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H U N T ’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
JU LY,

1 8 42.

A r t . I.— COM PARATIVE VIEW OF T H E COMMERCE OF FRANCE, GREAT
BRITAIN, AND TH E UNITED STATES, FROM 1827 TO 1836 *
T h e destiny o f those nations o f the present day who have made the
furthest advances in civilization is connected in the most intimate manner
with their commercial prosperity. Commerce is the most fertile source
o f wealth, and, consequently, o f pow er; but the great and important in­
terests which have become the subjects o f daily discussion, cannot be
thoroughly and completely understood, unless the facts connected with the
questions are clearly stated and exhibited under their various forms, so
that all their relations may at once be perceived. The great task, that
o f collecting and arranging such facts, necessarily devolves upon govern­
ment, by whom alone the necessary knowledge o f them can be obtained.
Having had occasion formerly’ to deplore the scantiness o f such materials,
and to complain o f the reserve with which power dispensed the light o f
which it alone had possession, we have now the pleasure o f lauding the
facilities readily afforded in the present day in France, to any inquiries
into the causes and progress o f our national prosperity.
In its relations to the public, the administration o f the customhouse has
emancipated itself from the trammels imposed upon it under the “ Empire,”
and which were carefully preserved by the “ Restoration;” it has ceased,
to the great advantage o f the state, to shut up from public view the impor­
tant facts which it daily collects. Superintending one o f the branches o f
the public revenue, it has the means o f verifying and comparing the acts
o f commerce, the movements o f which are submitted to its inspection.
The system o f which the customhouse is the agent, does not appertain to
* For this able and interesting article, which we have translated from the French, we
are indebted to the politeness o f M . D. L. Rodet, its distinguished author, from whom
we received a copy o f it as originally published in the Revue des D eux Mondes.
VOL. V II.— NO. I .




2

„

14

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

it. The system emanates from the political pow er; it is the expression
o f the economy o f the state, at least so far as science has penetrated into
its legislation. In this point o f view, we acknowledge the administration
o f the customhouse entitled to additional gratitude for the extreme care
which they have taken in the preparation o f the documents emanating
from them, which are to have such an influence in determining the modifi­
cations that our system demands. The able men who direct this adminis­
tration, and superintend the preparation o f the works it puts forth, do not
stop short in their career o f im provement; the documents that issue from
their hands show themselves more and more complete, and they w ill be­
come still more so in proportion as our legislators, feeling the want o f
additional light, are willing to meet the expense o f obtaining it.
After having, since 1824, supplanted the meager statements o f the
former directors, by annual tables, methodically arranged, the adminis­
tration has just issued a resume o f its works in a fine volume entitled—
“ Tableau dtcennal du Commerce de la France avec ses Colonies, et les
puissances ( trangeres de 1827 a 1836.”
Importations, exportations, navi­
gation, transit entrepots, fisheries, drawbacks, all are collected and
grouped under divers points o f view, so that not a question that the book
can suggest need remain unanswered for want o f the means for its solu­
tion. Not that we give an entire assent to all its subdivisions and classi­
fications, some o f which are useless and some founded upon error, but-our
perception o f these imperfections need not prevent our acknowledging the
high value o f the work.
During the peace that, for a quarter o f a century, Europe, or rather,
we should say, the world has enjoyed, the public fortunes o f the nations
have rapidly accumulated. Labor has produced capital, and as the ter­
rible consummation o f war has not been effected, this capital, instead o f
being destroyed, has increased and brought forth fruit, and has served as
the basis of a commerce o f exchange, ’the progress o f which is very far
from having reached its ultimate point. Political troubles, revolutions,
and crises of credit occasioned by overtrading, have in some instances
interrupted the movement, but as soon as these causes have ceased to act,
the people hasten with renewed energy to regain the time which has been
lost, and a period o f redoubled activity soon compensates for the momenta­
ry interruption, and re-establishes the supremacy o f the “ law o f pro­
gress.”
Must we conclude from what we have said, that all nations called to
take a part in tlis general commerce, preserve the relative positions from
which they started ? W e do not think so. On the contrary, we believe
that each day France cedes something o f the ground which she had ac­
quired, and which she ought to occupy. The demonstration o f this un­
fortunate truth will no doubt be more interesting than a cold analysis o f
the decennial tables, in which, however, we find the elements o f our con­
viction.
In Europe, Portugal, hardly reduced to tranquillity, dreams not o f re­
establishing its commerce or industry. Spain has been consuming her­
self in a struggle, which the spectators have suffered to be prolonged for
want o f power to come to an understanding as to the means by-^which it
should be prevented. In Italy the Sardinian states, each day becoming
more and more fashioned to a uniform domination, find in the activity o f
their ancient Ligures the elements o f commercial prosperity. The other




France, Great Britain, and the United States.

15

states are following their example, while Lombardy and Venice, becoming
more and more an integral part o f the Austrian empire, content themselves
with the wealth which a fertile soil offers as a certain reward to their
labor. The Low Countries, since their separation, have struggled in
emulation: Belgium for the development o f her capital and the resources
o f her soil; Holland for the improvement o f its colonies, which are rapid­
ly increasing in importance, without exciting the notice o f the world.
W ill not one or the other o f these powers finish by ceding some port to
the grand customhouse confederation o f the German states? Prussia has
united under its patronage twenty-five millions o f Germans through the
means o f a uniform tariff", protective but not prohibitive, which has done
more than all the diets and political confederations. This bond acquires
a strength each day that will render it difficult to dissolve. Hanover,
Brunswick, and the Hanse Towns, cramped in their relations to the con­
federated states, are evidently destined to accede to, ai d to complete this
Germanic union. The Germans, as a commercial and producing people,
w ill soon find themselves mixed up and confounded in one general direc­
tion. As to Austria, with her eyes turned towards the Adriatic and her
Italian possessions, and pre-occupied with the navigation o f the Danube,
she has not much occasion to trouble herself with what passes on the
Rhine or the Elbe. She renounces without difficulty any participation in
a system from which it is so easy for her to live apart.
In terminating this rapid glance at the condition o f those states who
are nearly all o f them under forms o f government which do not render
publicity necessary, we may remark that it is very difficult to obtain, in
relation to each o f them, statements sufficiently detailed, or extending over
a long enough period, to enable us to make a comparison with the com­
merce o f France. But two other grand nations, Great Britain and the
United States, put forth each year the most elaborate documents, contain­
ing the details o f the divers branches o f their social state, and which
enable us to appreciate their simultaneous progress. These three nations,
in their different positions, have placed themselves in the present day, by
their power, their intelligence, and their activity, at the head o f the civil­
ized world.
Our intention is not, as we have already said, to present a meager
analysis o f a work that is itself nothing, but a collection o f interesting
facts under divers heads,— but to make the best use we can o f those facts,
and to group them in such a way as to draw from them the conclusion that
struck us as being the most remarkable. The date from which com­
mences the decennial period adopted by the administration o f the custom­
house, is happily chosen, as then may be considered to have ceased the
effects o f the crisis in. English affairs, which took place in the year 1825,
and which pressed with considerable force upon part o f the year 1826.
In the beginning o f 1827, the commercial movement commenced an ascent
which each political or financial perturbation for the moment interrupts.
The three nations whose commerce w e are about to compare, are situated
in many things very much alike, and no event can exert any disturbing
influence upon the commerce o f one, without its influence reacting upon
the affairs o f the others.
'• ^Commerce does not move in a regular and periodic manner. I f some
dbs'tacle interferes with it in some o f its relations, its development is so
much more lively when this obstacle is removed, and a reaction imme­




16

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

diately results, tending to the restoration o f affairs to a normal state. W e
have thought it best to divide the decennial period into successive groups
o f three years, leaving out o f our comparison the last year, 1836, which
we think ought to be taken by itself, and which will be found superior to
the average, resulting from its union with 1837 and 1838, years which felt
the effects o f the commercial crisis in the United States. But to under­
stand the estimates o f these periods it will be necessary to give some ex­
planations, which we will give after the following tabular summaries, o f
the system o f official valuation followed in each country :
SUMMARY OF T H E COMMERCE OF FRANCE.

Decennial Period from 1827 to 1836.
SHIPPING ENTERED, AND IMPORTATIONS.

Tons.

French vessels, .
Foreign do.
.
Total, .

Francs.

. 3,749,705 .
. 6,445,049 .

. V alue imported, . . 2,575,567,352
.
do.
do.
. . 1,888,557,310

. 10,194,754 .............................................. 4,464,124,562

Importations by l a n d , .....................................................
Total value o f importations,

.

2,209,518,852

.

.

6,673,643,414

O f which there has been consumed in the country,
. . . 4,799,507,814
R e -e x p o r te d ,..........................................................................
1,770,020,357
Leaving in store, or in the course o f transit,
. . . .
104,115,243
SHIPPING CLEARED, AND EXPORTATIONS.

,

Tons.

French vessels, .
Foreign do.
.
Total, .

Francs.

. 3,424,676 .
. 4,553,279 .
.

. V alue exported, . . 2,315,690,862
. do.
do.
. . 2,744,640,115

7,977,955 .

.

Exportations by land,

.

.

Total value o f exportations,

.

. . 5,060,330,977
.

.

O f this the foreign products re-exported amount to, .
French products exported,
.
.
.
.
.
.
The specie and the precious metals amount—

1,923,656,008
. 6,983,986,985
. 1,770,020,357
5,213,966,628
Francs.

Imported,
.
.
.
.
.t o
Exported,
.
.
.
.
.t o
and are not included in the preceding table.

1,646,548,718
699,977,520

French navigation, for the ten years, is divided as follows :—
IMPORTATION.

Tons.

T h e four sugar colonies, 1,025,531
Senegal,
. . . .
.
29,834
Fisheries, . . . .
. 534,932
Commerce reserved to
France,
. . . . 1,590,297
Foreign commerce, . . 2,159,408




Francs.

.
.
.

. Value im ported,.. .58 1,619 ,346
.
do.
do.
. 27,664,616
do.
do.
. 70,566,888

.
.

.
.

do.
do.

do.
do.

. 679,850,850
1,895,716,402

France , Great Britain, and the United States.

17

EXPORTATION.

Tohs.

Francs.

The four sugar colonies, 1,068,684 .
Senegal,
.
.
45,116 .
Fisheries, . .
. 552,547 .

. Value exported, ,. .414,250,341
.
do.
do.
. . 42,763,470
.
do.
do.
. . 26,435,427

France, .
Foreign commerce,

.
.

1,666,347 .
1,758,329 .

do.
do.

do.
do.

. .48 3,449 ,238
, 1,832,241,624

STATEMENT OF EACH YEAR.

Shipping Entered. Shipping Entered.
Year.
Tons.
Tons.

1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836

828,611
874,230
912,804
1,009,454
794,410
1,114,586
980,892
1,131,404
1,174,032
1,374,321

Importations.
Francs.

786,212
787,354
' 736,690
629,139
689,234
808,989
782,868
888,433
871,946
997,090

656,804,228
607,677,321
616,353,397
638,338,433
512,825,551
652,872,341
693,275,752
720,194,336
760,726,696
905,575,359

Exportations.
Francs.

602,401,276
609,922,632
607,818,646
572,664,064
618,169,911
696,282,132
766,316,312
714,705,038
834,422,218
961,284,756

SUMMARY OF T H E COMMERCE OF TH E UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT
BRITAIN AND IRELAND.

Decennial Period from 1827 to 1836.
SHIPPING ENTERED, AND IMPORTATIONS.

Tons.
British vessels,
Foreign do.

• ‘

'

Liv. start.

822 078 | 0fficial value exP’d> 471,502,281
-------------------

Total, .

.

Francs.

. 30,350,686 or at 25 fr. 20 c .,

11,881,857,481

SHIPPING CLEARED, AND EXPORTATIONS.

Tons.

British vessels,
Foreign

do.

Liv. sterl.

. 22,081,522 i Official value imp’d,—
> British products, . . 654,382,045
. . .
7,963,649 ) Foreign mer’dise, . 107,292,061
.

Total,

.

.

. 30,045,171 ........................................ 761,674,106
Francs.

Or in francs, for the British p r o d u c t s , .............................. 16,490,427,534
“
“
foreign m e rch a n d ise ,........................ 2,703,759,937
19,194,187,471

Total,

Liv. sterl.

The real or declared value o f British products was, how­
ever, instead o f 654,382,045 liv. sterling, only . . .
And, allowing for the foreign merchandise the official
value aforesaid—
................................................................
The export trade becomes reduced to




2*

.

402,583,100
107,292,061
509,875,161

18

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f
Francs.

Or in francs, for the British p r o d u c t s ,..............................
“
“
“
foreign m erchandise........................

10,145,094,120
2,703,759,937

Total, (which is more in accordance with the importations,) 12,848,853,057
The precious metals and specie are not included in the above.
SUMMARY OF TH E COMMERCE OF TH E UNITED STATES.

Decennial Period from 1827 to 1836.
SHIPPING ENTERED, AND IMPORTATIONS.

Tans.

Dollars.

Am erican vessels, .
Foreign
do.
.

. 10,293,640 .
. 3,611,721 .

Total, .

, 13,905,361 .

. V alue imported,
.
do.
do.

995,244,698
96,854,451

. 1,092,099,149

Or at 5 fr. 25 c.

.

.

. f.5,733,520,532

SHIPPING CLEARED, AND EXPORTATIONS.

Dollars.

Tons.

American vessels, .
Foreign
do.
.

. 10,734,094
. 3,588,775

. V alue exported,

14,332,599

.

Total,

.

do.

do.

Or in francs,

727,874,710
186,244,531
914,119,241
4,799,126,015

The exportations were—
Dollars.

American products,.
Foreign merchandise,

.
.

Francs.

. 708,615,251 or 3,720,232,587
. 205,503,510 or 1,078,893,428

The American documents include bullion and specie, which amount to—
IMPORTED.

Dollars.

On American account,

.

.

Francs.

95,596,668 or 501,882,507

EXPORTED.

Dollars.

Money o f the United States, .
Bullion and foreign c o in ,. .
Total,

.

.

Francs

8,598,746 or 45,143,406
45,024,246 or 236,377,291
53,622,990 or 281,520,697

AVERAGE Y E A R OF TH E DECENNIAL PERIOD, 1827 T O 183g
SHIPPING ENTERED.

National vessels, .
Foreign
do.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

FRANCE.

GREAT BRITAIN.

Tons.

Tons.

IT. STATES.
Tons.

374,907
644,505

2,252,861
782,208

1,029,364
361,172

1.019,412

3,035,069

1,380,536

324,468
455,328

2,208,152
796,365

1,073,409
358,878

799,796

3,004,517

1,432,287

SHIPPING CLEARED.

National vessels, .
Foreign
do.
. . .




.
.

19

France, Great Britain, and the United States.
IMPORTATIONS.

FRANCE.

GREAT BRITAIN.

Francs.

Francs.

Francs.

1,188,185,748

573,352,053(1)

1,014,509,412(2)
270,375,994

372,023,259(3)
107,889,343(4)

1,284,885,406

479,912,602(5)

By sea and by land, 667,364,341

UNITED STATES.

EXPORTATIONS.

National products, . 521,396,663
Foreign merchandise, 177,002,036
698,398,699

SECTION II.---- STANDARD OF VALUATION.

In France the standard o f official valuation, as applied by the custom­
house, has been adopted after a long inquiry, and is founded upon the
estimate o f average prices during the time o f the discussion. It was ap­
plied for the first time to commercial tables in 1825, and in comparing the
results o f that year with those that should have been produced by the old
standards o f value that had been used anterior to that time, there was
found a difference o f seventy-four millions o f francs less in the value o f
importations, and sixty-four millions more in the value o f exportations.
One sees from this to what errors we were exposed in the pretended de­
ductions respecting the balance o f commerce, since, by the old method o f
estimating, there was an error in one year o f one hundred and thirty-eight
millions. The present official standard has since been applied to all the
following years. It expresses vaguely enough some points, and unfor­
tunately keeps no account o f those changes o f value which are constantly
taking place.
Great Britain employs, for its official valuation, a rate that dates as far
back as 1696, and which has been properly increased only upon those
articles which have been produced since then. It is necessary, therefore,
for a correct estimate, to institute a comparison between the declared and
the real value.
Neither France or Great Britain comprise, in their commercial tables,
the exportation or importation o f bullion or coin.
The United States employ, for a rate o f valuation, the price current
o f the foreign port from whence the merchandise arrives, when they have
reference to importation ; and the price current at the Am erican port where
the cargo is embarked, when they have reference to goods exported. The
precious metals are included in the estimates o f imports as well as exports ;
but in this last case, when speaking o f American coins, they are included
in the statement o f native manufactured articles.
It is easy to see, from what we have said, that the amounts we are about
to compare are very far from having a mathematical certainty. T h ey
only serve as an indication o f the backward or forward movement o f the
commerce o f the three powers.
(1) Inclusive o f precious metals and specie, 50,188,251 francs.
(2) Real or declared value.
(3) Comprising American m oney,........................................................ 4,514,341 francs.
(4)
“
precious metals,............................................................ 23,637,729
“
(5)

Making a total of........................ ..................................................... 28,152,070




Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

20

SECTION III.---- COMMERCE OF FRANCE FOR THE DECENNIAL PERIOD.

W e w ill now proceed to examine more in detail the proportion in which
it is distributed throughout the decennial period o f the commerce o f which
we have presented the general summary. The period from 1827 to 1836
offers peculiarities which induce us to divide it into successive groups o f
three years each, leaving by itself the year 1836, during which occurred
an extraordinary commercial excitement which can hardly be considered
a fair standard o f comparison.
France has a land trade which includes not only its own proper affairs,
hut the business o f other nations who borrow her territory as a means o f
transit. This last, the facilities for which has only been recently granted,
is on the increase, and tends to swell the amount o f trade. A s to the
maritime commerce, one part is made in conjunction with foreign shipping
under the restriction o f customhouse laws, which, except in those cases
where mutual reciprocity has been guarantied, give to the French flag
the preference in the importation o f nearly all the articles o f trade. The
other part o f our commerce prohibited to foreign vessels, includes the carrying trade with our colonies, our coasting trade, and fisheries.
In all our statements we shall use only round numbers, and shall ex­
press values in francs even for foreign commerce.
In the trade by land, France shows—
Average year from 1827 to 1829, . .
“
“
1830 to 1832, . .
“
“
1833 to 1835, . .
The year 1 8 3 6 , ..................................

IMPORTATIONS.

EXPORTATIONS.

200 , 000,000

163.000. 000
178.000. 000
218.000. 000
244,000,000

183.000. 000
244.000. 000
328.000. 000

B y sea and under the French flag—
IMPORTATIONS.

Average year
from 1827 to 1829,
“ 1830 to 1832,
“ 1833 to 1835,
The year 1836,

Tons.

EXPORTATIONS.

Value.

Tons.

Value.

. . 348,000
. . 387,000
. . 485,000

238,000,000
235,000,000
283,000,000
308,000,000

330,000
311,000
359,000
427,000

224,000,000
208,000,000
248,000,000
277,000,000

.
.
.
.

158,000,000
184,000,000
198,000,000
270,000,000

440,000
398,000
489,000
570,000

220,000,000
243,000,000
305,000,000
440,000,000

. . 343,000

Under foreign flagsAverage year
from 1827 to 1829,
“ 1830 to 1832,
“ 1833 to 1835,
The year 1836, .

.
.
.
.

528,000
615,000
707,000
889,000

The value o f goods exported is divided into—

Average year
from 1827 to 1829,
“ 1830 to 1832,
“ 1833 to 1835,
The year 1836, . .

Foreign Goods
Re-exported, or
Transmitted.

.
.
.
.

99,000,000
157,000,000
223,000,000
332,000,000

French
Products.

508,000,000
472,000,000
549,000,000
629,000,000

The French shipping is divided as follows—




Total
Exportation.

607,000,000
629,000,000
772,000,000
961,000,000

21

France, Great Britain, and the United States.

Average year
from 1827 to 1829,
“ 1830 to 1832,
“ 1833 to 1835,
The year 1 8 3 6 ,. .
Average year
from 1827 to 1829,
“ 1830 to 1832,
“ 1833 to 1835,
The year 1 8 3 6 ,. .

Sugar
Colonies.
Tons.

Senegal.
Tons.

Fisheries.
Tons.

Reserved
exclusively
to French
Vessels.
Tons.

3,008
2,827
2,906
3,609

51,726
46,668
58,205
65,135

159,122
153,040
160,259
173,033

184,458
204,738
226,621
311,953

52,442
50,049
62,039
58,957

175,857
156,222
167,912
166,371

154,032
154,497
190,820
260,283

. 104,338
. 103,545
. 99,148
. 104,289

Other
Countries.
Tons.

CLEARED.

.
.
..
.

118,355
102,527
101,315
102,092

5,060
3,646
4,558
5,322

The trade conducted in French vessels amounts to— •
IMPORTATION.

French Colonies and Fisheries.

Average year from 1827 to 1829, .
“
" «
1830 to 1832, .
“
«
1833 to 1835, .
The year 1 8 3 6 ,....................................

68,000,000
69,000,000
69,000,000
70,000,000

Other Countries.

170.000.
166.000.
214.000.
238.000.

000
000
000
000

EXPORTATION.

Average year from 1827 to 1829, .
“
“
1830 to 1832, .
“
“
1833 to 1835, .
The year 1 8 3 6 ,....................................

49,000,000
44,000,000
48,000,000
58,000,000

175.000. 000
164.000. 000

. .

200 000 000
219,000,000

Thus, as we have said, we do not consider the trade o f the country under
the same point o f view that has been adopted in the classifications o f the
customhouse. W e do not think that the official classifications are always
calculated to fulfil the purpose intended, and we find it difficult to under­
stand how a list o f materials o f the first necessity to industry can include
race-horses and hunting-dogs, and not sheep ; drugs and wool used with­
out preparation in beds, and not raw sugar which is used in so many
ways, and the products o f which exported are classified as m anufactures;
and we cannot regard brandy, or tanned and dressed skins as natural
products. The misfortune o f such classifications is, that they serve as the
ground for false reasonings in relation to the relative importance o f some
branches o f our foreign commerce. In the present case we shall confine
ourselves to an enumeration o f some o f the principal articles, and their
official value.
Importation.

Silk, .
Cotton,
W ool and H a ir ,.
Skins o f Animals,
Colonial Sugar, .
Olive Oil, .
Indigo,
Fabrics o f Silk, .




.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

734,000,000
711,000,000
288,000,000
162,000,000
490,000,000
320,000,000
249,000,000
231,000,000

Stored and Delivered
fo r Consumption.

400.000. 000
589.000. 000
225.000. 000
140.000. 000
446.000. 000
296.000. 000
180.000. 000
28,000,000

22

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

A rticles.— Co ntin ued.

Importation.

Fabrics o f F lax and H em p,.
“
W ool,
“
Cotton,
Ores and Coal, .

.
.
.
.

Stored and Delivered
fo r Consumption.

225,000,000
74,000,000
163,000,000
405,000,000

161,000,000

388,000,000

The principal articles exported during the same period are as follows :—

Exportations.

W ines,
.
.
.
.
Brandy,
Fabrics o f Silk, .
“
Cotton,
.
“
W ool,
“
Flax and Hemp,
Embroidery and other products
Parisian industry, . . . .
Refined Sugar, .
S ilk ,...........................................
Cotton,
.
.
.
.

Produce o f the Soil,
or o f French Industry,
Exported.

. 473,000,000
. 199,000,000
. 1,434,000,000
. 664,000,000
. 408,000,000
. 428,000,000

467,000,000
193,000,000
1,215,000,000
543,000,000
339,000,000
326,000,000

° f | 206,000,000

197,000,000

.
.
.

102,000,000
380,000,000
102,000,000

81,000,000

The nations with whom the commercial relations o f France are the most
important, are the United States, The Low Countries, Sardinia, England,
Austria, The German States, Switzerland, Spain, Russia, and our own
colonies.
SECTION IV .— COMMERCE OF GREAT BRITAIN.

W e have mentioned the origin o f the standard applied to the valuation
Of the commerce o f Great Britain. W hen first used it accorded nearly
with the truth, but time has effected a great difference, and in 1798 Par­
liament required that the actual and real value should be noted in relation
to products o f the soil or o f British industry.
The shipping o f the United Kingdom is found thus—
ENTERED.

British F lag.

A v . year
“
“
The year

from 1827
“
1830
“
1833
1836, .

to 1829, 2,122,000
to 1832, 2,244,000
to 1835, 2,308,000
2,505,000
. . .

Foreign Flags.

Total.

699,000
758,000
820,000
989,000

2,821,000
3,002,000
3,128,000
3,494,000

702,000
768,000
839,000
1,035,000

2,688,000
2,979,000
3,159,000
3,567,000

CLEARED.

A v . year from 1827 to 1829, 1,986,000
“
“
1830 to 1832, 2,211,000
“
“
1833 to 1835, 2,320,000
2,532,000
The year 1836, . . . .
IMPORTS.

Official Value.-—Francs.

Average year from 1827 to 1829, . . 1,125,000,000
U
U
1830 to 1832, . . 1,181,000,000
(t
((
1833 to 1835, . . 1,187,000,000
. . 1,404,000.000
The year 1826, .




France , Great Britain , and the United States.

23

EXPORTS.

Foreign Products,
British Products.
Re-exported,
Francs.
Official Value.— Francs.

A verage year
from 1827
“ 1830 to
“ 1833 to
The year

1.354.000.
1829,255,000,000
1832,255,000,000 1.570.000.
1835,287,000,000 1.860.000. 000
1836, .312,000,000 2,139,000,000

to

Total.
Francs.

1.609.000.
000
1.825.000.
000
2.147.000.
2.451.000.

000
000
000
000

But if, retaining the official estimate for foreign products exported, we
consider the real and declared value o f British products, we shall find the
exports to be as follows :—

Average
from 1827
“ 1830
“ 1833
The year

year

Foreign Products.
Official Value.
Francs.

British Products.
Declared Value.
Francs.

to1829,255,000,000
923.000. 000
to 1832, 255,000,000
940.000. 000
to 1835, 287,000,000
1.074.000.
1836, . 312,000,000
1.336.000.

Total.
Francs.

1.178.000.
1.195.000.
000
1.361.000.
000
1.648.000.

The commerce o f England extends to every country in the world. Her
colonies in North Am erica and the East Indies, South Am erica, the Medi­
terranean, and the nations o f Europe, offer vast markets for her products,
but none o f equal importance to that which she finds in the United States.
O f forty-seven millions sterling, the declared value o f British exports in
1835, the United States alone took ten millions and a half, and o f fifty-three
millions in 1836, they took twelve millions and a half.
SECTION V .---- COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES.

W e have stated upon what principles are based the commercial esti­
mates presented to Congress. W ith them the financial year commences
the first o f October, and finishes the last o f September o f the following
year. W e have, in consequence, commenced our comparative periods
with October, 1826, and w ill end with September, 1836. W e have al­
ready given a general table o f facts for the whole period, and we w ill now
add the more important details and divisions.
The United States shipping has thus been classed and reported—
ENTERED.

American Vess.
Tons.

A v. year from 1826-27
“
“
1829-30
“
“
1832-33
The year 1835-36, .

to 1828-29,
887,000
to 1831-32,
946,000
to 1834-35, 1,179,000
.
.
1,255,000

For. Vess.
Tons.

Total.
Tons.

139,000
269,000
569,000
680,000

1,026,000
1,215,000
1,748,000
1,935,000

138,000
264,000
568,000
675,000

1,079,000
1,237,000
1,794,000
1,990,000

CLEARED.

A v . year
“
“
The year

from 1826-27 to 1828-29,
941,000
“
1829-30 to 1831-32,
973,000
“
1832-33 to 1834-35, 1,225,000
1835-36,
. . . .
1,315,000




000
000
000
000

24

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f
IMPORTATIONS.

Average year
from 1826-27 to 1828-29,
“ 1829-30 to 1831-32,
“ 1832-33 to 1834-35,
The year 1836, . . .

Total.
Francs.

Foreign Flags.
Francs.

American Flag.
Francs.

424.000.
481.000.
673.000.
997.000.

28,000,000
43.000. 000

396.000. 000
438.000. 000
607,000^)00
901.000. 000

. .

66 000

000

96,000,000

000
000
000
000

EXPORTATIONS.

American Products.
Francs.

Foreign Products,
Re-exported.
Francs.

Total.
Francs.

A verage year
from 1826-27
to1828-29,289,000,000
108,000,000
“ 1829-30
to1831-32,322,000,000 102, 000,000
“ 1832-33
to1834-35,442,000,000 111,000,000
114,000,000
T h e year 1835-36, . . 561,000,000

397.000.
424.000.
553.000.
675.000.

000
000
000
000

T h e export trade is shared as follow s:—
American Flag.

Total.
Francs.

Foreign F la g s.
Francs.

Average year
Francs.
from 1826-27 to 1828-29, 342,000,000
“ 1829-30 to 1832-33, 342,000,000
“ 1833-34 to 1834-35, 420,000,000
The year 1836, . . . 510,000,000

55.000.
82.000.
133.000.
165.000.

397.000.
424.000.
553.000.
675.000.

000
000
000
000

000
000
000
0

A s we have said, the United States documents comprise in their tables
the precious metals and coin s; and we find that for the decennial period
there was—
Francs.

Francs.

Imported, .
Exported, .

.
.

.
.

.
.

501,882,000 A verage year,
281,520,000
“
“

Leaving an excess o f
220,362,000
T o which must be added
the produce o f native
mines, n e a r l y . . . . 26,250,000
Increase o f circulation
in ten year s, . . . .
246,612,000

. 50,188,000
. 28,152,000

“

“

. 22,036,000

“

“

.

“

“

. 24,661,000

2,625,000

A certain portion o f American commerce does not make in the official
estimates the appearance that it really deserves. In every sea this kind
o f commerce is carried on by American vessels directly from the place o f
production to the place o f consumption, without touching at any American
port, and in consequence it is not included in the estimates submitted to
Congress. This important part o f American trade cannot be ascertained,
and then very imperfectly, but by a long and laborious investigation, for
which purpose it would be necessary to examine the estimates o f imports
and exports from India, China, Brazil, Cuba, the ports o f the Mediterra­
nean, the Hanse Towns, and the north seas o f Europe, between which the
communications are frequently effected by Am erican vessels. It must be
understood that the tables furnished by the government o f the Union ex­
press but a part o f the elements o f the prosperity o f this new country.
T h e United States have found in their fertile soil, their vigilant industry,




France, Great Britain, and the United States.

25

and in the happy effects o f their constitution, the means o f furnishing, for
foreign consumption, an enormous mass o f natural products. During the
decennial period materials were produced to the amount o f
3 , 2 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 lbs. o f cotton
.
.
.
2 ,0 3 2 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
9 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 “
tobacco
.
.
.
3 3 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
Corn, rice, flour, wheat, biscuit, etc.
.
.
6 2 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0
making a total o f nearly 3 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 o f francs, gathered directly from
the soil.
The importance o f these products, the fisheries, timber, & c., render less
notable the tardiness in the development o f manufactures. The employ­
ment, however, o f machinery, and the advantage o f having the materials
directly at hand, have already increased the exportation o f cotton goods to
an amount, during the decennial period, exceeding 88,000,000 o f francs,
o f which near twelve millons were for the year 1 8 3 5 - 3 6 .
SECTION V I.——GENERAL V IEW OF THE COMMERCIAL PROSPECTS OF FRANCE.

Statistics are not a dead-letter from which no instruction is to be drawn.
W e must, however, guard against too absolute conclusions in view o f the
difficulty we have in comparing and authenticating our facts. It is also
necessary to take the precaution o f examining the circumstances accom ­
panying or following the periods we have under consideration. Thus, the
movement o f commercial affairs in 1 8 3 6 has given, rise to the greatest
errors. It has been taken as an exemplification o f the principle o f per­
manent increase, whereas it ought to be looked upon as a year o f extra­
ordinary excitement and immoderate overtrading throughout the globe.
General commerce ought to augment with the civilized populations, and
the increase o f their means and appliances o f industry, but it would be
very erroneous to estimate any such progress by a comparison o f 1 8 2 6
and 1 8 3 6 . W e have seen how much the affairs o f this year have been
modified by a combination in the years 1 8 3 7 and ’ 3 8 . Not that we attach
any such great importance to the grouping o f years in periods which we
have adopted, we simply follow this method because we think it serves
very well to express the influence o f historical events upon the progress o f
commerce, and to reduce, by an average o f several years, the liability to
mistakes i f we examine the facts o f only one.
The backward movement that took place during the years 1 8 3 7 and ’ 3 8
has already ceased, and will probably be followed by a new era o f pro­
gression. Is France ready to join in and to profit by this change ? T o
resolve this question it is necessary to return to a consideration o f some o f
the details o f the statistics we have already presented. The laudations
that a nation may bestow upon itself frequently have but a slight founda­
tion, and are useful only to cover and conceal the complaints o f that por­
tion o f society who have a just perception o f the evils that exist, and that
ought to be remedied. Let us then, without any self-glorifying assertions,
examine into the true indications o f the progess o f our commerce and our
prospects o f future prosperity. Let us see what we have to expect; and
in doing so, let it be borne in mind that the comparisons we have to insti­
tute are between France, with a population o f thirty-three millions, and
Great Britain with twenty-four millions, and the United States with thir­
teen millions.
Imports, despite the false theories o f political economy, are the sign o f
VOL. V II.—

no.

i.




3

26

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

the wealth and industry o f a country. In France they may be embraced
in three divisions,— first, those employed in satisfying the wants o f con­
sumers ; second, those that are reshipped for foreign countries ; and third,
the balance, when there is any, that goes to form a reserve in entrepdt, or
in transit.
1. Foreign products consumedFrom 1827 to 1829,
From 1830 to 1832, .
From 1833 to 1835, .

.
.
.

. 1,351 millions o f francs.
. 1,368
“
“
. 1,515
“
“

2. Exported to foreign ports—
From 1827 to 1829, .
From 1830 to 1832, .
From 1833 to 1835, .
and it has therefore more than
3. The reserve in entrepot has
From 1827 to 1829,
and it has decreased—
From 1830 to 1832,
From 1833 to 1835,

. .
298 millions o f francs.
. .
471
«
“
. .
669
“
“
doubled.

augmented—
. . .
141 millions o f francs.
.
.

.
.

.
.

36 millions o f francs.
10
“
“

Such is the division o f French imports, which together amounted—
From 1827 to 1829, . . to . 1,790 millions o f francs.
From 1830 to 1832, . . to . 1,804
“
“
From 1833 to 1835, . . to . 2,174
“
“
W e see from this that the increase o f French importations is almost
wholly owing to the increase o f that part which is resold to foreign
countries:—
The importations into England have been—

From 1827 to 1829,
From 1830 to 1832,
From 1833 to 1835,

Official Value.
Francs.

Resold to
Foreign Nations.

Consumed in
England.

3,374 millions.
3,542
“
3,561
“

766 millions.
765
“
861
“

2,608 millions.
2,776
“
2,700
“

Official Value.
Francs.

Resold to
Foreign Nations.

Consumed in the
United States.

1,273 millions.
1,444
“
2,019
“

324 millions.
304
“
334
“

949 millions.
1,138
“
1,685

The imports into the United States were—

From 1827 to 1829,
From 1830 to 1832,
From 1833 to 1835,

T h e exportations o f products o f the soil and o f native industry were—
France.
Great Britain.
Official Value.— Francs. Declared Value.

From 1827
From 1830
From 1833

to1829, . 1,522 millions.
to1832, . 1,416
“
to1835, . 1,647
“

4,063 millions.
4,708
“
5,580
“

United States.
Real Value.

868 millions.
965
“
1,326
«

W e must not forget to remark that the precious metals are not included
in the documents o f France or Great Britain, and that the official valua­
tion surpasses by a considerable proportion the real value.




27

France, Great Britain, and the United States.

In the exportations, the foreign merchandise reshipped is also included.
But can this commerce, which has increased so rapidly, be said to belong
to France ? ’ T is true it takes place on our territory, and helps to swell
our estimate, but if we look to the bottom o f the subject we w ill find that
we have very little interest in it ; that it goes on under our eyes, but with­
out any o f us taking any part in it. Other nations have found our geo­
graphical position commodious, and have made our territory a rendezvous
where they traffic among themselves ; and our laws in relation to the
transit o f goods have given rise to a kind o f commerce, o f which the varia­
tions are owing to causes entirely foreign to our country.
The United States, England, Switzerland, Germany, Prussia, and the
East Indies, have sent to us articles not entering into our consumption,
amounting, in the period from 1827 to 1829, to 146 millions o f francs, and
from 1833 to 1835, 334 millions. On the other hand, our exportation o f
articles o f foreign growth amounted, for the United States, Switzerland,
Germany, and the Sardinian States alone, to ninety-five millions, from
1827 to 1829, and 297 millions from 1833 to 1835. This increase o f the
commerce o f exchanges through our territory is a remarkable fact, but
what renders it particularly worthy o f observation is the certainty that all
this great trade is carried on without the concurrence o f our citizens, that
they participate in it neither with their capital or with their ships. Swit­
zerland demands from the United States and England, cotton, indigo, and
other commodities. The United States, on their side, resort to the labor
o f the Swiss and Germans for silks, ribbons, linens, and cloths, which
form the lading o f their packets at Havre. A ll this kind o f trade unre­
gistered in our official statements and documents, gives a false appearance of
life to our commercial relations, and augments their importance by hundreds
o f millions. The exportation o f the products o f our own soil in the mean
time has increased so little, that i f we make allowance for the difference
between the official valuation and the real value, we shall find perhaps
that we have rested stationary for the nine years.
It remains to examine an important branch, that o f shipping, and to
consider the comparative progress o f navigation foreign to the country, in
France, England, and the United States.
ENTERED.

France.
National. Foreign.
Thousands o f Tons.

From 1827 to 1829, . 1,030
From 1830 to 1832, . 1,073
From 1833 to 1835, . 1,160

1,585
1,845
2,125

From 1827 to 1829, .
990
From 1830 to 1832, .
932
From 1832 to 1835, . 1,076

1,320
1,195
1,467

Great Britain .
United States.
National. Foreign.
National. For'gn.
Thousands o f Tons. Thousands o f Tons.

6,365
6,783
6,925

2,097
2,273
2,462

2,660
2,840
3,539

419
807
1,706

5,957
6,632
6,960

2,106
2,306
2,516

2,822
2,919
3,676

415
793
1,705

CLEARED.

The figures speak for themselves, and demonstrate that we are resting
stationary, while our rivals are advancing. But there are some other
points which, i f examined, w ill leave no doubt upon the mind o f any one.
French shipping is either reserved and exclusive, as that to our colonies
or the fisheries, or it is shared in common with foreign commerce, with
only the protection o f the differential duties o f the customhouse. A s to




28

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

this last, in which is to be found the proof o f our commercial force and
spirit, we shall be pardoned i f we recur once more to the figures which
express its condition.
SHIPPING- ENTERED.

French Flag.

From 1827 to 1829
1830 « 1832
1833 « 1835

.
.

.
.

.
.

.
.

553,375
614,216
679,864
472,215
470,785
581,576

Foreign Flag.

.
.

.
.
.

1,584,703
1,845,115
2,125,686

.
.
.

•
.
.

1,320,589
1,195,203
1,467,051

SHIPPING CLEARED.

