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HUS T’ S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
A P R IL ,

1847.

Art. I.— COMMERCE OF CEYLON.

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T h e island o f Ceylon, which is situated at the west entrance o f the b a y
o f Bengal, extending about 270 miles from North to South, and occupying
an average breadth o f 100, is acknowledged to be one o f the most beautiful upon the surface o f the globe. Abounding in various scenery, it
spreads out a tropical vegetation o f the utmost luxuriance, producing some
o f the most valuable staples o f com m erce; while the resources o f its soil
contain, not only gold and silver and precious gems, but various other spe­
cies o f mineral wealth. Chains o f mountains, varying from 1,000 to 4,000
feet above the level o f the ocean, occupy the central portion o f the island,
embosom ing the most lovely valleys ; while a broad belt o f alluvial land
o f great fertility surrounds them, furnishing ample scope for the enterprises
o f husbandry. Forests o f gigantic size cover the mountains even to their
summits, adorned here and there with elegant cascades, which form the
placid streams and sparkling rivulets that water the valleys. It is our design to portray, in a condensed form, the general condition o f this island,
so far as it bears upon the interests o f trade and commerce.
There appears to be satisfactory evidence, that Ceylon was formerly a
densely populated country, in the monuments which are scattered over its
land. There is now apparent, in a part o f the island, the ruins o f a large
city constructed o f brick and m ortar; and also an artificial tank, or reser­
voir o f water, whose basin is 16 miles in extent. At the distance o f 9
miles from this reservoir, is an embankment, formed o f large stones 8 feet
long, 4 feet broad, and 3 feet thick, cemented together by lime ; the length
o f the dam being 600 feet, the breadth 60 feet, and the height about 12
feet. It is said that this work was executed by the Hindoos. Numerous
buildings, apparently o f a more remote date, are, moreover, discovered in
the interior, the stone work o f which is finished with great skill. A lake,
15 miles in circumference, has been also formed, by the artificial junction




340

Commerce o f Ceylon.

o f two hills. F or the parapets, by which this work is finished, arches,
similar to those used by the Romans, are perceptible ; and a gigantic pa­
goda, the base o f whose cone is a quarter o f a mile in circumference, sur­
rounded by an enclosure also o f one mile in circumference, composed o f a
wall o f brick and mortar, and an entering colonnade o f stone pillars 10
feet high, attracts the attention o f the explorer. The ruins o f ancient ca­
nals and bridges have also been discovered; the latter giving evidence
that the ancient Cingalese had a knowledge o f the use o f the wedge and
chisel, long before they were introduced into Europe for similar purposes.
The wooded portion o f the island abounds in game o f various sorts,
among which, are the moose-deer, the jungle-fowl, the monkey, and the
elephant. T h e roads along the coast, run through extensive groves o f
cocoa-nut trees. The main avenue from Colom bo to Kandy, possesses a
tunnel, 500 feet long, cut through the mountain, while the rivers are
crossed by elegant iron or wooden bridges.
N or is the population o f the island less remarkable than its natural
features. This is, for the most part, comprised o f the Cingalese or C ey ­
lonese, the Malabars or Hindoos, the Moors or descendants o f the Arabs,
or the Mahomedans o f Upper India, and the Veddas, who are the abo­
rigines o f the island, mingled with Malays, Caffres, Javanese, Chinese,
and Parsee traders, together with the descendants o f the Portuguese and
Dutch, and the English, who now possess the jurisdiction o f the territory.
It is supposed that the population has declined from its former amount.
According to the census o f 1836, the total amount o f the population was
645,492 males, and 584,336 females. The Cingalese occupy themselves
with many branches o f manufacture, among which, are the weaving o f
cotton and silk ; the working in gold and silver, iron and cop p er; the
glazing o f pottery; the casting o f cannon, and the distillation o f spirits ;
the application o f lacker, and the preparation o f gunpow der; besides the
cutting and setting o f precious stones. The peasantry possess land, from
which they derive a part o f their subsistence.
But w e approach a subject, more directly bearing upon the commerce
o f Ceylon, namely— its staple products. W e are informed that, for a dis­
tance o f 135 miles, there is a continuous grove o f cocoa-nut, bread-fruit,
and jack-fruit trees. Cotton grows abundantly; and every village or hut,
possesses its patch o f sugar-cane and tobacco. Coffee, o f the best kind,
abounds; and the pepper-vine flourishes, nearly in a state o f wiidness, all
over the island. Cardamon plants are likewise plentiful, and the arecanut, o f the best quality, is produced. T eak forests are frequent; and calamander, ebony, satin, rose, sappan, iron, jack, and every kind o f wood,
adapted to the most elegant kind o f cabinet-making work, are, moreover,
abundant.
%
But the most distinguished vegetable product o f the island, is the cinna­
mon ; and here, the greater part o f that which forms the staple o f com ­
mercial export is produced. Indeed, w e are told, that the approach to the
coast is known by the odor borne upon the breeze from its cinnamon
groves. The tree, from which this bark is derived, grows to the height
o f from 15 to 20 fe e t; the roots possess the pungent smell o f camphor
and the odor o f cinnamon, while the leaves have the taste o f cloves. The
cinnamon plantations o f the island occupy between 2,000 and 3,000 acres,
and more than 30,000 persons are employed upon them. On the 1st o f
May, the peeling o f the bark commences, and ends with October. The




341

Commerce o f Ceylon.

peelers constitute a distinct class in Ceylon. T he plantation itself re­
quires a growth o f seven or eight years before it yields produce. The
importance o f this article as a commercial staple will hardly be questioned,
since we find it constituting a part o f the stock o f almost every grocer’ s
store-house. W e , therefore, subjoin a table, showing the quantities o f
cinnamon which were imported into England for a period o f eight years,
ending with the year 1834. Since that period it has been much in­
creased :—

1827.

1828.

1829.

1830.

1831.

1832 .

1833.

1834 .

Pounds.

P ounds.

Pounds.

P ounds.

Pounds.

P ounds.

P ou n d s .

P ou n d s .

225,869

36,762

102,402

221,222

267,444

337,483

544,225

464,175

B y a statement before us, it appears that the sale o f cinnamon was,
in—

1833 .
£59,758

1834 .

181$.

1836.

£ 9 ,679

£13,029

£52,534

Recent advices by the overland mail, received via London, put us in
possession o f some interesting accounts from Ceylon, furnishing statistics
relative to the trade o f the island for the year ending the 5th o f January,
1846. According to these, it appears that the number o f vessels entered
inwards was 3,281, with 196,364 tonnage; while the number cleared
outwards was 3,207, with 189,815 tonnage. T h e gross amount o f cus­
toms duties received on imports and exports during this period was
£ 1 4 4 ,4 6 0 , and the gross revenue from customs, including port dues,
warehouse-room, & e., £ 1 4 8 ,5 1 9 .
The total value o f imports was
£1 ,494 ,8 24 , and the total value o f exports, £5 83 ,1 00 . The quantity o f
coffee shipped to England, was 168,890 cwt. 2 qrs. 22 l b . ; and o f sugar,
5,145 cwt. 2 lb. A comparison o f the value o f exports to Europe, during
the quarter ending the 10th o f October, 1845, and 1846, shows the fol­
lowing results :—
Coffee,................
Cinnamon,.........
Plumbago,.........

1845 .

1846 .

£24,786
15,993
321

£36,451
6,949
614

Cocoa oil,..............
Sundries,................

1845.

1846 .

£2 ,332
2,341

£4
1,924

These advices also state, that the southwest monsoon was breaking up,
and that the wet weather had increased. A discovery o f tin ore had been
made by the missionaries, in the north part o f Saffragan district, who
manifest an inclination to extend their researches, i f the government is
prepared to grant them privileges and remit the demand o f royalty. The
markets at Colom bo were not brisk. Very small parcels o f coffee, o f the
new plantation crop, had reached the hands o f the merchants ; not only
the general backwardness o f the season, but also the scarcity o f labor
tending to retard the progress o f the gathering. Some o f the samples
from the elevated districts are pronounced as decidedly good. Native de­
scriptions w ere quoted 24s. 6d. to 25s. In cinnamon no great change
had occurred. Some speculative business, it was thought, might follow
the agitation respecting a reduction o f the duty. The “ cuttings” are
stated to have fallen short o f the estimates. The raw material for the
manufacture o f cocoa-nut oil continued exceedingly scarce, and was quo­
ted at 30 rix-dollars to 33 rix-dollars per candy. Cinnamon oil was in
demand at 5. Freights had given way to £ 4 5s. to £ 4 10s. for oil and
coffee, and to £ 5 5s. to £ 5 10s. for cinnamon. The exchanges scarcely




342

Commerce o f Ceylon.

maintained previous firmness; and after the arrival o f the Seaforth, it
was anticipated that the bank rates would be 5 per cent discount for six
months’ paper. T h e dulness in the import market was attributed to the
late crops.
There are likewise upon the island, manufacturing establishments,
where handkerchiefs, table-cloths, napkins, towels, sail-cloths, white
coarse cloths, and cloths that, are used for dress by the natives, are m ade;
besides other products, which are valuable staples o f domestic trade.
But it is for its mineral wealth that Ceylon is peculiarly distinguished.
Besides an abundance o f alum and salt, it possesses the more precious
gems in a considerable quantity. Its mountain streams abound in silver
and gold, and the amethyst and the sapphire, the topaz, the ruby, and the
diamond, imbedded in its soil, furnish an important source o f profit from
its mines, while its coasts abound in rich pearls. By a census returned
in 1836, w e learn that there were then 198 gem quarries, producing year­
ly a large amount o f value. The “ pearl banks,” as they are denominated,
lie from 6 to 10 miles off from the shore, and are formed by coral ridges.
Y et the pearl oyster arrives at the greatest value upon the banks o f Arippo,
where the coral rises nearly to the surface o f the water, affording a shelter
against the winds and currents. The oysters from which the pearls are
collected, accumulate in heaps upon the rocks, and sometimes even 60
pearls are taken from a single oyster. T h e following is the ordinary
mode o f proceeding on the part o f the pearl divers. The crew o f each
boat— which is generally o f very rude construction, from 8 to 15 tons bur­
den, and without decks— consists o f a master, 10 divers, and 13 other men,
who manage the boat and attend the divers while they are fishing. The
diver, divested o f his clothes, and standing upon a diving stone, weighing
from 15 to 25 pounds, drawing a full breath, pressing his nostril between
his thumb and finger, and holding a net, sinks to the bottom. On reach­
ing the bottom he abandons the stone, and clinging to the ground com ­
mences filling his net. In order to accomplish this, he will sometimes
creep over a space o f 8 or 10 fathoms, and remain under water a minute.
From 1,000 to 4,000 oysters, are generally collected by a pearl diver in a
single day. T h e period in which the divers remain under water, is al­
most incredible to one who has not witnessed their proceedings, some­
times amounting to 80 seconds. One-fourth part o f the oysters thus col­
lected, belong to the divers, while the rest are reserved for public sale.
It is stated, from what appears to be a most credible source, that the an­
nual nett revenue which is derived from the pearl fishery, is £ 1 4 ,0 0 0 ster­
ling ; although, in 1833, when 1,250 divers were employed, it amounted
to £ 2 5 ,0 4 3 , and in 1835, to £ 2 5,81 6.
The shipping o f the island, as well as its imports and exports, likewise
constitute an interesting subject o f investigation. Those imports and ex­
ports w ere extended to Great Britain, North Am erica, the United States,
and foreign states. T h e total number o f vessels employed during the
year 1834, in this commerce, was 1 ,4 0 6 ; during the year 1835, they
amounted to 1,4 04; and during the year 1836, they amounted to 1,331,
with a tonnage o f 71,232 ; the value o f this commerce in pounds sterling
being £4 11 ,6 70 , and employing 13,503 men.
T h e greater portion o f the land is jungle, or waste land, which is at the
disposal o f the governm ent; although that part which has been cultivated,
comprises but comparatively a small portion. Besides live stock, consist.




Commerce o f Ceylon.

343

ing o f horses, horned cattle, sheep, and goats, the tilled soil has been
made to yield abundant crops o f paddy, fine grains, coffee, pepper, mus­
tard, grain, maize, peas, cotton, and tobacco. During the year 1836, there
were produced 715,286 pounds o f cinnamon from its plantations, 190,161
pounds o f coffee, 328,493 pounds o f cotton, 6,202,278 pounds o f tobacco,
12,243 bushels o f pepper, 409,012 gallons o f cocoa-nut oil, and 237,602
gallons o f arrack. T h ere seems to be no doubt that, by the grant o f lands
upon advantageous terms, and a judicious system o f tillage, those several
products may be much augmented in amount.
During the year 1815, Ceylon came under the jurisdiction o f Great
Britain, and since that period it has formed an important link in the chain
o f its colonial possessions. Regular communication now exists, through
the agency o f steam-ships and sail-vessels, between its ports and the city
o f London. Its principal city, Colom bo, possesses a population o f about
50,000. Trincom alee is likewise an important point, deriving its prom­
inence from the excellence o f its harbor, in which the English have a
dock-yard. The political administration o f the island is confined to a gov­
ernor and council, the latter being composed o f some o f the most expe­
rienced and approved European civil servants. The governor is commander-in-chief o f the military forces when convoked by him, and may
pass laws even without the consent o f the council. Those are published
some time before they are enacted, in the “ Official Gazette,” in order that
they may elicit discussion, and are subject to the final approval o f the
queen in council. T h e operations o f the government are prosecuted by
three classes o f persons. The first embraces those civil servants who are
sent out as “ w riters” from England, under the auspices o f the secretary
o f state, for the colony. T h e second class embraces those Europeans, not
o f the civil service, from which provincial magistrates and clerks in pub­
lic offices are appointed ; and the third class comprises natives, who some­
times hold the situation o f lieutenants o f districts, and interpreters to the
courts o f justice and to the collectors’ offices. There is, moreover, a
fourth class, which is comprised o f officers selected from the regiments
serving in Ceylon, who are appointed to the office o f magistrates in the
respective provinces. T h e appointments to the higher offices are made
provisionally by the governor, subject, however, to the confirmation o f the
secretary o f state in England.
T h e judicial administration o f the island consists o f a supreme court,
w hich is presided over by three judges ; and the trial by jury is established,
both for the benefit o f Europeans and natives. Within each district, there
is also a district court. T h e supreme court is held at the city o f Colombo,
and appeals are allowed from that court to the queen in council. From
the exposed condition o f the island, it has been thought necessary to main­
tain a regular armed force for its defence. These consist o f four king’ s
regiments o f infantry, w hich are stationed at Colom bo, Kandy, and Trin ­
com alee ; two companies o f royal foot artillery; a mounted body-guard
for the g overn or; and a Ceylon regiment, nearly 1,500 strong, composed
o f Malays, wearing a dress o f dark green, and armed with rifles and short
strong swords.
Although tlie religion o f the Cingalese is Budhism, yet the advances o f
the Europeans upon their island have introduced, in a great measure, the
blessings o f Christianity. There are various Protestant churches through
its several populated portions, besides several chapels connected with the




344

A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

Rom an Catholic church. Missionary influences have, moreover, been ex­
tended to the island, and numerous schools have been organized; the total
number o f all kinds, in 1836, being 1,039. It can scarcely be denied,
from the brief view that w e have taken o f this interesting island, that it
exhibits, in its actual position, some o f the most interesting circumstances.
Since its acquisition by the government o f Great Britain, no profit has
been derived from its possession, inasmuch as its expenditures have ex­
ceeded the revenues. But by introducing the light o f European knowledge
into that region, there is reason to believe that advantages, greater than
those w hich flow from commercial profits, w ill be disseminated through
the territory; and that the native population, by contrasting the blessings
o f Christian civilization with the errors o f their dark and mystic faith, will
eventually be led to reject it, and to adopt principles more conformable
to reason and enlightened justice. It is thus, that the area o f a most val­
uable com m erce can be most successfully extended.

Art.

II.— A

CHAPTER ON COLONIAI CURRENCY,

P R IO R T O

TH E

YEAR

1739.

T h e fluctuation and uncertainty which distinguish the subject o f cur­
rency at the present day, above all other questions o f national interest,
were not unknown during the earliest periods o f our colonial existence.
The subject o f a circulating medium, adapted to the requirements o f com ­
merce and the relative position o f the several colonies, was warmly con ­
tested ; and gave rise to various projects o f a financial character. The
perpetual drain upon the precious metals, to meet the demands o f creditors
in Great Britain, by enhancing the scarcity already existing in a newlysettled country, compelled a resort to other mediums, for the purpose o f
carrying on their domestic traffic. W hile some provinces adopted a truck
trade, based on the products o f the soil, others found it more expedient to
have recourse to a paper currency. Both schemes w ere temporarily b e ­
neficial, within the limits o f the several colonies that adopted them. T h ey
could not, however, subserve the purposes o f a national currency, so long
as there existed an independence in matters o f government, or a division
o f pecuniary interests. A s a natural consequence, the value o f money b e ­
came so uncertain, that operations in trade w ere liable to perpetual ob­
struction— a condition o f things which led to dealing in loans and ex­
changes to a ruinous extent. This was particularly the case in Rhode
Island, whose legislature had no representative o f the king, nor admitted
o f instructions from his council, or the Board o f Trade and Plantations.
Th ese loans were usually made by government to private individuals,
on landed security, conditioned that repayment should be made in their
depreciated value, at the expiration o f twenty years. T h e persons who
took them w ere called sharers; and were required to pay into the trea­
sury 5 per cent annual interest, for the first ten years, and 10 per cent o f
the principal, without interest, for the remaining ten. T h e sharers loaned
the money in their ow n and neighboring colonies at 10 percent, or more,
for the whole twenty years, which enabled them to realize £ 1 5 0 nett on
every £ 1 0 0 loaned, principal and simple interest, after paying the same
amount into the public treasury. In some instances, the sharers would sell




A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

345

immediately for ready money premium, and, not unfrequently, as high as
35 per cent.
In addition to this system o f fraud, which was practised by the colonists
themselves, the connivance o f government at home opened a door for arbi­
trary proceedings on the part o f the colonial authorities, who sometimes as­
sumed the responsibility o f depreciating the standard denominations o f gold
and silver, with a view to personal profit. An instance o f this kind o c ­
curred in Virginia, about 1680, when Lord Culpepper, in quality o f king’s
representative, altered the value o f silver coin by proclamation, to defraud
a regiment, sent from England to quell the insurrection under Bacon.
Originally, in all the British Am erican Colonies, 5s. denomination was
equal to an English crow n sterling. But, as pieces o f eight becam e, by
degrees, the standard currency, a fraud o f no less than 11 per cent was
practised upon the merchants at home, by remitting or crediting a piece o f
eight, o f the value o f 4s. 6d., for a crown, or 5s. sterling. This led to the
passage o f sundry laws, prohibiting the circulation o f light pieces o f eight;
but, as these laws w ere seldom enforced, heavy and light pieces circulated
promiscuously. T h e consequence was, the former w ere shipped to Great
Britain, while the depreciated coin becam e the universal currency. In
process o f time, also, a distinction was made between heavy pieces, which
becam e merchandise, and light pieces, in which debts were paid, varying
from 10, 15, 20, to 25 per cent. This led to much complaint among the
merchants and others who dealt with the colonies ; and resulted in a pro­
clamation o f Queen Anne, and subsequently a proclamation act bv parlia­
ment, that, from and after 1709, a heavy piece o f eight and others, in pro­
portion to their weight, should not pass current at an amount exceeding 6s.
Except in Barbadoes and the Bermudas, little attention was paid to the
provisions o f this a c t ; the currency o f Virginia being regarded as equally
i f not more beneficial to the interests o f trade and commerce.
The inconveniences resulting from this condition o f the currency, were
productive o f different results in the several colonies, but more seriously
felt, perhaps, in that o f Massachusetts Bay than in any other. At the first
settlement o f the N ew England Colonies, their circulating medium was
barter and sterling coin at sterling value; although a portion o f the taxes
were authorized to be paid in provisions and other produce, which were
known as stock in the treasury. In matters o f trade, a heavy piece o f
eight passed current at 5s., but, as early as 1652, they proceeded fo coin sil­
ver shillings, sixpences and threepences, at the rate o f 6s. to a heavy piece
o f e ig h t; which was continued, by subsequent acts o f Assembly, until 1705,
when a resolve o f the General Court altered the value to 7s. per oz. D u­
ring the next year, the courts o f judicature chancered silver to 8s. per oz.
in satisfaction o f debts, which was nearly at the rate o f 6s. to a light piece
o f eight, as current at that time. At this rate, silver and province bills
continued at par until 1714, when the large emissions o f paper upon loans,
which had been made at different periods, together with emissions to de­
fray the expenses o f government, depreciated the value o f public bills to
29s. per oz. silver.
M a ss a c h u s e t t s B a t . In this province, which has the credit o f being
the pioneer o f paper currency among the British Am erican Colonies,
£ 4 0 ,0 0 0 “ Old Charter Bills ” were emitted as early as 1690 or 1691, to
can cel the debt incurred by the Canadian expedition. These bills were
successively redeemed and re-emitted, until 1702, when a new emission




346

A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

took place, which, in connection with subsequent ones, was gradually can­
celled by taxes in 33 years. During this period, the entire amount emit­
ted and re-emitted was £ 1 ,132 ,5 00 upon funds o f taxes, and £ 3 1 0 ,0 0 0
upon loans— making a total o f £1 ,442 ,5 00 .
N e w H a m p s h ir e . T h e requirements o f trade in N ew Hampshire, at
this early period, were so extremely small, that their bills o f credit rarely
circulated beyond the limits o f that province. About the year 1739, the
amount outstanding was something like £ 1 2 ,0 0 0 , to be cancelled by 1742.
T h e ordinary expenses o f government did not exceed £ 1 ,5 0 0 per annum,
N ew England currency.
R h o d e I s l a n d . The first emission o f this province was in 1710, to­
wards defraying its proportion o f charges on the expedition against Port
R oyal or Annapolis Royal, in Nova Scotia. Prior to 1739, the entire
amount issued was £ 3 9 9 ,3 0 0 , o f which £ 1 9 ,3 0 0 w ere upon funds o f taxes
for expenses o f government, and £ 3 6 0 ,0 0 0 upon loans.
Under the system o f fraud adopted in this province, which w e have al­
ready explained, the earliest loan appears to have been made in 1715, for
a period o f ten years ; although payment w as subsequently postponed, so
as to bring the last instalment due in 1738. Exchange having risen, du­
ring this period, from £ 6 5 to £ 4 0 0 per cent, the sharer was enabled to
realize £ 6 7 to the £ 1 0 0 , minus the amount paid into the treasury.
C o n n e c t ic u t . T h e people o f this province, being devoted chiefly to
agricultural pursuits, had less occasion than their neighbors to venture
upon schemes o f finance ; and silver would have been continued at its par
value, or 8s. per oz., if currency had not been given to the bills o f other
provinces. T h eir first emission, intended for government charges only,
took place in 1 7 0 9 ; but was promptly cancelled by taxes, within the pe­
riods limited by the act. T h e entire emission o f Connecticut, as late as
1739, was £1 55 ,0 00 . In 1733, a charter was granted for trade and co m ­
merce to a society in N ew London, who undertook to emit bills o f credit.
These bills having failed in obtaining a general currency, the government
were compelled, in justice to the holders, to issue £ 5 0 ,0 0 0 upon loan, to re­
deem them.
N e w Y o r k . In 1706, the province o f N ew Y ork resolved to chancer
proclamation money, for reasons similar to those which had prompted the
authorities o f Massachusetts Bay, viz: the payment o f debts. T hree years
subsequent to this date, £ 1 3 ,0 0 0 o f public bills w ere issued, towards their
quota o f expenses incurred by the Canadian expedition. These originally
bore interest; but in 1710 it was rescinded, under pretence that they w ere
hoarded, and did not subserve the purposes o f a cu rren cy ; £ 1 0 ,0 0 0 ad­
ditional were therefore issued, without interest.
B y collusion o f the Governor, Council, and Representatives, the sum o f
£ 2 ,6 8 0 was issued in 1714, to meet government expenditures, and to be
cancelled in twenty years (1734) by excise on liquors. In 1717, an em is­
sion o f £ 1 6 ,6 0 7 was made, to be cancelled by duty on wines and rum for
17 years, and excise continued from 1734 to 1739. This emission w as
connived at by the Boards o f Council, Trade, and Plantations at home ;
and, having been made without the royal approbation, established a prece­
dent which proved extremely detrimental to the interests o f trade and com ­
m erce. In 1734, £ 1 2 ,0 0 0 were issued for fortifications, to be liquidated
by imposts, prior to 1746 ; £ 4 8 ,3 0 0 additional w ere emitted in 1738, o f
which £ 4 0 ,0 0 0 w ere upon loan. This was to be cancelled by 1750. E x ­




A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

347

change rose, in consequence, to 70 per cent, and silver to 9s. 3d. per oz.
It having been ascertained, in 1739, that £ 1 5 ,0 0 0 o f the emissions o f 1714
and 1717 were yet in circulation, in consequence o f an improper applica­
tion o f some portion o f the public funds, it was deemed expedient to extend
the excise 15 years longer, in order to cancel them.
N e w J e r s e y . A s in Connecticut and N ew York, £ 3 ,0 0 0 w ere issued
in 1709, towards the expedition to Canada. In 1711, under pretence o f
another Canada expedition, £ 5 ,0 0 0 more were emitted, to be gradually
cancelled before 1713 ; although a considerable amount o f both emissions
w ere current as late as 1723. £ 4 0 ,0 0 0 were issued in 1724— a portion o f
which was applied to cancel outstanding bills, and the balance, upon loan,
was to be redeemed in twelve years. This emission, though unusually
large for so small a colony as N ew Jersey, was promptly cancelled, and
eventually became 2s. better in the pound than the bills o f N ew York.
An additional issue o f £ 2 0,00 0, however, in 1733, to be paid in six­
teen years, had a tendency to depreciate the currency o f this province
to par with that o f N ew York. In 1734, the first loan o f 1724 being nearly
cancelled, a farther loan o f £ 4 0 ,0 0 0 was enacted by the Assembly, but not
issued until 1736, in consequence o f delay in obtaining the royal assent.
From this date, N ew Jersey bills gradually sunk below par with N ew
York, until the emission o f the latter province in 1738, when its bills b e ­
came 6d. in the pound better than those o f N ew York, and Is. in the
pound better than those o f Pennsylvania. The stability o f N ew Jersey
bills, at this period, was attributable mainly to two causes :—
1st. Their currency in N ew Y ork and Pennsylvania ; while those o f
N ew Y ork were not current in Pennsylvania, nor those o f Pennsylvania
in N ew York.
2nd. A provision o f the act, by which failure o f loan payments amount
to a confession o f judgment, and only thirty days’ redemption o f mortgages
allowed.
,
P e n n s y l v a n ia . In the two governments o f Pennsylvania, currency
continued at silver proclamation value, until 1723, when the three northern
counties, or Pennsylvania proper, issued £ 1 5 ,0 0 0 upon loan, and £ 3 0 ,0 0 0
more, in 1 7 2 4 ; but finding, in 1726, that £ 6 ,1 0 0 o f these emissions were
sunk, the friends o f paper currency procured an act for re-emitting so
much o f the remainder as should be annually paid in by the borrowers ;
and accordingly, in 1729, £ 3 0 ,0 0 0 w ere issued, which, by various re­
emissions, w ere kept in circulation for a great length o f time. Ten years
after, (17 39 ,) an additional issue o f £ 1 1 ,1 0 0 was made, on similar terms.
At this date, exchange with London had advanced from 33, as high as 75
per cent.
M a r y l a n d . T h e truck trade in tobacco, adopted by this colony, con­
tributed to keep silver at proclamation value, until 1734. An emission o f
£ 9 0 ,0 0 0 at this time, however, payable in three periods o f 15 years each,
advanced exchange from 33 to 150 per cent.
V i r g i n i a . W ith the exception o f the arbitrary proceeding o f Lord
Culpepper, in 1680, Virginia was enabled, by adopting the truck trade in
tobacco, to preserve her integrity much better than most o f the other colo­
nies. In 1739, silver had varied from 6s. a crown British, or 6s. 3d. per
oz. silver, to 6s. 8d. and 5s. per oz. gold ; which was equal to a deprecia­
tion o f 25 per cent below sterling.
N o r t h C a r o l in a . Prior to 1739, this province had issued £ 4 0 ,0 0 0




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A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

upon loan, and £ 1 2 ,5 0 0 upon funds o f taxes. At that date, exchange was
settled by legislative act, at 10 North Carolina for 1 sterling ; but 12 to
14 to 1 sterling, in drawing upon London.
S o u t h C a r o l in a . The expedition against St. Augustine gave occa ­
sion to the earliest emission o f this colony, in 1702. Subsequent issues
w ere made, in 1711 and 1715, for expeditions against the North Carolina
and the Southern Indians ; besides emissions for ordinary charges o f gov­
ernment, and large sums upon loan. T h e amount outstanding, in 1739,
was about £ 2 5 0 ,0 0 0 , o f which £1 0 0 ,0 0 0 was without fund or period. A
truck trade in rice was adopted by this province. Exchange, as settled at
that date, was 8 South Carolina for 1 sterling.
G e o r g i a . The currency o f Georgia, at this period, consisted o f T rus­
tees’ Sola Bills sterling. The funds were allowances by Parliament and
private subscriptions to carry on the settlement.
B a r b a d o e s . Currency at proclamation value, 6s. lOd. farthing per oz.
silver by weight, until the first emission o f paper money ; when £ 1 6 ,0 0 0
w ere authorized upon the N egro T ax Fund, (3s. 9d.,) and shortly after,
£ 8 0 ,0 0 0 more upon loan. These bills soon fell 40 per cent below silver,
and were suppressed, on complaint, by an order from Great Britain, w hich
occasioned a serious loss to the holders. The truck medium o f this colony
was sugar. The par o f exchange was 33 per cent— but usually in favor
o f Barbadoes.
C a k r ib e e L e e w a r d I slan d s . In the islands o f St. Christopher’ s,
Montserrat, the Virgins, and others, silver proclamation value depreciated
to 8s. per oz. Light pieces o f eight current by tale. Exchange 50 per
cent advance.
Ja m a ic a .
H eavy pieces o f eight, originally current at 5s., w ere super­
seded, in this island, by light pieces— the former having been gradually
shipped to England, at 10, 15, 20, and 25 per cent. In 1739, a light
piece o f eight passed current at 5s.— a heavy piece, at 6s. 3d., and silver
* at 7s. 2d. per oz. Par o f exchange about 36 per cent, and generally in fa­
vor o f London.
In consequence o f this uncertainty and fluctuation in the colonial cur­
rency, exchange stood, in 1739, at 450 per cent in N ew England ; 70 to
75 per cent in N ew York, N ew Jersey and Pennsylvania ; 150 per cent in
M aryland; 1,100 to 1,300 per cent in North Carolina ; and 700 per cent
worse than sterling in South Carolina.
Although the evils resulting from this condition o f things affected every
class o f society to some extent, the greatest sufferers were the merchants
o f Great Britain, who sold their merchandise in good faith and on long
credit, for w hich returns were made in a currency that was gradually de­
preciating from 8s. to 29s. per oz. silver. H ence, the creditor sustained a
loss o f 5 per cent upon his demand, for every shilling in the pound that
silver rose in price, or paper money depreciated.
T o these ruinous effects w ere superadded the proceedings o f seeking f a c ­
tors, as they w ere termed ; a class o f men, who, to procure business from
home, w ere accustomed to enter into contracts which could not be fulfil­
led— and, having nothing to lose, becam e bankrupts by profession, amid a
prevailing insensibility to discredit. Indeed, it had almost becom e a
maxim among shopkeepers, that the most feasible method o f grow ing rich
was to run boldly into debt, on a long credit— bear dunning with a good




A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

349

grace— and, in the event, to claim the privilege o f 12 months or more,
while the law was taking its due course.
This insensibility to discredit was fostered by sundry causes, among
which may be enumerated the allowance o f appeals upon plain bonds,
notes o f hand, and defaults— unauthorized delay o f executions— and a
laxity in the enforcement o f the laws for the relief o f insolvent debtors.
N or were the effects o f this system manifested only in individual trans­
actions. T h e internal administrations o f some o f the colonies partook
largely ofthe general corruption; the popular representatives having refused,
in several instances, to provide for the necessary charges o f government, be­
cause the Governor and Council would not, in violation o f instructions
from the crown, concur in inconsiderate emissions. Foremost, in pro­
ceedings o f this nature, was South Carolina, whose Governor was deposed
on this account in 1719 ; and in 1731, on the arrival o f Gov. Johnson,
there had been no supply granted in the four preceding years. In like
manner, no supplies had been voted in N ew Hampshire for five years pre­
ceding 1736.
Am ong other consequences attributable to these injudicious emissions o f
paper currency, was the frequent rise o f silver and exchange, as instanced
in the N ew England colonies. W hen silver had advanced, in 1706, to
8s. per oz., in consequence o f light pieces o f eight superseding heavy ones,
it continued at that rate, so long as the amount o f paper did not exceed a
due proportion to the current silver. But, shortly after the emission o f
£ 5 0 ,0 0 0 in Massachusetts (17 14 ,) and £ 4 0 ,0 0 0 in Rhode Island (1715,)
silver rose to 9s. 2d. per oz., or 15 per cent advance above its standard
value. In 1721, it advanced to 12s. in consequence o f an emission o f
£1 00 ,0 00 , in Massachusetts; and in 1722, to 14s. for a similar reason.
It subsequently rose to 16s., at which rate it continued until 1728, when
itexperienced a farther advance, consecutively, o f 2s., 5s.,1 1s., andin 1734,
o f 13s. to the oz. Between this year and 1738, in consequence o f the
amount cancelled exceeding the emission, exchange fell 40 percent.
Experience showed, also, that inordinate emissions o f paper w ere, in
reality, no addition to the medium o f trade. For example, in N ew E n g­
land, in 1713, there were in circulation about two-thirds bills to one-third
silver, at 8s. per oz. value. At that period, the public bills ofthe four pro­
vinces amounted to £1 75 ,0 00 , at 8s. per oz. silver value, or 438,000 oz.
value, with 219,000 oz. o f silver currency, or 657,000 oz. silver value.
In 1718, the public bills o f N ew England were £3 00 ,0 00 , at 12s. per oz.
silver, or 500,000 oz. value in silver. In 1731, they amounted to
£4 70 ,0 00 , at 20s. per silver, or 470,000 oz. silver value. In 1739, it had
risen to £6 3 0 ,0 0 0 at 29s. per oz. silver, or 434,000 oz. silver. It was owing
to the depreciation o f tobacco, by reason o f its excess, that the Assembly
o f Virginia w ere induced to restrict its cultivation to 1,000 lbs. weight per
annum per titheable— and the authorities o f Maryland to 150 lbs. weight
per rateable, in 1734 and 1735.
T h e popular arguments advanced, at that early period, in favor o f paper
currency, were similar, in many respects, to those which are in vogue at
the present day. Am ong the most prominent w ere the following :—
1. T h e prevention o f usury.
2. T h e depreciation o f paper, in consequence o f an arbitrary rise in the
price o f goods.




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A Chapter on Colonial Currency, prior to the year 1739.

3. The shipment o f silver, in balance, by reason o f an excess o f im­
ports.
4. T h e enlargement o f trade.
5. T h e increased facility o f paying government debts and taxes.
6. Protection against the influx o f foreign paper.
In reply to these arguments, the following method o f reasoning was adopt­
ed by the opposition :—
First— Large emissions o f paper money must naturally advance the rate
o f interest, in order to make good the sinking principal; and the case o f
Rhode Island was cited as in point. In 1737, silver was 26s. to 27s. per
oz., but, in consequence o f a large emission in 1739, it rose, to 29s., which
was equivalent to 7 per cent loss o f principal. H ence, the lender, in order
to preserve his principal, would require an interest o f 13 per cent per an­
num. Between 1733 and 1734, silver rose from 22s. to 27s. in conse­
quence o f large emissions, w hich was equal to 22 per cent loss o f princi­
pal, and required 28 per cent interest to the lender.
Second— W h en a large emission o f paper is foreseen, goods naturally
advance, because, being sold on long credit, the effect o f the issue w ill be
felt before the time o f payment. Exchange and silver, being purely cash
articles, could not experience any variation, until an addition was made to
the currency by a new issue— as, for example, the large emission o f 1733,
which did not advance silver to 27s. per oz. until the autumn o f 1734.
Third— In proportion as paper increased in quantity, silver becam e a
profitable article o f merchandise— and, being no longer required in trade,
was gradually shipped off in balance. It was also contended that an ex­
cess o f imports was attributable to the excessive amount o f paper money
afloat, which fostered a spirit o f extravagance and reckless adventure, and
emboldened the troop o f seeking fa ctors to glut the market with goods, by
advising their principals at home o f the abundance o f money.
Fourth— In reply to this argument, it was maintained, that the amount
o f circulating medium invariably keeps pace with the increase and de­
mands o f trade ; and when no paper currency existed, the people w ere
better able to discharge government dues. This was supported by the ex­
perience o f Massachusetts Bay— the first Assembly under the new charter
having imposed a tax o f £ 1 2 0 ,0 0 0 or upwards, as far back as 1692, and
subsequently, in 1694, £ 7 0 ,0 0 0 , both o f which amounts w ere levied with­
in the time prescribed by the act.
Fifth— It is not the government which provides money for its support,
but the people who support it by their trade and industry. T h e govern­
ment merely acts as steward o f the public.
W hile the contest was rife between the respective advocates o f a paper
and metallic currency, various schemes o f a public and private nature were
proposed, particularly in Massachusetts, for compromising differences o f
opinion and rectifying the evil.
Am ong the former, the most prominent w ere :—
1. A proposition to empower the Government and Council, with the ad­
vice o f merchants, to settle the rates o f exchange with London, or o f silver
in province bills, at least once or twice a year— the payment o f bonds,
notes, and book debts in province bills, equal in value to the exchange or
price o f silver at the time o f contracting. This latter suggestion was acted
upon successfully in the Carolinas.
2. T h e incorporation o f private companies,' with power to emit bills, o f




Commerce in the Straits o f Malacca.

351

credit on a metallic basis. T h e feasibility o f this proposition was assumed
from the fact, that, in 1739, Merchants’ Notes (a private emission in Massachusetts,) were 33 per cent advance above Province Bills, w hich, al­
though 25 per cent better by legislative enactment, circulated promiscu­
ously at par with the depreciated currency o f other colonies.
3.
The receipt o f no foreign bills in payment o f public dues— the can ­
celling o f former emissions— making new issues payable in gold or silver
after a certain date (the gold and silver to be raised by imposts on goods,
tonnage and light-house m oney)— and a prospective assessment o f an
equal amount at every new emission.
The principal private schemes were :— 1st. A Land Bank. 2nd. A
Credit or Bank ofProduce and Manufactures. 3rd. A credit upon a silver
fund.

Art. III.— COMMERCE IN THE STRAITS OF MALACCA.
E M B R A C IN G

N O T IC E S O F M A L A C C A , S IN G A P O R E , P R IN C E O F W A L E S IS L A N D ,
P R O V IN C E

OF W E L L E SL E Y ,

E T C .*

T h e British possessions in the Straits o f M alacca are composed o f three
settlements, viz.: Poolo Penang, or Prince o f W ales Island, embracing the
province o f W ellesley, a dependence o f i t ; Singapore, and M alacca.
Penang and Singapore are islands, but both province W ellesley and M a­
lacca are situated on the Malayan peninsula. Penang contains 160 square
miles, Singapore 275, and M alacca 1,000 square miles. Neither o f the
settlements bounds the other, as they are separated by lines o f coasts,
hundreds o f miles in extent, in the occupation o f Malay princes, all o f
which, with very trifling exceptions, is a dense mass o f forests, indented
here and there by small streams and noble rivers. Singapore is in lati­
tude 1° 20' N ., M alacca in latitude 2° 14' N ., and Penang in latitude
5 ° 14' N .
M alacca, the most ancient o f the settlements, and celebrated as a place
o f great trade in the annals o f the Malayan empire, arrested the attention
o f the earlier Portuguese navigators, who formed a commercial establish­
ment there, which, by cession, subsequently passed to the Dutch, who, in
1825, ceded the whole territory to the British East India Company. It
now forms, together with Penang and Singapore, a part o f their dominion,
under the name o f the Straits’ Government. E ach o f the settlements has
a ch ief magistrate, called a Resident Counsellor, who is also a judge o f
the superior court; and over the whole three settlements a governor is ap­
pointed, with very limited powers, by the governor-general, in council, o f
Bengal, under which latter government that o f the Straits is put. T h e
Straits, therefore, is a dependence o f Bengal, as all the appointments and
legislation originate in that government. The recorder, or law judge, is,
* T he present paper was prepared for publication in the Merchants’ Magazine by J .
B a l e s t ie r , Esq., United States Consul at Singapore.

W e take this opportunity of re­
spectfully requesting our consuls and commercial agents abroad to furnish us with such
information touching the commerce, commercial regulations, & c., of the various ports and
countries in which they reside, as they may consider interesting or useful to the m erch a n ts
o f America.— E d. M e r c h a n t s ’ M a s a z in e .




352

Commerce in the Straits o f Malacca.

however, appointed by the crown, and the laws are administered in the
name o f the sovereign. H e is also judge o f the admiralty and ecclesias­
tical courts.
M alacca, formerly a great place o f commerce, as has just been said,
becam e extinct, when Penang, by cession to the East India Company, was
made a British port. T h e trade o f M alacca consists o f imports o f rice,
from Arracan, and o f various articles from China, for the consumption o f
its Chinese and Malay inhabitants. T h e only articles o f export are some
twenty thousand peculs o f tin, o f good quality, and the walking canes
which bear its name. T h e tin is smelted from stream ore, in and out o f
the British jurisdiction, principally by Chinese, who yearly resort to that
port from China, via Singapore. This operation is attended with great
risk to the undertakers and their laborers ; for not unfrequently they fall
victims to the cupidity o f the Malay chiefs, who, too indolent themselves
to undertake any task o f continuous labor, seize the first opportunity o f
appropriating to themselves a rich booty. H ence the limited quantity o f
tin exported from a region so rich in this metal. Considerable quantities
o f gold dust are also sent from M a la cca ; but here again the enterprising
adventurer is met, not only by treacherous Malays, but also by tigers and
other wild beasts, who are the sole tenants o f these vast forests among
the sequestered glens and mountainous streams in which the precious ore
is found.
Efforts are now making to obtain waste lands o f the government, on
reasonable terms, by enterprising individuals who wish to enter into the
manufacture o f sugar from canes, for the growth o f w hich the soil and
climate are well adapted. At present, neither cane-sugar or coffee are
exported from that place.
The climate o f M alacca is celebrated for its great salubrity, and is far
from being as hot as its position so near the equator would indicate.
T h e population o f M alacca consists principally o f Malays. T h e C hi­
nese are not numerous. T h e town o f Malacca, which wears a sorry an­
tique look, is for the most part peopled by a mixed race o f Malay, Chinese,
Indian, Portuguese, and Dutch blood ; a race as free from ambition as
they are prone to industiy. T h e only Europeans are some o f the mem­
bers o f the civil government and the military.
Poolo Penang, or according to its official name, Prince o f W ales Island,
lies at the western entrance o f the Straits o f M alacca, and is separated
by a narrow strait from the continent. T h e island is mountainous ; the
highest hill being 2,800 feet above the sea, which is much resorted to by
the inhabitants, and strangers from India, for its agreeable climate. P ro­
vince W ellesley is immediately opposite, on the continent, and consists o f
a narrow flat band along the sea.
Penang was ceded to the East India Company less than a century ago,
and soon becam e a place o f com m ercial importance, which character it
maintained until the establishment o f Singapore. Valuable plantations
o f nutmegs, cloves, and pepper, w ere established by Europeans, which,
all but the last, are still in being, and form the ch ief wealth o f the colony.
It carried on a brisk and profitable trade with the neighboring Malayan
States, Sumatra, India, and China. The ships belonging to the East India
Company on their voyage from England to China, via India, made Penang
a calling place, where large amounts o f spices, gums, tin, and other pro­
ducts o f the Straits, w ere purchased or taken in exchange for cotton clothes,




Commerce in the Straits o f Malacca.

