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THE

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE,
E s ta b lis h e d J u l y , I S 3 9 ,

BY FREEMAN HUNT, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR.

CONTENTS OF. NO. IV, VOL. X.
ARTICLES.
ART.

PAGE.

I. The Other Rights of Sovereignty over the Danish Sound and Belts. Trans,
lated from the Danish of Schlegel, for this Magazine. By Hon. G eorge P.
M arsh, Member of Congress from Vermont,.................................................... 303
II. Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania,............................................................. 308
III. Our Commercial Intercourse with Porto Rico,...................................... .......... 827
IV. Commerce o f the Bermudas,................................................................................ 332
V. Maritime Law, No. 4 : Bottomry Bonds. By A lanson N ash, of New York, 337
VI. Statistics of the United States. By P. T., of Washington,......................... 351
VII. Commercial Reciprocity. By C. C. H aven, of New York,......................... 354
VIII. Proposed Modification o f the Tariff—Synapsis o f General M ’Kay's Bill,... 359
IX. Tobacco Agency o f the United States in Europe,........................................ 364

MONTHLY C O MME R C I A L

C HRONI C L E,

EMBRACING A FINANCIAL AND COMMERCIAL REVIEW OF THE UNITED STATES, ETC., ILLUSTRATED
W IT H TABLES, AS FOLLOWS t

Cotton, Stocks, and Exports, from September 1 to March 1, in 1843 and 1844,.......
A yitports and Exports of the Port of New York, from January 1 to March 1, in 1843
' - I l f 1844,.......................................................................................................................
Table of Duties of leading articles in present and proposed Tariff,...........................
Cotton— Imports of American Cotton into Trieste, from 1815 to 1842,....................
fb^orts and Imports o f Specie and Bullion, from 1821 to 1843,................................

W

aj

ME R C A N T I L E

369
371
373
375
375

L AW D E P A R T M E N T .

.Mercantile Law Cases: Bankruptcy— Proof of Debt,.................................................
Freight— Stowage of Goods,............................................................................................
Whaling Voyage— Seamen’s Wages,.............................................................................
Insurance: Verbal Evidence Inadmissible—Promissory Notes,...................................

377
378
379
379

COMMERCIAL REGULATIONS.
Colonial Tariff of Newfoundland,...........................................................,.....................
Merchandise admitted at Gonaives,St. Domingo, dutyfree,........................................
Grains imported in Russia free—Customs at the Cape of Good Hope,.....................
Bermuda Tariff of Duties on Imports and Exports,.....................................................
V O L . X . -----N O. I V .




26

380
381
381
335

302

Table o f Contents.
PAGE.

RAI LROAD AND STEAMBOAT STATI STI CS.
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad, in 1843 and 1844,..................... 381
Condition of the Railroads in Massachusetts in the year 1843,.................................. 382
Atlantic Steam Navigation, between New York and Liverpool, for 1844,............... 383

MERCANTI LE

MI SCELLANI ES.

The Merchant, by Cornelius Matthews,........................................................................
Coinage of Copper in China,..........................................................................................
A Benevolent Quaker Merchant,...................................................................................
Commercial Prosperity of Singapore,.............................................................................
Wooden Ware imported to England,............................................................................

COMME RC I AL

383
383
384
384
384

STATI STI CS.

Imports of Whale and Sperm Oil into the United States, for 1843............................
Imports of Sperm and Whale Oil into the United States, from 1838 to 1843,.........
Exports o f Sperm, Whale, and other Fish Oils, etc., from 1837 to 1843,.................
Statistics of the Sag Harbor Whale Fishery,....................................................... 386,
Prices of Sperm and Whale Oil, and Whalebone, in the United States, from 1838
to 1842, inclusive,.........................................................................................................
Estimate of Ships and Oil to come into the United States in 1844,...........................
French and Spanish Trade: Exports and Imports in 1841 and 1842,.......................
British Excise Duties—Exports of Port Wine from Oporto,.......................................
Debts of Insolvent Hong Merchants,.............................................................................
Foreign Commerce of Pennsylvania, from 1791 to 1842.............................................
Aggregate Exports from Pennsylvania to Foreign Countries, for 5 years,.................
Aggregate Exports from the United States, for same period,.......................................
Value of Exports and Imports at Philadelphia, in 1842,..............................................
Coastwise Arrivals at Philadelphia, from 1787 to 1842,..............................................
Enrolled and Licensed Tonnage of Pennsylvania, from 1789 to 1841,.....................
Statistics of Porto Rico Commerce, from 1838 to 1842,........................... 329, 330,
Exports, Imports, and Navigation of the Bermudas, in 1842 and 1843,.......... 334,
Consumption of Tobacco in Great Britain and Ireland, from 1801 to 1841,.............
Tobacco Exported from the United States to England, from 1831 to 1842,.............

385
385
385
387
387
388
388
389
389
316
320
320
321
325
326
331
335
368
368

THE BOOR TRADE.
Trego’s Geography of Pennsylvania— Manual of Classical Literature,.....................
Burns and Clarinda Correspondence— Magendi’s Human Physiology,............. 390,
Stone’s Border Wars— Locke and Bacon’s Essays—Harper’s Pictorial Bible,..........
Smith & Stowe’s Psalmist—Lowell’s Poems— Beethoven Collection of M usic,.....
Garrison’s Poems— Bernard Barton’s Poems,.................................................................
Marsh’s Remains— Taylor's Episcopacy—Ellis’s (Mrs.) Mothers of England,.........
Adventures of Daniel Boon— Moore’s Lalla Rookh,...................................................
Blydenburgh’s Law of Usury— Martin’s Education of Mothers,................................
De Foe’s Robinson Crusoe— Miller’s Letters to his Son at College,..........................
Strauss’s Leo— Edwards’ First Lessons in Geometry,...................................................
Evans’ Christian Sects—Barwell’s (Mrs.) Infant Treatment,.......................................
Books for Children— Following of Christ— Sacred Harp,...........................................
Law’s Spirit of Prayer—Combination, a Tale,.................................................... 395,
Charlotte Elizabeth’s Wrongs of Woman,....................................................................
List of Books in pamphlet form, published since our last,..........................................




390
391
391
392
392
393
393
394
394
394
395
395
396
396
396

H U N T ’S

MERCHANTS’ MAGAZINE.
AP RIL,

A rt.

1844.

I.— THE OTHER RIGHTS OF SOVEREIGNTY OVER THE DANISH
SOUND AND BELTS.

TH E O TH E R R IG H T S

OF SO V E R E IG N T Y O VE R T IIE

SOUND A N D B E L T S , A P ­

P E R T A IN IN G TO T H E CRO W N OF D E N M A R K .
V a r i o u s prerogatives, which were formerly conceived to flow from the
sovereignty o f the Danish kings over the three sounds, Oeresund and the
two belts, have in later times been in part renounced, and in part modi­
fied. Among these, is the before-mentioned right of denying the passage
of these waters to the vessels o f any nation, even o f those at peace with
Denmark. This authority was anciently recognized to that extent, that
after the death o f Frederick I., the Hanse Towns applied for the exclu­
sive right o f passage, and particularly asked that it should be refused to
the Dutch, their rivals in the trade o f the Baltic. The Spaniards, also,
admitted the same right, by negotiating with Christian IV ., both in 1605
and 1640, for the exclusion o f the Dutch from passage, Spain offering to
indemnify the king for the loss o f revenue which would thus accrue. It
was upon the ground o f this supposed authority, that the king sometimes
denied to foreign nations the liberty o f passing through the belts, and re­
quired them to take the route o f the sound, and sometimes conceded this
license as a matter o f special favor.
When our kings were considered as possessing the right o f preventing
altogether passage through the sound and belts, they would, a fortiori,
conceive themselves authorized to forbid the transportation o f particular
wares through the same channels. W e know, for example, that Chris­
tian IV ., and perhaps, also, Frederick II., forbade the transportation o f
munitions o f war through the sound, xvithout special license previously
granted, on application o f the power interested. Even the Swedes, who
were disposed to question the right, yielded the point, and by the Union
convention o f 1624, it was stipulated, that this right might be exercised,
as it formerly had been, and when, in 1641 and 1642, the Swedish gov­




304

Other Rights o f Sovereignty over the Sound and Belts,

ernment demanded the free transportation o f guns and other munitions o f
war, the Danes appealed to this convention. The Dutch, on the other
hand, who thought themselves more illiberally treated than other foreign
nations, fruitlessly complained o f this prohibition, at the instigation of the
Spaniards, especially after saltpetre, in which they carried on an impor­
tant trade, was burdened in the year 1637 by a toll o f fourteen rix dollars,
currency, per barrel, the king considering this trade as an evasion o f the
prohibition on gunpowder. In the before-mentioned treaty o f 1641, with
England, (which, however, was not ratified by that power,) the king ex­
pressly reserved to himself, by the 13th article, the right o f raising or re­
ducing at pleasure the rate o f toll on guns and munitions o f war passing
the sound, but engaged, that such articles belonging to the crown o f Eng­
land should be allowed to pass toll free, on due proof.
By the treaty o f Bromsebro, o f 1645, with Sweden, the Swedes were
expressly allowed to transport munitions o f war through the sound and
belts. The treaty of Christianople, with Holland, o f the same date, pro­
vides that all merchandise, without exception, may pass, unless the prop­
erty o f the king’s enemies, in which case it was to be regarded as con­
traband of war. Other treaties have been concluded in conformity here­
with, and the right o f prohibiting the transportation o f munitions of war
through the sound, may now be considered as abandoned.
In like manner, the kings o f Denmark formerly claimed the right of
preventing the passage of ships with armed troops, and ships o f war,
through these waters. Upon this ground, Christian IV ., in 1621, refused
to the Polish government the liberty o f transporting, through the sound,
the troops which that power had enlisted in England. By the treaty of
Bromsebro, the king o f Sweden was allowed to transport soldiers through
the sound, but not a greater number than 1,200 men at a time, and even
then, a previous notice o f three weeks was required. The same pro­
visions were incorporated in the peace o f Copenhagen, in 1660.
In regard to the passage o f ships of war, it was stipulated by the treaty
o f Bromsebro, that not more than five Swedish men o f war should pass
the sound at once ; and that, if a larger fleet desired to pass, three weeks
previous notice should be given. This article is also repeated in the
treaty o f Copenhagen. In the treaties with Great Britain, Holland, and
France, the number o f men o f war allowed to pass the Danish channels,
without previous notice, is limited to six.
These provisions were made chiefly with a view to secure, as far as
possible, the Danish territory against unexpected attacks, but experience
has shown that they are by no means sufficient for this purpose.
In virtue o f the same sovereignty over the channels, the kings o f Den­
mark haVe assumed the right o f requiring the delivery o f such merchan­
dise as the government might select out o f the cargo, at a reasonable
price, the amount o f which was deducted from the toll. This right was
principally exercised in regard to wine and salt.
'Christian IV. extended this right o f pre-emption still further, and
claimed the power o f taking the whole cargo, at the price at which the
captain estimated it in his toll manifest. This has been styled the pre­
rogative right, and its principal purpose xvas the prevention o f frauds on
the toll; but as its exercise gave occasion to many complaints, it has been
seldom or never enforced since the conclusion o f the treaty of Christian­
ople.




Appertaining to the Crown o f Denmark.

305

The right of seizing and detaining vessels navigating the sound or belts,
for the purpose o f employing them in war, was constantly practised in
ancient times, because merchant vessels were generally armed, or so
built, that they could readily be transformed into men of war, according
to the system o f naval construction then used.
Thus Hvitfeld relates, that King John took into his service, to be em­
ployed in the war with Lubeck, according to the ancient usage o f the
realm, several o f the two hundred Dutch ships, which, in the year 1541,
were collected in the sound. Christian II. exercised the same right over
neutral ships passing the sound, when he was engaged in enforcing his
claims to the throne o f Sweden. By way o f partial compensation for
this compulsory service, he gave to some o f the captains money, and to
others a perpetual or temporary right o f passing the sound toll free.
Christian III. repeatedly exercised the same right in the Counts’ war, es­
pecially in regard to English and Dutch ships. The treaty o f Speier, in
1544, recognised this prerogative o f the Danish crown, by stipulating
that the king should thereafter exercise it only in case o f necessity. At
a somewhat earlier period, (1508,) King John had renounced it in favor
o f the Hanse Towns.
Men o f war have in general free passage through the sound, and are
exempt from payment o f toll, unless they are used for mercantile purposes,
in which case the exemption o f course ceases.
Ships o f war are required to fire a full salute, on passing Kronborg
castle, and are saluted in return. Single men o f war are also obliged to
lower the main topsail in passing, either by the provisions o f particular
treaties, or according to established usage. But in the treaty o f 27th
May, 1660, with Sweden, it was provided, that Swedish men o f war,
whether one or more in number, on passing the sound, should salute
Kronborg castle with a Swedish salute, and be complimented by the for­
tress with a Danish salute in return. By the treaty with Russia, 30th
October and 10th November, 1731, it was stipulated, that neither striking
of flag or streamer, nor lowering o f topsail, should be demanded o f men
of war, and that salutes should be returned gun for gun. By article 8,
of the same treaty, merchant ships are required to lower topsails, and if
this be omitted through the negligence o f the captain, he is not to be de­
tained, but punished in an exemplary manner by his own government,
upon due proof o f the fact.
Merchant vessels, in general, are obliged to pay the same honors to
the fortress, and keep the sails lowered for at least five minutes, on ap.
proaching the castle from either direction. The topgallant-sails are re­
quired to be lowered, in case o f vessels carrying such sails; in vessels
carrying only a single topgallant, both that and the fore topsail; but if
they carry no topgallant, then both topsails lowered to half mast; vessels
with a single topsail, lower the topsail; those without topsails, or close
reefed, are not compelled to strike sail. In rough weather or heavy sea,
vessels passing are dispensed from showing these honors by a signal from
the fortress or guardship.
If a ship omits to pay the proper honors, she is reminded o f them by a
shot, first ahead, then astern, and then amidships. In this case, the master, or in his stead, the pilot and two o f the crew, are required to go
ashore, and render an excuse for the omission to lower sail at the right
time, and in the regular manner, and the facts stated by way o f excuse
26*




306

Other Rights o f Sovereignty over the Sound and Belts,

or apology must be attested upon oath. I f a satisfactory excuse is duly
sworn to, the party is exempted from payment o f the mulct o f three rix
dollars, currency, for each gun, but if none such is rendered, the money
must be paid. I f the vessel escapes, and the ship or captain is detected,
a fine is exacted of the party who obtained the clearance.
Denmark is the most ancient maritime power in the Baltic. Sweden
first took rank as a maritime nation, under the Vasa dynasty, and Russia
became a naval power only after the conquest o f Ingermania, Livonia,
and Esthonia, from Sweden, in the last century. Although there are
several states on the Baltic, which drive a considerable trade by sea, the
three before-mentioned powers have exclusive admiralty jurisdiction in
these waters. The Danish kings, in particular, have jealously guarded
against the assumption o f the right o f maintaining an armed naval force
in this sea. When the Emperor Frederick II. conceived the plan o f or­
ganizing a navy, by the occupation o f Mecklenburg and the aid o f the
Hanse Towns, he met the most determined resistance from Christian IV.
And as King Frederick II., o f Denmark, had seized and carried into Co­
penhagen, in the year 1570, four Dantzic men o f war, fitted out by order
o f Sigismund Augustus, king o f Poland, because he would not suffer the
erection of an admiralty jurisdiction in the Baltic, by any other power, in
like manner, Christian IV . would not allow King Uladislaus, in 1638, to
impose new duties at Dantzic or Pillau, and enforce their collection hy
armed ships, and accordingly these ships were taken by Danish men of
war, sent out for that purpose, at the close o f that year. The ships, in­
deed, were released at the prayer o f Uladislaus, but the duty was discon­
tinued, and the Polish navy disappeared after the exchange o f a few di­
plomatic broadsides upon the sovereignty o f the Baltic. Upon similar
grounds, the king o f Denmark repeatedly attempted to prevent the erec­
tion o f a fortress by the Swedes at Barnemund, and the collection o f new
duties, but to no purpose, as he did not think it expedient to resort to force.
At a later period, the electoral prince o f Brandenburg, Frederick W il­
liam, meditated the establishment o f a naval force in the Baltic. But
the intimate relations then existing between the courts o f Denmark and
Brandenburg, did not prevent Christian V. from zealously opposing this
scheme, both in 1685 and the years following, and in this he was sup­
ported by Sweden, so that the plan was defeated.
The three great Baltic powers, in order to obviate disputes about mari­
time jurisdiction, salutes between ships, or ships and fortresses, have mi­
nutely regulated all these matters. The treaty concluded with Russia,
on the 30th October and the 10th November, 1731, stipulates, that off the
the coast of Jutland to the W eser, and through the Rattegat to the Baltic,
as far as beyond Bornholm and within sight o f that island, as also off the
coasts of Zealand, Moen, Falster, Laaland, and Femern, as far as the
river Trave, which divides Holstein from the territory o f Mecklenburg,
the Russians shall first salute the Danes, and in like manner, on passing
Danish fortresses, castles, or marine batteries, or upon anchoring in sight
o f them. It is, however, provided, that no salutes shall be fired by either
party between the Trave and Bornholm on the west, and the coasts of
Livonia and Esthonia, and the Gulf o f Finland, on the east.
Although Denmark no longer enjoys her ancient exclusive sovereignty
over the Baltic, she has a decided advantage over the other Baltic pow­
ers, in the possession o f the key o f that sea.




Appertaining to the Crown o f Denmark.

307

The Danish government has, however, always considered itself bound
to keep the Baltic clear, not only from pirates, but from privateers, and
has, therefore, sometimes even furnished foreign navigators with a con­
voy of men of war. There are examples o f this, from the remotest an­
tiquity. It was especially the duty o f the Jarl o f the islands, (Eidana
Jarl,) to watch over the security o f this sea, and the zeal o f King Saint
Canute, in clearing the Baltic o f robbers, was widely celebrated. Chris­
tian I. would not tolerate the privateering which the Swedish King Erick,
of Pomerania, persisted in authorizing from Gothland, and it was princi­
pally for the purpose o f checking this, that the possession o f that island
was so important to Christian. King John detained merchant ships in
Oeresund, until he could provide a convoy of men o f war to their destined
ports, for their protection against the privateers o f Lubeck. When Sev.
erin Norbye, in the name o f Christian II., practised privateering, he was
restrained principally by the exertions o f the Danish government. Fred­
erick II. labored with the greatest zeal for the security o f Oeresund, both
in regard to the obstacles interposed by the Swedes to the trade to Narva,
and the visits o f freebooters to the Baltic. No king was more solicitous
for the prevention o f such disorders than Christian IV. During the
thirty years’ war, he constantly maintained a naval force, for the sole pur­
pose o f protecting the navigation o f the Baltic, and succeeded to that de.
gree, that navigation was prosecuted with the same security during this
war, as in the midst o f peace.
Since the division o f the sovereignty o f the Baltic, the kings o f Denmark have continued to be equally solicitous for the preservation o f the
peace o f this sea, and on the other hand, they have sometimes availed
themselves o f their sovereignty over the sound to give weight to their de­
mands, that the neutral mercantile rights o f Denmark should not be in­
vaded, in European naval warfare. Frederick III. seized English ships,
by way o f reprisals for insult, and it was by the same means, that Chris­
tian V. procured indemnity to his subjects from the Dutch, who had taken
many Danish vessels bound to French ports.
The labors o f Frederick VII., for the protection o f complete security
o f trade in the Baltic, are in fresh remembrance. In the proclamation
o f this monarch, in 1780, during the North American war, it is declared,
“ that as the Baltic was unquestionably, by its situation and configuration,
a close sea, his majesty could not allow the armed ships o f the belligerent
parties access to the Baltic, for hostile purposes; that the two other north,
era courts acceded to the same system, which was the more just and natu.
ral, inasmuch as all the powers bordering on the Baltic were in the en.
joyment o f full peace.” This was followed by the answer o f the French
minister o f state, De Vergennes, dated Versailles, 25th May, 1780, in
it is said, “ that his most Christian majesty, who had already manifested
his great respect for the sovereignty o f the Baltic powers, now that they
had adopted the neutral system, would regard the Baltic as constituted a
close sea, by the common consent o f those powers, (S. M. avait regarde
cette mercomme fermee de l’aveu de ces Souverains,) and would, accord­
ingly, order that no French ship should commit acts o f hostility within
the sound.” In the convention concluded between Denmark and Russia
at Copenhagen, 9th July, 1780, to which Sweden acceded on the 21st
July and 1st August, o f the same year, and in the convention between
Sweden and Russia, which was immediately approved by special pro­




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

308

clamation on the part o f Denmark, the same motives are assigned for the
joint action o f the powers in arming for the protection o f the freedom of
commerce in the Baltic, and their determination not to suffer it to be dis­
turbed, by armed ships or privateers o f the contending parties. This
declaration being supported by a considerable fleet o f the three naval
powers, its end was completely attained.
During the wars occasioned by the French revolution, another convention was concluded between Denmark and Sweden, on the 27th March,
1793, for the protection o f their commerce. It is herein set forth that
as the Baltic ought to be regarded as a close sea, and inaccessible to other
belligerent powers, the same was anew declared a mare clausum by the
contracting parties, who had resolved to maintain therein the most per­
fect tranquillity.* Although Russia, for political reasons, was not a party
to this convention, a check was steadily put upon the capture o f neutral
vessels, then so numerous in the Baltic.
The controlling power acquired by the British flag in the course o f the
war, after 1807, indeed disabled Denmark from protecting the freedom of
commerce in these waters, as she had anciently done, but could by no
means deprive her o f her lawful right so to do.

A rt.

II.— TRADE AND COMMERCE OF PENNSYLVANIA.

C o m m e r c e is usually considered under two heads, the foreign and home
trades; but inasmuch as Pennsylvania is one o f a confederacy o f states,
each exercising almost unlimited sovereignty within its own borders, and
yet all, in their relation to foreign states, to be considered as a unit, the
subject may more properly be presented in three divisions ; first, the
foreign trade, or interchange o f commodities with foreign nations;
secondly, the domestic trade, o f interchange with the other states
of the union ; and thirdly, the internal trade, or that between different
sections o f the state.
THE

FO R E IG N TR A D E .j^

O f the early history of the foreign trade of Pennsylvania, we have but
little authentic information. W e have every reason, however, to believe
that its extent was very limited, until after the establishment o f Penn’s
colony in 1682.
Prior to Penn’s embarkation for America, he disposed o f 20,000 acres
o f land to an association, entitled the Free Society o f Traders o f Pennsyl­
vania, which was formed in England and confirmed by patent, for the
avowed purpose o f promoting the interests, not only o f the stockholders of
the company, but o f all concerned in the trade o f the colony. This com­
pany attempted to establish various manufactures and other industrial pursuits in the province. In a letter from Penn to the committee o f the so.
ciety, residing in London, dated “ Philadelphia 16th o f 6th mo., called Au­
* La Baltique devant toujours 6tre regardee eomnie une mer ferm^e et inaccessible a
des vaisseaux armes des parties en guerre eloignees, est encore declare telle de nouveau
par lea parties contractantes, ddciddes a en preserver la tranquilitd la plus parfaite.
t As the British North American colonies were entirely independent of each other
until after the severance of their connexion with the mother country, the trade of Penn­
sylvania with the others, prior to 1776, is properly included in the foreign trade.




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

309

gust,” we find mention made o f a tannery, a saw mill, and a glass house,
a whalery, and a dock, as belonging to i t ; and also that Penn advised
them to attempt the culture o f the vine for wine, and the manufacture o f
linen. These attempts to introduce the culture o f the vine, the manufac­
ture o f glass, and linen, and the whale fishery, amongst the colonists, did
not prove successful; o f the further operations o f the company we know
little or nothing.
In the first year o f the establishment o f the colony, twenty-six ’ships ar­
rived with passengers and emigrants, and forty trading vessels great and
small. These latter were, no doubt, laden with provisions, furniture, and
stores o f various kinds for the colonists, and took little if any export cargo.
In the next two years, twenty-four more ships arrived with emigrants.
For the first few years the attention o f the settlers was, necessarily, very
much engrossed by the clearing o f land, and the culture o f grain, for the
consumption o f the colon y; but “ trade and commerce, in which the Qua­
kers were known to excel,” soon claimed their notice. A trade was open­
ed with the Indians, for furs and skins; and the culture o f tobacco was
carried on so extensively that in one year, (1688-9,) there were exported
fourteen cargoes o f the weed. In this branch o f agriculture, however,
Virginia and Maryland were found too powerful rivals ; and it was soon
abandoned for the culture o f wheat, barley, oats, rye, & c., and the graz­
ing o f cattle and cutting o f timber : the exports o f the province undergoing
a corresponding change.
The war between England and France, commencing in 1688 and terminating in 1697, operated injuriously on the interests o f the colony.
About the latter end o f this period we find allusion made to the poverty o f
the province, and to the impediments to its commerce, consequent upon
the war ; and it is stated that “ in Philadelphia even, pieces o f tin and lead
were current for small change.”
The course o f trade, from this early period until the separation o f the
province from the British empire, appears to have undergone but little
change, although extended in its range. The exports, consisting of grain,
salt provisions, pipe staves, & c., and at a later date, including flour,
bread, flaxseed, iron, & c., were not wanted in England, at that time
a great grain-exporting country; but found a market in the neigh­
boring provinces and the West Indies ; and subsequently also in Portugal,
Spain, several European and African ports in the Mediterranean, and the
various groups o f islands in the North Atlantic adjacent to Africa. The
returns from these various branches o f foreign trade, excepting a small
portion required for the consumption of the province and its trade with the
Indians, were all carried to England; or the produce received was sold
in other foreign countries and the proceeds remitted to England, where
all the available funds o f the province were required to pay for the manu­
factures imported thence, which, from the restrictions imposed by parlia­
ment on manufacturing in the colonies, were to a very great amount, em­
bracing almost every article o f clothing, and household utensils even o f
the most simple and common kinds.
The following table exhibits the vast excess o f imports over exports, in
the trade o f the province with Great Britain, from 1697 to the commence­
ment of the war of Independence, and also shows the effect o f war and
other operative causes, on the amount of importations.
During the war between Great Britain on the one part, and France and




310

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

Spain on the other, which continued from 1702 to 1713, the commerce of
the province was exposed to repeated depredations by privateers. In
1707-8, the captures o f vessels off the capes o f the Delaware were so
frequent as almost wholly to interrupt the trade, which had in addition,
about this period, to bear the exaction o f dues for the privilege o f navigating the Delaware, levied by order o f Governor Evans, at a fort erect­
ed at N ew Castle.
The war between Great Britain and Spain, in 1717 and T8, does not
appear to have materially affected the colony.
The year 1722 was one o f great commercial embarrassment in the pro­
vince. The importations appear to have been too great, the country was
drained o f specie for remittance to England, and there was consequently
a deficiency in the circulating medium. The payment o f debts was pro­
crastinated, lawsuits multiplied, produce was made a legal tender in pay­
ment o f debts, executions for debt were stayed, the rate of interest was
reduced from 8 to 6 per cent, and the value o f coin was raised 25 per
cent. These measures naturally tended to destroy confidence in the re­
sults o f all trading operations; but did not, as was intended, prevent the
exportation o f specie.
T rade

Year.

of

P ennsylvania with G reat B ritain , from 1697
Exports to
Imports.
G. Britain.
Year.
£ sterling.
£ sterling.

*1697,..
1698..
.
1699..
.
1700..
.
1701..
.
i ri702,„
a 1703,..
1704..
.
1705..
.
.
u. 1706..
1707..
.
1708..
.
V
C3 1709..
.
5:
1710, .
1711..
.
1712.. .
L1713,..
1714..
.
1715..
.
. 1716,..
m. t 1717,..
8 \ 1718,..
w 1719,..
1720..
.
1721..
.
1722.. .
41723,..
1724..
.
1725..
.
1726..
.
1727..
.
1728..
.

3,347
2,720
1,477
4,608
5,220
4,145
5,160
2,430
1,309
4,210
786

2,120
617
1,277
38
1,471
178
2,663
5,461
5,193
4,499
5,588
6,564
7,928
8,037
6,882
8,332
4,057
11,981
5,960
12,823
15,230

2,997
10,704
17,064
18,529
12,003
9,342
9,899
11,819
7,206
11.037
14,365
6,722
5,881
8,594
19,408
8,464
17.037
14,927
16,182
21,842
22,505
22,716
27,068
24,531
21,548
26,397
15,992
30,324
42,209
37,634
31,979
37,478

1729..
1730..
1731..
1732..
1733..
1734..
1735..
1736..
1737..
1738..
1739..
®
f
„ j 1740,..
*1 1741,..
H [1742,..
' 1743,..
1744..
1745..
1746..
1747..
§ 11748,..
1749..
1750..
1751..
1752..
1753..
1754..
1755..
1756..
1757..
1758..
1759..
1760..

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

to

1776,

inclusive.

Exports to
G. Britain.
£ sterling.

7,434
10,582
12.786
8,524
14,776
20,217
21,919
20.786
15,198
11,918
8,134
15,048
17,158
8,527
9,596
7,446
10,130
15,779
3,832
12,363
14,944
28,191
23,870
29,978
38,527
30,649
32,336
20,095
14,190
21,383
22,404
22,754

Imports.
£ sterling.

29,799
48,592
44,260
41.698
40,565
54,392
48,804
61,513
11,918
61,450
54,452
56,751
91,010
75,295
79,340
62,214
54,280
73.699
82,404
75,330
238,637
217,713
190,917

201,666
245,644
244,647
144,456
200,169
168,426
260,953
498,161
707,998

* Peace established this year between England and France.
+ First issue of government bills of credit in the province, to supply deficiency of currency occasioned by too large importations.




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.
T kade

fa
*
CQ
8
fa

of

P ennsylvania

w ith

G keat B ritain

Exports to
G. Britain.
£ sterling.

Year.

1761,.......
39,170
1762,.......
38,091
1763,.......
38,228
1764........
36,258
1765,.......
25,148
1766........
26,851
1767,
..................
37,641
1768,
..................
59,406

fkom

1697

311

1776, inclusive— Continued.

to

Imports.
£ sterling.

Year.

Exports to
G. Britain.
£ sterling.

204,067
206,199
284,152
435,191
363,368
327,314
371,830
432,107

*1769,.......
1770,.......
1771,.......
1772,.......
1773,.......
1774,.......
g S 1775,.......
& l 1776,.......

26,111
28,109
31,615
29,133
36,652
69,611
175,962
1,421

Imports.
£ sterling.

199,909
134,881
728,744
507,909
426,448
625,652
1,366
365

T o remedy the evil, in the latter part o f this year a scheme for a paper
currency was first laid before the Assembly o f Pennsylvania; and in
March following, after much controversy, a law was enacted for the issue
of £15,000 currency, in bills o f credit o f from Is. to £ 1 in value, to be
loaned in sums o f from £ 1 2 to £100, at an interest o f 5 per cent per an­
num, on pledge o f real estate, ground rents or plate, o f double the value o f
the advance ; said bills to be a legal tender. In the latter part o f the
same year a further issue o f £30,000 was authorized. By this timely re­
lief, and doubtless still more by the increase o f industry and economy in­
duced by the recent hard times, the commerce o f the province was soon
revived.
The effect produced may be observed, by reference to the amounts o f
imports and exports, as well as by the examination o f the annexed state­
ment o f the commerce o f the province and tonnage built during these
years.
Years.