From 1827 to 1829
1830 “ 1832
1833 “ 1835

That is to say, that in the relations o f France with other countries, our
vessels are employed only to a little more than one quarter o f the whole.
After a quarter o f a century o f peace, can any thing be imagined more
deplorable than such a result ? Still more, if we analyze the causes which
have enabled us to preserve even this fourth part o f the shipping which
enters and clears from our ports, we shall find that we have been com ­
pelled to have recourse, as far as England is concerned, to a “ reciprocity
o f commercial repulsion,” to protect our shipping in the India trade, by
duties equivalent to several times the amount o f the freights, and to en­
courage voyages to the eastern islands, by the most exorbitant immuni­
ties; which, on the other hand, have destroyed our commerce with Hayti,
and perhaps deprived the inhabitants o f that island o f the means o f dis­
charging their obligations to us.
The prosperity o f the merchant marine depends upon the commercial pro­
gress o f a nation, for in the present day every nation employs as much as
possible its own vessels in its own trade. Without a merchant marine
there can be no military m arine; and this last, as we have seen at Navarino, Algiers, in the Tagus, and lately in South America, is one o f the
most sure bases o f political preponderance and power. W ell may we be
astonished at the neglect that has been manifested, particularly since the
revolution o f 1830, in the councils o f the nation, for our true commercial
interests. Such, however, are the fruits o f the perseverance with which
the system adopted under the empire, and carefully preserved by succeed­
ing governments, has been followed. The supporters o f it pretend that
the internal prosperity o f the country is ensured by the prohibition o f the
products o f foreign labor. T h ey do not seek to encourage exportation, but
imagine they have gained every thing, when they have annihilated some
branch o f importation. Th ey please themselves with exaggerated praises
bestowed upon the industry o f the country, and disguise the fact that we
are being driven from the markets o f the world. That while ignorant o f
the progress o f our rivals, we are neglecting the new duties our country
is called upon to fulfil. It is evidently a decline not to march at an equal
pace with other nations, and such undoubtedly is our position in respect to
that portion o f commerce o f which we speak.
W e have had occasion, in an article in a former number o f this review,
to dilate upon the ideas which were excited by the grand ceremonies o f
the exhibition o f the products o f French industry— the fair o f 1834. Since
then, Charles Dupin, speaking in the name o f the committee to whom was
intrusted the decision upon the respective merits o f the articles exhibited,




France, Great Britain, and the United States.

29

has, in a report which combines the highest scientific information with pro­
found technical knowledge, set forth in the most forcible manner the im­
portance o f the manufacturing interests. Doing full justice to a work o f
so much interest, and fully appreciating the impartiality o f the committee,
we cannot but regret that they did not interrogate the manufacturers as to
the place that their products occupy in the consumption o f foreigners and
their influence in swelling our exportations. That would furnish the true
touchstone o f our progress and the measure o f our success.
After the exhibition followed an examination. There the same manu­
facturers who had demanded a recompense for their progress, came confess­
ing their inability to compete with foreigners, and that for this unfortunate
state o f things there can only be found a remedy in the continuation o f
protection amounting nearly to prohibition. The government could not
struggle against the general wish shared by men o f every variety o f politi­
cal opinion, and our manufacturers have quietly gone to sleep, satisfied
with the consumption secured to them o f thirty-four millions o f inhabitants.
Our industry has not felt the slightest anxiety at seeing pass through our
territory in 1836, 332 millions o f francs in foreign products. O f this,
some 180 millions were in manufactured articles. W hat are the causes
that prevent us from furnishing this amount ? W h y is the preference
given to Switzerland, Prussia, & c. ? W hat puts these countries in a state
to excel us ? Nobody knows. A nd yet w e have no want o f men who
laud us instead o f warning us. W e rest in the rear o f the march pursued
by other nations ; and if we perceive that, after having bought the flax,
they come to us to sell the linen also, we can find the only remedy in a
prohibition o f such product, instead o f seeking some method o f making it at
a lower price. T h e production o f the beet-root is regarded as a conquest,
protected as it has to be by duties amounting to one hundred per cent upon
the prices that we pay our colonies for the sugar we buy o f them. W e
abandon the cultivation o f many rich products for that which will properly
develop itself only in a hot-house, and which, sooner or later, will exhibit
itself a miserable deception to those who have delivered themselves up to
it. This epoch w ill arrive when the government shall have discovered
that there are other interests besides those o f the landholders, for the mere
cultivators are disinterested in the affair. It w ill arrive when the com ­
merce with foreign countries, the marine, and the power o f France, shall
have attracted the regard o f the Chambers and the Ministry, when they
w ill be willing to abandon the absurd system o f encouraging on the one
hand by bounties what they destroy on the other by prohibitive duties.
Not that the government is without an idea o f the importance o f preserv­
ing a naval force. It is with the view o f creating a supply o f sailors that
bounties are allowed upon the whale and cod fisheries. But they ought
to count more upon the trade o f our ports with the colonies we possess,
and exercise a due influence in preserving them in a state o f prosperity.
T h ey ought to think, in relation to them, o f what they have done for the
coasting trade, that important nursery o f seamen, which has been greatly
benefited by a recent ordinance removing the tonnage duties o f coasting
vessels, and extending their licenses to a year. This measure is one that
we cannot too much praise, but it cannot exert any influence upon our
grand commerce.
The four sugar colonies gave employment to nearly one hundred thou­
sand tons o f shipping, and from five to six thousand sailors. Their trade,
3*




30

Comparative View o f the Commerce o f

reserved exclusively to our own country, has amounted to an average
value o f from fifty to sixty millions o f francs, and it has been decreasing
for several years. W e have ceased in France to comprehend the value
o f these establishments, and we look with contempt upon the fine road­
steads o f Fort Royal, where France, at it were at home, could collect and
shelter the fleets capable o f making her name respected upon distant
shores. Without colonies, the whale and cod fisheries w ill become nearly
useless. W e will just glance at the facts having relation to this branch
o f navigation, which has been for a long time so highly protected.
The whale-fishery employed on an average from 1827 to 1829, 200
seamen yearly, and produced 13,000 quintals o f oil. From 1833 to 1835
the numbers o f the crews were raised to 600 men, and the produce
amounted to 30,000 annually.
The cod-fishery employed 9,000 men on an average from 1827 to 1829,
and 10,000 in 1833 -35. The produce amounted to an average o f 55,000
quintals, o f which 20,000 went to Spain, and ports in the Mediterranean,
and the balance was taken to our sugar colonies. These colonies, besides
the 35,000 quintals we send them, receive the cargoes which our fishermen
take directly from Newfoundland, and in return for which they freight
with colonial commodities for the northern country. Their total consump­
tion o f the products o f the fisheries amounts to 80,000 quintals per annum.
The state allows, under various conditions, to those who undertake fish­
ing voyages, a bounty equivalent to between three and four hundred francs
a year for .each man. In other words, the state pays the wages o f the men
and leaves to the owners the profits o f the voyage. In some voyages o f
long duration, as in the whale-fishery, the bounties amounted to from
1,400 to 1,500 francs for each seaman. Such great sacrifices have an
object, and this object has been once obtained, for without the resources
which were found in the sailors engaged in the fisheries, the expedition to
Algiers could not have taken place.
I f the fisheries, and particularly the cod-fishery, has need o f the aid o f
government to subsist, it has equally a need o f a market for its products.
N ow foreign countries take scarcely a fifth, and it is only by submitting to
exorbitant duties, which at any moment may be changed into prohibition,
that we retain the precarious and trifling market in Spain. The British
Parliament have been recently occupied with the remonstrances o f the
people interested against the proposed increase o f duty by the Spanish
authorities, but it does not seem that all the skill o f Mr. Villiers has been
able to obtain any melioration; and i f Spain quiets her internal dissensions,
her first care will be to strengthen her system o f commercial repulsion, o f
which we have given her the example. W e can place dependence only
upon our colonies for the consumption o f the products o f our fisheries, the
existence o f which depends upon them. United, these two inseparable
branches make two fifths o f our whole navigation, and under this point o f
view we are already so poor that we ought to dread the approach o f the
time when an additional reduction w ill be effected. But with the ideas
that at present predominate, w e have no confidence that our feeble efforts
can avail to avert a loss so disastrous. It is necessary, i f truth is to tri­
umph, that voices more powerful should be raised in her behalf.
W e are far from having exhausted this subject. W e have pointed out
the evil. Colonies are essential to a commercial people. A s for the
United States, divided into two grand regions, one o f these regions is the




Progress o f Population and Wealth, etc.

31

colony o f the oth er: one, at the south, produces; the other traffics, exchanges,
and exports. Great Britain is assured o f renewed resources in the east, but
she has also made sacrifices enough in favor o f the W est Indies to enable
us to judge o f the value she attaches to the future prosperity o f those fine
islands.
A people— less powerful, but o f great perseverance never
wrongly directed— the Dutch, haved turned their whole attention towards
Java, nearly the only important possession they have preserved. In 1826
the commerce o f that island, entered and cleared, amounted to fifteen mil­
lions o f florins, or nearly thirty-two millions o f francs. In 1836 it had
increased to forty-one millions o f florins, or eighty-seven millions o f francs.
In the same space o f time our commerce with our colonies, including the
fisheries, remained absolutely stationary, and limited to sixty-eight mil­
lions o f francs, the official value o f the entries, and about fifty millions
value o f the clearances.
It is impossible to have power without a military marine, a military
marine without commerce and merchant shipping, merchant shipping
without colonies and the fisheries, and lastly, colonies without doing some­
thing for their interests and their existence. Some w ill say we can do
without all that, but for ourselves we have not the courage to make such
a declaration.

A rt . II.— PR O G R E SS OF P O P U L A T IO N A N D W E A L T H IN TH E U N IT E D
S T A T E S IN F I F T Y Y E A R S ,
A S E X H IB IT E D B Y TH E DECEN N IAL CENSUS T A K E N IN T H A T PERIOD.

C H A P T E R I.
INTRODUCTION---- THE CENSUS OF

1790.

A s soon as the framers o f the Federal Constitution had decided on giv­
ing to each state a representation in Congress in proportion to its numbers,
and that direct taxes, whenever resorted to, should be in the same propor­
tion, it became necessary to take an exact enumeration o f the people.
Such an enumeration was accordingly directed by the Constitution; and,
as it was known that the progress o f population greatly varied, and would
continue to vary in the several states, it was further provided that similar
enumerations should be taken “ within every subsequent term o f ten
years.” *
This census o f the people at stated periods, which was thus subordinate
to a particular purpose, was soon found to have substantial merits o f its
own. It has furnished an authentic document which is invaluable to the
* The provision o f the Constitution referred to is in the second section o f the first arti­
cle, and is in these words : “ Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned
among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their
respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number o f free
persons, including those bound to service for a term o f years, and, excluding Indians not
taxed, three fifths o f all other persons, [meaning slaves.] The actual enumeration shall
be made within three years after the first meeting o f the Congress o f the United States,
and within every subsequent term o f ten years, in such manner as they shall by law
direct.”




32

Progress o f Population and Wealth

philosopher and political economist, as w ell as to the statesman and legis­
lator. By the evidence it affords they are enabled to deduce truths o f suf­
ficient importance to justify the trouble and expense it involves, though it
were not necessary to the just distribution o f political power, and to equal­
ity o f taxation ; and its benefits became so obvious, that the most enlight­
ened nations o f Europe have followed the example, and now take periodi­
cal censuses o f their inhabitants solely for the valuable knowledge they
convey. A s the numbers o f a people are at once the source and the index
o f its wealth, these enumerations enable its statesmen to see whether na­
tional prosperity is advancing, stationary, or retrograde. T h ey can com ­
pare one period with another, as w ell as different parts o f the country with
each other, and having this satisfactory evidence o f the facts, they can
more successfully investigate the causes, and apply the appropriate reme­
dies, where remedy is practicable.
T h ey also furnish occasions for obtaining other statistical information
on subjects that materially concern civilization and national prosperity.
The same means taken to ascertain the numbers o f the people may be used
to distribute them into classes, according to sex, ages, and occupations,
and different races, where such diversity exists.
A ccordingly, the
United States, and all the European nations who have profited by our ex­
ample, have thus improved their respective enumerations o f their people.
Six censuses have now been taken in this country, and in each successive
one, some new list has added to our knowledge o f the progess o f social im­
provement. B y their aid, speculations in political philosophy o f great
moment and interest may be made to rest on the unerring logic o f num­
bers.
This knowledge, so indispensable to every government which would
found its legislation on authentic facts, instead o f conjecture, is peculiarly
important to us. Our changes are both greater and more rapid than those
o f any other country. A region covered with its primeval forests is, in the
course o f one generation, covered with productive farms and comfortable
dwellings, and in the same brief space villages are seen to shoot up into
wealthy and populous cities. T h e elements o f our population are, moreover,
composed o f different races and conditions o f civil freedom, whose relative
increase is watched with interest by every reflecting mind, however he may
view that diversity o f condition, or whatever he may think o f the compara­
tive merit o f the two races.
It is the purpose o f the following pages to profit by the information
which the several censuses have furnished, so as not only to make us bet­
ter acquainted with the progress o f our Federal Republic during the h alf
century it has existed, but also to give us a glimpse o f the yet more im ­
portant future which awaits us.
Before we consider the inferences to be deduced from all the censuses to­
gether, let us take a brief notice o f each o f them in succession.
The first census was taken in 1790, and its enumeration referred to
the 1st o f August o f that year. It distributed the population under the
following heads, v i z :
1st. Free white males, sixteen years o f age and upwards.
2d. The same under sixteen.
3d. Free white females o f all ages.
4th. Slaves.
5th. A ll other persons ; by which was meant free persons o f color.




33

in the United States in Fifty Years.
The result is exhibited in the following

TABLE OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ON THE 1ST OF AUGUST
1790.

States.

N e w H a m p s h i r e , ....................
R h o d e I s l a n d , ..........................
C o n n e c t i c u t , .............................
V e r m o n t , .......................................
N ew

Y o r k , ................................

N e w J e r s e y , .............................
P e n n s y l v a n i a , ..........................
D e l a w a r e , ...................................
M a r y l a n d , ...................................
V i r g i n i a , ........................................
N o r t h C a r o l i n a , .......................
S o u t h C a r o l i n a , ........................
G e o r g i a , ........................................
K e n t u c k y , ...................................
T e n n e s s e e , ..................................

W hite
White
Males o f
W hite A ll other
Males
16 and
Females. persons.
under 16.
upwards

Slaves.

Total.

24,384
36,089
95,383
16,033
60,527
22,419
83,700
45,251
110,788
11,783
55,915
110,934
69,998
35,576
13,103
15,154
6,271

24,748
46,870
34^851
70il71
87,289 190,582
32^45
i 5 ;8 n
54,492 117,562
22,327
40,398
78,122 152,320
41,416
83,287
106,948 206,363
12,143
22,384
51,339 101,395
116,135 215,046
77,506 140,710
37,722
66,888
25,739
14,044
28,922
17,057
10,377
15,365

538
630
5,463
3,469
2,801
255
4,654
2,762
6,537
3,899
8,043
12,766
4,975
1,801
398
114
361

952
2,759
17
21,324
11,423
3,737
8,887
103,036
293,427
100,572
107,094
29,264
11,830
3,417

813,298

802,327 1,556,839

59,466

697,897 3,929,827

96 540

158

14l|899
3 7 8 ,7 1 7

69,110
238,141
85,416
340,120
184,139
434,373
59,096
319,728
748,308
393,751
249,073
82,548
73,077
35,791

* Maine was then a part o f Massachusetts, and so continued until 1820, but as its census
was taken separately, it has always properly held a separate place in statistical tables.

By this census the population o f the United States was first ascertained
by actual enumeration, together with its several parts, white and colored,
free and servile, and the comparative numbers o f the different states. A s
the result somewhat disappointed expectation, the census was supposed by
many to be inaccurate, and the assumed error was imputed, I know not
on what evidence, to the popular notion that the people were thus counted
for the purpose o f being taxed, and that not a few had, on this account, un­
derstated to the deputy marshals the number o f persons in their families.*
But the general conformity o f this census' with those subsequently taken,
in all points where the discrepancy cannot be satisfactorily explained,
shows that the errors could not have been considerable.
The census showed that the population o f this country had been over­
rated at the revolution, for supposing the rate o f increase to have been the
same before the census as after it, the people o f the thirteen colonies, at
the time o f the stamp act, fell considerably short o f two millions, and at
the declaration o f independence, they did not reach to two and a h alf mil­
lions.
The items o f the first census were unfortunately too few to furnish much
materials for comparison. The most important facts it discloses, are the
follow in g :
* It is certain that this supposed source o f error was credited by General Washington,
usually so cautious, and almost unerring in his judgments, and that on the faith of it, he
expected that the second census would show a much larger amount o f population than
proved to be the fact.




Progress o f Population and Wealth

34

O f the whole population, the whites were 3,172,464 =
The free colored,
59,466 ==
The slaves,
697,897 =

80.73 per cent.
1.51 “
“
17.76 “
«

3,929,827
100.
Consequently, the whole free population,
white and colored, were
.
.
.
.
.
82.24 “ “
A nd the whole slave population,
.
.
.
.
17.76 “
“
The number o f white males to that o f the females was as 103.8 to 100 ;
or for every 10,000 males there were 9,636 females.
It deserves to be remarked that the age o f sixteen, which was adopted
by Congress to divide the male population into two parts, with a view
probably to ascertain the number o f men capable o f bearing arms, made
an almost equal division between them. Thus, o f the whole male white
population, the part over sixteen is 50.3 per cent, and the part under six­
teen 49.7. The age o f twenty was thus found to divide the male popula­
tion o f England into two equal parts, by the census taken in that country
in 1821.
It w ill be perceived that, at this period, every state in the Union, except
Massachusetts, contained slaves. But, as in several the number was few,
and slavery was there subsequently abolished, in tracing the progress o f
the slave population, it has been thought best to confine our views to those
in which slavery still exists, and where it constitutes a larger part o f the
population.
The proportion o f the white, the free colored, and the slave population
may be seen in the following table :—
Whole
F oliation.

States.

Delaware..................
Maryland..................
Virginia.....................
North Carolina........
South Carolina.........
G eorgia....................
Kentucky.................
Tennessee................

59,096
319,728
748,308
393,751
249,073
82,848
73,077
35,791

Whites.

Free Col'd.

Slaves.

PER CENTAG E OF

W h it’s F. Col. Slaves.
46,034
208,649
442,115
288,204
140,178
52,886
61,613
32,013

4,177
8,043
12,766
4,975
1,801
398
114
361

8,887
103,036
293,427
100,572
107,094
29,264
11,350
3,417

77.9
65.3
59.1
73.2
56.3
64.1
84.3
89.4

7.1
2.5
1.7
1.3
.7
.5
.2
1.

15.
32.2
39.2
25.5
43.
35.4
15.5
9.6

1,961,374 1,271,692

32,635

657,047

64.8

1.7

33.5

C H A P T E R II.
T H E CENSUS OP

1800— BEING

TH E SECOND E N U M ERATIO N UN DER TH E C O N STITU TIO N .

The act o f Congress which directed the second enumeration, added some
new divisions o f the white population to those o f the first census. It dis­
criminated between the sexes, and it distributed each under the five fol­
lowing heads, v i z :
Those persons who were under ten years o f age.
“
“
ten, and under sixteen.
“
“
sixteen, and under twenty-six.
“
“
twenty-six, and under forty-five.
“
“
forty-five and upwards.
The resnlt is exhibited in the following table :—




TABLE OF THE POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ON THE 1st OF AUGUST, 1800.

WHITE MALES.
STATES AND
TERRITORIES.

M aine........................
N ew Hampshire . . .
V erm ont....................
Massachusetts.........
Rhode Island...........
Connecticut..............
N ew Y o rk ................
N ew Jersey.............
Pennsylvania...........
Delaware...................
Maryland..................
Dis’ t o f Columbia....
Virginia......................
North Carolina.........
South Carolina.........
G e o r g ia ....................
Kentucky..................
T ennessee................
O hio...........................
Indiana.....................
Mississippi................




27,970
30,594
29,420
63,646
9,945
37,946
100,367
34,780
103,226
8,250
35,852
1,588
92,438
63,118
37,411
19,841
37,274
19,227
9,362
854
1,009
764,118

45 and
10 and | 16 and
26 and
45 and Free coVd
16 and
26 and
10 and
Under 10
Slaves.
under 16. under 26. under 45. upwards. persons.
under 16. under 26 under 45 upwards.
12,305
14,881
12,046
32,498
5,352
19,408
44,273
15,859
46,161
4,437
17,392
671
40,500
27,073
16,156
8,470
14,045
7,194
3,647
347
356
343,071

12,900
16,379
13,242
38,305
5,889
21.683
49,275
16,301
54,262
5,121
21,234
1,178
48,708
31,560
17,761
9,787
15,705
8,282
4,636
466
482

15,318
17,589
16,544
39,729
5,785
23,180
61,594
19,956
59,333
5,012
22,778
1,332
50,262
31,209
19,344
10,325
17,699
8,352
4,833
645
780

8,339
11,715
8,076
31,316
4,887
18,976
31,943
12,629
38,485
2,213
13,394
539
30,221
18,683
10,244
4,957
9,233
4,125
1,955
262
290

26,899
29,871
28,272
60,920
9,524
35,736
95,473
32,622
99,624
7,628
33,796
1,577
87,323
59,074
34,664
18,407
34,949
18,450
8,644
791
953

11,338
14,193
11,366
30,674
5,026
18,218
39,876
14,827
43,789
4,277
16,437
663
38,835
25,874
15,857
7,914
13,433
7,042
3,353
280
376

13,295
17,153
12,606
40,491
6,463
23,561
48,176
17,018
53,974
5,543
22,367
1,027
50,730
32,989
18,145
9,248
15,524
8,554
3,861
. 424
352

14,496
18,381
15,287
43,833
6,919
25,186
56,411
19,533
53,346
4,981
21,170
1,028
47,810
30,665
17,236
8,835
14,934
6,992
3,342
393
416

8,041
12,142
7,049
35,381
5,647
20,827
28,651
11,600
33,394
2,390
11,906
463
27,453
17,514
9,437
3,894
7,075
3,491
1,395
115
165

393,156

431,589

262,487

725,197

323,648

401,499

411,694

248,030

818
856
557
6,452
3,304
5,330
10,374
4,442
14,561
8,268
19,587
783
20,124
7,043
3,185
1,019
741
309
337
163
182

TOTAL.

151,719
183,762
154,465
423,245
381
69,122
951 251,002
20.343 586,756
12,422 211,949
1,706 602,365
6,153
64,273
105,635 341,548
3,244
14,093
345,796 880,200
133,296 478,103
146,151 345,591
59,404 162,101
40.343 220,955
13,584 105,602
45,365
4,875
135
3,489
8,850
8

108,395 893,041 5,305,925

in the United States in Fifty

Tinder 10

WHITE FEMALES.

36

Progress o f Population and Wealth

This census, besides informing us o f the actual numbers then in the
United States, made us further acquainted with the rate o f our increase,
and which proved to be somewhat greater than it had, on the authority o f
D r. Franklin’s opinion, been previously estimated.
The whole population was thus distributed:
W hite males
.
.
.
.
2,204,421
“
females
.
.
.
.
2,100,068
4,304,489
Free colored
108,395
Slaves
893,041
T o t a l ................................................................
5,305,925
The increase in ten years, was35.02 per cent. '
O f the whole population
35.68
“
“
whites
82.28
“
“
free colored
27.96
“
“
slaves
32.23
“
“
whole colored population
It must be recollected that the white population was increased by immigration, and the free colored by emancipation, The increase from the
first source was estimated, on such imperfect data as he possessed, at
60,000 in the ten years from 1790 to 1800. But since an account has been
taken o f the foreign emigrants who arrive in our sea-ports, as well as from
the intrinsic evidence afforded by the enumerations themselves, w e must
regard his estimate as much too low. The number o f refugees from St.
Domingo was known to make a considerable addition, at that period, to the
steady stream o f European emigration. The accession to our numbers
from this source, instead o f about l-i per cent, as Dr. Seybert supposed,
was probably not short o f 3 per cent.
The distribution o f the three classes o f our population, compared with
that o f the preceding census, may be seen in the following table :—
B y the Census
o f 1790.

B y the Census
o f 1800.

80.73 per cent. 81.12 per cent.
1.51 “
“
2.05 “
“
17.56 “
*•
16.83 “
“
100.

100.

Consequently, the proportion o f the whole free popu82.24
19.27

83.17
18.88

The age o f sixteen divided the white population, as at the preceding
census, into two nearly equal parts, and the excess o f those under sixteen
was yet less than in 1790. Thus,
T h e number o f white males under sixteen was 1,117,169
“
“
females
“
1,038,845
---------------- 2,156,014
The number o f white males over sixteen
“
“
females
“




1,087,252
1,038,845
t o -------------

2.126,097

in the United States in Fifty Years.

37

The white population is thus distributed according to ages, v i z :
34.6 per cent.
Those under the age o f ten .
.
15.5
“
“
between ten and sixteen
.
“
between sixteen and twenty-six .
18.4
“
.
“
between twenty-six and forty-five
19.6
“
11.9
“
“
forty-five and upwards
•
which shows the numbers under and above sixteen to be yet nearer than
50.1 to 49.9.
The males o f the whole white population exceeded the females in the
proportion o f 100 to 95.3, but there is great diversity in the proportion be­
tween the sexes at different ages. Thus,
O f those under ten years o f age,* the proportion o f males > ^qq
g^ g
to females was as $
“
94.3
“
between ten and sixteen
“
102.1
“
between sixteen and twenty-six
“
95.4
“
between twenty-six and forty-five .
“
94.5
“
over forty-five
.
.
.
.
.
It appears from the preceding statement, that, notwithstanding the greater
number o f males born, yet from the greater number also who go abroad
as travellers or seafaring men, or who die from casualties, the females
between sixteen and twenty-six exceed the males between the same a g e s;
and it may be presumed that they would maintain the excess in the after
periods o f life, but for the foreign emigrants, who consisted, at that time, far
more o f males than females. The small gain o f the males on the females
between ten and sixteen is probably to be referred to the same cause ;
though a part may be ascribed perhaps to the greater mortality o f females
at that period o f life.
Although in every state o f the Union the males, under ten, and between
that age and sixteen, exceed the females, yet in the subsequent ages there
is a great diversity among the states, for in all the N ew England states,
except Vermont, the excess o f females over sixteen is so great as to out­
weigh the excess o f males under sixteen ; and thus make the whole num­
ber o f females exceed that o f m a les; as may be thus seen, viz :
In Maine the white males were
74,069 the females 76,832
it
it
91,740
N ew Hampshire,
91,158
tt
tt
Massachusetts,
205,494
211,299
it
tt
33,581
Rhode Island,
31,858
tt
it
121,193
123,528
Connecticut,
In Vermont, however, the males o f every age exceed the females. This
diversity is doubtless owing principally to the seafaring habits o f the peo­
ple in the five first-mentioned states, and partly to the great number o f
emigrants which they send forth to the states south and west o f them, who
are or were mostly males. Vermont, on the other hand, must have gained
greatly by immigration, as its population was nearly doubled in ten years,
and thus its males, even between sixteen and twenty-six, somewhat ex­
ceeded its females.
The number o f white females between sixteen and forty-five was
* Dr. Seybert, in his Statistics, p. 44, states, that o f the persons under ten, the females
exceeded the males.

It is due however to him to remark, that while his computations

appear to be accurate, according to the data he possessed, he has often been misled by
the errors in the first publications o f the first and second census, which a more careful
revision o f their returns has subsequently shown.
VOL. V II.— MO. I.




4

38

Progress o f Population and Wealth

813,193, equal to 18.9 per cent o f the whole white population; and this
may be regarded as the ordinary proportion o f married and marriagable
women in this country, though it w ill o f course be somewhat affected by
a change in the rate o f increase.
The increase o f the whole colored population, which neither gains nor
loses much by migration, gives us very nearly the ratio o f increase by
natural multiplication. Supposing this ratio to be the same with the two
races, then the further gain o f the white population must be referred to
immigration. B y this rule, the accession to our numbers by foreign emi­
grants would be in ten years 3.45 per cent, equal to the difference between
35.68 and 32.23 per cent. I f however some deduction be made from- the
seeming ratio o f increase o f 32.23, on account o f the small number o f
Africans imported into South Carolina and Georgia between 1790 and
1800, and we further assume, as many do, that the natural increase o f
the slaves is greater than that o f the whites, then our decennial gain from
immigration must be set down at yet more than in the above estimate.
The second census showed a very great difference in the rate o f increase
among the different states. Thus, while the population o f Georgia and
Vermont nearly doubled, and that o f Kentucky and Tennessee trebled in
the ten years, that o f Connecticut, o f Delaware, o f Maryland and Rhode
Island increased less than 10 per cent. The difference was caused almost
w holly by the flow o f the population from the states where it was most
dense to those where it was least so.
Table showing the number and proportions o f whites, f r e e colored, and slaves,
in the slaveholding states, on the \st o f August, 18 00 :
PER CENTAGE OF

Whites.

Free
colored.

Slaves.

49,852
216,326
10,066
514,280
337,764
196,255
101,678
179,871
91,709
5,179

8,268
19,587
783
20,124
7,043
3,185
1,019
741
309
182

6,153
105,635
3,244
345,796
133,296
146,151
59,404
40,343
13,584
3,489

77.5
63 .3
71 .6
5 8 .4
70 .7
57 .7
62.7
8 0 .5
8 6 .8
57 .9

2,621,316 1,702,980

61,241

857,095

65.

Total popu­
lation.

S T A T E S AND T E R R ITO R IE S.

Delaware..................
M aryland.................
Dist. o f Colum bia..
Virginia....................
North Carolina.......
South Carolina.........
Georgia....................
Kentucky.................
Tennessee................
Mississippi T er.......
T O T A L .......................

64,273
341,548
14,093
880,200
478,103
345,591
162,101
220,955
105,602
8,850

Wh'es. F . Col. Slaves.
12.9
5 .7
5 .4
2 .3
2 .4
.9
.7
1 .2
.3
2 .7

9 .6
30 .9
23.
39 .3
2 7 .9
4 2 .3
3 6 .6
18 .3
12 .9
3 9 .4

2 .3

32 .7

It thus appears that, in the slaveholding states, the white population had
gained a little on the whole colored, and yet more on the slaves, who from
being somewhat more than a third o f the whole population, were now
somewhat less.
CHAPTER
T H E CENSUS OF

1810,

III.

BEING TH E T H IR D E N U M ERATIO N UN DER T H E CON STITU TION .

The population was distributed under the same heads by this census, as
by the census o f 18 0 0 ; but in addition to the population in the former
territory o f the United States, it comprehends that which was contained in
the settled parts o f Louisiana, which was purchased from France in 1803.
The accession to our numbers from this source was about 77,000. The
following table shows the whole population o f the United States on the 1st
o f June, 1810.




POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES ON THE 1st OF JUNE, 1810.
W H IT E
STATES AND

TER­

R IT O R IE S .

W H IT E

M A LE S .

FEM ALES.

16 and
10 and
26 and
10 and
16 and
26 and
Free coVd
Over 45.
Over 45. under 10.
Under 10.
under 1G. under 26. under 45.
persons.
under 16. under 26. under 45.
41,273
34,084
38,062
68,930
10,735
37,812
165,933
37,814
138,464
9,632
38,613
2,479
97,777
68,036
39,669
28,002
65,134
44,494
46,623
4,923
4,217
2,266
5,848
3,438
800

18,463
17,840
18,347
34,964
5,554
20,498
73,702
18,914
62,506
4,480
18,489
1,158
42,919
30,321
17,193
11,951
26,804
17,170
18,119
1,922
1,637
945
2,491
1,345
351

20,403
18,865
19,678
45,018
7,250
23,880
85,779
21,231
74,203
5,150
22,688
1,520
51,473
34,630
20,933
14,085
29,772
19,486
20,189
2,284
2,692
1,274
2,963
1,568
583

22,079
20,531
20,441
45,854
6,765
23,699
94,882
21,394
74,193
5,866
25,255
2,107
52,567
34,456
20,488
14,372
29,553
19,957
22,761
2,316
3,160
1,339
5,130
2,069
763

13,291
14,462
13,053
34,976
5,539
20,484
53,985
16,004
52,100
2,878
15,165
866
35,302
21,189
11,304
7,435
17,542
10,656
11,965
1,125
1,441
556
2,508
967
340

39,131
32,313
36,613
66,881
10,555
35,913
157,945
36,065
131,769
9,041
36,137
2,538
90,715
65,421
37,497
26,283
60,776
41,810
44,192
4,555
4,015
2,019
5,384
3,213
640

17,827
17,259
17,339
33,191
5,389
18,931
68,811
17,787
60,943
4,370
17,833
1,192
42,207
30,053
16,629
11,237
25,743
16,329
16,869
1,863
1,544
791
2,588
1,265
332

21,290
20,792
21,181
46,366
7,520
25,073
85,139
21,184
75,960
5,541
23,875
1,653
54,899
37,933
20,583
13,461
29,511
19,864
19,990
2,228
2,187
1,053
2,874
1,431
368

21,464
22,040
20,792
49,229
7,635
26,293
85,805
21,359
70,826
5,527
22,908
1,734
51,163
33,944
18,974
12,350
25,920
17,624
19,436
1,880
1,753
894
3,026
1,369
311

12,515
15,204
11,457
39,894
6,372
22,696
46,718
15,109
45,840
2,876
14,154
832
32,512
20,427
10,926
6,238
13,482
8,485
8,717
794
675
364
1,499
562
130

T o t a l ,...

1,035,058

468,083

547,597

571,997

364,836

981,421

448,322

561,956

544,256

338,478




969
970
750
6,737
3,609
6,453
25,333
7,843
22,492
13,136
33,927
2,549
30,570
10,266
4,554
1,801
1,713
1,317
1,899
393
240
613
7,585
607
120

108
310
15,017
10,851
795
4,177
111,502
5,395
392,518
168,824
196,365
105,218
80,561
44,535
237
17,088
168
34,660
3,011
24

TOTAL.

228,705
214,360
217,713
472,040
77,031
262,042
959,049
245,555
810,091
72,674
380,546
24,023
974,622
555,500
415,115
252,433
406,511
261,727
230,760
24,520
40,352
12,282
76,566
20,845
4,762

in the United, States in Fifty Years.

M aine,................
N ew Hampshire,
Verm ont,............
Massachusetts,...
Rhode Island,...
Connecticut,.....
N ew Y o r k ,........
.New Jersey,......
Pennsylvania,....
Dataware,...........
M aryland,..........
D. o f Columbia,.
Virginia,.............
North Carolina,
South Carolina,..
G eorgia,.............
K entucky,..........
Tennessee,.........
Ohio,...................
Indiana,..............
Mississippi,.........
Illinois,...............
Louisiana,..........
M issouri,............
Michigan,...........

Slaves.

186,446 1,191,364 7,239,814

03
C©

40

Progress o f Population and Wealth

T h e distribution between the white and the colored races was as follow s:
Whites, (males,)
. 2,987,571
“
(fem ales,) .
. 2,874,433
--------------- 5,862,004
Colored, (free,)
186,446
“
(slaves,) •
. 1,191,364
--------------- 1,377,810

The decennial increase, from all sources, compared
was—
1810.
O f the whole population . . 36.45 per cent .
O f the w h it e s ............... 36.18
“
O f the free colored . .
. 72. “
O f the slaves . . . .
33.40
“
O f the whole colored, bond
and free
........................
37.58
“

7,239,814
with that o f 1800,
1800.
35.02 per cent.
35.68
“
82.28
“
27.96
“

32.23
“
The greater rate o f increase o f the whole population, exhibited in the
preceding comparison, is to be ascribed principally to the acquisition o f
Louisiana, and in a small degree to an increased importation o f slaves be­
fore 1808, when it was known that Congress would avail itself o f the
power it would then possess, o f prohibiting their further importation.
These two circumstances are sufficient to account for the excess o f increase
under the census o f 1810, which did not exceed 75,000 persons; and, indeed,
as the slaves imported and acquired with Louisiana, probably amounted to
more than h alf this number,* the remainder is not equal to the white in­
habitants which Louisiana contained, and consequently we are justified in
inferring, notwithstanding the augmented ratio o f actual increase, a small
diminution in the rate o f gain from immigration or natural multiplication,
or both united.
T h e three classes o f the population were distributed in the following
proportions, in 1790, 1800, and 18 10 :
1790.
1800.
1810.
80.73 percent, 81.12 percent, 80.97 per cent.
66
66
66
1.51
2.05
2.57
66
66
66
17.56
16.83
16.46

The white population .
Free colored
. . .
........................
Slaves

100.
O f the whole free pop.
W h ole colored . . .
It thus appears that the
tional increase than either

100.

100.

ee
66
66
82.24
83.17
83.54
66
66
((
19.07
18.88
19.03
free colored population had a greater propor­
o f the other two classes; and that while the

* Supposing the natural increase o f the colored population to be the same from 1800 to
to 1810, as from 1790 to 1800, and there is no reason for supposing it to be different,
then the difference o f the decennial gain in this class, shown by the two enumerations,
shows the accessions to this class from the purchase o f Louisiana and from importation.
That difference is 5.35 per cent on the whole colored population, which is equal to
53,576.




41

in the United States in Fifty Years.

whole free population gained on the servile, the whole colored gained a
little on the white.
The age o f sixteen continued to divide the white population into two
nearly equal parts, but the small excess o f those under that age continued
to diminish, thus:
W hites under 16, males
“
“
females .
W hites over 16, males
“
“
females

1,503,141
1,429,743
--------------- 2,932,884
1,484,430
1,444,690
--------------- 2,929,120

.

which shows the proportion under sixteen to be 50.03 per cent. But as
the proportion o f the females under that age was greater than that o f
males, the former being 50.26 and the latter 49.69, we may infer that i f
there were no migration to the United States, which consists more o f adults
and o f males, than o f children and females, an age somewhat below sixteen
would constitute the point o f equal division.
The distribution o f the white population, according to age, differs little
from that shown by the preceding census, v i z :
Those under ten were .
.
.
.
“
between ten and sixteen
“
between sixteen and twenty-six .
“
between twenty-six and forty-five
“
o f forty-five and upwards .

.

34.4 per cent.
66
15.6
66
18.9
66
19.
66
12.

The increase in 20 years was as follows, v i z :
O f the whole population .
W hites .
.
.
.
Free colored
.
.
.
Slaves
.
.
.
.
W hole colored .
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.

. 84.2
. 84.8
. 213.5
. 70.7
. 81.9

The proportion o f males to females in the white population was as 100
to 96.2, showing an increase o f females o f 1.1 percent since the census
o f 1800.
At the different ages specified in the census, the proportions o f the sexes
were as follows, viz :
Under ten, the males to the females were as 100 to 94.8
Between ten and sixteen
.
.
.
“
95.7
Between sixteen and twenty-six
.
.
“
102.7
Between twenty-six and forty-five .
.
“
97.3
Forty-five and upwards
.
.
.
“
92.7
which proportions exhibit the same features o f irregularity as those o f the
preceding census.
The number o f white females between the ages o f sixteen and forty-five,
was 1,106,212, which is 18.87 per cent o f the whole white population,
showing a very small variation from the proportion exhibited by the
preceding census.
The following table shows the number o f whites, free colored, and
slaves, in the slaveholding states and territories, on the 1st o f August,
1810, with the relative proportions o f each :
4*




42

The Commerce o f Syria.
P E R CENTAGE OF

ST A T E S AND T E R R I­
T O R IE S.

Total popu­
lation.

