unwarrantable interference between men having and men want­
ing money and a premium on law-breaking, will all be passed. A ll o f which
measures will be o f much benefit to Pittsburgh, and will enable her to hold
out more numerous and attractive inducements to non-residents and capital­
ists o f other States.




T03

The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

A r t . I V. — T H E

MAINE

IAW

A FIXED

ITS RESULTS-----A NEW ELEMENT IN THE INDUSTRIAL

AND

FACT.
COMMERCIAL IN­

TERESTS OE OUR COUNTRY.

To

F re em an H unt , E ditor o f the M erchants’ M a gazine :—

S ir :— “ The propriety o f accommodation to the circumstances o f the
times, and o f turning the circumstances o f the time to a profitable account,”
is a motto which has always constituted the rule o f action o f unprincipled,
trading politicians, and o f selfish, unscrupulous tradesmen.
The Chinese
have no special claim to the credit o f acting upon that principle ; it has
been the pole star o f rogues everywhere.
Translated into plain Saxon, it
reads thus : “ Every man for himself, and the devil take the hindm ost; ”
and in this shape it is recognized and acted on by rogues, o f high and low
degree alike— by the merchant, whose only object is the profits o f trade, and
by the “ politician, who cares not a fig for navigation, Commerce, protection,
free trade, sailors’ rights,” or any other right or interest, public or private,
except so far as attention to them may promote his own personal am­
bition.
Men who act upon such a plan are necessarily incapable o f entertaining
any enlarged views in relation to the honor and prosperity o f their country,
or of the welfare and happiness o f their countrymen ; their motives, ob­
jects, and desires begin and end in self. They regard other men only as
instruments to be employed in some way, any way, or to be sacrificed,
if need be, to promote their own views, without regard to honor or the
right.
Such men always look with dislike upon every attempt to benefit man­
kind by changing “ the circumstances o f the tim es; ” and those who refuse
to turn the appetites and passions o f bad men, or the misfortunes o f others
— “ the circumstances o f the tim e” — to profitable account, are regarded and
treated as fanatics.
The professed gambler, as he plunders his victim ; the
base runner, who sells false passenger tickets to the newly arrived em igrant;
the scoundrel who invades the sanctity o f a neighbor’s domestic circle; the
robber upon the high w ay; the pirate upon the seas ; the keeper o f a grog­
shop, as he panders to the depraved appetite o f his fellow-men ; and the no
less unscrupulous politician, who “ regards neither navigation, Commerce,
protection, nor rights,” in his lust for place and power,— act precisely upon
this rule o f “ turning the circumstances o f the time to a profitable account
but no true man can ever adopt such a principle or act upon it.
The promoters and friends o f temperance and o f the Maine Law are not
surprised or discouraged because many influential men regard their views
and projects as unwise and unphilosophical.
N o man is fit to carry out
any measure o f reform, unless he is prepared to encounter many formidable
objections, and to resist or endure any opposition which he may meet. A l­
most every stage o f progress in the history o f society and o f civilization has
been won and maintained in spite o f the clamor of men who oppose aDy
change “ in the circumstances o f the time,” because they wish “ to turn them
to a profitable account.”
The English acted upon this principle, when they engaged in the opium
trade to China on an immense scale; and again in compelling the poor
Hindoos, in large districts o f Hindostan, to cultivate the poppy and to pro­




704

The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

duce opium at a stipulated price, which is sold at an immense profit to
the benighted inhabitants o f the Celestial Empire.
And again, when the
Chinese government sought to avert the terrible evils brought upon its sub­
jects by the opium trade— by the prohibition o f that trade, and by the
exclusion o f that poisonous drug from the country, the English continued,
in defiance o f all law and right, openly to resist the will o f the authorities,
and to sell opium by the cargo, “ turning circumstances to a profitable
account.”
A nd again, when Commissioner Lin, by a vigorous and manly exercise
o f a rightful power, seized large quantities o f the contraband article in
Chinese harbors, under well-known Chinese laws, and destroyed it— acting
in accordance with the law o f nations and with the universal practice o f all
civilized countries— the English “ took advantage o f circumstances,” the
weakness o f the Chinese, and, after destroying great numbers o f them, who
were unable with their ivory fans and paper lanterns, to defend themselves
against W aterloo bayonets, compelled these poor creatures to pay for the
opium destroyed, for the expenses o f the war, and to admit opium hence­
forth, all for the advantage o f those who acted upon the principle o f “ turn­
in g the circumstances to a profitable account.”
I have been led to these remarks by an article in the April number o f
the Merchants' Magazine, entitled “ Experimental Legislation on the Opium
Trade in China, and on the Liquor Trade o f the United States,” in which
occur many errors o f fact, as to the effect o f that legislation on the liquor
trade in Maine.
Similar statements have been made in the political news­
papers o f the day by anonymous writers, which have been often refuted by
responsible persons, and when repeated in such places are no longer worthy
o f notice. But any erroneous statements which appear in this leading and
influential Magazine are calculated to make an impression upon the public
mind for evil, unless they shall be speedily corrected.
The people o f Maine formerly suffered more, perhaps, from the ravages
o f intemperance than have those o f any other State. This result might
naturally arise from their peculiar employments— the people o f the interior
being generally engaged in the lumber trade; those o f the seaboard, in the
fisheries and in navigation.
It might have been for this reason that the attention o f philanthropic
men in Maine was strongly attracted to intemperance as a cause, and that
they labored with great assiduity and perseverance in enlightening the peo­
ple as to the pernicious effects o f the habit o f liquor drinking. These efforts
were attended with great success; yet intemperance continued, especially
am ong the y o u n g ; and the leading friends o f the temperance movement
began to consider the possibility o f obtaining legal protection from the liquor
traffic— the suppression, l y law, o f drinking-houses and tippling-shops, which
at that time in Maine, as elsewhere, were protected by statute, licensed for
“ the public good.”
They could not doubt the right o f society to protect itself from this evil,
as well as from any other. It is the chief function o f government to pro­
vide for the happiness o f the people ; and especially in a government by the
•
p eople— a republican government— is it their right and duty to protect
themselves and their children— their interests generally, from any and every
cause o f injury. And, in fact, no trade or business was permitted, except
the rum trade, which was believed to be inconsistent with the public
g ood .




The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

705

Gambling-houses, houses o f ill-fame, horse-racing, lotteries, the sale o f
improper books and pictures, were absolutely prohibited, because they were
believed to be demoralizing in their tendency. But drinking-houses and
tippling-shops demoralized the people more in one year, than all the others
collectively would do in many years. W here, then, is the doubt as to the
right o f society to put the liquor traffic into tbe category o f prohibited
trades ?
The question o f right then was settled; it was no longer debatable: the
only question in relation to it was one o f expediency. Is such an enact­
ment possible; will the people sustain it? This was a great practical ques­
tion, and its solution was indispensable before tbe measure should be at­
tempted. In order to do this, the men whose hearts were set upon the
accomplishment o f the great work o f protection from the liquor traffic, un­
dertook the herculean task o f educating the public opinion o f Maine in
relation to the terrible evils necessarily and inevitably resulting to the peo­
ple, in all the relations and interests o f life, from that traffic.
To effect this, they held meetings all over the State, in churches and
halls; in open fields and groves; and especially in every country schoolhouse, by the way side and on the hill side through Maine. In the school
districts, “ those biding-places o f power,” these meetings were carried home
to every man’s d o o r ; and thus the masses of the people o f Maine were in a
short time persuaded that the liquor traffic was an unmitigated curse in the
com m unity; that no good resulted from it under any circumstances to any
one, while the evils flowing from it were innumerable and intolerable, and
they resolved to exterminate it. They did not believe in the wisdom or
the morality o f the doctrine o f turning the base appetites o f their neighbors
and friends for strong drinks “ to a profitable account,” and thereby become
themselves instrumental in fastening the gigantic evils o f intemperance upon
their countrymen forever.
The success o f these labors was complete. From every quarter o f the
State came up the cry o f the people for “ protection to themselves and to
their children from the liquor traffic;” and with their petitions for a strin­
gent and summary law, they were careful to send to the legislature those
men only who would properly represent their wishes upon this subject, and
the Maine Law was the result.
A t the time o f the enactment o f the Maine Law, the liquor traffic was
carried on extensively all over the State. By wholesale and retail, in cities,
towns, and villages ; by hogshead, barrel, bottle, and tbe glass, were intoxi­
cating liquors sold freely to all comers. These liquors were manufactured
in great quantities in Maine, and were imported from other States, by the
vessel load, and steamboat-load, into all our seaport towns, and into all the
towns and villages lying upon our great rivers, from which points they were
distributed in innumerable diverging streams into every hamlet in the
State.
Immediately upon the enactment o f the law, the wholesale trade in
liquors ceased, and has never been revived. The large stocks in the hands
of the dealers were sent off to those other States, the governments o f which
allowed them to be sold to their people. The strange spectacle was seen in
all our cities and larger towns, o f the flight o f great quantities o f liquors,
from the operation o f the Maine Law. The retail trade was immediately
abandoned by every dealer in the State, who had any character to lose, or
who desired the good opinion o f his fellow-citizens. So far as the trade conV O L. XXX.-----N O . V I.




45

706

The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

tinned at all, it was carried on with great secrecy and caution, and was con­
fined entirely to the hands o f the lowest and vilest part o f the people, chiefly
to this class o f foreign population. The change in the habits o f great
numbers o f our people was instantaneous and wonderful; they were reformed
o f their intemperate habits, because temptation was put out o f the way.
In the city o f Portland, where the law was enforced with considerable
rigor, the change was very great. It was apparent to the most casual ob­
server, and was the theme o f continual remark among all classes o f our
people. Our streets were as quiet by night as those o f a country village,
and our police and watchmen remarked, that their duties were nearly at an
end. The effects o f the suppression o f the grogshops were immediately
seen in diminished vagrancy, pauperism and crime, and increased comforts
among the poorer part o f the people.
The Mayor o f Portland, at the end o f the municipal year 1 8 5 1 -2 , after
the law had been in operation only nine months, in his report to the City
Council, which was ordered to be printed and circulated through the city,
gave an abstract from the returns o f the departments connected with poverty
and crime, as follow s:—
There were committed to the Alms House from June 1,1850, to March 20, 1851,
(before the law) 252; from June 1, 1851, to March 20, 1852, (after the law) 146—
difference in nine months, 106. Number in Alms House March 20, 1851, 112;
number in Alms House March 20, 1852, 90—difference, 22. Number of families as­
sisted out of the Alms House from June 1, 1850, to March 20, 1S51, 135 ; from June
1,1851, to March 20, 1852, 90—difference in nine months, (just one-third,) 45. Sev­
enty-five of the ninety in the Alms House March 20, 1852, came there through in­
temperance ; four of the ninety were not brought there through that cause; the history
of the remaining eleven is not known.
Committed to the House of Correction for intemperance from June 1,1850, to
March 20, 1851, 46; for larceny, <tc., <tc., 12—in all 58; from June 1, 1851, to March
20, 1852, for intemperance, 10 ; for larceny, <tc., &c., 3—in all 13 ; a difference in nine
months of more than three-fourths! Committed in April, 1851, 9; in May, 10— 19.
The “ Maine Law ” was enacted June 2, 1851, and from the 1st of that month to
March 20, 1852, ten months, the number committed was only 10, although great ac­
tivity was displayed by the police in arresting all offenders.
At the term of the District Court in Portland, March, 1852, but one indictment
was found for larceny, and that was the result of a malicious prosecution ; while at
the March Term of 1851, seventeen indictments were found. These results have been
obtained, notwithstanding an increased vigilance in arresting persons found under the
influence of strong drinks.
It had been the practice o f the police and watch, before the enactment o f
the Maine Law, to arrest no persons for intemperance who were quiet and
able to make their way h om e; and generally the peaceful inebriate was
helped home by the watchman.
But after the enactment o f the Maine
Law this practice was changed, and all intoxicated persons were arrested
wherever they were found, that through disclosures from them the secret
grog-shops might be discovered. If iu 1 8 5 1 -2 , the practice o f the pre­
ceding years had been continued, the commitments to the watch-house
would not have been one-third so great as they w ere; while the adoption
o f the latter policy by the city administration o f 1 8 5 0 -5 1 , would have
more than doubled the commitments during that year. The returns from
the watch-house were as follow, beiug taken from the same report o f the
Mayor, to w it:—




The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

101

There were committed to the watch-house from June 1, 1850, to and including
March, 1851, 431 persons. For the corresponding period of 1851-2, after the enact­
ment of the Maine Law, the number was 180, a deduction of almost three-fifths, not­
withstanding the increased vigilance of the police in the latter period in arresting per­
sons found in the streets in a state of intoxication.
The returns from the common jail showed as striking a contrast as do
those stated above. The Mayor’s report continues :—
Committed to the jail for drunkenness, larceny, die, from June 1, 1850, to March
20, 1851, 2*19; for corresponding period of 1851-2, 135—difference, 144. Deduct
liquor sellers (72) imprisoned in the latter term, and we have 63 for drunkenness,
larceny, die., die., against 279 for the corresponding period before the enactment of the
Maine Law, a deduction of almost seven-ninths in the short period of nine months t
There were in jail on the 20th March, 1851, 25 persons; on the 20th March, 1852, 7
persons, 3 of whom were liquor sellers— without them, the number would be 4 against
25 of the corresponding day of 1851, a falling off of more than 83 per cent in the short
period of nine months.
T b e jails o f Kennebec, Franklin, and Somerset counties were em pty, and
that o f Penobscot county nearly so, while the alms houses o f the State were
rapidly undergoing the process o f depopulation. The alms house o f Port­
land was built when the city contained about 10,000 inhabitants, and at
23,000, it was densely crowded.
The authorities were considering the
erection o f a new one, to cost not less than $50,000. But after the Maine
Law had been in operation a few months only, ranges o f apartments were
empty there; and the establishment as it now stands will be sufficient,
under a vigorous enforcement o f the Maine Law, until the city shall contain
100,000 inhabitants.
A n anecdote or two will illustrate the actual effect o f the law upon the
grog-shops and upon intemperance. W ithin four months after the enact­
ment o f the law, a Portland gentleman introduced to the Mayor a brother
o f his, who had arrived in the city the evening before. H e had come to
attend to a law suit, and had taken with him a witness who was a very in­
temperate man. H e feared his witness would become intoxicated, and would
remain so, and that he would fail in his suit in consequence. W h en the
cars stopped at seven o ’clock, the witness gave him the slip and was off.
The gentleman waited anxiously for him at the hotel until twelve o’clock at
night, when he came there perfectly sober.
The gentleman expressed to
him his astonishment and delight, when he replied : “ W ell, to tell you the
truth, I ’ve traveled more ’n five miles, and could n’t get a drop.” A nd
there he was, a sober man in spite o f himself— the grog-shops were exter­
minated.
But it may be said that strangers would not be likely to find the secret
grog-shops, o f which there were some yet lingering in dark places and deep
cellars, but that intemperate citizens could easily procure from them the
means o f intoxication. Great numbers o f intemperate men were reformed,
and every Portland man must have been cognizant o f some cases o f this.
There was a man living in our immediate neighborhood who was well
known as a very intemperate man. W e inquired one day o f an acquaint­
ance who knew him, what had became o f him, as he had not been seen for
6ome weeks.
The gentleman laughed when the inquiry was made, and
said that Thompson had been boasting that “ he could always get liquor
enough, and if his grog should be stopped, it would be pretty dry times in




708

The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

Portland, he guessed.” But about a fortnight before, Thompson was in his
shop, with his face bleached out like other peoples’, and he sa id: “ A h,
Thom pson! w hat’s the matter, that you have changed countenance so
much ? ” “ Oh,’ ' said he, “ I find it such a darned bother to get it, I give
it up.” A nd he also was reformed.
Only two weeks ago, in one o f our principal streets, we were stopped by
a man whom we knew perfectly well as a skillful mechanic, who had been
very intemperate. H e commenced immediately speaking o f his affairs and
o f his business. W e asked where he lived. Step here, said he, and I ’ ll
show you. Moving off a rod or two, he pointed out a nice white house
with green blinds— and, with pride in his look, he added, “ I t ’s mine, and
all paid for, and two house lots also by the side o f it ; and the old woman has
three hundred dollars in cash in the house besides— all my earnings. Three
years ago, I had n’t a cent in the------- ,” and here his emotions choked
him, that he could not finish the sentence.
H e had been a miserable
drunkard, squandering all his earnings at the shops of those who turned his
“ circumstances to a profitable account; ” but now he was a respectable man
and good citizen.
The declaration o f the article alluded to in the April number, page 429,
“ that never was the time, before the present, when so much o f ardent spir­
its, and so bad in its quality for poisoning the human system, within this
same city were daily consumed,” is so glaringly and notoriously untrue,
that I wonder any man can be found bold enough to utter it.
A t the time o f the enactment o f the Maine Law, the number o f open
rum-shops in Portland was estimated to be from 300 to 400 ; now, there is
not on e! There is not a shop or place in the city where a respectable­
looking stranger can go call for a glass o f liquor and get it. The keepers
o f the secret rum-shops have a few well-known customers, and no stranger
is admitted, except under the patronage o f an habitue. Thesesh. ps con­
tain but small quantities o f liquors, and are fitted up with an apparatus
which, on touching a spring, will smash the bottles containing them, that
they may not be seized by the police.
Liquors introduced into the city are disguised by being inclosed in boxes
or flour barrels, and in comparatively small quantities, that they may escape
the notice o f the police.
But a short time ago, two police officers were
walking in the street behind an Irishman who had a flour barrel on a handsled ; they soon overtook him, and were about to pass him, when he turned,
and seeing them, exclaimed, “ O c h !” and fled, leaving the sled and its
load. On examination, the officers found the barrel to contain a ten-gallon
keg o f liquor, and carried it off to the lock-up.
Formerly, liquors were brought to this city by the vessel load and sold
at auction. There were many dealers here who sold immense quantities at
wholesale, and in addition, there were seven distilleries running night and
day every day in the year.
Now, there is no distillery in the State; no
liquors are sold at all, except secretly and with great caution, to persons
only who are well known ; yet it is boldly said “ that more liquors are sold
and drank in Portland now than at any former period.”
W e have formerly seen in our city long ranges o f hogsheads o f liquors
sold at public auction ; have seen large spaces on our wharves covered with
pipes and barrels o f liquor on sale : dray-loads innumerable o f liquors pass­
ing through our streets; but now the cartage o f a barrel o f rum for mechan­
ical purposes only, is a rare sight, and will always attract observation and




The Maine Law a Fixed Fact.

709

excite remark. The quantity o f liquors sold in Portland now is immeasur­
ably less than it was before the enactment o f the Maine Law.
But we wish to add a few words on the effect o f the Maine Law upon
the business interests o f the State, and, so far as it shall be adopted by other
States, upon those o f the nation.
It was estimated that the people o f
Maine spent at least $2,000,000 annually for strong drinks, involving a loss
directly and indirectly, o f wasted time, misdirected industry, and in various
other ways, o f at least $2,000,000 more— making an annual loss to the
State o f $4,000,000. The thorough execution o f the Maine Law, and the
annihilation o f the liquor traffic, would immediately result in the saving o f
this immense sum. Being no longer squandered upon the means o f intox­
ication, it would be directed into legitimate channels o f trade, and would be
expended for food, raiment, shelter, and other necessaries and comforts o f
life, so far as they should be ueeded; and the balance would be added to
the annual accumulating wealth o f the State, and trade and manufactures
would be stimulated to an extent o f which we can have but very inadequate
conception; while poverty, pauperism, and crime would be almost unknown
among us.
The same result would follow to the trade, Commerce, and manufactures
o f the nation from the suppression o f the liquor traffic in all our borders.
The annual cost to the nation, in cash, of the liquor traffic, cannot be less
than $150,000,000, involving an additional loss, directly and indirectly, of
$150,000,000 more— making in all, a vast aggregate o f $300,000,000,
which is a dead loss to the nation, no valuable return whatever being de­
rived from it. If the liquor traffic should be suppressed, this great sum
would at once be employed in promoting the comfort o f the people, and in
augmenting the wealth, power, and resources o f the nation, instead o f leav­
ing no other result, as at present, than poverty, pauperism, degradation, and
crime.
The signs o f the times seem to indicate a growing determination among
the people o f abandoning the antiquated practice o f legalizing the rum
traffic, and o f trying the experiment o f placing it in the category o f forbid­
den trades and occupations.' The result o f this experiment in Maine, so
far, has been every way satisfactory to the friends o f the measure, and the
results are as favorable as the most sanguine had reason to expect. The
measure in this State has been eminently successful. The Maine Law is a
fixed fact in M aine; has been adopted already by several other States; and
the policy indicated by it will pervade the U nion .




710

Journal o f M ercantile Law .
i

JOURNAL OF MERCANTILE LAW.
SHIP-OWNERS— DRAFTS FOR REPAIRS OF SHIP.

The United States District Court, April 18,1854. In Admiralty, before Judge
Ingersoll. William C. Piekersgill and others, is. John G. Williams.
In the month o f March, 1850, the respondent was the owner o f the brig Selma,
then lying in this port, and bound for San Francisco. Wishing to provide her
captain with funds, in case he should need them on the voyage, he wrote to the
libelants the following letter:—
N kw

Y ork,

March 5, 1850.

Messrs. W . C. Pickersoill &. Co.

G e n t l e m e n :— You will please give me letters to your friends in Rio and Val­
paraiso, for Capt. John J. Dean, o f the brig Selma, to enable him to draw drafts
on me at one day’s sight, if necessary, on account o f said brig, which drafts will
meet with due honor on presentation, and much oblige
Your obedient servant,
J. G. WILLIAMS.

Upon this request, the libelants furnished to Capt. Dean a letter o f credit
upon Messrs. Rostern, Dutton & Co., at Rio, and the brig soon after sailed.
Early in May she arrived at Rio in a damaged condition. Capt Dean presented
his letter o f credit, and requested that the necessary supplies and repairs should
be furnished, which was done. After the repairs were commenced, Capt. Dean
died, never having drawn the drafts. The vessel was for a time under the
charge o f the mate, and afterwards a new master, Capt. Story, was appointed
by the American consul, approved by Rostern, Dutton & Co. The repairs were
prosecuted meanwhile, and when completed, drafts were drawn by Capt. Story
on the respondent for the amount, being between seven and eight thousand dol­
lars, which he refused to pay, whereupon this suit was brought.
The vessel sailed from Rio in August. She afterwards put into Valparaiso,
in need o f further repairs, where she was sold with her cargo by her master, and
the avails o f such sale, or a portion o f them, were sent by him to the respond­
ent, who received them.
The respondent claims that this letter was merely a special application to au­
thorize Capt. Dean, and no one else, to draw drafts. He also claims, that on
hearing that the brig had gone into Rio damaged, he made an abandonment o f
her to the underwriters on the 19th day o f July, which abandonment took effect
from the time the cause o f abandonment existed, and that he was not, therefore,
the owner o f the brig when the repairs and supplies were furnished, and was
not therefore liable for them. He did not, however, pay over or tender to the
insurance company the avails o f the sale o f the brig received by him.
He also claims, that he is not liable to pay the claim, because, on the 30th o f
August, the then master executed a bottomry obligation for them, by which the
original demand was merged. It was not, however, under seal, and was ex­
pressly stated to be a collateral security. He also claims that this security was
recognized by the parties as a valid bottomry obligation by a subsequent agree­
ment, dated December 27, 1850, entered into between the libelants and the
owners o f the cargo o f the brig, the respondent being one o f them. The agree­
ment provided, that nothing in it should affect the bottomry obligation, or any
rights which the libelants might otherwise have against the owners o f the ves­
sel, and the respondent promised that if the bottomry obligation should not
be a full security to the libelants, he would pay them the balance that might be
due.
Held by the Court, That the promise, in the letter o f March 5th, to accept
drafts was only secondary— the object o f the letter being to secure funds for
the necessities o f the vessel, and that whatever repairs and supplies were
furnished at Rio to the brig, were to be paid for by the respondent— such pay -




Journal o f Mercantile Law .

HI

ment not depending upon Captain Dean’s drawing drafts, as a condition pre­
cedent
That the supplies were not furnished upon the implied authority o f the mas­
ter to bind the owner, whoever he may be, when in a foreign port, but upon the
personal responsibility and at the special request o f the respondent; that it is
not, therefore, necessary to inquire whether, by his abandonment, he ceased to
be the owner o f the brig, although his retaining the avails o f the sale o f the brig
would render that seriously questionable.
That the supplies being furnished on the personal responsibility o f the re­
spondent, without any agreement for a bottomry security, that security, executed
after they were furnished, was without authority and void, binding neither the
ship nor the respondent; and no prior valid demand could be merged in or dis­
charged by it; that, being not voidable, but void, it could not be made valid by
any recognition o f it as valid; that, moreover, the master o f the brig not being
a party to the agreement o f December 27, could not ratify the bottomry security
which he executed; while the respondent in that agreement says that he was
not the owner o f the brig, and his ratification would not bind the brig, if that
was so.
Decree, therefore, for libelants for the amount o f the repairs and supplies fur­
nished to the brig at Rio, with a reference to a commissioner to ascertain that
amount
THE RIGHT OF SHIP-MASTERS TO FLOG SAILORS.

In the Court o f Common Pleas, Boston, Mass., Marion vs. Moody.
This was an action by a seaman o f the ship ---------- , against the master, for
flogging and confining him. The evidence showed that the ship lay at anchor
in the open roadstead, under a lee shore, and that orders were sent off to the
master o f the vessel to move his ship, as the wind had hauled. The crew refused
to work, giving no other reason than that it was Sunday. The next morning
they were again ordered to duty. They refused to go to duty unless the master
would give them a writing exempting them from liability for their refusal o f the
day before. This their master refused to do, and called on each o f the crew in­
dividually. Tw o consented to return to duty, and twelve still refused. There­
upon the master put six o f them in irons. Having no more irons, he again called
upon the remaining men, and they all returned to duty except the plaintiff. The
master then had the plaintiff tied to the rigging, and gave him some five or six
blows on the back with a small rattlin-staff, the plaintiff' having on a shirt and
frock. He then consented to return to duty. There was a good deal o f conflict
in the testimony, as to whether the order on the second day related to getting
under way, or to the ordinary duties o f the ship.
Wells, C. J., ruled that the statute o f the United States o f 1850, by which
“ flogging” is abolished in the naval and mercantile service, relates to punish­
ment by flogging, and does not relate to the use o f force, in any form, as a
means o f coercing men to the necessary performance o f duty. That remains as
at the common law, and is regulated by established principles. If, in this ease,
the flogging was administered as a punishment for a past offense or an offense
then in the course o f being committed, it was illegal, and the verdict must be
for the plaintiff If the jury should think that the chastisement was adminis­
tered, not for punishment, but as a means o f coercing to the immediate perform­
ance o f a duty, then a further question must be determined. If the chastisement
was administered in good faith, in the exercise o f a reasonable judgment, and
was appropriate in kind and degree to the end to be secured, the verdict should be
for the defendant: but if, although not administered as punishment, it was yet
excessive or unreasonable in kind or degree, the verdict should be for the plain­
tiff. In the case o f a verdict for the plaintiff on either ground, the amount o f
damages must depend upon the relative conduct o f the two parties, and the
amount o f the wrong and injury actually done.
The jury returned a verdict for the plaintiff for one cent damages.— B oston
A d vertiser.




*712

Journal of Mercantile Law.

or

THE EIGHTS OF MAKKIED WOMEN TO PROPERTY.

In the Supreme Court, (New York,) Special Term, 1854, before Judge R oose ­
velt.
Mary A. Rusher and her husband vs. Peter Morris and others.
The defendants insi-t, by demurrer, that although Mrs. Rusher has a right, Mr.
Rusher has none to sue, on a bond and mortgage given to her alone, since the
act o f 1848; that husbands have no longer any interest in the “ actions” o f their
wives, and that wives for the future, in respect to their own property, are to be
treated precisely as if, in the language o f the day, they were “ single females.”
Married women’s property, including o f course her bonds and mortgages, is
now, it is true, her “ sole and separate estate,” and not “ subject (any longer) to
the disposal o f her husband, nor liable for his debts.” The new law, dispensing
with the usual special conveyancing in each particular case, has made a general
marriage settlement for all. But has it gone so far as in effect, in matters o f
property, to establish an entire separation between man and wife, and has it made
it unlawful to join him with her when she is suing to recover her property; and
must she in all cases, whether she desires it or not, choose some person to be her
“ next friend” in his stead?
The new Code o f Procedure and the new Married Woman’ s Rights’ Act were
both in course o f preparation at the same time,and in the same Legislature; but
by different and independent hands, and acting in concert. And therefore, al­
though necessary, as it certainly is, it may be difficult to harmonize their provis­
ions. For the mere tact that the date o f the final passage o f the Code, April 12,
1848, is five days later than that o f the other statute, can furnish no ground,
under the circumstances, for inferring an intention to repeal any o f the provisions
o f the latter.
Now the code, treating o f civil actions, lays down this broad general rule, that
“ when a married woman is a party, her husband m ust be joined with her ”— thus
recognizing both his duties and his rights. Certain exceptions, however, o f ob­
vious necessity or propriety, are annexed to the rule; namely, divorce, and ac­
tions “ concerning her separate property.” In the former, from the nature o f
things, she m ust, in the latter she “ m ay sue alone.” In the former, as her hus­
band, he being against her, “ cannot be joined with her,” she must sue by her
“ next friend ”— in the latter he not only may, but “ must be joined,” unless she
elects, as she may, to “ sue alone.” Code, sec. 114.
There is nothing illegal, therefore, in the husband’s becoming a co-plaintiff
in this suit. But as the wife had an undoubted right— which at times may be o f
great importance to the better protection o f her interests— to sue without him, it
is the duty o f the court to guard her in its exercise. And the question is, how is
that to be done? How is she to be guarded against the possible consequences
o f suits brought, perhaps without her knowledge or consent, in the joint names
o f both, but really under the separate control o f the husband alone?
When a wife joins with her husband in a conveyance o f real estate, the law
provides, as the proof o f exemption from undue marital control, that she shall
make an acknowledgment, before the proper officer, that she does the act freely;
and his certificate to that effect is made legal evidence o f the validity o f the deed.
I see no difficulty, in the absence o f positive rule, in introducing a similar prac­
tice in these cases. Indeed, it is but following a well-established course, never
abolished, o f the late Court o f Chancery. And the principle is also in effect rec­
ognized by the amendment made in 1849 to the Married Woman’s Act, which
places even trust property under the direct control o f the wife, and annuls the
trustees, in all cases o f certificate duly obtained o f a Justice o f the Supreme
Court, that he has examined and made due inquiry into the situation, capacity,
&c., o f the married woman, and is satisfied with the result.
The sole ground on which the defendants place their demurrer is the alleged
“ defect o f parties;” whereas, according to the argument presented at the hearing,
the real objection to the complaint is a supposed excess o f parties, one o f them,
the husband, having, as is contended, no interest in the cause o f action. The
oral argument, it will then be seen, overrules the written demurrer. But there
is, in fact, neither excess nor defect. Husbands, notwithstanding the act o f 1848,




Journal o f Mercantile Law.

*713

have an interest as against strangers, in enforcing the rights of their wives. Al­
though deprived of the power of disposal, they are not exonerated^ deprived of
the duty and the right, at their wives’ instance, of protecting their wives’ property.
The complaint in the present case prays, it is true, that the mortgage money,
when received, may be paid to both. Rut the court is authorized to adapt its re­
lief, not to that merely which is asked for, but to that which is just; and. should
the wife not make the required acknowledgment of her wishes on the subject, the
court can decree the payment to be to her separately, or to her sole and separ­
ate use.
At all events, I am not disposed to adopt, either as a consequence of the code
or of the act, for the better protection of their rights, the harsh proposition that
married women must be turned out of court merely because they come in armin-arm with their husbands. Whether the married woman is under restraint or
not, may be inquired into. She may be examined as to her wishes, separate and
apart from her husband. She may be so examined at her own instance, or at the
instance of the defendants, or on the mere motion of the court itself. And it
upon inquiry, it should appear that the suit was instituted against her wishes, a
discontinuance could be compelled. But if she chooses, as in most instances she
well may, to associate her husband with her in the prosecution of her rights, she
does but exercise a right, which, if not possessed before, the law of 1848 and the
code itself have given her.
The demurrer, therefore, must be overruled, and judgment of foreclosure and
sale entered, with costs, and an allowance of three per cent, and with directions
to pay the mortgage money, when raised, direct to the wife, unless she shall give
a written consent, duly acknowledged before and certified by one of the Justices
of this Court, to pay the same to her husband, or some o.her person, in her
behalf.
JURISDICTION----LIEN----STEVEDORE— COSTS.

In the United States District Court, in Admiralty, 1854, Judge H all .
Regan vs. The Bark Amaranth.

Owen

This was a libel in rem., founded upon a claim for services rendered by the li­
belant and his workmen in removing ballast from the bark Amaranth, and in
carting such ballast away after it had been cast upon the wharf.
On the opening o f the pleadings, it was suggested by the court that the decis­
ions which denied the right o f a stevedore to proceed in rem against a vessel for
his services in stowing her cargo, must, if sustained, be held conclusive against
the libellant; for if the stevedore had no lien for his service— a service rendered
wholly upon shipboard— the libelant must necessarily fail in sustaining a lien for
services which had much less claim to be considered as strictly maritime in their
character.
The advocate for the libelant nevertheless desired to present the question for
more deliberate consideration, and at his request the libelant’s evidence, to show
that the services charged for had been rendered by the libelant, was taken by the
court. The question thus presented has been since elaborately and ably argued,
and these arguments and the authorities cited have been deliberately considered.
In the absence o f any judicial decision, and especially in view o f the very de­
cided opinion in favor o f the existence o f a lien in such cases, which seems to
have been entertained by a highly respectable elementary writer upon the subject
o f admiralty jurisdiction, (Benedict’s Admiralty, sec. 285.) I should not have de­
nied the relief sought in this case, without considerable hesitation and doubt.
But the question, at least in this court, must be considered as settled by author­
ities which I have neither the right nor the inclination to disregard.
In the case o f McDermot vs. The S. G. Owens, (Wallace, Jr.’s Rep. 370,) Mr.
Justice Grier held that a stevedore had no lien for his services in loading and
stowing the cargo o f a foreign vessel, and he declared that the service was “ in
no sense maritime, being completed before the voyage is begun or after it is end­
ed, and they (the stevedores) are no more entitled to a lien on the vessel than




V14

Journal o f Mercantile Law.

the draymen and other laborers who perform services in loading and discharging
vessels.”
The right o f a stevedore to proceed in rem was denied by the learned judge
o f this district as early as 1831, and the doctrine then asserted has, I understand,
been ever since maintained in this district.
The authorities are decisive, if the stevedore has no lien. There was certainly
none in the present case. It is impossible to make any distinction favorable to
the libelant between the cases cited and that now under consideration.
It was insisted by the advocate for the libelant that if the service mentioned in
the libel was not strictly maritime in its character, he nevertheless had a lien for
the service under the provisions o f the N. Y. Rev. Stat., vol. ii., p. 405, sec. 1;
but I do not deem it necessary to discuss that question. In the cases already re­
ferred to, the existence o f the lien was denied upon the ground that the service
was not maritime; for if it had been maritime, the existence o f the lien as against
a foreign vessel would have been conceded without hesitation, and it necessarily
follows that the contract and service upon which the libelant founds his claim in
the present case were not maritime, or o f such a character as to give jurisdiction
o f this court. If neither the contract nor the service was in its nature or charac­
ter essentially maritime, it is not material to inquire whether the statute o f New
York gave the libelant a lien, as this court has no jurisdiction to enforce a statutory lien not founded upon a maritime contract, or growing out o f a maritime
service or marine tort. The jurisdiction depends upon the nature o f the subject
matter o f the contract or controversy, and not upon the existence or non-exist­
ence o f a lien. The latter only affects the form o f the proceedings and the char­
acter o f the remedy, and if in this case the statute gave a lien to the libelant, he
should have sought his remedy under the statute before the officers or tribunals
o f the State.
The libel in this case must be dismissed for want o f jurisdiction, and with
costs.
It was strongly urged by the advocate for the libelant, that if the libel should
be dismissed for want o f jurisdiction, no costs should be given to the respond­
ents, as they omitted to make the objection by their answer, and the libelant had
shown that he had an honest claim— his only fault being a mistake in the form in
which he had chosen to assert it. I should have been much inclined to refuse
costs, if such a course could have been justified upon the principle under which
costs are given or refused in this court. But costs in admiralty, though given or
denied in the discretion o f the court, are always to be awarded to a respondent
who succeeds in his defence, unless strong equities exist to justify a different
course. The doctrine upon which I have deemed it my duty to dismiss the libel
for want o f jurisdiction, has been the settled law o f this district for more than 20
years, and the decision o f Mr. Justice Grier was reported in 1849. Under such
circumstances, I have felt bound to award costs to the prevailing party.
AFREIGHTMENT OF MERCHANDISE.

