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MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE,
E s t a b lis h e d J u l y , 18 3 9 ,

BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

V O L U M E X V III.

APRIL,

1848.

N U M B E R IV.

CONTENTS OF NO. IV., VOL. XVIII.
ARTICLES.
PAG*

I. M E R C A N T IL E BIO GR APH Y .—M EM OIR OF TH E L A T E P A T R IC K T R A C Y J A C K SON. By J ohn A mory L o w k ll , Esq., o f Massachusetts...........................................................355
II. TH E S E A T OF G O V E R N M E N T OF T H E U N ITE D S T A T E S .— C h a p t e r IV .—Im­
provements in Progress or Projected—National Monument to Washington—Mount Vernon—
Monument to Jackson—Society—Smithsonian Institution— Canal—Expense o f Living, and
Compensation to Public Officers—Health— W ill the Seat o f Government be removed 1 By
J. B. V a Rnum , Jun., Esq,, o f the New York Bar............... - ............................................................ 367
HI. CO M M ERCIAL C IT IE S OF EU ROPE.— No. HI.—B O R D E A U X .—Location—Thorough­
fares—Public Buildings—Bridge formed bv Napoleon—Bordeaux in the time o f Augustus—
Institutions— Hotels and Bathing-Place— Rivers— Gironde—W ealthy Spanish Americans—
Export* o f Bordeaux—Imports— Past Changes—T he W ine Trade—Brandy—Fruits, etc.—
Bank o f Bordeaux—Exchange Brokers—Insurance, etc., e tc......................................................... 376
IV. M ASSAC H U SE TTS R A IL R O A D S . By D a v i d M. B a l f o u r , Esq., o f Massachusetts............ 381
V . M OR TG AG ES OF SHIPS. By F. O. D o r r , Esq., o f the N ew Y ork Bar................................. 388
V I. D E S T IN Y . PROGRESS. By Hon. T h o m a s G. C a r y , o f Massachusetts................................. 391
V II. CO M M ER CIAL C IT IE S A N D T O W N S OF T H E U N ITE D S T A T E S .—No. V IH —
P o u g h k e e p s i e ........................................................................................................................................................................................
395
VIII. A G E N E R A L S T A T IS T IC A L S O C IE T Y FO R T H E U N ITE D S T A T E S . By L. A.
II i n k , Esq., Editor o f the “ Herald o f T ruth," O hio ................................................................................................. 397

MERCANTILE

LAW

CASES.

Important Legal Decision—Actions o f Trover.................................. - ................................. *........................... 403
Action to Recover Damages for a Breach-of W arranty in the Sale o f Opium...........................................405
Verbal Promises to pay another’s Debts in certain cases void.— Claims against Ships and Vessels........ 406
Partnership Creditors................................................................................................................................................ 407

C O M M E R C I A L C H R O N I C L E AND R E V I E W ,
EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES,ETC., ILLUSTRATED
WITH TABLES, ETC., AS FOLLOWS i
Political Events, and their Influence upon International Commerce—Treaty with Mexico, and the
French Revolution—Capacity o f France to consume American Productions—The French T a riff o f
1787—State o f Affairs in England— Condition o f the Bank—Commercial Affairs o f the United
States— Increase o f Capital in the United Slates— Railroad Investments o f N ew England—Gov­
ernment Loans—Prices o f United States Stocks in New York, etc., etc......................................... 408, 412

COMMERCIAL

STATISTICS.

Exports o f Various Articles from the United Kingdom to the United States, from 1840 to 1846............
Imports o f Merchandise from the United States into the United Kingdom, from 1840 to 1848...............
Estimated Increase o f the Tonnage each yeur, from 1846 to 1857.................................................................
Imports and Exports o f the United States, from 1821 to 1847, showing the excesses...............................
Comparative View o f Imports and Exports o f the United States, in 1846 and 1847..................................
Trade and Commerce o f Algeria, from 1840 to 1845...'..................................................................................
Import and Export Trade o f Russia, in ..............................................................................................................
VO L* X V I I I . -----N O . I V .
23




413
413
415
416
416
416
417

354

CONTENTS

O F N O . IV ,

V O L . X V III,

PAG 2
Russian Export o f the Principal Articles o f Commerce, from 1844 to 1846................................................ 418
Trade and Resources o f Upper Canada.............................................................................................................. 418
Imports and Exports o f Ceylon................................................................................................ ............................ 419
Trade o f Quebec and Gaspe, Canada, in 1846 and 1847................................................................................ 420
Principal Articles Exported at the Port o f Montreal, in 1846 and 1847 ....................................................... 420
Imports, Consumption, and Stocks o f Silk, for 1846 and 1847....................................................................... 420
Statistics o f the British Navigation Laws.—Champagne W ine Trade o f 1847........................................... 421

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
Shipping Expenses o f Amsterdam........................................................................................................................ 422
A n A ct relating to Passenger Vessels coming to N ew Y o r k ..........................................................................422
Transatlantic Mails.— Postage on Foreign Letters, etc..................................................................................... 423
Rights o f French and American Ship-masters................................................................................................... 424
Regulations o f Shipping by the Haytien Republic............................................................................................ 424

JOURNAL

OF B A N K I N G , C U R R E N C Y A N D F I N A N C E .

Coinage o f the United States Mint and Branches, from 1793 to 1st December, 1847................................ 425
Bank o f England Stock Dividends, from 1794 to 1847 .................................................................................... 425
Payments o f Principal and Interest o f the United States Debt in each year, from 1791 to 1847............. 426
Treasury Notes and Specie received at the New York Custom-house from Jan. 1 to Dec. 1, 1847........ 426
United States Imports and Exports o f Coin and Bullion, showing excesses, from 1821 to 1847.............. 427
Debt and Finances o f Mississippi, in 1847........................................................................................................... 427
Circulating Notes o f the Free Banks o f New Y ork State.............................................................................. 428
Depreciation o f Foreign Coin.— British Consols................................................................................................ 429
Loss to the New York Safety Fund by Failure o f Banks............................................................................... 430

RAILROAD,

CANAL, AND S T E A M B O A T S T A T I S T I C S .

Statistics o f the Camden and Am boy Railroad and the Raritan Canal, showing Cost, Receipts, E x­
penditures, etc....................................................................................................................................................... 431
Transit Duties paid to the State o f New Jersey................................................................................................ 434
Merchandise carried through the Delaware and Raritan Canal, from 1834 to 1847.................................... 434
Transportation o f Merchandise on the Camden and Amboy Railroad......................................................... 434
Transportation o f Coal on the Delaware and Raritan Canal......................................................................... 434
Receipts, Expenditures, etc., o f the Greenville and Roanoke Railroad, from 1838 to 1847........................ 434
Communication between England and the Continent...................................................................................... 435
Consumption o f W ood by Locomotives.............................................................................................................. 436
Distances and Rates o f Fare on the Western (Mass.) Railroad..................................................................... 436
Receipts from Passengers and Merchandise since the opening o f the Western Railroad to 1817, e t c .... 437
Flour Transported on the Western Railroad, from 1842 to 1847.................................................................... 438
Increase o f Railroad Capital in Massachusetts................................................................................................... 438

J O U R N A L OF M I N I N G A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S .
A ct o f New York to authorize the Formation o f Corporations for Manufacturing, Mining, Mechan­
ical, and Chemical Purposes...............................................................................................................................
Adulteration o f Medicine........................................................................................................................................
Chikiswalungo Iron Furnace, near Columbia, Penn.........................................................................................
Improvement in the Manufacture o f Iron...........................................................................................................
Agriculture, Commerce, and Manufactures.— Manufactures at Trenton, N. J ............................................
Pencil Manufacture.— Increased Production o f Gold in Russia.....................................................................

438
442
443
443
444
444

NAUTICAL INTELLIGENCE.
Nautical Distances between N ew York and Charleston, and New York and H alifax............................. 445
Gunnet Rock, Frith o f Forth.....................................................................................................................................445
Light-house at Cape Agulhas.— French Illumination o f Three New Light-houses....................................446
Light-houses o f the Main Channel o f Brest......................... ............................................................................ 446
Signals at New-Haven Harbor, England.— W reck o ff Mundsley................................................................... 447
Gradual Rise o f Newfoundland above the Sea.— New Light at Key W est................................................. 447
Light-house at Boddy’s Island.— Light at the entrance o f Ithaca Harbor.................................................... 447

MERCANTILE

MISCELLANIES.

Poetry o f Commerce.—Commercial Speculation..................................................................................
Dangers c f a Business Life. By the Rev. F r e d e r ic k A . F a r l e y ................... .........................................
Importance o f a Day-Book to Merchants and Traders....................................................................................
Havana Shops, Shopmen, and Shopping............................................................................................................
Regular Business......................................................................................................................................................
T h e Accomplished Merchant.— Short Measure in England.............................................................................
Prices o f Merchandise Fifty Years ago.—Statistics o f the Book Trade.......................................................
Anecdotes o f Bankruptcy........................................................................................................................................
Commercial Question.—The Commerce o f Liverpool.— Cost o f Railways in Europe and A m erica... .

448
449
450
451
452
453
454
455
456

THE BOOK TRADE.
Short Notices o f 37 New Works, or New Editions




457-464

HUN T’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
APRIL,

1848.

Art. I.— M E R C A N T I L E B I O G R A P H Y .
THE

LATE

PATRICK
[W IT H

TRACY

JACKSON.

A P O R T R A I T .]

T h e rapid development o f the natural resources o f the United States,
within the last half century; the material, intellectual, and, in some points
o f view, the moral progress witnessed throughout our land, have attracted
the attention o f the philosophers o f Europe, aud given rise to many in­
genious, and some profound disquisitions. The nature o f our institutions
has been differently viewed, according to the partiality of the observers.
With some, what was admitted to be good, has been attributed to a
happy chance ; while a great preponderance of evil, inseparable from re­
publican institutions, has been supposed to be lurking in the back-ground,
ready, at some not very distant day, to neutralize or overpower all these
apparent advantages. With others, the inherent energy of free institutions
has been the assumed explanation o f all that was admirable in our pro­
gress, and a future o f still increasing prosperity fondly predicted.
T o those o f us who are accustomed to regard man less as a mere ma­
chine, the plaything o f external circumstances; who view him as a being
o f strong powers and high responsibilities, the solution will be different.
W e shall recur to the history o f New England, and trace, in the stern
energy o f the virtues o f its founders, the cause, at once, o f our institutions
and o f our success.
Not all the constitutions o f the Abbe Sieyes, could inspire the French
people with a love o f genuine liberty. The degraded descendants o f the
heroic Spaniards will crouch under military despotism, or bow to a foreign
invader, in spite of the best-worded “ pronunciamientos” o f a Santa Anna,
or a Bolivar.
These views, confirmed by all history, are full o f hope, and o f warning—
o f hope, in the future destiny o f our race, depending, as it thus does,
on our own moral and intellectual exertions, and not on the varying phases




356

Mercantile Biography.

o f external condition ;— of warning, that we do not, in blind reliance upon
the advantages o f our position, relax our vigilance and our efforts.
In this point o f view, we may contemplate, with advantage, the personal
history o f those men, who, by their talents, their high standard o f honor,
their unwearied industry, have contributed to the material prosperity o f
our country in their own time, and have pointed out to those who came after
them that the true path to success lies in an undeviating adherence to the
purest and noblest piinciples o f action.
These reflections are immediately suggested by the recent loss o f one
among us, who, in an eminent degree, united all these qualities. T o a
Bostonian, it will hardly be necessary to say that I refer to Patrick T .
Jackson; so associated is his very name with public enterprise, purity of
purpose, vigor o f resolution, and kindliness o f feeling. T o those who
have not enjoyed with us the privilege o f his society and his example, a
short account o f his personal history may not be unacceptable.
Patrick Tracy Jackson was bom at Newburyport, on the 14th o f Au­
gust, 1780. He was the youngest son o f the Hon. Jonathan Jackson, a
member o f the Continental Congress in 1782, Marshal o f the District o f
Massachusetts under Washington, first Inspector, and aftenvards Super­
visor o f the Internal Revenue, Treasurer o f the Commonwealth for five
years, and, at the period o f his death, Treasurer of Harvard College ; a
man distinguished among the old-fashioned gentlemen o f that day, for the
dignity and grace o f his deportment, but much more so for his intelligence,
and the fearless, almost Roman inflexibility o f his principles.
His maternal grandfather, from whom he derived his name, was Patrick
Tracy, an opulent merchant o f Newburyport— an Irishman by birth, who,
coming to this country at an early age, poor and friendless, had raised
himself, by his own exertions, to a position which his character, univer­
sally esteemed by his fellow-citizens, enabled him adequately to sustain.
The subject o f this memoir received his early education at the public
schools o f his native town, and afterwards at Dunmore Academy. When
about fifteen years old, he was apprenticed to the late William Bartlett,
then the most enterprising and richest merchant of Newburyport; and
since well known for his munificent endowment o f the institution at An.
dover. In this new position, which, with the aristocratic notions o f that
day, might have been regarded by some youth as derogatory, young Pat­
rick took especial pains to prove to his master that he had not been edu­
cated to view anything as disgraceful which it was his duty to do. He
took pride in throwing himself into the midst o f the labor and responsi­
bility o f the business. In so doing, he gratified a love o f activity and
usefulness, which belonged to his character, at the same time that he
satisfied his sense o f duty. And yet, while thus ready to work, he did not
lose his keen relish for the enjoyments o f youth ; and would often, after a
day of intense bodily labor, be foremost in the amusements o f the social
circle in the evening.
He soon secured the esteem and confidence o f Mr. Bartlett, who en­
trusted to him, when under twenty years o f age, a cargo o f merchandise
for St. Thomas, with authority to take the command o f the vessel from
the captain, if he should see occasion.
After his return from this voyage, which he successfully conducted, an
opportunity offered for a more extended enterprise. His brother, Captain
Henry Jackson, who was about six years older than himself, and to whorr




The Late Patrick Tracy Jackson.

357

he was warmly attached, was on the point o f sailing for Madras and Cal­
cutta, and offered to take Patrick with him as captain’s clerk. The offer
was a tempting one. It would open to him a branch o f commerce in
which his master, Bartlett, had not been engaged, but which was, at that
time, one of great profit to the enterprising merchants o f this country.
The English government then found it for their interest to give us great
advantages in the Bengal trade ; while our neutral position, during the
long wars o f the French revolution, enabled us to monopolize the business
o f supplying the continent o f Europe with the cotton and other products
o f British India. An obstacle, however, interposed— our young apprentice
was not o f age; and the indentures gave to his master the use o f his ser­
vices till that period should be completed. With great liberality, Mr.
Bartlett, on being informed o f the circumstances, relinquished his claim.
It was very nearly the first day o f the present century, when Mr. Jackson commenced his career as a free man. Already familiar with many
things pertaining to a sea life, he occupied his time on board ship in ac­
quiring a knowledge o f navigation, and o f seamanship. His brother, who
delighted in his profession, and was a man of warm and generous affec­
tions, was well qualified and ready to instruct him. These studies, with
his previous mercantile experience, justified him, on his return from India,
in offering to take charge o f a ship and cargo in the same trade. This
he did, with complete success, for three successive voyages, and established
his reputation for enterprise and correctness in business.
On the last o f these occasions, he happened to be at the Cape o f Good
Hope when that place was taken from the Dutch by the English, under
Sir David Baird, in January, 1806. This circumstance caused a derange­
ment in his mercantile operations, involving a detention o f about a year
at the Cape, and leading him subsequently to embark in some new adven­
tures ; and he did not reach home until 1808, after an absence of four
years.
Having now established his reputation, and acquired some capital, he
relinquished the sea, and entered into commercial pursuits at Boston. His
long acquaintance with the India trade eminently fitted him for that
branch of business; and he had the support and invaluable counsels o f
his brother-in-law, the late Francis C. Lowell. He entered largely into
this business, both as an importer and speculator. The same remarkable
union of boldness and sound judgment, which characterized him in later
days, contributed to his success, and his credit soon became unbounded.
In 1811, at a moment when his engagements were very large, and when
the state o f the country was such, in its foreign relations, as to call for the
greatest circumspection, a sudden check was given to his credit by the
failure of a house in the same branch o f business, with whom he was
known to be extensively connected. His creditors became alarmed, and
there were not wanting those who said that he ought instantly to fail.
Mr. Jackson acted, under this emergency, with his usual promptness and
resolution. He called upon some o f his principal creditors, made a most
lucid exposition o f the state o f his affairs, and showed that, if allowed to
manage them in his own way, his means were abundantly sufficient;
while, so great was the amount o f his liabilities, that, under the charge o f
assignees, not only might all his hard earnings be swept away, but the
creditors themselves be the sufferers. So admirably had his accounts
been kept, and so completely did he show himself to be master o f his




358

Mercantile Biography.

business, that the appeal was irresistible. He was allowed to go on un­
molested, and the event justified the confidence reposed in him. One o f
his largest creditors, the late William Pratt, Esq., was so pleased with his
deportment on this occasion, that he not only cheerfully acquiesced in the
decision, but offered him any pecuniary aid he might require. This was
no trifling proof o f confidence, when the amount of his liabilities, com­
pared to his capital, at this dark and troublesome period, is taken into
view. In the end, he gained reputation and public confidence by the
circumstances that had threatened to destroy them. Within a year, all
the embarrassments that had menaced him had passed away, and he con­
tinued largely engaged in the India and Havana trades, till the breaking
out o f the war in 1812. At this period, circumstances led him into a new
branch of business, which influenced his whole future life.
Mr. Lowell had just returned to this country, after a long visit to Eng­
land and Scotland. While abroad, he had conceived the idea that the
cotton manufacture, then almost monopolized by Great Britain, might be
advantageously prosecuted here. The use o f machinery was daily super­
seding the former manual operations ; and it was known that power-looms
had recently been introduced, though the mode o f constructing them was
kept secret.
The cheapness o f labor, and abundance o f capital, were
advantages in favor o f the English manufacturer— they had skill and rep­
utation. On the other hand, they were burlhened with the taxes o f a
prolonged war. W e could obtain the raw material cheaper, and had a
great superiority in the abundant water-power, then unemployed, in every
part o f New England. It was also the belief o f Mr. Lowell, that the
character o f our population, educated, moral and enterprising as it then
was, could not fail to secure success, when brought into competition with
their European rivals; and it is no small evidence o f the far-reaching
views o f this extraordinary man, and his early colleagues, that their very
first measures were such as should secure that attention to education and
morals among the manufacturing population, which they believed to be
the corner-stone of any permanent success.
Impressed with these views, Mr. Lowell determined to bring them to
the test o f experiment. So confident was he in his calculations, that he
thought he could in no way so effectually assist the fortunes o f his relative,
Mr. Jackson, as by offering him a share in the enterprise. Great were
the difficulties that beset the new undertaking. The state o f war pre­
vented any communication with England. Not even books and designs,
much less models, could be procured. The structure of the machinery,
the materials to be used in the construction, the very tools of the machineshop, the arrangement o f the mill, and the size o f its various apartments—all these were to be, as it were, re-invented. But Mr. Jackson’s was,
not a spirit to be appalled by obstacles. He entered at once into the
project, and devoted to it, from that moment, all the time that could be
spared from his mercantile pursuits.
The first object to be accomplished, was to procure a power-loom. T o
obtain one from England, was, of course, impracticable; and, although
there were many patents for such machines in our Patent Office, not one
had yet exhibited sufficient merit to be adopted into use. Under these
circumstances, but one resource remained— to invent one themselves ;
and this, these earnest men at once set about. Unacquainted as they were
with machinery, in practice, they dared, nevertheless, to attempt the solu­




The Late Patrick Tracy Jackson.

359

tion o f a problem, that had baffled the most ingenious mechanicians. In
England, the power-loom had been invented by a clergyman, and why
not here by a merchant ? After numerous experiments and failures, they
at last succeeded, in the autumn o f 1812, in producing a model which
they thought so well of, as to be willing to make preparations for putting
up a mill, for the weaving o f cotton cloth. It was now necessary to pro­
cure the assistance o f a practical mechanic, to aid in the construction o f
the machinery; and the friends had the good fortune to secure the ser­
vices of Mr. Paul Moody, afterwards so well known as the head o f the
machine-shop at Lowell.
They found, as might naturally be expected, many defects in their model
loom ; but these were gradually remedied. The project hitherto had been
exclusively for a weaving-mill, to do by power what had before been done
by hand-looms. But it was ascertained, on inquiry, that it would be more
economical to spin the twist, rather than to buy i t ; and they put up a mill
for about 1,700 spindles, which was completed late in 1813. It will prob­
ably strike the reader with some astonishment to be told that this mill,
still in operation at Waltham, was probably the first one in the world
that combined all the operations necessary for converting the raw cotton
into finished cloth. Such, however, is the fact, as far as we are informed
on the subject. The mills in this country— Slater’s, for example, in Rhode
Island— were spinning-mills, only; and in England, though the power-loom
had been introduced, it was used in separate establishments, by persons
who bought, as the hand-weavers had always done, their twist o f the
spinners.
Great difficulty was at first experienced at Waltham, for the want o f a
proper preparation (sizing) of the warps. They procured from England
a drawing o f Horrock’s dressing machine, which, with some essential
improvements, they adopted, producing the dresser now in use at Lowell,
and elsewhere. No method was, however, indicated in this drawing for
winding the threads from the bobbins on to the beam ; and, to supply this
deficiency, Mr. Moody invented the very ingenious machine called the
warper. Having obtained these, there was no further difficulty in weav­
ing by power-looms.
There was still great deficiency in the preparation for spinning. They
had obtained from England a description o f what was then called a bobbin
and fly, or jack-frame, for spinning roving; from this, Mr. Moody and
Mr. Lowell produced our present double speeder. The motions o f this
machine were very complicated, and required nice mathematical calcula­
tions. Without them, Mr. Moody’s ingenuity, great as it was, would have
been at fault. These were supplied by Mr. Lowell. Many years after­
wards, and after the death of Mr. Lowell, when the patent for the speeder
had been infringed, the late Dr. Bowditch was requested to examine them,
that he might appear as a witness at the trial. He expressed to Mr. Jackson his admiration o f the mathematical power they evinced ; adding, that'
there were some corrections introduced that he had not supposed any man
in America familiar with but himself.
There was also great waste and expense in winding the thread for fill­
ing or weft from the bobbin on to the quills, for the shuttle. T o obviate
this, Mr. Moody invented the machine known here as the filling-throstle.
It will be seen, by this rapid sketch, how much there was at this early
period to be done, and how well it was accomplished. The machines




360

M ercantile Biography.

introduced then, are those still in use in New England— brought, o f course,
to greater perfection in detail, and attaining a much higher rate o f speed;
but still substantially the same.
Associating with themselves some o f the most intelligent merchants o f
Boston, they procured, in February, 1813, a charter, under the name of
the Boston Manufacturing Company, with a capital of $100,000. Suc­
cess crowned their efforts, and the business was gradually extended to the
limit o f the capacity o f their water-power.
Mr. Lowell died in 1817, at the age o f forty-two; satisfied that he had
succeeded in his object, and that the extension o f the cotton manufacture
would form a permanent basis o f the prosperity o f New England. He had
been mainly instrumental in procuring from Congress, in 1816, the estab­
lishment o f the minimum duty on cotton cloth; an idea which originated
with him, and one o f great value, not only as affording a certain and
easily collected revenue, but as preventing the exaction of a higher and
higher duty, just as the advance in the cost abroad renders it more difficult
for the consumer to procure his necessary supplies.
It is not surprising that Mr. Lowell should have felt great satisfaction
at the result o f his labors. In the establishment o f the cotton manufacture,
in its present form, he and his early colleagues have done a service not
only to New England, but to the whole country, which, perhaps, will never
be fully appreciated. Not by the successful establishment o f this branch
o f industry— that would sooner or later have been accomplished; not by
any of the present material results that have flowed from it, great as they
unquestionably are ; but by the introduction o f a system which has rendered
our manufacturing population the wonder o f the world. Elsewhere, vice
and poverty have followed in the train o f manufactures ; an indissoluble
bond o f union seemed to exist between them. Philanthropists have prophe­
sied the like result here, and demagogues have re-echoed the prediction.
Those wise and patriotic men, the founders o f Waltham, foresaw, and
guarded against the evil.
By the erection o f boarding-houses at the expense and under the control
o f the factory; putting at the head o f them matrons o f tried character, and
allowing no boarders to be received except the female operatives o f the
m ill; by stringent regulations for the government o f these houses; by all
these precautions, they gained the confidence o f the rural population,
who were now no longer afraid to trust their daughters in a manufacturing
town. A supply was thus obtained o f respectable girls ; and these, from
pride o f character, as well as principle, have taken especial care to ex­
clude all others. It was soon found that an apprenticeship in a factory
entailed no degradation of character, and was no impediment to a reputable
connection in marriage. A factory-girl was no longer condemned to pur­
sue that vocation for life ; she would retire, in her turn, to assume the
higher and more appropriate responsibilities o f her sex ; and it soon came
to be considered that a lew years in a mill were an honorable mode o f
securing a dower. The business could thus be conducted without any
permanent manufacturing population. The operatives no longer form a
separate caste, pursuing a sedentary employment, from parent to child, in
the heated rooms o f a factory; but are recruited, in a circulating current,
from the healthy and virtuous population of the country.
By these means, and a careful selection o f men o f principle, and purity
o f life, as agents and overseers, a great moral good has been obtained.




The Late -Patrick Tracy Jackson.

361

Another result has followed, which, if foreseen, as no doubt it was, does
great credit to the sagacity o f these remarkable men. The class o f opera­
tives employed in our mills have proved to be as superior in intelligence
and efficiency to the degraded population elsewhere employed in manu­
factures, as they are in morals. They are selected from a more educated
class— from among persons in more easy circumstances, where the mental
and physical powers have met with fuller development. This connection
between morals and intellectual efficiency, has never been sufficiently
studied. The result is certain, and may be destined, in its consequences,
to decide the question o f our rivalry with England, in the manufacture of
cotton.
Although the first suggestions, and many o f the early plans for the new
business, had been furnished, as we have seen, by Mr. Lowell, Mr. Jackson devoted the most time and labor in conducting it. He spent much of
his time, in the early years, at Waltham, separated from his family. It
gradually engrossed his whole thoughts; and, abandoning his mercantile
business, in 1815, he gave himself up to that o f the company.
At the erection o f each successive mill, many prudent men, even among
the proprietors, had feared that the business would be overdone— that no
demand would be found for such increased quantities o f the same fabric.
Mr. Jackson, with the spirit and sagacity that so eminently distinguished
him, took a different view o f the matter. He not only maintained that
cotton cloth was so much cheaper than any other material, that it must
gradually establish itself in universal consumption at home, but entertained
the bolder idea, that the time would come, when the improvements in ma­
chinery, and the increase o f skill and capital, would enable us successfully
to compete with Great Britain, in the supply o f foreign markets. Whether
he ever anticipated the rapidity and extent o f the developments which he
lived to witness, may perhaps be doubted ; it is certain that his expecta­
tions were, at that time, thought visionary, by many o f the most sagacious
o f his friends.
Ever prompt to act, whenever his judgment was convinced, he began,
as early as 1820, to look around for some locality where the business
might be extended, after the limited capabilities o f Charles River should
be exhausted.
In 1821, Mr. Ezra Worther, who had formerly been a partner with
Mr. Moody, and who had applied to Mr. Jackson for employment, suggested
that the Pawtucket Canal, at Chelmsford, would afford a fine location for
large manufacturing establishments; and that probably a privilege might
be purchased o f its proprietors. T o Mr. Jackson’s mind, the hint sug­
gested a much more stupendous project— nothing less than to possess him­
self o f the whole power o f the Merrimack River, at that place. Aware o f
the necessity o f secrecy o f action to secure this property at any reasonable
price, he undertook it single-handed. It was necessary to purchase not
only the stock in the canal, but all the farms on both sides o f the river,
which controlled the water-power, or which might be necessary for the
future extension o f the business. No long series o f years had tested the
extent and profit o f such enterprises ; the great capitalists of our land had not
yet become converts to the safety of such investments. Relying on his
own talent and resolution, without even consulting his confidential advisers,
he set about this task at his own individual risk ; and it was not until he
had accomplished all that was material for his purpose, that he offered a




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Mercantile Biography.

share in the project to a few of his former colleagues. Such was the be­
ginning o f Lowell— a city which he lived to see, as it were, completed.
I f all honor is to be paid to the enterprise and sagacity o f those men who,
in our day, with the advantage o f great capital and longer experience, have
bid a new city spring up from the forest on the borders o f the same stream,
accomplishing almost in a day what is in the course o f nature the slow
growth o f centuries, what shall we say o f the forecast and energy o f that
man who could contemplate and execute the same gigantic task at that
early period, and alone 1
The property thus purchased, and to which extensive additions were sub­
sequently made, was offered to the proprietors o f the Waltham Company,
and to other persons whom it was thought desirable to interest in the scheme.
These offers were eagerly accepted, and a new company was established,
under the name o f the Merrimack Manufacturing Company, the immediate
charge o f which was confided to the late Kirk Boott, Esq.
Having succeeded in establishing the cotton manufacture on a perma­
nent basis, and possessed o f a fortune, the result o f his own exertions,
quite adequate to his wants, Mr. Jackson now thought o f retiring from the
labor and responsibility o f business. He resigned the agency of the factory
at Waltham, still remaining a director both in that company and the new
one at Lowell, and personally consulted on every occasion o f doubt or
difficulty. This life o f comparative leisure was not o f long duration. His
spirit was too active to allow him to be happy in retirement. He was
made for a working-man, and had long been accustomed to plan and con­
duct great enterprises; the excitement was necessary for his well-being.
His spirits flagged, his health failed; till, satisfied at last that he had mis­
taken his vocation, he plunged once more into the cares and perplexities
o f business.
Mr. Moody had recently introduced some important improvements in
machinery, and was satisfied that great saving might be made, and a
higher rate o f speed advantageously adopted. Mr. Jackson proposed to
establish a company at Lowell, to be called the Appleton Company, and
adopt the new machinery. The stock was soon subscribed for, and Mr.
Jackson appointed the treasurer and agent. Tw o large mills were built,
and conducted by him for several years, till success had fully justified his
anticipations. Meanwhile, his presence at Lowell was o f great advantage
to the new city. All men there, as among the stockholders in Boston,
looked up to him as the founder and guardian genius of the place, and
were ready to receive from him advice or rebuke, and to refer to him all
questions o f doubt or controversy. As new companies were formed, and
claims became conflicting, the advantages became more apparent of hav­
ing a man of such sound judgment, impartial integrity, and nice discrim­
ination, to appeal to, and who occupied a historical position to which no
one else could pretend.
In 1830, the interests o f Lowell induced Mr. Jackson to enter into a
business new to himself and others. This was the building o f the Boston
and Lowell Railroad. For some years, the practicability of constructing
roads in which the friction should be materially lessened by laying down
iron bars, or trams, had engaged the attention o f practical engineers in
England. At first, it was contemplated that the service o f such roads
should be performed by horses ; and it was not until the brilliant experi­
ments o f Mr. Stephenson, on the Liverpool and Manchester Railroad, that




The Late Patrick Tracy Jackson.

363

the possibility o f using locomotive engines was fully established. It will
be well remembered that all the first estimates for railroads in this country
were based upon a road-track adapted to horse-power, and horses were
actually used on all the earlier roads. The necessity o f a better com­
munication between Boston and Lowell had been the subject o f frequent
conversation between Mr. Boott and Mr. Jackson. Estimates had been
made, and a line surveyed for a Macadamized road. The travel between
the two places was rapidly increasing; and the transportation o f mer­
chandise, slowly performed in summer by the Middlesex Canal, was done
at great cost, and over bad roads, in winter, by wagons.
At this moment, the success o f Mr. Stephenson’s experiments decided
Mr. Jackson. He saw, at once, the prodigious revolution that the intro­
duction o f steam would make in the business o f internal communication.
Men were, as yet, incredulous. The cost and the danger attending the
use o f the new machines, were exaggerated; and even if feasible in
England, with a city o f one hundred and fifty thousand souls at each o f
the termini, such a project, it was argued, was Quixotical here, with our
more limited means and sparser population. Mr. Jackson took a different
view o f the matter; and when, after much delay and difficulty, the stock
o f the road was subscribed for, he undertook to superintend its construc­
tion, with the especial object that it might be in every way adapted to the
use o f steam-power, and to that increase o f travel and transportation which
few had, like him, the sagacity to anticipate.
Mr. Jackson was not an engineer; but full o f confidence in his own
energy, and in the power he always possessed o f eliciting and directing
the talent o f others, he entered on the task, so new to every one in this
country, with the same boldness that he had evinced twenty years before,
in the erection o f the first weaving-mill.
The moment was an anxious one. He was not accustomed to waste
time in any o f his undertakings. The public looked with eagerness for
the road, and he was anxious to begin and to finish it. But he was too
wise a man to allow his own impatience, or that o f others, to hurry him
into action before his plans should be maturely digested. There were,
indeed, many points to be attended to, and many preliminary steps to be
taken. A charter was to be obtained, and, as yet, no charter for a rail,
road had been granted in New England. The terms o f the charter, and
its conditions, were to be carefully considered. The experiment was
deemed to be so desirable, and, at the same time, so hazardous, that the
legislature were prepared to grant almost any terms that should be asked
for. Mr. Jackson, on the other hand, whose faith in the success o f the
new mode o f locomotion never faltered, was not disposed to. ask for any
privileges that would not be deemed moderate after the fullest success had
been obtained ; at the same time, the recent example o f the Charles River
Bridge showed the necessity o f guarding, by careful provisions, the char­
tered rights o f the stockholders.
With respect to the road itself, nearly everything was to be* learned,
Mr. Jackson established a correspondence with the most distinguished
engineers o f this country, and o f E urope; and it was not until he had
deliberately and satisfactorily solved all the doubts that arose in his own
mind, or were suggested by others, that he would allow any step to be
decided on. In this way, although more time was consumed than on other
roads, a more satisfactory result was obtained. The road was graded for




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M ercantile Biography .

a double track; the grades reduced to a level o f ten feet to the mile ; all
curves, but those of very large radius, avoided ; and every part constructed
with a degree o f strength nowhere else, at that time, considered necessary.
A distinguished foreigner, Mr. Charles Chevalier, has spoken o f the work
on this road as truly “ Cyclopean.” Every measure adopted, shows con­
clusively how clearly Mr. Jackson foresaw the extension and capabilities
o f the railroad.
It required no small degree o f moral firmness to conceive and carry out
these plans. Few persons realized the difficulties of the undertaking, or
the magnitude o f the results. The shareholders were restless under in­
creased assessments, and delayed income. It is not too much to say that
no one but Mr. Jackson in Boston could, at that time, have commanded
the confidence necessary to enable him to pursue his work so deliberately
and so thoroughly.
The road was opened for travel in 1835, and experience soon justified
the wisdom o f his anticipations. Its completion and successful operation
was a great relief to Mr. Jackson. For several years it had engrossed
his time and attention, and at times deprived him o f sleep. He felt it to
be a public trust, the responsibility o f which was o f a nature quite differ­
ent from that which had attended his previous enterprises.
One difficulty that he had encountered in the prosecution o f this work
led him into a new undertaking, the completion o f which occupied him a
year or two longer. He felt the. great advantage o f making the terminus
o f the road in Boston, and not, as was done in other instances, on the
other side of the river. The obstacles appeared, at first sight, insurmount­
able. No land was to be procured in that densely populated part of the
city except at very high prices; and it was not then the public policy to
allow the passage o f trains through the streets. A mere site for a
passenger depot could, indeed, be obtained ; and this seemed, to most per­
sons, all that was essential. Such narrow policy did not suit Mr. Jack­
son’s anticipations. It occurred to him that, by an extensive purchase o f
the flats, then unoccupied, the object might be obtained. The excava­
tions making by the railroad at Winter Hill, and elsewhere, within a few
miles o f Boston, much exceeded the embankments, and would supply the
gravel necessary to fill up these flats. Such a speculation not being
within the powers o f the corporation, a new company was created for the
purpose. The land was made, to the extent o f about ten acres ; and what
was not needed for depots, was sold at advantageous prices. It has since
been found that even the large provision made by Mr. Jackson is inade­
quate to the daily increasing business of the railroad.
Mr. Jackspn was now fifty-seven years o f age. Released once more
from his engagements, he might rationally look forward to a life o f dig­
nified retirement, in which he would be followed by the respect o f the
community, and the gratitude o f the many families that owed their well­
being to his exertions. But a cloud had come over his private fortunes.
W hile laboring for others, he had allowed himself to be involved in some
speculations, to which he had not leisure to devote his personal attention.
The unfortunate issue o f these, deprived him o f a large portion o f his
property.
Uniformly prosperous hitherto, the touchstone o f adversity was wanting
to elicit, perhaps even to create, some o f the most admirable points in his
.character. He had long been affluent, and with his generous and hos-




The Late Patrick Tracy Jackson.

365

pitable feelings, had adopted a style o f living fully commensurate with his
position. The cheerful dignity with which he met his reverses; the
promptness with which he accommodated his expenses to his altered cir­
cumstances ; and the almost youthful alacrity with which he once more
put on the harness, were themes o f daily comment to his friends, and
afTorded to the world an example o f the truest philosophy. He had al­
ways been highly respected ; the respect was now more blended with love
and veneration.
The death o f his friend, Mr. Boott, in the spring o f 1837, had proved a
severe blow to the prosperity o f Lowell. At the head of that company,
(the proprietors o f the Locks and Canals,) which controlled the land and
water-power, and manufactured all the machinery used in the mills, the
position he had occupied led him into daily intercourse with the managers
of the several companies. The supervision he had exercised, and the in­
fluence o f his example, had been felt in all the ramifications o f the com­
plicated business o f the place. Even where no tangible evidence existed
o f benefits specifically conferred, men were not slow to find out, after his
death, that a change had come over the whole. The Locks and Canals
Company being under his immediate charge, was, o f course, the first to
suffer. Their property rapidly declined, both intrinsically, and in public
estimation. The shares, which for many years had been worth $1,000
each, were now sold for $700, and even less. N o one appeared
so able to apply the remedy as Mr. Jackson.
Familiar, from the first,
with the history o f the company, o f which he had always been a director,
and the confidential adviser o f Mr. Boott, he alone, perhaps, was fully
capable o f supplying that gentleman’ s place. He was solicited to accept
the office, and tempted by the offer o f a higher salary than had, perhaps,
ever been paid in this country. He assumed the trust; and, during the
seven years o f his management, the proprietors had every reason to con­
gratulate themselves upon the wisdom o f their choice. The property wa3
brought into the best condition ; extensive and lucrative contracts were
made and executed ; the annual dividends were large ; and when at last
it was thought expedient to close the affairs o f the corporation, the stock­
holders received o f capital nearly $1,600 a share.
The brilliant issue o f this business enhanced Mr. Jackson’s previous
reputation. He was constantly solicited to aid, by service and counsel,
wherever doubt or intricacy existed. No great public enterprises were
brought forward till they had received the sanction o f his opinion.
During the last few years o f his life, he was the treasurer and agent o f
the Great Falls Manufacturing Company at Somersworth ; a corporation
that had for many years been doing an unprofitable business at a great
expense o f capital. When this charge was offered to him, he visited the
spot, and became convinced that it had great capabilities, but that every­
thing, from the beginning, had been done wrong : to reform it, would
require an outlay nearly equal to the original investment. The dam
should be taken down, and rebuilt; one mill, injudiciously located, be re­
moved, and a larger one erected in a better spot; the machinery entirely
discarded, and replaced by some o f a more modern and perfect construc­
tion. Few men would have had the hardihood to propose such changes
to proprietors discouraged by the prestige o f repeated disappointments;
still fewer, the influence to carry his measures into effect. That Mr.
Tackson did this, and with results quite satisfactory to the proprietors and




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Mercantile Biography.

to himself, is almost a corollary from his previous history. His private
fortune had, in the meanwhile, been restored to a point that relieved him
from anxiety, and he was not ambitious o f increasing it.
For some time after he assumed the duties o f the agency at Somersworth, the labor and responsibility attending it were very severe; yet
he seemed to his friends to have all the vigor and elasticity o f middle life.
It may be, however, that the exertion was beyond his physical strength ;
certainly, after a year or two, he began to exhibit symptoms o f a gradual
prostration; and, when attacked by dysentery in the summer o f 1847, his
constitution had no longer the power o f resistance, and he sank under the
disease on the 12th o f September, at his sea-side residence at Beverly.
It had not been generally known in Boston that he was unwell. The
news o f his death was received as a public calamity. The expressions
that spontaneously burst forth from every mouth, were a most touching
testimonial to his virtues, as much as to his ability.
Reviewing the career o f Mr. Jackson, one cannot but be struck with
the multifarious and complicated nature o f the business he undertook, the
energy and promptness o f his resolution, the sagacity and patience with
which he mastered details, the grasp o f mind that reached far beyond the
exigencies o f the moment. Yet these qualities, however pre-eminent,
will not alone account for his uniform success, or the great influence he
exercised. He had endowments morally, as well as intellectually, o f a
high order. The loftiest principles— not merely of integrity, but o f honor,
governed him in every transaction ; and, superadded to these, was a kind­
liness o f feeling that led him to ready sympathy with all who approached
him. It was often said o f him, that while no one made a sharper bargain
than he did, yet no one put so liberal a construction upon it, when made.
His sense o f honor was so nice, that a mere misgiving was enough to
decide him against his own interest. With his extensive business and
strength o f character, he necessarily had collisions with many; yet he
had few enemies, and to such as felt inimical toward him, he harbored no
resentment. Prompt in the expression o f his feelings, he was equally so in
the forgiveness o f injuries. His quick sympathies led him to be foremost
in all works o f public spirit, or o f charity. He was fearless in the ex­
pression o f his opinions, and never swerved from the support o f the right
and the true from any considerations o f policy or favor. He felt it to be
the part o f real dignity to enlighten, not to follow the general opinion.
In private, he was distinguished by a cheerfulness and benevolence
that beamed upon his countenance, and seemed to invite every one to be
happy with him. His position enabled him to indulge his love o f doing
good by providing employment for many meritorious persons ; and this
patronage, once extended, was never capriciously withdrawn.
The life o f such a man is a public benefaction. W ere it only to point
out to the young and enterprising that the way to success is by the path
o f honor— not half-way, conventional honor, but honor enlightened by
religion, and guarded by conscience— were it only for this, a truth but
imperfectly appreciated even by moralists, the memory o f such men should
be hallowed by posterity.




The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

36T

Art. II.— THE SEAT OF GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED STATES.
CH A PTE R IV.
IM P R O V E M E N T S IN P R O G R E S S O R P R O J E C T E D — N A T IO N A L M O N U M E N T T O W A S H I N G T O N — M O U N T V E R
N O N — M O N U M E N T T O JA C K S O N — S O C I E T Y — S M IT H S O N IA N I N S T IT U T I O N — C A N A L — E X P E N S E O F L IV IN G ,
A N D C O M P E N S A T IO N T O P U B L IC O F F I C E R S — H E A L T H — W I L L T H E
S E A T OF G O V E R N M E N T BE R E ­
M OVED

1

A m a n i f e s t improvement in the appearance o f Washington has been
visible ever since the removal o f its principal debt, especially within the
last few years, in proportion as white labor and improved method o f
cultivation have given an impulse to the back country. The total num­
ber o f buildings in the city is 5,765 ; which, allowing an average o f six
inhabitants to each house, gives a population o f 34,590, having nearly
doubled since the census o f 1830. Much cannot be said for the private
architecture. With the same money which has been expended on mean­
looking city houses, tasteful dwellings in the New England style, or cot­
tage fashion, might have been reared, with court-yards in front, the
ground for which could have been well spared from the wide streets; and
it is to be hoped that some o f the streets newly opened will be improved
in this way. There are some thirty churches ; but, owing to the scattered
population, the congregations are mostly small, and the edifices o f the
plainest description. This deficiency in private architecture is, as a writer
in one o f the public prints remarks, “ the more palpable as contrasted with
the beautiful specimens so attractive in the national buildings, from the
Patent-office, with its massive Doric columns, to the marble Post-office,
with its elegant white pilasters ; and last and most magnificent, the Capitol
itself, with its massive Corinthian pillars and broad-swelling dome, visible
for many miles around.”
Those public buildings erected within the last few years are worthy o f
the country, though some o f them are still unfinished ; and there are
pressing requirements for more, in order to accommodate the public busi­
ness. It was only under the name o f “ Depot o f Charts and Instruments,”
that some members could be induced to vote for the National Observatory
— “ a light-house in the skies” not being within the purview o f the con­
stitution.
Some o f the most important avenues for connecting the public buildings
are yet unopened, or, if opened, are almost entirely unimproved. This is
especially the case with those which radiate from the Capitol, in regard
to which there can be no doubt that the nation, being most interested, is
under obligations to bear the greater part o f the expense.*
* In answer to a call o f the Senate, the Commissioner o f Public Buildings, on the 15ili
o f December, 1845, reported that the particular streets and avenues which the public
convenience required to be improved were— Maryland Avenue, from the Capitol to the
Potomac bridge ; New Jersey Avenue, from the Capitol to the Eastern Branch ; but
more particularly, as being o f immediate importance, Indiana Avenue, leading from the
Capitol to Third-street; and Four-and-a-Half-street, leading from the City Hall and
Court House to the Penitentiary and Arsenal. By the improvement o f Indiana Avenue,
the approach to the Capitol from the Patent-office, General Post-office, and City Hall,
would be shorter and easier than by the Pennsylvania Avenue. H e also suggested the
propriety o f improving North Capitol-street, for the purpose, in addition to other consi­
derations, o f convenience o f protecting water-pipes which convey water to the Capitol,
and which are now exposed, and in danger o f injury front the dilapidated condition o f the
road.




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The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

A feature which is likely every year to more and more beautify the
place, and endear it in the hearts o f the American people, is the erection
here, from time to time, o f monuments to the illustrious dead.
In the year
1783, Congress voted an equestrian statue to General Washington at the
future seat of government j and in the plan o f the city, the commissioners,
as we have seen, selected as a site the lower part o f the Mall, near the
Potomac, but, for the want o f appropriations, it was never carried into
execution. A monument was also voted to General Greene, to be erected
at the seat o f government, which, for a like reason, only exists on the stat­
ute book. The subject o f one to Washington has several times, o f late
years, been revived in Congress, but nothing more was done than to order
a statue for the rotunda, which Greenough has executed. The National
Monument Association collected, some years’ since, about $30,000 in-sub­
scriptions o f one dollar, all over the country; this sum was well invested,
and now amounts, with the interest, to about $63,000. A new subscription
is now opened, under the direction o f the Hon. Elisha Whittlesey, as gen­
eral agent, and every encouragement has been received for believing that
a large additional amount will be collected. The plan adopted is on a
most extensive scale, comprising a grand pantheon, which may be com­
memorative o f all the heroes ofthe revolution. The site has been recently
granted by Congress, and the erection will soon be commenced; when, if
the present energetic management continues, it is not too much to hope
that it will progress with more rapidity than has been usual for such works
in our country. W e believe this is the only national monument we are to
have ; for, besides the obvious propriety o f erecting one at the city founded
by Washington, in the vicinity ofhis birth-place, and on ground expressly
set apart for the purpose, when the place was established as the seat o f
government, and in Washington’s lifetime, this is the only one of all the
projects for which any considerable sum-has been given from the people
at large. A State may with propriety erect one, which, while it does
honor to the father of his country, shall at the same time bear testimony
more particularly to the part her own sons have taken in the contest for
freedom ; but there should be only one, peculiarly national, in order that it
may be on a scale worthy o f the nation, and that the subscriptions may
not be divided amongst one at Washington, another at New York, and
still another at some other place, which may present equal claims to' the
honor with the commercial emporium. Washington, too, is the only neu~
tral spot, as being the only place without the precincts o f any State, and
common to the whole Union.
W e have alluded to the vicinity o f Mount Vernon to this city. W e ex­
tract the following from an article in the New York Journal o f Commerce
o f May 13, 1847, without vouching for the fact alleged :—
“ It was, many years’ ago, proposed that the United States should become the
proprietors of the estate of Mount Vernon, and maintain it in memory of the father
of his country, in the precise condition in which he left it. It was urged that the
family, after being multiplied, could not allord to keep up the place, which had
T he cost o f grading and gravelling Indiana Avenue, from the City Hall to the Capitol,
including one thousand feet o f culvert and a bridge, would be $17,597 95.
T he cost o f grading and gravelling Four-and-a-Half-street, from the City Hall and
Court House to the Penitentiary and Arsenal, would be $5,427 20.
The cost o f grading and gravelling North Capitol-street, including two bridges and a
culvert, would be $7 ,785 10.




The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

369

always been an expense to General Washington and his nephew, the Justice;
that even the remains of Washington were not safe there, without greater care of
them, as had been once proved by the abstraction from the old vault of a coffin
supposed by the robber to contain those of the General; that the family ought
not to be burdened with the necessary attention to visitors, who in vast numbers
flock to the place from all parts of the Union, and indeed, of the world ; and, in
fine, that it was the duty of the Government to take care of the spot where the
remains of the hero repose, and render it accessible also to all those of his coun­
trymen, who in time to come, might make a pilgrimage to his tomb.
“ If is understood that there is a large sum in the Treasury, which has es­
cheated to it in consequence of the decease, without heirs, of sailors and marines
in the navy. The whole amount is estimated at three millions. There is a large
sum due on account of prize money alone.
“ The government does not claim this fund but merely the right of its safe
keeping. There is no chance that it will ever be called for. It would be very
proper, therefore, to appropriate the sum, or a portion of it, to the purchase of
Mount Vernon, and the establishment there of an institution for the benefit of in­
valid and superannuated seamen and mariners. If the fund does not belong to
them, it belongs to nobody. It would seem that they have, as a body, a right to
all its benefits, at least to the benefit of the interest of the fund.”
It would seem to be more in keeping with the military character o f
Washington that it should be an asylum for army prisoners. Perhaps
both branches might be included. It would certainly be a grand idea,
analagous to that which led to the interment o f Napoleon in the Hotel des
Invalides at Paris. But the favorite scheme with Congress always has
been to transport the remains to the city which Washington founded, and
there erect a monument over them, a plan which the National Monument
Society have in view. It would still however be desirable that the estate,
house, and favorite haunts o f the General should belong to the nation.
Another proposition, which is not perhaps inconsistent with the one just
stated, is to make it the residence o f the Vice-President, in order that he
may be on hand in case o f accident to the President, the government hav­
ing been, at the time of President Harrison’s death, without any head at
the Capitol for the space o f two days.
In relation to these or any other plans which may be suggested for pre­
serving and opening to the public an access to this now much-neglected
spot, it can hardly be doubted that they would find favor throughout the
country.
Strenuous efforts have also been made, and about $12,000 collected, for
the erection o f a monument to Gen. Jackson ; and it is to be hoped that, in
the course o f time, all the open spaces in Pennsylvania and Maryland Avenues
will be properly closed and adorned with statues to our Presidents, States­
men, and distinguished benefactors. There should be preserved too, the
memory o f Whitney, Fulton, and others, whose memories have hardly
been sufficiently honored for the practical good they have done. Such
erections exert most salutary influence on the community, they enlarge
the mind, refine the taste, reflect the honor o f high station and noble
deeds, and induce inquiry into the history o f the nation.*
* “ The moral power o f example is stronger than numbers. England understands how
much national pride and patriotism are kept alive by paintings o f her great events, and
monuments raised over her dead. I have seen the Duke o f Wellington reining his steed
past his own colossal statue, melted from the cannon he himself took in battle, reared to
him by a grateful country before he died. London has her Trafalgar-square, and a glori­
ous monument to Nelson. Whenever an English patriot falls, England calls on art to
V O L . X V I I I . --- N O . I V .




24

370

The Seat o f Government o f the United Slates.