Delaware..................
M aryland.................
Dist. o f C olum bia..
Virginia....................
North Carolina.......
South Carolina.........
G eorgia....................
Kentucky.................
Tennessee................
Mississippi................
Louisiana.................
Missouri...................
T O T A L .......................

72,674
380,546
24,023
974,622
550,500
415,115
252,433
406,511
261,727
40,352
76,556
20,845

Whites.
55,361
235,117
16,079
551,534
376,410
214,196
145,414
324,237
215,875
23,024
34,311
17,227

3,480,904 2,208,785

Free
colored.
.13,136
33,927
2,549
30,570
10,266
4,554
1,801
1,713
1,317
240
7,585
607

Slaves.

Wh'es.\F. Col. Slaves.

4,177
111,502
5,395
392,518
168,824
196,365
105,218
80,561
44,535
17,088
34,660
3,011

76.2
61.8
66.9
56 .6
67.8
5 1 .6
5 7 .6
79 .8
82 .5
57.
44 .8
8 2 .6

18.1
8 .9
10. 6
3.1
1.8
1 .1
1.7
.4
.5
.3
9 .9
2 .9

5 .7
2 9 .3
2 2 .5
4 0 .3
3 0 .4
4 7 .3
4 1 .7
19 .8
17.
4 2 .7
4 5 .3
1 4 .4

108,265 1,163,854

6 3 .5

3 .1

3 3 .4

It appears from the preceding table that both descriptions o f the colored
population in these states had gained on the whites in the preceding ten
years, and that the slaves which in 1800 had constituted a little less than
a third o f their aggregate number, now amounted to a little more than a
third.

A rt.

II.—THE COMMERCE OF SYR IA .—No. I I*
ARTICLES OF TRADE IN SYRIA.

Timber.— The forests o f Northern Syria have been o f late years drawn
upon for large supplies o f timber, both for public and private purposes.
The mountains back o f Scanderoon supply the arsenals o f Alexandria,
and could supply much larger quantities i f the mountains were less steep,
and there were any roads. For this reason, too, the mountains o f Byass
are better timbered than those o f Beilan, & c., (which are more accessible
from the sea,) both as to variety, quantity, and size o f timber. The trees
on them are white and yellow pine, o f lengths from 100 to 150 feet, and
o f dimensions, to take a square o f from 24 to 25 inches, say yellow oak,
80 feet, and 18 to 20 inches in square; green oak, 18 to 20 feet, and 7
to 9 inches in square; beech, 30 to 35 feet, by 14 to 15 inches square ;
linden, 40 to 50 feet, by 25 to 27 inches in square. T h e pine is mostly
knotty, but very full o f turpentine. The oaks o f both species are straight,
grained, like the Am erican. The beech is o f good, close-grained quality,
but not nearly so plentiful as the other two. The linden-tree is scarce.
In 1838, about 150 woodcutters and 300 trimmers and dressers were em­
ployed, and about 50,000 trees cut and brought down ; but 10,000, cut in
1837 and 1838, were abandoned from the difficulties o f transport and want
o f roads, which could not be made for less than 15 or 20,000 dollars. A n
axe-man earns 2 i piastres per day, and the trimmers and dressers about 3
piastres; but i f the tree is unsound it is their loss. 70,000 to 80,000 trees
were shipped in 1838 to Alexandria, say 14,000 tons. Tim ber 15 to 18
inches square, prepared for the saw or for working, stands in, ready for




* Concluded from page 511, Vol. VI.

The Commerce o f Syria.

43

shipment, about 1 piastre per foot. Inch-planks 25 to 30 feet long, and
over a foot broad, cost 3 to 3J piastres each, or a little more than a far­
thing per foot.
Colton.— That o f Northern Syria is fine, but o f a short staple, and only
adapted to the most ordinary purposes ; the greater part is much inferior
to the Souboujas, from near Smyrna, and generally equal to the middling
and inferior qualities o f Kennie and Bainder. It is seldom sent to the
English market, but to the Italian, French, and German ports. That o f
Aleppo is best, o f Edlip, inferior, o f Beld, Azass, and Aintab worse, and
o f Killis, worst. T h e average export to Europe is 500 to 600 cantars per
annum ; and 80 to 100 cantars have gone during the last three years to
Mesopotamia. Its cultivation is the ch ief agricultural employment in the
district o f Adana, and cotton is the principal export o f that district; a
middling crop is 10 to 12,000 cantars, an abundant one 18, and even
20,000, o f which 1,000 to 2,000 are annually exported to Europe ; 5,000
to Rom elia and the Archipelago, also to Smyrna, where it is mixed and
sold for Smyrna cotton. 6 to 7,000 cantars are sent to Kaissarieb, where
the country merchants resort, and whence the borders o f the Black Sea are
supplied, some o f the Adana cotton being exported also from Sinope to
Russia. 5,000 cantars are sent to different parts o f Anatolia, (i. e. Asia
Minor,) a large quantity to Mousnel, Diarbekir, Orfa, Merdin, & c. and
100 to 150 cantars to Syria. The total value o f cotton produced in A da­
na and Northern Syria, is about 24,000,000 piastres, or $1,200,000. In
the Nabulus district, in Palestine, 4,500 to 5,000 cantars arc annually
produced, about three fourths o f which are exported. A cre and Jaffa also
produce some. On the whole, Northern and Southern Syria may be esti­
mated to produce 30 to 35,000 cantars, at an average value o f 350,000
pounds sterling ; but the production may be almost indefinitely increased
by additional capital and labor.
Silk.— The m ulberry flourishes admirably on the coast and through the
more fertile parts o f the Lebanon range, and the cultivation o f silk spreads
rapidly about Beyroot. The peasantry get one fourth o f the silk for tak­
ing care o f the worms and reeling ; the landholder providing leaves and
sheds, which are a simple structure o f reeds, without a roof. The culti­
vation might be indefinitely extended, and silk might supply, in a greater
degree, the great desideratum o f Syrian trade, viz, articles o f export. The
silk o f Antioch, Suedich, and their environs, 180 to 220 cantars, is brought
to Aleppo, which consumes 75 to 80 cantars. Aleppo also receives 35 to
40 cantars from Amassir, and from Beyroot, Tripoli, and Mt. Lebanon,
70 to 80 cantars. In 1836, 20 cantars went to England, 30 to France, 50
to Genoa and Leghorn. The silk is worth 300 to 380 piastres per 1000
drams.
The staple is good, the growth o f the worm being nourished by a mul­
berry lea f w ell adapted to its nature ; but it is wound o ff coarsely and in
long reel, which unfits it for the best purposes in Europe. The introduc­
tion o f the short reel would increase the export vastly ; but Syria has
entirely neglected to follow the example o f the French and Italians in
meliorating the quality o f her raw silk.
Tripoli and its vicinity furnished, in 1836, 421 bales, weighing 157£
cantars, for exportation, 233 to Marseilles, 141 to Leghorn, 12 to Trieste,
16 to Egypt, and 171 to A le p p o ; and the prices ruled from 95 to 105 pias­
tres per o k e ; it was in 1839, 120 to 140 piastres per oke. An abundant




44

The Commerce o f Syria.

crop for the Tripolitan district is 400 cantars ; most o f which is sold for
Beirut, Hamah, and Homs, and some is manufactured at T r ip o li; most
o f what goes to Beirut is shipped to France and Italy. E xclusive o f the
Tripoli district, Mt. Lebanon produces 1,200 cantars annually, or 240,000
okes, at 120 to 125 piastres per o k e ; two thirds are exported. The con­
sumption o f British cottons having slackened the demand for silk for the in­
terior, silk cultivation is rather on the decline.
Wool.— Fifteen hundred cantars are got in Aleppo and its environs, one
tenth o f which it makes into a felt (ketgzes) for carpets, horse coverings,
packings for goods, also into stocking yarn, surtouts, & c. The consumption
in Mt. Lebanon, Homs, Hamah, Marash, Aintab, and the environs, is about
800 cantars. 700 to 900 cantars are sent to Europe ; the quality is gen­
erally fine, but it is unclean and mixed, worth in its gross state about 160
piastres per cantar. Its high price, and mixed and ioul condition, prevent
its export to Britain, and it is chiefly sent to France and Italy. 80 to 100
cantars are collected and consumed in the Tripoli district. The nomade
tribes bring some to Hamah, Homs, or Aleppo, which is not all con­
sumed. In 1837-8, Tripoli, which purchases thence, sent 115 cantars to
Leghorn, 72 to Trieste, and 8 to Marseilles. In 1838, the price was 700,
and in 1839, 800 piastres per cantar o f 180 okes. The wool trade to
England might become important, but the Syrian flocks far from suffice
for food to the people ; Aleppo alone annually consumes 55,000 to 60,000
sheep, 20,000 o f which come from Erzeroum, and the rest from the nomade
tribes. 80,000 go from Erzeroum and Mesopotamia to Hamah, Homs,
Damascus, and the south, and are sold at 65 to 80 piastres each, averag­
ing 70 piastres, making a total o f 5,600,000 piastres, partly for cash and
partly on credit.
Olive-oil.— The olive tree yields, at most, an abundant crop every other
year ; sometimes only once in four years. 8 to 10,000 cantars o f oil are
used at Aleppo, 5,000 o f which are got from the environs. Damascus
consumes, for soap-boiling, burning, and eating, 4,800 to 5,000 cantars,
one fourth o f which is from the environs, and three fourths from Safid,
Nabulus, and the southward. Ibrahim extended the cultivation o f the
olive, and introduced an improved mode o f expressing the oil. French
oil-presses have lately been used with success.
Wine .— This might be made valuable, both for consumption and export.
Some convents on Lebanon produce the “ Vino d’ Oro,” a wine o f excel­
lent quality. But the habit o f boiling wine is almost universal, and de­
stroys its character ; and the use o f skins is unfavorable to the preserva­
tion o f the finer characteristics.
Maclder-roots are but partially cultivated; some in the Aleppo district,
more in that o f Damascus, and most at Nebk ; a little also in the plains
o f Homs and Hamah, and at A le p p o ; in all 70 to 80 cantars are grown,
25 to 30 or 35 o f which are consumed at Aleppo, 30 to 35 are sent to
Mesopotamia, and the price is 2 piastres per oke, or 4 per rottolo. A great
deal is produced at Karaman, Nekde, Akserail, and some near Kaisserieh ;
but the greater quantity is cultivated at Erehli, two days’ journey on the
other side o f Mt. Taurus, on the road to Constantinople, by w ay o f Adana,
and may be transported conveniently for shipment to Tarsous. The an­
nual produce is 300 cantars, and the average price 14 to I f piastres per
oke. W hen Dutch and French madders are high in Europe, and princi­
pally in England, and the crop at Yourdes, in the Saroukan Sandjak, is




The Commerce o f Syria.

45

large, it supplies Smyrna for shipment to England ; and madders, both
from Erehli and Cyprus, are purchased for the European markets. Mad­
ders might be largely produced in Syria ; they grow abundantly, and al­
most without cultivation, as well as on the mountains o f Cyprus, whence
they are received in bulk, and packed in bales at Beirut for England and
Europe.
Yellow-berries.— Many fruitless attempts have been made to cultivate
this berry, which grows wild in the mountains near Antioch, but must be
cultivated to become merchantable. But neither from the indigenous tree,
nor from the gardens o f Kaisserieh,where it is produced in the highest per­
fection, have the efforts succeeded to extend its cultivation.
Indigo grows wild in several parts o f Palestine, but attention seems not
to have been given to its cultivation or collection.
Sugar.— The sugar-cane has been partially cultivated near Beirut. It
was extensively cultivated in the time o f the crusaders, in the sultry but
well-watered plains o f Jericho, where are still ruins o f several sugar
mills. There appears no reason to doubt the aptitude o f the soil for its
production in many parts o f the country.
Cochineal.— Ibrahim successfully introduced the cochineal near Tripoli,
where the cactus, on which the insect feeds, thrives very well.
Goats’ wool.— This comes from Erzroom, Kaisserieh, Karpout, Malatia,
Diarbekir, Aintab, and a little from Antioch. There are fine qualities
from each o f these p la ces; the best is o f Karpout, Aintab, and Antioch,
the latter especially, which is also much the cleanest, and equal to what
is shipped from Sm yrn a; but from want o f knowledge, and o f persons to
clean and work it at Aleppo, it is not prepared in an equally fine state.
Most o f it goes to Italy, and a little went to France in 1836. About 7,970
rottoli were imported into Aleppo, and the whole was exported in a clean
state, amounting to about 6,976 rottoli. Inferior qualities, in the gross
state, are worth 15 piastres per rottolo, and 171 clean ; the best, 2,100
piastres per cantar, and 2,250 cleaned— or 21 and 221 piastres per rottolo.
English merchants have not yet imported it to England.
Tobacco.— A ll the tobacco raised is consumed in the country or sent to
Egypt, its use being universal, both by males and females. Next to wheat,
it is the most important product, but it is impossible to estimate the amount.
It is grown almost everywhere, but chiefly in Aleppo, Latakia, Tripoli,
and Mount Lebanon, where are got the finest qualities. N o tobacco is im­
ported, and what is grown pays duty, on retiring it from the lands, o f 34
piastres per cantar, and also 3 piastres per cantar on exportation. D a­
mascus imported and used in 1836, 230,578 okes o f tobacco, and 302,000
o f tombag; in 1837, 190,577 okes, and 117,210 o f tombag.
Hemp.— In the Damascus district 1,200 to 1,500 loads are produced, at
60 piastres per load, amounting to from 900 to 1,000 cantars. About one
half as much is produced in the Aleppo district. It is chiefly used for
cords, twine, & c., and is not exported.
Beeswax.— 200 to 250 cantars o f yellow beeswax are annually collect­
ed in the Aleppo district, from Aintab, Killis, Antioch, Idlip, and their
environs; 50 cantars are used in the manufactories and by the dyers, and
as much by the population and in the Christian churches o f Aleppo. 50
are used at Aintab, Killis, Antioch, and their environs. The export to
Europe seldom exceeds 100 cantars, and varies, according to demand and
price, from that to 50. The Tripoli district collects 100 cantars— b a rd y




46

The Commerce o f Syria.

sufficient for home consumption ; but parcels are brought in from Hamah
and Homs. In 18 39 ,1 0 cantars went from Tripoli to Marseilles, and 2 to
Trieste. T h e price has ruled from 3,000 piastres to 3,200 and 3,400 per
cantar.
Scammony.— Some is produced in Northern Syria, but not much, though
Aleppo gives its name to what is deemed the best. It is scarcely ever ob­
tained pure, being adulterated at almost every stage. The peasants col­
lect it by perforating the root o f the plant, and adulterate it by starch and
myrrh ; the buyers also add to its impurities before it reaches the Aleppo
market.
Soap.— W hen the oil crop is abundant, Aleppo, Idlip, and Killis make
350 to 400 coppers o f soap, each rendering from 20 to 22 cantars o f clear
soap ; viz, Aleppo 200 to 250, Idlip 100 to 120, Killis 10 to 15 cantars.
But some is also sent to the coast o f Latakia, Tarsous, and Adana. Each
copper requires 17 cantars o f oil, and 13 to 15 o f soda or barilla. Total
soap made, 1,000 to 2,000 cantars. The charges on boiling a copper are
5,000 piastres, 600 o f which is a government duty. Aleppo exports three
quarters o f its annual product, chiefly to Mesopotamia, and another gov­
ernment duty o f the same amount, i. e. 30 per cent, is paid. The price
varies from 700 to 800 piastres per cantar; some has been successfully
exported to Mediterranean ports. A t Jerusalem, Nabulus, Gaza, Lod,
and Ramleh, 500 coppers o f 3,200 okes each, are made, three fifths o f
which are exported to Egypt. Damascus makes 100 coppers, Deir el Kane
200— none for export. The Nabulus soap is highly esteemed in the
Levant.
Barilla.— The barilla or soda consumed in making soap in Northern and
Southern Syria, comes from the banks o f the Euphrates, near Deir, Hamah,
Homs, and the H au ran ; the usual price is 70 to 75 piastres per cantar.
It is exported to Candia, but none to Europe.
Sponge.— This is not exported from Aleppo, but as it is procured along
the coast from the Tripoli to the Latakia district, it forms a branch o f com­
merce meriting attention. A n y adventurer may fish for it, by paying 100
piastres to government. Fishermen from the Archipelago come and get
it for Smyrna, & c. The Syrians in a successful season get 1,500 okes
o f fine sponge, worth 130 to 180 piastres; 1,500 middling, worth 15 to 18
piastres ; 500 large horse ordinary. The quantity is partly sold to spec­
ulators, for Europe, but the major part is sent to Marseilles and Smyrna
by the country traders.
Mines and minerals.— A silver mine was discovered by the Egyptian
government, in the northern range o f Taurus, six hours from Tarsus, and
an English engineer who directed its works, died th ere; since then an
Italian engineer was employed, and afterwards Prussian and Austrian
engineers. It produced a very small portion o f silver to the quantity o f
lead. The government still worked it in 1839, but with what success is
not known. The Prussian engineers were reported to have found abun­
dance o f iron ore on Jebel Akra, but no mining or working o f it is known
of. There are iron mines at Duma and Rihan, in Mount Lebanon, which
had been placed by government at the disposal o f the Em ir Beschir, on
his paying annually a certain sum for the produce, about 1,200 or 1,500
cantars, not more than enough for the horse-shoes and nails o f his district.
The distance o f smelting fuel prevents the more extensive working o f the
mines.




The Commerce o f Syria.

47

Coal mines.— Ibrahim wrought some on Lebanon, but the difficulty o f
access and cost o f transport rendered the result doubtful. T h e quantity
is considerable, but rather sulphurous. T h e 114 workmen get 3 piastres
each, per day. In 1837 there were dug 14,700 cantars o f 217 okes, each
making about 4,000 tons.
Salt.— It is o f general consumption in Syria, and is found in great
abundance at different points; but for the supply o f the south the greater
part is from Palm yra and Keriatin, and for the north from Geboul, on the
road to Belis, on the Euphrates. T h e usual price is from 2 to 4 piastres
per medde.
Saltpetre is made on the banks o f the Euphrates, by the Arabs, who
manufacture their own powder, but it does not seem to be brought thence
to Syria, whose government received its powder from E g y p t; consequent­
ly there was little consumption o f it, as the population was disarmed, and
little use is made o f it for the chase.
Manufactures.— “ O f the manufactures for which Syria was formerly
renowned, few have escaped the destruction with which successive inva­
sions and the gradual depopulation o f the country have been accompanied.
Damascus and Aleppo alone retain a few relics o f their ancient manufac­
turing glory.
In the towns o f secondary order there is scarcely the
memory, certainly not the vestiges, o f its former industry.”
Silk and cotton fa b rics.— In Damascus are 4,000 looms for silk and cot­
ton stuffs, each o f which produces w eekly from 4 to 5 pieces, o f 11 pikes
in length by one in width, containing about 100 drams o f silk and 100 o f
cotton twist, o f Nos. 16 to 24. T h e price per piece is from 80 to 95
piastres. The price o f labor is fixed at so much per piece, which is from
8 to 10 piastres. T h e looms for cotton stuffs number about 400, which
make each about 7 to 8 pieces per week, requiring about 200 drams o f
cotton twist, Nos. 16 to 2 4 ; each piece is 11 pikes long and 1 broad.
The price is 20 to 21 piastres; and the labor is paid at 6 piastres per
piece. In Aleppo are about 1,200 silk and cotton looms, which make
about one piece each per day. In 1829, there were 5,900 to 6,000 looms
at work ; but o f these stuffs, being o f a rich and costly kind, the consump­
tion has fallen off. Since the decline, about 500 looms have been set to
work for cotton alone, which consume British cotton twist, o f Nos. 16 to
24. In Lebanon are about 1,200 looms, 300 o f which make silk and
cotton stuffs, used by the natives ; 300 make the abbas, the coarse woollen
garment o f the peasantry ; and 600 are for coarse cotton stuffs for shirt­
ing. But even those who weave these garments are employed also in
agriculture, while at Damascus the largest portion o f the working classes
are engaged in manufactures.
O f gold and silver thread.— Aleppo consumes o f it 150,000 dram s;
Bagdad and Bassora 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; Damascus and environs 75,000 ; Homs
and Hamah 25,000 ; Mount Lebanon, Beirut, and the coast 50,000 ; A na­
tolia 25,000, and Mesopotamia 25,000 drams. Smyrna used to consume
a great deal, but is now overstocked for several years.
O f rosaries, fyc.— In Palestine many people get their living b y making
crosses, beads, rosaries, and amulets, and mother-of-pearl shells, which
are brought generally from the Red Sea, and engraved with religious
subjects, chiseled in relief. The monopoly o f the trade, which formerly
was freely conducted in the market place o f Bethlehem, and in many




48

The Commerce o f Syria.

parts o f Jerusalem, is now in the hands o f the Terrasanta monks, and at
monopoly prices.
The working classes o f Syria are marked for their cleverness, sagacity,
aptitude, and promptness to understand and accomplish their most difficult
tasks.
Export commerce.— Cotton wool, silk, sheep’s wool, olive oil, sugar, in­
digo, the finer qualities o f tobacco, and many other articles, might be pro­
vided on a large scale, had labor and capital their full influence. But
even the import trade suffers considerably for the want o f commodities for
the European markets, and this is so much felt, that many articles can be
imported into Mesopotamia and Persia from Smyrna and Constantinople,
more cheaply than from Scanderoon and Beirut, because o f the lower
freights from Europe paid to ports which offer a return c a r g o ; hence it is
a great desideratum in the interest o f Syrian commerce, that there should
be a more regular and abundant supply o f articles for export. O nly part
o f the vessels bringing manufactures from England can obtain return
cargoes in Syria, and must go to Smyrna, & c. Sometimes they can make
up a load at different ports on the coast, but this is uncertain.
Gums and drugs were formerly articles o f great importance, hut are at
present o f a very limited trade.
Gum-arabic is received from Bagdad and E g y p t ; there are two sorts,
the red and the white, worth 7 to 9 piastres per oke. But 3 cantars are
consumed in Aleppo, and it is rare if there is a surplus in market for ship­
ment to England. The pistachio, apricot, and prune produce gums used
in Syria, the two last as a substitute for gum-arabic, which is worth 10
piastres per oke, while the other two are worth but 2 or 3 piastres.
Assafcctida comes from India and Muscat, by Bagdad. None is now
consumed, received, or exported from Aleppo. Its nominal price is 10 to
12 piastres per oke.
Tragacanth is received from Anatolia, Marash, and M esopotamia; for­
m erly it came from Bagdad, and was shipped to Europe. N ow that from
Karpout is mostly used at Aleppo, though some is received from Diarbekir ;
the first is worth 6 piastres per oke, and the second and third 5 piastres.
A leppo and its districts use 20 to 25 cantars, and about as much is sent
to Damascus. There is seldom in the place more than two or three can­
tars for exportation to Europe.
Scammony is a gum resin, the produce o f a species o f convolvulus or
creeper plant, which grows in .most parts o f Anatolia and in Northern
S y r ia ; it is obtained by an incision made into the roots, which yield a
m ilky juice, and is received in sea-shells placed for that purpose ; when
kept it becomes hard. It is valued as a purgative and laxative, and much
purchased and used by the English antibilious pill proprietors, as it has a
powerful antibilious virtue. It is rarely obtained in a pure state; the
collectors first adulterating it with flour or starch, to give it color and con­
sistency, and mixing gum-myrrh- with it to give it a bitter and aromatic
taste. It then is sold to the country and Jew dealers, who further adul­
terate it in the same manner, mixing 4 or 5 rottoli o f starch to one rottolo
o f scammony. Its price is 250 to 300 piastres per rottolo; an inferior
quality is sold at 15 to 20 piastres per rottolo.
Senna is received from E g y p t; none is cultivated in Northern S y ria ; nor
is it an article received from Egypt for shipment from hence to E u rope;
about one or two cantars are required for the consumption o f Aleppo.




The Commerce o f Syria.

49

Opium is not cultivated in this part o f Syria; about two or three loads
are received o f that produced at Afion, Kara-Hissar, Akshehr, in Anatolia,
for the consumption o f Aleppo and the north o f Syria.
Incense is received from Egypt, and is o f limited consumption for the
country only. It is calculated, that for the north o f Syria, two or three
cantars are required an n ually; and about the same quantity is exported
to Mesopotamia and the northern part o f Asia Minor.
Skins.— Hare, fox, and jackal skins are collected and received from
Tokat, Kaisserieh, Karpout, Malatia, Diarbekir, Aintab, and Basna.
There is no consumption for them in Aleppo. In 1836, about 18,700 hare
skins were received, and after being assorted, about 17,500 were exported ;
prices from 1830 to 1833, 2 f to 3± piastres per sk in ; but during 1837,
1838 and 1839, 1^ piastres, and without buyers. A small trial was made
o f them to the English market. Th ey have been chiefly sent to the French
and Italian ports, and are consumed by the hatters for making hats o f fine
quality. 300,000 skins o f hare, fox, and jackal, are exported from Tarsous to different ports, but none to England.
Galls, or gall-nuts, (in Turkish mazi, in Arabic afis,) form a principal
export o f Syria. Th ey abound in Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Syria, and
Persia, and are o f three species, white, green, and b lu e ; but their chief
locality is on the mountains near Mosul, on the Tigris. The real Mosul
galls are the best, but all that are gathered in the surrounding country
are sold under that name. The annual gathering is 7,000 to 10,000 can­
tars, including 70 to 80 from the Singar mountains and Giaour Dagh o f
Killis. Aleppo uses 50 to 60 cantars annually, the rest goes to Europe.
2,000 cantars were imported into Aleppo from Mosul, in 1836, and ex­
ported. The price at Mosul is 1,200 to 1,300 piastres per cantar, and has
been 2,000, though the nominal price is 1,400 to 1,500 at Aleppo. In
1838, 700 cantars went to England, 1,000 to Marseilles, and 300 to Italy;
but most o f all these are supposed to find their w ay to England a lso; for
notwithstanding the trade between Aleppo and England is open, it frequent­
ly suits buyers to apply to trading ports in the Mediterranean for Syrian
produce. The duty and charges from Mosul to Scanderoon are 580 pias­
tres per cantar, or nearly 25 per cent. The journey is o f 40 days, and
with camels, at 20 miles a day, say 800 m iles; cost £ 1 5 sterling per ton
for carriage alone. 30 to 50 cantars o f galls are gathered at T ripoli; in
some seasons more. A little is consumed in the country, the rest is ex­
ported ; in 1836, 45 sacks went to Marseilles, 21 to Leghorn, and 10 to
Trieste. About the same quantity is collected in the Latakia district, and
sent to France and Italy. The annual Bagdad caravan brings to Damas­
cus many, collected about Mosul and Bagdad ; in 1838, 800 cantars were
thus brought, and forwarded to Beirut for France and Italy. The cost o f
transport is about the same as from Mosul to Scanderoon.
Saffron.— The finest comes to Syria from Persia, Adamish, in Anatolia,
and Erzroom. O f the first, in 1836, 250 okes were received, worth 400
piastres per o k e ; o f the second, 150 okes, worth 500 piastres; the third
are about 350 per oke. The fine qualities are used for gold thread, as
the bright yellow enables to dispense with some o f the gold. In 1836, 63
cantars came, inferior, worth 2,000 piastres per cantar, and were exported
to France.
Safflower.— 20 to 25 cantars are produced in the gardens and fields o f
A lep p o; 70 to 80 at Hamah, Homs, and N eb k ; the whole is consumed
VOL. V II.—

no.

i.




5

50

The Commerce o f Syria.

in Syria for coloring rice pilaws and other eatables. It is worth 18 to 20
piastres per rottolo. The cultivation is not sufficient to produce a quantity
for exportation; the quality being very inferior to that produced in
Egypt-

Yellow iem 'es.-T h is production o f Kaisserieh averages 15,000 to 18,000
rottoli per year, most o f which goes to Constantinople, though formerly to
Smyrna, whither but a quarter o f that quantity is now sent. From these
ports it goes chiefly to London— some to Trieste, Marseilles, and Italy.
300 rottoli are sent from Kaisserieh also to Diarbekir for consumption, and
as much to Malatia, Karpout, Aintab, Aleppo, and Damascus. Its price
fluctuates; ordinarily it is 150 to 160 piastres; in 1839, 100, in 1836,
260 piastres per kunkari o f 3 rottoli. T o Constantinople and Smyrna,
there is no d u ty ; to any other place, 2x per cent. Cost o f carriage to
Constantinople and Smyrna, 150 to 200 piastres per 90 rottoli; small
charges, 15 piastres per load. It is used by calico printers and dyers,
producing a bright yellow .
Tarsous and Scanderoon, from their nearness to Kaisserieh, would be
eligible ports for the shipment to England o f this article, but it is not brought
to them nor to Aleppo, though it might always be employed by the Aleppo
merchants for their returns. A small quantity is produced at Marash,
ordinary, worth 21 to SJ- p ia stre j(^ ^ jq t^ I^ K t4 it is not exported, being all
used at Aintab, Aleppo, & c.
Import commerce.— This consists., Lhji^fjy oi'eedthjial produce and E u ­
ropean manufactures.
Coffee.— A ll kinds are consifrried''jajd^leppo^byi chiefly St. Domingo
and Havana, received from French' 'afttHladiai^ports, say 40,000 okes,
and o f Mocha, 23,000 okes. 792 bags (23,760 rottoli) came from England
in 1836-7, at the price o f 16 to 17 piastres per rottolo; one third is consumed
at Aleppo, the rest goes to Mesopotamia and the interior. There were
disposed o f in a similar way, 36,750 rottoli, in 330 barrels and 725 bags,
price 17 to 1 8 i piastres ; and from Italy 11,325 rottoli, at 17 to 181 pias­
tres, say 321 bags.
Damascus uses 75,000 to 85,000 okes, chiefly St. Domingo and Havana,
and from France and Italy, though some goes from England. A good
deal o f Mocha is also consumed in Damascus, most o f which comes from
England and M arseilles; 30 to 40 cantars are annually received from
Bagdad, and some 15 or 20, contraband, by the pilgrims’ caravan from
Mecca, which sell higher than that brought by se a ; the actual price is
13 to 14 piastres per oke. Damascus consumes on an average 150 can­
tars, sometimes 180 to 200 ; in 1836, it imported o f Mocha and European
coffee 75,122 okes, and in 1837, 86,210.
Sugar.— Aleppo consumes 250 to 300 cantars, in loaves and powder,
and exports 150 to 200 ; o f crushed, East India, or moist, 200 cantars are
used, and 25 to 30 sent to Mesopotamia. The loa f sugar comes from
England, and more from F ra n ce ; the crushed chiefly from England.
There are received from Europe 178 cantars in loaves, 211 crushed, 36
moist, and 26 fipe crushed. Damascus and its environs, and the supply
for Bagdad, require 500 to 700 cantars o f loaf, which comes wholly from
F ran ce; and 300 to 400 cantars o f crushed, mostly from Britain. In
1836-7, Aleppo received 358 sacks, each weighing 25 rottoli, and 484
barrels— in all 45,645 rottoli, the ruling prices o f which were from 10 to
12 piastres each, in barrels, and 10 to 10J per rottolo, in sacks. The




The Commerce o f Syria.

51

crushed and refined is English, that in sacks East Indian. T w o thirds
o f the above is consumed in Aleppo, and one third sent into the interior.
From France, in 1836-7, came 44,000 rottoli, in 114 barrels and 766
cases; prices 121 to 13 piastres per rottolo; two thirds is consumed at
Aleppo, and one third goes to the interior and Mesopotamia. From Italy
came 73 cases and 100 b a g s; same prices, and same disposal— in all
8,650 rottoli. Damascus imported from Europe, o f loaf and powder
sugar, in 1836, 121,417 okes, and in 1837, 112,722, mostly loaves.
Rum is o f limited consumption, and that imported is o f most inferior
quality, o f the Leeward Islands, and other low qualities brought by the
Americans into the Mediterranean. None o f the superior rum from the
British W est India islands is brought to Syria, as the consumers would not
pay an adequate price. It is, moreover, an article o f appalto, i. e., farmed
by those agencies for the sale o f common aquardent, or arrack and wine,
the former o f which is principally consumed by the population in Syria,
both on account o f its cheapness, being distilled from dried raisins, and
because it yields a strong spirit.
Rice is o f great and extensive consumption; it comes chiefly from
Egypt, but in 1836-7, about 540 bags were received from England, each
weighing 15 rottoli; price 5 to 61 piastres per rottolo. This was consumed
in Aleppo. Damascus imported in 1836, 13,500 baskets, each weighing
40 rottoli, and in 1837, 12,500 rottoli.
Spices generally are received from Europe, and some are imported from
the East Indies via Bagdad.
Cloves.— 7 to 10 cantars are used annually in Aleppo, and 5 or 6 con­
sumed in its environs and sent to Mesopotamia. In Damascus only 3 or 4
cantars, or about 800 okes, are annually wanted.
Pepper.— 100 to 120 cantars are used annually in Aleppo, and 40 to
50 sent thence to Mesopotamia. In Damascus about 80 to 90 cantars, or
18,000 okes, are annually wanted. In 1836-7, there were received from
England at Aleppo, 710 bags, equal to 10,515 rottoli— ruling prices l i t
to 12 piastres; h alf for Aleppo use, and h alf for the interior. From
France, 135 bags, equal to 4,050 rottoli, 11 to 12 piastres per rottolo; one
h alf for Aleppo, the other h alf for Mesopotamia. From Italy, 237 bags,
equal to 3,555 rottoli— ruling prices 11 to 12 piastres each ; h alf for
Aleppo, and h alf for the interior. Damascus imported in 1836, 23,470
okes, and in 1837, 27,247.
Pimento.— 15 to 20 cantars are annually consumed in A lep p o; 10 to
15 in Damascus. In 1836-7, there were received from England at A lep­
po, 1,200 rottoli— prices 12 to 12£ piastres each ; half is used at Aleppo,
half goes into Mesopotamia. From France, 5,870 rottoli— ruling prices
12 to 121 e a c h ; one h alf for Aleppo, one h alf for the interior. Damas­
cus imported in 1836, 3,118 okes, and in 1837, 3,534.
Cinnamon.— 10 to 12 cantars o f canella, or cinnamon, are annually
consumed at Aleppo, and 5 to 6 sent into the interior. Damascus con­
sumes but 3 to 4 cantars.
Cochineal.— 7,000 okes are used in Aleppo, one h alf for dyeing the silk
and cotton twist for the manufacture o f stuffs, and h alf by the dyers for
other uses. Damascus requires 30,000 okes, for the same use chiefly.
It is received principally from France and Italy, though parcels sometimes
come from England, which furnished in 1836-7, 5,880 okes; ruling prices
130 to 150 piastres each. H a lf is used at Aleppo, the other half for the




52

The Commerce o f Syria.

interior. France sent 6,510 okes, and Italy 5,740, o f the same price and
destination.
Damascus imported in 1836, 7,434 okes, and in 1837,
11,644.
Indigo.— Aleppo consumes o f this 14,000 okes annually; some is also
annually sent at times to Mesopotamia, and Aleppo supplies its environs,
viz, Idlip, 15 to 20 cantars; Antioch,*3 to 5 ; Killis, 2 to 3 ; Aintab, 8 to
10 ; Marash, 5 to 6 ; Basna, 3 to 4. For Damascus 50 to 60 cantars
are required, and chiefly consumed there. Indigo comes from the East
Indies, both through England and Bagdad, though there is a small impor­
tation from France and Italy o f Guatimala indigo, in ceroons. In 1836-7,
Aleppo received from England 8,500 rottoli— prices 180 to 220 piastres
e a ch ; two thirds for Aleppo, and one third for the interior. From France,
at the same price and for the same destination, 200 rottoli; from Italy
550 rottoli, the same prices, two thirds for Aleppo, one third for Mesopo­
tamia. Damascus imported from Europe, in 1836, 10,205 okes, in 1837,
4,728 ; and from Bagdad 7,399 and 1,071.
Brazil wood.— 35 to 40 cantars o f Pernambuco, or Brazil wood, are
used annually at A lep p o; it is called Fernambouch, but generally arrives
from Bagdad, and is said to be received there from the East Indies. That
from Europe is sent to Aintab, Marash, Malatia, Diarbekir, and other
parts o f Mesopotamia. Not more than 25 to 30 cantars are used at D a­
mascus ; 15 to 20 cantars o f Nicaragua, or St. Martha’s wood, are con­
sumed annually at A leppo; 40 to 50 at Damascus. O f logwood, or Campeachy wood, 25 to 30 cantars are used at Aleppo, and 40 to 50 at
Damascus.
Bye-woods.— Tw o kinds are consumed in Damascus, and come from the
East Indies, by Bagdad ; one called Zarbad, o f which 30 to 40 cantars
are used, and that o f Genghil, o f which 25 to 40 are employed.
Copperas.— 35 to 40 cantars are used in A lep p o; and there were im­
ported there from England, in 1836-7, 121 casks, equal to 7,260 rottoli;
prices 200 to 250 piastres e a c h ; h alf consumed at Aleppo, h alf in the
interior. Damascus imported in 1836, 3,914 okes, and in 1837, 12,239.
British goods.— The establishment o f British commercial houses in
Syria, in 1833, has been followed by a large increase in the demand for
British manufactures, but they have been particularly affected by the dis­
turbed state o f the country. Orders are now given by Syrian houses to
agents for the British manufacturers who are established at Beirut; a
payment is made in advance, which is remitted to England, and the balance
is paid on the arrival o f the goods.
British, French, Italian, and German imports.— From England, Aleppo
received in 1836-7, 5,336 bales and 53 cases o f British manufactures ;
o f domestic long-cloths, 20,000 pieces in 1836, and twice as much in 18 37 ;
Damascus, for the city and its environs, and for Bagdad, took 800 to 1,000
bales, or 700,000 pieces.
From France, only two bales came in 1836-7, consisting principally
o f prints o f Switzerland, and in very small quantities. From Italy, 293
bales, o f all sorts, but a considerable part British. Each bale is estimated
at 3,000 to 5,000 piastres, about one third o f which, say 97 bales, is con­
sumed in Aleppo, and the other two thirds go into Mesopotamia.
From Germany come 94 bales, little or none o f which is British, prin­
cipally printed handkerchiefs from G erm any; each bale valued at from




The Commerce o f Syria.