In the United States District Court. In Admiralty, April 11, 1854. Before
Judge Ingersoll. James Connor and William O’Connor, vs. the steamship
Sarah Sands.
About the 10th o f December, 1849, the libelants shipped on board the Sarah
Sands, then at this port, bound for San Francisco, forty-two boxes, barrels, and
packages, containing type and printers’ materials, to be carried to Panama and
there delivered in like good order, to be forwarded to San Francisco, and there
delivered to Messrs. De W itt & Harrison, or their assigns, at the ship’s tackles
alongside, and a bill o f lading in that form was signed. The ship arrived at
Panama, and afterwards, with the goods on board, sailed for San Francisco,
where she arrived in June, 1850. Three o f the packages, containing important
parts o f the invoice, were not found on board to be delivered.
All that could be found were lightered from the ship by the direction o f some
one besides the consignees, and landed upon the beach. Eight o f these were,




Journal o f Mercantile Law.

715

by the consignees, placed in a storehouse belonging to Everett & Co., the con­
signees o f the vessel, and afterwards the goods were sold by invoice, at auction,
for $8,500, but the purchaser, finding that all were not delivered from the ship,
refused to complete his purchase. Negotiations were entered into between him
and the consignees in reference to the delivery o f the missing packages, but be­
fore the negotiations were terminated, a fire, on the 14th o f June, destroyed all
the goods which were then deposited at the landing place. The libelants there­
upon brought suit to recover the whole value o f the invoice.
Held by the Court, That an entire contract for the transportation and delivery
o f several articles is not performed at all unless all are delivered; that if the
consignee refuses or neglects to receive them when all are offered, the carrier
may discharge himself by storing them ; that if a part only are delivered, and
the consignee accepts them as a performance o f the contract in part, ho cannot
afterwards claim damages for the non-delivery o f the whole, but is limited to the
damages which lie has sustained by the non-delivery o f that which he has not
received; that if the consignee receives a part, with the understanding that he is
to receive the whole, and finds afterwards that the delivery is not complete, he
may repudiate the partial delivery, but must, in that case, return or tender to
the carrier, within a reasonable time, the goods that he has received, or show
some good reason for not doing so. He cannot retain a part, and claim damages
for its non-delivery.
Held upon the evidence, That no part o f these goods were delivered before
they were landed on the shore; that the landing all but the three missing pack­
ages did not affect the rights o f the libelants to recover the full value o f a ll;
that the acts done by the consignees, after the goods were landed, amount to an
acceptance o f them in the expectation that all would be delivered, and on that
condition ; that the goods were never returned or tendered to the carriers; and
that the fire is not a sufficient reason to excuse this, as it consumed only those
that were left on the beach, and not those that were stored.
Held, therefore, That the ship is liable to the libelants only for the damage
which they have sustained by the non-delivery o f the three missing packages;
that damage is the difference between the value o f the whole invoice at San
Francisco, when the ship arrived, and the value o f the invoice exclusive o f the
missing packages.
Decree for libelants, with a reference to a commissioner to ascertain the
damages.
DAMAGES FROM W ATER PIPES.

In the Court o f Common Pleas, Boston, October Term, 1853.
Bell vs. Lewis Josselyn. Before Chief Justice Wells.

George L.

This action, which was brought to recover damages received from a Cochituate water pipe, illustrates the law upon this important subject. It appeared in
evidence that on the 19th o f March last the plaintiff was in possession o f rooms
on the ground flour o f a building in Hanover-street, and hired the same o f
the defendant, that the entire block o f buildings was vested in a trustee for
the benefit o f Mrs. Josselyn, (the defendant’s wife,) free from the control
o f her husband, but that the defendant had the entire management o f them as
the agent o f the trustee; that he resided at Lynn, but employed a sub-agent in
Boston, who received the rents but was not authorized to let the buildings; that
the defendant, as such agent, had let the premises over the plaintiff to a tenant
who had agreed to pay the rent and the water tax, but who, being in arrears for
rent and not having paid the water tax, left the premises before the expiration
o f his lease on the 14th o f March, just four days before the damage alleged,
and sent the key to the sub-agent’s store; that because o f the non-payment o f
the water-tax, the city shut off the water on the day the tenant moved, before
he had actually vacated the premises, and in shutting it off from this tenant’s
room, shut it off also from other premises occupied by another tenant, and which
were supplied from the same pipe. That this tenant complained and requested




71G

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

the sub-agent to have it let on. That during the four days after the leaving o f
the tenant, and the consequent shutting off o f the water, and before the defen­
dant (Josselyn) came to Boston, the premises had been marked “ to let,” by some
one unknown, and the sub-agent had allowed certain persons to take the key and
examine them, but had not examined them himself; that on the 18th o f March
the defendant (Josselyn) came to Boston, was informed that the tenant had va­
cated and the water had been cut off, and was requested by the other tenant to
have it let on ; that Josselyn accordingly, without examining the premises, or­
dered the water to be let on; that in letting it on the other tenant’s premises,
it was necessarily let on also to the vacant premises o f the tenant who had left
before the expiration o f his tenancy, and which were supplied from the same
pipe; and inasmuch as the stop-cock in those premises had been left open by
some person unknown, and the waste pipe o f the sink had become clogged or
stopped up, a large quantity o f water passed into and through the premises o f
the plaintiff.
The case was on trial before Chief Justice W ells three successive days and,
the court instructed the jury that a tenant cannot avoid his liability by leaving
the premises before the termination o f his tenancy and giving up the key, unless
the landlord expressly agrees to release him; that the landlord may allow the
premises to remain vacant or relet them for the tenant’s benefit, and charge him
with the difference in rent; that until he does so actually relet, the tenant may
demand the key and occupy the remainder o f his term, but when so actually relet by the landlord, the tenant, though responsible for the difference in rent, has
no further claim on the premises; that a principal is liable for his agent’ s care­
lessness; that the plaintiff must show clearly that he was exercising ordinary
care, and that the defendant was not; and that whether it is want o f ordinary
care and prudence to cause water to be let on to occupied premises, when, at the
same time, it must be let on to vacant premises, without first examining the pipes
and stop-cocks in those vacant premises was the question for the jury to decide.
Verdict for the plaintiff for $248 33.

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.

G E N E R A L R E V IE W OF COM M ERCIAL AFFAIRS TH R O U G H O U T T H E COUNTRY— S TATE OF T H E CROPS,
AND CONDITION OF T H E MONEY M A R K E T — R A IL R O A D L IA B IL IT IE S AND IN VESTM EN TS— BANKS OF
TH E

UN ITED

COINAGE

OF

S T A T E S — BANKS

OF NEW Y O R K

GOLD, S IL V E R , AND

AND NEW ORLEANS— PRODUCTION, DEPOSITS, AND

COPPER— IM PORTS A T N EW Y O R K FOR A PR IL AND FROM JANU­

A R Y 1 S T — CASH D U TIES RECEIVED FOR FOUR MONTHS— IM PORTS
FOR FOUR MONTHS
A P R IL

AND FROM

FROM JANU ARY
JANU ARY

1 S T — EXPORTS

1S T — MONTHLY

FROM

STA T E M E N T

FROM N EW Y O R K FOR ELEVEN MONTHS — E XPO RTS

FROM

OF DRY GOODS FOR A PR IL AND

NEW Y O R K TO
OF

E XPO RTS

FOREIGN PO RTS

OF DOM ESTIC

FOR

PRODUCE

NEW O RLEAN S, E T C ., E T C .

T he close o f another month has brought us no important change in the as­
pect o f the Eastern question, which is held in suspense over the heads o f bankers
and merchants, like a gloomy cloud that will neither give rain or sunshine. Inall our borders there have been no commercial distress, and the troubles which
have weighed upon the market are only those o f anticipated evil. The doubt as
to the effect o f the war in Europe upon this country is still as great as ever.
Some assert that it can only add to our prosperity, even though it should be
long protracted; while others can see in it only the occasion o f mischief. The
truth, doubtless, lies between the two. An expensive war must lead to com­
mercial embarrassment in England and France, and from our intimate connec­
tion with these countries, such embarrassment must result in a partial disarrange­
ment o f our present prosperous commercial relations with the Eastern continent.




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

Ill

But our men o f business are proverbial for the readiness with which they adapt
themselves to circumstances; and when the current o f affairs has once taken a
decided direction, will trim their barks to take advantage o f the tide. There is
nothing half so injurious to business as suspense— alternations between the
hope for good and the dread o f evil; and when once the belligerents have fairly
taken the field, and no immediate change is expected, there will be far less
anxiety than at present. Meantime, our rural 'population, after an unusually
backward spring, are rejoicing in summer warmth and forwarding the growing
crops. Wheat has been killed by the ice in some portions of the Western States,
but there is every prospect o f a fair average crop. Rye has been largely sown
in the Northern and Eastern States, and looks well. Corn is out o f the ground,
but is backward, and the extent o f the crop must depend on a dry summer and
late autumn, which all the “ signs” foretell. The cotton crop, slightly damaged
in some places by early frosts, is now coming on rapidly, and promises well.
The clip o f wool has been but little, if any, larger than last year, owing to the
high price for several seasons o f mutton and lamb; but buyers who rushed into
the market last year and bought even before clipping, have many o f them been
ruined; and this year there is no eagerness to purchase, and very little doing by
speculators. Prices will rule 10c. a 15c. per lb. below the range o f last spring.
The avenues by water to the interior are now open, but produce reaches the
seaboard in less abundance than was expected.
Still it is now coming forward
more freely, and has already afforded partial relief to the money markets on the
Atlantic. Exchange, however, yet favors New York, from most other points,
W est and South. Rates o f interest have been at some distance above bank
charges for more than a year, but the market is now easier. At N. York, Boston,
Philadelphia, and Baltimore, 8 a 10 per cent per annum is now paid at the note
brokers; while at the West, and in some parts o f the South, 2 a 2 i per cent a
month has been the regular charge. There has been at the large commercial
centers no scarcity o f money, and the high rates have been more the result o f a
want o f confidence in the future than a lack o f means.
The various railroad companies, whose interest coupons have matured since
our last, have mostly met their obligations with commendable promptness. The
Buffalo and N. York City Railroad Co. was one of the defaulters, and a committee
o f investigation are now probing its affairs, and will endeavor to reorganize its
business arrangements on a more substantial basis.
There is little doing in the way o f new loans for railroad enterprises, such
applications not being well received by capitalists. The New York and Harlem
Railroad Company awarded $1,700,000 o f its seven per cent first mortgage
bonds on the 10th o f May, at an average o f $93 75, the accepted bids ranging
from $92 33 to $95 66.
The banks throughout the Union have generally strengthened themselves since
our last, and are mostly in a very good position. The Federal Government
have published summary statements o f the condition o f the banks in the several
States about January 1st; but as the process by which the returns are ob­
tained is not compulsory, and the system o f reports is not uniform, the result is
less useful than might have been expected. W e annex a few particulars by way
o f comparison, referring our readers to the more detailed statement published
elsewhere in our colum ns:—




COMPARATIVE V IE W OF THE CONDITION OF THE BANKS IN THE UNITED STATES, ACCORDING TO RETURNS NEAREST TO JANUARY 1ST IN 1 83Y,

1843, 1848, 1851,

an d

1854.

18 13.

1848.

18§1.

1854.

634
154
788

577
114
691

622
129
751

731
149
879

1,059
149
1,208

Capital paid in......................................................

$290,772,091

Loans and discounts...............................................
Stocks ...................................................................
Real estate............................................................
Other investments..................................................
Due by other banks...............................................
Notes of other banks.............................................
Specie funds..........................................................
Specie....................................................................

$525,115,702
12,407,112
19,064.451
10,423,630
59,663,910
36,533,527
5,365,500
37,915,340

Circulation..............................................................
Deposits.................................................................
Due to other banks................................................
Other liabilities.....................................................
Aggregate of current credits, i. e., of circulation and
deposits..............................................................
Aggregate of immediate liabilities, i. e., of circula­
tion, deposits, and due to other banks.................
Aggregate of immediate means, i. e., of specie, specie
funds, notes of other banks, and sums due from
other banks.........................................................
Gold and silver in U. S. Treasury depositories.......
Total of specie in banks and Treasury depositories..

$149,185,890
127,397,185
62.421,118
36,560,289

$228,861,948

$204,838,176

$227,807,553

$301,376,081

$344,476,582
26,498,054
20,530,955
8,229,682
38,904,525
16,427,716
10,489,822
46,379,765

$413,759,799
22,388,989
20,219.724
8,935,972
50,718,015
17,196,083
15,341,196
48,671,048

$607,287,428
44,350,830
22,367,472
6,841,429
65,516,086
22,659,065
25.579,253
59,410,263

$58,563,608
56,168,628
21.456,523
7,357,033

$128,506,091
103,226,177
39,414,371
5,501,401

$155,165,251
128,957,712
46,416.928
6,488,327

$204,689,207
188,188,744
60,322,162
13,439,276

276,583,075

114,732,236

231,732,268

284,122,968

392,877,951

339,004,193

136,188,754

271,146,639

S34,539,891

443,200,113

139,479,277

74,067,062

112,191,828
8,101,353
54,471,118

131,926,342
11,164,727
59,836,775

163,164,657
25,136,252
84,546,505

RESOURCES.

$254,544,937
28,380,050
22,826,807
13,343.599
20,666,264
13,306,617
6,578,375
33,515,806

LIABILITIES.




Com m ercial Chronicle and R eview .

1837.
Number of banks...................................................
Number of branches........................................... .
Number of banks and branches.............................

Commercial Chronicle and Review

719

The mass o f specie which has been added to the circulation o f the country is
far greater than the total on deposit in the banks. Were the stock in the coun­
try still more increased, only a small proportion would be found in the bank
vaults, as few o f these institutions like to hoard dead capital.
W e also annex in this connection our usual statement o f the weekly averages
o f the New York city banks, which presents some interesting features:—
W E E K L Y AVERAGES OF N E W YO RK CITY BANKS.

W eekending.

August 6, 1S53..
August 13 ..........
August 20............ ..........
August 27............
September 3 . . . .
September 1 0 ....
September 1 7 .... ..........
September 2 4 . .. . ..........
October 1...........
October 8...........
October 15...........
October 22...........
October 29...........
November 5.......
November 12.......
November 19.......
November 2 6 . .. .
December 3 . . . ,
December 10.......
December 17........
December 24.......
December 31.......
January 7, 1854. ..........
January 14..........
January 21..........
January 28.......... ..........
February 4 ........ ..........
February 11........
February 18........
February 25........
March 4 ..............
March 11..............
March 18..............
March 25..............
April 1 ..............
April 8 ..............
April 1 5 ..............
April 2 2 ..............
April 2 9 .............. ..........
May 6 .......................... ..........
May 13.................
May 20.................

Average amount
o f Loans
and Discounts.

94,074,717

90,190,589
90,092,765

90,133,887
89,759,465
90,549,577

90,243,049
90,739,720

Average
amount o f
Specie.

Average
amount o f
Circulation.

$9,746,441
10,653,518
11,082,274
11,319,040
11,268,049
11,3S0,693
11,860,235
11,340,925
11,231,912
10,266,602
11,330,172
10,303,254
10,866,672
11,771,880
12,823,575
13,691,324
13,343,196
12,830,772
12,493,760
12,166,020
12,074,499
11,058,478
11,506,124
11,894,453
11,455,156
11,117,958
11,634,653
11,872,126
11,742,384
11,212,693
10,560,400
9,832,483
10,018,456
10,132,246
10,264,009
10,188,141
11,044,044
10,526,976
10,951,153
11,437,039
12,382,068
12,118,043

Average
amount o f
Deposits.

$9,513,053
9,451,943
9,389,727
9,427,191
9,554,294
9.597,336
9,566,723
9,477,541
9,521,665
9,673,458
9,464,714
9,388,543
9,300,350
9,492,158
9,287,629
9,151,443
9,032,769
9,133,586
9,075,704
8,939,830
8,872,764
8,927,013
9,075,926
8,668,344
8,605,235
8,642,677
8,996,657
8,994,083
8,954,464
8,929,814
9,209,830
9,137,555
9,255,781
9,209,406
9,395,820
9,713,215
9,533,998
9,353,854
9,377,687
9,823,007
9,507,796
9,480,018

$60,579,797
57,457,504
57,307,223
67,431,891
57,502,970
57,545,164
57,612,301
58,312,334
57,968,661
57,985,760
59,068,674
55,748,729
53,335,462
55,600,977
66,201,007
57,446,424
58,673,076
58,435,207
67,838,076
58,312,478
58,154,302
68,963,976
60,835,362
58,396,956
59,071,252
58,239,577
61,208,466
61,024,817
61,826,669
61,293,645
61,975,675
60,226,583
61,098,605
69,168,178
59,478,149
60,286,839
60,325,087
59,225,905
59,719,381
63,855,509
64,203,671
63,382,661

The actual amount on deposit does not show the fluctuations exhibited by this
table. The checks deposited at each bank during the day are credited to the de­
positor, while the amount drawn for is also to the credit o f the drawer in another
bank, so that all such items are reckoned twice. The exchanges at the clearing
house averaging about $21,000,000 per day, show the amount o f such doub'e
credits, but the total will vary according to the activity o f business.
The following is a comparison o f the late returns o f the New Orleans Banks :




1 20

Commercial Chronicle and Review .
January, 1854.

A p ril, 1854.

$7,982,681
Circulation..............
$7,408,694
12,760,305
Deposits.................
11,346,694
2,209,842
Other cash liabilities
2,681,899
22,952,828
Total cash liabilities
21,387,187
8,668,316
Specie.................... .
6,971,605
17,637,333
Loans....................
17,696,299
3,872,648
3,002,378
Exchange...............
4,030,500
Other cash assets . . .
3,526,947
84,208,800
Total cash assets ..,
31,258,341
This places the banks in a much stronger position than they occupied at the
opening of the year.
The receipts of California gold at the Atlantic sea ports are less than for the
corresponding four months last year, but the total production of the mines and
diggings is said to be fully as great. The Philadelphia mint has issued a three
dollar gold coin, authorized by Congress, which is neatly executed, but does not
seem to belong to our decimal currency, and is too nearly the size of the half
eagle to be convenient for those who have not a sharp eyesight. The New York
Assay Office has been organized, but has not commenced operations. Silver
coin is now plenty and freely supplied by the mint.
The following will show the deposits and coinage at the Philadelphia and New
Orleans mints for the month of April:—
D E P O S IT S F O E

A P R IL .

,-------- ----------- field.--------------------- ,

From California. Other sources.

Silver.

Total.

Philadelphia Mint...........
New Orleans Mint..........

$3,379,000
140,528

$63,000
2,348

$129,000
289,000

$3,571,000
431,876

Total deposits............

$3,519,528

$65,348

$418,000

$4,002,876

G O L D C O IN A G E .
N ew O rlean s.

Pieces.

Double Eagle9
Eagles...........
Half eagle3 —
Quarter eagles
Dollars.........
Bars..............
Total gold coinage.............

11,500

Half dimes.............................

$115,000

\..........

11,500
S IL V E R

Half dollars...........................
Quarter dollars......................

Value.

$1)5,000

P h il a d e l p h ia .

Pieces.
65,386
12,552
17,570
106,996
232,259
532

Value.
$1,307,720
125,520
87,850
267,490
232,259
2,440,639

485,295

$4,461,478

894,000
2,012,000

$197,000
603,000

C O IN A G E .

140,000

$70,000

400.000
600.000

40,000
30,000

1,000,000

\ 50,000

$140,000

3,406,000

$750,000

399,227

$3,992

4,240,522

$5,215,470

Total Bilver coinage............. 1,140,000
COPPER

Total coinage...................... 1,151,500

C O IN A G E .

$255,000

The following will show the comparative deposits of gold at the Philadelphia
mint fo r the first four months of the year:—
1852.
1851.
1854.
January....................................
$4,215,579
$4,962,097 .
February...................................
2,514,000
3,548,523
March......................................
3,892,156
7,533,753
3,982,000
3,379,000
April.........................................
4,851,321
Total ...........................




$20,895,693

$14,090,579

721

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

The decline in the imports, which continued through the months o f February
and March, has again been arrested, and the receipts during the month o f April
show an increase as compared with the corresponding month o f previous years.
This increase was not generally expected by the mercantile community, and has
created much disappointment among those who are most anxious about the
“ balance o f trade.” It has not been owing to an active demand for foreign
goods on this side, but rather to an anxiety to sell shown by parties on the other
side o f the Atlantic; the consignments having largely increased, while the ship­
ments upon orders have diminished. At New York the receipts o f all descrip­
tions o f foreign merchandise during the month o f April are $1,085,177 greater
than for the same month o f last year, $5,617,169 greater than for April, 1852,
and $5,722,340 greater than for April, 1851, as will be seen by the following
comparison:—
IM P O STS OF FO R EIG N MERCHANDISE AT N E W Y O R K F O R THE MONTH OF A P R IL .

1851.
Entered for consumption..............
Entered for warehousing.............
Free goods...................................
Specie and bullion........................

$8,546,184
1,238,313
555,386
521,665

1852.

1851

1854.

$8,410,448 $11,746,904 $11,978,281
732,422
2,236,423 2,516,996
1,496,449
1,342,467 2,018,091
327,400
172,917
70,520

Total entered at the p ort........ $10,861,548 $10,966,719 $15,498,711 $16,583,888
Withdrawn from warehouse.........
1,144,068
1,255,429
1,229,708
1,151,991
It will be seen that the increase has been proportionably greatest in free
goods, two-thirds o f the excess as compared with last year being in this item.
Adding the above to the total o f our previous statements, we find that the total
foreign imports at New York since January 1st are $991,068 less than for the
corresponding four months o f 1853, $20,028,076 greater than for the same time
in 1852, and $12,373,838 greater than for the same time in 1851. The ware­
housing business shows a large increase both in the entries and withdrawals, but
the latter are the largest, leaving the stock in bond slightly reduced since the
opening o f the year. W e annex a comparative summary for four years:—
IM PORTS OF FOREIGN MERCHANDISE

AT N E W YO RK FOR FOUR

1851.

1852.

MONTHS FROM JAN. 1ST.

1851.

1854.

Entered for consumption................ $41,347,851 $33,321,735 $52,987,576 $49,967,6'46
Entered for warehousing..............
5,272,414
3,933,918 5,906,277 7,569,140
Free goods.....................................
3,683,602
5,492,792 6,364,459 5,224,287
Specie and bullion........................
1,166,656
1,067,850
577,117 1,083,288
Total entered at the port..............$51,470,523 $43,816,295 $64,835,429 $63,844,361
Withdrawn from warehouse . . . .
4,136,189
6,234,927
4,293,708
7,696,720
The following will show the receipts for cash duties at New York for the
month o f April, and since January 1st; the total for both periods o f the current
year indicate that there has been a greater falling off in liquors, and other arti­
cles paying a high rate o f duty, than in ordinary merchandise :—
CASH DUTIES RECEIVED AT NEW YORK FOR FOUR MONTHS FROM JANUARY 1ST.

1851.

1852.

1851

1854.

1st three months. $9,295,267 30
In A p r il........ .
2,504,640 16

$7,617,887 72
2,447,634 07

$11,125,501 47
3,348,252 14

$10,873,699 31
3,168,490 21

Total............... 11,799,897 46

10,065,521 79

14,473,753 61

14,042,189 52

The receipts o f foreign dry goods have been comparatively larger than the
imports o f general merchandise, as will appear from the following summary:—
vol . x x iv .— no . v i.
46




722

Commercial Chronicle and Review,
IM PORTS OF FOREIGN G E T GOODS AT N E W YO R K FOR THE MONTH OF AP R IL .
ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION.

1851.

1854.

Manufactures of wool....................
Manufactures of cotton..................
Manufactures of silk.....................
Manufactures of flax......................
Miscellaneous dry good s..............

$918,580
698,757
1,281,669
569,399
259,456

$762,030
768,902
999,303
604,499
291,033

$1,421,906
921,310
2,104,615
609,780
522,563

$1,696,666
1,098,746
2,204,071
666,177
467,340

T ota l.........................................

$3,727,861

$3,425,767

$5,580,174

$6,133,000

1851.

W IT H D R A W N

FROM

1852.

W AREH OU SE.

Manufactures of wool....................
Manufactures of cotton..................
Manufactures of silk......................
Manufactures of flax......................
Miscellaneous dry g ood s..............

$117,031
140,401
104,735
68,138
50,252

$149,562
144,867
155,249
75,329
56,554

$96,484
100,071
100,671
16,228
49,024

$157,963
167,010
148,412
68,738
32,943

Total withdrawn........................
Add entered for consumption__ _

$480,557
3,727,861

$581,561
3,425,767

$362,478
5,580,174

$565,066
6,133,000

Total thrown upon the market..

$4,208,418

$4,007,328 $5,942,652

$6,698,066

ENTERED

FOR

W A R E H O U S IN G .

$394,431
235,331
365,506
85,597
35,951

Manufactures of w ool....................
Manufactures of cotton..................
Manufactures of s ilk ......................
Manufactures of fla x ......................
Miscellaneous dry goods................

$142,721
105,873
135,904
59,923
24,487

$121,917
80,984
203,344
48,191
45,301

$213,942
120,166
144,313
66,320
60,929

Total....................................... .
Add entered for consumption........ .

$468,908
3,727,861

$499,707
3,425,767

$595,670 $1,116,816
5,580,174 6,133,000

Total entered at the port__ _ . $4,196,769 $3,925,474 $6,175,844 $7,249,816
From the above it appears that the amount thrown upon the market, as well
as the total entered at the port, are both larger, showing that there has been an
anxiety among receivers to dispose o f their stock, and to go out o f the season
with clean lofts. W e also annex a summary o f the imports o f this class since
January 1st:—
IMPORTS OF FOREIGN D R Y GOODS AT NEW YO RK FOR FOUR MONTHS, FROM JANUARY 1S T .
ENTERED FOR CONSUMPTION.

1851.
Manufactures of w o o l..................
Manufactures of cotton................
Manufactures of silk ....................
Manufactures of flax......................
Miscellaneous dry goods..............

$4,926,776
6,118,089
9,378,017
3,022,182
1,618,888

1851

1851

1854.

$4,191,364 $7,468,666 $6,602,680
4,017,918 6,338,482 7,209,432
7,638,189 11,894,953 11,123,052
2,379,782 3,441,942
3,076,409
1,611,726
2,298,223
2,409,553

Total..................................... $24,064,042 $19,839,177 $31,442,266 $30,421,126
W IT H D R A W N FROM WAREHOUSE.

Manufactures of w o o l......................
Manufactures of cotton....................
Manufactures of silk..........................
Manufactures of fla x ........................
Miscellaneous dry goods...................
Total.....................................
Add entered for consumption.. . .

$397,586 $709,026
769,411 966,328
471,312 1,024,933
303,342 625,794
192,052 192,619

$2,133,703
24,064,042

$415,224 $1,001,620
525,591 1,416,409
592,479 1,208,485
107,840
472,721
192,161
178,165

$3,418,700 $1,833,295
19,839,177 31,442,266

$4,277,400
30,421,126

Total thrown on the market. $26,197,745 $23,257,877 $33,275,561 $34,698,526




723

Commercial Chronicle and Review.
ENTERED FOR 'WAREHODSING.

1851.

1852.

Manufactures of w o o l..................
Manufactures of cotton................
Manufactures of silk ....................
Manufactures of flax......................
Miscellaneous dry goods..............

f 481,814
671,736
749,619
263,479
180,303

$573,699
496,554
1,323,201
161,192
168,150

Total.....................................
Add entered for consumption___

$2,346,951
24,064,042

$2,722,796
19,839,177

1851

1854.

$588,284 $1,060,313
541,287
1,184,396
719,084
1,207,785
111,554
355,856
178,200
106,960
$2,138,409
31,442,266

$3,915,310
30,421,126

Total entered at the port . . . $26,410,993 $22,561,973 $33,580,675 $34,336,436
The difference as compared with last year is not large, but it must be remem­
bered that the imports o f last year reached an unprecedented amount, and that a
large decline was confidently anticipated for the current year.
The exports o f domestic produce from New York to foreign ports, which had
been in comparative excess since June, 1853, show a falling off in April, owing
to the limited stock on the seaboard, which has prevented shipments. The ex­
ports o f specie have increased. The total exports from New York to foreign
ports for April, exclusive o f specie, are $866,054 less than April, 1853, $278,896
greater than for April, 1852, and about the same as for April, 1851. W e annex
a comparative summary:—
EXPORTS FROM NEW Y O R K TO FOREIGN PORTS FOR THE MONTH OF A P R IL .

1851.
Domestic produce........................
Foreign merchandise (free).......
Foreign merchandise (dutiable)...
Specie...........................................
Total exports...........................
Total, exclusive of specie........

1852.

1851

1854.

$4,561,770 $4,244,044 $5,178,471 $4,578,693
59,904
208,708
67,719
125,717
320,981
353,262
422,796
239,511
3,482,182
767,055
3,474,525
200,266
$S,424,837 $4,865,291
4,942,655
4,665,025

$6,577,030
5,809,975

$8,418,446
4,943,921

The comparison with the same month of 1851, it will be seen, shows but little
difference in any o f the items. The exports from New York to foreign ports
(exclusive o f specie) since January 1st, are 5,081,457 larger than for the corres­
ponding four months o f last year, $6,774,645 larger than for the same time in
1852, and $6,950,608 larger than for the same time in 1851. The exports o f
specie since January 1st, although twice as large as for the same period o f last
year, are only about the same as in 1852, and less than in 1851. The following
is a complete summary:—
EXPORTS FRO M N E W Y O RK TO FOREIGN PORTS FOR FOUR MONTHS, FROM JANUARY 1ST.

1881.

1852.

1851

1854.

Domestic produce..........................$14,276,498 $14,329,528 $16,199,107 $20,846,630
Foreign merchandise (free)..........
201,539
288,901
344,211
451,866
Foreign merchandise (dutiable)...
1,355,437
1,391,008 1,159,307 1,485.586
S p e cie ..'......................................
8,125,013
7,232,761 3,228,233 7,366,058
Total exports........................... $23,958,487 $23,242,198 $20,930,858 $30,150,140
Total, exclusive of specie........ 15,833,474 16,009,437 17,702,625 22,784,082
Had the stock o f domestic produce which reached the seaboard before the close
o f navigation been sufficient, after the supply o f the home-trade, to have left a
larger surplus for shipment, the increase in the exports would have been still




724

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

greater. W e have compiled a monthly summary o f the shipments o f domestic
produce since the comparative increase commenced in June, 1853, which will he
found very interesting:—.
EXPORTS OF DOMESTIC PRODUCE FROM NEW YO RK TO FOREIGN PORTS.

1 8 # 0 -1 .
June...................
July...................
August..............
September....... ........
October............ .
November..........
December.........
January ............
February..........
March...............
A p ril.................

4,844,574

Total.........

1851—8.

1 8 5 8 -S .

1853—4 .

$3,778,289
3,188,027
3,259,594
2,693,986
2,702,382
2,451,511
2,512,436
2,419,296
3,352,943
4,313,245
4,244,044

$3,566,369
2,965,642
2,340,820
3,289,429
3,497,874
3,529,447
2,947,848
2,990,624
3,325,005
4,705,007
5,178,471

$5,057,229
4,882,957
4,540,383
5,579,088
5,459,401
7,489,937
7,166,832
5,304,203
5,400,924
6,562,810
4,578,693

$34,815,753

$38,336,436

$61,022,457

The above shows an increase o f $22,686,021 in the shipments o f produce from
New York since June, as compared with the same time o f the previous year—
$26,206,704 as compared with the same time in 1851-2— and $17,734,613 over
the very large total for the same time in 1850-1. W e annex a comparative state­
ment o f the shipments o f some o f the leading articles o f produce from New York
to foreign ports from January 1st to May 20th in this and the last year:—
EX PO RTS FROM N E W T O R E TO FOREIGN PORTS OF CERTAIN LEADING ARTICLES OF
DOMESTIC PRODUCE, FROM JANUARY 1ST TO M A Y 2 0 T H :----

3
GO

1851.
1851
1854.
Ashes—pots___
2,364
1,944 Naval stores....... .bbls 148,340 242,631
pearls ..
453
241 Oils—whale........ galls 196,387 86,566
Beeswax............
97,606 79,663
sperm . . . ___ 249,019 179,276
Breadstuffs —
la rd ........ ...... 10,596 13,650
Wheat flour.. •bbls 588,375 513,377
linseed . . .
Rye flour___
1,157
6,855 P rovisions —
Corn m eal.. . .
19,095 33,726
Pork................ •bbls 30,064 33,841
Wheat........ ..
949,0241,065,116
Beef................ . . .. 25,905 29,320
315,158
Cut meats.. . . . ,lbs2,806,660 8,359,855
Rye................
23,525 11,503
Oats ............
Butter.............. ___ 656,784 976,356
....1,830,677 683,916
Corn..............
509,5451,926,380
Lard................ ___ 8,106^769 6,481,865
Candles—mold.. .boxes 23,417 22,154 Rice.................... ..trcs
5,857 13,656
sperm.
2,253
2,740
...lbs 667,4461,483,527
Coal........ ‘ ..........
13^982 13'260 Tobacco, crude. .. pkgs
9,298 ' 15^943
Cotton................
109,847 114,355 Do., manufactured . ,lbs2,351,9821,227,627
Hay....................
1,606
1,548 Whalebone......... ....1,100,971 474,002
Hops..................
100
404
This shows a falling off in the shipments o f wheat flour, owing to the high
prices and scarcity which have prevailed at the seaboard during the last few
months. The exports o f Indian corn have increased more than 200 per cent, and
the quantity o f provisions shipped has also been greater— the total o f cut meats
(chiefly bacon) being 8,359,855 lbs. against 2,806,660 lbs. for the corresponding
period o f last year. The exports from the Gulf o f Mexico, and especially from
New Orleans, which showed a large decline for the latter half o f 1853, have large­
ly increased since January 1st, as will be seen by the following comparison :—




Commercial Chronicle arid Review.