353

iron, & c. & c . T h e junks even ventured so far into the unknown world
from their own flowery land, and exchanged their ladings o f tea, rhubarb,
silks, camphor, & c ., for beche-de-m er, sea-weed, opium, and other pro­
ducts o f Europe or o f the country.
In after years, the country now known as Province W ellesley was an­
nexed to Penang, and the rice-fields with which it was soon crowded, made
it the granary o f that island. Valuable nutmeg plantations w ere also
formed by Europeans and Chinese settlers. But a much greater spirit o f
enterprise was diffused in that colony by the late reduction on the sugar
duties in the mother country, w hich induced the outlay o f large capital
in manufacturing establishments o f this article. Within the last three
years, much o f the jungle which overspread the whole o f that district has
given way, and is succeeded by fields o f thriving sugar-canes, for the
cultivation o f which its immense plains are found well adapted. From the
drooping condition to which that island was reduced after the establishment
o f Singapore, it has greatly recovered, with every prospect o f a permanent
increase o f prosperity. T h e population consists for the greater part o f
Malays and Chinese laborers. T here are many Chuliahs or Klings, na­
tives o f the Madras provinces, about Georgetown, the ch ief town o f the
settlement. Commercial affairs on a large scale, are in the hands o f the
Europeans.
Singapore, the last founded British establishment in the Straits, is an
island situated at the entrance o f the China Sea, and separated from the
Malayan peninsula by a narrow strait. It was purchased from the reign­
ing sultan by the East India Company, in 1819, who declared it a free
port, as well as the two older settlements, and open to the flag o f every
nation in amity with Great B ritain; and they all three continue emphatically f r e e ports, as neither duty on the imports and exports o f merchan­
dise, or port charges on the shipping, is exacted. Indeed, there is no cus­
tom-house establishment at either o f the ports. A simple declaration o f
the quantity, description, and value o f articles imported or exported, is,
however, required by the registrar o f imports and exports, who grants a
pass for the same without fee. The island is beautifully diversified by
hills, dales, and plains. The jungle has been considerably removed, and
the clearings planted with gambier and pepper, by Chinese squatters, and
with nutmegs and sugar-canes by Europeans. But agriculture is very
much neglected. T h e population is made up mostly o f Chinese ; the
Malays and natives o f India together, are far less in number, and the
Europeans are few.
The town o f Singapore faces the straits o f that name, and is airy, wellbuilt, and convenient for the purposes o f trade. The shipping trading be­
tween India and China necessarily pass close to its anchorage, and sel­
dom fail to stop either to discharge or take in cargo, or to obtain supplies
o f provisions.
Many causes have contributed from the beginning o f the settlement
o f the place to retard its growth,— among which may be mentioned
the trade now directly carried on with Manilla, from Europe and Am erica,
by foreign houses who have established themselves there, and who, by
their own importations, supply the markets with the same descriptions o f
merchandise formerly obtained here. Then came the restrictions imposed
by the Netherlands Indian government, on imports into their colonies from
this port, the effect o f w hich has been for many years past to reduce in a
V O L . X V I . -----N O . I V .
23




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Commerce in the Straits o f Malacca.

great measure the intercourse with the Dutch colonies to an illicit one,
carried on by native smugglers. But even with the prospect o f great
gain, such is the terror o f detection by the Dutch, that very few venture
on this hazardous game. T h e last and greatest blow which the place
has suffered was given when the ports o f China w ere thrown open.
Hitherto the northern ports o f China had been supplied by means o f their
junks, with large supplies o f Straits’ produce and foreign manufactures,
in exchange for the tea, camphor, and articles little known to Europeans, but
consumed by the Chinese located in these seas. T h e junk trade, amount­
ing to about three millions o f Spanish dollars, yearly, was, therefore, one o f
the principal elements, as w ell as one o f the most profitable trades to the
European importers and native merchants in the settlement. But on the
removal o f the restrictions which had hitherto prevented foreigners having
access to the ports o f China, that country was soon filled with British and
other fabrics, and Singapore ceased to be a depot. Its junk trade is now
reduced to a few junks, principally loaded with cheap articles for the con ­
sumption o f the Chinese population, and who take in return opium, sea­
weed, M angrove bark, rattans, and other products o f the Straits.
There still remains, however, the Bugis trade, w hich has all along been
o f as great importance as that o f the junks.
T h e Bugis are a race o f Malays, but a distinct people, located in every
principal place and com er o f the immense archipelago covering that im­
mense equatorial basin, the boundaries o f w hich are the Straits o f M alac­
ca on the W est, the China sea on the North, N ew Guinea and the G u lf o f
Carpentaria in the East, and the Indian Ocean in the South. T here is no
known spot from Acheen Head, in east longitude 95°, to the land o f the
Papuas, in longitude 145°, or between latitude 10° North and 10° South, in
which this industrious and bold people have not a trading establishment,
or which, at some season o f the year, is not visited by them for the pur­
pose o f trade. Although scattered here and there, in small communi­
ties, over such a great extent o f sea, still the greatest union prevails among
them, and w o to the piratical chiefs who oppress, plunder, or murder any
o f them ; for on the first news o f the aggression they unite in large forces
from different parts, leaving o ff all other engagements whatever, to exter­
minate and make a lasting example o f the aggressor. In August and Sep­
tember, they arrive here in fleets o f prows, a craft o f from 30 to 90 tons,
fancifully rigged, to the number o f from 250 to 370 sail, each one fully
loaded with the products o f their haunts o f trade. Thus, those from Bali
and Som bock bring rice, paddy, buffalo hides, & c . Those from N ew
Guinea, tortoise-shells, pearls, and beche-de-mer. Again, those from the
G u lf o f Carpentaria have beche-de-m er and mother-of-pearl s h e ll; from
Borneo they bring pepper and rattans. Their manner o f doing business
is peculiar. Singapore abounds in Chinese brokers, who, at the well-known
season for the arrival o f the Bugis, embark in small skiffs and go out
many miles on this lake-like sea, in pursuit o f the stranger. On arriving
on board o f a prow, his first business is to ingratiate himself with the
new com er, i f he does not happen to be an old friend, and he generally
contrives to strike up a bargain, or make an agreement for the preference
o f the cargo at the going price in Singapore. Depend upon it, he is not
sparing o f his pipe, nor o f the pouch which contains the necessary condi­
ments, such as tobacco, betel-nut, opium, & c.
T h e prow has now anchored in the snug little harbor inside o f “ Sandy




Commerce in the Straits o f Malacca.

355

Point,” the nacodah, or ch ief man on board, has gone on shore and par­
taken o f the Chinaman’ s hospitality, and he is now delivering his cargo,
according to agreement, to the brokers. But here all friendship and all
confidence ceases ; for the nacodah delivers nothing that is not weighed
or measured on board, and paid for in good Spanish dollars before it is
taken out o f the vessel. So far the Chinese has had no opportunity to
deviate from the path o f honesty. But now comes an opening, and now
commences a game o f skill between them. T h e Chinaman, in purchasing
and paying for the cargo, has bound the Bugis nacodah to give him the
preference for the articles o f the return cargo, at the fair market price,
with which engagement he is ready to comply legally. But now the C h i­
naman is on his own ground, and here commences a game o f cheat or no
cheat. The Chinaman is bent on cheating in weight, measure, and qual­
ity; whilst the nacodah, wide awake, does his best to have fair play. But it
is all in vain ; the good-humor, the extreme politeness, and the cringing
manners o f the son o f the flowery land, is more than a match for the grave
follower o f Mahomet, who never laughs on any occasion, and is not up to
the practices o f his crafty adversary. H e makes a reluctant payment for
the goods ; he feels he has been cheated, and departs from the port, pro­
bably as w ell treated in the course o f his trade as any o f his compeers.
N ow that the junk trade is nearly extinct, the Bugis, Siamese, CochinChinese, and adjacent native states are the best customers that remain.
T h e accompanying printed official statement o f the “ Com merce o f
Singapore, for 1845, 1846,” shows its present condition.*
It will then appear that the trade direct with the United States is trifling.
This is mainly ow ing to our tariff law, which imposes a duty o f 20 per
cent on tea and coffee imported into the United States from other places
than those o f production. W hen this restriction did not exist, our cotton
manufactures were easily exchanged in barter with the Chinese junk p eo­
ple and resident Chinese traders, for tea and coffee. But after the pas­
sage o f the act o f 1842, the trade suddenly becam e quite insignificant,
and the sales o f our fabrics are now confined almost entirely to the very
limited consumption o f the island.
In the meantime the traders o f continental Europe have increased, and
yearly increase and profit by our absence from this market, and having no
competitors, are the principal purchasers o f the coffee and tea brought in
native vessels here. Could our ships take o ff their bulky articles, and
employ their remaining funds in the less cumbrous, but more costly com ­
modities, such as tin, gam boge, & c. & c ., all o f which, as w ell as coffee
and tea, can generally be exchanged for cotton and other manufactures,
there is little doubt that our trade would soon revive.
But the Am erican trade consists now exclusively o f empty ships com ing
here in search o f freight for China ; o f opium clippers trading here from
China on the w ay to India, or on the return voyage from India to China,
and o f ships which have loaded cotton in India for China. One or two
vessels only arrive from the United States yearly, who divide their trade
between Batavia, Singapore, and Penang.
S i n g a p o r e , November, 1846.
j. b.
* The statement here referred to has not been received.




356

L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

Art. IV.— LOW ELL: AND ITS MANUFACTURES.
city o f Low ell, from the number and extent o f its manufacturing
establishments, is one o f the most prominent settlements o f N ew England.
A s it has attained its present position altogether from the existence o f
those establishments, w e design, in the present paper, by the aid o f the
evidence which is before us, to show the general progress o f the place, as
w ell as its condition, and incidentally to make some remarks respecting
that particular branch o f industry which constitutes the main feature o f its
enterprise. It is only about 25 years since the foundations o f the settle,
ment w ere laid. T h e first portion o f the land, constituting its present site,
was obtained in the year 1 8 2 1 ; a tract o f 400 acres, on which the most
densely populated part o f the city now stands, having been purchased at
the cost o f about $100,000. T h e purchasers o f this property were incor­
porated, as the “ Merrimack Manufacturing Company,” on the 6th day o f
February, 1822. During that year, the first mill was erected. From such
a commencement, the city has gradually advanced— not only through pe­
riods o f great commercial prosperity, but even when disaster seems to
have settled upon most o f the manufacturing establishments throughout the
country— down to the present time.
A railroad, connecting L ow ell with Boston, was opened in 1835, through
which, the two places are separated by the distance o f a ride o f only one
h o u r; and other improvements were also made, relating either to the manu­
facturing enterprise o f the place, or to the condition o f the population.
F or the purpose o f exhibiting most accurately the growth o f the city, w e
present the following tabular statement, derived from official and authentic
sou rces:—
T

he

P O P U L A T I O N O F L O W E L L A T D I F F E R E N T P E R IO D S .

Y ea rs.

1820,.........
1828,..........
1830,.........
1832,....... ..
1833,..........

M a le s .

1,342
2,392
4,291
4,437

F e m a le s .

2,190
4,085
5,963
7,926

T o ta l.

Ab’ t 200
3,532
6,477
10,254
12,993

Y ea rs.

M a le s .

F e m a le s .

T o ta l.

1836,......
1837,......
1840,......
1844,......

6,345

11,288

7,311
9,432

13,640
15,697

17,633
18,010
20,981
25,163

At the present time its population is 28,841.
O f its population o f 29,000, about one-third are connected with the
manufacturing and mechanical establishments, constituting 6,320 females,
and 2,915 males. Besides the print works, and about 550 houses belong­
ing to the corporations, there are 33 mills ; the capital stock, invested in
manufacturing and mechanical enterprise, being about $12,000,000.
T here are 1,459,100 yards o f cloth, amounting during the year to
75,868,000 yards, manufactured in the place during each w eek ; and, in
each year, 61,100 bales o f southern cotton are worked up. 14,000,000
yards o f printed calico are also here annually made. 12,500 tons o f coal
are also consumed in the manufactories during each year, besides 3,270
cords o f wood, 67,842 gallons of oil, 600,000 bushels o f c h a rc o a l; and
more than $1,500,000 are paid out annually for labor. Important im­
provements have been projected, and many have already been completed,
with a view to the extension o f the business and manufacturing operations
o f the place.
T h e city was incorporated on the 30th o f March, 1836 ; and from that
period the most strenuous measures have been adopted for the improve-




L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

357

roent o f the city, by the construction o f side-walks and by lighting the
streets, as well as for the benefit o f the public health and the public mo­
rals, and for the erection o f edifices o f various sorts for the purposes o f religious instruction, benevolence, and education.
Having made these general statements respecting the condition o f L ow ­
ell, w e now proceed to a consideration o f the character o f the particular
companies, through which the manufacturing enterprise o f the place is
prosecuted, and w e commence with that which supplies the water-power
to the other corporations. “ T h e Locks and Canals Company,” acting
under a charter which was granted in 1792, with a capital o f $600,000,
not only supplies the water-power to the manufacturing establishments, but
manufacture machinery, railroad cars, and engines, and also contract for
the erection o f mills. T h ey have two shops, one o f very large size, a
smithy, and a foundry— commonly keep employed 500 male laborers, and
when erecting mills, furnish employment to about 700 more. 1,225 tons
o f wrought and cast iron, are manufactured by them during the y e a r ; and,
by the aid o f their extensive works, they can furnish machinery for a mill
o f 5,000 spindles in about four months. B y a recent sale o f their prop­
erty, the shops and smithy, and the boarding-houses connected with them,
have been purchased by individuals, who were incorporated during the
last year under the name and style o f the “ M achine S h o p a n d the
manufacture o f machinery, railroad cars, and engines, is now carried on
by this company.
The several manufacturing corporations, we shall now specify, with the
names by which they have been designated. The Merrimack M anufac­
turing Company has a capital stock o f $2,000,000, with five cotton-mills,
extensive print works, and 155 boarding-houses. It gives employment to
1,250 females, and to 550 males ; manufactures 250,000 yards o f cloth,
each week ; and works up, during that time, 56,000 pounds o f cotton.
The Hamilton Manufacturing Company has three mills, extensive print
works, and 50 boarding-houses, with a capital stock o f $1,500,000. E m -,
ploying 650 females and 250 males, it makes each week 110,000 yards o f
cloth, working up in that time 42,000 pounds o f cotton.
The M iddlesex
Manufacturing Company has a capital stock o f $750,000, and owns two
mills, one o f very great size, and two dye-houses. Employing 550 fe­
males, and 250 males, it makes, during each week, 12,000 yards o f cassimere, and 2,200 yards o f broadcloth, working up 1,000,000 pounds o f wodl.
The Suffolk Manufacturing Company has a capital stock of $600,000,
with two mills. It employs 340 females and 70 males, and makes 100,000
yards o f cloth, composed for the most part o f drillings.
The Tremont Manufacturing Company has a capital stock o f $600,000,
and two mills, making 115,000 yards o f cloth each week, and working up
during that time about 30,000 pounds o f cotton. The Lawrence M anu­
fa ctu rin g Company possesses a capital stock o f $1,500,000, and employs
900 females and 170 males, producing each week 210,000 yards o f cloth,
and working up cotton, during that time, to the amount o f about 65,000
pounds. The Boott Manufacturing Company, with a capital stock of.
$1,200,000, employs 780 females and 130 males, and makes 185,000
yards o f cloth per w eek. The Massachusetts Manufacturing Company,
with a capital stock o f $1 ,200 ,0 00 , employs 750 females and 160 males,
making 292,000 yards o f cloth each w eek. Besides these establishments,,
the Prescott Company, which was incorporated in 1843, have erected a;




358

L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

mill o f large size upon the banks o f the Concord River. About 70 men
are, moreover, employed— in the foundry that was erected in 1840, by
the Locks and Canals Company, at the expense o f about $30,000— in
making castings, which are used in the machine shops and factories o f
the city.
There are also various smaller manufacturing and mechanical establishments, which produce a great part o f those articles which are required
in a place o f this particular character; and among other manufactures,
we would designate those o f powder, flannels, blankets, paper, carpeting,
hollow ware and castings, locks, copper and brass work, brushes, saddles
and upholstery, tin ware, boots, and various other articles o f a similar
character.* Accommodations, comfortable and even elegant, in many re­
spects, are provided, not only for the citizens o f the place, but also for
those who are occasionally induced to sojourn within its environs; the
streets are handsomely laid out, houses for religious worship have been
erected, and all those arrangements have been completed, for the benefit
o f the population, which would seem to be dictated by a wise econom y
and a prudent forecast, for the purpose o f placing the prosperity o f the
place upon a liberal and solid foundation.
Having described the general condition o f the place, so far as the in­
terests o f its manufacturing establishments are concerned, w e proceed to
the consideration o f its operative population. Since w e are exhibiting the
actual state o f the largest cotton manufacturing settlement o f the country,
the character o f the operatives, and the means which have been provided
for their moral and intellectual improvement, constitute an important part
o f the subject. The plan which is here pursued for the benefit o f this
part o f the population, and the influence which is exerted by this agency
in improving the actual condition o f the operatives themselves, are topics
which require a particular examination.
It would seem evident that all the measures have been adopted, in the
general regulation o f the manufacturing establishments o f Low ell, that
are the best calculated to prevent evil, and to place the character o f the
operatives upon a respectable and safe footing. In the first place, there
is a general superintendent, who, from the particular arrangement o f the
manufacturing establishments, has the whole corporation under his eye.
The boarding-houses, governed by well-defined and salutary regulations,
are leased only to approved tenants. In each room o f the mills, is stationed some well-known and trustworthy overseer, who is made responsi­
ble for the good order and proper management o f the apartment over
which he presides. In each department o f the repair shops, whether o f
iron, leather, or wood, is likewise an overseer, who, with a number o f
men under his care, has charge o f all the out-door w o r k ; and there is a
night-watch, who are required to pass through each room in the mills, a
prescribed number o f times, each night. It is evident, therefore, if each
o f those individuals entrusted with responsibility, faithfully perform their
duties, that the most salutary guardianship has been adopted for those w ho
are employed in the manufacturing establishments.
Another consideration connected with the actual condition o f operatives
* For many o f the items here enumerated, we are indebted to “ T he Statistics o f Mas­
sachusetts,” which were prepared by Mr. John G. Palfrey, the distinguished Secretary of
that State.




359

L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

in the manufacturing establishments o f Low ell, relates to the hours o f la.
bor. This is a subject which has frequently received the careful consid­
eration o f those who are interested in the manufacturing system. T here
is no doubt that a long and continued confinement for a considerable term
o f years must be calculated to undermine the constitution, and tend other­
wise to debase the character o f the operatives, by depriving them o f the
opportunity o f religious, moral, and intellectual improvement. It will,
moreover, hardly be maintained, that it is the longest period o f labor which
is calculated to produce the greatest benefit, either to employers or to those
who are employed. T h e proper medium would seem to be that, which,
while it gives to the manufacturers the benefit o f the industry o f those
who are employed in the mills, at the same time secures to the operative
a pretty liberal period for rest and for improvement. In regard to the pe­
riod o f labor, in Low ell, the subjoined table shows the average hours per
day o f running the mills throughout the year, in all the corporations :—
January,............... ........
February,............... ........
.......
A pril,...................... .......
M ay.........................
June,....................

Hours.
11
12
11
13
12

M ia .

24
00

July,...........................
August,......................

52
31
45
45

October,......................
November...................
December,.................

Hours.
12
12
12
12
11
11

M in .

45
45
23
10
56
24

W e are also informed, that on Saturday evening the lamps are never
lighted ; and that Fast-Day, Fourth o f July, Thanksgiving-Day, and Christ­
mas, constitute the periods in which no work is done in the mills. From
this table, it is perceived, that the average period o f running the estab­
lishments is 12 hours and 10 minutes. Without professing to have en­
tered very minutely into a practical understanding o f the probable effect
o f the diminution o f the hours o f labor, the present term appears, upon
general principles, to be too lo n g ; and w e should much prefer a shorter
term, i f the period during the intervals of ‘ labor could be filled up with
profitable employment, although that, o f course, would depend upon various
local circumstances w hich are best known to those who are immediately
concerned in the manufacturing establishments themselves. It is not un­
derstood, however, that the full time o f 12 hours and 10 minutes is em ­
ployed in those establishments by the operatives, inasmuch as there are
occasional suspensions o f labor, which tend somewhat to reduce the terms
o f actual occupation. There is, moreover, another consideration, w eigh­
ing in favor o f the present term which is established in the L ow ell mills,
as distinguished from the manufacturing system o f Great B ritain; and
this is, the fact, that the employment o f operatives in the cotton-mills o f
our own country is not undertaken, as in England, as the business o f a
life. N ot only are there but few very young children here employed, but
the average period o f the employment o f individuals in the mills, does not
vary far from four or five years. This fact, it appears, has been ascertained,
so far as the L ow ell mills are concerned, beyond question.
Another consideration connected with the state o f the manufacturing
system, as it is conducted in Low ell, is that o f wages. It appears that a
young woman from the country, who is employed as a spare hand, or a
pupil, receives, beside her board, 50 cents per w eek ; and as she advances
in knowledge and diligence, she w ill receive from 75 cents to $ 1 , and
$1 50 each week. T h e average pay o f all the female operatives, at the




360

L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

present time, is about $1 93 per w eek, besides board ; vet it sometimes
happens that they earn even $ 3 and $ 4 . Out o f 50 girls, there w ere 24
who received $ 4 75 per w eek, besides board ; but those cases were ex­
traordinary. Yet, as an evidence o f the thrift and prosperity o f many o f
the operatives, it may be mentioned, that the factory girls o f Low ell have
about $1 00 ,0 00 in the institution for savings in that city. T h e usual pay
o f an overseer is $ 2 a d a y ; and the average pay o f male operatives, at
the present time, is not far from 85 cents per day, besides their board ; and
that o f the females, upon regular work, is little less than $ 2 a w eek, b e­
sides their board.
It appears, moreover, that out o f the 6,320 female operatives o f L ow ell,
one-eighth is furnished by Massachusetts, one-fourth by Maine, one-third
by N ew Hampshire, one-fifth by Vermont, one-fourteenth by Ireland, and
one-seventeenth by all other places, principally Canada. O f those opera­
tives, three-sevenths are connected with some Sunday-school, as teachers
or pupils, that number constituting 2,714 in all. There are 2,276 church
members ; 527 have been teachers in common schools, and a large ma­
jority state that their health is as good as before entering the mills. T his,
to say the least, speaks favorably o f the moral condition o f the manufac­
turing establishments in Low ell.
T h e health o f the operatives who are employed in the manufacturing
establishments, is a subject o f great importance ; and it appears that bene­
ficial measures have been adopted, to provide for them the ordinary facili­
ties o f comfort, and to abate all causes o f disease. Provisions have been
made for this purpose, by the construction o f side-walks, o f brick and
stone, running from the boarding-houses to the mills ; by keeping the at­
mosphere o f the rooms at a uniform temperature, well ventilated, and as
free from dust as possible ; by providing a hospital for sick operatives, and
by securing the machinery in boxes, in order to prevent accidents. T h e
comparison o f the bills o f mortality in Low ell, and other places similarly
situated, indicate results not unfavorable to the occupation o f manufactures
as a source o f health, and the testimony o f experienced physicians would
seem to indicate such a result. T h e evidence o f the factory girls them­
selves, the respectable keepers o f the boarding-houses in which they re­
side, and the physicians in the manufacturing settlements, all, moreover,
tend to show, that the health o f the operatives is not generally impaired
b y being employed in the mills, although, doubtless, a few feeble constitu­
tions are somewhat undermined by the steady occupation and confinement.
T h e moral police which is established, also appears to be one o f the
greatest value, so far as it insures virtuous character and correct deport­
ment, these lying at the foundation o f the only solid and genuine prosper­
ity. N o persons are employed who are addicted to intemperance, or who
are guilty o f any im m orality; and even associations with individuals o f
suspected character are deemed good ground for dismission from the mills,
and also for the rejection o f all applications o f this sort. E very person
wishing to leave a mill, can do so by giving a fortnight’ s notice ; and the
operative so discharged, having been employed during the year, is entitled
to an honorable certificate, made in a printed form, with which each
counting-room is supplied, testifying to the fact that such discharge was
honorable. This discharge operates as a letter o f recommendation, and
furnishes important aid in enabling the operative to obtain employment,
while the absence o f this discharge is deemed an evidence o f a contrary




L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

361

character. Indeed, the names o f all persons dismissed for bad conduct
are entered in a book, which is sent to all the counting-houses in the city,
and the individual is thus prevented from elsewhere obtaining occupation.
The moral control, springing from the mutual and salutary restraint pro­
duced by a high standard o f moral principle, is calculated to work out
most beneficial results, as a suspected individual loses her caste and stand­
ing, and she soon finds herself known and avoided. T h e statistics o f
boarding-houses and mills indicate, so far, a healthful tone o f morals,
which serves as a valuable model to other manufacturing communities.
T h e moral and intellectual advantages, w hich are afforded by the city
o f Low ell to the factory operatives, are probably greater than those which
are furnished by any other settlement o f a like kind. Opportunities are
furnished to the operatives for reading during the intervals o f their labor,
as well as during the evenings, and occasional absences from the mills, as
on the Sabbath. Books for this purpose are obtained in the circulating
libraries, and even newspapers, magazines, and reviews, are received by
the operatives themselves. A large number attend the evening schools
during the winter, and sometimes classes are formed by the female opera­
tives, who take lessons in the study o f some foreign language. Besides
these, clubs are formed, that are denominated “ Improvement Circles,”
which meet once during each fortnight, when the anonymous compositions
o f its members are criticised ; and the attendance on churches— there
being 23 regularly constituted religious societies in Low ell— and on the
delivery o f lectures, furnish facilities for the acquisition o f various and
useful instruction and knowledge. Besides its churches and schools, its
libraries and benevolent institutions, founded upon humane and beneficent
principles, are calculated to afford extraordinary advantages o f various
kinds for the benefit o f its population.*
The females who are employed in the manufacturing establishments o f
Low ell, are generally the daughters o f industrious farmers in the surround­
ing region, who, although they are enabled to acquire subsistence by their
own labor from the soil, are, as a general fact, incompetent, from their
narrow circumstances, to procure any surplus o f ready money for their
fam ilies; and hence it happens that those daughters are willing to enter
the mills, in order to procure the conveniences which it affords. Under
the influences, produced by a virtuous education at their own fire-sides,
these female operatives enter those establishments under different circum­
stances from those which bear upon this class o f operatives abroad.
There is, accordingly, as a general fact, a regard for moral character,
which acts as a safeguard against the inroads o f every species o f vice and
im m orality; and it may be safely alleged, that the condition o f Low ell, in
this respect, is worthy o f all admiration.
Another important question, connected with the manufacturing estab­
lishments o f Low ell, is that which is connected with the subject o f profits.
From testimony which is before us, it would seem that, although the manu­
facture o f cotton throughout the nation has reduced the price to the con ­
sumer more than two-thirds, it has not yielded an average profit o f 7 per
cent upon the capital which has been invested in the enterprise. A l­
though it has been more successful in Low ell, still the average dividends
* For many o f the facts embodied in this article, we are indebted to Miles’ “ Lowell, as
it W as, and as it Is.”




362

L ow ell: and its Manufactures.

here have not reached 10 per cent. T h e following table exhibits the
average dividends o f each mill, taken from their own books. A deduction
might be made from this average, in each case, for loss o f interest during
the building o f the mills, and the preparation o f machinery for its use,
which generally amounts to about 10 per cent on the capital; and also for
fire insurance, the rate being from 1 per cent to 1±, the sum insured, however, not usually exceeding one-half o f the value o f the share.
N a m e o f com p an y.

T im e o f
c o m m e n c in g

T erm o f
y ea rs.

Merrimack,.............
Hamilton,................
Appleton,................
Lowell.....................
Suffolk,....................
Trenton t,..................
Lawrence,..............
B oott,.......................
Massachusetts,.......

1825
1828
1829
1831
1833
1833
1834
1838
1841

20
17
16

14
Hi

Hi
ii
64

4

A verage o f
d iv id e n d s .

12J per cent.
104
“
9J
“
9
14
10 4
“
7
“
8
“
54
«

A l l o w a n c e fo r los s of
in ’ t. a n d fo r fire ins.

less 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
3

per cent
1-10 “
1-8 «
1-5 •*
2-5 “
2-5 “
2-5 “
“
“

Having exhibited the general facts connected with the largest manufac­
turing city o f the North, it may be proper to present a few considerations
relating to the manufacturing policy throughout the Union. During the
year 1816, Pennsylvania stood at the head o f the Middle States, all o f
which were closely identified with manufacturing interests, while the W est
was about equally divided upon the su bject; and N ew England, being ex­
tensively engaged in com m erce and navigation, was but little disposed to
embark in the enterprise o f manufactures. T h e plantation States then
held the balance o f political power ; but it was demonstrated to the North,
that the interest o f manufactures, firmly established, would advance its
prosperity, and to the South, that it would supply a market for its staple o f
co tto n ; and the law o f 1816 was passed, laying the foundation o f the
present manufacturing policy o f the Union. T h e enterprise has now been
firmly planted in the country, both at the North and South, and its products
are continually increasing. Low ell, which contains the largest number
o f cotton establishments o f any city o f the Union, and whose mills yield
sheetings, shirtings, printed cloths, drillings, carpetings, blankets, broad­
cloths, cassimeres, and other articles o f this character, is held up as a
model o f such establishments elsewhere ; and in the character o f its regu­
lations, it certainly appears to have merited its reputation. W e trust that
it may advance in those measures which are calculated to improve the
state o f the manufacturing interest, as well as the moral and intellectual
condition o f the operatives ; and, aided by the most respectable and intel­
ligent gentlemen who administer its affairs, thus establish this essential
enterprise o f the country upon a solid and prosperous basis.*
* Since the preparation o f this article, we have received from a correspondent, residing
at Lowell, a statistical view o f Lowell manufactures in 1847, which will be found under our
“ J o u r n a l of M in in g a nd M a n u f a c t u r e s ,” near the close o f the present number o f this

Magazine.




363

The Granary o f the West.

Art. V.— TIIE GRANARY OF THE W EST.
T h e r e having been some difference o f opinion as to the true locality
o f this granary, and the facts necessary to give it a fixed habitation being
in our possession, we have concluded to remove all doubt from the minds
o f intelligent inquirers by giving the exports o f breadstuffs for the last
commercial year,— from the river region by N ew Orleans, and from the
lake region by w ay o f Buffalo and O sw ego. W e shall also show that the
bulk o f the lake exports proceeds from a small section o f the lake shore.
The interior portion o f North Am erica, drained by the Mississippi and
St. Law rence rivers, has been named, by an eminent writer, “ the North
American V alley.” As there are no natural barriers separating the basins
o f these rivers, and as they are intimately connected by artificial channels
o f com m erce and the mutual interchange o f their varied productions, it is
convenient to speak o f them as composing one great plain, under the name
above given.
W ith the exception o f the country drained by the Amazon, the North
Am erican valley excels in natural resources, any other on the globe. Its
mild climate gives it a decided superiority over the valley o f the Amazon.
Until quite recently, the St. Law rence, or lake portion o f the interior
plain, has been unsettled. T h e borders o f the Ohio and its tributaries
were comparatively w ell settled before the country o f the lakes attracted
much attention. A ll this is being changed. Immigration, since 1830,
has poured along the United States borders o f the great lakes, with yearly
accumulating force, until it has becom e the great channel o f colonization
o f the world. These immigrants are fed from the surplus o f their prede.
cessors, and enough is left for shipment to tide-water, to astonish dealers
in the great markets o f this country and Europe. The amount flowing
down the Mississippi is large, but it is much exceeded by that floated on
the lakes. T h e amount exported from N ew Orleans for the last com m er­
cial year, ending 31st August, 1846, was as follows, (see M erchants’
Magazine, V ol. X V ., p. 4 0 6) :—
Flour...................................
Corn.....................................

573,f9 4 barrels.
941,589 sacks.

2,865,970 bushels.
2,824,767
“
5,690,737

Not knowing the precise quantity in a sack, w e have put it at three
bushels. T h e quantity o f wheat exported, w e could not ascertain. There
w ere received, 403,706 barrels and sacks. W hat part o f this was con ­
verted into flour at N ew Orleans for home use and export is not known
to us. I f we estimate half as exported in wheat, at three bushels the barrel or sack, it will add 605,679 bushels to the above, and show the aggre­
gate o f breadstuffs exported from N ew Orleans to have been equal to
6,296,416 bushels. This was a great increase on the preceding year,
but it will be very much below the current year. T h e uncommon occur­
rence o f high winter prices and good stages o f water through the fall, and
thus far through the winter, have been highly favorable to that route for
the surplus o f the great valley.
T h e amount o f breadstuffs that reached tide-water by the E rie and
Champlain Canals during the last season o f navigation was (see M er­
chants’ Magazine, Vol. X V I., pp. 191, 192,) as follow s:—




364

The Granary o f the W est.
Flour..................................
3,063,441 barrels.
W heat.........................................................
Cora.......................................................................
Am ount.....................................

15,317,205 bushels.
2,950,636
«
1,610,149 «
19,877,990

There w ere received in Buffalo, by the lakes :—
Flour.................................
1,374,529 barrels.
W heat....................................................................
C om .......................................................................
T otal............................................................

6,872,645 bushels.
4,744,184 “
1,455,258 “
13,072,087

From O sw ego there was forwarded by the ca n a l:—
Flour..................................
471,318 barrels.
W h eat........................................................
C o m ............. , ..........................................
T otal............................................................

2,355,590 bushels.
433,446 “
347,747
“
3,137,783

Taking the lake receipts o f Buffalo as the measure o f her canal exports,
and adding to them the exports o f Osw ego, w e have nearly the true amount
sent to tide-water from the lakes, 16,209,870 bushels.
O f this amount, 12,284,970 bushels w ere sent by the small section o f
the lake coast em braced by and between Cleveland and Detroit. In a
straight line, these places are distant from each other but 90 miles, and
follow ing the border o f the lake, but 150 miles.
T h e following table is made up from official sources, and may be relied
on for its accuracy. The amount shipped from the harbors o f Vermillion
and Black River, (Charlestow n,) not being known to us, is not included:—
Flour.

W h e a t.

Detroit................................
M onroe.............................

4 6 4 ,0 9 2
1 5 5 ,1 0 8

1 1 4 ,3 9 7
2 7 2 ,8 4 7

Eastern M ichigan..........
T oled o..............................
Lower Sandusky.............
Sandusky City.................
Milan................................

6 1 9 ,2 0 0
1 6 4 ,6 8 9
1 ,0 1 0
5 1 ,8 5 5
830

Cleveland.........................
Total......................

bbls.

Corn.

bush.

bush.

Bushels.

3 ,7 6 8
4 ,8 0 4

2 ,4 3 8 ,6 3 5
1 ,0 5 3 ,3 8 7

8 ,5 7 2
1 ,1 5 9 ,3 1 2
1 8 ,4 0 0
5 0 ,9 0 4
1 9 ,8 5 5

3 6 8 ,3 5 5

3 8 7 ,2 4 4
8 1 0 ,9 6 3
9 0 ,0 0 0
8 4 3 ,7 4 6
6 3 6 ,1 4 1
3 0 ,2 9 2
1 ,6 7 2 ,3 4 0

5 2 7 ,2 7 0

3 ,4 9 1 ,8 1 6
2 ,7 9 3 ,7 2 0
1 1 3 ,4 5 0
1 ,1 5 3 ,9 2 5
6 6 0 ,1 7 6
3 0 ,2 9 2
4 ,0 4 1 ,3 8 5

1 ,2 0 5 ,9 3 9

4 ,4 7 0 ,7 2 6

1 ,7 8 4 ,3 4 3

1 2 ,2 8 4 ,9 7 0

Deducting from the amount received at tide-water........
the amount shipped through Buffalo and O sw e g o ....
There will be left.............................................................

•

19,877,990 bushels,
16,209,870
3,668,120

O f this, some portion came from the lakes by w ay o f the port o f R o ­
chester. W e know that several vessels were employed in carrying wheat
from the upper lakes to that port, but we have not the means o f ascertain­
ing the amount. From these facts it appears that the State o f N ew York
furnished less than three and a half millions o f bushels o f the twenty mil­
lions sent to tide-water. T h e quantity required for consumption, up the
Champlain Canal, in the river towns, and in the city o f N ew Y ork and
suburbs, must be considerably above the amount furnished by the State o f
N ew York. Supposing the number in that State supplied with breadstuffs
from the Erie Canal, to be 100,000, up the Champlain C a n a l; 200,000




%
365

The Mines o f Upper California.

in and through the river towns, and 600,000 in and through the city o f
N ew York, and that each person consumes six bushels, there w ill be a de­
ficiency o f nearly two millions o f bushels to be furnished by other States.
But o f all the facts relating to this lake trade, the most striking is, that
so large a portion should proceed from so small a section o f the lake coast.
The entire extent o f lake coast is some 4,500 miles, much o f which has
been settled longer than that around the southwestern border o f Lake
Erie ; and yet w e find the ports o f this southwestern border, all situated
in a straight line within one hundred miles o f Cleveland, ship o ff more
than three-fourths o f all the breadstuffs that are sent from the lakes, through
American ports.
In 1846, Buffalo and Oswego sent forward.................................
Detroit, Monroe, Toledo, Lower Sandusky, Sandusky City,
Milan, Huron, and Cleveland exported......................................

16,209,870 bushels.
12,284,970

Leaving, as the export o f all the other ports around the lakes..

3,924,900

O f this there went from Chicago, |

^ _96,945 bushels

flour, equal to

1,455,583

C 15,756 barrels flour, equal to wheat................
From M ilwaukie,J W heat...................................................................
t Corn................................... ...................................
Total...........................................................

78,780 bushels.
213,448
“
1,633 “
293,863

O f the balance, M ichigan city and St. Joseph’ s sent forward the greater
portion, probably more than three-fourths.
Over three-quarters o f all the export trade o f Lake M ichigan is con­
centrated within a line o f eighty miles around its head. T h e advantages
o f the heads o f Lakes E rie and M ichigan for concentrating the trade o f
great sections, is worth the study o f reflecting and business men.

Art. VI.— THE MINES OF UPPER CALIFORNIA.*
U p p e r C a l if o r n i a appears, from such indifferent information as can
be obtained, to be remarkably rich in ores and other minerals, and I have
no doubt that when the country becom es more thickly settled, and a tho­
rough geological survey is made o f it, a vast amount o f mineral wealth
w ill be developed, incredible almost beyond belief.
Quite a number o f mines are already known to exist in that small por­
tion o f Alta California, lying to the westward o f the Sierra Nevada or
Snow y Mountains, o f the extent and locality o f which I shall endeavor to
give you such information as is in my possession.
Ninety miles (b y sea) south o f St. D iego, there are some very extensive
copper mines belonging to D on Juan Bandino.
From sixty to eighty miles south o f Monterey, on the rancho (farm) o f
* T he following remarks upon the Mines o f Upper California, were read before the
Lyceum o f Natural History, New Y ork, December 21st, 1846, by L. W. Sloat, Cor­
responding Member, and are now first published in the Merchants’ Magazine, by per­
mission o f the Society.




i
366

The M ines o f Upper California.

D on Jose Rafael Gonzales, there are coal b e d s ; and at St. Pablo, on the
Bay o f San Francisco, there are others.
At the mission o f St. John’ s, twenty-five miles north o f Monterey, there
are large beds or mines o f sulphur. Other mines have also been discov­
ered near the town o f Sanoma— at the northern extremity o f the Bay o f
San Francisco— where, I am informed, pieces o f about a pound in weight
have been found, perfectly pure, and without any admixture o f extraneous
matter.
Fifty to eighty miles north o f Monterey, there are said to be several sil­
ver mines. Tw enty miles east o f the same place, there are mines o f sil­
ver and lead, w hich have been gotten out, but not separated. On the
southeast end o f the Island o f Catalina is a mine from which some silver
has been successfully extracted.
There are several places throughout California where asphaltum is ob­
tained, and is used for roofing and flooring houses, first mixing it with
sand. “ I have in these places,” says my informant, “ seen many rab­
bits, squirrels and birds, half buried in the pitch (asphaltum,) where they
soon die.”
A few miles north o f Santa Barbara, the sea, for four or five
miles, is colored by the asphaltum oozing from the banks and running seve­
ral miles upon the coast.
Five or six miles from the Pueblo de San Jose, and near the mission o f
Santa Clara, there are mines o f red and yellow cinnabar (quicksilver ore,)
discovered in 1845, by Don Andreas Castellero, o f M exico. The place had
been known for eighteen years, and was supposed, by the Californians, to
be a silver mine. In 1845, Don Andreas Castellero being in the vicinity,
heard that the mountain contained rock different from any other in that
region— went to examine it— immediately denounced it before the nearest
alcalde, and then made known what it contained. This ore has produced
from 25 to 30 per cent o f pure metal, from very imperfect experiments.
T h e result was obtained by pounding the red ore to about the size o f a
large pea and putting it into an old gun-barrel, the muzzle end o f which
was immersed in a pot o f water, and the other part submitted to the ac­
tion o f a strong fire— a plate in the bottom o f the pot receiving the mer­
cury, which was afterwards strained through a silk handkerchief. T h e
red ore produces far better results than the yellow .
A much more indifferent method produces about 15 per cent. T h e pro­
cess is as follo w s:— Upon a shallow wooden tank, containing water, is
piled sufficient o f the ore to fill a whaler’ s try-pot, w hich is covered over
the heap and cemented well around what is now the bottom, with clay— a
large quantity o f wood is put upon the pot— fired, and at the expiration o f
from fourteen to sixteen hours, the quicksilver is found in the tank. Much
o f this ore, however, is but little affected by the process, and if subjected to
a proper analysis would yet yield largely. T h e mine is situated upon the
top o f a steep mountain, a mile or more from the plain, to xvhich the ore
is brought down on mules.
N ear the town o f Sanoma, about sixty miles from the entrance o f the
Bay o fS a n Francisco, there are other mines, the rock or ore o f which is
o f a greyish cast. I am informed that its yield, with the same imperfect
experiments, is fully equal to the San Jose mines, which are represented
to be inexhaustible.
The Indians have brought to the mission o f St. John’ s lead ore by the
blanket full— refusing to tell from w hence they brought it. On the rancho




Plank Roads— New Improvement.