53

5.000 to 8,000 piastres. One third is used in Aleppo, the rest in the in­
terior.
Each British bale is valued at from 3,000 to 5,000 piastres, and v e r y ,
few 6,000 to 8,000. Aleppo consumes half, and h alf is sent to Mesopo­
tamia, Armenia, and as far as Persia. Damascus imported in 1836,
32,981 pieces, and in 1837, 25,952 pieces.
Aleppo takes o ff about 14,000 pieces o f cambrics, shirtings, and madapolans an n u a lly; the consumption has however considerably increased.
Damascus, for itself and Bagdad, takes off 16,000 to 20,000 p ieces; it
imported, in muslins generally, in 1836, 29,088 pieces, and in 1837,
25,409, though the consumption is declining on account o f the Aleppo and
Damascus imitation fabrics.
Imitation shawls.— 19,939 pieces o f imitation zebra shawls were im­
ported at Aleppo in 1836, and the consumption was increasing, as also
that o f Damascus, which receives a like amount, and about 2,000 pieces
o f lappets annually ; and in Aleppo, in 1836, 2,500 were sold, which was
the average demand.
Cotton prints.— Damascus receives annually from England, about 10,000
pieces o f prints, o f two and three colors. The consumption is on the in­
crease, but the manufactured cotton and silk stuffs o f the country are pre­
ferred, which checks the consumption o f British prints; the latter are em­
ployed by the female sex, and the former by the men, for their long dresses.
A t Aleppo, in 1836, 19,380 pieces o f different kinds o f prints were re­
ceived, great part o f which were consumed in that part o f Syria, and
some sent to Mesopotamia ; this trade is increasing. Damascus imported
in 1836, 36,095 pieces, and in 1837, 30,537.
Cotton tioist.— Aleppo uses for her different manufactures, & e., about
180.000 to 200,000 okes annually, o f Nos. 10 to 30 and 40 to 60. It
supplied to Aintab, Marash, and Malatia, 80 to 100 bales; to Orfa, 20
to 30 ; to Merdin, 20 to 25 ; to Diarbekir, 250 ; to Mosul, 80 bales o f two
N os., and 50 o f N o. 50 ; to Hamah and Homs, 200 bales, the latter some­
times receiving its supplies from Aleppo, and sometimes from Damascus,
21.000 okes, annually. Damascus and Bagdad take o ff 150,000 to
180.000 okes, o f Nos. 16 to 24, annually, and the trade increases.
Cotton water twist.— Aleppo received from England, in 1836-7, 3,877
bales, valued at 2,000 to 2,200 piastres e a c h ; two thirds o f which went
to Mesopotamia, Armenia, and as far as Trebizond.
Mule yarn.— Aleppo, in 1836-7, took 600 bales, valued at 3,200 to
3,400 piastres each ; two thirds for consumption, one third for the interior.
Damascus imported in 1836, 115,622 okes, and in 1837, 137,510 okes.
Iron.— Iron in bars is received at Aleppo from Great Britain, France,
and R u ssia; Marash also produces some. Aleppo consumes 250 cantars an n ually; that from Marash, being ductile, is preferred for some
purposes. British iron is not yet brought into consumption to that extent
it is capable of, though its use is on the increase. Damascus imported,
in 1836, 328 cantars.
Tin.— Most o f the tin consumed is brought from Great Britain; 25 to
30 cantars are used in Aleppo, and 80 or 90 sent thence to Mesopotamia.
The consumption o f Damascus, with that sent to Bagdad, is about 150
cantars. In 1836-7, Aleppo received from England 163 barrels, contain­
ing 7,335 rottoli; ruling prices 24 to 28 piastres; one third for Aleppo,




54

The Commerce o f Syria.

the rest for the interior. Damascus imported in 1836, 4,533 okes, and in
1837, 5,055.
Salammoniac.— 8 cantars, or 1,600 okes, are annually required for D a­
mascus, chiefly from Britain; whence Aleppo also received, in 1836-7,
2,450 rottoli; ruling prices 24 to 26 piastres. One third is consumed at
Aleppo, the rest goes into Mesopotamia and the interior. Damascus re­
ceived in 1836, 1,128 okes, and in 1837, 3,794.
Tin plates.— The Aleppo consumption is extremely limited. Damascus
uses but 400 cases annually. In 1836-7, Aleppo received from England
84 cases o f 225 plates e a c h ; ruling prices 250 to 280 piastres per case.
T w o thirds used at Aleppo, the rest in the interior. Damascus imported
in 1836, 106 boxes, and in 1837, 169.
Woollen cloths.— None are received from E n glan d; a very small and
unsuccessful trial has been made, both at Aleppo and at Damascus.
Syria is supplied from France with the Languedoc cloths, and some are
received from Trieste, o f the Belgium manufacture, which are fast taking
the place o f the former. In 18 3 6 -7 , Aleppo received from France 398
bales, o f 12 pieces each, o f various qualities; each bale valued at 4,000
to 6,000, and as high as 80,000 piastres; h alf is used at Aleppo, h alf is
exported to the east. O nly a bale or two are imported from Italy. G er­
many sent 44 bales through Trieste, o f 12 pieces each, and valued at
8,000 to 10,000 piastres per bale. It is similarly disposed of. Damascus,
in 1836, imported 6,401 pieces, in 1837, 2,819.
Silk goods.— O f manufactured silks, none are received from Great
Britain. Aleppo imported, in 1836-7, from Lyons, only 10 cases, each
o f 10 pieces o f 35 pikes each ; ruling prices 10 to 60 piastres per pike.
French silks are not consumed at Aleppo, or in Mesopotamia, but they are
generally purchased by the Persians. Damascus imported, in 1836, none,
in 1837, 1,101 pikes.
Tarbonches, or red skull-caps.— None are received from England.
Aleppo had from France, in 18 3 6 -7 , 64 cases manufactured at Tunis.
Each case has 50 dozen ; ruling prices 200 to 400 piastres per dozen.
The total quantity imported is 3,200 dozen, h alf for Aleppo, half for the
interior. From Italy came 255 cases, generally Tuscan, each case o f 70
dozen, equal to 17,850 dozen ; ruling prices 70 to 120 piastres per
dozen ; one third for Aleppo, the rest for the interior. The Egyptian
government manufactured what were wanted for the Egyptian army.
Damascus imported, in 1836, 15,142 dozen, in 1837, 11,291.
Paper, for writing and common use, comes chiefly from Italy and
France. Aleppo imported, in 18 36 -7, from France 280 bales o f wrap­
ping paper, o f 30 reams each, at 10 to 12 piastres per ream ; h alf for
Aleppo, h alf for the interior. From Italy were received 166 bales, o f 20
reams each, 25 to 40 piastres per ream, which met the same disposal.
Damascus imported, in 1836, 19,299 reams o f writing, and 5,940 o f wrap­
ping paper, and in 1837, 10,540, and 2,436.
Glass ware.— None comes from England ; it is imported by Trieste from
Bohemia. It is generally common ware, though some fine specimens are
consumed by the higher orders. Aleppo received, in 18 36 -7, from Ger­
many, 50 cases, which were disposed o f there, being sold in retail to peo­
ple coming from the interior, and a small portion is also sent to Bagdad.
Coral.— The markets o f Syria are wholly supplied with manufactured
coral from Genoa. Aleppo received, in 18 36 -7, 25 cases, o f 10,000 to




The Commerce o f Syria.

55

50,000 piastres value. About 8 to 10 cases are sold in Aleppo, to the
Persians and Bedawin, and the remainder is sent to Bagdad and Persia—
say one third at Aleppo, and two thirds exported. Damascus imported in
1836, 45 okes, in 1837, 167 okes.
Slave trade.— “ It is not carried on in Syria to a great extent. In the
houses o f the opulent a few negroes are seen, and among the wealthy
Moslems generally one black eunuch at least, but the annual importation
is small and diminishing.
The supplies come down the Nile, and arc
shipped at Alexandria. Black slaves are never employed for field labor
in any part o f Syria. For household purposes they are seldom engaged,
except in the harems, there being a sufficient supply o f domestic servants,
which, in Egypt, cannot be found among the native Arab races. The
black slaves who are fortunate enough to be purchased for the more opu­
lent Moslems, are w ell treated, and frequently comfortably settled by their
masters, after a certain period o f service. Their intermarriage with
whites is not discouraged.
White slaves.— “ The price o f these has considerable augmented in
Syria since the Circassian war, in consequence o f the diminished importa­
tion. Dr. Bowring saw a Georgian Mameluke, o f about 10 years old,
sold at Nabulus for 7,000 piastres, equal to £ 7 0 sterling. One o f the
happy consequences o f the non-arrival o f slaves is, that the motives to the
preservation o f life are greatly increased by its increased value. The
paternal ties are weakened in countries where the loss o f children can be
easily supplied by the purchase o f slaves, and where the distinctions be­
tween the bondman and the free are very slight— so slight that the Mame­
lukes o f a master are frequently more advanced than his own children,
towards whom the habits o f polygam y also seem to weaken the bonds o f
affection.”
ORIENTAL CHARACTER, & C .

“ There is in the inertness o f the oriental character, a great impediment
to commercial development. The habits o f the people are opposed to
activity, and the motives which elsewhere lead to the gradual, however
slow, accumulation o f property, are faint and insufficient; for the rights
o f property are but vaguely recognised, and a continuity o f effort in any
case whatever, is o f very rare occurrence. The examples are few in
which opulence is reached by a continuous dedication o f energy and
attention to a given end. Most o f the wealth possessed by the Mussulmans
has been the result o f conquest— o f the power o f oppression, or o f some
fortuitous and accidental circumstances. It rarely happens that either
agriculture, or manufactures, or commerce, is the source o f a Moham­
medan’s opulence. Slow and careful accumulation is a rare virtue in
the east. W here fortune visits, her visits are sudden and lib era l; but as
every thing is held by a slight and uncertain tenure, the possession o f one
day is succeeded by the poverty o f the n ext; and i f there be, as there
almost universally is, a want o f those untired exertions whereby, in Chris­
tian nations, men so frequently amass riches, still more is there a want o f
that prudence and foresight which check the march o f destruction. No
element in the Mussulman character is more opposed to the sound com­
mercial principle, than their indifference to the progress o f decay, their
unwillingness to repair the ravages o f time. Even when a little attention
and a little expense would prevent a building or an establishment from




56

The Commerce o f Syria.

falling into ruin, nothing is done to arrest the march o f destruction. I f an
edifice be shaken with an earthquake, it is abandoned— it is seldom or
never raised again on its foundations ; that which is overthrown is never
rescued or renovated. A ruined building, like a felled oak, remains in
the dust forever. Even in the populous parts o f some o f the great cities
o f Syria, the heaps o f ruins which have been left in the pathways by suecessive earthquakes, have not been removed. A few hours’ labor would
clear the wrecks away, but the passengers prefer to clamber up and down
the piles o f stones and fragments, rather than to displace them. So little
disposition is there to alter or to interfere with what has been, that,” con­
tinues Mr. Bowring, “ we found the apartments o f the castle o f Aleppo in
precisely the state in which they were abandoned to the conquerors; the
halls strewed with armor, covered with broken bows, quivers, and arrows
in tens o f thousands, and numberless despatches with the sultan’s signet,
still scattered about the floor.
“ Added to these obstacles, and operating in the same direction, the un­
changeableness o f the Mohammedan usages and institutions, is an almost
invariable impediment to the development o f commercial prosperity.
The merchant is rarely an honored being. Those who wield the power
o f the sword and the authority o f the hook, the warrior and the ulema, are
the two really distinguished races o f society. A ll productive labor, all
usefully employed capital, is regarded as belonging to something mean
and secondary. In the ports o f Syria, the presence o f Europeans has
modified, to some extent, the commercial usages o f the cou n try ; but in
the towns o f the interior, in the great depots, the bazaars represent the
same system o f commerce which existed many hundred years ago. Huge
kahns receive the foreign merchants, who come with caravans from remote
regions, and carry on their trades, both o f sale and purchase, precisely as
it was conducted by their forefathers. The bazaars are divided into differ­
ent regions, such as that o f the druggists, o f spicemen, o f the woollendrapers, o f the silk merchants, o f the traders in cotton goods, the shoe­
maker, the garment seller, the ironmongers, and a variety o f others.
Each generally has a separate street for its particular department, and the
sale and purchase o f goods are carried on with considerable formality.
T h e buyer goes to the shop o f the seller— is treated to coffee and a pipe,
and he then discusses the merits and the price o f the merchandise in which
he trades.
The bargain is generally o f slow arrangement.
Inde­
pendently o f the bazaars, there are certain days on which auctions are
held, and all sorts o f goods are paraded up and down for public sale.”
“ But notwithstanding all impediments and difficulties, wherever repose
and peace have allowed the capabilities o f Syria to develop themselves,
production and commerce have taken rapid strides. One o f the immediate
consequences o f Ibrahim Pasha’s conquest was, a sense o f security, the
establishment o f an improved police, and an immediate extension o f trading
relations, principally due to the presence o f Europeans. W hen the policy
o f peace was interrupted, commercial intercourse was deranged ; the
amount o f imports and exports diminished, the number o f merchants from
foreign countries sensibly lessened, and the hopes o f progressive improve­
ment were all checked and disappointed. But both for agriculture and
manufactures, Syria has great capabilities. W ere fiscal exactions check­
ed and regulated, could labor pursue its peaceful vocations, were the apti­
tude which the country and its inhabitants present for the development o f




Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

57

industry called into play, the whole face o f the land would soon be
changed. It appeared to me,” continues Mr. Bowring, “ that there was a
great disposition to activity among large bodies o f the peasantry, and much
skill among the manufacturing laborers o f the towns. There would, if
properly encouraged, be no want o f demand for European articles, nor o f
the means o f paying for them ; and among the articles most required, those
furnished by British industry are particularly prominent.
“ But the articles for which the sale would be most likely to extend,
are such as, having undergone a process o f manufacture as raw materials,
lend themselves to further and final manufacture,— such as iron, copper,
and tin plates for the making o f sundry vessels; threads and yarns o f
silk, flax, woollen and cotton, & c. These and other such would be suited
by oriental skill to oriental taste, better than western ignorance o f those
tastes could possibly fashion them. 1 noticed a reflux o f opinion favorable
to the manufactures o f the country, they having already greatly benefited
by the import o f the half-wrought materials to which I have been referring;
for in the finishing o f most articles, the Syrians are not wanting in dexter­
ity and experience; they have, like all orientals, a pretty accurate sense
o f the beauty and arrangement o f forms and colors ; the patterns they
work, though not very varied, are generally graceful ; their dyeing is
excellent; their artisans dexterous and intelligent. Th ey use, for the *
most part, a rude machinery, but their wages are high enough to keep
them in tolerable condition ; and were some o f the modern improvements*
introduced, there would be a revival o f manufacturing prosperity.”

A r t . IV.—COMMERCIAL VOYAGES AND DISCOVERIES.
C H A P T E R IV.
VOYAGE OF PEDRO ALVAREZ CABRAL.---- VOYAGE OF JUAN DE NUEVA.---- SECOND
VOYAGE OF VASCO DE GAMA.

A n e w expedition to India was immediately resolved upon, and Pedro
Alvarez was selected to command. It consisted o f thirteen vessels, and
twelve hundred men, besides a goodly missionary establishment o f priests,
monks, & c., who had orders “ to begin with preaching, and i f they found
that would not do, to then try the sword.”
Th ey set sail on the ninth o f
March, 1500, and after being drawn well over to the west, on the.twentyfourth o f April discovered strange land, to which was afterward given
the name o f Brazil. After landing at several points, and setting up stone
crosses, and having communication with the natives, whom they found
well disposed, they left two criminals to inquire into the state o f the coun­
try, and resumed their voyage to the cape. A few days after, they saw
a large comet, and encountered a terrible tornado, by which four ships,
with all their men, were lost, in one o f which was the celebrated Bar­
tholomew Diaz, the discoverer o f the Cape o f Good Hope.
After a succession o f storms, the formidable cape was passed, and the
fleet came to the neighborhood o f Sofala, where they captured two Moorish
vessels. Passing on to Yuiloa, they made a fruitless attempt to trade
with the king, who at first, taking them for Moors, promised to pay in
* Such as the Jacquard loom, for instance.




58

Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

gold for their merchandise, but who, when lie found out they were Christians,
pretended that the goods did not suit his market, and the Portuguese
were compelled to go on to Melinda. Here they were again well treated,
supplied with refreshments, and with two pilots for Kalicut.
On the thirteenth o f September, Cabral arrived off Kalicut. Much time
was lost from the mutual distrust on both sides, but at length hostages were
exchanged, and Cabral visited the samorin, taking with him the present
from the king o f Portugal, which consisted o f several pieces o f rich silver
plate, cushions o f cloth o f gold, a carpet, velvets, gold lace, and some
pieces o f tapestry. The samorin gave permission to establish a factory,
and promised to load the fleet with spices and drugs ; but the Moors again
interfered, as in the case o f De Gama, and continual quarrels and misun­
derstandings took place. The Moors, resolved to bring matters to a crisis,
openly violated an order the samorin had given Cabral, for the exclusive
purchase o f spices, and commenced loading one o f their vessels before the
cargo o f but two o f the Portuguesa ships had been completed. Cabral,
judging that the Moors were acting by the connivance o f the samorin,
sent to complain o f the breach o f faith, and the delay which it occasioned.
The samorin pretended to be highly incensed, and sent word that he might
have liberty to search the Moorish ships that had violated his order.
W ishing to bring matters to blows, the Moors commenced lading a ship
openly. For some time Cabral refused to take any notice o f her, but at
length, urged to it by pretended friends, he sent his boats and took pos­
session o f her. A s soon as this was known, the Moors assembled in a
tumultuous manner, and inciting the populace o f the city to aid them, they
proceeded to the palace o f the samorin, and demanded and obtained per­
mission o f the weak despot to attack the Portuguese factory. The first
party o f Moors that advanced were so few that the Portuguese thought it
necessary merely to defend the gates with their cloaks and rapiers, but
the numbers rapidly increased, and they were compelled to mount to the
walls and use their cross-bows. At length they were pressed so hard, and
by such an overwhelming force, who were getting up battering engines
against the walls, that they were compelled, as a last resort, to make a
sally by a gate leading to the beach, in hopes o f escaping by the boats.
T h ey were closely followed by the crowd, and after performing prodigies
o f valor, and slaughtering an immense number o f their enemies, twenty
o f them succeeded in getting clear. Am ong the survivors, was the famous
Duarte Pachaco Pereyra,* who first distinguished himself in this expedi­
tion, and whose desperate valor soon rendered him famous throughout all
Europe and the east, and the hero o f a hundred ballads.
Cabral took a speedy revenge. He attacked several ships that were in
the harbor, killed six hundred men, seized upon their cargoes o f spices
and drugs, and burnt the ships in sight o f the enraged Moors. H e then
* T he exploits o f the gallant Pachaco equal the most extravagant actions o f the
knights o f romance. N o disparity o f force was too great for him. W ith one hundred
and sixty men, and two or three small vessels, he repeatedly attacked a large force that
had been brought against the king o f Cochin, an ally o f the Portuguese. He destroyed
their ships, with several thousand men, and attacking them by land also, with the aid of
three hundred natives, he at one time routed fifteen thousand men, and burnt several
towns.

At the end o f five months, his enemies had lost twenty thousand men out of

fifty thousand, and were compelled to give up the contest.




Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

59

warped his ships close into the town, and commenced battering it with his
cannon. Houses and temples soon tumbled about the heads o f the terri­
fied inhabitants, who, with their sovereign and his treacherous friends, the
Moors, were compelled to fly into the country. After amusing him self in
this way for a few hours, Cabral got under weigh and stood down the
coast, in the direction o f Cape Comorin, the southern extremity o f Hindostan, until he came to Cochin. Here he was well received. H e at once
made a treaty with the king, who was not a little pleased with their treat• ment o f his enemy, the samorin, and afforded them every facility for trade.
An invitation also came from the kings o f Kananor and Koulan, to visit
them. T o the first he paid a visit, and completed his lading by taking in
four hundred quintals o f cinnamon. Receiving an ambassador to the king
o f Portugal, he commenced his return voyage. After a variety o f adven­
tures, escaping a fleet sent after him by the king o f Kalicut, encountering
severe storms, which separated the vessels o f his fleet, and capturing a
Moorish vessel, he reached the coast o f Africa, stopped to refresh at
Mozambique, doubled the Cape o f Good Hope, touched at the Cape de
Verd, and arrived at Lisbon the thirty-first o f July, 1501. O f the fleet
that accompanied him, only six ships ever returned.
The voyage o f Juan de Nueva was less disastrous. The expedition
started several months before Cabral returned, and as it was supposed that
amicable relations had been established with the samorin, and other Indian
and African princes, it was not thought that much force was required,
and accordingly De N ueva was furnished with only three ships and a
caravel, carrying four hundred men. Touching at San Bias, they found
in an old shoe a letter that had been written and deposited there by Pedro
de Atayda, one o f Cabral’s captains, giving an account o f the state o f
affairs at Kalicut. Thus warned in time, De N ueva directed his course
to Cochin, where he found the factory that had been established by Cabral.
The Moorish merchants exerted themselves to depreciate the Portuguese
goods, and succeeded so far that De N ueva was unable to purchase a
cargo, except for gold, and was compelled to go to Kananor, where the
same difficulty awaited him, but which was obviated by the king, who
went security for a thousand quintals o f pepper, fifty o f ginger, and three
hundred o f cinnamon.
W hile lying here a large fleet o f paraws and boats, sent by the samorin,
came into the bay to attack him, but the Portuguese used their great guns
so skilfully and vigorously that the samorin’s force was driven oft’ with
great loss, while the Christians lost not a man. After this exploit, De
Nueva set sail for Portugal, where he safely arrived with all his ships.
The difficulties that Cabral had had with the samorin, showed the
necessity o f an efficient force, i f the Portuguese intended to continue the
trade, which was so lucrative, that even Cabral’s voyage, so disastrous to
men and ships, yielded a fair profit. It was accordingly resolved that
a powerful force should be fitted out, part o f which shohld be employed in
trading, and part in blockading the mouth o f the Red Sea, and cutting o ff
the Moors, who were the chief cause o f all their troubles. This fleet con­
sisted o f twenty sail. A t first the command o f it was given to Cabral, but
it was decided that the exigency required the talents and energy o f the
great Vasco de Gama, who was invested with the rank o f admiral o f the
eastern seas, with great pomp.
After touching at the usual points upon the African coast, capturing a




60

Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

number o f trading ships, and meeting with divers adventures, which our
space compels us to omit, he arrived off the coast o f India, near the terri­
tory o f Kananor. Here he met a ship o f great bulk, called the Meri, be­
longing to the sultan o f Egypt, which was very richly laden, and full o f
Moors o f distinction, who were going on a pilgrimage to M ecca. This
ship being taken after a vigorous resistance, De Gama went on board and
commanded the Moors to produce their merchandise, threatening, i f they
did not, to have them thrown overboard. T h ey pretended that their riches
were all at K alicut; but one o f them having been flung into the sea, bound *
hand and foot, the rest through fear delivered up their goods. A ll the
children were carried into the admiral’s ship,* and the remainder o f the
plunder given up to the sailors. After which Stephen de Gama, by order
o f the admiral, set fire to the ship. But the Moors having broken up the
hatches under which they were confined, and quenched the flames, Stephen
was ordered to lay them aboard. The Moors, desperate with apprehension
o f their danger, received them with great resolution, and even attempted
to burn the other ships. Night coming on, he was obliged to desist with­
out doing his w ork ; but the admiral gave orders that the vessel should be
watched, that the passengers might not, under favor o f darkness, escape to
the land, which was near. A ll night long the Moors called upon Moham­
med to help them. In the morning, Stephen was sent to execute his1form­
er orders. He boarded the ship, and setting fire to it, drove them aft,
where they defended themselves with great vigor. Many o f the Moors,
when they saw the flames approach them, leaped into the sea with hatchets
in their hands, and swimming, attacked the boats. However, most o f them
were at length slain, and the others drowned or burnt up in the ship, which
soon after sank ; so that o f three hundred persons, among whom were thirty
women, not one escaped the sword, fire, or water.”
Such a story as this is enough to make us deny De Gama’s right to the
epithet humane, which is frequently bestowed, did we not make proper
allowance for the barbarity o f his times. Besides, it amounts to a trifle
compared with the atrocities which marked the course o f some o f his suc­
cessors in their career o f conquest and crime.
Arrived at Kananor, the admiral sent a message to the king, that he
desired an interview with him. “ For this purpose a wooden bridge was
made, which entered a good w ay into the water. This was covered with
carpets, and at the end towards land, a wooden house was built, furnished
also with carpets. The king arrived first, accompanied by a large body­
guard o f nobles, with trumpets sounding and other instruments playing
before him. Soon after the admiral came, with all the boats o f the fleet
furnished with flags, musical instruments, and ordnance, under the dis­
charge o f which he landed. H e was conducted to the door o f the house
by a body o f nobles, where the king received him, embraced him, and
they then walked to the hall o f audience. A t this interview, a treaty o f
friendship and commerce was concluded, and a factory granted at Kananor,
in consequence o f which D e Gama laded some o f his ships, and then de­
parted for Kalicut.”
Arrived at Kalicut, he captured several vessels in port, but made no
* According to De Faria, to make them all friars, as an equivalent for one Portuguese,
who had turned Mohammedan. Their number was twenty, and they were attached to
St. Mary’s church, at Belem, about a league from Lisbon.




Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

61

demonstration against the town for several days, in order to give the
samorin time to make any overtures o f peace. A t length a Moor, dressed
in the garb o f a Franciscan friar, came on board with a message from the
samorin, to which De Gama refused to listen, unless, as a preliminary, the
king would agree to indemnify him for the goods destroyed when he suffer­
ed the Portuguese factory to be attacked. Several messages passed to
no purpose, when De Gama informed the samorin that he would give him
to the hour o f noon to make a satisfactory reply. “ The samorin, influ­
enced by the Moors, returned no answer. W herefore, when the time had
expired, D e Gama ordered a gun to be shot off, which was a signal for his
captains to hang the captive Malabars, who were distributed through the
fleet. Being dead, he ordered their feet and hands to be cut off, and sent
in a paraw, guarded by two armed boats, with a letter for the samorin,
written in Arabic, giving him to understand that in such manner he pro­
posed to reward him for his repeated breaches o f faith and deceitful deal­
ings, and that as for the king his master’s goods, he would recover them
a hundred fold. After this he ordered three ships to advance as near the
shore as possible in the n igh t; and next morning their ordnance was
played without intermission upon the city, whereby many houses were de­
molished, and among the rest the king’s palace. This done, he departed
f it Cijchin, leaving Vincent Sodre, with six ships, to scour the coast and
obstruct the Moorish trade.”
At Cpchin, De Gama was received with great kindness and pomp. He
delivered to the king a letter from his royal master, thanking him for his
kindness to Cabral, together with a magnificent present, consisting o f a
crow n 'of gold, set with brilliants, gold collar, silver fountains and basins,
dape^fy, cloth o f gold, velvets, and a splendid crimson silk tent. The
kitvj/was much pleased v’ith his present. He entered into a most favorabl-ecommercial treaty, by. .which was settled the rates that spices were to
be delivered at, and a Portuguese factory allowed. He also gave a present
in return, consisting o f gold'bracelets, ■precious stones! scarfs, of*silver
tissue, Bengal calico, and “ a stone as big as a'w alnut, good against’all
poisons.”
<■, ;
;
4
W h ile lying in this port, a message cim ed rom the samorin to say that
i f he would return to Ivalicut he should have the privilege tif trading, and
that all their difficulties should be am icably settled. The admiral was
suspicious o f some snare, but contrary to th e'advice o f his captains, he
resolved to go with only his own ship, depending for help in case o f need
upon Sodre’s squadron cruising off Kalicut. A s soon as he made his
appearance, the samorin, finding that he was unaccompanied by his fleet,
resolved to capture him i f possible. Thirty large paraws were ordered
to attack him, and the admiral was obliged to cut his cable and stand out
fo sea. Here the paraws followed him, and would probably have captured
him had it not been for the fortunate appearance o f Sodre with his ships.
Finding that his scheme had failed, the samorin exerted himself to detach
the king o f Cochin from his alliance with the Portuguese. He reproached
him with his preference for Christian pirates, and tried to stir up the nobles
o f his court by bribeiy and intrigue, in which last he partially succeeded;
hut failing with the king himself, he resolved to commence an attack upon
his neighbor as soon as the absence o f the Portuguese should render it safe
to do s o ; and in the mean time he busily employed himself in fitting out
VOL. V II.—

no.

i.




6

62

Commercial Voyages and Discoveries.

a fleet o f large vessels to intercept De Gama on his return, when he
would, it was supposed, be deeply laden and unable to work his ships.
At parting, the king o f Cochin informed him o f all that the samorin had
been doing, and gave the strongest assurances o f his continued friendship
for the Portuguese. De Gama promised him that he would be in no dan­
ger from the samorin, as the king his master would give him enough to do
to defend himself without attacking others. Setting sail for Kananor, De
Gama soon encountered the fleet which had been prepared by the samorin.
It advanced towards him with some show o f gallantry, but Sodre, with two
other vessels, pushing on before the rest to receive them, attacked them
with so much fury that the Moors were compelled to leap from their ships
to escape their rage. T w o large ships were captured, and three hundred
Moors put to the sword. The other ships fled towards the land, where
the Portuguese were prevented from following them by fear o f the shoals.
In the captured vessels there was much rich merchandise, and among
other things a gold idol* weighing thirty pounds. The eyes were emer­
alds, and on the breast was an enormous ruby, and other precious stones.
A t Kananor, De Gama completed his lading o f spices, and leaving
Sodre with his squadron o f ships, with orders to w orry the Moors and their
friend the samorin as much as possible, and protect the king o f Cochin, he
set out on the twentieth o f December, 1503, for home. After a stormy
voyage in which some o f his ships were separated from the fleet, he arrived
in Portugal, where he was received with great and deserved honors. In
a few days after, Stephen de Gama, whose ship had been dismasted in a
storm, arrived in the Tagus. This expedition was not only glorious, but
exceedingly profitable. Their spices yielded an enormous profit, and yet
were sold so much lower than the same articles brought overland, that
the Venetian was obliged to succumb to the Lisbon market.
A s it may be interesting to some to know the ultimate fate o f the hero
who had contributed so much to the success o f these most brilliant com ­
mercial. enterprises!, we w ill cite a .mote to one o f the translations o f
Casianneda': (} DdnjVascd de Garda, now Count Videgueyra, (one o f King
M anuel’s-own titles, which he hadotransferred to him,) was, in the year
1524, appointed 'vjcerpy .of India by-K ing John III. He set sail with
fourteen ships„g no ihree ’thousand fighting men. Three were lost on the
voyage, with all the men.•of two. Being in the sea o f Cambaya, in a
dead calm, o f a sudden tire vessels tossed so that all gave themselves up
for gone, every one casting about how to save himself. One leaped over­
board, thinking to escape that way, and was drowned.
Such as lay sick
o f fevers, were cured with the fright. Don Vasco perceiving that it was
the effect o f an earthquake, cried out aloud, ‘ Courage, m y friends, for the
sea trembles for fear o f you, who are upon it.’ T o make amends for
these misfortunes, Don George de Menesis, one o f the captains, took a
great ship o f Mecca, with sixty thousand crowns.
The new viceroy
* The term “ Moor” is very indefinitely used by writers on this subject. It ought to
be confined to the Arabian and Mohammedan merchants, and others residing in, or
trading to, the cities o f India.

In this case it is decidedly a mistake, as a Moorish or

Mohammedan crew would never tolerate an idol among them. The population of
Kalicut consisted o f a large number o f these Mohammedans, with original natives, and
a good proportion calling themselves Armenian Christians, and professing most o f the
doctrines o f the Armenian church.




Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

63

being arrived at Goa, visited a few forts, and gave the necessary orders
for regulating affairs; but had not time to put any o f his great designs
in execution, for he died on Christmas eve, after he had held the govern­
ment three months. He was o f a middle statue, somewhat gross, and
ruddy complexion. He is painted with a black cap, cloak and breeches
edged with velvet, all slashed, through which appears the crimson lining;
the doublet o f crimson satin, and over it his armor inlaid with gold. De
Gama had a natural boldness for any great undertaking. W hen angry
he was terrible, patient under fatigue, and hasty in execution o f justice ;
in fine, fit for all that was intrusted to him as captain, discoverer, or
viceroy.”

A rt. V .—REDUCTION OF PRICE AND R A T E OF DUTY.
REMARKS ON THE FALLACY OF THE DOCTRINE THAT, BY REDUCTION OF PRICE
AND RATE OF DUTY, CONSUMPTION CAN BE INCREASED IN A GREATER PRO­
PORTION THAN PRICE IS DECREASED, AND SO MUCH SO AS TO PRODUCE IN­
CREASED REVENUE.

L o r d (then M r.) Brougham, in his speech on the opening o f Parliament,
February, 1825, speaking o f duties as affecting the revenue, is reported, in
the London Packet, to have sa id : “ I then, as I thought, successfully
showed that what Dean Swift had observed o f the arithmetic o f revenue
was fu lly illustrated in the result, viz, that two and two did not make four
on customary articles. W ith respect to the produce o f the last laid wine
duties, it was manifest that two and two did not make even three. In the
article o f coffee the same result was established, though by a different
process. On coffee, the duties were reduced, and the consequence was,
that an increased consumption gave you a much greater revenue than the
large impost produced ; while on the increase o f the wine duties, there
was such a falling off in the consumption as to lower the amount o f revenue below that which was actually forthcoming on the lesser imposition.”
And in the Edinburgh Review for January, 1840, article “ Post-office R e­
form,” page 297, there occur the following passages.
“ The degree in which reduction o f postage would operate cannot be
accurately estimated; but Mr. H ill has indicated a guiding principle
which points at a minimum o f increase, leaving its maximum still to be as­
certained. His position is, that no reduction hitherto made in the price o f
any article in general demand, has diminished the total amount o f public
expenditure upon that article. And he adduces the following evidence in
proof o f its correctness:—
“ * 1. The price o f soap, for instance, has recently* fallen by about one
eighth ; the consumption in the same time has increased by one third.
Tea, again, the price o f which, since the opening o f the China trade, has
fallen by about one sixth, has increased in consumption by almost a half.
The consumption o f silk goods, which subsequently to the year 1823,
have fallen in price by about one fifth, has more than doubled. The con­
sumption o f coffee, the price o f which, subsequently to 1823, has fallen




* That is. at the close o f 1836.

Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

64

about one fourth, has more than tripled. And the consumption o f cotton
goods, the price o f which, during the last twenty years, has fallen by
nearly one half, has in the same time been fourfolded.’— Post-office R e ­
form , p. 70.
“ £2. T h e sale o f newspapers for the twelve months before the late re­
duction in stamps was 35,576,056,* at an average price, say 7d., cost­
ing the public £1 ,037 ,6 34 .
“ 1For the twelve months subsequent to the reduction it was 53,496,207,f
at an average price, say o f 4 fd ., costing the public £1 ,058 ,7 79 .
“ ‘ 3. The annual number o f advertisements before the late reduction in
the advertisement duty, was 1,010,000 at an average price, say o f 6s.,
costing the public £3 03,000.
“ ‘ It is now 1,670,000, at an average price, say o f 4s., costing the
public £334,000.
“ ‘ 4. The number o f persons paying for admission to the Tow er was,
in the ten months prior to the late reduction 9,568, at 3s. each, (including
the warder’s f e e ) = £ l,4 2 6 .
“ ‘ In the ten months subsequent to the reduction it was 37,431, at Is.
e a c h = £ 1,871.
“ ‘ The rule established by these facts, viz, that the demand for the
article increases in a greater proportion than the price decreases ; so that,
i f one thousand are sold at Is., many more than two thousand would be
sold at 6d., is, it is believed, without exception.’— Third Report o f the Select
Committee on Postage.”
These are great authorities; and it is perhaps rather a hazardous
thing to say that the observation o f the learned Dean, viz, that two and
two did not make four on customary articles— that is, as illustrated by the
showing o f the great statesman, that increased consumption and conse­
quent increased revenue resulted from decreased rate o f duty— and the
rule o f the select committee, viz, that the demand for the article increases
in a greater proportion than the price decreases, are both founded on erro­
neous inferences, and alike involve a fallacy. But we believe that they
are s o ; and that the fallacy, like that o f the sinking fund, and that o f
paper money, arises from mistaking the results o f particular applications
o f a principle for the result o f a general application o f i t ; and amounts to
a belief that it is possible, by some witchery in the science o f political
economy, to make two and two really make more than four, and falsify
the schoolboy’ s axiom by proving that you can both have your cake and
eat it.
O f the same nature, too— we remark by the way— as this fallacy, is
that o f supposing it possible to obtain protection to domestic industry and
revenue at the same time, and from the same thing. A rate o f duty upon
foreign products, be it what it may, can only be protection in the degree
that it is prohibition ; and exactly in the degree that it is prohibition it will
be anti-revenue.
The “ rule established” by the showing o f the great statesman— for such
a rule we understand him to assert— is less .in accordance with reason and
common sense than that o f the select committee. It assumes a much
greater degree o f increased expenditure as resulting from reduction o f rate
o f duty, than that o f the committee assumes as resulting from reduction
* No. 307, Session 1838.




t No. 184, Session 1S39.

Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

65

o f price ; but we contend that in the theory o f taxation you have no right
to assume such increased expenditure at all ; and that no “ fact” in appa­
rent proof o f either o f the rules, but what could be satisfactorily accounted
for on other principles, has ever occurred in the practice. W e contend
that it is perfectly fair, and in strict accordance with reason and common
sense, to assume that the public spend just as much money on taxable and
other articles as they choose or can afford to spend. And, that exactly
that which you give to the government, in the form o f taxes, you take from
the people, and that which you give back to the people you take from the
government. And, that any results not in accordance with these simple
and common sense views, are those o f anomalies inseparable from the ope­
ration o f revenue laws.
Am ong the most prominent o f these anomalies are smuggling, specula­
tive supply and demand, and the changing o f demand from one article to
another.* This last, indeed, is so comprehensive that we shall assume it,
in our reasoning, as including all anomalies.
W hen a rate o f duty is lessened there takes place a lessening o f the
motive for smuggling, and a consequent increase o f means to purchase the
article duty paid. Also, a speculative desire to be the first to bring to
market at the reduced price, and a consequent withdrawal o f capital from
other things for the purpose. And, a changing o f demand generally from
things which have not been reduced in price, owing to such lessening o f
duty, to those that have.
These things manifest themselves in the appearance, and with much o f
the reality o f “ increased c o n s u m p t io n b u t not an increased consumption
capable o f establishing a rule involving an increased aggregate expendi­
ture ; much less a rule involving an increase capable o f producing an in­
crease o f revenue. The increase arises mainly from the giving back to
the people. W e repeat, that the public spend all that they choose or
can afford to spend on taxable or other articles,— on wine, on soap, on
tea, on silk goods, on coffee, on cotton goods, on newspapers, on sight­
seeing— on every thing. Give them as much more for their money as you
can ; doubtless they will consume i t ; but away with the- notion o f in­
creased aggregate expenditure and increased revenue.
But granting, for the sake o f the argument, the right to this assumption,
there is, surely, still, in the noble lord’s showing, a great and palpable
fallacy. For if the “ lesser imposition” o f duty gave the “ greater reve­
nue,” why would not the lesser still give the greater still ? and, by parity
o f reasoning, w hy would not the least possible imposition o f duty give the
greatest revenue ? In illustration, let us suppose the consumption o f wine
to be 20 pipes, at a cost to the consumer o f £ 5 0 per pipe, o f which £ 2 0
per pipe is for duty. The expenditure would then be £ 1 ,0 0 0 , and the
revenue £ 4 0 0 . Then suppose you reduce the duty to £ 1 9 per pipe, and
by so doing you increase the consumption to 22 pipes ; the expenditure
would then be £ 1 ,0 7 8 , and the revenue £ 4 1 8 ; that is, the public have
been induced to spend £ 7 8 more on wine, and the “ lesser imposition” o f
duty has given the “ greater revenue.”
So far, so good. But then, as far

* The fluctuating action o f the “ credit system” — that is to say, o f paper money— is
also an anomaly. It causes a premature increase o f the means o f the public to increase
expenditure, which is always followed by a proportionate decrease.