1719,
1720,
1721,
1722,
1723,
1724,
1725,

Vessels built.

.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....
.....

...
...
...
10
13
19
...

Tonnage.

428
507
959

Vessels cleared.

128
140
I ll
96
99
119
140

Tonnage.

4,514
3,982
3,711
3,531
3,942
5,450
6,665

At various subsequent periods, in 1729, ’39, ’45 and ’46, acts were
passed for creating or re-emitting bills o f credit. In 1748, when the
amount outstanding was £85,000 currency, or £53,333 sterling, a bill to
increase the issues was brought before the Assembly; but was postponed
on account o f an attempt, at that time being made in parliament, to re­
strain all the American colonies from issuing bills o f credit as a circulat­
ing medium. In the bill which passed parliament in 1751, prohibiting
the northern colonies from creating or re-issuing bills o f credit, except on
extraordinary occasions, Pennsylvania was not included ; her bills having
remained at par or nearly so, while those o f Massachusetts, owing to ex­
cessive issues, had depreciated to less than one-seventh their original
value. Encouraged by this favor shown them, the Assembly in 1752
prepared a bill for a fresh issue o f £40,000. Franklin, who was chair­
man of the committee to which the matter was referred, stated in a very
forcible and lucid manner the advantages which had accrued to the pro­
vince, and which might still be anticipated, from a moderate issue o f pa­
per currency ; the measure, however, being in opposition to the wishes*
* Non-importation agreements were adopted in this year at most o f the ports in the
British North American colonies.




312

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

o f the proprietaries, did not meet with the approval o f the governor, hut
led to long and angry discussions between him and the Assembly. No
further issues were made until the war with the French on the western
frontiers, in 1755, rendered them absolutely necessary. In 1730 the im­
ports were to a very large amount, and, probably to assist in liquidating
claims on account o f a portion o f these, an insolvent law was passed.
The exportation o f the staples o f the province about this period was as
follow s:—
Years.

1729,
1730,
1731,

.....
.....
.....

Bush, wheat.

Bbls. flour.

Casks bread.

Val. o f wheat, flour,
bread, and flaxseed.
£ currency.

74,800
38,643
53,320

35,438
38,570
56,639

9,730
9,622
12,436

62,473
57,500
62,582

In this latter year the population o f Philadelphia was estimated at 12,000.
The commerce o f the province annually employed about 6,000 tons of
shipping ; and about 2,000 tons were annually sold in foreign ports, prin­
cipally West Indian.
The commerce o f the province from March 25, 1735, to March 25,
1736, was as follows :—
Arrivals. Clearances.
London,...............
Bristol, Eng.,.......
Liverpool.............
Ireland,...............
Gibraltar,.............
Lisbon,.................
Cadiz,...................
Madeira,..............
Turk’s island,......
Antigua,..............
Barbadoes,...........
Jamaica,..............
Carried up,.

u

10

9
2
14
1
6
6
3
20
19
9

3
0
23
6
13
2
5
0
20
26
16

Brought up,.........
St. Christopher’s,.
Newfoundland,....
Boston,.................
Rhode Island,......
New York,..........
Maryland,............
Virginia,...............
North Carolina,...
South Carolina,...
Georgia,...............
Not specified.......

107

124

Total,.............

7

Arrivals. Clearances.
107
124
9
9
3
1
17
10
8
7
4
2
7
13
5
2
7
5
1
15
1
2
30
22
199

212

O f the arrivals, 51 were ships, 13 snows, 44 brigs, and the remainder
smaller vessels.
Hostilities between Great Britain and Spain were recommenced in
1739; and in the following year the enemy kept several privateers off
the American coast, which cruised successfully against the colonial com­
merce. In 1743 war was declared between Great Britain and France.
In 1746, the enemy, finding the Delaware unprotected, made many cap­
tures, ascending the river as high as New Castle, and even threatening
Philadelphia. In May, 1748, the city was again thrown into a state of
great alarm, and batteries were erected for its defence, owing to the ap­
pearance o f a Spanish privateer in the bay. T o retaliate in some mea­
sure upon the enemy, two privateers, the Wilmington and the Delaware,
were fitted out and sent on a cruise.
The restoration o f peace in 1749 gave a powerful impulse to commerce.
The imports from Great Britain in this one year were nearly equal in
amount to those o f any three consecutive years preceding. The values
o f exports o f wheat, flour, bread and flaxseed were as follows :— in 1749,
£148,104 currency; in 1750, £155,175, and in 1751, £187,457; and
the number o f vessels cleared from 1749 to 1752, averaged annually 403 ;
the population o f Philadelphia being estimated at 15,000. This activity




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

313

in trade continued, despite the refusal o f the governor to increase the pa­
per currency, until the difficulties with the French and Indians on the
western frontier, in 1755.
On the 4th March, 1753, the schooner Argo, Captain Swaine, was des­
patched by the merchants o f Philadelphia, in search o f a northwest pas­
sage to India. Touching in N ew England, he entered Hudson’s straits
and came in sight o f the island o f Resolution. Vast quantities o f driving
ice forced him out o f the straits, into which having in vain attempted to
re-enter, and the season for discovery on the west side o f the bay being
over, he shaped his course for the coast o f Labrador, along which he sailed
from 56° to 65° north latitude, discovering six inlets, to the heads o f all
which he sailed and prepared charts o f them. The vessel returned in
safety to Philadelphia, whence she was again despatched on a similar
voyage, under the command o f the same captain, in 1754. From this
voyage, Captain Swaine returned, without success, in October o f the same
year, having had three o f his crew killed by the Indians. The merchants
of the city expressed general satisfaction with Captain Swaine’s proceed­
ings, and made him a handsome present. These we believe to have been
the earliest voyages o f discovery made by any o f the North American
colonists.
During the continuance o f the seven years’ war (which was commenced
by a collision between the English and French troops on the western
frontier o f Pennsylvania, in 1755, although war was not declared until
the following year) the commerce o f the province suffered severely; the
value o f imports from Great Britain varying from £144,456 sterling in
1755, to £707,998 sterling in 1760. This latter sum, it is probable, from
its vast amount, included military stores. Serious losses were occasioned
to the mercantile community by the provincial government prohibiting
the exportation o f provisions and military stores to French ports, in 1756
and ’7.
The restoration o f peace with France and Spain, in 1763, removed
many restrictions from commerce ; but found the province burthened with
a heavy debt, incurred in carrying on the war, her people impoverished,
her merchants largely indebted to those o f the mother country for goods
imported, and trade generally depressed.
The continuance o f difficulties with the Indians on the western frontier,
after the restoration o f peace with France, for some time kept the pro­
vince in a state o f excitement, (the boldness o f the incursions alarming
even the Philadelphians,) and tended to increase the embarrassment o f
trade.
The efiect o f these disturbing influences had not passed away when the
British parliament, in 1764, commenced a course o f injustice and oppres­
sion towards the North American colonies, which at length forced them
into open rebellion, and resulted in their independence. With a fixed
determination to resist the collection o f all taxes imposed without their
consent, the colonists met the repeated attempts o f the home government
to force these odious measures upon them, by non-consuming and non­
importation agreements, and at length by open resistance. Our limits
preclude more than a passing notice o f these exciting events, which, how­
ever, are detailed in every history o f the American revolution. The in­
fluence o f the non-importation agreements on commerce may be seen by
contrasting the value o f imports from Great Britain in 1769, (£199,909
v o n . x .— x o . i v .




27

314

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

sterling) when these agreements were generally adopted throughout the
rebellious colonies, with that o f the imports in 1771 (£728,744 sterling,)
when the non-importation restrictions were removed, save in reference to
tea.
The following view o f the trade o f the province, given by Franklin in
1766, during his examination before the British House of Commons, in
reference -to the repeal of the stamp act, shows it to have been so com­
pletely tributary to that o f Great Britain, as to leave little cause for regret
at the separation o f the two governments, which shortly followed. The
imports from Great Britain into the province, he says, are computed at
more than £500,000 sterling, annually, and the exports to Great Britain
at only £40,000 sterling, the balance being paid by the produce o f the
province carried to the British, French, Spanish, Danish and Dutch West
India Islands; to New England, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Carolina
and G eorgia; and to different parts o f Europe, as Spain, Portugal and
Italy; for which either money, bills o f exchange or other commodities,
suitable for a remittance to England, are received. These, together with
the profits o f the merchants and mariners, as well as the freights earned
in their circuitous voyages, all finally centre in Great Britain, to pay for
British manufactures used in the province, or sold to foreigners by the
American traders.
Notwithstanding the measures o f the home government, calculated, if
not intended to injure the province, her resources were rapidly de­
veloped ; and commerce, despite the many vexatious restrictions imposed,
prospered, until stopped by a state o f open warfare. W e append a state­
ment o f the commerce in the years 1 771-2-3 : the exports in the years
1774-5 being to a still greater amount.
V alu e

of

E xpo rts.

Years.

X sterling.

..
1771,
1772,
..
1773, ...........

631,554
784,254
720,135

C lea r an ce s.

Sq. rigged vessels. FSCps and schrs.

361
370
426

391
390
370

Total tonnage.

46,654
46,841
46,972

From 1776 until 1783 Pennsylvania had little or no foreign trade ; her
merchants, however, were not idle ; but amongst the foremost in patrioti­
cally sustaining the struggle for independence, by their example, their
money and their personal services.
The first bank established in the United States was opened at Philadel­
phia, July 17, 1780, under the title o f the Bank o f Pennsylvania, with a
capital o f £300,000 currency ; the especial object o f its creation being to
supply the army with provisions. This bank, we believe, continued in
existence until the Bank o f North America went into operation, January
7, 1782. The latter was the only bank in Pennsylvania, until the United
States Bank commenced business in 1791.
With the restoration o f peace in 1783, commerce was resumed ; but
much remained to be done in order to place it in a prosperous condition. •
Abroad, new relations had to be formed with countries whose sovereigns,
with the return o f peace, were disposed to pursue their old protective poli­
cy for the benefit o f their own trade and commerce, and who looked with
an evil eye upon our democratic institutions. At home, matters o f still
greater moment called for regulation : a currency deranged ; public and
private credit almost prostrate ; tariffs various in the different states, and
conflicting and fluctuating in a manner ruinous to trade and demoralizing




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

315

to the community, by the temptation offered for smuggling:— these were
some o f the main depressing evils under which commerce labored, and
which had yet to be removed ere it could prosper. The imports o f manu­
factured goods, shortly after the return o f peace, it is true, were to a large
amount; (that is, from Great Britain in 1783, £ 2 4 5 ,2 5 8 ; in 1784,
£68 9,491;) but this was no evidence o f returning prosperity; on the con­
trary it tended still further to embarrass, as the indebtedness incurred was
far beyond the means o f payment.
These difficulties continued throughout the United States without ma­
terial abatement, until, by the adoption o f the federal constitution, in 1789,
the thirteen republics unitedly placed themselves among the great powers
of the earth. This compact not only increased the physical force o f the
republic, but, by the abolition o f all transit duties between the states o f
the Union, and the prohibition o f preference o f any kind to the ports of
one state over those o f another, in the laws regulating commerce or reve­
nue, it produced friendly feelings and a community o f interests, in the dif­
ferent sections o f the Union, where before had existed jealousy and bitter
rivalry. Commercial relations were now entered into with the principal
European nations, trade and commerce revived, the resources o f the
country were rapidly developed, and by the establishment o f the bank o f
the United States, in 1791, a currency universally accredited was furnished.
In the improved condition o f the Union above noted, Pennsylvania fully
participated.
A new era now opened to the commerce o f the United States, in which
the wars occasioned by the French revolution exerted a most powerful in­
fluence. By reference to the following table o f imports, exports, duties,
drawbacks, tonnage, and arrivals, from 1791 to 1841 inclusive, the effect
produced on the foreign trade, by causes to which we shall allude, may be
noted.
In 1792 France commenced her wars with the other European powers,
and excepting an interval o f peace o f about fourteen months, in 1802—3,
continued them without intermission until the abdication o f Napoleon in
1814. On the return o f the emperor in 1815, hostilities were renewed,
and finally terminated in this year.
The vast numbers, in Europe, diverted from agricultural and other in­
dustrial pursuits by these wars, created a large market for the produce o f
Pennsylvania ; while the immense naval armaments o f the combatants, in
all parts o f the oceSn, rendering it necessary to employ neutral ships to
carry the produce o f the French, Spanish, and Dutch colonies to the pa­
rent states, gave profitable employment to a large amount o f her tonnage.
Nor did her merchants rest satisfied with acting merely as carriers ; they
embarked in the trade on their own account, and also imported largely
from China and India, for re-exportation to European markets ; that is,
in 1806, there arrived at Philadelphia from Canton 12 ships and 1 brig,
of an aggregate tonnage o f 4,226 tons— all with very valuable cargoes.
Large fortunes were rapidly made ; and many persons, before engaged in
other employments, were induced to turn merchants. The commerce o f
the United States prospered to a degree unprecedented in the history o f
any nation, and in this prosperity Philadelphia, through which passed the
whole foreign trade o f the state, shared largely; her population increas­
ing from 42,000 in 1790 to upwards o f 96,000 in 1810.
Shortly after the declaration o f hostilities between France and E ng­




316

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

land, these two nations commenced issuing decrees and orders in council,
and laying embargoes, o f a most unjust and arbitrary character, for the
avowed purpose o f restricting the trade o f neutrals with the enemy. Nor
were the two great maritime powers o f Europe alone in these restrictive
measures; but by their influence or commands, Spain and other European
governments followed in their footsteps.
In 1764 a treaty was concluded with England, by which she engaged
to pay $16,000,000 to the United States, as a compensation for property
illegally taken, under her orders in council.
In 1798, in consequence o f the arbitrary measures o f the French gov­
ernment, commercial relations between the United States and that nation
were suspended, and partial hostilities followed, but no declaration o f war
ensued. These difficulties were settled by treaty in 1800.

Y cars.

1791,
1792,
1793,
1794,
1795,
1796,
1797,
1798,
1799,
1800,
1801,
1802,
1803,
1804,
1805,
1806,
1807,
1808,
1809,
1810,
1811,
1812,
1813,
1814,
1815,
1816,
1817,
1818,
1819,
1820,
1821,
1822,
1823,
1824,
1825,
1826,
1827,
1828,
1829,
1830,
1831,

F oreisn C ommerce of P ennsylvania , from 1791 to 1841,
E xports .
Duties on
For. pro­
Dom. pro­
for. mer­
duce or
duce or
chandise
manufac­
manufac­
I mports.
imported.
ture.
Total.
tureDollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.
Dollars.

.......i

.........
.........
.........

4,021,214 3,504,496
4,178,713 6,851,444
4,365.240 9,397,012
3,765,313 13,809,389
4,809,616 12,055,128
1,066,527 2,946,803
4,238,358 4,810,883
4,751,634 6,241,764
5,694,447 3,865,670
4,660,457 1,313,293
3,249,623
327,494

3,436,093
3,820,662
6,958,836
6,643,092
11,518,260
17,513,866
11,446,291
8,915,463
12,431,967
11,949,679
17,438,193
12,677,475
7,525,710
11,030,157
13,762,252
17,574,702
16,864,744
4,013,330
9,049,241
10,993,398
9,560,117
5,973,750
3,577,117

......

3,569,551 1,024,368 4,593,919
4,486,329 2,709,917 7,196,246
____ _
5,538,003 3,197,589 8,735,592
5,045,901 3,713,501 8,759,402
2,919,679 3,374,109 6,293,788
2,948,879 2,794,670 5,743,549
2,832,387 4,559,380 7,391,767 8,158,922
3,575,147 5,472,655 9,047,802 11,874,170
3,139,809 6,477.383 9,617,192 13,696,770
3,182,694 6,182,199 9,364,893 11,865,531
3,936,133 7,333,848 11,269,981 15,041,797
3,158,711 5,173,011 8,331,722 13,551,779
3,391,296 4,184,537 7,575,833 11,212,935
3,116,001 2,935,479 6,051,480 12,884,408
2,617,152 1,472,783 4.089,935 10,100,152
2,924,452 1,367,341 4,291,793 8,702,122
3,594,302 1,919,411 5,513,713 12,124,083




1.475,428
1,138,863
1,926,337
2,000,091
3,053,109
3,646,271
2,907,894
2,086,714
2,224,313
3,181,101
3,702,898
2,727,365
2.240,715
3,507,038
3,652,387
5,100,657
5,197,806
2,599,673
2,318,699
3,332,377
2,364,635
2,474,990
503,593
277,757
7,199,699
6,285,455
4,307,790
4,540,360
3,848,630
2,703,402
2,719,996
3,648,745
3,991,687
4,311,926
5,270,030
5,183,724
4,188,915
5,082,344
3,574,818
3,542,977
4,372,533

inclusive.

Drawbacks
on for. mer­
chandise
Registered
re-exp’ ted. tonnage.
Dollars.
Tons.

8,976
37,753
102,659
502,447
752.550
1,586,065
1,086,839
1,018,127
955,264
1,785,109
1,540,701
1,297,662
561,041
872,238
1,319,869
2,052,551
2,012,543
928,568
894,984
879,527
510,328
378,936
185,821
3,227
95,806
746,636
702,819
788,574
570,274
555,703
474,394
310,956
612,037
939,322
998,778
1,251,405
1,053,105
802,474
708,970
516,311
326,607

53,898
65,212
60,925
67,895
83,624
90,569
88,401
85,477
90,944
95,632
109,036
64,637
67,629
71,199
77,239
86,728
93,993
94,659
106,622
109,629
78,518
71,281
64,537
64,183
77,199
77,731
80,513
58,201
59,626
59,458
59,296
61,237
61,409
62,771
65,590
63,443
61,700
66,840
50,235
47,979
51,294

317

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.
F oreign C ommerce

op

P ennsylvania ,

from

1791

to

1841,

inclusive—

E xports.

Years.

Dom. produce or
manufacture.
Dollars.

For. produce or
manufacture.
Dollars■

1832,
1833,
1834,
1835,
1836,
1837,
1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,
1842,

2,008,991
2,671,300
2,031,803
2,416,099
2,627,651
2,565,712
2,481,543
4,148,211
5,736,456
4,404,863
3,293,841

1,507,075
1,407,651
1,957,943
1,323,176
1,343,904
1,275,887
995,608
1,151,204
1,083,689
747,638
476,913

Total.
Dollars.

I m ports.

3,516,066
4,078,951
3,989,746
3,739,275
3,971,555
3,841,599
3,477,151
5,299,415
6,820,145
5,152,501
3,770,727

10,678,358
10,451,250
10,479,268
12,389,937
15,068,233
11,680,111
9,360,371
15,050,715
8,464,882
10,346,698
7,385,858

Dollars.

Duties on
for. merchandise imported.
Dollars.

3,501,397
2,985,278
2,111,837
2,506,281
3,192,007

Continued.

Drawbacks
on for. merchandise re- Regist’d
exported. tonnage.
Dollars.

Tons.

402,972
697,927
295,870
101,812
134,473

45,956
49,022
51,441
51,588
51,035
39,056
42,266
48,569
52,268
47,380

The peace o f Amiens, in 1802, restoring quiet to Europe, materially
reduced the exports of Pennsylvania; but by the resumption o f hostilities,
in the following year, a fresh impetus was given to her commerce, which
was only stayed by the embargo, to which we shall presently refer.
The continental system, Napoleon’s favorite scheme for crushing the
power o f his great enemy, by prohibiting the importation o f British pro­
duce and manufactures on the continent, was commenced by the issue o f
his celebrated Berlin decree, on November 21, 1806, declaring the Bri­
tish islands in a state o f blockade, and prohibiting all commerce and cor­
respondence with them. In retaliation, his Britannic majesty in council
published three orders, bearing date November 11, 1807, (other orders
previously issued not proving effective,) by which, in addition to restric­
tions too numerous and complex to admit o f specification here, all neutral
vessels trading with France or her allies, were ordered, on pain o f con­
demnation, to stop at a British port, submit their cargoes to inspection,
and pay a duty on the same.
The Milan decree, dated December 17, 1807, was issued by Napoleon
as a rejoinder to the obnoxious orders in council, and declared that any
vessel which had submitted to search by an English ship, or to a voyage
to England for that object, or had paid any tax whatsoever to the Eng­
lish government, should be deemed denationalized, and a good and lawful
prize.
On the 22d December, 1807, the United States government, prior to
the receipt o f the three orders in council, but with advices which satisfied
them that measures o f such a character were about being taken by the
British government, laid an embargo on all vessels in the ports and har­
bors o f the United States. This measure, unpopular as it was with the
mercantile community, and deeply injurious to their interests, appeared to
be the only alternative left the government, unless disposed to engage in
a war. The great falling off in the exports o f Pennsylvania, in 1808,
and the consequent depreciation in the value o f ships, was severely felt
in Philadelphia, at that time the greatest commercial city o f the Union.
The long embargo, as it is usually denominated, was raised March 1,
1800, and on May 20th of the same year, non-intercourse was established
with England and France. Great efforts were made, by the United
States government, to induce the British and French governments to re.
peal their unjust orders and decrees. An arrangement o f this character
27*




313

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

was effected with the British minister at Washington, and, in consequence,
trade was resumed with England, June 10,1809 ; but the British govern­
ment refusing to confirm the act o f its agent, non-intercourse with that
country was again established. Napoleon had long endeavored and hoped
to drive the Americans into a war with England. The opening o f the
trade with that country, while non-intercourse existed with France, was,
therefore, a source o f great vexation to him ; he, however, dissembled his
anger until the ports o f his European allies were well filled with Ameri­
can shipping, when, in the month o f March, 1810, by his Rambouillet
decree, he ordered them to be seized. In this way vessels and goods, to
the amount o f many millions o f dollars, were confiscated almost without
the pretence o f justice.
The laws directing non-intercourse with England and France, were
repealed by the United States in May, 1810, and a law enacted admitting
to her ports the commercial vessels o f those nations ; but excluding their
armed ships, and providing that if either o f the above nations should
modify its edicts before the 3d March, 1811, so that they should cease to
violate neutral commerce, o f which fact the president was to give notice
by proclamation, and the other nation should not, within three months
after, pursue a like course, commercial intercourse with the first might be
renewed, but not with the other.
Napoleon was shortly after induced to give a promise o f rather doubtfid im port; but which was construed, by the United States government,
to be an engagement to repeal his Berlin and Milan decrees, provided the
British government would withdraw their retaliatory orders in council.
This the British government declined doing, on the ground that Napo­
leon’s promise was not what the Americans chose to consider it.
Non-intercourse with Great Britain was again resumed by the United
States government, November 10, 1810, and, after several engagements
between the armed vessels o f the two nations, war was declared June 19,
1812, four days after which the orders in council were repealed. The
right o f searching American vessels for British born subjects, and o f re­
claiming them wherever found, which was asserted by the enemy, may
be considered the main ground for the continuance o f hostilities.
During the war, the commerce o f Pennsylvania was limited in its extent,
and, in addition to the enemy abroad, had to contend with an evil at home,
almost as disastrous in its effects, viz : a deranged currency. With the ex­
piration o f the charter o f the United States Bank, in 1811, a mania arose
for the creation o f banks, under the influence o f which forty-one, with an ag­
gregate capital o f $17,000,000, were chartered by Pennsylvania, in 1814 ;
thirty-seven o f these going into operation. In the autumn of this year, a
general suspension o f specie payments, by all the banks south and west
o f the New England states, followed. The issues o f their irredeemable
paper were increased, and on July 1,1816, the paper o f the Philadelphia
banks was at a depreciation o f 17 to 18 per cen t; while that of the
banks at Pittsburgh and the western part o f the state was at 25 per cent
discount. That this undue expansion o f the currency exerted a powerful
influence on commerce, can scarcely be doubted. T o this cause, in some
degree at least, may be attributed the vast amount o f imports into the
United States, in 1815-16 ; paying a handsome profit to the early opera­
tors, but entailing heavy losses and bankruptcy upon a much larger
number.




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

319

The second Bank o f the United States commenced operations January
7, 1817 ; and in February entered into a compact with the state banks
along the seaboard, in accordance with which they immediately resumed
specie payments. Efficient measures for a contraction o f the paper cur­
rency to a sound state do not appear, however, to have been taken until
1819; when the distress consequent upon this course o f action was se­
verely felt, not only by commercial men, but by the community o f Penn­
sylvania generally. Upon the history o f the contractions and expansions
of the currency, from this last named period until the present tirne, which
have exerted a most potent influence, not only upon the commerce o f this
state but on that o f the world, our limits preclude us from entering.
On the restoration o f peace, in 1815, the foreign trade o f Pennsylvania
had to seek new channels. The great European powers, being now at
peace, turned their attention to the encouragement and protection o f their
own commerce and navigation. The carrying trade between colonies
and their parent states, which had given employment to so much Penn­
sylvania tonnage, was now, o f course, confined to vessels o f the nation
owning the colonies ; and in the case o f the British West India islands,
the direct trade between the United States and them, was laid under such
restrictions as to confine it almost exclusively to British ships as carriers.
The commercial regulations established by foreign governments since
this period have exerted a powerful influence on the foreign trade o f the
state, by laying such heavy duties on her exports as to limit or prohibit
their consumption; but a mere allusion to the various operations o f these
would far exceed our limits.
Another source o f injury to the foreign trade, has been the frequent
change in the tariffs laid by the United States government; and probably
the detriment to the commercial and manufacturing interests, arising from
this frequent fluctuation, may be considered as greater than that produced
by the imposition o f a high protective duty on the one hand, or a low duty,
levied merely to defray the expenses o f government, without regard to the
protection o f American manufactures, on the other.
The tariff o f 1816, levied duties, avowedly for the purpose o f protecting
American manufactures. In 1818 and in 1824, changes were made les­
sening these rates. In 1828, the duties on articles constituting the prin­
cipal manufactures o f the Union were increased; in 1832, again reduced;
but were still so obnoxious to one o f the states o f the confederacy, as to
induce her to threaten to nullify the acts o f the general government. In
the following year, the famous compromise act was passed, gradually re­
ducing the rates o f the high protective duties to a minimum rate in 1842.
In 1841, the duties were increased; in 1842, the finances o f the general
government rendered a further increase necessary, and, ere another year
rolls past, it seems likely that some further alteration will add its weight
to the argument, that the commercial policy o f the United States is cease­
less change.
Among tire causes influencing the foreign trade we must now allude to
one more local in its character than those above noted. Shortly after
the restoration o f peace, in 1815, the attention o f many intelligent minds
was directed to the improvement o f the means o f internal communication
with the great lakes and. the valley o f the Mississippi. The state o f New
York, by the completion o f the Erie canal, in 1825, was the first state o f
the Union to carry out these schemes, and to reap her reward from the




320

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

vast increase o f her trade with the west. Pennsylvania shortly after em­
barked in a similar enterprise, and Maryland was not slow to follow in
her footsteps. Massachusetts, more recently, has put in her claim for a
share o f the trade with the west. Since the cost o f transportation from
an Atlantic port to a place o f consumption in the west is as essentially a
part o f the cost o f the merchandise to the consumer as its original cost on
the seaboard, it is a truth self-evident, that no commercial emporium, depending for its prosperity upon such trade, can continue long to thrive,
after a rival city has opened with the country whose trade is sought, a
communication by means o f which the cost o f transportation is materially
reduced. This simple truth it was that led to the construction o f the
various lines o f internal improvements, connecting Philadelphia, Balti­
more, and Boston with the west.
That Pennsylvania and Philadelphia have not derived nearly so great
a benefit in their trade with the west, from the construction o f these in­
ternal improvements, as has accrued to the state and city o f N ew York,
we apprehend no one will doubt; nor, unless the cost o f transportation on
the Pennsylvania works can be put at an equally low rate with that on
those o f the neighboring states, can it be doubted, that Philadelphia must
take her rank amongst the great manufacturing, rather than the commer­
cial cities o f the Union.
In concluding this historical sketch o f the foreign trade of Pennsylvania,
we append a tabular statement exhibiting its condition, along with that of
the foreign trade o f the United States, as shown by the exports at three
several periods : first, for five years previous to the long embargo ; second­
ly, for five years subsequent to the late w a r ; and thirdly, for five years
from 1837 to 1841.
A ggregate E xports

5 years.
1803 to 1807,
1816 to 1820,
1837 to 1841,

Domestic.
$21,140,096
20,938,791
19,336,785

from

P en nsylvania

Foreign.
$45,617,469
15,789,786
5,254,026

A ggregate E xports

5 years.
1803 to 1807,
1816 to 1820,
1837 to 18417

Domestic.
$216,013,759
399,610,311
515,410,482

to'F oreign

Total.
$66,757,565
36,728,577
24,590,811

from the

Foreign.
$222,931,482
93,097,033
85,461,675

C ountries.

Est. pop. Est. pop.
Year.
of Phila.. of Penn.
1805
78,000 700,000
1818 105,000 1,000,000
1839 222,000 1,684,000

U nited S tates.

Total.
$438,945,241
402,707,344
600,872,157

Year.
1805
1818
1839

Est. pop. of
U. States.
6,200,000
9,100,000
16,600,000

By the above statements it appears that the exports o f the produce of
the United States from Pennsylvania were less in the last than in either
o f the former periods, while the exports o f domestic goods from the Uni­
ted States have been steadily and rapidly increasing. In the re-exporta­
tion o f foreign goods the falling off is much greater.
The subjoined statement o f exports and imports at Philadelphia,
(through which passes the whole foreign trade o f the state, excepting a
very small trade at Presque Isle,) for the fiscal year 1842, shows a still
further decline.
V alue

of

E xports

and

I mports

at

P hiladelphia

for the y ear ending

S ept . 30, 1842.

Exports.

Countries.
1. British West Indies...........
2 England, ...........................
3. Spanish West Indies............




<Dom. produce or
>manufacture.

For. produce or
manufacture.

Total.

$567,483
397,297
358,055

$2,345
30,727
60,996

$569,828
428,024
419,051

321

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.
V alue

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.

of

E xports

and

Countries.
Brazil,...................................
British Am. colonies,..........
Buenos Ayres,.....................
Colombian ports,..................
Danish West Indies,...........
Hanse Tow ns,....................
Br. and Dutch East Indies,.
Sicily,...................................
Chili.......................................
Hayti,...................................
Italy,,.....................................
Swedish West Indies,.........
Gibraltar,...............................
Holland,................................
Africa,..................................
Trieste and Adriatic,.........
France on Atlantic...............
Texas,...................................
French West Indies,............
Mexico,................................
Teneriffe and Canaries,......
Total,...............................

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

Countries.
England,..........................
Spanish West Indies,....
Brazil,.............................
Colombian ports,...........
Hanse Towns,...............
Buenos Avres,...............
Spain on Mediterranean,
Hayti,..............................
France on Atlantic,.......
Danish West Indies,__
Italy,..............»................
British Am. colonies,__
Holland,..........................
British West Indies,.......

I mports

at

P hiladelphia , etc.—Continued.