367

o f Captain Richardson, the north side o f the entrance o f the Bay o f San
Francisco, there is lead. My informant writes :— “ I have seen a piece o f
some two or three pounds, said to be from the rancho o f Captain Richard­
son, at San F r a n cis c o ; this piece was full o f pebble stones, which, when
taken out by a nail or knife, left the lead entirely pure, and indented like
honey-com b.”
On the Sacramento River there is much slate o f the best quality.
Plumbago (black lead) is also said to be in California.
At San Fernando, near San Pedro, by washing the sand in a plate, any
person can obtain from one to five dollars per day o f gold, which brings,
in the United States, seventeen dollars per ounce. T h e gold has been
gathered for two or three years, although but few (at least o f the native
Californians) have the patience to look for it.
There is not the least doubt in my mind, from all the information I was
enabled to obtain during my short stay in California, that gold, silver,
quicksilver, copper, lead, sulphur, asphaltum and coal, are to be found in
all that region ; and I am confident that when it becom es settled (as it
soon will be) by Am ericans, that its mineral developments will greatly exceed, in richness and variety, the most sanguine expectations. T h e In­
dians have always said there were mines, but refused to give their locality,
and the Californians did not choose, or have been too lazy, to look for
them. Indolence and poverty have prevented the working o f those al­
ready discovered.

Art. VII.— PLANK ROADS— NEW IMPROVEMENT.
N o t h in g is more essential to the prosperity o f a city than good roads.

Th ey form a system o f arteries and veins, drawing all to the great centre.
Their importance was well understood by the ancients. Athens, L acedoemonia, Thebes and other States o f G reece, bestowed much attention
upon them. T h e Carthagenians are said to have originated paved roads,
and Rom e followed and extended the process o f their construction. Under
Julius Caesar, the seat o f government was connected with all the ch ief
towns, with paved roads. During the African war, a paved road was
made from Spain, through Gaul, to the Alps. This was followed up after­
wards, by lines o f communication to every important point, even to the
mouths o f the Danube. Seas did not daunt the enterprise o f these people.
Good roads were made on the shores o f the continent o f Europe. E n g ­
land was intersected, and penetrated at important points. The first road
constructed there, was made by Roman hands.
This glorious example was neglected by the Britons. Roads w ere al­
lowed to go to decay, and no new ones to take their place. F or centuries
following, mere paths over the natural surface o f the earth were used, simi­
lar to those usually found at the new settlements o f the W est, called Indian
trails. It so remained until the sixteenth century, when, under Charles
II., the first turnpike road was established in England, and tolls allowed
to be received. One hundred years ago, most o f the goods w ere con ­
veyed on pack-horses. A s late as 1770, Arthur Young, in his Travels,
over the road where the Manchester and Liverpool R ailw ay is now con ­
structed, wrote the following. H e said :—




368

Plank Roads— New Improvement.

“ I have not, in the whole range of language, terms sufficiently expressive to
describe this infernal road. Let me most seriously caution all travellers, who may
accidentally propose to travel this way, to avoid it as they would the devil. For
a thousand to one they break their necks, or their limbs, by overthrows or break­
ing-down. They will here meet with ruts, which I actually could not fathom,
floating with mud. The only mending it receives, is tumbling in some loose
stones, which serves no other purpose than jolting a carriage in the most intole­
rable manner. These are not merely opinions, but facts; for I actually passed
three carts broken down in these eighteen miles of execrable memory.”
T h e last fifty years have changed the character o f all the principal roads
in England. A revolution has commenced, which is still progressing, in
road-making, and every improvement made, is immediately fostered by
government. W hat has been said o f England’ s neglect o f roads, will ap­
ply equally to the United States. Previous to 1790, roads were neglected
throughout the country, and but little attention to scientific principle was
given in their construction. Some thirty years back, they began to be
laid out under special acts o f the various States, and, in many instances,
charters w ere given for the erection o f toll-gates. T h e greatest improve­
ments in roads have taken place since M cAdam ’ s method o f using broken
stone has been introduced. The building o f the national road by govern­
ment, on this plan, contributed to its general introduction among us. This
has proved too expensive on common country roads. None but great pub­
lic thoroughfares can support their cost. Even this has been superseded
by railroads, and they are fast becom ing neglected except in cities. The
dust in summer and mud in winter, produced by broken stone, being ob­
jectionable in streets, a resort to w'ooden blocks was made, as an experi­
ment, in 1839, by many city corporations ; among others, N ew York,
Boston and Rochester. T h ey apparently worked w ell for a few months,
and all w ere delighted with the move ; no dust, no mud, and no noise.
Tim e, however, has too truly proved their unfitness.
T h e great want o f some cheap method to construct roads in the country,
where the M cAdam plan would be too expensive, has been long felt, and
many minds have given it deep reflection.
T h e plank road system originated in Canada, in 1835. T h e Com mis­
sioner o f Highways, in repairing a road, found it difficult to devise any
w ay to better the condition o f a few rods o f quick-sand. H e tried various
experiments without much success. Finally, he conceived the idea o f
sinking heavy timber and planking it, similar to bridging, except he filled
the vacancy between the sleepers or sills with stone and earth, in order to
let the plank lay solid upon it. H e watched the operation o f it with inter­
est, and found he had overcome the quick-sand trouble. A t the end o f
tw o years, the plank still remained solid. H e then tried the same experi­
ment over a marshy soil. It worked w ell. From this, he was convinced
o f the efficacy o f a common road made o f plank.
A com pany was formed soon after, for the construction o f a plank road
from Toronto to the river Rouse, w hich was finished in 1839. It met pub­
lic expectation. Another was built from W hitly to Lake O n tario; one
from London to G odrick ; another from Coburg to R ice Lake ; one finish­
ed from the Rapids, on the St. Law rence, from Coto de L a c t o ----------- ,
about 16 miles lo n g ; and one from Longuile to Chambly, com m encing
three miles below Montreal, which is 15 miles long. T h ey have been
sufficiently tested to the satisfaction o f all, as being the best roads ever




Plank Roads— New Improvement.

369

made for ordinary passage, and capable o f being used next to railroad, in
expedition o f travel.
In the United States, but little has ever been known o f them, until three
years ago, except by visiters to Canada, who always spoke o f them in high
commendation. T h e Rochester Democrat, in 1843, contained several let­
ters in reference to them, written by a gentleman o f that city, who w as tra­
velling through Canada. T h e letters were extensively copied by the
press, and the adoption o f them into this country urged. Since then,
charters have been obtained for the construction o f three roads in the State
o f N ew York, viz. : one from Buffalo to Aurora ; another from Buffalo to
L an caster; the third from Salina to Brewertori. The last mentioned is
the only one now constructed in the United States. It is 12^ miles long.
G eorge Geddes, o f Onondaga county, was the engineer. As the subject
is becom ing atopic o f much interest throughout this State, the mode o fc o n ­
struction is o f interest. W e extract from a letter o f Mr. Geddes to a
friend :—
“ In case it is expected that a very great amount of travel is to pass over the
road, two tracks, each eight feet wide, will be required ; but it is not probable
that any road coming into your town will require more than one track ; at any
rate for more than a few miles out of town. It is difficult to persuade a man, who
has not seen the thing tried, that one track is entirely sufficient, except in cases
of an extraordinary amount of travel; but it is so, and the road out of Salina has
but one track, except over places where proper earth could not be obtained with
which to make a road alongside of the plank. Over the light sand plains, where,
in dry weather, a wagon would cut into the sand, we laid two tracks; but over
clay or common earth, we laid but one ; and during the very rainy autumn just
past, our road has constantly been in good order for teams to turn out.
“ In case there is so much travel that common earth cannot be kept in good or­
der for turning out—then the tolls paid by that travel will compensate for the cost
of the second track; so that the interests of the public and the owners meet, and
the thing will regulate itself. If the second track is required, then its cost will
be a good investment.
“ There is another particular in which the public interests and the interests of
the owners go together—the tolls. The charter of the Salina road allows the Di­
rectors to regulate the tolls within certain limits; in summer we exact threefourths, and in winter, one-half the sum allowed us from vehicles drawn by two
animals. It is our interest to encourage such an amount of travel as to insure
the wearing out, rather than the rotting out of our timber, and by taxing the travel
lightly, we increase the amount.
“ The track is laid on one side of the road, so that teams coming into town
keep it, and teams going out yield it, in passing. The tonnage being chiefly in
one direction, it is generally the unloaded teams that have to do all the turning
out.
“ The plank are of hemlock, eight feet long and four inches thick, laid cross­
wise of the road, on sills four inches square. The earth is broken up and made
fine, the sills are bedded into it, and the surface graded smooth; the plank are
then laid on the sills, care being taken that the earth is up to and touches the
plank at every point. This is important, for if any space be left for air under the
plank, or alongside the sills, dry rot follows. I saw, in Canada, a road that had
been worn out, and was being rebuilt. The sills were good and the plank were
sound on the under side, save where air had supplied the place of earth, and there
they were destroyed by rot. The plank having been laid, the next thing is to
grade a road some ten or twelve feet wide on one side, and two or three on the
other, by taking earth from the ditches on each side, and bringing it, by a ditchscraper, just up to and even with the upper side of the plank, so that if a wheel
runs off the track, it passes upon a smooth surface of earth. The ends of the
V O L . X V I . -----N O . I V .
24




370

Plank Roads— New Improvement.

plank ahould not be laid even, but a part should project from tw o to four inches by
the general line, to prevent a rut being cu t just alon g the ends o f the plank. If
the ends o f the plank are even, and a small rut is made, the w h eel o f a loaded w a­
gon w ill scrape alon g the ends for som e distance before it w ill rise up to the top
o f the plank, unless the w agon m oves in a direction nearly across the ro a d ; but
i f the w h eel cannot m ove tw o feet forward without com in g square against the
ed ge o f a projecting plank, the difficulty o f getting on the road is avoided. It is
not necessary to pin or spike the plank to the sill.
“ P erfect drainage m ust be secured, and to that end the ditches m ust be deep
and wide, and good slu ices w herever w'ater crosses the road. T h is is the im por­
tant point— drain perfectly.
“ A s to the cost o f su ch a road, I w ill answ er y ou by g iv in g you a c o p y o f m y
estimate for the Salina road, w h ich very considerably exceeded the actual cost.
It is proper to inform you this road w a s made upon the bed o f an old road, filled in
m any places w ith stone and logs. T h e right o f w ay cost us nothing. T h e esti­
m ate w as for plank three or four inches thick. W h e r e w e laid tw o tracks, w e
laid one o f them with three inch plank, but the m ain track w as four inches thick.
It is econ om y to use thick plank if the travel is sufficient to wear out the road, but
i f it is to rot before it is w orn out, then, o f course, thin plank should be used. T h e
Canada roads are generally three inches thick, and are made o f pine, and last
about eight years.
“ e s t im a t e of th e cost of a single t r a c k plan k r o a d , e ig h t f e e t w id e ,
FOR ONE MILE :
S ills 4 in. by 4 i n ..........................14,080 ft. board meas.
8 ft. width o f plank 3 in. th ick ,..126,720
“
“
140,800 feet, at $ 5 per th o u s a n d .. . $ 7 0 4 ,0 0
L a y in g and grading, $ 1 per rod,.................................................................
320,00
E ngineerin g, superintendence, & c ., 10 per ce n t....................................
102,00
G ate-houses, s a y .................................................................................................
100,00
F o r a 4 in. road add 42,240 ft., at $ 5 per M ..............................................
211,00
S lu ices, bridges and con tin g en cies,................................................................
63,00
T o ta l.................................................................. * $1 ,500 ,00
“ W e did not let out to contractors the construction o f our road, for the reason that
w e w ere very desirous o f secu rin g the bedding o f the timber perfectly, a thing that my
observation in Canada satisfied me w as not alw ays done, when the w ork was made
by the rod ; and as plank road m aking w as a n ew business, no person w as w illin g
to undertake the w ork at the price estimated. B y doing our w ork by the day, we
not only secured its p erfect construction in this particular, but w e saved som e
thousands o f dollars in the cost. A fter w e had acquired experience and skill, we
reduced the co st o f gradin g and layin g the road to from thirty to fifty cents a rod,
including construction o f slu ices and bridges, and grubbing, and in short, every­
thing but m aterials and superintendence.
“ I f y ou m ake plank roads, I advise y o u by all m eans to do the w ork by the day,
and put at the head o f the business, a man w h o is fully com petent to engineer
and direct the w h ole matter. T h e variation o f a few inches in the line o f a road,
m ay tell largely in the cost o f construction. T h e lum ber you can best obtain by
dividing the road into eighty-rod sections, staking them out and letting them to
the m ost favorable proposers— the lum ber to be distributed alon g the line equally
as near as m ay be, as it is delivered.
“ A s to the value o f plank roads to the public and to the ow n ers, I can best an­
sw er y ou by sayin g that I have seen a M cA d am ized road taken up, eight feet in
width, to m ake room for a plank track— and by inform ing y ou that m en w ho have
travelled ov e r the best roads in E nglan d, say that there is not in Great Britain as
good a road as the Salina Plank R o a d .”

The Longuil and Chamhly plank road in Canada, was relaid the past
season, after a w ear o f eight years. T h e incom e o f the road paid a divi-




371

Commerce o f Rio de Janeiro.

dend o f 10 per cent on the cost o f the first construction, and reserved a
sufficient sinking fund to pay for re-building.
Fourteen applications are made to the present session o f the N ew York
Legislature, for charters to build roads o f this description,— four o f them to
lead from the city o f Rochester.

Art, T ill.— COMMERCE OF RIO DE JANEIRO, FROM 1836 TO 1847.
T h e trade o f R io is very extensive, and has increased rapidly during
the last few years. It is now by far the greatest mart for the export o f
coffee. T h e shipments o f this important article, which, in 1830, amounted
to 396,785 bags, have increased with such unexampled rapidity that, in
1839-40, they amounted to 1,095,346 bags, that is (taking the bag at 154
lbs.,) to 168,683,284 lbs., or 75,305 tons— being nearly equal to all the
exports o f coffee from all the other ports in the world ! Sugar is also an
important article o f export from Rio, though latterly it has been decreas­
ing, and does not now exceed 10,000 cases (15 cwt. e a c h ;) the exports o f
sugar from Santos are, however, in creasin g; and amounting, in 1839-40,
to 624,750 arrobas. T h e other great articles o f export from R io are hides,
rice, tobacco, rum, tapioca, ipecacuanha, manioc flour, and other inferior
articles. T h e export o f cotton has almost entirely ceased ; and that o f
gold, diamonds, & c ., is mostly clandestine, and too inconsiderable to be
worth notice. W e subjoin
AN

ACCOUNT

OF

THE

Q U A N T IT IE S

B R A Z IL IA N

AND

PRODUCE,

VALUES

(IN

EXPORTED

K E Is)
FROM

OF THE
R IO , IN

P R IN C IP A L

R e is .

Coffee, 5,255,950 arrobas, at 3,500..................................
Expenses, including duty and commission, 171 per cent
Sugar, 575,003 arrobas, at 2,100.......................................
Expenses, as above, 15 per cent.......................................
Hides, 184,292, at 6,300....................................................
Horns, 100,000, at 4,500 per 100.....................................
Tanned half-hides, 17,500, at 2,500...............................
R ice, bags, 17,805, at 9,000..............................................
Tobacco, arrobas, 100,000, at 4,500..................................
Rum, pipes, 3,110, at 65,000............................................
Tapioca, barrels, 250, at 9,000..........................................
Ipecacuanha, lbs., 20,000, at 500......................................
Jacaranda, manioc flour, and various articles.................

Expenses, as above, 12J per cent......................................

A R T IC L E S

OF

1840.
R e is .

18,395,825
3,219,269
--------------- 21,615,094
1,207,500
905,620
— ----------2,113,120
1,161,039
4,500
43,750
161,145
450,000
202,150
2,250
10,000
20,000
2,234,834
279,350
----------------2,514,184

Total value o f exports during the year 1840.................................

26,242,398

Being, at the medium exchange o f the year, equal to about £3, 400,000.

T h e aggregate value o f the exports, in the undermentioned years, have
been—
R e is .

1836,..................................
1837...................................
1838,..................................

18,711,824
15,362,642
20,455,865

R e is .

1839,..................................
1840,..................................

23,362,298
26,242,398

T h e principal article o f import consists o f cotton goods, the value o f




372

Commerce o f Rio de Janeiro.

which amounts to full one-third o f the total value o f the imports. Next to
cottons are woollens, linen, and silk manufactures, wines, jew ellery, and
iron-m ongery; flour, meat, fish, butter, and other articles o f provision ;
spirits, salt, earthenware, paper, and a host o f other articles. O f the total
value o f the imports, in 1838-9, estimated at 29,450,698 rs., that o f the cot­
ton goods, which were almost wholly supplied by Great Britain, amounted
to 10,555,704. W e subjoin
AN

ACCOUNT

OF

E N D IN G W I T H

THE

VALUE

1838-9,

O F T H E IM P O R T S

S P E C IF Y IN G

IN T O

R IO ,

TH E V A LU E OF

1816-7.

C o u n tr ie s .

D U R IN G E A C H

TH OSE

F U R N IS H E D

OF

TH E TH REE

YEARS

B Y EACH C O U N T R Y .

1817-8.

1818-9.

R e is .

R e is .

R e is ,

2,689,846
2,804,160
1,667,863
1,661,875
1,599,680
1,556,395
682,426
265,260
216,057
155,040
121,751
115,793
69,451
28,966

Coastwise, duties paid .... ...............
Ditto, duties unpaid...........................

13,345,787
3,921,145
1,054,474
2,037.938
1,098,264
1,671,329
357,649
473,674
282.644
166,699
130,595
110,267
55,440
21,011
12,418
485,203
152,563

129,600
502,122

15,092,554
4,314,363
1,799,687
1,596,317
1,577,217
2,652,598
765,413
475,015
9,994
350,255
160
109,243
2,471
5,338
] 9,958
622,820
57,295

Total...........................

25,480,100

24,316,275

29,450,698

Great Britain and her possessions...
France..................................................
United States N. A ..........................
Hamburg and Bremen......................
States in the R. Plata.........................
Portugal and her possessions...........
Spain....................................................
Italy.......................................................
Ports o f the Pacific............................
Baltic ports..........................................
Fisheries..............................................
Holland and Belgium.........................
Austria..................................................
Cape o f Good H ope...........................

T h e customs’ duties at Rio, in 1840, amounted to 1,929,822 reis on im­
ports, and to 1,920,406 rs. on exports. During the same year, 858 ships
arrived at R io from foreign ports ; and 812 sailed, o f which 512 were laden
with Brazilian produce, and 230 in ballast. On the 1st o f June, 1841,
there w ere in the port 21 British, 27 Portuguese, 12 American, & c., ships.
T h e arrivals coastwise, in 1840, amounted to 1489.*
T h e following particulars o f the commerce o f R io de Janeiro, are de­
rived from the circular o f a highly respectable commercial house at that
port, dated R io de Janeiro, January 1st, 1847. It furnishes a succinct
statement o f the trade o f Rio, during the year 1846 :—
AN N U AL

STATEM EN T

OF TH E

TRAD E

O F R IO

D U R IN G

TH E

Y E A R

1846.

Arrivals o f Am erican vessels, last year, w ere from United States, 124 ;
elsewhere, 1 2 0 ; whalers, 2 8 ; total, 273. Being an increase o f 20 over
those in 1845.
Imports.— From the United States have been received 193,123 barrels
flour, 197 barrels bran, 4,685 packages domestics, 1,658 packages tea,
9,752 boxes sperm, and 1,536 boxes composition candles, 683,000 feet
lumber, 8,877 barrels rosin, 1,224 barrels beef, 1,470 barrels pork, 121
hogsheads tobacco, 892 boxes and kegs tobacco, 52,000 feet oars, 325 tons
coal, 130 cases cassia, 356 bales hay, 1,595 coils cordage, 74,795 pounds
wax, 109 dozen chairs, 7,292 hams, 4,128 kegs lard, 432 packages tacks
and nails, 2,248 packages spirits o f turpentine, 148,000 segars, 215 pack­
ages drugs, 600 packages sail-cloth, 835 barrels apples, 70 barrels pitch
* From Freese’s R io Circular, and private returns from Rio.




Commerce o f Rio de Janeiro.

373

and tar, 2,505 boxes fire-crackers, 787 tons ice, 5,024 kegs gunpowder,
60 bags pepper, 407 boxes soap, 800 drums fish, and sundries. From
whalers, about 50,000 gallons oil.
From Europe, have been received 14,015 barrels flou r; and from V a l­
paraiso, 4,218 bags wheat.
F L O U R ----- I M P O R T S A N D S A L E S .

Stock in hand, January 1st, 1846,.............................................................. barrels,
Imported from United States,— ..................................................................
“
Europe, & e.,........................................ ; ............................... “

10,700
193,123
17,177

Total supply,......................................................................................
Stock in 1st hands, 1st January, 1847,....................................................................

221,000
21,000

Sales in 12 months for consumption and export, or per month 16,666 barrels,

200,000

At the commencement o f the year, the bakers held moderate stocks,
and there being a demand for the R io Grande, holders were very firm, and
large sales o f Richmond were made at 20||a21|| nett $8a8 50 ; Baltimore.
18||ol8||500 nett $6 87|a7 5 0 ; advices from England then checked the
market. T h e arrivals to July w ere large. Prices declined gradually to
18||«19|| for Richmond. Baltimore and Philadelphia being more wanted,
were maintained at 17||al7||500. T h e arrivals in July w ere large, but
an unexpected demand for the Cape o f Good Hope and the South, relieved
the market o f 17,000 barrels, at a reduction *>(' l||al||500 per barrel. At
the close, holders were firm at 16|| for Baltimore, 18|| for Richmond. The
sales in August to 15th, were 10,000 barrels at 15||500al6|| for Balti­
more, 17||al8|| for Richmond.
The usual time o f arrival o f new flour being near, alarm was taken,
and sales o f Philadelphia made on 26th, at 13|| and 12||500; being a re­
duction o f 4||500 per barrel in three weeks. In September, the arrivals
w ere moderate, but considerable sales were made at very low prices ; the
impression being given, that the crops in the United States would be very
heavy, prices low, and large shipments, in consequence o f the determina­
tion o f some holders not to be left with any old on hand. Richmond sold
at 16||al6||500 ; O. Dance and Columbia, 12||500al3|| ; Richmond Coun­
try, 12||; and Baltimore, 11||000. Some holders o f good flour retired
their stocks, being convinced that there was no cause for alarm. In O c­
tober, the arrivals were rather large ; but holders w ere enabled to obtain
better prices, assisted by the account o f the short crops in Europe, and
the certainty that the exports from the United States would be moderate,
especially o f Richmond City. N ew G allego arrived on 26th, and was
sold at 18||500al9||000 ; old G allego, 17||al8|| ; O. Dance, 13||500 ; B al­
timore, 12||.
In Novem ber the import was moderate, and sales continued to be made
at improving prices. N ew Richmond, 19||a20 ; old Richmond, 17||al9|| ;
old Columbia Mills, 16|| ; new Baltimore, 13||al5||. Arrivals in D ecem ­
ber large, and considerable sales w ere made, early in the month, at 2 1 1|
for new Richmond ; old Haxall, 18||al9|| ; Baltimore, 17||al7j|500 ; but
holders, encouraged by the European quotations and inquiries for the South,
advanced their prices to 22|| for Richmond, 18|| for Baltimore, although
the stock had increased to 21,000 barrels ; being under the b elief that the
export from the United States to this coast would fall off, and that the ba­
kers who had moderate stocks must buy largely in January. T h e import
o f Richmond City Mills flour was in excess the first six months o f the
year ; during the last six, it has been only 4,000 barrels per month. The




374

Commerce o f R io de Janeiro.

average has been 6,000, which is the utmost that the market requires.
O f other sorts, 8 a l0 ,0 00 per month is a fair supply.
Domestics.— Importations moderate, compared with 1845 ; but the large
stock at the beginning o f the year, and large supplies o f English imita­
tions, have kept prices very low and gradually declining. The last sales
have been ;it auction, at 275 rs. for blue drills, nett 9 cts. ; Shetuckees
stripes, 250 rs. nett 9 cts. York stripes are getting out o f use, the more
common qualities being preferred; they cannot be quoted over 290 rs.
nett 1 0 j. There has been some demand for export to the coast, and
brown drills would bring 230 rs. nett 8 c t s .; 30 inch shirtings, 175 rs.
nett 6 f cts. The stock is upwards o f 2,000 packages, mostly blues and
stripes. The stock o f English is large ; and the auction sales in Janu­
ary, it is to be feared, w ill depress prices still more.
Spirits Turpentine.— The consumption has considerably increased, and
fair prices have been obtained; last sales at 260 in tins, nett 55 cts. per
gallon, and 1,220 barrels nett 40 cts. Chairs.— Split rattan and straw
matting are quite unsaleable, and would discourage all shipments, except
o f regular articles.
Coffee.— The supplies during the first six months
w ere abundant, being increased by large arrivals o f the new crop, which
was very early and weather fine ; this continued uninterrupted till the end
o f the year, and the planters have sent forward their crops faster than
ever known. Prices w ere highest in April, when superiors were from
3||400a3||550, 6 fa 7 cts. on board. T h ey have gradually declined since,
and in Decem ber, superiors were sold at 2||800a3||000, 6 ia 6 | cts.; good
firsts, 2||650a2||750, 5 fa 6 cts. T h e demand has been equal to the supply,
and the stock does not now exceed 40,000 bags— prices firm. In conse­
quence o f the heavy arrivals since June, and the weather having becom e
unsettled, the general opinion is, that supplies henceforward w ill be much
less, and the quality, as usual, will be more inferior.
Exports o f coffee, the past ten years, are as follows :—
T o E urope.
B a gs.
P ou n d s.

1837...
1838...
1839...
1840...
1841...
1842...
1843...
1844...
1845...
1846...

499,264
513,768
525,802
705,018
539,384
809,993
618,614
678,552
645,023
774,025

T o U n it e d S ta te s .
B ags.
P ou n d s.

64,000,000
79,800,000
82,100,000
84,100,000
112,800,000
86,000,000
129,600,000
98,900,000
108,500,000
103,000,000

128,375
237,036
336,620
297.248
427,299
343,734
542,714
554,382
546,615
721,220

20',500,000
43i , 000,000
531,300,000
47 ,600,000
681,100,000
55 ,000,000
86 ,600,000
88 ,600,000
86 ,400,000
115 ,400,000

T o ta l.
B ags.

P ou n d s.

627,639
780,804
862,422
1,002,296
966,683
1,153,731
1,161,328
1,232,935
1,191,641
1,500,245

100,300,000
125,100,000
137,400,000
160,400,000
154.100,000
184,600,000
185,500,000
197,100,000
189,400,000
240,000,000

T o the p orts o f th e U n ite d S ta te s, the p a st fiv e ’pears, h a v e b e e n as
fo llo w s :—
N ew Y o rk ,............ ........
Baltimore,.............. .........
N ew Orleans,......... .........
Philadelphia,.......... .........
Boston,..
Charleston,............. .........
Mobile,..
Richmond,...............
Savannah,................
T otal,......




1842.
109,971
88,230
92,583
19,660
9,972

1843.
155 ,711
148 ,625
152 ,511
34 ,792
,857
5 ,450
l i ,797

1844.
185,388
127,154
129,997
28,255
60,881
11,468
7,657
2,025
1,757

1845.
169,048
117,098
175,625
35,168
47,012
2,664

184G.
203,537
229,204
151,142
47,747
75,816
7,918
5,858

,713

554,382

546,615

721,223

Production o f Sugar in the East Indies.

375

T h e currency o f Rio, and o f Brazil generally, is in a very vitiated state.
T h e par o f exchange, when the silver currency was maintained, was 67 fd.,
and the current rate was usually h igh er; but for some years past, owing
to the introduction o f paper and copper, the exchange has fallen, so that its
average rate in Rio, in 1840, was 30 fd .
The harbor o f R io is one o f the finest in the world. Its entrance is
marked by a remarkable hill, in the form o f a sugar-loaf, 900 feet in
height, close to its west side, while on the opposite side o f the bay, at the
distance o f about 1^ miles, is the fort o f Santa Cruz, on which is a light­
house. There is, also, a light-house, having the lantern elevated about
300 feet above the sea level, on Ilh a R aza (Flat Island,) about 10 miles
south from the mouth o f the harbor. Ships may enter either by night or
day, there being no obstruction or danger o f any kind. T h e water in the
bay is sufficient to float the largest ships o f w a r ; and it is extensive enough
to accommodate all the navies o f all countries in the world.*

Art. IX.— PRODUCTION OF SUGAR IN THE EAST INDIES.
N ew Y

ork,

March 20, 1847.

M y D e a r S i r — By the last steamer, I received from J. Balestier, Esq.,
the United States Consul at Singapore, in the East Indies, an open letter
addressed to a planter in Porto R ico, which appeared to me to possess so
much o f general interest, that I have taken the liberty to transmit to you
a copy o f the material parts o f it.
Air. B. has resided in Singapore since the year 1833, and is very inti­
mately acquainted with the commercial and agricultural statistics o f the
East. T h e present communication relates to the prospective production
o f sugar, and embraces a sketch o f the present condition o f sugar-planting
in Java, Cochin China, Siam, & c. With this letter I also send you a
com m ercial article, written by my brother expressly for your valuable
M agazine.f
V e r y re sp e ctfu lly , y o u r o b e d ie n t serv a n t,

J. N . B a l e s t ie r .
T o F reeman H

unt, E s q .

EXTRACTS

FROM

TU B

LE TTE R

OF J.

B A L E S T I E R , F .S Q .

W hat with the reduction in the duties in England and Am erica, and the
prevailing spirit in the remainder o f Europe, for cheap sugars, the con ­
sumption must greatly increase ; and as growers o f the article are not
prepared to supply this unexpected call, it would seem to follow that, for
some years to com e, prices will rather advance than decline. N o part o f
Am erica, except the United States, is in a condition to add much to the
stock now raised.
T here is abundance o f first-rate soil, but a great scarcity o f la b oters;
and without them the land has but little value. T o this quarter— the East­
ern hemisphere, abounding in suitable soil and efficient hands— expecta­
tion is naturally turned to furnish the increased demand.
* M 'Culloch’s Universal Gazetteer.
t The article alluded to, relating to the Commerce o f Malacca, Singapore, &c., will be
found in a former part o f the present number o f this Magazine.




376

Production o f Sugar in the E ast Indies.

But there w ill be found great obstacles in the realization o f this expec­
tation, causing great disappointment. This Eastern world, though pos­
sessed o f unbounded soil and population, is wanting in capital and in en­
terprising Europeans, without which there can be no considerable addition
to sugar production. The natives, left to themselves, are too much want­
ing in industrious habits, or in ambition o f riches, ever to make good a
deficiency in so costly and complicated a manufacture as that o f sugar.
Java, under its system o f forced labor, is strained beyond prudence, as is
proved by two successive years o f famine brought on by turning the in ­
dustry o f that island from rice cultivation— the bread o f that country— into
other channels,' such as indigo, tea, coffee, and sugar. The Philippines,
vast and rich in soil, are in the hands o f pirates and Indians, and by law
or habit, are rendered unapproachable to foreigners beyond the limits o f
Manilla, the capital; and although there is a yearly development o f their
productiveness, still they are far from being productive to the extent they
would be, were Europeans permitted to establish themselves in the in­
terior, and turn the population to industrious habits by giving them ade­
quate wages for their labor. China produces much su gar; but as their
own consumption is great, and as they even import considerable coarse
sugar from Cochin China and Siam, it would seem that no considerable
surplus could be looked for from that quarter. Cochin China is in the
hands o f a despot, who reaps what his people are made to plant; they re­
ceiving, either in articles o f food, clothing, or money, what his majesty is
pleased to give them. Everything comes into his granaries for future dis­
posal, and he alone exports, in his own ships, to this port and to Batavia,
whatever is marketable— say-about 20,000 piculs o f ordinary sugar and
some coffee. Siam is another o f those vast countries where large quan­
tities o f sugar might be grow n w ere it not for the cupidity o f its sovereign.
H e o f Cochin China, as I have said, obliges his people to sow, to enrich
him self with the reapin g; whilst his brother o f Siam encouraged the im­
migration o f colonies o f Chinese into his States, to obtain a revenue from
the rich alluvial wastes which his own subjects had not energy and indus­
try to cultivate. The Chinese paid a regular fixed rent for their allotments,
and their production o f sugar greatly increased. But an unlooked-for pur­
chaser made his appearance. Hitherto, the Chinese had been free to sell
their crops to the highest bidder; but now, the king’ s emissaries demanded
the delivery o f the sugar at a price fixed by himself, and which, being less
than the market value, leaves to his merchant majesty a handsome profit
on the sales to foreigners. That proceedings so arbitrary should check
the manufacture, is the natural consequence ; and Siam, therefore, w ill
not, for the present, lend a helping hand in replenishing the warehouses o f
the W est with sugar.
I have given you a rapid, and, I believe, a correct survey, o f the capa­
bilities o f the principal sugar lands in the East, to meet the new wants
expected to arise from a less burdensome tax upon the consumer.
T h e time, however, w ill com e— must com e— when the world will be
amply supplied with this article. British India, and the British possessions
in the Straits o f M alacca, are in a better condition to becom e producers
on a larger scale than any other region. I have already said, in the first
part o f this letter, that there is abundance o f soil and o f laborers, but that
capital and adventurers w ere wanting. This is true, at present; but will
it be so long, after the stability o f this branch o f industry shall be well




Production o f Sugar in the E ast Indies.

377

established ? For many years past, vacillating policies and tariffs have
given anything but security to those engaged in the business o f grow ing
su gar; and the consequence has been, that capitalists have been unwilling
to lend money to carry on or establish an industry universally considered
hazardous, except on such onerous conditions, as made the unfortunate bor­
rower a bonded slave for life. T h e new policy o f governments, which, by the imposition o f moderate
duties, encourages consumption, gives that stability and security so much
wanted, and will lead capital to flow in that channel. That great obsta­
cle removed, adventurers from the W est will not be wanting in the plains
o f over-populated India. Money, obtained at a moderate rate o f interest,
will enable them to form plantations, and raise and export sugar, cheaper
than from any other quarter o f the globe, unless these shores, (the Straits
o f M alacca,) jutting out from India and China, whose population is the
densest in the world, should prove an exception.
T h e shores o f the Malaya Peninsula, along the Straits o f M alacca, have
far greater advantages for the growth o f sugar-cane than any portion o f
British India. T h e whole extent o f country is perfectly healthful to E u­
ropeans, Chinese, Indians, or aboriginal Malays. In its whole extent, it
is exempt from any o f those terrific and destructive atmospheric convul­
sions, such as hurricanes, typhoons, or even gales ; squalls, only, are occa ­
sionally experienced. Its surface is diversified by high mountains and
rich valleys, and plains almost interminable, all indicating, by the luxuriant
fruit which overspreads them, the fertility o f the soil. Large navigable
rivers, and other water-courses, indent the coast, by which the greatest fa­
cility would be had in communicating with the interior. Its mineral
wealth, in gold, iron, lead, and particularly in tin, is great.
This peninsula, with upwards o f 500 miles o f sea-coast, with the ex­
ception o f the three small settlements, viz. : Singapore, M alacca, and P e­
nang, or Prince o f W ales Island, is a waste.
Possessing such eminent advantages, what is not that waste capable o f
becom ing, with capital at command, and cheap labor from India and China
close at hand? Nothing is wanting, but confidence in the business o f
raising sugar, to give such an impulse to it within the possessions o f the
East India Company, as shall fully meet the probable increased wants o f
the European and Am erican populations.
Receive, then, my friendly congratulations on what appears to me justfounded prospects o f good prices, for some years to come ; but at the same
time make the most o f that warning, which the untold millions o f vacant
cane lands, and the untold millions o f the free and efficient hands o f In ­
dia— at an average o f two Spanish dollars per month, enduring every­
thing— gives you. W ill you be ready to compete with good sugar, the
cost o f which, to the manufacturers, shall not exceed one penny sterling,
or two cents per pound? There are not those wanting— experienced men
in the business— who are ready to prove that, with plough and steam for
helpmate— that is, with improved implements and skill— sugar, nearly
white, can be turned out at two cents per pound.
j. b.




378

Maritime Transportation— the Bill o f Lading.

Art. X .— COMMERCIAL CODE OF SPAIN.
N U M B E R III.

O F M A R IT IM E

T R A N S P O R T A T I O N ------ T H E

B IL L

O F L A D IN G .

799. T h e shipper and the captain o f the vessel w hich receives a cargo,
cannot refuse to interchange mutually, each with, the other, as a title o f
their respective obligations and rights, a bill o f lading, (un conocimienlo,)
in which shall be expressed—
First— T h e name, registration, and tonnage o f the vessel.
Second— T h e name o f the captain and the town o f his domicil.
Third— The port o f loading and discharge o f the vessel.
Fourth— T h e names o f the shipper, ( cargador,) and also o f the con ­
signee, ( consignatario.)
Fifth— T h e quality, the quantity, the number o f bales, and the marks
o f the merchandise.
Sixth— T h e freight, or money for the carriage o f the goods, and the
primage contracted to be paid.
But the designation o f the consignee may be omitted, and the cargo
addressed to order.
800. The shipper shall sign a bill o f lading, w hich he shall deliver to
the captain.
T h e captain shall sign so many bills o f lading as the shipper may
require.
A ll the bills o f lading, as w ell that which the shipper ought to sign, as
those which are required o f the captain, shall be o f one and the same
tenor, and shall bear the same date, and shall express the number o f those
which have been signed.
801. There being found a disagreement between the bills o f lading o f
one and the same cargo, the contest shall be settled by the contents o f the
one which the captain may present; the whole being written out in full, or,
at least, the part which shall not be printed, in the hand o f the shipper, or
o f a clerk employed in the business o f his trade, without amendment or
erasure ; and as for that which the shipper shall produce, it must be signed
in the handwriting o f the captain himself.
Should the two bills o f lading which are discordant, respectively have
this requisite, that shall be the true bill o f lading which the parties can
prove.
802. Bills o f lading, to order, can be transferred by endorsement, and
negotiated.
In virtue o f the endorsement, are transferred to the person in whose
favor they have been made, all the rights and actions o f the endorser {del
endorsante) with respect to the cargo.
803. T h e legitimate holder o f a bill o f lading addressed to order, must
present it to the captain o f the vessel before he shall make a beginning to
discharge his cargo, so that the merchandise may be delivered directly to
him ; and omitting to do so, the expenses which shall be caused in deposit­
ing the cargo, and the commission o f one-half per cent, to which the de­
positor shall have a right, shall be on account o f the holder o f the bill o f
lading.
804. W hether the bill o f lading shall be given to order, or has been
drawn up in favor o f a particular person, the destination o f the merchan­
dise cannot be varied, unless the shipper shall return to the captain all the




The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Mississippi.

379

bills o f lading ; and if the captain shall consent to this, he shall be respon­
sible for the cargo to the legitimate holder o f the bills o f lading.
805. If, for the cause o f being mislaid, the exigency provided for in the
article preceding cannot be made, security shall be given, to the satisfac­
tion o f the captain, for the value o f the c a r g o ; and without this requisite,
he shall not be obliged to subscribe new bills o f lading for a distinct consignment.
806. T h e captain o f a vessel dying, or ceasing in his office by reason
o f any other accident, before he shall have made sail, the shipper can de­
mand o f his successor that he shall invalidate or ratify the bills o f lading
subscribed by the captain who received the c a r g o ; without this, he shall
not be responsible beyond that w hich shall be proved by the shipper to
have existed in the ship, when the successor entered into the exercise o f
his employment.
T h e expenses which may occur in retaking an account o f the cargo
embarked, shall be chargeable to the account o f the ( naviero) ship’s hus­
band, without prejudice to any claim w hich the captain retiring may seek,
unless he should cease to be captain in fact, by a fault which has given
cause for his removal.
807. The bills o f lading, w hich shall be recognized as legitimate by
each one o f the signers, shall have an executive force in law.
808. There shall not be admitted to the captains the exception, that they
signed the bills o f lading confidentially, and under a promise that the cargo,
designated in the bills o f lading, should be delivered to the captains them­
selves.
809. A ll demands between the shipper and the captain, shall necessa­
rily be proved by the bill o f lading o f the cargo delivered to the latter ;
and without a presentation o f such bill o f lading, such demands shall not
be admitted in judgment, ( curso.)
810. In virtue o f the bills o f lading o f the cargo, the provisional re­
ceipts o f a prior date are held to be cancelled, which may have been given
by the captain, or his subalterns, o f partial deliveries which shall have
been made o f the cargo.
811. On making a delivery o f the cargo, the bills o f lading which have
been signed shall be returned to the captain, or, at least, one o f the copies,
in which shall be inserted the receipts o f what he may have delivered.
A consignee, who may be wayward in the surrendering up o f this docu­
ment, or o f the bill o f lading, shall respond to the captain for the damages
which may result by the delay.
a .
n .

Art. XI.— THE LAW OF DEBTOR AND CREDITOR IN MISSISSIPPI:
AND

OF TH E

P R O S E C U T IO N

O F A C T IO N S

IN

TH A T

STATE.

I. O f the courts in which actions may be prosecuted.
These are the Circuit, Chancery, Probate, and Justices’ Courts.
1.
O f the Chancery Court. This, like the courts o f equity o f other
States, has a general equity jurisdiction over matters o f fraud, accident,
and trust. It would not be useful for the object o f this paper, to state the
various local rules w hich affect the practice and pleadings in this court.
These, o f course, have been adopted, in reference to the peculiar institu­
tions and habits o f the coun try; and, while modifying the mode o f pro-




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The Law o f Debtor and Creditor in Mississippi.

ceeding in some unimportant particulars, are generally consistent with,
and based on well settled principles o f English chancery la w ; so that it
will be found that, in most essentials, the statutory enactments are rather
declarations than modifications o f the law. The statute conferring juris­
diction, enumerates all matters, pleas, and plaints, whatever, belonging to,
or cognizable in equity— writs o f injunction to stay waste, enjoin judg­
ments, stay proceedings at law, the granting writs o f ne exeat, and all
other remedial writs, certiorari, and bills o f review, & c., but no jurisdic­
tion over the subject o f wills. I f defendants to any suit are out o f the
State, and persons in it have in their hands effects or lands of, or are in­
debted to such defendants, and appearance for them be not entered, and
security for performing the decree given, the court has power to retain the
persons, in possession o f the effects or lands, or ow ing moneys to the non­
resident. This provision extends to persons and corporations o f the State,
against corporations existing abroad, and having real and personal estate
in Mississippi. T o chancery, is also given authority to entertain bills
against the State, on the complainant entering into bond to save the State
against costs ; but no execution can issue against the property o f the State.
The answer o f a non-resident may be sworn to, before any judge, justice
o f the peace, notary, mayor, or alderman, o f any city, town, or corpora­
tion, in any State or Territory o f the United States. T h e certificate is
only required to state the fact o f the oath, and that the party administering
it is the particular officer.
2. T h e Probate Court has a general ecclesiastical jurisdiction over all
matters relating to estates, the granting o f letters o f administration and
testamentary guardianship, and matters connected with the county revenue,
roads, bridges, & c.
3. T h e Justices’ Courts are o f limited jurisdiction, confined to matters
o f debt, & c., not exceeding fifty dollars ; and also the usual authority over
offences, conservations o f the peace, & c.
4. T h e Circuit Court has a general law jurisdiction, under the common
law actions o f assumpsit, case, covenant, debt, detinue, trespass, ejectment,
& c ., o f all matters involving the recovery o f money on bond, bill, promis­
sory note, or other written contract, covenant, or agreement, or open a c­
count, where the principal o f the sum in controversy exceeds fifty dollars;
also, in equity jurisdiction, original and concurrent, over subjects cogniza­
ble in equity, where the value o f the thing or amount in contest, does not
exceed the value o f five hundred dollars. The trial o f criminals is also
entrusted to this court. Civil process is tested in the name o f the judge
assigned to the circuit, and o f the first day o f the term next preceding that
to w hich returnable. It is to be executed at least five days before the first
day o f the term next succeeding its test. Those courts are held tw ice a
year in each county o f the State.
II. O f proceedings to enforce the collection o f debts.
1. O f the extraordinary remedy by attachment.
Attachments may
issue against the estate o f a debtor, upon the oath o f the creditor, his
agent, o r attorney, that the debtor has removed, or is removing out o f the
State, or so absconds or privately conceals himself, that the ordinary pro­
cess o f the law cannot be served, and o f the amount o f the debt, and the
grounds o f belief, whether, from a knowledge o f the fact, personally, or
by information, that the alternative ground exists. Ancillary process o f
garnishment, answering to the trustee process o f the Northern States,
also issues, to any person indebted to, or having effects o f the debtor in hand.