6*

66

Reduction o f Price and Rale o f Duty.

as the argument is concerned, unless you assume that, in the theory o f taxa­
tion, there is a point, in determining the rate o f duty, that is just that
which is not too much, and just that which is not too little, and that you
have now attained that point, you are precisely in the same situation that
you were. Then suppose you reduce the duty to £ 1 8 per pipe, and by so
doing you increase the consumption to 24 pipes ; the expenditure would
then be £1 ,1 5 2 , and the revenue £ 4 3 2 — that is, the public have been in­
duced to spend £ 7 4 more on wine, and the lesser still has given the greater
still. And it is clear that, as far as the argument is concerned, unless you
assume this point somewhere, you might go on in this w ay until you came
to the least possible imposition o f d u ty ; and we scarcely need say that to
suppose that that could give the greatest revenue, is a manifest absurdity.
The “ rule established'’ o f the select committee, though more in accord­
ance with reason and common sense, is any thing but a rule “ without ex­
ception.”
T o be that, it must result from a general application o f a prin­
ciple, and not from particular applications o f it. “ These facts” must he
made to prove that, if all articles were to decrease in price, the demand
would increase in a greater proportion than the price would decrease ;
or, that the demand for those which did not decrease in price would
remain the sam e; or, that the decrease in price, whether it resulted
from reduction o f rate o f duty to the government, or o f price merely,
independent o f duty, would necessarily increase the w ill and the power
o f the public to increase the “ demand” beyond what the increased
means— that is, the giving back to the people— resulting from such reduc­
tion, would enable them to d o ; since, without this proof, it is a fair and
just inference from the nature o f things, that the more than two thousand
which would be sold at 6d. would be but the result o f the consequent
changing o f demand from things that had not been reduced in price to those
that had ; or, o f the increase o f the will and the power o f the public by the
natural increase o f population and wealth.
In illustration o f this, let us suppose all taxable things divided into two
parts, equally desirable and applicable as to the various purposes o f life, and
in a perfectly equal position as to consumption, price, rate o f duty, expendi­
ture, & e. & c.* and let us state this position in the following tabular form :
See the first o f the two following tables, which we w ill call the original
position. Then let us suppose the rate o f duty on the first part reduced to
1.* This change in the proportion o f rate o f duty w ill also change the
proportion o f total p r ic e ; and the change in the proportion o f total price,
viz, from as 5 to 5 to as 4 to 5, will, we contend, by the all-pervading ac­
tion and determinate tendency o f money-price towards a level, change the
proportion o f all the other items o f comparison exactly to the extent that
w ill enable the proportion o f total price to become equal again. Y ou can­
not keep the price o f one part 4, and the other 5, because we have assumed
equal desirability and applicability in them ; they w ill both get to be 4-’ .
The demand, price, and expenditure o f the one w ill be increased, and that
o f the other decreased, until the level o f total price is obtained. And the
* This equality is by no means necessary to the argument; it merely renders the il­
lustration easier to be made and understood.
t The reasoning would be just the same if we supposed it advanced to 4.




Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

67

increase and decrease o f price will be in that part o f it which we have
called price without duty. W e will also state this position in a tabular
form.— See the last o f the two following tables, which we w ill call the
changed position.

Original Position.
Consumption,

1st part .
2d part

.
.

1,000
1,000

P rice without duty.

Duty.

Total
Price.

3
3

2
2

5
5

Expenditure.

5.000
5.000

Revenue.

2,000
2,000

Changed Position.
Increase
Decrease P rice
Decrease
Consump- o f Cono f Con- without
Total Expen- Rev. o f Revtion.
sumption, sumption, duty. D uty P rice, diture. enue.
enue.

1st part
2d part

1,296*
926

296
...

...
74

31

1

2{

2

41
4j

5,832 1,296 704
4,168 1,852 148

Let us contemplate these tabular views for awhile, and see i f we can
discover in them aught to “ confirm, or shake, or make a faith” in these va­
rious opinions upon the subject. W e see in part the first o f the changed
position, that by reducing the rate o f duty one h a lf where, as seen in the
original position, the consumption was 1,000 and the revenue 2,000, that,
as at first sight it would seem natural to suppose would be the case, the
revenue has not decreased 1,000 ; it has only decreased 704— two and
two has not made four on customary articles.
I f the learned Dean meant any thing at all by his observation, he meant
precisely that which this hypothetical changed position shows. Increase
or decrease o f rate o f duty is not followed by proportionate increase or de­
crease o f amount o f revenue— that is, by proportionate increase or decrease
o f the taking from or the giving back to the people. Reasoning from
analogy, precisely as, in the operation o f the national debt, the receivers
o f the interest pay themselves a part o f that which they receive, so the
government, in the process o f taking from and giving back to the people, give
back to and take from the people a part o f that which they so take and give.
W e will illustrate this further by looking at this changed position as a
whole. The reader w ill perceive that there are in it three columns more
than in the original position, v i z : increase o f consumption, decrease o f
consumption, and decrease o f revenue. N ow we contend that the 222 in­
crease o f total consumption, and which is the difference between the in­
crease in the first part, and the decrease in the second, is exactly the 852
decrease o f revenue in the two parts. 222 at the price o f 4^ is just the
difference between 1,000 at a duty o f 2, and 1,000 at a duty o f 1— viz,
1.000. * But the government does not lose 1,000 ; two and two do not
make four on customary articles; for in the process o f giving back the
1.000, it takes back 148, and therefore only loses 852 ; that is, it loses the
difference between 2,000 at a duty o f 2, ^nd 1,296 at a duty o f 1, and 926
at a duty o f 2— which we will state th u s:
* This proportion o f 1296 to 926, viz, as 7 to 5, we assume as a consequence o f the
changed position o f price without duty, which change, we contend, is the effect o f the de­
termination o f total price, or cost to the consumer, to become equal.
1 222 at 44 is only 999. This and two or three similar errors, the reader who takes
the trouble to examine the calculations, will perceive arises from omitting fractional parts,
and taking the nearest whole number, and does not at all impair the illustration.




63

Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.
2,000 at 2 is
1,296 at 1 is
926 at 2 is

.
.

.
.

.
.
.

.
.
1,296 )
1,852 $ '

.

.

'

'

4,000
,,
'J,14S

Difference, 852
and which is given back to the people in the form o f an increased consumption, in part the first, o f 296 ; which increase is the combined result
o f the increase o f “ demand” by the increase o f means arising from the
lessening o f duty, and the withdrawal o f it from things which have not
decreased in price, to those that have— which we w ill state thus:
222, increase o f total consumption resulting from lessening o f
duty ; that is, the giving back to the people, at 3|, the price with­
out duty, is
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
777
The difference between 74, “ demand” drawn, by the determi­
nate tendency o f money-price towards a level, from things which
have not decreased in price at a duty o f 2, to those which have at
a duty o f 1, is
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
74
851
But it is with the great statesman’s illustration o f the observation,
rather than with the observation itself, that we have to d o ; though we
have, we think, clearly shown its true meaning. O f that illustration, as
establishing a rule, our hypothesis shows the utter unsoundness. There
can be no increased consumption capable o f giving an increased revenue,
without an increase o f expenditure, to an extent that, as an abstract propo­
sition, renders the idea utterly absurd. W e will, however, see how far it
illustrates the rule o f the select committee.
W e have said that the fallacy which we are attempting to prove, arises
from mistaking the results o f particular applications o f a principle, for the
result o f a general application o f it, and we shall see how far our hypothe­
sis w ill bear this out. W e see in part the first o f the changed position,
that consumption, that is, “ demand,” has increased from 1,000 to 1,296,
viz, 30 per cent, and price only decreased from 5 to 4 i, viz, 11 per cent;
that is, demand has increased in a greater proportion than price has de­
creased, and the rule, so f a r , is established. But, then, the expenditure
has increased from 5,000 to 5,832, viz, 17 per cen t; and we have con­
tended that in the theory o f taxation, you have no right to assume such
increased expenditure at all, and that no fact in apparent proof o f it, but
what could be satisfactorily accounted for on other principles, has ever
occurred in the practice. W hat those other principles are in this case,
w e shall see by again looking at this changed position as a whole. W e
see that the total consumption has increased from 2,000 to 2,222, viz, 11
per cent, and the price decreased from 10 to 9, viz, 11 per cen t; that is,
the demand has increased exactly in the proportion that price has decreas­
ed ; and the total expenditure is just the same, viz, 10,000. The increase
in the first part is precisely the decrease in the second pa rt: and upon this
point our illustration entirely depends. W e contend that the public spend
just as much money as they choose, or can afford to spend, on taxable
and other a rticles; and that the increased demand, and consequent in­
creased expenditure in a greater proportion than the price has decreased,
which the first part o f the changed position shows, is but the drawing away
from things that have not decreased in price to those that h a v e; and the




69

Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

increased demand, not in a greater proportion than the price, has decreased,
which the position as a whole shows is, as before shown) but the decrease
in the revenue. E xactly that which you give back to the people, you take
from the government.
But this is mere hypothesis. Let us go to the 11facts.”
The reader
will perceive that they are contained in four parcels o f evidence adduced
by Mr. H ill, in proof o f his position, “ that no reduction hitherto made in
the price o f any article in general demand, has diminished the total amount
o f public expenditure upon that article.” And an excellent position it is,
and in strict accordance with reason and common sense, which clearly
point out, that there are no reasons w hy it should. But why should it have
increased the “ total expenditure?” why at all, more than in proportion to
the increase o f means by the natural increase o f population and wealth ?
Much more, w hy in a degree capable o f producing an increased revenue ?
If our hypothesis has failed to show the reader how it can (apparently,
that is) do the one, and how it can not do either the one or the other, let us
see what we can make out o f “ these facts.”
Let us open the first parcel
and arrange them in the following tabular form :
Article.

Decrease o f price.

Soap
Tea
Silk goods .
Coffee
Cotton goods

•

*

.

.

*

*

•

•

•

*

i
a
JL
e

Increase o f consumption.
-L
3

•

*
4

s
l
4
!
2

4
4

2
4
4
8
4
1 3
4

It is clear, however, that we can make nothing out o f this, for it gives
us no account either o f the amount o f “ public expenditure,” or o f the rate
o f duty, both o f which are necessary to our purpose; and the statement
must go with the reader for what it is worth. N o doubt it involves a
large increase o f expenditure. Had the facts entered into particulars,
we might have been able to have formed a judgment. But let us see what
we can make out o f the second parcel, which we w ill also state in a tabu­
lar form :
JVo. o f
n ew s­
pa p ers.

Before reduction,
After reduction,

35,576,056
53,496,207
E x p e n d it u r e .

50
P e r c e n ta g e .
In crea se, o f
e x p e n d itu r e .

A vera ge
p r ic e p er
p a per.

7d.
4fd .
D u ty
per
p a p er.

P ercen ta g e.
D ecrea se
o f p r ic e .

—

47
R even u e.

P e r cen ta g e.
D ecrea se o f
reven u e.

—
3|d.
£4 81 ,7 59
Id.
222,900 116
2
Here we have the means o f forming a judgment. W e have the amount
o f consumption and o f public expenditure and price stated; and the rate
o f duty is well known, and the amount o f revenue, therefore, easily ascer­
tained.* W e have all the elements o f perfect proof. W e doubt i f in the
entire practice o f taxation in England, there is any one “ fact” so well
calculated to prove the theory as this o f newspapers. It is freer from
anomalies than any other thing ; the impost is through the medium o f the
stamp-office ; smuggling and speculation therefore can have little or noth­
ing to do with it— withdrawal o f demand from other things may, perhaps;

Before reduction,
After reduction,

£1 ,037 ,6 34
1,058,779

P e r c e n ta g e .
In crea se o f
p a pers.

—

* These, with some per centages, the reader will see, we have added to the table.




70

Reduction o f P rice and Rale o f Duly.

but as nearly as possible the true principle o f operation stands naked and
alone.
/
Here we see that, during the period stated, consumption, that is, “ the
demand,” has increased 50 per cent, and the price decreased only 47 per
c e n t; but the expenditure has increased 2 per cent, and the amount o f
revenue decreased 116 per cent. N ow increase o f demand in a greater
proportion than price decreases, can only arise from increased expenditure,
and will any one for a moment deny, that this “ fact” o f increased ex­
penditure, upon which the increase o f demand depends, cannot be fully
and satisfactorily accounted for on other principles; viz, the increased
w ill and power o f the public, resulting from the natural increase o f popu­
lation and wealth during the same period ? W e think not.
Let us contemplate this tabular view for a while. It is a “ fact,” not an
hypothesis. W e see Mr. H ill’s position fully sustained, as, indeed, why
should it not be ? W e see that the amount o f public expenditure has not
diminished. But how fares it with the rule o f the select committee, and
the showing o f the great statesman ? Not a glimpse— no, not one solitary
glimpse* o f confirmation, either o f the one or the other, can there be found
in the analysis o f this most important fact.
Let us also state the third parcel in a tabular form.
N u m b er
o f a d ver­
tis e m e n ts .

Before reduction,
After reduction,

P e r c e n ta g e .
In crease o f
a d v e r tis e m e n ts .

—

1,010,000
1,670,000
E x p e n d it u r e .

65
.

P e r c e n ta g e .
In crea se o f
e x p e n d itu r e .

A v e r . co st.

6s.
4s.
D u ty
per
a d v e r t 'n t .

P e r c e n ta g e .
D ecrea se o f
co s t.

—
50
R even u e.

P e r c e n ta g e .
D ecrea se o f
rev en u e.

—
—
3s. 6d. £1 76 ,7 50
Before reduction, £ 3 03 ,0 00
41
After reduction,
10
Is. 7d.
125,250
334,000
Here we see demand increased 65 per cent, and price decreased only
50 ; expenditure increased 10 per cent, and revenue decreased 41.
Mr. H ill’s position is again fully sustained ; and if the reader thinks that
the 10 per cent increase o f expenditure is more than the increase o f popu­
lation and wealth, during the same period, will account for, and w ill not
admit the force o f our reasoning as to anomalies, then is a glimpse o f con­
firmation o f the rule o f the select committee discernible ; but o f the show­
ing o f the great statesman, not even a shadow.
W e will also state the fourth parcel in a tabular form.
N o. o f
a d m is­
sio n s.

Before reduction, 9,508
After reduction, 37,431

P er cen t
In crease o f
a d m is s io n s .

P r ic e
o f ad­
m is s io n .

P e r ce n t.
D ecrea se
o f p r ic e .

—

3s.
Is.

200

293

—

E x p e n d i­
tu r e .

£ 1 ,4 2 6
1,871

P e r ce n t.
In crea se o f
ex p en d itu re.

—

31

Here, demand has increased 293 per cent, and price decreased only
200, and expenditure has increased 31 per cent. There is no revenue in
the case ; and we contend that to whatever extent the 31 per cent increase
o f expenditure, from reduction o f price in this case, and the 10 per cent
from reduction o f rate o f duty in the preceding case, is beyond the increase
* The increase o f population during the twelve months may be fairly stated at 1J per
c e n t; surely quite enough to account for the 2 per cent increased expenditure. And as
to revenue, it would take a “ demand” for 115,622,160 papers! at an “ expenditure” of
£2,288,355 to give, at a duty o f Id., the same amount o f revenue, viz, £481,759, that
the duty o f 31 gave.




Reduction o f P rice and Rate o f Duty.

71

o f means resulting from the increased will and power o f the public, by
the natural increase o f population and wealth, to that extent exactly is it
the result o f the “ demand” being drawn from some other things that have
not been so reduced.
A s an abstract principle, a “ rule without exception,” there can be no
such thing as an increase o f demand in a greater proportion than decrease
o f price, “ so that, i f one thousand are sold at Is. many more than two
thousand would be sold at 6d.”
Even “ these facts,” as far only as they
themselves go, have not “ established” such a r u le ; for the most important
one among them, that o f newspapers, is, we think we have shown, clearly
an exception. And as to an increase capable o f giving an increased
revenue, it is utterly out o f the question.
The foregoing article was written some time ago, and with a very in­
distinct view to publication. But the recent discussions o f the subject,
both here and in England, led the writer to revise it with that view ; and
in the course o f fulfilling that intention, he met with the report o f Lord
Brougham’s speech, on the new financial measures o f Sir Robert Peel,
which contains the following passages:
“ W ell, then, it was suggested that by lowering the duties o f customs
and excise, you would increase the consumption, and thus raise the rev­
enue. A ll experience was against this resource for any immediate prac­
tical effect. Let not noble lords imagine that he was opposed to the low ­
ering o f the customs and excise. Quite the contrary. H e entertained no
doubt that increased revenue would be the result, the certain consequence, o f
reduction in the duties o f customs and excise, and would remove many o f
the hardships which now pressed on the consum ers; but his opinion was
that such remedies would now come too late to cure the present difficulties.
T h ey would tell no doubt in the course o f time, but that was not what
was now wanted. He repeated, that such a remedy would come too late.
There were abundant illustrations o f what he thus stated. W hen the
noble lord opposite (the earl o f Ripon) was in office, about twenty years
ago, he made the attempt to get an increased revenue by lowering the
duties, and in that year the duties on wines were reduced 54 per cent.
W hat became o f the consumption ? It was very much increased, but the
revenue fell one third ; and now after a lapse o f twenty years, it had not
come up to its former amount, but was at the present day one fifth less.
The same might be said o f tobacco. A reduction o f the duty took place
to the amount o f 25 per cent, from 4s. to 3s. per pound. He would not
say that the consumption was not increased by this. It was, to a consid­
erable amount, but there was a considerable deficiency in the revenue,
and at the present day it amounted to about one seventh o f what it had
been before the reduction o f duties took place. A great reduction had
also been made in sugar. The duty was lowered from 27s. to 24s. per
cwt., or 11 per cent. T h e consumption rapidly increased. In fact, the
reduction answered admirably for all purposes but those o f revenue.”
There is in these remarks so much o f confirmation o f our reasoning,
that w e almost doubt whether we have construed correctly those which
his lordship made in 1825. Still, as the reader w ill perceive from the
passage we have put in italics, there is enough o f the doctrine reasserted
by him to remove the doubt, and make the reasoning against it, i f worth
any thing at all, worth as much as it was before.




72

Our Trade with England.
A r t . VI.— OUR TRAD E W IT H ENGLAND.

To the Editor o f the Merchants' Magazine :
I t is not often that we see the candid confession by an advocate o f a
protective tariff, that the com laws o f England are the very principles o f
political econom y upon which we are so anxious that our own government
should a c t ; yet i f I understand your correspondent, Mr. Colman, right, he
not only admits, but proclaims this doctrine. It has been popular in this
country, by men o f all classes, to decry these laws as extremely injurious
and wrong, operating peculiarly hard on the agriculture and commerce
o f this country, and inflicting evils o f a more serious character on the
lower classes, not only in England, but in all Europe. W e have always
had the opinion, and the article o f your correspondent does much to estab­
lish its truth, that the corn laws o f England were beneficial to the agri­
culture o f this country. Our wheat, exported through the British provinces,
does not come in competition with the wheat o f E u rop e; but let the ports
o f England be opened, and our grain would be effectually excluded. In
exchange for this, however, our manufacturers would find a market for
low-priced cottons and woollens in those grain-growing countries, because
they can be manufactured here cheaper than in any other part o f the
world. England is aware o f our advantage in this respect, and has ex­
cluded our manufactures from her East Indies.
Let us examine the corn laws, their origin and effects, and we can per­
haps judge more accurately o f the propriety o f adopting this feature o f
transatlantic policy. The superior strength and influence o f the land­
holders has led England to adopt her present system. Its object, and to
a considerable extent, its effect, is to exclude foreign grain, and increase
the price. Land is enhanced in v a lu e ; the laborer, unable to purchase
or even rent, is driven from the soil to the mill. T h e influx o f laborers
in every branch o f manufactures reduces the price o f labor, while breadstuffs advance; and here commences the practical working o f the system.
The laborer, whose wages barely furnish the means o f subsistence,
though not always that, now finds that he has no time to devote to mental
or moral culture. From a man, he becomes a mere machine without vol­
untary effort.
Those countries adapted to the culture o f grain, unable to sell their
products in England, are unable to buy her manufactures ; and the blow
aimed at foreign labor recoils on the head o f the poor operative, first driven
from the land to the mill, degraded from a man to a menial, and now again
the victim o f an unjust policy. The peasantry o f Poland and Russia are
anxious to buy the products o f the English spindle and loom, at prices
which w ill compensate labor, i f England w ill but take their grain and
feed her own starving and rebellious children.
Although England would find a successful rival in the United States in
coarse goods, the market for finer fabrics would be almost exclusively her
own. In proportion, however, as her policy becomes more liberal will her
ability to manufacture cheap be increased. Such is the policy o f the
present administration. Sir Robert Peel’s new tariff proposes a great re­
duction in the number o f dutiable articles, as well as in the ad valorem
rate. It requires no superior sagacity to discern that the true interests
o f England are to be greatly advanced by this measure. Buying cheap,
under a low system o f duties, all the materials o f manufacturing, she will




Our Trade with England.

73

be able to offer more facilities to other countries to buy her goods, and at
the same time the products o f the world will find a ready market in her
manufacturing towns and cities. England will see her commerce on the
increase, and the labor o f her artisans and operatives will be more equita­
bly rewarded.
But what is to be the effect on the United States ? Continental wheat
will take the place o f American, and our agriculture will, to a small
extent, be depressed. Our manufactures too, w ill suffer, as the ability o f
England to compete successfully with us will be increased.
Let me call attention to an extraordinary statement for an advocate o f
a protective tariff to put forth. In the first sentence o f your correspon­
dent’s article, he says: “ I have always been a warm advocate for what
is called Home Industry, holding that, in the main, political economy does
not essentially differ from domestic economy ; and believing that a family,
to be really prosperous and independent, must from within itself and from
its oicm resources supply its own wants.” N o man will question this pro­
position as a theory, yet the protectionists, i f we understand their policy,
act in direct opposition to it. I f a farmer raise wheat and buy his cloth
with it, he as certainly supplies this want from his own resources as i f he
manufactured the cloth in his own dwelling. This is just what the advo­
cates o f free trade propose: to produce every thing for which our soil,
climate, and condition o f the people are suited, and exchange our surplus
for those articles which we cannot produce at all, or only at an exorbitant
rate ; thus from within ourselves and from our own resources supplying
our wants. On the other hand, it is proposed that we produce directly,
not by an exchange o f products, every article necessary or convenient.
W e have no idea that any person in his senses proposes to carry this policy
to its extreme, though the time is not long past when there were such ; yet
w e w ill trace it there, that its true character may be exposed. Unnecessa­
ry expense would be incurred, and abortive attempts made to grow the
plant o f China by the waters o f the St. Croix and Kennebec ; human art and
ingenuity would in vain seek to raise coffee on the banks o f the Mohawk
and Hudson ; woollen and cotton mills, driven by steam, would spring up
on the prairies o f the west, while the flocks o f the mountains would find
unnatural pasturage on the savannahs o f the south; the hard and un­
fruitful maple would take the place o f the copious cane ; the mulberry,
orange, and lemon would be found in the green-houses o f St. Petersburg ;
while the navy o f England would he supplied with timber from artificial
forests. This policy when applied to families is even more pernicious.
N o scheme can be more Quixotic than one which would lead every fami­
ly to confine itself to those articles which were produced by its own mem­
bers. Industry asks nothing, and surely can receive nothing beneficial,
at the hand o f legislation. Labor desires to be let alone. Labor is the
propelling power in society, not the propelled; hence the fruitlessness o f
every attempt to render it the servant o f law.
Y our correspondent shows that in 1840, our exports to England ex­
ceeded the imports from that country by $25,034,422, and supports the
doctrine that a high tariff w ill diminish our imports and increase our
exports. N ow the tariff o f England in 1840 was higher than our own,
yet the balance o f trade was against her. I f Mr. Colman were correct,
England ought to have exported great and imported small quantities o f the
products o f labor.
VOL. VII.— NO. i.




7

Mercantile Law Department.

74

MERCANTILE LAW DEPARTMENT.
D I G E S T OF R E C E N T E N G L I S H C A S E S .
B IL L OF EXCHAN GE.-----NOTICE OF DISHONOR.

A t Law.— The following were the notices o f non-payment o f six bills of exchange.
1st. “ Sir— A bill for £ 2 9 17s. 3d., drawn by Ward on Hunt, due yesterday, is unpaid,
and I am sorry to say, the person at whose house it is made payable, don’ t speak very
favorably o f the acceptor’s punctuality. I should like to see you upon it to-day.” 2d.
“ Mr. Maine : Sir— This is to give you notice, that a bill drawn by you, and accepted by
Josias Bateman, for £ 4 7 16s. 9d., due July 19, 1835, is unpaid, and lies due at Mr.
John Furze’s, 65 Fleet-street.” 3d. “ Sir— William Howard’s acceptance for <£214s. 4 d.,
due on Saturday, is unpaid. He has promised to pay it in a week or ten days. I shall
be glad to see you upon it as early as possible.” 4th. “ Sir— This is to give you notice,
that a bill for .£176 15s. 6d., drawn by Samuel Maine, and accepted by George Clisby,
dated May 7th, 1835, at four months, lies due and unpaid at my house.” 5th. “ P.
Johnson, E sq.: Sir— This is to give you notice that a bill for £ 2 0 17s. 7d.} drawn by
Samuel Maine, accepted by Richard Jones, dated May 21,1835, at four months, lies due
and unpaid at my house.” 6th. “ P. Johnson, E s q .: Sir— This is to give you notice,
that a bill for £1 48 10s., drawn by Samuel Maine, and accepted by George Parker, da­
ted May 22,1835, lies due and unpaid at my house.”
Held, not sufficient notices o f dishonor.
MEMORANDUM IN W R IT IN G .-----PRIN C IPA L AND A G E N T.

A t L aw .— The traveller o f the plaintiffs sold the defendants 150 mats o f sugar, on ac­
count o f the plaintiffs. At the time o f the sale, one o f the defendants wrote the follow­
ing entry in their book, which the plaintiffs’ traveller, on being requested so to do, then
signed— viz, “ O f North, Simpson, Graham, & Co., 150 mats Ma. sugar, a 7 1 -6 as sam­
ple, per sea, Fenning’s wharf. First and second ship. (Signed,) Joseph Dyson.”
The sugar was sent to the wharf, and invoices transmitted to the defendants. Whilst
at the wharf, the sugar was destroyed by fire. Dyson had, upon many previous occa­
sions, sold sugars for the plaintiffs to the defendants on credit, upon which occasions
similar sale notes had been signed by him, and these contracts the defendants had al­
ways performed, but—
Held, that the entry above mentioned, was not a sufficient memorandum in writing
within the Statute o f Frauds, requiring contracts to be in writing, to bind the defendants,
Dyson not being their agent for that purpose.
A R B IT R A T IO N .-----SE TTIN G ASIDE A W A R D .— U M PIRE.-----R E FU S A L TO H E A R W IT N E S S E S.— W A IV E R .

A t Law.— I f an umpire either refuse to rehear the evidence already given before the
arbitrators, or to hear further evidence, the award may be set aside.
And it is no waiver o f the objection that the party did not insist on it at the time he
attended to hear what award the arbitrators had made.
GOODS SOLD AND DELIVERED.

A t Law.— The defendant directed the plaintiff to make a coat for him.

He after­

wards wrote to say, he should have no occasion for it, and directed the plaintiff to dis­
pose o f it for him. Plaintiff accordingly sold the coat, and apprised the defendant o f his
so doing.
Held, upon these facts, that an action was maintainable for goods sold and delivered
to the defendant.
C O N TRACT.— ACCEPTANCE AND D E L IV E R Y .

A t Law.— The defendant having purchased goods under a verbal agreement, to be




75

Mercantile Law Department.

paid for on delivery, went to the plaintiff’s warehouse, where the goods were, and di­
rected the mark on one o f the packages to be altered from “ No. 1,” to “ No. 12,” and
the goods to be sent to St. Catherine’s Docks. The mark was altered accordingly.
The defendant having, on the following day, refused to pay for the goods, the present
action was immediately commenced, subsequently to which the defendant wrote in the
plaintiff’s books, under entry o f the goods ordered, the words, “ Receive the above,
J. B.”
Held, that there was no evidence o f a delivery and acceptance o f the goods within
the Statute o f Frauds, and that the receipt, having been given after action brought, did
not constitute an acceptance.
S T A T U T E OF L IM ITA TIO N S .— CONSTRUCTION OF AGREEM EN T.— DEMAND.

A t L aw .— The defendant, being indebted to the plaintiff’s intestate, upon two bills of
exchange, which were overdue, gave the following written promise in 1803 : “ I hereby
debar myself o f all future plea o f the Statute o f Limitations, in case of my being sued
for the recovery o f the amounts o f the said bills, and o f the interest accruing thereon, at
the time o f my being so sued; and I hereby promise to pay them, separately or con­
jointly, with the full amount o f legal interest on each and both o f them, whenever my
circumstances may enable me so to do and I may be called upon for that purpose.” A n
action was brought upon this agreement in 1838, and the issue was, whether a right of
action accrued under the agreement within six years ? It appeared that the defendant
became o f ability to pay in 1825, but there was no evidence to show that the plaintiff’s
intestate was aware o f the ability until 1838, in the month o f November o f which year
he demanded payment.
Held, first, that no demand was necessary beyond the bringing o f an action; and,
secondly, that the action having been brought after the expiration o f six years from the
period o f the defendant having become o f ability to pay, o f which the plaintiff was bound
to have informed himself, he was not entitled to recover.
CO NTRACT.----- CONSIDERATION.— PROM ISE TO P A Y E X T R A W AGES TO A SE R V A N T OF THE
GOVERNM EN T.

A t Law.— The plaintiff, who was a cook on board a merchant ship, was engaged by
the defendant to serve in that capacity on board a man-of-war, o f which the defendant
was captain, and extra wages, in addition to the ordinary pay, were promised him. The
plaintiff went on board the defendant’s ship, and was rated in'the usual way, and acted
as cook, receiving pay as a seaman.
Held, that there was a good consideration for the promise o f the defendant to pay the
extra wages, and that an action might be maintained by him, against the defendant, in
respect o f them.
HORSE RACE.— STEEPLE CHASE.— W A G E R .

A t Law .— “ B. bets A . .£100 to £ 2 5 p. p. Mr. RJs brown mare beats A .’s mare Ma­
tilda, four miles across a country, thirteen stone each.”
H eld, a legal w ager; and that A .’s mare having beat Mr. R .’s, A . was entitled to re­
cover the £100 in an action o f assumpsit.
C A R R IE R .-----STOPPAGE

IN

T R A N S IT U .— B A N K R U P T C Y .— T A K IN G

POSSESSION.----- EVIDENCE.—

A U T H O R IT Y .— CON FIRM ATION .

A t Law.— B., a merchant at Liverpool, ordered a cargo o f timber to be sent from
Quebec, in a vessel belonging to and chartered by a shipowner at Montrose. The tim­
ber was to be delivered at a port in Lancashire. The price was not paid; and before
the arrival o f the vessel in England, B. became a bankrupt. On the 18th o f July, before
the arrival of the vessel, the defendants, who were the correspondents in this country of
the consignor, sent to the shipowner a notice o f stoppage in transitu, whereupon the ship­




76

Mercantile Law Department.

owner sent a letter to await the arrival o f the captain, directing him to deliver the cargo
to the defendants.

The vessel arrived in port on the 8th ot August, on which day, be­

fore the captain had received his owner’s letter, the agent of the assignees went on
board, and told the captain he had come to take possession o f the cdrgo. He went into
the cabin, into which the ends o f the timber projected, and saw and touched the timber.
W hen the agent first stated that he came to take possession, the captain made no reply,
but subsequently, at the interview, told him that he would deliver him the cargo when
he was satisfied about his freight, but did not then consent to deliver immediate posses­
sion, or to waive his lien for the freight.

They then went on shore together.

Shortly

afterwards the defendants’ clerk came on board, and served a notice o f stoppage in
transitu upon ttie mate, who had charge o f the cargo; and a few days afterwards re­
ceived possession o f the cargo from the captain.
Before the consignor knew o f the bankruptcy o f the consignee, he had sent three let­
ters to the manager o f a bank in Liverpool, enclosing bills drawn by himself upon certain
parties, and he referred to the defendants as persons who would settle any irregularity
that might occur respecting the acceptances. These letters were communicated to the
defendants and assented to by them. Another letter to the same party enclosed a bill
drawn upon the consignee for the price o f the timber in question.
Held, first, that the letters were admissible in evidence, and gave the defendants an
authority to stop the cargo in transitu.
A notice o f stoppage in transitu, to be good, must be given either to the servant, who
has the custody o f the goods, or to the principal; and in the latter case it must be given
at such a time, and under such circumstances, as that the principal, by the exercise o f
reasonable diligence, may communicate it to his servant in time to prevent the delivery
o f the goods to the consignee.
Held, therefore, secondly, that in the present case the notice to the shipowner did not
amount to a stoppage in transitu.
Held, also, that there was no actual possession o f the goods by the assignees ; and as
there was no contract by the captain to hold the goods as their agent, the circumstances
did not amount to a constructive possession o f the goods by them.
Whether the act o f marking or taking samples, or the like, without any removal from
the possession o f the carrier, although done with the intention o f taking possession, will
amount to a constructive possession, unless accompanied by circumstances denoting that
the carrier was intended to keep, and assented to keep the goods as an agent— Quaere ?
The consignor, before the stoppage in transitu, wrote a letter to the defendants, in
which he assumes that they had stopped the cargo.
ants until after the stoppage.

This letter did not reach the defend­

Quaere— whether it gave authority to them to stop the cargo at the time o f the stop­
page, or amounted to a valid confirmation o f that act ?
B IL L OF E XC H A N G E .— IR R E V O C A B L E A P P R O P R I A T IO N .--E Q U IT A B L E ASSIGN M EN T.-----B A N K R U P T C Y .

A t Law.— The plaintiff having sold goods to B., sent them to the defendant, as B.’s
agent, who consigned them to his partners abroad for sale. The plaintiff being the
holder o f B.’s acceptances not then due, it was agreed, between him and B., and the
defendant, that B. should write and deliver to the defendant the following letter;— “ Mr.
R . G. W ., (the plaintiff,) holding my acceptances for X I, 100, or thereabouts, for goods
consigned by him on my account, to your firms at Rio and Bahia, I hereby authorize and
direct you, from and out o f any remittances that you may receive against nett proceeds o f
any consignments made by me to either o f your above firms, subsequent to the 1st of
May last, to pay such acceptances when and as they become due or afterwards, if pre­
viously to the receipt o f such nett proceeds o f such consignments, & c., the bills are not




Monthly Commercial Chronicle.
honored by me. Signed, A . Bull.”
terms o f it were assented to by him.

77

This letter was delivered to the defendant, and the
B. afterwards became a bankrupt, and the defend­

ant having received the proceeds o f the goods, refused to pay them to the plaintiff, but
handed them over to the assignees o f B.
Held, that this was an appropriation irrevocable except by consent of all parties, the
existence o f the debt, although not due, being a good consideration to B .; and that the
defendant having bound himself to appropriate the goods according to the direction of the
owner, could not withhold them from the plaintiff.

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE.
[B rought D own

to

J une 15.]

By a singular inadvertence in our May number, in giving a list of banks which had
stopped payment from January, 1842, up to that time, we inserted the Planters’ Bank,
Georgia, instead o f the Planters’ & Mechanics’ Bank. T he former institution is situ,
ated at Savannah, and is a sound and solvent bank; while the latter, located at Colum­
bus, has been forced to yield to the pressure as we stated.
The leading features o f financial and commercial affairs as indicated in our former
numbers had not varied jn their general character down to the middle o f June, but some
progress had been made towards bringing about a more sound state of the currency, and
reducing exchanges to a greater degree o f uniformity than has been experienced in many
years. W e stated in our last number that preparations were on foot for resumption at
N ew Orleans. Soon after that number went to press, seven o f the banks o f N ew Or­
leans returned to specie payments, although the law did not require it o f them until De­
cember next.

There are ten banks in N ew Orleans ; and three o f them, the Citizens’,

Consolidated, and State banks, being opposed to resumption, resisted the movement
for some days after it was entered into by the other institutions. The force o f public
opinion was, however, such as to oblige them to follow in the movement, or submit to
discredit. T he following was the aggregate condition o f these banks immediately prior
to their resumption :—
C ash A ssets

and

City Bank,.........................
Louisiana Bank,............ .
Canal and Banking Co..
Carrolton Bank,.............
Commercial Bank,..........,.
M. &. Traders’ Bank,....
Union B an k ,.................. .

Citizens’ , ............................
Consolidated,.................. .
State B ank,..................... .

L iabilities

Liabilities.
$1,460,960
296,372
451,376
150,745
1,029,311
358,074
1,509,284

of th e

N ew O rleans B anks, A

Cash Assets.
$814,972
605,634
162,785
60,263
555,562
364,870
1,214,028

pril

D ef. Assets.
$645,988
—

288,590
90,482
472,748
__
295,256

5,256,126
3,778,119
Non-Resuming Banks.
2,277,715
1,715,315
1,283,451
785,328
1,220,963
932,328

1,794,366

4,782,129

1,351,057

3,432,971

561,399
498,022
288,634

30.

E x. Assets.
—
$309,261

_
_
_

6,796
—

__

_
—

T otal, ... .$10,038,255

$7,211,090
3,145,423
The resumption effected under these circumstances was o f but short duration.

It

continued sixteen days under a constant effort o f the institutions to realize their assets,
and to meet the unremitting demand for specie in payment o f their outstanding obliga­
tions. A t the close o f the month o f May the banks again made their report, which was
followed by an immediate panic on the part o f the public.




This caused a run which in

78

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

three days resulted in a resuspension o f six o f the banks.

The leading features o f all

the i>anks at the two periods were as follow s:—
C ondition

of the

B anks

Assets.
Capital o f Branches,..... ..
Real Estate,................... ..
Public Improvements,... ..
Loans on Stock,............ ..
Loans on Mortgages, & c.
Discounts,...................... ..
Other Assets,................. ..
Protested Paper,............ ..
Cash Assets.
S pecie,........................... ..
Loans on Deposits,....... ..
Exchange,...................... ..
Other Assets,.................

of

N ew O rleans, A fril 30,

A p'il 30.
$5,775,000
2,508,224
3,081,198
11,015,726
5,694,966
10,948,500
3,175,253
5,036,683

M ay 28.
$5,775,000
2,557,037
3,088,495
11,008,647
7,944,907
8,314,885
3,178,905
5,387,451

2,263,950
2,115,407
2,028,722
617,904

1,741,526
1,894,944
1,976,519
334,212

T otal , Assets,...... .$54,261,539

and

M a y 28, 1842.

Increase.

Decrease.

$44,813
7,297
$7,079
2,249,941
2,633,615
3,652
350,768
522,424
220,463
52,203
283,692

$53,198,528

Liabilities.
Capital,............................ $35,447,578
Circulation,.................... .. 3,707,719
Deposits,......................... .. 4,738,153
816,737
Exchange,......................
Other Cash Liabilities,..
690,539
(t
n
1,431,627

$35,447,578
3,007,340
4,177,867
836,127
398,016
1,793,611

T otal , Liabilities,. ..$46,832,333

$45,660,539

700,379
560,286
19,390
292,523
361,984

This return gives us the fact that the banks were called upon in the short space of
thirty days to pay $1,553,188, to do which they diminished their available assets
1,078,782. This left them in a very weak condition to sustain the run which followed.
In the same time, it appears that $350,000 o f their discounts came under protest, which
was nearly all that fell due. In the thirty days which elapsed prior to the 30th o f April,
the cash liabilities were diminished $226,207 only, and during the same period, the
specie increased $33,000. The sudden panic which set in and existed throughout
April may therefore fairly be ascribed to the bickerings between the banks themselves.
T he want o f confidence which they exhibited in each other shook the confidence o f the
public, and produced the disastrous results that we have seen.
W e have gone thus minutely into the occurrences in N ew Orleans because we look
upon the events which transpired there as o f vast importance to the commercial world,
N ew Orleans being the great head-quarters o f the cotton market, a staple that forms two
thirds o f the whole exports o f the United States. The effect o f the failure in N ew Or­
leans must be to retard a restoration o f a sound currency throughout the western states.
The resumption at N ew Orleans was to have been followed by a similar movement
along the whole valley o f the Mississippi. Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, and Kentucky re­
sumed on the 15th o f June, as required by the laws o f the respective states.