As at present constituted, there are few cities o f similar size where, in
proportion to the population, the society presents so mixed a character,
combined with so much that is really attractive. As in all places where
many strangers congregate, there is a peculiar degree o f independence in
feelings and habits. The number o f citizens unconnected with Govern­
ment is small, and most o f them have become so accustomed to see the
scenes o f political strife acted over during each successive administration,
that they have acquired a habit o f regarding them with comparative indiff­
erence ; they are consequently peculiarly free from sectional prejudices.
The public officers who form that part o f the population most seen by a
visiter, exhibit in their ranks a singular medley o f talent, mediocrity,
oddity, and misfortune.
The change which takes place on the approach o f a session o f Congress,
after a long recess, has been most aptly compared to that o f a great
watering place on the approach o f a fashionable season. Then comes
the whole coterie o f foreigners, gentlemen attracted by curiosity, political
demagogues, claimants, patentees, letter writers, army and navy officers,
office-hunters, gamblers, and blacklegs. Pennsylvania Avenue presents
an animated scene in the number of strangers from every section o f the
country, not excepting a representative or two from the Indian tribes.
All fashions are here in vogue, and a party presents so much variety of
character and habit, as to make it peculiarly attractive to a man o f the
world. The congregation o f men o f intellect and information gives a zest
to conversation which it possesses in no other place, and which contents
one with limited accommodation and meagre suppers.
The establishment o f the Smithsonian Bequest must tend to draw thi­
ther men o f science, who will make it their residence throughout the year,
give more stability to society, and create an object of interest independent
o f Government and Congress.
In addition to this, there is now a prospect that the canal will be finish­
ed to Cumberland, when, though not sharing in the sanguine expectations
entertained by many o f so large a business being transacted here, we
commemorate the sp o t; so does France ; so has Italy in all ages. Kings and statesmen
have understood how much national existence depends on national pride and patriotism ;
and how much also those depend on monuments and mementos o f her great dead. T he
palace o f Versailles is filled with paintings o f Napoleon’s great battles. * * * T he coun­
tries o f the old world are covered with paintings and monuments to those who fell in a
less worthy cause than freedom. But where are the monuments to Allen, and Starke,
and Putnam, and W arren, and Perry, and McDonough, and Decatur, and Jackson, and
Lawrence? Y oung Hale was sent as a spy by Washington into the enemy’s camp.
Being discovered, he was hung on a gallows, and met his fate with the lofty enthusiasm
and courage o f a Spartan hero. He laid down his young life without a murmur for his
country. But who can tell where he sleeps ? His country in her hour o f darkness and
bitter need, asked for Iris life, and he gave it without a sig h ; and now that country dis­
honors his grave. Y e t Andre has a monument in the heart o f the British Empire. The
youth o f every land are educated more by art than by speeches. Let monuments rise
from Concord, Lexington, Bennington, Ticonderoga, Yorktown, and Plattsburgh, and
Chippewa, and Lundy’s Lane, and N ew Orleans, and as the rail car flies over the coun­
try, let these records o f our struggles and our victories come and go on the hasty traveller,
and noble thoughts and purposes will mingle in the headlong excitement after gain. Let
the statues o f the signers o f the Declaration o f Independence line Pennsylvania Avenue,
and he who walks between them to the Capitol will be a better man and better patriot.
Let great paintings, illustrating our chequered, yet most instructive history, fill our public
galleries, and when the country wants martyrs they will_ be ready."— From H eadley’s
Address to the A rt Union.




The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

371

may confidently hope that these two elements o f prosperity will accom­
plish the object o f the founders o f the city, in making it, if not entirely in­
dependent o f the Government, yet not slavishly dependent upon it for sup­
port.
There is an impression prevalent abroad that Washington is a very
expensive place. These opinions are formed from the cost o f boarding
houses and hotels, where the charge per diem is regulated very much by
the usages o f similar establishments in other cities ; but it is in housekeep­
ing that the cheapness o f living is to be observed. The value of land is
regulated, and always must be to a greater or less degree, by the wants of
those connected with the Government; and rents are consequently
lower, so that the majority o f clerks can lease and even own property
within a» reasonable distance o f the places o f business and fashionable
quarters to far greater advantage than they could in the same sections of
New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore. The same causes which produce
independence in manners and dress, operate in regulating the size and
finish of a house, its furniture, and style o f living. There is but little in­
ducement to ape one’s neighbor simply because “ it is the fashion.” An
examination o f the market reports in the public papers will show too that
the cost of marketing of all kinds is much below the average in other
cities; and those officers of Government who complain o f the expense o f
living in Washington, if they compare their statements with those o f older
clerks, will frequently have the satisfaction o f finding that it is their own
fault, or the consequence o f extravagant habits contracted when in better
circumstances elsewhere. W e do not mean to assert that there are no
instances o f extravagance and prodigality ; neither do we mean to say the
salaries o f our public functionaries are in all cases sufficiently high ; on
the contrary, W'e think it can be made apparent that many o f them receive
a compensation entirely too low for the style of living they are expected
to sustain. A Secretary comes with his family to Washington, takes and
furnishes a house, and perhaps before the end o f three months a dissolu­
tion of the Cabinet renders it necessary to break up his establishment, and
sell out at a ruinous loss. It is therefore to be regretted that the plan of
providing houses for the members o f the Cabinet and foreign ministers
has been abandoned. W e do not see why, on the score o f convenient ac­
cess, if for no other reason, the same permanence o f location should not
be given to the representatives o f each department o f our Government as
to the chief magistrate. It is no answer to say that those who hold these
stations are not placed there to live handsomely and entertain. So we
have heard it said with regard to our foreign ministers, and yet every
American who goes abroad expects to make his minister’s house to a cer­
tain extent his home, and feels mortified if he does not find him in a plea­
sant and fashionable section. At Washington there is no visiter who
does not expect to find a cabinet minister in something more than a mere
boarding-house. He desires to have an opportunity of seeing him out of
his office, and in a position at least equal to that o f a private gentleman.
Besides, it is to them that strangers look for an interchange o f that civility
and courtesy which our ministers receive abroad. The most ultra-radical
in his views cannot but pay some deference to the opinions o f the world
in these matters ; or else, to be consistent, he would, on the same princi­
ple, prohibit our national vessels from firing complimentary salutes to those
o f other nations, because they were supplied with powder for another pur*




372

The Seat o f Government o f the United Stales.

pose. T o assist the President in dispensing the hospitalities and courte­
sies o f life, is almost as much expected o f a Secretary as if it were laid
down in his code o f duties. It is only necessary that it should continue to
be an incidental, and not a main thing, in order to retain it within moder­
ate bounds ; and we contend that, owing to the simple standard o f living
produced by moderate fortunes and constant changes in society, this may
be done at Washington at less expense than elsewhere. Even now, a
Secretary, with his six thousand a year, entertains more than a New
Yorker with double that sum, though not in the same w a y ; which is not
usually expected, since few or none undertake to do so. It is true, the style
o f entertainment has been the subject o f no little sport, from the time when
Sir Augustus Foster picked up his amusing notes relative to Mr. Jefferson’ s
dinners, to the period when, at General Jackson’s levees, the crowds of
unwashed men and women passed into the house, upset the refreshments,
and spoiled the furniture. But these remarks were aimed rather at the
want o f etiquette and order than at the simplicity o f the arrangements.
W e never heard that the cabinet dinners were any the less appreciated
because the canvass backs were not laid upon a silver service, or that the
evening parties were less attractive owing to the absence o f New-York
supper-tables. It is not to be denied that improvements might be made ;
there might be more o f elegance and taste without ostentation, and so
much etiquette as is necessary to ensure a decent respect for order and
propriety. W e might at least furnish the President with a mahogany
dining-table, and replace a little more frequently the carpets and chairs,
so as to correspond with the size and appearance o f the rooms.
Another prevalent impression, to which the writings o f Dickens have
given currency, and which is revived every time a member dies, is that
the national capital is unhealthy. When first laid out there were, as in
all newly-settled places, a number o f marshes which gave rise to fever
and ague, and malarial complaints. But most o f these have long since
been drained or filled up, and we believe there is no city in the Union
where fewer deaths occur in proportion to the population ; for, according
to the reports o f health, the average has been no more than two per day,
in a population o f twenty to twenty-five thousand. The heat of the sum­
mer months is peculiarly oppressive in consequence o f the width o f the
streets and the lowness o f the houses, but we have not heard any com­
plaint that is not equally common in all the Southern States. It is a fact
worthy o f note, that out of all those whose names are recorded upon the
monuments o f the Congressional Cemetery, by far the greater proportion
died either by complaints which they brought with them to Washington,
or which were caused by their imprudent and irregular habits of life. In­
deed, it is a wonder that more do not die, when we consider how entirely
their usual course o f living is changed. Nothing can be more irregular
than the life o f a member of Congress. He goes to the Capitol at ten
o’clock, is engaged upon committees until twelve, and then passes through
the damp passages o f that huge mass o f stone into the over-heated halls o f
the Senate or House. Here he remains four, six, or perhaps twelve hours ;
and, if he is desirous o f being present at every call of the yeas and nays,
his lunch or dinner must be postponed accordingly ; and perhaps that
meal will eventually be taken hy candle-light, upon invitation, after which
the remainder o f the evening is spent out at a party. It is obvious what
an effect these irregular hours, and the constant display before him o f all




The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

373

the luxuries o f the season, with wines and liquors, must have upon a man
who has always been accustomed at his village home to dine at one upon
a single dish. No wonder that dyspepsia prevails. But this is not all.
I f at all inclined to dissipation, an easy and pleasant road is opened to
him ; and not a few yield to the temptation. Every one who has lived in
Washington during the last few years, and paid much attention to these
matters, will remember many most glaring cases o f this kind, for which
the climate has been blamed by friends at a distance. On the other hand
the place has become a favorite residence to many on account o f its being
favorable to health.
W e have endeavored in the preceding chapters to set forth the reasons
which led to the selection o f Washington as the seat o f Government of
the United States, and to show that the force o f this reasoning has been
illustrated, and the expectation o f the founders fully realized in the progress
o f the city, notwithstanding the defects o f the plan, and the neglect of
Congress to adopt any systematic legislation for its benefit.
It can never become a great city in the ordinary sense o f the term, that
is to say, it can never be the seat o f a very heavy commerce, and conse­
quently o f long rows of warehouses and striking contrasts between the
extremes of wealth and poverty; but it may become a place for the culti­
vation of that political union and that social intercourse which more than
anything else unbends the sterner feelings of our nature, and dispels all
sectional prejudices. Its prosperity will be no unfit emblem o f the pro­
gress o f our republic, for it is now occupied in about the same proportion
with our extended territory; and every sensible increase to the population
o f the Union, adds a mite to that o f this city, since it augments the machi­
nery of Government.
W e are met with objections against investments or improvements in
Washington by the United States or individuals, that the seat o f Govern­
ment will one day be removed further west. Admitting the possibility of
such an event, we see no reason why the Government should treat the pre­
sent capital with a view to such a contingency, and not make it what it
was intended to be, from an apprehension o f similar outlays at some other
place hereafter ; as, even then, it is matter o f much doubt w'hether Wash­
ington will be entirely abandoned.
As yet there has been little manifestation towards such a movement,
and almost all xvill concur in the opinion, that it would be highly impolitic
and inexpedient to excite a political storm in this country by agitation of
the subject. During the debate in the Senate, July 2nd, 1846, on the
retrocession of Alexandria, this subject was incidentally introduced, and
Mr. Calhoun said, “ the question o f the removal of the seat of Government
had been agitated at the Memphis convention, an assembly consisting of
nearly six hundred persons eminently enlightened, composd almost exclu­
sively o f western and southern men. When the subject was introduced it
immediately produced a strong sensation ; and when the question was put,
there was an unanimous ‘ no,’ deep and stroug. The proposition was re­
jected by the unanimous voice o f the convention, with the exception o f one
vote.” Still the fact that the subject of removal is occasionally alluded to
in Congress, and the vague idea which generally prevails that such a
change will eventually take place, have worked much injury to the present
capital, and justify an inquiry as to how far the opinion is founded on reason.




374

The Seal o f Government o f the United States.

W e lay out o f view the question as to constitutional right, because,
from what we have already stated o f the arguments on that point, and
from the fact that several eminent lawyers and statesmen during the de­
bate on retrocession, gave it as their opinion that the right o f removal
existed, while strenuously arguing that it was inexpedient to exercise
that right. It is very obvious that the subject is involved in so much doubt,
as to present no effectual barrier to the movement, were its expediency
once admitted.
In connection with our sketch o f the debates in Congress we have
stated most o f the arguments in relation to the advantages supposed to be
derived from a central position ; and we think the positions assumed in
1790 will be found to have lost none o f their force, but rather to have
gained strength by subsequent events. The agricultural sections o f the
west are constantly swelling in population, but so is the commercial and
manufacturing interest increasing at the east. The same interests which
were then thought o f so much importance to the whole country are in­
creasing in a far greater ratio than was ever anticipated. The population
o f Virginia is increasing in proportion as its lands are being redeemed un­
der the new methods o f cultivation and white labor.
It is true that the number o f new States is daily increasing ; but if the
accounts of the Pacific coast can be relied upon, which represent the har­
bors as very few, and the country mostly barren, the population and com­
merce on that side o f the Rocky Mountains can never bear any propor­
tion to those o f the Atlantic coast.
With the present rage for annexing new territory no one can tell where
the limits o f the country are to stop, either at the north or the south; and
it is equally difficult to say what point will be fifty years hence the centre
o f the territory ; while from the calculations we have given, it is almost
certain that the centre o f the population will be between St. Louis and the
coast, at no very great distance from the present capital, to which rail­
roads are pointing in every direction. How difficult it must be ever to
select a place that will meet the wants o f the community better than
Washington 1 Every city in the western country will present its claims,
every bitter feeling and prejudice will be aroused, and the discussion
will become tenfold more virulent than when agitated in 1790. W e
hazard nothing in saying that no question which has ever been raised
would create more excitement in the country; for when the two great
sections east and west of the Alleghanies or Mississippi shall be so di­
rectly opposed to each other in all interests, as to lead the agricultural di­
vision to call loudly for the change, then that other question o f a division
o f the Union will come up ; and there are not wanting reflecting men who
believe, with good reason, that the one would necessarily follow the other.
God forbid that this should ever be the case ! but if it should, Washington
must still remain the capital o f a powerful section of the country.
Before the question can assume a serious aspect, the Government will
have become so admirably accommodated at Washington, that the enor­
mous expense and risk will be no small consideration.
The history o f all nations shows that the political capital, even when
unaccompanied with great power or splendor, has exercised an important
influence over the country. As the seat o f all the great events in its poli­
tical history, the place where all its discordant spirits meet on common
ground, and where all differences are healed ; and as the site of most o f




The Seat o f Government o f the United States.

375

its monuments to the illustrious dead, new interest is constantly added to
the spot, and new ardor awakened for imitating the example o f the great
and good men whose memory is there preserved ; and for the support o f
those institutions which they handed down. What Englishman does not
feel a double attachment to London for its Westminster Abbey and Hall,
and their thousand poetical and historical associations ? And so o f Notre
Dame, St. Dennis, and the hundred other edifices rich in the memory o f
the past at Paris. As the continued contemplation o f painting and sculp­
ture cultivates a taste for what is refined, so the silent lessons taught by
the presence o f such monuments in our midst, conduce in no small degree
to temper our reflections, and moderate our actions.
Now to apply these remarks to our own capital. Founded by the illus­
trious man whose name it bears upon wise considerations, it will form his
appropriate monument, for here will be presented at one view the operation
of those institutions, the establishment o f which was in so great a degree
his work. Here will be congregated for the greater part o f every year
many o f the ruling minds o f the nation, who may be in constant intercourse
with the representatives o f other lands ; and, from this continued mingling
o f intellects, as well as from official sources, will be collected the most ac­
curate information relative to the commerce, manufactures, agriculture,
and mechanical ingenuity o f the country. Already do the Patent Office,
and the collections o f the exploring expedition and other agencies, form a
museum far exceeding in interest any other in the country. And does not
every year add new interest to that Capitol where already the voice o f the
sire is re-echoed in the seats o f honor now occupied by the son, where,
with the present facilities o f access, every hall, every picture, every state
becomes daily more familiar to the citizens o f the most distant State, min­
istering to a laudable pride in the embellished appearance o f this the only
Westminster which we can boast; and inspiring a wish to make a goodly
building of that framework which our fathers planned.
Some persons entertain a conscientious repugnance to the continuance
o f slavery on a national territory. One word on that much-vexed ques­
tion. The last census shows a very considerable decrease in the nnmber
o f Slaves in Maryland and V irginia; and any one who has ever lived in
that section for the last few years, must have discovered causes at work,
such as the introduction o f white labor by New Englanders and Germans,
the deterioration o f slaves by intercourse with free blacks, etc., which
will make it the interest o f the inhabitants to get rid o f the evil by gradual
means. Only leave it to take care o f itself, and it will work its own
remedy.
Let us hope then that the question o f removal will remain undisturbed.
While our present capital can never by its power or influence work any
injury to our liberties, it offers every facility for the concentration within
it o f those institutions which secure the greatest amount o f good to the
greatest number.




376

Commercial C ities o f E urope: Bordeaux.

Art. III.— C O M M E R C I A L C I T I E S OF E U R O P E .
N O . III.— B O R D E A U X .
L 0 C A T IO N

OF

B O R D E A U X — T H O R O U G H F A R E S — P U B L IC

B O R D E A U X IN T H E T I M E
G IR O N D E — W E A L T H Y
T9E

W IN E

OF

SP A N IS H

B U IL D IN G S — B R ID G E

A U G U S T U S — IN S T IT U T I O N S — H O T E L S

AND

FORM ED

B Y NAPOLEON—

B A T H IN G -P L A C E — R IV E R S —

A M E R IC A N S — E X P O R T S OF B O R D E A U X — I M P O R T S — P A S T C H A N G E S -----

T R A D E — BRAN DY— F R U IT S ,

E T C .— B A N K

OF

BO RD EAU X— EXCHANG E

B R O K E R S — IN S U R ­

ANCE, E TC . E TC .

B o r d e a u x , the chief town o f the Department o f the Gironde, and one
o f the largest and most important cities o f France, is situated on the river
Garonne, about twenty-five leagues from its mouth, in latitude 44° 50'
north, longitude 2° 54' west, from Paris. Its distance from Paris is about
154 leagues. Its population is 110,000.
One principal thoroughfare o f Bordeaux, called the Fossis de VIntend­
ance, divides the city into two parts. T o the east is the old feudal city,
made up o f irregular buildings, crowded into narrow lanes. This is but
little changed in appearance from what it was in the middle ages. On
the other side is the new and fashionable quarter, marked by its fine open
streets, avenues, and squares, and adorned by many costly and magnifi­
cent dwellings. Among the principal buildings o f Bordeaux are the
bridge, crossing the river, planned by Napoleon, and completed since the
Restoration ; the theatre; the cathedral o f Saint Andre, founded in the
fourth century, and rebuilt in the tenth and eleventh ; the churches o f St.
Croix, St. Michel, etc. ; the subterraneous church o f St. Emilion, the
Prefecture, the Custom-house, and the Exchange.
In the time o f Augustus, Bordeaux, called by the Romans Burdigala,
was a celebrated emporium, and the metropolis o f Aquitania. Many relics
o f those times remain in the neighborhood. The only monument now ex­
isting within the city, however, is the ruin of a Roman arena, supposed to
have been built in the time o f the emperor Gallienus.
Bordeaux has a picture gallery, a museum o f natural history and antiqui­
ties, and a library containing more than 100,000 volumes. The principal
hotels are the Hdtel de Rouen and the Hdtel de France, recently united,
the Hdtel de Richelieu, Hdtel de Paris, and the Hdtel de la Paix. The
city is connected with la Teste, the most fashionable bathing-place in the
province, by a railroad thirty-two miles in length, which was completed in
1841. A large number o f steamboats ply on the Garonne, making the
various points on the river above and below Bordeaux o f easy access.
At a short distance below Bordeaux the river Dordogne unites with the
Garonne, forming with it the estuary o f the Gironde, from which the de­
partment takes its name. The Garonne is o f sufficient depth to allow the
largest ships to go up to the city. By means o f these two rivers and their
tributaries, Bordeaux carries on a commerce with a large extent o f coun
try. The city is also greatly benefitted by the canal o f Languedoc, which
gives it a communication with the Mediterranean, and by which it carries
on a trade with the south o f France, almost as lucrative as that o f Mar­
seilles.
The entrance o f the Gironde is contained between the point de la Coubre to the north-west, and the point de Grave to the south-east, distant
from each other about four leagues. On each of these points is a light­
house ; these, however, are not sufficiently elevated to be visible at any




Commercial Cities o f Europe : Bordeaux.

377

great distance. The principal beacon is the great light upon the tower
o f Cordovan ; this tower is about four miles from the land, and is built
upon a ridge o f rocks, which, together with several large sand banks, form
a bar at the entrance of the Gironde. It is 236 feet in height, and about
50 feet in diameter at its base, and was built in the latter part o f the 16th
century. The light revolves in the space o f eight minutes, and is eclipsed
eight times during each revolution. It may be seen at a distance o f
twenty-four miles. There are two passages by which to enter the
Gironde, the northern pass and the pass de Grave. The first lies between
the bar and the north bank o f the estuary. The least depth o f water here
is four fathoms and a half. The course steered in entering is South-East
i East. The other passage lies between the tower o f Cordovan and the
point de Grave. This is in all respects inferior to the former. In many
places the channel is not more than thirteen feet deep. Great care is ne­
cessary in entering both o f these passes, since the current is very swift in
them at the rise and fall of the tide. The tide at the syzigies rises four­
teen or fifteen feet, and seven or eight feet at the quadratures, but its ele­
vation depends much on the direction o f the wind. All vessels, except
French coasters under eighty tons, and vessels from the north o f Spain, are
obliged to take a pilot when one offers himself. In the summer, a ship
often falls in w'ith a pilot ten or twelve leagues from the tower of Cordovan ;
but in the winter the pilots seldom venture beyond the bar.
Such is the
violence o f the sea at the entrance o f the estuary, that it has been known
to seize a block o f stone weighing 48 cwt., carry it a distance o f thirtyone yards, and then hurl it to a height o f six feet against the wall o f the
tower.
A large number o f wealthy Spanish Americans have established them­
selves at Bordeaux. The greater part o f the commerce o f the port with
Mexico and South America is in their hands, and they are regarded with
a jealous eye by the native merchants. However, they have done much
to improve the appearance of the city, by the erection o f costly dwellings
and warehouses. They have also so considerably added to the capital o f
Bordeaux, as to lower the usual rates o f interest, and increase the facilities
for discount.
E x p o r t s of B o r d e a u x . Bordeaux sends to Martinique and Guadaloupe,
provisions, flour, wine, brandy, and a few manufactures ; to the Isle o f
Bourbon, provisions, wine, cattle, furniture, crockery, perfumery, silks,
woollens, cottons, stationery, and fashions ; to the United States, wine,
brandy, almonds, prunes, verdigris, and some manufactures ; to Spanish
America, Cuba, etc., wine, brandy, silks, cloths, fashions, jewelry, per­
fumery, e t c .; to the South Sea, wine, brandy, liquors, and all kinds o f
manufactures ; to the East Indies and China, wine, brandy, furniture, sil­
ver, etc. ; to England, wine, brandy, liquors, cream o f tartar, dried fruit3,
prunes, walnuts, chestnuts, refined sugar, corn, flour, hides raw and cured,
cork, vinegar, etc. ; to the north o f Europe, wine, brandy, cream o f tartar,
refined sugar, molasses, and other colonial produce.
The imports of Bordeaux consist o f sugar, cotton, coffee, cocoa, saltpetre,
gums, American hides, horns, etc.
The port-charges at Bordeaux o f a foreign vessel of 300 tons are about
$400. English ships coming directly from Great Britain and Ireland are
placed on a perfect equality with French vessels. I f they come from other
countries, however, they are treated like other foreign vessels.




378

Commercial Cities o f E u rop e: Bordeaux.

T h e W in e T r a d e . Wines are the principal article among the exports
o f Bordeaux. The average amount o f wine o f all kinds annually produced
in the department o f the Gironde is from *220,000 to 250,000 tonneaux.*
O f this, about 50,000 tonneaux are consumed in the neighborhood, 125,000
sent to various parts o f France, 25,000 converted into brandy, and 50,000
exported to foreign countries. The exports are usually as follows:— T o
England, from 1,500 to 2,000 tonneaux ; to Holland, from 12,000 to 15,000 ;
to the north o f Europe, from 27,000 to 32,000 ; and to America and In­
dia, from 1,000 to 1,200.
The red wines are divided into three great classes, which are subdivided
into many qualities, according to their crus or growths. The first class
comprises the wines o f Medoc ; the second, the wines de Grave and o f St.
Emilion; and the third, the ordinary wines.
In the first class (the wines o f Medoc) are the grands crus, the crus
bourgeois, and the crus ordinaires. The grands crus are still further di­
vided into first, second, and third qualities.
The first quality are the wines o f Ch&teau-Margaux, Lafitte, Latour,
and Haut.Brian.
This last is, properly speaking, a wine de Grave, but
it is always classed among the wines de Medoc.
The second quality are the wines o f Rauzan, Leoville, Larose, Mouion,
Gerse, etc.
The third quality is the product o f vines situated in the neighborhood
o f those last named, and not much different from them in quality.
The grands crus do not produce more than 3,000 tonneaux a year, and
their price is from 1,600 to 3,500 fr. per tonneau on the lees.
The crus bourgeois are composed o f Margaux Sup6rieur, and o f wines
de St. Julien, Pauillac, St. Estpehe, etc. They produce about 2,000 ton­
neaux per annum, and are sold at from 800 to 1,800 fr. per tonneau on
the lees.
The crus ordinaires are sold at from 300 to 700 fr. per tonneau, the
price varying with the year and quality. Their annual product is from 25
to 35,000 tonneaux.
The total amount o f wine de Medoc is thus about 40,000 tonneaux per
annum. The grands crus and the crus bourgeois require four years’ care
and preparation before they are fit to be delivered for consumption or ex­
port. This increases their price 30 or 35 per cent.
The wines of the second class, that is to say, the red wines de Grave
and de St. Emilion, are produced in greater abundance than those o f the
first class. Some among them are o f very good quality ; these are usually
bought to be mixed with the Medoc wines. The best o f these wines are
sold at from 800 to 1,800 fr. per tonneau. Those o f the second quality,
namely, the wines o f Queyriits, Montferraud, Bassaus, etc., are sold at
from 300 to 600 fr. per tonneau.
The greater part o f the wines o f the third class, that is to say, the vins
ordinaires or de cargaison, are consumed in the country, or are manufactured
into brandy. The portion exported is shipped the same year that it is
made. The price is from 160 to 250 fr. the tonneau. The white wines
o f the first crus, such as le Haut-Barsac, le Preignac, le Beaumes, le Sauterne, etc., are not fit for use till the end of four or six years, nor for export
till one or two years after. Their price on the lees varies from 800 to
1,500 fr. the tonneau.
* T he French tonneau is about a gallon and a halfless than the English tun.




Commercial Cities o f E u rop e: Bordeaux.

379

The best growths o f Grave (white) o f St. Bries, Carhonieux, Dulamon,
etc., are sold in good years at from 500 to 800 fr. The white wines o f
inferior quality are sold at from 130 to 400 fr.
The expenses attending the production of Medoc wine, namely, the cost
o f culture, vintage, the making o f the wine, and the price o f casks, is esti­
mated to be, in the most favorable years, about 50 fr. a hogshead, or
200 fr. a tonneau.
The Bordeaux merchants usually purchase the wines o f the first quality
as soon as they are sufficiently made, for their goodness to be ascertained
Most frequently they purchase them in advance, and for a certain number
of years, good or bad. Immediately on being purchased the wines are car­
ried to Bordeaux and placed in cellars, where they preserve nearly an
equal temperature throughout the year. There they ripen, and undergo
those preparations and mixtures, which are regarded as necessary to
adapt them to the tastes o f various foreign consumers.
It is very generally the custom to mix the wines intended for England
with a considerable proportion o f strong wine, from the banks o f the
Rhone, such as the Hermitage, the C6le-R6tie and the Croze, especially
the first, until the taste o f the original Medoc can hardly be recognized in
them. Perhaps the principal reason why these wines are kept for so long
a time out o f the market is, to give them an opportunity to acquire a ho­
mogeneous flavor. The wines that are shipped under the names o f Cha­
teau-Ma.rgaux, Lafitte, and Latour, are also mixed with wines from the
neighboring vineyards, which, on account o f the similarity o f climate and
soil, cannot be very different. It is said that other good wines also enter
into the composition o f these renowned crus, and that the wines o f one
remarkably good year are frequently used to give flavor to those o f one or
two bad years. In view o f these facts, it is not difficult to believe that
the famous wines o f 1811, 1815, 1819, and 1825, will be found almost in­
exhaustible. Some houses claim that they keep their wines in all their
original purity. However this may be, it is certain that the custom of
mixing them is almost universal.
The purchase o f wines, whether at a vineyard or o f a merchant, is al­
most invariably effected by a broker. Some o f these brokers have a very
high reputation for their skill in the art o f tasting wines, and distinguish­
ing the various crus and the different kinds o f wine which have been mixed
together.
At Bordeaux itself, a considerable quantity o f the best Medoc wine is
consumed, but in other parts o f France scarcely any. Even at Paris,
only wines o f the second, third, and fourth qualities are in demand. Nearly
half o f the most costly wine is sent to England. Very little poor wine
finds a market there.
The Dutch are great consumers o f Bordeaux wines, which they pur­
chase in a much more economical manner than other strangers. Their
vessels enter the river at the time o f the vintage, provided with skilful su­
percargoes, who go into the vineyards and purchase the wines for them­
selves at a much better rate than a broker could purchase at for them.
These commercial agents live on board their vessels, and avoid the ex­
pense o f a stay in the city. They wait frequently for several months until
they have completed their ca rg o; however, they attain their object, which
is to purchase good wines at a low price. They never buy old wines. It
is new wine that they purchase, which, not having been mixed with the
stronger wines, loses its value after two or three years. The Dutch pur­




380

Commercial Cities o f E urope: Bordeaux.

sue the same plan at Bayonne, where they send two or three vessels every
year, to buy the white wines o f Jurancon, etc.
The ordinary wines are so mixed and prepared, that it is hardly possi­
ble to tell o f what they are composed,. They are sold to be delivered on
board ship at 50 fr. the hogshead and upwards, according to quality. These
wines, at the time they are purchased, will not bear to be seen in glass,
and they are tasted from little silver cups used for that purpose. They are
shipped principally to India and America, and those o f a little better qua­
lity to the north o f Europe.
The principal wine merchants have special agents at London, whose
business it is to induce their acquaintances to adopt the use o f the wines
sold by their principals. These agents are allowed from 8,000 to 20,000
francs a year for travelling expenses and for their private purse, besides 3
per cent or more upon all the sales they effect. The persons selected for
this employment are, o f course, men o f pleasing manners ; and, if possible,
those are obtained who are connected with the higher classes o f society.
The merchants of Bordeaux give their chief attention to the wine trade.
Most other business they do on commission, but this they invariably trans­
act on their own account; the reason they give for this course is, that the
skill and care required in purchasing wine and preparing it for export,
are not likely to be appreciated or properly remunerated by those for whom
they should act as agents.
B r a n d y , F r u it s , e t c . The quantity o f brandy distilled in the neighbor­
hood o f Bordeaux is estimated at about 1,800,000 gallons ; that made
in Armagnac, at about 2,000,000 gallons ; and that in Marmaudais, at
about 800,000 gallons ; making in all 4,600,000 gallons, ordinary proof.
About half o f this is consumed in France. O f the rest, 250,000 gallons
are shipped to England ; 1,000,000 to the United States ; 250,000 to
India ; and 500,000 to the north o f Europe.
Languedoc produces annually nearly 6,400,000 gallons o f brandy. The
greater part of this is sent to Bordeaux, whence it is shipped to the various
northern parts o f France and to foreign countries. France consumes
about two-thirds o f it, and the rest goes to the north o f Europe.
It is from the port o f Formay that the greatest quantity o f brandy is
shipped to England. Cognac, where there are several large distilleries,
is some leagues above this place. The quantity o f Cognac brandy ex­
ported is much larger than is made there.
The greater part o f the wine made in the neighborhood o f Angouleme,
and in the vineyards that lie between that city and the sea, is o f inferior
quality, and is only fit for the manufacture o f brandy. The distillers are
quite willing, when they can do so, to keep a large quantity o f brandy on
hand, since, as it improves with age, it pays a good interest on its original
value. It is estimated that England receives about 6,000 casks o f brandy
every year from the department o f Charenle.
The fruit exported from Bordeaux consists almost entirely o f prunes and
almonds ; these last come principally from Languedoc.
Bordeaux has several iron foundries, cotton factories, sugar refineries,
and glass-houses, but, on account o f the expense o f subsistence, the price
o f labor is too high for it ever to become a great manufacturing town.
B a n k . There is but one bank at Bordeaux, called the Bank o f Bor­
deaux ; its capital is 3,000,000 fr., shares 1,000 fr. each. It issues notes
o f 500 fr. and 1,000 fr., payable on demand. Its business is managed by
a council of directors, nominated by the fifty largest stockholders. This




Massachusetts Railroads.

381

council fixes the rate o f discount and the number o f signatures to be re­
quired. It is left to the discount committee to decide upon the validity o f
the signatures.
The Exchange Brokers o f Bordeaux carry on a business somewhat
similar to that of the London Bankers. They accept, negotiate, and pay
the bills o f houses having an open account with them, and allow, on the
annual balance in their hands, interest from 3-’ to 41 per cent, according
to circumstances.
Besides these, there are many capitalists who make a business o f dis­
counting bills. They prefer those having a long time to run, and charge
from 3 to 6 per cent, according to the standing o f the paper.
I n s u r a n c e . Insurance can be effected at Bordeaux against marine
and fire risks and upon lives. Marine risks are taken both by individu­
als and by companies. Insurance against fire and upon lives is made by
companies alone. Stockholders in these companies are not usually respon­
sible for the debts o f the company beyond the amount o f their subscriptions.

Art. IV.— H I A S S A C H U S E T T S R A I L R O A D S .
are seven lines o f railroads leading from Boston, measuring,
with their branches, 1,773 miles in length, communicating not only with
the remote parts o f Massachusetts, but with adjoining States, and con­
structed at a cost o f over seventy millions o f dollars. At the present
time, there are 728 miles o f railroad within the territorial limits o f Mas­
sachusetts alone, which is a ratio o f one mile o f railroad to each 10 square
miles o f its surface.
The first train o f passenger cars left Boston on the morning o f the 7th
o f April, 1834, for Davis’ Tavern, in Newton, to which place the W or­
cester Railroad was then opened ; it was further opened to Needham,
July 8th; to Westborough, November 15th, 1834; and throughout its
entire length, July 3d, 1835. The Western was opened to Springfield
October 1st, 1839, and to Albany, December 21st, 1841. The Norwich
and Worcester was opened throughout February 29th, 1840. The W or­
cester and Providence was opened throughout October 20th, 1847. The
Connecticut River Railroad was opened to Northampton December 13th,
1845 ; to South Deerfield, August 17th ; and throughout, November 23d,
1846. The Pittsfield and North Adams was opened throughout Octo­
ber 8th, 1846. The Berkshire was opened throughout December 1st,
1842. The West Stockbridge was opened throughout November 20th,
1338. The Providence Railroad was opened to Dedham June 30th, 1834 ;
and throughout its entire length, June 11th, 1835. The Taunton Branch
was opened, August 8th, 1834. The N ew Bedford was opened July
2d, 1840. The Stoughton Branch was opened April 7th, 1845. The
Lowell Railroad was opened throughout June 24th, 1835. The Nashua
was opened throughout October 8th, 1838. The Boston and Maine
(first called Andover and Wilmington, a branch o f the Lowell Railroad)
was opened to Andover September 1st, 1836 ; to Haverhill, April 10th,
1837 ; to Bradford, March 15th, 1838 ; to Exeter, (N. H .,) December 1st,
W40 ; to Newmarket, July 28th, 1841 ; to Dover, September 24th, 1841 ;
and throughout to Great Falls, July 24th, 1843. The Boston and Maine
Extension was opened July 1st, 1845. The Fitchburg was opened to
Waltham December 31st, 1843; to Acton, October 1st, 184 4 ; and
T

here




382

Massachusetts Railroads.

throughout, March 5th, 1845. The Vermont and Massachusetts Rail­
road was opened to Baldwinsviile September 1st; to Athol, December
27th, 1847; and will be further opened to Northfield in Ju ly; and
throughout, in December next. The Peterboro’ and Shirley was open­
ed to West Townsend in February last. The Lexington was opened
September 1st, 1846. The Eastern Railroad was opened to Salem Au­
gust 28th, 1838; to Newburyport, June 17th; and to Portsmouth, N o­
vember 9th, 1840. The Old Colony was opened, throughout its en­
tire length, November 10th, 1845. The Fall River Railroad was open­
ed throughout June 9th, 1845. The Cape Cod Branch Railroad was
opened to Agawam March 6th, 1848.
The following comparative statement shows the gradual increase of that
branch o f national improvements in our sister State :—
Years.

1844..
1 8 4 5 ..
1846..
1 8 4 7 ..

Miles
comp,

Expended in
construction.

Receipts.

Expenses.

Nett
income.

. . 510 $21,921,503 $2,787,758 $1,228,266 $1,559,392
.. 566
24,673,120 3,302,072 1,481,569 1,810,503
.. 679
29,879.507 3,940,504 1,856,812 2,048,692
.. 698
34,461,513 5,210,081 2,553,391 2,656,690

Number o f N ’ t income
miles run. percent.

1,769.194 $ 7 11
2,129,782
7 34
2,595,801
6 86
3,335,669
7 71

It will he perceived by the above table that the nett income o f the rail­
roads in Massachusetts has been increasing for the last four years. As
experience is gained in construction and management, they are built
much cheaper and made to be more productive. The Western Railroad
has a loan from the State o f $4,000,000, at 5 per cent per annum. By
this advantage its nett income to the stockholders last year was 8.40 per
cent. The Eastern has also a loan for $500,000, and the Norwich and
Worcester for $400,000. The Vermont and Massachusetts made appli­
cation to the legislature last year for a similar grant, but the boon was
withheld, experience having demonstrated that such enterprises are best
left to individual management. Railroads furnish the best mode o f in­
vestment for either the large or small capitalist, not being attended with
the risk o f defalcation, as in the case o f banks, or the ungraceful act of
repudiation, as in the case o f State debts. The Worcester Railroad,
finished in 1835, cost, with single track, $45,000 per mile ; but the Old
Colony, finished in 1845, cost only $35,000 per mile. The amount in­
vested in railroads in Massachusetts now exceeds the banking capital of
that State. The amount petitioned for by the several railroad companies
to the present legislature, for the purpose o f building branches, laying and
extending double tracks, and other purposes, is $6,370,000.
In endeavoring to describe the several railroads o f Massachusetts, their
geographical position will be followed as nearly as possible.
I.
The Boston and Worcester Railroad commences at its depot in
Beach-street, and running in a westerly direction, extends to Worcester,
45 miles. It there connects with the Western Railroad, which also, run­
ning in a westerly direction, extends to Greenbush, 155 miles. The lat­
ter there connects with the Troy and Greenbush Railroad, which, run­
ning in a northerly direction, extends to Troy, 6 miles ; which again con­
nects with the Schenectady and Troy Railroad, 20 miles in length ; the
Schenectady and Utica, 78 miles ; the Utica and Syracuse, 53 miles ; the
Syracuse and Auburn, 26 m iles; the Auburn and Rochester, 78 m i!e»;
the Rochester and Attica, 43 miles ; and the Attica and Buffalo, 31 miles
in length ; making the length o f the line from Boston to Buffalo, 535
miles. At Buffalo commences the Niagara Railroad, which extends in a




Massachusetts Railroads.

383

northerly direction to Niagara Falls, 13 miles; opposite Niagara (on the
Canada side) commences the Great Western Canada Railroad, now in
course o f construction, which, running in a south-westerly direction, ex­
tends to Detroit, 227 miles in length; there commences the Michigan
Central Railroad, which, running in a westerly direction, extends to New
Buffalo, 220 m iles; there commences the Lafayette and Lake Michigan
Railroad, now in course o f construction, which, running in a southerly
direction, will extend to Lafayette, in Indiana, 100 miles ; there com­
mences the Illinois Central Railroad, now in course of. construction,
which, running in a westerly direction, will extend to Springfield, (111.,)
180 m iles; there commences the Springfield and St. Louis Railroad, now
in course o f construction, which, running in a southerly direction, will
extend to St. Louis, 90 miles. Thus, before the expiration o f three
years, there will be a continuous line o f railroad communication, 1,365 miles
in length, between Boston and St. Louis, bringing the two places within
64 hours’ ride o f each other. At Sandusky city, on Lake Erie, commences
the Mad River Railroad, which, running in a south-westerly direction,
extends to Springfield, (Ohio,) 214 miles ; there commences the Little
Miami Railroad, which, running in the same direction, extends to Cincin­
nati, 109 miles in length. A railroad, 165 miles in length, has been
surveyed between Chicago and Galena. At Worcester commences the
Worcester and Nashua Railroad, now in course o f construction, which,
running in a north-easterly direction, will extend to Nashua, 46 miles ;
the Fitchburg and Worcester, now in course o f construction, which,
running in a northerly direction, will extend to Fitchburg, 22 miles ; the
Providence and Worcester, which, running in a south-easterly direction,
extends to Providence, 44 miles ; and the Norwich and Worcester,
which, running in a southerly direction, extends to Norwich. 59 miles.
At Springfield, commences the Connecticut River Railroad, which, run­
ning in a northerly direction, extends to Greenfield, 36 miles ; and the
Hartford and New Haven Railroad, which, running in a southerly direc­
tion, extends to New Haven, 72 miles. At Pittsfield commences the
Pittsfield and North Adams Railroad, which, running in a northerly
direction, extends to North Adams, 19 miles. At West Stockbridge com­
mences the Berkshire Railroad, which, running in a south-westex-ly direc­
tion, extends to the line between the States o f Massachusetts and Connecticut, 21 m iles; and there connects with the Housatonic Railroad,
also running in the same direction, extends to Bridgeport, 77 miles. At
West Stockbridge commences the Hudson and Berkshire, which, running
in a south-westerly direction, extends to Hudson, 33 miles. The W orces­
ter Railroad has a double track throughout its entire length, weighing
60 lbs. to the yard, and cost $4,113,610. It has four branches, measuring
14 miles in length. It has a freight-house in Boston, consisting o f a
single room, unsupported by pillars, 466 feet in length, by 120 in breadth.
The Western Railroad cost $8,769,474. It has a double track for 18
miles o f its length: has 20 depots, covering 118 acres of land : 15 stonearched river bridges, o f from 15 to 60 feet span. The Connecticut river
bridge is 1,264 feet long, consisting o f 7 spans, o f 180 feet each, and cost
$133,000 ; its flooring is covered with tin, painted o f a dark color. The
Western Railroad has one grade 83 feet to the mile, for about a mile and
a half, one o f 79 feet for four miles, one o f 78 feet for two miles, and one
o f 74 feet for five and a half miles ; in a word, it has a grade o f from 60
to 83 feet per mile, for more than 18 miles. At Washington, near the




334

Massachusetts Railroads.

State line, the road-bed is 1,456 feet above the level o f the depot in
Beach-street, Boston.
A single mile o f the mountain section cost
$220,000. It has an engine-house in Springfield, 174 feet in length
by 144 feet in breadth. The Worcester and Nashua, when completed,
will cost $1,000,000. The Fitchburg and Worcester, when completed,
will cost $500,000. The Providence and Worcester cost $1,536,755.
The Norwich and Worcester, cost $2,187,250. The Connecticut River,
cost $1,167,157. The Pittsfield and North Adams cost $446,354. The
Berkshire cost $600,000.
II. The Boston and Providence Railroad commences at its depot
in Charles-street, and running in a southerly direction, extends to Provi­
dence, 41 miles. It has a double track for 16 m iles; has two branches
measuring 7 miles in length. It connects with the Stonington Railroad,
which, running in a southerly direction, extends to Stonington, 47 miles.
The length o f this line, with its branches, is 95 miles. At Mansfield, 24
miles from Boston, the Taunton Branch Railroad commences, which, running
in a southerly direction, extends to Taunton, 11 m iles; there commences
the New Bedford and Taunton Railroad, which, also running in a south­
easterly direction, extends to New Bedford, 20 miles. The Stonington
branch is 7 miles in length. The Providence cost $2,544,715; the
Taunton, $303,743; the N ew Bedford, $483,883; the Stonington
$94,570.
III. The Boston and Lowell Railroad commences at its depot in
Lowell-street, and running in a north-westerly direction, extends to
Lowell, 26 m iles; and has a double track throughout its entire length,
and also a branch two miles in length. It connects, at Lowell, with the
Nashua Railroad, which, running in the same direction, extends to
Nashua, 14 m iles; there commences the Concord Railroad, which, run­
ning in a north-easterly direction, extends to Concord, 36 m iles; there
commences the Northern Railroad, which, running in a north-westerly
direction, extends to Lebanon, (N. II.,) 38 miles ; there commences the
Connecticut and Passumpsic River Railroad, which, when completed,
will extend to the mouth o f W ells’ River, 42 miles ; its further extension
to Stanstead will probably be made within a year or two. The length o f
this line is 156 miles. At Nashua, (N . H .,) commences the Wilton
Branch Railroad, which, running in a north-westerly direction, when
completed, will extend to Wilton, 18 miles. At Lowell commences the
Lowell and Andover Railroad, which, running in a north-easterly direc­
tion, when completed, will extend to Andover, 12 miles. The Lowell
Railroad cost $1,956,710 ; the Nashua, $500,000. The Lowell Rail­
road has petitioned to locate their depot on Causeway-street.
IV. The Boston and Maine Railroad commences at its depot in
Haymarket Square, and running in a north-easterly direction, extends to
Berwick, in Maine, 73 miles in length, where it connects with the Ports­
mouth, Saco and Portland Railroad, extending to Portland, in Maine. It
has a double track for 5 miles, and has two branches measuring 10 miles
in length, and cost $3,021,172.
V. The Fitchburg Railroad commences at its depot in Causewaystreet, and running in a north-westerly direction, extends to Fitchburg,
49 miles; there commences the Vermont and Massachusetts Railroad,
which, also running in the same direction, extends to Brattleboro’, (V t.,)
60 miles ; at Ashburnham, on the latter road, commences the Cheshire
Railroad, which, running in the same direction extends to Bellows Falls,




Massachusetts Railroads.

385

(V t.,) 54 miles ; there commences the Sullivan Railroad, which, running
in a northerly direction, extends to Charlestown, (N . H .,) 30 miles ; there
commences the Vermont and Canada Railroad, now in course o f con­
struction, which, running in a northerly direction, when completed, will
extend to Rouse’s Point, on Lake Champlain, 40 m iles; there com­
mences the Ogdensburg Railroad, now in course of construction, which,
running in a south-westerly direction, when completed, will extend to
Ogdensburg, 120 miles. The length o f this line is 413 miles. At Bel­
lows Falls commences the Rutland Railroad, now in course o f construc­
tion, which, running in a north-westerly direction, when completed, will
extend to Burlington, 118 miles. A survey has been made for a railroad
from Troy to Greenfield, 95 miles in length. At Shirley, on the Fitch­
burg Railroad, commences the Peterboro’ and Shirley Railroad, 12 miles
in length. At Cambridge commences the Lexington and West Cam­
bridge Railroad, 7 miles in length ; also the Watertown Branch, 5 miles
in length. The Fitchburg Railroad have a depot on Causeway-street
386 feet in length by 80 feet in breadth, with towers 96 feet in height,
constructed at a cost o f $55,000. The Fitchburg cost $2,406,724. The
Vermont and Massachusetts, when completed, $1,800,000. The L ex­
ington and West Cambridge, $221,310.
VI. The Eastern Railroad commences at its depot on Commercialstreet, and, connected with East Boston by a ferry, extends, in a north,
easterly direction, to the line between the States o f Massachusetts and
New Hampshire, 38 miles; there commences the Eastern Railroad, in
New Hampshire, which, running in the same direction, extends to Ports­
mouth, 17 miles; there commences the Portsmouth, Saco, and Portland
Railroad, which, also running in the same direction, extends to Portland,
54 miles. The length o f this line is 109 miles. At Portland com­
mences the Atlanta and St. Lawrence Railroad, now in course of con­
struction, which, when completed, will extend to Montreal, 250 miles
in length. At East Boston commences the Grand Junction Railroad,
running through Chelsea, Malden, and Charlestown, to the Boston and
Maine Railroad.
From this point, it is in contemplation to construct
another junction to cross the Fitchburg, Lowell, Worcester, Providence,
and terminating at some point on the Old Colony Railroad ; so that
passengers and merchandise can pass from one railroad to another,
and lumber, coal, and other heavy cargoes can be landed at South or
East Boston, and transported to the interior, without passing through the
city proper. The Eastern Railroad has a double track for 16 miles, and
has 3 branches, measuring 20 miles in length. It has petitioned the
Legislature for leave to cross Charles River and erect a depot on Cause­
way-street, which will probably be granted. In that case there will be,
upon the same street, four railroad depots, within a hundred yards dis­
tance o f each other. The Eastern Railroad cost $2,937,206.
VII. The Old Colony Railroad commences at its depot in Beachstreet, and, running in a south-easterly direction, extends to Plymouth, 37
miles; and has a branch 7 miles, and cost $1,636,632. The Fall River
commences at Braintree, and, running in a southerly direction, extends to
Fall River, 42 miles, and cost $1,070,988. At Middleboro’, on the latter
road, commences the Cape Cod Branch, which is finished to Agawam.
The following table shows the operations o f the different railroads in
that Commonwealth for the past year :—
25
VOL. X V I I I . -----N O . I V .




386

M A S S A C H U S E T T S R A IL R O A D S — 1847.
RECEIPTS.-------------------------- >
N am e .

Length.

From
Passengers.

Cost.

From
Freight.

From
Mails, &c.

,-------------------------- EXPENSES.

Total.

Road
Bed.

Motive
Power.

Miscellaneous.

Total.

Nett
Nett in.
Income. p. cent.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

D olls.

45
155

4,113,610
8,769,474

304,580

374,663
785,346

42,927

722,170

65,195

91,141

225,650

340,184

1,325,336

199,312

353,366

Norwich and Worcester
Connecticut R iver.........

59
36
19
21

2,187,250

234,896

17,967
9,335

124,111
38,609
9,546

381,986
676,789

84,857
30,773

141,433
49,654

8 27
7 40
4 40

74,298

6 37

6,081

1,008

10,709

17,798

8,177

1 83
7 00

Providence......................

502,322
114,310

108,005

37,668
12,581

1,167,157
446,354
600,000

70,208
15,763

48,320
10,006

5,424
206

123,952
25,975
42,000

41

2,544,715

226,103

118,173

363,328

21,733

32,556

121,057

175,346

42,000
187,982

Taunton...........................

11

303,743

34,818

16,613

19,052
2,296

53,727

3,920

3,315

18,278

25,513

28,214

7 39
9 29

N ew Bedford..................

20
5

483,883
94,576

66,589

21,593

29,617

46,923

44,121

9 12
6 48

1,956,719

209,612

4,129

54,081

59,517

139,811

4,000
253,409

6,129

26

91,044
10,129
448,556

6,132

4,327
234,815

2,862
200

11,174

5,602

14

500,000
3,021,172

69,143

82,620

5,572

157,335

26,211

51,714

96,937

321,182
165,092

179,989

10,334

511,505

22,582

19,012
32,311

17,116

384,445

27,090

8,334
424,841

20,989
1,190
15,140

165,367
113,355
629

220,260

202,237

12,391

107,552

161,434
1,819
135,083

14,783

11,681

60,557

87,021

289,758
84,133

5 14

8,314

8,278

61,394

77,986

33,368

3 12

498,007

476,698

1,574,686

2,553,391

Pittsfield and N. Adams

Stoughton Branch..........
Low ell.............................
Nashua............................
Boston and M aine.........
Fitchburg........................

73
49
7

2,406,724

33

2,937,206

343,373

50,455

31,013

1,636,632

4,850

1,070,988

124,776
77,040

41,528

Fall River........................

37
42

30,991

3,323

171,154
111,354

T o ta l...........................

698

34,461,513

2,650,513

2,309,681

199,553

5,210,081

Eastern............................
Old Colonv......................




221,310

* Let to Western Railroad.

t Let to Fitchburg Railroad.

X Average.