125

EXPORTS FROM N E W ORLEANS TO FOREIGN PORTS FOR TH REE MONTHS FROM JANUARY 1ST.

Domestic produce.

183.
In American vessels..........
In foreign vessels
..........

J

Foreign produce.

1854.

$11,862,932
7,651,775

$17,090,068
7,702,628

1851

1854.

$149,173
30,520

$49,068
7,841

Total...........................
$19,514,707
$24,792,596
$179,693
$56,909
Total exports for three months, 1854............................
$24,859,505
Total exports for three months, 1853.............................
19,694,400
Increase this year...........................................................

$5,165,105

If a corresponding increase has been realized from other ports, (and we think
this may be safely reckoned upon, from the large shipments o f grain and flour
taken from Southern Atlantic ports,) the exports for the fiscal year 1853-54 will
be swelled beyond all former precedent.

THE NEW YORK COTTON MARKET
FOR THE MONTH ENDING M A Y

15.

P R E P A R E D FOR T H E M ER C H A N TS ’ MAGAZINE BY UHLHORN &. F R E D ERICK SO N , B R O K E R S ,
148 PEARL S T R E E T , N EW Y O R K .

Cotton has varied but little in price during the past month. The demand has been
steady, and holders on the whole have offered freely. The low grades have attracted
little or no attention, from their abundance, the principal demand being for middling
qualities and above. The finer grades continue scarce, and are held above the views
of shippers ; our own spinners in the purchase of same are compelled to pay greatly
above the quoted rates.
The business of the first week of the month under review exceeded 2,000 bales
per day, at an advance of |c. per lb. on the previous week. The foreign advices be­
ing of a favorable character, and confirmatory frost accounts from various sections of
the South, tended to the above elevation in prices, which were firmly maintained
throughout the week, with the following sales:—
Export......................bales.
Home u se.........................

3,348 I Speculation.............. bales.
3,310 | In transitu..........................

3,260
2,709

Total sales during the w eek ........................................................

12,627

PRICES ADOPTED A P R IL 2 4 T H

FOR THE FOLLOWING Q UALITIES:----

Upland.

Ordinary..........................................
Middling.......................................
Middling fair..................................
Fair................................................

8
9£

lo j
11

Florida.

Mobile. N. O. & Texas.

8

8

9J
lOf
11*

9£
lOf
Hi

8
9£

11
12J-

For the week ending May 1st the demand somewhat moderated, and prices were
reduced a shade on all grades ; the market throughout the week was well supplied
aud holders disposed to sell. The Arabia’s advices, received this week, were favor­
ably construed. Politics looked brighter, money easy, and many of the English spin­
ners commencing the cotton sail-cloth manufacture, gave hopes that the consumption
of the staple would increase. The prospect here, however, was clouded by the ap­
prehension of a decline to be received in answer to ours, and the week closed dull,
with the following sales and quotations:—
Export................ . .bales.
Home u se .........................
Total sales during the week




2,990 I Speculation.............. bales.
2,314 | Iu transitu..........................

1,170
1,431
7,905

726

Commercial Chronicle and Review.
PRICES ADOPTED M AY 1ST FOR THE FOLLOW IN G QUALITIES : —

Ordinary......................................
Middling.........................................
Middling fa ir.................................
F a ir ................. ............................

Upland.

8

9
lOf
Ilf

Florida.

8

9f
lOf
11

Mobile.

8

9f
10J
I lf

N. O. & Texas.

8

9f
11
12

The depression noticed above continued through the following week, without any
material change in prices. The operations were principally on spinners’ and specu­
lators’ accounts, the demand for export being lessened by the withdrawal of orders
and decreased limits on advances from abroad. The quotations below were obtained
for a strict classification, but mixed lists were unsalable unless at a decline of about
fc. a fc. per lb.
Export......................bales.
Home use . . . . ................

1,313 I Speculation................bales.
3,133 | In transitu.........................

2,107
324

Total sales during the week..........................................................

6,877

PRICES ADOPTED M A Y 8 T H FOR THE FOLLOW IN G VARIETIES ' —

Upland.

Ordinary.........................................
Middling.........................................
Middling fair...................................
Fair.................................................

7f
9
lOf
11

Florida.

7f
9
lOf
I lf

Mobile.

7f
9f
lOf
I lf

N. O. &. Texas.

7f
9f
11
12f

The week ending May 15th witnessed a revival of a demand from all parties. Our
own manufacturers took to the extent of 4,616 bales, mostly of grades above good
middling. Their purchases of lower grades are very small. The high price of labor,
and the imperfections of our machinery, require a much better article of cotton to pro­
duce the same quantity and quality of yarn than is necessary on the other side. Prices
gradually hardened during the week, and at the close an advance of fc. per lb. was ob­
servable on all grades—holders offering their .stocks sparingly, especially the better
grades, which were only obtainable at outside figures. The market closed firm, at the
following quotations:—
Export......................bales.
Home u se..........................

3,985 I Speculation.............. bales.
4,616 | In transitu.........................

1,514
1,289
11,404

Total sales during the week
PRICES ADOPTED M A Y 1 6 t H FOR THE FOLLOWING Q U A L IT IE S —

Upland.

Ordinary.........................................
Middling....................... ..
. . . '. .
Middling fair...................................
Fair.................................................

7f
9f
lOf
Ilf

Florida.

7f
9f
lOf
I lf

Mobile. N. O. & Texas.

7f
9§
11
Ilf

7f
9f
I lf
12f

The following is from our “ Cotton R e p o r t" prepared for the steamer of the 13th
instant:—
C r o p P rospects . The probable extent of last year’s crop is lost sight of in the in­
terest manifested in regard to the growing one. From all sections of the cotton-grow­
ing districts, and from New Orleans, Mobile, Apalachicola, and Savannah, the com­
plaints are numerous and well founded, of the damage done to the crop—and the un­
seasonableness of the weather is the tenor of all letters to the latest mail dates. The
frosts of the 17th and 18th of April have been followed by extremely cold weather to
the end of the month. The damage done to cotton in many districts is such that plant­
ers have decided in most cases to plant corn instead.
Cotton seed for replanting is likewise scarce in many places, and the prospect for
the supply of cotton out of the growing crop is anything but encouraging, following as
it does our present deficient receipts of 496,000 bales, as compared with last year.




'727

Journal o f Banking , Currency, and Finance.

JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY, AND FINANCE.
CORPORATED WEALTH IN THE CITV OF NEW YORK.
VALUE

OF P R O P E R T Y

AN D TAXES OF

S TO CK

C O M P A N IE S IN

NEW

YORK

C IT Y .

In the Merchants' Magazine for May, 1854, (Yol. xxx., No. v.,) we published a state­
ment of the relative value of the real and personal property in each Ward of the City
of New York in the years 1852 and 1853, derived from the report of Hon. A. C. Flagg,
City Controller. We now give, from the same official source, a statement of the mon­
eyed or stock corporations in the City of New York, deriving an income from their
capital, showing the name of each company, the amount of personal and real estate,
the total valuation, and the amount of tax levied on each company in July, 1853:—
Personal estate. Real estate. Tot’l valuat’n. Ain’t tax.
$889,749
$90,000
$979,749 $12,092 73
1,376,152
115,000
1,491,152
18,404 83
1,705,588
120,000
1,825,588
22,532 64
719,862
58,000
777,862
9,600 90
875,000
965,000
11,919 70
90,000
4,890,000
61,713 49
110,000
5,000,000
24,744 68
1,804,803
200,000
2,004,803
18,336 05
1,325,580
160,000
1,485,580
593,403
53,000
646,403
7,978 34
440,000
60,000
500,000
6,171 84
1,338,330
90,000
1,428.330
17,629 44
115,000
1,982,625
24,470 94
1,867,625
243,654
555,800
799,454
9,867 28
436,000
498,000
6,146 64
62,000
50,000
965,426
11,915 95
915,426
45,000
45,000
555 40
1,199,274
1,103,274
96,000
14,802 26
981,894
831,894
150,000
12,119 21
982,552
732,552
250,000
12,127 31
800,000
9,874 16
800,000
3,646 42
61,583
295,433
233,850
201,346
2,485 16
163,346
38,000
235,413
2,905 62
175,413
60,000
229,211
3.421 51
48,000
277,211
12,510 33
1,013,582
917,582
96,000
800,000
9,874 26
720,000
80,000
18,133 87
1,229,200
240,000
1,469,200
130.000
1,907,000
23,537 52
1,777,000
643,980
643,980
7,948 44
100,000
100,000
1,234 27
American Exchange Bank.............. , 1,499,500
1,499,500
18,507 87
596,935
7,367 78
Leather Manufacturers’ Bank........
696,935
430,000
430,000
5,307 36
336,050
336,050
East River Bank...........................
4.147 75
150,000
150,000
1,851 40
Peter Cooper Insurance Co............
110,000
110,000
Howard Life Insurance Co............
1,357 69
33,663
N. Y. Printing & Dyeing Establish.
415 48
33,663
43,000
20,000
23,000
490 65
Spring Valley Shot and Lead Co..
591,675
451,675
140,000
7,302 84
Broadway Bauk.............................
55,000
248,000
303,000
3,739 82
Chemical
“ .............................
70,000
995,798
925,798
12,290 81
Ocean
“ .............................
North River Bank.........................
570,502
80,000
650,502
8,028 94
Merchants’ Exchange Bank......... .
1,165,952
60,000
1,225,952
15,231 55
275,642
16,500
292,142
Grocers’ Bank................. ..............
3,605 80
258,808
299,808
3,700 42
Irving Bank...................................
41,000
270.000
270.000
3,382 62
130.000
130.000
1,604 55
New York Exchange Co................

Bank of North Am erica ..................
Merchants’ Bank...........................
Manhattan Company..................... .
National Bank...............................
Union Bank...................................
Bank of Commerce.........................
Metropolitan Bank.........................
Bank of the Republic.....................
Mechanics’ Banking Association.. .
St. Nicholas Bank..........................
Mechanics’ Bank...........................
Bank of the State of New Y ork. . .
New York Gas Company..............
Corn Exchange Bank.....................
Hanover Bank...............................
Dock Company..............................
Phcenix Bank.................................
Sun Mutual Insurance Company ..
Atlantic Insurance Co.....................
Merchants’ Exchange Co................
Eagle Fire Insurance Co................
New York
do.
................
Howard
da
................
Knickerbocker do.
................
New York Life and Trust Co_.. . .
City Bank.......................................
Bauk of New Y ork ........................
Bank of America........................... ,
Continental Bank...........................




728

Journal o f Banking, Currency , and Finance

North River Ins. Co........................
Merchants’
“ ........................
Irving
“ ........................
Columbia
“ ........................
Park Fire
“ ........................
New Amsterdam Insurance C o....
U. S. Mail Steamship Co................
Hudson-River Railroad Co............
Harlem Railroad...........................
Sixth Avenue Railroad..................
Croton Manufacturing Co...............
Hoboken Ferry Co.........................
Newark Ferry Co...........................
Chatham Bank...............................
Tradesmen’s Bank...........................
Roosevelt and Bridge St. Ferry Co.
Astor Fire Insurance Co.................
American Institute.........................
Bank of the Commonwealth..........
Delaware and Hudson Canal Co...
Ocean Steam Navigation Co..........
Pacific Mail Steamship Co.............
N. Y. and Liverpool Steamship Co.
N. Y. and Virginia
“
N. Y. and California
“
Empire Stone Dressing Co............
N. Y. and Havre Steam Nav. Co..
Thompson & Livingston’s Express.
American Express Co. ..................
Adams’ Express Co.........................
Union India Rubber Co..................
N. Y. Floating Derrick Co..............
.(Etna Fire Ins. Co...........................
City
“ ..........................
East River
“ .........................
Farmers’ Loan and Trust Co.........
Firemen’s Insurance Co..................
Jefferson
“
.......... I . . .
Manhattan
“
..................
National
“
..................
N. Y. Equitable “
..................
N. Y. Mutual
«
..................
North American “
..................
United States
“
..................
Union Mutual
“
..................
Commercial
“
..................
Grocers’
“
..................
Empire City
“
..................
Washington
“
..................
Niagara
“
..................
Clinton
“
..................
New York Life “
..................
Manhattan
“
..................
Hanover
“
..................
Republic
“
..................
Lafarge
“
..................
Fire <fc Inl’d Mar. “
..................
Continental
“ _ ..................
Home
“
..................
New York City “
..................
New England Fire and Inland Nav­
igation Insurance Co...................
American Oil Company.................




Personal estate. Real estate. Tot’l valuat’n. Ain’t tax.
335,200
14,000
4,310 06
349,200
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
1,000,000
12,342 70
1,000,000
135,000
7,316 24
500,000
635,000
55’,000
4,073 04
275,000
330,000
613,086
613,086
7,567 14
62 33
5,050
5,050
20,000
246 55
20,000
7,500
92 57
7,500
336,945
4,899 36
60,000
396,945
375,600
4,932 13
24,000
399,600
1,481 12
120,000
120,000
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
50,000
50,000
617 13
750,000
750,000
9,257 02
212,715
2,625 47
212,715
601,360
7,422 40
601,360
500,000
6,171 35
500,000
2,500,000
30,856 75
2,500,000
205,850
2,540 74
205,850
258,000
3,184 41
258,000
270,000
270,000
3,332 52
681,000
8,405 37
681,000
2,500
30 85
2,500 »
3,000
3,000
37 02
4,000
49 37
4,000
250,000
250,000 ., 3,085 67
60,000
60,000
740 66
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
210,000
2,591 96
210,000
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
932,578
16,544 87
410,000
1,342,578
204,000
204,000
2,517 91
188,010
188,010
2,320 54
250,000
250,000
3,085 67
106,279
1,311 77
106,279
210,000
210,000
2,591 96
350,000
350,000
4,819 94
247,694
247,694
3,057 21
250,000
250,000
3.085 67
221,540
221,540
2,734 39
. . ...
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 64
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
2,468 54
250,000
250,000
3,085 67
250,000
250,000
3,085 67
100,000
100,000
1,234 27
150,000
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
150,000
1,851 40
500,000
500,000
6,171 35
500,000
500,000
6,171 35
500,000
500,000
6,171 35
200,000
45,000

200,000
45,000

2,468 54
555 42

Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance.

729

Personal estate. Real estate. Tot’l valuat’n. Ain’t tax.
N. Y. Oil Lubricating Man. Co__ _
61 71
5,000
5,000
United States Life Ins. Co.............
1,234 27
100,000
100,000
Mercantile Mutual Insurance Co..
688,640
8,499 68
688,640
General
“
“
“
250 000
3,085 67
250,000
Astor
“
“
“
4,319 94
350,000
350,000
Commercial “
“
“
370 28
30,000
30,000
Atlas Mut. and Marine Ins. Co___
370 28
80,000
30,000
Mutual Life Insurance Co.............
9,874 16
800,000
800,000
The Association for the Exhibition
of Industry of all Nations..........
4,937 08
400,000
400,000
Seventh Ward Bank......................
6,113 77
462,087
33,250
495,337
Mercantile
“ ......................
7,405 62
600,000
600,000
Fulton
“ ......................
588,000
7,479 66
18,000
606,000
Market
“ ......................
7,683 32
622,500
622,P00
Shoe (fe Leather “ ......................
6,773 40
548,779
548,779
Market Insurance Co......................
200,000
2,468 54
200,000
Union Whitelead Co......................
246 85
20,000
20,000
Saugerties Whitelead Co...............
25,000
808 56
25.000
Nassau Bank.................................
4,854 64
393,321
393,321
Mercantile Insurance
2,468 54
................ Co 200,000
200,000
New York Oil Manufacturing C o ..
272,500
3,363 38
272,500
New York India rubber Co...........
617 13
50.000
50,000
Brooklyn Whitelead Co.................
925 70
75,000
75,000
People's Bank...............................
5,085 19
412.000
412.000
People’s [ns. Co.............................
1,851 40
150.000
150.000
Empire City Bank........................
2,758 97
223,531
223,531
Lorillard Fire Ins. Co.....................
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
Hamilton
“
....................
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
Lennox
“
1,851 40
150,000
150,000
Citizens’ Bank...............................
4,241 64
45,000
298,657
343,657
N. Y. Steam Sugar Refining Co__
5.049 07
230,000
179,074
409,074
N. 1 . Floating Dry Dock C o .. . .
2,863 44
32,000
232,000
200,000
Screw Dock Co..............................
1,160 19
94,000
59,000
35,000
Balance Dry Dock Co....................
925 70
75,000
75,000
American cordage Co....................
1,008 38
81,700
81,700
Broadway Ins. Co..........................
2,561 13
47,000
207,500
160,500
Pacific Bank...................................
5,217 24
422,700
422,700
Pacific Ins. Co...............................
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
Greenwich Bank .........................
2,199 74
166,223
12,000
178,223
Greenwich Ins. Co..........................
193,900
2,393 24
186,400
7,500
Dry Dock Co.................................
3,903 41
143,700
316,114
172,414
Mechanics’ and Tradesmen’s Bank.
2,424 81
196,458
186,458
10,0C0
Mech. and Tradesmen's Ins. Co.. . .
2,468 52
200,000
200,000
Butchers’ and Drovers’ Bank........
7,529 03
70,000
610,000
540,000
Bowery Fire Ins. Co.....................
3,702 81
300,000
300,000
Bowery Bank..................................
4,260 07
35,000
345,150
310,150
Stuyvesant Ins. Co........................
2,468 54
200,000
200,000
Manhattan Gas Co.........................
795,624
9,820 14
775,624
20,000
North American Gutta-percha Co.
536 90
43,500
43,500
Knickerbocker Bank.....................
3,626 51
293,818
255,818
38,000
St. Nicholas Ins. Co.......................
150,000
1,851 40
150,000
New Haven Railroad Co...............
1,703 29
138,000
138,000
E E C A P IT U A T IO N

OR

SU M M A R Y STA TE M E N T

OF

THE

ABOVE.

The total of personal estate is .. . .
The total of real estate..................
Total valuation.......................
Total amount of tax...............

S97,735 46

These amounts are all embraced in the table published in the Merchants' Magazine
for May, 1854, vol. xxx., No. 5, p. 608.




730

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

DEBT AND FINANCES OF NEW YORK CITY.
In the Merchants' M agazine for March, 1854, we published a tabular statement of
the relative value of the real and personal estate in the city and county of New
York, as assessed in 1852 and 1853, derived from the annual report of the Controller,
(1 I o s . A. C. F l a g g ,) of the receipts and expenditures of the corporation of the city
of New York for the year 1853. The report of Mr. Flagg was presented in the Board
of Councilmen, February 6th, 1854. This is an ably and faithfully prepared document.
We condense from the report the subjoined statement of the debt3 and finances of the
city:—
The receipts and expenditures of the corporation, during the year ending on the 31st
December, 1853, exclusive of the sinking fund set apart for the payment of the debt,
have been as follows:—
Expenditures from January 1,1853, to December 31, 1853...............
Received from all sources, except the sinking fund, during same year

$7,927,740 00
8,823,851 17

Expenditures less than receipts .............................................

896,110 29

The expenditures and receipts on account of the city government, not including
trust funds or the sinking fund, for the year ending December 31, 1853, have been as
follows:—
Expenditures for the support of the city government........................
Receipts from all sources except taxation.............. ............................

$3,311,741 04
150,694 98

Balance payable from taxation.................................................

3,161,046 06

The ordinances of the common council of New York city
have established separate sinking funds; one for the payment of interest, and another
for the reimbursement of the principal of the city debt. All the real estate belonging
to the city, and the revenue derived from nearly all sources, are pledged to one or the
other of these funds. This leaves the current annual expenses of the city govern­
ment to be supplied mainly by direct taxation.
The sums received and expended on account of the sinking funds, for the year end­
ing on the 31st December, 1853, have been as follows
T he S in k in g F ond .

Received on account of the fund for the redemption of the city debt
Balance in bank, January 1, 1853 .......................................................

<$929,988 12
91,415 60

Paid from same fund.............................................................................

1,021,403 72
601,827 72
$419,576 00

Received on account of the fund for the payment of interest on debt.
Balance in treasury, January 1, 1853..................................................

$1,095,320 75
385,812 76

Paid for interest on the city debt, invested, <fec..................................

1,481,141 51
996,182 18

Balance in treasury January 2, 1854..................................................

484,959 33

C it v D ebt .

The total amount of the city debt and means on hand for its payment

is as follows:—
The debt on the 1st January, 1854............... .....................................
Stocks, bonds, mortgages, and cash in the hands of commissioners..

$13,960,856 00
4,631,167 18

Balance unprovided for........................................................................

9,329,688 82

In addition to the above amount of debt, money has been borrowed to pay off an
accumulation of liabilities, commonly called a “ Floating Debt,” and to construct pub­
lic buildings, and piers and docks. This debt is to be paid by taxation, at the rate of
fifty thousand dollars each year from 1854 to 1876, both inclusive. The total amount
is $950,000.




"731

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

o tal opera tion s of th e T r e a su r y in 1853.
Including the receipts and payn ts on account of the sinking fund, the entire operations of the treasury for the
ar are as follows:—

T

Received into thetreasury...................................................................
Received on account of sinking fund for payment of principal...........
“
“
“
“
interest............

$8,823,851 11
929,988 12
1,095,328 15

Total..............................................................................................

10,849,168 04

Expenditures........................................................................................
“
on account of sinking fund for payment of debt.........
“
“
“
“
interest...

$7,921,740 00
601,827 72
996,182 18

Total..............................................................................................

9,525,749 90

DEBT OF CINCINNATI, OHIO,
The total expenditures of the city of Cincinnati for the fiscal year ending March 1,
1854, were $475,000. The public debt amounts to $2,929,000, of which $1,960,000
consists of bonds loaned to various companies, principal and interest guarantied to be
repaid by them. The debts due the city amount to $1,167,978.
nEBT

Loan....................................................
Loan....................................................
Loan............................. .....................
Little Miami Railroad Company . . . .
t<

U

U

it

Cincinnati, and W. W. Canal . . . . . . .
Cincinnati Water Works.....................
U

((

(«

Floating Debt.......................................
Cincinnati and W. W. Canal................
Lafayette Bank.....................................
School purposes....................................
Purchase of lot.....................................
Hillsborough Railroad Company........
Hamilton (fe Eaton Railroad Company
Covington & Lexington Railroad Co ..
Ohio & Mississippi Railroad C o ..........
Cincinnati Water W orks.....................
Floating debt, (consolidated)................

OF

C IN C IN N A T I.

Interest.
cent. Redeemable.

5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6

1885
1871
1885
1860--1865
1880
1865
1865
1895
1897
1897
1865
1885
1870
1880
1881
1881
1882
1900
1900

Amount.

$40,000
100,000
80,000
80,000
100,000
400,000
800,000
500,000
150,000
30,000
5,000
25,000
60,000
100,000
150,000
100,000
600,000
75,000
38,000

$2,929,000
$220,000
2,709,000

At five per cent.
At six per cent.
DOMESTIC EXCHANGES IN THE UNITED STATES,

The Secretary of the Treasury, Hon. J a m e s G u t h r i e , has made an arrangement by
which the several assistant treasurers and depositaries are required to make monthly
reports to the Treasury Department, as to the finances and exchanges at their respec­
tive localities. From the first of these reports the following table has been compiled,
showing the quotation of exchanges on the 1st of April, 1854. We hope to be able
to continue to give from these reports monthly statements of the same kind. From
Baltimore, Mobile, and Nashville, the reports down to the 1st of April were not com­
plete, and have, therefore, been omitted. We are indebted to the Union for the
present statement.




QUOTATIONS OP DOMESTIC EXCHANGES ON THE 1ST OP A P R IL , 1 8 5 4 -, RECEIVED AT THE TREASURY DEPARTMENT FROM THE ASSISTANT
TREASURERS AND DEPOSITARIES.

Upon Boston.

4 discount........
4 dis. to par. . . .
Par to 4 prem..
Par....................
4 to 4 prem. . . .
4 per cent prem.
4 prem..............
Par....................
4 to 4 prem___
Par to £ dis___
1 per cent prem.
4 per cent prem.
Par....................
St. Louis.

At Boston.................
New York..........
Philadelphia . . . .
Charleston..........
St. Louis.............
New Orleans.. . .
Richmond..........
Cincinnati..........
Pittsburgh........
Buffalo................
Norfolk..............
Wilmington . . . .
Savannah ..........
Chicago..............




New York.

1-10 discount...

4 discount.. . .
1 per cent dis.
1 4 dis. to par

4 dis. to 1-10 pr.
Par to 4 prem..
Par....................
4 to f prem. . . .
per cent prem.
4 prem..............
Par....................
£ to 4 prem. . . .
Par to J dis. . . .
1 per cent prem
4 per cent prem
Par....................
Mobile.

4 discount. . .
P a r..............

Philadelphia.

4 discount...
4 discount...
Par to 4 prem..
Par....................
4 to 4 prem . . .
4 per cent prem.
4 prem
Par....................
Par....................
Par to 4 dis___
1 per cent prem.
4 per cent prem.
Par....................
New Orleans.

4 discount.. . .

Washington.

Baltimore.

Cincinnati.

4 to 1 per cent dis.

Pittsburgh.
4

discount..

Charleston.

No demand
1 to dis...
Par to 1 p. c. dis.

4 to 4 prem
Par............
Buffalo.
4

discount

4 to 4 dis . . .
1 per cent dis.
1 to J dis. . . .
2 to 4 dis
4 to 1 p. c. dis
4 per cent dis.
No report__
1 per cent dis.
No sale .
No sale .
§ prem..
Par........
4 dis. . . .

San Francisco.
.

dis. to par.. 1 4 to 4 dis............ 4 dis to par 4 d‘s-to par
No demand on any other places.
4 discount. . . .
........................... 4 to 4 dis..........................
.................... ...
4 to 1 per cent dis........................ Par............
14

............................... 1 to f dis . . .
Par to per cent dis. Par to 4 dis..
1 per cent dis...................................
P a r ..................................................
1 per cent dis...................................
No sa le............................................
No sa le ............................................
N on e................................................
N on e................................................
4 discount.........................................

Richmond.

4 discount........
1 per cent dis...

4 discount.. . . 4 to 4 discount.
4 discount.. . . f dis.......... .
4 dis. to par... £ dis. to par
Par to prem. Par to J prem..
Par................. £ dis..................
4 to prem.. £ to f prem .. . .
4 per cent prem.
4 prem..............
Par....................
1 per cent dis...
Par to 4 dis.. . No sale..............

4 to 8 per cent dis..
6 to 8 per cent dis.*
1 to 1 per cent dis..
5 per cent dis.........
Par to 5 p. c. dis . .
2 per cent dis. . . . .

P a r ....................
1 per cent dis.

1 per cent dis.

Sixty days’ sight drafts on London, 1081; ditto on Paris, 5.08J

No sale........................

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

At Boston... ^..........
New York..........
Philadelphia........
Charleston..........
St. Louis............
New Orleans.. . .
Richmond..........
Cincinnati..........
Pittsburgh..........
Buffalo................
Norfolk..............
Wilmington . . . .
Savannah ..........
Chicago..............

-T
CO
to

733

Journal o f Banking, Currency , and Finance.

CONDITION OF THE BANK OF MONTREAL.
RETURN O F THE

AVERAGE

TREAL, FR O M

AM OUNT OF

AND A S SE T S O F THE BANK O F M O N ­

L I A B IL I T I E S

1ST SEPTEMBER, 1 8 5 3 , T O 2 8 t H FEBRU ARY , 1 8 5 4 .
L I A B IL I T I E S .

September 30,1853.

Promissory notes in circulation, not bearing interest.
Bills of Exchange
“
“
“
Bills and notes in circulation, bearing interest__ _
Balances due to other banks.................................
Cash deposits not bearing interest..........................
Cash deposits beariug interest...............................

£ 1 ,0 6 2 ,3 7 2

Total average liabilities.............................

17

Feb. 28th, 1854.
£ 1 ,1 9 9 ,9 5 2

17

19

2 1 ,2 5 1

0

2 8 ,9 3 8

4 0 7 ,6 8 2

15

4 2 9 ,7 8 2

5

1 0 6 ,3 3 0

13

1 5 9 ,8 4 0

11

1 ,6 5 1 , 6 3 7

7

1 ,8 1 8 ,6 1 4

14

ASSE TS.

Coin and bullion.....................................................
Landed or other property of the bank .................
Government securities ...........................................
Promissory notes or bills of other banks..............
Balances due from other banks............................
Notes and bills discounted, or other debts due to
the bank, not included above....... ......................

£ 1 9 8 ,0 9 8

Total average of assets...............................

13

3 8 ,4 2 1

£ 2 7 6 ,7 2 6

8

3 8 ,4 2 1

18

18

3 ,0 0 0

0

3 5 ,3 1 5

1

5 5 ,2 5 5

1

4 7 6 ,8 8 5

2

2 7 0 ,8 8 0

19

2 ,0 4 2 , 7 1 4

12

2 ,3 6 6 ,6 0 7

14

2 ,7 1 9 , 4 3 5

8

3 ,0 1 0 , 8 9 2

1

The pence are omitted in the above table, for convenience, which will make a slight
variation in the summing up.

LIABILITY AND RESOURCES OF BANKS IN SOUTH CAROLINA.
A TABLE SHOWING THE PROPORTION O F THE LIA BILITY AND RESOURCES OF THE SEVE RAL
BANKS I N THE STATE O F

SOUTH

CAROLINA

TO

TH EIR

RESPECTIVE CAPITALS, A S P E R

STATEMENT O F FEBRUARY 1ST, 1 8 5 4 : ----

w
S?b
p
p*
• o—1
• —
•
cr
•©

Circulation............................. 48
Net profits............................. 2
Balances due banks this State.. 7
Balances due banks other States 4
Deposits, <Stc........................... 14
Specie.................................... 3
Real estate............................. 3
Bills of banks of this State . . . . 3
Bills of banks of other States. . .
Balances due from banks of this
State.......................................................................... 1
Balances due from banks of other
States....................................................................... 1
Discounts, personal security____ __ 74
Discounts on pledges of its own
stock .......................................................................
Discounts on pledges of other
stocks ...................................................................... 9
Domestic exchange..................................... 16
Foreign exchange........................................... 4
Bonds ............................................................................. 13
Invested in stocks......................... ............... 13
Suspended debt and in suit___ 8
Invested in every other way . . . 5




0Q
te .
s <

S3
©
p3
5
BI
~p

<3

60
8
19
3
27

44
11
3
29
30

43
5
3
3
31

9
3

12
2
5

12
4

1

2

28

1
115

3
84

28

1

17
68
5
12
18
10
21

UP

: w

4

4

5
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a
p

53
B
C
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45

37
6
6
3
25

68
10
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25
18

93
4
2
6
18

17
7
39

2
4
7

10
1

2
4

22
2
5
1

2

8

4

62

3
72

9
71

43

4

1

4

1

4
44
2
8

13
54

6
61

17
3
1

1

3
93
5
23
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83
16
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11
, ,

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, ,

7
3
1

2
..

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p
C
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139

2

..

734

Journal o f Banking, Currency , and Finance.
OK
CD

~>c3

9S

o
a §
c 3
cr

p

•

a

: pt
Circulation............................... 132
Net profits............................... 15
Balances due banks this State.
1

2.

p 'EL

• CO
: pr
66
8
1
3
19

CO

hr 2
p"

p

1
o
o
fir

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139
5

99
3

200
27

, .

. .

. .

4
24

3
15

170
4
2

103
1

113
10

4
12

. .

. .

..

7

7

7

8

14

1

. .

11
1

5
3

28
5
1
6

1

••

2
••

• ■

9

111

18

1

Balances due b’nks other States
Deposits, &c.................................

. ,

Specie.......................................
Real estate...............................
Bills of banks of this State. . . .
Bills of banks of other States..
Balances due from banks of this
State .....................................
Balances due from banks of
other States..........................
Discounts, personal security.. .
Discounts on pledges of its own
stock.....................................
Discounts on pledges of other

13
6
3

12
- 2
1

16

32

. .
, ,

. .

2

•*

•*

••

12

16

1
103

3
58

. .

4

2

134

46

44

1
22

13
38

16

9

**

•*

6

*•

**

*•

1

29

80
100

1

101

2
57

143

176

2
133

4

5
80

180

#,

Foreign exchange.....................
2
Invested in stock ..............................
Suspended debt and in suit . . .
Invested in every other way ..

.,

2
19

3
..

3
1

. .

20
o
33

5
67

..

..

5
25

FOREIGN EXCHANGES.
The following communication on the par of exchange between the United States
and England, is taken from the London Economist.
The present method of calculating the exchange upon London, in the United States,
seems to me to be a very roundabout process, when a very simple one would suffice.
So long as the country was a dependency of Great Britain, or conducted its transac­
tions in sterling money, the mode of reckoning the exchange by a fluctuating premium
was right enough ; but when the country adopted a currency of dollars, and made the
dollar the integer of account, the exchange ought surely to have been reckoned from
that date at so many pence to the dollar, the same as in all other countries that have
a dollar currency.
What does the quotation at New York of “ exchange on London 8 premium ” mean ?
It means 4s. 2d. sterling per dollar; but to obtain the result you have to start from
the nominal par of exchange of $4 44 per pound, then add 8 per cent, which gives a
net exchange of $4 80 per pound, which is equivalent to 4s. 2d. per dollar. How
much easier it would be to call it 4s. 2d. at once 1 Have the Americans any substan­
tial reason for retaining the present method? If they have a particular penchant for
the “ premium,” then they should make the par 4s. 2d., which is tolerably near the
intrinsic par, and upon which a half-penny per dollar, upwards or downwards, is ex­
actly one per cent; or they should make it £5 per pound, which is nearer the intrin­
sic par, and upon which 5 cents, upwards or downwards, are exactly one per cent—
a vast improvement upon the running decimal .044 1
The most simple process in the calculation of the value of sterling bills would be
to quote a certain number of cents per pound sterling, viz :—
Instead of 8 per cent premium
(t
i(
“
8£
tc
a
“
8i
*■

8|

“

9

it

tt

a

u




quote 4.80 per pound.
, “ 4.81
“
“ 4.82
“
“ 4.83
“ 4.84

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

'735

This latter is about the'value of the pound sterling or English gold sovereign.
This mode, or something near it, is adopted with other European bills. For instance,
w e quote 5.20 on Paris; which is five francs twenty centimes in Paris, per dollar
paid in New York.
On Hamburgh the quotation is 36f to 36J, which is so many cents (U. S,) p e r m arc
banco. The latter is money of account, valued at 17^d. sterling, or a fraction over 36
cents.
The same rule applied to quotations and calculations of sterling bills would sim­
plify the matter greatly.