The banks

o f Tennessee were required to resume within twenty days after those of Kentucky and
Louisiana, and have done so. The law o f the latter requires the banks to resume on the
first Monday o f December, 1842, under penalty o f forfeiture ; and the probability now
is that they will hesitate in doing so. The following is a table o f the leading features of
those institutions that have resumed, at the period o f their latest returns :—
W

estern and

S outhwestern B anks

which

P aid S pecie

on the

15 th

of

J une .

Banks.
Date.
Loans.
Specie. Circulation. Deposits.
State Bank o f Indiana...........Oct., 1841, $3,708,158 $1,127,518 $2,960,414 $251,986
Nor. Bank o f Kentucky,........Jan., 1842, 3,788,998
609,309 1,523,271
612,435
Bank o f Louisville,.................Jan., 1842, 1,309,702
160,414
337,448
85,613




79

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.
Banks.
Date.
Bank o f Kentucky,.................Jan., 1842,
Bank o f Missouri................... Jan., 1842,
Banks o f Ohio,...................... M ar.,1842,
Bank o f Illinois,..................... Feb., 1842,
Bank o f Cape Fear, N . C .... Jan., 1842,
Bank o f Louisiana,......................................
City Bank......................................................
Mechanics’ & Traders’ Bank,..................
Union Bank,.................................................

Loans.
4,232,147
1,500,000
4,607,213
1,799,425
1,769,831
3,037,502
1,841,537
1,164,883
5,826,204

Specie. Circulation. Deposits.
669,247 1,614,827
363,273
228,814
305,850
413,347
539,993
889,257 1,341,368
421,151 1,310,492
100,513
565,518
962,197
217,209
276,605
133,870
329,700
236,907
495,795
732,530
130,698
198,885
200,773
400,306
536,130
719,528

T otal , ..............................$34,585,600 $5,146,480 11,268,436 $5,368,275

The following were the leading features o f the N ew Orleans banks and other southern
banks that remain suspended:—
S uspended S outhern B anks .

Banks.
Canal & Banking Company,..
Carrolton R. R. & Bank’g Co.
Citizens’ Bank,..........................
Commercial Bank,..................
Consolidated Association,......
Louisiana State Bank,.............
Com. Bank, Natchez, Miss....
Planters’ Bank, Natchez, Miss.
Banks o f Virginia,....................
Bank o f M obile,........................
Planters’ and Mer. o f Mobile,
State Bk. o f Ala. and br’ ches,

Loans.
$1,533,122
469,456
7,903,836
1,145,124
1,372,112
1,974,651
3,904,074
2,615,524
15,925,088
1,705,716
1,648,803
12,000,000

Specie.
$78,184
29,638
112,544
79,087
170,025
227,527
54,954
9,021
2,462,155
89,505
101,126
1,654,476

T otal ,................ .$52,197,506

$5,066,247

501,823
7,753,300
25,137
48,735
7,026,057

Deposits.
$31,716
48,622
878,231
87,011
498,241
651,511
13,611
85,136
2,638,882
1,057,439
690,412
874,484

$16,997,712

$7,575,300

Circulation.
$239,555
35,270
294,245
210,545
419,390
387,645

The effect which resumption had upon the exchanges down to the moment o f the
New Orleans explosion is clearly distinguishable in the following table o f rates :—
R ates

of

D omestic B ills

at

N ew Y
in

Places.
Boston,................
Philadelphia,.....
Baltimore,...........
Richmond,..........
North Carolina,..
Savannah,...........
Charleston,.........
Mobile,...............
New Orleans,....
Louisville,..........
Nashville,...........
St. Louis,............
Cincinnati,.........
Indiana,..............
Illinois,................

February.
in
|
7 a 8|
2 a 3
9 a 124
54 a 5J
2Ja 3
14 a 1|
124 a 13
64 a 7
94 a 10
14 a 144
13 a 14
15 a 16
16 a 17
17 a 18

ork since the

R esumption

in

P hiladelphia

M arch , 1842.

M ay 15.
M ay 1.
4 a
|
4a
|
par a
^ d. par a
4
|a
4
4 a
4
74 a 74
74 a 74
3 a 34
54 a 5J
24 a 24
a 2
14 a l j
1 4 a If
19 a 20
15 a 16
a 6^
6 }a 7
5 a 6
4 a 5
17 a 18
17 a 18
6 a
6 a
8 a 10
8 a 9
a 16
a 10
a 31

M ay 30.
par a
4
4a
4
4 a
4
24 a 3
34 a 34
l| a 2
14 a 1|
29 a 30
1 a 2
34 a 4
124 a 15
4 a 5
4 a 5
8 a 9
7 a 9

June 15.
par a
4
par a
4
par a
4
24 a 2 f
3 a 34
If a 2
14 a 14
26 a 264
14 a 14
3 a 3i
10 a 11
7 a 8
34 a 4
8 a 9
7 a 8

On every point where resumption had been enforced the exchanges were reduced to
very near their natural level, which is the cost o f transportation o f the precious metals,
and which is always against the point to which payment is to be made. This reduction
in the price o f exchanges has, however, been attended with a pressure that has borne
with great severity upon the Atlantic dealers, and has tended to diminish the spring
business. T he banks preparing to resume have been unable to discount the usual
amount o f business paper; and although exchange has been freely offered on N ew Y ork,




80

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

at all the points, the means o f purchase have been diminished by the severe curtailment
o f the accustomed facilities. The consequence has been that the city merchants have
been deprived o f their remittances, and the failures anticipated in our May number have
to a great extent been realized, and within a short time some unexpected stoppages
among the grocers have transpired. The extent to which this reduction o f the western
currency has taken place may be indicated in the following comparative statement o f the
banks o f Cincinnati, June 1, 1841, and June, 1842:—
B anks

of

C incinnati, J une, 1841,

and

J une, 1842.

Jane, 1841.
Capital.
Lafayette Bank,...$1,000,000
Franklin,................ 1,000,000
Ohio Life & Trust, 634,730
Commercial Bank,
500,000
T otal, ....... $3,134,730

Loans.
$1,650,000
1,585,000
779,700
1,902,077

Circulation.
$523,000
229,400
31,000
650,024

$5,916,777
$1,433,424
Reduction,................

June, 1842.
Loans.
$980,000
1,095,000
632,500
1,017,836
$3,725,336
2,191,441

Circulation.
$57,000
25,400
89,000
122,820
$294,220
1,139,204

Notwithstanding this state o f things in the interior, causing much embarrassment
among the dealers who depended upon receiving their accustomed remittance, money
with the banks and capitalists has been abundant in the city, arising from the fact that
the call for money for mercantile purposes has by no means kept pace with the receipts
o f the banks. This has produced an increased inquiry for stocks for investment, and
has continued that upward tendency in values which we noticed in our last. W e then
stated that the new United States loan had not been taken. Since then, however, an
arrangement has been entered into by the Secretary o f the Treasury with certain broker
houses, by which money was obtained upon a portion o f the $3,500,000 o f stock offered.
The price did not transpire, but some sales o f the stock were subsequently made in the
market at par. The N ew Y ork seven per cent stock commands a premium o f 2£ per cent.
There is yet, however, no appearance o f any movement on the part o f the delinquent states
to restore their credit; on the contrary, the difficulties seem to increase around them.
The state o f Virginia did not succeed in negotiating a loan o f $250,000thatwas appropriated
to the payment of the July interest on the state debt, and fears are entertained on that ac­
count. T he interest was, however, fully provided for. An extra session o f the Pennsyl­
vania legislature has been convened to take into consideration the means o f meeting the
payment o f the interest due on the debt o f that state in August. A s yet no means whatever
have been provided, and the governor, in his message, has called the attention o f the legis­
lature to the subject in an energetic manner. He represents that the people of Pennsylvania,
who number 1,700,000, now pay town and county taxes amounting in the aggregate to
$4,000,000, o f which but $700,000 comes into the state treasury. The interest on the
state debt is about $2,000,000, and a deficiency in the current expenses of the govern­
ment also exists.

T o meet these, the present imposts must be nearly doubled, and the

taxes must be promptly levied. This state o f affairs places the credit o f Pennsylvania
in a very critical condition. The state o f the banks in New Orleans will also have a
great influence upon the credit o f that state. The public debt o f Louisiana consists
almost altogether o f bonds issued on the faith o f the state to different banks, which bonds
have been sold in Europe, and the proceeds constitute the capitals o f the banks, and is
by them loaned out to the stockholders on mortgages o f their landed property. The
interest received for the loan o f the stock is supposed sufficient to pay the interest on the
bonds sold abroad, and to form a sinking fund for their ultimate redemption.
sues have been as follows :—




The is­

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

81

L ouisiana S tate D e b t -

Bonds Issued.
Bate o f Interest.
Bank o f Louisiana,................. 5 percent.
Consolidated Association,.... 5
“
Mechanics’ & Traders’ ,........ 5
“
Union Bank,............................ 5
“
Citizens’ Bank,....................... 5
“
Issues not negotiated,.............................
T

Redeemable.
1844-49
1843-48
1853
1844-47-50-52
1 8 50-9 -68 -77 -86
........

otal , ........... ■:..............................................................................

Amount.
$1,200,000
2,382,000
150,000
7,000,000
7,088,889
3,000,000
$20,820,889

These bonds are guarantied by cotton lands supposed to be worth $25,400,000.

It

has long been the opinion o f many o f the shrewdest practical financiers o f that section
of the country that the expenses attending the borrowing o f money, wherewith to pursue
the banking business, were greater than the profits o f planting would warrant. The
facts now developing seem to warrant that conclusion.

The amount o f interest due in

Europe for money borrowed for various, purposes in this country has been computed at
$11,000,000 annually. This is full ten per cent o f the whole exports o f domestic pro­
duce, and must absorb all the profits o f those exports. Many o f the states have declared
their inability to continue those payments, but it is to be hoped that, with the removal o f
those general causes o f depression which have o f late years overshadowed the whole
commercial world, such an alleviation o f business may take place in this country as will
enable its citizens to redeem their honor.
The great question o f national interest now pending before congress is the adjust­
ment of the tariff on such a footing as shall yield a revenue sufficient for all the purposes
of government, and at the same time impose the least burdens upon commerce. For
the last few years it has been apparent that the customs did not yield a revenue sufficient
even for an economical administration o f the government. This deficiency has been
supposed to be temporary in its nature, and has been supplied by expedients. A t the
close o f the present month, however, the final reduction in duties as provided by the
compromise tariff goes into effect, when a general duty o f twenty per cent is to be levied
upon-all articles. The reduction under the compromise act has been biennial, com­
mencing in 1834.

The following table will illustrate its operation :—

B iennial R eduction

of

D uties

under the

C ompromise A ct.

rs ending Dec. 31. Reduction. 25 per c. 30 per c. 35 per c. 40 per c.
1834-35
244
.1
29
334
38
1836-37
.2
36
24
28
32
1838-39
.3
23i
27
30*
34
1840-41
.4
23
26
29
32
1842— June 30,
.7
21
23
24
26
After 30th June,
under
20
20
20
20

50 per c.
47
44
41
38
29
20

The manner o f reduction is by tenths o f the difference between twenty per cent and
the original duty. Thus, if the duty was fifty per cent, the difference between that and
twenty per cent would be 30, one tenth o f which is .3, which, deducted from 50, gives
forty-seven per cent as the duty for 1834-5 ; and so on, until, after June, the reduction
becomes complete. Three propositions have been made to increase the revenues : —*
one by the secretary o f the treasury ; one by the committee o f ways and means ; and
one by the committee on manufactures. All o f these plans propose duties to average
nearly thirty-five per cent instead o f twenty. This is to restore the rates o f 1834, before
any reduction took place. W hile this is going on on this side o f the water, in England
arrangements have been made to reduce the duties levied there on imported goods, par­
ticularly on American produce. These contemporaneous movements will, doubtless,
have a great effect upon the trade between the two countries.

In order to form some

estimate o f the change, we have compiled the following table, showing the trade between




82

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

the United States and Great Britain for several years, with the rates o f duty heretofore
existing, and those proposed to be levied in both countries :—
COM M ERCE B E T W E E N G R E A T B R IT A IN A N D T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
I mports

Free o f Duty. 1834.
B ooks,.........
30,160
Spelter,.......
122
Furs, & c....
208,834
Tin, pigs,...
52,836
—
“ plates,.
Copper, pigs
4,130
433,181
“ Plates,
Gold,........... 1,997,260
Silver,......... 3,708,000
Spices,.........
90,000
—
Silks............
—
“ & w ’sted
—
Cam let,......
—
W orsted,....
—
Linens,........
—
Burlaps,......
—
Sheetings,...
—
W o o l,..........
—
Quicksilver,
O’r Articles, 9,875,565
Free,...16,600,150
A d Valorem.
Cloths,....... 4,198,133
M erino,.....
—
Blankets,...
913,701
Hosiery,....
312,775
Oth.Wool,..
193,862
W orsted,...
665,804
Dy. Cotton, 5,531,964
W hite,....... 1,560,299
H osiery,....
394,777
Y a r n ,........
366,533
Oth. Cotton, 339,151
Sew’g Silk,
17,462
Lace,..........
846,232
Art. o f Flax, 201,401
“ Hemp,
88,892
Straw Hats,
139,639
Art. o f Iron, 3,877,000
“ Copper,
20,950
“ Brass,.. 235,613
“ T in ,....
90,344
“ Pewter,
13,370
“ Lead,...
1,141
“ W ood,.
19,130
“ L ’ ather, 130,676
“ Gold, & c. 89,000
W atches,...
414,085
Glassware,.
943,535
China.........
76,964
E’rth’nw’re, 1,365,380
Wares, & c.
200,000
Saddlery,... 336,967




1836.
26,130
41,606
465,842
37,413
1,403,101
344,317
1,004,177
2,317,605
8,675
71,448
3,795,001
784.313
120,869
5,663,555
6,556,498
364,920
252,021
58,221
12,281
1,837,240

from

E ngland .

1837.
—

17,683
230,503
148,966
776,711
188,578
610,310
75,912
44,389
43,130
1,474,907
220,897
15,753
2,687,002
3,816,570
283,791
194,553
24,067
18,460
1,254,426

1839.
32,948
7,267
518,989
235,758
1,044,368
109,456
615,351
465,047
967,130
114,220
3,314,299
441,040
29,150
4,326,208
3,589,555
397,156
312,485
16,417
244,672
2,445,370

Du Tariff ties
o f in
1840. ’'34. ’40.
34,490 free free
4,891 tt I t
165,740 tt t i
79,308 tt U
878,968 it ti
99,672 tt tt
410,649 it tt
676,200 tt tt
127,106 tt tt
42,000 tt tt
1,343,818 tt tt
341,452 tt tt
5,968 tt tt
1,336,628 tt tt
3,493,001 tt tt
245,029 tt tt
153,832 tt tt
12,276 tt tt
54,315 tt tt
1,103,516 -

Pro.
posed
Tariff.
free
tt

5 p. c.
i

“

24 “

free
tt
tt
“

30
30
30
20
30
25
25
25
20
15

pc
“
“

“
“
“
“
“
“
“

—

25,365,715 12,240,201 21,227,215 10,448,133
8,569,225
18,519
2,177,700
674,031
667,119
198,727
9,882,020
2,252,947
634,942
526,162
796,406
131,763
1,240,641
903,905
66,132
285,796
6,567,530
109,313
426,672
46,870
63,524
4,310
60,376
274,530
362,889
735,178
82,340
81,216
2,410.190
706.310
598,000

2,829,987
2,223
834,177
120.422
86,443
157,480
5,546,722
1,103,483
527,689
376,968
573,313
800,090
602,655
587,600
57,023
215,510
5,100,809
90,536
339,972
36,177
42,337
6,694
62,313
165,366
281,435
609,117
55,130
103,070
1,534,049
485,687
411,625

6,707,994
224,051
1,246,578
818,917
508,756
318,164
7,481,298
1,875,996
301,293
766,587
626,915
196,470
949,669
838,454
152,056
471,776
5,122,170
. 62,830
233,280
47,840
59,558
1,057
57,221
327,810
179,977
373,083
74,280
132,368
2,188,027
316,411
389,931

4,490,830
112,780
399,438
415,745
214,581
—
3,107,835
767,875
261,334
373,774
250,179
30,705
291,128
308,542
123,063
157,658
2,445,318
31,758
135,632
25,742
23,164
901
75,711
109,561
1)8,296
180,258
41,574
77,005
1,811,811
141,008
200,143

50
50
25
25
50
20
25
25
25
25
25
40
124
25
25
30
25
25
25
25
25
15
25
30
124
124
20
20
25
25
10

38
38
23
23
38
20
23
23
23
23
23
32
12J
23
23
26
23
23
23
23
23
15
23
26
124
124
20
20

40 p (
40 “
25 “
25 “
40 “
30 “
25 “
25 “
25 “
18J“
25 “
44 “
25 “
25 “
25 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
30 “
074“
12*“
25 “
25 “

—

__ tt

23
10

10 “
25 “

83

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

A d Valorem,
continued.
1834.
30,188
Slates,.......
O’r Articles, 1,200,000

1836.
140,120
2,190,240

1837.
54,624
1,134,131

DuTarijf ties
of
in
1840. ’ 34. ’40.
66,687 15 23
836,000 — —

1839.
73,692
2,186,000

Proposed
Tariff.
25 tl
—

Valorem, 24,377,110 43,569,774 23,894,498 35,771,700 17,576,245
Specific.
Flannels,...
189,848
66,946
292,460
159,470
59,067 16 12 14 p c .
40,056
Baizes,.......
168,163
27,127
50,708 16 14 14 u
181,957
Brus.c’rp’ ts,
195,644
512,248
367,827
211,250
245,715 63 40 60 it
Ingrain do..
198,695
251,881
195,371
447,550
91,577 35 28 35 it
Floorcloths,
15,426
25,171
27,250
30,130
19,558 43 354 35 it
Oilcloths,...
1,843
7,239
4,358
7,188
1,833 12J 124 10 it
it
405,662
195,855
282,419 034 034
Cott. Bag’g, 230,425 1,638,319
71,130
W ine..........
194,000
263,340
167,120
49,900 124 124 60 it
89,000
Spirits,........
161,120
109,103
159,640
71,281 60 37 65 ii
Ale, & c .....
100,000
176,453
142,300
238,203
134,000 20 20 20 it
Linseed Oil,
212,000
242,185
225,851
600,458
169,766 25 18 25 it
9,173
1,551
69,264
Other Oil,...
3,380
5,223 25 18 40 ii
4,991
6,470
Cheese,......
3,247
4,838
5,788 09 07 06 ti
Gunp’ vvder,
5,849
29,644
11,815
5,517
3,859 08 074 08 ii
382
78,784
15,822
Bristles,.....
68,587
22,628 03 03 04 ii
Ochre,.........
14,130
15,936
16,592
15,185
'28,651 01 01 — ti
Whit. Lead,
57,085
55,736
48,222
46,275
40,624 05 034 04 it
Twine,.......
101,370
106,000
136,376
125,964
108,482 05 05 06 it
51,406
Nails...........
103,679
65,267
140,329
62,237 05 04 05 ii
Ch’n Cables,
114,878
132,336
109,913
138,433
85,613 03 03 03 it
A nc.& Anv.
75,204
86,751
110,278
91,163
30,600 02 01J 02J1“
Castings,....
142,378
66,300
78,980
65,500
93,467 014 01 01)i“
Round Iron,
22,872
21,279
10,004
29,822
46,007 03 02| 03 ii
Sheet “
96,464
197,816 03 024 03 ii
207,738
282,152
272,888
Pig
*•
263.934
269,618
411,150
267,891
105,052 50 39 50 tt
Bar
“
1,203,517 2,270,937 2,527,846 3,352,674 1,763,999 150 140 150 ii
Steel,..........
598,840
454,382 150 150 200 ii
453,214
743,297
490,108
Hemp,.......
191,529
22,214
9,435
92,374
18,525 200 200 200 ii
Salt.............
576,669
508,389
613,848
651,259
738,471 10 074 06 it
Coal,...........
92,700
108,700
150,233
162,005
226,208 06 044 061“
Potatoes,...
10,600
22,768
11,800
51,134
9,526 10 10 06 it
Books,........
75,340
155,000
130,000
237,000
129,000 26 23 26 it
—
—
Wheat,......
152,125
984,334
—
25 23 25 it
Glass..........
90,336
208,781
106,000
102,000
67,000 200 168 300 ti
O’r Articles,
322,000
210,000
336,000
341,000
100,000 — — — ii
T otal ,

Specific,.. 6,505,547 9,710,479 8,751,244 8,972,556 5,334,861
Ad Val. 24,337,110 43,569,774 23,894,498 35,771,700 17,674,030
Free,... 16,600,150 25,365,715 12,240,201 21,227,215 10,670,802
G r a n d -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------T otal , ...47,242,807 78,645,968 44,885,943 65,971,471 33,679,693

la Am. ves.42,467,326
In For. do. 4,775,481
Vessels arr.
908
Tonnage,...
344,523
E xtorts

of

72,602,50040,813,882 59,339,422 20,240,078
5,953,458 4,073,061 6,625,166 4,497,621
931
828
878
1,094
381,092
405,722
412,544
582,424

D omestic P roduce

to

E ngland
in

D

in

u t y

1839
.

Articles.
sperm,................
Lumber,....................
W ood Articles,.........
N a v a l Stores,............

1839.
$18,978
6,064
145,060
506,215

1840.
$380,037
30,468
84,007
464,893

T a r , .......................................

___

___

Rosin,........................

—

—

O il,




1840, w ith the A lteration
Present
Proposed,
Duty.
Duty.
£
s.
d.
£
s. d.
tun 26 12 0
15 00 0
___
1 10 0

and

___

___

—

0
0

01
04

___

3
9

0
0

00
02

6
0

84

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

Articles.
1839.
—
Turpentine,..............
Skins and Furs,........
647,595
—
Tallow,.....................
—
Butter,........................
W heat,.......................
11,073
Flour,........................
1,326,600
Corn,..........................
467
R y e ,...........................
1,015
A pples,......................
21,044
R ic e ,..........................
423,654
Cotton,....................... 46,074,579
T obacco,...................
5,404,967
do. manufactured,
118,166
161,782
F laxseed,..................
—
Iron Articles,............
C oin ,..........................
846,790
187,280
Other A rticles,.........
—
W a x ,..........................
T otal,
—
Domestic Exports, $56,971,378
In Amer. vessels,.... 43,111,378
In For’gn vessels,.... 12,658,500
E xports

1834.
Articles.
15,116
Furs,.............
Hides, Raw,
153,129
W d. Dye, & c. 246,130
Copper,.........
35,340
C old..............
270
—
Silver,...........
Coffee,..........
247,813
—
Teas..............
—
Camphor,.....
—
Silks..............
273,605
Wstd. Goods,
174,987
Linen,...........
144,505
Cloths,..........
—
Blankets,......
255,000
Cotton G’ds,.
—
Sewing Silk,
Indigo,..........
147,077
247,489
W o o l.............
—
Sugar............
45,383
Cotton,..........
Oth. Articles, 1,632,000

of

1840.
—
1,117,374
17,924
13,674
685,609
3,387,343
59,935
14,842
20,560
288,190
40,945,743
3,227,880
152,009
119,988
73,226
1,905,957
230,000
7,759

Pres. Duty.
£
s.
d.
0 05 4
30 per cent.
0 03 2
1 00 0

Prop. Duty.
£
S. d.
0 01 0
15 per cent.
0 00 6
1 00 0
___

—

0

16

_

2

0

05
15
02
03
09
01

___

0
0
4
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
cwt. 0

—

10

02 9
05 0
02 11
03 0
09 0
05 0
___

_
_
1

6

___

___

0
0
cwt, 0
0
0
qr. 0

07

___
___

0

0

10

0

$54,192,176
43,231,708
10,960,468

F oreign G oods

to

G reat B rit a in .

Present. Proposed
1836.
1837.
1839.
1840.
Duty.
Duty.
28,758
18,528
37,983
22,422 0 0 4 0 0 4
38,462
119,089
44,220
48,853 0 4 8 0 2 0
54,561
57,231
18,217
93,877 5 0 0 1 10 0
500
12,000
27,540
18,682 0 15 0 15 p. c.
—
_
1,015,487 1,960,931
907,988 _
2,500
817,583
355,764 1,569,841 63,195
180,521
11,716
—
0 1 3 0 0 8
112,913
18,428
177,436
753,992 0 2 1 0 2 1
—
36,633
10,200
32,643 0 1 0 0 1 0
3,367
29,837
23,780
372,999 0 15 0 0 15 0
—
17,184
16,132
37,695 0 0 6 0 0 6
14,629
50,928
6,427
8,441 0 1 0 15 p. c.
68,781
130,170
40,980
225,612 :15 p.. c. 15 p. c.
—
8,033
16,986
17,029 15 p., c. 15 p. c.
—
303,170
583,339
112,050 :10 p. c. 10 p. c.
—
224,766
31,133
18,043 0 2 0 0 1 0
68,700
57,860
27,805
40,370 0 0 4 0 0 4
40,293
70,029
36,508
25,234 0 0 1 0 0 1
173,438
166,210
11,327
22,000 3 3 0 3 3 0
139,448
165,996 209,989
81,036 0 2 11 0 2 11
__
__
798,142 1,249,000
876,231
758,429

For’gn Exp’ ts, 3,003,704 1,879,305 4,896,768 4,102,751 5,096,882
549,094 2,886,490 1,328,183 2,773,004
In Am. vess... 1,309,546
In For’n vess. 1,634,158 1,333,441 2,010,874 2,774,578 2,361,878
T he necessity for an increase o f revenue has sufficed to harmonize the conflicting
opinions in relation to high and low tariff, so far as to allow o f the imposition o f rates
as high as will yield the greatest amount o f revenue. The vexatious question o f the
distribution o f the proceeds o f the public lands at present retards legislative action upon
the subject, and leaves commercial affairs in a state o f uncertainty at war with the best
interests o f the country. The reduction o f the English duties it is hoped will be attended
with an increased trade between the two countries, and result in the double benefit
that while it increases the sale o f American produce abroad, it will, by reducing tho
stock, increase the home money value o f the remainder.




85

Statistics o f Population.

STATISTICS OF POPULATION.
P O P U L A T IO N OF T H E M IDDLE S T A T E S ,
ACCORDING- TO T H E S IX T H DECENN IAL CENSUS OF T H E U N ITED S T A T E S ,

1840.

A Statement showing the aggregate amount o f each description o f persons in the Middle
states, by counties.
N EW YORK.
F REE

W H IT E

PERSONS.

COUNTIES.

FR E E COLORED
PERSONS.

S L A V E S.
TOTAL.

N O R TH E R N .

Males.
33,758
2R318
11,316
14,937
25,482
24^345
10,564
20^314
14,386
12,385
17*776
32J73
12,111
8^390
8'871
30,015
19,250
1‘051
31*276
9*174
18'389
33^208
20^201
18'880
16^104
42,930
34*904
21,872
12^923
22,439
24*560
29*627
20*202

8J 63
16,002
12 609
28,925
23,694
10,483

T o t a l ,...

33,521
19,515
10,799
13,897
24,421
23,506
10,055
20,198
13^685
12,176
17^430
29^684
11'445
8J 25
9 ’064
29,457
17,940
’853
29,567
8*603
16,611
31*039
19^584
16^350
14*787
41^736
32,530
20^965
12J35
20,965
24’846
29,442
19,702
8,214
15 863
12 066
27,746
22 156

816,276

6,435

20 706

90 109
90 411

853,929




595

9^975

9 882
18 699

VOL. VII.---- NO. I.

Males.

67
109
17
238
57
68
140
48
21
100
328
47
2
58
64
143
1
70
25
63
341
117
263
143
323
229
315
37
105
112
608
306
191
253
100
19
145
92
134
138
116
18
69

18 996

21^424
6,861
10,335
North.

Females.

6529

8

Females.
719
75
114
21
197
67
45
133
38
25
90
280
31
1
56
51
144
2
71
28
77
314
106
325
98
321
248
349
32
110
110
582

M ales.

Females.
6 8 ,5 9 3

219
240
99
16
143
70
119
134
106
14
65

40,975
22,338
28,872
50,338
47,975
20,732
40,785
28,157
24,607
35,396
62,465
23,634
16,518
18,049
59,587
37,477
1,907
60,984
17,830
35,140
64,902
40,008
35,818
31,132
85,310
67,911
43,501
25,127
43,619
49,628
60,259
40,553
17,387
32,358
24,874
56,706
46,138
20,527
37,948
41,080
42,057
13,422
20,444

6,428

1,683,068

343

Statistics o f Population.

86

PO P U L A T IO N OF T H E M ID D LE S T A T E S .— Continued.
N E W Y O R K .— Continued.
F REE W H IT E
COUN TIES.
SOUTH ERN.

PERSONS.

Males.

Females.

N. Y . city &. co. 142,731
Green,.................
15,072
22,591
Ulster,.................
Sullivan,.............
8,168
Columbia,...........
21,254
Putnam,..............
6,513
W estchester,.....
24,533
Richmond,..........
5,247
Suffolk,...............
15,395
K ings,.................
21,917
Q ueens,..............
13,825
Rockland,...........
6,192
Orange,...............
24,725
Dutchess,............
25,265

153,621
14,481
21,427
7,381
20,442
6,144
21,853
5,235
14,897
22,850
12,990
5,351
23,722
24,863

South.

355,257

T o ta l,...

353,428

FR E E COLORED
PERSONS.

Males.
6,923
446
854
40
739
93
1,288
250
1,155
1,368
1,755
227
1,124

1,112

Females.

Males.

Females.
312,710
30,446
45,822
15,629
43,252
12,825
48,686
10,965
32,469
47,613
30,324
11,975
50,739
52,398

9,435
447
950
40
817
74

1,012
233

1,022
1,475
1,754
205
1,168
1,158

745,853

R E C A P IT U L A T IO N OF N E W

YORK.

Population o f the Northern District,.............................................
“
Southern District,.............................................

1,683,068
745,853

T o t a l , .................................

2,428,921

N E W JE R S E Y .— A s above.
COUNTIES.

104
7
7
54
20
4
9
62
18
19
12
53
1

13,223
44,621
9,483
16,734
25,844
20,366
21.770
17,455
21,893
24,789
21,502
32,909
32,831
25,438
8,726
16j024
14,374
5,324

5,563
21,861
4,435
7,011
12,290
9,636
10,474
7,821
10,378
11,985
9,470
14,928
15,753
11,656
4,074
6'976
6 ’682
2,540

843
899
197
377
485
242
180
915
715
389
1,112
1,108
828
836
120
967
475
92

686
1,009
122
329
426
213
174
737
820
339
1,207
1,072
815
795
114
829
421
106

118
13
4
32
17
4
4
43
10
16
10
32

Cumberland,......
Cape M ay,..........

5,909
20,832
4,718
8,931
12,606
10,267
10,929
7,877
9,952
11,991
9,691
15,716
15,434
12,151
4,418
7^251
6>96
2,586

T o t a l ,...

177,055

174,533

10,780

10,264

303

371

373,306

Bergen,...............
Essex,.................
Hudson,..............
Passaic,...............
Morris,................
W arren,..............
Sussex,................
Somerset,............
Middlesex,..........
Hunterdon,........
M ercer,...............
Monmouth,........
Burlington,.........
Gloucester,........

1

D E L A W A R E .--A s above.
COUNTIES.

Newcastle,..........
Kent,...................
Sussex,................

12,797
6,885
9,577

13,009
6,733
9,560

3,476
2,952
2,198

3,297
2,875
2,121

298
232
841

243
195
796

33,120
19,872
25,093

T o t a l ,...

29,259

29,302

8,626

8,293

1,371

1,234

78,085




87

Statistics o f Population.
P O P U L A T IO N OF T H E M IDDLE S T A T E S .— Continued.
P E N N S Y L V A N IA .
COUNTIES.

Cumberland,......

i k e , ......

Y ork ,..................
East.

T o t a l ,...

w estern

PERSONS.

Females.

Males.

8LAVES.
TOTAL.

Females.

Males.

Females.

1 1 ,1 8 8

1 1 ,1 6 4

337

353

3 2 ,3 1 3

3 1 ,7 3 0

283

2 3 ,4 3 5

2 2 ,9 3 3

937

241
802

2
2

26325

26347

2 ,1 8 7

1 ,9 5 6

1 5 ,0 4 3

1 4 ,8 9 0

492

504

1 4 ,8 9 4

1 4 ,2 6 7

449

508

3 0 ,1 1 8
1 9 ,7 9 1

2 3 ,0 4 4
6 4 ,5 6 9
4 8 ,1 0 7
57315

18

6

3 0 ,9 5 3

9339

9 ,2 1 9

720

613

17355
4 !)’?8 1

17305

979

1 ,0 5 4

4 0 ,4 1 7

1 ,5 3 4

1 ,4 6 9

1 0 ,7 3 3

1 1 ,0 3 6

* 50

53

8 4 ,2 0 3
2 1 ,8 7 2

12398

1 2 ,8 5 6

23

10

2 5 ,7 8 7

3 7 ,7 9 3
2

5*135

4394

29

21

9 ,8 7 9

2 4 ,5 2 3

22^038

362

318

2 0 ,8 3 1

2 0 j0 0 1

92

72

47341
40396

8 ,5 6 4

8378

81

73

111387
1 *9 4 6

1 2 6 ,3 1 7

1 1 ,5 1 5

1 ,7 3 7

8 ,3 1 6
* 74

’ 75

3 ,8 3 2

1 4 ,9 3 7

1 3 ,7 9 1

177

148

2 9 ,0 5 3

1 7 ,0 9 6
2

2 5 8 ,0 3 7

11^848

6 ,2 2 7

5382

20

19

22324

23412

496

477

4 3 1 ,5 7 8

4 3 9 ,2 1 4

1 7 ,6 3 8

2 0 ,2 8 1

3 9 ,9 8 2

1 ,0 7 6

1 ,0 4 2

8 1 ,2 3 5

4 ,3 3 1

3 9 ,1 3 5
3 ,9 1 6

' 43

33

8 ,3 2 3

4 ,8 9 1

4 ,3 4 7

23

17

9 ,2 7 8

1 4 ,8 0 2

1 4 ,0 6 3

209

2 9 ,3 3 5

6 ,4 9 2
1 2 ,2 8 6

6 ,1 5 2
1 1 ,9 0 6

261
220

207

36

39

18

1

4 7 ,0 1 0

15

9 0 8 ,7 4 4

.

Mifflin,.'...............

Susquehanna,....

Armstrong,.........
Juniata,...............
Beaver,................
Northumberland,
Indiana,..............
Union,.................
Erie,....................
Huntingdon,......
Lvcom ing,..........
Venango,............
Somerset,............
M cK ean,............
Centre,................
T ioga,.................
Jefferson,............
Potter,.................
Westmoreland,...
Crawford,............
Mercer,...............
Cambria,.............
Clearfield,...........
Bradford,.............
West.

FREE COLORED

PERSONS.

Males.

EASTERN.

P

FREE WHITE

T o ta l,...

9 ,5 1 0

9 ,2 2 3

205

208

10^766

1 0 ,3 3 2

49

48

1 6 ,1 2 9

1 5 ,9 8 0

705

759

2 0 ,2 3 2

1 9 ,9 3 2

557

556

12

9

1 3 ,0 9 2
2 4 ,2 6 7
1 9 ,1 4 7

1

2 1 ,1 9 5
1

3 3 ,5 7 4
2

4 1 ,2 7 9

1 1 ,5 2 7

1 0 ,7 9 0
1 3 ,9 4 4

33
56

28

14309

2 2 ,3 7 8

5 ,5 1 2

5 ,4 5 9

63

45

14|760

1 4 ,3 4 2

139

127

2 9 ,3 6 8

49

2 0 ,0 2 7

56

2 8 ,3 6 5
1

1 1 ,0 8 0

1 0 ,1 0 9

9 ,8 1 3

56

1 0 ,4 7 0
1 1 '.36 0

1 0 ,1 5 7

83

72

1 1 ,3 4 0

49

35

62

38

3 1 ,3 4 4

18346

1 4 ,9 6 2
1 6 ,8 3 1

254

253

l l ’381

1 0 ,9 0 9

185

9 ,3 5 0

8 ,5 2 3

18

174
9

3 5 ,4 8 4
2 2 ,6 4 9

9 ,9 7 1
1 ,5 6 2

9 ,5 9 7
1 ,4 0 8

3

2

2 ,9 7 5

1 0 ’4 5 3

9 ,7 3 8

160

2 0 ,4 9 2

8^012

7 ,4 1 7

34

141
35

3328

3 ,3 6 8

34

1353

1 ,6 1 7

23
1

21483
1 6 ,5 6 6

21325
1 5 ,0 4 3

177

113

63

52

3 1 ,7 2 0

1 6 ,5 7 6

1 5 ,9 6 9

169

159

32370

5 ,7 7 8

5 ,3 8 0

47

51

11356

2 3 ,5 8 1
4 ’0 8 3

2 0 ,2 3 0

107

17319

1 5 ,3 8 9

4 1 3 ,1 9 2

3 9 2 ,1 3 1

1 6 ,2 8 2




2 0 ,7 8 2
2

1

1 7 ,9 0 0
1 9 ,6 5 0

37

3 ,6 9 4

2 2 ,7 8 7

1 5 ,4 9 8
7 ,2 5 3
3 ,3 7 1

1

1

87

42390

4 4 ,0 0 6

22

7 ,8 3 4

77

84

32369

5 ,1 1 4

4 ,8 2 1

17

14

8 1 5 ,2 8 9

Statistics o f Coinage.

88

P O PU LA TIO N OF T H E M IDDLE S T A T E S .— Continued.
M ARYLAND.
FR E E

W H IT E

PERSONS.

FR E E COLORED
PERSONS.

SLA V E S.

COUNTIES.

TOTAL.

Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Males.

Females.

Alleghany,..........
Washington,......
Frederick,...........
Carroll,................
Baltimore,...........
Harford,..............
Montgomery,.....
Prince George,...
St. Mary’s,..........
Calvert,...............
Charles,...............
Anne Arundel,...
C e cil,..................
Kent,...................
Caroline,.............
Talbot,................
Queen A nne,.....
Somerset,...........
Dorchester,........
W orcester,..........

8,127
12,668
14,415
7,533
50,908
6,154
4,397
3,860
3,043
1,866
2,968
7,297
6,844
2,880
2,694
3,095
3,175
5,654
5,355
5,871

6,536
12,056
14,560
7,688
54,423
5,887
4,369
3,963
3,027
1,719
3,054
7,333
6,485
2,736
2,640
2,968
2,957
5,831
5,274
5,894

113
772
1,443
450
8,963
1,257
646
585
699
722
401
2,513
1,318
1,275
861
1,170
1,308
1,240
1,925
1,526

102
808
1,542
448
12,490
1,179
667
495
694
752
418
2,570
1,233
1,216
859
1,170
1,233
1,406
2,062
1,547

374
1,288
2,361
596
3,473
1,354
2,799
5,414
2,926
2,104
4,615
5,179
708
1,517
397
1,907
2,088
2,863
2,216
1,889

438
1,258
2,084
526
4,122
1,289
2,578
5,222
2,835
2,066
4,567
4,640
644
1,218
355
1,780
1,872
2,514
2,011
1,650

15,690
28,850
36,405
17,241
134,379
17,120
15,456
19,539
13,224
9,229
16.023
29,532
17,232
10,842
7,806
12,090
12,633
19,508
18,843
18,377

T o ta l,...