648,547
93,463

195,147

9 97
60,398 12 01
291,245 9 64
223,011 9 27
6,515 2 94
9 87

2,656,690 17 71

Massachusetts Railroads,

M iles.

W orcester......................
W estern..........................

M A S S A C H U S E T T S R A IL R O A D S — T

N am e .

Worcester..........................
W estern............................

Passenger
Trains.

-----Number of‘ Miles run.------------------- V
Other
Freight
Trains.
Trains.
Total.

able

c on tin u ed .

Total Re- Expenses Nettincom e No. o f Pass.
ceipts per per mile
per mile
carried in
mile run.
run.
the cars.
run.

No. o f Pass.
carried one
mile.

N o. o f Tons No. o f Tons
merch. carried merch. carried
in the cars.
one mile.

M iles.

M iles.

M iles.

M iles.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Passengers.

Passengers.

Tons.

Tons.

2 1 1 ,2 0 6

1 6 7 ,3 6 3

2 6 ,5 8 6

4 0 5 ,1 5 5

1 78

0 94

0 84

5 9 8 ,3 0 5

1 4 ,4 8 0 ,6 7 8

2 8 3 ,1 7 8

1 0 ,7 5 5 ,7 9 9

5 1 3 ,7 7 2

6 8 ,9 6 1

8 1 9 ,4 1 0

1 61

0 82

0 79

3 8 8 ,1 1 1

1 7 ,8 6 7 ,6 4 4

2 7 4 ,6 9 1

2 8 ,0 3 7 ,6 2 8

1 1 9 ,0 7 9

7 4 ,3 9 0

9 ,1 0 3

2 0 2 ,5 7 2

1 16

0 69

0 47

1 5 8 ,4 8 7

2 ,9 9 1 ,2 5 3

9 1 ,0 6 3

2 ,8 7 7 ,3 0 5

7 4 ,0 5 9

2 3 ,2 2 1

8 ,8 7 8

1 0 6 ,1 5 8

1 17

0 47

0 70

2 3 7 ,2 1 5

2 ,3 5 9 ,9 2 5

4 4 ,4 8 0

8 0 5 ,9 2 7

Pittsfield and N . Adams..

1 6 ,4 2 3

1 1 ,2 4 1

5 ,5 4 8

3 3 ,2 1 2

0 78

0 53

0 25

3 5 ,8 2 8

3 8 3 ,3 3 2

1 0 ,6 8 0

1 7 1 ,0 4 0

Berkshire...........................
Providence.........................

1 3 ,1 4 6

1 9 ,7 8 2

3 2 ,9 2 8

1 28

1 28

3 8 ,8 9 6

6 2 2 ,0 8 0

9 ,6 7 3

1 3 7 ,0 5 7

1 6 9 ,1 0 7

5 1 ,9 5 4

5 ,2 0 0

2 2 6 ,2 6 1

1 60

0 77

0 83

4 8 7 ,4 7 8

7 ,1 9 6 ,7 4 3

8 7 ,6 0 5

1 ,9 3 7 ,0 2 7

Taunton............................
N ew Bedford....................

2 2 ,0 2 0

6 ,8 8 6

555

2 9 ,4 6 1

1 82

0 86

0 96

1 0 8 ,5 3 9

1 ,1 8 0 ,8 8 6

3 0 ,4 6 1

3 3 2 ,5 2 1

6 3 ,1 8 0

1 9 ,4 0 6

1 ,2 9 0

8 3 ,8 7 6

1 09

0 56

0 53

9 7 ,9 3 6

1 ,6 2 7 ,6 7 0

1 9 ,3 5 2

3 3 8 ,9 0 2

Stoughton Branch............
L ow ell...............................

3 ,8 5 7

1 ,4 2 1

555

5 ,8 3 3

1 74

0 69

1 05

1 6 ,7 4 8

1 7 5 ,8 5 4

7 ,9 1 8

8 6 ,9 7 4

1 6 4 ,7 0 5

7 0 ,7 4 9

1 5 ,0 9 2

2 5 0 ,5 4 6

1 79

1 01

0 78

4 8 4 ,6 8 3

9 ,5 2 3 ,4 3 6

2 8 1 ,4 4 1

7 ,1 1 7 ,6 5 6

Nashua..............................
Boston and M aine...........

2 9 ,5 0 5

2 0 ,1 0 0

2 ,9 4 8

5 2 ,5 5 3

2 99

1 84

1 15

2 2 5 ,9 8 4

3 ,1 1 9 ,2 0 7

1 5 1 ,1 1 1

2 ,2 3 8 ,1 2 1

2 2 7 ,5 8 3

7 3 ,1 1 8

2 3 ,5 8 0

3 2 4 ,2 8 1

1 58

0 68

0 90

7 2 8 ,3 0 7

1 2 ,5 9 9 ,3 1 8

1 2 0 ,4 2 8

3 ,6 1 2 ,4 8 0

Fitchburg..........................

1 5 8 ,1 4 0

7 0 ,3 5 2

2 8 ,3 1 7

2 5 6 ,8 0 9

1 50

0 63

0 87

4 9 4 ,0 3 5

8 ,0 0 9 ,4 3 7

2 4 4 ,4 7 6

5 ,1 9 8 ,4 9 7

1 ,1 6 5 ,8 7 3

Eastern..............................

2 0 3 ,3 5 2

3 3 ,8 0 4

4 ,3 7 5

2 4 1 ,5 3 1

1 76

0 56

1 20

8 9 2 ,8 9 6

1 2 ,7 5 7 ,0 2 6

4 1 ,0 4 7

Old Colony........................

1 0 5 ,1 0 5

2 7 ,9 4 4

1 9 ,6 4 4

1 5 2 ,6 9 3

1 12

0 57

0 55

3 8 9 ,9 9 4

4 ,9 0 4 ,8 6 1

4 2 ,7 0 7

7 4 8 ,5 5 1

Fall River..........................

7 9 ,8 5 8

2 6 ,2 9 2

6 ,2 4 0

1 1 2 ,3 9 0

0 99

0 69

0 30

1 7 3 ,1 3 4

3 ,2 3 S ,1 3 4

2 9 ,0 2 1

6 2 6 ,2 5 9

Total..............................

1 8 ,9 7 0 ,0 0 2

1 ,2 1 1 ,7 9 5

2 2 6 ,8 7 2

3 ,3 3 5 ,6 6 9

*1 56

* 0 77

* 0 79

5 ,5 5 6 ,5 7 6

1 0 3 ,0 3 7 ,4 8 4

1 ,7 6 9 ,3 3 2

6 6 ,1 8 7 ,6 1 7

387




* Average.

Massachusetts Railroads.

2 3 6 ,6 7 7

Norwich and Worcester..
Connecticut River............

388

Mortgages o f Ships.

Art. V— MORTGAGES OF SIIIPS.
T o trace the origin o f hypothecations in their various forms, would re­
quire an examination o f the earliest annals o f our race. The great Jew­
ish lawgiver treated pledges as customary contracts, and enacted liberal
provisions to soften the hardships they' occasioned. “ No man shall take
the nether or the upper millstone to pledge, for he taketh a man’s life to
pledge.” — Deut. xxiv.
W e propose to furnish a brief exposition o f the existing law regulating
the mortgages of ships, and, by way o f introduction, to state the leading
principles which regulate mortgages o f personal property in general.
A mortgage o f goods is not a mere deposit o f the same ; it is a sale of
the goods, to become void on the mortgager’s paying some sum o f money,
or performing some other condition stipulated by him. The law regards
the mortgagee as the owner o f the goods mortgaged to him, subject to
certain rights o f the mortgager before legal foreclosure. Such a mortgage
may' be valid in many cases, without any delivery o f the goods to the
mortgagee. There is ordinarily a stipulation in mortgages o f goods, by
which the mortgager reserves the right o f retaining such goods in his
possession until default is made in fulfilling the condition o f the mortgage.
A mortgage o f goods must not be confounded with a pledge or pawn.
A pledge or pawn is a deposit o f goods, to be redeemed on certain terms,
either with or without a fixed period for redemption. A pawn must be
delivered to the pawnee or to his order. The right o f the pawnee is not
consummated, except by possession; and ordinarily, when that possession
is relinquished, the right o f the pawnee is extinguished or waived. The
pawnee has only a special property in the pawn; that is to say, a mere
right to keep the same until redeemed, and, in due time, to indemnify him­
self by the sale thereof. But the goods pawned, at least if subject to be
injured by use like clothes, cannot be used by' the pawnee. The pawner
has his whole lifetime to redeem, provided the pawnee does not call upon
him to redeem, as he has a right to do at any time in his discretion, if no
time for redemption be fixed ; and if no such call be made, the represen­
tatives o f the pawner may redeem after his death. (Story on Bailments,
section 287 ; 2 Kent’s Commentaries, 521.)
It is highly important to determine how far the mortgager o f goods
may safely be allowed to retain possession o f such goods, without invali­
dating the rights o f the mortgagee as against third parties.
It may be said in general terms, that a doctrine relative to this subject
has o f late years gained ascendency both in England and in the United
States, breathing that spirit o f humanity which has o f late years so mate­
rially influenced the mutual relations o f debtors and creditors. The doc­
trine to which we refer is substantially as follows :—
A continuance in possession by a mortgager is, primafacie, a badge o f
fraud, if the chattels sold or mortgaged be transferable from hand to hand.
Yet the presumption o f fraud, arising from that circumstance, may be re­
butted by explanations, showing the transaction to be fair and honest, and
giving a reasonable account o f the retention o f possession. The question
o f fraud arising in such cases is not an absolute inference o f law, hut one
o f fact for a ju ry; and if the personal chattels partake o f the nature o f




M ortgages o f Ships.

389

real estate, as, for instance, the engines belonging to a manufactory, no
presumption o f fraud will arise.
The doctrine above stated has been sanctioned in England, in Ten­
nessee, Kentucky, North Carolina, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, In­
diana, Maine, and in New York.
But the more rigorous rules, declaring that the retention o f possession
by the mortgager is, except in some special cases, fraudulent, and that it
is void against creditors and bona fide purchasers, has been adhered to
in recent decisions o f the higher courts o f Pennsylvania, Illinois, New
Jersey, Connecticut, Vermont, and Missouri. (See 4 Kent’s Commentaries,
520, where various authorities are cited and examined ; Smith and Hoe
v. Acker, 23 Wendell’ s Reports, 653, which is renewed and approved in
Hanford v. Artcher, 4 Hill’s Reports, 273.)
It may also be observed, that in Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Ken­
tucky, Georgia, Tennessee, Indiana, Virginia, and New York, mortgages
o f goods are not valid, except as between the parties, unless recorded; or
in New York a copy thereof filed, in the clerk’s office designated by the
respective laws o f those States.
In the case o f De Wolfe v. Harris, the Supreme Court o f the United
States decided that a bill o f sale o f a ship and cargo in port may be valid,
although there has been no delivery o f possession, provided it appears to
have been given by way o f mortgage. (4 Mason’s Reports, 515.)
I f the mortgager o f goods forfeits the condition o f the mortgage, by not
paying the amount which it was intended to secure, or otherwise, the
mortgagee acquires an absolute title to the mortgaged property, subject
to the rights and equities of his debtor.
The mortgaged goods may, after such forfeiture o f the condition, be
levied on by virtue o f an execution against the mortgagee, although the
property remain in the possession o f the mortgager. (See Langdon v.
Buel, 9 Wendell’s Reports, 80 ; Patchin v. Pierce, 12 Wendell’s Reports,
161 ; Ferguson v. Lee, 9 Wendell’s Reports, 341.)
But although the mortgagee acquires an absolute title to the goods, as
above stated, courts o f equity will, on proper application, even after for­
feiture, but before the rights of the mortgagee have been foreclosed by a
sale o f the mortgaged goods, or otherwise, prevent any unjust sacrifice o f
property, and allow the mortgager to redeem on equitable terms. The
poet sings—
“ Asleep and naked as an Indian lay,
A n honest factor stole a gem aw a y ;
He pledged it to the knigh t; the knight had w it ;
He kept the diamond, and the rogue was bit.”

But the legal inference here is not as correct as the verse is smooth,
for, both in the case o f pledges and o f mortgages, the debtor can, under
certain equitable restrictions, compel the creditor to restore the goods
transferred as security, when his retention o f the same would be unjust
and extortionate. Although, after forfeiture, the law regards the mortgagee
as owner o f the goods mortgaged, it will strip him o f his ownership if
morally unjust, as between him and his debtor.
The. exigencies o f commerce frequently lead to the mortgaging o f ships.
A mortgage o f a ship is the sale o f a ship upon a condition. If the
condition be performed, the sale is annulled. I f the condition be broken,
the ship becomes the absolute property o f the mortgagee.




390

M ortgages o f Ships.

The contract in question will readily be distinguished from Bottomry
and Respondentia. Bottomry is a contract by which the owner o f a ship,
in port or abroad, or the master o f a ship, if abroad, on necessity, borrows
money for the purpose o f carrying on a particular voyage, pledging the
ship for the repayment. I f the ship be lost, the lender loses his whole
money ; but if it returns in safety, then he is entitled to receive back
principal and interest, or premium stipulated to be paid, which may ex­
ceed the rate o f interest established by law for ordinary contracts, and is
called marine interest. It need hardly be added, that a similar loan, se­
cured upon the cargo o f a ship, is the well-understood contract o f Res­
pondentia. Anciently, if the opinion o f Plutarch be an index o f the sen­
timents o f his age, Bottomry was somewhat odious and discreditable ; for
that author observes, in his life of Cato the Censor, that this great man,
whose conduct was ordinarily so unimpeachable, “ was addicted to the
worst kind o f usury, to wit, the lending o f money upon ships ; and, when
investing in this manner, he dealt only with those who pledged to him a
great number of vessels as security, and allowed him one vessel as pre­
mium, to be commanded by his own freedman.”
In order to mortgage a ship, the owner usually executes an absolute bill
o f sale o f the same to the mortgagee; who, on the other hand, agrees in
writing, or otherwise, that the bill o f sale shall be deemed null and void
upon the fulfilment o f some specified condition.
The mortgagee then presents his bill o f sale at the custom-house, and
takes out the ship’ s papers in his own name. This procedure is ren­
dered necessary by the established construction o f the Registry Laws in
our custom-houses, where all assignments o f ships are disregarded, except
absolute bills o f sales.
Thus the books o f the custom-house indicate the mortgagee o f a ship
as the owner o f the same, although their evidence is by no means con­
clusive upon the point; and the law, moreover, declares such mortgagee,
although out o f possession, to be for certain purposes the legal owner o f
the ship.
What, then, are the liabilities o f the mortgagees o f ships when out o f
possession ?
The weight o f legal authority, both in this country and in England, as is
shown by Chancellor Kent in the third volume o f his Commentaries, page
134, is in favor o f the position, that a mortgagee o f a ship, if out o f posses­
sion, is not liable for supplies or repairs, nor entitled to freight when the
ship is left in the control o f the mortgager, and when the mortgagee con­
tinues to be treated as owner.
But there still remains an important question to be answered in respect
to cases in which there has been no dealing with the mortgager in the
character o f owner, and in which the credit has heen given to “ the own­
ers” generally.
i s the mortgagee, out o f possession, liable in such case as legal owner ?
or must the party who has given credit look to the beneficial owner ?
The current doctrine o f the English and American Courts, applicable
to this point, is well stated in the 7th edition o f Abbot on Shipping.
“ It appears that the registered owner, the charterer, the mortgagee,
are none o f them, as such, necessarily liable for repairs done to her, or
for goods supplied. Orders are received from the person, usually the
master, in apparent charge or custody o f the vessel, against whom person­




D estiny.

391

Progress.

ally, unless at the time o f contracting he disclaims any personal responsi­
bility, the tradesman has a right o f action. But if that be unsatisfactory,
as it frequently must be, the tradesman should, before he seeks his remedy
against others, inquire for whose use and benefit his labor was given or
his goods supplied; who was the immediate owner, absolute or tempo­
rary ; when the orders were received; under whose authority the captain
acted ; whose servant or agent he was at the time he gave the orders.”
Analogy would certainly fix the liability for repairs and supplies in the
case supposed, xvhere goods are charged “ to the owners” generally, upon
the beneficial owner alone, and would exonerate the mortgagee out of
possession.
In the case o f Hallett v. The Columbian Insurance Company, 8
Johnson’s Reports, 272, it was held, that when the owner o f a vessel,
by the charter-party, let the whole vessel to the master, who was to victual
and man her at his own expense, and wholly manage her, the master was
owner for the voyage, and subject to all the liabilities o f an ow n er; and
this decision is supported by many others, both American and English.

Art. V I.— D E S T IN Y .

PROGRESS.

“ T he earth hath bubbles as the water has, and these are o f them.” — Macbeth. %

•

A w r i t e r , whose name attracts attention to what he may desire to
say, has announced, through an article in the last number o f the Mer­
chants’ Magazine, the advent o f a new Divinity, under the name o f
“ p r o g r e s s — the hero-characteristic o f the age— a hero-divinity.”
As
a distinct revelation, he explains to us that what would be clearly
wrong in private life should be regarded as right in national affairs; and
while he seems to admit the principles o f the sermon on the mount, he
regards the opponents o f the Mexican war in the same light as the Jews,
who rejected those principles, and “ crucified the Saviour.” He thinks
that “ our present blindness and errors in resisting now, what are the
great commands o f p r o g r e s s , ” are no more excusable than the “ in­
tellectual blindness and ignorance o f the Jewish people in those days.”
Even P e a c e , for the present, is not, it seems, j,o stop the action that is
begun. He says o f the continent— “ what shall remain unredeemed by
force o f conquest now, will bide only its time, and yield then, perhaps, as
well from choice as necessity. Nor will the wave stop, until the south­
ernmost shore o f Cape Horn rejoices beneath the benign influence and
protection o f the floating stars and stripes o f freedom’ s banner— then to
be the first, and last, and only national banner o f the Western Hemi­
sphere !”
As this writer refers to Shakspeare and the Bible, no apology seems
necessary for doing the same while examining the novel system that he
offers to our belief. I f his views are correct, examination may strengthen
our faith in his doctrine. I f that, be unsound, its tendency is very dangerous in a republic, and examination is important to guard the community against fallacies that are likely to mislead us into national errors.
Is this really a new development that he promulgates? or is it, in
truth, the old inclination o f the idolater to personify the elements and
forces o f nature, the powers o f the mind, and the passions o f the heart, by




392

D estiny.

Progress.

kings o f the wind and (he sea, by gods o f fire and war, and goddesses o f
wisdom, love, and revenge?— an inclination that re-appears as a belief in
witchcraft and other idealities, since gods o f wood and stone are no longer
bought and sold ?
W e have heard o f destiny long ago, before the Mexican war had
made it our manifest destiny to extend peculiar institutions over the con­
tinent. Mr. Dickens, who is an acute observer o f mind and matter, has
even assigned that deity a local habitation nearer than Olympus, and
given us his authority, if that were needed, for believing that the votaries
o f Destiny are not unfrequently disappointed in their anticipations, and
left in very uncomfortable circumstances, where they had looked for tri­
umphant enjoyment.
In describing one o f his heroes as giving.vent to something o f impa­
tience in adversity, he says— “ It may be presumed that in these remarks
he addressed himself to his fate or destiny, whom, as we learn by the
precedents, it is the custom o f heroes to taunt in a very bitter and ironical
manner, when they find themselves in situations o f an unpleasant nature.
This is the more probable, from the circumstance o f his directing his ob­
servations to the ceiling, which these bodiless personages are usually
supposed to inhabit, except in theatrical cases, where they live in the
great chandelier.”
But “ the divinity o f progress ” sounds new, and is now declared
to us in terms calculated to inspire something of awe and apprehension.
W e are told, in the article alluded to, “ that the spiritual herald o f each
coming event has the startling imprint, progress— that wo and dis­
appointment await the man, priest or politician, who shuts up his under­
standing in ignorance o f this great truth. That as well might one hope
to stay the laws o f matter and creation, as to resist this movement o f our
times.
“ It is because o f its d ivin ity , that it has a majesty and a grandeur
that are irresistible— overwhelming.
“ It is moreover because o f its divin ity that it cannot fail— that it
will not be stayed. Mere human theories o f right and wrong fall before
it.”
And what theories are to come in their place ? One is anxious to
know. It seems that “ abstract and abstruse metaphysical disquisitions
on the requirements o f .justice, the precepts o f religion, benevolence, phi­
lanthropy, and the doctrine o f ‘ peace on earth and good-will towards
men,’ as these have been hitherto understood, fall alike before it and disap­
pear from the senses, as the mere exercises of a dreamy state o f semi­
consciousness. Minds are being lifted up by this movement, by progress,
to a higher and hitherto unappreciated strata (?) o f principles, that develop
and at the same time govern the purposes o f d i v i n i t y — unfolding to
human comprehension yet another ‘ new and belter covenant’ between
man and his Creator— higher destiny f o r the creature, greater glory
for the C r e a t o r !”
And what comes then? only another “ human theory !” one, too, that
does not bear the impress o f a very enlightened state o f humanity, nor
seem likely to improve the requirements o f “ justice, & c., and the doctrine
o f peace on earth and good-will towards men, as these have been hitherto
understood.”
It is suggested that there is “ a God o f Battles— a ruler o f nations as




D estiny.

Progress.

393

well as men
and that he may have “ purposes to fulfil in the conflict,
far and high above the purposes that may be weighed by the narrow
rules o f meum and tuum, that pertain to mere personal chattels, or to in­
dividualities.”
A leading thought seems to be, that the distinction which prevails in pri­
vate matters between mine and thine may be overlooked in public affairs
because the. Almighty has power to draw good from e v il; and the reader
is asked, “ who dare deny that it is in the power, and that it may be the
wall o f the Great Architect o f Progress, to render famine itself a blessing
in disguise ?•”
Without denying either the power or the will, it may be safely believed
that both equally exist in reference to the relations of individuals as well
as o f nations ; and that to cause famine, or any other national calamity,
unnecessarily, is no more justifiable on this ground, than murder or rob­
bery would be, because a kind Providence overrules us ; “ from seeming
evil still educing good.”
“ Behold Rome 1” he says, “ aye, Rome ! What is in the midst o f her
people now ? There p r o g r e s s has, indeed, her appointed minister in
Pius I X .; bursting forth as an advent o f Divinity, with the authority o f a
sign manual too authentic to be questioned, too mighty for resistance,” & c.
Suppose, now, that we go back and look at old. Rome.
She did
not resist the commands o f p r o g r e s s .
She did not “ scoff out o f
sight,” as the opponents o f the present war are thought to do, the “ ad­
monitions” o f any hero-divinity. She was ahvays ready for progress,
and went forward to conquer the world, as her manifest destiny dictated.
And what followed? Her power being founded in might rather than
right, with no principle o f justice to uphold it, after century upon
century o f success, began to crumble away ; her liberties disappeared
as if they had been buried in the streets o f Pompeii; and now, after
ages o f darkness and humiliation, the mere attempt to drag them up from
the ruins is an event o f such doubtful results, that the present inhabitants
would probably be glad to know that they have the sympathies o f the
writer in the Merchants’ Magazine.
Is modern history less fruitful in admonitions opposed to those o f the
“ hero-divinity ?”
Republican France was ready for p r o g r e s s .
Her destiny seemed
triumphant.
But “ the hero.divinity o f the a g e ” suddenly proved to
be unpropitious. The Cossacks watered their horses in the Seine ; for­
eign soldiers selected their own quarters in Paris; and the imperial hero,
quietly surrendering his crown, went to St. Helena to gaze at the ceiling,
ortho sky, as it might be, and talk about fulfilling his destiny,” with no fur­
ther events o f greater importance than bickerings with Sir Hudson Lowe
about the title o f General.
I f all the power o f Rome or France could afford no security against such
consequences, long may the city o f Washington and our successive presi­
dents be preserved from the risk of any experiments upon d e s t i n y and
p r o g r e s s , or injustice, as it has been understood.
There is no saying
who might taste the waters o f the Potomac without leave, if the world
should be raised against us.
In these days o f ideality and gas, it is quite important, to be sure, that we
are not giving heed to flighty dreams when we listen to declamation.
The great poet, who looked deep into the thoughts o f men, has bodied




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D estiny.

Progress.

forth the evil passions that prompt to crime in the guise o f witches, who
dazzled the Scottish chieftain with a prize that was only to be attained by
treason and murder; while his comrade, too virtuous to be corrupted by
a brilliant promise to himself, called them “ bubbles,” and warned him
that
---------- “ Oftentimes, to win ns to our harm,
T he instruments o f darkness tell us truths;
W in us with honest trifles, to betray us
In deepest consequence.”

Although the writer o f the article mentioned tells unquestionable truths
to fortify the belief that we have been moving thus far under favorable
auspices, he hints at fearful attempts for the future; and leads one to doubt
whether he may not be troubled, himself, with a dreamy “ semi-con­
sciousness,” that requires warning.
Many years ago, before railroads were known here, and when the first
steamboat had but just left Louisville for New Orleans, a young lawyer,
partly from a desire to see something o f the great West, made his way
from Boston to Kentucky to investigate an important claim, and found it
necessary to visit an unsettled tract o f fifty thousand acres o f land. Taking
with him a surveyor, he entered the tract with the information that, if
they should have good fortune in fording the streams, they might reach
the cabin o f a squatter, who was the sole inhabitant in the whole extent,
before night-fall; otherwise, they must take their chance in the woods.
They reached the cabin in season, and found it in a beautiful clearing.
A tidy woman, with two or three small children, and a tall lad, received
them with a welcome. “ And where is your husband ?” said the survey­
or ; “ gone after salt, I suppose.” “ Bless you, no,” she answered;
“ gone away over into Illinois, or somewhere off there. He is bewitched
after them new countries.”
It seems safe to conclude, notwithstanding the confident tone o f the
writer in question, that he is not authorized as an evangelist to proclaim
a new covenant from the Almighty; nor yet to act as priest, to introduce
a new deity in mythology; but that, in the language o f the squatter’s
wife, he is only “ bewitched,'” like some others, “ after them new
countries.”
One o f the greatest dangers o f our time, is in the confusion o f ideas
that is produced by such writings as the article alluded to. People whose
minds are not disciplined to precision o f thought, are mystified by this per­
sonification o f our own passions as deities; and soon find themselves involved in a labyrinth from which there is no escape but through the grand
but simple truth, which has raised us above heathen idolatry and its most
magnificent barbarisms, that “ there are no Gods but o n e . ”
Temporary success may mislead us into the belief that his injunctions can
be disregarded with impunity, or that we are at liberty to construe them
in the way most convenient for our present purposes ; but history com­
bines with scripture to establish the momentous fact that, while the unjust
and rapacious may spread for a time “ as the green-bay tree,” yet the
time comes at length when they pass away so entirely that they cannot
even be found on the face o f the earth. Notwithstanding our success in
war, we have as great reason to bear this in mind as any nation that
exists.




395

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

Art. V II.— COMMERCIAL CITIES AND TOWNS OF THE UNITED STATES.
NUMBER VIII.

P O U G H K E E P S IE .

P oughkeepsie, the seat o f justice o f Dutchess Co., New York, is located
on the east bank o f the Hudson, 78 miles from the city o f N ew York,
and 76 from Albany. Its name is corrupted from A-po-keep-sing, signify,
ing “ safe harbor.” The village is situated about one mile from the
water’s edge, on a flat o f table land containing 1,768 acres, and elevated
200 feet above the surface o f the river, whose shores present a bold and
somewhat picturesque appearance. A small streatn, called Fall Creek,
discharges its waters into the Hudson, near the steamboat landing, with
an average perpendicular descent o f 160 feet, which furnishes water­
power for several manufacturing establishments. Poughkeepsie is admirably located for trade, having an extensive back country, accessible by
good roads, and noted for its productiveness and high state o f cultivation.
It was founded in 1735, and incorporated in 1801. The township was
organized in 1788. The inhabitants are noted for their enterprise and
public spirit, and are extremely liberal in expenditures for the improvement
o f the village. Among the public buildings are 13 churches, v iz : 1
Presbyterian, 1 Dutch Reformed, 1 Congregationalist, 2 Episcopalian, 1
Baptist, 2 Methodist, 2 Friends, 1 Roman Catholic, 1 Universalist, and 1
African ; a Court house, Market house, and a Collegiate School, which
is 137 by 77 feet, and located on an eminence which commands an exten­
sive prospect o f the surrounding country. The village is amply supplied
with water by means o f an extensive artificial reservoir. Here are also
about 80 to 100 stores ; 3 banking-houses, with a capital o f $550,000 ;
and nearly 1,000 dwelling-houses. In colonial times, the Legislature
held its sessions at this place ; and here the Convention met which rati­
fied the Federal Constitution in 1788. In 1835, a company was organ­
ized for the growth and manufacture o f silk, with a capital o f $200,000.
About the same time, the village enterprise was directed to the whaling
business. T w o companies were accordingly incorporated, with an ag­
gregate capital of $400,000, who purchased the interest o f a prior asso­
ciation in 2 vessels and constructed 5 additional ones, viz : the New Eng.
land, N. P. Tallmadge, Factor, Newark, and Sarah, averaging about
300 tons each. Like all similar experiments on the Hudson, the enter­
prise failed o f success, and a serious loss resulted to the stockholders. The
present trade o f the village gives employment to 3 barges, viz : the Clin­
ton, Poughkeepsie, and Exchange ; and about 18 sailing vessels, viz :—
John C. Baxter.............................. tons
Hannah Ann.........................................
Com et.....................................................
Charles D. Belden...............................
M ary........................... ..........................
Carroll....................................................
Samuel Coddington.............................
Judge Swift...........................................
Sharon....................................................
Three barges (average).......................
Total,




74
85
80
95
50
55
80

Henry Brewster....
Merchant...............
Java........................
First Consul..........
Linnet...................
General Jackson...
Martin Van Buren.
65 Montezuma...........
80 Chatham................

tons

75
40
55
25
70
60
90
75

100
675
.tons 1,929

396

Commercial Cities and Towns o f the United States.

The amount o f assessments from 1838 to 1845, so far as they can be
obtained, are as follows :—
ASSESSMENT OF REAL AND PERSONAL ESTATE.
Years.
1 8 1 8 ..............
1 8 1 9 ..............
1 8 2 2 . ............
1 8 2 3 ..............
1 8 2 5 ...............
1 8 2 6 .............
1 8 2 7 ...............
1 8 3 5 ..............

Real Estate.

1 ,5 1 5 ,3 4 0
1 ,5 1 2 ,2 2 0
1 ,4 3 9 ,3 5 5
1 ,5 0 2 ,5 6 7
1 ,5 3 2 ,9 9 0
1 ,2 4 2 ,2 1 5

Personal.
$ 4 2 6 ,1 5 0
3 9 0 ,0 0 0
4 4 6 ,6 0 0
6 1 5 ,5 2 0
4 6 4 ,0 2 0
5 1 4 ,4 0 0
7 8 9 ,4 3 9
2 7 7 ,8 5 0

Years.
1 8 3 6 ............
1 8 3 8 ............
1 8 3 9 ............
1 8 4 0 ............
1 8 4 1 ............
1 8 4 2 ............
1 8 4 5 ............

Real Estate.
2 ,5 8 4 ,7 3 0
2 ,6 2 4 ,3 4 2
2 ,5 6 0 ,0 0 8
2 ,5 4 7 ,0 0 6
2 ,4 5 4 ,8 7 3
1 ,2 9 0 ,2 8 0

Personal.
$ 1 ,3 1 6 ,7 6 0
1 ,9 0 4 ,1 5 5
1 ,8 3 3 ,7 1 3
1 ,7 4 6 ,0 9 6
1 ,6 8 6 ,4 9 4
6 9 5 ,5 5 0
6 3 9 ,9 7 5

The statistics o f the population, as given in the following paragraph,
.are derived from the census o f 1845 :—
CENSUS OF POUGHKEEPSIE FOR 1845.

Population— Males, 5,672 ; females, 6,119 ; total, 11,791— subject to militia duty, 79 6;
entitled to vote, 2,2 25; naturalized aliens, 8 0 0 ; paupers, 222 ; natives o f N ew York
State, 9,112 ; natives o f other States, 874 ; natives of foreign countries, 1,803 ; colored
persons not taxed, 4 3 6 ; do. do. taxed, 4 8 ; do. do. entitled to vote, 20 ; deaf and dumb,
3 ; blind, 6 ; idiots, 2 ; lunaties, 1 ; Indians, 4 ; births—males, 253 ; females, 2 0 8 ; total,
461 ; deaths— males, 12 2; females, 123 ; total, 245— farmers and agriculturists, 301 ;
manufacturers, 1 3 1 ; merchants, 1 8 4 ; mechanics, 6 9 6 ; clergymen, 2 2 ; attorneys, 36 ;
physicians and surgeons, 18.

There are several excellent schools and academies in Poughkeepsie.
But few, if any, towns in the State appropriate more money to the pur­
pose, as will be seen from the following table:—
Pupils.

Cost.
$ 1 3 ,3 0 0 )
1 4 ,5 7 1 \
139 6 0 0
8 ,5 5 5

1 academy....................................
1 6 private and select seminaries.
1 5 common schools.......................

T o ta l..........................................

147
508
921

$ 1 7 5 ,9 2 6

1 ,5 7 6

AGRICULTURE.
Acres cultivated.

Barley..............................................
.........

W heat............................................. .........
Corn................................................
R ye..................................................
Oats................................................ ..........
Peas................................................. ..........
Beans...............................................
Turnips...........................................
Potatoes..........................................
Pounds o f flax................................

«4
2284
1 ,3 6 5 4

1 ,9 6 8 4
1 6 6 1 -8 0

Acres harv’ d.

1 ,4 0 8 4
5 5 ,3 4 5
3 ,5 9 2
7 5 ,1 5 1

Bush, raised.
100
4 ,3 5 2
8 ,7 3 8

369
98
4 ,1 3 2
1 9 ,9 4 6
360

MANUFACTURES.
Mat’! cons’ d. Val. man’ d.

5
1
1
3
3
1
1

gri t-mills..............
saw-mill................
oil-mill..................
cotton factories...
woollen factories..
iron-works............
rope factory..........




$85,851
2,000
8,000
16,300
102,000
28,000
15,000

Mat’l cons’ d. Val. man’d.

$102,336 1 dyeingand printing
establishment........
$6 00
4,000
26,305
10,000 3 tanneries................
52,250 2 breweries................
85,290
147,000
40.000
Total................ $396,346
22.000

$1,200
37,761

$416,547

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397

MISCELLANEOUS.

Neat cattle.......................................
Milch cow s.....................................
Horses..............................................
Sheep................................................
Hogs..................................................
Fleeces..............................................

2,072
1,327
991
5,659
3,631
3,650

W o o l...........................................lbs.

9,987

Batter..............................................

110,500

Retail stores.............: ......................
Groceries.........................
Public houses...................................

164
63
15

E agle B rewery . This celebrated establishment, located near the
river, is owned and conducted by Messrs. M. Vassar & Co. It was
erected by Mr. Vassar in 1836, and employs a capital o f $150,000. The
entire establishment covers an area o f 35,000 square feet. It consumes,
on an average, 60,000 bushels o f barley, and 50,000 lbs. o f hops, valued
at $50,000; and manufactures 20,000 barrels o f ale, beer, and porter,
amounting to $100,000. The number o f hands employed is about 40,
whose average wages amount to $10,000 per year. Hours o f labor, per
day, 10 to 12.
P e lt o n ’s C a r p e t F a c t o r y .
Mr. Charles M. Pelton, the proprietor
o f this concern, commenced the manufacture o f Ingrain carpeting in
1837, and has a capital invested o f $20,000. His establishment consumes
100,000 lbs. o f wool and worsted per year, which yield 60,000 yards,
valued at $45,000. It runs 90 spindles and 29 looms, which give em­
ployment to 60 hands, at the average wages o f $13,000 per annum.
Hours o f labor, 11.
W a p p i n g e r ’ s C r e e k is a small post-village o f Dutchess County, on a
stream o f the same name, which rises in the north, and, flowing south­
west, enters the Hudson near New Hamburg. This stream furnishes an
abundant water-power through its whole extent, and there are several
manufactories upon it which are now in successful operation. The most
extensive, however, is that o f the Franklindale Company, which was erect­
ed in 1844, and is located a few miles from the Hudson. The most a c­
tive partner is James Ingham, Esq., who is also president o f the company.
This establishment runs 10,400 spindles and 250 looms, and gives em­
ployment to 200 operatives. It comprises one building 200 by 42 feet,
and 5 stories high. Capital, $100,000. The annual disbursements are
as follows:— Wages, $48,000 ; cotton, 520,000 lbs. ; oil, $1,500. This
amount o f labor and material are estimated to yield 72,800 pieces o f
printing cloths per annum. Hours o f labor, 12. Agents in New York,
Messrs. Garnar & Co.

Art. VIII.— A GENERAL STATISTICAL SOCIETY FOR THE UNITED STATES.
To t h e E d it o r of t h e M e r c h a n t s ’ M a g a zin e .
I see, from the December number o f your periodical, that George Tucker,
o f Philadelphia, has suggested to the friends o f exact information the im­
portance o f establishing a General Statistical Society for the whole o f the
United States. Wishing to strike hands with him in this enterprise, I
submit to your columns a response to his suggestion, with some further re­
marks on the value o f such a society.
In his interesting paper, Mr. Tucker has shown the value o f accurate
information o f this kind to the Science o f Political Economy. Having for




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A General Statistical Society fo r the United, States.

some years directed my attention to various fields o f philosophical research,
I have learned that the embarrassments attending every inquiry, from a
want o f experimental facts, are almost insurmountable.
You are well aware that abstruse speculations and metaphysical disqui­
sitions are o f but little service in the speedy advancement o f truth. When
speaking against the prejudices o f individuals, our syllogisms are o f little
consequence. W e may fee], and know for ourselves, that our propositions
are truthful, and we may pursue a chain o f reasoning which we think suf­
ficient to convince the dullest minds ; still, in ninety-nine cases out o f every
hundred, we shall be disappointed in securing even a favorable opinion of
our views. The difficulty lies in the want o f exact information— of facts,
which stand out in characters that cannot be controverted.
By implication there was a great truth in the exordium o f that Senator,
who introduced his speech with the remark, “ I come before you not with
the figures o f rhetoric, but with the figures o f arithmetic.” He then pro­
ceeded to fortify his propositions with a bulwark o f mathematical calcula­
tions that startled the bravest o f his opponents. It is a common thing to
hear orators putting forth their “ figures o f rhetoric” with such a flourish
as to succeed in pleasing for a short time ; but they signally fail in pro­
ducing conviction, or in making even a lasting impression. The essayist,
with Blair and Whately before him, and with the deepest earnestness and
most thorough conviction of the truth he writes, closes up a classical arti­
cle enforcing some great doctrine as he regards it, and sends it forth with
the expectation that it will convict and convert by thousands. But lo ! it
meets no response ; every opponent o f its principle rises from its perusal
with a sneer, and clings, with still greater strength, to his preconceptions.
But did the orator and essayist fortify the ratios o f premises and conclu­
sions with those of mathematical proportions, they would succeed in break­
ing up the foundations o f error, and in fixing the truth upon the public
mind.
Under the present system o f promulgation, the progress o f truth
has been slow. It is time, her principles were “ cyphered out” — shown up
conclusively in figures which cannot lie. T o impress this matter more
strongly, I will be more definite.
Accurate and extensive statistical in­
formation is needed on many, if not all, the great questions that now agi­
tate the public mind. For instance:—
I.
C a p it a l P u n is h m e n t .
The subject o f the death penalty has been
under discussion for many years, and its opponents have continued gradu­
ally, though slowly, to increase.
It would seem that the truth on this
subject ought to be almost self-evident to every mind. Nothing can be o f
greater moment; for, where the life o f a human being is concerned, the
greatest caution and solemnity should be observed in every deliberation.
It is either right or wrong to take the life o f a fellow-being for crime ; and
it is o f infinite importance that the right and wrong be known. W hy is
there not more unanimity in this matter ? W hy have the legislatures o f
but two or three States been yet induced to abolish this extreme penalty,
if it be really wrong to take life under any circumstances ? Is it not be­
cause o f the want o f exact practical knowledge o f the operation o f this
Sampson o f the Criminal Code ? Statistical facts are needed which bear
upon this subject in every point o f view. Such information as might be
collected would enable every one to understand the dictates o f truth and
justice in this matter. W e want facts on the following points :— 1. The
proportion o f executions to the whole population in the various countries,




A General Statistical Society fo r the United States.

399

and under different states o f society. 2. Facts showing the intellectual
and moral standing o f every people. 3. Facts showing the comparative
influence of severity and lenity in the laws, and in the administration o f the
laws. 4. Facts showing in figures, which ever tell the truth, the efficacy
o f capital punishment in preventing crime. 5. Facts showing the condi­
tion o f the culprit from infancy, so that we may know the real causes of
crime, and be the better enabled to judge of the true means o f prevention.
6. F'acts illustrating the influence o f the various passions when manifested
towards the criminal, such as hate and scorn, giving rise to violent treat­
ment; and of kindness, producing a friendship for the unfortunate. 7. Facts
showing whether the expense o f crime would not, if properly applied, fur­
nish the means of education to every child of man, so that all will become
virtuous and happy.
Facts might be collected on all these points, as well as on all others
bearing on the subject, which would forever put at rest the discussion,
and settle the punitory policy on such a basis, as will best subserve the
public good. Statistical arguments will ever force conviction upon every
candid mind. A General Statistical Society might, therefore, be o f infi­
nite service to the cause o f human improvement.
II. P r i s o n D i s c i p l i n e . A somewhat rancorous discussion is agitating
the minds o f those who direct their attention to this important subject.
This question might also be settled correctly, did we possess the proper
statistical information, which the society in question could readily procure.
In addition to the points noticed under the head o f Capital Punishment,
which also have an important bearing on Prison Discipline, we need facts
on the following topics :— 1. Accurate information concerning the results
o f various modes o f treating the vicious in prisons, gaols, houses o f cor­
rection, and in general society. This would give us much truth concern­
ing the nature o f the human mind, and tell us how it can be correctly in­
fluenced. 2. W e want facts concerning the development of the mind un­
der all circumstances, so that we may know what are the best influences
that can be gathered around every mind. Had we information on this
whole subject, stated in the “ figures o f arithmetic,” we could learn how
to make the wicked better instead o f worse ; and, instead o f sending them
from our prisons and houses o f correction “ tenfold more the children of,”
& c., than before, we should be enabled to fit them for the duties o f social
life, and make them valuable members o f the community.
III. P u n i s h m e n t . The question, even, whether every kind o f punish­
ment be not unnecessary, injurious, and unjust, is being mooted— whether,
in short, society has any right to inflict pain upon any o f her members for
any cause— whether it is not the duty o f man and society, under all cir­
cumstances, to do good, instead o f evil, to each and every individual. Here,
it will be seen, a thrust is made at the whole penal code ; and not a few
o f the choicest minds o f the country are arrayed against every species o f
punishment.
They say, that if society would provide all the young with
that degree o f education which she is under obligation to furnish, there
would be no need o f inflicting pain for offences; that society, in neglecting
this duty, is the first offender, and consequently, is unjust in punishing the
consequences o f her own wrong. Whether this reasoning be true or
false, it is all-important to determine ; for, if it be correct, multitudes are
constantly being grievously injured, against which injuries the public con­
science should re b e l; but if it bo false, then it is equally important that




400

A General Statistical Society fo r the United Slates.

the spread o f falsehood should be stayed, and its advocates silenced.
There are facts enough to settle all the principles o f penal law ; and all
that is required is, a little more care in collecting them. Nothing now
seems to be settled on this subject. Even the object o f laws which take
cognizance o f offences, is not understood— whether it be to frighten or re­
form the wicked— whether it be to send the offender out, under an armed
escort, with chains dangling at his heels, to labor on the public streets— or
whether he should be neatly clad, holding a book instead o f a hand-cuff;
having the company of men armed with goodness instead o f guns, and
meeting the tear o f sympathy, instead o f the stern and savage stare o f the
tyrant.
IV. T h e G o v e r n m e n t o f F o r c e . It remains also a vexala questio
whether the least infliction o f violence, either upon young or old, be not an
injury, and in no respect, nor under any circumstances, a benefit. The
influence of the rod in the family and school is not yet understood. T o
enlighten the public mind on this subject, we need facts on the following
points :— 1. What proportion of the wrong-doers come from families in
which the rod was an instrument o f discipline, and what portion are from
families in which government has been according to the law o f love,
which forbids all violent treatment o f every character. 2. Instances
where the violent have been subdued by gentleness, and the wicked con­
verted by kindness. 3. Instances where severity has ruined those who
have been its objects, as well as when it has been salutary. 4. Instances
where kindness and love have been ruinous in the influence, as well as
where they have been beneficial in elevating the young. 5. Facts to
show whether the child is ever spoiled by “ sparing the rod.” In pursu­
ing these inquiries, we should become enlightened on the subject o f nonresistance, and ten thousand other questions, o f importance to the high­
est well-being of man. The facts are developed in every-day life. Ex­
perience is the most prolific source o f knowledge— a source which is too
much neglected. The society in question would direct the attention o f the
people to practical life, where observation would throw light upon the in­
terior o f human existence, and dissipate the darkness that broods over
much of human action that seems inexplicable.
V . *La w s f o r t h e C o l l e c t i o n o f D e b t .
Some thinkers have the
presumption to question the benefits that are said to result from the institu­
tion o f the civil courts. It is thought that the laws by which debts are forci­
bly collected, and the disputes o f the people in their business relations ad­
justed, are productive o f little good compared with the great injuries re­
sulting therefrom. This conclusion results from the following premises :—
1. No law should be made or supported whose primary influence is for the
gratification and development o f the evil passions ; but such is the primary
influence o f laws for the collection o f d ebt; therefore, & c. 2. No
laws should bo enacted or supported which place the means of happi­
ness o f any family or person in the control o f another ; but laws for the
collection of debt do thus give one man the mastery o f another, and even
o f many others ; therefore, & c. 3. No laws should be sanctioned which
make the hall o f justice the arena o f contending passions ; but laws for
the collection o f debt do thus prostitute justice ; therefore, & c. 4. No
laws should be approved which tend to unseat the sentiment o f honor
in the public mind ; but the laws in question have this tendency be­
cause credit is generally given to them instead of to the integrity o f the




A General Statistical Society fo r the United States.

401

debtor, thereby degrading him in his own estimation, and weakening
his self-respect ; therefore, & c. 5. Laws should not be supported which
interfere with the business relations o f the people to an unnecessary
degree : the laws for the collection o f debt do thus interfere ; therefore,
& c. 6. Laws which induce a violation o f proper economy are falser
and should be repealed: the laws in question do induce such a vio­
lation, because the expense o f prosecuting causes in court is at least
seventy-five per cent o f all collections made through the court ; therefore,
& c . 7. There should be no laws that weaken public credit, or tend to
diminish confidence between man and man : these laws do weaken credit
and destroy confidence, by diminishing the inducement for the young
to establish a good reputation, that their worth may command credit;
therefore, & c.
T o develop the truth on this subject, abundance of statistical informa­
tion is accessible, which will not be collected except through the agency
o f the proposed society. Facts could then be brought before the people
that would demonstrate the folly o f “ going to law,” when frequently
much is expended to get a little, and much moral worth sacrificed on the
shrine to avarice.
VI. T h e S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n . Perhaps no subject is receiving more
attention at this time than the social relations o f mankind. They are in­
teresting a certain class o f thinkers, who press their peculiar views o f
reform with an obstinacy which is not likely to yield to ridicule, contempt,
or failures in experimental operations. With them, these social relations
are a great fact— a thorough reality, with which the wail o f Ireland, and
the wickedness and woe o f a large part o f humanity, have something to do.
They think, in looking upon the scarred portion o f the human family, that
the “ mind your own business” policy has worked sad results, and that
man has something to do for his neighbor ; and whether he act as an in­
dividual or as a State, he must regard the interests o f others as well as o f
himself. W e have, therefore, some settlement to make with this social
question, and the sooner we post up the great ledger o f facts bearing upon
it, the better.
The day-books o f human experience have been filled, vol­
ume after volume, for several thousand years ; and such as escape the ob­
livion o f age, should be preserved for reference. Humanity should know
the state of her affairs. As a prudent man o f business sets off the losses
against the profits, and the expenditures against the income, so that he
may know whether he be ascending or descending the slope o f existence,
and be enabled to govern himself accordingly, so the great social man, the
aggregate of mortals, should know how fast the wealth o f the few is in­
creasing, and consequently also the poverty o f the many, and what means
can be adopted for increasing the general sum o f happiness.
VII. E d u c a t i o n . This great idea o f educating the mass, o f diffusing
knowledge universally, has not yet lost its meaning, nor the burning ardor
it occasioned wholly died out. The whole subject has been talked over
and over ten thousand times ; and it seems that little further emphasis
can be given to it, unless the people be lashed with the syllogisms o f ma­
thematics— be startled with a glance at the endless footings credited to
that old bankrupt, ignorance, that never pays, except in his own coin o f all
sorts o f unwelcome things. Let us, then, have the facts concerning the
doings of ignorance and education, that we may stand committed, and put
forth efforts commensurate with the good that is promised. And how
VOL. x v m .— no . iv .
26




402

A General Statistical Society fo r the United States.

shall we obtain these facts, if they be not obtained by men acting under
the auspices o f such a society as the one proposed ? The facts that are
yearly collected by the wardens o f our penitentiaries, and others who have
the guardianship o f the vicious and criminal, are so imperfect, as to be o f
little account compared with the proofs that might be brought from such
sources, of the direful course o f ignorance, and the redeeming power o f
a true education. For instance, the warden o f the Ohio Penitentiary
reports, for 1847, that o f the 445 convicts in prison, 297 can read and
w rite; 69 can read print o n ly ; 19 cannot read intelligibly; 37 learned
to read since committed to prison ; and 23 cannot read nor write. Now,
o f the 297 who could read and write, we should be informed how many
ever made use o f the acquisition ; for certainly the person who can read,
but never does read, possesses no educational advantage over him who
knows nothing o f written language. T o be sure, these figures tell much
for the cause o f education; for 60 who could neither read nor write
when they entered the prison, are about one-seventh o f 445, which is
over 14 per cen t; that is, 1 : 14 o f the prisoners cannot read and write ;
while, by the census o f the people o f the State, 1 : 44 cannot read and write.
But, were such statistics taken more minutely, I have no doubt that at
least 80 :100, or 80 per cent o f all the convicts, either cannot read, or
never made use o f the ability.
VIII.
P overty . W e want, also, accurate statistics, telling all about the
poor and unfortunate, that we may know if the extension o f educational
privileges, and the general diffusion o f knowledge, will not eventually ban­
ish all the evils resulting from poverty, by enabling all to command the
resources they need, by improving the benevolence o f the human family,
and by more equally distributing the wealth o f the world.
But I have said enough, for this time, concerning the importance o f such
a society as the one proposed by Mr. Tucker. There is now no thorough
system o f collecting statistical information on any point touched above,
nor, indeed, on any subject whatever. Thus, the most valuable kind o f
knowledge is now lost. This should not be.
Mr. Tucker has spoken of a general society, to be located at N ew York
or Philadelphia. I think there should be auxiliary societies in every city
and principal town in the country, in order that collections may be made
from the broadest field possible, and under the most varied circumstances.
Delegates from the auxiliaries might meet once a year, in general society,
at New York or Philadelphia, to report progress, and discuss the best
mode o f collecting facts, & c .; but the auxiliaries, I think, should meet at
least quarterly. At these quarterly meetings, attention would be awakened
to the great object o f the society. Individuals will do little to forward a
public enterprise when acting single-handed and alone. Unless there be
some strong selfish incentive, man needs the strength and energy derived
from association with his fellows.
Hoping, therefore, this subject will receive further attention,
I remain respectfully yours,
L. A. H ine .
Cincinnati, Ohio.




403

Mercantile Law Cases.

MERCANTILE

LAW

CASES.

IMPORTANT LEGAL DECISION— ACTIONS OF TR O V E R ."