Exports— Continued.
Dom. produce or
manufacture.
$307,451
378,134
199,219
162,888
168,689
121,773
123,485
109,108
100.001
67,400
16,851
59,749
35,971
23,692
44,792
2,514
17,820
12.994
9,150
7,037
2,261
$3,293,814

For. produce or
manufacture.
$100,968
520
41,784
25,671
10,464
35,319
399
10,827
13,754
4,893
'
44,803
1,621
24,860
27,291
2,696
30,628
1,760
222
1,374
2.991
$476,913

Imports.
Countries.
Value.
$3,521,170
15. Chili,......
970,903 16. Br. and Dutch E. Indies,
724,735 17. Mexico,.
483,946 18. Sicily,....
380,486 19. Teneriffe and Canaries,.
272,017 20. Azores,..
134,922 21. Ireland,..
107,777 22. Swedish West Indies,...
87,976 23. Africa,...
83,882 24. Portugal,
82,109 25. Gibraltar
82,028
80,106
Total,.
79,780

Total.
$408,419
378,654
241,003
188,559
179,153
157,092
123,884
119,935
113,755
72,293
61,654
61,370
60,831
50,983
47,488
33,142
19,580
13,216
10,524
10,028
2,261
$3,770,727
Value.
$71,600
55,338
51,089
43,521
22,649
17,230
8,926
8,696
5,735
5,061
106
$7,381,788

Our limits preclude the specification o f the articles forming the princi­
pal items o f export and import to and from the several countries named.
O f domestic exports, flour manufactured in Pennsylvania, Delaware, and
Ohio, forms by far the largest item. Corn meal, wheat, and corn, from
the two first named states, are also exported largely. Tobacco, cotton,
pork, lard, naval stores, rice, bark, & c., from the western and southern
states; fish, oil, sperm candles, cotton manufactures, & c., from the New
England states; manufactures o f iron, refined sugar, soap and candles,
manufactured tobacco, furniture and various other manufactures o f Phila­
delphia ; lumber, butter, cheese, and numerous articles, the agricultural
produce o f Pennsylvania, compose the principal part o f the remaining
sum. The imports consist principally o f manufactures o f wool, iron, and
other metals, silk, cotton, linen, & c., from England and continental Eu­
rope ; coffee, sugar, molasses, rum, hides, mahogany, dye-woods, manu­
factured tobacco, & c., from South America and the West Indies.
The total exports in 1842, exceed those o f only three years since 1803,




322

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

omitting the period o f the war with Great Britain. The exports o f domestic produce in 1842, exceed those o f seventeen years during the same
period. The imports for 1842 are less in amount than those o f any year
since 1821, when official records o f value were first made.
TH E DOM ESTIC T R A D E .

The constitution o f the United States, as before mentioned, prohibits
all transit duties on goods passing from one state o f the Union to another,
and releases vessels employed in the coasting trade from the necessity of
entering. By this wise provision for the extension o f trade, custom-houses
between the different states are rendered unnecessary, and those on the
seaboard, or at the great commercial emporiums o f the interior, take no
account o f the merchandise passing from one section o f the Union to an­
other. In the absence o f official data as to the extent o f this important
branch o f trade, we purpose giving a hasty sketch o f its course, or the
channels through which it flows.
With the increase o f population and o f facilities for the transportation
o f merchandise, by the improvement o f county roads, and the construetion o f turnpike roads, canals, and railroads, the interchange o f commodi­
ties with neighboring states has steadily and rapidly increased ; while the
application o f steam to river navigation has rendered doubly valuable the
noble streams o f Pennsylvania, as a means o f extending her commercial
operations. By these various channels o f trade, and by the waters o f the
Atlantic, together with those o f the various navigable streams emptying
into it, the produce o f the state, to an amount far exceeding that exported
to foreign countries, is distributed through a large portion o f the Union.
The domestic trade o f Northern Pennsylvania is very limited in its ex­
tent, this region being but thinly populated. Its principal exports are
lumber, coal, oats, and neat cattle, together with some wool and butter.
By means o f the port o f Erie or Presque Isle, a communication is opened
between the western part o f this region and the great lakes, and trade is
carried on with many o f the towns an their shores. The tonnage of
Presque Isle has been as follows, in the years 1832 to 1841, inclusive :—
Year.

Tona.

Year.

1832,
1833,
1834..
1835..
1836..

967
981
1,302
1,730
1,877

1837..
1838..
1839..
1840..
1841..

Tona.
2,993
3,216
3,632
3,369
2,820

The Blossburgh and Corning railroad, the Allegheny and Susquehannah
rivers, and the turnpike and county roads, at wide intervals traversing this
section o f the state, facilitate interchange o f commodities with the neigh­
boring counties and some o f the large towns, in the interior o f New York
state. No inconsiderable portion o f the produce o f the western part of
this region passes down the Allegheny river to the towns bordering on
the Ohio river, although a much larger part finds a market at Pittsburgh.
From the head waters o f the Susquehannah river, large quantities o f lum­
ber are annually sent to Baltimore.
The imports o f this region, excepting the large supplies derived by in­
ternal trade with Pittsburgh, are principally from New York city and
state, and are similar in character to those hereafter mentioned a# taken
by the north-eastern section o f the state.




Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

323

Western Pennsylvania, with its coal, iron, flour, wheat, lumber, wool
and manufactures o f various kinds which are exported to a great amount,
has access to the interior o f Ohio and to the lakes, by means o f the Penn­
sylvania and Ohio or Cross-cut canal and the Sandy and Beaver ca n a l;
by the National road to Wheeling on the one hand, and Baltimore on the
other; by the internal improvements o f the state to the city last named,
or via Philadelphia, to ports on the Atlantic ; and by the Ohio river to all
parts o f the valley o f the Mississippi.
Pittsburgh, the great manufacturing city and commercial emporium o f
western Pennsylvania, sends her manufactures o f iron, glass, cotton, & c.,
throughout the vast extent o f country bordering on the Ohio and Missis­
sippi rivers, as well as to the rapidly improving region extending along
the lakes. In return are received drafts on the Atlantic cities or New
Orleans, or the varied produce o f the several states, v iz : pork, beef, lard,
butter, flour, hemp, tobacco, cotton, sugar, molasses, & c . ; together with
a large part o f her supply o f coffee, imported at New Orleans. A portion
of the above named articles, as pork, lard, flour, hemp and tobacco, is re­
exported from Pittsburgh to Baltimore ; and a still larger portion finds a
market in Philadelphia, for home consumption or exportation. With the
proceeds o f the sales o f these articles, and o f large quantities o f flour and
wool, the produce o f western Pennsylvania, together with drafts on the
Atlantic cities received from sales to the west, she purchases in the Atlan­
tic cities, for the consumption o f her own citizens or the supply o f a large
extent o f country in western Pennsylvania and Ohio, the cotton, woollen
and leather manufactures, the bonnets, and other articles the manufactures
of New England, and various foreign imports ; that is, manufactures o f
wool, silk, cotton, linen, steel and other metals; porcelain and earthern
wares, tea, spices, dried fruit, wine, brandy, & c.
Annexed is the tonnage o f the port o f Pittsburgh in the years 1832 to
1841 inclusive. The sudden reduction observable in some o f the years
may be accounted for by the sale o f steamboats, great numbers o f which
are built here for towns on the Ohio and Mississippi rivers.
Year.

Tons.
.

1832,
...................................... 10,092
1833,
11,713
1834,
...................................... 13,272
1835,
...................................... 13,272
1836................................................. 10,767

Year.

Tons.

1837,................................................
1838,...............................................
1839,................................................
1840.................................................
1841,................................................

12,652
11,865
11,865
12,000
10,343

According to Harris’s Directory, the number o f steamboats owned in
whole or in part, in the district o f Pittsburgh, in 1841, was eighty-nine,
of an aggregate tonnage o f 12,436 tons.
Southern Pennsylvania, whose exports consist principally o f grain, flour,
iron, leather, & c., finds a market for a large part o f these in Baltimore,
and the neighboring counties o f Maryland and Virginia. The National
road, connecting with the internal improvements o f Maryland, opens a
communication between Baltimore and the western part o f this region ;
while the eastern portion sends its produce by the Baltimore and Susquehannah or Franklin railroads, or by several turnpikes, into Maryland ; or
by the internal improvements o f Pennsylvania and the Susquehannah river,
or Tidewater canal to Baltimore, or more largely to Philadelphia for ex­
portation or home consumption. In return are received goods o f a de­
scription similar to those above mentioned as purchased in the Atlantic
cities for Pittsburgh.




324

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

Central Pennsylvania, embracing the greater part o f the valley o f the
Susquehannah and the country bordering on the main line o f the internal
improvements o f the state, west o f the Susquehannah river, makes use of
this river and these canals and railroads, together with the Tidewater
canal, as outlets for its large exports. A market is found for its produce,
consisting o f wheat and other grains, flour, iron, lumber, coal, A c., at
Baltimore, and to a greater extent, probably, via Philadelphia, at the va­
rious other Atlantic ports. The goods imported are o f a character simi­
lar to those taken at Pittsburgh.
North Eastern Pennsylvania, embracing a portion o f the anthracite coal
fields o f the state, exports lumber and some agricultural produce, princi­
pally oats, to the neighboring towns ofN ew York and N ew Jersey ; neat
cattle and butter also to the same markets, and to N ew York city; and
coal in large quantities to New York city and intermediate places, and to
the Atlantic New England states. The principal channels for its ex­
ports, which are moderate in amount, are the Lehigh river, the Delaware
and Hudson canal, and several turnpike roads. In return, articles such as
enumerated as taken by Pittsburgh, excluding the more expensive and lux­
urious, are received from New York city.
South Eastern Pennsylvania— embracing the earliest settled and most
populous counties o f the state, rich in agricultural products ; together with
other counties, abounding in anthracite coal and iron— passes most o f its
exports through Philadelphia.
New York and the New England states bordering on the Atlantic take
the largest amount o f this produce, consisting principally o f coal, flour,
wheat, corn, & c. The demand for Pennsylvania bread stuffs in Boston
has, however, diminished since the completion o f the railroad connecting
it with Albany.
In return, Philadelphia receives from the N ew England states their
manufactures o f cotton and wool, shoes, bonnets, fish, oil, and various
other articles, the produce or manufactures o f these states ; together with
many foreign goods: and from N ew York, English, French, Chinese,
and various other foreign goods too numerous to specify: the balance
being greatly against Philadelphia, both in her trade with N ew England
and New York.
T o the neighboring states o f New Jersey and Delaware the exports are
to a large amount, consisting o f coal, lime, iron, and various manufactures
o f Pennsylvania ; and the manufactures and produce o f the New England
states and foreign countries generally, especially manufactures o f cotton,
wool, leather and iron ; sugar, coffee and tea.
The imports from New Jersey consist o f agricultural produce generally,
and those from Delaware, o f flour, corn meal, wheat, corn, bark, &c.
The trade with Maryland is to a very limited extent, and similar in its
character to that with Delaware. Most o f the freight passing between
Philadelphia and Baltimore consists o f goods in transitu between the lat­
ter city and N ew York, or the New England states.
The exports from Philadelphia to Virginia are to a moderate amount,
and consist o f articles much the same as those specified in reference to
Pittsburgh. In return, tobacco, wheat, corn, and some bituminous coal
and cotton yarn are received.
T o North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama, the exports
are similar in character to those sent to V irgin ia; but to a very small




325

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

amount. From North Carolina are received naval stores, lumber and
some little cotton and cotton yarn ; from South Carolina and Georgia,
cotton and rice ; and from Alabama, cotton.
Louisiana takes to a moderate extent, for her own consumption, o f the
manufactures o f the New England states and Pennsylvania, and the manu­
factures and produce o f foreign countries ; and sends to Philadelphia large
quantities o f sugar and molasses, and some cotton, her own produce.
Large quantities o f heavy goods, destined for the western states, are for­
warded by way o f New Orleans ; and by the same route Philadelphia re­
ceives large supplies o f the produce o f those states, v iz .: cotton, tobacco,
pork, lard, hemp, lead, & c.
The most important branch o f the domestic export trade o f Philadel­
phia is that with Ohio, Kentucky, Missouri, Tennessee, Indiana, Illinois,
Mississippi, and Arkansas, especially the six first named, and consists o f
articles similar to those taken by Pittsburgh, the principal portion being im­
ports from the New England states, and from foreign countries, a large part
of the latter, as before stated, being received via New York and Boston.
In addition to the articles above enumerated as being forwarded by way
of New Orleans, Philadelphia receives from this vast and fertile region,
now rapidly filling with an enterprising and industrious population, large
quantities o f flour, pork, lard, tobacco, hemp, neat cattle and horses, and
some beef, furs, wool, & c., via Pittsburgh and the internal improvements
of the state ; these, however, would be vastly greater in quantity, and the
purchases o f goods in return proportionally increased, if the cost o f trans­
portation from Pittsburgh to Philadelphia were still further reduced. The
balance o f this great branch o f her trade being in favor o f Philadelphi a,
is paid by drafts on New Orleans and New York.
With Michigan, Philadelphia has little or no trade.
Annexed is a statement o f the enrolled and licensed tonnage, being that
engaged in the coasting trade o f Philadelphia for the years 1832 to 1841
Tons.

Y ears.

1832,........................ ....................
1833,......................... ....................
1834.......................... ....................
1835,......................... ....................
1836,......................... ....................

31,147
30,529
32,080
34,857
40,871

Y ears.
1837,.........................
1838,......................... ....................
1839,.........................
1840,.........................
1841,........................ ....................

Tons.
45,080
58,425

W e also append a list o f the coastwise arrivals at Philadelphia for the
years 1787 to 1842, much the greater portion o f the large number ap­
pearing in recent years being vessels engaged in carrying coal, or barges
laden with merchandise, passing between the northeastern and south­
western markets o f the Union, benefiting the mercantile community o f
Philadelphia but little.
Years.

1787,.,..
1788,....
1789,....
1790,....
1791,....
1792,....
1793,....
1794,....
1795,....
1796,.....

C oastw ise A r r iv a l s
Vessels.
Years.

390
490
376
715
853
. \ lost.
. 1,250
. 1,228
. 1,011

V OL. X .-----N O . I V .




at

1797,....
1798,....
1799,....
1800,. ..
1801,....
1802,....
1803,....
1804,....
1805,....
1806.....

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

P hiladelphia , from 1787 to 1842, inclusive .
Vessels.
Years.
Years.
Vessels.
Vessels.

929
1,002
825
1,051
1,125
1,106
1,064
1,292
1,235
1,213

1807,.... ..
1808,.... .
1809,.... .
1810,.... .
1811,.... .
1812,.... .
1813,.... .
1814,....
1815,.... .
1816,.... .

28

1,170
1,951
1,683
1,477
1,425
1,549
319
583
1,113
1,101

1817,... ..
1818,... ..
1819,... ..
1820,...
1821,...
1822,....
1823,.... ..
1824,.... ..
1825,.... ..
1826,... ..

1,238
1,101
1,046
877
913
1,018
981
1,195
1,195

326

Trade and Commerce o f Pennsylvania.

3,573
3,764
7,776
10,860

Years.

Vessels.

1839........ 11,188
1840,
9,706
1841,
11,738
1842,
10,457
.

Vessels.

.

1835,
1836,
1837,
1838,

.

3,262
2,849
2,573
2,686

.

1831,
.
.
1832,
1833,
.
1834..........

1842, inclusive— Continued.

to

.

1,320
1,247
2,210
3,287

1787

Years.

.

.
.
.
.

1827,
1828,
1829,
1830,

from

.

C oastwise A r r ivals a t P hiladelphia ,
Years.
Vessels.
Years.
Vessels.

W e close this imperfect sketch o f the domestic trade o f Pennsylvania
b y giving the following statement of
T he E nrolled

Years.
1789,....
1790,....
1791,....
1792,....
1793,....
1794,....
1795,....
1796,....
1797,....
1798,....
1799,....
1800, ....
1801,....
1 8 0 2 ........

.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.
.

and

L icensed T onnage

of

Tons.
9,855
9,995
11,000
10,297
11,440
14,671
14,922
15,803
17,164
17,502

Tons.
4,015
5,180
3,222
3,515
4,625
6.273
7,325
7,669
8,178
8,348

Years.
1803,.... ..
1804..... ..
1805..... ..
1806,... ..
1807,... ..
1808,... ..
1809,... ..
1810,... ..
1811,. . ..
1812,... ..

7 ,8 5 7
8 ,0 3 2
7 ,4 4 4
8 ,9 5 1

1 8 1 3 , . . . . . . 2 0 ,2 4 7
1 8 1 4 , .. . . 2 0 ,4 0 7
1 8 1 5 , . . . . . 2 2 ,3 6 0

P en nsylvania , from 1789

Years.
1816,.... ..
1817,... ..
1818,... ..
1819,... ..
1820,... ..
1821,... ..
1822,... ..
1823,... ..
1824,... ..
1825,... ..

Tons,
24,744
24,296
25,148
23,673
24,117
25,080
23,995
27,291
27,766
29,421

1 8 2 6 , . . . . . 3 1 ,5 8 3
1 8 2 7 , . . . . . 3 1 ,4 3 6
1 8 2 8 , . . . . . 3 7 ,7 7 5

to

1841,

inclusive.

Years.
1829,...
1830,...
1831,...
1832,...
1833,...
1834,...
1835,...
1836,...
1837,...

..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..
..

1838,...
183 9 ,...
1840,...
1841,...

60,161
63,7 90
. . 6 7,0 45
. . 7 1.5 88

Tons.

27,494
24,236
29,225
42,206
43,223
46,653
49,860
53,514
58,237

..

..

TH E IN T E R V A L T R A D E .

In the preceding article, on the course o f the domestic trade o f Pennsyl­
vania, allusion has been made to the extent o f business between Philadel­
phia and Pittsburgh, and between those two cities and a large portion c f
the state. This forms but a very small part of the internal trade of Penn­
sylvania, which embraces all the interchanges between sections adjacent,
or widely separated, o f every variety o f merchandise, the produce o f agri­
culture, the mine or the forest; or the manufacture o f the factory or work­
shop. O f its amount no other than a very vague estimate can be formed ;
it, however, vastly exceeds both that o f the domestic and o f the foreign
trade, although it may be said to be yet in its infancy.
No state o f the Union contains the elements o f wealth more diversified
in character or unlimited in extent than Pennsylvania ; and with a vir­
tuous, intelligent and industrious population to develop the resources of
her rich and varied soil and countless mineral treasures, she cannot fail,
in time, to possess within her borders a manufacturing interest, equal, if
not superior, to the agricultural. A home market for her agricultural pro­
duce will thus be created ; while her exports will consist o f manufactures
sent to the western and southern states o f the Union, and probably, in
considerable quantities to foreign countries. This anticipated develop­
ment o f the internal trade o f Pennsylvania must be promoted, in no small
degree, by the state canals, railroads and other facilities for the trans­
portation o f produce, in the judicious management o f which, those en­
gaged in the domestic and foreign, as well as this branch o f trade, have a
deep interest.*
* It is our intention to devote a chapter, in a future number of the Merchants’ Magazine, to
the resources of Pennsylvania, embracing her mines, manufactures and internal improve­
ments ; and we embrace this opportunity of soliciting from intelligent citizens of that and
any of the United States, either articles, or recent and authentic data touching their re­
sources and trade, as we propose to exhibit through the pages of our Journal, from time to
time, a general view of the commerce, resources, &c., of each state.




Commercial Intercourse with Porto Rico.

327

A r t . III.— OUR COMMERCIAL INTERCOURSE W IT H PORTO RICO.

T he island o f Porto Rico was discovered by Columbus in 1493, and
conquered by the Spaniards, under Ponce de Leon, about 1509. It was
taken by the English, under the earl o f Cumberland, towards the close o f
the seventeenth century, but they found the climate so unhealthy that
they soon abandoned the conquest. It is the smallest o f the Great An­
tilles, and is about 120 miles in length and 40 in breadth, and contains
4,500 square miles. Although inferior to none o f the islands in fertility
and general importance, it was long neglected by Spain, and, until the
beginning o f the present century, its wealth was derived entirely from its
woods and pastures. But since it has shared the same liberal policy that
has been extended to Cuba, and reaped the same advantages from the
agitations o f the mother country, and the disasters o f the sister colonies,
it has exhibited the same remarkable picture o f commercial prosperity
with the larger islands. Porto Rico is traversed by a lofty mountain
ridge, which, in the eastern part, rises to the height o f about 4,000 feet;
on each side o f this central ridge lie rich and beautiful valleys, well
watered and well wooded, below which stretch the fertile plains that con­
tain the thriving agricultural and commercial towns. In 1778, according
to Murry, the population was 70,278; and in 1830, according to the offi­
cial returns, it was 323,838. Of this number, only 34,240 were slaves,
127,288 were free colored persons, and 162,311 whites. The law makes
no distinction between the white and the colored population, and the
whites are in the habit o f mixing freely with the blacks. Colonel Flinter states the produce o f the island to be, in 1830, 46,414,920 pounds of
sugar, 1,507,569 gallons o f molasses, 1,216,500 gallons o f rum, 28,000,000
pounds o f coffee, 34,640 quintals o f cured tobacco. According to the
same authority, the live stock consisted o f 70,130 head o f cattle, 52,970
horses, 25,087 swine, & c. O f 58,526 tons, the tonnage arrived in 1830,
29,906 was American, and 15,163 Spanish. San Juan, the capital, is a
large, neat, and well built town, on the northern coast, with a deep, safe,
and capacious harbor. It is strongly fortified, and contains about 30,000
inhabitants.
To the Editor o f the Merchants' Magazine :

From an official document lately published by the authorities o f the isl­
and of Porto Rico, showing their general commercial operations for the
year 1842, I have thought that some extracts, showing the importance
and magnitude o f our commercial intercourse with that island, would be
interesting, and probably useful to some o f your various readers. From
the above mentioned documents, I find that the total importations for that
year amounted to.................................................................. $5,757,403 84
Of which were imported in Spanish
bottoms................................................
$3,410,577 57
In Americanbottoms,.............................
1,456,998 05
In French
“
151,371 12
In English
“
139,502 57
In all other for. “
598,954 53
--------------------5,757,403 84
That the total exportations for the same year amount­
ed to................................................................................
6,429,257 35




328

Commercial Intercourse with Porto Rico.

O f which were exported in Spanish
bottoms,..............................................
In American bottoms..............................
In French
“
In English
“
In all other for. “

$1,563,109
2,453,299
911,138
554,126
947,583

19
32
31
88
65
6,429,257 35

That the number o f vessels “ arriving” and “ departing” are—
Arrivals.

Spanish
vessels,.......................................
American
“
French
“
English
“
All other foreign
“

594
438
143
88
85

Departures.

509
399
137
91
81

1,348
1,217
That the commercial revenue is this—
Amount duties collected on imports,.....................................$1,026,266 95
“
“
“
exports,......................................
313,201 25
“
“
“
tonnage and anchorage dues,
98,882 98
$1,438,351 18
It will readily be seen, by these statistics, how mutually important is
our commercial intercourse with this island. O f their imports, nearly
25 per cent are o f the agricultural products o f the United States, consist,
ing principally o f flour, meal, rice, fish, beef, pork, butter, lard, cheese,
candles, A c. O f their exports, 38| per cent are annually sent to the
United States, consisting principally o f sugar and molasses, with some
coffee. And, in regard to the number o f vessels frequenting their ports,
the table shows that our vessels number by far more than all other for­
eign vessels together.
From these facts, it may be inferred that American productions and
vessels furnish the large proportion o f their revenue, as Spanish produc­
tions pay but a very small duty, and we, being their largest foreign sup­
pliers and consumers, consequently pay the largest proportion of duty.
Our shipping furnish nearly the whole o f their tonnage and anchorage
revenue, as Spanish vessels pay no such dues, and most o f the European
nations trading to their ports have reciprocal treaties, by which their port
charges are the same as Spanish vessels.
And now, while Congress is agitating the revision o f the present tariff!
is it not due to all classes o f the community, that some negotiation be en­
tered into with the Spanish government, by which our vessels and pro­
ductions might be relieved from a portion o f the large dues which are
now exacted from them, and, in return, a reduction be made on the exces­
sive duties now collected on sugar and molasses, which is out o f all pro­
portion. There is probably no portion o f the world, o f the same extent
and population, that we are as extensively engaged with in commerce, is
more important in a commercial point o f v ie w ; and now, while Spain is
so much agitated with intestine commotion, it is to us a matter o f great
moment that this island (and Cuba, with whom we are deeply commer­
cially interested) should be preserved from its fatal influence, and con-




329

Commercial Intercourse icith Porto Rico,

tinue prosperous; and it behooves our government to use all means by
which this trade can be cherished, extended, and protected,
r. k . k .
W e add some additional statistics o f the commerce o f Porto Rico, com ­
piled from the same official reports adopted by our correspondent as the
basis o f his remarks. The island is rapidly increasing in commercial
prosperity, as is shown by the returns for 1842, as compared with those
o f previous years. The total imports and exports in each year, from
1838 to 1842, were as follows :—
Years.

Imports.

1838,.......
1839........

Exports.

$4,302,149
5,462,205

Years.

$5,254,945
5,516,611

1841,.......
1842,.......

Imports.

Exports.

$6,062,362
5,757,403

$5,962,445
6,429,257

The quantities o f the leading productions compare as follow s:—
1819.

1812.

1859.

Cotton,.............lbs. 1,182,933
882,064
Sugar,................... 69,245,782 91,906,688
Coffee.................... 8,536,362 12,878,953
Hides.....................
678,640
567,042

1842.

Molasses........ galls. 3,311,719
Rum,.............. hhds.
649
Tobacco,...........lbs. 4,320,339
Cattle,...............No.
8,891

3,037,724
2,097
6,693,953
3,548

The number o f vessels, with the tonnage entered and cleared, o f all
nations, was as follows :—
E ntered .
Years.

1838,
1839,
1841,
1842,

.....
.....
.....
.....

C leared .

Ships.

Tonnage.

Ships.

Tonnage.

1,201
1,392
1,329
1,348

101,699
116,397
126,674
125,025

1,313
1,322
1,317
1,217

104,098
110,445
121,447
127,019

The imports and exports in the ships o f different nations, were, in 1839
and 1842, as follows :—
1859.
1842.
Imports.

Exports.

Imports.

Exports.

Spanish vessels,.......
U
Foreign
“ .
u .s .
((
Bnglish
it
French
“ .
German
“ .
Holland
Portuguese it
“ .
Swedish
Bonded,.

National Commerce in

$725,740
1,951,617
1,192,670
145,825
86,382
193,966
8,615
833
44,715
1,111,848

$400,401
414,996
2,588,482
347,892
292,054
266,694
10,965
832
211,877
982,413

$866,773
2,543,814
1,456,998
139,573
151,371
207,953
40,996
957
348,851

$981,752
581,349
2,453,299
554,126
911,138
507,254
22,484
4,876
413,003

Total,......

$5,462,206

$5,516,611

N umber

of

$5,757,403

V essels of each N ation which arrived AND CLEARED IN
N umber and T onnase in 1842.

WITH THE

1842.

1S59.
A rrived .
No.

C leared .
No.

Spanish,.....
American,.
Brazilian,,..
Hanseatic,..
Danish,.......
French,......
Dutch,........
English,__
Portuguese,
Sardinian,..

675
439

642
424

16
49
88
9
114
2

12
42
88
7
104
3

Total,.

1,392

1,322




$6,426,237
1839,

No.

A rrived .
Tons.

No.

C leared .
Tons.

594
438
1
22
37
143
19
88
1

29,126
62,860
110
3,832
5,174
14,436
1,033
7,709
100

509
399

26,330
67,665

22
34
137
18
91
1

3,664
4,637
12,497
1,038
10,312
100
....

1,348

125,025

1,217

127,019

28*

330

Commercial Intercourse with Porto Rico,

The imports and exports o f the leading articles, in 1839 and 1842, were
as follow s:—
I mports

and

E xports

of the

I sland

of

P orto E ico.

Imports.

1819.

1842.

Increase.

Liquors,..................................
Provisions,.............................
Spices,...................................
Fruit.......................................
Breadstuff's.............................
Oils.........................................
Fish,.......................................
Other articles,.........................

$290,020
85,095
9,996
22,777
1,079,542
134,346
250,521
95,705

$365,375
109,664
7,724
43,825
994,041
187,697
353,302
121,896

$75,355
24,569

Total,.................................

$1,957,865

$2,183,524

Manufactures—
Cotton goods,.........................
W oollen,...............................
Leather,.................................
Hides,.....................................
Silk,........................................

$844,018
69,590
610,033
119,904
93,766

$856,287
76,666
597,078
159,465
127,940

T otal,.................................

$1,737,313

$1,817,436

Lumber,..................................
Metals,....................................
Other articles,.........................

$241,516
814,131
711,389

$301,005
491,017
964,405

Total,..................................
“
manufactures,........
“
groceries,...............

$1,767,039
1,737,313
1,957,865

$1,756,427
1,817,436
2,183,524

Grand total,........................

$5,462,214

$5,757,387

Decrease.

$2,242
21,048
85,501
63,351
102,781
26,191

.....

$12,268
7,076
$12,955
39,561
34,174
.......
$59,489
$323,114
253,016
$10,609
$80,123
225,659

Exports.

1819.

1842.

Increase.

$36,199

132,813
130,389
113,789
988,097

$52,440
141,230
3,216,734
1,274,520
41,034
455,658
117,033
14,552
268,654
93,238
35,116
708,976

$5,516,611

$6,429,257

Rum,......................................
Cotton,...................................
Sugar,.....................................
Coffee,...................................
Hides,.....................................
Molasses,...............................
Cattle,.....................................
Cabinet-wood,.......................
Tobacco,.................................
Specie,....................................
Other produce,.......................
Foreign goods,......................

$16,241
189,435
2,423,602
853,836

Total,..................................

496,757
131,666

Decrease.

$48,205
793,132
420,754
51,034

.....

41,099
14,633
14,552
135,841
37,151
78,673
279,103

The quantities o f the leading productions of the island, compare as
follow s :—
1842.
1819.
Decrease.
Increase.
Cotton,............................. lbs.
Sugar,.....................................
Coffee,...................................
Hides,.....................................
Molasses,...................gallons
Rum...............................hhds.
Tobacco,..........................lbs.
Cattle,..............................No.




$1,182,933
69,245,783
8,536,362
678,640
3,311,719
649
4,320,339
8,891

$882,064
91,906,688 $22,660,946
12,878,953
4,342,491
567,042
3,037,724
1,448
2,097
6,693,953
2,373,624
3,548

$300,869
111,598
273,994
5,343

331

Commercial Intercourse with Porto Rico.

The import and export o f the precious metals was as follow s:—
1839.

1842.

Gold.

Silver.

Gold.

Silver.

Import,................................
Export,................................

$682,301
1,104

$48,041
129,285

$374,473
75,321

$77,244
17,916

Excess of import,...........
“
export,...........

$682,197

$299,152

$59,328

C ountries

from which the

$81,244
I mports

w ere made into

P orto R ico,

WERE MADE IN 1842.
Imports.
Exports.