ISSUE OF AN INCONVERTIBLE CURRENCY IN RUSSIA.
It is said that the Russian government have determined upon an issue of 60,000,000
of paper rouble notes, for the payment of the war expenses ; and we have reason to
believe that the report is substantially true. It is, morover, in accordance with the
traditional policy of Russia. The heavy expenditure which was incurred in the wars
in which she was engaged during the latter part of the last and the commencement of
the present century, was, in great part, met in the same way. But now let us see what
formerly happened from this course! The value of the rouble, which represents a
silver coin, varies from 38d to 40d British money, accordiog to the exchanges. In
order to meet the exigencies of the state expenditure, so excessive was the issue of
these notes in former times, that their value in exchange with England represented,
not 88d, but sank by steady, regular gradation, as one fresh issue succeeded another,
to 30d, to 24d, to lSd, and finally to 10|d, and for many years the rouble, instead of
representing an intrinsic value of 3Sd to 40d, circulated for 10id to ll|d. But the
scheme is that they shall be inconvertible as formerly; and 60,000,000 rouble notes,
about £10,000,000, are to be added to the present circulation. Of course, depreciation
will rapidly take place; the rouble will again soon come to represent, in the place of
38d or 40d, only 30d, or less, just as these issues may be made in excess.
The people of Russia, of course, cannot help themselves. From the moment that
Russia adopts this step, foreign merchants having transactions with Russian subjects,
should invariably conduct their business in the denomination of the currency of their
own country, in place of that of Russia, and stipulate to be paid in bills upon London,
Paris, or Hamburg, computed accordingly. No matter then how low the exchange
may fall in Russia, the debtor must provide whatever number of roubles is required
to purchase a bill ibr the necessary amount expressed in the stipulated currency. If,
under such circumstances, foreigners trade with Russia on any other terms, they will
be subject to any depreciation which may happen during the time the transaction is
in progress, or before they obtain payment for goods consigned to that country.— L o n ­
don Economist.

INCREASE OF TAXABLE PR0RERTY IN PENNSYLVANIA,
The following statement which we extract from the final report of the Board of
Revenue Commissioners for Pennsylvania, will show the aggregate increase of taxable
property returned by the county commissioners, in each period of three years since
1845, and the amounts added to such property by the successive boards, in the process
of equalization:—
Increase of returns from
“
“
“
“
Amount added by the
“
“
“
“
“
“
"
“
“

1845 to1848 ................................
1848to 1851
1851to 1854
Boardof 1845 ................................
“
1848
“
1851
“
1854

$42,375,328
29,858,371
36,827,892
8,759,625
7,114,274
6,883,153
5,307,533

It will be seen that the additions made by each Board are less than those made by
the preceding one. This is a natural result, supposing the adjustments to be by the
operations of the system approaching equality.
The whole amount of taxable property is now 531,370,454, making an increase in
three years of $40,371,625.




736

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

CALCULATIONS IN REGARD TO COUNTING GOLD COIN.
A writer in the Boston Journal makes the following curious calculations:—
The enormous sum of $204,000,000 in gold has been received at the mint in Phil­
adelphia from California, from the first discovery of the precious metal to December
1, 1853. Now in order to give some idea to the general reader of the immense
amount of $204,000,000, I will merely state that allowing each silver dollar to weigh
one ounce avoirdupois, sixteen to the pound, the weight would be 12,750,000 lbs., or
6.375 tons, allowing 2,000 lbs. to the ton. To carry this weight it would require
6.375 wagons, containing a ton each, or $32,000. Now suppose each vehicle, drawn
by one horse, to occupy a space of 25 feet, they would extend in a continuous line a
fraction short of 30 miles. In order to count such a vast sum of money as this, very
few persons have any idea of the. time it would require, without making calculations
to that effect. Having myself asked several individuals familiar with figures how
long it would take to count the sum above mentioned, they have so widely differed in
time that one could scarcely repress a smile at the result. Now to ascertain the fact
which may be made as plain as A B 0, we will suppose a person to count 60 of these
silver dollars a minute, 3,600 an hour, 43,200 a day of 12 hours each, or (Sundays in­
cluded) 15,768.000 a year. I say, to count this stupendous amount of money in silver
dollars, it would require a fraction short of 13 years.

THE MONEY OF CALCULATION AND OF CONSUMPTION,
The currency of a country, (says our cotemporary of the W all Street Journal ,) and
its subdivisions, ought conveniently to subserve two ends—there should be the money
of calculation and the money of consumption. The accountant and the large dealer
wants the power to range his amounts and see their value at a glance, and the deci­
mal system is the only one which will conveniently answer his purposes. The people
of England have toiled long enough over the multiplication-table and Cocker, turning
pounds into shillings and pence, and now they condescend to take the decimal mone­
tary notation from America. Something mote is wanted, however, than mere facility
of calculation. The consumer naturally in his transactions subdivides by indefinite
halving. The necessity for the half and quarter eagle, and the half-quarter and
eighth of a dollar, is more apparent to the buyer than the tenth or hundredth fraction
of the gold or silver unit; it attends him with every pound and half-pound, bushel
and half bushel he purchases; it is the expression of a natural want.

WHAT ARE CONSOLS ?
This question, which it is barely possible every young man who reads the M er­
chants' Magazine may not understand, is thus briefly and correctly answered by our
cotemporary of the W all Street J o u rn a l :—
The term is an abbreviation of the word “ consolidated,” and to explain what they
are it is only necessary to state, that at various times the British government has
borrowed divers sums of money, paying different rates of interest; that occasionally
the Btocks issued as evidences of these various debts have been taken up or called in,
and a new stock issued in their stead, payable at one fixed time, and bearing one
fixed rate of interest: that such a stock is called a consolidated stock, or consol, and
to distinguish it from others the rate of interest it bears is generally mentioned—as
three per cent consols, four per cent consols, Ac.

SUPPRESSION OF SMALL NOTES IN VIRGINIA,
The Legislature of Virgina has passed a law prohibiting the circulation of small
notes in that State. One of its provisions subjects any person whose name appears
on the face of any note of less denomination than five dollars, to a penalty five times
the amount of the note, which may be recovered by any one who may proceed against
the person appearing to be the issuer of the note. The act goes into operation on the
first of June, thus giving three months for those who have small notes in circulation
to withdraw them.




737

Journal o f Insurance.

JOURNAL

OF

INSURANCE.

THE NEW ENGLAND MUTUAL LIFE INSURANCE COMPANY.
The tenth annual report of the Directors of the New England Mutual Life Insur­
ance Company, which we give below, will be read with interest by all who are inter­
ested in the economy of life insurance. This report was prepared by the President
the Hon. J u d g e P h i l l i p s , whose investigations of the principles, and experience in
the practical workings of life insurance, are doubtless unsurpassed by any individual
in this country. He has thoroughly studied the subject in all its bearings, and has
connected with him in the direction a body of men whose reputation for intelligence
and integrity stands deservedly high in the community in which they reside. The
report is a model of its kind, and exhibits the affairs of the institution in a most satis­
factory light.
We have no hesitation in sayiug that we regard the New England Mutual Life Insur­
ance Company as one of the few which are entitled to the confidence of the public; and
if circumstances rendered it necessary to take out a policy on our own life, for the ben­
efit of a family or to secure a creditor, we know of no company to which we should
apply with so much certainty and confidence that our intentions would in the end be
realized. This report exhibits the operations of the company for the ten years it has
been in existence, and furnishes data that will be of great use in the organization of
similar corporations.
ABSTRACT OF TH E

B U SIN E SS

OF TH E

D U R IN G T H E T E N

Policies
•Policies teriniissued. nated.
1S44____
3
46
18 45____ ____ 459
92
18 48____
18 47 ____ . . .
461 180
178
18 48____
1 8 4 9 ____ ____ 557 251
1850____ ____ 335 192
18 51____ ____ 343 242
323
1 8 5 2 ____
385
18 53____

NEW

ENGLAN D

YEARS

M U TU A L

E N D IN G N O V .

Amount
terminated.
$2,000
123,640
182,740
398,975
331,100
577,780
361,780
512,030
661,712
714,350

f Amount
insured.
$948,110
1,110,274
985,225
897,840
1,006,990
1,125,332
733,380
806,725
1,041,100
1,116,150

Interest
paid on

Interest
received.

1 8 4 4 ....
1845.........
18 46.........
1847.........
18 48.........
1 8 4 9 .........
1850 ____
1851.........
18 52.........
1853.........
*
out
t
j

...

Losses.

Expenses.

$1,000
17,900
11,000
32,100
32,880
39,417
38,050
37,525
55,355

$3,535
4,405
8,031
7,120
7,138
8,196
8,271
9,229
10,276
12,225

$2,198

...

11,376

...
...

17,453
22,253

...

36,328

guaranty
fund.
$2,500
3,500
}4,500
3,500
3,500
3,500
3,500
3,500
3,500

L IF E

IN S U R A N C E

30, 1853.
Amount at
risk at the
end of the
year.
$946,110
1,932,744
2,735,229
3,234,094
3,791,344
4,338,896
4,710,496
5,005,191
5,384,578
5,786,379

COM PANY,

Premium Premium
received, returned.
$28,499
....
44,943
....
$915
63,400
80,069 2,702
90,544 3,009
108,479 4,288
119,144 4,271
119,674 3,306
134,563 5,403
149,657 4,827

Accumu- Per centlated fund age of dis-

Amount

at end of tribution of distrib­
each year. returned
ution.
on pr’ um.
$18,626
63,369 »
104,313
170,339
223,995
258,673
344,611
433,416
539,301
649,380

,,
20
..
..
,.

$45,890

30

141,146

This column includes only those policies on which the premium has been paid ; others made
but not taken, are not included.
Fractions of a dollar in the above aggregates omitted.
Extra amount paid in 1849, to make up $1,000 deficiency o f payment of interest in 1847.
V O L . X X X .-----N O . V I .




47

738
REFORT

Journal o f Insurance.
OF TH E

D IR E C T O R S

TO T H E

OF THE

NEW

M EM BERS, AT TH E

ENGLAN D

MUTUAL

L IF E

A N N U A L M E E T IN G , D E O .

IN S U R A N C E

COM PANT

12, 1853.

This company having now been in operation during ten years, the time arrives for
the second distribution of its surplus funds; and members will naturally desire to be
informed specifically of the method adopted in making it. By the charter, and accord­
ing to the fundamental principle of such a company, the distribution is limited to the
surplus remaining after reservmg a fund, which, a 1 necessary expenses being deduct­
ed, will be sufficient, with the net future premiums on the existing policies, to pay all
the losses that will accrue on these policies. Whenever a company makes an exces­
sive distribution, it thereby not merely takes a step towards insolvency, but in fact at
the time actually becomes insolvent; for it has not funds sufficient to meet its liabili­
ties. It does not follow that it may not continue for a longer or shorter period to
pay its losses and discharge its other liabilities; for a corporation or partnership, no
less than an individual^hiay continue to meet its engagements a longer or shorter
time after becoming actually insolvent, according to the degree to which its managers
may deceive themselves or others.
The first and great question which every member will ask in this case is, “ What
amount of funds must be reserved to enable the company to meet the losses and fu­
ture incidental liabilities on its existing policies !" In other words, “ What fund is it
necessary to reserve in order that the company shall not be rendered actually insol­
vent by making a distribution—or in making what is sometimes deceptively called
‘ a dividend of profits V ” This question is answered by ascertaining whether another
company, or an individual of adequate responsibility, could afford to take its effects
and assume its liabilities.
It is evident that the future premiums to which it is entitled by its policies will
not be sufficient to meet its liabilities, if it has been in operation for any considerable
time. Suppose, for example, a company to have been in operation for twenty years.
Take the case of an assured who was insured for his whole life, at the commence­
ment, at the age of twenty six, for the usual annual premium of about two dollars
for one hundred, and accordingly is now forty-six, when the usual annual premium
for a like policy is about four dollars. The company is entitled to demand of him
only two dollars per annum. But, admitting him still to be a good life, they could
not get another company to take him off their hands for a less premium than four
dollars per annum. The question then is, what is the present value of a contract of
a person forty-six years of age, to pay two dollars per annum during his life, and
what is the value of a contract of the same person to pay twice thatlsum per annum
during his life, and it is evident that another company will not assume his policy and
agree to pay his representatives one hundred dollars at his decease, unless the first
underwriters will pay them the difference between the present values of those two
annual premiums. This sum is, therefore, to be reserved for this policy by the com­
pany which is making a distribution. Accordingly, in estimating the amount of a
distribution of surplus, the same computation is to be made upon every subsisting
policy, to ascertain the resulting amount to be reserved on each ; and if this is not
done, and that amount is not reserved, the company thereby directly renders itself
insolvent.
It is to be kept in mind, that this computation should be made upon the actual rate
of premiums for insurance. If you take a table of mortality and compute what pres­
ent sum put at interest at three, four, or any other rate per cent, wrill amount to one
hundred dollars at the probable decease of a person of forty-six years of age, it will
be less than that which is necessary, to provide for the payment of a policy upon his
life for the same amount, since in computing premiums of insurance a margin must
be added of some sixteen to twenty per cent for incidental expenses and contingen­
cies. Distributions are understood to have been made, in some instances, without
any such margin, which is, in fact, proposing to assess future members of a company
for the benefit of the present ones, to whom the distribution is made. The computa­
tion ought evidently to be made upon premiums that it would be necessary actually
to pay for re insurance; and our present distribution is so computed, as was also the
former one.
We have supposed the policy on which the computation is made to be on a good
insurable life, for one of the same age. But more or less of the lives in a company
have deteriorated by disease and infirmity as well as byr age. No insurance company
conducted with skill and prudence would take all the risks off the hands of another
company at the tabular rates for good lives. It will be seen, accordingly, that we
have made an additional reservation on this account.




739

Journal o f Insurance.

Among twenty-four hundred lives dispersed about the world by sea and land, in all
climates, it is probable that some have dropped, of whose death notice has not been
received at the date of the distribution, and this probability is the subject of an esti­
mated additional reservation.
Again, though the net funds of the company, represented by the balance-sheet to
be about $650,000, are supposed to be fully equal to that amount at their present
marketable and available value, yet a future depreciation of some of the investments
is possible, for which an allowance is made in the present distribution, as was done in
the former.
Our charter provides for a reserved guaranty fund to replace the present one when
paid off. Reservations were made in 1848 which proved to be equal to one-half of
this fund, and the additional reservation is now made out of the receipts of the last
five years, for the remaining half of the $50,0e0 constituting that fund.

Those members who, haviDg been in the company at the former distribution, con­
tributed to the reservations then made for this fund, are, by the charter of the com­
pany, entitled to a preference on the income of that reservation, in making the present
distribution, and the present members who continue to be such at the next one, will
be entitled to a like preference on the income of the same fund according to the suc­
cessive distributions to which they may have before directly or indirectly contrib­
uted, and so on indefinitely, which privilege will have, in some degree, an alleviating
operation in favor of the better lives, which must in the event contribute to make up
the deficiency of the premiums paid by the poorer lives, to meet the losses on them.
This was the object of this provision of the charter.
The data of the present distribution accordingly stands thus:—
Reservation for reinsurance....................................................................
Estimated deterioration of lives.............................................................
Estimate of losses not heard of, and contingencies of investments.........
Interest on Guaranty Fund, payable in January,1854...........................
Guaranty Capital...................................................................................
Preference to contributors to the Guaranty Fund at the. f inner distri­
bution, being 2 per cent on $288,417, the amount of their premiums.
Aggregate...........................................................................................

$382,339
31,013
29,611
3,500
60,000

82
92
13
00
00

5,768 34
$508,233 21

Accumulated Fund..........................................................
Reserved Fund................................................................ .......

$649,379 43
508,233 21

Amount of the general distribution.........................................

$141,146 22

Being 30 per cent on $470,154 07, the amount of premiums paid by the present mem­
bers from December 1,1848, to December 1, 1853.
A similar computation was adopted in making the former distribution, after due
consideration, and the directors have adhered to it in the present instance, because
they still think the method a proper one, and that any less reservation would not be
prudent, and also because it seemed to be obligatory lo make this distribution no less
favorably to the stability of the company, since to do otherwise would be unfairly to
sacrifice the advantage already gained; and which all who shall continue in the com­
pany or become members are interested to maintain.
The distribution is settled, first, b£ credit on premiums; second, by reduction of the
future rate of premium on the policy; third, by adding to the amount of the policy or, fourth, by payment iu cash, as each member may prefer one or the other mode of
settlement, where the distribution has not been pledged to some other specific object.
The company is not in the practice of issuing scrip for dividends.
As the accounts have been examined aud have been verified by vouchers, the direc­
tors can, with confidence, attest to the accuracy of the above statement of the financial
condition and resources of the company. Though the distribution is larger than had
been anticipated, members will plainly see that the directors do not propose to sacri­
fice the future to the present, and rely upon a subsequent surplus of premiums to
make up for an excessive present distribution.
In order to show the adequacy of the rate of premium permanently to sustain the
company, there ought to be at present a very considerable surplus for distribution
arising from the circumstance that the present rate of interest on investments, in the
United States, from which a part of the surplus is derived, is higher, by two-or three
per cent, than it probably will be during the lives of some of the present members of




740

Journal o f Insurance.

the company, and it is evidently essential that the rate of premium should be estab­
lished in reference to such probable reduction of the rate of interest nearly to the Eu­
ropean rate. Estimating in reference to the medium magnitude of the concerns of the
company, for the past five years, this single consideration ought, as the above data
show, to give a present surplus for distribution from forty to sixty thousand dollars.
The present distribution is further augmented by reason of the rate of mortality
among our members during the past five years, especially in the earlier part of the
period, having been less than what is to be ordinarily expected on lives of the same
age subject to similar risks, and also by reason of the investment of the funds of the
company having proved to be advantageous.
So far as any economy in conducting the business of the company may have contrib­
uted towards the present surplus, the directors hope the same cause will operate
hereafter.
The extinguishment of the guaranty stock of fifty thousand dollars, of which the
charter now admits, will, on the other hand, operate in favor of the distribution of
1858 by about three thousand dollars, viz., the difference for five years, of the interest
of seven per cent heretofore paid on that-amount, and the interest which would accrue
during that period on the investment of the same amount.
The attention of members of the company and applicants for insurance has hereto­
fore been called to the different ways of settling the premium otherwise than by annual
payments for the whole life, viz., by a single premium, or by annual premiums for ten
years. That more members have not availed themselves of one or the other of these
methods, must be owing to the practical effect not being well understood. One result
of settling by a single premium is, that the member is thus exonerated from going on
paying further premium after he has paid in an amount, including interest and deduct­
ing distributions, equal to that insured by his policy; the other result is, that if a note
is given for the single premium on interest, at the rate of four per cent per annum, on
which payments are annually made on account of interest and principal, equal, at
least, to what would have been the tabular annual premium for the whole life, and
the life drops before arriving at the average age, according to the general mortality,
which there is precisely an equal chance that it may—that is, of ten lives five will
have so dropped—then something will remain due upon the note when the life drops.
The earlier it drops, the greater amount will of course remain due to be deducted in
settling the loss. But the probability is very great that a proportionally small amount
will remain due in that case. If the member considers himself a good average life, it
seems to be the more prudent and satisfactory way to settle by a single premium,
even if he has to make an auxiliary time policy to compensate for the deduction of
what may remain due on the single premium note in case of his early decease. It is
immaterial to the other members whether any one or any number settle by single pre­
mium, or all pay annual premiums for the whole life. In whatever way the premium
is paid, the longer lives must make up the deficiency of payments by the shorter ones.
The constitution of our company, our rate of premium, and mode of making distribu­
tions, are such as to lighten this extra burden, which must, by the very nature of in­
surance, fall with greater or less weight upon the more fortunate lives, just as in ma­
rine insurance the more fortunate risks must contribute for the losses on the less fortu­
nate. The question is, therefore, one which concerns merely the individual member
himself, without affecting the company generally.
The payment of the premium for the wholdTife during the first ten years has, in
some degree, a similar operation to that of the settling by a single premium. In which­
ever way the premium is settled, the right to share in the distributions will be the
same; the member will be entitled to them, after his whole premium has been paid,
in the same manner as if he had paid his premium by annual payments during his
whole life.
Members holding term policies may have them converted into policies for another
term or for life, if the risk continues to be a good one.
The directors, chosen exclusively on the part of the stockholders who will retire from
the direction if the guaranty stock shall be paid off by vote of the present meeting as
proposed, take this occasion to congratulate the members of the company on the emi­
nent success and usefulness of the institution hitherto, and the very flourishing condi­
tion in which they shall leave it.
The following is an exhibit of the business of the company during the five years
ending November SO, 1853, as reported to the directors by their committee, Messrs.
Perkins and Hubbard:—




741

Journal o f Insurance.

1,602 Polities outstanding December 1,1848.....................................
1,723 Polities issued during the four years
to December 1, 1852.......................
$3,706,537 00
2,225 502 Policies issued the past year..............
1,116,150 00

$3/791,344 12

3,827

$8,614,031 12

1,008 Policies terminated during the four
years to Dec. 1, 1852......................
1,393 385 Policies terminated the past year. . . .

$2,113,302 50
714,350 00

4,822,687 00

2,827,652 50
$5,786,378 62

2,434 Policies outstanding Dec. 1, 1853
Amount of policies that have terminated in loss during the four years
to December 1, 1852............................................................ : .........
Amount of policies that have terminated in loss during the past year

$147,872 00
55,355 00

Total amount during the past five years.....................................

$203,227 00

Received for premium during the four years to Dec. 1, 1852............
Received for premium the past year...................................................

$481,860 86
149,656 90

Total premium during the past five years...................................
Premium returned during the four years to December
1, 1852 ......................................................................
$17,270 21
Premium returned the past year ...............................
4,826 99

$631,517 76

$609,420 56

Net premium received during the past five years
Received for interest, (including that on guaranty fund,)
dividends, and charge for policies, during the four
years to December 1, 1852.......................................
Received the past year.................................................

$90,951 09
36,327 93

127,279 02
$736,699 58

Total amount received during the past five years
Amount of losses paid during the five years to Dec. 1,
1853, ($147,872 to Dec. 1, 1852, and $55,355 the
past year)..................................................................
Amount of interest paid on guaranty fund, $17,500,
(less reserved, Dec., 1848, $3,500)...........................
Amount of rent and salaries to Dec. 1, 1853, ($17,850
to Dee. 1, 1852, and $5,100 the past year...............
Amount of compensation to agents, computation of ta­
bles, advertising, printing, stationery, doctors’ fees,
and all other incidental expenses to Dec. 1, 1853,
($18,123 73 to Dec. 1, 1852, and $7,124 49 the past
year)..........................................................................

22,097 20

$203,227 00
14,000 00
22,950 00

25,248 22
265,425 22

Total.................................................. ..............................................

$471,274 36

Amount of accumulated fund for the five years ending Dec. 1,1853,
exclusive of guaranty fund.................................................................
Amount of reservation made December 1, 1848...................................

$471,274 36
178,105 07

Aggregate.......................................................................................
Property (besides guaranty fund) Dec. 1, 1852 ..........
$539,301 08
Increase the past year..................................................
110,078 35

649,379 43
$649,379 43

The property consists of—
Real estate.........................
Loans on mortgages.......... $235,873 75 Premium notes..................
Bank and other stocks . . . .
165,679 10 Loans secured by collateral
Railroad bonds..................
18,950 00 Cash in Merchants’ Bank..
City securities....................
58,000 00I
T o ta l....................................................




$5,000
59,273
154,360
4,349

00
25
96
88

$701,486 94

742

Commercial Statistics,

The company owe as follows:—
Guaranty capital.............................................................
Balance of first dividend.............................................. .

$50,000 00
2,107 51
------------ $52,107 51

T ota l...............................................................................................

$ 6 4 9 ,3 7 9

43

The following is a list of the directors of this company: Willard Phillips, Geo. H.
Kuhn, Charles Browne, Sewell Tappan, Marshall P, Wilder, Charles P. Curtis, Thomas
A. Dexter, Wm. Perkins, N. F. Cunningham, Charles Hubbard, A. W. Thaxter, Jr.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.
THE IRON TRADE OF GREAT BRITAIN.
We have already alluded to a series of valuable papers on the Iron Trade of the
World, as in course of publication in the London M orning Chronicle. A number of
that paper contains still further information, and particularly the following tables,
which embody a highly interesting view of the- iron trade o f Great Britain since 1806.
It will be seen that in the year named, the total number of furnaces was 216, and the
production, 243,S51 ton3; whereas in 1852, the total number of furnaces was 655, and
the production, 2,701,000 tons.
R E T R O S P E C T S IN C E

1806,

AND TH E

I N C R E A S E D P R O P O R T IO N
TH E

FURN ACES IN

BLAST, AND

W H IC H

P R O D U C T IO N I N

1 8 0 6 ...............
1 8 2 5 ............... ...............

374

BEARS

TO

G R E A T B R IT A IN .

P r o d u c t’ n . |
T o n s.

F u rn a ce s .

SCOTLAND

W H O L E :-----

F u rn a ce s .
623

P ro d u ct’ n
T on s.
1 ,9 9 8 ,5 5 8

655

2 ,7 0 1 , 0 0 0

5 8 1 ,3 6 7 1 1 8 5 2 .

1 8 4 0 ...............
OF W HICH THERE W E R E IN SCOTLAND—
P r o d u c t io n .
2 2 ,8 4 0 to n s
2 3 ,4 5 0
“

F u rn a ce s in b la st.
1 8 0 6 ...............
1 8 1 3 ...............

P rice .
£7
0

0

8

0

0
0

1 8 2 3 ............... ..................................................

22

3 0 ,5 0 0

“

4

15

1 8 3 3 ....................................................................

31

4 4 ,0 0 0

“

2

16

0

2 4 8 ,3 0 0

“

2

5

0

7 4 0 ,0 0 0

“

3

1 6

1 8 4 3 ............... ..
1 8 5 3 ............... ..

DURING THE LAST TEN T EARS.
F u rn a ce s in blast.
1844

...............
94

P r o d u c t io n .
2 9 5 ,0 0 0 to n s

S to ck .
1 9 0 ,0 0 0 to n s

4 0 0 ,0 0 0

“

2 3 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 6 ..................

5 8 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 4 5 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 7 ..................

5 4 0 ,0 0 0

“

9 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 8 ..................

6 0 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 0 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 9 ..................

6 9 2 ,0 0 0

“

1 9 5 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 5 0 ..................

6 8 0 ,0 0 0

“

2 3 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 5 1 ............... ..

7 7 0 ,0 0 0

“

3 6 0 .0 0 0

“

1 8 5 2 ..................

7 7 5 ,0 0 0

“

4 5 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 5 3 ..................

7 4 0 ,0 0 0

“

2 7 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 5 ....................................................................

P R O D U C T IO N O F M A L L E A B L E IR O N

1 8 4 6 .................. ..............................

IN

SCOTLAND.

8 0 ,0 0 0

1 8 4 5 ..................
“

| 1850. ..

to n s

8 0 .0 0 0

“

1 8 4 7 ..................

9 0 ,0 0 0

“

1 8 4 8 ..................

9 0 ,0 0 0

“




4 5 ,0 0 0

743

Commercial Statistics,
AVERAGE

P R IC E S

OF P I G

Pig Iron.
1 8 3 4 ____
1835 ____
1836 ____
1837 ____
1838 ____
1839 ____
1 8 4 0 ____
1 8 4 1 ____
1842 ____
1843 ____

____

4 10

....

3 0 0

0

AND

BAR

IR O N

Bar Iron.
£ 6 18 6
6 10 0
10 12 0
9 12 6
9 5 0
9 14 6
8 7 6
7 4 0
5 19 0
5 0 0
S H IP M E N T S

FOR

THE

LAST T W E N T Y

YEARS.

Pig Iron.
1844 .............. . . £ 2 14 9
1845 .............. . 3 15 0
1846 ..............
1847 ..............
1848 ............. . . 2 4 4
1849 .............. . . 2 6 0
1850 . ............ . . 2 4 7
1 8 5 1 .............. . . 2 0 0
1852 .............. . . 2 5 0
1853 .............. . . 3 1 6

FROM SCOTLAND.
F o r e ig n .
T on s.

1845.........
18 46.........
18 47.........
18 48.........
1849.........
1850 ____
1 8 5 1 .........
1 8 5 2 .........
18 53.........

Bar Iron.
£6 2 6
9 4 0
9 18 0
9 13 0
6 1 1 6
5 17 6
5 8 0
5 7 6
9 5 0
9 0 0

C o a s tw is e .
T one.

Total.

183.228
257,841
227,005
227,833
221,943
190,083
260,088
199,971
302,038

237,897
376,941
370,465
389,984
375,126
324,659
452,758
421,068
616,308

T ons.

EXPORT OF TEAS TO THE UNITEB STATES.
We are indebted to our attentive correspondents, Messrs. King <fc Go., for the subjoined statement of the export of teas to the United States.
Year.
Vessels.
Black.
Green.
Total.
18 5 0 -1 ..............................................
1 8 5 1 -2 ...
1 8 5 2 -3 .. .

65

13,564,746
13,361,513
14,431,596

15,215,707
20,965,915
26,529,161

From 1st July to 24th December, 1S53.
December 1, Bay State..
“
11, A la ............
It
28, Channing...
January
3, Highflyer...
U 14, Gazelle__ _
u
19, Anstiss.......

2,935,062
59,400
50,477
324,742
93,000
67,900

8,093,636
430,900
436,864
606,278
69,158
834,000
539,200

28,780,453
34,327,428
40,960,737
11,028,698
490,300
487,311
606,278
893,900
927,000
607,100

3,530,581
8,591,732

11.010,136
21,216,705

14,540,617
29,808,437

From 1st July 1853, to 24th Jan., 1854.
To same date last year...

IMPORTS OF BREABSTUFFS INTO GREAT BRITAIN FROM IRELANB.
THE

Q U A N T IT Y O F C O R N , M E A L , A N D F L O U R
L A N D IN

1830 ____
1835 ____
1840 ____
1845 ____
1846 ____
1847 ____
1848 ____
1849 ____
1850 ____
1 8 5 1 ____
1852 ____
1 S 5 3 ____

Wheat.
Qrs.
337,641
340,535
92,990
371,000
187,300
125,700
146,000
94,500
76,000
45,867
20,700
19.600




THE

Oats.
Qrs.
1,226,486
1,462,581
1,397,500
1,678,000
956,000
493,000
1,081,000
652,000
642.400
728,656
1,047,800
1.000,000

IM P O R T E D

IN T O

GREAT

B R IT A IN

FROM

IR E ­

F O L L O W I N G Y E A R S I-----

Barley.
Qrs.
189,745
156,242
95,954
92,000
93,000
47,500
79,700
43,500
51,000
44,085
108,900
124.100

Beans and
peas.
Qrs.
21,573
27,682
15,976
14,300
17,000
27.000
14,700
24,600
20,400
28,774
30,100
24,100

Oatmeal.
Owt.
566,006
989,500
1,058,000
554,000
330,500
938,000
672,000
786,000
649,502
971,000
843,000

Wheat
flour.
Cwt.
672,265
1,124,343
280,700
1,421,000
725,000
211,000
561,000
393,500
397,300
172,372
118,900
192.400

744

Commercial Statistics.

COMMERCIAL IMPORTANCE OF WILMINGTON, N, C.
A correspondent of the Journal o f Commerce, ■writing from ‘Wilmington, commu­
nicates a statement of the exports from that port for the year 1853, for the purpose of
calling attention to the place of persons of capital who would like to engage in mer­
cantile pursuits, in a healthy city of increasing commercial importance. He says:—
The exports of Wilmington in 1840 were less than $1,500,000, in 1853 more than
$7,000,000—with a banking capital of only one and a half millions of dollars, but
which will probably be increased to two and a half or three millions by legislative en­
actment next year. The Manchester Railroad, after the completion of the Great Pedee
bridge, prior to 1st September, will bring us next year 75,000 bales of South Carolina
cotton, to pay for which, cash buyers must come from your city and other places. At
10 cents per pound, this article will add $2,500,000 to the exports next year. The
freight on cotton from this place is i ct. per lb., while from Charleston it is f ct. This
will always be the case, as the great bulk of our exports are naval stores, which, from
their great weight, pay a heavy freight. Turpentine, per barrel, to New York, at this
time, 70 cents.
In four months from this time the Deep River Canal will be opened, and we expect
the article of coal will be exported from our port next year to a very great extent.
A very gratifying circumstance to our place is, that in the last year our Bar has deep­
ened from 12 to 14 feet water on ordinary high tides. This Is owing to the enterprise
of our merchants in subscribing $60,000 to the works on our bars, which we hope
Congress will make additional appropriations to. The Senate has voted to us
$200,000, but the bill appears to sleep in the House of Representatives.
EXPORTS

FROM

TH E

P O R T O F W IL M I N G T O N F O R T H E

Y E A R E N D IN G D E C .

Coastwise.

Spirits turpentine....................
Turpentine, crude....................
Rosin.......................................
T ar..........................................
Pitch....................................... .
Pine or rosin o il......................
Timber, P. P.............................
Lumber, P. P..........................
Peanuts, or ground nuts..........

113,817
51,828
369,770
21,609
5,919
463
1,030,444
25,646,792
69,624
2,120
1,709
1,349
302
7,515
2,320
2,581
122
317
182

Corn.........................................
Flour .......................................

Varnish...................................
..................M.
Rice..........................................
Rice, rough...............................

1.724
102,917

81, 1853.
Foreign.

1,457
21,454
10,689
4,521
1,904
20
85,154
12,511,158
87
1,250
86

200
23
5,500
13*500
354^782
'252

M is c e l l a n e o u s A r t ic l e s .
Dried fruit, 67 hhds., 972 bbls., 159 boxes, 181 bags.
Fur, 10 boxes, 1 hhd., 2 bales. Hides, 711, and 236 bundles. Sheep skins, 43 bun­
dles. Rags, 72 bales. Tobacco, 7 hhds., 286 boxes. Leather, 154 sides, 55 bundles.
Feathers, 6 bags. Wax, 20 hhds., 7 casks, 17 bags, 75 bbls., 33 boxes. Bacon, 6 hhds.
Copper ore, 1,216 bbls., 36 boxes. Pipes, 21 boxes, 3 casks, 4 bbls. Sugar, 7 hhds.,
491 boxes. Old iron, 693 tons, 8 hhds., 3 tierces, 12 bbls. Varnish, 6 bbls. Molasses,
85 hhds. Brandy, 12 bbls., 5 ,V pipes. Eggs, 2 bbls. Coal, 2 bbls. Tallow, 9 bbls.
Old copper, 7 hhds., 1 box. Reeds, 173 bundles. Batts, 15 bales. Merchandise, 347
boxes, 2 bales, 21 bbls., 10 hhds. Pine wood, 20 cords. Nails, 37 kegs. Tea, 1 chest
Fish, 64 bbls.




t

’745

Commercial Statistics.

COMMERCE OF HONOLULU, SANDWICH ISLANDS,
The following statement of imports, exports, receipts, etc., at the custom-house at
the port of Honolulu, Sandwich Islands, from the year 1843 to 1852, inclusive, is taken
from the P olyn esia n and the custom-house records :—
Value of imports.