In the New York Supreme Court, at Chambers. John A. Underwood vs.
Daniel Felter, jr.; Godfrey Patterson & Co. vs. the same ; George Harden vs. the
same ; William P. Dixon vs. the same ; Bowen &. McNamee vs. the same.
These were five actions of trover, brought to recover the value of a large
amount of goods alleged to have been fraudulently obtained by the defendant from
the various parties, plaintiffs. The defendant was arrested, and held to bail in
each suit.
Orders were granted, calling upon the plaintiffs in each case to show cause of
action, and why the defendant should not be discharged upon his own bond. Upon
the return day of the orders, cause was shown ; and it appeared (and for the pur­
poses of the question then to be determined, it was admitted) that the defendant
was indebted to each plaintiff in the amount alleged; that he obtained the goods
from him, upon which the indebtness accrued, by fraud and false pretences; and
that, at the time when he thus obtained the goods, he gave to them, severally, his
promissory notes for the amounts, payable at a future day thereafter, which had
passed, and that said notes were then in the possession of the respective plaintiffs.
It further appeared, that two indictments had been found against the defendant by
the grand jury of the city and county of New York ; one upon the complaint of
Underwood, and the other upon the complaint of Patterson ; that the other plaintiffs
were cognizant of, but not parties in procuring said indictments ; that, upon one
of said indictments, a requisition had issued from the Governor of New York to
the Governor of Louisiana; that, upon that requisition, he had been brought within
the jurisdiction of the Court; and that, after giving bail upon the indictments, he
was arrested upon the several writs of capias ad respondendum, which issued in
these suits. It further appeared, by the affidavits of the plaintiffs Underwood
and Patterson, that the criminal proceedings against the defendant were taken in
good faith, and not for the purpose of bringing the person of the defendant within
the jurisdiction of the Court, that they might hold him to bail in a civil suit; and
that, on the contrary, the civil proceedings were not thought of by them, or sug­
gested to them, until after the amount of his bail had been determined by the
Criminal Court.
Upon these facts Ogden Hoffman, Esq., counsel for the defendant, moved his
discharge on the following grounds:—
1st. That the promissory notes of the defendant, which he had given for the
goods obtained, had neither been tendered nor surrendered to him; and that this
was a legal requisite before the action of trover could be brought. That the ac­
tion, being based upon the alleged invalidity of the contract of sale, by reason of
fraud, and the plaintiff seeking to rescind it, must place, or offer to place, the de­
fendant in the same situation in which he was before the sale, by tendering or
delivering to him everything which he had received upon the contract.
In support of this, he cited cases from the 4 Mass. Reports, and the 1st and 2d
of Denio.
2d. That the defendant, having been brought into the State by requisition, which
issued upon indictments found against him upon the complaint of the plaintiffs
in two of the cases, and with the assent and cognizance of the other plaintiffs,
he could not be held to bail by them, in civil suits, while here answering to the
criminal charge; that this would enable creditors to use the criminal process of
the State as a mere pretext to bring their debtors within the jurisdiction of the
Court, for the purpose of securing their debts by arrest in civil actions ; and, not­
withstanding the affidavits of the parties, the Court was bound to presume that
the collection of their debts, by the creditors, was their primary object in institut­
ing the criminal proceedings.




404

Mercantile Law Cases.

In support of this proposition, Mr. Hoffman cited a MS. case in the Superior
Court of New York, of “ Wood vs. Ritchie.”
F ra n cis II. Upton, E sq., coun sel for each o f the plaintiffs, replied as follow s :—
1st. T h a t w h ere a party seeks to set aside a contract o f sale upon the ground
o f fraud, and to that end brings his action o f trover, if he has received nothing
upon the contract but the prom issory note o f the defendant, he need not deliver up,
or tender, this note to the defendant before bringing the action— it is sufficient if
it be produced at the trial to be cancelled ; that the distinction is betw een the mere
note o f the defendant, and the note o f a third p arly, or other properly ; that this dis­
tinction is obviously well founded in principle, and is taken by the authorities ;
that the cases cited by the defendant’s coun sel w ere cases in w hich som ething
m ore than the sim ple written prom ise o f the defendant to pay, had been received
by the plaintiff. H e cited cases in 22 P ick . R eports, 18, and 1 M etcalf, 557, as
co n clu siv e upon this point.
2d. T h a t the doctrine that a creditor cannot hold his debtor to bail, in an a c ­
tion o f trover, for fraudulently obtaining from him his property, because the credi­
tor has m ade the ch arg e o f fraud against the debtor, upon w h ich he has been in­
dicted, and upon w h ich indictm ent he has been brought within the ju risdiction o f
the Court, is a proposition w hich has never been decided by any Court, and ca n ­
not be sustained upon any principle. T h a t here, the distinction is betw een the
bona fid e perform ance o f the duty o f a creditor, as an honest citizen, in further­
a n ce o f the ends o f public ju stice , ( and this the C ourt is bound to presum e, unless
the contrary clearly appears,) and the use, by the creditor, o f the crim inal process
o f the State as a m ere pretext for the purpose o f enabling him to pursue his
debtor ch ililer. T h a t this distinction w as the basis o f the decision s in 9 B ing.,
566, and 8 B. & C ., 769, w here a creditor, finding that his debtor w as about to
depart from the jurisdiction o f the C ourt on Sunday, had him detained upon a
crim inal ch arge until M onday, and then held him to bail in a civil action . T h e
defendant w as discharged. T h is distinction w as taken by the Suprem e C ourt o f
N e w Y o r k in 10 W e n d ., 636, w h ere the C ourt say that, “ if the argum ent o f the
defendant’s cou n sel, w h o m oved his disch arge, that the crim inal proceed ing w as
a m ere pretext to bring the defendant within the ju risdiction o f the C ourt for the
purpose o f p roceeding against him civiliter, had been supported by the fa c ts o f the
case, the defendant w ould have been discharged— as it was, the motion w as de­
nied .”
M r. Upton further replied, that no reasons for the decision in t h e M S . ca se,
in the Superior Court, w ere recorded, and that there must have been som ething
pecu liar in the case, to bring it within the principle established in the E nglish
cases, and in the 16th o f W end ell. T h a t the proposition contended for by the de­
fendant’s coun sel w ould require the C ourt to adopt a presum ption, not only in
violation o f a w ell-established legal presum ption, hut in direct opposition to the
fa c ts sw orn to.
T h at, until the contrary is made to appear, the C ourt is com pelled, as matter o f
law, to presum e that the plaintiffs, in m aking com plaint before the grand ju ry
against the defendant, acted in perfect good faith, and w ere not guilty o f the
crim e o f abusing the crim inal p rocess to subserve their ow n private ends. T h a t
w h ere, upon a rule to show cause, the plaintiffs (as they have done in these cases)
p urge them selves, by positive affidavit, o f every suspicion o f the abuse charged
against them by the affidavit o f the defendant upon “ inform ation and belief,” the
C ourt cann ot disch arge the defendant upon com m on bail, w ithout a disregard o f
the doctrine established in the 10th o f W e n d e ll, and declarin g that the defencant,
bein g within the jurisdiction o f the Court, by reason o f an indictm ent found
against him upon the com plaint o f the plaintiff, the plaintiff is, ipso fa c to , precluded
from availing him self o f his civil rights.
T h e C ourt (Judge E dw ards) decided, as to th e firs t ground upon w h ich the dis­
ch arg e o f the defendant was asked, that he was satisfied that the authorities w ere
against the position taken by the defendant’s coun sel, though he w as unable to
p erceive any sound distinction, in principle, betw een the note o f the defendant
and that o f a third person ; and but for the authorities, w hich w ere con clu siv e, he
should have sustained the defendant’s coun sel in this position, and disch arge.




M ercantile Law Cases.

405

U pon the second point, w ithout g iv in g any written opinion, or entering into any
elaborate discussion o f the question, the C ourt decided that the defendant should
be held to give special bail in ea ch o f the cases, e x cep t those o f John A . U nder­
w ood and G odfrey Patterson, et al.; and in these, that he should be discharged
upon com m on bail, upon the ground that they w ere the com plainants in the crim ­
inal proceeding, through w h ose instrum entality the defendant had been brought
w ithin the jurisdiction o f the C ourt.
T h e plaintiffs, in these tw o cases, appealed from this decision to the next g e n ­
eral term o f the Suprem e C ourt, and obtained an order from the Court staying
p roceedings therein, pending the appeal.

ACTION TO RECOVER DAMAGES FOR A BREACH OF W A R R A N T Y IN THE SALE OF OPIUM.

In the Suprem e Judicial Court, (B oston, M assachusetts,) F eb., 1848. H en shaw , W a rd , &, C o. vs. R e g g io & P eloso.
T h is w as an action on the case, to recover dam ages for a breach o f warranty
in the sale o f a quantity o f opium ; also for recov ery o f the am ount paid therefor,
upon the ground o f a rescission o f the contract, o f sale.
A t the trial, eviden ce was introduced proving that the plaintiffs purchased o f
the defendants eleven cases o f opium , and received a bill o f parcels, in w h ich the
article purchased was described as “ 11 cases o p iu m ;” that paym ent w as made
by the defendants’ note on 8 months, w h ich w as paid at m atu rity; that the opium
w a s received by the plaintiffs at the time o f the purchase, and kept by them sev e­
ral months before it was opened for use ; that in the m eantime it began to d eca y,
or d ecom pose, and finally lost nearly all its original sm ell and a p p ea ra n ce; that
w hat small parcels thereof had been sold by the plaintiffs, before they discovered
w hat it w as, had been returned to them ; that the plaintiffs caused the article to
be analyzed by em inent chem ists, and it was ascertained that it w as, in fact, m ere­
ly that part o f opium w hich is left, and thrown aw a y as dregs, after extractin g
from it the morphia, w h ich constitutes its m edicinal value ; that these dregs w ere
united with about the sam e quantity o f meconic acid, and with the other acids and
alkalies, usually found in genuine opium ; and that the m econ ic acid, w h ich is
usually found united with the m orphia, w as, in this instance, neutralized by the
introduction o f powdered marble, so that the w hole substance thus m ixed would
pass the usual chem ical tests, arid was calculated to d eceive chem ists, as w ell as
d ru g g is ts; m ore especially as the ordinary arrangem ents o f the vegetable matter
o f the opium w ere not apparently disturbed by these processes.
It w as also testified that the article w as wholly worthless, and o f no value for
an y purpose ; that nearly all o f it had been tendered ba ck to the defendants before
bringin g this suit, but that it w as not receiv ed by t h e m ; that the article w as
shipped to the defendants, in B oston, by B raggeotti & C o., o f L ondon, on join t a c ­
cou n t ; and that the defendants had nothing to do w ith the original preparation o f
the opium , and w ere w h olly inn ocen t o f any w rongful intentions in the transac­
tion.
T h e plaintiffs did not claim , in this case, further dam ages than m erely the am ount
o f the purchase m oney, and interest.
W i l d e , J., ruled, that if the ju ry believed that the article w as not opium , and
w a s worthless, then, w ithout any tender th ereof to the defendants, the plaintiffs
w ere entitled to recov er the am ount c la im e d ; the description on the bill o f par­
cels bein g a w arranty that the article w as opium. T h at, i f the article w as not
opium, and yet w as not w h olly w orthless, i f the plaintiffs had done all that
cou ld reasonably be done as to the tender o f the article to the defendants, for the
purpose o f rescinding the contract, then the plaintiffs w ere entitled to recov er the
am ount claim ed.
T h e ju ry found a verdict in favor o f the plaintiffs, for the am ount paid and in­
terest, am ounting to the sum o f eight thousand three hundred and eighteen dollars,
eighty-nin e cents.
W in . W h itin g for the plaintiffs, C . P . Curtis for the defendants.




406

M ercantile Law Cases.
VERB AL PROMISES TO P A T ANOTHER’ S DEBTS IN CERTAIN CASES VOID.

In the Court o f C om m on P leas, (B oston, M ass.,) 1848. Jam es H . W e s t, et
ah, vs. Charles W . Barker.
T h is w as an action to re co v e r the sum o f $ 1 4 5 96, for lum ber alleged to have
been delivered to one N . M . Barker, on the credit o f the defendant. T h e plain­
tiffs offered eviden ce tending to sh ow that N . M . Barker w ent to them to purchase
a bill o f lum ber, and that they refused to trust him, on the ground that they knew
nothing o f his ability to p a y ; that immediately afterwards, the defendant cam e to
the p lace o f business o f the plaintiffs, and introduced N. M . B arker as his brother,
and said he w ou ld be responsible for the lum ber w h ich his brother might pur­
chase. T h e re w as, also, eviden ce that the defendant, on the bill bein g presented to
him by the A ttorney with w hom it had been left for collection , expressed surprise
at its am ount, and said he did not e x p ect the bill w as for m ore than thirty-five or
forty dollars.
T h e defendant contended that, if an y prom ise w as made by him to pay the debt
o f N . M . Barker, it w as void, not bein g in w ritin g, as within the Statute o f
F ra u d s; that the plaintiffs origin ally gav e credit to N . M . Barker, as appeared by
their books o f accoun ts, in w h ich the items in the bill w ere all charged to N . M .
B a r k e r ; and that, i f the defendant w a s liable at all, it w as only for the three first
item s in the bill, bein g the lum ber w h ich was delivered to N . M . B arker on the
day when he w as introduced to the plaintiffs by the defendant, am ounting to sev­
enteen dollars and eighty-tw o cents.
T h e ju ry returned a verdict for the plaiutifls, for the three first items and inter­
est, am ounting to eighteen dollars and thirty-one cents. T h is verdict entitles the
plaintiffs to recov er only four dollars and fifty-eight cents for costs.

CLAIMS AGAINST SHIPS AND VESSELS.

B y the R evised Statutes o f N e w Y o rk , it is provided that certain debts against
ships and vessels, am ounting to fifty dollars or upwards, shall be liens upon su ch
ships and vessels, w h en su ch debts are contracted for w ork, labor, m aterials, e tc.—
for provisions, stores, e tc.— for w h arfage, etc.
It is further provided, that, at the end o f tw elve days from the departure o f such
ship or vessel from the port w here the debt was* contracted, to som e other port
within the State, these debts shall ce a se to be lie n s ; and that, in ca se the vessel
leaves the State, all liens shall thereupon term inate.
U nder this law , the follo w in g d ecision w as lately m ade. T h e m any losses o f
creditors, in sim ilar cases, are tending to redu ce the credit usually g iv en to ships
and steam ers from thirty days to one w eek , e x cep t w here there is p erfect con fi­
d en ce in the responsibility o f the proprietors.
U . S . D istrict C ourt .— B efore Ju dge Belts. — D ecision in A dm iralty.— T h e
P resident, M anagers, e tc., o f the D elaw a re and H udson Canal C o. vs. T h e S team ­
boat A lida .— O rrin T hom pson, claim ant. O n the 20lh o f Septem ber, the boat w as
ow ned by W m . R . M cC u llou g h , w h o transferred her in trust to a third person ;
but the cu stom -h ou se refusing to register the co n v e y a n ce, a regular bill o f sa le
w as ex ecu ted to E . S tevenson on the 21st, and on the 27th he con veyed her to
the claim ant. O n Saturday previous, Jam es M cC u llo u g h , the father o f W m . R .,
failed, in con seq u en ce o f w h ich W m . R . becam e insolvent, and on M onday this
w as notorious in the city. T h e boat had been arrested, im m ediately previous t o
her transfer, on tw o o r three claim s again st her, and on the 21st Septem ber w a s
attached on the libel filed in this cause. T h e libellants ow n the L ack aw an a c o a l
beds, and supply this c o a l exten sively to steam boats by carts from their yards, as
it is required for use, and render bills about on ce a m onth, colle ctin g the am ount
within a fe w days after allow in g time to exam ine the bills. T h e only direct
agreem ent proved w as the follow in g m em orandum , written by M r. M cC u llou g h
in the books o f the lib e lla n ts:—
“ Steam boat A lida .— I have this d ay purchased o f the D . and H . C . C o. 5 0 0
tons o f lum p co a l, to be delivered at R on d ou t, at $ 4 6 2 i per g ro ss ton, less 12$,




M ercantile Law Cases.

407

cents per ton for cash to the first o f A u g u st. A lso , 1,000 tons lum p coa l, to he
delivered from yards in N e w Y o rk , at $ 5 00 per ton, to be delivered by carts.
N e w Y o rk , July 12, 1847.
(S ig n e d )
“ W m . R . M c C u l l o u g h .”
T h e boat left N e w Y o rk on M ond ays, W edn esda ys, and F ridays, returning on
alternate d a y s ; she received her coal usually on arrival dow n, sufficient to supply
her run up the next day. In A p ril, the libellants delivered 140 tons in this c i t y ;
in M ay , 245 tons in N e w Y o rk , 8 at K in g ston , and 349 at R o n d o u t ; in June, 303
tons in N ew Y o rk , and up to the 10th o f July 122 tons— the total price being
$ 4 ,5 5 7 70. T h e paym ents w ere, 23d June, $ 7 8 2 ; 30th June, $ 2 ,8 5 8 70— leav­
in g a balance due, w hen the n ew arrangem ent w ent into effect, o f $ 9 1 7 .
T h e delivery o f co a l continued in the sam e m anner up to Sept. 18. O n the 2d
A u gu st, $ 4 ,3 6 3 50 w as collected by libellants, and A u g u st 31, $ 2 ,1 4 5 . T h e
c o lle ctin g agen t proved that he delivered the bills m onthly, and a few days after
called and received the payments as credited. W h e n he presented the bills in
Septem ber, M cC u llou g h prom ised to pay the amount in a day or tw o. T h e Court
held all this testim ony proper and relevant, as the m emorandum above quoted did
not represent the entire bargain and understanding betw een the parties. T h e
C ourt held that this m em orandum in no w a y varied the relation o f the parties, other
than in respect to the prices. T h e libellants under it w ere bound to deliver the coal
as before, w hen demanded, and only in the quantity required ; and M r. M cC u llou g h
w as bound to pay for the co a l as delivered, each delivery creatin g a debt payable at
the time. T h e lien, how ever, as laid dow n in the previous decision, is only
available to the libellants for the am ount o f c o a l delivered within tw elve days
before suit brought, and after the departure o f the boat on her regular trip from
N e w Y ork . T h is w ill include the coal delivered from the 9th Sept, to the time
su if w as brought— 120 tons, at $ 5 00 per ton, $ 6 0 0 ; and for the residue o f the
am ount unpaid, $ 3 ,2 3 9 97, the libellants have lost their rem edy against the boat.
It w as contended for the claim ant, that this $ 6 0 0 had also ceased to be a lien,
becau se the debt was contracted on the 12th July ; but the C ourt held that there
w as not the slightest c o lo r for such construction o f the statute.
D ecision for the libellants for $ 6 0 0 , and interest from the 21st Septem ber last,
and their costs to be taxed.

PARTNERSH IP CREDITORS.

Iu the Suprem e C ourt o f V erm on t, W in d h a m C ounty, February term, 1847.
In the ca se o f Calvin W ash b u rn and others vs. T h e B ank o f B ellow s F alls, et al.,
the follow in g points w ere d e c id e d :—
Partnership creditors are entitled to a preference o v er separate creditors, ou t of
the partnership assets o f an insolvent firm , in equity, notw ithstanding the separate
creditors had first attached those assets. B u t at law , in V erm on t, the claim of
the separate creditors, under the attachm ents, w ould be valid.
It is sufficient for the partnership creditors, in su ch a ca se, to m ake out a prim a
f a c i e ca se o f in s o lv e n cy ; and i f the defendants w ish an a ccou n t taken, for the
purpose o f disproving the insolven cy, it m ay be done, but at their ow n expense.
T h e partnership creditors m ight, h ow ever, i f they chose, have caused su ch an
a c c o u n t to be taken, m aking the m em bers o f the firm parties to the bill.
T h e partnership creditors having m ade separate su ccessiv e attachm ents, and
having resorted to a cou rt o f equity for relief against the attachments o f the sep­
arate creditors, m ust share the assets equally, p r o rata, and not in the order of
their attachm ents.
In this case, the defendants being justified, from form er decision s, in contestin g
the matter, no costs w ere allow ed for the proceedings before the chan cellor be­
lo w ; but as the chan cellor’ s decision w as reversed on appeal, costs w ere allow ed
to the plaintiffs in the cou rt above.




408

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.
P O L I T IC A L E V E N T S , A N D T H E I R
IC O , AND T H E
TH E

IN F L U E N C E U P O N

IN T E R N A T IO N A L C O M M E R C E — T R E A T Y

W IT n

M EX­

F R E N C H R E V O L U T I O N — C A P A C IT Y OF F R A N C E T O C O N S U M E A M E R IC A N P R O D U C T IO N S —

F R E N C H T A R IF F OF

C IA L A F F A I R S OF T H E

1787—

S T A T E OF A F F A IR S IN E N G L A N D — C O N D IT IO N OF T H E

U N IT E D S T A T E S — IN C R E A S E

IN V E S T M E N T S O F N E W E N G L A N D — G O V E R N M E N T

OF C A P IT A L IN T H E U N I T E D

B AN K — COM MER­

S T A T E S — R A IL R O A D *

L O A N S— P R I C E S OF U N I T E D S T A T E S

S T O C K S IN N E W

Y O R K , E T C ., E T C .

D u r i n g the m onth, political events o f the m ost grave im portance have taken

p la ce, and w hat their ultimate influence upon international com m erce m ay be, it
is im possible y et to determine.

W e allude, o f course, to the treaty o f p eace w ith

M e x ic o , as w e ll as the entirely unexpected explosion in F ra n ce, and the abdica­
tion o f the k in g o f Ju ly.

A fter seventeen years o f unadulterated qu ack ery, the

ephem eral governm ent o f 1830 has reached its legitim ate end.

L ou is P hilip pe,

through the s u cc e s s o f the bold schem es o f corruption w h ich he practised, w a s
aw arded a m uch greater d egree o f political w isdom than he deserved.

T h e plan

o f m eeting every political difficulty by lavish expenditure, must necessarily, in a
com m ercia l ag e, have a speedy end ; and w’hen, but a few m onths ag o, the ex p o­
sure o f governm ent corruption w as accom panied by the su icide o f a m inister,
the hand-w riting upon the w all w as plainly discernible.

T h e stim ulus then g iv en

to. reform has rapidly produced a crisis, and onee m ore a B ourbon k in g seek s
safety in flight from P aris.

T h is time the people, benefiting by form er experi­

e n ce , seek not to arrest the flyin g m onarch, w h ose desertion o f the throne seem s
to have been as sudden as his call to it was un expected.
to be, it is difficult to foresee.

W h a t the results are

O ne thing m ay be considered certain, v i z : that

F ra n ce has seen her last B ourbon ruler, and the chan ces are n ow greatly in fa vor
o f the fulfilm ent o f the d ecree o f N apoleon— “ T h e B ourbons have ceased to reign
in E u rop e.”

A lth ough they su cceed ed in stru gglin g ba ck to their several thrones

for a time, the lapse o f thirty-three years has witnessed the expulsion o f the elder
bran ch , and n ow the you n ger branch, from the throne o f F r a n c e ; and the C oun t
de P aris w ill probably, like the y o u n ge r Stuart, b ecom e “ a w a n d e r e r w h i l e the
se co n d great m ovem ent o f F ra n ce in favor o f republicanism w ill, chastened by
the progress o f fifty years, lead the great mass o f the E urop ean people, and p u rge
all the thrones o f their m ischievous incum bents.
T h e effect o f this state o f things, com m ercially, must be o f an adverse natu re
im m ediately, becau se, in tim es o f doubt and disturbance, the circulation o f cap ital
is alw ays restricted, and trade paralyzed.

T h is depends, how ever, upon the de­

g re e o f resistance that the aristocrats m ay su cceed in m aking to the w ill o f the
people.

In 1830, w hen the revolution w ent forw ard without, m uch opposition,

there w as no com m ercia l panic in Paris— neither the funds nor the m oney market
w ere perceptibly disturbed.

T h e nature o f the crisis w as fully understood by the

bankers o f P aris, and they supported their custom ers freely through the difficulty,
and there w as no great d egree o f com m ercial distress.

A t the present m om ent,

h o w e v e r, the state o f the public mind is m ore ripe for a radical and thorough
ch a n g e in the form o f the g o v e rn m e n t; the rem oval o f m any a b u ses: the ex ten ­
sion o f the right o f suffrage, and the abolition o f com m ercial and industrial re­
strictions.

T h e s e , i f p erfected w ithout civil strife, must greatly prom ote our trade

with F ra n ce, and cau se an im m ensely increased consum ption o f raw produce.

The

reduction or rem oval o f the duty on cotton , and the abolition o f the tob a cco reg ie,




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

409

with a modification of the duty on rice, must prove vastly advantageous to Ameri­
can interests, as w’el! as to those of France; and these are likely speedily to fol­
low in the train of governmental reform.
The capacity of France to consume largely of the produce of the United States,
is fully equal to that of Great Britain. The population of the former is 35,000,000,
and of the latter, 27,000,000, including Ireland. In 1787, an enlightened French
ministry issued a decree “ for the encouragement of the commerce of France with
the United States,” by which free trade, in its fullest latitude, was extended to the
United States. The act admitted into France whale, spermaceti, and other oils,
dry or salted fish, breadstuffs, flax and other seeds, skins, furs, hides, ashes, new
ships, naval stores, etc.; and the United States, with respect to all merchandise
and commerce, were placed on the same footing as Frenchmen. In the second
year under this law, we being then but 3,000,000 of people, sent thither—
W heat...................................bush.
R y e ................................................
Barley.............................................

3,664,176 I Flour...................................... bbls.
558,891 |Rice.......................................... tcs.
520,262 I

258,140
24,680

This trade was capable of indefinite extension, to the mutual benefit of both coun­
tries, but for the infernal system of government which has sought to keep the
masses poor by exacting all their means in the shape of taxes, that the govern­
ment may be sustained by the corruption of a lavish expenditure.
While the aspect of foreign interests is prospectively brightening, the internal
state of affairs is greatly improved by the renewed hope of peace held out in the
treaty adopted as presented from Mexico. Apart from the moral evils of a con­
tinued war, the curtailment of national expenditure is a great and desirable ob­
ject to be attained; and the public sense upon this subject is sufficiently marked
in the buoyancy and rise in the public funds, which followed the adoption of the
treaty by the Senate, even in the uncertainty of its being agreed to by any re­
sponsible Mexican authorities. The circulating capital of the country is, at this
time, far more abundant than ever before. The advantageous exports of the
past year very considerably increased its amount; while the steady course of in­
dustry, and absence of speculation, manifest in all parts of the country for several
years, have greatly promoted the accumulation of capital, keeping production in
advance of consumption. In England, the state of affairs seems to present a con­
tinued absence of all enterprise, and a gradual diminution of engagements ; while
production is proceeding slowly under the discouraging circumstances of stagnant,
adverse markets. As an instance o f the degree in which business has become
paralyzed in Great Britain, wre may observe the leading features of the bank re­
turns down to late dates :—
BANK OF ENGLAND.

October

23.
30.

N ov’mber 6.
25.

December 1 1.
(«

January
«
Si
Si

24.
8.
15.
22.
28.

February 11.
iS

19.

Bullion.
£ 8 ,3 1 2 ,6 9 1
8 ,4 3 9 ,6 7 4
8 ,7 3 0 ,3 5 1
1 0 ,0 1 6 ,9 5 7
1 1 ,4 2 6 ,1 7 6
1 2 ,2 3 6 ,5 2 6
1 2 ,5 7 8 ,3 6 1
1 2 ,8 7 1 ,6 0 2
1 3 ,1 7 6 ,8 1 2

Private loans.
£ 1 9 ,4 6 7 ,1 2 8
2 0 ,4 2 4 ,8 9 7
1 9 ,9 1 9 ,9 1 5
1 8 ,7 9 1 ,1 1 7
1 7 ,6 3 0 ,9 3 1
1 6 ,9 7 9 ,0 6 0
1 6 ,3 4 5 ,9 5 8
1 5 ,2 5 4 ,9 3 6
1 4 ,5 1 0 ,3 6 3

Deposits.
£ 8 ,5 8 8 , 5 0 9
8 ,9 1 1 ,3 5 2
8 ,8 0 4 ,3 0 5
7 ,8 6 6 ,4 8 2
8 ,4 3 7 ,3 7 6
8 .2 4 3 ,2 0 3
1 0 ,8 5 8 ,2 8 6
1 0 ,6 7 6 ,1 8 8
1 0 ,7 7 4 ,8 7 0

Nett circul’n.
£ 2 0 ,3 1 8 ,1 7 5
2 0 ,8 4 2 ,4 1 2
2 0 ,3 9 6 .4 4 5
1 9 ,2 9 7 ,7 5 0
1 8 ,3 2 0 ,9 0 5
1 7 ,8 2 2 ,8 9 5
1 8 ,1 7 5 ,1 7 5
1 9 ,0 9 4 ,6 0 0
1 9 ,1 1 1 ,8 8 0

Reserve o f
notes.
£ 1 ,5 7 4 ,2 7 0
1 ,3 0 3 ,1 0 3
2 .2 3 0 ,0 8 5
4 ,2 2 8 ,0 9 5
6 ,4 4 8 ,7 8 0
7 ,7 8 6 ,1 8 0
7 ,3 1 5 ,3 8 5
7 ,1 5 2 ,4 0 0
7 ,4 4 7 ,3 8 5

1 4 ,2 0 4 ,7 2 4
1 4 ,5 6 9 ,6 4 9

1 3 ,3 4 3 ,5 7 0
1 2 ,9 8 8 ,3 9 2

9 ,9 6 1 ,8 4 5
9 ,7 9 7 ,9 3 8

1 8 ,5 5 4 ,6 5 2
1 8 ,0 8 3 ,6 9 5

9 ,0 6 4 ,2 3 5
9 ,8 0 6 ,0 1 0




410

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

O ctob er 23d was the turning point.

S in ce then the bullion has gradually in­

creased, until it is n o w 75 per cen t m ore than in O ctober.
feature, is the fa ct o f the great reduction o f discounts.
c lo s e o f O ctober.

T h e m ost rem arkable

T h e highest point w as the

T h e bank m inim um rate w as then 8 per cent, and out o f doors as

high as 29 per cent.

S in ce then, the m inim um rate o f the bank has gradually

fallen to 4 per cent, and out o f doors to 2 a 3 per cent, short loans.

A t this high

rate o f interest in O ctober, the am ount loaned w as 60 per cen t m ore than at the
present lo w price.

T h e am ounts borrow ed at the high rates have gradually been

paid o ff ; but sound dealers have not sufficiently recovered confidence to renew
enterprise, even at the low price at w h ich m oney ca n now be had.

T h e m eans

at the com m and o f the bank have risen from £ 1 ,3 0 3 ,1 0 3 , to £ 9 ,8 0 6 ,0 1 0 ; yet, al­
though they loaned on first-class paper at 4 per cent, they had, at the latest date,
in now ise relaxed the severity w ith w h ich bills offered w ere scrutinized.

T h is

state o f m oney aflairs affords a very clea r indication o f the absence o f all disposi­
tion to operate in the several m arkets, and sufficiently accou n ts for the low and
fa llin g state o f prices in all d epartm en ts; a disposition o f the public mind by no
m eans alleviated by the state o f political affairs in E urope.

T h e new s from F ra n ce

caused a considerable fall in the E nglish funds, w h ich is probably but a first ef­
fe c t.

A t the clo se o f the lo n g stru ggle with F ra n ce, the E nglish funds w ere

greatly supported by the transfer o f capital from F ra n ce to E ngland for safety.
S h ou ld any indications arise that the governm ent o f the revolution w ill not a c ­
k n ow ledge the national debt in its integrity, an im m ense m igration o f capital must
result.

L o u is P hilippe him self, i f report does him n o injustice, has lon g sin ce pro­

vided for his p ecu niary wants out o f F rance, in anticipation o f the v en g ean ce that
has at last overtaken him.

Independently of the influence which foreign news has exercised over the mar­
kets, the state of commercial affairs in the United States has been, on the whole,
satisfactory. The importations of goods, which, in the first part of the season,
were much in excess of last year, have considerably fallen off as the spring ad­
vanced ; yet the supply of goods has been large, and the assortments good. The
country has generally paid up its bills to the cities with great promptness, and
continued purchases to a fair extent, at prices which, under the circumstances of
large domestic production and active foreign competition from distressed manufac­
turers abroad, cannot be complained of. The distress which was so wide-spread
and disastrous in England, failed to spread itself to any considerable extent on this
side of the Atlantic. Its utmost effort was to produce a considerable money pres­
sure in the Atlantic cities, which came within the influence of the operations of
English connections, but the interior was undisturbed by it. In fact, a similar
state of things exists in England. Both there, as well as in the United States, the
agricultural interests profited largely by the events of the past year, and, while all
other classes suffered in England, the producers of grain sold fair crops at prices
which will average higher than any they have attained probably since the war ;
and, through all the late disastrous revulsion, the agricultural districts of Eng­
land have been free from pressure or distress— in fact, were never more prosper­
ous, the prices obtained more than counterbalancing the diminished production.
In the United States, the agriculturalists are a majority of the active classes, and
in England a minority; but still an important class. For the coming year, all the
elements of increased activity in English production exist in cheap food, cheap




Commercial Chronicle and Review.

411

raw material, and cheap money. Nothing but the state of her markets for ex­
port seems to interfere with a return of great commercial activity.
In the United States the influence of capital, so to speak, has been productive
of disasters in some branches of business. These are, more particularljT, the cot­
ton, iron, and sugar interests ; and these seem to be the results of over-action,
produced by extraneous causes, resulting in an abundance of goods, produced from
raw material at high prices, contending with new supplies from cheaper material.
From the rapid extension of credits now taking place in all parts of the country.based upon the actual existing capital, the prospect seems to be of a greatly in­
creased activity of interchange, as well as consumption, of goods and produce,
leading gradually, through a period of great apparent prosperity, to one of those
commercial revulsions which inevitably and periodically overtake the commercial
world. These are always ascribed to some special cause, but generally to mal­
administration of the currency and finances by those exercising power and au­
thority, as in the case of the late disasters in England, which are ascribed by a
large class to the bank loan of 1844, they contending that had the bank been
left free to act of its own discretion, no revulsion would have followed. This
is one of the many causes that are each supposed to have specially destroyed al­
most a nation’s credit, when the fact simply was, that, through a prevailing epi­
demic, a large number of persons had spent their money, or invested where they
could not get it back again to meet their engagements. Where an individual
conducts a business, the profits of which will yield him about a certain sum per
annum, adheres strictly to that business, spends less than his ascertained profits,
and accumulates either the capital employed in his business, or a contingent fund
that can be resorted to in a moment of pressure, there is little danger that any
change in the currency, any tinkering of the government, or any variation in its
policy, will endanger the solvency of his affairs. If, on the other hand, he is of
sanguine temperament, uses all the means in his power to push his business,
makes whatever capital he may possess but the basis of a stupendous fabric of
credit, in which his obligations are nearly equal to the debts in his favor, and the
estimated profits of this extended business are quite swallowed up in an extrava­
gant style of living, and, without seeking to strengthen the real capital, leaves it
entirely at the mercy- of a fall in prices, or a pressure which shall shrink the sum
of the bills receivable below the aggregate of the bills payable by an amount
greater than the actual capital, ultimate failure is inevitable; such a rickety
concern totters on by a miracle, and the first pressure crushes it amid complaints
directed against all supposable elements of evil except the true one, viz : want-of
prudence. It is certainly true, that where a general abundance of capital exists,
those large sources of supply, enjoying the power of manufacturing their means
of accommodation, greatly promote the extension of such an improvident mode of
business, by facilitating the procurement of credit, and thereby lay the foundation
of ultimate disaster. This process is now in progress throughout the Union. The
economy and prudence, taught by the experience of the last revulsion, have long
since been relaxed; and it is only by a combination of political circumstances,
that the multiplication of credits has been restrained. With the return of peace,
most of these circumstances will act with diminished influence ; and that disposi­
tion to multiply banking, as well as company and private credits, to which we
have alluded in former numbers, will receive a new impulse. Among the indi-




412

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

cations of the great increase of capital in the last few years in this country, we
may enumerate the investment of $3 5,90 2,35 5 in railroads in the New England
States, with projects now on foot to increase the capital by over $ 7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in
New York, over $ 2 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 ; in other parts of the Union, an equal sum. The
contraction of $ 5 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 of a national debt, owned mostly at home, while the
stocks of the several States have advanced, under a gradual return of considerable
amounts from Europe ; as thus last year came $1,000,000 of Pennsylvania stock ;
o f Maryland, $ 5 0 5 ,0 0 0 ; of Ohio, $ 7 0 4 ,6 2 4 ; in addition to considerable amounts
o f company stocks, $7 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 of new bank capital is applied for in Pennsyl­
vania. From all these, and other sources, the public credits depending upon
United States capital have probably increased $1 50 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 in a few years, yet
prices have rather advanced than otherwise, while considerable sums more than
_ usual have been invested in ship-building and factories. Notwithstanding all this,
the late ofler of the Secretary of the Treasury, for $ 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 of treasury notes,
- was taken at over par, the offers amounting to more than $1 7,00 0,00 0. This
oiler included, however, $ 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 at 4 per cent premium, by the house o f
Rothschild, being probably the first regular bid ever put in by a foreign banker
for an American loan, and income degree it may be considered as the foreshad­
owing of the serious political news which, by the succeeding packet, reached here
from France. A firm which, for half a century, through the most turbulent
times, may be said, by its forecast, sagacity, and accurate information, to have
led affairs in Europe, was certainly not badly advised of the rotten state of affairs
at the French capital, and of the results to which they might lead. Independently
o f this, however, double the sum asked for was offered at a premium, payable in
specie from exclusively American resources, and, on the announcement of the re­
sult, stocks rose several per cent. The prices of the leading stocks have been
as follows:—
PRICES OF UNITED STATES STOCKS IN NEW YORK.
Interest. Red’ mable.

United States...

6 ’s

*t
n

6 ’s
6 's

a

U. S. Tr. notes.
New Y ork........
<«
a

6 ’s
6 ’s

7’s
6 ’s

N. Y ork city....
O h io ..................
“ ............
Kentucky...........
Illinois...............

5’s
5’s
6 ’s
7’s
6 ’s
6 ’s

Pennsylvania...

5’s'

1853
1856
1862
1867
1867
1849
1861
1860
1856-70
1860
1871
Fundable.

Interest payable.

Semi-annual.
“
«

«
a

Quarterly.
Semi-annual.
Quarterly.
Semi-annual.
“
a

Semi-annual.

January 13.

914 a
974 a
98Ja
99 a
99J a
1004 a
100
a
93 a
90J a
954 a
1014 a
97 a
41 a
50 a
704 a

92
98
984
994
994
101
100

934
91
96
1014

984
42
504
71

March 20.

94

a 944
a 1024
1034 a 1034
1044 a 1044
1 0 2 4 a 103
1 0 0 4 a 101
102
a 1024
93 a 94
91 a 92
984 a 984
1024 a 102J
99 a 994
46 a 46^
55-£ a 55$
744 a 74J
102

T h e se figures sh ow a very general advance, notw ithstanding that, in addition
to the $ 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 notes re-issued, at least $ 1 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 m ore w ill be looked for
before Ju ly.

T h e abundance o f capital in the cou n try, and the general upward

tendency o f affairs, warrants, how ever, the b e lie f that the m arkets w ill readily
sustain the w hole am ount necessary, as w ell for clo sin g up the w ar as for carry­
in g out the treaty stipulations, should M e x ic o , hired by the annual instalments to
be paid, be induced to keep faith .




413

Commercial Statistics.

C O M M E R C I A L

STATI STI CS.

C O M M E R C E O F T H E U N IT E D K IN G D O M W I T H T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
The following statement o f the trade and commerce o f the United Kingdom with the
United States, is derived from Parliamentary Returns to the British House o f Commons
in 1847. The commercial and fiscal year o f Great Britain ends on the 5th o f January.
E X P O R T S T O T H E UNITED S T A T E S OF A M E RICA .
AN ACCOUNT OF THE DECLARED VALUE OF THE VARIOUS ARTICLES OF BRITISH PRODUCE AND
MANUFACTURES EXPORTED TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA FOR EACH OF THE FAST SEVEN
YEARS, ENDING THE 5 t H DAY OF JANUARY, 1 8 4 7 .

Years.
1840.
1 8 4 1 ..
1842.
1 8 4 3 ..
1844.
1 8 4 5 ..
1846.

Years.
1 8 4 0 ..
1841.
1842.
1843
1844.
1845.
1846.

Brass and
Cotton manuApparel,
Slops, and Copper mnnn- fnctures, includ’ g Earthenware
fnctures.
Cotton Yarn.
o f alf sorts.
Haberdashery.
£ 1 0 7 ,4 7 3
£ 1 ,1 2 3 ,4 3 9
£ 1 7 9 ,9 3 3
.£ 1 0 9 ,3 4 L
1 0 4 ,1 5 3
1 ,5 1 5 ,9 3 3
2 2 5 ,4 7 9
1 3 7 ,0 8 8
8 9 .9 5 2
4 8 7 ,2 7 6
8 4 ,8 9 3
1 6 8 ,8 7 3
1 3 2 ,4 7 6
8 0 4 ,4 3 1
1 9 1 ,1 3 2
1 4 2 ,8 9 9
1 ,0 5 2 ,9 0 8
1 9 7 ,2 8 9
3 4 8 ,9 2 8
2 2 9 ,8 7 1
1 ,0 5 6 ,2 4 0
2 0 4 ,8 4 1
1 4 9 ,7 5 9
3 7 7 ,5 8 !
1 ,1 3 3 ,6 5 7
1 7 5 ,1 4 3
2 0 9 ,2 0 3
3 2 3 ,1 5 5
Linen manufac­
tures, including
Linen Yarn.
£ 9 7 6 ,2 4 7
1 ,2 3 2 ,2 4 7
4 6 3 ,6 4 5
7 1 5 ,5 4 6
9 3 8 ,3 9 2
9 1 1 ,3 1 8
8 5 2 ,7 7 8

Tin At Pewter wares;
Silk
Tin, unwroueht. and
Tin Plates.
manufictures.
£ 2 7 4 ,1 5 9
£ 1 7 4 ,0 3 3
2 2 3 ,8 0 9
3 0 6 ,7 5 7
1 4 4 ,4 5 1
8 1 ,2 4 3
1 7 1 ,8 9 0
1 6 4 ,2 3 3
1 8 9 ,6 9 8
3 0 1 ,7 5 6
3 5 0 ,3 3 3
2 1 8 ,3 7 7
3 7 9 ,5 0 0
2 2 5 ,3 6 4

Hardwares &
Cutlery.
£ 3 3 4 ,0 6 5
5 8 4 ,4 0 0
2 9 8 ,8 8 1
4 4 8 ,3 2 1
8 2 7 ,0 8 4
7 1 9 ,4 8 3
7 3 9 ,7 9 3

W oollen manufnctures. ineluding Yarn.
£ 1 ,0 7 7 , 8 2 8
1 ,5 4 9 ,9 2 6
8 9 2 ,3 3 5
1 ,5 6 4 ,4 7 0
2 ,4 6 2 ,7 4 8
1 ,8 0 5 ,1 8 1
1 ,3 4 5 ,0 5 7

Iron &. Steel,
wrought and
unwrought.
£ 3 5 5 ,5 3 4
6 2 6 ,5 3 2
3 9 4 ,8 5 4
2 2 3 ,6 6 8
6 9 6 ,9 3 7
6 4 2 ,0 8 8
7 3 7 ,1 9 9
Other
articles.
£ 5 7 0 ,9 6 8
5 9 2 ,3 1 8
4 2 2 ,4 0 4
4 5 3 ,6 4 8
6 9 2 ,4 6 8
7 1 2 ,4 6 2
7 0 9 ,6 1 1

AGGREGATE VALUE OF BRITISH AND IRISH PRODUCE AND MANUFACTURES EXPORTED FROM THE
UNITED KINGDOM TO THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA.

1840.

1841.

£ 5 ,2 8 3 ,0 2 0 £ 7 ,0 9 8 ,6 4 2

1842 .

1841.

1844 .

£ 3 ,5 2 8 , 8 0 7 £ 5 ,0 1 3 , 5 1 4 £ 7 , 9 3 8 , 0 7 9

184§.

1846.

£ 7 ,1 4 7 , 6 6 3 £ 6 ,8 3 0 , 4 6 0

IM PORTS FROM T H E U N ITE D S T A T E S O F AM ERICA.
AN ACCOUNT OF THE QUANTITIES OF THE VARIOUS ARTICLES IMPORTED INTO THE UNITED KING­
DOM FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, WITH THE QUANTITIES SO IMPORTED ENTERED
FOR HOME CONSUMPTION.

Years.

Bark for Tanne rs’ or Dyers’ use. ,-------Beef, salted.------- >
Home
Home
Imported.
consumi tion.
consumption.
Imported.

1 8 4 0 ...........
1 8 4 1 ...........
1 8 4 2 ...........
1 8 1 3 ..........
1 8 4 4 ..........
1 8 4 5 ...........
1 8 4 6 ...........

Years.
1 8 4 0 ...........
1 8 4 1 ..........
1 8 4 2 ..........
1 8 4 3 ...........
1 8 4 4 ..........
1 8 4 5 ...........
1 8 4 6 ............




Ciots.

C iots.

3 7 ,7 7 6
6 0 ,0 1 4

3 0 ,0 7 3
3 1 ,4 8 7
2 1 ,3 5 3
1 8 ,1 0 8
2 9 ,5 7 9

1 1 ,0 8 4
2 0 ,9 9 0
2 5 ,8 2 2
2 3 ,4 7 3

Free.
Free.

,------- Skins, Fox.------- \
Home
consumption.
Imported.
JVi».
JV*o.
556
3 9 ,9 7 0
1
,3 6 6
7 1 ,3 3 5
2
,2
20
3 1 ,3 8 5
5 1 ,6 7 0
2 ,0 4 8
4 9 ,5 6 0
407
Free.
4 6 ,9 6 4
Free.
5 6 ,5 0 8

C iots.

77
2 2 ,4 2 9
7 ,0 2 4
3 1 ,0 2 6
7 6 ,6 6 0
7 3 ,1 3 5
1 6 1 ,6 6 8

Ciots.

17
258
2 ,8 9 8
528
467
474

Free.

/----- Skins, Marten.----- ,
Home
Imported.
consumption.
J fo .
JYo.
2 0 ,1 0 7
2 2 ,3 8 7
4 0 ,9 9 8
3 2 ,6 9 8
1 6 ,8 0 8
3 0 ,0 4 6
2 5 ,1 4 4
2 0 ,3 8 4
1 8 ,9 9 2
2 1 ,1 8 9
3 9 ,3 4 0
Free.
Free.
3 0 ,8 1 8

i------------Cheese.--------— s

Home
Imported, consumption.
C iots.

C w ts.

1 5 ,0 3 8
1 4 ,0 9 7
4 2 ,3 1 2
5 3 .1 1 4
6 6 ,3 3 7
9 1 ,9 0 1

8 ,2 3 9
1 3 ,9 1 3
3 8 ,0 3 3
5 5 ,4 1 4
6 1 ,2 9 1
8 2 ,0 4 6

«------- Skins. Mink.-------N
Home
Imported. consumption.
JYo.
-Vo.
8 8 ,5 7 9
2 3 ,2 8 6
1 0 9 ,2 5 7
5 2 ,2 1 8
7 3 ,1 9 7
7 9 ,3 1 5
9 4 ,7 7 3
6 6 ,6 9 5
1 4 9 ,0 8 0
7 0 ,7 3 9
2 0 5 ,2 7 6
Free.
2 0 7 ,3 6 6
Free.

414

Commercial Statistics.
>----- Corn, W heat.----- %

Years.

Imported.

Home
consumption.

Q rs.

Qrs.

1840.........
1841........
1842.........
1843........
1844........
1845........
1846........

73,755
10,553

58,326
27,087
16,056

2,421
23,239
171,155

2,421
595
142,034

Years.

Imported.

/— Skins, Musqunsh.— %

1840.........
1841........
1842........
1843........
1844........
1845........ ...
1846........

Cwts.

875,068
311,490
333,285
16,521
29,122
6,071
2,132,244

/----- Skins, Racoon.----- x
Home
consumption.

Imported.

Cwts.

Cwts.

5,872
1,699
7,248
11,578
26,781
28,109
26,798

5,822
1,705
6,173
10,739
27,150
Free.
Free.

/-------Skins, Seal.------- \
Home
Imported, consumption.

N o.

.Vo.

JVo.

N o.

N o.

N o.

228,613
127,819
358,003
108,619
165,704
Free.
Free.

492,539
507,785
175,525
375,993
362,349
546,680
539,746

467
1,976
40,218
60,510
9,366
Free.
Free.

2,041
8,178
24,112
68,287

13,211
8,178
2,848
34,399
450
Free.
Free.

Iron, Chromate of.
Home
consumption.

Imported.

1840........
1841.........
1842........
1843........
1844.........
1845.........
1846.........

Tons.

Tons.

507

593
650
1,046
808
2,060
Free.
Free.

941
808
2,060
1,750
1,071

/-------- T a llo w .----------v
Home
consumption.

Years.

Imported.

1840..........
1841.........
1842.........
1843........
1844........
1845..........
1846........

/------------Lard.------------ *
Home
consumption.

Imported.
Cwts.

Ciots.

r-O il, Spermaceti.—,
Home
Imported, consumption.
Tuns.

Tuns.

1,408
501
1,171
1,866
1,052
3,783
2,207

350
4,729
3,044
1,166
26,555
24,977
294
76,010
60,641
1,642
69,133
81,445
1,468
Free.
44,358
2,792
Free.
85,666
2,975
,______ Tar.------------\ T ob acco, Unmanufactured.
Imported.

Homo
consumption. Imported.

Home
consumption.

Cwts.

L a sts.

L a sts.

L bs.

L bs.

3,870
1,208

4,766
1,208
26,864
43,980
54,567
47,686
67,182

1,243
2,273
1,560
1,600
873
1,239
1,556

1,275
2,244
1,566
1,733
893
Free.
Free.

34,628,886
42,132,969
38,594,236
41,038,597
36,615,985
31,151,472
48,612,355

22,169,551
21,260,407
21,223,159
21,894,764
23,298,563
24,700,881
25,237,008

/----- Pork, Salted.----- \
Home
consumption.

Imported.
Cwts.

1840.........
1841..........
1842.........
1843.........
1844........
1845..........
1846..........
* Exclusive o f

32,380
12,108

Cwts.

46,503
52,799
52,056
60,546

Years.

1840.............
1841.............
1842..........
1843..........
1844..........
1845..........
1846.......... ..

Cwts.

984,467
359,745
380,933
91,317
292,011
246,341
2,229,580

/—Hides, untanned.—\
Home
Imported, consumption.

138,398
191,944
300,976
288,036
223,232
1,070,566
7,132

Years.

Years.

Home
consumption.

/-C orn , W heat Flour.—%
Home
consumption. _

Imported.

Cwts •

Rice, not in the Husk.
Rice,* rough, and in Husk.
Home
Heme
consumption.
Imported, consumption.

Imported.
Cwts.

Cwts.

Q rs.

Qrs.

848
230
41,528
2
17,605
259
145
53
40,313
32,377
2,686
444
40,377
6,523
38,898
4,065
18,596
1,556
13,874
14,076
36,603
1,032
5,149
828
27,156
1,138
4,553
413
43,178
23,920
40,340
27,736
29,789
Free.
25,192
quantities cleaned in the United Kingdom, and exported on drawback.
7
10,078
13,408
9,882
24,342
21,774

T ob acco, Manf., or Segars.
Home
consumption.
Imported.

/------- Turpentine.----- —»
Imported.

Home.
consumption.

/---- W ax, Bees’ .-----*
Home
Imported, consumption.

L b s.

L bs.

Cwts.

Cwts.

Cwts.

C wts.

1,163,832
1,435,898
281,172
624,191
615,950

7,771
7,137
7,034
6,330
3,685
5,424
5,254

349,136
361,622
408,330
473,183
452,195
507,655
355,766

382,014
338,916
453,428
473,577
466,550
Free.
Free.

381
459
1,094
2,362
1,664
1,294
1,326

326
472
920
1,669
1,654

1,409,059




F ree.

Free.

Commercial Statistics.

/----- Skins., Bear.------^
Home
Imported, consumption.

/— Seeds, Clover.——>
Seeds, Linseed and Flaxseed.
Home
Home
consumption,
consumption.
Imported.

Years.

Imported.