Spanish ports,....................
Cuba,.................................
Other colonies,.................. .
United States,....................
Germany,............................
Brazil,.................................
Denmark............................
France,..............................

$866,773
192,492
2,349,904
1,320,624
224,145
54,967

England,............................
Italy,..................................
Prussia,..............................
Spanish America,..............
British N. A . colonies,.....

113,192
7,301
580,149
14,892

$981,752
20,760
692,595
2,474,513
572,650
12,514
44,323
794,671
10,208
318,771
249,791
2,377
22,248
232,080

Total,......................

$5,757,403

$6,429,257

32,970

and to which

Exc. o f Imp.

E xports

Exc. o f Exp.

$114,979
$171,732
1,657,309
1,153,889
348,505
42,453
44,323
761,701
10,208
205,579
242,490
2,377
557,891
217,188
$671,854

W e m a y n o w take a table o f the trade o f ea ch port o f the island, as
fo llo w s :—
T

rade of each

P ort

of

E ntry

in the

I sland

of

P orto R ico.

1812.

1839.

Imports.

Exports.

Total.

Porto Rico,................ ...........
Mayaques,................. ..........
Ponce,........................ ...........
Guayama,.................. ...........
Aquadilla,.................. ...........
Cabo Rojo,............... ...........
Fajado,...................... ...........
Other ports,................ ...........

$1,868,511
1,102,889
706,696
560,086
319,540
22,432
19,629
348,390

$858,034
1,371,488
953,609
1,028,632
446,726
22,743
102,726
941,659

$2,726,545
2,474,377
1,660,305
1,588,718
766,266
45,175
122,355
1,290,049

Total,.........................

$4,948,175

Total.

$4,149,785
1,632,523
1,800,413
1,302,616
608,574
153,857
104,047
1,216,000

13
22
69
36
51
74
27
64

$5,724,617 $10,672,790 $10,978,818 57

The following table gives the quantities and values o f each article of
production in the island, for 1842:—
E xports of P orto R ico, 1642.
Quantity.
Value.

2,097
Rum,.......
Cotton,....
882,064
Sugar,..... ............ 91 ,906,688
Coffee,..... ........... 12 ,745,907
133,046
“
triage,.......
Hides,......
567,052
Horses,.... ...... No.
178
Mules,....
45
Cows,.....
3,325
Molasses,. .. .galls. 3,,037,725




$52,440 Cabinet,w ood,.....
141,230 Dye-woods,...lbs.
3,216,733 Salt,........fanegas
1,274,590 Tobacco, leaf,.lbs.
“
other,...
6,652
51,034 Cocoa,..................
5,585 Other articles,.....
2,025
Total,........
117,033
455,658

Quantity

443,066
5,867
6,678,856
8,550

Value.

$15,452
2,779
5,867
267,154
2,004
171
11,526
$5,627,041

S32

Commerce o f the Bermudas.
A

rt.

IV.— COMMERCE OF TH E BERMUDAS.

leading article in the Merchants’ Magazine for January, 1844, on
the Commerce and Resources o f British America, embracing all the de­
pendencies or colonies o f Great Britain, in North America, contained
statements o f the population, commerce, and navigation o f the Bermudas,
for a series o f years down to 1839. From an interesting paper in the
London Colonial Magazine, edited by P. L . Simmonds, Esq., before us,
we are enabled to glean some additional particulars o f the commerce, re­
sources, & c., o f these islands for the last two years— 1842 and 1843.
The Bermudas possess great means o f natural defence in the extended
reefs o f coral rocks that almost entirely surround them, through which a
vessel must be navigated with great care by skilful pilots, and must obey
a ready helm. The principal passage through these reefs is termed the
North Rock channel, the extreme point of which is ten miles from the
land, and by which government vessels alone are permitted to pass ; and
when it is navigated, its sinuous course requires to be buoyed off- to aid
the undertaking, and the wind must be perfectly fair. An instance once
occurred, in which a frigate was taken aback in this passage, and the
pilot, James Darrell, with great coolness and presence o f mind, had the
vessel’s sail shortened, backed her through the more intricate part of the
channel until he had room to wear ship, and then proceeded by the usual
course, past St. Catherine’s point, to sea.
There are other passages, at what is called the West end, through
which merchant vessels are piloted; but these reefs extend from the
southwest breaker, which is about four miles from the land in that direc­
tion, round northerly and easterly, till they terminate opposite St. David’s
head, the southeastern promontory o f the island, on the south side. The
shore is perfectly bold, a singular chain o f rocks running along the coast,
about pistol-shot distant, that are mostly covered at low w ater; inside of
which the water is quite deep, and through which there are openings
sufficiently wide to admit a vessel; and we have heard o f one that was
wrecked, passing between these rocks in the dark, and running against
the main land, so that the crew landed without difficulty, and there was
no loss o f life.
On the south side, also, is Curtle harbor, where the king’s ships for­
merly anchored at a short distance within its entrance, the interior
abounding with numerous shoals, chiefly sandbanks, o f which substance
the hills in its vicinity are composed. Subsequently, the harbor o f St.
George, at the East end, was the rendezvous o f the smaller class of ves­
sels, there not being quite eighteen feet over the bar at its entrance ; the
larger ships anchoring in St. Catherine’s bay, or at what is termed the
North side, within the reefs before alluded to, and which form a tolerable
shelter in a gale o f wind, the water being never agitated at a sufficient
depth materially to affect the motion o f a vessel drawing more than eigh­
teen or twenty feet o f water.
The Bermudas were discovered by Juan Bermudez, a Spaniard, who
was wrecked there in 1552. Sir George Somers experienced a similar
misfortune, in 1709, and afterwards formed a settlement there. It was
from this circumstance that they are called Somers’ or Summer islands.
Sir George died there, and his tomb may be seen projecting into one of
the streets o f St. George, near the governor’s garden. The principal
T

he




Com merce o f the Berm udas.

333

islands, as far eastward as the ferry, which separates the island o f that
name from the main land, are cavernous, and the caves are well worth
visiting. The soil o f these islands is everywhere remarkably fertile,
abounding with limestone.
The principal products, at present, are the common or Irish potato, the
sweet potato, onions, arrow-root, and garden vegetables. The yield o f
the Irish potato may be stated at seven to one. It is only o f late years
that this vegetable has been brought under cultivation, but with so much
success, as to render a very increased product o f it certain. Onions (o f
the Madeira or Portugal kind) and sweet potatoes were for a long time
the only vegetables cultivated. Although the production o f the latter has,
in some degree, yielded to that o f the common potato, it is still in very
general u se; and from the adaptation of all its parts for food either for
man or the lower animals, it is hoped that its cultivation will not be al­
lowed to fall into neglect. The quantity o f onions produced is increasing
yearly. Being an article o f considerable export, during the months o f
May and June, no produce pays the grower better; for, at that season, in
addition to the home demand, the markets o f the whole o f the West In­
dies and some parts o f North and South America are open to him. The
average produce is not less than 24,000 lbs. per acre, and the average
value not less than five shillings sterling per 1 0 0 lbs.
Arrow-root is beginning to be extensively cultivated. The deep red
soil, and marsh or peat soil, are alone adapted for its cultivation. Nearly
all that is raised, is shipped to the London market, where it is held in the
highest estimation ; very remunerating prices are consequently obtained.
The produce o f this article is capable o f being greatly and beneficially
extended.
In addition to these, what may be called staple products, the land is
well suited to the growth o f wheat, barley, and oats. The vine, too,
thrives well, and yields fruit heavy and o f good flavor. No vineyards,
however, are yet cultivated ; and no attempt with which the writer is ac­
quainted, has yet been made to manufacture wine in the islands— an ex­
periment which, when made, can scarcely be of doubtful success.
The orange, lemon, and other fruits o f tropical climates, grow in profu­
sion in the Bermudas.
The cedar-tree extends its growth over the islands. As a wood, it is
compact, durable, and ornamental. It is used extensively in ship and
house building, for both o f which purposes it is well adapted. It is so
close-grained, that it can be cut down, sawed, and placed in a vessel’s
bottom, without being seasoned. A number o f ships o f war were for­
merly built o f this material; but as it is apt to splinter in action, and be­
ing found very expensive, the practice was discontinued.
The palmetto is also common. The tender leaves o f this tree are
manufactured into, a useful and cheap description o f plait for hats, while
the coarser ones are used to make baskets, in which onions are exported
to the West Indies.
The trade o f Bermuda has been at all times considerable. No great
attention having yet been paid to the produce of the soil, nearly all arti­
cles of food have been hitherto imported, and the whole o f those manu­
factured articles so extensively used for personal and domestic purposes,
ship, house building, and other objects, have been entirely so. Articles
o f food, such as beef, pork, lard, butter, corn, flour, pulse, rice, & c., are




334

Com merce o f the Berm udas.

principally imported from the United States o f A m erica; while dry salt
fish, salmon, mackerel, & c., are brought from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland. Sugar and coffee come of late years, generally from the foreign West Indies. Manufactured articles, o f almost every description,
are brought from England. Under such circumstances, where so many
persons have to receive their profit, it would be unreasonable to expect
living to be cheap. Yet, from the competition that is constantly kept up
in the supply o f these various articles, no more than a fair remuneration
can ever be obtained.
The trade o f Bermuda, however, is far from being limited by the im­
port o f its consumption, and the export o f its products. Before the Bri­
tish provinces grew into importance as ship-owning countries, the Ber­
mudians eagerly availed themselves o f the opportunity o f interchanging
for them the produce o f their fisheries and articles o f West India growth.
Although, from the rapid increase o f shipping in Nova Scotia, N ew Bruns­
wick, and Newfoundland, they no longer engross this trade, they still en­
joy a considerable share, which the peculiar adaptation o f the cedar ves­
sels to it, on account o f their superior swiftness and durability, will, it is
hoped, enable them to maintain. They also enjoy a fair share o f the
carrying trade between the United States and the West Indies.
Aggregate o f the value o f Imports and Exports into and from the Bermudas, for the
years ending respectively 5th January, 1842, and 5th January, 1843.
I mports — V alue

From
“
“
“
“

in

£

Great Britain,...................................................
British North America,............. ...............
British West Indies,.................... ..........
United States,.........................................
Foreign States,..............................................

To
“
“
“
“

Great Britain,........................................................
British North America,.....................................
British West Indies,...........................................
United States.......................................................
Foreign States,.....................................................
Total,.................................................................

184!.
S.

£

d.
2

42,988 15
26,396 i 4
10,360 2 4
53,899 16 10
18,277 19 8

Total,..............................................................
E xports — V alue

S ter lin g .

£151,922 15
in

1841.
d.

S.

53,948 9 4
16,078 17 n
7,595 19 2
77,202 11 4
8,164 9 5
£162,990

4

2

7

S ter lin g .

24,763 8 3
1,595 18 4
10,325 19 o
4,862 18 4
966 8 0

8,528 8 1
1,319 17 8
13,931 9 10
2,506 9 11
4,113 8 8
£30,399 14

£42,514 12

2

1

Number o f Vessels entered Inwards and Outwards at Her Majesty’s Customs, for the
same periods.

Y ear ending January 5, 1842.
O utw ards.

In w ar d s.

United Kingdom,..............................
British West Indies, .........................
British North America,....................

No.

Tons.

Men.

No.

Tons.

Men.

10
19
34

2.370
1,419
2,117

107
116
188

7
43
23

1,499
4,010
1,962

75
276
144

2

220

13

1

100

5

31
33

3,021
4,494

216
195

47
14

3,748
1,690

302
74

29

1,884

186

14
7

1,324
841

96
37

158

15,525

1,021

156

Foreign Europe.

Foreign vessels,................................
United States.

British vessels,...................................
Foreign vessels,................................
Foreign West Indies, &c.

British vessels,.................................
Foreign vessels,................................
Total,....................................... ..




15,174 1,010

Com merce o f the Berm udas.

335

Number o f Vessels entered Inwards and Outwards at Her Majesty's Customs, for the
same periods— Continued.
Y ear ending J an u ary 5,1843.
In w ards.

Ou tw ards.

No.

Tons.

Men.

No.

Tons.

Men.

United Kingdom,....................................
British West Indies,................................
British North America,.........................
Foreign Europe.
Foreign vessels,.....................................
United States.
British vessels,........................................
Foreign vessels,.....................................
Foreign W est Indies, tj-c.
British vessels,........................................
Foreign vessels,......................................

30
32
29

8,566
2,286
1,649

372
195
136

7
42
39

1,369
2,724
6,460

68
234
321

1

380

14

1

162

8

24
50

2,425
8,052

148
322

46
41

5,463
6,387

333
259

19
1

1,155
162

109
8

8
3

731
436

52
17

Total,..........................................

186

24,675

1,304

187

23,732

1,292

Incr. for year ending Jan. 5,1843,

28

9,150

283

31

8,558

282

Number of vessels registered in 1841, 12 ; and 7 launched.
Number of vessels registered in 1842, 14; and 6 launched.
Vessels, Bermuda-built, sold from the colony.— In 1482, 3, value £3,000 ; in 1843, 5,
value £5,050.
S taple P roductions.
£

s.

d.

£

s.

d.

Arrow-root,..............................................................
6,840 13 0
7,638 13 1
Palmetto-plait,.........................................................
7 5 1 3 2
133 17 10
Onions,....................................................................
2,426 0 0
1,491 0 0
Potatoes— 1842, 731 barrels, 4 hampers; 1843, 1,223 barrels, 23 half-barrels, 103 ham­
pers, 40 bags.

Bermuda Tariff o f Duties.— For the following schedule o f colonial
duties, which took effect from and after the 18th o f April, 1843, we are
indebted to the department o f state at Washington :—
Articles.

Wheat flour, per barrel o f 196 lbs.,.......................... ......................
Meal, or flour, except wheat flour, per barrel o f 196 lbs.,...........
Biscuit and bread, per cw t.,...............................................................
Corn and grain, unground, per bushel,...........................................
Peas and beans, per bushel,...............................................................
Rice, per cw t.,.....................................................................................
Cigars, per 1,000,................................................................................
Brandy, per gallon,..............................................................................
Rum, gin, other spirits and cordials, per gallon,............................
Lumber, boards, and scantling, per 1 ,0 0 0 ft.,................................
Lard and butter, per cw t.,..................................................................
Cheese, per cw t.,.........................................
Soap, per cw t.,.....................................................................................
Candles, (tallow,) per cw t.,...............................................................
Potatoes, per bushel,............................................................................
Tobacco, per cw t.,..............................................................................
Tobacco, manufactured, otherthancigars, per cw t.,.....................
Raisins, currants, and figs, percw t.,.................................................
Tea, per lb............................................................................................
Coffee, per cw t.,...................................................................................
Sugar, unrefined, per cw t.,.................................................................
“
refined, per cw t.,....................................................................




Duties.

$ cts.
59
48
12
12
1

2

36
00
48
36
40
96
72
96

1 20

1

4
44
92

1

20

1

12

1

4
72
1 20

336

Commerce o f the Berm udas.
Articles.

Duties.
$ cts.

Meat, salted or cured, per c w t ,........................................................
48
Oxen, bulls, and cows, each,.............................................................
4 80
1 20
Calves, e a c h ,.......................................................................................
Horses, mares, and geldings, each,..................................................
4 80
Colts, foals, mules, and asses, each,..................................................
2 40
Sheep and lambs, each,....................................................................
48
1 00
Swine, each,..................................................................... •...................
Poultry o f all kinds, per dozen,..........................................................
48
Wine, Madeira, Burgundy, and Champagne,per gallon,...............
50
24
“
Sherry, Port, Hock, and Teneriffe, per gallon,.................
“
all other kinds, per gallon,...................................................
12
Drugs and medicines 20 per cent ad valorem.
Cotton, linen, woollen, and leather manufactures; hardware, clocks,
and watches, corks, oakum, cordage, and rigging, hats, almonds and nuts,
fruits preserved in sugar or brandy; iron in bars or rods, wrought, unwrought, and pig ; marble, rough and worked ; olives, oils o f olives and
o f almonds; ochres, pickles, sausages, tar, pitch, resin, and turpentine, 8
per cent ad valorem.
Glass and silk manufactures, spermaceti oil, blubbers, fins, and skins,
the produce o f creatures living in the sea, 5 per cent.
Articles not enumerated, except such as are comprised in the subjoined
table o f exemptions, 1 1 per cent on the value, at the place o f exportation.
The following is a table o f duties upon goods, wares, and merchandise,
being o f the growth, production, or manufacture o f the United Kingdom
o f Great Britain and Ireland, or the channel islands, or o f any of the
British possessions abroad, imported into the Bermudas.
Articles.

Duties.

$

cts.

Wheat flour, per barrel o f 196 lbs.,................................................
48
Fish, dried or salted, per cw t.,..........................................................
24
“
pickled, per barrel,....................................................................
48
Meat, salted or cured, per cw t.,........................................................
48
Butter, cheese, and lard, per cw t.,.....................
72
Coffee, per cw t.,...................................................................................
1 12
Sugar, unrefined, per cw t.,...............................................................
24
“
refined, per cw t.,...................................................... ..............
1 20
Tea, per lb .,.........................................................................................
4
Lumber and scantling, per 1,000 ft.,...............................................
1 20
Potatoes, per bushel,............................................................................
4
Rum o f 22 degrees proof, or stronger, per gallon,........................
36
“
o f lower proof, per gallon,......................................................
30
Whiskey and other spirits, per gallon,............................................
36
Articles not enumerated or included in the subjoined table o f exemp­
tions, 5 per cent ad valorem, on the value at the place o f exportation.
Table o f Exemptions.— Coin, bullion, and diamonds; tallow and raw
hides ; fresh meat and fresh fish ; dye-wood and stuffs ; mahogany, lig­
num vitae, cedar, and yellow wood ; shingles, wax, cocoa-nuts, cocoa, and
molasses; tamarinds, hemp, flax and tow, and cotton w o o l; tortoise-shell;
manures of all kinds ; printed books and pamphlets ; seeds and trees im­
ported for planting; old copper and iron, fit only to be manufactured;




M aritime Law.

337

provisions and stores o f every kind, imported or supplied for the use of
her majesty’s land and sea forces, or for the governor or officer adminis­
tering the government for the time being.
Articles imported or supplied for the use o f the colonial service, such
as materials for the building or repairs o f public buildings, roads, & c., or
for the militia o f the colony.
Articles enumerated, or mentioned in the table o f exemptions, not lia­
ble to colonial duty.
TABLE OF DUTIES ON EXPORTS.

Articles.

Duties.

$

Salt, per bushel,....................................................................................
Pine-apples, per dozen,.......................................................................
Oranges, (China oranges,) per thousand,........................................
Forbidden fruit and grape fruit, per thousand,................................
Shaddocks, per hundred,....................................................................
Limes, or lemons, per thousand,.......................................................

cts.

001
4

48
1 92
2 04
16

A rt. V.—MARITIME LAW .
HUMBER IV.

BOTTOMRY BONDS.
M a r i t i m e loans, by bottomry and marine hypothecations, will next
claim our attention. These fall peculiarly within the cognizance and
jurisdiction o f courts o f admiralty, which usually proceed by actions in
rem against the property itself, to obtain satisfaction by condemnation and
sale, o f the claims which form a lien upon the marine subject hypothe­
cated. The doctrine o f maritime loans, naturally divides itself under
three heads:—
1 st. Bottomry bonds.
2 d. Respondentia loans.
3d. Marine hypothecations.
W e shall treat this subject under these divisions, and in the order as
they are here placed.
A bottomry bond is a marine contract or hypothecation, whereby a
certain sum o f money is advanced, by way o f loan, on the security o f the
keel, hull, spars, tackle, apparel, and furniture o f a ship, with the pro­
vision, that in case the ship perish or be lost during the voyage or time
stipulated, by the perils o f the sea, the party advancing the money shall
have no right o f recovering against the borrower, or any right to recover,
further than against the proceeds o f such parts o f the ship as may have
been saved.
And in the event o f the safe arrival o f the vessel, or her safety during
the time stipulated, or her loss by the acts o f the borrower or his agents,
or those o f the master or crew, the lender is entitled to the repayment o f
the sum advanced, with a certain rate of interest, called the marine in­
terest or premium for the risk o f losing the money advanced which the
lender takes exclusively on himself. The rate o f interest is usually a
high one, and is not held to be usurious when the money has been put at
vol.

x .— n o . i v .




29

M aritim e Law .

338

risk for any period o f time however short, because this marine interest is
not received as a mere recompense for the 1mm or advance of money, but
as a compensation for the risk, which the lender runs, o f losing both
principal and interest by the loss o f the vessel.
This contract o f maritime loan, is made more on the credit o f the prop,
erty hypothecated than upon the credit o f a personal nature.
Indeed, in case of bottomry loans, the person o f the borrower will not
be liable to refund the money loaned, unless made so by the terms o f the
agreement,— the lender lends to the ship. He acts on the credit of the
thing itself, which becomes his debtor. Mr. Justice Story, in delivering
the opinion of the Supreme Court o f the United States, says, it has been
correctly remarked by Lord Stowell, that the form o f bottomry bonds is
different in different countries, and so is their authority. In some coun­
tries, they bind the owners ; in others, n ot; and where they do not, even
though the terms o f the bond should affect to bind the owners, that part
would be insignificant, but it would not at all touch upon the efficiency
o f those parts which have an acknowledged operation. In England and
America, the established doctrine is, that the owners are not personally
bound except to the extent o f the fund pledged, which has come into their
hands. T o this extent, indeed, they may correctly be said to be bound :
for they cannot subtract the fund, and refuse to apply it to discharge the
debt; but in that case, the proceedings against them is rather in the char­
acter o f possessors of the thing pledged, than strictly as owners.* By the
law o f England and the United States, no judicial or notarial act is ne­
cessary to constitute a valid bottomry contract or marine hypothecation,
which is usually created under the private signature o f the parties, with
one or more subscribing witnesses, or by the attorneys or agents o f the
parties lawfully appointed in writing for this purpose ; and, in regard to
the form o f a contract o f bottomry, we will observe, that it assumes differ­
ent shapes in all countries. Sometimes it appears as an instrument, in
the form of a bond ; at others, in the form o f a bill o f sale ; and, again,
in the form o f a deed poll. In countries governed by the civil law, it is
often seen in the form of a declaration or stipulation, drawn up by a pub­
lic notary, under his official hand and seal, who writes and states the
agreement, and certifies to it officially as his act and deed and that o f the
parties who appear before him and acknowledge it. But whatever be
the form, the occasion of borrowing, the sum due or loaned, the premium,
the ship, the voyage, the risks to be borne by the lender, and the obliga­
tion o f the ship itself, as security for the payment, all virtually are, and
properly ought to be, expressed.
This contract must always be in writing, as the common law and mer­
cantile usage of modern times do not recognize a parol hypothecation as
valid,f though by the civil law it was otherwise.
Thus, where a master drew bills o f exchange on his owner for money
advanced, with a verbal agreement by him, that, in case the bills were
not paid, the ship should be liable, the court o f bankruptcy, in England,
refused to consider this a valid hypothecation o f the vessel. In many of
the European countries, a judicial act o f hypothecation must be made, or
the act must be done before a notary public and witnesses. By the or­
dinances o f Bilboa, in Spain, the contract is required to be made before
* 8 Peters, U. S. Reps., 554. The Virgin.
t 2 Rose Reps. 194 and 229, ex parte Plalkett.




Bottom ry Bonds.

339

a public notary, and if he is absent, then before the collector or gover­
nor of the port, with the stipulations, causes, and circumstances, which
may convene or adjust the parties.*
In the most ancient history o f the East Indies, and o f the Chinese,
Persians, Arabians, and Ethiopians, we find mention made of a traffic by
sea. The Carthaginians were a colony from ancient Tyre, and, for a
long time, held the supremacy o f navigation in the Mediterranean and
western seas. Indeed, the ancient traditions and histories of that remark­
able people, show us that they extended their discoveries into the Atlantic
ocean and penetrated to America. They had a law which made it death
for any person to reveal to other nations the extent o f their discoveries.
Next to the Phoenicians and Egyptians, the ancient Grecians, and above
all, the Rhodjans, were among the first people who carried on com­
merce on the Mediterranean, and who reduced the rules to govern mer­
chants to a systematic code. The Romans, before the destruction of
Carthage, were not accustomed to maritime commercial adventures to
any considerable degree, and when they became a commercial people,
they mostly derived their navigation laws from the Greeks, who had re­
ceived theirs from the Rhodians. These latter people had transferred
into their code the laws o f the Phoenicians and the Egyptians, who were
immediately connected with the commerce o f the Indian ocean and China
sea.
The contract o f bottomry appears to have arisen in the earliest periods
of commercial transactions. The principle o f lending money upon the
risk of the undertaking has been known from the earliest periods o f his­
tory, and has been a contract substantially the same in all ages and coun­
tries, merely differing in its forms and applications which local regulations
have given it. In ancient times the lending o f money was made upon
commercial adventures that were to be carried on through barbarous
countries, and the return o f the money borrowed, with the stipulated pre­
mium, was made to depend upon the safe arrival o f both or either the per­
son and goods o f the borrower at the place of destination.
Hienecius speaks o f cases where money was lent upon the risk o f a
commercial enterprize upon land subject to be lost by failure o f the enterprize through sickness, storms, robberies, and the enemy.
The whole subject o f bottomry contracts has been handed down to the
maritime laws o f Europe by tradition, navigation, and commercial inter­
course, and thence transplanted into America.
At Athens, in Greece, in the days of Demosthenes, the orator, the sub­
ject of maritime loans was well digested in their commercial code and
usages, and the law on this subject assumed both the form o f a bottomry
contract as well as that of a respondentia loan of the present day. Seve­
ral speeches o f Demosthenes relate to the loans of money on bottomry
and respondentia.
At Athens, the Nautodikai were magistrates who had cognizance o f
controversies between merchants, mariners, and others engaged in com­
mercial adventures. A court was held once a month, and when causes
required greater despatch a court was opened oftener for this purpose.
Likewise, the doctrine o f bottomry bonds was familiar in the Roman law,
in later times, under the title o f Farms Nauticum, which terms signify that




Ordinances of Bilbao, chap. 23, § 1.

340

M aritim e Law .

money is taken upon the pledge, or hypothecation o f the keel, or bottom
o f the ship. The term used by the ancient Britons and Celtic nations to
express the keel or bottom o f the ship was Bodo or Bodun; hence, by a
derivation from this language, the Dutch called it Bomerie, Bodmerie,
Boddemerie— and in modem English, Bottomry; and hence, these con­
tracts are usually called bottomry contracts or loans.
But money lent to sea on the cargo o f a ship was called by the Ro­
man lawyers Pecunim Trajectitia, which properly represented a case of
money being transported by sea in a ship, at the risk o f the lender, to be
employed in merchandise for the advantage of the borrower. This latter
contract is rendered into English by the terms o f loaning money upon
Respondentia. Mr. Duer, in his lectures, which are full o f learning and
historical research on marine insurance, says— “ The practice o f lending
money on bottomry at very high rates of interest, seems to have prevailed
at Rome from an early period. It is said by Plutarch, that Cato the elder,
in his old age, when avarice had become his dominant passion, adopted
this mode of increasing his revenue. The first limitation o f the rate of
interest on maritime loans, which, in the language o f Gibbon, the wiser
ancients had not attempted to define, was made by Justinian ; it was fixed
at 12 per cent in his code.* But the hypothecation o f a ship under the
pretended name o f bottomry, in which a lender is to run no risk or loss
by sea, is considered a mere loan or a wagering and gaming agreement,
and as such, entitled to none of the privileges o f this species o f contract,f
nor can the lender take any other security to pay the money loaned independent o f the safe arrival o f the vessel at her port o f destination, or the
happy termination o f the adventure, for he would then run no certain risk
upon the loan o f his money. I f he should take such security, a contract
then would become one o f a simple mortgage upon the ship for the seenrity o f re-payment o f the money, and then would fall within the principle
o f a loan subject to the municipal regulations o f the country where made
in respect to usurious transactions ;J so when money has been loaned upon
a ship, or goods, all xvritings or contracts or goods given for the loan of
money, are held extinguished by the entire loss o f the things hypothe­
cated, and the borrower then remains freed from the obligation contract,
ed, without the lender having any recourse against his person or goods.
So when a shipwreck or destruction o f either the vessel or goods happen
in whole or part, and any portion o f either, which are hypothecated are
saved, those who have lent money upon bottomry on a part o f the value,
will inherit and receive in proportion with other parties interested in
the property saved, according to the sums or values they may have re­
spectively in the property and its proceeds, first deducting costs and
charges.^ Bottomry obligations are held in great sanctity by the mari­
time courts of this country and England, under something like a particu­
lar necessity. They are usually given for the payment o f repairs and other
necessary expenses incurred in foreign ports, where the owner and cap­
tain have no personal credit. And in most countries governed by the
civil law, repairs and necessaries form a lien upon the ship herself. ||
More often than otherwise, bottomry bonds are executed to extricate
* See Mr. Duer’s Lectures on Marine Insurance, p. 39, 4 0 ; notes 9 and 10.
t See Vanderlinden, page 612.
t 1 Haggard, p. 49. The Atlas.
(j Ordinances of Bilbao, chap. 23; sec. 15 and 9.
II Haggard’s Admiralty Reports, p. 325. The Zodiac.




Bottom ry Bonds.