Re exported.
$66,618 17
60,054 06
67,010 93
62,325 74
55,208 07
33,551 55
107,102 07
46,529 72
82,273 27
63,661 18

Return duties.
$1,670 41
1,501 34
2,098 82
21,667 02
56,991 17
90,148 27
156,098 16
110,687 12
63,102 81
52,929 70

$644,334 76

$556,894 82

Net duties. Transit duties. Harbor dues.
$5,270 74
$239 31
$2,958 83
8,970 13
411 60
4,881 33
734 01
19,465 12
4,890 83
31,780 76
220 56
4,705 32
44,521 08
184 93
4,095 24
52,209 46
264 52
3,094 96
66,020 83
285 13
5,687 53
91,916 49
443 42
12,644 54
125,987 38
1,043 45
12,905 71
135,423 77
991 56
7,711 90

Net receipts.
$8,468 34
14,263 68
25,189 96
36,506 66
48,801 25
55,568 94
71,934 49
116,190 68
148,936 54
144,127 23

1843 .............
1844 .............
1845 ........... .
1846 .............
1847 .............
1848 .............
1849 .............
1850 ...........
1 8 5 1 ............
1852 ...........

Gross duties.
$6,701 84
10,326 13
21,536 94
53,447 78
101,512 25
142,357 73
222,118 99
202,603 61
189,090 19
135,423 77

T otal ., .................... $7,265,587 05 $1,085,119 23
18 43.............. .
18 44..............
18 45..............
1846..............
1847..............
18 48..............
18 49..............
18 50..............
18 51.............. .
1852..............

Net amount.
$156,565 21
289,969 77
471,319 78
536,056 50
653,930 45
572,067 18
622,637 37
989,528 98
1,751,771 93
651,634 09

Total... . $6,695,381 26

$581,565 76

$4,768 49

$63,576 19

$669,987 57

LUMBER TRADE OF CHICAGO AND THE STATE OF MICHIGAN.
The annexed statement exhibits the receipts of lumber, shingles, and laths at Chicago
for seven years:—
1847
1848
1849
1850
1851
1852
1853

............................
............................
............................
............................
................
............................
............................

Lumber.

Shingles.

Laths.

32,118,225
60,901,250
73,259,553
100,344,797
125,056,437
147,816,232
193,271,247

12,148,500
20,000,000
39,057,750
55,323,750
60,338,250
77,080,500
125,638,500

5,655,600
10,025,100
19,281,733
19,890,700
27,583,475
19,769,670
38,721,373

The amount of capital engaged in the business cannot be less than $3,500,000. It
gives employment to a large number, which will be greatly increased this season, and,
in fine, is one of the most important trades in some of our western cities.
To give some idea of the immense quantity of lumber manufactured in Michigan,
we give the quantity of lumber estimated to be manufactured in St. Clair and Sanilac
Counties, Michigan, during 1854:—
Lumber....................................................................................................
Logs furnished by these counties and sawed by mills on Detroit River.
New mills erected, during the past winter equal to...............................
Add ten per cent for increased machinery and improvements, and gen­
eral advance in value............................................................................

92,900,000
33,000,000
6,000,000
13,190,000

Quantity of lumber and logs for 1854............................... . ...........
145,090,000
Worth, at a low estimate of $10 per thousand, $1,450,900.
Add to this sum the value of laths, shingles, fish, staves, and spars, and the exports
from the two counties above named will not fall below two millions of dollars for the
present year.




?46

Commercial Statistics.

IMPORTS FROM RUSSIA INTO THE UNITED KINGDOM IN 1852 AND 1853,'
Ports within the
Black Sea.

Northern ports.

1858.
Corn, wheat, & Ilnur, qrs.
Corn, oats........................
Corn, other grain............
Tallow ..................... cwt.
Linseed <fc Flaxseed, qrs.
Bristles...................... lbs.
F la x .......................... cwt.
Hemp..............................
Wool, sheep’s .............lbs.
Iron, unwrought...... tons
Copper, unwrought.........
Copper, part wrought....
Timber, hew n......... loads
Timber, sawn..................

1853.

26,949 251,971
304,448 370,059
12,385
12,100
571,849 826,219
215,064 378.316
1,459,303 2,477,789
918,623 1,287,978
543,962 838, J31
1,652,992 3,693,926
1,792
5,079
236
974
1,042
656
28,297 45,427
189,729 245,586

ACCOUNT S H O W IN G T H E E N T IR E
ALL

1851

1851.

706,622
1,290
249,963
37,348
303,603

818,930

1851.

1851

731,571 1,070,901
305,738 379,059
251,553 262,348 263,655
21,048 609,197 847,267
386,699 518,667 765,015
.......... 1,459,303 2,477,789
10 918,523 1,287,988
3
42 543,965 836,473
i,760,780 5,360,617 5,363,772 9,054,443
1,792
5,079
............................
226
974
............................
1,042
656
2
4
28,289 45,421
50
46 189,779 245,582

Q U A N T IT IE S O F T H E
PLA C E S IN

Aggregate imports
from Russia.

1852

SAM E

AND

A R T IC L E S

IM P O R T E D

1853.

1851

Corn, wheat, and flour..........
Corn, oats...............................
C rn, other grain...................
Tallow ...................................
Seeds—Linseed and flaxseed
Bristles.................................
F la x .......................................
H em p...................................
Wool..................................... .
Iron....................................... .
Copper..................................
Timber, hewn and sawn.. . .
T H E P R O P O R T IO N

OF TH E
W IT H

TH E

P R O P O R T IO N O F T H E

Wheat and flour. . . ,
Oats.........................
Other grain...........
Tallow....................
Seeds......................

u
u
u
a

E N T IR E

E N T IR E

A R T IC L E S

D E R IV E D

I M P O R T S , IS

F O R E IG N

17 per cent
32
9
“
72
76
“

6,276,857
1,035,072
2,918,545
1,178,370
1,035,335

4,164,603
989,287
2,592,181
1,049,703
709,402
2,004,676
1,402,583
1,081,287
91,692,864
33,376
103,636
2,130,183

.loads

F O L L O W IN G

FROM

1853.

FROM

1,833,374
1,262,813
117,185,172
47,777
104,200
2,654,400

R U S S IA , A S

COM PARED

AS F O L L O W S :-----

S U P P L IE S

D E R IV E D

FROM

R U S S IA .

Bristles......................... about
Flax................................
“
H em p............................
“
Wool...............................
“
Timber............................ “

75per cent
66
“
66
“
8
11 “

The quantities of iron and copper are so small that they are not worth the compu­
tation.
It thus appears that for the supply of foreign tallow, linseed, flax, hemp, and
Bristles, England is mainly indebted to Russia. Of grain, wool, and timber, the pro­
portions are not so important.

GRAIN AND FLOUR TRADE OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.
A return his been issued showing the quantity of grain, flour, and live stock, im­
ported into the United Kingdom from each country and colony in 1849, 1850, 1851,
and 1852, with the official value of these imports and of all. the imports, and the de­
clared value of the exports. Converting meal and flour into their equivalent in quar­
ters of grain, the return shows that the chief sources from which was drawn the grain,
meal, and flour consumed in the United Kingdom in 1852 were the United States,
which sent 1,400,558 quarters; Egypt, 777.745 ; Wailachia and Moldavia, 713,877 ;
Fran e, 745,161 ; Deurnark, 770,196 ; Prussia, 554,702 ; Russia sent 957.877 quarters
from Black Sea ports, 343,948 from Northern ports; Wailachia and Moldavia sent
only 325,128 quarters in 1849, and 217,505 in 1850; but those provinces have since
risen into much more powerful competition with Russia in the corn trade.




741

Commercial Statistics.

FOREIGN TRADE OF OSWEGO.
The subjoined statements of the foreign trade of Oswego, (New York,) which we
find in the journal published at that port, is furnished by Mr. Harmon, the deputy
collector. It appears that—
There has been a handsome aggregate increase, although there has been a falling
off in the importations of Canadian flour of near one-half as compared with last year.
The cause of this we have before explained, the principal one being the reciprocal
free trade adopted between the Provinces, which has tended to divert Canadian flour
from our channels, down the St. Lawrence. The deficiency at this point this year, is
made up by the increased receipts of Canadian wheat. The receipts of three articles
of largest import, from Canada for two seasons, have been as follows:—

1852.
Flour...................................................... barrels
Wheat................................................... bushels
Lumber....................................................... feet

193,190
1,362,482
15,500,000

1853.
113,008
1,781,157
121,288,329

Large amounts of the products of the forests, such as shingles, lath, railroad ties,
oak and pine timber, dsc., imported at this point, and not embraced in the above lum­
ber figures.
We have not the figures showing the valuation of our foreign imports, or the means
of comparing the amount of duties collected, with those of last year. The duties
charged at the Oswego custom-house, for the season of 1853, were as follows:—
Duties paid..............................................................................
Duties bonded..........................................................................

$161,545 91
539,816 83

Total duties.............................................................. .......

$101,862 14

This amount is said to be near or quite double the amount of duties charged last
year, owing in part, probably, to the higher rates at which our imports have been
entered the past season. There has also been a considerable increase in the aggregate
tonnage amount of our imports, especially of the products of the forest.
The value of our exports to Canada for 1853, estimated by a lower rule of valua­
tion than ever before at our custom-house, was as follows:—
Export of domestic products.....................................................
Export of foreign merchandise...................................................

$1,406,383
531,120

Total valuation....................................................................

$1,944,103

The tonnage of our foreign commerce is stated as follows:—
Number of entries and departures.............................................
Total tonnage..............................................................................
Number of men employed.........................................................

8,141
1,141,883
66,226

STATISTICS OF THE UNITED KINGDOM.
A parliamentary paper has just been printed for the first time, (to be hereafter
continued annually,) which we hope some Member of Parliament or correspondent in
London, will forward to the address of the Editor of the M erchants! Magazine. The
statistics of the United Kingdom are for the years 1840 to 1853. They relate to the
revenue and expenditure; imports, exports; transhipments; shipping, excise, prices
and sales of corn, coinage, savings banks, Bank of England, and the population. The
document extends to 21 folio pages, and contains a great mass of figures, having been
prepared by the statistical department of the Board of Trade.
In the year 1853 the surplus of revenue was 3,254,5051, being the largest excess
for ten years. The net amount of the several branches of the revenue of the United
Kingdom paid into the exchequer was 54,430,3441. The expenditure out of the
revenue paid in the same year was 51,114,839/. In 1853 the taxes repealed or re­
duced amounted to 3,241,474/, and the estimated amount imposed was 3,356,388/.
At the end of last year the balances in the exchequer were 4,485,230/. The capital




K

748

Commercial Regulations.

o f the national debt last year was 710,923,001?. The quantity of raw cotton imported
last year was 895,266,780 lbs.,and of wool, 111,396,445 lbs. The total declared value
of British and Irish produce exported last year was 93,357,306?. Last year the num­
ber of vessels built and registered was 798, of 293,171 tons. The number of vessels
belonging to the United Kingdom last year, exclusive of river steamers, was 18,206,
of 3,730,087 tons, and the men employed, exclusive of masters, was 172,525. The
coinage in the year was 12,664,125?. The births in the year were 612,341, the deaths
421,175, and the marriages 162,135. The total paupers relieved were 818,315.

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
COMMERCIAL TREATY BETWEEN FRANCE AND BELGIUM.
The M oniteur publishes the treaty of Commerce between France and Belgium.
The text of the convention is of considerable length. It confirms, and in several
respects extends the reciprocal concessions that regulated the treaty of 1845. To
this treaty will shortly be added the literary convention, the clauses of which have
been equally settled. The principal arrangements of the treaty may be thus
stated:—
Among the stipulations assented to by France in favor of Belgium, are the com­
plete remodeling of the tariff of linen yarns and cloths ; the treaty is in many respects
a return to the tariff that was in operation before the ordinance of June 26, 1842.
There is consequently a reduction in the present import duties. New standards are
also adopted for the varieties of unbleached linens, and will, in general, facilitate the
importation of Belgian fabrics. The treaty grants to Belgium the privilege, hitherto
denied her, of causing Belgian linens to pass in transit through France under the
bonding system ; that is to say, with English yarns upon condition of re-exportation.
Guaranties have been granted against all advance upon French import duties on Bel­
gian coals, cast iron, and forged iron ; this is evidently the clause to which Belgium
attached the greatest importance. Lime and Belgian building materials will hence­
forth be admitted free of duty: different reductions are consented to in favor of glass
in sheets, of plaited straw and common straw hats; the abolition of surcharge in
favor of Belgian machinery, which was regulated by the treaty of 1S45, is confirmed;
lastly, the prohibition upon the various kinds of pottery is set aside, and an ad valorem
duty, ranging from 33 francs to 165 francs per cwt., is substituted. On the other
hand, France obtains from Belgium in favor of her wines, silks, and salts, the guaranty
of a treatment analogous to that which she grants to Belgian coals and irons. The
taxes imposed in 1838 and 1843, by different royal decrees upon woolens, cashmeres,
linen yarns, and ready-made articles, cease to affect products of French manufactures,
and the suppression remains confirmed for French woven cottons; the most extensive
facilities are accorded to French mercantile transit, in favor of which all customs dues
are abolished; different reductions are made favorable to the entrance of French
gypsum, &c., into Belgium, as well as to the importation into France of Belgian iron
pyrites and charcoals; finally, French shipping admitted to the advantages conferred
on English vessels by the treaty of December 27, 1851, now experiences the abolition
of differential duties.

BRITISH COASTING TRADE FREE.
D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , W a s h in g t o n ,

April 18,1854.

Information has been received at this Department from Albert Davy, Esq., United
States Consul at Leeds, of the passage of an act of Parliament by which the whole
coasting trade of the United Kingdom is now thrown open to foreign ships, and they
will be subject to the same regulations as British ships so employed, and will pay no
higher rate of duties, dues, tolls, and charges. PasseDger steamers, carrying passen­
gers from one place to another, on the coast of the United Kingdom, will be sulject
to the provisions of the Steam Navigation Act of 1851.




\

749

Commercial Regulations.

THE MERCHANTS’ FLOUR INSPECTORS IN NEW ORLEANS.
RULES AND

R E G U L A T IO N S

IN S P E C T O R S , N E W

FOR

THE

GOVERNMENT

ORLEANS, AS ADOPTED

OF TH E

BY TH E

BOARD OF

CHAM BER

OF

M ERCH ANTS’

FLOUR

COM M ERCE.

1. They shall select some suitable location for an office, to be known as the “ Office
of the Board of Merchants’ Flour Inspectors.”
2. Their first meeting for organization shall be held on the 27th of February, 1854,
when they shall elect from their number a President aud Secretary.
S.
Said officers shall thereafter be elected annually on the first Monday of March in
each year. A President and Secretary p r o tem. may be elected at any time to act
when the regularly elected officers shall be absent from sickness or otherwise.
4. It shall be the duty of the President to preside at all the meetings of the Board,
and to act for and in the name of the Board in all matters of communication with the
merchants or otherwise, aud in the event of any complaint being made by either buy­
ers or sellers, of the classification by any member of the Board, of any particular par­
cel of flour, it shall be the duty of the President to cause said parcels of flour to be
examined and decided upon by all the members of the Board then on duty.
5. The Secretary of the Board shall keep a fair and correct record of all the pro­
ceedings of the Board, and also a faithful record of all the flour inspected by said
Board, and he shall make .semi-annual reports to this Chamber on the 1st of January
and 1st of July of the quantity of flour thus inspected, and also report any other infor­
mation or facts connected with the flour trade of our city which the Board may deem
of importance to this Chamber.
6. No member of the Board shall absent himself from active duty without the con­
sent of a majority of said Board, unless in case of sickness.
7. In case any one of the members of said Board shall be unable to attend to his
duties on account of sickness, or from leave of absence by the Board, he shall (provid­
ed the majority of said Board so desire) nominate a deputy to said Board, who, if ac­
cepted by said Board, shall do and perform, for a time not longer than sixty days, the
duties of said principal inspector, he being responsible for the acts of said deputy as
fully as if he had performed said duties himself.
8. No member of the Board shall purchase flour other than for his own use, nor shall
he sell flour, under the penalty of five hundred dollars.
9. In case any brand of flour, upon inspection, shall be found not to contain the legal
weight of 186 lbs. per barrel and 98 lbs. per half barrel, the owner or consignee shall
cause the deficit to be put into each and every barrel so found before it shall be brand­
ed by the inspectors.
10. All flour shall be inspected or classified under the following qualities or grades
First quality............................................................ Extra Superfine.
Second quality........................................................ Fancy Superfine.
Third quality.......................................................... Superfine.
Fourth quality........................................................ Fine.
Fifth quality............................................................Common.
Sixth quality..........................................................Middling.
And the Board shall cause such brands or marks to be put upon the heads of the bar­
rels containing such flour as they may deem most suitable, provided that all brands
thus used shall have the words “ Merchants’ Board.”
11. If any person or persons shall alter, erase, or cause to be erased, any brand or
mark of said Board of Inspectors, any person so offending shall forfeit the sura of fifty
dollars for each and every such offence, for the benefit of the Charity Hospital.
12. It shall be the duty of said Board to appoint from their members a committee
of not more than two to visit, at some period during the present year, all the import­
ant flour markets of our seaboard, and procure, from the most reliable sources, and
from their own personal inspection and examination, the standard classification of the
various grades of flour in those markets. Also to procure correct samples of those
standard grades, and retain them in the office of said Board for examination and refer­
ence by merchants of our city or others. It shall also be the duty of said committee
to procure every possible information in their power, which may be of value in con­
nection with the article of flour to the trade of our city; aud upon the report of said
committee to the Board, they shall establish the grades of flour inspected in our city
upon such a standard as shall place the flour trade of our city upon an equal footing
with that of the other great commercial marts of our country.
Resolved, That the Merchants’ Board of Flour Inspectors shall be elected by this
Chamber annually, at the monthly meeting in February of each year.




750

Commercial Regulations.

BUEJYOS AVHEAK COMMERCIAL DECREES,
D e p a r t m e n t o p G o v e r n m e n t a n d F o r e ig n )
R e l a t i o n s , B u e n o s . A y r e s , Sept. 2 9 , 1 8 5 3 . J

Whereas, the position of relations existing between this province and the Provisional
Director of the thirteen Provinces assembled in Congress at Santa Fe, is such as to
make it absolutely incompatible that the consulate in foreign countries of this prov­
ince and that of the said thirteen provinces, should be at the same time filled by the
same individual; and desiring not only to obviate the embarrassments in which said
individuals may be placed by receiving contradictory orders from the governments
conferring the said offices on them, but also to remove tbe prejudice that may result
to the interests of this province under such an arrangement, the government has re­
solved and decrees—
A u t i c l e 1. The consulate of the province of Buenos Ayres cannot be filled by
any person having the commission of consul granted by General Dr. Justo Jose de
Urqoiza.
A i i t . 2. In conformity with the provisions of the preceding article, let the requisite
commissions appointing consuls of the province of Buenos Ayres for the various
localities in America and Europe, where it is deemed necessary to have such, be
issued.
Aar. 3. Let this be communicated, published, and registered.

LORENZO TORRES.
D e p a r t m e n t o f G o v e r n m e n t a n d F o r e ig n i
R e l a t i o n s , B u e n o s A y r e s , S e p t. 27, 1 8 5 3 . J

Consignees, captains of vessels, and whomsoever it may concern, are hereby warned
that, wlierea3 the government has noticed the infringements made on the existing
laws of this country, which require vessels to bring their papers certified by the con­
sular agents of this province at the foot of their clearance, and passengers their pass­
ports with the vise of said functionary, it has adopted the necessary measures to check
said abuses which are so constantly practiced ; and consequently orders that, on the
expiration of six months from date for vessels from sea, and two for the rest, no ves­
sel will be admitted to entry at the ports of this province that does not present its
papers with the above legal formality; and that passengers contravening this requisi­
tion will be liable to the established penalties, which will be enforced with all their
vigor.
JOSE M . L A FUENTE, Chief Clerk.

NEW TARIFF AT BALIZE, HONDURAS.
The legislative assembly, elected under the new constitution, was called together by
the acting superintendent in January, and has closed its first session, having enacted
various laws and ordinances, mostly of a local nature for the government of the place.
Among the most important is the adoption of a new tariff of duties for the current
year, say from March 1st, 1864, to March 1st, 1855. By this act all unrated articles
are to pay a duty of 3 per cent on their actual cost, and all charges including freight;
sugar, coffee, and tobacco, are to pay S3 per 100 pounds; tea 26 cents per pound;
houey, molasses, spirits, and wines of all kinds, are to pay 60 cents per imperial gal­
lon ; hay, lumber, shiugles, cattle, and a few other articles, pay a specific duty, which
on a average will amount to 10 per cent ad valorem.

CHEAP POSTAGE BETWEEN NEW YORK AND AUSTRALIA.
The Postmaster-general has made an arrangement with the proprietors of the
Australia pioneer line of monthly packets, to convey the mail regularly between New
York and Australia, by sailing ships, monthly in each direction. It is expected that
the first mail under this arrangement will be dispatched from New York on the 25th
of April. The single rate of postage for letters is five cents; for pamphlets and maga­
zines, one cent an ounce or fraction ot an ounce; and for newspapers, two cents each;
prepayment required. The incoming mails, as the United States postage thereon
cannot be prepaid, will be treated as ordinary private ship mails.




751

Commercial Regulations.

CLASSIFICATION OF MANUFACTURES IN GREAT BRITAIN.
The Board of Trade lately communicated to the Leeds Chamber of Commerce its
■willingness to adopt in its printed returns a more complete classification of manufac­
tures, and such as would show the extent and progress or decline of the British export
trade. The Chamber has decided to recommend that the following classification shall
be adopted:—
1. Broad woolen cloths, all wool, or mixed with other material. Yards and value.
2. Woolen cloths, heavy, viz., flushings, pilots, beavers, Petershams, Whitneys, and
Devons, whether all wool or mixed. Yards and value.
3. Woolen cloths, cloaking, coatings, <fcc. Yards and value.
i . Narrow woolens, viz., trowserings of all descriptions, whether all wool or mixed.
Yards and value.
6. Woolens, waistcoatings, made of wool mixed. Yards and value.
6. Flannels and baizes. Yards and value.
7. Carpets, all wool or mixed. Yai ds and value.
8. Druggets, all wool or mixed. Yards and value.
9. Blankets. Pairs and value.
10. Blanketing. Yards and value.
11. Shawls, woolen or mixed. Number and value.
12. Woolens not enumerated, including ready-made clothes. Dozens and value.
13. Woolen yarn. Pounds and value.
If the above specifications are adopted, the returns of the Board of Trade will be
of great value to the manufacturers of woolen fabrics.

NAVIGATION OF THE LA PLATA,
D e p a r t m e n t of S t a t e , W a s h in g t o n ,

March 23,1854.

The following translation of a decree, issued by the government of Montevideo, is
published for the information of those whom it may concern:—
D e p a r tm e n t of t h e

G o v e r n m e n t , M o n t e v id e o ,

October 10, 1853.

\
i

The Provisional Government of the Republic, considering that the most effective
means to secure the public peace, and the development of the national resources;
considering that the foundation of the prosperity of a country is amplest liberty to
trade, has resolved, and decreed:—
A r t . 1. The navigable rivers of the republic are opened to the vessels and to the
Commerce of all nations.
A r t . 2. Foreign vessels are subject, in regard to the navigation of the rivers, to the
Bame policy and custom house regulations as national vessels.
A r t . 3. Let this be promulgated, published, and properly registered.
L A V A L I.E J A ,
TU V IL L A G A ,

JUAN 0 . GOMEZ,
SANTIAGO SA YA G O .

THE NEW AUSTRALIAN TARIFF.
A new customs act was passed on the 19th instant, which makes the following ad­
ditions to the duties previously levied-.—Wine, 2s, being an additional Is. per gallon;
beer and cider, 6d. per gallon. The following is the tariff of customs now established
in Victoria:—Ale, porter, spruce, and other beer, cider and perry, per gallon, 6d.;
tobacco, cigars, and snuff, 2s. per lb.; coffee, 10s. per cwt.; spirits, (all kinds,) Is. per
gallon; tea, 3d. per lb.; wine, 2s. per gallon; all other goods free.

AN IMPORTANT TREASURY DEPARTMENT RULING.
In answer to a recent inquiry, the proper accounting officer of the Treasury rules
that where an appropriation has, by accident or mistake, been paid over to a party
not legally entitled to the money, the party who may be so legally entitled cannot bo
paid by the Treasury Department, the appropriation being exhausted; and that his




?52

Statistics o f Agriculture, etc.

only remedy is in asking Congress to make a second appropriation to the same end.
Such an occurrence, however, is known to have taken place but in two cases since the
organization of the Treasury Department.

STATISTICS OF AGRICULTURE, &c.
KEIV YORK CATTLE TRADE FOR 1853.
We give below our annual statistics of the Hew York cattle trade for the year just
closing—a trade which seems to more than keep pace with the internal Commerce of
our country in other respects. New York is, beyond comparison, the most extensive
cattle mart in America ; anti whether regard be had to its intimate connection with
the great agricultural interests of the interior, or to its magnitude, as a source whence
so large a proportion of the daily food of our population is drawn, it becomes a mat­
ter of some importance to keep a record of its details, upon such reliable data as can
be obtained.
The cattle brought to this market come to us from nearly all sections of the Union
east of the Mississippi—indeed from all sections, save those of the Southern States
bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. Kentucky, Tennessee, Indiana, Ohio, Illinois, Vir­
ginia, and Pennsylvania are our most liberal contributors; but Western and Northern
New York, with Connecticut, Massachusetts, and other of the New England States,
likewise send us large supplies. The extension of railroad communication of late
years has brought comparatively near to us the grazing and agricultural products of
the interior, so that the drover is now enabled to bring his stock to market without
encountering the necessity of long and tedious journeys on foot from the country to
the seaboard. It is true, some of the very best cattle that are sold here still reach us
in the old-fashioned w ay; but these are the exceptions, not the rule. For every hun­
dred that come to us on foot, a thousand reach us by the speedier transit afforded by
railroad, and whatever may be the immediate excess of expense which the latter may
involve, we think it is more than made up by a saving of time, and the fresher, and
therefore the more marketable condition of the cattle when they are brought to the
city. Thus all the lines of travel radiating from this city to the interior—the Harlem
and Hudson railroads, the New York Central, the Lake Shore, the great Michigan
Central, and the Baltimore and Ohio, and some of the Eastern railroads, find in the
carriage of the live stock consumed iu the city of New York one of their most profit­
able items of freight from Ohio, Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, Maryland, Virginia, Penn­
sylvania, New England, and Northern and Western New York. A large proportion
of the cattle driven to this market, however, come from districts nearer home. The
counties bordering on the North River raise some of the finest, while Long Island and
New Jersey occasionally are large contributors.
In this city there are principally four places for the sale of beef cattle—namely, the
well-known Washington Drove Yard, in 44th street, between the Fourth and Fifth
avenues, of which A. M. Allerton, Esq, is the proprietor; 2d, the lower or Hudson
River Bull’s Head, kept by Messrs. Chamberlain; 3d, Geo. Browning’s Central Bull’s
Head, in Sixth-street; and 4th, the market kept by Mr. Morgan O’Brien, also in Sixthstreet, near the Third avenue. Sheep and lambs are sold at all these places, except
the last mentioned; the largest number at Browning’s, and the next at Chamberlain’s.
At Allerton’s, there were formerly but few sold, but the rapid extension of the city
in that quarter has created a necessity for the sale of sheep and lambs there, just as
a necessity has been created for the sale of beeves at Browning’s, in Sixth-street,
where formerly only sheep and lambs were sold. Cows and calves are sold at all
these establishments ; but the largest business in this respect is done at Browning’s
and Chamberlaiu’s. The market days are Monday and Thursday, but sales to a greater
or less extent are made every day. Independently of the regular transactions at these
several city markets, there are many cattle bought and sold on board the boats at the
wharves, on the north side of the city. Many cattle slaughtered in the country are
also brought to market here, ready dressed ; but these do not enter into the statistics
below:—




V

753

Statistics o f Agriculture, etc.
TABLE SHOTTING THE NUMBER. OF CATTLE SOLD IN

THE NEW YO RK M ARK ET, W IT H THE

PRICES OF THE SEVERAL KINDS FOR EACH W EEK

DURING THE

YE AR

1853—

AS COM­

PILED FROM THE W EE KLY REPORTS IN THE N EW Y O RK “ COURIER AND ENQUIRER.”
CATTLE ON SALE W E E K L Y.

Beeves.
January 3 ............
10............
17............
24............
31............
February 7 ............----14............
21............
28............
March
7 ..........
14..........
21............
28............
April
5 ...........
12...........
19............
26............
May
3 ..........
10...........
17............
24............
31..........
6.......... ----Ju n e
13.......... .
20.......... .
27.......... .
July
5 .......... .
11..........
18..........
25.......... ___
August i ..........
7 ..........
15..........
22..........
29..........
5 ..........
Sept.
12..........
19..........
26..........
3 ..........
Oct.
10..........
17..........
24..........
31..........
Nov.
7 ..........
14_____
21..........
29..........
Dec.
5 .......... ___
12..........
19.......... ___
26..........

2,600

3,200

2,750

5,882
3,300
157,420

Sheep &
lambs. Beeves.
8,000
$7 62
9,000
7 20
8,100
7 89
9,500
7 50
10,000
7 88
6,500
7 50
5,500
8 00
5,500
8 88
4,500 . 8 38
3,600
8 35
4,700
8 30
4,600
8 50
3,450
8 38
4,000
9 00
2,050
9 00
2,100
9 50
2,900
8 89
3,000
8 75
1,800
9 25
2,500
9 13
2,600
9 38
3,000
9 25
5,400
9 68
7,000
9 63
9 32
7,200
7,150
8 88
7,000
8 87
7,000
8 00
12,000
8 60
S,220
8 50
10,449
8 50
10,344
8 37
8,042
8 25
10,700
8 38
9,300
8 50
8,000
8 13
11,228
8 50
16,460
7 37
9,844
8 10
7,980
8 25
13,562
8 09
12,594
7 84
13,434
8 25
12,439
7 82
13,665
7 50
8,944
7 75
13,200
8 25
10,458
8 37
12,812
8 45
11,964
9 00
11,000
8 87
11,000
8 98

10,720

412,989

* Estimated.
VOL. X X X .— NO. V I.




W E E K L Y AVERAG E P RICE8.

Cows &c
calves.
60
85
65
75
70
85
85
85
60
95
80
127
175
175
125
150
170
135
95
145
155
175
215
300
215
170
105
115
140
190
185
135
120
135
135
238
149
539
321
175
822
222
342
356
411
343
370
445
320
325
330
330

48

$8 39

Cows & Sheep &
lambs.
calves.
$3 80
$33 75
34 36
3 89
3 82
39 50
3 63
37 50
34 38
4 81
4 57
34 50
33 89
4 50
4 69
34 75
33 75
4 57
35 88
5 57
34 00
5 10
33 75
5 25
5 44
37 25
35 63
6 56
6 63
37 00
37 50
5 50
37 00
6 88
36 00
4 75
35 55
4 85
35 63
6 50
36 25
8 89
36 00
5 80
36 25
5 25
37 60
4 25
35 00
4 13
36 24
4 19
35 50
3 94
38 13
3 75
•38 12
3 80
38 12
4 13
35 IS
4 67
38 75
3 63
36 75
4 14
37 25
4 19
37 00
4 25
26 25
4 13
38 34
4 35
38 75
4 19
43 75
4 75
40 05
4 81
45 00
4 93
42 00
4 87
38 75
5 13
36 84
4 75
40 00
4 50
35 84
5 05
36 00
4 87
36 00
4 80
44 12
4 63
44 56
4 75
44 25
4 80
44 25
4 80
$36 90

$5 20

154

Statistics o f Agriculture, etc.

According to this showing, the largest number of beeves on sale, for any single
week, was on the 3d of October; cows and calves, and sheep and lambs, on the 19th
of September. Beeves were dearer ($9 68) on the 6th of June than at any other
period of the year; cows and calves do. ($44 00) on the 10th of October; sheep and
lambs do. ($6 56) on the 5th of April.
COMPARATIVE MONTHLY STATEMENT OF CATTLE ON SALE IN THE NEW T O R K MARKET

DURING THE YEARS 1852 AND 18 53:—
J853.
Cows &
calves.
355
315
477
620
.705 .
900
550
710
1,247
1,917
1,669
1,305

Beeves.

January .............
February............
March................
April..................
May....................
June..................
J u ly ..................
August..............
September........
October..............
November..........
December . .. . .. .

9,600
10,200
12,103

21,812

10,720

151,420

Sheep &
lambs.
44,600
22,000
16,350
11,050
12,900
26,750
34,220
43,835
45,532
60,209
45,267
46,776

Beeves.
5,500
6,200
9,125
4,800
10,200
9,250
9,950
9,500
8,100
12,400
11,300
9,000

1851
Cows &
calves.
420
495
643
750
505
350
520
525
320
430
295
435

Sheep &
lambs.
18,000
24,800
23,500
11,700
16,500
21,400
34,200
55,000
24,200
40,500
39,500
27,000

412,989

105,225

5,688

336,100

These figures show at a glance the immense increase in the consumption of cattle
in this city. The difference in favor of 1853 is as follows:—
in c r e a s e

in

1853.

Beeves.

Cows & calves.

Sheep & lambs.

52,195

5,032

16,889

TABLE SHOW ING THE AVERAGE OF P RICES FOR
COMPARED W IT H

EACH MONTH DURING THE

THE CORRESPONDING

QUOTATIONS OF

1852 \
---

1851
Beeves.
January ............ ............ $7 63
February..........
March................
April..................
May.................... ............. 9 19
June..................
J u ly ..................
August.............. ............. 8 40
September........
October..............
November........
December........ .
Average.. .

TEAR

1853,

1853.

Cows &
calves.
$35 89
34 24
35 11
31 80
35 93
36 24
37 48
36 93
89 32
38 58
36 98
44 30

Sheep &
lambs.

$36 31

$5 20

$3
4
5
6
.6
4
3
4
4
4
4
4

90
60
36
03
07
46
92
19
37
90
82
78

Beeves.

Cows &
c Sheep &
calves.
lambs.

$7
7
8
S
8
8
7
7
7
7
7
7

$34
35
32
32
37
37
34
35
34
33
34
34

37
50
37
12
25
75
15
12
75
12
50
50

$7 76

50
00
50
50
50
60
75
00
00
75
50
25

$34 1u

$4
4
4
4
7
4
4
4
4
4
3
3

50
00
60
75
75
50
50
00
00
25
60
50

$4 50

These results and comparisons enable us to see the general advance there has been
in the prices of all kinds of cattle during the year. Comparing the monthly average
of 1853 with that of the previous year, the differences are as follows:—
1853
1852




Beeves.
$8 39

Cows & calves.

Sheep & lambs.

7 87i

$36 90
34 87i

$5 20
4 50

52i

$2 03^

70

Statistics o f Agriculture, etc.

755

W e see here a very material improvement upon prices, notwithstanding the fact
that the supplies, in every case, are largely increased, as compared with those of
1852. Such, however, is the rapid growth of our population, that the demand for
consumption seems to keep steady pace with, if not actually ahead of, the ability of
the country to supply.
The total value of cattle sold at the several city markets above mentioned (except­
ing the average prices as given above) during the year, is as follows. (We have put
down $13 as the average of each head of beef cattle.) Some dealers consider this a
low figure, but as the more general opinion seems to be that it is about right, we have
concluded to adopt i t :—

Beeves............................................................
Oows and calves.............................................
Sheep and lambs......................................