1840............
1841...........
1842............
1843...........
1844...........
1845...........
1846...........

Years.

415

Cwts.

C u ts.

13,293
22,632
8,976
7,796
29,265
26,469

2
6,164
24,177
6,216
11,599
20,755
31,491

Q rs.

9,164
3,693
2,448
3,670
2,876
10,381
7,536

W oo d and Timber, not sawn
or split.
Home
Imported.
consumption.

1840............
1841...........
1842...........
1843...........
1844...........
1845...........
1846...........

Loads.

Loads.

2,282
2,905
1,032
6,574
1,059
1,979
20,452

2.282
2,514
690
4,025
3,955
2,335
11,750

G t. hand.

677
705
747

Free.
Free.

1840.............
1841..............
1842.............
1843.............
1844.............
1845.............
1846.............

Home consumption.

Loads.

G t. hund.

231
810
208
7,962
15,275

17
........
........
Free.
Free.

N o.

12,180
15,250
12,881
8,913
5,601
4,471
577

y

N o.

552
344
90
494
303
Free.
Free.

— W o o d and Timber, Staves.Imported.

N o.

Years.

N o.

4,693
6,579
5,126
5,377
5,128
4,128
5,573

Eh'ni
Imported.
Home consumption.

Years.

1840.......
1841.......
1842....... ...........
1843.......
1844.......
1845.......
1846.......

Q rs.

9,010
3.860
2,593
3,670
2,864
Free.
Free.

12,104
14,971
9,751
10,333
6,355
Free.
Free.

-W ool, Cotton.-------------->
Imported.
Home consumption.

Imported.

Loads.

20
116
180
Free.
Free.

Home consump.

N o.

N o.

409,208
126,970
155,167
161,014
107,643
171,843
152,988

90,149
82,406
39,177
55,945
30,893
Free.
Free.

W o o l, Sheep and Lambs’ .
Imported.
Home consump.

Jjbs.

L b s.

L bs.

L bs.

358,240,964
414,030,779
574,626,510
517,218,622
626,650,412
401,953,804

452,990,122
353,353,509
386,107,190
509,475,209
454,967,749
Free.
Free.

115,095
58,791
561,028
126,615
29,355
835,448
901,024

235,967
42,500
287,626
212,577
Free.
Free.
Free.

E S T IM A T E D IN C R E A S E O F T H E T O N N A G E OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
STATEMENT SHOWING WHAT THE TONNAGE OF THE UNITED STATES WOULD BE ON THE 3 0 t H OF
JUNE, 1857, IF, DURING EACH OF THE TEN YEARS SUCCEEDING THE LAST FISCAL YEAR, THE
PER CENTAGE OF AUGMENTATION WERE THE SAME AS DURING THE LAST FISCAL YEAR ; DE­
RIVED FROM A REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY.
Y ears.
J u n e , 1 8 4 6 ........................ .........
1 8 4 7 ......................... .........
1 8 4 8 ........................ .........
1 8 4 9 ........................ .........
1 8 5 0 ........................ .........
1 8 5 1 ........................ .........
1 8 5 2 ........................ .........
1 8 5 3 ........................ .........
1 8 5 4 ........................
1 8 5 5 ........................
1 8 5 6 ........................ .........
1 8 5 7 ........................




Tonnage.
2 ,5 6 2 ,0 8 5
2 ,8 3 9 ,0 4 6
3 ,1 4 5 ,9 9 3
3 ,4 8 6 ,0 7 5
3 ,8 6 3 ,9 2 0
4 ,2 8 1 ,5 5 0
4 ,7 4 4 ,3 8 6
5 ,2 5 7 ,2 5 4

7 ,1 5 3 ,1 2 4

Per centage,
10 81-100ths.
3 0 6 ,9 4 7
3 4 0 ,0 8 2
3 7 7 ,8 4 5
4 1 7 ,6 3 0
4 6 2 ,8 3 6
5 1 2 ,8 6 8
5 6 8 ,3 0 9
6 2 9 ,7 4 3
6 9 7 .8 1 8
7 7 3 ,2 5 3

Tonnage.

Years.

3 ,1 4 5 ,9 9 3
3 ,4 8 6 ,0 7 5
3 ,8 6 3 ,9 2 0
4 ,2 8 1 .5 5 0
4 ,7 4 4 ,3 8 6
5 ,2 5 7 ,2 5 4
5 ,8 2 5 ,5 6 3
6 ,4 5 5 ,3 0 6
7 ,1 5 3 124

1848
1849
1850
18 5 1
1852
1853
1854
1855
1856
185 7

7 ,9 2 6 ,3 7 7

416

Commercial Statistics.

IM P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S OF T H E U. S T A T E S F R O M 1821 T O 1847.
A STATEMENT EXHIBITING THE VALUE OF EXPORTS AND IMPORTS (EXCLUSIVE OF COIN AND BUL­
LION) ANNUALLY, FROM 1 8 2 1 TO 1 8 4 7 , INCLUSIVE; AND, ALSO, THE EXCESS OF EXPORTA­
TION OVER IMPORTATION, AND OF IMPORTATION OVER EXPORTATION.

Years.
1 8 3 1 * ....... .
1 8 2 2 ......... .
1 8 2 3 ......... .
1 8 2 4 ......... .
1 8 2 5 ___ _ .
1 8 2 6 ......... .
1 8 2 7 ......... .
1 8 2 8 ......... .
1 8 2 9 . ....... .
1 8 3 0 ......... .
1 8 3 1 ......... .
1 8 3 2 ......... .
1 8 3 3 ......... .
1 8 3 4 ......... .
1 8 3 5 ......... .
1 8 3 6 ......... .
1 8 3 7 .......... .
1 8 3 8 ......... .
1 8 3 9 ......... .
1 8 4 0 ......... .
1 8 4 1 ......... .
1 8 4 2 ......... .
1 8 4 3 t ........ .
1 8 4 4 1 ........ .
1 8 4 5 ......... .
1 8 4 6 ...........
1 8 4 7 ............

/-------------------- Value o f exports.---------------------»
Value o f imDomestic pro- Foreign merports.
duce.
chandise.
Total.
$ 4 3 ,6 7 1 ,8 9 4 $ 1 0 ,8 2 4 ,4 2 9 $ 5 4 ,4 9 6 ,3 2 3 $ 5 4 ,5 2 0 ,8 3 4
1 1 ,4 7 6 ,0 2 2
6 1 ,3 5 0 ,1 0 1
7 9 ,8 7 1 ,6 9 5
4 9 ,8 7 4 ,0 7 9
6 8 ,3 2 6 ,0 4 3
7 2 ,4 8 1 ,3 7 1
4 7 ,1 5 5 ,4 0 8
2 1 ,1 7 0 ,6 3 5
6 8 .9 7 2 ,1 0 5
7 2 ,1 6 9 .1 7 2
5 0 ,6 4 9 ,5 0 0
1 8 ,3 2 2 ,6 0 5
9 0 ,1 8 9 ,3 1 0
6 6 ,9 4 4 ,7 4 5
2 3 ,7 9 3 ,5 8 8
9 0 ,7 3 8 ,3 3 3
7 8 ,0 9 3 ,5 1 1
2 0 ,4 4 0 ,9 3 4
7 2 ,8 9 0 .7 8 9
5 2 ,4 4 9 ,8 5 5
1 6 ,4 3 1 ,8 3 0
7 4 ,3 0 9 ,9 4 7
7 1 ,3 3 2 ,9 3 8
5 7 ,8 7 8 ,1 1 7
6 4 ,0 2 1 ,2 1 0
8 1 ,0 2 0 ,0 8 3
4 9 ,9 7 6 ,6 3 2
1 4 ,0 4 4 ,5 7 8
1 2 ,3 4 7 ,3 4 4
6 7 ,4 3 4 ,6 5 1
6 7 ,0 8 8 ,9 1 5
5 5 ,0 8 7 .3 0 7
7 1 ,6 7 0 ,7 3 5
6 2 ,7 2 0 ,9 5 6
5 8 ,5 2 4 ,8 7 8
1 3 ,1 4 5 ,8 5 7
7
2
,2
9
5
,6
5
2
9
5 ,8 8 5 ,1 7 9
1
3
,0
7
7
,0
6
9
5 9 ,2 1 8 ,5 8 3
8
1
.5
2
0
,6
0
3
9
5 ,1 2 1 ,7 6 2
1
9
,7
9
4
,0
7
4
6 1 .7 2 6 ,5 2 9
1 7 ,5 7 7 ,8 7 6
8 7 .5 2 3 ,7 3 2 1 0 1 ,0 4 7 ,9 4 3
6 9 ,9 5 0 ,8 5 6
8 0 ,6 2 3 ,6 6 2
2 1 ,6 3 6 ,5 5 3 1 0 2 ,2 6 0 ,2 1 5 1 0 8 ,6 0 9 ,7 0 0
1 4 ,7 5 6 ,3 2 1 1 1 5 ,2 1 5 ,8 0 2 1 3 6 ,7 6 4 ,2 9 5
1 0 0 ,4 5 9 ,4 8 1
1 0 6 ,5 7 0 ,9 4 2
1 7 ,7 6 7 ,7 6 2 1 2 4 ,3 3 8 ,7 0 4 1 7 6 ,5 7 9 ,1 5 4
9 4 ,2 8 4 ,8 9 5
1 7 ,1 6 2 ,2 3 2 1 1 1 ,4 4 3 ,1 2 7 1 3 0 ,4 7 2 ,8 0 3
9 ,4 1 7 ,6 9 0 1 0 4 ,9 7 8 ,5 7 0
9 5 ,9 7 0 ,2 8 8
9 5 ,5 6 0 ,8 8 0
1 0 ,6 2 6 ,1 4 0 1 0 2 ,2 5 1 ,6 7 3 1 5 0 ,4 9 6 ,9 5 6
1 0 1 ,6 2 5 ,5 3 3
1 1 1 .6 6 0 ,5 6 1
1 2 ,0 0 8 ,3 7 1 1 2 3 ,6 6 8 ,9 3 2
9 8 ,2 5 8 ,7 0 6
8 ,1 8 1 ,2 3 5 1 1 1 ,8 1 7 ,4 7 1 1 2 2 ,9 5 7 ,5 4 4
1 0 3 ,6 3 6 ,2 3 6
8 ,0 7 8 ,7 5 3
9 9 ,8 7 7 ,9 9 5
9 1 ,7 9 9 ,2 4 2
9 6 ,0 7 5 ,0 7 1
5 ,1 3 9 ,3 3 5
8 2 ,8 2 5 ,6 8 9
4 2 ,4 3 3 ,4 6 4
7 7 ,6 8 6 ,3 5 4
9 9 ,5 3 1 ,7 7 4
6 ,2 1 4 ,0 5 8 1 0 5 ,7 4 5 ,8 3 2 1 0 2 ,6 0 4 .6 0 6
9 8 ,4 5 5 ,3 3 0
7 ,5 8 4 ,7 8 1 1 0 6 ,0 4 0 ,1 1 1 1 1 3 ,1 8 4 ,3 2 2
7 ,8 6 5 ,2 0 6 1 0 9 ,5 8 3 ,2 4 8 1 1 7 ,9 1 4 ,0 6 5
1 0 1 ,7 1 8 ,0 4 2
6 ,1 6 6 ,0 3 9 1 5 6 ,7 4 0 ,8 8 3 1 2 2 ,4 2 4 ,3 4 9
1 5 0 ,5 7 4 ,8 4 4

Exportation
over import.

Importation
over export.
$ 2 4 ,5 1 1
1 8 ,5 2 1 ,5 9 4
4 ,1 5 5 ,3 2 8
3 ,1 9 7 ,0 6 7

$ 5 4 9 ,0 2 3
5 ,2 0 2 ,7 2 2
2 ,9 7 7 ,0 0 9
1 6 ,9 9 8 ,8 7 3
3 4 5 ,7 3 6
8 ,9 4 9 ,7 7 9
2 3 ,5 8 9 ,5 2 7
1 3 ,6 0 1 ,1 5 9
1 3 ,5 1 9 ,2 1 1
6 ,3 4 9 ,4 8 5
2 1 ,5 4 8 ,4 9 3
5 2 ,2 4 0 ,4 5 0
1 9 ,0 2 9 ,6 7 6
9 ,0 0 8 ,2 8 2
5 4 ,2 4 5 ,2 8 3
2 5 ,4 1 0 ,2 2 6
1 1 ,1 4 0 ,0 7 3
3 ,8 0 2 ,9 2 4
4 0 ,3 9 2 ,2 2 5
3 ,1 4 1 ,2 2 6
7 ,1 4 4 ,2 1 1
8 ,3 3 0 ,8 1 7
3 4 ,3 1 6 ,5 3 4

C O M P A R A T IV E V IE W O F IM P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S OF T H E U. S T A T E S .
STATEMENT OF THE IMPORTS AND EXPORTS IN THE YEARS ENDING ON THE 30 th ju n e , 1846
AND 1847.
Exclusive o f specie.

1846— Imports....................... ..................
Foreign exports.......... .................

$117,914,065
7,865,206

Specie.

Total.

$3,777,732
3,481,417

$121,691,797
11,346,623

T otal....................... .................

$110,048,859

$296,315

$110,345,174

1847— Imports....................... ..................
Foreign exports.......... .................

122,424,349
6,166,039

24,121,289
1,845,119

146,545,638
8,011,158

Total........................ .................

$116,258,310

$22,276,170

$138,534,480

$423,851
62,620

$102,141,893
150,637,464

DOMESTIC EXPORTS.

1846.......................................... .................
1847- ....................................... ..................

$101,718,042
150,574,844

T R A D E A N D C O M M E R C E OF A L G E R IA .
Some statistics, recently published, enter fully into the details o f the progress o f trade
in Algeria since the early possession o f the province by the French. Dating as far back
as the year 1 8 3 1 , the custom-house returns exhibit, with few exceptions, a steady increase ;
and it appears, that while the total revenue from that source then scarcely amounted to
330,000 f , subsequent progressive improvement carried the sum, in 1 8 3 4 , to 818,030 f.
* Years ending September 30.
t Nine months— to June 30.
t Twelve months— to June 30.




417

Commercial Statistics.

In 1838 there was an increased amount derived from the three principal branches, includ­
ing import and export trade and navigation dues, and then the total o f revenue received
was 1,205,819 £ The following year (1839) showed a reaction, as the amount in that
period only represented 1,077,471 f. T he progress made from that date will be best
established by the subjoined table:—
Years.

Import duties.
F ra n cs.

1840 ................
1841 ................
1842 ................
1843 ................
1844...................
1845....................

710,216
705,430
1,241,136
1,220,116
1,293,326
1,115,660

Export duties. Navigation dues. Total duties received.
F ra n cs.

20,934
9,860
20,813
6,068
15,544
9,260

F ra n cs.

396,296
525,937
408,131
380,896
548,102
616,068

F ra n cs.

1,114,093
1,241,229
1,670,081
1,606,982
1,853,974
1,740,997

It is explained, in reference to the above account, that the description o f merchandise
which entered the country in 1845 consisted o f cotton manufactures, articles o f general
consumption, &,c. The great increase in the navigation dues in the course o f the last
year has, it appears, arisen from the augmentation o f the rate on foreign vessels o f from
2 francs to 4 francs per ton.
There exist in Algeria two leading commercial depots recognized by the State, besides
ten other smaller magazines distributed throughout the province. One o f the leading de­
pots is at Algeria, the other at M ers-el-Kebier; the remainder are established at Bona,
Philippeville, Bougeia, Mostaganem, T enez, Churchell, Dellys, and Algiers.
T he chief depot at Algeria, in December, 1844, contained merchandise valued at
93,587 f., and received, in the year 1845, merchandise valued at 257,334 f., constituting
a total stock valued at 350,921 f. The deliveries up to the end of 1845 amounting to
233,045 f., there then remained in stock goods valued at 117,876 f. The depot at Mersel-Kebier, on the 31st o f December, 1844, contained merchandise valued at 231,055 f . ;
and received, in the year 1845, merchandise valued at 1,731,969 f., constituting a total
stock valued at 1,963,024 f. The deliveries up to the end o f 1845 amounting to 1,404,586
f., there then remained in stock goods valued at 558,438 f. The other magazines con ­
tained altogether, in December, 1844, merchandise valued at 1,084,205 f .; and received,
in 1845, merchandise valued at 5,978,986 f , constituting a total stock valued at 7,063,191
f. The deliveries up to the end o f 1845 amounting to 5,979,853 f., there then remained
in stock goods val ied at 1,083,333 f. T he principal articles in which trade is carried on
are described as salt meat, tobacco, rice, coffee, olive oil, wine, brandy, cotton, linseed and
hemp, prepared hides, and hosiery.

IM P O R T A N D E X P O R T T R A D E O F R U SSIA .
In 1846, there were exported over the European Asiatic boundaries—
For abroad......................................................................................................... 5 r.
T o Poland...............................................................................................................
T o Finland.............................................................................................................

98,880,964
2,339,930
1,493,887

T otal....................................................................................................................
Imported from abroad..................................................................................... 5 r.
From Poland...........................................................................................................
From Finland.........................................................................................................

102,714,781
84,958,998
1,316,268
720,523

T ota l...................................................................................................................
Gold and silver coin, and in bars, imported from abroad......................... 5 r.
From Poland...........................................................................................................

86,995,789 '
9,744,263
1,473,106

Total....................................................................................................................
Exported to foreign countries..............................................................................
T o Poland.............................. ...............................................................................

11,217,369
12,973,817
83,156

T otal.......................... ........................................................................................

13,061,973

Sum total o f the import and export trade is therefore...................................
In 1845, the sum total o f the import and export trade was...........................
T he surplus o f 1846 o f the import and export trade is ..................................
V O L . X V I I I . ----- N O . I V .
27

213,989,907
190,425,481
23,564,426




418

Commercial Statistics.

The exportation o f the principal articles o f commerce, compared with the two preced­
ing years, gives the following result:—

1844 .
H em p......................................
Flax.........................................
T allow ....................................
Potash......................................
W ool.......................................
Brushes....................................
Iron............. t..........................
Copper...................................
Linseed and Heinpseed........
T im b er...................................
R aw hides............................. .
Russia leather........................
C om ........................................

2,970,636
3,731,501
3,340,932
300,256
844,254
70,450
781,084
85,342
1,390,645
3,203,273
1,018,058
794,789
16,340,023

1845.
2,841,718
2,691,320
3,229,097
247,346
783,588
84,638
817,020
82,963
1,394,149
3,069,165
1,322,027
921,093
16,527,731

1846.
2,695,652
2,504,550
3,522,614
188,608
498,763
80,851
691,205
126,646
928,326
3,775,356
1,119,522
1,169,162
28,929,916

T R A D E A N D R E SO U R C E S OF U P P E R C A N A D A .
One o f our Canadian friends and correspondents has sent us a copy o f the “ Montreal
Herald and Commercial Gazetteer,” containing some interesting statistics o f the progress
o f the Upper Province, with a view o f its republication in the Merchants’ Magazine. The
gentleman who forwarded us the paper is probably the compiler o f the article. The
writer institutes a comparison o f the resources and progress o f Canada and the State of
N ew Y ork, as an offset for the “ boastings o f onr republican neighbors over their progress,
and our comparatively stationary condition in the social race.” * W ith no limited views
o f the progress o f the race, either in its moral, social, or industrial .interests, and no
patriotism that is not broad enough to take in the great brotherhood o f man, irrespective
o f geographical boundaries, or political institutions, we take almost equal pleasure in re­
cording every indication o f prosperity in every part o f the habitable globe. Without fur­
ther digression, however, we proceed to give the “ figures and facts,” as we find them in
the H erald:—
T he number o f townships in Upper Canada assessed in several years, from 1825 to
1846, inclusive, were as follows:— 191, 226, 251, 258, 283, 284, 2 9 0 ,3 0 4 ,3 0 6 ,3 1 2 ,
314, and 329. The number o f acres in cultivation at the same relative dates, were as
follow s:— 597,078, 916,143, 1,306,304. 1,511,066, 1,556,676, 1,723,149, 1,748,109,
1,918,005, 2,025,372, 2,174,382, 2,277,562, and 2,458,056. The return for 1847 is not
complete ; but leaving out o f our account the Districts o f Brock, Colburn, Dalhousie,-Gore,
Newcastle, Niagara, Ottawa, Talbot, Victoria, and the Western District, there appears to
be an increase in the breadth o f land under cultivation o f 102,976 acres, in the remaining
ten districts.
Unoccupied lands liable to assessment have increased from 2,694,606 in 1825, to 6,189,608
in 1846 ; a restdt that, perhaps, does not exhibit our system o f managing the public lands
in a very favorable light.
T he value o f real property assessed for district taxation has increased as follow s:— In
1825 it amounted to £ 2 ,3 1 1 ,1 5 6 ; 1832, £ 3 ,4 3 9 ,1 0 0 ; 1835, £ 4 ,3 5 1 ,9 8 9 ; 1837,
£4,742,078 ; 1839, £5,420,409 ; 1840, £5,641,477 ; 1841, £5,996,110 ; 1842,
£6,984,188 ; 1843, £7,247,472 ; 1844, £7,584,453 ; 1845, £7,738,873 ; 1846,
£8,194,667 ; and in 1847, the increase o f value in seven districts amounted to £272,976
— the returns not being complete for the other districts.
T he taxes actually raised during the year 1825 amounted to £10,418, and in 1846 to
£86,142.
T he number o f horses kept in 1825 was 23,537 ; 1832, 36,822 ; 1835, 48,120 ; 1837,
56 ,745 ; 1839, 66,699; 1840, 73 .287; 1841, 77,247 ; 1842, 84 ,213; 1843, 88,586;
1844, 93,862 ; 1845, 99,831 ; 1846, 106,163— the last number being found by estimating
the number in Dalhousie and Toronto at the same rate as in 1845. T he increase in
this description o f cattle in 1847, as compared with 1846, amounted to 4,337 in eleven
districts.




* Editor o f the Montreal Herald.

Commercial Statistics.

419

T he number o f oxen, omitting Toronto, in the several years from 1825 to 1845, inclu­
sive, were— 1825, 24,249 ; 1 8 3 2 ,3 8 ,2 5 3 ; 1835, 46 ,080 ; 18 37,4 6,76 8; 1839, 47 ,569;
18 40,4 9,06 0; 18 41,51,627; 1 8 42,5 5,13 7; 1843,57,873; 1844,61,033; 1845,68,828.
Milch cows were a9 follow s:— In 1825, 58,111 ; 1832, 92,374 ; 1835, 109,971; 1837,
121,163; 1839,136,659; 1840,149,188; 1841,160,943; 1842,173,208; 1843,183,845;
1844, 188,169 ; 1845, 210,582 ; 1816, 212,590. In 1847 the returns for eleven districts
showed an increase o f 4,697 head during the twelve months.
T he young cattle were owned in numbers as follows:— 1825, 25,263 ; 1837, 56,592 ;
1839, 47,694 ; 18 40,4 9 ,6 9 1 ; 18 41,5 7,72 0; 1842, 79,163 ; 1843,84,282 ; 1844, 79,178 ;
1845, 76,027 ; 1846, 64,615. The returns from eleven districts for 1847 show an increase
on the preceding year o f 2,676 head.
T he number o f houses liable to assessment, were as follow s:— 18 25,9 ,4 3 1 ; 1832,
14,499; 1835, 20,651; 1839, 21,575; 1840,26,060 ; 1841,29,960; 1842,31,386; 1813,
33,191; 1844, 35,825; 1845, 37,213; 1846, 39,844. In 1847 the increase on eleven dis­
tricts was 1,401.
The population in 1832 consisted o f 137,546 males, and 123,514 females = 2 6 1 ,0 6 0 ;
and in 1842, o f 259,916 males, and 227,139 fem ales=487,055.
During the same years the extension o f trade in grist and saw-mills was as follow s:—
Grist-mills, 1825, 238 ; 1832, 319 ; 1835,352 ; 1 8 37,3 65; 1839,420 ; 1840, 4 2 8 ; 1841,
4 2 3 ; 1842, 4 5 3 ; 1843, 4 4 1 ; 1844, 4 6 0 ; 1845, 4 8 0 ; 1846, 511. Saw -m ills:— 1825,
4 1 1 ; 1832, 6 7 0 ; 1835, 3 4 2 ; 1837, 8 6 6 ; 1839, 9 5 3 ; 1840, 9 8 3 ; 18 41,1 ,013 ; 1842.
1,073; 1843, 1,199 ; 1844. 1.248; 1845, 1,324; 1846, 1,400.
Merchants’ shops increased from 1825 to 1846, both inclusive, from 456 to 1,787.
W e have no account o f the N ew Y ork census at hand, which goes into such minute
particulars as those we have given above; but we can compare some particulars. In pop­
ulation, for example, the increase in Western Canada for the 10 years, from 1832, as
shown above, equalled 86 per c e n t; while the highest rate o f increase in the Empire
State,— that during the 10 years, from 1790 to 1800, was but 70 per ce n t; the number of
inhabitants for the respective periods being about one-fourth more in the State o f New
York. From 1820 to 1830, and from 1830 to 1840, the increase in N ew Y ork was but
20 and 39 per cent respectively.
W e have no account o f the number o f horses at different periods in the United States;
we are, therefore, reduced to another mode o f comparison. W e can only compare its
positive amount with the number o f inhabitants in the two countries. In N ew Y ork
State, 2,428,921 inhabitants own 474,543 horses, or 19 to every 100 inhabitants. In de­
spised Canada we approached as near our rich neighbors as 18 horses to every 100 per­
sons ; or 84,213 animals to 487,055 persons. In New Y ork the number o f neat cattle in
the year 1840 was 1,911,244, or 78 for every 100 inhabitants. In 1842 the Upper Cana­
dians possessed 307,508 oxen, milch cows, and young cattle, or 63 to every 100 persons
— a difference by no means disadvantageous to Canada, when we remember the length o f
settlement and accumulation o f wealth which have done so much to ameliorate the con­
dition o f her Southern neighbor.
In New Y ork the number o f grist-mills in 1840 was 338 ; in Canada W est, in the same
year, they amounted to 420, though they were, no doubt, o f much less capacity in the
latter country.
T he comparison o f the progress in the value o f real estate in Canada is still more sa­
tisfactory than that o f the other items. From 1839 to 1841, this kind o f property im­
proved to the extent o f ,£565,701. During the same period in N ew Y ork State, it fell
o ff to the extent o f £1,188,460. During the whole period included in the returns to
which we have referred, we have no example o f such a decrease in value.
Upon the whole, we think that these figures, the accuracy o f which may be relied on,
exhibit our country in that phrase, which is held to be the most happy for nations or indi­
viduals— that o f advance. It is clear that we have no reason to suppose ourselves so far
behind our neighbors, as some o f us are occasionally so anxious to make us believe. W e
have every reason to be satisfied with the past; but our satisfaction should have the in­
spiriting effect o f making us put forth our energies with fresh vigor for the time to come.
T R A D E OF C E Y L O N .
From a parliamentary paper, lately printed, it appears that the total value o f all imports
into the island o f Ceylon, in the year 1845, was £1,464,787 5s. 5£ 1., and the amount o f
duty paid £111,861 12s. 11 J l. T he value o f the exports in the same year was
£572,008 5s. 8d., and the duty £32,561 17s. 6d. The total expenses o f the Customs’
department were £ 9 ,256 14s. 8£d., o f which, £ 7 ,728 14s. was paid as fixed salaries.




420

Commercial Statistics.
T R A D E O F QU EBEC A N D G A S P E , C A N A D A .

T he following is a statement o f the imports and exports for the year 1847, at the ports
o f Quebec and Gaspe. It shows a great excess in the value o f exports over that o f im­
ports ; but, this being only local, does not indicate correctly the ratio o f the whole amount
o f exports to the im ports; the latter, in the aggregate, being considerably greater than
the former.
QUEBEC.

Value o f exports, 1847... X I ,413,599

8

0 | Value o f imports 1 8 4 7 .... X612,579 10 11
GASPE.

Value o f exports, 1847...

X 36,154 11 10 | Value o f imports, 1847...

X I 1,847 10 11

Shipping registered at Gaspe, twenty vessels, amounting to 990 tons.
T he value o f foreign goods imported into the port o f Montreal during 1847 is X I ,695,978
11s. 5d., being a decrease from the previous year’s imports o f X I 97,634. T he amount
o f British manufactures imported has decreased in value X228,188 15s. 6d., while that
o f foreign goods has increased X 70,553 16s. 8d. T he exports from Montreal show an
increase last year over the previous year o f X I 56,694 3s. l id .
COMPARATIVE STATEMENT OF A FEW PRINCIPAL ARTICLES OF PRODUCE SHIPPED FROM MONTREAL,
COMPARED WITH 1846.

Flour....................bbls.
Butter....bbls. and kegs
Wheat.............. minots

1846.
1847.
242,598 281,099 Oatmeal........
10,262
12,428 Ashes...........
316,706 561,967 Ashes...........

1847.
10,843
4,071
11,111

1846.
1,892
5,186
25,050

STATEMENT OF PRINCIPAL ARTICLES EXPORTED BY SEA AT THE FORT OF MONTREAL, IN 1847.
Ashes—Pot...................
11,111 Honey..........
9
“
Pearl................
4,017 Honey..........
28
297
2
Ale...............................
2 Lard.............
205
Barley...........................
22,847 Linseed.........
624
..
Beef..............................
89 Indian-meal... .......
2,621
146,154
1,587
Butter............................
12^423 Pork.............
2^010
Cheese........................... .......pkgs.
261 Peas..............
9,046
Com, Indian.................
14,511 Seed, grass__
300
jninots 1,087,967
Flour............................. ........ibis. 281,099 Wheat..........
Glass.............................
370
NUMBER OF VESSELS THAT SAILED FROM THE PORT OF MONTREAL
For Great Britain.........
. 154 For Oporto....
For Ireland...................
.
13 For Quebec..
For Colonies..................

in

1847.
1

T H E F O R E IG N S IL K T R A D E .
T h e total imports, as compared with 1846, show a decrease o f 587,994 lbs. in 1847,
and the consumption also a decrease o f 409,512 lbs. T he annexed table will, however,
explain this more in detail, and will also give the comparative stock o f the two years, re­
sulting in a deficiency, in January, 1848, o f 157,722 lbs.:—

,------ 1846_____ _
Bengal......... lbs.
C hina................
Brussa...............
Persian.............
Chinese, thrown
Italian, raw —
“
thrown.
Total.............




,------ 1847.-------*

Imports.

Consumption.

Stocks, 1st
Jan., 1847.

1,325,250
2,067,540
286,900
165,000

1,455,150
1,552,950
249,220
154,500

1,200,000
892.500
169,100
12,000

700.000
1 1,405,600
469.000
5,013,690

4,817,420

Imports.

Consumption.

1,084,500 1,353,150
1,997,466 1,919,538
246,980
151,050
50,400
42,900
59,400
33,770
689,250
392,000 |
| 907,500
327,800

2,665,600

4,425,696

4,407,908

Stocks, 1st
Jan., 1848.

881,250
842,928
221,920
13,650
25,630
522,500
2,507,878

421

Commercial Statistics.

Prices generally, throughout the year, have had a downward tendency, attributable un­
doubtedly, in a great measure, to the state o f the money market, and a total absence o f
speculation, together with the determination o f consumers to buy nothing beyond their
immediate wants. The decline most decided has been in Italian silk, the first o f the new
crop, about the middle o f the year, having been sold from 3s. to 4s. per pound under that
o f the preceding year, 1846.
B R IT IS H N A V IG A T IO N L A W S .
Mr. G. F. Young, a shipowner, has published a letter, in which he gives a remarkable
instance o f the operation o f these laws, o f which it is known that he is a zealous supporter.
He says:—
By the Reciprocity Treaty, entered into with Russia on the 2d o f April, 1824, the maratime intercourse between that country and Great Britain was placed on a footing o f per­
fect and undistinguishing equality. In other words, so far as the direct trade between the
two countries was concerned, the British navigation laws were wholly repealed. In the
year 1822, the proportions o f British and foreign tonnage entered inwards from Prussian
ports, were as follows:—
Tons.

British.......................................................................
Foreign....................................................................

102,847
58,270

Excess o f British over foreign.............................
44,577
By a parliamentary return laid before the House o f Commons, on the 17th o f June, 1847,
on the motion o f Sir Howard Douglas, it appears that, in the year 1846, the relative en­
tries w ere:—
Tons.

British.......................................................................
Foreign......................................................« ...........

63,425
270,801

Excess o f foreign over British.............................
207,376
Thus, under the practical operation o f competition, it turns out that British tonnage has,
in twenty-four years, decreased from 102,848 tons to 63,425 tons, while the competing
foreign tonnage has advanced from 58,270 tons, to 270,801 tons.

C H A M P A G N E W IN E T R A D E .
T he production o f Champagne is principally carried on in the three arrondissements of
Chalons, Epernay, and R heim s; and the stock in these three districts, in the hands o f
exporters, amounted, on the 1st o f April, 1847, to 18,815,367 bottles, viz: 4,604,237 in
Chalons, 5,710,753 in Epernay, and 8,506,377 in Rheims. During the year, from the
1st o f April, 1846, to the same date, 1847, Chalons exported 2,497,355 bottles, Epernay
2,187,553, and Rheims 4,090,557— together, 8,775,485 bottles. O f these were sent
abroad 4,711,385 bottles, and France herself was supplied with 2,355,366 bottles; the
remainder, 1,707,304 bottles, are distributed in the Marine Department O f the latter
quantity, the greater part is accounted for by charges in storing, as o f course this depart­
ment does not actually consume that quantity. T he Champagne trade embraces now the
whole world. It is now sent, as well to China, Australia, and Persia, as to Russia and
England; although the latter two countries are the largest consumers of this fashionable
drink. Thirty years ago, the number o f houses trading in Champagne was very limited—
there existed, perhaps, fifteen or twenty; to-day, their number has risen to upwards o f
three hundred. T he house A d Facqueson is the most important one in the arrondissement Chalons; it exports 700,000 bottles. Then follow the houses M. H. Jacquinet,
Perier and Co., Chauvine and Dagunet, and Goerg, all o f which export more than 100,000
bottles. A t Rheims reigns the widow Cliequot, known over the whole w orld ; and next
to her the house Reinart, which both supply the north o f Europe, particularly Russia. In
Epernay, the name o f M oet is the principal one, and his wine enjoys the highest reputa­
tion in England. T he manufacture o f Champagne has doubled itself during the last fif­
teen years, but it is supposed that the consumption keeps pace with it, for the prices^ upon
an average, remained always the same. Last year’s crop is satisfactory as to quantity,
though the quality is middling, and therefore hardly more than one-eighth part o f the
grapes will answer for Champagne.




422

Commercial Regulations.

COMMERCIAL

REGULATIONS.

SH IPPIN G E X P E N S E S A T A M S T E R D A M .
D e p a r t m e n t of S t a t e , W ashington, February 22, 1848.
F r ee m a n H u n t , Esq.— S i r : Presuming that it may prove interesting to the mercantile

community, I enclose a copy o f a statement recently received from the Consul o f the
United States at Amsterdam.
I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
E d w a r d S t u b b s , Agent.
EXPENSES OF A SHIP FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, BOUND TO AMSTERDAM.

Branch Pilot from the English Channel................................................................fr.
Custom-house entry and seals....................................................................................
Boatage..............................................................................................
Harbor dues............ ......................................................................................................
Canal dues and Pilot up......................................................................................
Cash for the horses...............................................................
Total..................................................................................................................Jr.

186
5
20
10
234
250

10
00
00
45
65
00

706 20

EXPENSES FROM AMSTERDAM TO SEA.

Canal dues and Pilot dow n..................................................................................... fr.
Cash for horses dow n.............................................................
Harbor dues at N ew Deep..........................................................................................
Custom-house clearance..............................................................................................
Steamboat (the Roads)...............................................................................................
Boat outwards................................................................................................................
N ew Deep light-m oney..............................................................................................
Pilotage outwards.........................................................................................................
T otal................................................................................................................... fr.

120
250
10
10
51
10
6
53

26
00
45
00
00
00
32
00

511 03

A C T R E L A T I N G T O P A S S E N G E R V E SSE L S C O M IN G T O N E W Y O R K .
T he following act, to amend an act entitled “ A n act concerning passengers in vessels
arriving at the city o f N ew Y ork,” which was published in the Merchants’ Magazine,
& c., passed the Assembly December 15, 1848, three-fifths o f the members being present.
It has been signed by the Governor, and, therefore, has become a law o f the State.
Sec. 1. T he hospital erected on the easterly shore o f Staten Island, and the land ad­
joining thereto, belonging to this State, heretofore known as “ the Marine Hospital,” to­
gether with all the buildings and improvements thereon, are hereby transferred from the
commissioners o f health to the commissioners o f emigration, to be by them held in trust
for the people o f the State, and the sole and exclusive control o f the same, except in re­
gard to the sanitary treatment o f the inmates thereof, is hereby given to the said commis­
sioners o f emigration, for the purpose, and subject to the provisions specified in the pre­
vious enactments relative to the sam e; and from and after the passage o f this act, the
control o f the said commissioners o f health, and o f each and every one o f them over the
same shall cease and determine, except as herein before provided.
Sec. 2. T he Comptroller o f the State shall, within ten days after the passage o f this
act, render to the commissioners o f emigration a full and particular statement o f the con­
dition o f the mariners’ fund, and the said commissioners shall have full power and author­
ity to sue for and collect all claims in favor o f said fund, and the moneys so collected shall
be deposited with the Chamberlain o f the city o f N ew Y ork, and shall be drawn from
him in the manner provided by the fourteenth section o f the act hereby amended.
Sec. 3. T he commissioners o f emigration, or any one or more o f them, shall have and
exercise the same power and authority, in relation to poor children actually chargeable
upon, or receiving support from said commissioners, as are now conferred by law, the




423

Commercial Regulations.

"Commissioners of the Alms-house Department," of the city of New York, respecting
the "Act concerning apprentices and servants."
Sec. 4. The commissioners of emigration are authorized to make such regulations as
they may deem necessary for the government of the institution, in which they may
support such persons as become chargeable to them, and for the employment of the inmates thereof.
Sec. 5. In all cases in which the minor children of alien passengers shall become orphans, by their parents or last surviving parent, dying on the passage to the port of New
York, or in the marine hospital on Staten Island, the personal property which said parents
or parent may hav.e had with them, shall be taken in charge by the commissioners of emigration, to be by them appropriated for the sole benefit of said orphan children; and said
commissioners 'shall give, in their annual rep'ort to the legislature, a minute statement of
all cases in which property shall come into their possession by virtue of this section, and
the disposition r;nade of the same. And the commissioners of emigration are hereby authorized to prescribe rules requiring the health officer to make such reports to them, respecting the persons and property at said hospital, as they may consider necessary.
Sec. 6. The second section of this act, in relation to the collection of moneys by the
commissioners of emigration, shall not apply to the sum of sixteen thousand one hundred
and sixty-six dollars and thirteen cents paid to the commissioners of health by the trustees
of the Seamen1s Fund and Retreat, and now in the hande of the commissioners of health,
but the said sum shall be paid into the treasury by the commissioners of health, and when
so paid, ten thousand dollars thereof shall be applied as provided by the second section of
the act, chapter 373, of the laws of 1847, and the· residue thereof in such manner as may
be hereafter provided by law.
Sec. 7. Nothing in this act contained shall be deemed to affect the present mode of
appointment of the health officer, resident physician, or commissioner of health in the
city of New York ; nor to prevent the health officer from selecting his own medical assistants.
Sec. 8. This act shall take effect immediately.
THE TRANSATLANTIC MAILS.
NOTICE TO THE PUJ3LIC, AND INSTRUCTIONS TO POSTMASTERS.

Post-Office Department, March 1st, 1848.
l. Letters to any post-office in Bremen, Hamhurgh, Oldenburgh, Hanover, Brunswick,
Pru~ia, o'r Saxony, in Germany, may be sent by the United States mail steam-packets
.Washington and Hermann, postage unpaid, or pre-paid to destination, or pre-paid to Bre•
men only, at the option of the sender.
United States postageIf mailed at New York....... .. ......................................... .. .
"
within 300 miles of N ew York ............................. _.
over 300 miles from New York..... .... ......................
No additional postage to Bremen.

24 cents single.
29

"

34

Postage to be added, if to be pre-paidTo Hamburgh .......................... ..................... ................ . .
6
Oldenburgh ................................................................ .
5
"
Hanover .. ...... ......... ................................................. .
6
Brunswick .. . . ........... ................................................. .
6
"
Prussia .. ......................... .. ...................................... .. 12
"
Single letter limited to half an ounce.
2. Writers may pre-pay to the following places and countries, or send unpaid, or they
may pay the United States postage only-which last is advised.
Add to United States postage (see above) if pre-paidTo Lubec ........................... ....... ...... ............................. .
9 cents single.
Gotha ........... ............... ...................................~ ....... . 13
"
Austria ................................................................... . 18
Cassel. ......................................................... . .......... . 10
"
Coburgh ................................................................... . 15
Bavaria .................................................................. . 22
"
Frankfort-on-the-Maine... ... .......................................... . 13
Darmstadt .............................................................. . 15
"
Baden ... ................. ................................................. . 18
IC
W urtemburgh ............................................................ . 21


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

424

Commercial Regulations.

Single letter limited to \ ounce, except to Lubec and Gotha, which is limited to \ omrce?
(foreign.)
3.
In the following cases it is best to pay the United States postage only. Neverthe ­
less, the writer may pay to destination, or may send unpaid.
Postage in addition tn United States rate, (see above.)

To Altona................................................................................................
6 cents single..
Keil..................................................................................................... 11
Copenhagen, and Denmark generally............................................ 22
44
Stockholm, and the farthest part of Sweden................................. 39
44
Bergen, Christiana, and farthest part of Norway......................... 28
44
St. Petersburgh, or Cronstadt........................................................... 24
44
44
Alexandria, Cairo, or Greece.......................................................... 37
Eastern towns of Italy......................................................... ........... 18
44
Constantinople.............. ....................................... . .......... ............... 37
44
Basle, and Switzerland generally..............................
21
44
T he single letter in Denmark, Sweden, and Russia, limited to £ ounce ; in the other
countries, on list N o. 3, limited to \ ounce.
4. On newspapers and pamphlets, the United States postage, and that only, is to be pre­
paid ; 3 cents per newspaper or pamphlet, with inland postage added if mailed elsewhere
than in N ew Y ork. Memorandum.— Newspapers will be rated abroad with foreign letter
postage, if printed in any other language than the English, and if enveloped otherwise
than with narrow bands.
5. Each letter is to be marked, or stamped on the face with the name o f the office
mailing it, and, on the back, with the name o f the N ew Y ork post-office. I f United States
postage only is pre-paid, it is to be marked or stamped 44paid part,” in black. I f postage
through to destination is pre-paid, it is to be stamped or marked, in red, “ paid a l l a n d
the amount o f foreign postage received is to be stated on the letter in red. I f the letter
is unpaid, the United States postage, in black, is to be stated.
C. J ohnson -, Postm aster General.

R IG H T S O F F R E N C H A N D A M E R IC A N S H IP -M A S T E R S .
W e learn from GalignanPs Messenger that the Court o f Cassation was occupied, or*
the 24th and 25th o f November, 1847, with a case o f appeal from a decision o f the Cour
Royale o f A ix, on the point, whether the captains o f foreign' vessels were bound, likeFrench captains, to make the report o f their voyage to the tribunal o f commerce o f the
port into which they entered, or to the Consul o f their own nation. The case arose out
o f an action brought by M . Gauthier, a merchant o f Marseilles, against Captain Brown,,
o f the American vessel Minerva. T he Cour Royale o f A ix decided in favor o f the fa­
culty to send in the report to the Cousul on these grounds:— 1. That the maxim of locu&
regit actum is not applicable to commercial matters. 2. That art. 212, and the following
o f the code o f commerce, are obligatory only on French captains. 3. That French cap­
tains being permitted, in America, to make their report to the French Consul, thdsam e
favor ought to be accorded, in France, to American, captains. On the appeal, the Court
confirmed the former decision.
R E G U L A T IO N S O F S H IPPIN G B Y T H E H A Y T I E N R E PU B LIC .
B. C. StufFel, Haytien Consul, residing in London, publishes the following notice, bear­
ing date London, Jan. 24th, 1848 :—
Notice is hereby given, that, according to instructions received from the government o f
the Republic o f Hayti, all manifests, certificates, & c., o f every ship, vessel, or steamer,
bound for any port o f Hayti, will have to be presented, at the above office, to be vised*
with a copy o f the same to be le ft; and that, shoutd the above regulationsjiot be complied
with, such ship, vessel, or steamer, will be made liable on arrival, and subject to a fine.

SH IPS D E S T IN E D F O R B O R D E A U X , F R A N C E .
Masters o f ships, destined for Bordeaux, are cautioned not to attempt entering the
Gironde, if the distance does not allow them to arrive quite inside Cordonan Light-houe®
before sunset.




425

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance,

JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY AND FINANCE.
C O IN A G E OF T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S M IN T A N D B R A N CH E S.
-COINAGE OF THE MINT OF THE UNITED STATES IN THE SEVERAL YEARS FROM ITS ESTABLISHMENT
IN 1792, AND INCLUDING THE COINAGE OF THE BRANCH MINTS FROM THE COMMENCEMENT OF
THEIR OPERATIONS IN 1838.

Years.
17931
1794 1...
1795 J
1796.......
1797.......
1798.......
1799.......
1800.......
1801.......
1802.......
1803.......
1804.......
1805.......
1806.......
1807.......
1808.......
1809.......
1810......
1811.......

..

..
..
..

Amount coined.
Amount coined. Years.
Amount coined. Years.
1812..... ... $1,115,219 50 1831..... ... $3,923,473 00
1,102,271 50 1832..... ... 3,401,055 00
$453,541 80 1813..... ...
3,765,710 00
1814.....
642,535 80 1833...... ...
7,388,423 00
20,483 00 1834..... ...
192,129 40 1815.....
5,668,677 00
29 1816.....
56,785 57 1835..... ...
647,267 50 1836..... ... 7,764,900 00
545,698 00 1817.....
3,299,898 00
1,345,064 50 1837..... ...
645,906 68 1818..... ...
4,206,540 00
1,425,325 00 1838...... ...
571,335 40 1819..... ...
3.576,467 61
37 1820....... ...
1,864,786 20 1839...... ...
1,018,977 45 1840..... ... 3,426,632 50
516,075 83 1821..... ...
915,509 89 1841..... ... 2,240,321 17
370,698 53 1822.....
967,975 00 1842..... ... 4,190,754 40
371,827 94 1823.....
1,858,297 00 1843..... ... 11,967,830 70
333,239 48 1824..... ...
7,687,767 52
1,735,894 00 1844..... ...
801,084 00 1825..... ...
5,668,595 54
1,044,595 96 1826..... ... 2,110,679 25 1845....... ...
6,633,965 50
982,055 00 1827....... ...
3,024,342 32 1846....... ...
884,752 53 1828..... ...
1,741,381 24 1847..... ... 21,435,791 12
1,155,868 50 1829..... ... 2,306,875 50
1,108,740 95 1830..... ...
3,155,620 00
Total.. ..$143,916,113 54

Il will be seen from the above table, which exhibits the yearly coinage from 1793, that

the total coinage from that period to 1847, inclusive, amounted to $143,916,113 54;
showing that the amount coined in 1847 was about one-sixth o f the aggregate coinage in
the fifty-five years from the first coinage in 1793, to the close o f 1847.
COINAGE OF THE MINTS MONTHLY, FROM THE

January.................................
February................. ............
March......................
A p ril........................ .............
M ay..................... . ............
June......................... .............

1ST OF JANUARY

TO THE

1ST OF

DECEMBER,

1847.

$535,050 52 July........................................ $3,543,945 44
1,804,043 44
815,191 36 August...................................
September....................
2,699,305 01
1,418,577 76
873,165 99 October..................................
3,085,953 80
1,364,173 61 November.............................
1,942,312 50

T he increase o f gold and silver imported into the United States during the fiscal year
ending on the 30th o f June, 1847, as compared with the year 1846, was $21,979,855,
being 7,417 73-100 per cent.
Years.

T otal import o f gold and silver. Total export o f gold and silver.

1846...........
1847 ...........

$3,777,732
24,121,289

$3,481,417
1,845,119

Excess o f imports.

$296,315
22,276,170

B A N K O F E N G L A N D ST O C K D IV ID E N D S F R O M 1794 T O 1847.
From 1694 to 1697, the dividends o f this mammoth institution were 8 per cent per an­
num, payable quarterly; in September, 1698, 7 per ce n t; in March, 1699, 7 ; and in
March o f the same year, they had fallen to 4 J. In 1700, 5 J ; in 17 01,4 J ; in 1702, 74 ;
in March, 1703, 7J, and in September o f same year, 9 ; in March, 1704, 7J, and in Sep­
tember o f same year, 8 4 ; in March, 1705, 84, and in September o f same year, 7 ; in
March, 1706, they rose as high as 10J, the largest paid since the establishment o f the
bank; in September o f the same year they fell to 7J ; in March, 1707, 3J, and in Septem­
ber o f same year, 4 ; in March, 1708, 44, and in September o f same year, 8 4 ; in March,




'

426

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

1709, 4J, and in September o f same year, 4 ; in March, 1710, 4, and in September 34,
and the same during the year 1811. T he dividends from 1712 to 1714 were 4 per ce n t;
in March, 1715, they fell to 3 f. From September, 1715, to March, 1719, 4 ; and from
1719 to 1720, 34- From 1721 to 1727, they stood at 3 ; and from 1728 to 1729, at 2$.
In March, 1730, 3, and in September o f the same year, 2 j ; in March, 1731, 3, and in
September o f the same year, 2 } ; in March, 1732, 3. From September, 1732, to Sep­
tember, 1746, a period o f 14 years, 2 J ; from March, 1747, to October, 1752, 2 4 ; from
April, 1753, to April, 1 7 5 4 ,2 4 ; from October, 1754, to April, 1767, 24 ; from April,
1767, to April, 1781, 2 f ; from 1781 to 1787, 3 ; from 1788 to 1806, 3 4 ; from 1807 to
1822, 5 ; from 1823 to 1838, 4 ; from 1839 to 1847, 3 4 per cent.
T he foregoing statement o f the dividends paid by the bank to stockholders, we have
carefully compiled from Francis’ History o f the Bank o f England, an interesting, if not
remarkably practical or scientific work.
P A Y M E N T S O F I N T E R E S T A N D P R IN C IP A L O F U. S T A T E S D E B T .
TABLE OF PAYMENTS MADE ANNUALLY ON ACCOUNT OF THE INTEREST AND PRINCIPAL OF THE
PUBLIC DEBT, FROM THE 4 t II OF MARCH, 1 7 8 9 , TO THE 1ST OF DECEMBER, 1 8 4 7 .
Years.
Payments.
Years.
Payments.
Years.
Payments.

17 91*....
1792......
1793......
1794......
1795........
1796......
1797........
1798......
1799.......
1800......
1801......
1802......
1803......
1804......
1805 ....
1806......
1807......
1808......
1809......
1810......

$5,287,949
7,263,665
5,819,505
5,801,578
6,084,411
5,835,846
5,792,421
3,990,294
-4,596,876
4,578,369
7,291,707
9,539,004
7,256,159
8,171,787
7,369,889
8,989,884
6,307,720
10,260,245
6,452,554
8,008,904

50
99
29
09
61
44
82
14
78
95
04
76
43
45
79
61
10
35
16
46

1811......
1812......
1813......
1814......
1815......
1816 ..
1817......
1818......
1819......
1820......
1821......
1822......
1823......
1824......
1825......
1826......
1827......
1828......
1829......
1830......

$8,009,204
4,449,622
11,108,123
7,900,543
12,628,922
24,871,062
25,423,036
21,296,201
7,703,926
8,628,494
8,367,093
7,848,949
5,530,016
16,568,393
12,095,344
11,041,082
10,003,668
12,163,438
12,383,867
11,355,748

05
45
44
94
35
93
12
62
29
28
62
12
41
76
78
19
39
07
78
22

1831......
1832......
1833......
1834......
1835......
1836......
1837......
1838......
1839......
1840......
1841......
1842......
1 8 4 3 t...
1844......
1845......
1846......
1847......
18471...
T ota l.