381

Mercantile Biography.

2. O f bail. In actions founded on a specialty, bill, or note, in writing,
.signed by the party to be charged, or on judgments o f foreign or domestic
courts, bail may issue, o f course ; and in actions o f account, covenant
broken, and actions founded on verbal contracts and assumptions in law,
on affidavit o f the sum due, or damage sustained, bail may be required by
the endorsement o f the clerk, or plaintiff’ s attorney. N o citizen can,
however, be held to bail, unless an affidavit is made that the defendant is
about to leave the country, and that thereby the legal recovery o f the debt
be prevented.
3. W hen suit is commenced on any writing, whether under seal or not,
the court shall take the same as evidence o f the debt, promise, undertaking,
or duty ; and if the defendant wishes to deny the execution o f such writing,
he must do so by plea, supported by affidavit.
I f two, or more, sign tiny writing, it is lawful to join any o f them in the
same action ; and all promises, contracts, and liabilities o f copartners, are
considered joint and several. In actions upon bills o f exchange and promissory notes, the drawers and endorsers, living and resident in Missis­
sippi, are to be sued in a joint action, and be brought in the county where
the drawers reside.
In this State, the statute o f frauds, o f 29 Car. 2, is o f force ; w hereby
no action can be brought to charge an executor or administrator, upon
any special promise, to answer any debt or damage out o f his own estate ;
or to charge one, upon any special promise, to answer for the debt, default,
or miscarriage o f another; or to charge one, upon any agreement upon
consideration o f marriage, or for the sale o f lands, tenements, or heredita­
ments, or the making o f any lease thereof for a longer term than one
year, or any agreement not to be performed within the space o f one year,
unless the promise or agreement, or some memorandum or note thereof,
be in writing, and signed by the person to be charged, or the authorized
agent o f such person.
Every gift, grant, or conveyance o f lands and goods, contrived o f malice,
fraud, collusion, covin, or guile, with the intent to delay, hinder, or defraud
creditors, are v o id ; and conveyances, not on valuable consideration, are
considered fraudulent, except by will or deed, duly proved and record ed ;
and so, any loan o f goods and chattels, where the possession remains with
the donee three years, without demand made and pursued, on the part o f
the lender, is also considered fraudulent, as against creditors.

Art. XII.— MERCANTILE BIOGRAPHY.
TH E

LATE

RO BERT

TH O M ,

B R IT IS H

CONSU L

A T

N IN G P O .

T h e G lasgow Chronicle, in announcing the death o f this eminent m er­

chant, and excellent man, which took place on the 14th o f September,
1846, furnishes the following biographical sketch o f his career, obtained
from an authentic source. Mr. Thom was well known to the Am erican
merchants residing in C h in a ; and its republication in the pages o f this
journal, will, we trust, stimulate those engaged in mercantile pursuits, at
home or abroad, to imitate his example, and thus add to the dignity o f
the profession.
“ Mr. Robert Thom was born in Glasgow, en the 10th day of August, 1807.
He had, therefore, when he died, just completed his 39th year. Having been des­




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Mercantile Biography.

tined to a mercantile life, he was for a twelvemonth in a respectable office in Glas­
gow, and afterward served an apprenticeship of live years in Liverpool. During
his residence there he first evinced his fondness for literary pursuits. He was a
constant correspondent for more than one of the newspapers. In June, 1828, he
went to Caraccas, where he spent about three years. He there acquired a com­
plete knowledge of the Spanish language, and was a rather distinguished person­
age, on account of his amicable discussion with the Roman Catholic priesthood,
and the amazing aptitude for general business which he displayed. Afterward he
spent about a year and a half in Mexico. Returning to England, he spent the
Winter and Spring of 1833 there. In July of that year he went to Bordeaux, in
France, and from that place to China— thence, alas 1 never to return.
Embarking at first in mercantile pursuits, he continued, nevertheless, to devote
his leisure moments, and hours stolen from rest, to making himself acquainted
with the language and literature of China. He landed in China in February,
1834, and within two years from that period was capable of speaking its lan­
guage with considerable fluency. In the course of 1837 he was able, in the ab­
sence of Messrs. Morrison and Gutzlaffi to plead a cause in the mandarin or court
dialect. All this while he was constantly inserting letters and other papers, on
interesting topics, in the newspapers then published at Canton. The year 1838
saw him first appear formally as an author, but under the pseudonyme of ! Sloth.’
His brochure was entitled ‘ The lasting resentment of Miss Keaon Levan Wang,’
being a translation into English of a Chinese tale, with copious notes. Mr.
Thom’s translation of ‘ AUsop’s Fables into the Chinese language,’ appeared early
in 1840 ; and, to dismiss his publications, his ‘ Chinese and English Vocabulary,’
in August, 1843. This, from an eager and unceasing desire to be useful, he pub­
lished at his own expense, and distributed gratuitously among public bodies and
individuals residing at the five ports. Another work occupied his attention at the
time of his decease. His productions were highly esteemed on the continent, as
well as in this country.
“ It was as a public character, however, still more than as a literary one, that
Mr. Thom merited and obtained distinction. His valuable assistance rendered to
government, while a merchant, is recorded in evidence given before a committee
of the House of Commons, in 1841. In June, 1840, he embarked in the govern­
ment service. Indefatigable were his exertions at Chusan and the neighborhood,
during the winter of 1840-41. The cases of Captain Anstruther and Mrs. Noble
particularly engaged his sympathies and stimulated his exertions. The Spring of
1841 saw him again on the Canton river, zealous and active, and courageous in
his country’s cause. His exertions during the siege of Canton, are noticed in
Sir Hugh (now Lord) Gough’s despatch, gazetted in the following October. He
accompanied Sir Hugh over the battle-fields of Amoy and Chinhai, the former
fought in August, the latter in October, 1841. At the latter action he was the
means of saving the lives of 500 Chinese,— ‘ a circumstance,’ writing concerning
which he said, ‘ that gave him more pleasure than if he had been appointed Em­
peror of China.’
“ H is civil adm inistration o f the city and district o f Chinhai, from O ctober, 1841,
till M ay, 1842, is one o f the most interesting and brilliant passages in his eventful
history. N ot only did it obtain for him the approbation o f his superiors, but w as
com m ented on with applause by the C hinese them selves. E lipoo, w hen he was
introduced to him at N anking, in A u gu st, 1842, addressing him, sa id : ‘ L a-pihtan, (R ob ert T h o m ,) I thank you for you r civil mandarinship at Chinhai— it has
gain d for you a great name in C hina.’ H is exertions, with M r. Gutzlaffi and the
late M essrs. M orrison and L ay, at the time o f negotiating the N an king treaty, and
his labors in regard to the ‘ supplementary treaty,’ are well know n. H is v iew o f
the trade o f China, past and prospective, published am ong the sessional papers o f
the H ou se o f Com m ons, for 1844, with all the im perfections necessarily attaching
to such a docum ent, is a w onderful nponument o f k now ledge, industry, ratiocina­
tion, and pow er o f condensation. It is indeed 1 multum in parvo.’
“ O n the 5th o f M arch, 1844, her M ajesty was pleased to testify her sense and
approbation o f M r. T h o m ’ s services by appointing him her consu l at N ingpo, one
o f the five ports opened to foreign trade, in terms o f the treaty.




383

Mercantile Law Cases.

P reviou s to this, how ever, disease, contracted in his coun try’ s service, had
made fearful inroads on his constitution, never a very robust one. F evers, in
June, 1841, after the fatigues and exposure attendant on the siege o f C an ton ; in
Septem ber, 1842, in the Y ang-tse-K iang, after the conclusion o f the N anking
treaty ; and at H o n g -K o n g , in the sum m er o f 1843, left behind them effects from
w h ich he never p erfectly recovered. D ropsical sym ptoms supervened. W ith
difficulty he could be persuaded to ask for leave o f absence. T h is w as at on ce
and kindly granted. Still he could not be persuaded to leave his post until his
su cce sso r should arrive. H e dreaded lest, the public service should suffer by his
departure. U nder su ch circum stan ces death overtook him.
“ H is am iable and affectionate disposition— his anxiety to promote the interests
o f all and sundry— above all, his devotedness to the service o f governm ent, and
the throw ing o f his w hole soul into the endeavor to advance the com m erce o f his
coun try— are facts too notorious to require being dw elt on. Z e a l, disinterested­
ness, activity o f mind, general ability, great aptitude for business, firm ness and
decision, com bined with kindness, am azing pow ers o f discrim ination, generosity
and nobility o f mind, and great personal cou rag e, are attributes o f his character
w h ich w ill at on ce and cheerfu lly be con ced ed to him by all w h o had the plea­
sure o f his acquaintance.
“ T o his exertions in the service o f his coun try he has fallen a victim .”

MERCANTILE

LAW

CASES.

S A L V A G E .*
T o support a claim for salvage, the applicant must give evidence, rendering it reasonably
probable that he contributed by his labor, or skill, towards saving or protecting the
property.
A person finding property derelict, acquires no right to exclude others from making a sal­
vage o f it, unless he keeps by it, and possesses the ability to save it himself. Without
this, a claim, as first discoverer o f a wreck, avails nothing.
The possession o f a bona fide salvor cannot be interfered with, when he has, and is using,
adequate means to save a wrecked property, until he is decreed a proper compensation,
or one is made him by the owner.
Any finder o f property derelict, is entitled to become salvor, with the privileges of such, as
well against those who have before found, and abandoned or deserted it, as against the
true owner.
A manifest possession, and avowal o f the object o f it, are necessary ingredients in the title
o f a salvor.
In cases o f derelict, the courts rarely give less than one-third, or more than two-thirds of
the value o f the property saved.
The habit o f maritime courts, is to give a moiety. This allowance is, however, varied un­
der peculiar circumstances, at the discretion o f the courts.
A moiety given in this case, after deducting the salvors’ costs out o f the gross amount.
I n the U nited States D istrict C ourt, before Ju dge Betts, February 9, 1847.
Jam es Curtis and others, vs. the schoon er John W u rts. Jesse R ichards, claim ant.
T h e libel, in this c a se ,#was filed, to r e co v e r salvage com p en sa tion ; and co n ­
tains appropriate allegations to that end , and is substantially supported by the
evidence.
A fter the suit w as instituted, Joshua T . Jones and others, ow n ers o f the
schoon er E x ce lsio r, by leave o f the court, interposed allegations, claim in g a share
o f su ch salvage as should be awarded by the cou rt for saving the said vessel.
T h e material facts in proof, are th e s e :— T h e John W u rts, ow ned by the claim ­
ant in N ew Jersey, w as w recked in the gale, on the 8th or 9th o f Septem ber last,
* The decision o f Judge Betts, in this case, was kindly furnished at our request, b
gentleman, for publication in the Merchants’ Magazine.— [E d. M ag.]




that

384

Mercantile Law Cases.

a few miles below Sandy H ook , on a v oy ag e from the North R iv er and N ew Y ork ,
to her home port, and all on board perished.
T h e claim ant was also ow n er o f m ost o f the cargo. T h e claim ant shortly af­
ter em ployed the schoon er E x ce lsio r and other vessels, with a steam boat, to en­
deavor to save the w reck and ca rg o. T h e y su cceed ed in raising her, and towed
her several miles towards Sandy H ook , w hen she escaped from them, and again
sunk in ten fathom water— her bows in the sand, and her stern ju st out o f water.
A ll the expenses o f these p roceedings w ere paid by the claim ant, e x cep t those
o f the E xcelsior.
O n the 24th o f Septem ber, an agreem ent in w ritin g was entered into, betw een
the claim ant and Joshua T . Jones, m anaging ow n er o f the E x celsior, that he
w ould undertake the salvage o f the vessel ana ca rg o, and deliver them near Jer­
sey city , for 50 per cent on the am ount s a v e d ; and that a llow a n ce should also be
in full com pensation o f the services already rendered by his vessel and c rew , un­
der the em ploym ent o f the claim ant.
A bou t the 6th or 7th o f O ctober, the E x ce lsio r proceeded to the w reck , with
apparatus prepared to raise it, and passed a large chain under the stern, but found
she had not force enough to m ove h e r ; the chain was secured around the w reck ,
and the E x celsior and her c re w went back to the c ity for further assistance.
T h e y had been engaged about tw elve hours with the w reck.
O n the 13th o f O ctober, the E x celsior and another vessel started to g o to the
w reck again, but w ere driven o ff by the heavy gale o f that date. T h e w reck is
supposed to have been m oved by the sam e gale, as a day or tw o after she w as
seen drifting to the eastward, past F ire Island, and w as afterwards reported o ff
the east end o f L o n g Island.
A fter a heavy blow from the eastward, she w as again seen d riving to the w est­
w ard, past F ire Island.
T h e E xcelsior, on this intelligence, w as sent to F ire Island to look fo r the
w re ck , but saw nothing o f it, and her ow ners en g a ged in another w reck in g ad­
venture at the island.
T h e E x celsior w as further despatched to N ew Y o r k B ay, in search o f the
w reck , but w ithout su ccess. T h e agen t o f the claim ant repeatedly, after the
agreem ent o f Septem ber 24th, urged Jones to pursue with promptitude his under­
taking to raise the w re ck . Jones, at the time o f the agreem ent, declared he
should be able to com plete the salvage in tw o days ; and ten days, or m ore, after
the agreem ent, he excused him self, when pressed on the subject, becau se the
w eather w as then peculiarly fine and favorable, by sayin g he w as en g a ged in
other business, or had arrangem ents to m ake before g o in g to the w ork.
O n the 9th o f N ovem ber, the libellants, Curtis and others, fell in with the w reck ,
grounded on the G reat K ill Shoals in Sandy H ook B ay, bottom upwards, filled
w ith w afer, her bow s bilged, her rig g in g and masts all g on e, m ost o f her ca rg o
out, and her bulw arks and stanchions m ostly carried aw ay.
Im m ediate and active exertions w ere applied to savin g her, and, by aid o f sev­
eral sm all vessels, with chains and other appropriate apparatus, and a steam boat
to tow , she w as g o t o ff the shore and m oved towards A m b oy, grounding several
tim es before she cou ld be got to Staten Island.
A good deal o f difficulty and som e danger, was incurred, in keep ing her afloat.
T h e w eather w as thick, cold, and s e v e r e ; and nearly a fortnight w a s occu pied
constantly, by all the libellants and their vessels, befpre the salvage w as a cco m ­
plished, som etim es the crew s being kept at w ork all night.
T h e y w ere com pelled to float her bottom upwards, and stern forem ost, to great
disadvantage, and with the hazard o f her turning over on the sm all vessels sup­
porting her, and cru sh in g them.
T h e ordinary incidents o f breaking chains, in secu rin g and m ovin g her, and
injury to the vessels en ga ged , w ere experien ced.
».
T h e w re ck sold for about $ 1 ,3 0 0 , and the fragm ents o f her ca r g o rem aining
w ith her for about $ 5 0 .
The case was argued by Mr. Hart for the libellants, by Mr. Burr for Jones
and his associates, and by Mr. Mason for the claimant.




Mercantile Law Canes.

385

Betts, D istrict Judge.— T h e claim o f Jon es and ow n ers o f the E x ce ls io r to sal­
vage, in this c a se , cannot be allow ed. It lacks the indispensable ingredient o f a
salvage se rv ice — that o f having contributed im m ediately to the preservation or
rescue o f the w recked property.
T h e circum stan ces in proof, do not demand o f the cou rt a decision upon the
point, h o w far a person must be directly em ployed, aiding the recov ery o f a w reck ,
to constitute him a s a lv o r ; nor .am I disposed to lay dow n the rule, that he m ust
m ake it certain the property was saved by his a ss ista n ce ; but I am not aw are o f
any principle w h ich admits him to the favor o f a salvor, until it is rendered reas­
onably probable, upon the eviden ce, that his labor o r skill hav'e contributed to­
wards protecting the w re ck from ultimate loss or further dam age.
A n im pression seem s to have obtained, that one w h o finds derelict property un­
der water or afloat, acquires a right to it by discovery, w h ich ca n be maintained
by a kind o f continued claim,, w ithout keep ing it in possession, or applyin g c o n ­
stant exertions for its preservation and rescue.
T h e re is no foundation for su ch notion. H is right results entirely from the
fact, that he has in actual possession, or has kept by, what was lost or abandoned
by the ow ner, with the m eans at com m and to preserve and save it, and that he is
actively em ploying those m eans to that end.
T h e law w ill then protect him against all interference by others, even the true
ow ner, until he is adequately rew arded, or opportunity is allow ed to bring the
property to a p lace o f safety, and have his com pensation secu red him by the ju d g ­
m ent o f the proper tribunal.
T h e fact that property is found at sea, or on the coast, w ithout the presence o f
any one to protect it, gives the finder a right to take it in p osse ssio n ; and the law
con n ects w ith su ch right, the obligation to use the m eans he has at control, and
w ith all reasonable promptitude, to save it for the ow ner.
H e can, therefore, be no otherw ise clothed w ith the ch aracter o f a salvor, than
whilst he is applying h im self in o c cu p a n c y o f the property, to its saving.
N otorious possession, with the avow al o f the o b je ct for w h ich it is taken and
kept, are cardinal requisites to the creation or m aintenance o f the privileges o f a
s a lv o r ; when they do not exist, any person falling in with the w reck , m ay take
it, with all the advantages o f a first finder.
T h is is the clear p olicy o f the law . It rew ards, w ith liberal generosity, a m er­
itorious salvor, but counts first, in the order o f his m eritorious acts, the prompt
use o f sufficient m eans, both in getting at the w reck and abiding with it, until the
salvage is com pleted ; the value o f his services is enhanced, and their com pensa­
tion augm ented, proportionably to the danger and loss to the salvor a ccom p an yin g
su ch exertions, and their benefit to the ow ner.
N o one o f these cardinal qualities appears in support o f the present claim .
T h e most that is proved in favor o f the ow n ers o f the E x celsior, is, that being in
port after having left the w reck , they directed apparatus to be prepared here to
aid in raising it. A fortnight or three w eeks w ere consum ed, aw aiting such pre­
parations, the w reck , in the m eantim e, being left deserted, with the exception o f
the E x ce lsio r and cre w bein g on ce alongside o f it for about tw elve hours.
U nder these circu m stan ces, any one co m in g to the w reck w ith sufficient m eans,
and effecting its saving, w ou ld have been entitled to the rights o f sole salvor.
T h e claim becom es infinitely w eaker, w hen set up after the w reck had been
forced from the p lace w here it grounded, and w as driven by the w inds and w aves,
for nearly a month, to and fro upon the o ce a n and the coasts.
I, accord in g ly , p ronounce against the claim o f the ow ners o f the E x ce ls io r, and
only refrain im posing costs on them, becau se o f the loss and expense incurred by
them, in m aking their preparations and efforts— am ounting to $ 1 2 0 , or $ 1 3 0 , in­
dependent o f the time em ployed by the E x ce lsio r and her crew .
I f they have any right to com pensation for services rendered prior to the w rit­
ten agreem ent, it can n ot be en forced in this a c t io n ; and they m ust look to the
ow n er, personally, cr his con tra ct with them.
T h e right o f the other libellants to a reasonable reward, is not denied by the
owner ; but his answ er and proofs seek to establish, that $ 1 0 0 , or $ 2 0 0 , would
V O L . X V I . ------ N O . I V .




25

386

Mercantile Law Cases.

b e a full com pensation for the tim e occu p ied in the serv ice, with the hind o f craft
used on the occa sion .
It is unnecessary to repeat the principles, entering into the determ ination o f a
salva ge reward ; they have been too often discussed and stated in this cou rt, and
in the d ecision s o f maritime courts, to leave any im portant illustration o f the
d octrines untouched.
T h e re ca n be no doubt o f the rightful authority o f the court, to regulate the
aw ard o f com pensation very m uch at discretion ; but all ju d icial tribunals find
fixed rules, when at all applicable to the subject, m ore useful and satisfactory in
operation than m ere discretionary authority, h ow ever w isely that may be exercised.
A c co rd in g ly , m aritime courts, w hen not governed by positive law in this re ­
spect, have, by a kind o f com m on co n cu rre n ce , adopted the usage o f allotting
from one-third to three-fourths o f the salved property, in cases o f derelict, to the
s a lv o r s ; varying betw een these points in regard to the special nature o f the ser­
v ices , the peril incurred, value o f the property saved, and hazard to vessels en­
g ag ed in m aking the salvage ; and, instead o f ran gin g with m uch fluctuation even
betw een those points, the g ro w in g disposition to determ inate rules, has so far set­
tled upon a m oiety as the proper rate o f allow a n ce in cases o f derelict, that it
m ay alm ost be termed the habit o f courts to g iv e that proportion, when no urgent
considerations induce them to deviate from it. T hat, or any other fixed or esti­
mated am ount, wcmld not, in every instance, be an appropriate com pensation. I t ,
how ever, approxim ates sufficiently near, to com m and most o f the im portant bene­
fits salvage rewards w ere designed to secure ; com prehending those relating to
the general interests o f m aritime com m erce, and a reasonable proportion o f the
lost property betw een the ow n er and him w ho rescues it.
C ourts, a cco rd in g ly , are disposed to adhere to that method o f fixing the rew ard,
unless special circu m stan ces are presented, inducing a departure from it. I think,
none su ch exist in this case ; n o r,o n a careful valuation o f the services rendered,
w ith a v iew to the great probability that little or nothing would be realized from
them, and the actual benefit to the ow n er, should I regard $ 6 0 0 , or $ 7 0 0 , a dis­
proportionate com pensation, to be specifically awarded the libellants for what was
perform ed by them.
I therefore d e cre e in their favor, their costs o f suit, first to be paid out o f the
fund in court, and then that they receiv e the m oiety o f the residue, for the salvage
services rendered in this case.
U nless the m ode o f distribution betw een the libellants is adjusted by agreem ent
am ongst them selves, it m ust be referred to a com m issioner, to ascertain and re­
port the proper proportion payable to e a ch , and to ea ch vessel em ployed in ren­
d erin g the salvage services.
COLLISION— SHIP NORTHUMBERLAND AND SCHOONER LOUISA.
Adm iralty D ecision in the United States D istrict C ourt, M arch 3d, 1847, before
his H onor, Judge Betts. Joseph H in ck le y and others, vs. the ship Northum ber­
land, John G risw old, claim ant. D am ages claim ed for value o f schoon er, $ 6 ,0 0 0 .
T h is w as a case o f collision betw een the packet Northum berland and the
sch oon er L ouisa, w hich occu rred during a bright m oonlight night, o ff L o n g Island,
M ontauk P oint bearing N . N . E. distant forty m iles, and the nearest land tw entynine m iles. T h e schoon er was deep with coal, and sunk alongside in five m in­
utes— her cre w barely savin g their lives, and som e o f them being hauled out o f
the water after she w ent dow n. Both vessels w ere alleged to have been close
hauled— the ship on the starboard, the schoon er on the larboard tack. Both w ere
m ade out on the lee bow o f each other, on con v ergin g courses, and at the distance
o f about tw o m iles, and each supposed to be to windward o f the other’s track, the
shfp g o in g at the rate probably o f five, the schoon er at four knots. T h e sch oon er
held on w ithout altering her cou rse, as did the ship, until within a few o f her
lengths from the schooner, when she ported her helm and cam e into the wind,
striking the schoon er betw een her fore and main rigg in g. I f the ship had not
luffed, she m ight have cleared the sch oon er’s stern or struck her abaft her beam
and near her stern ; if kept aw a y , she w ould have apparently cleared the sch oon er.
T h e court held, that the ship com m itted a fault in not keep ing aw ay instead o f




387

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

lu ffin g ; but su ch fault having been induced by the w rongfu l act o f the schooner,
in m aintaining her course and not g ivin g w ay in tim e, affords no ground for the
schoon er to demand dam ages or rem uneration therelor.
L ibel dismissed, with costs to be taxed.
F or the libellants, D aniel Lord, Jr., and B. D . S illim a n ; for the Northum ber­
land, O gd en H offm an, W . Q,. M orton, and O . Hoffm an, Jr.

COMMERCIAL CHRONICLE AND REVIEW.
TH E

P R O M IN E N T

TONNAGE
S IX

FEATURES

EM PLOYED

T E A R S ----- R A T E S

B U IL D IN G

IN

B IL L S

AT

NEW YORK

IS S U E

OF

U N IT E D

RATES

OF

OF

F O R E IG N

TRADE

OF

F R E IG H T

FROM

U N IT E D

STATES,

OF

AND
OF

NEW

1828

FROM

F IN A N C IA L

EVERT
YORK

TO

A F F A IR S

D U R IN G

D E S C R IP T IO N , F O R
TO

L IV E R P O O L ,

1846--- C O M P A R A T I V E

THE

1844

THE

M O N T H -----

LAST

TW ENTY-

1847----- S H IP ­

TO

RATES

OF

S T E R L IN G

A N D N E W O R L E A N S ------E X P O R T S O F N E W Y O R K ------B A N K S O F N E W Y O R K -----

STATES

C O N T IN E N T A L

P A R IS — B A N K

C O M M E R C IA L

IN

TREASURY
B IL L S

IN

ENGLAND— EXPORT

N O T E S — D E P O S IT S

IN

LO N D O N — C O M P A R A T IV E
OF

BREADSTUFFS,

U N IT E D

STATES

EXCHANGES

FROM

1844

TO

AT

1847,

T R E A S U R Y ----LONDON

AND

ETC. ETC.

T he state o f com m ercial and financial affairs has exhibited m any peculiarities
during the m onth.

T h e c h ie f features have been— 1st, enhanced imports o f g o o d s ;

2d, continued large exports o f produce at high prices, attended with exorbitant
freights and great activity in shipping ; 3d, large importations o f specie, with low
and falling rates o f e x c h a n g e ; 4th, the contraction o f a loan o f $22,00 0,00 0 by
the federal g ov ern m en t; 5th, increasin g sca rcity and enhanced value o f m oney.
A ll these general features, w ith the exception o f the contraction o f a loan by the
governm ent, are eviden ces o f extraordinary prosperity o f the w hole country.

It

is selling m ore o f its produce at high prices, and m ore advantageously to the ship­
ping and transportation interests than ever before.

T h ere is m ore foreign capital

co m in g into the country at less outlay o f the products o f labor than in any year
o f our national existence.

D u rin g the wars o f E urope, when breadstuff's there

w ere high, and the United States alon e had the freedom o f the seas, great profits
accru ed to the country through the operation o f its external com m erce.

The

necessities o f those times drew , through the aid o f sales o f agricultural produce
and large earnings o f ships, large capital from E urope, and that capital was sub­
sequently em ployed in m anufacturing.

In 1 8 3 7 -8 , large sums w ere borrowed in

E urope and brought into the country, but capita] so acquired does not add to the
w ealth o f the c o u n tr y ; on the other hand it im poverishes it, inasmuch as it has
all to be paid back with its earnings.

It is n ow the case that all the raw products

o f the country, including cotton, com m and m ore o f the m oney capital o f E urope,
than ever before.

It com es not as a loan, to be paid back with interest, but as the a c ­

tual earnings o f agricultural and com m ercial industry and the reward o f enterprise.
N ot only does that surplus produce, w hich in form er years was w ithout value, b e­
cause unavailable, becom e converted into m oney-capital, but that m oney-capital is
doubled in am ount, because o f the ex ig e n ce in demand.

England is disgorging

her accum ulated funds to buy, at great disadvantage, that food o f w h ich unavoid­
able circum stan ces have deprived her.

T h e shipping o f the United States, w hich

for several years had been doing but an unprofitable business, is n ow m ore pros­
perous than ever before.

T h e follo w in g table will sh ow the quantity o f United

States tonnage em ployed in the foreign and coasting trade for a series o f y e a r s :—




388

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

R E G IS T E R E D

TONNAGE

AND

L IC E N S E D

EM PLOYED

IN

EM PLOYED

IN

F o r e ig n .

1821.......... . ...
1822.......... . . . .
1823.......... ....
1824.......... ....
1825.......... . . . .
1826.......... ....
1827........ ....
1828.......... ....
1829.......... ....
1830.......... . . . .
1831.......... . ...
1832.......... . . . .
1833.......... . ...
1834.......... . . . .
1835.......... . ...
1836.......... . . . .
1837...............
1838...............
1839................
1840................
1841.......... . ...
1842................
1843................
1844................
1845......... ......
1846................

593,826
582J01
600,002
636^807
665,408
696|221
701,517
757,998
592,858
537,564
538,136
614,121
648,968
749,378
788,181
753,094
683,206
702,962
702,399
752,838
788,398
825,746
851,551
893,561
897,985
937,019

THE

F O R E IG N

C O A S T IN G

TRADE

TRADE,

AND

W H A L IN G — T H E

F IS H E R IE S ,

AND

S te a m .

W h a le .

C o a s tin g a n d
c a n a l b ou ts.

S te a m .

5,373
6,909
6,491
6,286

26,070
45449
39,918
33T 65
35,379
41 j?57
45,653
54,621
57,284
38,911
82,315
72,868
101,158
108,060
97,640
144,680
127,241
119,629
131,845
136,926
157,405
151,612
152,374
168,293
190,695
186,980

747,962
878,431
454,822
453,926
575,087
558,995
642,892
661,144
665,120
727,921
803,320
850,473
963,673
978,510
932,725
820,704
844,661
844,345
903,691
948,264

40,197
39,419
54,036
63,052
68,568
90,632
101,306
122,474
127,181
145,102
153,660
190,632
186,878
198,184
174,342
225,049
231,494
265.269
319,527
341,606

ENROLLED

STEAM BO ATS.

C od & M a ck ’ I
F is h e rie s .

84,278
74,846
101,796
98,322
107,670
102,832
111,924
117,850
136,817
111.304
129,257
131,942
108,682
104,304
77.873
71,278
73,142
101,715
98,610
108,979

Total.

873,437
992,686
610,654
615,300
751,325
752,454
856.122
901,468
929,118
984,327
1,086,237
1,173,047
1,262,233
1,280,998
1,184,930
1,117,031
1,149,297
1,211,319
1,321,828
1,399,270

The quantity of registered tonnage in the foreign trade had not increased from
1835 to 1841, but afterwards it increased to some extent through the transfer of

enrolled to registered tonnage. The increase of tonnage in the foreign trade, in
1846, wag considerable. The rates of freight in January of each year may indi­
cate the earnings of these vessels
KATES

C o tto n ,
p e r lb .

d.
1 8 4 4 ...
1 8 4 5 ...
lR l f i
1 8 4 7 ...

W

d.
e

\ a jV
fa l

OF

F R E IG H T

FKOM

XEW

YORK

B e e f,
p e r 3 0 4 lb s.

G ra in .

T u r p e n tin e ,
p e r b b l.

F lo u r ,
p e r b b l.

s.d. r.d.
4 Ua4 6
. .n 4 0
. . afi 0
8 0a8 6

s.d. s.d.

s.d. s.d.
2 3u2 6
3 0a3 9
2 6a3 3
6 8a8 8

s.d. s.d.
2 0u2 3
. ,a 3 0
2 0a2 3
8 0a8 6

.

.a .

.

. .a . .
. 8a. .
2 5a2 6

TO

L IV E R P O O L .

T oba cco,
per h h d .

£ . s. d. £ . s.
1 10 0 a l 15
1 10 O al 15
1 15 0 a 2 0 0
. . . .a . . .

H e a v y G oods,
p e r to n .

d.
0
0
0
.

£ . s. d. £ . s.
1 5 O a l 10
1 10 O a l 15
1 5 O al 7
4 5 0 a 4 10

d.
0
0
6
0

The quantities of leading articles exported from New York, have been as follows,
for January and February :—
1845...
1 8 4 6 ...
1 8 4 7 ...

Corn.
bushels.
2 0 ,6 1 7
3 1 3 ,8 2 7
1 ,2 2 6 ,3 6 2

W heat.
bushels.
5 5 ,8 6 7
3 0 9 ,6 5 1

Rice.
tierces.
2 ,5 1 1
3 ,9 4 8
6 ,5 5 2

Rve.
bushels.
4 1 ,6 1 4
9 2 ,6 0 5

Flour.
barrels.
1 9 ,7 0 4
1 1 0 ,7 6 6
2 6 6 ,1 3 8

Corn-meal.
barrels.
816
590
1 ,2 3 4

Pork.
barrels.
7 ,4 9 0
7 ,8 3 4
8 ,7 3 6

It will be observed that if foreign shipping increased under the low freights,
prior to the latter part of 1846, that the exorbitant profits since realized must have
given a great impulse to building. In fact, throughout the world, the demand for
vessels to transport grain has so much added to the general growth of commerce
as to develop a deficient supply of vessels ; and France, Belgium, and England
have found it necessary to do away with the ancient navigation laws in respect to
grain, in order that foreign vessels may supply the wants of freight; and a great




399

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

impulse has, as a consequence, been given to ship-building. Perhaps there never
was a time when that interest was so well employed, and all connected with it so
prosperous. Timber, hemp, wages, and seamen’s pay are all higher than they have
been for years. The prices of hemp in New York, have been as follows:— '
O c to b e r , 1843.

Russia, clean......... per ton
Manilla...............................
American, dew-rotted......

$1 85
—
100
120

a 187
a 150
a 115
a 180

N o v e m b e r , 1 84 4.

$1 70 a 175
140 a . ...
76 a 90
105 a 160

N o v e m b e r , 1846.

$2 20
150
90
150

a 225
a 155
a 100
a 200

M a r c h , 1847.

$2 40
160
115
160

a 245
a 175
a 130
a 210

American, water-rotted...
Seamen’s wages have advanced from $ 1 5 to $ 1 8 per month, with small stores.
The following is a table of the progress of ship-building, and the disposition o f
the tonnage in the United States for a series of years
S H I P - B U I L D I N G I N T H E U . S T A T E S .----- R E G I S T E R E D V E S S E L S .

built.
4 5 ,7 1 6
2 8 ,8 7 6
2 1 ,2 4 2
4 5 ,7 2 0
7 2 ,9 5 2
7 2 ,9 7 9
5 2 ,6 2 2
4 6 ,6 4 5
4 2 ,3 4 3
4 1 ,8 5 9
5 5 ,0 6 5
5 6 ,1 2 1
6 4 ,3 0 2
5 4 ,5 3 2
2 7 ,2 7 5
3 8 ,9 2 1
6 0 ,3 6 0

T ons

1 8 2 8 ...
1 8 2 9 ...
1 8 3 0 ...
1 8 3 1 ...
1 8 3 2 ...
1 8 3 3 ...
1 8 3 4 ...
1 8 3 6 ...
1 8 3 7 ...
1 8 3 3 ...,
1 8 3 9 ...
1 8 4 0 ...
1 8 4 1 ...
1 8 4 2 ...
1 8 4 3 ... .
1 8 4 4 ....
1 8 4 5 ... .

S o ld to
fore ig n e rs .

L ost
a t se n .

1 4 ,6 7 7
1 4 ,0 9 3
1 0 ,0 5 8
9 ,7 5 0
6 ,0 8 3
2 ,9 3 2
4 .7 2 5
1 0 ,5 0 9
9 ,9 1 6
5 ,3 8 5
5 ,7 6 8
1 3 .8 3 7
1 2 ,7 1 3
7 ,7 6 9

1 6 ,9 6 0
1 2 ,7 8 0
1 2 ,5 4 5
1 7 ,4 4 6
1 8 ,9 0 1
1 1 ,5 1 4
8 ,8 1 7
1 4 ,8 0 1
1 8 ,1 8 9
1 7 ,4 4 0
1 6 ,6 6 8
2 2 ,5 4 7
1 4,3 21
1 8 ,2 2 8
1 5 ,6 0 6
1 1.1 91
1 6 ,2 3 6

8 ,8 1 8
7 ,2 2 7
8 ,0 2 2

T ons
■c o n d e m ’ d . I n cr e a s e .

9 ,8 0 2
8 ,1 6 4
9 ,1 9 8
7 ,2 8 8
4 ,9 0 6
3 ,1 6 4
3 ,4 0 2
4 ,5 2 4
5 ,8 5 8
3 ,4 4 6
4 ,8 1 1
5 ,7 5 1
4 ,2 4 6
5 ,8 7 9
4 ,0 3 5
3 ,8 6 9
4 ,3 2 8

4 ,2 7 6
6 ,1 6 1 *
1 0 ,5 5 8 *
1 1 ,2 3 6
4 3 ,0 5 1
5 5 ,3 6 7
3 5 ,6 7 7
1 6 ,8 1 0
8 ,2 7 9
1 5 ,5 8 6
2 7 ,8 1 6
1 3 ,9 8 6
3 3 ,0 2 0
2 2 ,6 5 4
1 ,4 5 5 *
1 6 ,6 3 3
3 2 ,3 7 3

T h e year 1843 is for nine m onths only.

ENROLLED

TONNAGE.

Built.
L o s t . C o n d e m ’ d., I n cre a se .
5 2 ,6 5 8
7 ,1 0 2
2 ,0 0 7
4 3 ,5 4 8
4 8 ,2 2 1
4 ,9 1 2
3 ,2 9 0
4 0 ,0 1 8
3 6 ,8 4 1
5 ,2 0 6
2 ,3 4 5
2 9 ,2 8 9
4 0 ,2 4 1
6 ,3 6 1
1,5 7 1
3 2 ,3 0 8
7 1 ,5 5 6
5 ,6 9 4
1 ,9 7 0
6 3 ,8 9 1
8 8 ,6 4 7
3 ,8 8 0
2 ,0 7 1
8 2 ,6 9 4
6 5 ,7 0 7
3 ,0 9 7
1 ,7 2 7
6 9 ,8 8 2
6 6 ,9 8 2
4 ,3 0 8
1,3 1 1
6 1 ,3 6 1
8 0 ,6 4 3
2 ,9 8 7
6 ,1 7 6
7 1 ,4 7 8
7 1 ,2 7 5
4 ,1 6 5
2 ,0 4 3
6 5 ,0 6 7
6 5 ,9 2 2
3 ,2 8 4
4 ,4 4 5
5 8 ,1 9 3
6 2 ,1 8 7
8 ,8 5 8
4 ,3 1 6
4 9 ,0 1 2
5 4 ,5 9 1
5 ,3 4 6
1 ,4 4 5
4 7 ,7 9 5
7 4 ,5 5 1 1 0 ,1 9 1
5 ,5 9 6
5 8 ,7 6 3
3 6 ,3 4 2
7 ,4 2 6
2 ,6 4 8
2 5 ,8 8 2
6 4 ,6 1 6
7 ,0 8 2
4 ,1 0 7
5 3 ,4 2 6
2 ,9 5 1
8 5 ,0 5 7
5 ,3 0 4
7 6 ,4 5 5

F rom 1841 to 1844, inclusive, the de­

clin e in registered tonnage built w a s very m arked.

In 1841, there w ere vessels

built here for the R ussian and M e x ica n governm ents, w h ich increased the tonnage
reported in that year.

T h e year 1846 will sh ow a return o f building, and also o f

sales to foreigners far in advance o f any form er year.
W e have thus alluded to the state o f the shipping for tw o reasons.

O ne is,

that it accoun ts for a large demand for capital for those purposes ; and the other,
that the stimulus so imparted to the construction o f vessels will probably so en­
hance the supply as m aterially to affect freights, unless the foreign w ant o f vessels
m ay induce large sales o f tonnage abroad.

T h e high value that vessels now

com m and is against this operation, how ever.

N o country in the world can turn

ou t vessels so w ell, so promptly, o r so cheaply as the United States, and there is
no reason w h y, under ju d iciou s m anagem ent, w e should not be ship-builders for
the world.

T h e com m erce o f the world has o f late years vastly increased, and

w ith that increase the demand for vessels has progressed ; and the sudden extent
o f that demand, this year, has imparted an im pulse to ship-building o f w h ich the
U nited States can alone take advantage.

E ngland, in the am elioration o f her

tim ber duties, has taken steps towards com peting with the United States in that
particular, but our natural facilities are too great to be injured.
T h e large transactions in prod uce, at high prices, for the foreign trade, have
also required a m uch larger am ount o f capital than is usual in that b u sin ess;




* Decrease.

390

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

and out o f those transactions have also grow n operations in bills for the importa­
tion o f specie.

T h e imports into the United States have been m uch larger than

last year, but the ex ce ss o f exports is m uch g r e a te r ; and as a consequence, bills
have continued to decline, in the face o f the import o f som e six m illions o f sp ecie,
and the purchases o f bills already made will probably raise the import to ten m illions.
T h e low and falling prices o f bills have induced their purchase for the importation
o f specie to an extent far beyond the ordinary operation o f the bill-h ou ses; and as a
con seq u en ce they have leant upon bank facilities ; that is to say, they have issued
their ow n paper in purchase o f the bills, and that paper has been discounted by
the banks in preference to other descriptions,— an operation w hich causes an un­
usual demand for capital, until the proceeds o f the purchased bills return in
sp ecie.

T h e se operations, how ever, have not cheeked the fall in bills, w hich h a s

been as follow s :—
C O M P A R A T IV E

RATE

OF

S T E R L IN G

B IL L S

AT

NEW

YORK

New York.

Sept. 1..........
Oct. 1,..........
Nov. 1,.........
Dec. 1,.........
Jan. 1,..........
Feb. 1,..........
March 1,.......
“ 15,.......

F ran cs.

9J ,10
9 } alO
9 a 94
8 a 8^
84a 9
8}a 8}
8}a 8 }
84a 9

S te rlin g . F ra n cs .

8} 9
84 9
64*74
6} a f }
5 r54
5 } 64
4 } '5 }
3 } .4

5 23}
525
5.264
5.2? £
5.26}
5.28}
5 28}
5.25

NEW

ORLEANS.

New Orleans.

1 8 4 6 -4 7 .

1845—46 .
S te rlin g .

AND

5.314
5.30
5 374
5.414
5 45
5.40
5.414
...

1 8 4 5 -4 6 .

1846--4 7 .

N .Y . sig h t.
8 } 110
} pro. •
} d is .
8 a 9
7 4 1 84
1 “
5 } 1 64 1} “
6 a 7
1} “
6}a 6}
1} “
6}a 6}
1} “
7 a 74 1 “

S te rlin g .

S te rlin g .

N. Ys ig h t-

7 4 * } }p r e .
8 } :8 4 } “
74**8
4 d is.
44n5
} “
4 a4} 4 “
4 a5 1 “
2 } -3 4 1 “
2 **3 }

L ast year a remarkable uniformity in the rates o f bills prevailed in N ew Y ork ;
but this year, as the season progressed, bills have fallen near 5 per cent here and
at N e w Orleans, and are still falling.
T h e im portations o f goods have been larger than last year, and at this period o f
the year few g o into warehouse.

T h e y are nearly all cleared for consum ption,

and as a con seq u en ce, cash duties are payable on their arrival.

T h e follow in g is

a table o f the imports, exports, and duties at the port o f N ew Y ork , for the m onths
o f January and February :—
E x p orts.

I m p o rts .

D u tie s .

1846,..................
1847,..................

Y ea r.

$4,095,151
6,660,415

$9,990,606
13,478,636

$2,742,988
2,922,762

Increase,..