Increase..................................................

1851.

1852.

$6,769,060 00
335,243 20
2,151,662 69

$1,103,975
196,080
1,547,730

$9,255,965 89
5,847,785 00

$5,847,785
................

$3,408,180 89

These figures show at a glance the magnitude of the cattle trade of this city. If
we include the sales at the docks, (referred to in our preliminary remarks,) of which
no authentic record is kept, it is probable that the aggregate value of cattle sold for
the year does not fall far short of nine and a half millions of dollars.
The bulk of the cattle brought here for sale are consumed here ; but a large and
lucrative business is done by the packers, for shipment to California, Australia, and
other foreign countries. Occasional shipments of live cattle are made to Bermuda, to
supply the naval contract with the government there.
We have not included hogs in our tables, for the reason that we are not able to
procure any record of the number coming to market reliable enough to enter into the
general account. The trade in that respect, however, is a very large one, as we shall
be able to show when as accurate a record is kept of the transactions as we are
enabled to avail ourselves of in respect to cattle of other descriptions. At present
the weekly consumption is from five to six thousand.

PRODUCTION OF COTTON UV INDIA,
A small volume of Indian statistics has been recently printed by order of the House
of Commons. It contains short summaries of the most important information which
could be collected in the statistical office of the East India House on the principal
heads of Indian affairs, and was originally prepared by order of the Court of Direc­
tors. There are two principal descriptions of cotton plants now cultivated in India—
the indigenous plant which is an annual, and succeeds best in the rich black soil found
in various parts of the country and the American plant, which though a perennial, is
practically an annual in India, and though grown successfully in some parts on the
black soil, yet thrives better on the light red lands. Each kind is recommended by
peculiar advantages ; the Indian is superior in durability and fineness, the American
in productiveness and length of staple. Both kinds are cultivated to a considerable
extent, but the indigenous plant will probably always continue to be the favorite with
native cultivators. It may now be considered as demonstrated beyond all question,
that India can furnish cotton for the British market, and that the natives cultivate the
cotton plant in a manner which, if it admits of improvement, is highly efficient. In
1846, the Court of Directors directed consignments of six thousand bales to be made
annually for three years— half to be of New Orleans, and half of indigenous cotton.
Very favorable opinious were pronounced on what was sent, by spinners and other
competent judges, and all doubt as to the capability of India to produce cotton suita­
ble for the purposes of our manufactures may be said to have been thenceforth set at
rest. The great inferiority of the Indian cotton as compared with the American, is
the result of what befalls it subsequent to its production in the fields, that is, in the
way it is gathered and stored, in the mode by which it is separated from the seed,
and in its transmission to market. The cleansing and packing of cotton, in spite of
the continued attempts of the government to introduce improved saw-gins, is still
very far from perfect. But the impossibility of getting cotton to the coast from the




756

Statistics o f Population, etc.

inland districts forms the real reason why so scanty a proportion of the cotton we
consume in our manufactures is derived from India. The amount which the maritime
districts produce could not, probably, be very materially increased... About eight
thousand square miles are already, it is calculated, devoted to the cultivation of ex­
ported cotton, and only a small portion of the parts of India adjacent to the sea will
grow cotton at all. If by means of railroads the great cotton fields of Hyderabad, in
the center of southern India, were placed nearly on an equality, in point of facility of
transport, with the maritime cotton districts, then, as the writer of this portion of the
volume calculates, a breadth of land sufficient f>r the growth of a quantity equal to
the full demand of Great Britain, might be at once available. That cotton cannot be
conveyed to a profit from the center of India, except by railway, may be proved by
the analogous case of salt, which costs at Benares double what it does at Calcutta,
the distance between the two places being four hundred miles— about the same dis­
tance as from some of the cotton marts at Hyderabad to Bombay.— London M orning
Chronicle, October 4th, 1853.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION, &c.
BIRTHS, DEATHS, AND MARRIAGES IN MASSACHUSETTS,
From the eleventh report to the Legislature, relating to the registry and returns of
births, marriages, and deaths in Massachusetts, for the year ending December 31,1852,
prepared by the Secretary of State, it appears that the whole number of births in the
State during the year was 29,702—an increase of 1,121 over the previous year; of
which 15.246 were males, 14,432 females, and the sex of 124 is unknown; 17,255
were of American parentage, 10,991 of foreign, and 1,556 the parentage is unknown.
The whole number of marriages was 11,578 ; of which 7,702 were Americans, 3,767
foreigners, and 100 unknown.
The whole number of deaths, 18,582—males, 8,978; females, 9,395 ; unknown, 108.
The average of age throughout the State is 27 78-100.
During the three years preceding 1852, the number of births of children of foreign
parents amounted to 24,528, or 29 87 per cent of all the births in the Commonwealth.
The year 1852 shows an increase in the births of this description, and also an increase
in the per cental. There were four cases of triplets during the year 1852, and 590
“ plurality cases ”
During the four years ending 1852, there were born in Massachusetts 3,961 more
males than females, the totals being 57,661 males, 53,700 females.
TI1E FOLLOW ING A R E THE DEATHS IN MASSACHUSETTS FOR THE YEAR

Consumption....................................4,155
Dysentery........................................1,018
Apoplexy...................................... 126
Inflammation of bowels.................. 293
Disease of bowels.......................... 249
Inflammation of brain.................... 327
Disease of brain............................ 193
Cancer........................................... 180
Childbirth...................................... 160
Cholera infantum............................ 377
Croup ............................................ 429
Delirium tremens............................
31
Erysipelas...................................... 163
Drowned........................................ 191
Typhus fever.................................. 617
Fits___ ......................................... 120
Gout..............................................
2
Disease of heart............................ 435
Hooping cough............................... 166
Heat..............................................
19
Hydrocephalus.............................. 440




1852.---

Infantile diseases............................... 1,160
Intemperance....................................
45
Insanity............................................
37
Disease of liver................................ 124
Disease of lungs...............................
80
Marasmus......................................... 157
Measles............................................ 141
Old age............................................. 960
Paralysis.......................................... 283
Pleurisy...........................................
64
Pneumonia........................................ 821
Poisoned.....................................
13
Rheumatism.............................
69
Scarlatina........................................ 843
Scrofula.......................................
90
Disease of spine..............................
46
Suicide............................................
76
Teething.......................................... 309
Unknown......................................... 420
Total

18,482

Statistics o f P opulation, etc.

757

RESULTS OF THE CENSUS OF GREAT BRITAIN.*
NUMBER I.
POPULATION.

The number of people in Great Britain and the small adjacent islands in 1851 was
20,959,477 ; and the men in the army, navy, and merchant service, and East India
Company’s service, abroad, on the passage out, or round the coasts, belonging to Great
Britain, amounted, on the same day, to 162,490. The population of Great Britain may,
therefore, be set down at 21,121,967.
The annexed table exhibits the distribution of the people :—
POPULATION OF GREAT BRITAIN IN

England................................................
Scotland....................... ......................
W ales..................................................
Islands in the British Seas..................
Army, navy, and merchant seamen . . .

Males.
8.281,734
1,375,479
499,491
66,854
162,490

Total.............................................

10,386,048

1851.
Females.
8,640,154
1,513,263
506,230
76,272
10,735,919

•Total.
16,921,888
2,888,742
1,005,721
143,126
162,490
21,121,967

British subjects in foreign states are not included in the general population as given
in the preceding table, the exiles and foreign subjects in Great Britain being consider­
ed a set-off against them.
The following illustration will assist the popular mind adequately to appreciate
twenty-one millions of people:—
It is well known that to mass quantity is to conceal bulk; thus it was stated the
other day that the whole of the vast yields of California and Australia, melted down
into a solid mass of gold, would only fill a tolerable-sized room; and so it is with
numbers. A general, wishing to conceal the strength of his army, forms it into
masses.
,
Now, if all the people of Great Britain had to pass through London in procession
four abreast, and every facility was afforded for their free and uninterrupted passage
during 12 hours daily, Sundays excepted, it would take nearly three months for the
whole population of Great Britain to file through, at quick march, four deep. To count
them singly, at the rate of one a second, would take a year and a half, assuming that
the same number of hours daily were occupied, and that Sundays also were excepted.
It has been stated that, in a future publication, the ages of the population will be
given, their condition, and occupations. As regards age, they will be arranged in
quinquennial sections—that is, in sections advancing by periods of five years each, from
children in arms to the age of ninety and upwards. The people will then be classed
in sections, a^. husbands, wives, widowers, widows, bachelors, and spinsters; again,
they will be grouped, first, according to place of residence, and subsequently under the
countries and counties in which they were born; and finally, they will be arranged in
professions or occupations, from the prince to the peasant—paupers, prisoners, lunatics,
and vagrants being severally grouped; and as the survey will extend over thousands
in more than a thousand different callings, it is evident that, as the greatest exhibition
of modern times only displayed a small part of the produce of the labors of the peo­
ple, so the visitors to it only represented a fraction of the multitudinous population of
these islands, which the enumerators found so variously occupied on the sea, on rivers,
and on the coasts, in the valleys and on the hills, in cities, towns, villages, and solitary
habitations over the face of the country.
The number of the male population of Great Britain, excluding those absent in for­
eign countries, was 10,223,558, and the female population 10,735,919; consequently
the females were in excess of the males by 512,361, or as many as would have filled
the Crystal Palace five times over. How many of these were spinsters cannot be
* “ The Results of the Census of Great Britain in 1851. With a Description of the Machinery and
Processes employed to obtain the Returns. Also an Appendix of Tables of Reference. By Edward
Cheshire, Fellow of the Statistical Society, and one of the Secretaries to the Statistical Section of the
British Association for the Advancement of Science. 8vo., pp. 56. London : John W. Parker and.
Son. New York: J. Wiley.”




758

Statistics o f Population , etc.

known until the second portion of the census is published. The proportion between
the sexes in 1851 was 100 males to 105 females, or about the same as in 1801.
The births during the last thirteen years give a reversed proportion, viz., 105 boys
to 100 girls. How much the change in the proportions, and the subsequent disparity
of the numbers in the two sexes is due to emigration, or to a difference in the degree
of the dangers and diseases to which they are respectively exposed, will be discussed
when the numbers of males and females living at different periods of life are compared.
The disparity in the proportions of the sexes is greatest in Scotland, there being no less
than 110 females to 100 males in that country.
The following table gives the population of Great Britain and the Islands of the
British Seas, including the army, navy, and merchant seamen abroad, as enumerated
at each census from 1801 to 1851 inclusive:—
,

POPULATION OF GREAT BRITAIN FROM

1801.....................................
1811.....................................
1821.....................................
1831.....................................
1841.....................................
1851.....................................

Males.
5,368,703
6,111,261
7,096,053
8,133,446
9,232,418
10,386,048

1801

1851, INCLUSIVE.
Females.
Total.
5,548,730
10,917,433
6,312,859
12,424,120
7,306,590
14,402,643
8,430,692
16,564,138
9,581,368
18,813,786
10,735,919
21,121,967
TO

It will be seen by the foregoing table that the population of Great Britain has nearly
doubled since the commencement of the present century, notwithstanding the great
number that have annually left the country and settled and multiplied into millions in
the United States, in the colonies of North America, Australia, and South Africa. The
increase in the last fifty years has been 93.47 per cent, or at the rate of 1.329 per cent
annually, the increase of each sex being about equal.
The annual rate of increase has varied in each decennial period; thus, in 1841-51
the population has increased, but the rate of increase has declined, chiefly from accel­
erated emigration.
The emigration from Great Britain and Ireland in the ten years 1821-31 was
274,317; in the ten years 1831-41 it amounted to 717,913; and in the ten years
1841-51 it had increased to 1,693,516.
It has been shown by Dr. Farr, in his English Life table, that the half of a genera­
tion of men of all ages passes away in thirty years, and that three in every four of
their number die in half a century. Taking emigration and other movements of the
population into account, it is probable that of the 21,121,967 persons in Great Britain
in 1851, 2,542,289 were born prior to the census of 1801, and were enumerated on
that occasion. At the present rate of mortality, a few of the present generation will
be alive a century hence.
I f the population of Great Britain continues to increase uniformly at the same rate
that it has done from 1801 to 1851, it will double itself every 524 years.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION IN CALIFORNIA.
The Rev. Mr. P h i l l i p s , in a sermon delivered lately in Stockton, gives the follow­
ing interesting statistics in relation to the population, &c., of California. They are
copied from the J ou rn a l :—
The population of California four years ago was 35,000; of which number 17,000,
or one-half, were females. At the present time there are 300,000, making an annual
increase of 75,000. The sexes, which were about equally divided four years ago, now
stand in great disproportion, as out of a population of 300,000, there are only 40,000
females—an increase of 23,000, averaging 5,750 every year, or 479 per month. Of
this whole population, 26,000 are children under fourteen years of age. Deduct from
the number of females one half the number of children, and we have 27,500 white
females in the State. The figures sum up as follows:—Females, 27,500; children,
25,000; males, 247,500—making a total of 300,000. Of this number, it is estimated
that 100,000 reside on the coast, and 200,000 in the valleys and in the mountains.
These estimates are reliable, and are only selected from among the mass of statistics
presented on the occasion, as the most worthy of publication.




R ailroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics

759

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
THE STEAMBOAT.
See how yon flaming herald treads
The high and rolling waves;
As crashing o’er their crested heads
She bows her surly slaves!
With foam before and fire behind,
She rings the clinging sea,
That flies before the roaring wind,
Beneath her hissing lee.

To-night yon pilot shall not sleep,
Who trims his narrowed sail,
To-night yon frigate scarce can keep
Her broad breast to the gale;
And many a foresail, scooped and strained,
Shali break from yard to stay,
Before this smoky wreath has stained
The rising mist of day.

The morning spray, like sea-born flowers,
With heaped and glistening bells,
Falls round her fast, in ringing showers,
With every wave that swells;
And flaming, o’er the midnight deep,
In lurid fringes thrown,
The living gems of ocean sweep
Along her flashing zone.

Hark, hark! I hear von whistling shroud,
I see yon quivering mast;
The black throat of the hunted cloud
Is panting forth the blast!
An hour, and whirled like winnowing chaff,
The giant surge shall fling
His tresses o’ er yon pennant staff,
SVhite as the sea bird’s wing!

With clashing wheel and lifting keel,
And smoking torch on high,
When winds are loud and billows reel,
She thunders foaming b y !
When seas are silent and serene,
With even beams she glides,
The sunshine glimmering through the green
That skirts her gleaming sides.

Yet rest, ye wanderers of the deep,
Nor wind nor wave shall tire
Those fleshless arms, whose pulses leap
With floods of living fire.
Sleep on—and when the morning light
Streams o’er the shining bay,
O think of those for whom the night
Shall never wake in day !

MASSACHUSETTS RAILROADS IV 1851-52-53.
In the last number of the Merchants Magazine we published elaborate tables of the
operations of the Massachusetts railroads for 1853, compiled by our attentive corres­
pondent, D a v i d M. B a l f o u r , Esq., of Boston. We now give, from the A m erican R a il­
way Times, a few of the leading items of operations for 1853, of forty roads, so that a
comparison may be made with the operations of the two previous years, 1851 and ’62.
It will be remembered that these figures embrace only the roads that were in operation
during the past year. The following is the comparative statement:—

1851.
Number of railways...............................
Miles of road and branches....................
Miles of double track and sidings..........
Gross cost...............................................
Average cost per mile............................
Gross receipts.........................................
Gross expenses.......................................
Net income.............................................
Average net income per cent on cost.. .
Gross number of miles run.....................
Average receipts per mile run..............
Average expenses per mile run............
Average net income per mile run..........
Gross receipts per mile of railway........
Number of passengers carried.......... ....
Passengers carried one m ile..................
Tons of merchandise carried. . y ...........
Tons carried one m ile............................
Total weight of passenger trains in tons
hauled 1 mile, not includ’g passengers
Total weight of freight trains in tons
hauled 1 mile, not including freight..
Total number of tons, not including pas­
sengers, hauled 1 mile........................




1852.

1853.

4,398,370
$1 50
$0 76
$0 74
$5,730 07
9 510,858
152,916,183
2,260,346
70,205,310

36
1,150
407
53,076,013
46,153
6,885,517
3,073,410
3,212,107
6 05
4,785,783
1 44
0 77
0 67
5,987 32
9,810,056
161,694,555
2,563,277
77,638,247

40
1,192
526
55,348,652
46,483
7,994,033
4,332,756
3,661,277
6 61
5,250,392
1 52
0 82
0 70
6,706 40
11,568,992
186,215,713
3,041,782
95,985,832

98,766,749

101,746,153

106,208,467

118,695,509

131,077,550

148,804,441

287,667,568

310,461,850

350,998,740

36
1,150
384
$52,595,288
$45,556
$6,590,570
$3,338,905
$3,360,671

$6 20

760

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

KATES OF TOLLS ON THE CANALS OF NEW YORK IN 1854.
Resolved, That the following rates of tolls be established by the Canal Board on
persons and property transported on the New York State Canals, to take effect on the
opening of navigation in 1854 :—
PROVISIONS, ETC.—PER 1,000 POONDS PER MILE.
On salted beef, butter, tallow, beer, cider and vinegar.................................
On salted pork, bacon, laid, lard oil, grease, and cheese..............................
On salted fish and fish in brine.......................................................................
On bran and ship-stcffs, and oil cake or oil-meal, in bulk..............................

Cta. ra.
0 3
0 1
0 4
0 2

fr.
0
5
0
0

IRON, MINERALS, ORES, ETC.—PER 1,000 POUNDS PER MILE.
On salt manufactured in this State................................................................
On foreign salt and barytes.................................................................
On gypsum, the product of this State..........................................................
On foreign gypsum.........................................................................................
On bloom, scrap, and pig iron, broken castings, gas pipes, and water pipes.
On sand, lime, clay, earth, manure, pig and smelted copper.......................
On leached ashes, brick stone for the manufacture of lime, and bones for
manure.........................................................................................................
On pot and pearl ashes, window glass, barilla and bleaching powders, kelp,
soda ash, and copperas, and manganese....................................................
On mineral coal, charcoal, and iron ore....................................
On stoves, iron car wheels and car axles, bed-plates for steam-engines, plow
castings, and all other iron castings, except machines and the parts
thereof..........................................................................................................
On bar and pig lead, going towards tide-water, and copper ore ..................
On stove pipe and furniture for stoves, not cast-iron...................................

0
0
0
0
0
0

1 0
5 X)
1 0
3 0
2 0
1 0

0 0

5

0 4
0 0

0
5

0 3
0 0
0 6

0
5
0

1
0
0
0
0

0
5
4
3
5

0
0
0
0
0

FURNITURE, ETC.—PER 1,000 POUNDS PER MILE.
On household furniture, accompanied by and actually belonging to families
emigrating................................................................................................... 0 3
On carts, wagons, sleighs, plows, and mechanics’ tools necessary for the
owner’s individual use, when accompanied by the owner, emigrating for
the purpose of settlement............................................................................ 0 8

0
0

STONE, SLATE, ETO.—PER 1,000 POUNDS PER MILE.
On tile for roofing and stoneware..................................................................
On fire-proof cement and drain tile................................................................
On unwrought stone and slate.............................
On slate, and all stones wrought or partly wrought.............................

4
2
1
1

6
0
®
5

0 4
1 0

0
0

0 7

0

FURS, PELTRY, SKINS, ETC.—PER 1,000 POUNDS PER MILE,
On furs and the skins of animals producing furs...........................................
On deer, buffalo, and moose skins..................................................................
On sheep skins.................................................................................................
On green hides of domestic animals of the United States...........................
On imported raw hides of domestic and other animals.................................

LUMBER, WOOD, ETC.
On timber, squared and round, per 100 cubic feet per mile, if carried in
boats......................
On the same, if carried in rafts, per 100 cubic feet per m ile .....................
On the same, if cleared after the 1st of June and arriving at tide-water be­
fore the 15th of August, inclusive, per 100 cubic feet per mile................
On lumber carried in boats, when weighed, per 1,000 lbs. per mile, viz.:
On white pine, white wood, bas9 wood, and cedar.................................
On oak, hickory, beech, sycamore, and black walnut.............................
On spruce, maple, ash, and elm...............................................................
On cherry.................................................................................................
On hemlock..................................




0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0

1
5
1 0
1
2
1 4
0 6

Railroad , Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

T61
Cts. m. fr.

MERCHANDISE.—PER 1,000 POUNDS PER MILE.
On veneering.................
On sugar, molasses, coffee, iron in bars, bundles, and sheets, steel, nail rods,
boiler iron, nails and spikes, horse shoes, crockery and glassware, tin,
resin, tar, pitch, tupentine, oil, anchors, chain cables, oakum, mineral
water, oysters and clams, dyewoods, and other merchandise not enu­
merated ...............................................................
On railroad iron and railroad chairs................................... '..........................
On threshing, mowing, and reaping machines, fanning mills, plows, harrows,
and drill barrows.........................................................................................
ARTICLES NOT ENUMERATED.
On all articles not enumerated or excepted, per 1,000 lbs. per mile.......... ..




0
5
0
6

1

5

0

0 2

0

0
0
0
0

1
5
1
4

0
0
5
0

2 0
8 0

0
0

0 5
2 0

0
0

0 5

0

CO

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIONS, ETC.—TER 1.000 POUNDS PER MILE.
On domestic distilled spirits, going towards tide-water................................
On w o o l...........................................................................................................
On cotton.............................................................
On live cattle, sheep, hogs, horns, hoofs, and bones.....................................
On horses, (except those used exclusively for towing boats or floats)..........
On horses used exclusively for towing boats or other floats, exempt.
On rags and junk.............................................................................................
On manilla.......................................................................................................
On hemp and tobacco going towards tide-water...........................................
On tobacco going from tide-water..............................................
On pressed broom corn....................................................................................
On pressed hay and pressed straw................................................................
On corn, corn-meal, and oats...................................................................
On wheat, flour, barley, rye, peas, and beans................................................
On flour, starting and going from tide-water.................................................
On potatoes, apples, onions, turnips, all other esculent roots, and ice..........
On other agricultural productions of the U. States, not particularly specified

0 4
0 2
2 0
0 0

0
0
0
0
0

CO to H

On boards, plank, scantling, and sawed timber, reduced to inch meas­
ure, all kinds of red cedar, cedar posts, estimating that a cord, after
deducting for openings, will contain 1,000 feet, and all siding, lath,
and other sawed stuff, less than one inch thick, carried in boats, (ex­
cept such as is enumerated subsequently,) per 1,000 feet per mile,
when not w eighed.............................................................................
On hemlock, per 1,000 feet per mile, when not weighed......................
On sub 6 and 7, if transported in rafts, per 1,000 feet per m ile..........
On sawdust, per 1,000 lbs. per m ile......................................................
On mahogany (except veneering) reduced to inch measure, per 1,000 feet
per mile...................... ..............................................................................
On sawed lath, of less than ten feet in length, split lath, hoop poles, hand­
spikes, rowing oars, broom handles, spokes, hubs, treenails, fellies, boat
knees, plane stocks, pickets for fences, and stuff manufactured or partly
manufactured for chairs or bedsteads, hop poles, brush handles, brush
backs, looking-glass backs, gun stocks, plow beams and plow handles,
per 1,000 lbs. per m ile...............................................................................
On staves and heading, empty barrels and casks, and ship knees, trans­
ported in boats, per 1,000 lbs. per m ile....................................................
On the same, if transported in rafts, per 1,000 lbs. per mile.......................
On shingles, carried in boats, per 1,000 lbs. per m ile...................................
On the same, if conveyed in rafts, per M. per mile.......................................
On split posts, (not exceeding ten feet in length,) and rails for fences, (not
exceeding fourteen feet in length,) per M. per mile, carried in boats . . . .
On the same, if conveyed in rafts, per M. per mile.......................................
On wood for fuel, (except such as may be used in the manufacture of salt,
which shall be exempt from toll,) and tan bark, percord per mile...........
On the same, if transported in rafts, per cord per m ile................................
On sawed stuff for window blinds, not exceeding one-fourth of an inch in
thickness, and window sashes and blinds, per 1,000 lbs. per m ile..........

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

3
4
1
4
2
1
2
3
1
1 0
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0 8

0

0 4
0 1

0
*>

0 4

0

0 4

0

762

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.
BOATS AND PASSENGERS.

On boats used chiefly for the transportation of persons, navigating the
canals, per m ile......................................................................................... .. 0 4 0
On the same, if they elect to commute for tolls upon passengers, per m ile.. 5 0 0
On boats used chiefly for the transportation of property, per mile.............. o 0 0
On the same, if they elect to commute for tolls upon passengers, per m ile.. 2 3 0
On all persons over ten years of age, per m ile............................... ............. 0 0 5
STATISTICS OF THE BRITISH STEAM WAVY.
Of screw steamships, according to the Liverpool Times, afloat, England has at the
present moment eleven line-of-battle ships, soon to be increased to twenty; five guardships, and seven powerful frigates, independent of smaller vessels. The following are
the names, number of guns, horse-power, and stations of the most powerful of the
screw fleet:—
Guns. Horse-Power.

Duke of Wellington..........
Eoyal George...................
St. Jean D’Acre..............
Agamemnon ....................
Caesar...............................
Creasy..............................
James Watt....................
Majestic............................
Nile.................................
Princess Royal................
Sanspareil........................
Ajax...................................
Blenheim...........................
Hogue..............................
Edinburgh.........................
Arrogant...........................
Imperieuse........................
Amphion.............................
Horatio.............................
Tribune ..........................
Dauntless..........................
Highflyer ........................
Euryalus.............. ............

120
101
90
90
80
90
80
90

.
.

70
58
60
60
58
47
50
34
24
SO
24

60

700
400
600
600
400
400
600
400
500
400
350
450
450
450
450
350
360
300
250
300
580
250
490

Western Squadron.
Devonport.
Western Squadron.
Bosphorus.
Not in commission.
Sheerness.
Not in commission.
tt
M

«

(C

Portsmouth.
Bosphorus.
Cork.
Guardship, Portsmouth.
“
Devonport.
“
Portsmouth.
Western Squadron.
if
Cf

Cl
ft

Guardship, Sheerness.
Western Squadron.
Portsmouth.
Mediterranean.
Not in commission.

In addition to the above the following screw steamships are building, and wiU
probably be afloat in a few months:—
Guns. Power.
Guns. Power.
400
Royal Albert...................
120
400 Exmouth . . . .
...
Malborough....................
120
Hero
...
Conqueror........................
100
Forte
..
Orion...............................
90
600 Chesapeake .
350
Repulse...........................
90
600 Curacoa.........
50
Hannibal..........................
90
460 San Florenzo. ..................
A lgiers...........................
90
450
The foUowing are the most powerful paddle-wheel steamers now afloat:—
Guns. Horse-power.
21
Bosphorus.
Terrible.............................
800
cc
22
Sidon................................
560
Western Squadron.
Odin ...............................
16
560
28
400
Bosphorus.
Retribution....................
16
400
Western Squadron.
Valorous.........................
16
400
Bosphorus.
Furious............................
Leopard...........................
560
Portsmouth.
17
16
400
Magicienne......................
Devonport.
Penelope...........................
16
650
West Coast Africa.




Railroad , Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

763

BALTIMORE AND OHIO RAILROAD.
We have obtained the following very interesting and official statement of the present
condition of the funded debt of this road, by a review of which the experienced reader
will be able to arrive at a pretty accurate estimate of the general financial prospects
of the company, for the residue of the fiscal year:—
The funded debt of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, as appears by its
report made to 30th of September, 1853, as follows:—
Loan No. 1, January, 1854 .....................................
Less sinking fund, applicable to its reduction__ _

81,000,000 00
287,531 28
------------------Loan No. 2, of 1867 ............................................................................
“
3, Iron bonds.........................................................................
“
4, of 1875 ............................................................................
“
5, of 1880 ............................................................................
“
6, of 1885, (for $2,500,000) now issued...............................

8712,468
1,000,000
566,666
1,128,500
.700,000
1,281,846

Add preferred stock of the State of Maryland.................................

5,386,481 64
3,000,000 00

Making the whole funded debt of the company at that tim e..........
Residue of bonds of 1885, since issued.............................................

8,389,481 64
1,218,153 75

Making the whole funded debt to the present time...........................
Capital stock........................... ................................. ..........................

9,607,635 39
10,118,902 00

72
00
67
00
00
25

Treasurer’s Office, Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, March 31st, 1854.
J. I. ATKINSON, Treasurer.

From the above it will be seen that the entire funded debt, upon which interest ac­
crues, is $9,607,635 39. Since the annual report of the president was made, it will
be seen that $1,218,153 75, being the residue of the loan of 1885, has been realized.
This amount, with the net earnings of the road for the past six months, together with
$245,000 to the credit of revenue from the last year, making some $2,200,000 in all,
has been applied to the reduction of the floating debt, and to construction, which is
constantly progressing. This is a highly favorable exhibit of the state of the road,
and affords the assurance that, with no unforseen contingency to affect the reasonable
anticipations for the future, the company will be in a condition at the close of the fiscal
year to dispose of a very considerable amount, as policy may dictate.

THE RAILROADS OF MAINE IN 1853.
We give below the returns made by the several companies to the office
retary of State in Maine :—
Amount of
Miles in
indebtedness.
length.
Stock fund.
Androscoggin.................................
$220,000
20
$86,863
Androscoggin and Kennebec........
1,043,549
55
824,131
Atlantic and St. Lawrence..........
149
1,692,200
3,614,520
Bangor and Piscataquis................
12
135,000
1,650
Calais and Baring.........................
6
100,000
136,563
Kennebec and Portland................
72|
1,073,673
1,439,694
Machias Port.................................
300
75,000
7i
Penobscot .....................................
64,781
73,000
Penobscot and Kennebec..............
133,866
2f
49,657
1,337,000
Portland, Saco and Portsmouth...
132,000
61
Somerset and Kennebec..............
54,667
408,192
York and Cumberland..................
292,649
18
Totals....................................
Buckfield Branch..........................

393f
13

Total miles of road................

406f

of the Sec­
Total cost
of road.
$315,365
2,030,140
5,306,720
138,913
217,255
2,520,981
100,000
Uufinish’d.
“
1,303,195
U nfinish’d.
748,699

$5,879,832
$7,005,126
No return.

In addition to the above, the Boston and Maine (Mass.) Company owns some three
miles in the State, but they keep only one account showing the cost and operations of




764

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

the entire line from Boston to the South Berwick Junction. The average cost of the
road, however, is about $49,600 per mile. Adding the three miles of the Boston and
Maine Road, there is now finished and in operation 409J miles of railway, costing
some thirteen millions of dollars.
THE RAILROADS OF VIRGINIA.
We publish annually in the M erchants’ Magazine, a carefully prepared statement
of the length of railroads in each of the States. Alluding to this statement, which is
generally transferred to other journals, the Winchester V irginian remarks:—
Virginia has been credited for much less than her actual share of railway enter­
prise. To do her justice in this respect, before her own citizens as well as those of
other States, we decided to compile the subjoined list of the lines now under way
within her limits or in the hands of her people. Among them are three lines, the
greater part of each of which lies within Virginia, the Seaboard and Roanoke, Peters­
burg, and Hicksford and Gaston ; and one which is principally, we believe, in North
Carolina, but prosecuted mainly by Virginia capital. This is the Clarksville and
Ridgeway, a link in the route from Norfolk to the Upper Roanoke. The 251 miles of
the Baltimore and Ohio Road lying in this State are excluded from the sum, because
on the principle we follow in the case of the above-named roads, they are assigned to
Maryland.
Miles
Total
Miles
building.
miles.
Name ofRoad.
opened.
70
188
Virginia Central................................................... .
107
76
R. F. and Potomac...................................................
76
115
Covington and Ohio (State).....................................
228
139
212
Virginia and Tennessee and branch........................ .
73
..
Rich, and Pet. and branches.....................................
40
40
,t
60
Petersburg and Roanoke................. ......................
60
..
21
Hicksford and Gaston................................................
21
.,
Norfolk and Petersburg............................... .............
62
79
,#
Seaboard and Roanoke..............................................
78
78
South-Side................................................................ .
49
120
71
Danville and branches................................................
146
95
51
155
Orange and Alex, and branches.................................
82
15
146
Manassas Gap and branch.........................................
19
42
,.
32
Winchester and Potomac............................................
32
,,
Tuckahoe (coal)...................................... ....................
5
5
,,
Winifreds (do.)............................................................
5
5
..
N. W. Virginia...........................................................
104
104
Blue Ridge (State).....................................................
16
8
8
.,
Appomattox...............................................................
10
10
Fred, and Gordonsville..............................................
46
• •
,.
.
A> L. and Hamp. and branch.....................................
166
Clarksville and Ridgeway.........................................
25
25

.

808
654
1,958
This list will, we think, be found very nearly correct. It will be seen that Virginia
has, in round numbers, 800 miles of railway in operation; 700 building; and 500
more in the hands of organized companies, every mile of which will doubtless be
made in a few years. About 250 miles will probably be added to the finished track
during 1854. Besides those we have named, there are others projected, to the extent
of perhaps 1,000 miles or more.

NEW RAILROAD SWITCH,
An improvement in the operation of railroad switches has been made by Asa ASimmons, Narrowsburgh, N. Y. It consists in attaching one end of the ordinary con­
necting rod of a switch to a circular plate at any point between the center of said plate
and its periphery, according to the length of stroke required. The circular plate is at­
tached to one end of a horizontal shaft, at the opposite end of which there is a lever,
by which the peculiar plate and shaft are turned, and the connecting rod and switch
moved._ An index is secured to the circular plate, for the purpose of denoting the ex­
act position of the switch. Measures have been taken to secure a patent.




T65

R ailroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

STEAMBOAT ENGINEERS AND PILOTS.
In November last the supervising inspectors of steamboats, appointed under the Act
of August 30th, 1852, met in convention at Cincinnati, and the report of their doings
has just been published. It contains the following statistics of the several districts.
Engineers
Vessels
Tonnage
Pilots
inspected.
licensed.
licensed.
inspected.
1st D istrict. —Portland........
16
ii
3,491
“
Boston............ ........
20
19
8,568
24
“
New London...____
16
18
7
4,926
2d D istrict. —.New York........____
135
161
365
52,229
“
Philadelphia ..« ____
36
80
60
14,560
3d D istrict. — Baltimore........
58
60
13,112
“
Norfolk............
14
14
2,164
“
Charleston........
32
52
6,865
“
Savannah ........ ___
8
10
20
2,496
4th D istrict. —New Orleans . .
333
87
226
26,100
“
Mobile..............
102
107
•4,800
“
Galveston........ ___
4
15
17
612
5th District. —St. Louis..........
302
254
27,712
“
Memphis, &c. . .
41
42
17
2,543
6th D istrict. —Louisville........
72
176
263
19,758
“
Nashville.......... ___
14
70
3,401
83
Vth D istrict. — Pittsburg.......... ___
148
184
83
18,392
“
Wheeling..........
44
76
5,724
“
Cincinnati........
248
214
22,000
8th D istrict. —Chicago............
30
39
5,321
“
Detroit..............
53
53
19,518
9th D istrict. —Buffalo..............
99
86
36,600
“
Cleveland........
49
38
6,870
“
Oswego............
11
7
16
6,700
“
Burlington........
14
14
4,600
Total...............................