$16,174,378
17,840,309
1,543,543
6,176,565
58,191

22
29
38
19
28

21,822
5,605,720
11,117,987
4,086,613
5,600,689
8,575,539
861,596
12,991,902
8,595,039
1,213,823
6,722,021
2,539,237

91
27
42
70
74
94
55
84
10
31
39
69

$483,800,498 79

T R E A S U R Y N O T E S A N D SPEC IE A T N E W Y O R K C U S T O M -H O U S E .
STATEMENT OF AMOUNT OF SPECIE AND OF TREASURY NOTES RECEIVED AT THE CUSTOM-HOUSE,
NEW YORE, FROM JANUARY 1 TO DECEMBER 1, 1847.
M on th s.

Specie.

January...................
February.................
M arch ......................
A p r il........................
M ay..................... .
June.........................
July..........................
August.....................
September...............
O ctober...................
Novem ber...............

$810,444
1,417,584
1,652,215
2,109,936
1,482,658
1,464,549
2,062,981
3,340,706
2,101,447
1,242,323
930,575

Total.

Treasury notes.

02
41
06
29
69
47
11
48
33
91
49

$18,615,422 26

$615,601
83,985
1,851
1,200
50

94,455 11
$797,144 56

* From March 4, 1789, to December 31.
t From June 30 to December 1.




86
74
85
00
00

Total.

$1,426,045
1,501,570
1,654,066
2,111,136
1,482,708
1,464,549
2,062,981
3,340,706
2,101,447
1,242,323
1,025,030

88
15
91
29
69
47
11
48
33
91
60

$19,412,566 82

+ T o June 30.

427

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

U N IT E D S T A T E S IM P O R T S A N D E X P O R T S O F C O IN A N D B U LLION .
A STATEMENT EXHIBITING THE AMOUNT OP COIN AND BULLION IMPORTED AND EXPORTED AN­
NUALLY FROM 1821 TO 1847, INCLUSIVE ; AND, ALSO, THE a m o u n t OF IMPORTATION OVER
EXPORTATION, AND OF EXPORTATION OVER THE IMPORTATION, DURING THE SAME YEARS.
Excess o f
Importation over Exportation ovpr
Years.
importation.
Exported.
exportation.
Imported.

1821*..............
1822.................
1823................
1824................
1825.................
1826................
1827.................
1828................
1829................
1830................
1831.................
1832................
1833.................
1834.................
1835................
1836.................
1837.................
1838................
1839................
1840.................
1841................
1842................
1843t...............
18441...............
1845.................
1846.................
1847§...............

4,924,020
2,178,773
9,014,931
5,656,340
2,611,701
2,076,758
6,477,775
4,324,336
5,976,249
3,508,046
8,776,743
8,417,014
10,034,332
1,520,791
5,454,214
8,606,495
3,905,268
1,907,739

$8,064,890
3,369,846
5,097,896
8,379,835
6,150,765
6,880,966
8,151,130
7,489,741
7,403,612
8,155,964
7,305,945
5,907,504
7,070,368
17,911,632
13,131,447
13,400,881
10,516,414
17,747,116
5,595,176
8,882,813
4,988,633
4,087.016
22,320,335
5,830,429
4,070,242
3,777,732
24,121,289

$2,413,169
7,440,334
1,275,091
$1,365,283
2,646,290
2,176,433
136,250
753,735
2,479,592
5,977,191
1,708,986
251,164
4,458,667
15,834,874
6,653,672
9,076,545
4,540,165
14,239,070
3,181,567
465,799
5,045,699
726,523
20,799,541
376,215
4,536,253
127,536
22,213,550

* Years ending Sept. 30.
t Nine months— to June 30.
t Year— to June 30.
§ Including $62,62 0 o f American coin.
D E B T A N D F IN A N C E S OF M ISSISSIPPI.
T he following is a concise statement o f the Finances o f this State for 1846 and 1847,
showing a decided improvement:—
Taxes for 1845, received in 1 8 4 6 ....................................................................
“
1846,
“
1847......................................................................

$351,278 72
328,407 16

T ota l....................................... ..........................................................................
Disbursed in 1846................................................ , ...................
$380,437 97
“
1847 ....................................................................
233,521 33
-----------------

$679,685 88

Excess o f receipts.......................................................... .................................

613,959 70
$65,726 18

Exclusive o f $50,029 21 received from miscellaneous sources in money, and $18,000
in Planters’ Bank bonds.
In estimating the indebtedness o f the State, the bonds o f the Planters’ Bank have been
included. The debt now stands as follow s:—
Bonds issued in March, 1 8 3 3 ..............................................................................
Six per cent interest from March, 1830, to January, 1848............................
Bonds issued in July, 1831....................................................................................
Six per cent interest from July, 1839, to January, 1848................................

$1,500,000
795,000
500,000
255,000

T otal.....................................................................................................................

$3,050,000

Subject to a deduction o f $24,341 in bonds and coupons, paid into the Treasury.




428

Journal o f Banking , Currency , and Finance .
FREE BANKS OF N E W Y O R K ST A T E .

T he aggregate amount o f the circulating notes o f all the free banking associations and
individual bankers in operation on the first day o f December, 1847, was $10,366,554.
The securities deposited with the Comptroller to secure the redemption of these bills
was, at the same date, v iz :—
N ew Y ork State 4£ per cent stock ..
ti
it
5
it

54

tt

6
7

a

United States
“

5

a

6

a

Indiana State
Arkansas State
Alabama State
Illinois State
Michigan

6
6
5
6
6 & 7

it
It

$365,376
4,886,189
892,000
1,055,665
801,009

tt

56
24
00
00
00
$7,900,239 80

$55,000 00
59,000 00
114,000 00

11

$6,650
499,000
34,000
643,666
280,608

ft
a
a
ft

00
00
00
67
00
1,463,924 67
62,726 86
1,559,362 40

Cash in deposit..
Bonds and mortgages......

$11,100,253 73
Increase o f N ew Y ork State 41 per cent stock....
it

It

it

it

U

it

5
54

tt
u

it

6

tt

it

7

u

7

tt

United States

Indiana
6
Cash deposited.................
Bonds and mortgages......

$37,400
2,343,057
407,000
454,073
185,873
9,000

00
30
00
00
00
00

tt

$3,436,403
2,650
24,687
7,097

30
00
79
00

T ota l..............
$3,470,838 09
Increase o f circulation on the above.
3,331,656 00
Decrease o f Michigan 6 per cent stock................................... .................
206,425 60
T w o associations and nineteen individual bankers have commenced business during the
year 1847, viz:—
American Bank, Mayville, Chautauque coun ty; Atlas Bank o f N ew York, Clymer,
Chautauque county ; Bank o f Bainbridge, Bainbridge, Chenango county ; Bank o f Cayu­
ga Lake, Ithaca, Tompkins county ; Bank o f Lake Erie, Buffalo, Erie ; Bank o f Saratoga
Springs, Saratoga Springs, Saratoga county; Bowery Bank, N ew Y ork c ity ; Farmers’
Bank, Mina, Chautauque county; Franklin Bank, French Creek, Chautauque county;
Commercial Bank, Albany c ity ; Commercial Bank, Friendship, Allegany county ; Com ­
mercial Bank, Lockport, Niagara county; Henry Keeps’ Bank, Watertown, Jefferson
county; McIntyre Bank, Adirondack, Essex county; Merchants’ Bank, Ellery, Chau­
tauque county; N ew York Security Bank, Huntsville, Saratoga county; Northern Bank
o f N ew Y ork, Madrid, St. Lawrence county; Northern Exchange Bank, Brasher Falls,
St. Lawrence county; Pratt Bank, Buffalo, Erie county; Rochester Bank, Rochester,
Monroe county; State Bank, Saugerties, Ulster county.
And have deposited the following securities, v iz :—
N ew Y ork 5 percent stock.........................................................................
“
5*
“
“
6
"
“
7
“
Bonds and mortgages..................................................................................

$1,438,194
321,000
95,000
27,250
70,000

46
00
00
00
00

T otal.....................................................................................................................$1,951,444 46
Circulating notes issued o.i the above-...... ....... *................ ....................
1,948,186 00




Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

429

Thirty banks have been closed by the Comptroller since the passage o f the general
banking law.
T he Comptroller’s report furnishes a statement which shows the amount and kind o f
securities held by him at the time o f sale for each bank, the proceeds o f securities, amount
o f circulation outstanding, dividends declared, amount o f notes unredeemed, and amount
in deposit to redeem said notes, December 1,1847.
N ew York State stocks sold......................................
Illinois
“
Arkansas
il
Indiana
“
“
Alabama
Michigan
“
Bonds and mortgages..................................................

T he result o f this table is as follow s;—
$143,350
239,000
157,000
424,000
98,000
79,000
441,397

00
00
00
00
00
00
86

Proceeds o f sales o f securities,
Showing a loss on securities of............................................................

$1,581,747 86
971,003 98
$ 6 1 0 ,743 88

Circulation at the time o f sale............................. ....................................
Amount redeemed to December 1,1847, and returned to bank depart’t

$1,239,285 00
1,215,483 00

Circulating notes outstanding..................................................................

$23,802 00

D E P R E C IA T IO N OF F O R E IG N COIN.
T he Mercantile Times publishes some good suggestions in relation to the circulation
o f foreign coin in this country. W e cannot, however, endorse the recommendation of
the Times, in regard to the passage o f a law making a it forfeiture o f the coin offered, if
tendered for more than the depreciated value o f such c o in :—
“ The government has long since exerted its influence to prevent the continuance, in
circulation, o f the small and depreciated foreign coin which has become mixed with that
o f the United States. The post-office, the custom-house, and other government offices,
refuse it; and some o f our banks have declined receiving it for anything more than its
real value, as ascertained by weight.
“ T he Spanish coins o f sixteenths, eighths, and quarters o f a dollar, are so much depreci­
ated by wear— particularly the sixteenths and eighths— as to be worth no more than five
and ten cents. T he quarters may be worth, on an average, twenty-two cents; yet we
think the better mode o f arresting the evil is to fix the rates o f five, ten, and twenty cents,
as the only value at which they should be permitted to pass.
“ A great good would result from breaking up the circulation o f this coin for anything
more than the rates we have named. It would abolish the illegal and inconvenient cur­
rency o f shillings and pence, which, though not used in books and accounts correctly kept,
are still maintained by small traffickers, omnibus drivers, market people, etc., etc., who
know nothing o f our beautiful system o f decimals. H alf cents and quarter cents form no
part o f our legal currency ; and why permit them? T en mills make one ce n t; ten cents,
one dime ; ten dimes, one dollar; ten dollars, one eagle. For greater convenience, the
mint has coined half dimes, or five cents; quarter eagles, $ 2 50 ; and half eagles, $ 5 00.
Our system o f coins is as complete and convenient as it is simple and beautiful; and we
are bound to encourage and carry it out. W e should be glad to see a law passed making
it a forfeiture o f the coin offered, if tendered for more than five cents the sixteenth, ten
cents the eighth, or twenty cents the quarter o f a dollar. This would soon send to the
mint for re-coinage, the large quantity o f depreciated silver at present current, and which
excludes our own coin, to a great extent, from circulation.”
B R IT IS H C O N SO LS.
In the London money market, under the pressure, consols have been as low as 79 for
cash. T he history o f the fluctuating value o f this description o f public securities, for a
number o f years, is interesting. In April, 1844, for the first time for nearly a century,
3 per cent consols were at par, or jC 100 o f money for £ 1 0 0 o f stock. The last time they
were at £ 1 0 0 was in 1717, the year after the peace o f Aix-la-Chapelle ; at which period
the amount o f the public debt was rather more than £78,000,000. T he highest price the




430

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

3 per cents ever rose to, was in June, 1737, and again in M ay, 1739, when they attained
the high price o f .£170. Between the year 1729 and the year o f the rebellion, 1745, the
3 per cents were never lower than £ 8 9 , and for a considerable portion o f that period they
were above par. Again, in March, 1792, they rose to £ 9 7 $ , when the amount o f the
national debt was £239,350,000. During the period between the peace o f Paris, in 1763,
(when the amount o f the debt was £138,774,000,) and the breaking out o f the American
war, they fluctuated between 80 and 90 per cent. Towards the close o f the American
war, namely, in February, 1782, they were as low as 54$. At the termination o f the
American war, the debt was £249,851,628. In the years 1797-98, in consequence of
the great success o f the French armies on the continent, and o f the mutiny at the Nore,
and o f the rebellion in Ireland, together with the failure o f the attempt to negotiate with
the French Republic, the price o f stock became less than it has been before or since that
time. In May, and again in June, 1797, the 3 per cents were reduced as low as 46$.
In the September o f that year, the 3 per cent consols fell to 47$, being the lowest price
to which they have ever fallen. Dr. Hamilton, in his valuable work on the national debt,
states that they were also at that price in January, 1798. The 3 per cent consols have
not been under 68 since the latter part o f the year 1820, when they were 67$.
LOSS T O T H E N E W Y O R K S A F E T Y FU N D B Y F A IL U R E S O F B A N K S.
T he following statement, derived from the Annual Report o f the Comptroller o f the
State, shows the capital, and the sums contributed to the Safely Fund, by eleven banks
which have become insolvent; also the sums drawn from the Safety Fund to pay the debts
o f these banks:—
B an k s.

City Bank o f Buffalo....................
Bank o f Buffalo..............................
Commercial Bank o f Buffalo......
“
“
N ew York
“
“
O sw ego....
Clinton County Bank....................
Watervliet Bank............................
W ayne County Bank....................
Bank o f Lyons...............................
La Fayette Bank............................
Bank o f Oswego............................

Capital.

Contribution to Fund,. Drawn from Fund.

$400,000
200,000
400,000
500,000
250,000
200,000
250,000
100,000
200,000
500,000
150,000

$4,333
6,000
12,000
15,000
5,308
4,263
5,416
3,000
5,211
17,500
8,250

33
00
00
00
21
00
66
00
22
00
00

$278,645
584,603
611,010
285,950
241,220
227,875
127,131
129,213
92,238
38

29
22
87
23
63
39
26
70
08
00

$86,282 42
T ota l............................................
$3,150,000
$2,577,926 67
There is a loss o f capital to the stockholders, by the failures o f the banks before named,
o f $3,150,000 ; add to this the los3 to the Safety Fund, $2,577,926 67, and it makes a
total o f $5,727,926 67. These banks paid into the Safety Fund $86,282 4 2 ; this shows
a loss o f capital o f $5,641,647 25.
T he following amounts o f circulating notes o f the several insolvent Safety Fund banks
have been presented at the Comptroller’s office, and redeemed in the last three years, as
provided by the act chapter 114, Laws o f 1845, viz:—
B a nk s .

Commercial Bank of Buffalo.................. . . . .
Bank of Lyons...........................................
Commercial Bank of Oswego..................
Clinton County Bank................................
Watervliet Bank........................................
Bank of Buffalo.........................................
Commercial Bank of New Y o rk ...........
Wayne County Bank.................................
City Bank of Buffalo.................................
La Fayette Bank, New York..................
Total.......................................................
Redeemed by issue of stock, viz:—
Watervliet Bank........................................

184 §.
$ 2 1 ,0 7 1
1 1 ,8 4 5
4 ,9 2 8
1 ,3 4 9
447
35

1 84 6.

1847.
$ 1 ,2 9 5
1 ,8 5 5
848
1 ,6 0 3
317
255
81
3
40
17

$ 2 3 ,6 7 0
1 8 ,5 6 2
1 5 ,5 7 0
7 ,8 1 2
5 ,0 4 8
1 ,8 0 9
712
126
130
38

$ 1 0 ,1 2 1

$ 6 ,3 1 4

$ 7 3 ,4 7 7

2 7 ,5 6 8

2 7 ,5 6 8
1 0 ,1 8 6

1 0 ,1 8 6

Total.................................. ....................




Total.

$ 1 ,3 0 4
3 ,8 7 7
2 ,8 7 7
1 ,2 8 1
270
205
184
47
55
21

$ 2 0 ,3 0 7

$ 6 ,3 1 4

$ 1 1 1 ,2 3 1

431

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
C A M D E N A N D A M B O Y R A IL R O A D A N D T H E R A R I T A N C A N A L .
T he Camden and A m boy Railroad Company is consolidated with the Delaware am i

Raritan Canal Company by an act o f the Legislature o f N ew Jersey, and made joint
stock.

This road extends from Camden Depot, Philadelphia, to South A m boy, on Rari­

tan Bay, and is 60 miles and 67 chains in length, with a deflection or curvature o f less
than one m ile;— inclusive o f branches, 92 miles and 41 chains. This road is divided into
five principal sections, as follow s:—
Section 1, completed in 1832, extends from South Am boy to Bordentown Depot, 35
miles. W hole number o f turn-outs, 15. Distance, 4 miles and 15 chains.
Section 2, completed in 1834, extends from Bordentown Depot to Camden, 26 miles
and 10 chains. W hole number o f turn-outs, 6. Distance, 1 mile and 15 chains.
Section 3, completed in 1838, extends from Bordentown to the Lower Depot at Trenton,
6 miles. W hole number o f turn-outs, 1. Distance, 8 } chains.
Section 4, completed in 1839, extends from the Lower Depot, N ew Brunswick, 24 miles
and 1 chain. W hole number o f turn-outs, 8. Distance, 53 chains.
Section 5 extends from Trenton to Delaware Bridge, at Bloomsbury, 1 mile and 30
chains. W hole number o f turn-outs, 3. Distance, 2 5 } chains.
ORIGINAL COST OP THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD.

$517,907 62
Grading.................................... $379,721 76 I Iron rails......................
94,294 77 j Gravelling...............................
22,223 44
Engineering............................
55,644 55 \Trenching..............................
27,998 14
W harfing................................
48,955 05 I Stone blocks..........................
I l l ,524 73
Stock and tools.......................
Incidental expenses...............
32,384 90 . Laying rails............................
155,346 46
121,153 65 Cars.........................................
140,742 88
Timber.....................................
37,314 14 ; Ditching..................................
26,232 61
Stone........................................
1,058 20 j Locomotives...........................
123,840 67
Office expenses.......................
371,769 68 Iron.........................................
10,372 08
Real estate...............................
17,112 91 Locust.....................................
13,447 70
Culverls.................... ..............
26,858 22 |Printing...................................
1,679 32
Salaries...................................
4,570 71 1Interest....................................
104,242 64
Damages..................................
5,482 85 |Wood rails.............................
7,310 57
Carpenters...............................
Legal expenses......................
6,701 51 |Steamboats.............................
420,153 57
14,768 36 Philad. and Trenton Railroad
45,569 54
Masonry...................................
10,067 08 Stone rails..............................
3,457 59
Smithery..................................
Property in trust to pay debts
8,543 04 : Taxes......................................
209 09
Canal passage barges............
1,832 28 Pine wood...............................
75 12
35,170 60 Coal lands..............................
25,000 00
Sleepers...................................
2,245 35
------------------Fencing....................................
6,352 61
Total.......................................$ 3,222,204 84
Salting timber.........................
Stable expenses.......................
36 89
Less credits...........................
1,347 87
78,459 37 j
--------------------Bridges.....................................
Broken stone...........................
103,372 64; T o ta l...................................... $2,320,856 87
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS OF THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD FROM 1832 TO 1839.

■1812.--------V ,--------1811_____ , ,--------1814..
M o n th s.

Receipts.

Expenditures.

Receipts.

January.......................................................$16,387
February................................................... 17,650
March........................................................ 31,849
A p ril.......................................................... 38,794
M a y ........................................................... 47,414
June........................................................... 42,189
July............................................................ 54,608
August....................................................... 63,845
September................................................. 56,260
03 $4,829 95
56,576
October........$20,003
November... 17,223
07 10,663 7 1 30,746
December.... 13,465
98 8,829 95 21,875




Expenditures.

20 $20,453
04
6,895
86 18,328
25 24,436
22 27,133
27 21,561
11 36,778
04 26,675
25 28,227
19 19,702
2 5 28,148
82 28,749

Receipts.

80 $20,110
10 29,441
90 45,196
95 46,328
80 48,952
02 50,542
85 56,147
84 62,470
37 60,191
30 53,671
18 40,490
79 32,750

Expenditures.

36 $14,633 15
30 12,125 33
18 24,627 04
07 32,718 86
88 31,523 85
58 21,883 09
05 25,524 57
98 27,431 85
19 16,856 57
95 19,713 84
7 5 37,437 34
25 48,786 19

432

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

,---- 1815.---- v ,---- 1816 ---- ,

1817.

Months.
Receipts.
Expenditures. Receipts. Expenditures. Receipts.
January...............................$27,533 21$17,693 80 $26,H74 62 $9,242 57 $29,289 22
February............................ 28,343 64 12,293 44
25,447 98 ■20,289 27 36,422 42
March................................ 42,750 60 21,080 08
43,942 28 36,937 49 64,655 77
68,025 72 26,483 72 72.056 50
April................................. 53,524 91 20,362 30
M ay.................................. 59,118 08 27,282 34
75,728 95 24,393 98 70,605 58
June................................... 63,357 62 27,814 63
75,945 24
36,801 04 61,488 04
91,088 28 37,920 07 80,391 96
July.................................... 78,515 36 36,182 82
August............................... 85,657 13 22,698 69
98.615 78 31,631 46 74,182 59
September......................... 73,538 38 49,231 19
93,809 46 32,678 10
74,277 92
October.............................. 69,415 06 23,459 46
76,197 31 41,074 25 72,677 61
November......................... 44,963 16 23,996 56
55,066 28 20,829 13 56,241 98
December.......................... 52,746 48 35,396 45
39,849 38
45,063 82 39,705 66

1817.

,-------- 1838.-------- ,

,-------- 1839.-------- ,

Months.
Expenditures.
Receipts. Expenditures. Receipts. Expenditures.
January...............................$35,699 60$30,892 16 $25,417 27 $24,365 96 $8,959 51
February............................ 22,339 28 33,772 85
16,030 39 28,698 97 15,986 48
March................................ 35,419 75 57,692 77
38,490 76 49,813 60 25,631 19
April................................... 35,960 30 66,973 33
24,913 56 66,642 95 22,522 92
Mav................................... 31,066 76 67,524 72
24,249 88 78,576 83 25.263 23
June................................... 24,092 26 65,528 17
31,157 22
46,921 52 21.333 39
July.................................... 24,684 25 81,455 91
32,313 43 94,184 37 31,899 67
August............................... 26,997 58 80,765 12
24,029 53 69,297 22 22,484 34
September......................... 34,398 13 82,566 73
23,975 50 62,587 52 21,046 64
October.............................. 31,240 82 78,019 02
31,715 61 61,382 71 24,145 51
November.......................... 31,428 62 70,187 76
41,844 28 48,345 55 23,134 97
December.......................... 26,183 16 39,511 67
41,011 68 54,512 56 15,636 73
From the “ Report o f the Joint Board o f Directors o f the Delaware and Raritan Ca­
nal and Camden and Amboy Railroad Companies, to the Stockholders, January 12f
1848,” and the Report o f the State Directors o f the same companies, one o f the docu­
ments accompanying the Message o f the Governor o f N ew Jersey, furnished us by W

il ­

H. G a t z m e r , Esq., the intelligent and efficient agent o f the companies, residing in
Philadelphia, we are enabled to extend our statistics o f the road, &c., to the present time,
and at the same time give a condensed view o f the operations o f the corporation.
l ia m

From the Report o f the State Directors, it appears that N ew Jersey owns one-fifteenth
o f the whole stock o f the two companies, upon which, with other stockholders, she re­
ceives the regular dividends; and which, added to the transit duties secured in the char­
ters, amount to nearly one-fifth o f the nett earnings o f the companies.* It appears from
the report o f the joint directors o f the companies, that in consideration o f a grant, by the
State o f N ew Jersey, o f certain valuable rights and privileges, o f which one was the ex­
clusive right to transport passengers and merchandise by railroad across the State, between
the cities o f N ew Y ork and Philadelphia, the companies transferred 2,000 shares o f stock,
on which, as before stated, the State o f N ew Jersey receives the dividends. W ith this
heavy imposition by the State, the public need scarcely complain o f the high rate o f fare
charged by the companies. T he sums paid to the State o f New Jersey in 1847 in divi­
dends and transit duties, amounted to a fraction more than eighty-one thousand three hun­
dred and one dollars, or nearly one-fourth o f the nett revenue o f the w orks; and the
whole sum paid to the State from these interests since the commencement o f the opera-

,

* T he transit duties consist o f ten ce n ts on each p a s s e n g e r , and fifteen cen ts on each ton o f g o o d s
transported over their roads ; and it w as g u a r a n te ed by the companies, that the transit duties, and the d iv ­
idends on on e thousand shares o f the stock transferred to the State, should amount to at le a st thirty thou*
sand dollars, or that amount be made up by the companies. The State now holds tw o thousand shares o f
stock, or $200,000, which is quoted in the market at 35 to 45 above par, or equal to about $280,000 ; the
dividends upon which have been about 12 per cent on par, making the payments to the State the past year
over eig h ty thousand d o lla r s ! and for w hat? W h a t outlay have the people o f New Jersey, made from
which they receive this large income ? —A m e ric a n R a ilroa d Jou rn al.




433

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

lions o f the companies, amounts to six hundred and seventy-one thousand six hundred
and forty-seven dollars and fifty -tw o cents.*
T he increasing business on the railroad during the few past years, rendered necessary
a very large outlay o f capital, properly and economically to conduct it. Since the date of
the detailed report o f 1840, eight steamboats and steam-tugs have been built or purchased,
namely, the John Stevens, John Potter, Transport, Princeton, Rainbow, Camden, Amboy,
and Washington. Their force in locomotive engines, passenger cars, freight ears, and
crates, and their docks and buildings at each terminus o f the road, have also been greatly
enlarged and increased in number.
The increasing trade on the canal will appear from the tabular statements annexeJ,
from which it will be seen that the receipts o f the canal have gradually and regularly in­
creased, with the exception o f the year 1846, when the Schuylkill navigation was closed
in consequence o f the enlargement o f their locks and works, from $79,467 74-100 in
1840, to $255,501 51-100 in 1847; and the quantity o f coal carried through it has also
increased from 113,078 tons in 1840, to 540,200 tons in 1847.
W e give below an annual statement o f the joint receipts and expenditures o f the rail­
road and canal, and also o f the Camden and Amboy Railroad and Transportation Com­
pany, as follow s:—
RECEIPTS OF THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY
. RAILROAD TRANSPORTATION CO.
Years.

Gross receipts.

Expenditures.

JOINT RECEIPTS AND EXPENDITURES OF
RAILROAD AND CANAL.

Nett receipts.

Gross receipts.

Expenditures.

Nett receipts.

1840.. $548,173 87 $265,457 77 $282,716 10 $627,641 81 $306,227 39 $321,414 42
550.015 68 286.644 67 263,371 01
1841..
631,559 12 336,153 76 295,405 36
725,670 14 339,083 25 386,586 89
635,335 89 286,070 93 349,264 96
1842..
796,400 94 352,074 38 444,325 56
695,111 27 298,951 78 396,159 49
1843..
780,709 17 379,235 01 401,474 16
1844..
912,199 88 426,270 73 485,929 15
882.751 43 560,408 22 322,343 21 1,050,563 01 620,457 81 430,105 20
1845..
1846.. 1,022,253 10 597,398 94 424,854 16 1,183,430 13 675,708 82 507,721 31
1847.. 1,150,383 26 741,917 96 408,465 30 1,405,704 77 835,712 41 569,992 36
ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THROUGH PASSENGERS ON THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD.

$ 3 passengers via South A m boy......................
Forward deckers
“
.....................
$ 4 passengers via Bordentown road and New
Brunswick.........................................................
Forward deckers
“
“

1840.

1841.

$ 5 2 ,7 7 2 }
28,909

$ 3 9 ,3 7 7 }
25,103

71,431}

89,396}

1842.

1843.

$33,594 $32,483
29,473
23,483
77,658

82,061

Total................................................................... $ 1 5 3 ,1 1 2 } $1 5 3 ,8 7 6 } $140,725 $138,027

1844 .

1845.

1846.

$ 3 passengers via South Amboy....................... $30,443 $32,483
$ 3 2 ,0 6 9 }
26,046
Forward deckers
“
..................... .
26,735
135,501
$ 4 passengers via Bordentown road and N ew
Brunswick........................................................
111,178 111,842}
14,902
873
15,824}
Forward deckers
"
“
16,624
Total.

1847.
$35,236
43,700
122,136
20,940

$168,540 $188,884J $ 2 0 0 ,0 9 6 } $222,921

* N ew Y ork builds her great canal, and charges reasonable tolls; N ew Jersey, without investing a dol­
lar, collects transit duties, and receives dividends on stock for which she never expended a cent. A single
passage from Ihc Report o f the State Directors (John J. Chetwood and Gen. W illiam Irick) shows how
well satisfied she is with her position in this respect:—
“ The payments into the State treasury by the companies will, this year, exceed $7-2,000 : which, with
the receipts from other similar sources, constitutes an ample fund for sustaining and extending all our be
nevolent institutions. New Jersey may well he satisfied with her position. W hile other States, in carry­
ing out their systems o f internal improvements, have been embarrassed, and, in many instances, driven to
repudiation, she, without incurring the responsibility o f a single dollar, has not only abundant means for
all present purposes, but these resources, properly invested, will enable her to take all these great and pro­
fitable improvements at the termination o f their respective charters.”
V O L . X V X I I .----- N O . I V .




28

434

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

T he following statement shows the amount o f the transit duties (exclusive, o f course,
o f the dividends on the 2,000 shares o f stock presented to the State) paid the State o f
N ew Jersey by the Delaware and Raritan Canal and the Camden and Am boy Railroad
and Transportation Companies, in each year from 1840 to 1847, inclusive:—
TRANSIT DUTIES PAID THE STATE OF NEW JERSEY.
By the Delaware and
Raritan Canal.

Years.
1840..................
1841.................. ........
1842.................. ........
1843.................. .........
1844..................
1845.................. .........
1846.................. ........
1847.................. ........

$19,585
20,071
19,151
19,679
23,935
26,853
28,414
33,017

1,726 89
10,904 24
6,614 52
12,805 24
10,718 29
24,284 68

Total........................

By the Camden and
Am boy Railroad.

$83,011 67

Paid by the Joint
Companies.

$25,385
21,798
30,055
26,294
34,094
39,658
39,132
57,301

66}
72J
46J
70
84
55
49
02

$190,709 4 5 }

09}
61
71
22
22
79
78
70

$273,721 1 2 }

STATEMENT OF THE WEISHTS OF MERCHANDISE CARRIED THROUGH THE DELAWARE AND RARI­
TAN CANAL FROM 1834 TO 1847, INCLUSIVE.
Years.
W eig ht o f Merchandise.
W eight o f Merchandise.
Years.
T o n s.

1834........
1835........
1836.......
1837........
1838........
1839........
1840........

C w t.

Q rs.

01
05
16
18
08
07
04

0
0
1
0
2
1
2

12,459
57,736
88,467
122,488
119,475
127,398
172,120

L bs.

27
09
23
22
03
17
07

T on s.

1841........
1842........
1843........
1844........
1S45........
1846.......
1847........

174,884
223,268
240,049
350,384
462,733
424,702
700,408

C w t.

Q rs.

03
18
05
18
00
08
08

2
1
0
0
0
0
0

L bs.

16
19
00
00
00
00
00

ANNUAL STATEMENT OF THE TRANSPORTATION ON THE CAMDEN AND AMBOY RAILROAD.
Agg. receipts.
Through Transportation.
W a v Transportation.

Years.

T on s.

1840
1841
1842
1843
-4844
1845
1846
1847

C w t. Q rs . L b s .

11,325
14,652
13,200
19,511
24,902
25,372
26,628
36,707

05
07
17
17
11
16
10
04

2
0
0
0
2
1
1
3

D o lla r s .

12
79,774 13
05 104,731 49
19
90,471 55
02 133,658 94
15 167,262 69
15 170,878 76
18 185,522 47
26 253,462 27

T on s.

3,356
3,565
4,130
4,152
6,506
7,445
13,276
16,981

05
19
18
06
15
16
8
17

3
2
0
0
1
2
1
2

04
18
19
27
09
06
18
07

D o lla r s .

D o lla r s .

C w t. Q rs. L b s .

12,855
13,583
15,780
15,935
21,432
28,611
50,417
64,527

44
68
06
85
88
13
78
57

92,629 57
118,315 17
106,251 61
149,594 79
188,695 57
109,489 89
235,940 25
317,989 84

W e annex a statement o f the number o f tons o f coal passed through the Delaware and
Raritan Canal in each year from 1835 to 1847, inclusive:—

Years.
1835.
1836.
1837.
1838.
1839.

TRANSPORTATION OF COAL ON THE DELAWARE AND RARITAN CANAL.
Tons. I Years.
Tons.
Years.

17,82311840..
38.426 1841.
68.426 1842.
51,245 1843.
57,756

113,078
119,247
171,755
193,506

1844.
1845.
1846.
1847.

Tons.
267,496
372,076
340,000
540,200

GREEN SVILLE AND ROANOKE RAILROAD.
This road, which was first opened in 1833, is 21 miles long, extending from Hicksford
to Gaston. It originally cost $200,000. T he stock is divided into 4,000 shares, the par
value o f which is $ 1 0 0 each. The fiat bar rail, } by 2J inches, is used.
is a table o f distances, fares, & c .:—
P laces.

Hicksford—........
Rylands..............

Miles.

10

Fares.

P laces.

Summit..............
$ 0 50 Gaston................

T he following

Miles.
Fares.
18 $1 00
21
1 00

W e give below a comparative view, derived from the last Annual Report, o f the re-




Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

435

eeipts, expenditures, & c., o f the Greensville and Roanoke Railroad Company, from the
opening o f the road to M ay 1, 1847:—
COMPARATIVE VIEW OF THE RECEIPTS, EXPENDITURES, ETC., OP THE GREENSVILLE AND ROANORS
RAILROAD COMPANY.

R e c e ip t s :1888.
1819.
1840.
1841. 1842.
Freight................................$15,276 83 $19,520 63 $21,936 22 $35,618 92 $28,580 28
4,590 48
7,478 85
6,956 23
6,703 89
6.513 06
Passengers........................
M ail.........................................................
1,180 00
1,252 41
1,000 00
845 40
Total............................. $19,867 31 $28,179 48 $30,144 86 $43,322 81 $35,938 74
Expenses:—
Paid Petersburg R .R . Co.
10,490 32 11,939 37 13,084 15 20,044 09 16,461 16
Repairs o f road, & c ........
7,967 51
6,153 10
7,046 69
8,081 44
10,088 80
Interest account...............
2,169 48
3,769 66
3,416 25
3,738 12
2,407 61
Total..............................

20,627 31

21,862 13 $23,547 09 $31,863 65 $28,957 57

Nett income............................................ $6,317 35 $6,597 77 $11,450 16 $ 6 ,9 8 1 1 7
State o f the debt:—
T o stockholders................. $30,693 02 35,293 02 35,293 02 34,317 52
32,017 52
“ Petersburg R .R . C o.
5,895 69
14,884 97 16,127 43
8,392 48
4,659 71
“ banks............................ 12,000 00
6,500 00
3,000 00
1,000 00
50000
“ individuals................... 19,850 68
6,265 85
2,277 27
1,545 32
1,59700
T otal............................. $68,439 39 $62,94 3 84 $56,697 72 $45,255 32 $38,774 23
Receipts:—
1841 .
1844 .
1845.
1846 .
Freight...............................$23,209 18 $19,918 14 $20,180 55 $19,734 65
Passengers-......................
5,091 57
4,194 47
4,388 39
5,629 39
Mail....................................
846 40
557 02
800 00
2,000 00

1847 .
$22,687 15
7,175 95
2,000 00

T otal............................. $29,146 15 $24,669 63 $25,368 94 $27,364 04 $31,863 10
Expenses:—
Paid Petersburg R. R. Co.
13,301 78 11,635 74 11,953 08
12,743 78 12,815 05
Repairs o f road, & c .........
8,270 67
5,562 22
4,667 54
5,034 80
9,208 22
Interest account..............
2,009 9 5
2,847 3 2
2,673 4 6
2,077 98
1,393 45
T ota l............................. $23,582 40 $20,045 28 $19,294 08 $19,856 56 $23,416 72
Nett incom e.................... $5,563 75 $ 4 ,624 35 $6 ,074 86 $7,507 48 $8,446 38
State o f the debt:—
T o stockholders............... 27,992 52
23,679 05 23,029 05 23,029 05 20,202 93
“ Petersburg R . R . Co. 26,523 95
14,924 24
9,395 60
2,558 12
......
“ banks................................................
4,000 00
4,000 00
3,500 00 2,500 00
“ individuals..................
1,736 54
1,016 31
1,120 09
950 06
859 03
T otal............................. $56,253 01 $43,619 60 $37,544 74 $30,037 26 $23,561 96

C O M M U N IC A T IO N B E T W E E N E N G L A N D A N D T H E C O N T IN E N T .
A deputation o f Directors o f the Boulogne and Amiens Railway Company has been
in London some time past, to arrange with the Directors o f the South-eastern Railway
for the commencement o f through traffic between London and Paris. The double line o f
rails is now laid the entire distance from Boulogne to Paris, with the exception o f half a
mile, and it is expected the railway will be opened throughout on the 15th o f March,
1848, thus enabling the passengers to proceed the whole distance from London Bridge to
Paris by steam.
There will, from that date, be live through trains daily from Boulogne
to Paris. T he departures from Boulogne will be 4 A . M., 8 A. M., 11 A . M., 3 P. M .,
and 9 P. M .; from Paris at 8 A . M., 9 A . M „ 12 at noon, 4 P. M., and 7 P. M. The
trains from Paris at 8 A . M., and Boulogne at 3 P. M., will be express trains, performing
the distance in 5 hours and 20 minutes. A steamer will leave Folkestone for Boulogne,
to proceed by the express train at 3 P. M ., and a special train will leave the other side in




436

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

union with the express train leaving Paris at 8 A . M. This arrangement will enable par­
ties who leave London or Paris in the morning after breakfast to reach their respective
destinations on the same evening. The passengers will be booked through on either
side.
C O N S U M P T IO N O F W O O D B Y L O C O M O TIV E S.
Few o f our readers, we presume, are aware o f the immense quantity o f wood consumed
by the various railroad companies between Albany and Buffalo. T he Utica and Sche­
nectady Company consume about 25,000 cords o f two-feet wood per annum ; the Auburn
and Rochester road, about 15,000 cord s; and the Tonawanda road, 8,000 cords. The
other roads consume probably from 30,000 to 35,000 cords— making the whole amount
upwards o f 80,000 cords per annum 1 This immense draft upon our “ woods and forests,”
must soon cause an advance in the price o f fuel: indeed, the price o f wood has been
steadily advancing in this place for the last year or two, and will soon come to be as im­
portant an item in household expenses as it is to cities.— Batavia Times.

W E S T E R N (M A S S A C H U S E T T S ) R A IL R O A D .
This road was opened in 1839.

It extends from Worcester (Mass.) to Greenbush,

(N . Y .,) opposite Albany. It is 156 miles in length, and cost $8,186,000. T he stock
is divided into 40,000 shares, the par value o f which is $100. The H, or inverted T
rail is used on this road. In connection with the W orcester and Boston rflad, 44 miles
in length, it forms a complete line from the latter place to Albany, and completes the
chain from Boston to Buffalo. W e give below a table o f distances, fares, & c., from W or­
cester to Greenbush, or Albany, as follows:—
P laces.

Worcester........................
Clappville..........................
Charlton...........................
East Brookfield................
South Brookfield.............
Warren.............................
Brimfield..........................
Palmer..............................
North Wilbraham ..........
Wilbraham.......................
Springfield.......................
West Springfield.............
Westfield-.......................
Russell..............................
Chester Village................
Chester Factory..............

Miles.

9
13
18
20
23
25
29

48
54
56
64
72
75
82

Fares.

Places.

Middlefield..........................
$0 10 Becket..................................
0 15 Washington........................
0
0
0
0
0
1
1

30
40
50
60
70
05
20

1
1
1
1
1
1
2

30
50
50
60
80
90
10

Dalton..................................
Pittsfield...............................
Richmond............................
State L in e..........................
Edwards..............................
Canaan................................
East Chatham....................
Chatham four Corners...,
Chatham Centre.................
Kinderhook..........................
Schodack.............................
Greenbush...........................
Albany.................................

Miles.

91
94
99
102
107
110
115
118
120
123
128
133
137
140
148
156

Fares.
$2
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4

25
40
50
60
75
85
00
10
15
25
40
55
70
75
00
25
25

T he financial year o f the Western Railroad Company terminated on the 30th o f N o ­
vember ; and, from the report laid before the stockholders, we have condensed an account
o f its doings for the past and previous years.
By a comparison o f the receipts and expenses o f the past year with the receipts and
expenses o f former years, it will appear that, during the past year, the per centage o f the
gross income expended has been greater than it has been in previous years; yet, by a
careful examination, it will be found that a large amount has been charged to the current
expenses o f the past year, which properly belonged to the expenses o f previous years.
For instance, new rails to the amount o f $X ),000 have been used, and charged to ex­
penses during the year. In addition to this, $35,000 has been charged to expenses for
deterioration o f rails, which has been credited to a deterioration account; to be held in
reserve against the time, which is near at hand, when portions o f the present track will
require new rails.




437

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.
TRANSPORTATION DEPARTMENT.

T he balance to the credit o f the contingent fund, at the commencement o f
the year, was............................................................................................. ..........$104,011 99
T he income o f the road during the year has been—
$502,391 92
From passengers...................
“ freight...........................
785,345 6 6
37,668 48
“
mails, rents, &,c...... .
Expenses:—
----------------- $1,325,336 06
For road repairs....................
$196,548 63
52,050 12
“ engine repairs.................
72,061 03
“ car repairs.......................
“ buildings, & c..................
34,630 8 6
“ transportation expenses.
280,623 35
“ general expenses...........
40,775 76
676,689 75
Nett earnings
$264,854 53
From which deduct interest paid on loan.
One dividend o f four per cent on
35,500 shares............................... $149,000
One do. on 40,000 shares....... .
160,000
302,000 00

$648,646 31

----------------

566,854 53

.................... ............................ 81,791 78

Leaving a surplus for the year of.

And a total surplus, November 30,1847, o f ....................................................... $185,803 77
It appears from the report that, during the year, the passenger trains have run regular­
ly, and without any serious accident. N o passenger has been injured. T he freight trains
have been less fortunate.

Several accidents have occurred to these trains, whereby seve­

ral brakemen have lost their lives, and .a number have been badly injured. T w o o f the
men employed upon the road have lost their lives within the past year by coming in con­
tact with the bridges over the track. In previous years there has been a larger loss o f life
from this cause.
T he increase o f business for the past year, as compared with the previous year, has been
57 per cent on freight, and 21 per cent on passengers, making an average gain of 42 per
cent on the gross receipts.

W e give below a tabular statement o f the amount received

from passengers, merchandise, mails, & c., together with the expenses o f the road, &c.,
from its opening in 1839:—
THE AMOUNT RECEIVED FROM ALL SOURCES SINCE THE ROAD WAS OPENED.

Years.

1839*
1840.
1841.
18421
1843.
1844.
1845.
18461
1847.

Passengers.
$13,472 94
70,820 79
113,841 85
266,446 83
275,139 64
358,694 00
366,753 02
389,861 42
502,321 92

Merchandise. Mails, &c.
Total.
$4,136 21
$17,609
38,359 78 $3,166 82
112,347
64,467 14
4,000 00
182,308
226,674 61 19,566 84 512,688
275,696 19 23,046 68 573,882
753,752
371,131 84 23,926 8 8
420,717 30 26,009 83 813,480
459,365 18 29,191 29 878,417
785,345 66 37,668 48 1,325,336
NUMBER OF THROUGH AN

Expenses. Bal’ce of rents.
15 $14,380 64 $3,228 51
39
62,071 72 50,275 67
99 132,501 45 49,807 54
28 266,619 30 246,068 98
51 303,973 06 269,909 45
72 314,074 20 439,678 52
15 370,621 25 442,858 90
89 412,679 80 465,738 09
06 676,689 75 648,646 31

■WAY PASSENSERS.

Through pass.

W a y pass.

First class.

Second class.

Grand total.

1842
.......
1843
.......
18 44
.......
1845
........
1846 (11 m o.)..
18 47
........

18,570i
26,595
24,330$
19,192$
29,832$
34,299$

171,866
174,370$
195,927
204,440$
235,831$
354,011$

164,390
160,412
157,885
158,124$
186,229
288,122$

26,046
40,553$
62,372$
65,508$
79,435
100,188$

190,436$

T otal.............

152,820$

1,336,447

374,104$

1,489,267$

Years.

Three months.




1,115,163

t First year o f opening through to Albany.

200,965$
220,257$
223,633
265,664
388,311

J Eleven months.

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures•

438

Flour is a leading article in the business o f this road.

T he following table shows the

progress o f its transportation over the road for a series o f years
NUMBER OF BARRELS FLOUR TRANSPORTED FROM ALBANY AND T RO Y, INCLUDED IN THE TON­
NAGE TRANSPORTED.

To
Boston.

Yeurs.

1842.......
1843........ .. .
1844......... . ..

123,336
154,413

T o other
stations.

86,124
120,873
142,990

Total No.
o f barrels.

Years.

172,110 1845.............
244,239 1846 (11 m.)
297,403 1847.............

T o other
stations.

Total No.
o f barrels.

181,7964 146,386
209,634 151,711
513,851 188,649

328,183
361,345
702,500

To
Boston.

IN C R E A S E OF R A IL R O A D C A P I T A L IN M A S S A C H U S E T T S .
W e give below a schedule o f petitions presented to the Legislature o f Massachusetts
o f 1848, for an increase o f capital:—
Western Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount prayed for,
$3,000,000.
Boston and Worcester Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount
prayed for, from $1,000,000 to $1,500,000.
Norwich and Worcester Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount
prayed for, $ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
Eastern Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount prayed for,
$500,000.
Boston and Providence Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount
prayed for, $470,000.
Dorchester and Milton Railroad Corporation, for an increase o f their capital. Amount
prayed for, $60,000.
Old Colony Railroad, for an increase o f their capital. Amount prayed for, $100,000.
Six o f the companies here named have already built railroads, the chief object o f which
is, to aid and promote business terminating in this city. These railroads, already built
and in daily operation, are, in all, 366 miles in length, exclusive o f branches, measuring,
in all, 44 miles. Five o f these railroads consist, in the whole or in part, o f double track
— the extent o f double track being 97 miles. A part o f the debt already incurred has
been occasioned by the building o f a second track, and one o f the objects of the proposed
increased capital, is to make a further extension o f double track.

JOURNAL OF MINING

AND MANUFACTURES.

N E W Y O R K L A W OF C O R P O R A T IO N S F O R M A N U F A C T U R IN G ,
M IN IN G ,

etc.

T he following “ A ct to authorize the formation o f corporations for manufacturing,
mining, mechanical, or chemical purposes,” passed the Senate and Assembly Feb. 17,
1848, and took effect immediately after its passage, as will be seen by the 27th section
o f this a c t :—
•

•

AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE FORMATION OF CORPORATIONS FOR MANUFACTURING, MINING, ME­
CHANICAL OR CHEMICAL PURPOSES.

Sec. 1. A t any time hereafter, any three or more persons, who may desire to form a
company for the purpose o f carrying on any kind o f manufacturing, mining, mechanical,
or chemical business, may make, sign, and acknowledge before some officer competent to
take the acknowledgement o f deeds, and file in the office o f the clerk o f the county in
which the business o f the company shall be carried on, and a duplicate thereof in die
office o f the Secretary o f State, a certificate in writing, in which shall be stated the
corporate name o f the said company, and the objects for which the company shall be
formed, the amount o f the capital stock o f the said company, the term o f its existence,
not to exceed fifty years, the number o f shares o f which the said stock shall consist, the
number o f trustees and their names, who shall manage the concerns o f said company for
the first year, and the names o f the town and county in which the operations o f the said
company are to be carried on.