341

the vessel from an original lien held upon it. Commerce is the sole ob­
ject of this contract. The maritime interest, which is the price o f the
risk, is considered to some purposes as a part of the profits of the voyage.
This contract is not a sale or mortgage, nor is it a simple loan, or a part­
nership, or an insurance ; but it is a specific contract known to the law,
and has a character and quality peculiar to itself. It is different from all
other contracts, and forms one o f a particular kind.
The premium in the civil law is called “ periculum pretium” and no
person, by this law, as well as the common law, can be entitled to it, who
does not take upon himself the perils of the voyage. These are the same
as in a policy o f insurance, and consist o f all losses by the act o f God,
public enemies, strandings, shipwrecks, storms, fire, robberies, detention
of princes, captures, piracies, navigation o f rivers, ports ; in short, every­
thing, except the acts o f the borrower, or those in his employment. But
should a vessel be seized for smuggling, or a breach o f the revenue laws,
or for want o f sufficient papers, such as bills o f health, clearances, con­
sular certificates, invoices, u rolle de Equipage” or be lost by defect o f
cables, anchors, or any other unseaworthiness o f the vessel itself, or by
barratry, or by a deviation, or any other cause which could be chargeable
to the negligence or fault o f either the borrower or those in his employ­
ment— in such cases the lender would recover his money, though the sub­
ject matter o f the hypothecation should be lost.
But when the lender has loaned his money, it still remains in the power
of the borrower to defeat his receiving a maritime interest, inasmuch as
the borrower is not compelled to put to sea, even when he has covenant­
ed to do so. A right o f action, in such case, may accrue to the lender, and
he may claim damage for the violation o f the agreement; but ho will not
be entitled to maritime interest, whatever the agreement may be, unless
the perils o f the sea have actually commenced. He, however, will be
entitled to this interest if the risk has once begun to run, however short
the time. But the rule, is peremptory, that if nothing has been exposed
to the waves of the sea, there has been no contract o f bottomry in law ;
so if the ship perishes by any o f the perils assumed by the lender, he can
claim nothing o f the borrower. No rule o f law has been established in
England and the United States as to the amount o f money that a lender
may loan upon a given value o f either ship or cargo, or both. But when
an amount o f money has been borrowed on a ship or on a cargo much
beyond the value, with an agreement to pay a high rate o f interest, this
will afford a strong ground to suspect fraud, and that the voyage will have
an unfortunate end.
Casaregis, a writer in the civil law, says, that when a captain for a
voyage shall receive a much greater sum o f money than there is a risk
upon the ship existent, there should be a presumption o f a sinister design.
In regard to the subject-matter o f hypothecations for bottomry loans, we
will observe that the general rule o f maritime law is, that whatever is ca­
pable of insurance, may be the subject o f bottomry and respondentia and
ol marine hypothecation. Thus the ship, her tackle, apparel and furniture,
provisions, freight, cargo, goods, earnings o f the ship, but not the wages of
the seamen, may all, under certain circumstances, be included in the in­
strument o f hypothecation, or separate instruments may be given upon
one or more o f all these objects. So this contract may be made between
parties on land, while the vessel is at sea. By the ordinances of Bilbao




29*

342

M aritim e Law .

in Spain, it is unlawful to borrow money on bottomry, on risks o f the
sea upon freight or seamen’s w ages; but with regard to seamen’s wages,
they can be hypothecated with the consent o f the master in the cod and
whale fisheries.
There is no positive regulation in America or England on either of
these subjects, except it is generally understood to be the law, that as
seamen’s wages cannot be insured, therefore they cannot be put at a risk
upon bottomry or respondentia agreements. Freights may be covered by
a bottomry contract, although such freights are the profits o f the voyage,
and partake strongly o f the nature o f a gaming agreement. Policies of
insurance cover freights by express stipulation, and the decisions incline
to the doctrine that freights may be included in the agreement for a bot­
tomry loan.
Loans on a voyage to the East Indies are prohibited by the English statutes ; but with regard to all other commercial adventures, this rule of law
has not been brought within any statutory regulation. The loan o f money
is prohibited by the commercial code o f France upon freights to be earned.
Indeed, every loan not founded upon a real risk, is at bottom only
a wager, and there can be no difference between freights to be earned by
the ship, and wages to be earned by the seamen. They do not constitute
a real risk at the time o f making the contract.
In regard to the time when the risk commences and terminates, it is
usually stipulated in the agreement, and the contract controls the rights of
the parties. In absence o f such an agreement, the time o f the risk will begin with the vessel breaking ground to sail on the voyage, and continue
until the vessel shall have arrived at the port o f destination, and there
safely moored.
The Spanish ordinances o f Bilbao provide that the risk shall continue
until twenty-four hours after her arrival at moorings in her place of desti­
nation, and when a bottomry obligation covers goods or merchandise, the
risk as to them will commence when notice is given to load them in light­
ers, or other smaller vessels which belong to the ship, and continue until
the merchandise is delivered ashore in the port o f destination.
By the Roman law, this contract could be made not only upon a loan
o f money, but also upon anything which could be appointed and sold by
number, measure, or weight, and which could be compensated in kind, or
by money at an usury or interest.
Any indebtedness which can be liquidated, may, by the law at the pre­
sent day, be made a subject of a bottomry transaction.
Thus, a ship chandler’s bill, or an indebtedness o f the vessel for her
building, repairing, or a supply o f provisions and outfits in a foreign or
home port, may be put in the form o f a bottomry bond by the owners, or
by the master, in a foreign port, when necessary for the purposes of the
voyage, and made to run at a maritime interest, provided that the pay­
ment is made to depend upon the successful termination o f the voyage or
adventure.
When the time o f the risk is limited, the risk and the marine interest
will end with the time, though the voyage be not ended; and the risk of
the lender will cease should the ship be prevented by accident from per­
forming her voyage within the limited time.* By the decision o f the Su­
preme Court o f the United States, it is not necessary that a respondentia




* 4 Viner Title Bottomry Bonds.

Bottomry Bonds.

343

or a bottomry bond should be made before the departure o f the ship on the
voyage, nor that the money should be employed in the outfit o f the vessel,
or invested in the goods in which the risk is run. It matters not at what
time the loan is made, nor upon what goods the risk is taken. I f the risk
of the voyage be substantially and really taken; if the transaction be not
a device to cover usury, gaming, or fraud. If the advance be in good
faith, for a maritime premium, it is no objection to it that it was made
after the voyage was commenced, nor that the money was appropriated to
purposes wholly unconnected with the voyage. The lender is not pre­
sumed to lend upon the faith o f any particular appropriation of the money;
if it were otherwise, his security could be avoided by any misapplication
of the fund, where the risk was bona fide run upon other goods.* Bot­
tomry bonds are usually preferred to every other claim or privilege for
the voyage on which it is founded, except the claim for seamen’s wages.
These bonds give the same privilege to the holder, when executed for a
lawful purpose and by one having authority to do so, as a debt secured by
a pawn on moveable property being put into possession o f the creditor, to
secure payment o f a debt.
When the debt is necessarily contracted for the preservation o f the ship,
the bottomry claim will take preference over a previous mortgage; and
as a general rule, the last bottomry bond takes precedence o f an older
one, but debts afterwards contracted for the preservation o f the property,
such as salvage and the like, will rank before bottomry bonds. W hen­
ever a holder o f a bottomry bond has paid off a claim for seamen’s wages,
he will be permitted to have the same priority and lien on the proceeds
of the ship which they would have ; so when the owner has paid off a
salvage claim, he will be preferred to the holder o f the bottomry bond-for
the amount without a cession o f action, and it is said that where the con­
signee o f goods being in possession o f the bill o f lading, and having paid
the charges o f transportation o f the goods to the carrier, he will hold the
goods to the extent o f his lien, preferent to the holder o f a bottomry bond;
so bottomry upon particular goods on board is preferred to a general bot­
tomry, all other things being equal.
The court of admiralty possesses jurisdiction o f bottomry and respon­
dentia contracts, and marine hypothecation made for the purpose o f rais­
ing funds to defray the expense o f a voyage, or for raising money to run
at a risk o f the sea, and when a foreign lender o f money takes a mortgage
upon a vessel as collateral security for advances, without taking any risk.
The court of admiralty, in England, entertained jurisdiction to enforce pay­
ment o f the advances upon the property hypothecated.
But it appears that the contract o f hypothecation must be connected
with some marine adventure or with a maritime trade or navigation, oth­
erwise the court o f admiralty will not have jurisdiction. Thus, when a
vessel was mortgaged by a part owner to raise funds not to meet the ne­
cessities of an impending voyage, nor to run at the risks o f the sea, the
court o f admiralty, in the third circuit o f the United States, refused to en­
tertain jurisdiction in rem, to enforce payment o f the hypothecation.f
But a court o f admiralty acts and decrees according to right and justice,
like courts o f pure equity jurisdiction, and a bottomry bond may be held
good for a part, and bad for a part. So far as the claim properly falls
* 1 Peter’s U. S . Reports, 437.




t 3 Washington C. C. Reports, 293.

S44

M aritim e Law.

within the class which gives a lien upon the vessel and cargo by the maritime law, so far will it be held to be within the cognizance of the court,
and dismissed as to the rest; indeed, the court o f admiralty as well as
courts o f common law, frequently have occasion to decree that bottomry
claims are a valid lien upon the property or person o f the borrower to a
certain extent, and void as to the, remainder. This court, like a court of
equity, will marshal the assets o f property condemned within its jurisdic­
tion, so as to distribute the proceeds according to the equities of the seve­
ral claimants.
Thus, the owners o f the vessel will be held liable to exhaust their share
o f the funds in court, to pay a bottomry bond executed by the master
abroad upon the ship and cargo, for the repairs o f the ship, before the pro.
perty o f the shippers o f the cargo can be called upon to contribute any
share o f the payment o f the loan.*
The most usual way to enforce the payment o f bottomry contracts is by
a proceeding in rem, in the court o f admiralty, against the ship itself, by
attachment, condemnation and sale, and when the sale has taken place,
or the vessel has been released upon stipulations for value, the court will
then proceed to make distribution o f the proceeds among the ditferent
claimants, as justice may require ; and this may be done whether the owners, or persons interested do or do not appear at the time appointed by the
court on its monition and citation, otherwise their absence or default would
occasion a failure o f justice.
A sale o f a vessel under a decree o f a court o f admiralty which has
once acquired jurisdiction o f the cause rightfully, will convey a good and
valid title to the purchaser, as against all the world, even should the own­
ers or their agent decline the jurisdiction o f the tribunal; and it becomes
all those interested, to cause their appearance to be entered, so that they
may contest the claims made against the vessel, as well as to secure a
just and legal distribution o f the effects o f the sale.-)The codes of different nations give us different rules in regard to the
liability o f the lenders on bottomry to a contribution for a gross or general average. By the Spanish law, lenders on bottomry are subject to a
gross or general average for all jettisons, ransoms, compositions o f ships,
masts and riggings, cut away for the common good o f the ship and cargo,
and they shall pay pro rata, according to their value o f interests in the
property hypothecated, but not to a single average, unless the contrary is
stipulated.^
The doctrine has been held, in England, that a lender was not subject
to average or salvage, but the most eminent jurists in America have come
to a different conclusion. Chancellor Kent has combatted the English
doctrine with great force and eloquence, and he very justly asks the ques­
tion, why the lender should not contribute towards a jettison, a ransom,
or composition made for the general safety, when, if no such sacrifice had
been made, he would have lost his entire loan by the rapacity o f pirates,
or the violence o f the storms. §
The supreme court, in Louisiana, have held this to be the doctrine in
their courts, although several decisions, in America, have followed the
English rule. The Louisiana rule was, that a contribution or average
* 3 Mason’s Reports, 255. The Packet,
t Ordinances of Bilbao, chap. 23, sec. 9.




t 2 Wendell’s Reports, 64.
§ 3 Kent’s Com., 360.

Bottom ry Bonds.

345

should be first made, and the bottomry bond be discharged from the remainder.* The master ought not to pledge or hypothecate the cargo for
repairs and necessaries which affect the vessel, unless the case o f absolute
necessity presents itself, for the proprietors o f the cargo bear a loss, in
such a case, which they ought not to do. The ship-owner is a common
carrier, and is bound to provide ways and means to transport the cargo
to the place o f destination, and when the owners o f a cargo contribute
to, or pay for a bottomry or respondentia bond, they will have an action
upon the bond against the vessel and owners to refund the money and
damages.
The courts o f admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, possess plenary
equity powers to adjust the rights of all parties over which they have
jurisdiction, and the doctrine o f averages and priorities o f liens will be
adjudicated in this court, on all occasions which require the equitable in­
terposition o f the court.
A court o f admiralty will moderate the rate o f maritime interest, when,
under all the circumstances, it appears to be exorbitant and unjustifiable,
though, in doing so, it will act with great caution and delicacy.f The
court, in a proper case, will refer the case to mercantile persons, and the
registrar o f the court, to report upon the question whether the interest is un­
reasonably high; but in the language o f Chancellor Kent, the contracts o f
bottomry and respondentia are maritime loans o f a very high and privileged
nature, and they are always upheld by the admiralty with a strong hand,
when entered into bona fide, and without any suspicion o f fraud, j; A court,
in a distant part o f the globe, can form only an imperfect opinion o f the
measure o f the distress existing, and of the difficulty o f obtaining the
needful supplies at the place where they are furnished. The money is
to be advanced to persons unknown, and resident in a foreign country ;
it is to be advanced upon an adventure which may totally fail o f success,
and the money may be irrecoverably lost.§ So a bottomry claim may be
sustained, as to some o f the items o f it, and rejected, as to others. Nor
do deductions or disallowances o f a portion o f a bond, impeach its valid­
ity for the remainder; but when various claims are mixed up in a bot­
tomry bond, it is incumbent on the holder to separate them, and show
distinctly to the court the nature and origin o f each, before he can claim
a decree for any o f them. The persons who can execute a bottomry
bond are the owners o f the vessel, when in a home port, or at sea, or
on a voyage, and the master, in certain cases, and under certain circum­
stances ; but when the master gives the bond, without authority first had
of the owners, the rule o f law, in all cases, is that the holder or obligee
is bound to show that the money was bona fide advanced, by other evi­
dence, extrinsic than what the bond purports on its fa ce ; and where
money is advanced to the master o f a vessel, in absence o f the owner,
and without his consent and authority, first had and obtained, the holder
can recover no more, or larger portion o f the bond, either for principal
or interest, than he proves was necessary to effect the objects o f the voy­
age, or the safety of the ship ; nor will a lender be permitted to advance
money to the master, for his private purposes, not connected with the ves­
sel ; nor can the master hypothecate the ship in a foreign port, or in a
* 6 Martin’s N. S. Reps., 399. Chandler vs. Garner.
t 3 Mason’s Reps., 256. The Packet.
t 3 Kent's Com., 353.
4 1 Haggard’s Adm. Reps., 327.




346

„

M aritim e Law.

home port, to pay obligations o f the owners which do not form a lien
upon the vessel. Most vessels are navigated by persons who do not own
them, or by those who have a small share only o f the ownership. The
master, in such a case, is but an agent with certain powers with which
the law and necessities o f trade clothe him, and when he exceeds those
powers, his acts, in contemplation o f law, become mere nullities. The
proprietors and owners of vessels delegate the command and conduct of
the voyage o f the ship to him. The master is the confidential servant or
agent o f the owners, and they will be bound to all the lawful contracts
made by him, relative to the usual employment o f the ship, and the re­
pairs, and other necessaries furnished for her use ; but the authority is
limited; and if the master transcends the prescribed limits, his acts are
not binding on the owners or the vessel.
By the Prussian law, the master is bound to note a bottomry bond upon
the original ship papers in his possession, and if he has hypothecated the
cargo, he must also note the fact upon the bills o f lading, and immediately
acquaint the owners and consignees o f the cargo with his acts. There
is no such regulation in America or England; but, in the latter country,
in order to raise money by way o f mortgage upon a vessel, the contract
must be endorsed on the ship’s register, or a subsequent purchaser will
take precedence as to title over the prior mortgagee.
W e know of no rule in America which prohibits the builder of a ship
or vessel from taking a valid bottomry bond upon a vessel, for the wages
o f building her, to be held at a risk o f a future voyage ; but, in several
European countries, such an instrument is regarded as a mortgage, and
not as a valid bottomry agreement. Indeed, the instrument, and the time,
and the occasion, all point to its character; and courts o f justice would
protect a subsequent purchaser, who had bona jide paid the purchase
money without notice, unless the instrument o f hypothecation had been
duly recorded or otherwise legally treated. But by the law of Hol­
land, these latter hypothecations must be passed judicially, or acknowledged before a notary with witnesses.*
As a general rule, the power of the master o f a vessel to take up money
upon bottomry and respondentia, exists only after the voyage has com­
menced, and is to be exercised only in a foreign port, where the owner
does not reside; for in such cases, only, is the hypothecation presumed to
be necessary ; f and it is said that the whole o f England is deemed a
home port, as to the master and lender on bottomry ; but occasions may
arise in which the different ports in the same country may be so separated,
or cut off by warlike operations from all communications with each other,
as if they were situated in distant parts o f the globe. The law does not
look upon the mere locality o f the transaction, but to the difficulty of the
communication between the master and his owners. In a home port, or
in a place where the owners reside, when the master can communicate
with them, he cannot legally hypothecate, by the maritime law o f Eng­
land, any other than his own interest in the vessel or cargo, by a bot­
tomry or respondentia obligation. In America, the several states, in
a commercial sense, are, to a great degree, deemed foreign places to each
other; and vessels owned in one state o f the United States, when in




* 1 Wheaton, U. S. Reps., 96G. The Aurora,
t See Vanderlinden’ s Laws of Holland, p. 610.

Bottom ry Bonds,

347

another state, are held to be foreign vessels in regard to marine hypothe­
cation.
Thus, when a vessel belonged to the port o f Richmond, in the state o f
Virginia, and was sailed by a master and crew to the port o f New York,
and while there was hypothecated by the master, by a bottomry bond, for
money lent for repairs to the ship, necessary to enable her to pursue the
voyage, Chief Justice Marshall, in the Circuit court, held the bond to be
valid, and a lien on the vessel, though made by the master without the
authority or knowledge o f the owner.*
By the laws o f most countries, the lender is permitted to insure the
amount loaned on bottomry. This is called a re-assurance ; and the in­
surer must be governed in these cases by the usual customs o f such con­
tracts in the countries where they are made.
But, by the ordinances o f Amsterdam, the insured, on being paid a
loss, must make over the insured claim to the taker on bottomry, and de­
liver up to him the writings.
By the ordinances o f Hamburg, the lender may make his insurance for
principal, interest, and premium ; but, by the Spanish law, no person may
get insured the sum that he shall take up as a borrower on bottomry, on
pain of nullity.
But the person or persons that shall lend money may insure it for the
bare sum which they shall have advanced, without including the premium
that they are to receive for it, under the like penalty o f nullity in case o f
violation.
The ordinances of Konigsburgh permit the creditor, or lender o f bot­
tomry money, to insure his capital lent, together with the premium paid
to the insurer; but not the stipulated premiums, or other profits o f the
bottomry.
But insurance made by the debtor, or borrower on bottomry, shall be
of no effect when made on the ship or goods hypothecated.
So is the law in America ; and the borrower on bottomry or respon­
dentia many times has no insurable interest in the property pledged, as
the sum borrowed often equals the value o f the property under hypothe­
cation. In any event, he is interested only so far as the value of the
property exceeds the amount for which it is pledged.
Thus, where the owner o f a ship had bottomried her for more than the
full value o f the vessel, it was held that he had no insurable interest.
When property is hypothecated to its full value, the borrower is not in­
terested in its safety; for, if the property is saved, it goes to satisfy the
debt; but if lost by the risks within the hypothecation, the borrower is
discharged from the debt.
The parties may, however, stipulate that the lender shall run only the
risks stipulated in the agreement, however limited ; and then the other
risks usually included and specified in a policy o f insurance will be the
subject of insurance on the part o f the borrower.f
The lender upon bottomry has an insurable interest in the ship hypothe­
cated ; but this will depend upon the validity o f the hypothecation. I f
the hypothecation is legal, the insurance will be leg a l; but if the hypothe­
cation is void, or tainted with a violation o f law, the insurance will be
also void.
* 1 Brockenborough’s Reps., 396.
t See Parke on Insurance, p. 48.




Selden vs, Hendrickson,

348

M aritim e Late.

By the law of England and the United States, a lender on bottomry or
respondentia cannot insure the ship or goods effectually, unless his particular interest is described and mentioned in the policy. The person who
loans money has no certain interest either in the vessel or cargo.
When a person has insured a bottomry or respondentia interest, and
recovers his bond against the borrower upon a loss, he cannot also recover
upon the policy, because he has not sustained a loss within the meaning
o f his contract; and to suffer any man to receive a double satisfaction,
would be contrary to the principles o f insurance law. It is merely a
contract of indemnity; and a man shall not receive less, nor can he re­
ceive more, than the amount o f damage he has sustained.*
Mr. Benecke, in his learned work on marine insurance, says that the
lender on bottomry or respondentia ought to insure only the amount of
the bond, without the insurance premium; for, did he include it, the loss
o f the ship would be more profitable to him than her safe arrival. Money
expended during the voyage for repairs o f the ship and outfits, may be
insured, with the premium and charges for effecting the policy and charges
o f recovery; for these constitute a part o f the charges o f repair, which,
after the ship’s safe arrival, are to be borne by the party concerned; and,
in case o f her total loss, to be paid by the underwriter, f
By the laws o f Holland, at the present day, money lent on bottomry, of
either ships or goods, may be the object o f insurance, provided it be clearly
expressed in the policy o f insurance ; in which case, not only all this
money so lent on bottomry, but even the goods purchased therewith, and
put on board the vessel, are at the risk o f the owners or underwriters.
But an insurance effected by the borrower on goods already charged with
bottomry to their full value, is void. Such an insurance only covers the
excess o f value o f the goods over the money lent on bottomry on them.j;
By the law o f Spain, whenever a shipwreck happens to a vessel or
merchandise insured, the lender o f money at bottomry, on a risk at sea,
shall be preferred to the underwriter for his payment o f the principal sum,
but without including the premium, by reason o f his special subjection and
hypothecation.^
But a borrower upon bottomry or respondentia will not, by the Spanish
code, be permitted to insure either his ship or goods, upon pain of nullity.
This was the law of most European nations in former times; though, by
the modern codes, the interest o f the borrower, over and above the amount
o f the hypothecation on bottomry, in the ship and goods, constitutes a
valid insurable interest.
The Commercial Code of France, book xi., title 9, contains a complete
digest o f the law on the subject o f contracts o f bottomry and responden­
tia, in the brief compass of twenty-one articles. Most o f the regulations
o f this title are the law o f maritime nations at the present day, with the
exception, in the French code, that bottomry and respondentia bonds,
when made payable to order, may be negotiated and transferred, by means
o f endorsement. In case o f transfer, the instrument has the same effect,
and produces the same rights o f action against sureties as other commer­
cial paper; but this endorsement will not extend to the payment o f the
maritime interest, unless such guaranty be expressly stipulated.*§
* 1 Phillips, p. 113.
t Benecke, p. 32.
§ Ordinances of Bilbao, chap, xxiii., sec. 14.




t Vanderlinden, p. 647.

Bottom ry Bonds.

349

By the common law o f England and the United States, such an instru­
ment does not partake o f the qualities o f mercantile paper, negotiable by
endorsements, with liabilities o f it attached, without a special agreement;
but, even by the common law, the bond may be made payable to order,
assigns, or bearer; but the term generally used is assigns. This gives a
right of action when the instrument is assigned to the holder, who must
prosecute it in the name o f the assignor, to the use and benefit o f the
assignee; but when a condition is attached to it, the paper does not fall
into the class o f commercial negotiation by endorsement alone. In
France, by virtue o f the code, commercial contracts o f bottomry and res­
pondentia may be made by the parties under their private signatures, or
before a notary. Both these contracts are included under the general
term of “ controls d la grosse
and they must specify—
1st. The principal lent, and the rate of maritime interest agreed upon.
2 d. The subject on which the loan is effected.
3d. The names of the vessel and the master.
4th. The names o f the lender and the borrower.
5th. Whether the loan be for the entire voyage.
6 th. For what voyage, and for what space o f time.
7th. The period o f repayment.
By this code, it is required that every lender on bottomry and respon­
dentia shall cause his contract to be registered in the clerk’s office o f the
tribunal o f commerce, within ten days from its date, under the penalty o f
forfeiting his lien or privilege ; and when the contract is made in a foreign
country, it is necessary that the consul o f France, or some other magis­
trate in his absence, at the port or place, shall authorize the transaction,
as well as authorize the amount o f the sum which the necessities o f the
vessel may require.
These loans may be effected—
1st. On the body and keel o f the ship.
2d. On the rigging and apparel.
3d. On the outfits and provisions.
4th. On the cargo.
5th. On the whole o f the subjects conjointly, or some determined part
of each or either o f them. Loans made for a sum exceeding the value
of the subject matter hypothecated, may be declared void, on demand o f
the lender, when fraud is proved against the borrower; but when there
is no fraud, the contract is valid to the extent o f the value o f the thing
under hypothecation. Loans on freight to be earned, and on the expected
profits o f the goods, are prohibited ; but freights already earned are sub­
ject to a lien by privilege, for the principal and interest o f money lent on
bottomry, on the body and keel o f the vessel; and so is the vessel itself,
and her rigging and apparel, her outfits and provisions.
So is the cargo bound for loans upon it, both for principal and interest;
though, by the law o f England, the person o f the borrower alone is liable
when the cargo is sold in a foreign country. So, when a particular thing
is hypothecated, the lien takes effect only on that article.
The master may hypothecate his share only in the vessel and freight
when the vessel is in the place o f the residence o f the owners, or in a
home port, unless they give the master special authority to do so. (This
is the law o f England and America.) Part owners may be cited by other
part owners to appear, and appropriate the necessary funds to fit out their
von. x.— k o . iv.
30




350

M aritim e Law .

share o f the ship; and, in case they refuse to do so, a sum lent on their
shares, even in the place o f their residence, for repairs and provisions,
will form a lien, after twenty-four hours’ delay o f repayment. (The laws
o f England and the United States have no such regulations in their mari­
time codes, though such a provision in regard to obdurate part owners
would be beneficial in most cases.)
Loans made for the last voyage upon the vessel are to be repaid in
preference to the sums lent for a preceding voyage ; so a sum lent during
the voyage will have a preference to those lent before the departure of
the vessel, and generally the last loan will take precedence o f the prior
one. (This is the rule in America and England, when the last loan was
necessary to accomplish the purposes o f the voyage.) When goods have
been shipped on board o f another vessel not named in the contract, the
lender will not be called upon to sustain a loss, even when occasioned by
the perils of the sea, unless it be legally proved that this shipment was
the effect o f superior force. W hen the subject upon which the loan was
made be lost entirely, within the time and place designated, and by acci­
dent or unforeseen casualties, the lender cannot demand the sum loaned ;
but when a loss or damage, or diminution o f the thing hypothecated, is
caused by the act o f the borrower, this will not be at the charge o f the
lender.
Deviation, and the acts o f the borrower, his agents or servants, will
charge the borrower with the payment o f the loan and interest, should a
loss happen, after a deviation actually made ; but, by the law of England
and the United States, a mere intentional deviation will not have this effect
should the loss happen before the arrival o f the vessel at the point of de­
parture for the deviation. In case o f shipwreck, the lender takes what­
ever is saved, or its value, of both vessel and cargo, subject to salvage
expenses; and, in absence o f any stipulation, the risk in the ship, rig­
ging, tackle, apparel, and provisions, commence from the day and hour of
her sailing until the day o f her anchoring or mooring in the port or place
o f her destination. The risk for goods runs from the day they are laden
on board, or when taken into lighters for this purpose, until the day they
are landed. In case o f borrowing upon goods, the party borrowing must
prove that there were on board, at the time o f the loss, for his account,
effects to the amount o f the sum borrowed, or he will not be discharged
by a loss o f the ship and cargo. Lenders on bottomry and at responden­
tia contribute to a general average, in discharge o f the borrower; and so
is the law with respect to particular average, if there be no agreement to
the contrary.
In case o f insurance upon the goods and vessel, the proceeds saved from
shipwreck are to be divided between the lender on bottomry, for his prin­
cipal sum loaned solely, and the insurer, for the amount rateably, accord­
ing to their respective interests, subject to the liens established by law.
The provisions o f the civil code o f France, on the subject o f bottomry
and respondentia, recommend themselves to the favor o f all commercial
nations by their wisdom and justice o f sentiment, and by their compre­
hension and eloquence o f language.
Neither England nor the United States have ever thought proper to
frame a system o f commercial and maritime laws, though they are two ot
the most extensive maritime powers on the face o f the globe. The mari­
time law o f England and the United States does not exist in any definite
and distinct form.




Statistics o f the United States.

351

It must be sought in the voluminous statute-books both o f the national,
state, and colonial governments; and still more in the countless elemen­
tary treatises and adjudged cases which encumber the library, and distract
the mind o f the judge and the lawyer.
The maritime law forms no part o f the common law, and has derived
its principles from the usages, customs, and laws o f the sea o f all mari­
time nations. It has drawn largely upon the compilations o f the French
nation, from the days o f the promulgation o f the laws o f Oleron, in 1150,
to the present time. The United States must ever remain essentially a
maritime nation, and possess an extensive trade upon the ocean, as well
as an internal commerce, unequalled by any nation, on the great rivers
and lakes. T h e national government have authority to regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the states ; and no subject seems to
demand a share o f their attention more than a code o f maritime and commercial law.
a . n .

A r t . VI.— STATISTICS OF TH E UNITED STATES.

I t has long been a subject o f surprise and regret, that whilst almost
every matter upon which legislation can act, has received a certain share
of attention, the statistics o f the country, the only safe basis o f legislative
action, so far as relates to the great commercial and financial interests o f
the community, have been entirely overlooked. Individuals, it is true,
have thought and written upon the subject. The bulky volume o f Mr.
Seybert, the smaller, but better arranged book o f Mr. Pitkins, the statis­
tical tables o f Watterston and Van Zandt, “ the National Calendar,” pub­
lished by P. Force, the “ American Almanac,” published in Boston, the
“ United States Almanac,” published in Philadelphia, the “ Pennsylvania
Register” o f Mr. Hazzard, “ Niles’s Register,” published at Baltimore, and
“ last, but not least,” the “ Merchants’ Magazine and Commercial R e­
view,” contain a fund o f most valuable statistical information ; but it is
scattered, and rendered o f comparatively little value to the public, for
want of collocation and juxtaposition. The general government, as such,
has literally done nothing towards collecting, arranging and preserving a
regular and methodized account o f the statistics o f the country; and this
neglect has not arisen from ignorance o f the necessity, or the importance
of the subject, for it has frequently been pressed upon the notice o f Con­
gress ; it would not, perhaps, be quite decorous to say that it has arisen from
indifference ; but let the cause for this neglect have been what it may,
the omission has led to much unwise, much unnecessary, and much con­
flicting legislation, and a much greater waste o f public money than would
have supported a department consisting o f a principal and ten clerks, em­
ployed at high salaries, and devoting their whole time and attention to our
national statistics.
The subject has, however, at last obtained some notice from Congress.
Much credit is due to the Hon. Z a d o c P r a t t , for introducing into the
House o f Representatives, on the 29th of January, 1844, the following reso­
lution :—
“ Resolved, That a select committee o f five members be appointed to
enquire into the expediency o f establishing, in connection with the trea­




352

Statistics o f the United States.

sury department, a Bureau o f Statistics o f Commerce.” Mr. Pratt’s ob­
servations on introducing the resolution well describe the objects and the
utility o f this bureau. He said “ that the purpose he had in view was the
establishment o f a bureau, in connection with the Treasury Department,
whose duty should be, to take charge o f the statistics o f the country; that
is, gather all the information of that character, as connected with the ag­
riculture, commerce, and manufactures o f the country, and the banks and
monetary institutions, and to reduce the same to convenient tabular form,
so systematized and simplified as to be o f easy reference. The sta­
tistics thus embodied would be invaluable, not only to facilitate, but
to secure enlightened and correct legislation. It was not only important
that the representatives o f the people should have a condensed view o f the
result o f labor in this country, o f every kind, in an official and authentic
form, but that the people themselves should have i t ; for, while it would as­
sist the former in legislating correctly, it might direct the latter in the
application o f their labor. The plan he proposed, was not one to increase
expense, but to economize expenditure ; whilst it was intended to lessen the
enormous expenditure o f extra clerk-hire, now consequent upon the fre­
quent calls by Congress on the department for information, which will be
furnished by such a bureau, it is intended to have the information in such
form as could be relied upon. But this bureau would not only save much
money now spent in the hire o f extra clerks, it would also greatly econo­
mize the time o f the legislative branch o f the government, which will he
also money saved. The sessions o f Congress are protracted, in some
measure, in consequence o f the delay in procuring information from the
departments, upon which to base legislation. This evil will be corrected
by the adoption of the resolution, for the bureau o f statistics will be pre­
pared, at a moment’ s notice, to lay before Congress all the information of
a statistical nature which might be desirable.”
This resolution was agreed to ; and the speaker appointed the follow­
ing committee :— Mr. Pratt, o f New York, Mr. Black, o f South Carolina,
Mr. Summers, o f Virginia, Mr. Cobb, o f Georgia, and Mr. C. M. Reed,
o f Pennsylvania. These gentlemen have not yet made their report; but
we anxiously hope that they will decide it to be not only expedient, but
absolutely necessary, that the bureau in question should be established.
Arguments in favor o f it are as “ plentiful as blackberries,” and it is
not easy to imagine that aught can be said against it. It is a highly im­
portant national measure ; it is o f very ready and easy practicability, and
would save many thousand dollars a year in the expenses o f the government.
That a knowledge of the statistics o f a country is important to the com­
munity residing in it, is evident from the fact, that in scarcely any civil­
ized country, excepting our own, have the means o f acquiring that know­
ledge been neglected. England has her “ Board o f Trade,” France her
“ Bureau du Commerce,” and nearly all the nations o f continental Europe
have similar institutions, under various names, forms and regulations, but
all devoting their attention to the same object, the gathering together and
garnering up statistical knowledge. What is valuable to those countries,
must be important to us : nay, a more intimate knowledge o f these sub­
jects, and a more general dissemination o f it among our people, appear to
be rendered more necessary to us than to others, seeing that our institu­
tions regard the people as the source o f all power, and that, consequent­
ly, that power, to be exercised wisely, must be based upon knowledge.