$2,565,264

$3,488,030

$179,774

U nder the operation o f the Independent T rea su ry, this amount o f duties has to
be transferred from the bank vaults to the custom -house, and sim ultaneously with
the large drain for regular business, the operation o f the T reasu ry D epartm ent
in issuing its treasury notes, enhances the demand for specie ; as thus, by the
law o f Jan. 27, alluded to in our last number, the Secretary is em powered to
raise $2 2,000,000.

A s w e stated, $5 ,000 ,000 w as taken, and the rem aining

$18,00 0,00 0 advertised to exchan ge in 6 per cen t treasury notes for specie.

N ow

the law allow s either treasury notes or specie to be paid out, at the option o f the
governm ent creditor.

T h e treasury notes being all convertible at w ill into a 6

per cen t twenty years stock, they are available for that purpose, no matter at
what rate o f interest they are paid o u t ; and consequently no creditor would re­




391

Commercial Chronicle and Review.
fuse them.

If, therefore, these $1 8,00 0,00 0 had been paid out to creditors, they

w ould pass from their hands into those o f capitalists, by w hom they w ou ld be
funded.

T h e governm ent w ould have procured its loan, and the im mediate ope­

ration o f the notes w ould have been that o f a cu rren cy in liquidating debts.

To

procure $1 8,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 by a p rocess requiring the sp ecie to be deposited with
the treasury, produces an inordinate drain from the banks, in addition to the effect
•of duties received in sp ecie.

U nder su ch circum stan ces, viz., a double dem and

upon the institutions for sp ecie on a ccou n t o f the duties, and also on a cco u n t o f
the loans, has the effect o f g reatly redu cin g the stock held by the banks, notwith­
standing the imports o f the precious metals.

A s a natural consequence, the insti­

tutions have been inclined to contract their loans at a m oment w hen the dem and
is greatest, from the three principal causes above en u m era ted ; v iz., the activity
•of shipping, the operations in bills, and the rise in produce.

A s the season pro­

g resses, the arrival o f sp ecie will release a large am ount o f the paper discounted,
•while rem ittances o f m oney from the interior, a s the S p rin g opens, w ill throw
large sums into the hands o f the city trade ; but it is also true that large sum s
w ill be required to take up the vast quantities o f produce that are crow din g the
•avenues to m arket, alon g all the channels o f com m un ication with the A tlantic
border.

T h e leading features o f the N ew Y o rk banks have been as fo llo w s:—
BANKS OF NEW

D is c o u n t s .

LOIN'S.
D ir e c to r s .

B r o k e rs .

YORK.

S p e c ie .

O ir c u l a t i o n .

D e p o s its .

A u g , ’44 ,. $54,464,928 $4,326,932 $3,832,039 $10,191,974 $17,091,324 $28,757,122
N o v .,’4 5 ,.
69,164,861 4,157,117 1,457,858
8,884,545 21,125,027 31.773,991
Feb., ’46 ,.
66,235,814 4.245,766 1,096,410
8,350,439 19,709,784 29,523,024
“ ’47 ,.
64,240,213 4,672,973
893,172
9,191,254 10,968,765 31,830,595
T h e line o f discounts is small, and is usually less at this season than in N o­
vem ber.

T h e contraction is n o w m ostly on the part o f the coun try b a n k s ; the c ity

banks have extended their discounts. U nder the action o f the Independent T rea su ry ,
from N ovem ber to F ebruary, the banks increased the am ount o f their sp ecie.
T h e amount o f specie duties collected at this port, for the month o f F ebru ary,
has been $ 1 ,4 9 6 ,7 1 6 ; and the importation o f sp ecie at this port direct, w as
■$1,235,122, w hich w ould leave a diminution o f $ 2 6 0 ,0 0 0 in the am ount o f sp ecie
held by the b a n k s; but considerable sum s arrived at Boston on N ew Y ork a ccou n t.
T h e official returns o f M arch 1st show ed the issue o f treasury notes to have
been as fo llo w s :—
U N I T E D S T A T E S T R E A S U R Y N O T E S IS S U E D T O M A R C H I s T .

SJnder acts prior to July, 1846,..........................................
«
of
“
...........................................
“
o f January, 1847,............................................
T ota l,..............................
Deduct cancelled notes,
Total,.

F e b r u a r y 1.

M a rch 1.

$367,931
4,994,900
................

$361,181
5,796,600
2,518.050

$5,362,831
987,650

$8,675,831
842,050

$4,375,181

$7,833,781

T h e operation o f the issues for sp ecie, added to the custom s, m ight have sw ollen
th e deposits.

T h e custom s receipts for the first quarter, under the n ew ta riff

as com pared with last year, w ere reported officially as fo llo w s :—




392

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

G RO SS B E C ’ T S O F C U STO M S A T B A L T IM O R E , C H A R L E S T O N , N . O R L E A N S , N . Y O R K , A N D P H IL A D E L P H IA .

1845.

1846.

December..................................................

$1,996,860 92

January,....................................................
February..................................................

$2,082,276
1,954,681

$2,250,911 16

1846.

1847.
20
86

$2,433,436 68
2,213,362 30

$6,033,818 98

$6,897,710 14
6,033,818 98

Increase,................................................................................

$863,891 16

T he above statement is made out from the returns as far as received. T he returns
from N ew Orleans for two weeks in January, 1846, are missing. T he receipts for the
corresponding two weeks in January, 1847, have, o f course, been omitted.
T h e Independent T rea su ry cam e into operation on the 1st o f J a n u a ry ; con se­
quently $4 ,6 4 6 ,0 0 0 w ere received at the ports named in sp ecie, and the effect on
the treasury deposits has been as f o l l o w s :—
D E P O S IT S

IN

TH E

Assistant Treasurers.

U N IT E D

STATES

TREASURY.

January 1.

February 1.

March 1.

Boston...........................................
N ew Y o r k ...................................
Philadelphia..................................
N ew Orleans...............................
M in ts............................................
Elsewhere....................................

$202,599
420,775
239,571
46,399
558,042
2,776,648

$38,372
560,072
74,204
52,111
558,042
2,529,335

$179,829
2,283,583
145,836
44,548
478,042
2,052,184

T otal..................................

$4,244,035

$3,812,136

$5,184,082

T h e increase o f sp ecie with the assistant treasurer o f N ew Y ork w as rather
m ore than the w h ole custom s for the m onth, sh ow in g the influence o f the treasury
note issues.

O f this am ount, $ 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 w as transferred to Philadelphia for

coin a g e ; $ 5 3 3 ,0 0 0 directly to the m int, w h ich , with the am ount already there,
w ill m ake up the m illion w h ich is the le g a l limit o f deposits at the mint.
T h e general effect o f these circu m stan ces seem s to be to enh an ce the volum e
o f A m erican coin in the c o u n tr y ; to extend the sp ecie basis o f the cu rren cy, and
b y so doing, although tem porary pressure is apparently created, a steadier condi­
tion o f the m arkets must ultim ately be produced.

T h e position o f the B ank o f E n g ­

land is su ch that large sum s in coin can be spared by that institution before its
strength w ill be im paired.

In our num ber for January, w e gave a table o f ex­

ch an g es on L ondon, dow n to D ecem b er 3d, sh ow in g su ch a fall in rates as pointed
to an exportation o f bullion to the continent.

W e w ill bring d ow n those dates

sixty days later, as fo llo w s :—
RATES

OF

C O N T IN E N T A L

Amsterdam. Antwerp.

June 4 ....................
September 4...........
October 9 ................
23................
30................
November 6...........
13...........
19...........
December 3 ..........
. 1 1 ...........
January 8 ...............
2 2 ................
2 9 ................
February 3 ..............




12.6
125
12.7
12.5
12.44
12.1
12.1
12.04
11.194

26.74
26.10
26.10
26.5
25.974
26.0
2595
25.90
25.85
25.85
25.80
25.674
25.70
25.75

B IL L S

IN

Hamburgh.

1 3 .13 4
13.13
13.13
13.124
13.124
13.114
13.114
13.114
13.114
13.104
13.9 J
13.74
13.7 J
13.84

LONDON.

Paris.

26.00
26.00
25.85
25.724
25.70
25.65
25.65
25.624
25.574
25.55
25.50
25.30
25.35
25.35

Vienna.

10.9
10 .10 4
10.9
10 .7
10 .74
10.8
10.04
10.6
10.54
10.4
10.4
10.1
10.2
10.2

Silver.

4.11
4.114
4.114
4.111

5.00
5.004
5004
5.004

5.00§
5.004

393

Commercial Chronicle and Review.

This was a great and continued fall, and the market closed with an abundance
of bills offering. The comparative exchange with Paris, was as follows :—
C O M P A R A T IV E

EXCHANGES

AT

LO N D O N

AND

P A R IS .

London.
P a r is .
A c t u a l p r ic e o f
R e s u ltin g b ills in P a ris
M in t
G o ld
G o ld d e a r e r a t
p r ic e o f g o ld , p e r m ille . e x c h a n g e
on L on d on .
London.
P a r is . Hamburg.

October 9 ............
2 3 ..........
November 6 .......
16......
December 3 ......
i i ......
January 8 ..........
15..........
2 2 ..........
2 9 ..........

16
16
16
154
16
15
14
10
11
10

7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4
7 7 .1 0 4

25.55
25.55
25.55
25.54
25.55
25.52
25.50
25.40
25.42
25.40

2 5 .7 7 4
25.70
25.65
25.60
25.574
25.55
25.45
25.50
25.35
25.274

0.874
0.58
0.39
0.23
par.
0.124

....

0.26
0.39
6.28
0.49

....

....
6.17
1.17
1.05
1.50
1.76

In October, gold was, it appears, eightv-seven-hundredths dearer in London than
in Paris ; and at the close of January was near a half per cent dearer in Paris than
in London. In the first week in January, the rates fluctuated considerably under
the export of silver from the Bank of England to the Bank of France. The
premium on gold declined rapidly in Paris. The effect of this state of the ex­
changes had not yet been apparent on the bullion in the bank; the returns of
which, brought down from our table in the December number, are as follows :—
BANK

S e c u r it ie s .
P u b l ic .
P r iv a t e .

£

D ec.5
Jan. 2
9
16
23

12,807,417
12,826,362
12,757,326
12,757,326
12,757,326

OF

ENGLAND.

D e p o s its .
P u b lic .
P r iv a t e .

£

£

13,853,212
15,071,820
14,464,948
14,450,711
14,489,657

£

£

N ett
c i r c u la t io n .

£

N otes
on h an d.

£

8,612,488 8,303,523 19,866,805 8,402,300
9,990,624 7,903,959 20,031,185 8,227,085
5,860,631 9,784,767 20,836,845 6,715,255
5,034,189 10,339,726 20,679,370 6,545,965
4,668,489 10,335,835 20,608,090 6,167,170

B u llio n .

15,002,873
14,951,572
14,308,022
13,948,681
13,442,880

T h e reduction in bullion is about £ 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 only, includ ing the £ 1 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0

in silver, and the gold shipped to Russia and the United States. It is observable
that, notwithstanding that the bullion was, on December 5, £ 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 more in
bank, the circulation out was near £1,000,000 less ; a result produced by a dimi­
nution o f £ 2 ,2 0 0 ,0 0 0 in the notes on hand paid out for dividends, w h ich paym ents
am ounted, it appears by the dim inution in the public deposits, to £ 5 ,3 0 0 ,0 0 0 , from
the 2d to the 23d January.

It follow s that the bank m ust lose £ 6 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 o f spe­

cie by exportation, before the am ount o f cu rren cy as furnished by it is affected.
It appears that so far from con tra ctin g its tim e o f discounts, that the private se­
curities w h ich it held w ere £ 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 m ore on January 23d, than D ecem b er 5th,
w h en it had £ 1 ,5 0 0 ,0 0 0 m ore sp ecie.
be on A m erican accoun t.

T h e principal drain w h ich it w ill feel w ill

T h e im port into this country cannot be large before it

produces its ow n cu re ; but for the action o f the Independent T reasury, the expan­
sion o f the banks w ou ld, as is usually the ca se, at su ch tim es, have produced such
a speculation and rise in prices, as w ou ld already have given a great im pulse to
the import o f g ood s, and ch eck ed that o f specie.

U nder the present system o f

finance, it w ill require a larger sum to produce that result.




394

Mercantile Miscellanies.

MERCANTILE

MISCELLANIES.

T H E P O E T R Y OF F R E E T R A D E .
T O T H E E D IT O R O F T H E M E R C H A N T S * M A G A Z IN E A N D C O M M E R C IA L R E V I E W .

D e a r S ir :— You will confer a favor on an old subscriber by transferring to the pages
o f your valuable Magazine the enclosed lines, which originally appeared in the “ St. Louis

Union,” although I believe they were written by an American gentleman, now residing in
France. I am not competent to speak o f their poetic merit, but they express sentiments
in harmony with the spirit o f the age, and in accordance with that Gospel which teaches
us “ to do to others as we would have others do unto us.” “ Free Trade” is one step towards
the development o f the great doctrine o f “ human brotherhood,” to be found in the teach­
ings o f Him “ who spake as never man spake” — a doctrine which all his followers, Catho­
lic and Protestant, profess to adopt. Whatever latitude you may give to correspondents
in discussing the “ principles o f protection” in the pages o f your Magazine, I feel quite
sure that you entertain the most liberal and enlightened views on the subject. The very
fact o f your opening the pages o f your journal to the free discussion o f “ mooted points,”
is, to my mind, conclusive evidence, that on comparing notes, we should not materially
differ as to the wisdom and rectitude o f entire and absolute free trade with all nations.
V e r y resp ectfu lly y o u r s , & c . ,
FREE

TRADE.

O h ! T im e ! thou laborer in the human field,
T o whose rude scythe all mortal things must yield;
Cutting o ff beauty in the proudest hour,
Depriving strength o f all his vaunted power—
Am ong thy many doings, thou, o f late,
Hast done at least “ some service to the State;”
M owing Protection down, while Free Trade stands,
T he harbinger o f good to distant lands;
And radiant memory paints, in colors warm,
The last great deed in politics— Reform.
Commercial liberty !— a magic sound—
A plant first watered, e’en on British ground ;
And they who set it there already see
T he sheltering branches o f a healthy tree
Equal protection give to all who seek
Their bounteous shade— the powerful or weak.
T o you— great league and leaguers !— unto you
W ill grateful commerce pay a tribute d u e ;
W hile many foreign lands your worth proclaim,
And your example make their highest aim.
See Russia, thawing in its icy clime,
Adopt the leading spirit o f the time,
Loosing the shackles that her trade restrained,
And making millions thrive where ruin reigned.
Even an autocrat can understand
This is the cherished welfare o f his land—
T he brightest boon for tillers o f the soil,
A n ample market for their ceaseless toil.
And now Columbia, o’er the trackless seas,
Unfurls her spangled banner to the breeze ;
Rejects the trammels o f her former laws,
Gains good effect by giving better cause.




C o bden .

Mercantile Miscellanies.

395

Her boundless fields send forth the yellow grain,
T he useful cotton spreads o’er many a plain:
The former gives the British weaver food,
The latter keeps his occupation good ;
And now the product o f his loom is worn
Upon the soil that furnished him with corn.
Free Trade, more strong than diplomatic art,
Unites two nations, though so wide apart:
Gives greater lustre than a hundred wars,
W hile smiling Ceres conquers frowning Mars.
Italia, too, that sunny southern clime,
T o Free Trade’s merry peal now adds her chim e;
Making harmonious as her own sweet tongue,
The jarring chords o f commerce, long unstrung.
L o ! France, awakening at the eleventh hour,
Begins to own commercial freedom’s power.
In her gay capital behold a few,
Spuming old notions, now adopt the new.
They meet to honor him who long has been
First in the field, a nobler leader seen,
A peaceful conqueror— lo ! a Cobden comes,
N o clanging trumpets, nor loud sounding drums,
Proclaim his welcome to the little band,
W h o see with pride the stranger in their land.
They hail no “ hero o f a hundred fights,”
But greet the champion o f a thousand rights.
Oh ! Liberty— the captive well may sigh
W ith thee to liv e ; without thee, wish to die.
So fettered Commerce, striving to be free,
W ill pine and die, or gain its liberty.

F. L. H.

T H E M E R C A N T IL E C L A S S E S , OR G R A D E S.
A Sermon o f Merchants, preached at the Melodeon, on Sunday, November 22d, 1846,
by T

heodore

P a r k e r , Minister o f the Twenty-Eighth Congregational Church in Boston,”

has just been published by request.

The text, or rather motto, as it has very little to do

with the character o f the discourse, from Ecclesiasticus xxvii. 2, “ A s a nail sticketh fast
between the joinings of the stones, so doth sin stick close between buying and selling,”
tells a truth, which scarcely loses any o f its force, although derived from a portion o f the
Bible that has been rejected by orthodox authority, as forming no part or parcel of the in­
spired writings.

Mr. Parker points out, in his usual manly, candid, and forcible manner,

what he conceives to be the P ositio n , T
o f M e rch ants.

e m p t a t io n s ,

O p p o r t u n it ie s , I n fl u en c e , and D u t y ,

He distributes men into four classes.

1. The men who create new ma­

terial for human use, either by digging it out o f mines and quarries, fishing it out of the
sea, or raising it out o f the land, as Producers. 2. Men who transform this material into
other shapes, fitting it for human u se; men that make grain into flour and bread, cotton
into cloth, iron into needles or knives, and the like. These indirect producers are classed
as Manufacturers. 3. The third class, who simply use these things when thus produced
and manufactured, are the Consumers. W e come now to the fourth class, the Merchants,
who are described by Mr. Parker, as—
“ Men who buy and se ll; who buy to sell, and sell to buy the more. They fetch and
carry between the other classes. These are Distributors; they are the M e r c h a n t s . Under
this name I include the whole class who live by buying and selling, and not merely those con­
ventionally called Merchants to distinguish them from small dealers. This term comprises
traders behind counters and traders behind desks; traders neither behind counters nor desks.
“ There are various grades o f Merchants. They might be classed and symbolized ac­
cording as they use a Basket, a Wheelbarrow, a Cart, a Stall, a Booth, a Shop, a W are-




396

Mercantile Miscellanies.

house, Counting-room, or Bank. Still all are the same thing— men who live by buying
and selling. A Ship is only a large Basket, a Warehouse a costly Stall. Your Pedler is
a small Merchant going round from house to house with his Basket, to mediate between
persons; your Merchant only a great Pedler sending round from land.to land with his Ships,
to mediate between nations. The Israelitish woman who sits behind a bench in her stall
on the Rialto at Venice, changing gold into silver and copper, or loaning money to him
who leaves hat, coat, and other collaterals in pledge, is a small Banker. The Israelitish
man who sits at Fraukfort-on-the-Maine, changes drafts into specie, and lends millions to
men who leave in pledge a mortgage on the States o f the Church, Austria, or Russia, is a
Pawnbroker and Money-changer on a large scale. By this arithmetic, for present con­
venience, all grades o f Merchants are reduced to one denomination— men who live by
buying and selling.
“ All these four classes run into one another. The same man may belong to all at the
same time. All are needed. A t home, a Merchant is a mediator to go between the Pro­
ducer and the Manufacturer—between both and the Consumer. On a large scale, he is the
mediator who goes between continents— between producing and manufacturing States— be­
tween both and consuming countries. The calling is founded in the state o f Society, as
that is a compromise between Man’s permanent nature and transient condition. So long
as there are Producers and Consumers, there must be Distributors. The value o f the call­
ing depends on its importance; its usefulness is the measure o f its respectability. The
most useful calling must be the noblest. I f it is difficult, demanding great ability and selfsacrifice, it is yet more noble. A useless calling is disgraceful; one that injures mankind—
infamous. Tried by this standard, the Producers seem nobler than the Distributors; they
than the mere Consumers. This may not be the popular judgment now, but must one day
become so, for Mankind is slowly learning to judge by the natural Law published by Jesus—
that he who would be greatest o f all, must be most effectively the Servant of all.
“ There are some who do not seem to belong to any o f the active classes, who are yet
Producers, Manufacturers, and Distributors, by their Head more than their H and; men
who have fertile Heads; Producers, M anufacturers, and Distributors o f T hought; active
in the most creative way. Here, however, the common rule is inverted: the Producers are
few— men o f Genius; the Manufacturers many— men o f T alent; the Distributors— men
o f T a c t ; men who remember, and talk with tongue or pen. Their name is legion.”

T H E B R IT IS H T O B A C C O W A R E H O U S E A T LIV E R P O O L .
A writer in Chambers’ (Edinburgh) Journal, gives a very interesting description o f Her
Majesty’s Tobacco Warehouse, connected with the customs, which he describes as equal
to the tobacco depot in London, one o f the largest storehouses in the world. This “ com­
mercial wonder ” gives a very comprehensive notion o f what John Bull habitually puffs
into the atmosphere. The account will interest the commercial reader, and we therefore
transfer it to the pages o f the Merchants’ Magazine without abridgement.
“ Entering by a dingy court-yard adjoining the Queen’s Docks, I was conducted into this
Liverpool tobacco warehouse. The first sensation on entering, is that o f an intense acrid
odor, which affects not only the nostrils, but the breathing, for the atmosphere is loaded
with tobacco effluvia. Somewhat inconvenienced by this feeling, we pass up an aisle or
interval between rows o f casks, and find ourselves in the centre o f the vast apartment.
The light, which is admitted by tbe roof, reveals hogsheads on hogsheads o f tobacco, piled
up on every side, leaving passages between for the operations o f the attendants. The
length o f the building is five hundred and seventy-five feet, and its breadth two hundred
and fifty; the roof being supported on small but strong cast-iron pillars, so as to afford the
largest possible accommodation in the space. Great as is this enclosure, it has latterly
been found too circumscribed for the storing o f the large quantities o f tobacco imported
into Liverpool, and several additions to the building have recently been made. There is
not a particle o f architectural ornament about the structure. The exterior shows nothing
but a dead wall ; one side forms a wall to the dock, and the other is separated from the
Mersey by a pleasant parade. Indeed, the whole building is nothing but a mighty shed,
round which custom-house regulations have thrown an air o f isolation.
“ A ll the tobacco which comes to the port o f Liverpool must, except in special cases,
be warehoused in this building. It is here examined by the owner or importers, who
select that which is good, and on which they deem it profitable to pay the duty o f three
shillings per pound. That which is rejected is cast aside and burned. The hogsheads
•vhich contain the tobacco are roughly and widely made, but they are very firm and strong,




Mercantile Miscellanies.

397

and each contains about twelve or fourteen hundred weight. W hen one is to be examined,
it is brought from a heap, and set upright on the ground. The fastening o f the staves at
the lower part is unloosed, and the wood-work is then lifted bodily up, leaving the tobacco
exposed as a large compact cylindrical mass. A workman then digs into it with an iron
crow-bar, and large pieces, like cakes, are removed. These are examined, and a judg­
ment pronounced on their quality. A portion is pulled out as a sample, wrapped neatly
up, and marked with certain cabalistic figures known to the initiated. The whole is then
firmly pressed together again, and in a few minutes it is placed in the cask, hooped, and
removed. Every piece o f tobacco that leaves this warehouse must pay duty ; and even
the samples thus selected, small though they be, are charged, though, if they are again
brought back, the amount is returned.
“ Nearly all the tobacco stored here is from the United States o f America, but principally
from the State o f Virginia. It is all in an unmanufactured state, consisting o f the light
brown leaves rolled together and compressed. T he warehouse contains the largest quan­
tity towards the beginning o f winter, or just after time has been given for the autumn
leaves to be gathered, dried, and sent across the Atlantic. On the day o f my visit, it was
calculated that about twenty thousand casks were in the warehouse; and i f we suppose
each o f them to contain, on an average, twelve hundred weight, we have an aggregate of
twenty-six millions eight hundred and eighty thousand pounds o f tobacco, realizing a reve­
nue to government o f nearly four million pounds sterling. Although this, however, must
have been the accumulated stock, the yearly quantity entered for home consumption in
1842, was 22,309,360 lbs.; increased to this amount from 8,000,000 lbs. imported in 1798.
The duty received in the former years was .£3,580,164. The ideas called up by such a
mass of tobacco are perfectly staggering. I f the material ministered to the necessities of
man, the sight o f so many millions o f pounds would be quite cheering. But to think that
the tobacco, piled in such enormous quantities here, is all to vanish in smoke through the
medium o f the mouths o f enlightened Britons, quite overpowers the imagination, and
completely baffles the grasp o f common sense. The idea o f a nation like the British,
which is now doing such wonderful work for all humanity and all time, gravely, and as a
matter o f course, puffing out in smoke, or inhaling in dust every year, more than twentytwo million pounds’ weight o f tobacco, and finding ways and means to pay between three
and four million pounds sterling for the privilege to do so, is really, to say the least o f it,
very humbling to the pride o f the nineteenth century. And yet this is not all. I have
merely indicated the quantity on which duty is paid ; but Mr. M ’Culloch calculates that
one-third o f what is consumed in Great Britain is supplied by the smuggler ; which will
give, as the grand annual total, about thirty-three million and a half pounds’ w eight!
This is only about a sixteenth part less than the quantity we require every year for home
consumption o f the more innocent and amiable luxury, tea.
Tobacco may, as Arthur
Cayley, in his Life o f Sir Walter Raleigh, says, be
4 P o is o n th a t c u r e s ; a v a p o r th a t a ffo rd s
C on ten t, m o r e s o l id th a n th e s m ile o f l o r d s ;
R e s t to th e w e a r y ; t o th e h u n g ry fo o d ;
T h e la st k in d re fu g e o f th e w is e a n d g o o d .’

But all the imagination and fancy, wit and humor o f poets, will not bate one jot o f our
sadness at the mighty monument o f human frailty exhibited in these great receptacles.
“ About the centre o f the warehouse is built a large furnace, which was crackling and
roaring most lustily on the day o f my visit, while hot gleams shot out from chinks in the
massive iron doors, giving evidence o f the fearful fire within. In every establishment there
is always something known by a jocular nickname, and the standing joke about this
furnace is to call it “ Queen Victoria’s Tobacco Pipe.” All the rejected tobacco is burned
in this right royal tobacco pipe. Fortunately for the citizens o f Liverpool, the tobacco
warehouse is at a considerable distance from all dwelling-houses, otherwise the strong
fumes arising from the furnace-chimney would prove anything but conducive to health.
Behind the furnace is a large circular recess, in which the tobacco ashes are piled up to
the extent o f several cart-loads. They are found useful in many chemical preparations,
and being o f a silicious nature, form a good dentifrice.
“ A t one end o f the warehouse there is a division called the Cigar Room. This con­
tains myriads o f cigars, neatly and firmly packed in convenient cases. None o f these are
of course allowed to be taken away without the payment o f duty, though, in cases where
they are required for ships’ stores or exportation, a drawback, or repayment o f the duty, to
the extent o f 2s. 7£d. per pound, is made. Besides the foreign cigars, a vast quantity are
made at home ; but it is clearly understood, from the exposes that have been made from
time to time in the London newspapers, that many o f the latter are o f British growth as
well as British manufacture. Not only are dried cabbage leaves, and other materials of




398

Mercantile Miscellanies.

the kind, liberally used for the purpose, but in a recent case inquired into by the Lord
Mayor at the mansion-house, it was shown that some cigars are entirely composed of
blown piper. In this cigar room there are also large, heavy packages o f the finer sorts
o f tobacco' known by the name o f ‘ Cavendish,’ ‘ Negrohead,’ ‘ Honey-dew,’ &c. This
finer sort is obtained from those parts o f America where the climate is warmer than in
Virginia. Here also are piled numerous packages o f a cubical form, one foot thick, con­
taining South American tobacco, the covering consisting o f cattle skins, apparently dried
in the sun, and stitched firmly together. They were lying round in great numbers, and
resembled a mighty pile o f brown and variegated hairy trunks. It is curious, indeed, to
find here, wrapping tobacco, the skin o f some noble animal that may have ranged freely
over South American plains, until the desire to ‘ turn an honest penny’ by the sale o f its
hide, tempted a hunter to ensnare it with the fatal lasso. Several o f these packages,
which had been slightly damaged by the salt water, had been opened, and, as I understood,
were considered not good enough for the smokers o f this country, and were to be expoited
to Africa for the use o f the negroes. In the same room, some men were engaged in chop­
ping off’ the hard woody fibres o f the canes, on which the owners would not pay duty.
These fragments are all gathered together, and, on the principle that all is valueless which
pays no duty, are cast into the fire.
“ The utmost attention is paid to accuracy in weighing the tobacco previous to charging
it with duty. Scales which weigh about twelve or fourteen hundred weight at a time, are
used ; and after the workmen have steadily adjusted the pile in one o f the scales, they all
withdraw. A circle is formed, within which none but the proper officers are allowed to
enter; and when they have ascertained the weight, a signal is given, the spell is dissolved,
and the pile is removed. The celerity with which the workmen fix it again in its covering,
is surprising. The staves, which seem as if they were kept from falling to pieces only by
a slight attachment to one o f the ends, are lifted up in a mass, and brought down, covering
the material. A rope is slipped round the lower part., to keep them together, the hoops are
rapidly fixed on, and the hogshead tilted up and placed under a powerful screw, which
compresses the tobacco firmly down, previous to the fastening o f the other end.
In the dock adjoining the warehouse the tobacco vessels are generally m oored; and
the hogsheads carted in a few minutes from the ship's side into the safe-keeping c f Her
Majesty's revenue officers. The warehouse is the property o f the corporation of Liverpool,
which receives from government an annual rent for it o f j£4,3G4 5 s.
“ It may truly be said that this tobacco warehouse is a ‘ commercial wonder.’ It is
wonderful to think that all this mighty store, springing from the soil o f the new world, is
soon to be cast forth into our atmosphere in clouds o f smoke from meerschaum, cigar, and
‘ d u d e e n a n d still more wonderful to think o f the dreamy visions and cloudy air-castles,
and damaged health and mean habits, to which all this smoking must give rise. It is in­
deed a moral wonder, which men ought to contemplate with sad and serious feelings.”

C O M M E R C E O F T H E B R IT IS H CO LO N IE S.
The colonial possessions o f Great Britain, which have been acquired by conquest, ces­
sion, purchase, or colonization, while they circumscribe the earth with a chain o f subjected
provinces, constitute, probably, the most extraordinary political spectacle o f the present age.
In those colonies, scattered through the four quarters o f the globe, the supreme government
has established British law s; it preserves their social order through the agency o f military
force, composed o f royal and colonial troops, and has introduced a European system o f edu­
cation, commerce, and religion. Some o f those colonies have been far from constituting
sources o f wealth, their expenses exceeding their revenues; yet, from causes connected
with the protection o f its maritime ascendency— as profitable markets for its products, or
for other purposes— they have been fortified and sustained, as possessions which are to be
maintained and protected.
Let us briefly enumerate those colonial establishments.

Commencing with the West

Indies, we find the British government in possession o f Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago,
Grenada, St. Vincent, and Barbadoes, Antigua, Dominica, St. Lucia, St. Christopher,
Montserrat, Nevis, Tortola, and the Virgin Isles, New Providence, the Bahamas, and
the Bermudas, to which are added Demerara, Essequibo, Berbice, Honduras, and the
Falkland Islands.




It is probably well known, that a large proportion o f the staple arti­

399

Mercantile Miscellanies.

cles o f sugar, rum, and molasses, which supplies the markets o f the world, is derived from
those colonies; and in return, they doubtless afford an extensive field o f consumption for
various species o f British products.

In North America, it holds the colonies o f Upper and

Lower Canada, Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, Prince Edward Island, Newfoundland, Labra­
dor, and the Hudson Bay Territory.
If we direct our attention to Asia, we find the government o f Great Britain in posses­
sion o f the vast empire o f India, exporting from its colonies the gold, gems, silk, ivory,
and spices o f Hindostan, Ceylon, Penang, Malacca, and Singapore, and exercising a pa­
cific jurisdiction over them by the exercise o f policy or military force. In Australasia, it
holds the colonial establishments o f N ew South Wales, Van Dieman’s Island, Swan River,
and Southern Australia. From its colonies in Africa— the Cape o f Good Hope, Mauritius,
and Seychelles, St. Helena, Ascension, Sierra Leone, the Gambia, Acora, Cape Coast
Castle, and a few minor colonial establishments— it receives ivory, gold, and other pro­
ducts. Besides those, are its European colonial possessions— Gibraltar, Malta, and Gozo,
Corfu, Cephalonia, Santa Maura, Ithaca, Zante, Paxo, Cerigo, and Heligoland.

Those

several colonies occupy an area o f 2,119,708 square miles, with a total population of
107,708,323. Their total exports and imports amount to the value o f =£55,533,500 ster­
ling ; and they possess a shipping, which has grown to the tonnage o f 7,514,585 tons.

T R A D E A N D C O M M E R C E OF N E W Y O R K , IN 1691.
T o F r e e m a n H u n t , E sq ., Editor of the Merchants’ Magazine :—
Am ong the papers which I have collected, pertaining to the history o f N ew Y ork, when
a colony, is a curious petition from the then merchants o f the city o f N ew York, to the
colonial legislature.

Compare New York, as it now is, with what it then was— its trade

and commerce then, with now.
Wall-street, in 1691, was the outside o f the city on the north.

This street was then

called “ Ciugal-street.”
Broadway, in 1691, was known by the name o f “ Broad W agon W ay.”
Yours, &.C.,

E. M

e r ia m .

T o the Honorable their majesties Commander-in-chief and their majesties Councel o f
The Province o f New York. The petition o f the merchants o f the city o f N ew York
whose names are subscribed.
That by the navigation and traffic o f N ew Y ork, (allmost) the whole revenue for the
support and maintainance o f their majesties government o f this province, doth arise and
grow, and altogether depend upon the same.
That by the importation o f European goods from Boston and other places, the money,
Bullion, Furs, and other returns, are drawn away from hence ; whereby the merchants are
disabled to send for goods directly from England, and by that means our number o f ship­
ping being decreased, our seamen diminished, and our trade discouraged; our provisions
and other produces o f the country, will lie upon our hands for want of exportation, and
our neighbours will be able, in a short time, not only to set their own price upon whatever
goods they bring to us, but also upon such goods o f our own production as they transport
from us.
That the exportation o f wheat to any o f the neighbouring colonies, is a great detriment
ter this city and province, and the impoverishing and destruction o f numbers of people, viz. :
Boatmen, Millers, Bakers, & c., who otherwise get a livelyhood, and maintain their fami­
lies out o f the same. That the exportation o f whale oyl taken and made in this province,
otherwise than from this city, is manifestly hurtful to trade, and a general inconvenience
to this city and province, our neighbours thereby reaping all the profit and gain o f the la­
bour, hazard, and industry o f the people of this government.
They therefore pray, that the premis may be taken into consideration.
R ip V a n D a m ,
C h r is t o p h e r G o r e ,
J am es M il l s ,
C h a r l e s L o d w ic k ,
S am uel B r en t,




S t e ph e n D e l a n c e y ,
R ich ar d J ones ,
T hos. N e w h a n ,
A. D epeyster,
J ohn B a r b a n e .

400

Mercantile Miscellanies.
C O M M E R C E OF S IN G A P O R E .*

W e have now before us, a copy o f “ Tile Singapore Free Press and Mercantile A d ­
vertiser,” o f the 30th July, 1846, and also a “ Price Current” front that place, o f the
same date'. N o duties are required to be paid in that port, either upon imports or ex­
ports, nor are any charges demanded upon the vessels o f foreign nations. The accounts
are there kept in Spanish dollars and cents. The usual credits upon sales o f European
goods, are three m onths; upon those o f India and China, two m onths; and produce is
generally purchased for money.

T he ordinary weight, is the picul o f 133£ pounds.

Salt

and rice are sold by the “ coyan ” o f 40 piculs; Java tobacco, by the “ corge ” o f 40 bas­
kets ; Bengal rice, wheat, and grain, by the bag, containing 2 Bengal “ m a u n d s In d ia n
piece goods, by the “ corge” o f 20 piculs; gold and silver thread, by the “ catty ” o f $3 6
w eight; and gold dust, by the “ bunkal,” which weighs $ 2 . O f the nature o f the trade
with China, we subjoin the following advertisement, for which we are indebted to the
Journal that we have before mentioned :—
“ Just received, ex ‘ Mischief,’ from China, ladies’ gold and silver card-cases o f curious
workmanship; gold and silver fans, with ivory faces ; ivory junks and boats, richly carved;
ivory castles; ivory chessmen o f sorts; inother-of-pearl fish counters; mother-of-pearl
and ivory puzzles, & c.”
From the “ Singapore Price Current,” we have also the record o f the amount o f ship­
ping in the harbor, as well as the number o f arrivals and departures from its port, from
the 22d to the 29th o f July. From this document, it appears, that during that period
there arrived in the port o f Singapore 3 Dutch vessels, 7 British vessels, and 1 steamship
o f that nation, as well as 1 American vessel, all from the several ports o f Batavia, Rio,
Bombay, Penang, Palembang, Borneo, China, and N ew Y ork. During the period inter­
vening between the 25th and 29th o f July, there were 9 British and 1 Spanish vessel
which left that port for the several ports o f Macao and A m oy, Penang, Hong Kong,
Maulmein, Malacca, Pedier coast, and Manilla. The following table, showing the ship­
ping in the harbor o f Singapore, on the 30th o f July last, is doubtless accurate:—
S H IP P IN G

V e s s e ls ’ n a m e s.

Harnbro’ schooner H e b e ....
Belgian bark Schelde...........
Bremen bark A nna..............
B. bark Prince Albert...........
B. brig Richard & W illiam..
D. brig Tartar........................
D. schooner Swallow...........
B. bark Bowling...................
B. bark Roval Albert..........
American ship Huntress....
B. schooner Julia..................
B. b a r k Boadicea..................
Arab ship Macobbar............
B. ship Kusrovie...................

T on s.

100
300
500
232
163
220
60
253
407
600
421
700

IN

THE

C om m anders.

Maitland.
Hullock.
Clayes.
Wessels.
Keld.
Brigstock.
Simpie.
Scott.
Gentle.
Balderston.
Gillespie.
Cushing.
Warland.
Oppice.
Middleton.

HARBOR.

C o n s ig n e e s .

Behn, Meyer & Co.
Behn, Meyer & Co.
Behn, Meyer & Co.
Almeida & Sons.
Maclaine, Fraser & Co.
W . C. Leisk.
W . C. Leisk.
Hamilton, Gray &. Co.
Martin, Dyce &, Co.
Boustead,Sclnvabe & C o .
W . R. Paterson & Co.
Shaw, Whitehead &, Co.
Syed Oiner.
Geo. Armstrong &- Co.

D estin a tio n .

Penang.
China.
Batavia.
Mauritius.
Batavia.
For Sale.
Liverpool.
Whampoa.
Sarawak.
Batavia
Calcutta.
Siam.

N a t iv e C r a f t , B r it is h .— B u ffa lo, Enseng, Emma, Psyche.
D utch .— T in Goan, Fatahool Salam, Louisa, Fatahool Barre, Goan Lee, Karap, Goat

Goan, Fattal Khair, Tan Goan, Iksing, Bopaul, Djoennating, Goan' L ee, Kim Soon Goan,
and Vrouw Jacoba.
M a l a y .— Mohabar and Y oung Queen.
Am ong the articles in the Singapore market, the prices o f which are stated in the
Price Current, we would specify those o f arrack, betel-nut, China camphor, cassia lignea,
* For an article on the Commerce o f Malacca, Singapore, & c., by J. Balestier, Esq.,
U. S. Consul at Singapore, see pp. 351-355 o f the present number o f this Magazine.




Mercantile Miscellanies.

401

Mauritius and Ceylon ebony, Pahang gold dust, mother-of-pearl shells, mace, nutmegs,
opium, pepper, sago, sandal-wood, China nankin, Canton raw silk, tea, and tortoise-shell.
In the brief view o f the resources and commerce o f Singapore, which we have taken, it
appears that a considerable amount o f trade is prosecuted from its port. The progress of
commercial enterprise is doubtless destined to develop the resources o f the oriental na­
tions ; and we hope that the moral condition o f those countries will be improved, in pro­
portion to the advance o f their improvement in other respects.

C O R N P R E F E R A B L E T O M O N E Y F O R IR E L A N D .
Amasa W alker, o f North Brookfield, Mass., has written a letter to the Worcester
Transcript, in which he gives several reasons for sending com to Ireland, instead of
money. The corn, or breadstuffs o f some sort, is what the starving people need, and
will be available as soon as received. I f we send money, we create a demand for com
in Ireland and England, and thus enhance the price o f corn there for sale; while if we
send the com it will supply to an extent the great demand existing for it, and bring large
quantities now stored up there into market at reduced prices. Besides, if we send money

funds, it is virtually carrying so much money out o f the country, which may, and very
probably will, be expended in buying wheat o f the English monopolists, or from traders
from the Black S e a ; and making a market for the produce o f other nations instead of
our own. Intelligent people in Ireland, from their own observation, are led to say that
they “ believe our donation will be worth double i f sent in corn, instead o f money, bills
o f exchange, and the like.”

SM U G G LIN G B Y A M E R IC A N A N D F R E N C H W H A L E R S .
North American and French whalers have, for several years past, been frequent visiters
to San Carlos, Peru, as they can there provide themselves, at a cheap rate, with provisions
for the long fishing season. All the captains bring goods which they smuggle on shore,
where they sell or exchange them at a high profit. A custom-house officer is, indeed, sent
on board every vessel to examine what is to be unshipped ; but a few dollars will silence
him, and make him favor the contraband operations, which are carried on without much
reserve. A French captain brought to Chiloe a quantity o f water-proof cloaks and hats,
made o f a sort o f black waxed cloth, and sold them to a dealer in San Carlos. T o evade
the duty, he sent his men on shore, each wearing one o f these hats and cloaks, which they
deposited in the dealer’s store, and then returned on board the ship, dressed in their sail­
or’s garb. This was repeated so often, that at length it was intimated to the captain, that
if his men had a fancy to come on shore with such hats and cloaks, they would be per­
mitted to do so, but it must be on condition o f their returning on board dressed in the same
costume.
IN G E N IO U S M E T H O D OF SM U G G LIN G TOBACCO.
Syreen, a custom-house officer at Liverpool, apprehended a woman named Eliza Smith,
a passenger on board an American vessel, on suspicion o f having smuggled tobacco in her
possession. Upon examining her dress, seventeen pounds o f tobacco were found concealed
under i t ; but the most remarkable o f the expedients which had been resorted to for the
purpose o f deceiving the lynx-eyed deputies o f the customs, was that of giving to the con­
traband leaf the resemblance o f a loaf. A quantity o f cut tobacco had been pressed into
a tin, over which a thin layer o f dough was spread, which, being baked, had the appear­
ance to the eye o f a veritable loaf.

The quantity o f tobacco which the woman had con­

trived to secrete in this, and other modes, amounted to no less than seventy pounds.
V O L . X V I . ------ N O . I V .




26

402

Statistics o f Population.

STATISTICS

OF

POPULATION.

T H E P R O G R E SS OF P O P U L A T IO N IN M A SS A C H U S E T T S .

A Statistical View of the Population of Massachusetts, from 1765 to 1840.
C h ic k e r in g , M. D .

8vo ., pp.

160.

By J esse
Boston: CharlesC.Little & James Brown.

The object o f this essay is to exhibit the increase o f the population o f Massachusetts,
and the change which has taken place in the number and proportions o f the inhabitants in
the several parts o f the Commonwealth, during the period o f seventy-five years, from 1765
to 1840.
It would occupy more space than we can well spare to give even a comprehensive analy­
sis o f the contents o f this very ingenious, able, and thorough statistical view o f the progress
o f population in the “ Old Bay State.”