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

439

Sec. 2. W hen the certificate shall have been filed, as aforesaid, the persons who shall
have signed and acknowledged the same, and their successors, shall be a body politic and
corporate, in fact and in name, by the name stated in such certificate ; and by that name
have succession, and shall be capable o f suing and being sued in any court o f law or
equity in this State, and they and their successors may have a common seal, and may
make and alter the same at pleasure ; and they shall, by their corporate name, be capable
in law o f purchasing, holding, and conveying any real and personal estate whatever, which
may be necessary to enable the said company to carry on their operations named in such
certificate, but shall not mortgage the same or give any lien thereon.
Sec. 3. The stock, property, and concerns o f such company shall be managed by not
less than three, nor more than nine trustees, who shall respectively be stockholders in such
company and citizens o f the United States, and a majority o f whom shall be citizens of
this State, who shall, except the first year, be annually elected by the stockholders, at such
time and place as shall be directed by the by-laws o f the company ; and public notice o f
the time and place o f holding such election shall be published, not less than ten days pre­
vious thereto, in the newspaper printed nearest to the place where the operations o f the
said company shall be carried o n ; and the election shall be made by such o f the stock­
holders as shall attend for that purpose, either in person or by proxy. A ll elections shall
be by ballot, and each stockholder shall be entitled to as many votes as he owns shares of
stock in the said company, and the persons receiving the greatest number o f votes shall
be trustees; and when any vacancy shall happen among the trustees, by death, resigna­
tion or otherwise, it shall be filled for the remainder o f the year in such manner as may
be provided for by the by-laws o f the said company.
Sec. 4. In case it shall happen at any time, that an election o f trustees shall not be
made on the day designated by the by-laws o f said company, when it ought to have been
made, the company for that reason shall not be dissolved, but it shall be lawful on any
other day, to hold an election for trustees, in such manner as shall be provided for by the
said by-laws, and all acts o f trustees shall be valid and binding as against such company,
until their successors shall be elected.
Sec. 5. There shall be a President o f the company, who shall be designated from the
number o f the trustees, and also such subordinate officers as the company by its by-laws
may designate, who may be elected or appointed and required to give such security for
the faithful performance o f the duties o f their office as the company by its by-laws may
require.
Sec. 6 . It shall be lawful for the trustees to call in and demand from the stockholders
respectively, all such sums o f money by them subscribed, at such times, and in such pay­
ments or instalments as the trustees shall deem proper, under the penalty of forfeiting the
shares o f stock subscribed for, and all previous payments made thereon, if payment shall
not be made by the stockholders within sixty days after a personal demand or notice re­
quiring such payment shall have been published for six successive weeks in the newspaper
nearest to the place where the business o f the company shall be carried on as aforesaid.
Sec. 7. The trusses o f such company shall have power to make such prudential by­
laws as they shall deem proper for the management and disposition o f the stock and
business affairs o f such company, not inconsistent with the laws o f this State, and pre­
scribing the duties o f officers, artificers, and servants that may be employed ; for the ap­
pointment o f all officers, and for carrying on all kinds o f business within the objects and
purposes o f such company.
Sec. 8 . The stock o f such company shall be deemed personal estate, and shall be trans­
ferable in such manner as shall be prescribed by the by-laws o f the company ; but no
shares shall be transferable until all previous calls thereon shall have been fully paid in,
<or shall have been declared forfeited for the non-payment o f calls thereon: And it shall
not be lawful for such company to use any o f their funds in the purchase o f any stock in
any other corporation.
Sec. 9. The copy o f any certificate o f incorporation, filed in pursuance o f this act, cer­
tified by the county clerk or his deputy, to be a true copy, and o f the whole o f such cer­
tificate, shall be received in all courts and places, as presumptive legal evidence o f the facts
therein stated.
Sec. 10. A ll the stockholders o f every company incorporated under this act, shall be
severally, individually liable to the creditors o f the company in which they are stockholders,
to an amount equal to the amount o f stock held by them respectively for all debts and con­
tracts made by such company, until the whole amount o f capital stock fixed and limited
by such company shall have been paid in, and a certificate thereof shall have been made
and recorded as prescribed in the following section; and the capital stock, so fixed and
limited, shall all be paid in, one-half thereof within one year, and the other half thereof




440

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

within two years from the incorporation o f said company, or such corporation shall be
dissolved.
Sec. 11. The president and a majority o f the trustees, within thirty days after the pay­
ment o f the last instalment o f the capital stock, so fixed and limited by the company,
6hall make a certificate stating the amount o f the capital so fixed and paid in ; which certifi­
cate shall be signed and sworn to by the president and a majority o f the trustees; and
they shall, within the said thirty days, record the same in the office o f the county clerk o f
the county wherein the business o f the said company is carried on.
Sec. 12. Every such company shall annually, within twenty days, from the first day o f
January, make a report which shall be published in some newspaper, published in the
town, city, or village, or if there be no newspaper published in said town, city, or village,
then in some newspaper published nearest the place where the business o f said company
is carried on, which shall state, the amount o f capital, and o f the proportion actually paid
in, and the amount o f its existing debts, which report shall be signed by the president and
a majority o f the trustees: and shall be verified by the oath o f the president or secretary
o f the said company, and filed in the office o f the clerk o f the county where tlje business
o f the company shall be carried on ; and i f any o f said companies shall fail so to do, all
the trustees o f the company shall be jointly and severally liable for all the debts o f the
company, then existing, and for all that shall be contracted before such report shall be
made.
Sec. 13. I f the trustees o f any such company shall declare and pay any dividend when
the company is insolvent, or any dividend, the payment o f which would render it insol­
vent, or which would diminish the amount o f its capital stock, they shall be jointly and
severally liable for all the debts o f the company then existing, and for all that shall be
thereafter contracted, while they shall respectively continue in office:
Provided, That if any o f the trustees shall object to the declaring o f such dividend or
to the payment o f the same, and shall at any time before the time fixed for the payment
thereof, file a certificate o f their objection in writing with the clerk o f the company and
with the clerk o f the county, they shall be exempt from the said liability.
Sec. 14. Nothing but money shall be considered as payment o f any part o f the capital
stock, and no loan o f money shall be made by any such company to any stockholder
therein ; and if any such loan shall be made to a stockholder, the officers who shall make
it, or who shall assent thereto, shall be jointly and severally liable to the extent o f such
loan and interest, for all the debts o f the company contracted before the repayment o f the
sum so loaned.
Sec. 15. If any certificate or report made, or public notice given, by the officers o f any
such company, in pursuance o f the provisions o f this act, shall be false in any material
representation, all the officers, who shall have signed the same, knowing it to be false,
shall be jointly and severally liable for all the debts o f the company, contracted while they
are stockholders or officers thereof.
Sec. 16. N o person, holding stock in any such company, as executor, administrator,
guardian, or trustee, and no person, holding such stock as collateral security, shall be per­
sonally subject to any liability as stockholder o f such company ; but the person pledging
such stock shall be considered as holding the same, and shall be liable as a stockholder ac­
cordingly, and the estates and funds in the hands o f such executor, administrator, guardian,
or trustee, shall be liable in like manner, and to the same extent as the testator or intes­
tate, or the ward or person interested in such trust fund would have been, if he had been
living and competent to act, and held the same stock in his own name.
Sec. 17. Every such executor, administrator, guardian, or trustee, shall represent the
share o f stock in his hands at all meetings o f the company, and may vote accordingly a9
a stockholder ; and every person who shall pledge his stock as aforesaid, may, neverthe­
less, represent the same at all such meetings, and may vote accordingly as a stockholder.
Sec. 18. The stockholders o f any company, organized under the provisions o f this act,
shall be jointly and severally individually liable for all debts that may be due and owing
to all their laborers, servants, and apprentices, for services performed for such corporation.
Sec. 19. T he legislature may at any time alter, amend, or repeal this act, or may annul,
or repeal any incorporation formed or created under this a c t; but such amendment or re­
peal shall not, nor shall the dissolution o f any such company, take away or impair any
remedy given against any such corporation, its stockholders or officers, for any liability
which shall have been previously incurred.
Sec. 20. A ny corporation or company heretofore formed, either by special act or under
the general law, and now existing for any manufacturing, mining, mechanical, or chemi­
cal purposes, or any company which may be funned under this act, may increase or di­
minish its capital stock by complying with the provisions o f this act, to any amount which




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures,

441

may be deemed sufficient and proper for the purposes o f the corporation, and may also ex­
tend its business to any other manufacturing, mining, mechanical, or chemical business,
subject to the provisions and liabilities o f this act. But before any corporation shall be en­
titled to diminish the amount o f its capital stock, if the amount o f its debts and liabilities
shall exceed the amount o f capital to which it is proposed to be reduced, such amount of
debts and liabilities shall be satisfied and reduced so as not to exceed such diminished
amount o f capital; and any existing company, heretofore formed under the general law,
or any special act, may come under and avail itself o f the privileges and provisions o f this
act, by complying with the following provisions, and thereupon such company, its officers
and stockholders, shall be subject to all the restrictions, duties, and liabilities ot this act.
Sec. 21. Whenever any company shall desire to call a meeting o f the stockholders, for
the purpose o f availing itself o f the privileges-and provisions o f this act, or for increasing
or diminishing the amount o f its capital stock, or for extending or changing its business,
it shall be the duty o f the trustees to publish a notice, signed by at least a majority o f them,
in a newspaper in the county, if any shall be published therein, at least three successive
weeks, and to deposit a written or printed copy thereof in the post-office, addressed to
each stockholder at his usual place o f residence, at least three weeks previous to the day
fixed upon for holding such m eeting; specifying the object o f the meeting, the time and
place, when and where such meeting shall be held, and the amount to which it shall be
proposed to increase or diminish the capital, and the business to which the company would
be extended or changed ; and a vote o f at least two-thirds o f all the shares o f stock shall
be necessary to an increase or diminution o f the amount o f its capital stock, or the ex­
tension or change o f its business, as aforesaid, or to enable a company to avail itself of
the provisions o f this act.
Sec. 22. If, at any time and place specified in the notice provided for in the preceding
section o f this act, stockholders shall appear in person or by proxy, in number represent­
ing not less than two-thirds o f all the shares o f stock o f the corporation, they shall or­
ganize by choosing one o f the trustees chairman o f the meeting, and also a suitable per­
son for secretary, and proceed to a vote o f those present, in person or by proxy ; and if,
on canvassing the votes, it shall appear that a sufficient number o f votes has been given
in favor o f increasing or diminishing the amount o f capital, or o f extending or changing
its business, as aforesaid, or for availing itself o f the privileges and provisions o f this act,
a certificate o f the proceedings, showing a compliance with the provisions o f this act, the
amount o f capital actually paid in, the business to which it is extended or changed, the
whole amount o f debts and liabilities o f the company, and the amount to which the
capital stock shall be increased or diminished, shall be made out, signed and verified by the
affidavit o f the chairman, and be countersigned by the secretary ; and such certificate shall
be acknowledged by the chairman, and filed as required by the first section o f this act, and
when so filed, the capital stock o f such corporation shall be increased or diminished, to
the amount specified in such certificate, and the business extended or changed as aforesaid,
and the company shall be entitled to the privileges and provisions, and be subject to the
liabilities o f this act, as the case may be.
Sec. 23. I f the indebtedness o f any such company shall at any time exceed the amount
o f its capital stock, the trustees o f such company assenting thereto shall be personally and
individually liable for such excess to the creditors o f such company.
Sec. 24. N o stockholder shall be personally liable for the payment o f any debt con­
tracted by any company formed under this act, which is not to be paid within one year
from the time the debt is contracted, nor unless a suit for the collection o f such debt shall
be brought against such company, within one year after the debt shall become due ; and
no suit shall be brought against any stockholder who shall cease to be a stockholder in any
such company, for any debt so contracted, unless the same shall be commenced within two
years from the time he shall have ceased to be a stockholder in such company, nor until
an execution against the company shall have been returned unsatisfied in whole or in part.
Sec. 25. It shall be the duty o f the trustees o f every such corporation or company, to cause
a book to be kept by the treasurer or clerk thereof, containing the names of all persons,
alphabetically arranged, who are or shall, within six years, have been stockholders o f such
company, and showing their places o f residence, the number o f shares o f stock held by
them respectively, and the time when they respectively became the owners o f such shares,
and the amount o f stock actually paid in ; which book shall, during the usual business
hours o f the day, on every day, except Sunday and the fourth day o f July, be open for
the inspection o f stockholders and creditors o f the company, and their personal represent­
atives, at the office or principal place o f business o f such company, in the county where
its business operations shall be located ; and any and every such stockholder, creditor, or
representative, shall have a right to make extracts from such book ; and no transfer o f
stock shall be valid for any purpose whatever, except to render the person to whom it shall




442

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures,

be transferred liable for the debts o f the company, according to the provisions o f this act,
until it shall have been entered therein, as required by this section, by an entry' showing
to and from whom transferred. Such book shall be presumptive evidence o f the facts
therein stated, in favor o f the plaintiff, in any suit or proceeding against such company, or
against any one or more stockholders. Every officer or agent o f any such company, who
shall neglect to make any proper entry in such book, or shall refuse or neglect to exhibit
the same, or allow the same to be inspected, and extracts to be taken therefrom, as pro­
vided by this section, shall be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and the company shall
forfeit and pay to the party injured, a penalty o f fifty dollars for every such neglect or re­
fusal, and ail the damages resulting therefrom: A nd every company that shall neglect to
keep such book open for inspection, as aforesaid, shall forfeit to the people the sum o f fifty
dollars for every day it shall so neglect, to be sued for and recovered, in the name o f the
people, by the district attorney o f the county in which the business o f such corporation
shall be located ; and when so recovered, the amount shall be paid into tire treasury of
such county for the use thereof.
Sec. 26. Every corporation created under this act shall possess the general powers and
privileges, and be subject to the liabilities and restrictions contained in title third, o f
chapter eighteen, o f the first part o f the Revised Statutes.
Sec. 27. This act shall take effect im mediately*

A D U L T E R A T IO N OF M E D IC IN E .
W e take it for granted that the large and respectable number o f persons engaged in the
Drug and Medicine trade, who read the Merchants’ Magazine, in this country at least,
are innocent o f the sins charged against the English manufacturers by the trustees o f the
College o f Pharmacy, in N ew Y ork, in the following passage from their printed
circular:—
Blue pill is imported containing a per ceutage o f mercury from ten down to seven and
a half, mixed with blue clay and Prussian blue, to give the proper design and color. T w o
importations o f this kind, from the manufactory o f William Bailey, o f Wolverhampton,
have already been exposed ; the first in 1845, and the other recently. Its composition,
according to the analysis o f our Professor Reid, is mercury, earthy clay, Prussian blue,
used in coloring, sand, in combination with the clay, soluble saccharine matters, insoluble
organic matters, and water. Very large quantities o f rhubarb, much decayed, the better
parts o f which are dark colored, with scarcely any taste or smell, having probably been
exhausted to make extracts, come from England, invoiced there from
to 3 pence ster­
ling per pound. It is intended and used for powdering, color being given to it by tume­
ric, & c. The article called oxide o f zinc on the English labels, is generally carbonate o f
zinc, being imported, it is said, at a price which precludes the possibility o f honest
preparation. All that is received under the name o f precipitated sulphur, or “ lac sul­
phur,” as the merchants commonly term it, except when it is expressly ordered from an
honorable manufacturer, contains from 80 to 90 per cent o f sulphate o f lime. Opium is
often invoiced at one-third the value o f good quality, and is found upon examination not
to be worth even that. T he same may be said o f scammony. Most o f the foreign ex­
tracts are not what they profess to be, and cannot be relied upon in the treatment o f dis­
ease. The salts o f quinine, morphine, and all the more costly chemicals, are greatly adul­
terated. T he agent o f an English manufacturer o f chemicals, extracts, and many other
preparations used in medicine, has said, and his remarks are in print, that it is a regular
and systematic business, carried on by his principal and others in his line, to make articles
for the American market o f different qualities— one for the Atlantic cities, and another,
very much inferior, “ for the W e s t m e a n i n g thereby our Western States. He gives us,
for instance, the following quotations: “ Compound extract of colocynth, 9s. 6 d .; do. for
the W est, 5 s . t h e latter, as we are allowed to infer,containing no scammony, only the
poorest sort o f aloes, and but little if any colocynth, or extract from it. Again we have,
“ Blue Pill, 3s. 9 d .; for the W est, Is. 8 d.” It is not wonderful, remarks Silliman’s
Journal, that such uncommon doses as we hear o f are taken, and indeed required, at the
W est, and that disappointment is everywhere experienced by physicians in the action o f
medicines ; and these examples are but few out o f many that might be given.
* State o f JSTeio York, )
I have com pared the preceding w ith the original law on file in this office, and
Secretary's Office.
$ do certify that th e sam e is a correct transcript therefrom , and o f the w h ole o f
C. M o r g a n , Secretary o f State.

the said original.




/

443

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.
C H IK IS W A L U N G O IR O N F U R N A C E , N E A R C O L U M B IA , PA.

W e find, in “ Silliman's Journal o f Science and A rt ” for March, 184&, an extract of
a letter from S. S. Haldeman to the editors o f that Journal, giving the following account
o f the Chikiswalungo Furnace:—
The. Chikiswalungo Furnace is thirty-two feet high and eight feet greatest diameter,
and is driven by a forty horse power engine. The bellows is sixty inches in diameter,
its stroke five and a half feet, and its crank makes fourteen revolutions in a minute. It
was built as a “ forty ton ” furnace ; but, owing to the constant attention and the theo­
retical knowledge o f my brother and partner, Dr. E. Haldeman, the average produet is
sixty-five tons a week. T he following table exhibits an unusual good week’s work, al­
though, if scrap iron had been used with the ore, the result would have been one or two
tons more. Anthracite coal and a hot blast are used.
Charges.

1847— Sept. 26..
U 27..
(t 28..
“
29..
it
30..
Oct.
1 ..
<1
2 ..

37
36
36
37
36
36
36

33.300
32,400
32,400
33,300
32,400
32,400
32,400
228,600

Limestone.

Ore.

Coal.

900=
900=
900=
900=
900=
900=
900=

lbs.
((
K
tt

{(
t<
U

1400=
1400=
1500=
1500=
1500=
1400=
1400=

tt

51,800 lbs.
50,400 t t
54,000 (4
55,500 t t
54,000 i t
50,400 t t
50,400 t i
366,500

425=
425=
435=
435=
435=
425=
425=

It

15,725
15,300
15,660
16,095
15,660
15,300
15,300
109,040

lb3.

“
it
tt
ft

“
“
tt

Note.— 228,600 lb s .= l0 2 tons, l cwt., 0 qr., 08 lbs. 366,500 lbs.= 1 6 3 tons, 12 cwt..
I qr., 08 lbs. 109,040 lbs.= 4 8 tons, 13 cwt., 2 qr., 08 lbs.
Result o f the above, 72 tons pig metal.
T o explain the above. On the 26th o f September the furnace was filled thirty-seven
times, each charge containing 900 lbs. o f coal, (making 33,300 lbs. in the twenty-four
hours,) 1400 o f ore, (“ chestnut hill” hematite,) and 425 of flux. T he engine consumes
forty tons o f coal a week, not taken into the above account; but we intend to make such
alterations in the spring as will cut off this expense.
W hen a furnace is blown in, the hearth and stack being cold, the first ten days are
counted as a week’s work. Here follows the result o f such a week, (of but eight days,
however,) ending with the 30th o f October last:—
Tons.

Coal.................................................................
Ore...........................................................
Flux................................................................

Cwt.

98
127
41

08
02
19

Q.r.

3
3
2

Lbs.

00
12
21

Result, 43 tons (gross weight) o f pig metal.
IM P R O V E M E N T IN T H E M A N U F A C T U R E O F IR ON .
The attention o f men o f science has o f late been much devoted to improvements in the
mode o f manufacturing iron, both as regards economy in the smelting department, and
also in producing the finished material at the least possible cost. Am ong the improve­
ments which have lately taken place, that o f Mr. Low ’s will most decidedly rank as one
o f the first in importance, whether we consider it as simplifying the varied processes o f
iron manufacture, or, w'hat is o f still more importance, producing a superior commodity
at a very reduced price. By Mr. L ow ’s process pig iron can be puddled and made into
very superior finished iron without the process o f refining, with equal facility ; and the loss
in making a ton o f finished bars from pig iron will be less than one-half that made in the
ordinary manner. Mr. L ow ’s process is a simple one, and consists in giving the raw ma­
terial in its process o f manufacture a much less degree o f carbonization or oxydation, the
two grand objects requisite for solidity o f structure and hardness; for this purpose he
uses black oxyde o f manganese, plumbago or graphite, charcoal, and nitrate o f either
potash, soda, or lime, usually employing saltpetre. These ingredients are mixed together
in the proportions specified by the patent; and to every charge o f ore in the blast furnace
likely to produce 480 lbs. weight o f metal, he uses 6 6 lbs. o f this mixture. In the pud­
dling furnace he applies it to the metal in a fused state, by throwing upon the surface two
or three pounds at a time, and gradually incorporating the requisite quantity. His patent
extends to the application o f this mixture to the manufacture o f cast steel from malleable
iron, adding two or three pounds to every 30 lbs. o f steel when in the melting pots.




444

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.
A G R IC U L T U R E , C O M M E R C E , A N D M A N U F A C T U R E S .

W e are indebted to the author, we presume, for a copy o f an address delivered at C o­
lombia, (S. C.,) before the State Agricultural Society, on the 25th o f November, 18-17, by
R . F. W . A l l s t o n . It is an able and interesting address, but mostly pertaining to agri­
culture. W e give a single passage, the only one that would be considered appropriate for
tfee pages o f a commercial magazine:—
First born, most needed, most capable o f self-existence, agriculture is, nevertheless,
materially dependent upon commerce and manufactures. Commerce, which wafts our
staples through every sea— to every mart, and supplies to us the productions and fabrics
o f other climes, which, by its influence, sheds upon every shore the bright and cheering
light o f civilization, the harbinger at once, and hand-maid o f religion— rebuking the spirit
o f war, and substituting instead, the spirit o f Christianity, proclaiming “ peace on earth,
good-will towards men.” Manufactures, which furnish not only every aid necessary or
convenient for the prosecution o f human industry, and for the enjoyment o f its diversified
fruits, but, also, a market for consumption o f the raw material, so essential a stimulus to pro­
duction. In our country, agriculture is, if I may so speak, the natural pursuit, the main­
spring o f all the rest— it is at once the foundation and surety of public virtue.

M AN U FACTU RES A T T R E N T O N , N E W JERSEY.
T his enterprising place is progressing in wealth, and will eventually become one of the
most extensive manufacturing depots iu the country. The Trenton Iron Company now
employs about 500 hands, and manufactures from fifty-five to sixty tons o f railroad iron
(rails) per day.
This establishment lias recently been much enlarged, and, in addition to the water­
power, it has an engine o f one hundred and eighty horse-power, in constant operation.
Another rolling mill, 140 feet square, has lately been erected here by the Delaware
Manufacturing Co. It is for the purpose o f manufacturing merchant iron, that is, all sorts
o f small rod and bar iron. This establishment is operated altogether by steam-power.
Messrs. Bird & W eld have recently enlarged their establishment, and, in addition to
their former business, have engaged in the building o f machinery for the manufacture of
India Rubber and Gutta Percha. Messrs. Vancleve &, M cKean have also an establish­
ment for the manufacture o f water-wheels, mill-gearing, steam-engines, & c., & c.
Mr. Shepard, formerly o f Paterson, has purchased the bleaching and printing establish­
ment, and is refitting it, we hope, for future successful operation. On the whole, business
in Trenton, and the place itself, is vigorously progressing in wealth and prosperity.

P E N C IL M A N U F A C T U R E .
T h e pencils o f the finest quality are made from plumbago, or black-lead, produced in
Borrodale Mine, about nine miles from Keswick, in Cumberland. T he produce o f this
mine, which belongs to a company, is periodically despatched to their warehouse in Essexstreet, Strand, London, contiguous to which their “ lead sales” are held on the first M on­
day o f every month. The best pencils are cut out by a saw from sound pieces o f plumba­
go, previously calcined in close vessels at a bright red heat. N o other lead is thqught
equal to that o f Borrodale, though its quality is not uniform ; but an inferior sort imported
from M exico and Ceylon, is used for secondary pencils; and more common ones are now
largely made from a composition o f plumbago powder, lamp-black, and clay. The manu­
facturers who enjoy the highest reputation, are Banks, Foster & Co., and Airey, o f Kes­
wick ; and Mordan & Co., and Brookman & Langdon, o f London.
IN C R E A S E D P R O D U C T IO N OF G O L D IN R U SSIA .
A return o f the quantity o f gold produced in Russia during the last ten years, with an
account o f the progress and prospect o f such production, has just been printed by order of
the House o f Commons. In 1827 the produce wras £900,073, since which period it has
steadily increased up to the close o f 1846, when it amounted to £3,414,427. During the
ten years embraced in the return, the produce o f Siberia has increased ten-fold. The
impression o f the Russian Government is, that there will be an increase instead o f a di­
minution in the supply for a.series o f years to coma.




Nautical Intelligence.

NAUTICAL

445

INTELLIGENCE.

N A U T IC A L C A L C U L A T IO N S .W ITH REFERENCE TO THE DISTANCES BETWEEN NEW YORK AND CHARLESTON, (S. C.t) AND NEW
YORK AND HALIFAX, (N . S.)

I n the Merchants’ Magazine for December, 1847, we published some nautical calcula­

tions with reference to the routes o f the Atlantic steamers, prepared by an accomplished
sailor, and originally published in the “ Courier and E n q u i r e r The same hand has
furnished that journal with a statement o f the distances between N ew Y ork and Charles­
ton, (S. C.,) and Halifax and N ew Y ork, which we transfer to our Magazine for future
reference.
DISTANCES FROM NEW YORK TO CHARLESTON, (S. C.)

From Battery to W hite Buoy o ff the Bar, (through the South-west channel,) .miles
From position o ff the Bar, to lat. 35 ° 04' N ., Ion. 75° 23 ' W ., distance..................
Course— S. 11.52 W .
Cope Hatteras Light would then bear N . W . by N. \ N., distance 12 miles, and
from the outer part o f Shoal, 3 miles.
From position o ff Cape Hatteras, to lat. 33° 31' N ., long. 77° 45' W ., distance...
Course— S. 51.44 W .
Frying Pan Shoal would then bear N. W . \ N., 6 miles distant.
From position off Frying Pan Shoal, to lat. 32° 44' N ., Ion. 79° 51 ' W . distance.
Course— S. 06.48 W .
From position o ff Charleston Bar, to dock.......................................................................
Total distance from New Y ork to Charleston, nautical miles...... ..................

18
330

150

119
10
627

DISTANCE FROM NEW YORK TO HALIFAX, (N . S.)

From Battery to Sandy H ook.....................................................................................miles
From position o ff the Hook, bearing S. £ mile distant to lat. 4 0 ° 46' N ., Ion. 69°
52' W . Course— N . 84.29 E., distance.......................................................................
From lat. 40° 46' N., Ion. 69° 52' E., to lat. 4 4 ° 27' N ., Ion. 63° 29' E. Course—
N. 51.62 E ., distance.......................................................................................................
Sambro Light would then bear W . true, 3 miles distant.
From position off Sambro Island Light, to H a lifa x ....................................................
Total distance, nautical miles........................ ...............................................

16
188
358
12
574

DISTANCE FROM HALIFAX TO NEW YORK.

From Halifax to Sambro Island Light..............................................................................
Lat. o f ship 44 ° 27' N., Ion. 63° 29' W ., from thence to lat. 40° 46' N ., lat. 69°
5 2 ' W . Course— S. 51. 56 W ., distance...... - ...........................................................
T he new South Shoal, off Nantucket, would then bear N. true, 11 miles. From
thence to lat. 40° 28' 45 " N ., Ion. 7 4 ° OF W ., distance.........................................
Sandy Hook Light would then bear S> E . by S. true, £ mile distant. From Sandy
H ook to Battery................ ..............- ................ *.............................................................
Total distance, nautical m iles..............................................................................

]2
358
188
16
574

G U N N E T R O C K , F R IT H OF F O R T H .
T he Commissioners o f Northern Light-houses hereby give notice, that they have moored
a Green Buoy, marked with the word “ W reck,” o ff the brig sunk in the channel North
o f the Gunnet Rock, in the Frith o f Forth. The following compass bearings are taken at
the B uoy:—
Inchkeith Light-house Tower.— Its apparent breadth to the North o f the highest part o f
the W est Cliff o f the island, bearing S. E. by E. ^ E., distant about one mile.
Martello Tower.— Bearing S. S. W . | W .
East Buoy o f Gunnet.— Bearing S. W . by S. § W ., distint about half a mile.
Burnt-Island Pier End and Light.— Bearing N. W . by N.
Sunk Vessel or W reck.— Bearing W . £ N ., distant about twenty-five or thirty fathoms
at low water spring tides: the lower masts are still standing.




446

Nautical Intelligence.
L IG H T -H O U S E A T C A P E A G U L H A S .

The long-desired Light-house is now being erected on Cape Agulhas, a point o f land,
or rocks, in South Africa, which must be passed by vessels o f all nations, homeward bound
from India.
During the last fourteen years, two American vessels have been wrecked on Agulhas,
v iz : the Gentoo, Captain Hollis, and Montgomery, Captain Constant, both o f Boston.
The site selected is 180 yards due North o f the nearest point o f the beach; its latitude
and longitude, (which will be also those o f the burner itself,) calculated from the Astron­
omer Royal’s Theodolite Station, on the hill’s top, (which are latitude 34 ° 49' 2 " 15 S.,
longitude 28° O' 3 9 " 1 E.,) will be as follow s:— latitude 34° 49' 4 7 " 95 S., longitude
20° 0' 4 5 " 3 E. It only now remains to state that the apparatus for lighting is on the
dioptric principle, and o f the first class or largest size, made in Paris. It will light 270*,
the remaining 90° landward being the only portion o f the lantern obscured. T he edifice
presents a very large front to the Southward, to prevent the possibility o f its being mis­
taken for a private building. The height o f the focus o f light above the sea’s level will
be 125°. T he distance on the horizon from which it will be seen will be 15 miles from
the deck, making the height o f the eye 15 feet, 20 1-5 m iles; from a mast-head, 100 feet
high, 28 2-5 mile 9 . T he edifice, as designed by Lieut. Col. Mitchell, and approved of by
the Board o f Trinity, is progressing as speedily as the difficulties inseparable from build­
ing at such a place will admit, under the immediate superintendence o f Mr. William
Martin, o f this town, who was selected by Col. Mitchell for that purpose.— S. A . C.
Advertiser.
F R E N C H IL L U M IN A T IO N O F T H R E E N E W L IG H T -H O U S E S .
M inistry o f Public W orks, P a ris, Dec., 1847.
Mariners are hereby informed that, from the 1st o f January next, three new lights will
be exhibited throughout the night, one at the Northern extremity o f Corsica, and the
other two at the entrance to the Roads o f Brest.
T he following description show’s the geographical position, character, and range o f these
three lights, the establishment o f which has been already announced in the three last edi­
tions o f the “ Description des Phares de F r a n c e published in 1845, 1846, and 1847:—
LIGHT-HOUSE OF THE ISLAND OF GIRAGLIA.

Light with eclipses o f from half-minute to half-minute. [1.]
Upon the Island o f Giraglia.
Lat. 43° 1' 45 ". Lon. 7° 3' 5 5 " E.
t ,,
S above the ground 2 2 m. )
H evauon | aboye aurfa(fe o f Bea 82m. \ range 27 miles.
In ordinary weather these eclipses will be total only beyond a distance o f ten marine
miles.
L IG H T -H O U S E S OF T H E M A IN C H A N N E L OF B R E S T.
I ° LIGHT-HOUSE OF PETIT MINOU.

Fixed light. [3.]
Upon the Point o f Petit Minou, situated at the Western entrance, and at the Northern
side o f the inlet o f Brest.
Lat. 48 ° 21' 2 9 ". Lon. 6 ° 52' 19" W .
i above the ground 24m. I
,.
..
Elevation | aboye ,hc
........ 32m. \ range 15 miles.
2°

LIGHT-HOUSE OF POETZIC.

Light varied from three to three minutes with flashes, preceded and followed by brief
eclipses. [ 2 .]
Upon the Point o f Portzic, at 6,400 metres N. 69° E. of the Light-house o f Petit
Minou.
Lat. 48° 20' 12". Lon. 6 ° 57' 9 " W .
„.
.
i above the ground 33m. 40 }
, a ..
Elevation j above the *ea„ . 56ra. 2 0 \ ran°'e 1 8 miles‘
In ordinary weather the brief eclipses o f this Light-house will become total only beyond
a distance o f eight marine miles.
These two lights in a line with each other will indicate to mariners the course they have
to steer to the entrance o f the inlet, in avoiding to the North the shoals o f “ Coq," and o f
the “ basse B euzec,” and at the South that o f “ Vandree.”




'

Nautical Intelligence .

447

S IG N A L S A T N E W -H A V E N H A R B O R , E N G L A N D .
The following regulations respecting signals at New-Haven Harbor, have been approved
o f by the Trinity Board, and the same took effect on and from the 30th day o f Septem­
ber, 1847, viz:—
There shall be exhibited on the Western Pier, nightly, from sunset to sunrise, a high
white light, and in addition, during certain periods, a low light or other signal, viz:—
During the undermentioned depths o f water at the harbor’s mouth, whether flood or
ebb.
13 feet and upwards.
Day signals— A red flag. Night signals— A low white light
10 feet and upwards, and not 13.
Day signals— T w o black balls. Night signals— A low red light.
8 feet and upwards, and not 1 0 .
Day signals— One black ball.
G R A D U A L R IS E O F N E W F O U N D L A N D A B O V E T H E SEA.
It is a fact worthy o f notice, says the Newfoundland Times, that the whole o f the land
in and about the neighborhood o f Conception Bay, very probably the whole island, is
rising out o f the ocean at a rate which promises, at no very distant day, materially to
affect, i f not to render useless, many o f the best harbors we have now on the coast. At
Port de Grave a series o f observations have been made, which undeniably prove the rapid
displacement o f the sea-level in the vicinity. Several large flat rocks, over which schoon­
ers might pass some thirty or forty years ago with the greatest facility, are now approach­
ing the surface, the water being scarcely navigable for a skiff. A t a place called the Cosh,
at the head o f Bay Roberts, upwards o f a mile from the sea-shore, and at several feet
above its level, covered with five or six feet o f vegetable mould, there is a perfect beach,
the stones being rounded, o f a moderate size, and in all respects similar to those nowfound in the adjacent land-washes.
C O M P L E T IO N OF T H E N E W L IG H T A T K E Y W E S T .
S. R . Mallory, Collector o f Customs at Key W est, publishes the following notice to
mariners, under date Feb. 6 , 1848:—
The new Light, just completed at Key W est, will be shown on the 10th Feb., 1848It is a first-class light, and will, probably, be visible from a ship’s deck at the distance o f
twenty-two miles in clear weather. It is situated eight hundred yards North-east o f the
site o f the old light. The bearings and courses heretofore followed for entering this port
may still be observed; but vessels approaching the ship channel in the day-time, will find
five fathoms water on the bar by bringing the buoy in range with the Light-house and
running for it.
W R E C K OFF M U N D SLEY.
Notice is hereby given, that a Green Buoy, marked with the word “ W reck,” has
been placed five fathoms to the N. E . o f a vessel sunk in the track o f shipping o ff Mundsley. The Buoy lies in seven fathoms at low water spring tides, about 1J miles from the
shore, and with the following compass bearings:—
Mundsley Church...............................................................................................................W . by S.
Bacton Church......................................................................................................... S. by W . £ W .
Haisbro’ Church............................................................................................................... ....S . £ EL IG H T -H O U S E E R E C T E D A T B O D D Y ’S IS L A N D .
James K. Hatten, Collector for the District o f Washington, (N. C.,) gives notice that
the Light-house erected during the past year at Boddy's Island, was lighted for the first
time on the 22d January, 1848, and is a revolving light.
T W O L IG H T S A T T H E E N T R A N C E O F IT H A C A H A R B O R .
Vice-Admiral Sir W illiam Parker has reported to the Admiralty that two Lights are
placed at the entrance o f Ithaca Harbor ; one on Point Andrea, and the other on the
Lazaretto.




448

Mercantile Miscellanies.

MERCANTILE

MISCELLANIES.

P O E TR Y OF COM MERCE.
The following passage, from the N ew Y ear’s Address o f the “ Dry Goods Reporter,” ,
is reproduced in the Merchants’ Magazine, not so much for its merit as a poem, as for the
subject it refers t o :—
COMMERCE.

A ll hail, O Com m erce! hail to thee!
T h ou 3ovrrcign ruler o f the sea !
W here once the hosts o f war were sent,
In many a death-doomed armament,
N ow friendly ship or packet plies,
On peaceful errand bound ;
And industry, ’ neath other skies,
N ew fields o f toil hath found.
O ! ever may these peaceful bands
lu chains o f friendship hold the lands.
For Commerce hearkened to the cry
That caine and comes from Erin’s shore;
The grain that ripened ’neath our sky,
Kind Commerce to those regions bore.
And her proud fleets, that dangers scorn,
W afted away the golden corn.
For her the mass o f beings strives,
And in her service squander lives;
But most o f all, the fa ir protect
Her interests, in her products decked.
The jewels bound on woman’ s brow,
T h e pearls thut her soft locks entwine,
T h e rubies that concealed their glow.
W ithin the dark and gloomy m ine;
The satin’ s bright and glossj' ray,
The silks that robe fair lady’ s form ;
The Cachemires rich, that see the day
First under India’ s sunbeams w arm ;
The costly furs that wrap her shoulders,
And keep her warm, and charm beholders;
By Commerce brought across the waves,
Offer the gifts that beauty craves,
And w ill crave, while her brow is fair,
And while M artclle shall dress her hair.
T he flowers her braids that interweave,
T he robe that charms the crowd at eve,
The snowy glove— the slippers neat,
That fit the Polka-dancing feet;
The very mouchoir, richly wrought,
And steeped in perfume— all are brought
By useful trade from other lands,
T he workmanship o f skillful hands.
Hands, unrewarded for their skill,

That toil, and toil through weary days,
Slaves to some pinching master’s will,
W h o scarce the wretched stipend pays.
But what is commerce without m on ey!
A hive o f bees without the honey ;
A ship nt sea without her snils,
A sea without its favoring gales.
A moving power without advance,
A land without inhabitants!
Then money, root o f good and evil,Angel o f mercy, imp o f devil,
W e ’ ll note thy progress through the year.
T he carrier will be sincere.
First then thou earnest in torrents thick,
And now seemest going back as quick.
England her sovereigns sent in crowds,
Like rain when dropping from the clouds;
W e gave our com , our pork, our flour,
T o feed her helpless famished poor;
And in return received the gold,
W hich we in such high favor hold.
Each purse contained a yelFow lining,
And every face was bright and shining;
A change has woke us from the dream,
Things always are not what they seem.
And now from National to Mechanic,
W e hear the cry o f pan ic! panic !
Faces grow longer in the street.,
And bulls and-bears in terror meet.
Stocks tumble down, like rows o f brick,
Making the operators sick ;
W hile discounts, i f they ’ re got at all*
Soon swallow up the principal.
This is thy progress money, then,
In Wall-street, haunts o f busy m en;
These are thy triumphs everywhere,
W hen mortals struggle for a share.
And yet, without thee, what could we
Do in this world o f misery.
It is the stimulus we need,
T o live, to labor, or to bleed.
And when in moderation sought,
Gives zest to toil, and hope to thought.

C O M M E R C IA L S P E C U L A T IO N .
There is much o f enlightened judgment in the following quotation from the late Dr.
Chalmers, and it is so exactly applicable to England at the present time that we copy i t :—
“ In opposition to the maxim that the spirit o f enterprise is the soul o f commercial pros­
perity, do we hold that it is the excess o f this spirit beyond the moderation of the New
Testament, which, pressing on the natural boundaries o f trade, is sure at length to visit
every country, where it operates, with the recoil o f all these calamities, which, in the shape
o f beggared capitalists, and unemployed operatives, and dreary intervals o f bankruptcy and
alarm, are observed to follow' a season o f overdone speculation.”




Mercantile Miscellanies.

449

D A N G E R S OF A BUSINESS LIFE.
W e rejoice at every indication o f life from the pulpit.

The pulpit is never more divine

in its ministrations, than when it applies its teachings to the wants o f the age, or fear­
lessly points out the dangers that beset us in the ordinary, every-day walks o f life. This
simple remark is suggested to our mind, by the publication o f a sermon, preached at the

44Church o f the Saviour,” in Brooklyn, in September last, by the Rev.

F rederick A .

F a r l e y , in the ordinary course o f his ministerial duties.

The object o f the reverend
gentleman is, to point out some o f the dangers o f a business life. In the text, or motto
selected for the occasion, “ be not slothful in business, but be ferven t in spirit,” & c., the
preacher does not deprecate the importance o f activity or industry, in the business o f life,
but the burthen o f his discourse is rather to show the dangers peculiar to a too eager pursuit
o f gain.

The first danger in commercial life noticed, is the continual, ever-present ten­

dency to selfishness. On this head, Mr. F. briefly remarks:—
“ N o matter how similar or how different your occupations, my brethren, you are all
exerting yourselves for yourselves; or, which is the same thing for all practical purposes,
for those whose claims on you for support are always strengthened by a sense o f duty,
and in most cases by the ties o f affection. There is a constant struggle going on for the
greatest share o f patronage and emolument— an unintermitted search for means and op­
portunities o f peculiar and unwonted profits— a shifting o f expedients to build up and
magnify one’s fortune— and an anxious, and almost literally a sleepless vigilance, to se­
cure whatever advantages have been gained, or whatever success is promised. There is
a direct and incessant conflict and competition between your own concerns, interests,
advancement, and those o f others, ever bringing into action, and encouraging and indulg­
ing the selfish passions. N ow these passions, thus powerfully addressed and excited, may
become tyrants over your better nature— swaying every part o f your conduct—tendering
you envious, narrow-minded, morose, meanly and grossly avaricious— changing the fair
and noble enterprise o f business, into a spirit o f low cunning, chicanery, and intrigue—
leading you to throw every possible obstacle in the way o f your neighbor’s success— tempt­
ing you to rejoice, or at least to feel very complacent, in his failure or embarrassment,
and to stray from the course o f strict and high-minded integrity, whenever, by so doing,
you think you can gain some personal advantage, or avert some apparently threatening
loss. How resolutely should every honorable and Christian man guard himself against
the encroachments o f this most despicable and dangerous temper! Be active— I would
say, in the name o f all that is holy, to each one o f you, brethren, be active— industrious—
enterprising ; but O, be above any unworthy jealousy o f others. Set the example on all
occasions, under all circumstances, o f a large, liberal, generous spirit. Let the world see
that whatever success you attain, it is only by the legitimate exercise o f the talents, means,
and opportunities you can honestly comm and; taking no unfair advantages of others’
straits or calamities, but, on the contrary, showing a readiness, as far as you have ability,
to relieve rather than crush them.”
The second danger adverted to, is the mistake o f supposing that religion may be safely
and entirely separated from any o f the common occupations in which business men are
engaged. He was not very far off* from the truth, who somewhere said, that “ work was
worship.” But let us hear the substance o f Mr. F.’s reflections on this point, as expressed
in the following passage:—

44Religion is designed to reach the minutest things which we do, to control even our
thoughts, to become indeed the dominant principle o f our characters. W ho, then, is the
religious man, in the highest, the Christian sense? Not he, surely, who appears to be
religious on great occasions, when the eyes or ears o f hundreds or thousands are observing
or listening to him, but who, in the family retreat, is a source o f grief or pain or mortifi­
cation to the few, and as they ought to be, the beloved few around him. Character is
not so tried or judged in regard to any thing else— why should it be in regard to this ?
T he little things in a man’s conduct, as they are thoughtlessly called— the prevailing air
o f generous and high-souled virtue— the constant and delicate respect for the feelings,
wishes, even, I am ready to say, the prejudices o f others— the habitual love of excellence
in any sphere or walk o f life— the uniform mildness, serenity, benevolence o f the disposi­
tion— the unshaken trust in, and loyalty to God, and reverence for his being and perfec­
tions— in a word, the kindness, generosity, integrity, and piety of his demeanor, shown
always, and everywhere, at home and abroad, not for the sake o f display, but simply and
VOL. X V III.----NO. IV .
29




450

Mercantile Miscellanies.

obviously as the result o f deeply laid principle ever operative within; these things I take
to be among the strongest proofs that the man is a religious man. Men are very apt to
think, nevertheless, engaged so constantly, not to say engrossed in their business, that they
have nothing to do with religion, except on set occasions and in a special and prescribed
way ; and too often that it belongs to particular persons who may be religious in their
behalf. So far from the truth is all this, that under the light and instruction o f the Gospel,
you ought to carry religion with you to the office, the factory, the warehouse, the work­
shop, the exchange. I do not mean that you are to carry there long and sad faces, a
constrained air and manner, or the formal exercises o f devotion. None o f these alone,
nor all o f them put together, would prove you religious. N o. But an inflexible love o f
honest, generous, upright dealing between man and m an; an humble, forbearing, forgiv­
ing, conciliating disposition; showing you ever, in that crowded and exciting arena, to
be superior to the w orld; not absorbed in its pursuits, not wholly fascinated by its charms,
not willing on any occasion, or for any temporal bribe, to compromise your conscientious
sense o f what, in the strictest sense, is right in the sight o f God. This it is, to be religious
in one’s business; to refer all that you do, in every business transaction and engagement,
always and alone, to that moral standard which God himself has set up.”
js

The preacher is right in affirming, that the standard o f character among business men
in danger o f being lowered. A single passage from this portion o f the homily, will,

perhaps, give the reader some idea o f a danger that every one must feel himself exposed to.
“ A mid the excitement o f business, where each man is apt exclusively to seek his own,
and not another’s welfare, the lowest rather than the highest standard o f moral obli­
gation will prevail and be followed. It is not the future so much as the present, which is
thought of. A n individual will be far more likely to ask himself, in some great exigency,
what is the law, the public law o f the land— rather than what is right, strictly, unquali­
fiedly, truly right, by the law o f God. Accordingly, such a man will, without the slightest
compunction or uneasiness, transgress the Christian law o f equity and o f kindness. In
the transaction o f business, some men are daily and hourly manifesting an unwillingness
to accommodate each other, a want o f regard to the welfare o f others, a reluctance to sac­
rifice the slightest personal convenience or profit, and a readiness to seize on every little
petty circumstance which may result to their own benefit, even though, by so doing, they
may essentially injure others ;— things which, in the intercourse o f private and social life,
even they would condemn as breaches o f the commonest charities and courtesies of life.
Beware, brethren, o f this ! Let the unadulterated spirit and principles o f the Gospel, in
all their fullness and strictness o f requisition, go with and guide you in every concern
in which you engage. In the event, sooner or later, you will find you have gained much
— much every way, for the want o f which nothing could compensate ; much in peace o f
conscience— in its silent, but deeply-felt approval— in the assurance which that makes
doubly sure o f the favor o f God.”
The preacher closes his rather generalizing view o f the dangers of a business life, with
a brief reference to the tendency to forget that life, the present life, is not the whole of
existence. It seems to us, that we should view the life that now is, as the commencement
o f a conscious eternity o f being; and, without taking anxious thought for the future, de­
velop, no matter at what cost, those faculties o f mind and body that must enhance the
blessedness o f the unfathomable and never-ending future. T he kingdom o f heaven is
within us, now and forever, and should be as much so in the body as out o f it.

IM P O R T A N C E OF A D A Y -B O O K .
."Many traders and mechanics are in the habit o f making their original charges, during
the day, on slate, and having them at night, or at some convenient opportunity, transcribed
on the day-book. It is a very unsafe practice. A decision directly in point has been made
in the Court o f Common Pleas. W e copy from the Boston Advertiser:—
“ In the case o f Buckley vs. Pillsbury, the defendant offered to make oath to his books
o f account, in which it appeared that the entries were made once a week, or oltener, by
his clerk, who transcribed them from a slate, on which they were entered by the defendant
himself; the clerk not being able to testify to the items charged, any further than that
they were correctly transcribed. T he court ruled that the defendant could not be per­
mitted to swear to the correctness o f his books.”




Mercantile Miscellanies.

451

H A V A N A SHOPS, SH O PM E N , A N D SH O PPIN G .
[F R O M

“ N O T E 8 ON C U B A ,”

BY

A P H Y S IC I A N .]

The Calle des M ercaderes is the principal street in Havana for shopping, and contains
many fine and extensive stores, filled with choice dry-goods, jewelry, china, glass-ware,
etc. These are designated by different names, which, however, have no reference to
their contents— as “ the bomb,” a favorite one ; “ the stranger,” “ virtue,” e t c .; but the
name o f the owner never appears on the sign-board. The principal commercial houses
have neither sign nor name, and can only be distinguished from the larger private dwell­
ings, by the bales o f goods, or boxes o f sugar and bags o f coffee that are piled up in their
lower stories; the merchant and his family, and clerks, living in the upper part.
Nearly all the retail shops are owned by Spaniards; and, with very few exceptions, none
but men are seen behind the counters. T he Parisian shop-girl, so celebrated for her skill
in selling, might, however, here learn a lesson, not only in overcharging, but also in that
assiduity in serving, that will scarcely permit the visiter to leave without purchasing
something. Let the novice take care how he offers one-half the price asked for an article,
i f he does not wish it, for that, not unfrequently, is its real one ; in almost every case onefourth will be deducted. “ H ow much for this xippee-xappee,” (hippehappe,) I inquired
o f a hat-merchant. “ Twelve dollars.” “ I will give you six.” “ Say eight.” “ Only
six.” “ It is a very fine one, senor, take it for seven ;” and finding that was about its
value, and longing to exchange my beaver for a Panama, more suited for the heat, I closed
the bargain.
“ Y ou shall have this cane for a dollar,” a Catalan said to me, as I was examining his
various articles spread out under one o f the arcades near the m arket; not wishing to buy
it, I offered two rials, when he handed it to me. I gave him two reales sevillanas, but
he insisted on fuertes, and I got my cane for one-quarter the price asked. It was, how ­
ever, some consolation to know that if it was not a very valuable one, I should no longer
appear singular in a crowd, in which every idler carried one. Besides, being an insepa­
rable appendage to the exquisite, it is still used as an insignia o f several professions. Thus,
the doctor is here still recognized by his ebony cane, with its gold head and black tassels,
and some public officers are distinguished by theirs. Fine English cutlery, all linen stuffs,
muslins, and many other articles o f dry-goods, and especially fancy goods, can be pur­
chased cheaper here than in our Southern States. The duties on them are not high, and
the quantity that is often imported overstocks the market, and lowers the prices.
Although the Calle des M ercaderes is the Bond-street o f Havana, retail shops are
scattered all over the city, which, in a large part, seems to be made up o f them, the lower
stories o f many o f the dwelling-houses being thus occupied. The ladies in shopping do
not, in general, leave their volantes, but have the goods brought to them, the strictness of
Spanish etiquette forbidding them to deal with a shopman; and it is only when the seller
o f goods is o f their own sex, that they venture into a store. The custom o f appearing
in public only in a volante is so general, that some o f my fellow-boarders, American
ladies, who ventured to do their shopping on loot, were greeted, in their progress, by the
half-suppressed exclamations o f the astonished Ilabaneros, who seemed as much surprised
to see a lady walk through their streets, as a Persian would to see one unveiled in his.
I have said that Spaniards are chiefly the owners o f the stores, the Creoles being sel­
dom engaged in commerce. Those containing dry-goods belong generally to Asturians,
while the sale o f groceries and provisions is monopolized by Catalans. These latter are
an industrious, shrewd, economical class; and have, perhaps, in consequence o f these
qualities, received their sobriquet o f Spanish Jews, which can only be construed into a
compliment to the Israelite. A large portion o f the commerce o f the island is in their
hands, as well as a very great part o f its wealth. In the interior of the island they ap­
pear to monopolize every branch o f trading, from the pack o f the humble pedlar to the
country tienda with its varied contents; and, in the maritime towns, many a commercial
house, whose ships cover the sea, is theirs.
Under the arcades near the markets, in Havana, may be seen a number o f shops, not
ten feet square, with a show-case in front, before which a restless being is constantly
walking; reminding one o f a caged wild animal that chafes for a wider range. A t night
the show-case is carried into his little cabin, which serves him for shop, dormitory, and
kitchen ; and where he may be often seen preparing his frugal meal over a chafing-dish
o f live charcoals. “ Five years o f privations and a fortune,” is his m otto; and not a few
o f the wealthiest Spanish residents in Cuba may date the commencement o f their pros­
perity from as humble a source. T he greater part o f the trade with old Spain is in their
hands, and they have latterly also extended their correspondence to other countries, and
entered into active competition with the resident foreign merchants. The Catalan, more­




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Mercantile Miscellanies.

over, furnishes the p’ anter with all the necessaries for his negroes and plantation; ad­
vances moneys for his crops, which he then sells on commission; and often loans to him
the requisite sums to erect his costly sugar-works, or make his less expensive coffee estate,
but all at an interest, ruinous in the present depreciated value o f his crops.
R E G U L A R BUSINESS.
The following remarks, which we find in the ** Dry Goods Reporter,” the organ o f that
branch o f trade, are not without value to mercantile men generally.
“ T o depart from regular business is to lose money.”

N o maxim in life is more strictly true than the above quotation. How often do we see
men who, in the pursuit o f their regular business, were daily gaining in respect and credit,
(lured away by the ignis fa tu u s o f sudden wealth,) embark in speculations and enterprises
o f which they know nothing. They continue on until serious embarrassment, and often­
times positive ruin, open their eyes to the fact that in all descriptions of trade or commer­
cial pursuit toll must be paid either by apprenticeship or money. W e have frequently had
occasion to notice the truth o f this somewhat, trite remark. W e have seen the retailer striv­
ing hard to connect jobbing with his retailing; and the jobber, in his turn, grown envious
o f the importer, seek to range out o f his appropriate sphere, and in nine cases in ten these
departures from legitimate trade have been failures in their results, and upon a calm analy­
sis it will be found that quite as much success has been attained as could have been ration­
ally expected. W e see, in the first place, that the country merchant has the same sources
open to him for the supply o f his wants as the city retailer. I f the purchaser is doing business
in the country, the jobber takes into consideration that competition is less, and the risk con­
sequently lessened. His offers in prices are quite as low, at least, to the country merchant as
to the city retailer, and thus the purchases made o f a smaller concern must have some extra
inducement either in lower prices or length o f time. I f goods are sold without these in­
ducements, we think it would be safe to conclude that a want o f credit among jobbers is
one reason for his seeking to make purchases among his equals. But even were this bar­
rier removed, would it be sound policy for a man (whose main dependence is on the re­
tail trade) to allow the gems to be selected at about cost from his stock, and goods o f in­
ferior qualities and more ordinary styles left, from which he must suit the taste o f fastidious
women. Generally a stock selected from in this way is injured vastly more than the pro­
fit made could benefit, even were there no risk in the credit.
T he position o f the jobber and importer can be illustrated better by an anecdote, which
we heard yesterday from undoubted authority. A jobber who, one year since, was afflicted
with the importing mania, and followed the business successfully during the year 1847,
realizing therefrom over two thousand dollars, says he would willingly give all the money
he made in ’47, and five hundred dollars added thereto, to be rid o f his imports for ’48.
Many will say this was all owing to circumstances, wrhich probably might not happen
again in years, and that the importers are all in the same boat. Softly, m an! this is not
exactly so. Upon inquiry you will find that but few o f the present quantities o f excess
goods belong to our importers. They are merely the fa ctors, the ownership rests else­
where ; and the heavy loss (for a heavy loss must be sustained on this spring’ s imports) will
fall upon Europe, and not be sustained here.
Importers wrho are pecuniarily interested in the price at which goods are sold in this
country, have some connection, branch, or resident partner in Europe, whose duty it is to
watch the market there. The exports from thence is the barometer; and when such times
as the present are upon us, we find that, although they seemingly and in reality have goods
enough on hand, they belong to other parties, and in many instances have been shipped
against their advice. So sensitively alive are these resident partners in Europe to the ex­
ports, that we have heard o f £ 5 having been paid for the outward manifest of a ship bound
to the United States.
W e have been frequently amused at the quaint remarks o f Zadock Pratt, Esq., ex-mem­
ber o f Congress, (a man o f strong common sense,) who was originally a tanner by trade.
A speculator was showing him a new method o f tanning, by which he represented great
quantities o f money could be made. Pratt told him he did not doubt it, but he was making
money enough ; that he (the speculator) had better find some one who was not doing so
well. He has resisted all attempts to allure him from his legitimate business, and by close
application has amassed a quarter o f a million.
Our advice is, to the retailer, do not attempt to. job ; to the jobber, leave importing alone ;
and to the importer, allow not the offer o f an extra price to induce you to break a package,
for it is as completely unjust for you to rob the jobber o f his legitimate profit as it would be
for the jobber to retail goods. W e say most emphatically, stick to your regular business.