Statistics o f the United States.

353

Correct and extensive statistical information is no less necessary for the
mass of the people, in order that they may desire, appreciate, and un­
derstand just legislation, than it is for the legislator, to enable him to
comprehend and promote the best interests o f his constituents. Those
members o f Congress who have been most anxious to legislate wisely,
have felt most the want o f such a bureau as the one under consideration.
They have sought for information from the executive departments, which,
in many cases, the departments themselves did not possess ; and where
information has been attainable, it has been procured after long delay,
and often after the opportunity of using it profitably has passed away.
A statistical bureau would record the history o f the past; furnish most
important information for our guidance in the present, and the best means
ofjudging correctly as to the future. It would make the nation acquaint­
ed with the relative advantages o f every variety o f agricultural produce,
every department o f commercial adventure, and every employment o f
manufacturing skill. The various sources o f revenue, and objects o f ex­
penditure, would be brought before the public in a compact and convenient
shape, and information furnished, instead o f the raw materials for informa­
tion only, as is generally the case in the bulky documents now issuing
from the executive and legislative departments, at the annual expense o f
tens of thousands o f dollars, but with very little real benefit to the nation.
A statistical bureau would furnish correct information relative to all the
great interests o f the nation; it would facilitate legislation, and render it
more uniform and consistent; and it would forward and assist the business
of the executive departments. It would be a storehouse o f knowledge
upon every point connected with the commerce, the finance, the naviga­
tion, the shipping, the manufactures, and the agriculture o f the country.
In its archives would be chronicled every important fact relating to the
army, navy, post-office, patent-office, public lands, Indian department,
mint, banks, exchanges, prices of stocks, internal improvement, produce,
expenditure, education, population, crimes, prisons, hospitals, diseases,
mortality, A c. A c. In fact, its objects and its duties would be to furnish
ready answers to every question which would be legitimately asked, in
respect to everything o f a national character, to which facts and figures
bear any relation. The international trade between the various states,
A c. o f the Union, would also be attended to, and their statistical details
chronicled and arranged. The statistics o f foreign countries would be
comprehended in its arrangements, and everything relating to their tariffs,
their commercial regulations, their finances, A c . A c ., would be duly re­
corded.
If knowledge o f this description were spread before the people, all the
conflicting theories o f political economists and one-sided politicians would
soon give way to the sober truths o f figures, and the unerring demonstra­
tion o f facts. So much lor the importance o f this bureau. The practica­
bility o f its establishment needs no other evidence than that similar institutions have been formed, and have been long in useful operation, in
nearly every nation o f Europe. What has been done there, can surely
also be accomplished by our country. W e cannot be deficient in either
the proper persons, or the necessary skill, for carrying such a bureau into
operation. The writer o f this ventures to assert, that a plan, against
which nothing but its simplicity, and therefore apparent inadequacy, can
be urged, may be adopted, which would enable the bureau to answer
30*




354

Com mercial R eciprocity.

every question relative to any o f the subjects under its charge almost on
inspection, and with the same ease as a merchant’s or broker’s clerk as­
certains the state of a customer’s account, by turning to the proper page
in the ledger.
As to the expense o f establishing this bureau, it would be altogether
trifling in proportion to the important services it would render. Three or
four competent clerks, who should be fitted for the employment by habit,
by inclination, and temperament, would set the matter a going, and per­
haps be found quite sufficient to carry out the details. The greatest la­
bor would be at first; this would, however, gradually give way to indus­
try and perseverance. The annual expense need not be more than
85,000 or 86,000; and more than this might be saved in the item o f
printing alone ; for it may be proved that more than $3,000 can be saved
in the printing o f one document, and much more information given to the
public for two-thirds o f the present cost. Add to this the saving in the
extra clerk-hire, the abridgment o f labor in the departments, and the sav­
ing o f time in the legislature, and the conclusion is inevitable, that the
establishment o f the bureau would be a measure o f economy in time, in
labor, and in money.
What more need be urged in favor o f this measure, than that it is
highly important and necessary, very easy in execution, and tending to
economy ? The establishment o f such a bureau would be the most im­
portant and valuable measure o f the session. I look, with anxiety, to the
report o f the committee, and regard it as o f great national interest.
Great care should be taken in the selection o f a head or principal of
this bureau. He should be a man accustomed by habit, and predisposed
by taste, to the dry details o f figures, and the uninviting marshalling and
arranging o f arithmetical deductions; his mind should be like a correctlyposted ledger, with a place for everything, and everything in its place.
Above all, he should be a man o f unwavering industry, unceasing zeal,
energy, and perseverance.
I know that you are friendly to this measure ; and rejoice in the pow­
erful aid which your valuable journal contributes to the cause of sound
commercial and statistical knowledge.
r. t .

A k t . VII.— COMMERCIAL RECIPROCITY.

“ A ll patriotism,” says Mr. Webster, “ is false and spurious, which
does not look with equal eye to the interests o f the whole country, and
all its parts, present and to com e.” But, unfortunately for the character
o f our free republic, we seem to have no settled understanding o f what
are the true interests o f the whole country. Sectional or party views
have such a predominating influence, that national rights, national respon­
sibility, and national commerce, are not regarded with that high and pa­
triotic consideration which is their due. An ultra and proselyting spirit
overlooks the good o f the whole ; and anything like a free, impartial, or
philosophical discussion o f subjects in which the whole Union is concern­
ed, is treated with indifference, unless it can be warped into the service
of some local or political schemers. Even the abstruse science o f political
economy has, we fear, been studied more with a view o f misleading than




Commercial R eciprocity.

355

enlightening the public mind; and the mystified policy o f foreign diplo­
matists, with theory on one side, and an opposite practice on the other, is
eagerly espoused by those who aspire to high places, but have no just
sense o f what is due to a lofty and independent American character.
The subject o f c o m m e r c i a l r e c i p r o c i t y , or a fair and legitimate ex­
change of values among ourselves and with foreign nations, requires to
be better understood. The whole country has a deep interest in i t ; and
yet, how crude and unsettled are the notions o f what fair reciprocity con­
sists in ! Some deny its expediency altogether, and assert that trade will
regulate itself without laws. Others rely on commercial treaties, in which
they hope to get the best side of a bargain, but in which, however, they
are liable to be overreached. But how few are there, who, with any
settled principles o f political science, or any true regard for our national
rights, one and all, present and to come, study out and uphold a national
policy, which, whilst it offers to all nations a fair exchange o f equivalents,
will never suffer our own rights or essential advantages to be disparaged
by any foreign power. The vast interests o f the United States, which
are constantly acquiring shape and growth by new developments o f our
own resources, and changes going on in our relations with other powers,
require a standing committee o f members from all sections o f the country
to have a supervision o f all our foreign and commercial relations, which,
at present, have no particular department of the government to look after
them, and, in fact, are not understood, and cannot be, without special and
constant attention. What is accomplished in England by her board o f
trade, we need in this country, and then we shall possess an energy and
defence far more important to our national glory and advancement, than
any that can be derived from our navy or army, however necessary or
respectable these may be.
The great measure o f a protective tariff has been happily secured by
coincidences which were most fortunate for the people, and which they
seem now to be resolved to reap the advantage of, in spite o f party in­
trigue, and the bitter denunciations o f those who call it “ a system o f plun­
der and m o n o p o l y but the commercial interests of the country still con­
tinue to suffer from the effects o f foreign impositions, and what may plainly
be called fraudulent circumventions o f treaties, made with a view to com­
mercial reciprocity. Our shipping and carrying trade cannot make pro­
gress against the advantages proffered and secured to other nations by our
miscalled reciprocal treaties. Still no measures are taken in Congress to
countervail these encroachments.
It is our design, in this article, to draw public attention to this subject,
and to show, that if there is any “ plunder and monopoly” practised, it is
by those who make the charge, and the foreign government which favors
their peculiar interests.
In order to show the striking want o f reciprocity which exists in the
trade between England and our country, the result o f commercial treaty
regulations, we must avail ourselves of an interesting report recently
made by a committee o f the American Institute o f this city, and which
has been widely circulated by them. Many partial and sophisticated
statements having been put forth of late by the advocates for a pretended
free trade, both in this country and England, professing to prove that our
tariff of duties on British goods is higher than that which the British gov­
ernment imposes on goods from the United States, a careful investigation




356

Commercial R eciprocity.

was made by the committee, consisting o f General Tallmadge, General
Chandler, and Mr. Williams, showing the result, in detail, o f the old Bri­
tish duties, also those now in operation, with the preferential advantages
secured to the colonial trade, and a condensed statement o f the imposts
levied on the leading exports from this country, with their prices current,
in the New York market, at the commencement o f this year.
The following tables are derived from this report:—
T able A.
Exhibit o f the Comparative Rates o f Duty levied by the old and new British Tariffs,
on Articles the growth and produce o f the United States.
O ld D u t y .

N. York
market
price.

Articles of Export.

cts.

$

N ew Du ty.

Rate on | Rate
quantity. (per cent
s.

£

d.

Rate on
quantity.
£

S'

Duty on Rate
imp. from per
Rate British col cent.
per cent

d.

£

s.

d-

A p p l e s , ....................... p e r b u s h

50

4

192

“
d r i e d , ..........................
A s h e s , p o t , .........p e r 1 1 2 lb s

1 00

2

48

4

62

6

31

6

24

fre e .

5

12

6

28

6

24

free.

8

100

14

4

100
20
124

16

“

p e a r l ...............................

B a c o n , ............................................
B e e f , ................................ p e r b b l
B e a n s , ......................... p e r b u s h

6
5

1

75

10
8

1 00

B a r k , q u e r c i t ’ n , . p r . 1 1 2 lb s

1 25

B u t t e r , ..............................................

13 4 4

C a n d l e s , s p e r m , .......... p e r lb
“
t a l l o w , p r . 1 1 2 lb s
C a n d l e w i c k , .................................

1

72

36

1

33

2

6

180

32

3

3

4

123

10 0 8

4

8

8

2124

12

lb s .

5

60

10

C i d e r , ............................. p e r b b l .

1

00

1 15

6

I n d ia n ,*

3

50

3

67

4

20

6
10
8

2

8

6

124
I 64
10
2

5

1

5
36

5

9

36
19

8

20

4

4

10

2

6

10

25

10
1

6

15

45
840

20

25

C l o c k s , ..............................p e r c t .
C orn ,

10
1

45
840

24
48

2

50

C a s k s , e m p t y , ..............p e r c t
C h e e s e , ................ p e r l i 2

6

(a v e r a g e ,)

p e r b u s h . , ...................................

54

C o t t o n , .................p e r 1 1 2 lb s .

8 96

F e a t h e r s , ........................................

33

60

1
6
2 11
2

4

67
74
31

9

334

2 11

74
14

10

16

fre e .

1

14
4

54

1
7

F is h , c u r e d , (p r o h ib it e d u n d e r t h e o l d ta r iff.)
F i s h , c o d , ........... p e r 1 1 2 lb s .

.p er b b l.

2
6

3 00
75

17

85

H o p s , ......................p e r 1 1 2 lb s.

7 84

6 72

8 11
8
2

523

L a r d , .................................................

F l o u r ,* (a v e r a g e ,)

4

74

1 10

334

9

H a m s , ...................( s e e b a c o n . )

L e a d , ................................p e r t o n

78

40

10

7

6
3

255

3

255

1

18

100
127

6
6

29

s p e r m , .................................... 2 0 0 00
5 60

12
2 6 12
12

64

15

36

00

f is h ,........................................... 100 00

P o r k , ..................... p e r 1 1 2 l b s .

9

275

2
1

1

2 24

O il , l i n s e e d , ................. p e r tu n 1 8 9
“

1 24

39

M o l a s s e s , .............p e r 1 1 2 lb s .
“

4

28

26

9

15

8

51
120

6

48

253

2

107

1 ,8 0 0

6

1 ,8 0 0

3 00

15

45

4

S n u f f , ................................. p e r lb .

08

6

S o a p , b a r , ..................p e r c w t .

6 72

4

10

321

S p i r i t s , f r o m g r a i n ,. p e r g a l l .

23

1

2

6 2 ,3 4 7

1 2

6

2 ,3 4 7

27

1

2

6| 2 , 0 0 0

1 2

6

2 ,0 0 0

“

f r o m m o l a s s e s , ..........

9

1

10

107

If
14

1

24
1
1
2

34

R o s i n , ...............................................

R i c e , c l e a n e d , ............................

6
5

i
i
6

1

84
4
534
714

1
9
9

939
800

* Subject to the sliding scale. The sliding scale, in the British com laws, makes the
duty on grain and flour variable, according to the prices of their domestic grain, and is
nearly prohibitory to grain and flour from the United States. The duty is always low
enough to admit the same from the British colonies.




Commercial R eciprocity.

357

T able A. — Continued.

Exhibit of the Comparative Rates o f Duty levied by the old and new British Tariffs,
on Articles the growth and produce o f the United States— Continued.
O ld D u t y .

Articles of Export.

N. York
market
price.

N ew Duty.

cts.

£

s.

S t a r c h ,................. p e r 1 1 2 lb s .

5

60

9

10

814

S u g a r , b r o w n , ............................

6 72

3

3

225

3

3

8

8

327

8

8

$

“
l o a f , ................................... 1 2 3 2
S ta ves, h o g s h e a d ,..p e r 1 2 0 4 5 0
T a l l o w , ................p e r 1 1 2 lb s . 7 8 4
T a r , ................................. p e r b b l .
1 50
T o b a c c o , l e a f , ............ p e r lb .

Duty on im­ Rate
ports from per
ct.
Rate per Briiish col.
cent.

Rate on Rate per Rate on
quantity.
quantity.
cent.
d.

3

£

s.

d.

£

10

424
225

d.

5

2 14

4

85}

327

320

7

9

41

7

3

2

9

3

24

3

3

2

9

1

3

20

034

3

2 ,0 5 6

3

2 ,0 5 6

m a n u f a c ’ d , .............

09

9

2 ,4 0 0

9

2 ,4 0 0

T u r p e n t in e , ................. p e r b b l.

2 62

13

119

3

1 11

33

1 11

“

1

s.

34
}
4

4

274

T w in e , K e n tu c k y , p e r 1 1 2
lb s .................................................. 2 2 4 0
V i n e g a r , ........................ p e r b b l . 6 00
W h e a t , * ( a v . , ) ___ p r . b u s h .
W o o l , ................................p e r lb

3

1 00

3

25

252

3
4

80

1

8

Number of articles,...................

47)16,898

Av. rate of duty under the old tariff,...

359

3

33
252

3
1

4

32

1

8

3

6

fre e .

48)13,886
New do.,

289

T able B.

Total Export o f Articles, the growth or produce o f the United States, to England,
Scotland, and Ireland, with the Duties paid thereon, during the years 1838, 1839,
and 1840.
Years.

Value.

Duties.

Per cent.

1833,.
1839,.
1840..

$50,481,624
50,791,981
54,005,790

$23,621,160
26,849,477
28,360,153

46 7-10
52 8-10
52 5-10

$155,279,395

$78,830,790

av. 50 5-10

Total,.....................

,

Of the above, the value of cotton and tobacco, and the duties paid thereon, were as
follows:—
Years.

Value.

Duties.

1Cotton,...................
1838 j
i Tobacco,...............
1Cotton,...................
1839 J
\Tobacco, .............
>Cotton,...................
1840 ]
>Tobacco,...............

$45,789,687
2,939,706
46,074,579
3,523,225
41,945,334
3,380,809

$2,761,612
19,860,898
1,942,337
23,288,396
3,247,880
22,537,205

Total,.....................

$143,653,340

$73,638,328

Total exports,...................
Deduc:t cott’n and tobacco,

$155,279,395
143,653,340

$78,830,790
73,638,328

Total,.........................

$11,626,055

$5,192,462

Per cent.

514

44 6-10

* Subject to the sliding scale. The sliding scale, in the British corn laws, makes the
duty on grain and flour variable, according to the prices of their domestic grain, and is
nearly prohibitory to grain and flour from the United States. The duty is always low
enough to admit the same from the British colonies.




358

Commercial R eciprocity.
T able

C.

Statement o f the Rate of Duties payable on the principal Articles imported into the
United States, from Great Britain and Ireland, according to the present Tariff, passed
August, 1842.
Per cent.

Woollens......................... .(average,)
Worsteds,........................
Cottons,........................... .(average,)
Linens,............................
Hemp, manufactures of,...
Silk, manufactures of,..... .(average,)
(t
Cotton bagging,..............
U
Flannels,..........................
ft
Baizes,.............................
it
Carpeting,........................
ft
Lace, thread,...................
if
“ cotton,...................
It
“ bobbinet,...............
It
Paper,.............................
t(
Books,..............................
Engravings,.....................
Twine,............................ .(average,)
Leather, manufactures of,
Earthenware,..................
Glass,............................. .(average,)

40
30
50
25
20
40
34}
33

40
40
15
20
40
75
25
20

Per cent.

Hardware,.........................
Iron,.................................. .(average,)
Saddlery,..........................
Steel,................................
Tin,...................................
Brass, manufactures of,.....................
Copper,
“
.................
Plated ware,.................... ..................
Gilt
“ ....................
Gold and silver jewelry,.. ..................
watches,..................
“
lace,...
Ale and porter,.............
Drugs,............................
Salt,............................... ....(average,)
it
Coal,..............................

40

30
30
30
20
15
50
20
50
60

33

35
30
40

36 articles,................................ )1,140£
Average, (nearly,)...........
32

N. B.— On those articles which pay specific duties, the rate per cent is calculated on
the average cost of the same articles in Great Britain.

The table A will strikingly exhibit the kind o f policy adopted by the
British government, to w it: high imposts on manufactured articles, inter­
fering with her own laborers ; low imposts on raw materials, which are
needed to keep their own workmen and machinery employed; still lower,
on such articles as they do not produce or manufacture, unless they are
o f a character like tobacco or spirits, on which an enormous revenue can
be raised, from a vicious indulgence in these luxuries, to discharge the
otherwise insupportable expenses o f its debt-burdened government.
The rates o f duty in England, on the chief productions o f our country,
as presented in table A, average, according to the old British tariff, on
their value in this market, 359 per cent. By the new one, now in opera­
tion, 289 per cent. On thirty-three o f these articles, being all which are
admitted under a discriminating duty in favor o f the colonies, the average
duty, when imported direct from the United States, is 166 per cent. On
the same articles, imported into Great Britain from the British colonies,
the duty is 64 per cent, making a discriminating duty, in favor of the lat­
ter, o f 1 0 2 per cent.
The average o f duties on the principal articles now imported into the
United States from Great Britain, as shown in table C, is 32 per cent.
On the total amount o f our exports to Great Britain, for three years, the
average duties thereon is shown to be, per table B, 50} per cent. Omit­
ting cotton, which, being essential to her manufacturing industry, is ad­
mitted at 7} per cent duty, and constitutes T°yths o f all she takes from us,
the average duty on the remaining articles is 330 per cent. Omitting
cotton and tobacco, our two great American staples, which are the pillars
o f her revenue and commercial sway, varying in duty from 7 } to 2,400
per cent, (which, if duties are plunder, as is asserted by the champions of
a free trade policy, shows who are plundered most o f those who depend on




Proposed M odification o f the T ariff.

359

the labor o f their peculiar population at the south,) the average duties on
the remaining articles are 4 4 / j per cent.
Thus is it proved, in every view o f the case, that there is a great want
of reciprocal advantage in our intercourse with England, who, neverthe­
less, has the benefit o f one-third o f our whole export trade to all nations,
and annually levies more duties on our cotton and tobacco, than the whole
annual expense o f our own government, or the whole duties we collect
from customs from all our imports.
The very able report referred to by the writer o f this article, shows
the precise mode in which a foreign government has, wisely for her own
interests, taken advantage o f our ignorance and absurd free trade propen­
sities. It is time that we should refuse to be any longer blindfolded and
cajoled for the benefit o f any other people ; and it is time, especially,
that our own free, working, industrious citizens o f the northern and west­
ern sections o f the country, who are not favored with a monopoly o f ser­
vile labor, and do not enjoy a climate suited to the aggrandizement of a
foreign power, should resist the lion’s part which is played by those to
whom cotton is everything and personal labor is odious. It is time that
our hardy grain-growing yeomanry, and intelligent laboring men and
women, engaged in manufacturing and commercial pursuits, in the free
states, as well as the cultivators o f sugar, molasses, and tobacco, whose pro­
ducts are enormously taxed in Europe, should resist the undignified and un­
just aspersion thrown upon them, o f being “ plunderers and monopolists,”
whilst those who make the charge, the cotton planters, are more favored than
any others by the existing state o f our trade, both at home and abroad. Pro­
tection is due to all our interests, and it is invidious in any portion o f the
community to be dissatisfied with its share. Let the popular vote fairly
decide what this share is. The tariff is a legally enacted measure o f the
government and people, and those who are pursuing an honest vocation
under its sanction are entitled to respect. With a perfectly free trade
at home, guarantied by our own laws, let our labor, our own capital, and
all our integral rights o f sovereignty be protected from foreign aggres­
sion, and then the United States will deserve and enjoy a national char­
acter.
c. c. H.

A rt. VIII.—PROPOSED MODIFICATION OF THE TARIFF.

T he following is a synopsis o f the bill reported on the 8th o f March,
1844, to the United States House o f Representatives, by the committee
on ways and means. General M’Kay, chairman o f the committee, laid
before the house, next day, the committee’s report, which, with the bill,
was ordered to be printed; and both were referred to the committee o f
the whole on the state o f the Union :—
S ec. I.—Enacts that, from and after the 1st of September, 1844, the duties imposed
by the act of 30th August, 1842, shall be changed, modified, and reduced, in manner
following:—
1st. On all coarse unmanufactured wool, the value whereof, at the last port or place
whence exported to the United States, shall be 7 cents, or under, per lb., the duty shall
be 15 per cent ad valorem, instead of *5 per cent, as per act of ’42. On all other unman­

* Reduced to a scale, ad valorem, by the treasury department, they range from 40 to
87 per cent.




360

P roposed M odification o f the T ariff.

ufactured wool, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 3 cents per lb., and 30 per cent
ad valorem.
2d. On all manufactures of wool, or of which wool shall be a component part, except
milled or fulled cloth, known as plains, kerseys, Kendall cottons, carpetings, flannels
bockings, baizes, blankets, worsted, stuff' goods, ready-made clothing, hosiery, mitts,
gloves, caps, and bindings, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 40 per cent, as per act of ’42.
3d. On all milled or fulled cloth, known as plain, kerseys, or Kendall cottons, of which
wool shall be the only material, the value whereof shall not exceed 35 cents the square
yard at the last port or place whence exported, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of the
duties imposed per act of ’42.*
4th. On all carpets and carpeting, of wool, hemp, flax, or cotton, or parts of either, or
other material not specified, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of duties imposed per act
of ’42.*
5th. On all woollen blankets, the actual value of which, at the place whence exported,
shall not exceed 75 cents each, there shall be levied a duty of 10 per cent ad valorem,
instead of 15 per cent, as per act of ’42.
6th. On all hearth rugs, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 40 per cent, as per act of ’42.
7th. On woollen yarn, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act of ’42.
On worsted yarn, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act of ’42.
8th. On woollen and worsted mits, gloves, caps, and bindings, and woollen or worsted
hosiery made on frames, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act of ’42.
9th. On flannels, of whatever materials except cotton, and on bockings and baizes, 30
per cent ad valorem, instead of 14 cents per square yard, as per act of ’42. On coach
laces, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 35 per cent, as per act of ’42.
10th. On ready-made clothing, of whatever materials, worn by men, women, or children,
(except gloves and hosiery, and similar manufactures made on frames,) hats, bonnets,
shoes, boots, and bootees, imported in a state ready to be used as clothing, 30 per cent ad
valorem, instead of 50 per cent, as per act of ’42. On all articles worn by men, women,
or children, other than as above specified, made up wholly or in part by hand, 30 per
cent ad valorem, instead of 40 per cent. On clothing finished in whole or in part, em­
broidered in gold or silver, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 50 per cent, as per act of ’42.
S ec. II.—1st. On all manufactures of cotton, or of which cotton shall be a component
part, not otherwise specified, and excepting cotton-twist, yarn, and thread, and such other
articles as herein otherwise provided for, 25 per cent ad valorem—proviso of second sec­
tion of act o f ’42 repealed.t
2d. On cotton-twist, yarn, and thread, bleached or unbleached, colored or uncolored,
and on spools or otherwise, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of various duties, as per act
of ’42.+
S ec. III.—1st. On all manufactures of silk not otherwise specified, except boltingcloths, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of $2 per lb., as per act of ’42.t On silk boltingcloths, 15 per cent ad valorem, instead of 20 per cent, as per act o f ’42.
2d. On silk twist, or twist composed of silk and mohair, and on sewing silk, $1 per
lb., instead of $2 per lb., as per act of ’42. On pongees, and plain white silks, for print­
ing or coloring, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of $1 50 per lb. On floss, and other
similar silks purified from the gum, dyed and prepared for manufacture, 15 per cent ad
valorem, instead of 25 per cent. On all raw silks, comprehending all silks in the gum,
whether in hanks, reeled, or otherwise, 12£ per cent ad valorem, instead of 50 cents per
lb. On silk umbrellas, parasols, sun-shades, silk or satin shoes for men, women, or chil­
dren, silk or satin laced boots or bootees for do., men’s silk hats, silk or satin bonnets for
women, silk shirts and drawers, made up wholly or in part; silk caps for women, turbans,
ornaments for head-dresses, aprons, collars, caps, cuffs, braids, curls or frisettes, chemi­
settes, mantillas, pelerines, and all other articles of silk made up by hand, in whole or in
part, and not otherwise provided for, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various du­
ties imposed by act of ’42.§
3d. On unmanufactured hemp, Manilla, Lunn, and other hemps of India, jute, Sisal
grass, coir, and other vegetable substances not enumerated,used for cordage, 30 percent
ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed by act of ’42.|| On codilla, or tow of*§
* Reduced to a scale ad valorem, by the treasury department, they range from 40 to
87 per cent.
+ Reduced to ad valorem by treasury department, ranging from 49 to 63 per cent,
some being 150 ; such as handkerchiefs.
t 40 to 65 per cent.
§ Per Treas. Doc., ad valorem, ranging from 50 to 75 per cent.
U Per same, 40 per cent.




Proposed M odification o f the T ariff.

361

hemp and flax, 25 per cent, ad valorem, instead of $20 per ton. On tarred and untarred
ca b le s , a n d c o r d a g e

and

c a b le s , y a rn s, t w in e , p a c k -t h r e a d , c o tto n -b a g g in g , o f w h a te v e r

m a t e r ia l c o m p o s e d , a n d o n a n y o t h e r m a n u f a c t u r e n o t o t h e r w i s e s p e c i f i e d , s u it a b le t o t h e
u ses t o w h i c h c o t t o n - b a g g i n g is a p p li e d , w h e t h e r i m p o r t e d u n d e r t h e d e s i g n a t i o n o f g u n n y
c lo t h , o r o t h e r a p p e ll a t io n , 3 0 p e r c e n t , a d v a l o r e m , i n s t e a d o f t h e v a r i o u s d u t ie s i m p o s e d
b y a c t o f ’ 4 2 .*

4th. On stamped, printed, or painted floor oil cloth, furniture .oil cloth, made on Canton
or cotton flannel, other furniture oilcloth, oilcloth of linen, silk, or other materials, used
for hat-covers, aprons, coach-curtains, or similar purposes, and on medicated oilcloths, 30
per cent, ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed by act of ’42.t
S ec. IV.—1st On iron, in bars or bolts, not manufactured, in whole or in part, by roll­
ing, $15 per ton, instead of $17 per ton, as per act of ’42. On bar or bolt iron, made
wholly or in part by rolling, $20 per ton, instead of $25 per ton. On all iron imported
in bars, for railroads or inclined planes, made to patterns, and fitted to be laid down as
rails, upon such roads or planes, without further manufacture, $10 per ton, instead of $25
per ton: P r o v i d e d security be given that, if not permanently so laid down within the
prescribed time arranged by the secretary of the treasury, in one year, the full duty of
$20 per ton, shall be paid.
2d. On iron in pigs, $7 per ton instead of $9 per ton, as per act of ’42. On vessels
of cast iron, not otherwise specified; glazed or tin hollow ware and castings, sad irons
or smoothing-irons, hatters and tailors’ pressing-irons, cast iron butts or hinges; iron or
steel wire, described in said act as not exceeding No. 14, over that and not exceeding
No. 25, and over No. 25, silver or plated wire; round or square iron or braziers’ rods,
of 3-16ths to 10-16ths of an inch in diameter, inclusive; iron in nail or spike rods or
nail plates ; slit, rolled, and hammered iron, in sheets, except ------ iron, hoop iron, iron
Blit, r o ll e d o r h a m m e r e d f o r b a n d i r o n , s c r o l l i r o n o r c a s e m e n t r o d s ; i r o n c a b l e s or
c h a in s , o r p a r t s t h e r e o f , m a n u f a c t u r e d in w h o l e o r in p a r t , of w h a t e v e r d i a m e t e r , t h e
links b e i n g o f t h e f o r m p e c u l ia r t o c h a i n s f o r c a b l e s ; a ll o t h e r c h a i n s o f i r o n n o t o t h e r ­
w is e s p e c i f i e d , t h e l in k s b e i n g e i t h e r t w i s t e d o r s t r a ig h t , a n d w h e n s t r a ig h t , o f g r e a t e r
le n g t h th a n t h o s e u s e d f o r c a b l e s ; a n c h o r s o r p a r t s o f a n c h o r s , m a n u f a c t u r e d in w h o l e
or

in

p a r t ; a n v ils , b l a c k s m it h s ’ h a m m e r s a n d s l e d g e s ; c u t o r w r o u g h t i r o n s p i k e s ;

cut
of

iro n n a i l s ; w r o u g h t i r o n n a i l s ; a x l e t r e e s o r p a r t s t h e r e o f ; m il l i r o n s a n d m i l l c r a n k s
w rou g h t i r o n ; w r o u g h t
o t h e r th a n

ch a in

iro n

f o r s h ip s , l o c o m o t i v e s , a n d

c a b le s ; stea m , g a s , o r w a te r tu b es, o r

stea m

e n g in e s ; iro n

p ip e s m a d e o f b a n d

c h a in s ,

o r r o lle d

i r o n ; a n d t a c k s , b r a d s , o r s p r i g s , 3 0 p e r c e n t a d v a l o r e m , in s t e a d o f t h e v a r i o u s d u t ie s
im p o s e d b y a c t o f '4 2

;

a n d t h e la s t c la u s e o f t h e 2 d p r o v i s o o f t h e 2 d s u b d i v i s io n

4 th s e c t io n o f th e s a id a c t , w h ic h

im p o se s

a d u ty

of

th e

o f 1 5 p e r c e n t ad v a lo r e m , u p o n th e

c o s t o f t h e a r t ic l e s e m b r a c e d t h e r e in , r e p e a l e d . !