158,804

159,400

29,187

32,891

46,068

43,669

470,019

STATISTICS OF COINAGE.
C O ST OF CO IN A G E A T T H E U. S. M IN T A N D IT S B RAN CH ES.
W e compile the following particulars o f the cost o f coinage at the several mints o f the
United States, from a report laid before Congress, March 31, 1842 :—
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the N ew Orleans branch mint was,for 1838, $ 1 5 4 0 ;
for 1839, $ 2 9 9 ; for 1840, $ 1 5 0 ; and for 1841, $ 1 41.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the Charlotte branch mint was, for 1838, $ 7 2 18;
for 1839, $ 3 5 30 ; for 1840, $3 7 70 ; and for 1841, $37 79.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the Dahlonega branch mint was, for 1838, $ 6 7 04;
for 1839, $ 4 2 6 2 ; for 1840, $ 4 3 51 ; and for 1841, $2 8 50.
The actual cost o f coining $100 worth at the Philadelphia mint was, for 1838, $ 1 52;
for 1839, $ 2 0 7 ; for 1840, $ 2 4 8 ; and for 1841, $ 4 3 4 ; the average o f the four years
being $ 2 23.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the N ew Orleans branch mint was, for 1838
$1 54 0 6 ; for 1839, $19 72 ; for 1840, $ 5 68 ; and for 1841, $ 8 12; the average for the
last two years— the first two not being a fair criterion o f the average cost, being $ 6 68.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the Charlotte branch mint was, for 1838, $ 1 7 82;
for 1839, $ 9 0 3 ; for 1840, $ 9 4 4 ; and for 1841, $ 9 02 ; the average o f the four years
being $10 59, and that o f the last three years $ 9 15.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the Dahlonega branch mint was, for 1838, $12 43;
for 1839, $1 0 78 ; for 1840, $ 9 32 ; and for 1841, $ 6 0 6 ; the average o f the four years
being $ 9 47.
The actual cost o f coining $100 worth at the Philadelphia mint was, for 1838, $ 1 52;




89

Statistics o f Coinage.

for 1839, $ 2 07 ; for 1840, $ 2 48 ; and for 1841, $ 4 34 ; the average of the four years
being $ 2 23.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the N ew Orleans branch mint was, for 1838,
$1 54 0 6 ; for 1839, $ 1 9 7 2 ; for 1840, $ 5 68 ; and for 1841, $ 8 12. The first o f these
should be excluded, and perhaps the second, as any foundation for a judgment respecting
this mint. The average for the last two years was $ 6 68.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the Charlotte branch mint was, for 1838, $ 1 7 8 2 ;
for 1839, $ 9 0 3 ; for 1840, $ 9 4 4 ; and for 1841, $ 9 02 ; the average o f the four years
being $10 59, and that o f the last three years $ 9 15.
The cost o f coining $100 worth at the Dahlonega branch mint was, for 1838, $12 4 3 ;
for 1839, $ 1 0 7 8 ; for 1840, $ 9 32 ; and for 1841, $ 6 0 6 ; the average of the four years
being $ 9 47; and that o f the last three $ 8 49.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces o f coin at the Philadelphia mint was, in 1838, $ 0 39 ;
for 1839, $ 0 67; for 1840, $ 0 79 ; and for 1841, $ 1 12 ; the average for the four years
being 64 cents.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the N ew Orleans branch mint was, for 1838, $ 1 5 4 0 ;
for 1839, $ 2 99 ; for 1840, $ 1 50 ; and for 1841, $ 1 41.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the Charlotte branch mint was, for 1838, $ 7 2 1 8 ;
for 1839, $ 3 5 3 0 ; for 1840, $ 3 7 7 0 ; and for 1841, $ 3 7 79.
The cost o f coining 100 pieces at the Dahlonega branch mint was, for 1838, $ 6 7 04;
for 1839, $ 4 2 6 2 ; for 1840, $ 4 2 51 ; and for 1841, $ 2 8 50.
For a complete and comprehensive view o f the movement o f the United States Mint
and its branches, see Merchants’ Magazine, for April, 1842, vol. 6, number 4, pp. 375,
376, 377, 378, 379, 380, 381.
I.— C O IN A G E OF T H E B R A N C H M IN T S OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
Statement o f the amounts coined annually at the branch mints, from the commencement
o f their operations until December 31, 1841.
W H O LE COINAGE.
M IN T S .

Periods.
Number o f Pieces.
1838
1839
1840
1841

do.

do.

20,780
4H640
31,828
31,748
125,996

Dahlonega,

1838
1839
1840
1841

do.

20,583
32,613
26,428
34,659
114,283

do.

.................

do.

Sum

1838
1839
1840
1841

o f t o t a l s , ...........




8*

402,430
2,476,996
3,446,900
3,693,730

Value.
$84,165
162,767
127,055
133,037

00
50
00
50

507,025 00
102,915
128,880
123,310
162,885

00
00
00
00

517,990 00
40,243
263,650
915,600
640,200

00
00
00
00

10,020,056

1,859,693 00

10,260,335

$2,884,708 00

Statement o f the Annual Amounts o f Deposits o f Gold fo r Coinage, at the Mint o f the United States and
its Branches, from Mines in the United States; taken from the last Annual Report o f Dr. R . M . Pat­
terson, Director o f the Mint, dated January 19, 1842.

PERIODS.

DEPOSITED

1824
1825
1826
1827
1828
1829
1830
1831
1832
1833
1834
1835
1836
1837
1838
1839
1840
1841

From
From
North
Vir­
Carolina.
ginia.

$2,500
24.000
26.000
34.000
104,000
62.000
60,400
62,000
52,100
55,000
57,600
38,995
25,736

AT

From
South
Caro­
lina.

TH E U N ITED S T A T E S

From
Georgia.

M IN T .

DEPOSITED A T

From From From
Ten­ A la­ vario's
nessee. bama. so’rccs

$5,000
17.000
20.000
21,000
46.000
134.000 $3,500
204.000 26,000 $212,000
294.000 22,000 176.000 $1,000
458.000 45.000 140.000 1,000
475.000 66.000 216.000 7.000
380.000 38.000 415,000 3.000
100
263,500 42.400 319,900
300
148,100 55,200 201,400
83,600
116,900 29.400
36,000 1,500
66.000 13.000
300
6,300
20,300
53,500
104
91,113
36,804
5,319
76,431
3,440 139,796 1,212

604,33112,815,235 355,559 2,051,109 15,516

$1,000

12,200

200
$500
4,431
1,863

TH E BRANCH

Total at A t Char­
A t DahUnited
lotte,
lonega,
States
North
Georgia.
M int. Carolina.
$5,000
17.000
20.000
21,000
46,000
140.000
466.000
520.000
678.000
868.000
898.000
698.500
467.000
282.000
171,700 $127,000 $135,700
138.500 126,836 113,035
176,766 124,726 121,858
248,748 129,847 161,974

6,794 13,400 5,861,944

508,409

At
New
Or­
leans.

M IN T S .

M IN T AND
B R ’ NCHES.

Total de­
Total at
posits o f
Branch
U. States
M ints.
gold.

$700 $263,400
6,869 246,740
2,835 249,419
1,818 293,639

$5,000
17.000
20.000
21,000
46,000
140.000
466.000
520.000
678.000
868.000
898.000
698,500
467.000
282.000
435,100
385,240
426,185
542,117

532,5671 12,222 1,053,198 6,915,142

Statistics o f Coinage.




co
o

II.— D E PO SITS FOR C O IN A G E A T T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S M IN T A N D IT S BRANCH ES.

Bank Statistics.

91

BANK STATISTICS.
PRICE OF B A N K N O T E S A T P H IL A D E L P H IA F O R T W E N T Y -E IG H T
Y E A R S , F R O M 1814 T O 1841.
The following table was prepared by William M . Gouge, Esq., editor o f the “ Journal
of Banking,” and author o f “ A Short History o f Paper M oney and Banking.”

It was

compiled (with the exception o f the column for 1841) from various tables, prepared by
Mr. Gouge or under his direction, while in the Treasury Department. It is well worth
the labor that has been bestowed upon it, for to those who will make a proper use o f it,
it will serve as a condensed history o f the currency for more than a quarter o f a century.
A few prominent facts should be borne in mind in perusing this table.
On the 30th o f August, 1814, the Philadelphia banks suspended specie payments for
the first time, and the other banks in the middle and southern states within a week or
two of that date. T he N ew Orleans banks had suspended payment in the April previ­
ous ; but the banks o f Kentucky and Ohio continued to pay specie till about the 1st of
January, 1815 ; and the only bank then in Tennessee did not suspend payment till July
or August, 1815. Through the whole o f this, the first general suspension o f specie pay­
ments, the banks o f N ew England continued to pay specie, with the exception o f a few
banks in Maine that stopped payment early in 1814.
During the first suspension o f specie payments, the notes o f non-specie-paying banks
were received in payment o f public dues.
On the 1st o f January, 1817, the Bank o f the United States commenced operations at
Philadelphia. O f the effect it had in “ regulating the currency,” the reader can judge
for himself. T he table gives the prices o f western and southern bank notes at Philadel­
phia, in that and each subsequent year.
On the 21st o f February, 1817, the United States government refused any longer to
receive the notes o f non-specie-paying banks in payment o f public dues.
In 1824, the system known as the Suffolk Bank system (a description o f which was
published in vol. v. pages 261, 262, o f the Merchants’ Magazine) was adopted in N ew
England.

The reader, on scanning the table, will not fail to be struck with the uni.

form ity o f value which the notes o f the many hundred banks o f the eastern states have
since maintained, and this whether the banks have sustained or suspended specie payments.
On the 11th o f May, 1837, the N ew Y ork and Natchez banks suspended specie pay­
ments ; and as fast as the news spread from these two cities, east, west, north, and south,
the other banks suspended also. In this, the second general suspension o f specie pay­
ments, the banks o f New England wer-e included.
In one year afterwards, or in May, 1838, the N ew Y ork banks resumed specie pay­
ments, and their conduct was immediately followed by the banks o f N ew England.
These banks have since (with the exception o f the banks o f Rhode Island) steadily
maintained specie payments.
In August, 1838, the banks o f Philadelphia professed to resume specie payments; and
by the 1st o f January, 1839, there was at least a nominal resumption o f specie payments
throughout the Union.
In a little more than a year, or on the 9th o f October, 1839, the banks of Philadelphia
suspended specie payments for the third time, and their example was quickly imitated
by all the banks to the south and west, and also by the banks o f W est Jersey and Rhode
Island. The Bank o f Missouri did not, indeed, suspend payment on its own notes; but
as it traded on the notes o f other western banks, it became an issuer o f inconvertible
paper.

The banks o f Rhode Island soon resumed specie payments.

South Carolina resumed specie payments in June or July, 1840.




The banks o f

All the other banks to

A Table showing the highest and lowest prices o f bank notes at Philadelphia, in each year, from October 31 st,
1814, to December 31 st, 1841.

CO

10

[In this table, p stands for premium ; d for discount: a is an abbreviation o f the Latin ad, to.]
Banks o f—
M aine,............................................
N ew Hampshire,..........................
Vermont,........................................
Boston,............................................
Other Massachusetts,..................
Rhode Island,................................
Connecticut,...................................
N ew Y ork city ,............................
N ew Y ork country,....................
Philadelphia,..................................
Other Pennsylvania,....................
New Jersey,..................................
Delaware,.......................................
Baltimore,.......................................
Other Maryland,...........................
District o f C olum bia,...................
Virginia,..........................................
Virginia, W estern,........................
North Carolina,.............................
South Carolina,.............................
G eorgia,.........................................
Alabama,........................................
Louisiana,......................................
Mississippi,....................................
T en n essee,....................................
K entucky,....................................
Ohio,................................................
Michigan,.......................................
U. S. Branch Bank Notes,........
American Silver,........................




1814.

1815.

_

_

—
—
—
—
7
a
25 p.
par a 20 p.
—
—
—
—
—
—
par a 2 p. par a 6 p.
—
—
standard.
standard.
74 d.
3 a 10 d.
—
—
2 a 5 d.
1 a4d.
3 a 5 d.
2 a 64 d.
—
—
—
—
5 a 10 d.
par a 8 d.
—
—
5 a 10 d.
p. a 8 d.
—
5 a 10 d.
—
5 a 10 d.
—

—

—
—
—
—
5 a 74 d.
—
—
7 a 12 p.

—
—
—
—
3 a 10 d.
—
—
2 a 17 p.

1816.
—

—
—
5 a 17 p.
—
—
—
3 a 94 p.
—
standard.
44 a 14 d.
par a 5 d.
3 a 9 d.
2 4 a 7 d.
3 a 10 d.
4 a 10 d.
par a 6 p.
—
par a 6 p.
2 a 8 p.
—

—
—
—
—
6 a 10 d.
5 a 12 d.
—
—
7 a 17 p.

1817.
—
—
—
2 d. a 4 p.
—
—
—
par a 34 p.
3 d.
standard.
par a 9 d.
par.
par a 10 d.
par a 44 d.
3 a 10 d.
par a 6 d.
1 p. a 2 d.
—
1 p. a 3 d.
2 d. a 4 p.
1 d.
—

—
—
5 a 6 d.
44 a 6 d.
4 a 15 (3.
—
—

par a 5 p.

1818.

1819.
—
—
—
a 2 d.
5 d.
3 d.
3 d.

1820.

1821.

__
1 a 2 d.
3 d.
4 a 2 d.
4 a 2 d.
2 d.
4 a 2 d.
par.
] a 6 d.
standard.
par a 3 d.
par.
par.
4 d.
4 a 3 d.
—
| a 2 d.
5 a 8 d.
2 a 44 d.
4 a 3 d.
14 a 5 d.
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
44 a 1 2 4 d. 1 24 a 20 d. few sales. 35 d.
4 4 a 10 d.
124 a 25 d. 124 a 30 d. 30 a 50 d.
44 a 124 d. 15 a 30 d. 124 a 25 d. 5 a 124 d.
—
—
—
—
4 a 1 d.
4 a 4 d.
par a i d .
4 a 2 d.
—
—
—

—
—
par a 14 d. par
—
4 a
—
1 a
—
2 a
par.
par.
2 a 4 d.
2 4 a 6 d.
standard.
standard.
par a 30 d. par a 5 d.
par.
par a 2 d.
par a 30 d. par.
par a 1 4 d. 4 a 2 4 d.
2 a 30 d.
2 a 8 d.
par a 2 4 d. 1 a 34 d.
par a 10 d. 14 a 8 d.
—
8 a 1 2 4 d.
I 4 a 6 d.
3 a 1?4 d.
4 a 3 d.
14 a 8 d.
1 a 4 d.
2 a 14 d.

4 d.
2 a 4 d.
3 a 4 d.
1 a 4 d.
1 a 5 d.
1 a 4 d.
14 a 4 d.
par.
1 a 3 d.
standard.
par a 4 d.
par a i d .
par.
4d.
J4 a 3 d.
1 a 3 d.
1 a 3 d.
8 a 1 2 4 d.
24 a 10 d.
par a 6 d.
14 a 10 d.

fca
Co

M aine,..........................
New Hampshire,.........
Vermont,......................
Massachusetts,............
Rhode Island,..............
Connecticut,................
New Y ork city,...........
New Y ork country,...
Philadelphia,...............
Other Pennsylvania,...
New Jersey,................
Delaware,....................
Baltimore,....................
Other Maryland,.........
District o f Columbia,...
Virginia,.......................
Virginia, W estern,__
North Carolina,...........
South Carolina,...........
Georgia,........................
Florida,.........................
Alabama,......................
Louisiana,....................
Mississippi,..................
Tennessee,...................
Kentucky,....................
Missouri,.......................
Illinois,.........................
Indiana,........................
Ohio,.............................
M ichigan,....................
U. S. Br’ ch Bk. Notes,
American Silver,.......




1892.
4
2
3
4

a 10 d.
a 3 d.
d.
a 3 d.
2 d.
1 a 14 d.
par.
1 a 5 d.
standard.
par a 3 d.
par a i d .
par.
4 a i d.
i a 14 d.
U H d .
1 a 3 d.
5 d.
24 a 124 d.
1 a 5 d.
24 a 9 d.

_

—
1 4 a 8 d.
—

30 a 35 d.
45 a 75 d.

_

__
—
5 a 8 d.
—
£ a 2 d.
—

1823.
10 d.
2 d.

3 d.
1 a 2 d.
2 d.
1 a 1 4 d.

par.
1 a 5 d.
standard.
par a 5 d.
par a l i d .
par a i d .
4 d.
4 a 14 d.
1 a 14 d.
J a 2 d.
5 d.
3 a 124 d.
2 a 5 d.
2 a 15 d.
__

_

3 a 7 d.
—

35 d.
70 d.

_

__
—
5 a 6 d.
—
k a k d.
—

1824.
10 d.
1 4 a 2 d.

1825.
2 a 10 d.
1 4 a 2 4 d.
2 a 2 4 d.
1 a 2 4 d.

1826.

1827.

2 4 d.
2 4 d.
2 4 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
2 a 2 £ d.
1 4 a 2 d.

14 a 24 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
2 a 3 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
1 a 2 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
14 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.
14 a 24 d.
1 a 14 d.
1 a 1 4 d.
14 a 2 d.
par.
par.
par.
par.
1 d.
1 a 5 d.
14 a 5 d.
1 a 3 d.
standard.
standard.
standard.
standard.
par a i d .
par a 14 d. par a i d . par.
par.
par.
par a 1 A d. par a 2 d.
par.
par.
par.
par a 1 | d.
par a 4 d.
k a k d.
4 d.
4 d.
1 d.
1 d.
4 a Id .
4 a 4 d.
i a i d.
1 a 14 d.
la id .
4 a 1 d.
4 a 1 d.
4 a 1 d.
4 a 14 d.
4a id .
4 a 5 d.
4 a 5 d.
3 a 44 d.
4 a 5 d.
34 a 54 d. 3 a 5 d.
2£ a 5 d.
3 a 5£ d.
1 a 3 il.
4 a 14 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
1 4 a 2 d.
2 a 4 d.
2 4 a 34 d. 2 a 3 d.
2 4 a 5 d.
__
__
__
_
—
__
10 a 15 d. 10 a 25 d.
2 a 5 d.
2 a 7d.
5 a G d.
4 a 5 d.
—
7 a 10 d.
6 d.
6 a 10 d.
30 d.
15 a 20 d. 10 a 2 0 d. 7 a 10 d.
55 a 70 d. 45 a 55 d. 30 a 50 d. 30 a 40 d.

_
__
—

5 a 6 d.
—
par.
—

_

__
—
5 a 8 d.
—
par.
—

_

__
—
4 a 8 d.
10 d.
par.
—

_

__
—
4 a 6 d.
3 a 10 d.
par.
—

1828.

1829.

14 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.
1 a 2 d.

1 a 14
1 a 14
1 a 14
1 a 14
1 a I4
1 a 14

par.
14 a 2 4 d.
standard.
par a i d .
par a 14 d.
par a i d .
par a k d.
4 a 14 d.
4 a 1 d.
4 a 14 d.
3£ a 4 d.
4 a 124 d.
1 a 2 4 d.
2 a 4 d.
—
20 a 25 d.
4 a 6 d.
6 a 7 d.
9 a 10 d.
25 a 35 d.

par.
14 a 2 4 d.
standard.
par a i d .
par a 2 d.
par.
4 d.
4 a 1 d.
4 a 1 d.
4 a 1 d.
3 a 3^ d.
24 a 34 d.
14 a 2 d.
2 a 2 4 d.
—
10 a 15 d.
4 a 5 d.
5 a 6 d.
6 a 10 d.
25 a 35 d.

__
—
34 a 4 d.
3d.
—
—

__
—
2 4 a 34 d.
3d.
—
—*

_

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.

_

1830.
1 a 1 4 d.
1 a 1 4 d.
1 a 14 d.
1 a 14 d.
1 a
d.
1 a 14 d.
par.
14 d.
standard.
par a i d .
par a 1 ^ d.
par a £ d.
4 d.
id .
4 a | d.
k a 1 d.
2 a 2 4 d.
14 a 2 4 d.
1 a 14 d.
1 4 a 2 4 d.
—
10 a 15 d.
4 d.
5 d.
74 d.
25 a 35 d.
__
__
—
24 a 3 d.
2 a 3 d.
—
—

1831.
4 a 1 d.
4 a |d.

k a 1 d.
4 a 1 <1.
4 a | d.
4 a|d.
par a k d.
la id .
standard.
par a 2 d.
par a i d .
par a i d .
par a | d .
4 a Id .
4 d.
la id .
J4 d.
1 a 2 d.
i a 2 d.
1 a 3 d.
10 d.
5 a 15 d.
3 a 5 d.
5 d.
5 a 74 d.
20 a 35 d.
—
no sales.
no sales.
1£ a 3 d.
1 4 a 2 d.
—
—

A Table showing the highest and Inwest prices o f bank notes at Philadelphia, in each
year, from October 31 st, 1814, to December 31*£, 1841.— Continued.

Banks o f—

1832.

Maine,........................... | a 1 d.
New Hampshire,......... l a i d .
Vermont,....................... i a 1 d.
Massachusetts,............. l a i d .
Rhode Island,.............. l a i d .
Connecticut,................. | a l d .
New York city,............ par a 4 d.
New York country,.... 1 a 1 4 d.
Philadelphia,................ standard.
Other Pennsylvania,... par a 1 J d.
New Jersev,................. par a i d .
Delaware,...................... par a i d .
Baltimore,.................... par a | d.
Other Maryland,.......... | a l d .
District o f Columbia,... 4 a | d.
Virginia,........................ l a i d .
Virginia, Western,...... 14 a 2 4 d.
North Carolina,........... l£ a 2 d.
South Carolina,............ 14 a 2 d.
Georgia,........................ 2 4 a 10 d.
Florida,.......................... 10 d.
.
Alabam a,...................... 5 d.
Louisiana,.................... 4 a 5 d.
Mississippi,................... 5 d.
Tennessee,................... 5 d.
Kentucky,.................... 20 a 25 d.
Missouri,....................... no sales.
Illinois,.......................... no sales.
Indiana,......................... no sales.
O h io,............................. 14 a 3 d.
Michigan,..................... 14 d.
American Silver,.........
—




1833.

J a ld .
-| a 1 d.
}a ld .
| a ld .
la id .
4 a 1 d.
par a £ d.
4 a 14 d.
standard.
par a 2 d.
par a 2 d.
par a £ d.
|a|d.
4 a 14 d.
i a 1 d.
4 a 14 d.
1| a 3 d.
I f a 3 d.
14 a 3 d.
34 a 10 d.
10 a 2 0 d.
4 a 10 d.
3 a 5 d.
5 a 6 d.
3 a 5 d.
3 a 25 d.
no sales.
no sales.
no sales.
1| a 4 d.
J4 a 2 d.
—

1834.

a 14 d.
a 14 d.
a H d.
a 1 4 d.
a 1 4 d.
d.
par a ^ d.
1 a 3 d.
standard.
par a 1 4 d.
par a i d .
par a i d .
4 d.
1| a 2 d.
1 a 3 d.
1 a 3 d.
I f a 11 d.
1 a 3 d.
2 a 7 d.
4 a 7 d.
no sales.
7 a 10 d.
5 d.
8 a 10 d.
5 d.
2 a 5 d.
1
1
1
1
1
1

—
—

5 d.

2 a 4 d.
2 a 2 4 d.
—

1835.

d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
d.
par a £ d.
1 d.
standard.
par a 2 d.
par a i d .
par a £ d.
i a 4 d.
la id .
h a 1 d.
4 a 1 d.
1 a 2 d.
2 d.
2 d.
2 a 3 d.
no sales.
4 a 8 d.
24 a 3 d.
4 a 5 d.
5 d.
24 a 3 d.
no sales.
4 d.
3 a 4 d.
24 a 3 d.
2 d.
—
1
1
1
1
1
1

183S.

la id .
la id .
la id .
i a 1 d.
la id .
la id .
par a ^ d.
1 a 1 | d.
standard.
par a 2 ^ d.
par a i d .
par a | d.
i a 4 d.
la id .
4 a 1 d.
4 a 14 d.
14 a 24 d.
2 a 3 d.
2 a 3 d.
2 a 3 d.
no sales.
3 a 7 d.
2 4 a 6 d.
3 a 6 d.
3 a 6 d.
2 a 3 d.
no sales.
3 a 5 d.
3 a 3^ d.
2 a 3 d.
2 a 3 d.
—

1837.

1838.

par a 2 £ d.
par a 2 ^ d.
par a 2 ^ d.
par a 2 £ d.
par a 2 ^ d.
par a 1 | d.
par a 3 p.
par a 3 p.
standard.
par a 3 d.
par a 2 £ d.
par.
4 a 14 d.
i a 3 d.
| a 2 d.
^ a 3£ d.
—
a 4 d.
2 i a 6 d.
2 a 5 d.
2 4 a 10 d. 2 4 a 10 d.
3 a 12 d.
3 a 10 d.
no sales.
no sales.
5 a 15 d.
5^ a 2 0 d.
5 a 15 d.
2 4 a 1 2 4 d.
6 a 2 0 d.
7^ a 30 d.
5 a 15 d.
5 a 20 d.
2 4 a 8 d.
2| a 6 4 d.
no sales.
4 a 10 d.
3 a 8 d.
24 a 7d.
3 a 8 d.
2 a 7 d.
3 a 6 d.
2 4 a 6 4 d.
2 i a 15 d 5 a 20 d.
par a 12 p. 3 a 6 p.

1 a 14 d.
| a 14 d.
1 a 14 d.
| a l i d.
| a l i d.
I a 3£ d.
par a 1 | d.
par a 3| d.
standard.
par a 3 d.
par a 2 d.
par a | d.
i a 1 d.
par a 2 d.
par a 3^ d.
4 a 3 d.

1839.

1840.

1841.

J d. a 3 p. 2| a 5 p.
4 d. a 5 p.
| d. a 3 p. 2 a 5 p.
4 d. a 5 p.
| d. a 5 p. 2 a 5 p.
h d. a 5 p.
| d. a 7 p. 2 a 6 p.
4 d. a 5 p.
| d. a 6 p. 2 a 6 p.
h d. a 5 p.
| d. a 8 p. 2 a 6 p.
^ d. a 5 p.
par a 13 p. 2£ a 7 p.
4 d. a 6 p.
| d. a 10 p. 1 a 5 p.
2 d. a 6 p.
standard.
standard.
standard.
par a 3 d. par a 3 d. par a i d .
1 d. a 6 p. par a 5 p.
1 d. a 54 p.
par.
par.
par.
par.
par a 1 4 d. par a l p .
par a £ d. par a 5 d.
4 a 2 d.
par a 1 ^ d. | p. a 1 d. par a i d .
4 a 4 d.
par a 2 d. par a 3 d.
2 a 8 d.
14 a 5 d.
2 a 3 d.
1 a 6 d.
| a 3 d.
1 a 3 d.
1 a 7 d.
2 d. a 3 p. 2 p. a 2 d.
2 4 a 10 d. 14 a 30 d. 1 a 40 d.
no sales.
no sales.
75 d.
2 a 15 d.
2 a 1 0 d.
5 a 10 d.
par a 7 d. \ p. a 10 d. 1 a G d.
5 a 15 d.
15 a 80 d. 2 0 a 80 d.
4 a 15 d.
54 a 10 d. 6 a 15 d.
4 a 7 d.
2 4 a 54 d. 3 a 5 d.
5 a 6 d.
5 a 7 d.
4 a 6 d.
2^ a
d. 3 a 6 d.
3J a 8 d.
2i a
d. 3 a 6 d.
3| a 10 d.
34 a 5d.
34 a 15 d.
2 4 a 6 d.
5 a 10 d.
10 a 18 d. 10 a 18 d.
par a 14 p. 24 a 7 p.
- a 6£ p.

A Table showing the highest and lowest prices o f bank notes at Philadelphia, in each
year, from October 31 st, 1814, to December 31s/, 1841.— Continued.

Banks o f —

95

Commercial Regulations.

B A N K OF F R A N C E .
The “ Moniteur” publishes the account o f the operations o f the Bank o f France during
the first three months o f 1842. On the 25th o f March there were 211,909,148f. in spe­
cie deposited in its vaults. T he commercial bills discounted amounted to 152,559,492f.;
the advances on ingots and money, to 3,023,600f.; the advances on public securities, to
10,662,071f.; the current accounts, debtors, to 16,146,188f.; the capital o f the branch
banks, to 20,000,000f.; the reserve, to 10,000,000f.; the lodgements in public securi­
ties, to 50,187,018f.; the hotel and furniture o f the bank, to 4,000,000f.; and various
debts and other objects, to 3G2,620f.; making the assets o f the bank amount in all to
478,550,140f. The bank notes in circulation at the same period, exclusive o f those is­
sued by the branch banks, represented a sum o f 228,180,500f. ; and the bills to order, to
1,102,969f. The discounts, advances, and loans on commercial bills during the three
months, amounted to 229,120,000f.; on ingots and money, to 7,335,600f.; on public se­
curities, to 10,006,900f.; on mint bonds, to 863,700f.; in all, to 247,326,600f.

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
R A T E S OF F R E IG H T A N D P A S S A G E ON L A K E E R IE , FOR 1842.
The Buffalo Commercial Advertiser publishes the following table o f freights and pas­
sage on Lake Erie, & c., as established for the season o f 1842 :—
ON LAKE ERIE, TO NOV. 1ST.
BUFFALO TO

Dunkirk,............................
E rie,.
Ashtabula,
Fairport,...
Cleveland,.
Charleston,
Huron,
Sandusky,
Toledo, & c.
Monroe,
Detroit,

Cabin.
$ 2 00
2 50

Steerage.
$ 1 50
2 00

Horse.
$ 2 00
2 50

Wagon.
$ 2 50 a $ 3
n

3 50

2 00

3 50

n

4 00
4 50

2 50
2 50

4 00
4 50

»

5 50

3 00

5 50

6 50

3 00

6 50

it

2 00

1 00

2 00

tt

3 00

2 00

3 00

it

a

CLEVELAND TO

Huron,.........
Sandusky,...
T oledo, &c..
Detroit,..

FREIGHT UNTIL NOV. 1 s t .

Heavy.
100 lbs.

BUFFALO TO

Light.
100 lbs. Barrel.

Silver Creek, Dunkirk, Barcelona, Erie, Con40 c.
20 c.
neaut, Ashtabula, Grand River, Cleveland.
Charleston, Huron, Sandusky, T oledo, &c,
46
25
M onroe, Detroit,...........................................
c-.\„
Down freight from ports upon Lake Erie to Buffalo, will pay as follows :—
.100 lbs.
Flour,.................................barrel 20 cents. Tobacco,,
A shes,.............................
“
W h ea t,.............................. barrel 18
W ool and Peltries,........
“
.100 lbs. 10
Provisions,.
Bacon,.................................. hhds.
.100 lbs. 15
Seeds,.

Bulk.

if

PASSAGE TO THE UPPER LAKES, UNTIL OCTOBER
BUFFALO TO

M ackinac,. ...........................
Milwaukie,
Racine,
Southport,
Chicago,




Cabin.
$ 1 6 00
18 00

Steerage.
$ 8 00

10 00

50 c.
50
15 cents.

10

“

25 “
$ 1 50

IsT.

Horse.
$ 1 5 00

Wagon.
$ 5 00 a 7 00

15 00

5 00 a 7 00

96

Commercial Regulations.

CLE V E LA N D TO

M ackinac,...........................
Chicago, & c ........................

Cabin.
14 00
15 00

Steerage.
7 50
8 00

Horse.
12 50
14 00

Wagon.
3 00 a 5 00
4 00 a 6 00

10 00
12 00

6 00
7 00

10 00
12 00

2 50 a 4 50
3 00 a 5 00

D E T R O IT TO

M ackinac,..........................
Chicago, «fec........................

PRICE OF FREIG H T

1 st .

U N T IL S E P T .

Heavy.
100 lbs.

B U F F A L O TO

M ackinac,...........................
Mihvaukie, Racine, Southport, and Chicago.
Household Furniture,........

50

L ight.
100 lbs.
75 c. i
874 >

-

S

Barrel. Bulk.
■_
—
$1 50
—

CLE V E LA N D TO

M ackinac,............................
Chicago, & c ........................

.........
.........

50
50

75
874

.........
.........

374
50

624J
75 $

D ETRO IT TO

M ackinac,............................
Chicago, & c ........................

1 25

Down freight from the upper lakes will be charged as follow s:—
Flour,................................. barrel
Provisions,.........................barrel
W heat,.............................. bushel

Ashes,...........
Hides,............
L ead,..............

40 cents.
62$ “
15 a 22

..each

15

“

T he charges upon wheat are subject to variations. In the early part o f last season,
wheat in sacks was brought from the upper lakes to Buffalo for 12£ cents per bushel;
but in the autumn, when the demand was good and when a full supply was in store at
the west, double that price was paid.

P R E S E N T R A T E S OF P IL O T A G E FOR T Y B E E B A R A N D R IV E R
SAVANN AH .
As

Revised by a Law o f the State o f Georgia, passed December,
per cent to the form er rates.
B A R PILO TAG E, AND TO

D R A F T OF

COCKSPUR, O R SAFE

W ATER.

Feet.
6
7

8
9

10
11
12
124

ANCHORAGE.

u . s. Vess. For. Vess.
$6

72 c.
7 50

8 22
10 1 4
11 4 0

$10
11
12

08 c.

FR O M
COCKSPUR TO S A V A N N A H .

u . s . Vess. For. Vess.
$4

08 c.
50

25

4

33

4 98

17

21
10

6
6

7 98
9 72

15

13

32

19

98

16

08

24

12

17

76

26

64

10
11
12

13

19

56

29

34

134

42

32

13

14

21
22

14

33

21

13

144

23

46

35

19

14

$ 6 12
6 75
7 47

c.

1836,

adding twenty

TOTAL

AM O U N T.

u . s . Vess. For. Vess.
$10 8 0
12 00
1 3 20

c.

$16
18
19

20
00
80

13

9

20

16 2 7

24

40

90

10
11

35

18

30

45

74

97

21

30

27
31

14 58

25

80

38

70

11

50

42

75

16

95

79

17

68

28
31

35

47

02

93

19

39

34

35

51

52

26

19

89

35

40

53

10

07

21 11

37

53

56

30
42

15

25

56

38

34

15

39

23

08

40

95

61

154

27

00

40

50

16

23

24

35

43

23

64

85

16

28

50

42

75

17

10

25

65

45

60

68

40

164

30

00

45

00

18

03

48

03

72

05

32

34

48

51

19

41

27
29

05

17
174

11

51

75

77

62

33 90

50

85

40

30

60

54

30

81

45

13

57

85

50

98

20
21
22

41

33

62

59

73

89

23

91

35

86

63

75

95

60
62

24

99

37 49

66

63

99

95

18

35

184

37

58
32

53
55

19

39

84

59

194

41

64




37

46
62 76

42

32

00

c.

97

Commercial Regulations.
R U S S IA N T A R IF F FO R 1842.
IMPORT DUTIES.

Cotton Y a m ,.................... ............................................................... per pood
Dyed and Mixed, White and Colored,.....................................pood
Turkey R ed,....................................................................................pood
Fabrics, Pure and Mixed, Non-transparent, such as Percals, Fustians,
Velverets, and other cloths, White, Plain, or with Designs, or
Striped, as well as the common tissue o f Turkish origin called
Hassa,............................................................................................... pood
Handkerchiefs in piece o f the same,.................................................. pood
Tissues dyed o f one single color, and embroidered in designs in
White, not separately classed,...................................................... pood
Handkerchiefs, the same,....................................................................... pood
And so on to Shawls and Handkerchiefs o f pure Cotton, or mixed with
Linen and Hemp, with Colored Designs, & c., in imitation o f those
of Turkey and Cashmere,............................................................ pood
Linens— Tablecloths, Napkins, Towels, & c., pure or mixed with Cot­
ton or W o o l,.................................................................................... pood
Silk Goods, pure or mixed, o f one color and changeable, plain and
with woven designs, o f same color and shade, such as Satins, Taf­
fetas, Levantines, Serges, as well as Velvets o f Silk, pure and
mixed, o f one color,....................................................................... pood
With designs woven and stamped,...................
pood
With gold or silver, fine or false,............................................pood
Handkerchiefs as foregoing, from 7 50 to..................................................
Silk, Transparent, from 15 roubles per pound to.....................................
Woollens— Yarn White and Dyed,...... ............................................. pood
Cloths— Kerseymeres, Ladies’ Cloths, Ratteens, Black, Blue Black,
Green deeper than Gazon, o f one color, or mixed with White,
as well as white and blue whites,............................................... pood
Cloths as before, o f every color not named, and o f various colors,
mixed,..............................
pood
Flannels, Velvets, Plush, & c................................................................ pood
Handkerchiefs and Shawls in imitation Cashmere,.......................... pood
Carpets,.................................................................................................... pood
Carpets— Embroidered or made up with fringes, & c ...................... pood
Linens— Batiste, Toile de Cambrai, White, Plain,.......................... pood
Handkerchiefs the same, and with small white or colored borders, not
above an inch broad,..................................................................... pood
Having more than an inch flower,.......................................... pood
Fabrics o f Linen or Hemp, pure or mixed with cotton, (excepting as
rated,).......................................................................................................
Pocket handkerchiefs as before with borders or without.,................ pood
Pieces Dyed one color, Figured, Striped, or Embroidered, not separ­
ately specified,................................................................................ pood
Handkerchiefs, ditto,...........................................
pood
■•Handkerchiefs and Cloths, Printed,............................................................
Pottery, varnished pieces, pots and objects o f all sorts, white, var­
nished, and not varnished, except objects not specially denomi­
nated, .............................................................................................. pood
Linen or Hempen Yarn, combed or not,...........................................pood
“
“
“
“
Dyed,................................. pood
pood
Sugar, R aw ,..............................
Refined,...............................................................................................
Molasses,.....................................
pood
Coffee,...................................................................................................... pood
Cutlery, Razors, Knives, & c .............................................................. pound
With ivory and pearl, & c ...........................................................pound
Fine Cutlery,..................................................................................................
Tin, in sheets,..........................................................................per berkovitz
C oal,.................. ............................................................................................
VOL. V II.---- NO. I.




9

R ou- Co­
bles. pecks
6
50
8
00
15
20

0
1

83
85

1
2

85
50

9

45

2

30

5
7
10
12
25
17

00
50
20
50
00
25

3

50

1
1
10
0
1
5

80
20
50
65
26
06

5
6

06
90

1
2

85
10

6
90
9
20
prohibited.

4
65
4
80
7
20
3
80
prohibited.

2

00

6

15

1

20

5
80
prohibited.
45
00
free.

98

Commercial Statistics.
EXPORT

DUTIES.