Mercantile Miscellanies.

453

T H E A C C O M P L IS H E D M E R C H A N T .
The personal accomplishments and public spirit, by which the higher class o f mercantile
pursuits would be greatly ennobled as a department o f human life, and made more influ­
ential, must be built o f many important qualifications.
T he great merchant should be half a statesman. His occupation o f itself, when con­
ducted on the broadest scale, demands the exercise o f that wide and comprehensive vision
requisite for the operations o f a chief minister, or a general, whose plans o f campaigns
cover half a continent. If, in addition to his own fortunes, he would understand and ad­
vance the great interests o f his country, his qualities and acquirements must be much am­
pler. T o give him such capacities, what and how great training is necessary. For our
own part, we would advocate the establishment, in our schools and colleges, o f a distinct
branch o f commercial studies, with its own professorships, by which those designing to
follow the more enterprising pursuits o f trade should have their grasp o f mind enlarged,
and their views rendered more liberal and enlightened. W e do not know why commer­
cial knowledge— a knowledge embracing the products and essential interests o f different
countries, their relations to each other, together with the principles o f maritime and inter­
national law— why a parsuit, thus covering the world with its observations and its action,
is not a science as much as any other, and to be mastered with as severe and regular
study.
This much for his department o f life as an occupation ; but the merchant should have
more than this would argue. He should be accomplished in many things, like any other
person, in the community, o f cultivated mind. His pursuits must necessarily be very en­
grossing; but they need not be so to the exclusion o f those gentlemanly tastes and acquire­
ments which would place the mercantile business, in its more general departments, on a
level, intellectually and socially, with the learned professions. W hy should not a mer­
chant have cultivated a very thorough knowledge o f literature, a taste in architecture.—
one o f the noblest o f studies— a love for sculpture and paintings, a delight in landscape
and garden ornation ? These things should form a part o f his education ; and they need
not afterwards interfere with the full prosecution o f business. He has wealth to support
his tastes, which many, if not most, professional and sedentary men have n o t; why should
the sense o f the beautiful slumber in him ? Not many, perhaps, are formed to have a taste
for all these ; but some part o f them must appeal to the perceptions of every one ; and
why should the man o f traffic pour away the wine o f life, satisfying himself with the dregs,
though they be o f gold ?
If. to this statesman-like scope o f vision, and these refinements o f mind, he add an un­
derstanding o f the great moral and social interests o f his country and the world, and the
abiding disposition to help them forward, what one o f all the professions which men fol­
low, would be more worthy o f honor, or o f envy, than the profession o f t h e m e r c h a n t ?

S H O R T M E A S U R E IN E N G L A N D .
Some recent proceedings in the drapery trade, says the London Spectator, have ended
in the exposure o f extreme dishonesty amongst the manufacturers and wholesale houses.
T he retail dealers have been combining lately to procure a more equitable measurement
o f various goods supplied to them by the wholesale houses. For this purpose, a meeting
was held a few days ago, at which several exporters were present, to investigate certain
allegations against the wholesale dealers. The course o f proceeding was, to examine
sealed packets o f goods which had been sent i n ; and the results were rather startling.
Am ong other instances, reels o f cotton thread marked” warranted 100 yards ” were found
to measure respectively 92£, 89, 8G£, and in some cases even as little as 7 5 ; while
in no single instance did the measurement reach the full standard. In tapes the deficien­
c y was found to be still more considerable. It is usual to make white tapes in lengths
o f nine yards, one dozen o f these lengths being packed in a parcel, and then issued from
the wholesale house with the vender’s mark upon it as “ warranted.” On measuring
these “ nine-yard lengths,” it was found that in every instance they fell short. In some
descriptions the nine-yard lengths w'ere under seven yards, in others under six ; whilst in
another sample, where the tape itself had been stamped at the end in indelible ink as nine
yards, there were found to be but 5 f. Other goods were submitted to the same ordeal
with like results. The manufacturers’ account o f the deception is, that they are compelled
to follow the instructions o f the wholesale houses; who on their side extenuate their con­
duct by throwing the blame on the system o f competition in respect o f low prices, which
compels them to resort to dishonest practices. It is some gratification to know that an
active movement is in progress to wipe out the stain by adopting at once an honest
system.




454

Mercantile Miscellanies.
PR ICE S O F M E R C H A N D IS E F I F T Y Y E A R S A G O .

A letter o f John Johnson, o f Piqua, Ohio, one o f the pioneers o f the W est, and long
connected with the Indian Department, records the following items, which will be inte­
resting to all.

W e copy from “ Cist's Cincinnati Advertiser. ”

In 1801-2, I find the following prices o f articles at Detroit, Fort W ayne, and in Ohio.
Paid for six barrels o f salt, at Detroit, at $ 1 6 per bbl., $ 9 6 ; 1,200 lbs. tobacco, $460 :
2 bbls. flour, $ 2 0 ; 127 bushels com , $127.
Bought, at Cincinnati, o f Mr. Mayo, 33£ gallons whiskey, at $ 1 per gallon, $ 3 3 5 0 :
and 580 lbs. tobacco, at 37£ cents per lb .; 2,000 lbs. bacon, at 25 cents per l b .; a quantity
o f hair powder, at $ 1 per lb. The officers and soldiers, in those times, when on duty,
wore their hair long, and always powdered. I find paid for five gallons o f tar, for the
public wagons, $ 1 0 ; $ 8 per bushel was at one time paid for corn at Fort Defiance.
In a time o f scarcity, for the purpose o f feeding the Indians, I paid, at one time, be­
tween six and seven hundred dollars for a field o f corn, estimated to contain ten acres, and
the Indians gathered and divided it.
In the winters o f 1794-5, immediately after the whiskey insurrection in Western Penn­
sylvania, I paid $ 1 4 per cwt. for transportation, in wagons, from Philadelphia to Pittsburgh.
There was no turnpike road at that tim e; a five-horse team would convey 3,000 to 3,500
lbs., and travel 12 to 15 miles a day. W hen public money was transported, I always ac­
companied the wagons on foot. T he specie was packed in boxes o f $1,000 each, and
these stowed in large tierces o f soldier’s clothing and Indian goods, so that the wagoners
were not aware that they carried money. In this way much o f the public funds were
transported in early times. Then, there was no paper money ; it was a hard money era,
and truly a hard way o f getting along with it. None but those who participated in those
eventful and trying times, can form any estimate o f the labor, anxiety, risk, and expense
attendant upon the discharge o f public duty.
In the war o f 1812, the price o f United States rations, at Piqua, 1£ lbs. o f beef, or
| lb. o f salted pork, was 5£ to 6 cents; 1 lb., and 2 o f flour or bread, 5£ cents; 100 lbs.
rye or com meal, $ 3 ; 1 lb. soap, 12£ cents ; 1 qt. salt, 12£ cents; com , 50 cents per
bushel; bacon, 10 to 12$ cents per lb.; 1 qt. whiskey, 18| cents. In August, 1813,1
reported 3,000 Indians fed and supported by the United States, at an expense o f from
$4 ,000 to $5 ,000 per month.

S T A T IS T IC S OF T H E BOOK T R A D E .
C hambers ’ M iscellany . — T he reading public are aware, we presume, that this popular

work o f the celebrated Scotch publishers is in course o f republication by a house in Boston,
Messrs. Gould, Kendall, cj* Lincoln. Should it enjoy the same measure o f success here
as in England, the Boston publishers will be amply rewarded for their enterprise. The
following statement o f the “ Miscellany,” derived from an authentic source, is interesting
in a moral as well as commercial point o f v ie w :—
During the currency o f the work, since its commencement three years ago, the weekly
impression has varied from 80,000 to 100,000 ; but including reprints, which are constant­
ly going on, the average impression o f each sheet o f 32 pages has been 115,000. O f some
sheets which appear to have been peculiarly popular, the impression has been upwards o f
200,000. The tract, “ Life o f Louis Philippe,” has been put to press thirteen times, and
the various impressions have amounted to 280,470. The total number o f sheets o f the
work printed, till the present hour, is 18,000,000, the whole forming 38,125 reams. T he
weight o f the entire mass printed has been 387 tons. The cost o f the work for paper lias
been .£25,776, ($125,000 ;) for printing, £11,545, ($55,000 ;) and for binding, £16,248,
($80,000.) T he money paid to authors for writing has in most instances been £ 1 0 per
s eet, or altogether, £ 1 ,450 , ($7,000 ;) and for wood-engravings the outlay has been about
£5 00. O f miscellaneous disbursements no account need be taken. The price paid by
the public for the work has been £100,000, ($485,000.) The profits dispensed among
the bookselling trade may be estimated at £38,000, ($180,000.) O f the general sales,
the bulk has been chiefly in volumes. The quantity o f volumes done up at each issue
has usually filled two w agons; total number o f volumes done up, 1,300,000. The larger
proportion o f these have been disposed o f in or from London as a centre; the circulation
has been mainly, where we were most desirous it should be, in the manufacturing and
commercial districts o f the country.




Mercantile Miscellanies.

455

A N E C D O T E S OF B A N K R U P T C Y .
A 4£Cyclopedia o f Moral and Religious Anecdotes” has been commenced in the serial
form by Messrs. Leavitt, T row & Co., o f N ew Y ork. It is to be completed in eight
numbers. Anecdotes do much, when rightly used, to enlist attention, convince the judg­
ment, and persuade the heart. From the first part, already published, we make extracts
o f a few which we find under the head o f “ Bankruptcy,” as appropriate to the character
o f a strictly commercial journal.
THE CONSEQUENCES OF ENDORSING.

It was the custom o f the Rev. Rowland Hill, at the commencement o f a new
year, to preach an annual sermon for the “ Benevolent Society of Surrey Chapel, for vis­
iting and relieving the Sick Poor at their own Habitations,” selecting, at the same time, a
few o f the most remarkable cases to read to his congregation, that had been visited dur­
ing the preceding year. On one o f these occasions, he narrated the afflictive circum­
stances o f a lady, formerly o f property and respectability, who had been plunged into the
depths o f poverty and want, in a time o f sickness, through having imprudently become
security for some relation or friend ; and Mr. Hill took this opportunity of publicly warn­
ing and entreating all present to be on their guard against committing so fatal an error.
“ I would advise all my friends,” said he, “ to do the same as I do myself, when any re­
quest o f this kind comes to me. I just walk out o f one room into another, and consider
what I can afford to give, and what I ought to giv e to the applicant; then I return and
say— ‘ Here, my friend, I make you a present o f this sum, and if you can get a few
others to help you in the same way, perhaps you will get over your difficulty.’ Then,”
said Mr. Hill, with emphasis, “ I know the end o f it; but were I to lend my name, or be­
come surety, I know not how that might end.”
Strange as it may appear, he was waited on, a few months after this, by one o f the
members o f the church, soliciting his kind assistance in procuring him a lucrative situation,
then vacant in that parish and district, v iz : a collector o f the king’s taxes; the person
urged that it would be the making o f him and his family, but that he must have two
bondsmen for .£1,000 each. Mr. Hill said he would consider o f it. This petitioner was
well known to Mr. H ill; he had long held a confidential situation in his chapel, and was,
besides, in a good trade and connection o f business, with his friends. There was no rea­
son to doubt his integrity; and he was one that Mr. Hill was desirous to oblige. The
result was, he became one o f his securities, and prevailed on a gentleman, at Clapham,
to be the other; and the situation was obtained. A la s! alas! for poor Mr. Hill and his
brother bondsman ! In three or four years, the collector was a defaulter to the amount of
thousands. The securities were obliged to pay.
THE HONEST DEBTOR.

In the year 1885, a small tradesman, in a country-town in Somersetshire, became so
much embarrassed, that he thought it no more than an honest part to make known the
situation o f his affairs to his creditors. T he consequent investigation which took place,
terminated in an assignment o f his effects, which, when sold, produced a dividend o f nine
shillings and fourpence in the pound, and he received a discharge from all further claims.
But, although thus legally acquitted, and with little prospect of realizing his intention, this
honest man formed the honorable resolution of, at least, attempting what appeared to him
the obligations o f unalterable justice, by making up the deficiency to all his creditors. It
is true, the sum required was small, not quite ninety pounds ; but his means were proportionably inadequate, having now nothing but his daily labor from which it could be ob­
tained, after defraying the necessary expenses ; and his wages were discouragingly low,
not averaging more than twelve shillings per week. Mean accommodations and clothing,
hard fare, and hard work, at length enabled him, through the Divine blessing, to accom­
plish his purpose. The creditors were all paid in full, and they esteemed his integrity so
highly, that they thought proper to acknowledge their sense o f it by a handsome present.
THE HONEST INSOLVENT.

A gentleman o f Boston, says a religious journal, who was unfortunate in business thirty
years ago, and consequently unable at that time to meet his engagements with his cred­
itors, after more than twenty years o f toil, succeeded in paying every creditor (except one
whose residence could not be ascertained) the whole amount due them. He has in that
twenty years brought up and educated a large family— but still he owed one o f his former
creditors ; he was not satisfied to keep another’s property; he made inquiiy, and received
information that the party had died some years since. He again pursued his inquiry re­
specting the administrator, and ascertained his name and residence, wrote to him, ac-'




456

Mercantile Miscellanies.

knowledged the debt, and requested him to inform him o f the manner he would receive
the money. A few days since he remitted the whole amount, principal and interest.
THE BANKRUPT’ S ENTERTAINMENT.

Dr. Franklin relates the following anecdote o f Mr. Denham, an American merchant,
with whom he once went a passenger to England. “ He had formerly,’* he says, “ been
in business at Bristol, had failed, in debt to a number o f people, compounded, and went
to America ; there, by a close application to business as a merchant, he acquired a plenti­
ful fortune in a few years. Returning to England in the ship with me, he invited his old
creditors to an entertainment, at which he thanked them for the easy compensation they
had favored him with ; and, when they expected nothing but the treat, every man, at the
first remove, found under his plate an order on a banker for the full amount o f the unpaid
remainder, with interest.
THE BANKRUPT QUAKER.

A person o f the Quaker profession, says a London paper, having, through misfortune,
become insolvent, and not being able to pay more than 11s. to the pound, formed a reso­
lution, i f Providence smiled on his future endeavors, to pay the whole amount, and, in
case o f death, he ordered his sons to liquidate his debts by their joint proportions. It
pleased God, however, to spare his life, and, after struggling with a variety o f difficulties,
(for his livelihood chiefly depended on his own labor,) he at length saved sufficient to
satisfy every demand. One day the old man went with a considerable sum to the sur­
viving son o f one o f his creditors, who had been dead thirty years, and insisted on paying
him the money he owed his father, which he accordingly did with heartfelt satisfaction.
C O M M E R C IA L Q U E STIO N .
An answer to the following inquiry o f u A Subscriber,” will be given in the May num­
ber o f the Merchants’ Magazine:—
F r e e m a n H u n t , Esq.— Dear S ir : I f A . is an agent for a country bank, and has an
office in Wall-street, in which he carries on the exchange business in connection with
his agency, but, wishing to speculate with the money o f the bank, (having the privi­
lege to do so,) does not wish his name to appear, because he can speculate to better
advantage without its being known that he, as the agent, is using the money of the bank
for speculation, and should call on B., and offer him a stipulated sum for his name, to be
put on a sign over the door, and B. grants it— now, in case o f A .’s failure, is B. account­
able, or can he be held accountable for A .’s liabilities, in any way, shape, or manner? and
what would be the result i f B. had only what property the law allows him? A n answer
to this, through your valuable “ Merchants’ Magazine,” would much oblige a s u b s c r i b e r .

T H E C O M M E R C E OF L IV E R P O O L .
A t the anniversary dinner o f the Liverpool Guardian Society, held on the 22d inst.,
amongst other speeches on that occasion we extract the following passage from that deli­
vered by Mr. Dignan, (the author o f the Slave Captain.) In proposing “ prosperity to the
town and trade o f Liverpool,” he said that “ there was not a stream on the face o f the
habitable globe which had borne on its bosom the same amount o f wealth in the same
space o f time as the Mersey ; nor did the history o f maritime enterprise furnish any pa­
rallel to the astonishingly rapid progress o f Liverpool. N o bounds could be set to the
brilliant career which this town was destined to run. Backed by the manufacturing dis­
tricts, its progress must be onward ; and when it fell, the British Empire must fall with
it— (cheers)— a tolerably good guarantee, he suspected, that our heads will have long
ceased to ache ere such a calamity occurred.”
C O S T O F R A I L W A Y S IN E U ROPE A N D A M E R IC A .
In the Shareholder’s Manual o f Mr. Tuck, it is shown that the cost o f construction of
lines o f railway in the United Kingdom has ranged from 8,570Z. for the Dundee and
Arbroath, up to 287,678Z. per mile for the Blackwall. The German lines have only
averaged a cost o f 11,000Z.; and in Belgium the average cost o f the State lines was
17,132L; and it appears that the French lines are quite as expensive as the English.
The American Railroads are by far the cheapest, the average cost being only $28,000
per mile upon about 6,000 miles completed.




The Book Trade.

THE

BOOK

457

TRADE.

1. — Adventures in M exico and the Rocky Mountains. By G eorge F. B uxton , Esq.,
Member o f the Royal Geological Society, the Ethnological Society, etc., etc. 12mo.,
pp. 312. N ew Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
Mr. Buxton, an Englishman, visited M exico since the commencement o f the war be­
tween the two Republics ; and, while he gives us a racy and glowing description o f the
difficulties and hardships a traveller may anticipate,should he venture to passthrough M ex­
ico, and the wild scenes and wilder characters o f the Rocky Mountains, his notes o f
Mexican manners, customs, etc., are the freshest, if not the best we have met with, in the
whole range o f our reading on the subject. His pictures o f the lives of those hardy pio­
neers o f civilization, whose lot is cast upon the boundless prairies and rugged mountains of
the Far W est, abating somewhat for the exaggerating eye o f an Englishman, are lively
and graphic. The faults o f us Americans, he maintains, are o f the head, and not the
heart; “ which nowhere beats warmer, or in a more genuine spirit o f kindness and affec­
tion, than in the bosom o f a citizen o f the United States.” But o f the Mexicans— and he
travelled nearly two thousand miles in their territory, and was thrown among the people
o f every rank, class, and station— he says, “ I cannot remember to have observed one
commendable trait in the character o f the Mexican ; always excepting from this sweeping
clause the women o f the country, who, for kindness o f heart, and many sterling qualities,
are an ornament to their sex and to any nation.” These adventures are far more interest­
ing and amusing than the many catchpenny accounts o f the war almost daily teeming
from the press.
2. — A Summer in Scotland. By J acob A bb ott . W ith engravings. 12mo., pp. 331.
N ew Y ork : Harper &, Brothers.
Mr. Abbott seems to have been well aware that he was travelling a beaten track, from
which it would be difficult to gather much that was new. Notwithstanding this, he has
contrived to impart a freshness, and a personality or individuality to his narrative, that has
interested us far more than works o f higher pretensions. T he moral and intellectual fea­
tures o f the author, so strikingly manifest in this work, lend a charm to it that will be
appreciated by a large class o f readers, o f all ages and conditions. The work does not
profess to give a geographical, historical, or statistical account o f Scotland, but merely a
narrative o f the adventures o f a traveller, rambling in a romantic country, in search of
recreation and enjoyment alone. Mr. Abbott possesses an observing eye ; and, as a graphic
limner, has reproduced for the reader a picture o f the scenes which presented themselves
to his attention. I f we are not greatly mistaken, this work embraces elements for an en­
during popularity, and will obtain a standard character. The illustrations, six in number,
are more than creditable— they are excellent.
3.

— The W ritin gs o f George W ashington, etc. W ith a L ife o f the Author, N otes,
and Illustrations. By J ared S parks . 8 vo . N ew Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
This work, the ninth volume o f which is before us, will, when completed in the present
cheap, and at the same time substantial style, furnish the most valuable study of the early
history o f the revolution and the republic that has, or, in the nature o f the subject, can, be
given to the country and the world. T he ninth volume includes Washington’s corres­
pondence, from the time o f resigning his commission as commander-in-chief o f the army
to that o f his inauguration as President. W hen it is recollected that the work, as we have
before stated, was originally published in 1836-7 at three dollars per volume, and is now
afforded at just one-half that sum ; and that, too, without a corresponding reduction o f the
quality o f paper, printing, or binding, it must be considered the cheapest edition o f any
standard work o f equal value. W e are gratified to learn that it is being introduced into so
many o f our District School Libraries. It should be in all o f them.
4.

— The Bachelor o f Albany. By the author o f “ The Falcon Family.”
223. N ew York : Harper & Brothers.

12mo., pp.

This is an interesting and attractive story, written in a lively and graceful style, and
worthy o f being published, as it is, in a more durable and beautiful form than has become
the fashion in regard to the novels and fictions o f the day; o f which not more than one in
a hundred can expect to survive this nineteenth century.




458

The Book Trade.

— The P ictorial History o f E n gla n d ; being a History o f the People as well as a
H istory o f the Kingdom. By G eorge L. C rate and C harles M acfarlane , assisted
by other Contributors. 4 volsM 8vo. New Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
This great work is at length completed. It forms four royal octavo volumes, o f nearly
one thousand pages ea ch ; is beautifully printed on the finest paper, and copiously illus­
trated with several hundred wood-cuts, including monumental records o f events in Eng­
land’s history; coin s; civil and military costume ; domestic buildings, furniture, and orna­
ments ; cathedrals, and other great works o f a r t; sports, and other illustrations o f manners
and customs; mechanical inventions ; portraits o f the kings and queens ; and, indeed,
ot whatever is calculated to illustrate remarkable historical scenes. It is universally, w»*
believe, admitted to be the most popular, as it certainly is the most comprehensive history
o f England, that has heretofore been produced. It furnishes, moreover, a complete com­
mercial and industrial history o f that nation, from the earliest time to the present century
— a feature that must render it acceptable to the large class o f readers this Magazine is
designed to reach. W e cannot do justice to the work in the brief space allotted to the
“ Book Trade,” but hope to find time hereafter for an elaborate review in the body o f our
Magazine.
b-— The Thousand and One N ig h ts; or, The Arabian N ights’ Entertainment. Trans­
lated and Arranged for Family Reading, with Notes, by E. W . L a n e , Esq. From the
Second L ondon Edition. Illustrated with Six Hundred W ood-cuts by H a r v e y , and
Illuminated Titles by O w e n J o n e s . In two volumes. N ew Y o r k : Harper & Brothers.
W e have here the first part o f these world-renowned Oriental tales, so highly eulogized
by Sismondi, in his lectures on the “ Literature o f Europe,” who says, that in them the
conception is so brilliant, and the imagination so rich and varied, that they are the delight
or our infancy ; and we never read them at more advanced age without feeling their enchantmont anew. It is from them that we have derived that intoxication o f love, that
tenderness and delicacy o f sentiment, and that deferential awe o f woman— by turns slaves
and divinities— which have operated so powerfully on our chivalrous feelings. The num­
ber and beauty o f the illustrations lend a charm to the present edition, that must secure
for it not only the favor o f children, but all persons o f correct taste.
7.— The Posthumous W orks o f the Rev. Thomas Chalmers, D. D., L L . 1). Edited by
the Rev. W i l l i a m H a n n a , LL. D. Volume II. 12mo.t pp. 478. N ew Y ork : Harper
& Brothers.
Dr. Chalmers was in the habit o f reading a portion o f the Scriptures daily; and, while
fresh in his memory, briefly noting down the thoughts suggested by the subject. The first
volume, noticed in a former number o f this Magazine, includes notes on the books o f the
Old Testament, from “ Genesis” to “ Joshua,” inclusive. In the present volume, the
same method is continued with the books from “ Judges” to “ Job.” Dr. Chalmers held
a high— perhaps the highest— rank in the denomination to which he belon ged; and, as a
matter o f course, whatever he has produced, pertaining to matters o f theology, is received
with deference by a large class in “ orthodox” or
evangelical” Christendom.
Q*— First Series o f P h y sio lo g y ; being an Introduction to the Science o f L ife. W rit­
ten in Popular Language. Designed fo r the Use o f Common Schools, Academies,
and General Readers. By R a y n e l l C o a t e s , M. D., author o f the “ First Series o f
Natural Philosophy.” 12mo., pp. 340. Philadelphia: E. H. Butler & Co.
W e view the introduction o f the leading principles o f physiology into our common
schools and academies as one o f the most striking proofs o f the progress o f education in
our time. It forms, in part, what Pope denominated the “ proper study o f mankind” —
M an . In the work before us, Dr. Coates has given us something more than a mere com ­
pilation. It is a regular, and, as far as such a work can be, an original treatise on the
subject. Divested in a great measure o f technicalities, and written in a plain, but by no
means inelegant style, it will be found admirably well adapted to the comprehension o f
beginners in this important science. W e commend it not only to teachers, but the gene­
ral reader, who should not omit the acquisition o f a branch o f knowledge so well calcu­
lated to advance his enjoyment o f life, and all life’s blessings.
9*— The L illie Robinson, and Other Tales.
Y o r k : Berford & Co.

Boston: Gould, Kendall & Lincoln.

New

This little volume, the second o f the series o f u Chambers’ Library for Young People,”
contains three capital stories— “ The Little Robinson,” “ Michael the Miner,” and “ Ellen
and her Bird.” It promises to be one o f the most unique, instructive, and entertaining
collections o f books for children, that has been produced. The tales are all original, and
are written by the most gifted and successful writers abroad.




The Book Trade .

459

10. — Historical and Secret Memoirs o f the Empress Josephine, First W ife o f Napoleon
Bonaparte. By Mile. M. A . L e N ormand, authoress o f “ Des Souvenirs Prophetiques,”
etc. Translated from the French, by J a c o b M. H o w a r d . 2 vols., 12mo., pp. 353 and
332. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
T he reproduction o f this work into our mother tongue, at a time when, from the revo­
lutionary events which are transpiring in La Belle France, everything that pertains to her
history, and the individuals who have exerted a powerful influence on the character and
destiny o f that remarkable nation, give a zest to the memoirs o f that woman whom France
sumamed “ The Good,” o f almost unequalled interest. That part written by the Empress
herself, comprehending nearly the whole work, it is truly remarked by the author, is full
o f instruction to men and women— to statesmen and citizens. “ The rapid but vivid
sketches given by this daughter o f sorrow and destiny, o f the historical characters of the
French Revolution and Empire, cannot fail to attract the attention, not only o f the curious,
but o f the wise and reflecting.” N o one, from the unrestricted intimacy o f the marriage
relation, and the possession o f a naturally brilliant and sagacious mind, so well understood
the remarkable features o f Napoleon’s character ; and, although as true to his person and
his interests as if she had been commissioned by Heaven as his guardian angel, still she
differed from him upon important political topics, and sometimes rendered herself obnoxious
to his keen reproofs— and hence it is fair to presume that she has furnished the world with
a delineation o f the man, and the most secret principles o f his actions, more faithful than
it could expect to gather from any other source. It, moreover, furnishes the most minute
events o f the girlhood o f the Empress, and a most thrilling record o f her devious and
eventful life, from her voluptuous and petted childhood, in an obscure West India island,
to her matured and dazzling womanhood. The work is written in an elegant and attract­
ive style, and is beautifully printed.
11. — Three H o u rs; or, The V igil o f Love, and other Foems.
author o f “ Northwood,” “ Traits o f American Life,” etc., etc.
ladelphia : Carey &, Hart.

By Mrs. S arah J. H ale ,
18mo., pp. 216. Phi­

O f Mrs. Hale, it may be said, with truthful emphasis, and we say it with perfect know ­
ledge, as we have eagerly read whatever she has written, that no line has fallen from her
pen which, dying, she could wish to blot. Mrs. Hale is not only an authoress o f merit,
but is something more— she is a true woman ; possessed o f all those graces and virtues
that shed lustre, or lend a charm to the sex. Several o f the shorter poems in this collection
are as “ remembered words” to us, and we are right glad to possess them in so attractive
a form. T he first, and longest, “ The Vigil o f Love,” is now first published ; in which,
as also in “ T he Empire o f W oman,” she imparts a “ poetical interest” to the ordinary
events o f woman’s life, with glimpses o f domestic character connected with early Ameri­
can history. They, the longer poems, are at once original in design, and felicitous in
execution. In preparing these legends, she says, and truly, the author has scrupulously
sought to devote whatever talents she may possess to the grandest purpose of the true bard:
------------------------- “ For, amid all life’ s quests,
There seems but worthy one— ’tis to do good.”

12.

— The C za r: his Court and People. Including a Tour in N on e ay and Sweden.
12mo., pp. 368. N ew Y o rk : Baker & Scribner.

By

J ohn S. M a x w e l l .

T he author o f this volume, connected as he was with the Legation o f the United States
at the Court o f St. Pctersburgh, enjoyed rare advantages for collecting minute details per­
taining to the Russian Em pire; and his work everywhere evinces a nice discrimination
and a sound judgment. The most prominent and interesting facts connected with the
subject, so far as regards the political and social relations o f Russia, which are becoming
more and more interesting, are grouped and presented in an easy and unaffected manner.
T he information is varied, and there is an air o f truthfulness in the author’s style that
must impress every one with an unusual degree o f confidence in the reliability of most o f
the statements. The dark picture sometimes drawn, is not shaded by democratic preju­
dices— truth alone seems to have “ supplied the materials and coloring.” The few pages
devoted to Norway, pleasingly contrast with the larger portion o f the work ; which, as
may be inferred from the title, is chiefly confined to Russia. W e have, on the whole,
seldom met with a book o f travels so replete with varied information.
13. — Ewhanks’ Hydraulics and Mechanics. N ew Y ork : Greeley & M ’Elrath.
W e have received N o. V. o f this unique and really valuable work. It is copiously
illustrated with well-executed engravings. Useful as it certainly must be to mechanics, it
is scarcely less interesting to the general reader.




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14.

— Lives o f the Tjyrd Chancellors and Keepers o f the Great Seal o f England. By
Third Series. 2 vols., 8vo., pp. 535 and
570. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.

J ohn, L ord C ampbell , L L. JD., F. R. S. E.

Lord Campbell has at length brought the herculean labor o f writing the lives, and, inci­
dentally, the times o f the Lord Chancellors o f England, to a close. The first and second
series o f the work were noticed in former numbers o f this Magazine, as they appeared.
Beginning with Augmendus, who, in the seventh century, was Chancellor to Ethelbert,
the first Christian Anglo-Saxon king, the noble author finishes with Lord Eldon, who was
Chancellor to George IV., and struggled to return to power in the reign o f William IV.,
but died during the reign o f Queen Victoria. This third series commences witli the birth
o f Lord Chancellor Loughborough, in 1733, and closes with the death o f Lord Eldon, in
1838. T he lives in this series, although few in number, are intimately connected with
England’s history and laws for a century. The biographer, from his position, ever had free
access to the sources o f authentic information; and how diligently he resorted to the
means placed within his reach, the work itself furnishes ample evidence. The whole o f
Lord Loughborough’s papers, letters, & c., were submitted to the biographer by the present
Earl o f Rosslyn, his representative ; which enabled him to throw new light upon the reign
o f George III. Even for the life o f Lord Eldon, which occupies the seventh volume, the
author had access to new materials, in addition to the copious “ selections from his corre­
spondence,” given in Mr. Twiss’s life o f that Chancellor. T he work is one o f intrinsic
value, shedding great light upon the institutions, history, and men of the land of our fore­
fathers ; and we are gratified to learn that the enterprise o f the publishers of so voluminous
a work is duly appreciated in this country.
15. — A New Law Dictionary ; containing Explanations o f such Ter?ns and Phrases as
occur in the W orks o f Legal Authors, in the P ractice o f the Courts, and in the P a r­
liamentary Proceedings o f the Houses o f Lords and Commons: to which is added,
A n Outline o f an Action at Law and o f a Suit in Equity. By H en ry J ames H olt house, Esq., o f the Inner Temple, Special Pleader.
Edited, from the Second Enlarged
London Edition, with Numerous Additions, by H en ry P enington, o f the Philadelphia
Bar. l2m o., pp. 495. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
The language o f almost every science is a dead letter to the unprofessional reader; and
in every art or science there are words which, from being employed in an exclusive sense
to particularize some visible object or some abstract idea, have assumed a technical cha­
racter— and in none do these words oftener occur than in that o f the law. This work,
therefore, while indispensable to the legal profession, will be found extremely useful topersons desirous o f understanding matters out o f their immediate pursuit. T o merchants in
particular, who almost daily come in contact with the law in its various bearings on com­
merce, the work will be almost equally useful. W e certainly prize it as a valuable addition
to our own private library. The American editor has greatly enhanced its value, retaining
all that the English edition embraced, and adding a large number of terms in common use
— so that, in fact, the edition o f the Philadelphia publishers is really more complete than
the English.
16. — Lectures on the Physical Phenomena o f L iving Beings. By C arlo M atteucci,
Professor in the University o f Pisa. W ith numerous wood-cuts. Translated under the
superintendence o f J onathan P er eira , M. D., F. R. S., Vice-President of the Royal
Medical and Chirurgical Society. 12mo., pp. 388. Philadelphia: Lea & Blanchard.
In 1844, as we learn from the translator’s preface, the author of this work was appoint­
ed by the government o f Tuscany to deliver, in the University o f Pisa, a course of lectures
on the physical phenomena o f living beings. Three lectures, the substance of that course,
were subsequently published, and soon passed through two editions in Italy, and one in
France. The present translation was made from a copy furnished by Professor Matteucci,
containing a large number o f additions and corrections. The author corrected all the
errors that crept into the French and Italian translations o f his work, besides embodying
the results o f his more recent investigations; so that the present English translation is not
only free from the errors o f all former ones, but is really more complete than the original
'work. T o those who wish to become acquainted with the animal economy o f living
beings, we scarcely know where they can find, in a form so clear and comprehensive, so
large an amount o f exact information on the subject.
17. — Scenes at W ashington; a Story o f the Last Generation. By a Citizen o f Balti­
more. 12mo., pp. 197. N ew Y o rk : Harper & Brothers.
The scene o f this story is the capital o f the nation, and the time shortly after the com ­
mencement o f the present century— the theme, love and religion ; out of which the waiter
contrives to work up a story o f considerable interest.




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461

18. — A Historical and Critical View o f the Speculative Philosophy o f Europe in the
Nineteenth Century. By J. D. M orell , A . M. Complete in one volume, 8vo., pp,
752. New Y o rk : Robert Carter & Co.
This is a singularly clear statement o f the principles o f the different schools in philoso­
phy, Scotch, German, and French; written in a remarkably chaste and beautiful style.
T he author opens with an explanation, illustrating, as he proceeds, the general idea o f
philosophy ; deducing naturally the fundamental notions from which it springs. Having
grasped the idea o f philosophy generally, he proceeds to point out the different views
which have been entertained, by the leading minds, o f its details; classifying, as it were,
the different systems that have been in vogue, more or less, in every age o f the world.
Having obtained four great generic systems as the result o f this classification, he endea­
vors, in the first part o f the work, to trace their history from the revival o f letters to the
opening o f the nineteenth century; and in the second part he follows up that history more
minutely to the present age ; and in the third part to discover their tendencies as it respects
the future. The author seems to have made himself complete master o f the whole subject;
and, as the mere translation o f any o f the writings o f Hegel, Schelling, or even Kant, into
English, would prove entirely unintelligible to the mass of English readers, he wisely
pursued the only method o f adapting their philosophy to the English mind, by mastering
their ideas; and, without their books before him, reproducing them in our own style and
language. The work, although worthy o f the attention o f well-read students o f philoso­
phy, is admirably well adapted to the mass o f educated and thinking minds.

19.— Germany, England, and Scotland; or, Recollections o f a Swiss Minister.
J. H.

M

erle

D ’A

u b ig n e ,

D. D.

12mo., pp. 370.

By

N ew Y o r k : Robert Carter.

Everything from the pen o f the distinguished Swiss divine, so well known to our coun­
trymen as the author o f a History o f the German Reformation— a work o f almost unpre­
cedented popularity— is sure to command the attention o f Protestant Christians o f almost
every religious denomination. In 1845, D’Aubigne was called upon to undertake a journey
into Germany and Great Britain, for the purpose o f drawing closer the bonds o f union
between those countries and the Christians o f G eneva; and the present work is the result
o f that journey. It is divided into two parts— Travelling Recollections and Historical
Recollections. The journey occupied four months, divided in equal portions among three
countries— Germany, England, Scotland. T he author, it is scarcely necessary in this
place to state, entertains little or no sympathy with German Transcendentalism, or the
Catholic religion. He is a staunch Protestant; and his views o f the religious aspect o f
affairs in the countries visited will find in all Protestant countries a large class o f admirers.
There is enough in the work to interest almost every class o f readers, irrespective o f the
religious sentiments they may entertain.
20. — The M exican W ar : a History o f its Origin, and a Detailed Account o f the Vic­
tories which terminated in the Surrender o f the Capital, with Official Despatches o f
the Generals. By E dw ard D. M ansfield , Esq. Illustrated with Maps and Engravings.
12mo., pp. 323. N ew York : A . S. Barnes & Co.
The number o f histories o f the Mexican war, and the “ heroes’* it has developed, is
legion. This, however, as the last that has been written or published, brings the history
farther down than preceding works;— indeed, but little o f interest has transpired since its
publication. Mr. Mansfield, who may well rest his reputation on several works o f more
practical value, seems to have selected the most reliable sources of information ; and the
description o f the great movements and battles is based on public documents, despatches,
and orders, which must ever be the material o f a reliable history o f a war. W e earnestly
hope and trust it is the last record o f war that the American or any other civilized or Chris­
tianized people will be engaged in. The responsibility, on whomsoever it may rest, o f
creating this unnatural conflict, is awful. . But, in the wisdom o f Providence, the retribu­
tion may, we hope, be overruled for the good o f both nations.
21. — Hactenus : More Droppings from the Pen that W rote (i Proverbial Philosophy f
" A Thousand Lines,” etc., etc. 18mo., pp. 106. Boston : Charles H. Peirce.
Notwithstanding the affected and rather ridiculous title given by Mr. Tupper to
the
little crop here harvested, and grown up, among many other matters, since the publication
o f their author’s last works— “ Probabilities,” and “ A Thousand Lines”— we have been
delighted and refreshed with the genial and happy spirit evinced in such pieces as “ A ll’s
for the Best,” “ T he Happy Man,” “ Cheer Up,” “ Together,” “ Never Mind,” and
some others in the collection. The three military ballads, “ Roleia,” “ Waterloo,” and
,f T he Thanks to Parliament,” which, the author says, “ are friendly contributions to an
important work shortly to be published,” are sadly incompatible, in our judgment, with the
Christian spirit that pervades most o f the poems.




46*2

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22. — The Origin, Progress, and Conclusion o f the Florida W a r ; to which is appended
a Record o f Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, M usicians, and Privates o f the
United States Arm y, N avy, and M arine Corps, who were Killed in Battle, or D ied
o f D isease; as also the Names o f Officers who were distinguished by Brevets, and
the Names o f others recommended; together with the Orders fo r Collecting the R e­
mains o f the Dead in Florida, and the Ceremony o f Interment at St. A ugustine, East
Florida, on the fourteenth day o f A ugust, 1842. By J ohn T. S prague , Brevet Cap­
tain, Eighth Regiment, U. S. Infantry. 8vo., pp. 557. N ew Y o rk : D. Appleton & Co.
There is, perhaps, no subject, connected with the history o f our country, o f which so
little is known as that o f the Florida war, its causes and its results— at least by the great
majority o f our countrymen ; and yet it cost us vest sums o f money, and many lives. But
it is the object o f the present well-timed work to trace the origin and causes, as well as
the history o f that w ar; and although the author, who participated in a large portion of it,
does not profess to examine the details o f this seven years’ war, or to weigh the merits or
successes o f various commanders, and the numerous plans proposed and executed, he has
nevertheless furnished what appears to us a faithful narrative of the prominent circum­
stances and events connected with it, which he fortifies with an array o f official documents,
that will enable the historical student to acquire a pretty accurate account of all that has
transpired in Florida from 1821 to 1842. The map o f Florida, and the few well-executed
pictorial illustrations, add to the interest o f the work ; which we consider, on the whole,
a valuable contribution to the historical literature o f the country.
23. — Ollendorff's N ew Method o f Learning to Read, W rite, and Speak the Spanish
L anguage, $ c . Designed f o r Young Learners, and Persons who are their ow n In­
structors. By M. V elazquez and T . S imonne, Professors o f the Spanish and French
Languages. N ew Y o rk : D. Appleton & Co.
The importance o f acquiring a knowledge o f the Spanish language, by every young
man who designs to devote himself to commercial pursuits in our large cities, and espe­
cially N ew Y ork, will be made apparent to all, on a moment’s reflection. Indeed, it is
almost an indispensable accomplishment to all persons transacting business in the countries
o f which the Spanish is the vernacular tongue. That Ollendorff’s method of teaching it
is the best, we believe, is universally admitted. Divested o f the abstractedness o f gram­
mar, it, however, contains all its elements; developing them so gradually, and in so simple
a manner, as to render them intelligible to the most ordinary capacity. Consulting the
benefit o f the learners, and with a view to render the work a complete course for reading,
speaking, and writing the Spanish language, the authors have added models o f familiar
and commercial letters, containing directions for all the usual commercial transactions; by
the aid o f which young learners, and persons who instruct themselves, may transact in
writing any business.
24.

— Laneton Parsonage : a Tale. Second Part. By the author o f “ Am y Herbert,”
Gertrude,” “ Margaret Percival,” etc. Edited by the Rev. W . S e w e l l , B. D . , Fellow
o f Exeter College, Oxford. 12mo., pp. 222.' N ew Y ork : D. Appleton & Co.
W e noticed the first part o f this tale on its appearance, some months since. The writer,
who has already acquired considerable reputation for her profound acquaintance with the
human heart, and her power o f illustrating the various principles of female conduct, as
developed in ordinary life, is understood to be a daughter o f the reverend gentleman
whose name appears on the title-page as the editor. In the present part, the writer de­
lineates school life, such as it may be supposed in many instances to exist. The success
which has attended these reproductions o f the British press here, is perhaps the best ev!>
dence o f their popularity.
“

25. — Executor's, Administrator's, and Guardian's Guide. By D avid W right , Counsel­
lor at Law. 12mo., pp. 373. Auburn : J. C. Derby & Co.
This work furnishes a complete summary o f the laws o f N ew Y ork regulating the
appointment, powers, duties, rights and obligations o f executors, administrators, and guar­
dians ; with every requisite direction pertaining to the trusts. Added to the work, is an
appendix, embracing the practical forms necessary to be used in the transaction o f the
business relating to their several trusts, besides a copy o f a law o f the State o f New York
respecting the fees o f Surrogates. T he information requisite to the right understanding of
almost every branch o f law is scattered through many volumes, and in none more than
that relating to executors, etc. The present work is, therefore, a desideratum that must be
duly appreciated by all who are or may be interested in the subject. Mr. Wright’s treatise
seems to cover the whole ground ; and the fact that this is the second edition sine'e its first
publication in 1846, shows that it has proved successful.




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4 63

2G.— General Scott and his S ta ff: comprising Memoirs o f Generals Scott, Tw iggs,
Smith, Quitman, Shields,PillovJ, Lane, Cadwallader, P atterson, and P ie rc e ; Colonels
Childs, R iley, Harney, and B utler, and other Distinguished Officers attached to Gen­
eral Scott1s A r m y : together with N otices o f General Kearney, Colonel Doniphan,
Colonel Fremont, and other Officers distinguished in the Conquest o f California and
N ew M exico. Interspersed with Numerous Anecdotes o f the M exican W ar, and
Personal Adventures o f the Officers. Compiled from Public Documents and Private
Correspondence. W ith accurate Portraits and other beautiful illustrations. 12mo., pp.
224. Philadelphia: Grigg, Elliott & Co.
T he present work contains concise biographical sketches o f all the leading officers en­
gaged in the Mexican war connected with Gen. Scott’s army. It has shown— would to
Heaven that there had not been occasion for i t !— that a people, for the last thirty or forty
years devoted to the arts o f peace, possessing free political institutions, can vanquish a
military people, governed by military despots. These sketches o f the personal history of
our military men are, we presume, reliable ; as they were compiled from authentic mate­
rials, consisting o f public documents and private correspondence, and memoirs derived, in
many instances, from family connections o f the officers.
27. — General Taylor and his S taff: comprising Memoirs o f Generals Taylor. Worth,
Wool, and B u tler; Colonels M ay, Cross, Clay, Hardin, Yell, H ays, and, other D is­
tinguished Officers attached to General Taylor's Army. Interspersed with Numerous
Anecdotes o f the M exican W a r, and Personal Adventures o f the Officers. Compiled
from Public Documents and Private Correspondence. W ith accurate Portraits, and
other beautiful illustrations. 12mo., pp. 284. Philadelphia : Grigg, Elliott & Co.
Similar in design and character to the work devoted to General Scott and his Staff, and
evidently prepared by the same hand. T he work, compiled from authentic materials, is
well calculated to satisfy curiosity on the subject. W e presume that no officer, whose
exploits are here recorded, will find fault with the author for not sufficiently appreciating
his character or services.
28. — Memoir o f Sarah B. Judson, Member o f the American M ission to Burmah. By
“ F a n n y F orester .” 18mo., pp. 250. N ew Y o r k : L. Colby & Co.
T he subject o f this memoir was the second wife o f that veteran missionary to Burmah,
Dr. Judson ; and it was written by Miss Chubbuck, now Mrs. Judson, his third wife— and
a most beautiful and fitting tribute it is to the memory o f a lovely, heroic woman, who
laid down her life in the cause o f her Divine Master. T he writer, herself a model o f all
that is excellent in the character o f woman, preserves in this memoir the nice balance, the
faultless symmetry o f her character; presenting her as she appeared under all circum­
stances— the W oman and the Christian. T he memoir is concise, but comprehensive
enough to impart a faithful picture o f the more important events, as well as the prominent
traits, which formed her inward and outward life. The volume, from the neat and correct
press o f Messrs. Pudney & Russell, is very handsomely printed.
29. — H aw kstone: a Tale o f and fo r England, in 184-. In two volumes. From the
Second London Edition. 12mo., pp. 694. N ew Y o r k : Stanford & Swords.
It is stated in the preface to the American edition o f this work, that, could the author
be named, his name would be an abundantly sufficient warrant that the principles of the
Church o f England would be as plainly and unequivocally set forth, in contradistinction to
those opposite aspects o f religion, between which the path o f her vocation lies, as they
are thoroughly comprehended and humbly held. Some will, perhaps, think it contentious
— a very much exaggerated impersonation o f the spirit and principles o f Jesuitism. But,
aside from its theological aims, it is a most interesting story, and evidently the production
o f a writer o f more than ordinary power. T he interest of the narrative is sustained
throughout, and there are many passages o f affecting and even thrilling interest.
30. — M an-M idw ifery Exposed and Dissected. By S amuel G regory , A . M., Lecturer
on Physiology. Boston: George Gregory. N ew Y o rk : Fowler & Wells.
This pamphlet has a rather forbidding, or catchpenny appearance ; but it is an attempt,
and, in our judgment, a completely successful one, to show that the employment o f men
to attend women in childbirth, and in other delicate circumstances, is a modem innova­
tion— unnecessary, unnatural, and injurious to the physical welfare o f the community, and
pernicious in its influence on professional and public morality. T he author has collected
an array o f testimony on these points which we should suppose it would be difficult to
refute by counter-statements or arguments. The time is not distant when sagacious,
strong-minded women, will be educated to a profession which, by nature, they are so well
calculated to adorn.




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31. — L etters on the M oral and Religious Duties o f Parents. By a C lergyman . 18mo.,
pp. 156. Boston: Abel Tompkins.
Making all due allowance for an imperfect organization, or unfavorable qualities trans­
mitted to children through their parents, we are disposed to agree, in the main, with the
author in his statement that those who are rightly educated, with but few exceptions, make
virtuous and useful members o f society; while but few o f those whose moral culture is
neglected in childhood, ever turn to the path o f duty. It is with the view o f impressing
parents with the importance o f “ training up their children in the way they should go,”
that these letters have been written. T he Rev. O. A . Skinner, a Universalist^lergyman
o f N ew York, is understood to be the author; yet we find that the work is recommended
by several clergymen, o f different, and even orthodox denominations.
32.

— Letter to the People o f the United States, touching the M atter o f Slavery. By
P ar ke r . Boston: James Munroe & Co.
This letter, which occupies one hundred and twenty pages, discusses the subject o f
slavery in all its bearings; its statistics and history; the condition and treatment of slaves;
the effects o f slavery on industry, education, law and politics, &c. Mr. Parker i$ a bold
thinker, and never hesitates to express his convictions on any subject. Many o f his po­
sitions in the present work are fortified by an array o f facts and figures that it would be
difficult to controvert.
T

heodore

33.

— W ar with the Saints; or, Persecutions o f the Vaudois under Pope Innocent. By
l8m o., pp. 308. N ew Y ork : M. W . Dodd.
This volume, the last that proceeded, as we are informed, from the author’s pen, occu­
pied much o f her time and thoughts during the last eighteen months o f her life, and was
finished almost at the moment o f her death. She was, to the last, an uncompromising
and bitter opponent o f the Roman Catholic Church ; and her sectarianism, as manifested
in that respect, casts a shade over the enthusiasm and sincerity of her character as an author
and a Christian.
C harlotte E lizabeth .

34. — Novum Tcstamentum Domini N ostri Jesu Christi.
12mo. Philadelphia : G. S. Appleton.

Interprete T

heodoro

B eza .

The publication o f this new and beautiful edition o f Beza’s Latin version of the N ew
Testament cannot fail o f rendering the study o f the language, and particularly the trans­
lation o f it, easy and agreeable. This work has kept its place in the general esteem,
while more recent versions have been so strongly tinged with peculiarities of the transla­
tors, as to make them acceptable to particular classes only.
35. — M ark W ilton, the Merchant's Clerk. By C harles B. T a ylo r , M . A ., author o f
“ Records o f a Good Man’s Life,” “ Lady Mary,” etc. 12mo., p p .----- . N ew Y ork :
Stanford &. Swords.
The principles which the author designs to illustrate, under what may seem to some a
mere tale o f amusement, will commend themselves to a large majority o f Christians, o f
different denominations. The work, like everything from the author’s pen, is written in
a beautifully simple style ; and his narrative will interest even those who read for amuse­
ment rather than instruction. There is none o f the bigotry which mars the otherwise
attractive works o f Charlotte Elizabeth.
36. — The Bethel F la g : A Series o f Short Discourses to Seamen. By G ardiner S pring ,
D. D., Pastor o f the Brick Presbyterian Church in the city o f N ew York. I2m o., pp.
309. N ew Y o rk : Baker & Scribner.
The present volume embraces a series o f twenty discourses pertaining to matters o f re­
ligion, designed for the religious improvement o f “ those who go down to the sea in ships,
and who do business on the great deep.” Every effort to improve the condition o f the
ocean-tossed mariner,” is entitled to our warmest sympathy; for that reason, if no
other, the efforts o f the popular author o f these sermons will receive the thanks o f a large
portion o f the Christian Church. There are some eloquent passages in the sermon en­
titled “ A Sabbath at Sea.”
— Barbarism the First Danger. A Discourse fo r Home Missions. B y H o r a ce B u sh Pastor o f the North Church, Hartford, Connecticut. 8vo., p p .----- . N ew Y ork :
American Home Missionary Society.
Mr. Bushnell is one o f the most brilliant lights o f the orthodox Congregational Church
in the United States. T he present discourse, delivered in May and June, in N ew York,
Boston, and other places, bears the impress o f the philosopher, the scholar, and the Chris­
tian teacher. It will be read with deep interest by the friends of “ home missions.”

37 .

nell,