3d. On all old or scrap iron, $6 per ton instead of $10 per ton, as per act of ’42.
4th. On screws made of iron, called wood screws, brass screws, and brass battery
or hammered kettles, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties of act
of ’424
5th. On all steel in bars, except cast, shear, and German steel, $1 50 per cwt. in­
stead of $2 50 per cwt., as per act of ’42. On solid headed pins, and all other package
pins, and on pound pins, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of duties as per act o f’42.
6th. On japanned ware of all kinds, or papier mache, and plated and gilt wares of all
kinds, cutlery of all kinds, and all other manufactures not otherwise specified, made of
brass, iron, steel, copper, pewter, lead, or tin, or of which either of these metals is a
component material, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act of ’42.
7th. On lead in pigs and bars, old and scrap lead, leaden pipes, leaden shot, and lead
in sheets, or in any other form not herein specified, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of
the various duties of act of ’42.
8th. On silver plated metal in sheets, argentine, alabata, or German silver, in sheets
or otherwise unmanufactured, and on manufactures of German silver, bell metal, zinc,
or bronze, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act of ’42.
9th. On coal, $1 per ton instead of $1 75 per ton, as per act of ’42. On coke or
culm of coal, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 5 cents per bushel, as per act of ’42.
Sec. V.—1st. On all vessels or wares, articles and manufactures of cut glass, cut glass
chandeliers, candlesticks, lustres, lenses, lamps, prisms, and parts of the same; and all
drops, icicles, spangles, and ornaments used for mountings ; and on all articles or manu­
factures of plain, moulded, or pressed glass, whether stappened, or the bottoms ground,
* Per Treasury Document ad valorem, 71 to 188 per cent.
} Reduced to ad valorem, ranging from 45 to 235 per cent.
VOL. X .---- N O. I V .




31

t 67 per cent.

362

Proposed M odification o f the T ariff.

or punticed, or not, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed by
act of ’42.*
2d. On all apothecaries’ vials and bottles, not exceeding the capacity of 16 ozs. each,
and all perfumery, and fancy vials, and bottles, not exceeding the capacity of 16 ozs.
each, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42.*
3d. On all black and green glass bottles, and jars, and on all demijohns and carboys,
30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ;42.*
4th. On all cylinder or broad window glass, and on all crown window glass, 30 per
cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42.* On all pol­
ished plate glass, whether imported as window glass, or however otherwise specified,
not silvered, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act
of ’42.* And if silvered, 25 per cent ad valorem, and if silvered and framed, 30 per
cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42, 2d proviso to
4th subdivision of 5th section, repealed.* And on all porcelain, glass, glass colored, or
paintings on glass, and on all articles or manufactures of glass, or of which glass shall
be the component material of chief value, and not otherwise specified, 20 per cent ad
valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act o f ’42.*
5th. On Chinaware, porcelainware, earthenware, stoneware, and all other ware, com­
posed of earth or mineral substances, and not otherwise specified, whether gilt, printed,
plain, or glazed, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as per act o f ’42.
6th. On tanned, sole, or bend leather, all upper leather not otherwise specified, calf
and seal skins tanned and dressed, sheep skins tanned and dressed, or skivers, goat
skins, or morocco tanned or dressed, kid skins, or morocco tanned or dressed, goat or sheep
skins tanned and not dressed, and all kid and lamb skins tanned and not dressed, skins
tanned and dressed, otherwise than in color, to wit: fawn, kid, and lamb, usually known
as chamois, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of
’42.t On men’s boots or bootees of leather, wholly or partially manufactured ; on men’s
shoes or pumps, wholly or partially manufactured; women’s boots or bootees, wholly or
partially manufactured ; children’s boots, bootees, or shoes, wholly or partially manufac­
tured ; women’s double soled pumps or w'elts, shoes or slippers, wholly or partially
manufactured, whether of leather, prunella, or other material, except silk, 30 per cent
ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’424
7th. On men’s leather gloves, women’s and children’s leather habit gloves, and extra
and demi-length leather gloves, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties im­
posed, as per act o f ’424 On leather caps or hats, leather braces or suspenders, and all
other braces or suspenders, of whatever materials composed, except India-rubber, and
on leather bottles, patent leather, and on all other manufactures of leather, or of which
leather is a component material of chief value, not otherwise specified, 30 per cent ad
valorem, instead of 35 per cent, as per act of ’42.
8th. On fur hats, caps, muffs, tippets, and other manufactures of fur, not specified, 30
per cent ad valorem, instead of 35 per cent, as per act of ’42. On hats of wool, and hat
bodies or felts, made in whole or in part of wool, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 18
cents each, as per act of ’42.
9th. On hats and bonnets for men, women, and children, from Panama, Manilla, Leg­
horn, Naples, or elsewhere, composed of satin, straw, chip, grass, palm-leaf, rattan, wil­
low, or any other vegetable substance, or of hair, whalebone, or any other material, not
otherwise specified, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of 35 per cent, as per act of ’42.
10th. On feathers for beds, and on down of all kinds, on India-rubber oil-cloth, web­
bing, shoes, braces, suspenders, or other fabrics, or manufactured articles, composed
wholly or in part of India-rubber; on all clocks, and on crystals of glass for watches,
and on glass or pebbles for spectacles, or eye-glasses, when not set, 20 per cent ad va­
lorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act o f ’42; and so much of the pro­
viso to 10th subdivision of 5th section, as directs the valuation of India-rubber braces or
suspenders, at $2 per dozen, repealed.
11th. On paving tiles and bricks, 15 per cent ad valorem, instead ol 25 per cent, as
per act of ’42. On metal buttons, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of 30 per cent, as
per act of ’42. On all other buttons and button moulds, 20 per cent, ad valorem, in­
stead of 25 per cent, as per act of ’42; and the 1st proviso to the 12th subdivision of
5th section, repealed.
* Ad valorem duty, ranging from 186 to 243 per cent—average 180, computed by
merchants.
t Treasury Document, ad valorem, 53 per cent.
$ 50 to 75 per cent ad valorem.




Pro-posed M odification o f the T ariff.

363

S ec. VI.—On white or red leads, litherage, acetate, or chromate of lead, dry or ground
in oil; on whiting or Paris white ; and all ochres or ochry earths, used in the composi­
tion of painters’ colors, dry or ground in oil; on sulphate of barytes; on linseed, rapeseed, and hempseed oil; and on putty, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various
duties imposed, as per act of ’42.*
S ec. VII.—On bank, folio, quarto-post of all kinds, and letter and bank note paper;
on antiquarian, demy, drawing, &c., (all kinds of paper and pasteboard included and
specified,) 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of
’42.t On all paper hangings, paper for screens or fire-boards, 30 per cent ad valorem,
instead of 35 per cent, as per act of ’42. On all blank books, bound, 30 per cent ad
valorem, instead of 20 cents per pound, as per act of ’42. On all other paper, not
enumerated herein, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of 15 cents per pound, as per act
of ’42.
S ec. VIII.—1st. On raw sugar, (commonly called brown sugar,) not advanced beyond
its raw state, by claying, boiling, clarifying, or other process, and on brown clayed sugar,
2 cents per pound instead of 2£ cents per pound, as per act of ’42. On syrup of sugar
or of sugar cane, 1£ cents per pound instead of 2£ cents per pound, as per act of ’42.
On all other sugars when advanced beyond the raw state, by boiling, clarifying, or other
process, and not yet refined, 3 cents per pound instead of 4 cents per pound, as per act
of ’42. On refined sugars, (whether loaf, lumped, crushed, or pulverized, and where,
after being refined, they have been tinctured, colored, or in any way adulterated,) and
on sugar candy, 4 cents per pound instead of 6 cents per pound, as per act of ’42. On
molasses, 3 mills per pound instead of 4£ mills per pound, as per act of ’42.
2d. On cocoa, chocolate, cinnamon, oil of cloves, crude camphor, indigo, ivory or
bone black, oil of vitriol, and sulphuric acid, 15 per cent ad valorem, instead of the va­
rious duties imposed, as per act o f ’42. On ginger ground, and ginger in the root, when
not preserved, woad or pastil, alum, and copperas, and green vitriol, 20 per cent ad
valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42. On mace, nutmegs,
cloves, Chinese-cassia, pimento, black pepper, camphor refined, opium, glue, gunpowder,
blue or Roman vitriol, or sulphate of copper, almonds, prunes, sweet oil of almonds, dates,
currants, figs, all nuts not specified, except those used for dying, Muscatel and bloom
raisins, either in boxes or jars, and on all other raisins, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead
of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’424
3d. On olive oil in casks, spermaceti oil of foreign fisheries, whale or other fish oil,
not sperm, of foreign fisheries, spermaceti or wax candles, and candles of spermaceti or
wax, combined, tallow candles, all hard soap except Windsor shaving, and all other per­
fumed or fancy soaps, and wash-balls and Castile soap, on starch, and pearl or hulled
barley, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42.
4th. On salt, 20 per cent ad valorem, instead of 8 cents per bushel, as per act of ’42.§
On vinegar, beef, pork, hams, bacon, cheese, butter, lard, wheat, barley, rye, oats, In­
dian corn or maize, wheat flour, Indian meal, and potatoes; on foreign fish, namely,
dried or smoked, on mackarel and herrings, pickled or salted, on pickled salmon, and
all other fish pickled in barrels, 25 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties
imposed, as per act of ’42.
S ec. IX.— 1st. On spirits from grain of first proof, 42 cents per gallon; on spirits from
grain of second proof, 45 cents per gallon; on spirits from grain of third proof, 48 cents
per gallon ; on spirits from grain of fourth proof, 52 cents per gallon ; on spirits from grain
of fifth proof, 60 cents per gallon; on spirits from grain of above fifth proof, 75 cents per
gallon, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42. On spirits from other
material than grain, first and second proof, 38 cents per gallon; on spirits from other ma­
terial than grain, third proof, 42 cents per gallon; on spirits from other material than grain,
fourth proof, 48 cents per gallon; on spirits from other material than grain, fifth proof,
57 cents per gallon ; on spirits from other material than grain, above fifth proof, 70 cents
per gallon, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42.
2d. On wines of all sorts, 30 per cent ad valorem, instead of the various duties, as
per act of ’42.
S ec. X.—Unmanufactured cotton, guano, and sulphate of quinine, shall all be exempt
from duty, instead of the various duties imposed, as per act of ’42.*§

* 100 to 146 per cent ad valorem.
t From 35 per cent ad valorem, per Treasury Document, to 97 per cent, computed
by merchants.
t Spices, from 50 to 90 per cent ad valorem, black pepper, 130 per cent.
§ 80 per cent ad valorem—Turk’s island, 144.




Tobacco A gen cy in E urope.

354

S ec. XL—So much of the act of 1842, as directs the manner in which the market
value or wholesale price of goods, wares, and merchandise, imported into the United
States, and subject to ad valorem duties, or duties based upon the value of the square
yard, or any specified quantity or parcel of such goods, shall be ascertained, be and the
same is hereby so modified, that to said value or price to be ascertained as provided for
in said section, shall be added only the costs and charges, which shall have been incurred
to and at the place of exportation.
V
S ec. XII.—All ad valorem duties under this act or the act of 1842, of which it is
amendatory, which exceed 25 per cent ad valorem, shall be reduced to that rate on the
1st September, 1845.
S ec. XIII.— Such parts o f the act o f 1842, as are n ot touched by this act, to remain
in as full force as if re-enacted.
S ec. XIV.—The 12th section

of the act of 1842, so modified, that all goods imported
from within, or this side of the Cape of Good Hope, may remain in the public stores 120
instead of 60 days; and those from beyond the Cape of Good Hope, 150 instead of 90
days: Provided 6 per cent interest be paid from time of entry to time of payment, on the
duties, as part of the duties chargeable on said goods.

A

rt.

IX.—TOBACCO AGENCY IN EUROPE.

N ext to cotton, tobacco is one o f the most important staples o f our coun­
try. Our soil is peculiarly adapted to its culture, and the means o f ex­
tending its sale and consumption in Europe, where high and prohibitive
duties are imposed, and where the trade is entirely monopolized by govern­
ments for revenue purposes, have for many years been sought by our
diplomatic agents abroad in obedience to special instructions.
In 1836, Congress made an appropriation for maintaining a commercial
agent in the north o f Europe, whose specific duty should be to obtain all
available information concerning its growth, sale, and use, in Prussia and
adjacent countries, and to ascertain, if possible, the ways and means by
which the foreign consumption o f our various qualities might be increased.
An agent was appointed, who collected some statistical information of a
local character, and who was continued until 1843, when the president,
not having heard from him for nearly a year, ordered his recal, and ap­
pointed in his place, J. G. Harris, Esq., o f Tennessee, extending his
commission to a range through the south o f Europe.
Mr. Harris left the United States in June o f 1843, and arrived at
London, in the month following, where, by the politeness o f Mr. Everett,
he made the acquaintance o f Mr. M'Gregor, o f the board o f trade, so
celebrated for his free commercial principles, and his signal ability as a
late commercial agent o f that government for the continent. After avail­
ing himself of all the facts connected with the tobacco trade o f Great
Britain, he travelled over to Vienna, thence down, through Italy, and
along the Mediterranean to France, embodying his observations in a series o f reports now on file at Washington, and which, we hope, may be
printed by Congress. His appointment being limited to a year, he re­
turned a few days since ; and while he remained in this city, we embraced
the opportunity o f obtaining from him a few interesting facts touching the
recent movements o f the speculators o f France, as also the probability of
a reduction o f the high duties in England and northern Germany. His
letter, confined simply to a reply to our queries, is as follow s:—




Tobacco A gen cy in Europe.

365

N e w Y ork-, March 15, 1844.
S ir :— You are right in supposing that while in France I obtained
some information concerning the late “ adjudication o f tobacco,” for
1844. Taking Paris in my route homeward, from Austria and Italy, I
made it convenient to be in that city when the contracts for the present
year were entered into, and was with an American merchant in the office
of the Minister of Finance, where all the bidders were assembled, on the
day that the proposals were opened.
It was reported there, and very generally believed, that the tobacco
crop o f the United States, grown in 1843, was much larger than usual;
and, under the impression that the markets would be full in all this year,
the bids were lower than in times past. The contract for supplying
the quality o f western tobacco, called crossede, was obtained by the
Messrs. Rothchilds, at a rate much lower than it usually sells for on the
levee, at New Orleans. And it is my belief that the speculators, and
their agents, are now laying or carrying out their plans, at the west, to
bring the planters down to their ruinous terms. They are under heavy
penalties to deliver at Havre, Marseilles, & c., before the 1st of January
next, quantities, embracing more than one-fourth o f the usual crop west
of the mountains, which they must purchase at prices lower than any
that have existed for years, or make a losing business o f it. The.
very finest and choicest descriptions, they are to purchase at New Orleans
at a price not exceeding $3 a $>3j-, for 100 lbs., nett, and the second
merchantable qualities at $ 1 4 a $ l f , or they will sustain losses in ful­
filling their contracts. That they have predicated their low bids upon a
calculation to force a reduction in the price o f the western tobacco, to a
point even below these figures, I have not the slightest doubt. The
policy, so far as it is revealed, is to tempt the planters on the great west­
ern rivers to hasten their crops down to New Orleans, by offering and
paying very fair prices for small lots, early in the season ; and, after the
stocks shall have accumulated under this temptation, to reduce the prices
to $1, $2, and $3 per hundred, for the several qualities o f firsts, sec­
onds, and thirds, at which prices they suppose holders may be forced
to sell.
It is my firm conviction that the planters o f the west may prevent this,
to some extent, by holding up their crop, or by sending only a portion o f
it to New Orleans, say one half, or less, and that o f an inferior quality ;
at the same time instructing their agents not to sell for less than $>24,
$3|-, and $ 4 i, which prices, in my opinion, they may easily obtain. In­
deed, the foreign speculators are under such heavy penalties to fulfil their
contracts, that they must have the tobacco, and the planters not only have
the power to set their own prices, but they may bo sure that there is no
necessity o f their incurring the expense o f transporting it down the riv­
ers, for the contractors will themselves go up after it.
This policy o f holding back a part o f the crop, was adopted in 1837,
at a time when prices had fallen to $1, $2, and $3. The conse­
quence was that in a few months prices increased two fold, and specu­
lators were running from farm to farm, and landing to landing, hunting
up small parcels even at that. The low prices o f that year very natur­
ally occasioned a diminution in the next year’s culture, the planter hav­
ing temporarily turned his attention to other and more profitable pro­
ducts, and prices accordingly rose to $8, $10, and $12, It is a well
31*




366

Tobacco A gency in Europe.

known fact, also, that the planters, at that time, obtained as much for the*
half of their crop, as they would have received for the whole, had they
hurried it all in to market. Cause and effect have not changed, and,
in my judgment, the example of 1837 should be followed in 1844.
Another, and not less important consideration, in this connexion, is the
general belief, in England, that in the course o f this year, if not before
the prorogation o f the British Parliament, the existing duty of seventytwo cents per pound, on our tobacco, will be reduced to one-half or onethird that sum, and it is rendered nearly certain that a diplomatic ar­
rangement is about to be made by our minister at Berlin, with the Ger­
man States that have united for commercial purposes, by which the pre­
sent duty of nearly four dollars per hundred will be considerably reduced.
I f this should be accomplished, the sale and consumption o f our tobacco,
in England, would be extended, and there would probably be an annual
market for several thousand hogsheads more in the north o f Europe.
And, to this weighty consideration should be added the fact that France—
now requiring from twenty to twenty-five thousand hogsheads o f our to­
bacco, and raising at home nearly as much more, for which the French
planter is paid from four to eight dollars— will at once come to the conelusion that its revenue may be increased (and revenue is the sole object
of the monopoly) by diminishing the French culture, and purchasing
more extensively the American qualities, offered so very cheap. This
course they have already taken to some extent, and have this year deter­
mined to purchase several thousand hogsheads more o f the American
qualities than they had in 1843, and to dispense, in a great measure,
with the Hungarian tobacco.
It would seem quite clear, therefore, that our western planters cannot
possibly lose any thing by holding back a part o f the crop, for there is
certainly to be an increased demand. The foreign consumer has con­
tracted a taste for it, and he must and will have it. The speculators
want it, and they would rather hunt it up at the river landings, and pay
two prices for it, than forfeit the heavy bonds which they are under to
fulfil their contracts.
With reference to the tobacco o f the eastern states, Virginia, Mary­
land, & c., it bears better prices abroad than the western qualities ; not
because it is considered so much superior to the Kentucky, Tennessee,
Missouri, & c., but because there is so much o f it constantly in market, and
the crop o f the west has so rapidly increased from year to year. Owing
too, perhaps, to the fact that our eastern planters set their own prices to
a greater or less extent, diminishing the culture, or holding up a part of
the crop, at proper times, in order to bring about remunerating prices.
In reply to your inquiry, whether it is probable that those governments
of Europe which monopolize the tobacco trade within their dominions,
can be induced to abolish their exclusive systems, and permit us to trade
freely with their people in that article, I am constrained to believe that
all persuasion must continue, as heretofore, to be without effect. For
France, which annually derives nearly $20,000,000, and Austria, about
$12,000,000, cannot be expected to give up so great a source o f revenue
in consideration o f any arguments, or any commercial advantages that
our country can offer in return. But in England, and in the German
states composing the Zoll Verien, where tariffs only exist, there is some
prospect o f a reduction o f existing high duties. In England, the duty is




Tobacco A gen cy in Europe.

367

so high that it operates as a premium upon smuggling; and the illicit
trade has recently been carried on to such an extent, that all the honest
manufacturers have become unusually clamorous for a reduction o f the
premium thus paid to the contrabandist. About the time I left Europe,
the British government was instituting a searching inquiry, not only concerning the great cases recently detected, but into the whole system. A
committee was then sitting in London, at the head o f which was Lord
Somerset, one o f the most influential members o f the British administra­
tion ; and I learned, from a source entitled to great credit, that many
members o f the government had come to the conclusion that, although a
reduction o f the present duty might affect the revenue a little, for two or
three years, yet it would not suffer ultimately, inasmuch as smuggling
would, in a great measure, be prevented, and the duty paid on a much
greater quantity. The question o f reduction is evidently before the Bri­
tish government, at this time, under more favorable circumstances than
any that have attended former investigations; and it was stated, on good
private authority, that several persons who had become rich by smuggling,
and retired from, business, were induced to come before the committee and
give evidence o f the alarming extent to which the contraband trade had
been carried, and the extensive system o f bribery and corruption that it
involved.
You are aware that, in the last few years, the government has nearly
done away with the superintendence o f the excise officers over the tobacco
manufacturing establishments, and the wholesale and retail dealers ; and
the impression now is, that unless the duty is reduced, there will be no
alternative but to revive again that obnoxious system. This brings all
the power o f the manufacturers and retailers to bear in favor o f reduction.
The prospect o f their success is better than it ever was before : for, since
the question was last agitated, the Chinese war, and the war in India have
been finally terminated, and the new income tax has proved to be much
more productive than had been expected, all which, together with the
general revival o f trade, will render the administration in a better condi­
tion to meet the temporary consequences o f a reduction.
In the event that the contemplated reduction should be made, it is the
opinion o f some o f the best informed on the subject, that the consumption
of our tobacco in England would be doubled, and make an opening for the
western tobacco, for which, at present, there is little or no demand. This,
in my judgment, is not the least o f the considerations that should induce
the western planters to hold up a part o f the crop, and protect themselves
from the sacrifices that may otherwise await them at New Orleans.
During the year I have spent in Europe as a commercial agent o f the
United States, I have endeavored patiently to investigate every thing
connected with the tobacco trade of the countries through which I passed,
and have forwarded all my facts and observations to the State Depart,
ment. It has afforded me pleasure to give you the above facts respect­
ing the late French contracts, and to explain, so far as I am able, the
probable effect o f the low prices upon the tobacco trade o f our country.
Very respectfully, your ob’t serv’t,
F reeman H unt, E sq.
J. GEO. HARRIS.
The export o f tobacco from the United States, since 1821, has nearly
doubled, but that increase has been mostly to the north o f Europe, say




368

Tobacco A gency in Europe.

Holland and Germany ; while to Great Britain the export has scarcely
increased at all, notwithstanding that the population has increased some
7,000,000 souls.
In fact, the consumption o f tobacco, per head, as charged with duty,
has decreased since the commencement o f the present century, in pro­
portion to the increase o f duty. Parliamentary tables furnish us with
the following statistics in relation to this matter:—
Consumption
Lbs. consumed.

1801,.......
1811,.......
1821,.... ..
1831,.... .
1841,.... ..

T obacco

of

10,514,998
14,923,243
15,983,198
15,350,018
16,380,893

in

Great Britain

and

Ireland.

Duty per lb.
s. d.

Population.

A v . consump­
tion per head,
oz.

J
2
4
3
3

10,942,666
12,596,803
14,391,631
16,539,318
18,532,235

15,37
18,95
14,43
14,84
14,52

7 6-20
2 13.10
0
0
0

A m ’nt. Duty
Received.

£
923,855
1,710,848
2,630,415
2,338,107
2,716,217

This presents a constant decrease in the consumption, per head, but
the result in the case o f Ireland is much more marked— as follows :—
Lbs. consumed.

1801,.... ..
1811,.... ..
1821,.... ..
1831..... ..
1841,.... ..

Duty per lb.
s. d.

6,389,754
6,553,024
2,614,954
4,183,823
5,478,767

1
1
3
2
3

Population.

3 1.10
7
0
0
0

5,451,002
7,036,008
6,801,827
7,767,401
8,179,359

A v . consump­
tion per head,
oz.

18,95
17,35
6,15
8,61
10,71

A m ’nt. Duty
Received.

£
285,482
552,082
528,168
626,485
863,946

The highest consumption for the United Kingdom was, it appears, in
1811, when the abundance of depreciated bank paper, then serving as a
currency, made the tax comparatively light. When money is very cheap,
taxes are easily paid, but the same taxes become exceedingly onerous
when money is dear. In 1821, both the rate o f tax was enormously in­
creased, and the currency made very dear by the resumption o f specie
payments by the Bank o f England. Hence the enormous falling oft- in
the consumption visible in that year, both in England and Ireland, more
particularly the latter country. Since then the currency has become
better adjusted, and the consumption has increased under the same tax.
N ow the exports o f tobacco to England with the total export in each
year has been as follows :—
T obacco Exported
For ten
years to

1831,...
1832,...
1833,...
1834,...
1835,...
1836,...

Hhds.
241,919
26,372
36,176
23,772
30,658
27,563
36,822

T otal from
U. States.

from the

Value.
824,245 $56,889,291
5,184,863
86,718
106,806
6,291,540
6,044,941
83,153
6,923,714
87,979
8,608,188
94,353
109,442
10,494,104

United States to England.
For ten
Total from
years to— Hhds.
U. States.
Value.
1837,... 20,723
6,223,483
100,232
1838,... 24,312
7,969,449
100,593
1839,... 30,068
10,449,135
78,995
9,883,957
1840,... 26,235
119,448
1841,... 41,648
12,576.703
147,828
1842,... 36,886
9,540,755
166,113

The greatest increase in the export to England was in the years 1840
to 1841. For the three years, 1839, ’40, ’41, the British customs returns
gives the following result:—
Years.

Imported.

1839,
1840,

35,609,183
..................
lbs.
35,637,826
...

1841,

...




43,935,151

Ent’d for consumption.

22,971,406
22,902,380
21,871,438

Duty.

£3,431,907
3,555,956
3,550,825

$16,473,227
16,924,590
17,044,955

\

369

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

This affords an indication o f how large a quantity must have been
smuggled under the present duty o f 3s. per lb. There are no precise
data by which to arrive at the expense o f smuggling. I f by a reduction
of the duties on tobacco, the average o f the consumption o f the United
Kingdom is restored to where it was in 1811, which was 5 oz. per head
above the present consumption, an increase o f the demand equal to
8,300,000 lbs. will take place, and will progress, probably, in proportion
to the increased production of the western states, so as to relieve the
Virginia planters from the pressure which the increased supply from those
sections causes, and which is evinced in the increasing deliveries at New
Orleans.

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL CIIRONIGLE.
At the date of our last number, we mentioned the fluctuation which had taken place
in the value of money. During the month which has since elapsed, the abundance of
money has been seemingly on the increase, and the rate in the regular discount market
has not been over 4 a 5 per cent, and “ at call” on stock securities, at less than that.
The speculation in produce has continued to some extent both in cotton and in flour.
The stock of the former article has continued to accumulate in all the ports of the United
States, and the exports continues very small. The situation of the crop now, and at the
same time last year, and the movement for the month of February in each year is as fol­
lows :—

Receipts of Stocks,

and

Exports of Cotton,

Receipts..........................................
Exports to Great Britain,..............
“
France...........................
Total export,..................................
Stock...............................................

from September

1, to March 1.

1848.

1844.

1848.

Bales.

Bales.

Bales.

1,649,470
749,331
199,431
1,028,592
467,643

1,265,094
307,466
119,331
451,231
648,554

315,469
156,562
25,580
193,233
96,084

1844.
Bales.

257,055
65,070
16,463
76,648
137,562

The receipts of cotton in the month of February, as compared with last year, are,
257,000 bales against 315,469 bales, a falling off of 58,469 bales only, while the export
for the month has declined 117,000 bales, showing a corresponding increase of stock
during the month. This, with the small exports of other produce, has greatly diminished
the supply o f bills, at a time when the demand for remittance has been greatly enhanced
by the large imports which have taken place during the three months which have elapsed
of the present year. The value of the imports into New York are not far from $25,000,000
for the quarter. These imports have been paid for in some degree by the credit bills
drawn by English houses here at the high rates which were obtained for bills. The ex­
treme low rate for money in England, the high price of bills here, and the speculation
feeling in stocks, cotton, and some other articles of produce, favored the drawing of mo­
ney to this side for employment in those channels, by which operation the imports were
paid for in some degree, and means furnished to hold cotton, and to operate in stocks.
Hence the abundance of money has been in no wise diminished by the withholding of
cotton from market, and as that moves forward, the supply of bills increases, and the
rates are falling. The best bills may now be had at 8 a 81 per cent, and the probability
is that renewed imports of specie must soon take place, unless a change in the value of
money in England should cause a recal of the money loaned here, which would cause
an increased demand above ordinary remittances equal to the extra supply furnished by




370

Monthly Commercial Chronicle .

drawing it to this side. It is highly probable, however, that the bulk of the imports for
the year have been made, and the indications of the markets favor that supposition, as
the supply so far fully equals the demand, and prices of most descriptions of goods have
a downward tendency. The state of the country in the interior indicates a fair promise
o f business, the stocks of produce being exceedingly large, and prices generally much in
advance of those of last year. There is a great deal of speculation feeling, however, in
the interior, in grain, based in a great measure upon the fact that the supply in England
will, in most years be short, and the degree of scarcity will affect in an eminent degree
the state of the market here. Last year the arrival of the April steamer, with accounts
of a supposed scarcity in England, caused a rise in prices which extended rapidly over
the western country ; and strong impressions seem to prevail that a similar rise will be
effected this year. Hence there is a great indisposition on the part of the farmers to
sell; at the same time the abundance of money has stimulated a disposition to buy for a
rise, and grain has advanced so far that, in the present prospect of the flour market, the
operations of millers: are checked. All the sales made by the farmers are, however, at
good prices, and give them the means of renewing their purchases of goods, and by in.
creasing the general abundance of money in the western states, affording a reasonable
ground for the anticipation of a fair business in the summer and fall on a cash basis.
The experience o f the past years shows that this mode of conducting business does not
create a demand for money ; on the other hand, it seems rather to enhance its abun­
dance. This tendency of money to accumulate in the banks without a corresponding
demand for employment, promotes a disposition to employ it in purposes of speculation,
and large sums have been loaned upon the stock market. This, during the last sixty
days, has been still further enhanced by the large imports, throwing important sums into
the hands of the government, and which is lodged with the banks on deposite. In this
city, these deposites are made alternately with the Bank of Commerce, Bank of America,
and Merchants’ Bank, each institution enjoying the deposites one month in rotation; and
the disposition of each bank to avail itself to the utmost of the funds while in its posses­
sion, induces it to loan freely on stocks, while the deposites are coming in, and to with­
draw them as rapidly when the transfer to other institutions commences. This opera­
tion has been one cause of the violent fluctuations which the stock market has- at times
exhibited, but generally the prices of stocks have not improved in a proportion to the de­
creased value of money, a fact which may be ascribed to the continued delinquency of
some of the leading states. Stocks have advanced here under the plenteousness of
money; the disposition of foreigners seems to have been, to avail themselves of that advance, to get clear of the stocks they hold. Hence the quantity hanging upon this mar­
ket unabsorbed for permanent investments has been constantly on the increase, and no­
thing but the absolute want of other modes of employing money, seemingly supports
present prices. Some movement has been made in the legislatures of Maryland and
Pennsylvania towards paying their debts. In the former state a law has been enacted
requiring the state treasurer to resume the payment of the state dividends on the 1st of
April, 1845. The law does not, however, provide any additional means for the dis­
charge of the debt to them hitherto enjoyed ; and the bill to complete the Cumberland
canal was lost. In Pennsylvania, a bill has been introduced into the house providing
means to meet the estimated deficits in the revenue, preparatory to resumption of divi­
dends in August next. These movements may end in the desirable consummation of
removing from those leading states the foul stain of dishonor which has so long rested
upon them, and overshadowed the national reputation. In Ohio, the bill to authorize
the business of banking has become a law. It is in all respects similar to the free bank­
ing law of this state, and makes Ohio 6 per cent stock the basis of the operations. The
effect will probably be similar to that of the New York law, in creating large issues of




Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

371

paper money, which will finally have an evil influence upon the fortunes o f the stateThe produce of Ohio seeks a market for sale, in common with those of the other west­
ern states. And the creation of a large amount of paper money is likely to advance
prices in a manner to make the produce of the other states the best purchases, and
therefore to supersede that of Ohio. There has been an anticipation that the passage of
the law in question would induce a demand for the stocks, and by so doing relieve this
market of some of the surplus upon it. It would appear, however, that even should the
bill become a law, the demand for this purpose cannot be large, inasmuch as that large
amounts are already held by the institutions of that state, and will be applicable to em­
ployment under the new law.
The import of goods into the port of New York have been large, and the stocks have
accumulated in a manner to induce the belief that prices will be low. The exports of
produce have, however, also been large, as compared with last year. The following
table will show the comparative imports and exports for the port o f New York from
January 1st to March 1st, 1843 and 1844:—

Imports and Exports

of the

Port of New Y ork,

E xports.