The author, a modest and retiring gentleman, is,

so far as we know, without a rival on the score o f statistics in this country, and were he a
resident o f Great Britain, the administration o f that kingdom would not permit him to
remain long in seclusion.

His untiring industry, and talent for statistical analysis, would

there be fully appreciated and amply rewarded. It is matter o f deep regret that our gov­
ernment did not avail itself o f the services o f this gentleman, in the organization o f the sta­
tistical bureau, projected by a member o f Congress from this State, the Hon. Zadok Pratt,
o f Prattsville. But partizans prefer votes to ability, and we must patiently wait for that
“ good time coming,” when honesty and capacity shall take the precedence of political
quackery and corruption. W e shall refer to this work again ; in the meantime we com ­
mend it to all wrho take an interest in the progress o f statistical science, and we earnestly
hope that the worthy author may meet with the encouragement his enterprise and labors
so eminently deserve.
W e can find room, at this time, for only a single extract from this carefully compiled
work, which exhibits the average increase o f population in Massachusetts, from 1768 to
1790:—
“ On the 16th o f February, 1776, a resolve passed the legislature for taking a census of
the colony o f Massachusetts Bay, o f which the returns show the number o f the whites to
have been, in that year................................................................................................... 333,418
from which deduct 17,623 in York county, 14,110 in Cumberland county, and
15,546 in Lincoln county, belonging to the State o f M aine...................................
47,279
and we have.....................................................................................................................
The whole number o f the blacks was 5,249, from which deduct 241 on account
o f the three counties in Maine.....................................................................................

286,139

and we have for the whole population in 1776........................................................
which is only 139 less than the mean number in 1775, as deduced from the aver­
age increase o f the census in 1765.
In 1784, the number o f the polls in Massachusetts Bay w a s ..............................
from which deduct, on account o f the three counties in M aine...............................

290,900

4,761

90,757
13,723

and we have for the number o f the polls.....................................................................
77,034
By multiplying this number by 4£, we have 346,653, which is 281 less than 346,934,
the mean number in 1785, as deduced from the average increase from 1765. I have re­
ferred to the censuses o f 1776 and 1784, in order to show their near agreement with the
results deduced from the average increase.
The average increase o f Massachusetts, in each period o f ten years, from 1765 to 1790,
was 19.2054 per cent; and from 1790 to 1840, 34.2606 per cent.
T he average increase o f Massachusetts, in each period o f twenty years, from 1765 to
1790, was 42.0992 per cent, and from 1790 to 1840, 30.5551 per cent.




403

Statistics o f Population.

The average increase o f Boston, in each period o f ten years, from 1790 to 1840, was
38.506 per cent; and o f the rest o f the State only 12.3173 per cent.
The increase o f Massachusetts, from 1765 to 1840, was 493,551, or 202.1515 per cen t;
o f Boston, 77,863, or 501.6945 per cen t; and of the rest o f the State, 415,688, or 181.8177
per cent.
The average increase o f Massachusetts, from 1765 to 1840, in each twenty-five years,
was 44.5688 per ce n t; in each twenty years, 34.2950 per cen t; in each ten years, 15.8857
p ercen t; in each five years, 7.6503 per cent; and in each year, 1.4853 per cent. This
last is 0.1433 per cent per annum greater than 1.3420 per cent, the rate from 1790 to 1840.
It will appear from these statements, that the average increase o f the population o f Mas­
sachusetts was greater from 1765 to 1790 than it has been since. Had the rate continued
the same, the number would have been 911,749 in 1840. Also, the increase o f Boston
was, on an average, much less during the first twenty-five years, than that o f the other parts
o f the State, and much greater during the last two periods o f twenty-five years each,
showing a tendency to a centralization in Boston.”

IN C R E A S E OF P O P U L A T IO N IN T H E W E S T E R N S T A T E S .
The Home Missionary thus sums up the growth o f the Western States:—
O hio welcomed the first permanent settlers in 1788; now is occupied by 1,732,000

people.
M ich iga n , to w h ic h the a tten tion o f e m ig ra n ts w a s tu rned tw e lv e o r fo u rte e n yea rs a g o ,
n o w h as 3 0 0 ,0 0 0 p eop le .
I n d ia n a , admitted into the Union in 1 8 1 6 , has received a population o f m o re than h a lf
a million since 1 8 3 0 , and now numbers more than 9 0 0 ,0 0 0 inhabitants.
I l l in o is was organized as a separate territory in 1 8 1 0 , and entered the Union as a State
in 1818. From that date, its population trebled every ten years till the last census, and in
the last five years it has arisen from 4 7 6 ,0 0 0 to 7 0 0 ,0 0 0 .
M iss o u r i , w h ic h in 1 8 1 6 h a d o n ly 2 0 ,8 0 0 p e o p le , h as n o w 6 0 0 ,0 0 0 , h a v in g in crea sed
5 0 p e r ce n t in five years.
I o w a was scarcely heard o f at the East ten years ago ; it is but fourteen years since the
only white inhabitants, north o f the Missouri line, were a few Indian traders. More than
1 0 0 ,0 0 0 now make that beautiful land their home ; 6 0 ,0 0 0 o f whom have gone in during
the last four years.
W isconsin was organized ten years ago ; the marshals have just taken the census, and,
from present appearances, the population will vary but little from 1 5 0 ,0 0 0 , being an increase
o f 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 in five years. One portion o f the territory, 3 3 miles by 3 0 , which, ten years
ago, was an unbroken wilderness, now numbers 3 0 ,0 0 0 inhabitants; and the emigration to
that portion o f the W est is greater than ever. The seven new States and Territories
above enumerated— to say nothing o f the other Western and Southwestern States and
Texas— have increased since the last adjustment o f the ratio, more than a million and a
half.

PR O G R E SS OF P O P U L A T IO N IN PA RIS.
The population o f Paris increases with wonderful rapidity— much faster than that of
London, and even the average increase on this side o f the Atlantic. A Paris paper says
that the census o f 1846 shows that the population o f the capital now amounts to 1,353,097
souls, and that o f the department o f the Seine, to 1,356,907.

The census o f 1841 gave

1,181,425, as the population o f the department: that o f 1836, 1,106,000, and that o f 1832,
935,000.

In the first five years, therefore, the increase o f population has been at the rate

o f 19 per cen t: in the second, 7 per ce n t; and from 1841 to 1846, about 15 per cent.
The department o f the Seine now contains 422,000 souls more than it did in 1832. Should
the actual proportion o f increase be maintained, in twenty years more, Paris and its sub­
urbs will contain a population o f two millions. The enormous assemblage of men, houses,
and interests, denominated London, may then find itself equalled.




404

Nautical Intelligence,

NAUTICAL

INTELLIGENCE.

W H A L E R S A T V A N D IE M A N ’S L A N D .
I m p o r t a n t t o W h a l e r s .— The Legislative Council o f the island o f Van Dieman’s Land
and its dependencies, in order to encourage the resort o f vessels o f all nations engaged
in the whale fishery, have passed an act, providing that “ vessels o f all nations outfitting
for, or refitting from the fisheries, and all vessels arriving and sailing in ballast, or which
may not break bulk, or only to such an extent as may be necessary to provide funds for
th e repairs, refittings, or refreshments required, shall be wholly exempted from all port
charges and light-house dues whatsoever, except only those o f pilotage in cases where
th e service o f a pilot shall have been actually required and received, anything contained
in any act to the contrary notwithstanding.”
The Council have also passed an act, exempting from the payment o f all port charges,
wharfage, and light-house dues, excepting pilotage as aforesaid, all vessels o f foreign pow­
ers included in any treaty o f commerce with Great Britain and Ireland, which shall ar­
rive at Hobart T ow n, for the purpose o f landing and bonding for exportation only, any
oil or whalebone the produce o f fish caught or taken by the crew o f such vessel, and shall
land such oil and whalebone at any quay appointed by the Lieutenant-Governor, with the
advice o f the Executive Council for such especial purpose, and shall bond the same in a
warehouse approved by the collector o f customs for such purposes.
These acts are promulgated by his excellency, Sir John Eardly W ilm ot, Baronet,
Lieutenant-Governor o f the island o f Van Dieman’s Land and its dependencies, with the
advice o f the Legislative Council.

N E W L Y D ISC O V E R ED ISL A N D S .
Captain J. R. Sands, of the whale-ship Benjamin Tucker, at Honolulu, Sandwich Islands,
reports as follows:—
44On the passage from Sandwich Islands to Cape Horn, on the 19th October, fine clear
weather, not expecting to see land, a man from the masthead reported land in sight, which
proved to be four small islands, lying in lat. 21° 50' S., Ion. 115° 4' W ., bearing from
Rimurara W . N. W . £ W . ; about two degrees from which there is a small island, marked
on the chart about one degree W . The islands spoken o f above, contain a circumference
o f about ten miles, with very high breakers clear around them, the height of the land not
being above thirty feet. The above, not being laid down in any book or chart in my pos­
session, except the small island to the westward, I give them to the public as I found them.”

P O R T OF T A M P IC O — M E XIC O .
§ EXTRACT FROM ORDER NO. 63 OF GENERAL PATTERSON.

II. 44Port charges and harbor dues ” are hereby reduced to one-half o f the several
sums heretofore established by the municipal committee, and the amount collected from this
source will be paid weekly to the senior surgeon o f the army at Tampico, for the benefit
o f the hospital.
III. The charges heretofore exacted on produce or merchandise o f any kind, under the
name o f 44wharfage and town dues* being an indirect tax on American citizens and
American trade, will cease from this date to be made on any produce or merchandise
coming from or going to the United States in U. S. vessels.

N E W L I G H T -T O W E R O N T H E IS L A N D SO E R H A A G E N .
A new light-tower has been erected north o f the island Soerhaagen, which was to be
lighted up for the first time on the 1st December, 1846. It is a fixed fight, and has prin­
cipally for its object to direct vessels entering the Hovgesund, their course north round Bommeltjorden. This fight will bum throughout the year, at the same period as all other gov­
ernment fights. The altitude o f the fight above the level o f the sea is seventy feet, and
visible at the distance o f three leagues, lat. 59° 25' 15", Ion. 5° 15' 30 " o f Greenwich.




Commercial Regulations.

COMMERCIAL

405

REGULATIONS.

T A B L E OF D U T IE S U N D E R T H E L A S T B R IT IS H T A R IF F .
A bates or Cornelians, cut, manufactured, or set.........for every £ 100 value
£10 0 0
1 0 0
A le and beer o f all sorts......................................................................the barrel
10 0 0
Almonds, paste o f............................................................. for every .£100 value
10
0 0
Amber, manufactures of, not enumerated..........................................................
0 2 6
Arrowroot................................................................................................ the cwt.
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 0 6
Bandstring T w ist.............................................................for every £ 100 value
10 0 0
5 0 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 1 0
Barley, pearled........................................................................................ the cwt.
0 0 6
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Bast ropes, twines, and strands......................................for every £1 00 value
10 0 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
5 0 0
10 0 0
Beads, viz:— Arango........................................................................................... .
Coral.............. ....................................................................................................
10 0 0
10 0 0
Crystal.................................................................................................................
Jet........................................................................................................................
10 0 0
Not otherwise enumerated or described.........................................................
10 0 0
1 0 0
Beer or Mum........................................................................................ the barrel
Blacking............................................................................ for every £ 1 0 0 value
10 0 0
Brass, manufactures of...........................................................................................
10 0 0
Powder of...........................................................................................................
10 0 0
Brocade of gold or silver......................................................................................
10 0 0
Bronze, manufactures of, not particularly enumerated.....................................
10 0 0
Powder................................................................................................................
10 0 0
Buckwheat.................................................................. ...................... the quarter
0 1 0
M eal...............................................................................................................thecwt. 0 0 4J
Butter......................................................................................................................
0 10 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 2 6
Buttons, metal.................................................................. for every £ 1 0 0 value
10 0 0
Cameos....................................................................................................................
5 0 0
Candles, v iz :— Spermaceti....................................................................... the lb.
0 0 3
Stearine...............................................................................................................
0 0 lj
T a llo w ...........................................................................................................thecwt. 0 5 0
W a x ......................................................................................................... the lb.
0 0 2
Canes, walking-canes, or sticks, mounted, painted, or otherwise orna­
mented.......................................................................... for every £ 1 0 0 value
10 0 0
Carriages, o f all sorts...........................................................................................
10 0 0
Casks, empty....................................................................................................... .
10 0 0
Cassava powder................................................................................................ thecwt. 0 1 6
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 0 6
Catlings............................................................................ .for every £ 1 0 0 value
10 0 0
Cheese.................................................................................................................thecwt. 0 5 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 1 6
China or porcelain-ware, painted or plain, gilt or ornamented.. every £100
10 0 0
Cider............................................................................................................ the tun
5 5 0
Citron, preserved in salt...................................................for every £1 00 value
5 0 0
C lo ck s.....................................................................................................................
10 0 0
Copper manufactures, not otherwise enumerated or described, and copper­
plates engraved........................................................... for every £ 1 0 0 value
10 0 0
Copper or brass wire..............................................................................................
10 0 0
Cotton, articles or manufactures o f cotton, wholly or in part made up, not
otherwise charged with duty....................................... for every £1 00 value
10 0 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
5 0 0
Crayons...................................................................................................................
10 0 0
Crystal, cut or manufactured..................................................................... .........
10 0 0
Cucumbers, preserved in salt................................................................................
5 0 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
2 10 0




406

Commercial Regulations.

Fish, cured, not otherwise enumerated................................................ the cwt.
Gauze o f thread................................................................ for every X I 00 value
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Hair, manufactures o f hair or goat’s wool, or o f hair or goat’s wool and
any other material, and articles o f such manufacture wholly or in part
made up, not particularly enumerated, or otherwise charged with
duty................................................................................ for every X I 00 value
O f and from a British possession.............................. ......................................
Hams o f all kinds......................................................................t.............the cwt.
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Harp-strings or lute-strings, silvered............................. for every X100 value
Hats or Bonnets, viz.— o f chip................................................................ the lb.
O f Bast, cane, or horsehair, hats or bonnets, each hat or bonnet not
exceeding 22 inches in diameter................................................ the dozen
Each hat or bonnet exceeding 22 inches in diameter.................................
Straw hats or bonnets............................................................................ the lb.
Hats, felt, hair, wool, or beaver hats........................................................... each
Made o f silk, silk shag laid upon felt, linen, or other material..................
Hops...........................................................................................................the cwt.
Iron and steel, wrought, not otherwise enumerated...for every X100 value
Japanned or lacquered ware.................................................................................
Lace, viz., thread...................................................................................................
Made by the hand, commonly called cushion or pillow lace, whether of
linen, cotton, or silken thread................................. for every X I 00 value
Latten w ire............................................................................................................
Lead, manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated...........................................
Leather, manufactures o f:—
W om en’s boots, shoes, andcalashes....................................the dozen pairs
W omen’s boots, shoes, andcalashes, if lined or trimmed with fur or other
trimming.............................................................................. the dozen pairs
W om en’s shoes with cork or double soles, quilted shoes and clogs...........
W om en’s shoes, i f trimmed or lined with fur or any other trim ming....
W om en’s shoes o f silk, satin, jean, or other stufls, kid, morocco, or other
leather...................................................................................the dozen pairs
W om en’s shoes, i f trimmed or lined with fur or any other trimming......
Girls’ boots, shoes, and calashes, not exceeding 7 inches in length, to be
charged with two-thirds o f the above duties.
Men’s boots.............................................................................. the dozen pairs
Men’s shoes.........................................................................................................
Boys’ boots and shoes, not exceeding 7 inches in length, to be charged
with two-thirds o f the above duties.
Boot fronts, not exceeding 9 inches in height.................... the dozen pairs
Boot fronts, exceeding 9 inches in height......................................................
Cut into shapes, or any article made o f leather, or any manufacture
whereof leather is the most valuable part, not otherwise enumerated
or described................................................................for every X100 value
Linen, or linen and cotton, v iz:— cambrics and lawns, commonly called
French lawns, the piece not exceeding eight yards in length, and not
exceeding seven-eighths o f a yard in breadth, and so in proportion
for any greater or less quantity, plain................... ................... the piece
Bordered handkerchiefs.....................................................................................
Lawns o f any sort, not French................................. for every X100 value
Damasks..................................................................................the square yard
Damask diaper...................................................................................................
Sails, not in actual use o f a British ship, and not fit and necessary for
such ship, and when otherwise disposed of.......... for every X100 value
Articles, manufactures o f linen, or o f linen mixed with cotton or with
wool, wholly or in part made up, not particularly enumerated or other­
wise charged with duty........................................... for every X I 00 value
Maize or Indian C om ........................................................................ the quarter
M eal..................................................................................................... the cwt.
Musical Instruments......................................................... for every X I 00 value
Mustard Flour.......................................................................................... the cwt.
Paper, printed, painted, or stained paper, or paper-hangings, or flock
paper,................................................................................... the square yard




£0
10
5

1
0
0

0
0
0

10
5
0
0
10
0

0
0
7
2
0
3

0
0
0
0
0
6

0 7
0 10
0 5
0 2
0 2
2 5
10 0
10 0
10 0

6
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

10
10
10

0
0
0

0
0
0

0

6

0

0
0
0

7
5
6

6
0
0

0
0

4
5

6
0

0 14
0 7

0
0

0
0

1
2

9
9

10

0

0

0
0
10
0
0

2
2
0
0
0

6
6
0
5
24

10

0

0

10
0
0
10
0

0
1
0
0
6

0
0

0

0

2

H
0
0

407

Commercial Regulations.
Pencils............................................................................... for every .£100 value
Of slate...............................................................................................................
Perfumery, not otherwise charged.......................................................................
Perry...........................................................................................................the tun
Pewter, manufactures of.................................................. for every X I 00 value
Platting o f straw......................................................................................... the lb.
Pomatum.......................................................................... for every X I 00 value
Potato Flour............................................................................................ the cwt.
Pots o f stone..................................................................... for every X100 value
Rice...........................................................................................................the cwt.
O f and from a British Possession.....................................................................
Rough and in the husk................................................................. the quarter
O f and from a British Possession.....................................................................
S ago.......................................................................................................... the cw t
Sausages or puddings................................................................................. the lb.
Silk, manufactures o f silk, or o f silk mixed with metal, or any other ma­
terial, the produce o f Europe, v iz :—
Silk or satin, plain, striped, figured, or brocaded, viz., broad stuffs.the lb.
Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated..............................................
Or, and at the option o f the officers o f the customs__ every X100 value
Silk, gauze or crape, plain, striped, figured, or brocaded, viz., broad
stuffs.................... .............................................................................the lb.
Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated..............................................
Or, and at the option o f the officers o f the customs. ...every X100 value
Gauze o f all descriptions, mixed with silk, satin, or any other materials, in
less proportion than one-half part o f the fabric, viz., broad stuffs. the lb.
Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated..............................................
Or, and at the option o f the officers o f the customs__ every X I 00 value
Velvet, plain or figured, viz., broad stuffs............................................the lb.
Articles thereof, not otherwise enumerated......... ....................................
Or, and at the option o f the officers o f the customs. ...every X100 value
Ribbons, plain silk, o f one color only.......................................... ........ the lb.
Plain satin, o f one color only......................................................................
Silk or satin, striped, figured, or brocaded, or plain ribbons o f more
than one color.................................................................................the lb.
Gauze or crape, plain, striped, figured, or brocaded................................
Gauze mixed with silk, satin, or other materials o f less proportion than
one-half part o f the fabric............................................................ the lb.
Velvet, or silk embossed with velvet..........................................................
Artificial flowers, wholly or in part o f silk................ for every X I 00 value
Manufactures o f silk, or o f silk and any other material, called plush, com­
monly used for making hats.............................................................the lb.
Fancy silk net or tricot.....................................................................................
Plain silk lace or net, called tulle......................... ..........................................
Manufactures o f silk, or o f silk, mixed with any other materials, not par­
ticularly enumerated, or otherwise charged with duty, .every X I 00 value
Ribbons, o f and from a British possession......................................................
Millinery o f silk, or o f which the greater part o f the material is silk, viz.,
Turbans, or caps........................................................... .........................each
Hats or bonnets..............................................................................................
Dresses.........................................................................................................<.
Manufactures o f silk, or o f silk and any other materials, and articles of
the same wholly or partially made up, not particularly enumerated
or otherwise charged with duty.......................... for every X I 00 value
Silkworm gut..........................................................................................................
Skins, articles manufactured o f skins or furs....................................................
O f and from a British possession......... ..........................................................
Soap, hard....................................................................................... .........the cwt.
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Soft.......................................................................................................................
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
N aples................................................................................................................
Spa ware............................................................................ for every X I 00 value
Spirits or strong waters o f all sorts, v iz :—
For every gallon o f such spirits or strong waters, o f any strength not ex-




£10
10
10
5
10
0
10
0
10
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
5
0
5
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
0
1
6
1

0
0
15

5
6
0

0
0
0

0 9
0 10
15 0

0
0
0

0 9
0 10
15 0
0 9
0 10
15 0
0 6
0 8

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0 10
0 14

0
0

0 12
0 10
25 0

0
0
0

0
0
0

2
8
8

0
0
0

15
5

0
0

0
0

0 3
0 7
1 10

6
0
0

15 0
10 0
10 0
5 0
1 0
0 14
0 14
0 10
1 0
10 0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

408

Commercial Regulations,

ceeding the strength o f proof by Sykes’s hydrometer, and so in pro­
portion for any greater or less strength than the strength o f proof, and
for any greater or less quantity than a gallon, viz:—
Not being spirits or strong waters, the produce o f any British possession
in America, or any British possession within the limits o f the East
India Company’s Charter, and not being sweetened spirits, or spirits
mixed with any article so that the degree o f strength thereof cannot
£ 0 15
be exactly ascertained by such hydrometer..............................the gallon
0 5
Starch........................................................................................................the cwt.
0 2
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 1
From and after the 1st o f February, 1 8 4 9 ..................................................
0 5
Gum of, torrified or calcined, commonly called British gum......................
0 2
O f and from a British possession....................................................................
Gum of, torrified or calcined, commonly called British gum, from and
after the 1st o f February, 1 8 4 9 ............................................................. thecwt. 0 1
10 0
Steel, manufactures of...................................................... for every £1 00 value
0 1
Tallow..........................................
the cwt.
0 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
0 0
Tapioca.............................................................................
the cwt.
10
0
Tin, manufactures of, not otherwise enumerated........ for every .£100 value
10
0
Tobacco pipes o f clay.................................................................. ........................
0
7
Tongues.................................................................................
the cwt.
0 2
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
10 0
Turnery, not otherwise described...................................for every £1 00 value
10 0
T w in e .....................................................................................................................
5 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
10 0
Varnish, not otherwise described........................................................................
4 4
Verjuice.......................................................................................................the tun
10 0
Wafers................................................................................ for every £ 1 0 0 value
1 0
Washing balls................................................ : .........................................the cwt.
10 0
W ax, sealing w’ax............................................................. for every £1 00 value
10 0
Whipcord............................................................... ...............................................
10 0
W ire, gilt or plated, or silver.............................................................................
Woollens, articles or manufactures o f wool, not being goats’ wool, or o f
wool mixed with cotton, wholly or in part made up, not otherwise charged
10 0
with duty....................................................................... for every £ 1 0 0 value
5 0
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Goods, wares, and merchandise, being either in part or wholly manufac­
tured, and not being enumerated or described, not otherwise charged
with duty, and not prohibited to be imported into or used in Great Britain
10 0
or Ireland....................................................................... for every £100 value
9 A N D 10 V I C T . C A P . 102.
Flowers, artificial, not made o f silk...............................for every £1 00 value
Liquorice juice and liquorice paste....................................................... the cwt.
O f and from a British possession.....................................................................
Nutmegs...................................................................................................... .the lb.
Nutmegs, wild, in the shell..................................................................................
Spirits or strong waters, for every gallon o f such spirits or strong waters of
any strength, not exceeding the strength o f proof by Sykes’s hydro­
meter, and so in proportion for any greater or less strength than the
strength o f proof, and for any greater or less quantity than a gallon, v iz :
Spirits or strong waters, the produce o f any British possession in Ameri­
ca, not being sweetened spirits, or spirits mixed with any article so
that the degree o f strength thereof cannot be exactly ascertained by
such hydrometer..........................................................................the gallon
Rum, the produce o f any British possession within the limits o f the East
India Company’s Charter, not being sweetened spirits, or spirits so
mixed as aforesaid, in regard to which the conditions o f the A ct 4
Viet. c. 8, have or shall have been fulfilled..............................the gallon
Rum shrub, however sweetened, the produce o f and imported from such
possessions, in regard to which the conditions o f the Act 4 Viet. c. 8,
had or shall have been fulfilled, or the produce of, and imported from
any British possession in A m erica............................................the gallon
Platting, viz., willow squares..........................................dor every £1 00 value
A D D IT IO N A L




A R T IC L E S

UNDER

0
0
6
0
0
6
(>
O
6
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0

0

THE

£25 0
1 0
0 10
0 2
0 0

0
0
0
6
3

0

8 10

0

8 10

0 8 10
10

0

0

409

Commercial Regulations.
SU SPE N SIO N OF T H E B R IT IS H N A V IG A T IO N L A W S .

In the Merchants’ Magazine for March, 1847, we published, under the head o f “ Com ­
mercial Regulations,” (page 311,) an act to amend the laws relating to the importation
o f corn, and the duties imposed on its importation, into Great Britain, under that act.
W e have since been favored with the following authentic copies o f the two important
laws recently passed by the British Parliament, on the subject o f the suspension o f the
navigation laws and the importation o f com free o f duty:—
A N A C T T O SU S P E N D , U N T IL T H E F IR S T D A Y O F S E P T E M B E R , O N E T H O U S A N D E IG H T H U N D R E D A N D
F O R T Y -S E V E N , T H E D U T IE S O N T H E I M P O R T A T IO N O F C O R N .

January, 26, 1847.
Whereas, by an act passed in the session o f Parliament, holden in the ninth and tenth
years o f the reign o f her present majesty, entitled, “ A n A ct to amend the Laws relating
to the Importation o f Corn,” it is enacted, That there shall be levied and paid unto her
majesty, her heirs, and successors, on all corn, grain, meal, and flour, imported into the
United Kingdom, or the Isle o f Man, from parts beyond the seas, and entered for home
consumption, until the first day o f February, which will be in the year o f our Lord, one
thousand eight hundred and forty-nine, certain duties set forth in the schedule to the said
act annexed; and whereas, by reason o f the partial failure o f certain crops usually form­
ing part o f the subsistence o f the people o f these islands, it is expedient that, for a time
to be limited, no duties should be levied upon the entry for consumption of the said articles
or any o f them : Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most excellent majesty, by and with
the advice and consent o f the Lords, spiritual and temporal, and Commons, in this present
Parliament assembled, and by the authority o f the same, That no duties o f customs shall
be chargeable upon any com , grain, meal, or flour, already imported or hereafter to be
imported into the United Kingdom, or the Isle o f Man, from parts beyond the seas, and
entered for home consumption, after the passing o f this act, and before the first day of
September in this present year.
AN

ACT

T O A L L O W , U N T IL

T H E F IR S T

D A Y O F S E P T E M B E R , O N E T H O U S A N D E IG H T H U N D R E D A N D

F O R T Y - S E V E N , T H E I M P O R T A T I O N O F C O R N F R O M A N Y C O U N T R Y I N F O R E I G N S H IP S .

January 26, 1847.
Whereas, it is expedient to allow, for a limited time, com , maize, grain, meal, flour,
rice, and potatoes, to be imported in any ship or vessel, from any country whatever, and
that such articles warehoused for exportation only should be allowed to be entered for
home consumption: Be it therefore enacted by the Queen’s most excellent majesty, by
and with the advice and consent o f the Lords, spiritual and temporal, and Commons,
in this present Parliament assembled, and by the authority o f the same, That from and
after the passing o f this act, and before the first day o f September in this present year,
it shall and may be lawful for any person or persons to import into the United Kingdom
for home use, from any country, in any ship or vessel o f any country, however navigated,
any com , maize, grain, flour, meal, rice, or potatoes, the growth or produce o f any coun­
try, anything in the law o f navigation to the contrary, in any wise, notwithstanding.
2. And be it enacted, That from and after the said passing o f this act, until the said
first day o f September, inclusive, in this present year, any corn, maize, grain, flour, meal,
rice, or potatoes, the growth or produce o f any country, which may have been warehoused
in the United Kingdom for exportation only, may be entered for home consumption, any­
thing in the law o f navigation, to the contrary, in any wise, notwithstanding.

I M P O R T A T IO N OF G R A IN S , E T C ., IN T O F R A N C E .
W e publish below a highly important bill, as it passed the Chamber o f Deputies at
Paris, by a unanimous vote, on the 22d o f January, 1847.

It has since become a law.

B I L L C O N C E R N IN G T H E I M P O R T A T I O N O F F O R E I G N B R E A D S T U F F S .

Art. 1. A ll cereal grains and flour imported, whether by land, or in French or foreign
bottoms, in good order, shall not be subjected, up to the 31st o f July, 1847, to any duty
above the minimum, as established by the law o f the 15th o f April, 1839. Rice, all kinds
o f dried vegetables, groats, oat-meal, and other such food, imported in the same manner,
without distinction o f quality, shall only be subject, up to the same period, 31st July next,
to a duty o f 25 centimes to each 100 kilogrammes.




410

Commercial Regulations.

Art. 2. Up to the same time, vessels o f every nation which shall arrive at the ports of
the kingdom, with cargoes o f grain or flour, or any other o f the articles above specified,
shall be exempt from all tonnage dues whatsoever.
Art. 3. The provisions o f the two preceding articles shall be applicable to all such
French and foreign vessels whose manifesto, when cleared, shall show that their cargoes
consisted o f the breadstuff’s above-mentioned, and which shall have been completed before
the 31st o f July next, at the place o f clearance, notwithstanding they may not have ar­
rived at any one o f the ports o f France prior to the 31st o f July.
Art. 4. The authority granted to government by the 8th article o f the law o f the 22d
June, 1846, o f modifying the importation and exportation duties on cereal grains and cornmeal, is to be maintained till the 31st July, 1847, and the privilege o f modifying the du­
ties on the imports and exports o f the aforesaid breadstuff’s, including buckwheat, is also
continued to the same date.
P A S S E N G E R S I N M E R C H A N T V E SSE L S.
The following is an authentic copy o f an act to regulate the carriage o f passengers in
merchant vessels.

It passed both Houses o f Congress by the constitutional majority, and

was approved by the President o f the United States, February 22d, 1847:—
A N A C T T O R E G U L A T E T H E C A R R IA G E O F P A S S E N G E R S IN M E R C H A N T VE SSE LS.

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America, in Congress assembled, That if the master o f any vessel, owned in whole or in
part by a citizen o f the United States o f America, or by a citizen o f any foreign country,
shall take on board such vessel, at any foreign port or place, a greater number o f passen­
gers than in the following proportion to the space occupied by them and appropriated for
their use, and unoccupied by stores or other goods, not being the personal luggage o f such
passengers, that is to say, on the lower deck or platform one passenger for every fourteen
clear superficial feet o f deck, if such vessel is not to pass within the tropics during such
voyage, but if such vessel is to pass within the tropics during such voyage, then one pas­
senger for every twenty such clear superficial feet o f deck, the orlop deck, (if any,) one
passenger for every thirty such superficial feet in all cases, with intent to bring such pas­
sengers to the United States o f America, and shall leave such port or place with the same,
and bring the same, or any number thereof, within the jurisdiction o f the United States
aforesaid: or if any such master o f a vessel shall take on board of his vessel, at any port
or place within the jurisdiction o f the United States aforesaid, any greater number of
passengers than the proportions aforesaid admit, with intent to carry the same to any
foreign port or place, every such master shall be deemed guilty o f a misdemeanor, and,
upon conviction thereof before any Circuit or District Court o f the United States aforesaid,
shall, for each passenger taken on board beyond the above proportions, be fined in the sum
o f fifty dollars, and may also be imprisoned for any term not exceeding one year: Provided,
That this act shall not be construed to permit any ship or vessel to carry more than two
passengers to five tons o f such ship or vessel.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That if the passengers so taken on board o f such
vessel, and brought into or transported from the United States aforesaid, shall exceed the
number limited by the last section to the number o f twenty in the whole, such vessel shall
be forfeited to the United States aforesaid, and be prosecuted and distributed as forfeitures
are, under the act to regulate duties on imports and tonnage.
Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That if any such vessel as aforesaid shall have more
than two tiers o f berths, or in case, in such vessel, the interval between the floor and the
deck or platform beneath, shall not be at least six inches, and the berths well constructed,
or in case the dimensions o f such berths shall not be at least six feet in length, and at least
eighteen inches in width, for each passenger as aforesaid, then the master o f said vessel
and the owners thereof, severally, shall forfeit and pay the sum o f five dollars for each and
every passenger on board o f said vessel on such voyage, to be recovered by the United
States as aforesaid, in any Circuit or District Court o f the United States, where such vessel
may arrive, or from which she .sails.
Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That, for the purposes o f this act, it shall in all cases
be computed, that two children, each being under the age o f eight years, shall be equal to
one passenger, and that children under the age o f one year shall not be included in the
computation o f the number o f passengers.
Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the amount o f the several penalties imposed
by this act, shall be liens on the vessel or vessels violating its provisions ; and such vessel
may be libelled and sold therefor, in the District Court o f the United States aforesaid, in
which such vessel shall arrive.




411

Commercial Regulations.
A N ACT T O A M E N D A N A C T , E N T IT L E D “ A N A C T T O R E G U L A T E
M E R C H A N T V E S S E L S ,”

T H E C A R R IA G E O F P A SSE N G E R S

IN

A N D T O D E T E R M I N E T H E T I M E W H E N S A ID A C T S H A L L T A K E E F F E C T .

Be it enacted by th£ Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of
America, in Congress assembled, That the act to regulate the carriage o f passengers in
merchant vessels, approved the 22d day o f February, eighteen hundred and forty-seven,
shall, in regard to all vessels arriving from ports on this side o f the Capes o f Good Hope
and Horn, take effect and be in force from and after the thirty-first day o f M ay next en­
suing ; and in regard to all vessels arriving from places beyond the said capes, on and af­
ter the thirteenth day o f October next ensuing.
Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That so much o f said act as authorizes shippers to
estimate two children o f eight years o f age and under, as one passenger, in the assign­
ment o f room, is hereby repealed.
Approved, March 2, 1847.
U N IT E D S T A T E S C O N S U L A T E , J A M A IC A .
SURVEY

OF

GOODS

LANDED

AT

J A M A IC A

IN

A

DAMAGED

STATE.

The following extract o f a letter from the American consul at Kingston, Jamaica, has
been furnished the press for publication by the respectable commercial house o f J. W .
Zacharie & Co., o f N ew Orleans:—
“ Although it has been more than once duly notified in the public papers o f this city,
by the American consul, that goods landed in American vessels, in a damaged state,
should not only be surveyed under a warrant from said consul, but that the vendue sales
should be authenticated by him also ; there are, nevertheless, certain persons doing busi­
ness here, who pay not the least regard to the above notification, and they invariably call
whom they please as surveyors on the same, without giving the least notice to the consul,
and have also dispensed with his verification o f the vendue sales.
“ Should this irregularity not be discountenanced by the merchants and underwriters
in the United States, it will most assuredly lead to frauds on both the one and the other.
The same individuals, though so utterly regardless o f the forms required in the United
States for the recovery o f losses from the underwriters there, are nevertheless very par­
ticular in having the authentication o f Lloyd’s agent to the survey o f damaged goods
(and vendue sales o f the same) landed from English vessels in that port.
“ U. S. Consulate, Kingston, Ja., Jan. 28, 1847.”

R E D U C T IO N OF IM P O R T D U T IE S IN D E N M A R K .
D e p a r t m e n t of S t a t e , W a sh in g t o n , February 13, 1847.

Information has been received at this department, from the Charge d’Affaires o f the
United States at Copenhagen, under date o f the 9th o f December last, that a decree had
just been issued by the Danish government, for the suspension, until further notice, o f all
import duties on seed grain, and rape-seed, and the reduction o f the same on hulled grain
and flour. The provisions o f the ordinance are as follows:—
1. The import duties on seed grain, rape-seed, peas, and vetches, are abolished until
further orders.
2. The import duties on peeled grain and flour are reduced, as follows:
For hulled wheat, per 100 lb. Danish, 1 rigs bank dollar 1 mark, money o f Denmark,
and 35 schellings, money o f Sleswick and Holstein. Tare, 23 per cent on hogsheads, and
3 per cent on bags.
For all other grain, per 100 lb. Danish, 1 rigs bank dollar, 30 skillings, Danish currency,
and 25 schellings, Sleswick and Holstein currency. Same tare as above.
For flour of several kinds, v iz.: flour o f barley, wheat, Indian com , and potatoes, per
100 lb. Danish, 1 rigs bank dollar and 24 skillings, Danish currency, and 37^ schellings of
the currency o f Sleswick and Holstein.
All other sorts o f flour, per 100 lb. 48 skillings Danish, and 15 schellings Sleswick and
Holstein currency. Tare, the same as above.
The ordinance is applicable, not only to the Kingdom o f Denmark, but also to the
Duchies of Sleswick and Holstein.
It goes into effect to-day, (December 9th, 1846.)




412

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance,

JOURNAL OF BANKING, CURRENCY AND FINANCE.
C O N D IT IO N O F B R A N C H E S O F T H E S T A T E B A N K O F IN D IA N A .
T

he

following statement exhibits the condition o f the Branches o f the State Bank of

Indiana, November 21, 1846:—
r e so u r c e s

Loans.

B anks.

Indianapolis,......... .. .
Laurenceburg,......
Richmond,............
M adison,...............
N ew Albany,.......
Evansville,............
Vincennes,............
Bedford,.................
Terre Haute,........
Lafayette,............. ....
Fort W ayne,.........
South Bend,........
Michigan C ity,... . . . .

$364,285
376,195
200,581
307,048
235,736
131,923
155,311
104,362
152,253
341,057
264,186
123,615
262,190

Total,.......... ....$ 3 ,0 1 8 ,7 4 3

.

S u s p ’ d d e b t. R ’ l esta te.

E a s t. E x c h . B ’ k b a l ’ cs .

$69,573 $30,226 $53,324 $70,019
35,283
22,584
59,653
85,337
5,141
26,343
40,130
68,817
18,373
47,443
8,374 113,000
24,393
33,770
14,855
27,666
8,163
39,771
2,710
20,242
11,962
36,732
60,322
2,266
9,708
79,264
19,234
20,070
9,881
54,624
68,108
39,562
2,055
41,794
19,800
52,396
40,596
52,888
67,614
11,590
62,273
17,294
17,671
1,405
256

S p e c ie .

$70,036
84,222
67,086
82,036
53,884
103,155
113,064
75,000
108,504
62,922
76,087
51,848
55,801

$577,647 $343,846 $370,334 $432,730 $1,003,645
L IA B IL IT IE S .

C ir c u la t io n .

S in k in g fu n d .

S u rp lu s .

$219,900
215,000
167,000
212,550
163,850
151,866
148,200
91,762
157,900
187,750
145,705
102,340
120,000

$376,892
386,840
238,478
363,709
193,085
224,890
257,141
170,724
264,685
301,117
280,410
187,026
228,800

$1,867 $59,291
1,588
33,977
309
20,248
68,950
8,992
24,437
22,421
17,973
4,296
13,658
1,887
13,957
263
27,678
4,277
81,185
38,324
1,725
260
6,365
3,945

$6,595
7,420
3,756
28,854
1,431
1,085
6,558
3,830
8,411
6,740
9,827
2,808

$46,796
28,606
31,606
19,567
32,946
12,984
19,169
23,130
37,061
71,980
50,000
17,475
22,240

Total liabilities, $2,083,824 $3,533,797

$47,886 $409,989

$89,535

$413,563

Indianapolis,........ . ...
Laurenceburg,......
Richmond,............
M adison,...............
N ew Albany,........
Evansville,............
Vincennes,............ . . . .
Bedford,................
Terre Haute,........
Lafayette,..............
Fort W ayne,.......
South Bend,.........
Michigan C ity,...,

B ’ k b a l’ s.

D e p o s its .

C a p ita l.

B a n k s.

2 ,2 2 2

B E LG IU M — D E P A R T M E N T OF F IN A N C E A T B R U SSE LS.
The official article, (dated “ Department o f Finance, Brussels, January 13th, 1847,” )
o f which the following is a translation, has recently been communicated to the Depart­
ment o f State, by the Charge d’Affaires o f the United States at Brussels:—
I N D E M N I F I C A T I O N F O R L O S S E S O C C A S IO N E D B Y T H E E V E N T S O F T H E W A R O F T H E R E V O L U T I O N .

« The Minister o f Finance, in addition to his advertisement published under date of
the 6th inst., informs the persons entitled to indemnification, adjudged according to the
law o f May 1, 1842, that the payment o f the said indemnifications, which should begin
in February, 1847, at the bureau o f transfer o f the public debt in the Department o f Fi­
nance at Brussels, m aybe also made by the Directors o f the Treasury, at Antwerp, Ghent,
Bruges, Liege, Hasselt, or Namur.
“ In consequence, the provisional titles issued by the committee o f liquidation, may,
from and after the same date o f February 1, 1847, be deposited, duly invested with the
signatures o f the persons entitled for acquittal, and the requisite legalization, with the
Directors o f the Treasury, above-mentioned, to be exchanged subsequently for the defini­
tive titles at 3 per cent, which are to be delivered in virtue o f the law o f December 24,
1846. On this deposit, a receipt shall be delivered for the provisional titles presented for
payment, which shall be reproduced afterwards, in order to obtain the definitive titles.




413

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

“ In the cases provided for by the 4th article o f the royal decree o f December 27 ,184 6,
that is to say, when, in consequence of the decease or cession, the proprietors o f the
claims are no longer the same designated in the provisional titles, the persons interested
are likewise to deposit documents proving those facts and others in justification o f their
rights.
“ The payment o f the claims subjected to attachment or opposition, can only be made
at Brussels, and by the Department o f Finance, in the bureau o f transfer o f the public
debt.”
J.
M alon.
B R IT IS H R E V E N U E F O R T H E L A S T T E N Y E A R S .
A n account showing the amount o f revenue received, and the expenditures; the capital
of the debt, funded and unfunded ; the annual charge o f the debt; and the balances in the
exchequer at the close o f each year, for the period from 1836 to 1845, both years inclusive,
derived from the “ London Bankers’ Almanac, for 1 8 4 7 —
Years.
1 8 3 6 ....... .
1 8 3 7 ....... .
1 8 3 8 .......
1 8 3 9 .......
1 8 4 0 .......
1 8 4 1 .......
1 8 4 2 .......
1 8 4 3 .......
1 8 4 4 .......
1 8 4 5 .......