2,028

2,448

317,968

EARLY HISTORY OF LAKE NAVIGATION,
According to the Chicago Dem ocrat, the Griffith was the first vessel that floated
upon the Western lakes. She was of 60 tons burden, completely rigged, and on
board were seven small pieces of cannon, two of them brass. The keel was laid by
La Salle, at Cayuga, six miles above Niagara Falls, on the 26th of January, 1619 ;
and after experiencing great difficulty in ascending Niagara, on the 7th of August
she floated upon the water of Lake Erie. A voyage was made to Green Bay, which
was reached early in September. On the 18th, the vessel in charge of a pilot and
five others, and laden with a rich cargo of furs, was sent back to the Niagara. Nothing
was ever heard of her ; but about the beginning of this century, upon a farm in Erie
County, New YTork, near Eighteen Mile Creek, a large quantity of wrought iron, sup­
posed to weight 700 or 800 pounds, and evidently taken from a vessel, was found
much eaten by rust. About fifteen years after, immediately succeeding a heavy blow
and in the same vicinity upon the beach, was found the breech of a cannon, and un­
der it another. Words, evidently in the French Language, were upon them, and they
were probably all that remained of the Griffith.
The Walk-in-the-Water, the first steamboat upon the lakes, was built at Buffalo in
1812, by Dr. Stewart, and named after a Wyandot chief who lived at Mogwago, on
the Detroit River. The boat left Buffalo on her first trip on the 1st of November,
1818, under command of Captain Fish. Dr. Stewart told Mr. B F. Stickney, at the
time of her first trip, that including what he paid Fulton and Livingston for their
patent, it cost him $70,000.
In a letter written by Gouveneur Morris, in the year 1801, sixyears before the first
steamboat, he stated that Lake Erie would float a ship of 1,000 tons burden. We
believe the first steamboat of 1,000 tons burden upon Long Island Sound was the
Oregon, built in 1845; and the first upon the Hudson River, the Hendrik Hudson,
1,986 tons, built the same year. The Western waters were in advance of those of the
East, as the Empire, built at Cleveland in 1844, measured 1,136 tons.




766

Nautical Intelligence.

NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.
ADDITIONAL LIGHTHOUSE AT THE ENTRANCE OF PORT PHILIP, ALSO BEACON
ON SWAN RIPER.
L IG H T H O U S E

AT THE

ENTRANCE

OF

PO R T P H IL IP .

The second lighthouse at Shortland’s Bluff, being now nearly conpleted, on and
after the 1st day of January next a fixed red light will be exhibited thereon, from
sunset to sunrise.
The leading lighthouse tower is built of wood, painted white, and stands at an
elevation of 80 feet above the level of the water, bearing from the center of the upper
lighthouse on Shortland’s Bluff, south, thirty-three degrees west, distant six hundred
and seventy feet.
The leading light will be seen in ordinary weather ten miles to seaward, within the
bearings of south one-quarter west round (westerly) to southwest one quarter west.
The two lighthouses by day, and lights by night, kept in one line of bearing, lead
in a mid-channel between Point Lonsdale and Nepean; but strangers are cautioned
not to attempt the entrance by night, nor against the strength of the ebb tide
by day.
BEACON

ON

SW AN

R IV E R .

A cone shaped iron beacon, painted white, elevated 50 feet above the level of the
water, has been erected on Swan Point, bearing from the low lighthouse on Short­
land’s Bluff, north 41 degrees east. This beacon, kept open to the eastward of the
low Lighthouse, leads in clear of Point Lonsdale Reef: and the flagstaff on Shortland’s
Bluff kept half a cable’s length open to the Westward of the low Lighthouse, leads in
clear of the Corsair Rock, and the other sunken dangers lying off Point Nepean ; but,
in all practicable cases, mariners waiting the turn of tide, entering or leaving the har­
bor, are recommended to keep the Point Lonsdale shore aboard, as the tide there
runs fairer, and in bad weather small vessels incur less risk on the Point Lonsdale
shore from the tide ripple, than towards point Nepean.
No alteration has taken place in the upper Lighthouse on Shortland’s Bluff, which
is as heretofore a Bright Stationary Light, one hundred and nine (109) feet above the
level of the water, seen in ordinary weather twenty (20) miles to seaward, within the
bearings of South round by West to Southwest by West.
The bearings are by compass, and hights at mean high water.

NAVIGATION INTO SPITHEAD.
N O T IC E TO M A R IN E R S .

T r in it y H o u s e , L ondon,

5th April, 1854.

It having been determined, in communication with the Right Honorable the Lords
Commissioners of the Admiralty, that a floating light vessel shall be placed to mark
the channel between the Horse and Warner Shoals, notice th ereof is hereby given, and
that the said vessel will be moored in a suitable position on the west side of the chan­
nel near to the Warner Shoal; and the light exhibited thereat on the evening of the
1st of May next, and thenceforth continued every night from sunset to sunrise.
At this station, a single revolving light of the natural color will be shown.
Farther particulars in respect of the exact position of this vessel will be published
in due course.
By order,
J. HERBERT, Secretary.

THE LIGHT SHIPS IN THE CATTEGAT.
M in is t r y

or N a v a l A f f a i r s , 14th March, 1854.

All the floating lights are now laid out and lighted.
Moreover, it is made publicly known hereby, that the light vessels at Lcesso Trindelen, at Kobbergrunden, and at the Anhold Knob, are in the future to be laid up on
the 31st of December, supposing the ice permits them to remain on their station till
then, and they will not then be laid out again before the 1st of March.




767

N autical Intelligence.

That the light vessels in Drogden and the Loesso Strait are ordered to keep their
stations as long as the ice permits them to do so. If the floating ice should force them
to leave their stations, they will not be laid out again before the 1st of March.
When the light vessel in the Loesso Strait is not on her station, on account of ice in
the Cattegat, a white flag, with a blue perpendicular stripe will still, according to the
notification of the 9th November, be hoisted on the lighthouses of Hanstholm and
Skagen; if for other reasons it shall be obliged to leave the station a red balloon
will appear on the Lighthouses of Skagen and Hirsholm.

CASUALTIES TO BRITISH SHIPPING IN FOUR YEARS,
A list of casualties to British shipping has been compiled from L loyd's List, and laid
before Parliament in a blue book. We find that during the last four years there hap­
pened at sea 12,363 disasters, varying in magnitude from a total shipwreck to a slight
collision. Some of these items are very striking. Thus, the single item that “ the
Honest Endeavor sailed from Hull, Nova Scotia bound, and had not been heard of for
three years,” fails to arrest the attention so forcibly as when one is startled with the
astonishing intelligence that 204 ships and their crews departed from our various ports
within the four years alluded to, and not one of them was ever heard of again.
A N A L Y S IS

O f

TH E

12,303

C A S U A L T IE S

REPORTED

E N D IN G

W IT H

TO

L L O Y D ’S

FOR

TH E

FOUR

YEARS

1850.

CANVASS.

Driven ashore by stress of weather
— vessels and cargoes partially
or totally lost............................. 5,117
Collision—vessels obliged to run
into port in a sinking state........ 2,665
Wrecked......................................... 2,295
Foundered......................................
883
Abandoned, waterlogged, dismast­
ed, on fire—crew taking to boats
679
Sailed, and never heard of again..
204
Burnt by accident..........................
87
Damaged by ice..............................
51
Total....................................................

Burnt by cargoes igniting—coals,
11; flax, 1; wool, 1; cotton, 3 ..
Struck by lightning and damaged.
Blown up—by coal-dust, 7 ; spon­
taneous combustion, 1 ; gas, 4 ;
powder, 1 ...................................
Plundered by pirates & destroyed.
Taken possession of by convicts and
wrecked.....................................
Struck by a whale and abandoned.
Struck by a waterspout................

16
15
13
13
1
1
1
12,041

STEAM ,

Driven ashore, but got off again.,..
Collision at sea............................
Wrecked.....................................
Foundered..................................
Burnt........... ..............................
Partially burnt.............................

103
146
17
30
8
7

Abandoned at sea...........................
Capsized..........................................
Put into port in a sinking state.. . .
Sunk, and raised again....................
Sailed, and never heard of again. . .

T otal........................................

2
1

2
5
1
323

One consoling fact in this terrible chronicle is, that but few accidents have occurred
to ships ably manned and commanded; out of 12,000 and odd casualties, only 64 are
recorded against ships of 700 tons and upwards. This is not merely in consequence of
their size, but simply because in most large vessels greater care is shown in the selec­
tion of a crew, ana in the appointment of a competent commander. Nearly all the
losses have been sustained by vessels ranging from 90 to 500 tons, because these are
the description of craft most likely to sail economically!—are often weak handed, and
liable to be commanded by men possessing few recommendations for filling the office
of captain, except being part owner.

CLIPPER SHIP RED JACKET.
The extraordinarily quick passage of this new ship on her first voyage has excited
considerable interest among nautical men, she having made the run from New York
to Liverpool in 13 days 1 hour and 25 minutes, which is somewhat remarkable, con­
sidering the extremely boisterous weather she encountered throughout the passage.
The following abstract of her log will show the distance run each day:—




7G8

Journal o f M in in g and Manufactures.

1st day out run ..........
2d
“
...............................
3d
“
...............................
4th
“
..............................
5th
“
...............................
...............................
6th
“
7th
“
..........

150
265
311
217
106

8th day out run......................miles
9th
“
10th
“
11th
“
12th
“
13th
“

319
413
374
342
300
371

She had the wind from the S. E. to W. S. W., the whole passage, with very stormy
weather, either snow, rain, or hail, the entire vdyage; but she received no damage,
and arrived in port without the loss of a single rope-yarn. She ran fifteen knots on
the wind, and eighteen with the wind abeam.
The Red Jacket is a beautiful ship, of 2,400 tons burden, and was built in Rock­
land, Maine, by Mr. George Thomas. She is owned by Messrs. Seccomb and Taylor,
of this city, and Mr. Thomas, the builder. She attracted a deal of attention in New
York, and was generally admired for her beauty of model. She was commanded by
Capt. Asa Eldridge, of New York, who has much experience in the Liverpool trade,
and was captain of Vanderbilt’s steam yacht on her recent trip to Europe. Captain
Eldridge pronounces the Red Jacket a most excellent ship in every respect.

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.
MANUFACTURES OF PARIS.*
NUMBER III.
S T A T IS T IC S O F B U IL D IN Q A N D

C O N S T R U C T IO N .

We have given in previous numbers the statistics relative to the different branches
of industry at Paris engaged in the preparation and manufacture of food in its various
forms. These composed the first of the thirteen groups into which the Report clas­
sifies the industrial pursuits of Paris. We come now to the second group, which takes
in the branches of industry concerned in the building and furnishing of houses, and
kindred pursuits. These are twenty-one in number, and the enumeration shows how
minute and exact the Report is in its classifications:—
Builders of boats and rafts and those who
break them up.
Contractors for paving.
Carpenters.
Contractors for roofing and plumbing.
Ladder-makers.
Makers of letters in relief (for signs.)
Masons.
Marble workers.
House finishers, (who make stairs, doors,
windows, &c.)
Floor-makers.

Makers of arbor and trellis work.
Decorative artists.
Contractors for street paving.
House painters.
Stove-makers.
Sawyers of wood for carpentering.
Iron work in houses.
Tombstone cutters.
Layers of sidewalks.
Contractors of scavengering.
Baluster-makers.

Boat-building .—Few boats are built at Paris, but many are broken up. Boats
coming from the Upper Seine, loaded with wood and charcoal, are rudely constructed
* In the M erchants' M agazine for April, 1853, we gave an account o f the Commission o f Inquiry
into the lnduslry o f Paris, and o f the report published by it. See M erchants' M agazine, vol. xxviii.,
page 403; see also, for previous numbers of the series, vol. xxviii., page 700, June, 1853, and vol.
xxix., page 380, September, 1853.




Journal o f M in in g and Manufactures.

769

where wood is cheap, and are sold to be broken up, it being more economical to build
new ones for each trip than to take them up the Seine again. Number of employers,
16; of whom 14 employ 2 to 10 men.
Amount of business in 1847.....................................................
“
“
1848.....................................................
Diminution..................................... .................................

865,500 francs
129,700
“
65 percent.

Of 53 men employed in this pursuit, 52 occupy their own apartments, and one occu­
pies furnished lodgings. Of 49 workmen, 86 read and write. Their condition, as a
general thing, is comfortable; but, like all men who work in the water, they are in­
clined to the use of ardent spirits, and some of them are reputed very irregular.
Contractors f o r P aving. —The manufacture of tiles and brick is mainly carried on
out of the city, but some brick-makers take contracts for paving, and employ men in
the city. Number of employers, 16.
Amount of business in 1847 .....................................................
“
“
1848 .....................................................

302,500 francs
111,900 “

Average pay of the men, 3 francs 6 centimes; lowest pay, 2 francs 50 c .; highest
6 francs. Of 63 workmen, 41 can read and write.
Carpenters.—This head includes comparatively few employers, because carpenter­
ing requires the use of much space for yards and lumber, which it is difficult to pro­
cure in Paris, and which must be sought beyond the barriere. Number of employers
in Paris, 125.
Amount of business in 1847...................................................
“
“
1848....................................................
Diminution “
1848............................. .......................

16,137,000 francs
4,518,000 “
72 per cent.

The average pay of the men is 4 fr. 89 a ; it varies from 2 fr. 50 c. to 8 fr. 78 per
cent of the workmen can read and write. They are generally industrious and regu­
lar ; they often assist each other, and have societies for the relief of their brother
carpenters (the Compagnons) out of work.
Roofing and Plum bing. —Under this head are included all who roof houses what­
ever the material they employ, whether zinc, slate, or tiles; and also those who do
the plumbers’ work, such as laying service pipes. Number of employers, 119.
Amount of business in 1847...................................................
“
“
1848...................................................

6,082,600 francs
3,100,000 “

Workmen employed in 1847, 1,166; workmen employed in 1848, 632; average pay
of workmen, 4 fr. 20 c. per day. It varies from 2 fr. 25 c. to 10 fr., but only 21 re­
ceive more than 6 fr. 85 out of 100 can read and write. The men are generally
regular, industrious, and in comfortable circumstances.
Ladders.—The making of ladders forms a special branch of industry, but it is some­
times carried on by cabinet-makers and turners. The full extent of this branch, there­
fore, is not shown under the present head. Number of employers, 8 ; amount of
business in 1847, 64,900 fr. Hardly anything was done in 1848. Average pay of the
workmen, 3 fr. 81 c. All the men can read and write.
Signs in R e lie f Letters.—Letters in relief of wood, zinc, and copper, form the object
of a special branch of industry, which is in some degree connected with house paint­
ing, and employs several classes of workmen—those who make the letters, those who
paint, and who gild. Number of employers, 22.
Amount of business in 1847 .....................................................'
“
“
1848 .....................................................
Reduction, 80 per cent.

VOL.

X X X .-----N O .

VI.




487,000 francs
98,000 “

Workmen employed, 109 ; 79 of the workmen are paid by

49

770

Journal o f M in in g and Manufactures.

the day ; 16 by the job. Average pay, 4 fr. 32 c. per day; lowest pay, 2 fr. *75 c .;
highest, 6 fr. 98 per cent of the workmen can lead and write. The men are for the
most part well behaved; some are very dissipated.
Masons.—Formerly land owners erected their own houses, either for occupation or
as an investment; but the rapid increase of population, the subdivision of large city
estates, the opening of new quarters, have encouraged building enterprise and made
building a regular branch of industry, with its contractors and traders in houses.
Another result has been speculation, which has often passed the limits of prudence.'
The prospects of investment have been exaggerated, too many buildings have been
erected; and for thirty years past this branch of industry has been visited with pe­
riodical crises. These contractors do not themselves come under any classification in
the report, as they do not employ the workmen, but the master mechanics or sub­
contractors in each branch. Of these, the first division is the master masons. Num­
ber of employers, 369. This number does not include the numerous employers who
live in the ban-lieue.
Amount of business in 1847, 26,853,l740 fr.; number of men, 9,287. After the revo­
lution of February, building enterprise was almost entirely brought to a stand-still;
little was done, except in the way of repairs. At the hight of this crisis, a decree of
July 4, 1848, established a sub-office of Security, authorized to loan to contractors on
real and personal security. These securities were transferable by simple indorse­
ment at the National Office of Discount. In pursuance of this decree, the office and
sub office opened credits with 73 contractors, credits to the amount of 3,993,000 fr.
By means of this relief, 98 houses were built or completed in Paris, among which were
13 houses on the Boulevard Beaumarchais.
Of the 9,287 workmen, 4,859 are stationary; 4,428 are transient. Of the 4,859
stationary workmen, 446 work in shops; 4,402 work out in the city. Under the head
of masons are included stonecutters and sawyers, and the working masons. Of the
latter, there are three classes—the first are the companions, who receive the highest
pay, execute difficult jobs, receive the instructions of the master or contractor, and act
as foremen. The second class is the Taloc/icurs or L im ou sin s; the latter term, at
first applied to workmen coming from Haute Yieuve and La Creuse,has now become
a technical term applied to this class of workmen, whatever the department they come
from ; lim oasiner means to lay foundations and raise the heavy walls: the Limousins
have an extraordinary skill in building walls, which they construct with rapidity and
precision, without other guide than the plumb-line. The third class is the servants,
garcons or hod-men, who mix the mortar, take it up in a hod, carry stones, and watch
at the foot of the scaffolds, in order to warn passers-by to beware of falling stones.
This last is an important function, which we should be glad to see assigned to any
class of men in the United States; but here the rule seems to be all building is done
not at the risk of the builder, but of the community, and a house in course of erection
is a standing terror to all passers-by.
Of 9,236 masons, 3,762 receive less than 3 fr.; 5,363 receive between 3 and 5 fr.;
111 receive more than 5 fr.
As regards personal habits and condition, 39 per cent keep house ; 61 per cent oc­
cupy furnished lodgings ; 60 per cent can read and write. The large number occupy­
ing furnished lodgings is owing to the fact that a majority of masons come from the
provinces, principally the departments of La Creuse and Haute Yieuve, and pass the
winter at Paris, but do not establish themselves there. Formerly these migrations
were made in companies, led by a companion mason from Paris, who recruited the
men in the country and engaged them for a year. At Paris he takes charge of their
board and clothing. Within twenty yearB, while the number has not fallen off, it




Journal o f M in in g and Manufactures.

V71

has been more usual to engage for the season, and the masons travel on their own
account.
The lodging-houses generally accommodate from three to six men—all bachelors,
often from the same village ; they support each other, and seldom mingle with those
of other districts. Persons of other callings are rarely found among them, and women
never. They generally sleep in couples, in rooms containing four to five beds. They
pay six or seven francs per mouth each for what they have, soup every evening and a
shirt washed once a week.
Almost all the men are well behaved, generally sober, and living frugally, and sel­
dom drinking wine, except on pay-days. The habit of saving almost reaches the
point of avarice, so anxious are they to take back something, as they say, to their
country, where twenty-five centimes buy as much as ten francs at Paris. They have
not the versatility of other classes of workmen, who know how to turn to their advan­
tage all the resources of a great city. Among men of all occupations who are eager
to open the doors of carriages, sell checks at the theater, collect ends of cigars, and to
eat what the soldiers leave of their soup at the doors of the barracks, a mason is
never seen.
The mason’s occupation is not without its dangers; standing upon high scaffolds, or
upon the wall which they are tearing down, they are sometimes thrown down with
the stones they would remove; yet there are no societies for mutual aid among
them. They are distrustful, and the attempts of some contractors to form funds for
mutual relief by retaining part of their pay, have only partially succeeded.
This distrust, which separates the mason from his companions, does not seem to
have been a characteristic in former periods. In the middle ages, masons traveling
from city to city in companies, formed powerful and compact associations. The free
masons built the most beautiful churches in the ogival style; they counted in their
numbers eminent artists ; and in the beautiful cathedrals scattered by them over all
Western Europe, we read on the tombstone of the skillful architect that he was a
Master-mason. They had their mysteries of initiation, and originated companionship.
Afterwards the association lost its artistic and commercial character, and became
political. Gradually artisans retired, workmen withdrew; at present, although still
traveling in numerous bands, they no longer form any company du devoir.

RUIVDLE’S METHOD OF SEPARATING GOLD.
In a letter to the London M ining Journal , J. H. Rundle, of the Colonial Gold
Works, at Rotberhithe, states that mercury, in the separation of gold from auriferous
sands, unites with it in varying quantities. The quantity of gold absorbed by mer­
cury depends, he says, on the following conditions: first, the more or less finely divi­
ded state of gold in the ore ; second, the length of time during which the mercury
remains in contact with it; third the temperature at which the amalgamation is con­
ducted ; fourth, the presence of other metals in the amalgam.
The following method of separating gold from the mercury, when the latter by
assay is found too rich, is employed: “ The mercury after being strained is assayed;
granulated zinc, previously cleaned with dilute sulphuric acid, is then added to it. As
soon as the zinc is completely amalgamated, which takes place in a few hours, the
mercury is well stirred and re-strained; a solid amalgam is obtained, containing, prac­
tically speaking, the whole of the gold, and the greater part of the zinc which has
been added. The proportion of zinc necessary is about one-third of the weight of
the gold to be extracted, that is, an equivalent of zinc to one of gold. With less, the
whole of the gold is not obtained. If more than an equivalent be employed, the
mercury retains a considerable quantity of zinc; the difficulty of refining the gold is
also increased. When the object is to extract all the gold, it is advisable to use a
small excess of zinc, as there are generally traces of other metals in the mercury
which interferes with the uniformity of the results.”




772

Journal o f M ining and Manufactures.

HAMILTON’S SHIP TIMBER SAW MILL.
Hamilton’s ship timber saw mill was invented some years since, and after material
improvements, was perfected and introduced three or four years ago, into the gov­
ernment dockyards at Toulon, and into several of the private yards in Great Britain.
In one of the latter no less than four mills have been in constant and successful oper­
ation upwards of two years, and each mill, as stated by the ship builders who use
them, making a saving over manual labor of nearly $5,000 per annum.
The advantages gained by the use of these saw-mills are four-fold; viz., saving of
time, of material, of labor, and the ability to produce more perfect work than can
possibly be effected by hand labor; it being a well established fact, that a greater
mathematical precision can be attained by machinery, properly adjusted, than by re­
lying upon the eye, the hand, and the judgment.
In this machine, all the varied curves which may be required in a ship’s frame are
sawed with perfect accuracy, requiring no after labor in trimming; every possible
bevel, however varying, being made in the same timber, with the utmost mathemati­
cal nicety. And there is no reason why these machines should not be established in
all our great ship-timber regions, and the various timbers sawed and adjusted to their
places, on the soil upon which it grew, as that our Merchants’ Exchange should have
been actually constructed in the granite quarties of Massachusetts.
Not only has the price of labor been very greatly enhanced, but the price of nearly
every article used in the construction of vessels has been much increased within the
past two years. Any improvement, there'fore, which will lessen either the cost of la­
bor or material, ought to receive the earnest attention of our builders and ship owners.
It can be shown at any time that a single machine of Hamilton’s will prepare as much
timber for immediate setting up, in a given time, as can be wrought out by the hands
of fifteen of our most skillful artisans in the same period. We have seen a log, (in
toughness almost equal to lignumvitte,) of eleven feet in length, sawed and beveled
on both sides, in the incredibly short space of twelve minutes.
This invention has already been thoroughly tested by the principal constructors in
the United States Navy, by large numbers of our leading ship builders, and by many
of our most considerate and practical merchants. And in these days of progress, it
is safe to predict that these invaluable mills, will, ere long, be set up in every ship
yard on the Atlantic coast, on the Lakes, and upon our great rivers.
That distinguished man, and truly great naval constructor, the late Foster Rhodes,
expressed the following opinion, which, embodying as it does, the sentiments of all
the practical men who have seen the operations of the machine, we quote : “ It com­
pletely supplies those two great wants so long sought in naval architecture ; the pro­
duction of any required curves in timber, by the rapid process of mill sawing, and the
following with the saw any natural curve in the fibres, without impairing the strength
of the timber by grain-cutting.”
MANUFACTURE OF PAPER FROM STRAW AND BAGGINO.
We learn from Newton's London Journal (English) that George Stiff, of London,
has taken out a patent for manufacturing paper from straw and bagging. The follow­
ing is a brief description of the process:—
In carrying out his invention, the patentee makes use of straw, or grass, “ gunney
bagging,” and “ hemp bagging,” preferring, however, the employment of straw. When
straw, grass, or vegetable fiber of any similar kind is employed, the first process made
use of is to cut the straw or fiber into lengths of about half an inch, which may be
done in a chaff cutting machine, or any similar apparatus heretofore employed for the
purpose; after which, the straw or fiber is winnowed, by any suitable contrivance, in
order to separate the knots and other portions of the fibre which could not be readily
reduced to the consistency of pulp. The straw or fiber thus treated, or the gunney
bagging, or hemp bagging, after having been suitably prepared, is placed in a boiler
or vessel, together with a sufficient quantity of clear water to cover the fiber or other
material, and boiled for the space of one or two hours. This boiler or vessel is furnished
with partition or diaphram, finely perforated, or composed of gauze or similar material,
through which the water may be drained off from the fiber or other material, and car­
ried away through a discharge-pipe, which is brought into connection with the lower
surface of the boiler or vessel. After this process, the fiber or other material is to be
immersed in lime-water, in the proportion of about 1 cwt. of lime-water to every hun­




Journal o f M ining and M anufactures .

778

dred weight of material, and to remain so immersed for the space of about 24 hours,
the mixture being occasionally stirred. After the expiration of this time the lime water
is to be drained off and a fresh solution poured on, which is again drained off as before.
When this operation has been continued during about three days, the fiber or other
material is to he placed in water, to which alkali has been added in the proportion of
10 lbs. of alkali to every 1 cwt. of water, and boiled for the space of two or three
hours; the alkaline solution is then drained off in the manner before described. After
the fiber of the material has been thus treated, it is washed and bleached in the same
manner as when bleaching rags; that is to say, by running it into tanks or vessels,
with a quantity of chlorine or bleaching powder sufficient to bleach it to that degree
of whiteness which is required for the quality of paper to be made. After being thus
bleached, the straw or other fiber or material may be washed and beaten, and reduced
to pulp or half-stuff, in the usual manner; and the pulp or half stuff may be converted
into such paper as shall be required by the process heretofore in use.
The patentee claims the substitution of lime water for other alkaline solutions here­
tofore employed in the maceration of straw, grass, or other vegetable fiber, or gunney
bagging, or hemp bagging, used to form the pulp or half-stutf in the manufacture of
such descriptions of paper as are produced from the aforesaid materials.

THE GLASS TRADE AND MANUFACTURE.
At Sunderland, England, Mr. James Hartley, the extensive glass manufacturer, re­
cently, in a lecture on the art and manufacture of glass, stated the following interesting
facts in reference to that business:—
Previous to the repeal of the glass duty in 1845, th°re were 14 companies engaged
in the manufacture of crown and sheet glass; they were increased during 1846 and
1847 to 24, and now are reduced to 10. In 1844, the last year of the duty, there was
made by the 14 companies 6,700 tons of crown and sheet glass, paying £500,000 duty;
there are now 10 companies, working 40 furnaces, with 284 pots, making 35,500,000
feet annually, equal to 15,000 tons, value £225,000, being an increase of considerably
more than cent per cent, and at a charge to the public of less than one-half of the for­
mer duty. In polished plate there are six companies, being the same as existed in
1837, and, consequently, their number has remained stationary since the repeal of the
duty, but their production is estimated to have doubled. They now make 3,000,000
feet polished plate annually, equal to 5,500 tons, valued at £450,000. Of Hartley’s
patent rough plate, which has only been fairly in the market about two years, the
quantity now manufactured annually is 2,240,000 feet of 2 lbs. to the foot, valued at
£30,000. The produce of the little kingdom of Belgium, the greatest glass producing
country in the world, is 50,000,000 feet of sheet glass annually, equal to 22,300 tons,
or 25 per cent more than is made in England of both crown and sheet glass. They
export of this quantity 85 per cent, of which 6 per cent comes to England, and they
retain 15 per cent for home consumption; England retains 85 per cent of its produce
for home consumption, and exports 15 per cent, being about double what she imports.
In Hartley & Co.’s glass tariff there are 7,329 figures; also 17 descriptions of glass
with 51 thicknesses.

MANUFACTURE OF AMERICAN STEEL.
Mr. Thaddeus Selleck, (as we learn from the Tribune,) well known as an ingenious
iron master, informs us that he has just succeeded in making cast steel of the finest
quality from the ore of the Franklinite Iron Company, Franklin-Town, Sussex Co.,
New Jersey. Said ore was deoxydized at Sidney Forge, in Sussex Co., and then
melted at the Adirondack Steel Works, Jersey City, and the product of this melting
is pronounced by the best judges equal to any cast steel in market. We are not
aware that any steel, no matter of what quality, was ever made so easily and cheaply
before. We trust that this i3 the beginning of the emancipation of this country from
her long dependence on England for steel. We are assured that fine razors, equal to
the best imported, have already been made of this steel, from ore once melted with
apthracite alone, at a cost far below the price of steel in any market. If there be no
mistake in this, the production of this steel is an event in our national growth of more
importance than the battle of New Orleans. It will doubtless draw the attention of
metallurgists generally to the possibility of making steel, from fit ores or combinations
of ores, at far less expense than the process has hitherto involved.




114:

Mercantile Miscellanies.

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
MERCANTILE EDUCATION AT ANTWERP.
It has always afforded us pleasure to note the practical and the useful in the prog­
ress of society; and we confess to no little gratification, says the Commercial B ulletin ,
in perusing a document handed to us a few evenings since by our esteemed friend H.
Meugens, Esq., Belgian consul for New Orleans. This document contains a statement
and details of a higher grade of commercial institute, formed under the auspices of the
Belgian government, than we ever met with before.
The Coburgs bid fair to hold the highest rank in the old world. The favorite project
of Prince Albert carried out in the Great Exhibition of 1852 has given an impetus to
the arts and to useful inventions which, we trust, as the stone cast into the pool spreads
the circling waves over its surface, will carry the impulse outward and onward until
the wide world reaps the benefits which its industrial exhibition was well calculated
to produce. Another of this family has originated the grand scheme which, when
properly matured and established, will give the Belgian merchant a name and rank
second to none.
“ Practice,” as said, “ is the soul of Commerce,” and this appears to be fully kept in
view throughout the whole course pursued in the proposed institute, while at the same
time theory goes hand in hand with equal step—stili further other and appropriate
studies combined, afford the future merchant all the advantages the counting-room and
the university can give.
The location is Antwerp, and the plan comprehends a vast trading community on
the largest scale, divided into sections kept perfectly separate and distinct, and each
section representing a designated portion of the commercial world. One supposed to
be at Paris, and showing a Parisian banking house with all its routine of business;
another at London, and then the office of a large ship owner; a third, that of a com­
mercial house at Hamburgh ; a fourth, insurance office at Antwerp; here a New York
business house; then another of far-off Australia, at Sydney; others of Rio, Havana,
Odessa, Alexandria, etc. Importing and exporting, whether on account or consign­
ment, freight, commission, insurance, etc., are all daily and duly attended to. Books
regularly kept, and everything conducted as though real business was actually involv­
ed, iu all its details and ramifications.
Thorough instructions are given in political economy, statistics, exchange and cus­
tom-house regulations of all countries, maritime and commercial law, general history
of Commerce and industry, commercial and industrial geography, history of staple
products and manufactures, etc. English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian are to
be taught, both as to correspondence in these languages and to speaking them fluently.
At the completion of the course, judges, appointed by the government, will deliver to
each of the students whose merit entitles him to it, a diploma of capacity, and he who
obtains the first place receives a traveling purse from the Belgian government, and
authority and permission to tiavel for several years at its expense.
The programme of the courses, and all the regulations, are approved annually by
the government and by the city administration.
The institution is under the direction and control of seven commissioners, two of
whom are chosen by the government, two by the Chamber of Commerce, and two by
the Common Council of Antwerp, the Burgomaster of that city acting as President.
We have been thus particular in describing this institution, because we feel an in­
terest in all that tends to advance the commercial community as a body, and we think
there are merchants in this country who, if the matter was once properly brought be­
fore their minds, would feel pleasure in endowing and establishing something of the
same kind, adapted to the wants and characteristics of our people. How much better
for a young man intended for Commerce to commence his career thoroughly drilled
and ready to take his place in active life, prepared to decide correctly and advisedly,
on the questions appertaining to his business, whether foreign or domestic, brought
before him in his daily intercourse with the world. We have a military and a naval
school equal to any, certainly not surpassed by any in the world. We still need a
commercial and an agricultural one, in which a uuiform and perfect system of a like
grade and thorough instruction in all that pertains to Commerce and agriculture should
b e given to those who will likely be engaged in after life in those pursuits.




Mercannle Miscellanies.

775

COMMERCIAL VIEW OF TEMPERANCE,

|j

The Philadelphia Merchant says: ¥ e shall not here enter into any defense of the
distinction between moderate drinkers and temperance people; nor shall we affirm
either that all the intemperate folks deserve to be in prison, or that all teetotalers re­
ceive their just deserts by managing to keep out. We shall merely call attention,
briefly, to a common-sense commercial view of temperance.
The money expended annually in intoxicating beverages defies calculation ; and it
cannot be doubted that millions of dollars are thus diverted from honorable, because
useful, trade. In the ratio that the bar-room prospers, the merchant suffers loss.
Every dollar spent in liquor by the laboring man or the mechanic, deducts one dol­
lar’s worth of necessaries or comforts from the just expectations of his family. Shoes,
clothing, provisions, sugar, furniture, and all other useful or essential things, are either
wholly cut off from the list of the husband’s expenditures, or greatly diminished in
their quality or quantity, for the use of his household.
We here speak in a general way. There may be exceptions, as in cases of a com­
petency not yet squandered in wine, strong drink, or other destructive beverages.
The masses of mankind seldom accumulate property. Usually they spend as they
go, and are glad if they can make both ends meet at the end of the year. Surely it
is best that they should do this by contributing as much as possible to the happiness
and comfort of their families; and it is an easy question for all philanthropists to de­
cide, whether the avails of labor shall be devoted to the purchase of whisky or flour,
brandy or beef, gin or shoes, wine or sugar, beer or potatoes, grog or clothes.
The merchant has also his own interest at stake, and there can be no impropriety
in considering his own advantage when it coincides with the well-being of his neigh­
bor. The liquor seller is directly pitted against the dealer in all wholesome and
useful articles of consumption, and we submit that all merchants—by which we
mean all traders in the comforts and conveniences of social life—should array them­
selves promptly and decidedly on the side of temperance and against all forms of
alcohol as a beverage. We will not now insist that they should take ground in favor
of the Maine Law, though it is clear that the nearer the community is brought to
total abstinence from intoxicating drinks, the more largely and certainly will the in­
terest of the merchant be promoted.