Internal Navigation Duty.
Roubles. Copecks. Roubles. Copecks.
.per berkovitz
i
00
0
10
50
i
0
15
i
00
0
10
2
00
0
20
0
06
0
00 }
G
50
0
05
25
0
0
02 }
12
0
0
01}
0
15
0
01}
0
12
0
01 }

Hem p,.........................
Flax, by sea,..............
Flax, by land,............
T a llo w ,......................
W heat,........................
Potash, Pearlash, & c.
Flaxseed, by s e a ,......
Flaxseed, by land,....
Hempseed, by sea,....
Hempseed, by land,..

Such is the Russian tariff for 1842.

COMMERCIAL STATISTICS.
COM M ERCE A N D T O N N A G E OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
The following statistical view o f the tonnage and commerce o f the United States is
derived from a speech o f the Hon. Levi W oodbury, the late Secretary o f the Treasury.
T he data is taken from official documents.
The tonnage owned by citizens o f the United States was, in 1820,1,280,165 tons ; in
1830,1,181,776 ; in 1840, 2,180,764; during the first ten years falling off nearly 100,000
tons, while during the second, it increased nearly 1,000,000 tons. T he tonnage o f the state
o f Maine was, in 1820,140,373 tons; in 1830, 182,485 ; while in 1840 it had increased
to 308,056. O f Massachusetts, in 1820, 315,000; in 1830, 350,000 ; and in 1840,
539,000. The registered tonnage, or that engaged in foreign trade, in 1820, was 619,000
tons; in 1830 it had decreased to 576,000; while in 1840 it was 899,000 tons. The
enrolled tonnage, or that engaged in our domestic trade, was, in 1820, 661,000 tons; in
1830, 615,301, having fallen off, notwithstanding the high tariff; while in 1840 it had
risen to 1,262,000 tons.

The new tonnage built in the United States in the year 1820,

was 47,000 tons; in 1830,58,000 tons; while in 1840, it was 118,000 tons. In the
state o f Maine there was built in 1830, 3,364 tons; while in 1840 there was built
38,936 tons.
He then adverted to the tonnage engaged in the carrying trade between this and foreign
countries. In 1820 the American tonnage so employed amounted to 804,000 tons; in
1830, 971,000 ; and in 1840, 1,647,090. The foreign tonnage so employed in 1820 was
100,000 tons; in 1830, 133,000; and in 1840, 712,000 tons; showing that in a commerce to which foreign nations may lay claim to an equal share, our tonnage is more than
double theirs. The American tonnage employed in the carrying trade o f the four great
southern ports, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, and N ew Orleans, was, in 1820, 140,000
tons; in 1830, 231,000 tons; and in 1840, 494,000 tons.

The foreign tonnage in the

same trade in 1820 was 55,000 tons; in 1830, 70,000 ; and in 1840,195,000 tons. The
American tonnage engaged in the trade between the United States and England and
her dependencies was, in 1820, 315,000 tons; in 1830, 343,000; and in 1840, 868,000
tons. The nominal amount o f the English tonnage in the same trade was greatly
swelled by steamboats on the lakes engaged in carrying passengers on the lakes, which
stop at the different ports, their tonnage being counted at every port where they stop.
He called attention to a somewhat singular fact, that a port called St. Vincent, in the




99

Commercial Statistics.

state o f Vermont, ranked as the fourth in the Union in the amount o f tonnage entered
and cleared during the year 1840, being exceeded only by New Y ork, Boston, and N ew
Orleans. Upon inquiry o f the collector, he had ascertained this was occasioned by
steamboats which make thirty or forty trips each year, and schooners making fifteen and
twenty, the tonnage being counted each time. The American tonnage in the trade to
England alone was, in 1820,128,000 ; 1830,192,000 ; and in 1840,358,000 tons. The
foreign tonnage in the trade between the two countries was, in 1820, 19,000; in 1830,
58.000 ; and in 1840, 129,000 tons. The American tonnage in the trade between us and
the British W est Indies was, in 1820, 22,000 tons ; in 1830, 25,000 ; and in 1840 it had
increased to 78,000 tons. The foreign tonnage engaged in the same trade in 1840 was
13.000 tons. The American tonnage engaged in the trade between us and the Hanse
Towns was, in 1820, 17,000 tons; in 1830, 14,000; and in 1840, 17,000; while the
foreign tonnage was, in 1820,4,000 tons; in 1830,10,000; and in 1840,42,000. This
showed a balance against us, for which he considered there was more than an equiva­
lent in the markets opened to our goods into the very heart o f Germany.
Having disposed o f the tonnage, he would turn to the value o f our commerce at the
different periods. In 1820 our exports amounted to $69,000,000 ; in 1830, $73,000,000 ;
and in 1840, $132,000,000.
O f these there were o f domestic origin, in 1820,
$51,000,000; in 1830, $59,462,629; and in 1840, $113,762,617.
Our imports
amounted

in

1820

to

74,000,000;

in 1830, to $76,000,000;

and in 1840 to

$107,000,000.
Our exports to Great Britain and Ireland amounted in 1820 to $28,000,000 ; in 1830
to $31,000,000; and in 1840 to $70,000,000. Our exports to the British provinces in
North America amounted in 1820 to 2,000,000; in 1830 to $3,000,000; and in 1840
it had swelled to $5,889,015; o f this a large proportion are breadstuffs, which go to
feed the troops in Canada, and to be transhipped to England, where it gets in free of
duty, and this o f course increases the tonnage o f Great Britain in her trade with these
provinces. The value o f breadstuffs exported in 1820 was $5,000,000; in 1830,
$6,000,000; in 1840, $12,993,545, o f which $9,353,402 was to England and her de­
pendencies. Our exports to the Hanse Towns in 1820 amounted to $1,500,000; in
1830, $1,500,000; and in 1840 to $3,367,963 ; and this gain in o.ur exports he considered
a full equivalent for our loss in tonnage. T he whole amount o f our exports and imports
in American vessels in 1820 was $137,000,000; in 1830, it had fallen to $129,000,000;
and in 1840 it rose to $198,000,000. The amount in foreign vessels in 1820 was
$17,000,000; in 1830, $14,000,000; and in 1840, $40,000,000. Thus demonstrating
that five times as much o f our commerce was carried on by American vessels as those
of all other countries. O f our exports to England, American vessels carried in 1820 to
the value o f $41,000,000; in 1830, $48,000,000; in 1840, $88,000,000: and English
vessels in 1820, $10,000,000 ; in 1830, $9,000,000 ; and in 1840, $21,000,000, or less
than one fourth as much as the Americans.
Mr. Woodbury next proceeded to show the great augmentation o f our commerce with
those nations particularly whose products were admitted free o f duty, of which France
will furnish a fair sample, the imports from which to this country in 1820 amounted to
$6,000,000; in 1830 to $8,000,000 ; and in 1840 to $17,000,000. Our exports to that
country amounted in 1820 to $ 9 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in 1830 to $11,000,000; and in 1840 to
$19,000,000. O f the carrying trade o f the four great southern ports, Charleston, Sa­
vannah, Mobile, and New Orleans, American bottoms conveyed in 1821, to the value of
$12,500,000; in 1830, $31,000,000; and in 1840 $50,000,000. W hile foreign ves­
sels had in 1820 $7,000,000 ; in 1830, $6,000,000 ; and in 1840 $13,000,000.




100

Mercantile Miscellanies .

MERCANTILE MISCELLANIES.
T H E E XC H AN G E A T M A N C H E ST E R , E N G LA ND .
The Manchester Exchange may be regarded as the parliament-house o f the cotton
lords; it is their legislative assembly; the affairs o f the executive are intrusted to a
smaller body, which meets in the Chamber o f Commerce, located in a different part o f
the town* This parliament assembles every Tuesday, and the attendance is greatest
about one o’clock, being the hour o f “ high change.” There is, perhaps, no part o f the
world in which so much is done and so little said in the same space o f time. A stranger
sees nothing at first but a collection o f gentlemen, with thoughtful, intelligent faces, who
converse with each other in laconic whispers, supply the defects o f words by nods and
signs, move noiselessly from one part o f the room to another, guided as if by some hid­
den instinct to the precise person in the crowd with whom they have business to trans­
act. A phrenologist will nowhere meet such a collection o f decidedly clever heads.
The physiognomist who declared that he could find traces o f stupidity in the faces of
the wisest philosophers, would be at a loss to find any indication of its presence in the
countenances assembled on the exchange at Manchester. Genius appears to be not Ies3
rare than folly ; the characteristic features o f the meeting, collectively and individually,
are those o f talent in high working order. Whether trade be brisk or dull, “ high
change” is equally crow ded; and the difference o f its aspect at the two periods is suffi­
ciently striking. In stirring times, every man on change seems as if he belonged to the
community o f dancing dervishes, being utterly incapable o f remaining for a single second
in one place. It is the principle o f a Manchester man, that “ nought is done while
aught remains to do
let him but have the opportunity, and he will undertake to supply
all the markets between China and Peru, and will be exceedingly vexed if he has lost
an opportunity o f selling some yarn at Japan on his way. W hen trade is dull, the mer­
chants and factors stand motionless as statues, or move about as slowly as if they fol­
lowed a funeral; the look o f eagerness is exchanged for that o f dogged obstinacy ; it
seems to say— “ M y mind is made up to lose so much, but I am resolved to lose no
more.” A n increase o f sternness and inflexibility accompanies the decline o f the Man­
chester trade, and foreigners declare that the worst time to expect a bargain is a season
o f distress. “ High change” lasts little more than an hou r; after the clock has struck
’ melts away, and before three the building is as silent and
! catacoipbs o f Egypt.— England in the Nineteenth Century.
/ ' E N DOR SIN G N O TE S.
Wli2fct»^^ks th& Boston, Transcript) can be more vexatious than to become involved
by endorsementsT**^ou meet with a friend who wishes to get a discount at a bank.
It is necessary to have an endorser. He asks you to put your name on the back o f his
note, merely as a matter o f form. Out o f kindness or good nature you do it, though you
reap not the least benefit by so doing. By and by, the note becomes due. It is not
paid, and you are forthwith notified that you, being the endorser, must hand over the
needful.

There is no remedy.

Y our name is down in black and white, and you can­

not erase it. Can any thing be more provoking ? Here you have done a good-natured
act o f disinterested benevolence, and your pocket must suffer for it. A debt accrued
by another must be paid by yourself, and all the satisfaction you receive is that you
must “ pocket the loss” with the best grace you can. Y et, you can learn a lesson of
wisdom from such an event, which is,

never

to do so any more.

Such are the bene­

fits o f endorsing, and such will they be till the whole system is abolished.




101

Mercantile Miscellanies.
A M A T H E M A T IC A L PROBLEM .

To the Editor o f the Merchants’ M agazine :
I have seen with much gratification that your pages are open to the discussion o f such
mathematical problems as need frequent solution in commercial transactions; and I
doubt not that proficients in the several departments o f business and clerkdom, by the
publication o f their processes, the simplification o f rules, and elucidation of principles,
may do much to diminish the labor o f computation and ensure accuracy o f results, and
confer vast benefit upon the mercantile community. I regard all these simple and
rapid methods to be as entitled to consideration and application as any labor-saving pro­
cesses or machines, and consider the inventors o f them entitled to the gratitude of those
whose tasks they would relieve.
I would ask permission through the medium o f your pages, to propose to your mathe­
matical contributors for the readiest solution the following problem.
A consignee, having received from various consigners several parcels o f the same
commodity, o f different qualities, and known or appreciable difference in market value,
and having sold the whole at an average price, wishes to apportion this price to the
several owners, so that each may receive his equitable share. Required the simplest
and readiest solution. For instance—
He receives the 1st lot from A , o f 820 pounds, gallons, yards, or other quantities.
do.
2d
“
B, o f 160
do.
do.
do.
do.
3d
do.
do.
“
C, o f 1,510
do.
do.
4th
“
D, o f 300
do.
do.
do.
5 th
“
E , o f 940
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
do.
6th
“
F , o f 720
do.
7th
“
G, o f 570
do.
do.
do.
do.
Total, 5,020

do.

do.

do.

do.

N ow the first lot is worth one cent per lb. more than the 2 d ; the 2d is worth § cent
more than the 3d ; the 3d ^ cent more than the 4th ; the 4th % cent more than the 5th;
the 5th | cent more than the 6th; and the 6th \ cent more than the 7th. He sells the
whole at an average price o f 14 f cents. How' shall this price be apportioned among the
owners ? Questions o f this nature, in some mercantile establishments, are o f quite
frequent occurrence, and a simple and easy solution is much desired. I propose this
problem in the hope that some o f your contributors may be able to solve it by a process
shorter than the usual one, which is extremely tedious and unsatisfactory.- ..
^ fril^ ^ o u r s ,

------------

d. n .

\ V V ^ ':

C O S T OF M ON OPOLIES!?f
' V \
iC
Three pamphlets have recently been published in England, against monopolies. The
author o f the first, which is entitled “ The Many Sacrificed to the FetVr* estimates that
the monopoly o f grain, o f all kinds, costs the country .£21,860,928 a year; o f meat,
£10,583,333 ; o f butter and cheese, £4,246,666; o f timber, £7,000,000; and o f tallow,
£500,000. Total, £44,790,927 a year! The author o f the second o f these pamphlets,
which is entitled “ The Advantages o f Monopoly, proved by the effects o f the Sugar
Monopoly,” shows that the nation paid £9,060,794 (exclusive o f duty) for its sugar in
1840 ; and that the same quantity o f Brazil sugar would only have cost £3,952,945,
leaving the enormous sum o f £5,207,049 as the cost o f the sugar monopoly to the nation
in that one year ! The author o f the third, entitled “ The Preference Interests, or the
Miscalled Protective Duties shown to be Public Oppression,” shows that the taxes paid
exclusively by the landed interest amount to £1,531,915 out o f £52,226,959— or equal
to one pound for every thirty-three o f the whole taxation; while the landed interests o f
France, Flanders, all Germany, and all Italy, pay at least one half o f the taxation o f their




9 *

102

Mercantile Miscellanies.

respective countries in a direct tax upon, land !

This author estimates the monopoly of

grain to cost the nation .£6,000,000 a year; that o f butcher’s meat, £18,000,000; and
that o f sugar £4,000,000 a year ; besides those o f timber, coffee, and other articles.
DECLINE OF T H E W H IS K E Y T R A D E .
A most remarkable reduction has taken place in the demand for this article during the
past twelve months. The demand was much reduced a year a g o ; but now it is not
half what it was then. The distillers, four or five years since, were running their works
night and day,, pressed with the demand for whiskey, and consuming rye and corn in
immense quantities; at one time four thousand five hundred bushels daily. N ow the
consumption is less than two thousand bushels daily, and is rapidly diminishing. There
is on hand here a stock o f twelve thousand barrels o f whiskey, and such is the decreased
demand, that there is no diminution o f stock, notwithstanding the great diminution of
supply. The distillers appear to be as much pleased with the change as their fellow-citizens
generally. They are now reducing their work as fast as possible, so that for the next
crop o f coarse grain we presume the demand in this market from the distillers will not
exceed one fourth o f what it was at the highest point. The falling off cannot be less
than a million o f bushels for the year. This change cannot but have some effect on the
market. Yet, on the other hand, the men who for years back have been guzzling
whiskey and leaving their families half starved, will now eat bread and meat, and keep
their families well fed. In a multitude o f families this happy change has already taken
place. The nation will not be made poor by the revolution, but rich ; business will not
be stagnated, but stimulated by it. N o man is vicious and wasteful without causing
some mischief to society, and no man is industrious and virtuous without adding some­
thing to the common aggregate o f general wealth and happiness. Society does not truly
thrive upon the vices and dissipations o f its members, but upon their morality and general
good habits. Vice will be made a mother o f trade, as every thing else is ; but those who
make money by it are likely to contract its pollution, and so sink with those whom they
pamper or rob. Virtue makes the man who practices it vigorous and comfortable, and
generally gives him some property. A s the wealth o f a nation is the aggregate o f its
individual wealth, so the business o f a whole people is measured by the aggregate o f its
industry. The loss o f the whiskey business, therefore, will be a gain to the general
business and wealth o f the country.— Journal o f Commerce.
F R A U D IN P A CK IN G FLOUR.
A communication has been published in the Utica Democrat charging the millers in
various parts o f the state o f N ew Y ork with fraud in packing flour. It was stated that
20,000 barrels o f flour were sold annually in Utica, the most of which fell short from
two to twenty-two pounds per barrel.. The Rochester Daily Democrat publishes the fol­
lowing statements from the different flour dealers o f Utica, by which it will be seen that
the charges o f fraud are totally unsupported by facts.
Dows, Guiteau & Kissam state that they have weighed one barrel from each lot in
their store,, and give the following as the result o f the test:—
Railroad M ills,.......................................
Grand Rapid Mills,...............................
H. B. Williams’ Mills,...........................
J. & A. Cox’s Mills,..............................
Williams & Hitchcock,.........................
J. H. Bennett,.........................................
J. Bell & Co............................................
J. Lathrope,.............................................
Juliet Mills,.............................................




Gross.
222
211
215
216
214
214
213
216
220

Tare.
23
17
18
17
18
19
17
18
17

N ett lbs. Flour.
199
194
197
199
196
195
196
196
203

The Book Trade.

103

W . P. Swift & Co. weighed one barrel from each lot in store, with the following
result:—
Gross.
Tare.
N ett lbs. Flour.
196
I. H. Beach,......................
18
15
196
H . E arl,..............................
212
195
17
H. Clinton,........................
199
J. H owell,.........................
218
19
G. M. & W . Richardson,
197
217
20
216
L. A. Spalding,................
19
197
T . Kempshall,...................
17
196
J. Graves,..........................
18
196
R. Fisher,..........................
215
18
197
Owasco,..............................
18
196
214
Butler, Farnell & Co. vweighed a single barrel from each lot in store, with the follow.
lowing result:—
N ett lbs. Flour.
Tare.
Gross.
196
Medina M ills,....................
215
19
Fitzhugh, Oswego,...........
219
22
197
17
197
Howell &, Germain,........
214
Clinton Mills, K. &. B.....
20
195
215
L. Wright, O sw ego,........
20
196
216
17
197
C. J. Hill, Rochester,......
214
1964
Kempshall, Rochester,....
2164
20
19
Daniels, Union Mills,.......
2164
1974
Stephens, Livonia Mills,..
18
197
215
201
A . Dixson, do.
do. ...
221
20
23
197
221)
Railroad Brand,.................

THE BOOK TRADE.
1. —Notes o f a Tour through Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Arabia Petreea, to the Holy Land ;
including a visit to Athens, Sparta, Delphi, Cairo, Thebes, Mt. Etna, Petra, etc. By E.
J a y M o r r i s . 2 vols. I2mo. pp. 253—303. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart. 1842.
A portion o f the contents o f these well-printed volumes originally appeared in the United
States Gazette, under the title o f “ Memoranda o f a Tour in the East.” The intervals of
the narrative have been tilled up by the author, so that it now presents a continuous
tour through Greece, Egypt, Arabia Petraea, and a part o f Turkey. The minuteness of
detail indulged in by Mr. M ., will be o f some utility to the traveller who pursues the same
route, and will enable the reader to form a better opinion o f the Egyptian monuments than
would be conveyed by a mere record o f impressions. The interesting works of Mr. Ste­
phens, and the learned and elaborate travels and researches o f Professor Robinson, noticed
in a former number o f this magazine, would seem sufficient to occupy public attention up­
on the East, but the route pursued in the narrative before us, and the necessary difference
of description, give a fresh interest to the work o f our author, and will of course command
some degree o f public favor. The volumes appear to give a faithful description of what
came under the eye o f the author, and they are written in an agreeable and easy style.
2.

—Poems and Lyrics.
Ruggles. 1842.

By W

il l ia m

B. T a p p a n .

12mo. pp. 263.

Boston: Crocker &

This is, we believe, the third series of the poetical productions o f the author; and none
of the present collection have before been given to the public in a connected form. They
are mostly short pieces and o f recent date. The chief excellence o f Mr Tappan, as a
fugitive poet, consists in the moral and religious tendency o f his mind, which is infused
into every line or stanza that flows from his ready pen. Among the occasional pieces, we
notice one on “ Bread or Blood,” the awful inscription upon some of the banners recently
paraded in the provincial towns o f England ; another “ For China,” referring to the Chi­
nese war and the opium question j which breathe the true Christian sentiment on these
subjects.




104
3.

The Book Trade .

— The L ife o f George Washington.
pan & Dennet. 1842.

By

J a r ed S parks.

8vo.

pp.

5 62 .

Boston: Tap-

This volume furnishes one o f the most elegant specimens of the progress of the typo­
graphic art recently produced in the United States. The contents of the volume are essen­
tially the same as those o f the volume prefixed to Washington’s Writings. Designed, how­
ever, for readers who may not have access to that work, such additions have been made as
would contribute to enhance its value in the form of a separate publication. “ The mate­
rials for the Life, as well as for the larger works, have been drawn from the manuscripts at
Mount Vernon, papers in the public offices o f London, Paris, Washington, and all the old
thirteen states; and also from the private papers o f many o f the principal leaders in the
revolution. The entire mass o f manuscripts left by General Washington, consisting o f more
than two hundred folio volumes, was in the author’s hands ten years.” From these mate­
rials he aimed to select and combine the most important facts, tending to exhibit, in their
true light, the character, actions, and opinions o f Washington. It is unquestionably the
most authentic and best Life o f the immortal patriot that has been, or ever will be published,
and it should find a place in every family and school-district library in the country.
4.

— The Works o f the Right Rev. Father in Goi, J oseph B u t l e r , D. C. L., late Lord
Bishop o f Durham. To which is prefixed an account o f the character and writings of the
author. By S a m u e l H a l l i f a x , I). D., late Lord Bishop of Glocester. 8vo. pp. 593.
New Y ork : Robert Carter. 1842.

This is, we believe, the first complete American reprint o f the works o f Bishop Butler.
The “ Analogy o f Religion” has long been a text book in most of our universities and
theological schools, and has the consenting praise o f all denominations o f Christians as the
most profound and unanswerable dissertation on natural and revealed religion, in human
language. The volume contains, besides the “ Analogy,” two dissertations on “ Personal
Identity,” and on the “ Nature o f Virtue,” twenty-five discourses on “ Human Nature, or
man considered as a moral agent,” and six sermons preached upon public occasions. The
works o f Butler, based as they are upon the reasonableness and philosophy of natural and
revealed truth, are the property o f all sects in Christendom. The present edition is printed
from the English plates imported by Mr. Carter, for the express purpose o f furnishing a
complete and beautiful copy o f a favorite theologian, whose profound knowledge, and pro­
digious strength o f mind, are amply displayed in his incomparable writings.
5. —Mexico in 1842: A Description o f the Country, its Natural and Political Features;
vnth a sketch o f its history, brought down to the present time. To which is added an ac­
count of Texas and Yucatan, and o f the Santa Fe Expedition. 18mo. pp. 256. New
Y ork: Charles J. Folsom.
The present state o f affairs in M exico and Texas, naturally creates a desire to become
acquainted with the physical and political condition o f those countries; and it is the object
o f this work to bring together, from the latest and most authenticated sources, such data as
may be useful for the better understanding o f events in that quarter o f the great American
continent. It furnishes a mass o f information in a comprehensive form, which, if accurate,
must prove useful to the emigrant, as well as interesting to all who take an interest in the
progress o f republicanism. Nearly one hundred pages are devoted to a description of the
new republic o f Texas, embracing the correspondence o f Santa Anna with Bee and Hamil­
ton, and a notice o f the Santa Fe expedition.
6. — The Domestic Circle, or Moral and Social Duties explained and enforced on Scriptural
Principles, in a series o f discourses. By the Rev. M. S o r in . 12mo. pp. 260. New
York : Saxton & Miles.
The subjects embraced in this volume are, as may be inferred from the titlepage quoted,
decidedly practical. The volume, it is stated by the author, was not originally intended
for public inspection, but was composed chiefly to methodize the writer’s own views on the
several topics embraced in the series. The writer belongs to that numerous and respecta­
ble denomination of Christians—the Methodists; but we see little in the book that any
serious or well-disposed person can object to on the score o f sectarian sentiment. The
principal subjects discussed are—the nature and obligation o f the marriage compact; the
the duties o f parents and children, masters and servants; family religion, &c.




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105

7. —A Practical Treatise an the Law o f Contracts not under Seal, and upon the usual De­
fences to Actions thereon. By J oseph C h it t y , Jun., Esq., o f the Middle Temple. Fifth
American edition, from the third London edition; corrected, re-arranged, and enlarged
by T ompson C h i t t y , Esq., o f the Middle Temple. With notes of American decisions
on the law o f contracts, to the present time ; by J. C. P erk in s , Esq. Springfield, M ass.:
G. & C. Merriam. 1842.
The work before us is probably the most able and comprehensive treatise on the law of
parol contracts ever written. Its author is so well known, that any mention we can make
of him will in no respect add to his high reputation as a lawyer, nor need members o f the
American Bar be reminded o f the usefulness of any legal work proceeding from his pen.
Indeed, there are few whose libraries do not contain some o f the numerous volumes he
has written and compiled, and we venture to say that few o f these are of more real im­
portance than the one before us. In addition to the text, which comprises the entire body
of the English law upon the subject o f unsealed agreements, the margin contains a full and
exceedingly copious selection o f digested American cases, embracing the most important
rules o f law upon contracts, in nearly all o f the different states in the Union. These are
well arranged too, and are alone worth nearly the price o f the work. W e are gratified to
perceive the handsome and permanent manner in which it is got up. The durability o f
law books, when their high price is considered, is o f no little importance, and the publishers
we have mentioned have spared no expense in rendering this so. They have also pub­
lished several other legal works o f much importance, and we take pleasure in recommend­
ing them to the notice o f the members o f the American Bar.
8. — The Duty o f the Free States ; or Remarks suggested by the case o f the Creole. By W il ­
l ia m E. C h a n n in g .
12mo. Parts 1 and 2 —pp. 54 and 93. Boston: William Crosby &
Co.
The first part o f this tract was devoted to an examination o f the affair of the Creole
case. Its object, however, says Dr. C., was not so much to determine the merits of a par­
ticular case, as to set forth general principles o f justice and humanity, which have been too
much overlooked in the intercourse o f individuals and nations. The same object is kept in
view in the second part, which has no reference to the Creole, but is devoted to the consid­
eration of the duties o f the free states. Dr. Channing here declares it to be his great aim,
in what he has written and now writes, on matters o f public interest, to re-unite politics afid
morality, to bring into harmony the law o f the land and the law of God. He views, and
justly in our opinion, among the chief causes o f the miseries o f nations, the divorce which
has taken place between politics and morality ; and he would give Up all hope for a better
day, till this breach be healed. W e have read the dissertation with deep interest, and
earnestly commend it to the attention of the whole American people, as the offspring of a
profound mind, deeply penetrated with the love and veneration of humanity and its high
destiny.
9. — The Bankrupt Law o f the United States, vyith an outline o f the System; together vyitli
the Rules and Forms in Massachusetts, and references to recent decisions. By P. W .
C h a n d l e r , one o f the Commissioners o f Bankruptcy in Massachusetts. 12mo. pp. 103.
Boston : James H. Weeks. 1842.
This volume contains a neat and compact edition o f the Bankrupt Law o f 1840, including
the rules and forms which have been adopted in the district o f Massachusetts, besides pre­
senting a general outline or exposition o f the bankrupt system, introduced by the law, with
reference to the more important decisions which have been made upon the act, and which
have come before the public in an authentic shape. The act o f Congress confers extraordi­
nary powers upon the courts of the United States, and several questions under the law have
already been decided upon full consideration; and these decisions are referred to very
amply in this volume, “ because the time has not yet come for a systematic treatise on the
subject; and it was desirable that the work should not be increased beyond its present
size.”
10. — Persevere, and You Must Succeed, or The History o f Mary Smith. 18mo. pp. 94. Bos­
ton : William Crosby. 1842.
It is the object o f this simple tale, to illustrate the sentiment embraced in the titlepage,
and the writer has, we think, succeeded to a charm in the endeavor.




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11. — The Life o f Wilbur Fisk, D . D ., First President o f the Wesleyan University.
J o h n H o l d ic h . 1 vol. 8vo. pp. 455. New York : Harper & Brothers.

By

W ell known and highly esteemed as was the excellent individual whose Life is here
given, we doubt if his warmest admirers and most intimate friends have been fully aware
o f his many excellencies, and the extent o f his useful labors; they will learn, for the first
time, from this beautiful memoir, how great and good a man he was—at least so it has
been with u s ; we had never appreciated him at half his real worth. Death has conse­
crated his virtues, and presented his character to us in many interesting lights that wholly
escaped our notice while he was living. Professor Holdich was designated by Dr Fisk, a
few days only before his decease, to write his Life ; and from the conviction, no doubt, that
no other person was so well qualified, from personal intimacy, and a perfect knowledge of
him, to do entire justice to his character. The confidence was not misplaced—the sacred
trust has been nobly discharged ; and the result is a work no less just to its subject than
creditable to its author, and which will be read with the deepest interest by the community.
12. — The Great Commission, or The Christian Church Constituted and Charged to Carry
the Gospel to the World. By the Rev. J ohn H a r r is , D. D., author of “ Mammon,” the
“ Great Teacher,” etc. 12mo. pp. 484. Boston : Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.
T o this treatise was awarded the prize o f two hundred guineas, offered for the best essay
<c on the duty, privilege, and encouragement o f Christians to send the Gospel to the uninlightened nations o f the earth.” The competition was understood to be confined within
the limits o f the United Kingdom. The extension o f it to America was subsequently sug­
gested, but the suggestion, say the adjudicators, came too late to admit of its being
properly adopted. Another prize o f fifty guineas was awarded to Rev. Richard Hamilton,
o f Leeds. There were forty-two essays received by the committee, differing o f course
very widely in character and claims, “ from some o f an inferior order, rising through high­
er degrees in the scale o f merit, to a considerable number of sterling excellence.” Append­
ed to the American edition o f this treatise, is an introductory essay by Dr. W i l l i a m s , o f
New York. Aside from the interest the work possesses to the friends of missions, its
literary claims are o f the highest order o f excellence, and must place it among the classics
in religious literature.
13. — Ihe Great. Awakening. A History o f the Revival o f Religion in the time of Edwards
and Whitfield. By J oseph T r a c y . 8 v o . pp. 433. Boston: Tappan& Dennet. 1842.
In 1840, public meetings were held in some places, chiefly by those denominated Presby­
terians or Calvinists, in commemoration o f what Edwards called “ The Revival o f Religion
in New England, in 1740.” This “ revival” forms the basis of the present w ork ; and we
are informed by the author, that opinions concerning it were various and discordant, even
among those who entertain similar doctrinal or theological view s; some thinking it worthy
o f unmixed eulogy in public celebrations, others speaking o f it with only guarded and qual­
ified commendations, and others doubting whether it should not be mentioned rather
with censure than otherwise. The design o f Mr. Tracy, in the present work, is to furnish
the means o f suitably appreciating what he considers the good and the evil of that period
o f religious history. The volume is enriched with many anecdotes of Whitfield and his
times, and is on the whole a well written work on a subject that interests a large portion
o f the religious community o f the present day.
14. — Wilson's American Ornithology, with Notes by Jardine ; to which is added a synopsis
o f American Birds, including those described bv Bonaparte, Audubon, Nuttall, and Rich­
ardson. By T. M. B r e w e r . ISmo. pp. 746. Boston: Otis, Broaders & Co.
The present edition o f Wilson’s Ornithology, adapted to general circulation, supplies a
want long felt in the United States, and it will doubtless serve to extend the fame of the
author, give a wide scope to the influence o f his genius, and promote an interest in the
study o f American ornithology. In accomplishing these objects, Mr. Brewer the Ameri­
can editor has followed the original work o f Wilson, adding thereto the copious and valu­
able Notes o f Jardine. The compiler acknowledges his indebtedness to Audubon for the
assistance he received from the labors and writings o f that illustrious ornithologist. It is
neatly printed, and handsomely illustrated with steel engravings.




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15. —Jahr's New Manual o f Homoeopathic Practice. E d i t e d , w i t h A n n o t a t i o n s , b y A. G e r a l d
H u l l , M. D. Second American Edition, from the Third, or Paris Edition. 2 vols. 8vo.
New Y o rk : William Radde.
It seldom falls to our lot to notice a work on Homoeopathy, and though we do it with
diffidence, it is accompanied also with pleasure. W e think it incumbent upon every Phy­
sician to give to this subject his mature deliberation,and not to reject it,untried and unknown.
The author boldly challenges the test o f experience, and is willing to stand or fall by it.
And the rapid strides which the new system o f medicine has made in the old world gives
it a strong claim to the attention and respect o f the practitioners o f the new. And whilst the
infinitessimal doses and sugar globules, have afforded scope to the ingenuity and satire of
many, let us not forget that Galileo was confined as a lunatic, and the experiments o f our
own Franklin were considered too puerile for refutation, but the world has since been
convinced that the former was not mad, and the philosophy o f the latter will bid defiance
to detractors, whilst the lightnings o f heaven play harmless around us. In the present edi­
tion of this work much has been added by Hr. Hull, and the result o f his extensive practice,
aided by a refined and discriminating mind, has been carefully noted, and will afford great
advantage to those seeking either information or improvement in this branch o f science.
16. — Cincinnati in 1341: its Early Annals and Future Prospects.
pp. 300. New York: R . Carter.

By C h a r l e s C is t .

12mo.

The author o f this volume was employed as one o f the marshals for taking the census of
1840, and the volume before us owes its origin to this circumstance. The reports which
Mr. C. made in the Cincinnati public prints o f his progress in taking the census of that city
for 1840, enhanced and illustrated as they are with various observations and incidents
springing from his official inquiries, form the basis o f this work, and render it at once at­
tractive and useful. W e cannot perhaps give a better illustration o f the progress of Cincin­
nati than is exhibited in the following table of the increase o f population since 1795, derived
from the w ork:
Year.
Year.
Population.
Population.
1795
500
1829
22,148
1S00
750
1830
21,831
1S05
960
1S31
26^071
1810
2,320
1832
28,014
1813
4,000
1833
27,645
1815
6,000
1835
29,000
9,002
1820
1839
42,500
1824
12,016
1840
46,381
1826
15,540
1841
50,000
—Exchange Tables, designed to furnish the Public with an accurate set o f Calculations fo r
Computing Profit and Loss, Interest and Exchange, and to facilitate the Merchant in ad­
vancing on Invoice Prices o f Foreign Merchandise, and a Convenient Reckoner, and Test
o f Computations o f S all or Great Magnitude. Also, presenting to the Broker, Banking
Institutions, and Public Offices, Discount and Advance Tables, for arbitrating Foreign and
Domestic Exchan^
with several Tables o f Foreign Moneys, Weights, and Measures.
Each compared \>ith the Standard o f the United States. By W il l ia m G. A l l y n . 8 v o .
pp. 180. Buffalo: Saxon & Read, and Robert D. Foy. 1841.

17.

These tables are all expressed in whole and decimal numbers, so as to conform to the
Federal currency o f the United States; and those for exchange, rebate, premiums, and
interest, are written to represent small or large amounts, at pleasure. The arrangement of
the work is convenient and in some respects original, and if it is accurately printed, we
believe that it will prove a valuable acquisition to those for whom it is designed.
18. — The American Gardner ; A Treatise on the Situation, Soil, Fencing, and Laying out
of Gardens ; on the Making and Managing o f Hot-beds and Green-houses ; and on the
Propagation and Cultivation o f Vegetables, Herbs, Fruits, and Flowers. By W il l ia m
C ob b ett . 18mo. pp. 271. Boston: Saxton & Peirce. 1842.
This is the first American stereotype edition of a very popular treatise. It has justly, we
think, been said that “ no man in England could make things go like Cobbett.” Every part
of this treatise is plain, direct, and to the point. Its general use would, we have no doubt,
improve the aspect and greatly enhance the comfort and agricultural resources o f our
country.




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Commerce and the Fine Arts.

19.—Letters to Young M m Preparing fo r the Christian Ministry. By W illiam C ogswell,
D. D., Secretary of the American Education Society. 18mo. pp. 236.
20-—A Help to Professing Christians in Judging their Spiritual State and Growth in Grace.
By the Rev. J o h n B a r r . 18mo. pp. 307.
21. — The Commandmmt with Promise. By the author o f The Last Day of the W eek.
18mo. pp. 285.
22 . —Missionary Sermons and Addresses. By E l i S m it h , missionary to Syria. ISmo.

23. — The Telescope, or Sacred Views o f Things Past, Present, and to Come.
M o t t , Jr. 18mo. pp. ISO. New Y o rk : Saxton & Miles.

By S a m u e l

These five volumes are, as will be inferred from the titles quoted above, o f a theological
cast. Most o f them are new editions o f religious works. The views advanced in the
various subjects treated, are o f course o f the popular “ orthodox” theology. They are
neatly printed, and are furnished by the enterprising publishers, Messrs. Saxton & Miles,
at a very moderate price; thus placing them within the reach of all who have a taste for
this kind o f reading.
24. — The Official and other Papers o f the late Major-General Alexander Hamilton. Com­
piled chiefly from the originals in the possession o f Mrs. Hamilton. Vol. 1. 8vo. pp. 496.
New York and London: W iley & Putnam. 1842.
The present volume is the first o f a series, designed to embody the political writings of
Alexander Hamilton, and it embraces his earlier efforts when only in his fourteenth year,
commencing in 1769, and ending in 1780- It consists mainly of papers of a controversial
character, and o f letters to prominent individuals who were his cotemporaries. Although
many o f them may be considered merely juvenile productions, they yet bear the strongly
marked impress o f the mind o f their author in maturer years; namely, boldness, vigor,
clearness, comprehensiveness, classical elegance, and condensed expression. Many of
these papers and letters are now, for the first time, made known to the public. The pub­
lication o f this series, that may be considered documentary, inasmuch as they comprise
the efforts o f a powerful and distinguished patriot who was identified with the formation of
our government, is a laudable enterprise, and it has found a fitting editor in one of our most
eloquent and able clergymen, Dr. Hawks.

COM MERCE AND THE FINE A R TS.
The connexion between the fine arts and commerce has been frequently noticed. A
reference to the Italian mercantile communities o f Genoa, Venice, and Florence, where
the arts were carried to the highest perfection, at the same time that trade was pursued
with unexampled vigor, establishes the fact, and proves that the artist has in the merchant
a surer dependence for that patronage which is the life-blood of art, than upon the mem­
bers o f any other profession or order o f the state. Such being the case, we have good
reason to felicitate ourselves upon the prospect o f high national excellence. W e are a na­
tion o f great merchants, and we ought in consequence to be a nation of great artists.
This well-founded expectation we are happy to say is, in our opinion, in a fair way of
being realized. If we look over our large list o f artists in sculpture and in painting, we
shall find an array o f men of the highest genius, who will bear comparison with any in the
w orld; men who have already achieved great things and who promise yet more.
W e have not space even to enumerate the names o f our distinguished artists, but we
will take this opportunity to mention one who holds, in a very important department of his
art, a most distinguished place. The portraits o f Mr. Jerome Thompson are universally
acknowledged by all who have examined them, to be unsurpassed in beauty of coloring,
anatomical delineation, and correctness o f drawing. They are also most faithful like­
nesses ; not mere dull transcripts o f the features, but spirited representations of character
and sentiment. Mr. Thompson’s portraits are well known, and it is therefore needless
here to dwell upon their peculiar characteristics. Graceful, pleasing, and correct, they
have justly elevated the reputation o f the artist to a very high rank in his profession, and
insured for him that degree o f professional success which is justly due to his merits.