Revenue.
£ 5 2 , 9 4 9 ,3 9 7
5 0 ,6 6 3 ,3 5 3
5 1 ,3 7 5 ,5 2 0
5 1 ,9 2 7 ,4 9 5
5 1 ,8 5 0 ,0 8 3
5 2 ,3 6 3 ,9 4 9
5 1 ,2 4 4 ,3 3 5
5 6 ,9 4 5 ,0 4 3
5 8 ,4 5 9 ,7 5 1
5 7 ,6 9 0 ,7 0 4

Expenditure.
£ 5 0 , 8 1 9 ,3 0 5
5 1 ,3 1 9 ,1 1 3
5 1 ,7 2 0 ,7 4 8
5 3 ,4 4 0 ,2 8 7
5 3 ,4 4 4 ,0 5 3
5 4 ,4 6 5 ,3 1 8
5 5 ,2 2 3 ,8 7 3
5 5 ,5 0 1 ,7 3 9
5 5 ,1 0 3 ,6 4 5
5 3 ,8 7 3 ,0 6 2

Debt.
£ 7 8 8 ,3 9 8 ,5 7 0
7 8 6 ,3 1 9 ,7 3 8
7 8 5 ,3 7 3 ,7 4 0
7 8 6 ,5 1 2 ,7 3 4
7 8 7 ,4 6 8 ,0 7 5
7 9 0 ,8 7 4 ,6 0 8
7 9 1 ,2 5 0 ,4 4 0
7 9 0 ,5 7 6 ,3 9 2
7 8 7 ,5 9 8 ,1 4 5
7 8 5 ,0 5 3 ,0 2 2

Charges.
£ 2 9 , 2 4 3 ,5 9 9
2 9 ,4 8 9 ,5 7 1
2 9 ,2 6 0 ,2 3 8
2 9 ,4 5 4 ,0 6 2
2 9 ,3 8 1 ,7 1 8
2 9 ,4 5 0 ,1 4 5
2 9 ,4 2 8 ,1 2 0
2 9 ,2 6 9 ,1 6 0
3 0 ,4 9 5 ,4 5 9
2 8 ,2 5 3 ,8 7 2

Balances.
£ 6 , 0 4 9 ,3 7 2
4 ,1 2 7 ,9 7 3
4 ,5 9 4 ,8 8 4
3 ,7 0 7 ,4 2 5
3 ,8 5 8 ,4 6 5
3 ,6 5 3 ,8 1 0
1 ,3 9 0 ,0 5 9
4 ,7 1 6 ,0 1 9
6 ,2 5 4 ,1 1 3
8 ,4 5 2 ,0 9 0

For a tabular statement o f the revenue o f England, under each reign or administration,
from 1066 to 1826, a period o f 760 years, the reader is referred to the Merchants’ Maga­
zine, Vol, X V I., No. 3, for March, 1847, page 309.
P R O D U C T O F G O L D A N D S IL V E R IN A M E R IC A .
Michael Chevalier, in an elaborate article, first published in the Paris “ Revue des
Deux Mondes,” gives the following as the total annual product o f gold and silver in
A m erica:—
GOLD

United States,.........
M exico,.................
N ew Granada,......
Peru,.......................
Bolivia,...................
Brazil,.....................
Chili,
Other States,.........

.
..
.

..

T ota l,............. . ..

M IN E S .

S IL V E R

W e ig h t.

Kil.

V a lu e .
F ra n cs.

1 ,8 0 0
2 ,9 5 7
4 ,9 5 4
708
444
2 ,5 0 0
1 ,0 7 1
500

6 ,1 9 2 ,0 0 0
1 0 .1 8 4 .0 0 0
1 7 .0 6 2 .0 0 0
2 ,4 3 9 ,0 0 0
1 ,5 2 9 ,0 0 0
8 .6 4 0 .0 0 0
3 .6 8 9 .0 0 0
1 .7 2 2 .0 0 0

1 4 ,9 5 4

5 1 ,1 3 4 ,0 0 0

M IN E S .

W e ig h t.

Kil.

M exico,..............
N ew Granada,...
Peru,....................
Bolivia,................
Chili,...................
Other States,......

.

V a lu e .
F ra n cs.

..
.
.
.

3 9 6 ,9 9 0
4 ,8 8 7
1 1 3 ,1 5 8
5 2 ,0 4 4
3 3 ,5 9 2
2 0 ,0 0 0

8 6 ,7 9 3 ,0 0 0
1 ,0 8 6 ,0 0 0
2 5 ,1 4 6 ,0 0 0
1 1 ,5 5 4 ,0 0 0
7 ,4 5 7 ,0 0 0
4 ,4 4 0 ,0 0 0

T ota l, ............ .

6 1 4 ,6 4 1

1 3 6 ,4 0 6 ,0 0 0

T A R IF F OF D U T IE S B Y T H E S T A M P L A W O F M A R Y L A N D .
Tariff o f duties imposed by the stamp act o f Maryland, on promissory notes, bills o f ex­
change, specialities, and other instruments o f writing, on and after May 10, 1845
Over $1 00
tl
200
il
300
ft
500
it 1,000
it 1,500
ii 2,000

to
to
to
to
to
to
to

$ 2 0 0 ............. .......... $ 0 10
0 15
300............. ...........
0 25
500............. ..........
0 50
1,000............. ..........
0 75
1,500............. ..........
2,000............. ..........
1 00
1 50
3,000............. ..........

Over $3,000 to $ 4 ,0 0 0 ..........
“
4,000 to 5,000..........
“
5,000 to 7,000..........
“
7,000 to 8,000..........
“
8,000 to 10,000..........
“ 10,000.............................

On notes or instruments o f and under $1 00, no stamp is required.




......... $ 2 00
......... 2 50
......... 3 50
......... 4 00
......... 5 50

S Y S T E M O F B A N K R U P T C Y ,” O F 1841.

D is tr ic ts .

N o. o f
N um ber
A p p l ic a ­ N o . c r e d ito rs
A g g reg a te
A g g r e g a te a m o u n t o f P er c e n t p ’ d
N o.
A g g reg ate
a m o u n t o t d e b ts g iv e n p r o p e r ty s u rren d ered in ce n ts and c o s ts o f ju d i c ia l
D is c h ’ ged refu sed tio n s still
g iv e n in
b y th e a p p lic a n ts .
fr a c tio n s .
f o r r e lie f. fr’ m d ebts. d is c h ’ e p en d in g. b y a p p lic a n ts .
in b y th e a p p lic a n ts .
p r o c e e d in g s .

3,250
1,537
5,598
2,550
810
1,799
490
1,189
1,566
277
821
718
872
1,313
2,373
1,592
178
671
27
16
3
315
223
248
33

2,456
1,641
3,114
1,413
4,756
2,121
769
1,438
346
913
1,504
206
780
680
861
1,121
1,387
1,319
104
645
23
14
3
276
192
184
25

27
49
62
7
39
389
25
16
17
15
4
4
4
7

Total from 27 States and Territories,... 33,739

28,291

766

Northern District o f N ew Y ork......................
Southern District o f N ew Y o rk ......................
N ew Jersey.........................................................
Eastern District o f Pennsylvania....................
M aryland.................................................. .........
Eastern District o f Virginia............................
Western District o f Virginia.............................
South Carolina....................................................
Northern District o f Alabama.........................
Southern District o f Alabama.........................
Southern District o f Mississippi......................
Middle District o f Tennessee................. ........
Illinois....................................................................
Arkansas...............................................................
M ichigan..............................................................
East Florida.........................................................
West Florida.......................................................
W isconsin.............................................................
Iow a.......................................................................
Alexandria county, D . C...................................




1,792

630
102

62
5

83,227
49,761
95,154
33,814
171,103
109,485
33,673
65,678
12,962
23,468
78,101
8,113
26,335
24,642
22,772
35,248
81,139
48,728
3,847
22,408
727
249
44
7,644
5,130
5,325
826

4,468

1,049,603

1

55
803
429
16
314
108
261
12
66
37
31
3
221
972
264
64
12

1
1

1

i
14

i
10

39
31
2

$16,539,300
3,752,623
24,752,932
10,469,273
51,556,405
120,580,415
17,811,303
31,965,723
5,745,451
8,713,116
3,957,032
5,598,821
6,048,162
25,022,243
46,156,542
7,014,840
16,241,171
14,498,396
1,811,674
16,731,685
324,523
114,404
2,552,444
844,552
1,940,412
191,164

01
19
81
00
25
00
47
68
49
10
66}
00
00
64
40
00
48
23
50
00
82
39
00
88
81
20

$440,934,615 01

$5,440,511 90
^1^973,334 42
15,468,546 69
1,167,487
140,417
19,186
99,253
1,903,250
20,783
23,985
817,907
26,732
100,000
6,332,666
315,678
5,499,171
3,569,524
188,966
159,674
247,117
14,897
5,225
2^613
159,017

94
82
79
20
69
00
49
00
00
00
64
00
75
89
87
79
33
00
00
65
53

1,356 74
$43,697,307 13

0.46
0.84
4
0.71
13.66
1
0.97
1
0.6
2.18
0.25
0.006
4.5
0.8
0.07
0.19
0.027
1
7.66

$37,325
98,330
6,148
34,466
110,000
11,413
11,295
1,281
29,005
43,197
14,234
31,828
23,882
23,588
40,403

00
52
00
00
00
27
20
50
73
68
00
95
25
10
00

29,481
3,506
41,810
500
480

25
22
54
00
00

0.05
0.27

5,241 08
4,601 16

9.07

303 19
$602,322 64

Journal o f Banking, Currency, and Finance.

3,478
N ew Hampshire..................................................
Massachusetts......................................................

414

S T A T IS T IC S O F T H E “ U N IF O R M

Summary statement exhibiting the number and amount of applicants for relief under the Bankrupt Act of 1841, and the proceedings had thereon, in the
several district courts o f the United States, as far as the samefhave been received at the Department of State.

415

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

RAILROAD, CANAL, AND STEAMBOAT STATISTICS.
T H E R E A D IN G R A I L W A Y — T H E G R E A T F R E IG H T R O A D OF T H E U. S.
T O T H E E D IT O R O F T H E M E R C H A N T S * M A G A Z IN E A N D C O M M E R C IA L R E V I E W .

friends o f railways, and those who have advocated their capacity to carry bulky
freight, at cheap rates, must be pleased with the late able report of Mr. John Tucker, Presi­
dent o f the Philadelphia and Reading Railway, with the full and ample tables, furnished
by the engineer and superintendent o f motive power, Mr. G. A . Nicholls, o f the cost and
details o f this great work. It is now completed with a double track, and furnished with
engines and cars, equal to the transportation o f 2,000,000 tons per annum. The engines
belonging to this road, if extended in line, with their several trains o f cars each touching
the other, would extend over a distance o f 10 miles. The depot, at Richmond on the
Delaware, covers some 60 acres o f land, with wharves to receive and load some 300 ves­
sels. The coal is shot down into the hold; a single train, in its regular business, being
sufficient to load a vessel o f 500 tons. There have been trains o f 166 cars, conveyed by a
single engine, that have reached 1,197 tons, o f 2,240 lbs. each.
One o f the numerous buildings attached to this road, is capable o f holding 20 locomo­
tives and their tenders, with every convenience for entering, for examination, watering,
& c., &c. In feet, the general superintendent’s report, shows the most complete freight or­
ganization o f any railway in this country, and in many particulars it will compare with the
best English railways. It must be seen, to form any conception o f its adaptation to do
business at cheap rates. A good and perfect machine, like the Reading Railway, cannot
be obtained without paying for it, as the following statement o f its cost will show.
This company, like many railways in this country, has had to encounter violent opposi­
tion from opposing interests. Its bold— at the time, called visionary— projectors, commenced
with a capital entirely inadequate ($3,120,000) to furnish even one track. T o make a
railway alongside the Schuylkill Canal, was considered, a few years back, by some o f
the best men in Philadelphia, the height o f folly. The Schuylkill Canal had been so pros­
perous, as to advance its dividends to 20 per cent, and its stock was $ 3 6 0 for $1 00 ; and
it was considered impossible that a railway could contend with it. Reduced rates o f toll
were fixed on the canal, at the commencement o f the railway; and it was confidently pre­
dicted, by a distinguished engineer, “ that the railway could not transport 800,000 tons o f
coal over it, without the edge rail on the road being crushed— destroyed.” Under all these
difficulties, and those attendant on borrowing money abroad and in sagacious N ew Eng­
land, who took largely o f their loans and built their iron freight cars and engines, the direc­
tors persevered, and have fully redeemed all their pledges and predictions to the public.
They have met the canal, in transportation, at even less rates, for freight and toll o f coal,
than those first named by this interest to drive them from the field. The result is, the ca­
nal has intermitted its dividends for the last four years; the stock is much below p a r; while
the railway is steadily recovering itself, and appears to have earned a nett dividend o f 12$
per cent on its capital, besides paying the interest ($571,119) on its loans and indebted­
ness, amounting to $8,000,000.
That some idea may be formed o f the magnitude o f this private enterprise, it is only ne­
cessary to state, that the road bed, superstructure, motive power, depot, and lands, cost, for
94 miles o f double road, and numerous branches up into the mines, which gives it great
advantages, $11,589,696.
T

he

Of this sum, the road bed and superstructure, for a double track, with numer­
ous turn-outs, cost.............................................................................................
The locomotives and cars,.......................................................................................
Real estate and the right o f way,................................................................ ..........
Depots, & c.,...............................................................................................................
Iron, and materials on hand,...................................................................................

$8,912,991
2,071,279
321,846
205,325
58,255

O f locomotives, the company own..........................................................................
O f freight cars, principally iron, with the average capacity to each, o f 4 f tons,
O f passenger cars,....................................................................................................

72
4,559
19

The estimate made by the directors, o f the amount o f coal the company would be able
to bring, during the year 1846, with their estimate for receipts, was ridiculed in the public
papers, and stated to be utterly impossible and deceptive.




416

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

The estimate o f the directors for gross receipts, 1846, was...............................
T he actual receipts, from the freight o f 1,188,258 tons o f coal,
(equal to a rate o f $ 1 34 per ton, for 94 miles,) w e r e .... $1,600,667
From 88,641 passengers,................................................................
141,749
Freight o f merchandise, up and down, 74,971 tons,..................
137,583
United States mail, & c.,..................................................................
9,714
--------------Excess o f receipts over the estimates,...........................................

$1,725,000

1,889,713
$164,713

The coal fell a little short o f the estimated quantity, 1,250,000 tons.
The increase o f the receipts over those o f 1845, when the motive power was entirely in­
adequate, was derived—
From the transportation o f coals,.................................................
"
“
merchandise,.....................................
"
(t
passengers,.........................................
Total,....................................................................................

$713,728 or 80 per cent.
76,995
127
“
38,337
37
“
$829,060

It appears,— after paying all expenses relating to the road, $8 62,320; interest on loans,
$5 71,1 19; taxes, $ 1 6 ,3 8 0 ; commissioners and sundries, $48,003,— there was a surplus
o f nett earnings o f the road, o f $402,292, or equal to 12£ per cent on the amount o f the
stock issued— 62,400 shares, $3,120,000.
This is a result, that must put croakers against railways to the blush. But for this road,
the price o f coal in the market would, in all probability, have been doubled in price the
last season. By the construction o f this road, the consumers o f coal, during the last two
seasons, have saved at least $5,000,000. The Delaware and Hudson, the Morris, the L e­
high, and the Schuylkill Canals— great works, it is true, in their day, but open only six to
seven months in the year— taxed even to their utmost capacity, would be inadequate to
supply the half o f the present demand for coal. This demand, it is estimated, is increasing
at the rate of full 20 per cent per annum.
Such is the increasing demand for coals, with the increase o f manufactures and popula­
tion, when furnished at $ 3 25 to $ 4 — a price that will pay the miner, forwarder, and 7
per cent on the railway or canal that transports it— that there will be ample business for
the Schuylkill Canal and Reading Railway, with the addition o f several others that will be
wanted ere there is capital to complete them. The increase o f coal brought to market last
season, was all transported by the railway. The great difficulty was, to get the coal mined,
and to furnish empty cars to the miners. This difficulty, owing to the increase of iron cars
before the close o f the season, (each car carrying five tons,) is now mainly remedied by
the increase o f 1,600 new iron cars, the last season, from Boston. A s the road, in the
month o f June, carried over it 150,000 tons, or at the rate o f 1,800,000 tons per annum,
it will be perceived there will be no difficulty, now a double track is completed, with suit­
able tum-outs up into the mines and at the depot at Richmond, to transport, for 1847, from
1,500,000 to 2,000,000 tons. Even this quantity may be doubled, by an increase o f mo­
tive power.
It appears, the whole amount o f tonnage carried over the Reading Railroad, for the
last year, up to 1st December last, was 1,515,473 tons. The amount o f tons o f coal (at
2,240 lbs. to the ton) transported, from the commencement to 1st December, was 2,693,975.
Total amount o f tonnage transported, from the commencement to 1st December last,
3,703,521 tons.
This table o f transportation is introduced in the report, to show, that the edge iron rail
was not “ crushed and destroyed by the transportation of 800,000 tons,” so gravely pre­
dicted, and published in the Railroad Journal, Franklin Institute, and other papers, from
respect, no doubt, to its distinguished author. He appears to have been as near the truth
as Dr. Lardner, when he established, in his own mind, that a steamboat could not carry
coal sufficient to raise steam to propel herself across the Atlantic. Instead o f the rails be­
ing crushed and destroyed, so boldly put forth, (thus striking at the root and prosperity o f
all railways,) Mr. Nicholls, the engineer and superintendent, states that, after a careful ex­
amination, “ it is found equal to four-tenths of a cent per ton, on the tonnage of the

road for a year, which confirms our predictions on this subject”
Here we have a railway, of near 100 miles, built expressly to carry freight, that has cost
50 per cent more than the Erie and Champlain Canals originally cost, o f 450 miles in
length. The railway, the last year, it appears, carried over it, comparatively, more ton­
nage than the Erie Canal,with all its tributaries and branches,numbering 610 m iles; and,
what is singular, at a rate much below the lowest price ever charged on the Erie Canal.




Railroad, Canal, arid Steamboat Statistics.

417

In fact, the rate charged, for a long time the last and previous season, on the railway, of
$1 25 to transport a ton o f coal from the mines and carry back to the miners the empty
cars, (188 miles,) is less than the tolls exacted by the State o f New York, on merchandise.
This charge for toll, is entirely independent o f that made by the forwarder on the canal.
This fact disproves completely the idea, so current, that railways cannot carry freight pro­
fitably, or compete with canals. If so, why not permit them to carry freight the entire
year, if subject to a sufficient toll, to pay off* the canal debt in a reasonable time ? Rail­
ways would materially aid the agricultural interests o f this State, thus enabling them to
send daily supplies o f fresh provisions and vegetables to the New York markets. By
railways, we could retrieve the value o f our lands, that have been reduced, particularly in
the wheat districts, by the opening o f the western prairies. W e have taxed ourselves, to
benefit our neighbors, while we have left undone many things we should do, relative to
railways.
That some idea may be formed o f the cost, at which a good railway, such as the Read­
ing, can transport a ton o f goods per mile, and return the empty cars to the miners, to be
filled, I quote the following, from Mr. Nicholls’ report:—
“ The cost o f hauling coal, the past year, is shown in detail, in statement H. It amount­
ed to 38.39 cents per ton. The chief causes o f this increased cost, o f 1.8 cents per ton
over the last year, (when it was 35.59 cents for 94 miles,) are, the decrease o f coal ton­
nage, from the cessation o f business o f some o f the lateral railways, in consequence o f the
freshet in May ; and the falling off in demand for coal, in August and September, thus di­
minishing our business, while the causes were too temporary to justify a discharge o f men.”
It will thus be perceived, that the cost of motive power— even on the magnificent scale /
of the Reading, if it were applied to such a railway as can be constructed from Buffalo to
tide-water, on a line to be located, level or descending, and with a distance within 320
miles, defying, with receipts from passengers, any competition from the enlarged canal—
would not cost on a barrel o f flour, say at 50 cents per ton, per 100 miles, or $ 1 60 per ton.
But I am admonished to close my extracts from these interesting reports. Their fyll
publication will be interesting to many o f your readers, and prove that I am not so hetero­
dox, as I know I am considered by the supposed orthodox canal interest, that has so long
ruled and governed New Y ork, while our shrewd neighbors went to the windward in com­
merce, by the construction o f railways; having, in their profits on the same, forgot the loss
o f the entire capitals they have sunk, in the Middlesex, the Blackstone, and the Farmington canals.
j.
e. b .

,

T R A N S IT OF C A T T L E ON R A IL R O A D S .

Steam navigation, says Chambers’ (Edinburgh) Journal, is acknowledged to have done
much for Ireland, Wales, Scotland, and other quarters, in the way o f cheap and rapid tran­
sit o f sheep and cattle to market— a speedy and comparatively inexpensive voyage being
now often substituted for one o f a protracted nature, or for a fatiguing and ruinous journey
by land. A n additional convenience to the store farmer is in course o f being achieved
by railway transit. On this subject we find the following observations in a late number o f
the Railway Register:—
“ Mr. Hyde Clark reckons the average loss upon all distances by driving, and consequent
saving by conveyance on railway, at 5 lbs. per quarter for bullocks, or 20 lbs.; 2 lbs. per
quarter, or 8 lbs. for sheep ; and 2$ lbs. per quarter, or 10 lbs. for hogs. This is believed
to be a low estimate. Mr. H. Handley, M. P., one o f the heads o f the agricultural inter­
est, calculates the loss on driving from Lincolnshire to London, at 8 lbs. in weight, and 25s.
to 30s. in money for sheep. The time for sheep he calculates at 8 days for getting up to
market, which is equivalent to three or four market days, during which the chances o f the
market may be much affected. The promoters o f the Northern and Eastern Railway, in
their prospectus, calculate the loss on driving a hundred miles, at 40s. for bullocks, and 5s.
for sheep. They state the supply o f the London market at 150,000 beeves, and 1,500,000
sheep per annum, the saving on which, by railway conveyance, they set down at .£675,000.
This saving might be fairly taken at 40 lbs. for bullocks, 8 lbs. for sheep, and 20 lbs. for
swine ; which would give a gross saving o f pounds o f animal food on the present number
conveyed on railways, as follows:— on 220,000 cattle, 8,800,000 lbs. o f beef; on 1,250,000
sheep, 10,000,000 lbs. o f mutton ; on 550,000 swine, 11,000,000 lbs. o f pork. This would
give a total o f 29,800,000 lbs. o f animal food economised, even at the present moment, in
the infancy o f the railway system.”
VOL.

X V I . ------ N O . I V .




27

M o t iv e M is c e lla ­
p o w e r. neous.

N e tt
in c o m e .
T o t a l.

1W e s t e r n .............. 155

8 ,1 8 5 ,7 8 8

389,861

4 88 ,55 6

N o r . & W o ’ ster.

68

2 ,1 7 8 ,7 8 8

1 50 ,38 5

9 1 .5 3 5

C o n n e c t . R iv e r .

36

1 ,0 1 0,5 42

3 9,7 56

18,491

8 78,117

8 3 ,2 6 7

2 41,910 1 06,446
5 8,2 47

4 ,4 0 0

T o ta l.

N ett
in c ’ e
p. c t

T ons
N u m ber
N u m b e r T o n s m e r­
p ass’ gers m e rc h d z . passen gers c h a n d iz e
ca rr ie d
ca rr ie d
c a r r ie d
ca rr ie d
in ca rs .
in ca rs. o n e m ile . o n e m ile.

2 9 4 ,9 8 3

7 .7 7 1 .8 8 0 .96 0 .9 2

4 70,319

1 79,325 12,7 66 ,52 2

2 39,159

4 12,679

4 65,738

2 15,369 3 58 ,58 7

5 7 3 ,9 5 6

5 .6 8 1.53 U.7210.81

3 65 ,66 4

166,394 14,273,181 1 5,7 4 8 ,2 2 3

....

11,941

1 18,387

123,523

143,367

53,925

1 97,292

5.66 1 .2 2 0.60 0 .6 2

2 ,5 8 5

14,768

2 1,7 53

36,4 94

5 9 ,8 2 5

2,7 0 0

6 2,5 25

3.61 0 .9 3 0.35 0.58

185,190

198,214

89,4 53

......

1 95,692

99,2 91

1 ,3 6 9 ,8 0 0

6,9 4 1,2 91

1 9 8 ,2 (4 ,

..........
/

13 104

2 0,7 48

,O ld C o l o n y . . . .

37

1 ,3 9 7,0 59

1 01,858

2 3,8 53

125,711

8,6 0 4

6 ,2 7 3

4 2,3 53

57,2 30

68,481

6 3,0 73

4 2,3 92

105,465

4 .9 0 1.19 0.54 0 .65

2 13,144

16,197

3 ,4 5 9 ,2 9 1

299 ,39 4:

P r o v id e n c e . . . .

41

2 ,1 0 9 ,4 5 5

2 3 0 ,4 8 6

1 30,389

3 60 ,87 5

2 5,4 40

34,3 02

109,937

1 69,679

191,196

1 40,874

58,054

1 98,928

9 .0 6 1.81 0 .8 5 0 .9 6

4 76 ,51 5

8 2 ,1 9 2

7 ,4 5 3 ,1 7 7

1 ,9 6 2,7 89 '

4 ,9 9 2

5 .0 3 1.75 0 .8 0 0 .9 5
1 17,945

25,6 07

1,2 9 0,9 51

2 8 1 ,6 7 8 ;

9 4,1 67

11,013

1 ,5 1 6,4 18

2 1 8 ,8 1 7i

5 ,9 8 1 ,8 7 2

3 ,3 5 1 ,3 1 0 j

5 ,6 2 6 ,7 7 7 j

3 5,0 00

'S t o u g h t o n .........

5

9 3,9 70

4 ,7 0 7

4,029:

8 ,7 3 6

694

599

2 ,7 0 7

4 ,0 0 0

4 ,7 3 6

jT a u n t o n ... . . . .

11

2 9 3 ,4 4 8

36,2 83

2 0,9 40

57,2 23

6,775

3 ,3 8 0

14,904

2 5,0 59

32,1 64

2 0 ,5 4 8

7 ,9 4 2

{N e w

B e d fo r d ..

20

456,441

6 4 ,9 0 3

20,4 47

85,3 50

11,881

6 ,1 1 0

2 3 ,3 8 8

41,3 79

43,971

5 9,1 88

19,610

28,4 90 10.96 2 .0 1 0 .8 8 1 .1 3
78,7 98

9.56 1.08 0 .5 3 0 .5 5

F a l l R i v e r .........

42

8 2 8 ,0 8 3

2 9 ,5 2 0

6,183

3 5 ,7 0 3

3,501

3,973

17,894

2 5,3 98

10,335

26,7 50

22,1 60

4 8 ,9 1 0

1.24 0 .7 3 0 .5 2 0 .2 1

5 9,3 82

5 ,2 5 7

F it c h b u r g ...........

49

1 ,8 7 5,3 19

1 2 6 ,8 3 8

157,407

2 81 ,24 5

17,440

17,396

80,211

1 15,047

169,198

140,424

59,8 88

2 0 0 .3 1 2

9 .0 2 1 .4 2 0 57 0 .85

3 27,034

2 01 ,80 0

2 00,841

8 .8 5 1.91 1.06 0 .8 5

4 00,886

222,831

8 ,4 1 1 ,4 5 7

4 8 ,8 7 0 11.44 2 .6 3 1.44 1.19

1 92,272

1 26,502

2 ,6 7 8 ,5 1 3

1 ,8 3 5 ,1 8 9

L o w e l l ................

26

1 ,9 4 0,4 18

1 85 ,23 5

1 98 ,86 7

3 81 ,10 2

42,301

52,8 83

117,050

2 12 ,23 4

1 71,868

134,633

6 6,2 08

N a s h u a ................

14

5 0 0 ,0 0 0

59,0 93

68,404

1 27 ,49 7

2 4,9 41

10,054

35,285

7 0,2 80

5 7,2 17

28,5 15

2 0 ,3 5 0

B o s t o n &. M a in e

73

2 ,6 2 9 ,7 4 6

2 12 ,09 4

119,344

3 31 ,43 8

2 0,0 77

2 5 ,0 9 6

116,864

1 62,037

169,401

2 04,401

7 3,2 38

2 77 ,63 9

6 .4 4 1.19 0 .5 8 0 .61

4 60 ,42 6

61,599

9 ,4 7 4,2 41

3 ,0 7 4 ,9 5 0

38

2 ,2 2 0,8 69

310,031

61,2 77

3 7 1 ,3 3 8

2 1 ,4 3 2

1 4,7 78 ;

101,594

137,804

2 33,534

2 01 ,62 6

5 1,4 26

2 5 3 ,0 5 2 10.51 1.46 0 .5 4 0 .9 2

7 86 ,75 6

38,0 13 12,575,386

1,090,442-

E a s t e r n ... . . . . .

|707 3 0,2 44 ,92 7 2,2 2 0,8 63 1,684,641 3 ,9 4 0 ,5 04 '4 34 ,6 44 l3 34 ,14 5 | l,0 9 8 ,0 3 3 1,856,812 2 ,0 4 8 ,6 9 2 1,6 41,929 9 48 .88 0 2,595,801




* L e t t o W e s t e r n R a ilr o a d .

t L e t t o H o u s a ,to n ic R a ilr o a d .

6 .8 9 1.51 0 .7 2 0 .7 9 4,0 6 2,9 34 1,3 34,944 81,2 50 ,80 9! 4 0,6 3 4 ,0 7 4
J L e t to F it c h b u r g R a ilr o a d .

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

45 1 3 ,4 85 ,23 2 $ 2 7 9 ,7 9 3 $ 2 7 4 ,9 1 9 $ 5 5 4 ,7 1 2 $ 4 7 ,4 4 5 $ 67 ,26 3 $ 1 6 9 ,1 6 8 $ 2 8 3 ,8 7 6 $ 2 7 0 ,8 3 6

[ W o r c e s t e r .........

P ass’ g er F re ig h t
tra in s.
tra in s .

I n c .p .m i.

T o ta l.

R oad
bed.

R c ts .p .m .

F rom
F rom
p ass’ gers. fr e i’ t ,& c .

E x p .p .m .

C o s t.

NUMBER OF MILES RUN.

EXPENSES.

RECEIPTS.

§:

0%

N am e.

418

M A S S A C H U S E T T S R A I L R O A D S , I N 1848.
F reeman H unt, E sq.— D e a r S ir — I sen d y o u a n a b s tra ct o f th e A n n u a l R e p o rts o f t h e R a ilr o a d s o f M a ss a ch u se tts, m a d e to th e L e g is la t u r e o f th is C o m m o n w e a lt h , c a r e f u lly c o m p ile d ,
a n d w h ic h , i f in serted in y o u r v a l u a b l e jo u r n a l, I d o u b t n ot w ill g r a tify m a n y o f its n u m e ro u s readers.
Y o u r s .truly,
[3 .

419

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.
U N IT E D S T A T E S N A V A L A N D M A IL S T E A M SH IP S.

The following is an authentic copy o f an act providing for the building and equipment o f
four naval Steamships, which passed both Houses o f Congress, and was approved by the
President o f the United States, on the 3d o f March, 1847 :—
AN

ACT

P R O V ID IN G

FOR

THE

B U IL D IN G

AND

E Q U IP M E N T

OF

FOUR

NAVAL

S T E A M S H IP S .

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of Ameri­
ca, in Congress assembled—
That the President o f the United States be, and he is hereby, authorized to cause to be
built and equipped four first class sea-going Steamships, to be attached to the Navy o f the
United States, and that one million o f dollars be, and is hereby appropriated for that pur­
pose, to be paid out o f any money .in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated.
S ec. 2. And be it further enacted, That from and immediately after the passage o f this
Act, it shall be the duty o f the Secretary o f the Navy to accept, on the part of the Govern­
ment o f the United States, the proposals o f E. K. Collins and his associates, o f the city o f
N ew York, submitted to the Postmaster-General, and dated Washington, March sixth,
eighteen hundred and forty-six, for the transportation o f the United States •mail between
N ew York and Liverpool, and to contract with the said E. K. Collins and his associates,
for the faithful fulfilment o f the stipulations therein contained, and in accordance with the
provisions o f this Act.
S ec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the Steamships to be employed by the said
E. K. Collins and his associates, in the transportation o f the United States mail between
N ew York and Liverpool, shall be constructed under the inspection o f a Naval Construc­
tor in the employ o f the Navy Department, and shall be so constructed as to render them
convertible, at the least possible cost, into war steamers o f the first class ; and that each o f
said Steamers shall receive on board four passed Midshipmen o f the United States Navy,
who shall serve as watch officers, and be suitably accommodated without charge to the
Government; and the said Steamers shall also receive on board and accommodate, with­
out charge to the Government, one agent, to be appointed by the Postmaster-General, who
shall have charge o f the mails to be transported in the said Steamships.
S ec. 4. And be it further enacted, That from and immediately after the passage o f
this Act, it shall be the duty o f the Secretaiy o f the Navy to contract, on the part of the
Government o f the United States, with A . G. Sloo, o f Cincinnati, for the transportation o f
the United States mail from N ew York to New Orleans, twice a month and back, touch­
ing at Charleston, (if practicable,) Savannah and Havana ; and from Havana to Chagres
and back, twice a m onth; the said mail to be transported in Steamships of not less than
fifteen hundred tons burthen, and propelled by engines o f not less than one thousand horse
power each, to be constructed under the superintendence and direction of a Naval Con­
structor in the employ o f the Navy Department, and to be so constructed as to render them
convertible, at the least possible expense, into war Steamers o f the first class ; and that the
said Steamships shall be commanded by officers o f the United States Navy not below the
grade o f Lieutenant, who shall be selected by the contractor, with the approval and con­
sent o f the Secretary o f the Navy, and who shall be suitably accommodated without charge
to the Government. Each o f said Steamers shall receive on board four passed Midship­
men o f the United States Navy, who shall serve as watch officers, and be suitably accom­
modated without charge to the Government; and each o f the said Steamers shall also re­
ceive on board and accommodate, without charge to the Government,. one agent, to be
appointed by the Postmaster-General, who shall have charge o f the mail to be transported
in said Steamers: Provided, The Secretary o f the Navy may, at his discretion, permit a
Steamer o f not less than six hundred tons burthen, and engines in proportion, to be em­
ployed in the mail- service herein provided for between Havana and Chagres: Provided,
further, That the compensation for said service shall not exceed the sum of two hundred
and ninety thousand dollars, and that good and sufficient security shall be given for the
faithful fulfilment o f the stipulations o f the contract.
S ec. 5. Officers, troops, freight, &c. o f the United States, to be received on board at onehalf the ordinary charge.
S ec. 6. The Secretary o f the Navy may advance $500,000 for the construction o f the
vessels.
S ec. 7. Mr. Sloo is to receive $280,000 for mail transportation.
S ec. 8. And be it f urther enacted, That it shall be the duty o f the Secretary of the
Navy to contract, on behalf o f the Government o f the United States, for the transportation
o f the mail from Panama to such port as he may select in the Territory o f Oregon, once
a month each way, so as to connect with the mail from Havana to Chagres across the




420

Railroad, Canal, and Steamboat Statistics.

Isthmus: said mail to be transported in either steam or sailing vessels, as shall be deemed
most practicable and expedient.
S ec. 9. And be it further enacted, That it shall be the duty o f the Secretary of the
Navy to provide, in the contracts authorized by this Act, that the Navy Department shall
at all times exercise control over said Steamships, and at any time have the right to take
them for the exclusive use and services o f the United States, and to direct such changes in
their machinery and internal arrangements as the Secretary o f the Navy may require ; due
provisions being made in the said contracts for the mode o f ascertaining the proper com­
pensation to the contractors therefor.

C A N A L S A N D O T H E R PUBLIC W O R K S OF OHIO.
W e publish below an authentic statement o f cost, revenue, deficits, &c., o f the canals
and other public works o f Ohio, for 1846:—
L e n g th .

Ohio Canal and branches.........
Muskingum Improvement...
Walhonding Canal................
H ocking Canal.......................
Miami and Warren Canal....
Miami Extension Canal....... ..
Wabash and Erie Canal......
Totals.............................. ..

C ost
p e r m ile ,

T o t a l c o s t.

G ross
re c e ip ts .

In te re s t.

D e fic it .

337 $4,695,203 $15,933 $336,339 $281,712 $14,743
97,639 97,840
35,104
91 1,627,318 17,882
36,436 36,620
1,190
25
607,268 24,290
5,383
58,528 56,798
975,481 17,419
74,253 35,541
85 1,237,552 14,559
93,057
27,812 190,137 181,425
139 3,168,965 22,798
90 3,057,177 33,968 113,414 183,430 78,151
810 15,368,964

18,755

612,303

922,137 501,126

The nett proceeds o f the canals fall a fraction short o f 3 per cent on the cost. Interest
has been computed at 6 per cent, which would be about the average— the first loan at 5,
and the last at 7 per cent— balance at 6.
The Ohio canal has 25 miles o f navigable side-cuts and feeders, to w it:— Trenton
feeder, 3 ; Walhonding, 1 J ; Dresden side-cut, 2 £ ; Granville feeder, 6 ; Columbus, 12—
which are included in the estimate. The Miami Extension Canal includes the Sidney
feeder, 13 m iles; St. Mary’s and Reservoir, 11. The Wabash and Erie has a side-cut to
Maumee, 2 m iles; one to Toledo, 1 mile. The first is included in the estimate, the other
escaping attention.
P A C IF IC L IN E O F S T E A M E R S :
FOR

THE

T R A N S P O R T A T IO N

OF

PASSEN G ERS,

LETTERS

AND

M E R C H A N D IS E .

Recent advices from Panama state that the arrangements o f the Pacific line o f steamers
are now complete for the transmission o f passengers, letters and merchandise, to and
from the Pacific. Steamers leave England on the 3d o f every month, and arrive at Chagres about the 19th. Here all and everything for the Pacific is carried over the isthmus
on mules, in from six to ten hours.

On the other side a steamer is in readiness for con­

veyance to Peru, Ecuador or Chili.

These steamers leave Panama on the 25th, arrive

at Callao, Peru, on the 7th, and Valparaiso on the 24th, stopping at fourteen intermediate
ports along the coast. T he distance between Panama and Valparaiso is 3,250 miles, and
is accomplished by three steamers in thirty days, including all the stoppages, which oc­
cupy from six to eight hours at each place.
From Panama
“
“
“
“

The prices o f passage are as follow s:—

to Guayaquil........................................................ $100
Callao........................................................
150
Valparaiso...........................................
200

Letters are charged 25 cents every half ounce.

For the commencement and establish

ment of this great undertaking, the world is indebted to Mr. Wheelwright, a Yankee.
H e has labored for this object during the last twelve years, and is now reaping the profits
o f his untiring industry.

T w o engineers, employed by the Republic o f N ew Grenada,

are now surveying a road from Porto Bello to Panama, in order to facilitate the trans­
portation o f goods to the Pacific.




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

421

JOURNAL OF MINING AND MANUFACTURES.
T H E W E S T P O IN T F O U N D R Y A T COLD S P R IN G .
“ T he W e st P o in t F o u n d r y ’ ’ was originally established by the association o f that

name, in 1817. Since the expiration o f their charter, it has been leased by G o u v e r n e u r
K e m b l e , Esq., by whom it is now conducted on his ow n account. T he capital origi­
nally invested, was <§>100,000. The establishment consists o f 2 moulding-houses, compre­
hending together an area o f 300 feet in length, by 45 feet in breadth, with 3 air furnaces
and 3 cupola furnaces, with 12 cranes o f various power, from 4 to 15 tons. T he boringmill contains 10 beds for boring guns and mortars, and 1 for cylinders, with 15 lathes, 4
planing machines, 1 slitting, and various drilling machines. The blacksmith shop con­
tains 3 trip-hammers, 1 for large shafts o f 8 tons w eight; 2 heating furnaces, and about
20 smiths’ fires, with 1 crane o f 20 tons power, and others o f less strength. The prin­
cipal fitting shop is about 100 by 50 feet, and contains 3 cranes; the second shop, 30 by
50 feet, with 1 crane. The boiler shop is 100 by 40 feet. There is besides, a brass
foundry, pattern shop, and various works connected with the business, and a blast fur­
nace 42 feet high. The wages and materials vary according to the demand— the wages,
from $140,000 to $180,000 per annum; the materials, from $250,000 to $350,000 per
annum ; the finished work, from $450,000 to $650,000 per annum ; the number o f
hands employed, from 300 to 500, the present number being about 400, with an average
wages o f about $ 1 50 per diem.

T H E U N IO N W H I T E L E A D C O M P A N Y .
The works o f this company are located in the city o f Brooklyn, on Long Island, and
cover about eighteen lots o f ground, embracing both corners o f Bridge and Front, and
Bridge and Water-streets. This manufactory consumes about 3,000,000 pounds o f pig
lead, and 45,000 gallons o f linseed oil per annum. The cost of these materials fluc­
tuates with the market, which varies considerably; but taking as an average 3 J cents
per pound for lead, and 70 cents per gallon for oil, the annual cost would be $136,500.
T he company employ about 70 men as laborers, coopers, and engineers, their wages
amounting to about $25,000 per annum.

The men employed in the factory work ten

hours per day. The lead manufactured by this company is o f an excellent quality.
office and place o f business o f the corporation, is at 175 Front-street, N ew York.

The

C O R N W A L L A N D S W A N S E A M INES.
T he “ W est Britain and Cornwall Advertiser,” for January 15, 1847, furnishes a list of
the mines whose produce has been sold at the Copper Ore Ticketings in Cornwall and
Swansea, in ore, for the year ending December 30th, 1846. From this table it appears
that there were sold, at Cornwall, 150,413 tons, amounting to £796,182. This return
shows a falling o ff in the staple product o f the country, in the past year, o f not less than
12,126 tons o f copper ore, and a decrease in the amount o f sales o f £123,751 19s. 6d.
The produce o f mines, sold at the Ticketings at Swansea, for the year ending December
31, 1846, was 58,456 tons ore, for £668,267 Is. This account exhibits a decrease in the
quantity o f ore sold at Swansea, in 1846, as compared with 1845, o f 8,748 tons o f ore,
and, in the amount o f money, o f £109,594 18s. 6d., which, added to the deficiency in
Cornwall, makes a total o f 20,924 tons o f ore, and, in money, £233,346 16s.




422
Journal o f M ining and M anufactures.




Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.

423

T he kinds o f goods made were as follows:— By the Merrimack Manufacturing Company,
prints and sheetings, No. 22 to 4 0 ; Hamilton Manufacturing Company, prints, flannels,
and sheetings, 14 to 4 0 ; Appleton Company, sheetings and shirtings, No. 14; Lowell
Manufacturing Company, carpets, rugs, and cotton cloth; Middlesex Manufacturing Com­
pany, broadcloth and cassimere ; Sussex Manufacturing Company, drillings, 1 4 ; Tremont
Mills, sheetings and shirtings, No. 14; Lawrence Manufacturing Company, printing cloths,
sheetings, and shirtings, 14 to 3 0 ; Lowell Bleachery, 1,700,000 lbs. bleached per annum ;
Boott Cotton Mills, drillings, No. 14, shirtings, No. 40, printing cloth, No. 40 ; Massachu­
setts Cotton Mills, sheetings, 13, shirtings, 14, drillings, 14; Prescott Manufacturing Com­
pany, sheetings and shirtings, 12$ and 1 4 ; Lowell Machine Shop, 3,000 tons wrought
and cast iron per annum.
Average wages o f females, clear o f board, per week, $ 2 ; average wages o f males, clear
o f board, per day, 80 cents. Medium produce o f a loom, No. 14 yam, 45 yards per day ;
No. 30, 33 yards per day ; average per spindle, 1$ yards per day.
The Middlesex Company make use annually o f 6,000,000 teasels; 1,600,000 lbs. fine
w o o l; 80,000 lbs. glue; $60,000 worth o f dye-stufis, and $17,000 worth o f soap.
The Lowell Machine Shop, included among the above mills, can furnish machinery com­
plete for a mill o f 6,000 spindles, in three months, and a mill can be built in the same time.
The several manufacturing companies have established a hospital for the convenience
and comfort o f persons employed by them respectively, when sick, which is under the su­
perintendence o f one o f the best o f surgeons and physicians.
The institution for savings for the year ending April 29, 1846, had received from 4,679
depositors, $750,645 77, being an increase from the former years o f 491 depositors, and
the amount o f $76,020 95. The whole number o f new accounts opened was 1,692, de­
positing with others, $330,471 5 6 ; and 1,181 accounts were closed, withdrawing, with
other partial payments, $254,450 61.