GROWTH OF COMMERCE*
All that any one has to do, says the Philadelphia M erchant, to find a specimen of
the extension of Commerce is to take up the history of some article which has come
into general use within a few years. Take, for instance, gutta-percha. In 1844 only
200 lbs. of this gum were exported from Singapore for an experiment, and so speedily
did this article get into use, that in 1849 over two million of pounds were exported
from that same place. How much from elsewhere we know not; but think of the
growth of Commerce in this one article, from one port in five years, from two hundred
to two millions of pounds!
When Webster made his great plea in the India-rubber Case, many thought it
ludicrous to find him so eloquent on the uses to which that article would yet be put.
But that eminent lawyer always looked into the facts of every ease he undertook, and
he was greatly surprised to see what was doing, and would be doing, by india-rubber.
One of the latest uses is its application as flexible gas pipes - one of the handiest ar­
rangements for a chamber, sitting-room, or study. By it gas can be brought to a
movable stand on a table, where it will burn like an astral lamp. But a still later
use is that of the “ Great Coat Umbrella,” a Parisian invention, intended to serve as
a great coat and an umbrella. It is made of any impervious material, and ha9, run­
ning along the lower edge, an air-proof tube. Under the collar is a little blow-hole
communicating with this tube. The wearer applies his mouth to this hole, and with
a few vigorous exhalations he inflates it with air. The tube takes the consistency of
a hoop, the great coat takes the form of a diving-bell, and the drops fall a long way
outside the wearer’s feet.
Some of our ingenious mechanics must take this idea and invent something which
will serve as a lady’s fan, and yet capable of expanding into a parasol or umbrella.
What a sensation might be caused in Chesnut-street some spring day, when the fair
ladies are fanning themselves because of the heat caused by shopping, and a little
shower coming up, lo I fans become umbrellas, and the flying ribbons and feathers are
protected. May we be there to see 1




Mercantile Miscellanies.

116

MERCANTILE LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF SAN FRANCISCO.
•

FROM

TH E

ALTA

C A L IF O R N I A N .

The Mercantile Library Association of San Francisco hashadits library open nearly
a year. It began with about 1,500 volumes of the library of Gen. Hitchcock, and
about 1,100 volumes have since been added, so that the stock of books now numbers
about 2,600. Among these are some very curious volumes ; one is a manuscript book
about 600 years old, and it is so neatly written that a close inspection is necessary to
do away with the first impression that the book is printed. There is a full file of the
“ Gentleman 's M agazine” since 1731, and there is a complete file of the “ Edinhoro’
M a gazine" since its foundation. The library, though not very large, contains a large
proportion of standard works, and is particularly well provided with American au­
thors. The original stock were all exceedingly valuable books, for Gen. Hitchcock is
not less a thorough scholar than an able soldier.
The association is called the M ercantile Library, but there is no distinction in regard
to membership between merchants and men of any other occupation. At the late
election, however, there was quite an anxiety that the officers of the institution should
be all merchants. This demand was at first looked upon as rather unjust to some
members not merchants who had done a great deal for the association, which would
have failed entirely if left to the support of merchants only. The result, however, has
been that the new officers have entered zealously into the performance of their duty,
and the merchants, as a class, take more interest in the library, and the association is
now in a more flourishing condition than ever, and promises to become, at no distant
day, such a library association as the merchants of the third commercial city of the
Union should support. There are about 260 members, though there should not be less
than a thousand. The reading room contains a very extensive collection of the latest
papers and periodicals from all portions of the State and Union, including all the daily
city papers, which the librarian preserves upon file for future reference. There have
been as yet but five large donations. The principal donors, so far, have been Gen.
Hitchcock, who gave the original collection, at a very low sum for California; Mr.
Haskell, of Adams <fc Co., who gave a collection worth about $500 ; Mayor Garrison,
who gave $500 in cash ; and Col. Crockett, and the present President, D. S. Turner,
both of whom have spent much money and labored zealously to place the library in
successful operation.

ADULTERATION OF LIQUORS.
Eminent chemists assert, says the Albany E vening Journal , that nine-tenths, at
least, of all the liquors consumed in the United States are more or less drugged. To
say that half of all that pretends to come across the Atlantic is wholly manufactured
on this side of it, would be to fall short of the truth.
There are numbers who live and thrive by such nefarious trade. Long practice in
the use of sugar of lead, capsicum, acids, aloes, juniper berries, verdigris, logwood,
&c., die., in varying and nicely graduated proportions, has enabled them to bring the
art to a degree of perfection that seems almost fabulous. Cheap Monongahela
whisky brought into their vaults by the hogshead, comes out bottled and ready for
sale as Madeira, Cognac, Champagne, Pale Brandy, Cream of the Valley, and Old
Port. In these, the color, flavor, and smell of the originals will be so closely imitated,
that experienced taste is deceived by them. So complete and minute are their opera­
tions, that not ODly are foreign brands forged, and the shape of bottles, the devices of
seals and corks imitated, but even artificial dust and cobwebs are fabricated to give
them an air of respectable antiquity.
If other proof of this were needed, besides the results of chemical analysis, it might
be found in the facts that more Port is drank in the United States in one year than
passes through the custom house in ten ; that more Champagne is consumed in Amer­
ica alone than the whole Champagne district produces ; that Cognac brandy costs
four times as much in France, where it is made, as it is sold for in our corner groggeries; and that the failure of the whole grape crop in Madeira produced no appar­
ent diminution in the quantity, nor at all corresponding increase in the price, of the
wine.
It is these compounds that madden and destroy such multitudes in our towns and
cities. In vine growing countries, where wine is cheap and plentiful and its use al­
most universal, there are none of these horrors of intemperance that shock and alarm




Mercantile Miscellanies.

Ill

us here. France, Italy, Spain, suffer no more from the free use of their wines, than
we do from our cider, or “ Sparkling Catawba.”
If none but pure liquor wa3 permitted to be sold, its price would instantly become
so great as to put it beyond the reach of those who now fall victims to “ red eye ” and
“ rot-gut.” Genuine brandy, gin, and rum, are the most costly of all fermented drinks,
instead of being, as we are accustomed to think, the cheapest. To say nothing of the
cost of transportation, they cannot be bought on the spot where they are made at
anything like the rates they are sold at in our drinking saloons. Brands that at whole­
sale bring $3 a bottle, are sold at retail for three cents a glass!
A law providing for the prohibition and punishment of these adulterations could be
faithfully carried into effect, for all parties would have a common interest in its en­
forcement. It could be resisted by few, for no man wants to drink these poisons, and
no dealer would acknowledge that he sold them. Temperance men wmuld gain their
end of driving these beverages out of use, and all respectable liquor merchants would
profit by the rise in prices. Constitutional rights would not be more infringed than
by the detection and punishment of any other fraud; and no property would be de­
stroyed except the liquid poisons and the implements of their manufacture.

THE IMPORTANCE OF GETTING GOLD,
The Boston Transcript truly says (what the Merchants' Magazine has often said
before) that it is a great thing to be rich, but it is a greater thing to have the reputa­
tion of being rich. It is not the wealth which a man expends, but that which he is
supposed to possess, which gives him importance in the world. We know an old land­
lady who, though she charged all travelers alike, was careful to ascertain if her guest
was “ smart” in appearance, aud if so the best in the house was placed before him,
while a plainer man, who paid the same amount, was put off with meaner food. And
so it is universally. The rich man gets more for his money than the poor man. And
of course he is wiser! His opinions upon all subjects are listened to with the greatest
deference.
But let him lose his wealth, and what a poor, weak fool he becomes! As Shakspeare says—“ Men’s judgments are a parcel of their fortunes.” Gold is therefore not
only powerful but wise, in the public estimation. It is not the man, but the money
that is respected. The servant has become the master, and governs alike both the
man who has it and him who has it not. Great is gold ; and therefore to be sought
after not only by the evil but by the good, for social influences which it confers, where­
by the possessor may become useful to society by his precepts and example. Now if
the reader would get gold, get it fairly, get it honestly, get it wisely, and above all
use it well, let him invest a gold V. (good money of paper wfill do) in the Merchants'
Magazine , and then “ read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest,” and outwardly put in
practice its “ facts and figures,” and what is of more importance, its maxims of mer­
cantile morality, and our word for it, he will win gold from mines, and golden opinions
from “ all sorts of men.”

MERCANTILE AMBITION.
The true province of the merchant is not merely to sell to his customers such goods
as they may order, but it is incumbent upon him to keep himself so posted as to ena­
ble him not only to purchase to advantage himself, but to advise his customers in re­
gard to all the newest, most economical and appropriate styles of goods in Ins peculiar
branch of trade. He thus advances their interest by securing to them a wider sale
and a more speedy return of their outlay, and renders their commercial transactions
mutually more advantageous to both parties. By energy, liberality, and candor, the
shrewd merchant unites his interest with that of his customers, secures an extensive
and permanent trade, and in due time achieves a fortune.
In those branches of business affected not only by -ome general change in the wants
of society, or the new application of mechanical skill, but by the more fickle and often
arbitrary behests of taste or conventional caprice, the merchant has a field for the ex­
ercise of all those talents which render the scholar learned, the artist eminent, aud the
statesman illustrious. The candidate for the highest civic honors has not before him a
more worthy object to prompt his ambitious aspirations. Hence he often eucounters
labors and difficulties and privations with an energy and self-denial which command
success.




778

Mercantile Miscellanies.

ELEMENTS OF SUCCESS IN BUSINESS.
What are they ? Knowledge to plan, enterprise to execute, and honesty and truth­
fulness to govern all. Without these elements, without them deeply impregnated on
his nature, no man can conduct any business successfully. Without them, he is like
a ship that has lost its rudder, or an engine that has no regulator. With them, suc­
cess is certain—as sure as the decrees of destiny. But with them, there are other
qualities which must be considered. A man must not waste his life away in small
things, if he would achieve honor or renown. He must strike boldly, lay out gigantic
plans, follow great thoughts, and drive them, curbed by reason, to a successful issue,
as he would drive noble steeds to the end of a journey. He must have the boldness
to grasp, the vigor and intelligence to execute. He must look above the ordinary
ideas of those in the same business as himself, and attain an eminence far above
them—one they may have observed, but had not courage and resolution to ascend.
It is a trite saying that some men are great because their associates are little. A
bragging captain of country militia, a spouting demagogue, and the chief of a half exter­
minated horde of savages, are all examples of the truth of the observation. None of
these must be emulated ; none of the traits of their characters must be held up as
models. A man who would acquire fame in the present age of social and political
progression, must not be behind the times. He must not live in the past, but in the
future. He must not only be a thinking man, but a working machine—know how to
form great plans, and how to put them into force. Mind must be the monarch of
matter, and annihilate time and space. Man should not be an animal, nor a mere
machine of flesh and blood ; he is a child of God, and should copy from his Maker.
He should not be a mere earth-worm ; but live as befits a being with a highly-gifted
and immortal soul!
There are men who peddle sand to gain their bread; there are others who just as
easily build cities, create kingdoms, and revolutionize one-fourth of the world. One
o f the first sect drives an old horse and cart before your door, unloads his sand, car­
ries it into the cellar and deposits it in a bin, pointed out by a greasy looking servant
girl, and chalks the number of measures down with a smile of satisfaction, as he
wipes the sweat from his brow. A member of the other sits by his fireside, reads
the news, and sends a vessel with a valuable cargo up the Mediterranean to run the
blockade of the Baltic, and give him a clear profit of fifty thousand dollars! Both
are men ; nothing more or less. Each has bones, flesh, and muscle ; eyes to see, and
ears to hear ; and perhaps in all physical respects, one is just as well provided for as
the other. Where, then, lies the difference? Not in the body, but in the mind;
mind rules matter. One lives by a sort of an animal instinct, and is a sort of a living
automaton ; the other lives by calling into exercise the all-powerful faculties of an
immortal soul, and is a possessor, in a humble degree, of the power and magnitude
that characterizes his God!

SLAVERY FOR MONEY.
We pity the man who wears out his energies in the accumulation of riches, which
when amassed, he will have lost the capacity to enjoy. He finds himself at the end
of his labors a guest at his own feast, without an appetite for its dainties. The wine
of life is wasted, and nothing remains but the lees. The warm sympathies of his
heart have been choked by his inexorable spirit of avarice, anil they cannot be resus­
citated. The fountain-head of his enthusiasm is sealed; he looks at alftthings in na­
ture and in art with an eye of calculation; hard matter of fact is the only pabulum
his mind can feed on; the elastic spring of impulse is broken; the poesy of exist­
ence is gone.
Are wealth and position an equivalent to these losses ? Is not the millionaire, who
has acquired wealth at such a cost, a miserable bankrupt ? Iu our opinion, there is
little to choose on the score of wisdom between the individual who recklessly squan­
ders his money as he goes along in folly, and the false economist who denies himself
the wholesome enjoyments of life, in order to swell the treasure which, in the harden­
ing process of scraping up he had been too mean to spend, and too selfish to give

away.

The only rational way to live is to mix labor with enjoyment—a streak of fat and
a streak of lean. There is nothing like a streaky life ; a pleasant mixture of exertion,
thankfulness, love, jollity, and repose. The man who slaves for riches, makes a poor
return to that God who took the trouble of making him for a better purpose.




779

Tae Booh Trade.

THE BOOK TRADE.
L—English Serfdom and American Slavery.
Long Brothers.

B y L ucien B. C hase.

N ew

York :

Here is a work, the character of which may be in a measure inferred from its title.
It is a forcible presentation of the “ mild beauties ” of the serfish system under which
the masses of England suffer, as contrasted with the institution of slavery on our own
soil. The author, Hon. Lucien B. Chase, ex-member of Congress, is a gentleman who
makes no hap-hazard statements, and arrives at no impulsive conclusions. Whatever
pictures he draws have their basis and color in facts—facts that challenge scrutiny
from the record. Around an interesting thread of romance, running through his work,
the author has thrown his web of facts and arguments, making it very plain that the
government and institutions under which caste is permitted to crush the poor and
lowly forever; under which imprisonment for debt, evictions, and a worse than slave
life in the mines and factories, impressments into the navy, ifcc., awaken no loud voice
of condemnation, are not preferable even to the worst social and political conditions
of our own country. Mr. Chase has not set himself up as the vindicator or apologist
of American slavery, further than as he brings it in favorable contrast with English
serfdom. He carefully avoids passionate assault and exposure on the one hand, and
partial defense on the other. His discussion of the question is candid, and if the
reader is swayed to one side or the other, he feels that the facts developed have
swayed him. Now, that the Uncle-Tom’s-Cabin sort of books have had their rim, it
is only fair that such works as Mr. Chase’s have a hearing. They throw a new light
upon, and show a new side to a question that some have thought has but one 6ide.
Particularly to sympathizers with English agitators of the slavery question would we
recommend Mr. Chase’s volume. It should be read widely, North and South.
— Theological Essays. B y F rederick D enison M aurice, M. A ., Chaplain of Lin­
coln’s Inn. From the Second London Edition, with a Preface and other additions.
12mo., pp. 359. New York : J. S. Redfield.
This is a somewhat remarkable work, has already created considerable sensation
in the Established Church of England, and since its publication it has led to the au­
thor’s expulsion from a college connected with that Church. Mr. Maurice maintains
in these essays, what most will accept, that a theology which does not correspond to
the deepest thoughts and feelings of human beings, cannot be a true theology. The
volume contains seventeen essays, in which all the leading doctrines of the Church,
as the Incarnation, the Atonement, Regeneration, Justification by Faith, Inspiration,
Judgment Day, Trinity in Unity, &c.— these and other doctrines—are treated in an
original manner, and with great apparent freedom. The book will be read by inquir­
ers after truth of all sects.
2.

—-Essays on Philosophical Writers, and other Men o f Letters. B y T homas D e
Qcincv. 2 vols., 18mo., pp. 292 and 291. Boston : Ticknor, Reed & Fields.
As a literary essayist, De Quincy is justly entitled to a high rank, and his pro­
ductions are worthy the enduring form in which they have been produced by the
American publishers. The volumes before us contain essays on Sir William Hamil­
ton, Sir James Mackintosh, Kant, in his Miscellaneous Essays, John Paul Frederick
Richter, Lessing, Richard Bentley, and the celebrated Dr. Samuel Parr and his con­
temporaries. The fifteen volumes already published by the enterprise of Ticknor,
Reed ife Fields, thus far the only complete collection of De Quincy’s writings, must
be appreciated by, and find a place in the library of every gentleman who makes any
pretension to literary taste.
3.

4. — Minnie Herman; or the Night and its Morning.
T hurlow W. B rown .

A Tale for the Times. By

12mo., pp. 472. New York: J. C. Derby. Auburn and
Buffalo: Miller, Orton & Mulligan.
A story whose characters are drawn from life, the materials of which were collected
by the author during the active participation in the temperance reform. It is a true
picture of the evil effects of intemperance upon individuals and society, simply aud
truthfully illustrated.




780

The B ook Trade.

6.—History o f Oliver Cromwell and the English Commonwealth, from the Execution
o f Charles 1. to the Death o f Cromwell. By M. G uizot. Translated by Andrew R.
Scoble. 2 vols. 12mo., pp. 425 and 430. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
The entire history of the English Revolution embraces a period extending from the
accession of Charles I. to the fall of James II. It may be naturally divided by the
great events which it includes into four periods. The first comprehends the reign of
Charles; the second contains the history of the Commonwealth ; the third, the restora­
tion of monarchy ; and the fourth, the downfall of the race of Stuarts. Such is the
order adopted by this eloquent writer; and the present volumes are devoted to the
second period above stated. The translation is extremely well rendered from the
French. The views of English affairs taken by this distinguished author, and the
eloquence with which they are presented, render these volumes indispensable to the
reader of English history, especially at a period when those troubles existed which
led to the rapid settlement of America.
6.— Tempest and Sunshine; or Life in Kentucky.

By Mrs. M. J. H olmes. 12mo.,
pp. 381. New York : D. Appleton & Co.
An interesting romance, illustrating the different characters of two sisters, whose
dispositions suggest the title of the book. The story shows that those who are ac­
tuated by true and pure motives in their daily lives, though they may become vic­
tims of dishonesty and duplicity,yet in the end justice will be done; while those who
are successful for a time in their baseness and evil designs, will eventually find only
exposure and remorse. The plot is well laid. The character of Julia may be some­
what overdrawn, still many defects may be overlooked where a book has a good
moral tendency. It may be read with profit as well as amusement.
—Russia as it is. By Count A. De G unowski. 12mo., pp. 300. New York: D.
Appleton & Co.
We have no hesitation in saying that this volume displays a more intimate knowl­
edge of Russia than any hitherto published in this country. The present state of its
society, its civil organization, the character of its government, and the condition of the
people, are described with a fullness and intimacy which could have been obtained
only by a long residence in that country. The work has already, as we learn, met
with a large sale, and is still in good demand.
I.

8.

—Sacred Poems and Hymns, fo r Public and Private Devotion. By

J ames M ont­

With the Author's latest corrections, and with an Introduction by John
Holland. 12mo., pp. 388. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
As a writer of sacred poetry, Montgomery ranks among the first. This collection,
prepared by the author, is very extensive and accurate. The excellence of sentiment,
and the smooth and easy versification, will make this volume a treasure with all
who once become familiar with it. The introductory essay is worth the price of the
volume.
g o m ery

.

—The Eorestiers. By A lexander D umas. 12mo., pp. 225. New York: D. Ap­
pleton & Co.
Dumas is well known as one of the most popular novelists of Paris. This story is
among the best from his pen. It is the first of a series which will be published simul­
taneously in this country and France. The English translation is prepared by a com­
petent French scholar, alike familiar with both languages, and with the approval of
the author.
9.

10. —The Sunshine o f Greystone. A Story for Girls. By E. J. Mat. llimo., T>p. 321.
New Y ork: D. Appleton <fc Co.
This is an admirable story, by the author of “ Louis’ Schoolboy Days,” which has
met with such a favorable reception. As that was designed for boys, so this one has
been expressly prepared for girls. It is written in a chaste and elevated style, abounds
in excellent sentiments, and is full of interest.
II. —Africa and America Described. With Anecdotes and Numerous Illustrations.
By the Author of “ The Peep of Day,” <&c. 12mo., pp. 319. New York: Robert
Carter & Brothers.
This work is designed for children, and contains descriptions of the most remark­
able geographical features of Africa and America, including South America and the
United States, It is copiously illustrated with wood engravings.




The B ook Trade.

*781

12. —The British Poets. 18mo. 8 vols. Boston: Little, Brown <!i Co. New York:
Evans <fc Dickerson.
We noticed in former numbers of the Merchants' Magazine the progress of this en­
terprise, and referred in terms of general commendation to the series, which, when
completed, will form the most complete collection of the poets, from Chaucer to
Wordsworth, extant. We referred in our previous notices to the publication of the
works of Gray, Goldsmith, Pope, Prior, Cowper, Butler, and Collins. We have since
received from the Messrs. Evans & Dickerson, the publishers’ agents in New York, the
poetical works of Charles Churchill, with copious notes, and a life of the author by
Wm. Tooke, F. R. S., in three volumes; the poetical works of Edward Young, in
two volumes, with a life by the Rev. John Mitford; the poems of Thomas Hood, in
two volumes, with some account of his life, and the poetical works of Henry Kirke
White, in one volume, with a memoir by Sir Charles Nicolas. These eight volumes
cover some twenty-six hundred pages. The poems of Young, White, and Hood, are
prefaced with handsomely engraved portraits of each, and a concise and comprehen­
sive life is prefixed to the works of each of the poets embraced in the series. The
size aud style of the volumes are those of Pickering’s celebrated Aldine Poets, and
such of the works of that edition as fall within the plan of Little, Brown & Co’s, col­
lection, have been and will be embodied in it. Each separate work is sold by itself,
but the price of each volme is such (75 cents,) as to place the entire series in the hands
of every one who has the means of forming a private library. The uniform and beau­
tiful style in which the series is published, so far as paper and print are concerned, is
excellent, and but one opinion exists as to the great merits of the enterprise. We
shall have occasion to refer to it again, and will not, therefore, exhaust our vocabulary
of praise.
13. — Hand Book o f Natural Philosophy and Astronomy. By D ionysius L ardner ,
D. 0. L., Formerly Professor of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy in University
College, London. Third Course. Meteorology, Astronomy. With thirty-seven
plates, and upwards of two hundred illustrations on wood. 12mo. pp. 768. New
York.
This appears to be a very full and complete treatise on the whole subject of astron­
omy as well as meteorology, l he author has evidently taken great pains to render
the work as complete in all respects, and as nearly co extensive with the actual state
of the sciences, as the objects to which it is directed admit. He has detected several
errors of considerable importance, which have hitherto been almost universally dis­
seminated in elementary works, and under the authority of the most eminent names.
This is the last of a series of three hand-books of Natural Philosophy. The first
course related to mechanics, hydrostatics, hydraulics, pneumatics, sound and optics,
and the second to heat, magnetism, common electricity, and voltaic electricity.
14. —Annual o f Scientific Discovery ; or Year Book of Facts in Science and Art for
1854. Edited by Daniel A. Wells, A. M. 12mo., pp. 398. Boston: Gould <fc
Lincoln.
This is the fifth or sixth year of the publication of this valuable annual. The pres­
ent volume is equal in value and interest to any that have preceded it It exhibits
in a clear and concise form the most important discoveries and improvements in
mechanics, useful arts, natural philosophy, chemistry, astronomy, meteorology, zoology,
botany, mineralogy, geology, geography, and antiquities, made known through various
authoritative mediums during the year 1853. The present volume contains a list of
recent scientific publications, a classified list of patents, obituaries of eminent scientific
men, and notes on the progress of science during the year. It is a convenient book
of reference, and highly creditable to the research and skill of the editor and com­
piler.
15. — The A rt Journal, for April, 1854. London: George Yirtue. New York: 26
Johnstreet.
A superb number of an unrivaled art-work. Besides the numerous engravings on
wood in the best specimens of that art, we have three matchless pictures on steel, viz.,
Christ Lamenting over Jerusalem, from the painting of Sir C. L. Eastlake, engraved
by J. Outrim, and The Surprise, from Dubuff, engraved by W. Roffe, both from the
Yernon Gallery, and the Summer Holliday, from a spirited painting by Goodal, en­
graved by the same. We are gratified to learn that the “ Art Journal” has a large
and increasing circulation in the United States. It deserves it.




782

The Hook Trade.

16.—Saxton’s Hand Books. 2 vols., 12mo. New York : C. M. Saxton.
These volumes contain a collection of works of rare value to the agriculturist. The
several works embraced in the series were originally published separately, but they
are now embraced in two volumes, and form a very complete and comprehensive
treatise on the subjects discussed. In the first series we find distinct works on the
hog, the horse, the bee, the domestic fowl, the pests of the farm—by Itichardson,
whose writings on subjects connected with farming in England are very popular, and
are fast becoming equally so in the United States. The second series contain the
hand books, with titles as follow: Every Lady Her Own Flower Gardener ; Skinner’s
Elements of Agriculture ; Brown’s Bird Fancier; Dana’s Essay on Manures; Fessen­
den’s American Kitchen Gardener; and the American Rose Agriculturist. The Eng­
lish works embraced in these volumes have been improved and adapted to the con­
ditions of American agriculture by a competent and experienced hand ; and altogether
the series form one of the best collections of books extant on the several topics, and
should form a part of every agriculturist’s library.
U7.— Rambles in Brazil; or a Peep at the Aztecs. By one who has seen them.
Second Edition. With Maps and Illustrations. 12mo., pp. 264. New York :
Charles B. Norton.
The author gives an animated account of his experience while journeying through
Brazil. The first part is written in the form of a journal, recording the thoughts and
sentiments which were suggested by the many incidents occurring at the time, and
growing out of the circumstances which surrounded him in this country. The events
are penned in a spirited, pleasant style, full of enthusiasm. The second part of the
volume was composed after his return, and gives a historical account of the Talley of
the Incas. He treats upon the government, military, and civil institutions, modes of
communication, building, domestic manners an,d customs, and pastoral life.
18. -— The Constitutional Text Book : Containing Selections from the Writings of
Daniel Webster ; the Declaration of Independence; the Constitution of the United
States; and Washington’s Farewell Address. With copious Indexes. 12mo., pp.
60S. New York and Boston : C. S. Francis <Ss Co.
This work, designed for the higher classes of educational institutes and home read­
ing, contains selections from the writings of Mr Webster, of a purely national char­
acter, and such as are calculated to strengthen the opinions of the old, and impress
the young with a love of country and veneration for its institutions. The other docu­
ments alluded to in the title-page are in a convenient form for reference. It forms a
very handsome and desirable book for every family library.
19. —Jarjueline Pascal; or a Glimpse of Convent Life at Port Royal. From the
French of M. Victor Cousin, M. Prosper Faugere, M. Vinet, and other Sources.
Translated by H. N. With an Introduction by W. R. Williams, D. D. 12mo., pp.
318. New York: R Carter & Brothers.
Jaqueline Pascal is described as a woman in whom dignity and lowliness, wisdom
and simplicity, lofty genius and saintly piety, the martyr’s firmness and the woman’s
tenderness, were rarely and beautifully blended. These memorials of her life and
character, blended with other matters, will be read with interest.
20. — The Powers o f the World to Come, and Church Stewardship, as invested with
them. By G eoege B. C heever , D. D. 12mo., pp. 384. New York: Robert
Carter & Brother.
The present work had its origin in a course of lectures by the author, and purports
to be “ a practical survey of what is termed in some quarters the Extraology of the
Scriptures—the realities we are to meet beyond the grave.” Dr. C. is a vigorous
writer, and the present work will doubtless find many admirers among his theological
disciples.
21. —'American Statistical Annual o f 1854. Compiled from Authentic Sources. By
R ichard S. F isher and Charles C oley . 12mo., pp. 637. New York: J. H. Colton
& Co.
This is a work embracing the latest general details and statistics respecting all the
countries on the continent of America. It includes also those of some of the Pacific
islands. It is very full in its particulars, prepared with care, and contains a large
amount of valuable information nowhere else to be found.




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22. —The Standard Pronouncing Dictionary o f the French and English Languages,
in two Parts. The first part comprehending, in French and English words in com­
mon use, terms connected with science and the fine arts, historical, geographical, and
biographical names, with the pronunciation according to the French Academy and
the most eminent lexicographers and grammarians. The Second Part, Euglish and
French, containing all English words authorized by eminent writers, with the pro­
nunciation accord'ng to-the best authorities. The whole preceded by a practical
and comprehensive system of French pronunciation. By G abriel S urenne,
F. A. S. E. 8vo., pp. 920. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
The contents of this very valuable dictionary of the French and English languages
are stated very fully in the title. Some of the prominent features of this work are
the excellence of the pronunciation, the fullness and accuracy of the definitions, the
very convenient style in which it is published, and its excellent typographical appear­
ance. For Americans, it is one of the most valuable dictionaries of the French which
we possess.
23. — The Works o f Joseph Addison, including the whole contents of Bishop Hand’s
edition; with Letters and other Pieces not found in any previous collection; and
Macaulay’s Essay on his Life and Works. Edited, with Critical and Explanatory
Notes, by George Washington Green. In 5 vols. Yol. 4. 12rno., pp. 589. New
York : G. P. Putnam <fc Co.
The whole number of papers comprised in the Spectator is 635, of which Addison
wrote 274. The present volume contains 251—all presumed to be from the pen of
Mr. Addison. One volume more completes the series of papers, and beyond all ques­
tion the jnost complete and perfect edition of the writings of that celebrated British
Classic heretofore published. The style in which these volumes appear is highly
creditable to the.taste and enterprisejof the publishers; and we have no hesitation in
commending it as the best library edition extant.
24. —Humilities ; or the Theory of Preaching. By A. V inet, D. D. Translated and
Edited by Thomas H. Skinner, X).D. 12mo. New Y olk: Ivison & Phinney.
Preaching is the subject of this original work, to the theory of which and that of
secular oratory the author strictly confines himself. His work is a directory for all
public speakers, and for all who desire to excel in argumentation, oratorical and ele­
gant writing. There is scarcely a question bearing upon these subjects which is not
here treated with a charm of diction, and a strength and beauty of style, for which the
author is greatly distinguished.
25. —The Invalid’s Own Book : A Collection of Recipes from various Books and va­
rious Countries. By the Honorable L ady Crest. 18mo., pp. 144. New York: D.
Appleton & Co.
Most books of this description have been written and published to gratify the tastes
and provoke the appetites of epicures, or persons in the enjoyment of good health.
This has been prepared especially for those who do not enjoy the blessing. The sim­
plicity and the economy of its arrangement must place it within the reach of all classes
of society.
26. —Memoirs o f John Abernethy, F. II. S. With a View of his Lectures, Writings,
and Character. By G eorge M acilwain , F. R. C. S., author of “ Medicine and Sur­
gery,” “ One Inductive Science,” etc., <fcc. 12mo., pp. 434. New York: Harper <t
Brothers.
The author of these memoirs in early life became, through his father, a physician,
an enthusiastic admirer of Abernethy; and has in the present volume drawn what
appears to be a faithful portraiture of his genius as exhibited in the lectures, writings,
and character, professional and private, of that eminent surgeon. It is a work that
will interest the medical student.

—The Religion o f the Northmen. By R ddolpii K eysee, Professor of History in
the University of Norway. Translated by B arclay P ennock. 12mo., pp. 346.
New York : Charles B. Norton.
This is a translation of Professor Keyser’s work. It is designed to give more ex­
tended publicity to a series of lectures, delivered by that learned professor, on the
popular life of the Northmen in Heathendom. The work is prefaced by an elaborate
introduction by the translator.
27.




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28. — A n A r t Student in Munich. By A nna M a r y I I o w i t t . 12md., pp. 470. Bos­
ton : Ticknor, Reed A Fields.
This is quite a charming volume from the pen of Mias Howitt, written in a poetical
and animated style, rarely found in a personal narrative. She relates her experience
while sojourning in Munich, with sketches of the every-day life of an art student in
that capital. The authoress certainly inherits much of her mother’s genius and faculty
for composition. Her artistic criticisms evince much ability—the many incidents
which are recorded, and the happy descriptive talent which she possesses, render the
volume very attractive.
— The. Two Roadse Or the Bight and the Wrong. By J ames K norr. 12mo., pp.
872. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Grambo & Co. New York: 0. A. Roorback.
This volume consists pf tales, anecdotes, sketches and poems, designed to illustrate
the evils of intemperance, and the benefit of abstenance from intoxicating drinks. It
is an excellent book, and should be in the hands of old and young. It alludes to
movements in many of the States touching the traffic in liquors, and commends the
enactment of prohibitory laws.
29.

30. — The Humorous Speaker : Being a Choice Collection of Amusing Pieces, both in
Prose and Verse, Original and Selected—consisting of Dialogues, Soliloquies, Par­
odies, Ac., designed for the use of Schools, Literary Societies, Debating Clubs, Social
Circles, and Domestic Entertainment. By O liver O ldham. 12mo., pp. 408. New
York: Ivison A Phinney.
This valuable collection of humorous pieces are, as the title-page sets forth, every
way adapted to the use for which they are designed. Nearly all the pieces come from
the pens of our best authors, full of wit and humor, without vulgarity. The volume
is well deserving of an introduction into our schools, as a text-book for reading and
declaiming. It is admirably ca'culated for that purpose, and will be found a valuable
acquisition to the school library.
81.— Sketches o f the Campaign in N orthern M exico in 1846 and 1847. By an Officer
of the First Regiment of Ohio Volunteers. 12mo., pp. 336. New York: George
P. Putnam A Co.
The author of this book was an eye-witness of what he describes, and he therefore
claims for it the belief of the reader. His history purports to be one of facts, collected
from notes taken almost daily during the campaign. He quotes only such orders, dis­
patches, Ac., as are necessary to elucidate the narrative, and has recited plainly and
briefly tho^e interesting events in which the troops of Ohio participated, together with
such incidents of Taylor’s campaign as seemed necessary to afford the general reader
a clear, connected, and comprehensive view of the war in Northern Mexico.
32.— Emblems, D ivine and M oral. By F rancis Q uarles. 18mo., pp. 323. New York •"
Carter A Brothers.
Quarles was cup-bearer to Elizabeth, Queen of Bohemia, Secretary to Archbishop
Usher, and chronologer to the city of London in the reign of KiDg Charles the First.
The late Rev. John Ryland styles him “ a man of spiritual wit and imagination,” and
regards him as the first, as Herbert was the second, divine poet of the English nation.
There is a quaintness in his style that will interest many, and under it lies a vein of
common sense that will perhaps please more.
83.— Lectures on the Form ation o f Character, Temptations, and M ission o f Young
Men. By Rev. R ufus W. C lark , author of “ Memoir of Emerson,” “ Heaven and its
Emblems.” 12mo., pp. 380. Boston: J. P. Jewett A Co.
An excellent manual for young men, replete with sound and judicious suggestions.
The work is divided into three parts, and several lectures are given under each gen­
eral head. Part I., Character, with lectures on Home Influence, Formation of Char­
acter, Energy of Character, and Examples of Energy. The “ temptations” to which
young men,are exposed are set forth in six lectures, and their Mission and Duties in
eight more. The lectures on “ Energy of Character ” and the “ Principles of Trade,”
we commend to the particular attention of all who are starting in life, and would suc­
ceed in the mercantile or any other occupation or pursuit.

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