The operatives in the mills are the principal de­

positors.
There is one public high-school in the city, where all branches o f education are taught,
preparatory to a collegiate course. Also, eight grammar-schools and thirty-six primary
schools, all o f which will compare to advantage with any schools in the country. Average
daily attendance, about 3,500.
There are two banks,— the Lowell, capital $200,000, and the Railroad, capital $600,000.
There is a Mutual Insurance Company in the city, which has been highly successful
in its operations.
There is a valuable library o f 5,000 volumes belonging to the city, to which any one
can have access by paying fifty cents per annum.
The Mechanic Association have an extensive reading room, and a valuable library of
3,300 volumes.

Nearly all the religious societies have valuable libraries o f religious and

miscellaneous books.
An important undertaking, eventually to redound to the interest and wealth of Lowell,
is the building o f the new canal. It is destined to give to most o f the mills on the lower
level a more constant supply o f water, and consequently benefit those on the upper level.
It is to be o f an average width o f 100 feet, and a depth o f 15 feet. It will require in its
construction, a rock excavation o f 150,000 yards, an earth excavation o f 110,000 yards,
and a mass o f masonry o f 50,000 yards; the whole estimated at an expense o f $500,000
In the course o f a few months, two new cotton mills will be in operation; the one
built by the Merrimack Company to contain 23,424 spindles, and 640 loom s; the other,
built by the Hamilton Company, will commence with 10,368 spindles, and 260 looms, but
is o f sufficient capacity to contain nearly 20,000 spindles and 400 looms. The driving
power o f the latter will be a steam-engine o f 160 horse-power, which is being put in.
Other manufactures are produced in the city than those specified above, o f a value of
$890,000, employing a capital o f $310,750, and about 1,000 hands.




424

Journal o f Mining and Manufactures.
M IN E R A L W E A L T H OF S O U T H A U S T R A L IA .

The richness o f the South Australian Mines is described, by the Colonial Gazette, as
altogether surprising. The geological description, furnished by a gentleman who tra­
versed the country, and in whose account the utmost confidence may be placed, is most
wonderful. The extent o f the mineral lands, the richness o f the ores, and the regularity
o f the lodes are, we believe, unexampled. In Mr. Dutton’s highly interesting publica­
tion, entitled “ South Australia and its Mines,” various analyses o f the copper ore from
the Kapunda Mine (o f which Mr. Dutton is a joint proprietor) are given. These were
made by Mr. Penrose, the Government assayer at Swansea, and are as follows:—
“ The average produce gave a result o f 29$ per cent o f copper for 39 specimens, good,
bad, and indifferent, taken from every part o f the property, the following being the dif­
ferent descriptions found:— Grey sulphuret with green carbonate ; produce, 53$ per cent.
Black sulphuret with green carbonate; 23$, 24, 33J, 44$, 50$, 59$ per cent. Pale
green carbonate ; 26$, 33,34$, 40$, 41$, 48$ per cent. Blue carbonate (hydrocarbonate;)
21$ per cent. Grey carbonate with red oxide, 28$ per cent. Dark green carbonate, 28$
per cent.”
The comparative value o f the ore from the Kapunda Mine is also given, ascertained
by actual sales at Swansea; and this is the result:—
AVERAGE

PRODUCE

OF

THE

P R IN C IP A L

M IN E S

IN

THE

W ORLD.

Average per ton.
£11
9
1
14 10
6
12 11
9
29 13
6
11
15 11
^er’aj coS,f.° “re‘v.v.::"v;.:'.'"'“'.'.v....
0
14
18
6
N ew Zealand................................................................................................ .
10 10
Cornish Mines..................................... , ................................................. .
6
5 15
Irish Mines....................................................................................................
6
8
8
13 11
2
South i Montacute.....................................................................................
Austr’n ) Kapunda.......................................................................................
24 15
3
The average produce o f the Kapunda Mine is, therefore, at present the highest o f any
Cobre M ine,.....................................................................................
Cuba....} Santiago,........................................................................................
( San Jose,................................... ....................................................
South
(Princ‘ Pa,1y Regulus,)........................................................

copper mine in the world.
M A N U F A C T U R E S IN M ISSOURI.
Extract from the annual message o f Governor John C. Edwards, to the Legislature of
Missouri, under date November 16 ,184 6:—
“ The establishment o f manufactories is attended with its difficulties. T o carry them on
very successfully, large investments and a superior population are required. W e are not
without capital, but the high rate o f interest, and the many supposed profitable investments
for money, which have heretofore existed, have prevented the appropriation o f funds to the
erection o f manufacturing establishments. I f the rate o f interest were lower, capita! would
be probably invested in manufactories to a considerable extent. The tariff also retards the
establishment o f manufactories in our State, whether it be a tariff for protection, or a tariff
for revenue, for all tariffs are protections to a greater or less extent; but a high tariff tends
more to prevent the establishment o f manufactories in our State, than a low one, being a pro­
tection to the eastern manufacturer. The eastern manufacturer contends that he cannot suc­
ceed without protection against his foreign competitor. Our interior position, and our
remoteness from the principal ports o f entry, gives the manufacturer in this country a pro­
tection which no tariff can immediately affect. If, then, the eastern manufacturer was but
lightly protected, or not protected at all, he would find it profitable to remove his capital,
and to invest it in manufactures in the W est, where nature would always protect him
against the foreign competitor. N o country can manufacture cheaper than our State. W e
have all the necessary ingredients at the lowest prices. W e have the real estate, the water­
power, the ore to make the iron to make the machinery, the manual labor, the provisions
to support the hands, the raw material, the flax, hemp, and wool o f our own production,
and the cotton in exchange for our wheat, com , and tobacco, hogs, horses, cattle, and
mules— and these ingredients we have, taken together, cheaper than any other country on
earth. Even our manual labor is at the lowest price. But, as before observed, to manu­
facture very successfully, a superior population is required. This we can soon have by fos­
tering the common school, and developing the genius and mechanical ingenuity o f the
youth o f our country.”




425

Commercial Statistics.

COMMERCIAL

STATISTICS.

C O M M E R C E OF T H E P O R T OF P H IL A D E LP H IA .
W e publish below, a statement o f the foreign commerce o f Philadelphia, prepared by
order o f the collector o f that port, which shows an increase in 1846, over 1845. Col.
Childs, the editor o f the “ Commercial List,” says the commerce of Philadelphia “ is des­
tined to increase, in spite of the policy of the general government, which leaves our noble
river without a single safe harbor, from the breakwater to the city of Philadelphia.”
C O M M E R C E O F P H IL A D E L P H IA F O R T H E T E A R

1845

AND

1846,

COM PARED.

Imports.
*Value o f Imports in American vessels, for 1846,........
Value o f Imports in foreign vessels,
“
.........
Value o f Imports in American vessels, for 1845...........
.........
Value o f Imports in foreign vessels,
“

$7,751,948 00
556,667 00
---------------------$8,308,615 00
$6,939,769 00
554,728 00
--------------------7,494,497 00

Excess in favor o f 1846,..........i ...........................

$814,118 00

Cash Duties.
In American vessels, 1846,..............................................
In foreign,
“
“
...............................................
In American vessels, 1845,..............................................
In foreign,
“
“
...............................................

$2,413,774 24
194,288 92
--------------------$2,150,253 36
220,264 35
---------------------

$2,608,063 16

2,370,517 00

Excess in favor o f 1846,........................................
V A L U E O F E X P O R T S T O F O R E IG N P O R T S F O R

1843, ’44, ’45,

$237,545 45
AND

’46,

COM PARED.

184L

1844.

1845.

1846.

Domestic articles,..........................
Foreign
“
..........................

$2,837,646
221,525

$3,326,673
338,023

$3,413,928
502,905

$4,596,744
521,310

Excess in favor o f 1846,.........

$3,059,171
2,058,883

$3,664,696
1,453,358

$3,916,833
1,201,221

$5,118,054
.................

T o n n a g e e n t e r e d f r o m F o r e i g n C o u n t r i e s .— In American vessels, 1846, 87,146 tons;
in foreign vessels, 1846, 12,483; total, 99,629 tons. In American vessels, 1845, 73,705
tons; in foreign vessels, 1845, 10,794 tons; total, 84,499 tons. Excess in favor o f 1846,
15,130 tons.
N u m b e r o f A r r i v a l s a n d C l e a r a n c e s d u r i n g t h e y e a r s 1845 a n d ’46.— Arrivals from
foreign ports, 1846,459 ; coastwise,! 1846, 6,018; total, 6,477 vessels. Arrivals from for­
eign ports, 1845, 387 ; coastwise, 1845, 8,029 ; total, 8,416 vessels. Excess in favor o f
1845, 1,939. Clearances for foreign ports, 1846, 45 8; in 1845, 400. Excess in favor o f
1846, 58 vessels.

E X P O R T O F T E A S F R O M C H IN A T O T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S .
W e give below a statement, derived from the Friend o f China, of the export o f teas to
the United States, in the years ending June 30th, 1845 and 1846, in 50 vessels:—
Year.
1845,
1846,

...
...

No. Vessels.
50
40

Green.
13,802,099 lbs.
14,236,076

Black.
6,950,159 lbs.
4,266,066

Total.
20,752,558 lbs.
18,502,142 *

* Part o f the fourth quarter estimated.
+ Some o f the smaller craft, heretofore entered, omitted this year.




426

Commercial Statistics,
IM P O R T S A T B O ST O N IN T H E B R IT IS H S T E A M P A C K E T S .

It appears from a statement o f Marcus Morton, Collector o f the port of Boston, that
the British steamers commenced their trips to that port during the second quarter o f 1840,
and that the value o f merchandise imported, including specie, was, for—

1840.

1841.

1841

1841

1844.

1841

1846.

$72,600

$769,700

$730,800

$9,300,600

$4,443,700

$4,026,300

$4,445,000

The amount o f duties, collected on the goods imported by the steamers during the year
1846, ending 31st December, was as follows, v iz.:—
Hibernia, n Jan.,.......
Cambria,
Feb., ....
Hibernia,
M arch,..
Caledonia,
April,....
Cambria,
M ay,.....
u
Britannia,
Hibernia,
June,.....
Caledonia,
Britannia,
Ju ly,......
M
Cambria,
Hibernia,
Aug.,.....

$139,844
148.475
107,004
57,790
24,368
35,888
14,556
28,112
47,871
79,187
75,066

87 Per Caledonia, in
Britannia,
82
Cambria,
10
Hibernia,
81
Caledonia,
61
Britannia,
16
Acadia,
36
Caledonia,
05
Cambria,
76
07
Total,.......
95

$46,447
43,137
52,689
11,667
23,378
20,453
26,860
21,972
53,958

A u g . ,..

S ept,..
(i

O ct,...
U

N ov.,..
((
D e c .,.

62
60
23
06
84
71
36
27
50

$1,054,731 75

B R IT IS H IM P O R T S OF T O B A C C O , 1845-46.
Account o f tobacco imported in the year ending January 5, 1846, derived from parliamentary documents:—
Manufactured
Unmanufac’d.
Snuff.
Total.
as cigars.

lbs.

lbs.

United States o f America, including Texas 31,153,072
470,942
N ew Granada, Venezuela, and Ecuador....
Brazil.................................................................
285,936
Cuba-.................................................................
420,204
9,416
British W est Indies........................................
British East Indies..........................................
110,748
Java....................................................................
1,693
Philippine Islands............................................
W est Coast o f A frica.....................................
2,628
Turkey, Syria, and Egvpt.............................
11,114
Holland.............................................................
230,812
Belgium.............................................................
71,794
Hanseatic T o w n s...........................................
126,764
Other Parts.......................................................
48,895
Total...................................................

32,944,017

lbs.

lbs.

1,718,956
59
1,908
262,873
2,225
72,960
98
18,632
155
842
503
1,924
13,960
8,194

5 32,872,033
471,001
21
287,865
689,077
41
11,682
183,740
33
1,791
2
18,634
2,783
11,956
231,323
8
73,731
13
140,752
28
57,148
59

2,109,289

210 35,053,516

TH E FUR T R A D E .
E X P O R T A T IO N S

BY TH E

H UDSON^

B A Y COM PANY.

T he following is a comparative statement o f exportations to London, by this company,
from Y ork Fort, Mackenzie R iver:—
Skins.
Beaver,................
Badger,................
Bear,....................
Fisher,.................
F ox, silver,........
F ox, cross,........
Fox, red,...........
Fox, white..........
Fox, K itt,............




1846.
31,363
1,017
2,252
2,974
367
1,291
3,922
843
3,837

1845.
10,509
3,080
2,227
276
859
2,649
2,910
5,267

skins.

1846.

1845.

14,242
5,977
Lynx,.........................
Martin,......................
85,041 53,461
M ink,.........................
19,308
18,083
Musquash,...........
201,915
164,260
Otter,....................
1,389
1,137
Rabbit,.......................
27,758
46,970
Swan....................
1.909
3,545
W o lf,....................
7,652
9,106
W olverin,.............
693
534

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THE

427

BOOK T R A D E .

X.— H istory o f the D iscovery and Settlement o f the Valley o f the M ississippi , until the Year 1846. By
John W. Monette , M. D. New York : Harper & Brothers.
This is a very important, elaborate, and valuable book—one which should, and must, elicit the attention
of all who wish to form an intelligent judgment of the character and growth of that immense region which
forms the valley of the Mississippi. The author has devoted many years and immense labor, to the collec­
tion of materials for its preparation ; and has made by far the most authentic and extensive record of the
early history of that country that has ever before appeared. The Mississippi valley will, ere many years,
become the most interesting section o f the Western continent; and every fact relating to its early settle­
ment will thus become of historic value. Besides this, the record is one of rarely equalled interest. It
abounds in incidents of the most thrilling character, and exhibits instances of endurance, courage, and ad­
venture, which cud scarcely be paralleled in any other portion of the history of the world. Monette’s history
will be found invaluable for purposes of study and reference, as well as exceedingly interesting to the general
reader. It is valuable, especially, as a storehouse of important facts, no where else to be found in an equal­
ly connected, compact, and accessible form. It is issued in two very handsome octavo volumes, elegantly
printed, and copiously furnished with maps, illustrations, etc., etc. It cannot fail to be received with favor
by the public.
2. —A System o f Intellectual Philosophy. By A sa Mahan, President, and Professor of Intellectual and
Moral Philosophy in the Oberlin Collegiate Institute. Second edition. 12mo., pp. 330. New York :
Harper & Brothers.
The reputation of the author of this treatise, at the head of a new school of religionists known as “ Per­
fectionists,” and us a man of high intellectual as well as pure and elevated moral attainments, should
secure for whatever he may add to the literature of science, philosophy, and religion, a candid hearing.
This essay embraces the sum of a course of lectures, which, for eight years, the author was in the habit of
delivering to successive classes in the institute over which he presides, on the subject of intellectual philo­
sophy. No class, we are informed, ever passed through this course without becoming deeply interested in
the science of mental philosophy, and without receiving, in their judgment, great benefit from the truths
developed, as well as from the method of development which was adopted. In preparing it for the press,
the author assures us that it has been his aim to reject light from no source, whatever, from which it could
be obtained; while, at the same time, to maintain the real prerogative of manly independence of thought.
The individuals to whom he feels most indebted as a philosopher, are Coleridge, Cousin, and Kant; whom
he pronounces three luminaries of the first order in the sphere of philosophy. It is presented to the public
in a form well adapted to popular reading.
3.

— Curiosities o f L itera tu re; consisting o f Sketches and Characters o f E nglish Literature. By
J. D’I sraeli, D. C. L., F. S. A. 2 vols., 12mo., pp. 405-461. New York : Harper & Brothers.
D’lsraeli, following the steps of the human mind through the wide track o f time, traces from their be­
ginnings the rise, the progress, and the decline of public opinions ; and, as the objects present themselves,
illustrates the leading incidents in the British annals of literature. The title prefixed to the work, we are
told by the author, was adopted to connect it with its brothers, the “ Curiosities of Literature,” and the
“ Miscellanies of Literature;” but, although the form and manner bear a family resemblance, the subject
has more variety of design. It is an interesting work, tracing the connection of the incidents of author’s
lives with their intellectual habits, and at the same time exhibiting the progress of the human mind and
society, which should never be separated.
4. —Mem&irs o f the M ost Eminent American Mechanics. A lso , L ives o f D istinguished European
Mechanics ; together with a Collection o f Anecdotes, D escriptions, 6rc., relating to the Mechanic A rts.

Illustrated with fifty engravings. By Henry Howe. 12mo., pp. 482. New York: Harper & Brothers.
This work has passed through several editions, one of the best evidences of its value, at least to the
publishers. It contains comprehensive biographies of John Fitch, Benjamin Franklin, Oliver Evans, Sa­
muel Slater, Eli Whitney, David Bushnell, Amos Whittemore, Robert Fulton, Jacob Perkins, Thomas
Blanchard, and Henry Eckford, which occupy nearly one-half the volume. The remainder embraces the
lives of eighteen of the most eminent mechanics of Europe, including James Ferguson, Richard Ark­
wright, James Watt, and others, equally distinguished as men of genius in different departments of the
mechanic arts.
5. — The L ife and Voyages o f Christopher Columbus. By W ashington Irving. Abridged by the
same, including the Author’s Visit to Palos. With a Portrait, Map, and other Illustrations. 12mo., pp.
325. New York: Harper & Brothers.
“ Irving’s Life of Columbus” enjoys a reputation that can scarcely be extended. The present volume,
which was first published in 1839, is an abridgment of the larger work, by its author, and was designed for
popular use in families and the District School Libraries of the country, which are free to all ages and
classes. It is a comprehensive and beautiful memoir of the discoverer of America.




428

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6. —A n Author's M in d : The Book o f Title-Pages. “ A Bookful o f B o o k s o r , Thirty Books in
One. Edited by M. F. T upper, M. A., author of “ Proverbial Philosophy,” “ Geraldine,” “ The Crock
of Gold,” “ The Twins,” etc. 12mo., pp. 200. Philadelphia : Carey & Hart’s Library for the People.
This “ Bookful of Books,” which purports to be edited by Mr. Tupper, we strongly suspect may claim
him as its author. The internal evidence of the fact is too clearly marked in every page and paragraph to
leave on the mind of the reader a doubt as to its identity. Its unique title, if nothing else, will induce the
curious to dip into its pages; and whoever reads it will find that it is “ not merely a new book, but a little
library of new books; thirty books in one—a very harvest of epitomized authorship; the cream of a whole
fairy dairy of quiescent post octavos.” So says the “ author’s mind.” What more can we say to secure
for the author an attentive reading, and for the publishers a large sale ?
7.

— The Statesmen o f America, in 1846. By Sarah Mylton Maury. 12mo., pp. 2G0. Philadelphia:
Carey & Hart.
Mrs. Maury is an English woman, the wife of an American merchant, residing at Liverpool. She visited
this country in company with a son, whom she calls the Doctor. During her residence at Washington, she
became acquainted with many of our most prominent statesmen, whose characters she attempts to deline­
ate ; and, in most cases, abating a due moiety for exaggeration and toadyism, her pen and inlf portraits will
be readily recognized. She, of course, admires all who treated her with courtesy, or any degree of de­
ference. Men of widely dissimilar character and views, in politics and religion, come in for a share, and a
pretty liberal one, of her eulogistic commendations. The work is dedicated to Secretary Buchanan, one
o f her peculiar favorites. With all its faults, it is an amusing book, and one that will be read almost as
much as if it had been as extravagantly abusive as it is eulogistic.

8.

— American Comedies. By J. K. Paulding, author of “ Westward, Ho!” “ Dutchman’s Fireside,”
etc., etc., and W illiam I rving Paulding. 12mo., pp. 295. Philadelphia: Carey & Hart.
This volume contains four comedies—The Bucktails, or Americans in England; The Noble Exile;
Madmen All, or the Cure of Love; Antipathies, or the Enthusiasts by the Ears. The first-named was
written by J. K. Paulding, shortly after the conclusion of the late war with England, while the feelings it
produced were still fresh in the public mind. The others are the productions of a kinsman of Mr. P., a
young man scarcely one-and-twenty ; “ and the whole,” says the author of the first, “ is now published as
an experiment, how far the public taste may incline to relish this species of literature, and in what degree
the authors are qualified to make the appeal with any degree of success.” We are not competent to judge
of these productions as acting comedies; but we feel quite sure they will form an agreeable repast for those
who delight in rare humor, identified, ns it is, with our national characteristics; and we should prize them
the more highly as contributions to a purely national literature.
— Froissart Ballads, and other Poems. By Philip P endleton C ooke. 12mo., pp. 216. Philadel­
phia : Carey & Hart.
Although the name of Philip Pendleton Cooke is not to be found in Mr. Griswold’s Poets and Poetry of
America, we will venture to say, in announcing the poems of this new candidate for a niche in the “ Tem­
ple of the Muses,” that some, at least, not more worthy, have found a place among Mr. Griswold’s Poets.
Three out of five of the ballads are versified transcripts from Froissart; the other two, “ The Master of
Bolton,” and “ Geoffrey Tetenoire,” are stories of the author’s own invention. Nearly one-half of the
volume is occupied with “ miscellaneous poems,” of varied length and merit. His versification is gene­
rally natural and easy, and the ballad and poem evince considerable artistic skill, with a correct and highly
cultivated taste. We consider the volume worthy of a place among our collection of American Poets, and
shall place it literally alongside of Bryant, Longfellow, Lowell, etc.

9.

10. — The Scripture School Reader, consisting o f Selections o f Sacred Scriptures f o r the Use o f Schools.
Compiled and arranged by W. W. Evarts , A. M., author of the “ Bible Manual” and “ Pastor’s
Hand-Book,” and W illiam H. W yckoff, A. M., late Principal of the Collegiate School. 12ino.,
pp. 348. New York : Nafis & Cornish.
The present volume fills an unoccupied niche in our school literature. The compilers have se­
lected, with taste and judgment, from the didactic, poetical, historical, and biographical parts of Holy
Writ, the choicest gems in each department. The volume opens with the Divine attributes, and the
selections are culled from the different books of the Old and New Testament, declaratory of the
Omnipotence, Omniscience, Omnipresence, Beneficence, Eternity, &c., of God. Connected biographies
of the leading Scripture characters, and historical events, are arranged In the same systematic order.
The poetry of the Bible is restored to its proper metrical form, thus clothing it with new beauty and
force. In the didactic part, the social and moral graces and virtues are made the subject of distinct
sections, and are enforced by Christ, and his apostles of the New Testament, and the long line of
inspired poets, prophets, and historians, from Adam to the last of the apostles. We hope to see it
introduced into all our public schools.
11.

— The Christian's Prayer. The Rector's Christmas Offering to his Parishioners. 18mo., pp. 131.
New York : Henry M. Onderdonk.
That simple, beautiful, and comprehensive prayer of the founder of Christianity, constitutes the subject
o f the Rector’s meditations. Each portion is illustrated with appropriate comments, adapted to the state
of religious sentiment in the Episcopal Church.




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429

12.—A System o f Moral Philosophy, adapted to Children and Families, and especially to Common Schools.
By Rev. D. Steele and a Friend. 18mo., pp. 80. Boston: Janies Munroe & Co.
The object of this work is to give a child, at the earliest age, a foundation on which it may build moral
reasonings. The system of moral philosophy which it enforces is based on the only legitimate foundation
—love to God and love to man. Although the joint production of a Methodist and an Episcopalian, it is
entirely free from sectarianism ; and, withal, it carries out to the letter the design of the author, viz : that of
producing a small, plain, simple work, so easy of comprehension that the youngest child might understand
it, and presented in such a way that the child might love it also.
13. —Lessons on the Parables o f the Saviour, f o r Sunday Schools and Families. 18mo., pp. 246. Bos­
ton : Crosby & Nichols. New York : C. S. Francis & Co.
The design of these lessons, in the form of dialogues, is to apply the practical teachings of our Saviour,
illustrated as they are with peculiar power in his parables, with all possible sympathy, to the hearts of the
young. The impressive lessons of purity, fidelity, self-control, truthfulness, justice, mercy, devotion, and
love, inculcated in the impressive and beautiful parables of Jesus, as illustrated in this work, are well cal­
culated to bring their sacred influence into the familiar sphere where children are daily living; into their
houses, their employments, and their pleasures.
14. —Hymns , Songs, and Fables, f o r Young People. By E liza L ee F ollen. 18mo., pp. 99. Boston :
William Crosby & Co.
The first edition of these poems was published in 1831; and from the preface to that edition, written by
the lamented Dr. Follen, we learn that the pleasure they gave in a limited circle tempted the writer to
print them. The edition just published has been enlarged by poems either not before printed, or that have
had a very limited circulation, and also by a number of translations from the German. The gay and the
grave are here blended together happily, illustrating the beautiful remark of Dr. Follen, that “ the smile
that overtakes its tears is as necessary to the child as the sun, after a spring shower, is necessary to the
young plant.”
15. —Critical and Miscellaneous Essays. By A lexander H. Eve rett . Second Series. 12mo., pp.
475. Boston : James Munroe & Co.
The present volume contains eleven critical and miscellaneous essays, which have appeared, from time to
time, either in the North American, Southern, or Democratic Reviews. The opening article, which occu­
pies nearly one hundred pages, is an interesting biographical sketch of the adventurous, romantic, and
varied life of Harro Harring, an exile now in this country, who lavished, without scruple, the whole wealth
of his time, talents, and affections, in earnest and persevering, though, perhaps, in some cases, unfortunate
efforts to establish, in other parts of the world, the political principles which form the basis of our free insti­
tutions. The other papers in this series are devoted to history, biography, philosophy, sculpture, and literary
criticism. Mr. Everett has been a careful student, and is probably one of the most accomplished scholars
that this country has produced ; and the papers comprised in this collection will not suffer by comparison
with some of the best production of the “ Modern British Essayists.”
16. —Shells from the Strand o f the Sea o f Genius. By Harriet Farley . First Series. 12mo., pp.
300. Boston : James Munroe & Co.
The fanciful name selected as the title for this collection, not inaptly indicates its character. It consists
of stories, essays, poems, and fancies, which display an agreeable versatility of style and sentiment. With­
out any extraordinary evidences of genius, the volume exhibits the talents of the author in a favorable
aspect; and the racy, agreeable tale, sketch, or poem, comprised in her “ Shells,” will afford far more
pleasure thaH many a more pretending volume.
17. —Remains o f the Rev. William Jackson, late Rector o f St. Paul's Church, Louisville, K y. W ith a
B r ie f Sketch o f his L ife and Character. By Rev. W illiam M. Jackson. 8vo., pp. 397. New York :
Stanford & Swords.
It is well remarked, by the author of this volume, that it is not incident or achievement, but character,
which imparts value to a biography. The former may impart an absorbing interest, and yet leave it utterly
worthless; and, on the other hand, character may be developed where there is nothing of the bold or the
amusing, the marvellous or the cbivalric, to embellish or enliven the narrative. The life of the faithful
pastor of a parish, like the subject of this memoir, is the character which the appreciating author attempts
, to delineate. Besides the interesting memoir, simple and brief, the volume contains selections from his
private correspondence, fifteen parochial discourses, and a collection of fragments from his writings, which
exhibit him in the light of a thoughtful, sincere, and devout minister of the Protestant Episcopal Church.
Mr. Jackson’s views of religion harmonize with that portion of the church to which he belonged, and de­
nominated, in the theological phraseology of the day, evangelical.
18 . —j\n Introduction to Smith and D uke's American Statistical Arithmetic. By Francis II. Smith,
A. M., &c., (see notice of Elemental Treatise on Analytical Geometry.) I2mo., pp. 93. Philadelphia :
Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co.
This little manual is particularly adapted to the increasing taste for statistical science, and is well calcu­
lated to prepare beginners for the study of the more advanced parts of it. Its order is natural, and its style
as simple as the subject will admit. It is, moreover, relieved of much of the superfluous matter which
works of this class usually possess.




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19. — The L ife o f William Alexander, E arl o f Stirling, M ajor-General in the Arm y o f the United
States during the Revolution, with Selections from his Correspondence. By his Grandson, W illiam
A lexander D uer, LL. D. Published for the New Jersey Historical Society. 8vo., pp. 272. New
York : Wiley & Putnam.
There are but few names in the course of our Revolution which were more distinguished than that of
Lord Stirling. His history, and the history of the events through which he passed, possess a peculiar
interest; for some of the most important scenes in the war were those in which Lord S. gained honor for
himself and for his country. The battles of Germantown and of Monmouth—of Long Island, where he
was taken prisoner, as also the many minor brilliant exploits planned and executed by him, all show how
much his heart was engaged in the cause of freedom. We have to regret exceedingly the loss of some of
the most valuable of Lord Stirling’s correspondence, especially that of General Washington ; but the selec­
tions which we have here possess an almost inestimable value. The neat manner in which the work is
published is highly creditable to the New Jersey Historical Society ; and we only hope that other works as
valuable may follow this, their second volume.
20. — The L ife o f Napoleon Bonaparte. By W illiam Hazlitt . In Six Parts. Nos. 87 to 92, of Library
of Choice Reading. New York : Wiley & Putnam.
All our works on the French Revolution take but one side of the question ; Hazlitt, apparently from a
conviction of right, has taken the opposite ground ;—not that, in defending Napoleon, he justifies every ex­
cess committed ; Robespierre, if living, would not do that; but he justifies everything he dares, and admit­
ting the blame of the rest, throws it all upon the coalition, who ought not to have reduced the French to
the necessity of massacring the suspected which filled their prisons. His views on these points are really
curious; and the way in which he points out the errors committed, seems to show a willingness to have
them repaired in some future attempt. It is the merit of this work that it stands alone, and supplies a de­
ficiency in history hitherto unfilled ; but “ the man of one book ” should rely upon another author than
Hazlitt for his opinion of the life and times of Napoleon.
21. —Probabilities: an Aid to Faith. By the author of “ Proverbial Philosophy.” 12mo., pp. 105.
New York: Wiley & Putnam.
Few there are of our readers, we imagine, who have not at some time been delighted with those thrill­
ing tales, “ The Twins and Heart ” and the “ Crock of Gold,” or who have not been instructed by a few
lines from that well of thoughts, “ The Proverbial Philosophy.” Tupper’s name has been so favorably
known to the public, that a natural curiosity arises with his desirers to learn what next of beauty, c f love,
and of kindness, he will communicate to them ; and in this little work we see with how much of care one
can reason with the sceptical, showing them that if they consider probabilities simply, then t he great doc­
trines of the existence of a God, etc., etc., might reasonably be expected. It is but a small work ; but in
its few pages, there is stored much truth—much food for thought. The style is somewhat Carlyleish.
22. — The Spaniards and their Country. By R ichard F ord, author of “ The Hand-Book of Spain.”
Nos. 94 and 95, of the Library of Choice Reading. New York : W il^ &. Putnam.
It is not till we take up a work like this of Mr. Ford’s, that we discoverhow much may be learned of a
people and their country in a book of travels. Not a page is wasted here in idle narrative, but it is all a
mass of facts, and we carry away from its perusal more vivid impressions than are often derived from far
more voluminous works. And yet, so far from wearying us, we part from him at last with regret, relieved,
however, by the satisfaction derived from the consciousness of time well spent. Let any one, who suspects
us of extravagance or partiality, take up the work and examine for himself, and before he is aware, he will
be carried away with it, nor will his interest flag to the last—such is the peculiar vivacity of Mr. Ford’s
style. We know of no one book which gives us so full, clear, and uccurate views of that remarkable coun­
try and its still more remarkable inhabitants.
23. —Chronicles o f the Cid ; fro m the Spanish. By R obert Southey . First American Edition. 8vo.,
pp. 486. Lowell: Daniel Bixby.
The Chronicles of the Cid is wholly a translation, says Mr. Southey ; but it is not the translation
of any single work, but comprises three, the first of which was printed in 1552. The translator omit­
ted such parts as relate to the general history of Spain, and incorporated with it whatever additional
circumstances, either of fact or costume, are contained in the Cronica General, or the Pocma del Cid.
The poem is to be considered as metrical history, not metrical romance. The writer, whose name
unfortunately has perished, is pronounced by Southey the Homer of Spain. The style of the translator*
resembles the Scriptural. It is a work that will interest the scholar and the antiquarian, and is, in
every respect, one of the finest specimens of typographical elegance that we have seen ; resembling
in its appearance the handsomest productions of the British press.
By W illiam H. R anlett. 4to., Nos. IV. and V. New York : W . H. Graham.
We have heretofore expressed our opinion of this valuable publication. No. IV. contains two views,
viz: a perspective view of the English cottage style, and a perspective view in the Grecian style;
and in No. V. we have the celebrated Tudor style, which arose in England under the auspices of
Henry VII. Each number has six plates, from handsome drawings on stone, in the first style of
tinted lithography; and at the close of the number we find complete specifications and directions for
building, and full estimates of the quantity of materials and labor required in their erection.
24 — The Architect.




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431

85 .—A n Analysis o f the Principles o f Equity Pleading, containing a Compendium o f the Practice o f

the High Court o f Chancery and the Foundation o f its Rules ; together with an Illustration o f the

Analogy between Pleadings at Common Law and in Equity. By D. G. L ube, Esq., of Lincoln’s Inn,
Barrister at Law. Second American, from the last London Edition, with Notes and References to Ame­
rican Cases. By J. D. W heeler, Esq., Counsellor at Law. New York : Banks, Gould & Co.
This work is a republication of the English edition, embracing the important topics of pleading and
practice in equity, with notes and references to American cases. The American editor, in his preface,
states “ that those subjects are admirably condensed within the limits of this small volume; and yet they
are so full in detail, that nothing of importance is omitted.” The volume, itself, is compiled in a very
condensed form ; and, from the importance of the subject of equity jurisprudence in the various States
of the Union, and the seeming value of the work, we doubt not that it will be favorably received by the
legal profession.
26. —L ives o f Edward Preble and William Penn. 12mo., pp. 408. Boston: Charles C. Little and
James Brown.
This volume constitutes the twelfth number of the second series of the American Biography, conducted
by Mr. Jared Sparks. The first sketch is the life of Edward Preble, by Lorenzo Sabine. Its subject was
a prominent naval commander, originally from the State of Maine, and a commodore in the navy of the
United States. From this well-compiled biographical sketch, it would appear that he maintained a high
reputation during a long and active life, and performed signal services for his country. The life of William
Penn, by George E. Ellis, exhibits the prominent facts connected with the career of the distinguished
founder of Pennsylvania. The author has collected, from the abundant materials within his reach, the
circumstances connected with this eminent individual, and has exhibited them in a clear and condensed
form. We would here commend this valuable series of American Biography, as exhibiting authentic and
judiciously compiled sketches of distinguished Americans, which may be consulted with equal pleasure
and profit.

27. —Memoirs and Correspondence o f Jane Taylor. By I saac T aylor, author of the “ Natural History
of Enthusiasm,” “ Fouchism,” etc. 18mo., pp. 274. New York : Carter’s Cabinet Library.
The name of Jane Taylor has been associated with some of our earliest intellectual pleasures, if not
with our first impressions of virtue and piety. Her writings have instructed the young, while they have
afforded the purest, because most intellectual, delight. This little volume embraces a simple and appro
priate memoir of her life, together with much of her private correspondence. Written by one who knew
her intimately, it undoubtedly furnishes a correct delineation of her genius and her virtues.
— Correspondence between a Mother and her D aughter at School. By Mrs. T aylor and Jane T aylor.
18mo. New York : Robert Carter.
For the purpose of conveying instruction to young people at school, the method of letters from a mother
was adopted, as the most natural and convenient, and as most likely to engage the attention of those for
whose use the volume is designed. The letters should be read by every boarding-school miss in the country.

28.

— The W ychliffitcs; or, England in the Fifteenth Century. By Mrs. Colonel Mackay, authoress of
the “ Family at Heatherdale,” etc., etc. 12mo., pp. 429. New York : Robert Carter.
This story, founded on historical data, of a secular as well as religious character, does not treat of Wyckliffe’s personal history, nor of the times in which he lived. Its design is to illustrate the tenets he taught,
and to exhibit the influence they continued to exert over a succeeding generation; and with this view Mrs.
Mackay has blended them with a historical narrative of the fifteenth century. The Wyckliffites had not
only to endure reproach as heretics, and to risk the dangers that attended it;—they had also to bear their
part in the troubles of their country, both in public and private life: and, although it brings to light no new
facts, but simply revives the old, it presents them in a new and more attractive form.

29.

30. —Physiology, Animal and M en tal: applied to the Preservation and Restoration o f Health o f Body,
and Power o f Mind. By O. S. F o w l e r , Practical Phrenologist, Editor of “ The American Phrenolo­
gical Journal,” “ Education and Self-Improvement,” etc. 12mo., pp. 312. New York: Fowler & Wells.
The moral tendency of Mr. Fowler’s works, without, so far as we have seen, a single exception, is deci­
dedly beneficial. Although not an elegant or finished writer, Mr. Fowler understands the art of enforcing
truth with an eloquence and power quite irresistible. Phrenology is the key with which he unlocks the
mysteries of human nature ; and, with its principles as a guide, studies humanity in all its relations. In
the present treatise, he shows that power of mind depends on vigor of body; and that the moral virtues
are influenced—almost controlled.—by physiological conditions. We should be glad, oue limits admitting,
to present an outline of the contents of this work; but must be content with merely commending it to our
readers as well calculated to teach us how to “ restore and enhance the blessings of health and life—and,
above all, to promote moral excellence and intellectual progression.”
31. —Encyclopwdia o f English Literature, &rc. Edited by R obert Chambers. Boston: Gould, Ken­
dall & Lincoln.
We expressed our opinion as to the value of this work in the March number of this Magazine. We have
since received two additional numbers, (ni. and IV.,) which only tend to enhance our estimate of its ex­
cellence. It is a library in itself, embracing a practical history of English literature from the earliest to the
present time.




43 i

The Book Trade,

32. —A Universal G azetteer; containing Statistical and Other Information o f all the more Important
Places in the Known W orld, fro m the most Recent and Authentic Sources. By T h o m a s B a l d w in , as­
sisted by several other Gentlemen. Third Edition. With an Appendix, containing more than Ten
Thousand Additional Names. Accompanied by a Map, exhibiting the Canals and Railroads of the United
States. l2mo., pp. G48. Philadelphia: Lindsay & Blackstone.
The distinguishing feature of this Gazetteer is, that it furnishes a uniform standard of pronouncing the
names of cities, towns, &c. Heretofore, very little attention has been paid Jo geographical orthoepy; and
this is, we believe, the first attempt to furnish a correct standard. The condensed form in which the infor­
mation touching the most prominent or considerable places in the world is presented, is a feature that will
enhance its value to most persons, who, in general reading, find it necessary to consult a Gazetteer. To
the student of geography, it would seem to be indispensable.
33.

— The Book o f Travels in A frica, fro m the Earliest A g es to the Present Time. Compiled from the
best authorities. By J oh n F r o s t , LL. D., author of the “ Book of the Navy,” “ Book of the Army,”
etc., etc. 12mo., pp. 252. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
This book, like the former compilations of Dr. Frost, is designed for popular reading;—rather for the
million than the student. It imparts a general view of the progress of discovery in Africa, connected with
particular travels and adventures of the most conspicuous of the several enterprising men who have explored
the interior of that vast and almost unknown continent. The numerous embellishments, scattered over its
pages, are from sketches by Major Denham, and render the work interesting and useful to the reader, and
at the same time more effectually impress on the mind a knowledge of the general subject.

34.

—A Complete K ey to Mitchell's School Geography, containing Full Answers to all the Questions on
the Maps, etc. By J a m e s E. C a r r o l . 12mo., pp. 455. Philadelphia: Thomas, Cowperthwnit& Co.

Although intended chiefly for the aid of teachers, this work may be consulted with advantage by private
students of geography, and also by parents giving instruction to their children at home. Besides full answers
to all the questions on Mitchell’s maps, it contains much additional information, derived from the most
recent and authentic sources; besides a great amount of statistical information, which will render it valuable
as a cheap and convenient book of reference.
35.

— Twenty-Six Years o f the L ife o f an Actor and M an ager: interspersed with Sketches, Anecdotes ,
and Opinions o f the Professional M erits o f the most Celebrated Actors and Actresses o f our day. By

k m y s s . 2 vols., 12mo., pp. 402. New York : Burgess, Stringer & Co.
The life of an actor is generally rich in incidents, and there are few so grave as not to be more or
less interested in the anecdotes of the green-room. Mr. Wemyss, in the present volume, has some­
thing to say of nearly all the European actors who have appeared upon the stage during the last
twenty years. Booth, Edmund Kean, Forrest, Macready, James Wallack, Anderson, Charles Kean,
Cooper, Hamblin, Conway, Keene, the Woods, A*. A. Adams, Hill, Madame Vestris, Lydia Kelly,
Celeste, Fanny Kemble, Mrs. Austen, Mrs. Knight, Ellen Tree, and Fanny Elssler, all figure promi­
nently in the work. The criticisms are not always just, but there is an air of truthfulness in the nar­
rative that inspires the reader with confidence in its general fidelity.

F r a n c is C o u r t n e y W

36.

—Valentine M'ClyXchy, the Irish A g en t; or, Chronicles o f the Castle Cumber Property. By W i l ­
l ia m C a r l e t o n , author of “ Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry,” “ Fardorougha, the Miser,”
“ Jane Sinclair,” etc. 12mo., pp. 408. New York: D. &. J. Sadlier.
This novel has been pronounced the most powerful production of its author. It was written to
exhibit a useftil moral lesson—to startle the hard-hearted landlord and flagitious agent into a percep­
tion of their duty. It exhibits, in bold relief, the two great curses of Ireland—bad landlords and bad
agents; and it shows the negligent and reckless absentee how those from whose toils and struggles he
derives his support are oppressed, and fleeced, and trampled on in his name. The narrative of the
story, a truthful picture of Irish life, is well sustained.

37. — The Judson Offering, intended as a Token o f Christian Sympathy with the L iv in g , and a Me­
mento o f Christian Affection f o r the Dead. Edited by J oh n D o w l in g , D . D ., author of “ History of
Romanism,” etc., etc. 18mo., pp. 294. New York : Lewis Colby & Co.
The recent visit of the venerated pioneer of American missions to the East, the Rev. Dr. Judson,
suggested the idea of preparing the present volume. It consists of a variety of sketches, narratives,
and poems, from different pens, all bearing on the subject of missions, and connected more or less
with the design of the book. The editor has aimed to avoid everything of a controversial character,
and thus endeavored to render it an acceptable offering to the friends of missions, without distinction
of denomination. The selections are made with taste and judgment, and possess a fair share of lit­
erary excellence.
38. — Tremayne's Table o f Post-Offices : containing an Alphabetical L is t o f Post-Offices through the
United States ; Distances from Washington, I ). C., and State and Territorial Capitals, respectively.
A lso exhibiting the Post-Offices in each State, as well as County. With an Appendix o f the United
States and B ritish Tariffs. 12mo., pp. 321. Philadelphia : Thomas, Cowperthwait & Co.

The contents of this work are explained in the title. It contains, besides, however, the Post-Office Law,
and all the regulations of that Department of interest to the public. Its value to publishers, merchants, and
indeed all who have occasion to correspond with different sections of our extensive territory, is sufficiently
apparent.