1814.

1843.

Apples,................
Ashes, pot,............
“ pearl,.........
Beef, pickled,.......
“ dried,.........
Beeswax,..............
Butter,..................

1,086
2,699
594
17,795
260
1,607
2,520
1,664
<431
425
2 ,9 4 4
7,006
711
682
5,457
269
2,917
544
1,531
7,729
292
1,223
2,127
53,287
450
1,166
16,796
76
29,0 12
8 ,6 3 8
2 ,842
16,529
343
2 .0 3 8
48,3 86
1,200
48,673
22,316

573
983
32
2,542
2,276
1,036
4,501
2 ,6 4 2
3^397
2,216
920
4 ,1 9 4
'610
6,108
6,338
670
2 ,7 2 6
238
47,758
1,513
5,732
579
346
3,575
22,6 67
1,119
877
25,827
505
22,714
2 ,640
2,063
3,640
284
669
23,231
1,000
58,280
35,457

9,680
6 ,214

4,078
6,514

“

tallow,....

Cheese,...............
tt

Clover-seed,.........
Coffee,.................
Corn,.................... .bushels
Corn meal,..........
“
..........
Cordage,..............
Cotton,................
Dom. goods, bales and cases
Fish, dry cod,.......
“ mackerel,.... __ bbls.
** herring,.......
Flaxseed,.............
Flour, wheat,.......
“ rye,...........
Hams and bacon,..
Hides,.................. ..... No.
Hops,...................
Lard,...................
Shooks, hhd. and pipes, No.
Nails,..................
Rosin,..................
Sp. turpentine,.....
Tar,....................
Turpentine,........
Linseed oil,.........
Whale oil,...........
Sperm oil,...........
Pimento,.............
Pork,...................
Rice,...................




from January

1,

I mports

Brandy,.......
it

“
bis. and q. casks
Coal,...........
Cotton,........
Coffee,........
“
........
tt

Cocoa,.........
Duck,..........
tt
Earthenware, cr. and c’ks
Figs,............
Gin.............
Glass,..........
Hides,.........
it
.......... No.
Hemp,.........
Indigo,.........
“ ........
Iron, bar,....
“ pier.....
“ sheet,...
Lead,.........
Molasses,....
ft
it

Pimento,.....
Olive oil,.....
tt
tt

Pepper,......
Rum,.........
ft

Rags,..........
Salt,...........
Saltpetre,....
Sugar,........
ft

......... bbls.

to

March 1.

1844.
56
2,114
1,160
5,644
149,960
2
64,194
3,165
43
15
2 3R0
4^7.38
16,365
319

1743.
36
6
2,769
81,031
5
12
97 9Q7
’4 3 2
57

151
694
1,538
8,496
89
181
23
44,2 85
1,079
131
225
1,821
476
1,861
2 5 ,4 3 5
4 ,7 9 9
603
8 ,8 9 5
2 ,099
5
625
150
1,000
33

14
95,012
569
138
216
3,128
1,413
3^05
21,7 84
6,852
588
5,655
1,660
61
2 ,2 7 3
4 ,015
416
250
161
19,492
1,918
231
8,593 11,363
84,632 132,144
495
7,828 10,207
54
85

372

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.
Imports and Exports of the Port of New Y ork, etc.— Continued.

1844. 1841

Imports.

1844.

1841

Soap,.......................... boxes 7,850 7,047
Tea, black,.................... lbs. 4,067 4,040
“ Hyson skin,................ 1,614 3,120
“ Hyson and Y . H.,...... 32,974 12,340
“ Gunpowder, & c.,....... 15,539 13,240
690
882
Tobacco,.................... hhds.
“
. .bales and cases 2,666 1,462
“
manufac.,....kegs 1,824 1,514
450
397
Whalebone,............... cwts.
Wheat,....................... bush. 18,666 3,094
33
W o o l.......................... bales

Sugar,....

1,229
6,005
2,000
779
2,831
1,889
43
606
972
217
2,995

151
2,630
15,621
667
3,238
576
5
67
71
81
192

Exports.

it

«<
Tobacco,
“
bales and cer’s
W ool,....
Wine,....
“ hhds. and hf. pipes
il
it
il

The general result here apparent, is that of a large increase of business, and an ac­
cumulation of stock. The stock of flour here at the close of navigation was unu­
sually large, but the export as compared with last year, for the sixty days elapsed,
has increased 30,000 bbls., mostly to the east and to England. The course of busi­
ness this year at the south, has caused 'an unusual increase of the shipments of pro­
duce to New York because a large proportion of the money required to hold cotton
has been drawn from here, and the produce sent forward, to cover the advances. The
abundance of money here has stimulated this movement, and stocks of produce held
both south and west, are held to a great extent by capital emanating from the At­
lantic cities, in expectation of an increased export trade. The dissemination of the mo­
ney through the interior has produced an abundance of money, with a plentiful supply
o f eastern bills, of which the dealers seemingly are availing themselves preparatory to
their spring visits to New York for the purchase of goods. At all points of the west the
exchanges are low and regular, and the supply abundant. Perhaps there never was a
time when rates of bills were more uniform and cheap than they have prevailed at all
points since the general resumption of the banks, and the cessation of irredeemable pa.
per to be the local currency. In Alabama, the state money still continues to circulate
at a discount, but that depreciation is no longer identified with the rate of exchange.
The abundance of produce furnishes ample means of remittance from all sections of the
union, more especially when purchases of goods are confined to cost sales. In former
years, when an immense number of banks were spread over the western states, large
sales of goods were made in the Atlantic cities, by persons without capital, on long
credit. The medium of these operations were long dated notes, payable at banks in the
interior, and discounted in the cities. The purchases thus made, far exceeded the value
of produce exported, and when remittances were required at the maturity of the notes,
there was no other means than the credits of the banks; when these were exhausted,
failure was the result. The employment of large capital in banking in the interior
served to diminish, by the amount of the dividends, the real means of remittance for
commercial purposes, because the capital being for the most part owned in the Atlantic
cities, its profits were a constant drain upon the place of its location. That capital was
employed for the most part, not in loans to producers, but in promoting sales of imported
goods to those producers, and stimulated extravagance, while they exhausted the actual
wealth of the people. The evidence of the bank of Kentucky upon this point, is useful,
A late report states as follows:—
“ When a bank is located at a shipping and importing point, or at a manufacturing
point, we find the exporting and importing merchants and manufacturers congregated at
those points, and those are the persons who usually borrow money and sell bills—they
form the usual and constant customers of the banks. The merchants and manufac­
turers residing more distant, borrow from individuals, and make other arrangements, by
purchasing on credit, &c., in the transaction of their business, because of the trouble,
delay and expense o f bank accommodations made at a distance. The farmers are not




Monthly Commercial Chronicle.

373

usual borrowers from the banks, and have only applied to the banks in cases of emer­
gency, except those persons who have combined merchandise, manufacturing or trading,
with their business of farming, and they have generally been governed in their applica­
tions to the bank by the contiguity of their locations ; but as an exception to this general
rule, persons in the immediate vicinity of the banks have been tempted to become bor­
rowers, because of their vicinity, and they have been drawn in as endorsers, and been
compelled to assume the debts
Banking beyond a certain point is detrimental to agriculture. It is only when the
produce has all been got in, that the loans of bank credits to shipping merchants, of a suffi­
cient amount and for a sufficient length of time, not over sixty days, to buy the produce,
send it to market, and obtain returns, is useful. This business must, it is evident, follow,
and not lead, production; and when the farmers have acquired sufficient wealth not to
require prompt advances, it is for their interest to dispense with banks altogether. The
circulation of individual credits, payable in the constitutional currency, is by far the safest
and most legitimate means of intercourse.
Since our last, a bill has been introduced into the House of Representatives from the
committee of ways and means, making important changes in the tariff, as now levied.
The leading features of the new bill are to reduce the general average from its present
rate, 35.82 per cent to 30 per cent, until September, 1845, after which, 25 per cent shall
be the maximum. It substitutes ad valorem rates for many of the specific charges nowimposed, and makes the foreign cost and charges the basis of valuation. It also extends
the time for goods to be entitled to drawback. These are the leading features of the new
bill, and its details are seen in the following table:*—

Present and Proposed T ariff.
Articles.
Present duty.
Wool, costing less than 7 cents per lb.,........................ 5 per cent.
Wool, costing o v e r 7 cents per lb., .3 cents per lb. and 30 “
Woollen manufactures,...............................................40
“
Carpeting, Brussels, &c., rugs,..................... 50 cents per sq. yard.
Carpeting, Venetian, &c.,.............................30
“
“
Blankets, costing under 75 cents,.............................. 15 per cent.
Flannels, baizes, &c.,................................... 14 cents per sq. yard.
Ready-made clothing,...... ............................................ 50 per cent.
Boots and bootees,................................................. $1 25 per pair.
Shoes and slippers, silk or prunella,....................25 cents
“
“
Shoes and slippers of leather,............................. 30 “
Shoes, children’s,................................................ 15 “
“
Cotton bagging,.............................................. 4 cents per sq. yard.
Cotton goods, plain,........................................6
“
“
Cotton goods, coloured or printed,................. 9
“
“
Silk, raw,............................................................... 50 cents per lb.
Silk, manufactured..................... ............, ....... $2 50
“
Sewing silk, twist, &c.,..................................................$2 per lb.
Floss silk,..................................................................... 25 per cent.
Flax, tow, &.C.,............................................................$20 per ton.
Oil cloths,...........................................................10 cents per yard.
Iron, in bars and bolts,............................................... $17 per ton.
Iron, if rolled,.............................................................$25 “
Iron for railroads,....................................... the same as other iron.
Iron, pig,................................................................... $9 per ton.
Chains, chain cables, &c.,......................................2i cents per lb.
Old or scrap iron,.......................................................$10 per ton.
Iron wire,....................................................... 5 to 11 cents per lb.
Screws, called wood,.............................................12
Steel, German, cast or shear,...........................$1 50 per 112 lbs.
Other steel,.......................................................$2 50
“
Pins, pack, solid-headed,....................................... 40 cents per lb.

Proposed duty.

15 per cent.
30
30
30
30

10
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
25
25
124

20
20
15
25
30
$15 per ton.

$10
ier cent,
per ton.
ier cent.
per 112 lbs.

* For a complete synopsis of this bill, see a former part of this Magazine.
V O L . x . -----N O . I V .




32

374

Monthly Commercial Chronicle.
P

resent

and

P roposed T

a r if f —

C o n tin u e d .

A rticle s.
Present duty.
G e r m a n s i l v e r w a r e , ............................................................................... 3 0 p e r c e n t .
C o a l , ............................................................................................................ $ 1

7 5 p er ton .

C o k e , ..................................................................................................5 c e n t s p e r b u s h e l .
G l a s s w a r e , c u t , ....................................................................2 5 t o 4 5 c e n t s p e r l b .
G l a s s w a r e , m o u l d e d o r p r e s s e d . . . . . . ....................1 0 t o 1 4

“

G l a s s , w i n d o w , c y l i n d e r , ........................................2 t o 6 c e n t s p e r s q . f o o t .
G l a s s , w i n d o w , c r o w n ....................................... 3 4 t o 1 0
G l a s s , b o t t le s a n d v i a l s , ............................................$ 1

“

“

7 5 to $ 3 p er g r o c e .

Proposed duty.

20 per cent.
$1 per ton.
30 per cent.
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“

G l a s s , p o l i s h e d p l a t e , ..............................................5 t o 1 2 c e n t s p e r s q . f o o t .

20

G l a s s , p o l i s h e d , i f s i l v e r e d , ...................................... 2 0 p e r c e n t a d d it i o n a l .

25
“
20
“
25
“
2 cents per lb.
3
4

C h i n a , p o r c e l a i n , s t o n e a n d e a r t h e n w a r e ,............................. 3 0 p e r c e n t .
L e a t h e r , .........................................................s o l e 6 c e n t s , u p p e r 8 c e n t s p e r lb .
S u g a r , r a w , ............................................................................................... 2 4 c e n t s p e r lb .
S u g a r , c l a y e d o r b o i l e d , .....................................................................4

“

S u g a r , r e f i n e d , a n d c a n d i e s , ........................................................... 6

“

S y r u p o f s u g a r , ......................................................................................2 4
“
S a l t , ...................................................................................................... 8 c e n t s p e r 5 6 lb s .
S p i r i t s , f r o m g r a i n , ..........................................................6 0 t o 9 0 c e n t s p e r g a l l .
S p i r i t s , b r a n d y , & c . , .....................................................6 0 c e n t s t o $ 1

“

W i n e s , d i ff e r e n t s o r t s , ..................................................... 6 t o 6 0 c e n t s

“

C o t t o n , r a w , ............................................................................................ 3 c e n t s p e r l b .
H e m p , u n m a n u f a c t u r e d .....................................................$ 2 5 a $ 4 0 p e r t o n .
C o r d a g e , .........................................................................................4 4 a 5 c e n t s p e r lb .
M o l a s s e s , ................................................................................................... 4 4 m ills
I n d i g o , .............................................................................................................5 c e n t s
B l a c k p e p p e r , ............................................................................................5
P i m e n t o , ....................................................................................................... 5
N u t m e g s , ...................................................................................................3 0
C l o v e s , ............................................................................................................8
C a s s i a , ........................................................................................................... 5
R a i s i n s , a n d a ll o t h e r d r ie d fr u it s ,...................................2 a 3
O i l , L i n s e e d , ...................... ............................................................. 2 5 c e n t s p e r g a l l .
L e a d , w h it e a n d r e d , .........................................................................4 c e n t s p e r l b .

14

“

“

20 per cent.
42 to 75 cents.
38 to 70 cents.
30 per cent.
Free.
30 per cent.
30
“
3 mills per lb.
15 per cent.
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“
30
“

It will be observed the reductions are large and general, more especially where ad valo.
rem duties are substituted for specific rates now imposed. On bar iron for general pur.
poses the reduction is $5 per ton, and on the same article, if applied to railroad purposes,
the reduction is $15 per ton. On chains and chain cables, from $50 per ton, the rate is
changed to 30 per cent ad valorem. A very important feature in the bill is, that it does
away with the minimum principle, which has been in operation since 1816 ; and instead
of assuming a cost on which to cast ad valorem duties, the actual foreign cost is to be
taken. Thus, under the present tariff, cotton goods costing under 20 cents the square
yard, are assumed to have cost 20 cents, and an ad valorem duty of 30 per cent is
cast upon that, which is, in fact, a specific duty of 6 cents per square yard ; this duty it is
now proposed to change to an ad valorem duty of 25 per cent on the actual cost a yard, of
plain cotton, which cost abroad 8 cents per yard, will pay 2 cents duty, instead of 6 cents,
as now. The ascendency of cotton manufactures in this country is now so great, particu­
larly in those low priced goods, that the duty, like that upon flour, becomes comparatively
unimportant; because the disposition to send them here for sale, is gradually ceasing. An
important part of our commerce is the carrying trade, or the import of goods from South
America and the West Indies, entitled to debenture and re-export to Europe and else­
where. This business has of late declined, and in some degree consequent upon the re­
duction of 24per cent from the drawbacks paid, which, in fact, amounts to a duty of 24
per cent, for landing and reshipping. This in a great degree hampers the trade, and has
a tendency to throw out of employ a large portion of tonnage.
In the adjustment of the tariff, the consideration above all others to be arrived at, is
stability. Since the close of the last war, the country has been kept in a continual fer­




375

Exports and Imports o f Specie and Bullion .

ment by the constant agitation of the tariff question. The tariffs of 1816-24-26-28-3233-41-42, and the present proposed one, have followed each other in quick succession,
and attended by the constant fluctuation in value which they excite, to promote a specula­
tive and gambling character in our commercial transactions, which is of itself highly detri­
mental to our national interests. The grade of a tariff, be it high or low, is of very small
consequence, if stability can be arrived at, and both manufacturers and merchants, as well
a3 farmers, be saved from those constant fluctuations which are in the highest degree de­
trimental to the interests of all classes. In this country, to a greater or less extent, a pa­
per currency must always prevail, and the volume of the currency indicated in the range
of prices will be higher or lower than that of other countries, according to the range of du­
ties imposed by the government If the duties are low, the currency in usual years can­
not advance over a given point before the rise in prices shall have induced imports, pro­
moted the export of coin, and involved a depletion in the currency. Higher duties, or in­
creased expense of import, will allow of a higher range of prices before the same result is
produced. This fluctuation of the currency, which has of late years been fraught with
such disastrous consequences, produces enough of speculation, without the powerful in­
centive of vacillating legislation. Whenever apprehensions of new duties are entertained,
the import of the article is greatly promoted, in order to take advantage of the anticipated
rise. This operation usually produces a fall in the price, consequent upon the increased
stock. On the other hand, when duties are to be removed at a given time, those dealing
in the articles delay their operations until the reduction has taken place, and a rise in
price is produced by the short supply. These are unnatural movements, and give an un­
healthy character to trade, which would not exist if legislation were steady and uniform.
We have received from Trieste several valuable official documents, and tabular views
of the commerce of that port. The following table, compiled from these documents,
exhibits the imports of American cotton into Trieste, from 1815 to 1842, inclusive:—
Years.

1815,..... .
1816,.....
1817,..... .
1818...... ..
1819,.....
1820,.....
1821,.....

Bales.

322
434
1,973
217
737
431
679

Years.

1822,..... ,.
1823,.....
1824,.....
1825,.....
1826,.... ..
1827,.... ..
1828..... ..

Bales.

838
1,550
144
170
3,271
3,802
4,078

Years.

1829,.......
1830,.......
1831,.... ..
1832,.... ..
1833,.......
1834,.... ..
1835,.... ..

Bales.

17,748
7,111
7,729
6,762
4,940
13,478
17,892

Years.

1836,.... ..
1837,.... ..
1838,.... ..
1839,.... ..
1840,.... ..
1841,.... ..
1842,.... ..

Bales.

23,450
20,871
20,702
18,030
19,623
20,000
26,300

EXPORTS AND IMPORTS OF SPECIE AND BULLION.
W e addressed a letter to the Hon. John C. Spencer, the secretary of the treasury, at
Washington, a short time since, requesting a copy of the statement exhibiting the value
of specie, &c., imported and exported annually, from 1821 to 1843; which, we had seen
it stated in the Madisonian, had been compiled at the department, but not published. W e
have now the pleasure of laying before our readers an official copy of the statement, and
the accompanying note of the secretary of the treasury:—

W ashington, Treasury Department, March 13, 1844.
Dear Sir—I enclose herewith a statement of the importation and exportation of specie,
from the year 1821 to 1843, inclusive, agreeable to the request contained in your letter
of the 24th ultimo; and I avail myself of the opportunity to assure you of the pleasure it
would give me to forward from the department any information you may require, in rela­
tion to the commerce and currency of the country, for your valuable Journal.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. C. SPENCER.
Freeman Hunt, Ed. Merchants’ Magazine.




376

Exports and Imports o f Specie and Bullion.

A S tatement E xhibiting

the

V alue or S pecie

A nn u ally

from

and

B ullion, I mported

and

E xported

1821 to 1843.

I mported .

Years
ending Sept. 30
1821,..........
1822,..........
1823...........
1824,..........
1825,..........
1826,..........
1827,..........
1828,..........
1829,..........
1830,..........
1831,..........
1832,..........
1833,..........
1834,..........
1835,..........
1836,..........
1837,..........
1838,..........
1839,..........
1840,..........
1841,..........
1842,..........
1843,..........

Silver.
Dollars.

Gold.
Dollars.

11,941
151,020
116,194
91,049
69,650
110,638
115,267
166,191
102,021
48,267
293,665
655,457
1,913,137
536,549
230,694
86,540
273,127
137,749
56,365
212,096

84,890
411,444
230,771
319,451
368,827
462,087
465,063
837,107
1,049,343
686,283
736,711
297,840
514,417
765,283
318,350
594,291
392,843
149,680
469,434
274,225
39,458
243,993

Gold.
Dollars.

Silver.
Dollars.

34,954
378,257
462,546
1,019,399
738,570
706,428
705,879
765,838
614,665
563,585
3,472,507
1,669,739
5,318,725
1,895,265
11,444,189
1,078,040
3,812,030
1,131,700
700,929
17,254,470

7,980,000
2,958,402
4,867,125
8,013,489
5,252,661
5,740,129
6,618,077
6,216,458
5,749,839
6,285,475
5,687,633
4,454,107
6,160,676
13,631,043
10,040,968
5,850,669
7,490,309
5,679,390
4,280,916
5,328,222
3,444,959
3,290,264
6,032,075

Dollars.

8,064,890
3,369,846
5,097,896
8,379,835
6,150,765
6,880,956
8,151,143
7,489,741
7,403,612
8,155,964
7,345,945
5,907,504
7,070,363
17,911,632
13,131,447
13,400,881
10,516,414
17,747,116
5,595,176
8,882,813
4,988,633
4,087,016
23,742,634

E xported.
S p e c ie .

B u l l io n .

Years

ending Sept
1821.........

1822,.......
1823,
1824,
1825,
1826,

Gold.
30. Dollars.

Silver.

Gold.

Silver.

Domestic Coin.

Total.

Dollars

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

Dollars.

10,477,969
10,781,932
6,371,187
7,014,552
8,470,534
3,623,385
6,139,155
6,565,804
3,136,941
731,055
5,831,830
3,351,417
1,722,196
1,383,987
5,122,495
3,624,186
2,756,914
2,292,342
3,968,035
4,665,952
6,381,452
2,508,783
2,613,283

10,478,05910,810,180
6,372,987
7,014,552
8,797,055
4,098,678
6,971,306
7,550,439
4,311,134
1,241,622
6,956,457
4,245,399
2,244,859
1,676,258
5,748,174
3,978,598
4,702,730
3,035,105
6,860,385
6,181,941
7,287,846
3,642,785
3,118,399

605,558
1,043,574
693,037
612,886
937,151
2,058,474
1,410,941
366,842
400,500
729,601
345,738
1,283,519
472,941
1,908,358
2,235.073
2,746,486
1,170,754
234,403

4,704,236
8,014,880
8,243,476
4,924,020
2,178,773
9,014,931
5,656,340
3,611,701
2,076,758
6,477,775
4,324,336
5,986,249
3,508,046
8,768,743
8,417,014
10,034,332
4,813,539
3,352,802

90
.......
.......
28,248
.......
................. 1,800

.................
................. 10,849
15,638 25,090
.................

3,236
8,611
13,663 42,588
1828........
25,270 213,821
1829........
10,637 24,154
1830,
.................
21,690 203,572
1831,
.................
7,615 255,517
1832,
.................
26,773
1833,
.................
2,591
12,681
1834,
.................
1827,........

1835,
1836,
1837,
1838,
1839,
1840,

.................
25,777 52,695
.................
5,600
101,563
.................
................. 2,500
8,040
77,660
.................
................. 47,689

1841,

166,086 63,011
....................

1842,
.................
450
1843........




T

.......
.......
.......
.......
315,672
434,555
820,304
928,384
935,102
474,876
899,365
630,850
495,890
276,999
625,679
275,940
1,828.653
740,263
2,814,650
1,468,300
677,297
1,134,002
504,666

reasury

Total.

D epartment , Register’s Office, March 13, 1844.

T. L. SMITH, Register.

Mercantile Law Cases.

377

MERCANTI LE LAW DEPARTMENT.
MERCANTILE

LAW

CASES.

BANKRUPTCY— PROOF OF DEBT.

In the matter of Ephraim Brown, a bankrupt; Henry Wiener, assignee, objecting to
the proof of debt of William Courtis and Co. The proof debt filed in this case was on
two checks, made upon the common printed blanks, one of which was as follows:—
G R A N IT E BA N K.

$703 50.
B o s t o n , April 1 8 , 1841.
Pay to W . Courtis and Co., 18th May, or Bearer, seven hundred and three dollars
and fifty cents.
E p h r a im B r o w n ,
To the Cashier.
by J. W . Green.
The other check was made in the same manner, drawn the same day, for the sum of
$726 52, and payable 10th June.
The assignee objected (1.) that these instruments were inland bills of exchange, and
that the bankrupt was entitled, as drawer, to all the rights of drawers of such bills.
(2.) That whether they were checks or bills, there was not sufficient demand and notice
of the dishonor to charge the drawer. It appeared that, on the day when the checks
were drawn, Brown had the sum of $30 89, and on the 18th of May the sum of $6 11,
and on the 10th of June the sum of $20 72, in the Granite Bank. Each check was
presented at the counter of the bank on the day on which it was expressed to be pay­
able, and was refused payment for want of funds; but neither of the checks were treat­
ed by the holder as if entitled to days of grace, and no notice of the dishonor was given
to the drawer. The case was argued at a former day on the above questions, certified
to this court from the District court.
Judge Story.— The question in this case is of very great importance to the commer­
cial community in a practical view. It is whether, as contended by the counsel for the
assignee, a check on a bank, payable on a future day, is in fact an inland bill of ex­
change. In my judgment it is not. The distinguishing characteristics of checks, as
contradistinguished from bills of exchange, are, (as it seems to me,) that they are always
drawn on a bank or banker, that they are payable immediately on presentment, without
the allowance of any days of grace, and that they are never presentable for mere ac­
ceptance, but only for payment. A check is not less a check, because drawn payable
on a future day. The Massachusetts statute (Revised Statutes, title 12, ch. 33, sec. 5,
6) allows days of grace upon all bills of exchange payable at sight, or at a future day
certain, and on all promissory negotiable notes, orders, or drafts, payable at a future day
certain. But it makes no mention of checks; they are left to the known rules, practices,
and usages of banks, which are, to pay on presentment; and if the check is payable on
a particular day, or on demand, no days of grace are allowed. In the present case, the
parties used the common form of a bank check, and so, in effect, agreed that the instru­
ments should be treated, to all intents and purposes, as a check, with all the attributes
and incidents thereof.
The learned judge entered upon an elaborate review of the authorities on the subject
of checks and bills, and, in the course of his comment upon a case decided by Mr. Jus­
tice Cowen, of New York, made the following remarks: “ I am aware that Mr. Justice
Cowen, in his elaborate opinion in Homer v. Anderson, (21 Wendell’s Reports, 372,)
has endeavored to support the opinion that a check is to be deemed, to all essential pur­
poses, a bill of exchange, and that, therefore, all the rules applicable to the latter are of
equal force in relation to the former. Notwithstanding the array of authorities brought
32*




378

Mercantile Law Cases.

forward by him, my own judgment is that they wholly fail of the purpose. It appears
to me to be a struggle, on the part of the learned judge, to subject all the doctrines ap.
plicable to all negotiable instruments to some common and uniform standard. I hope
and trust that such an effort will never prevail. In my judgment, it is far better that
the doctrines of commercial jurisprudence should, from time to time, adapt themselves
to the common usages and practices and understanding of merchants, and vary with the
varying courses of business, so as at once to subserve public convenience, and to mould
themselves into the common habits of social life, than to assume any artificial forms, or
to regulate, by any inflexible standard, the whole operations of trade and commerce.
As new instruments arise in the course of business, they should be construed so as to
meet and accomplish the very purposes of the parties for which they were designed, and
not to defeat them. Checks are as well known now as bills of exchange, as a class of
distinct instruments in commercial negotiations; and he who seeks to make them iden­
tical, in all respects, with bills of exchange, may unintentionally be introducing an
anomaly, instead of suppressing one.”
The judge directed a certificate to the District court, to the effect that the checks de.
scribed are not bills of exchange, and required no notice of their dishonor, and that the
proof of debt ought not to be expunged.
FREIGHT— STOWAGE OF GOODS.

In the United States District Court, New York, January 19,1843, Jonathan Crocket,
Jr. vs. John H. Brower. This was a suit by the master against the consignee for freight
of goods from New Orleans to New York. The usual bills of lading were signed for
the goods, which were found to be damaged on the arrival here.
There were two surveys, one on the part of the master, by the port-wardens, which
certified that the goods were well stowed, and injured by the perils of the sea; the other
on the part of the consignee, by the marine surveyors appointed by the Chamber of
Commerce and Board of Underwriters, which certified that the goods were badly and
improperly stowed.
The certificates of surveyors were objected to as evidence, and the Court decided they
were not evidence in themselves; that the state of the cargo must be proved, like other
facts, by witnesses ; and that the persons making the survey would be entitled to such
weight as their knowledge, character, and experience deserved, and no more.
Messrs. Moffat and Kittle, two of the port.wardens, testified they made a survey of
the whiskey in question, and found it well stowed, so far as they examined; that they
saw no sugar stowed on the whiskey. Hogsheads of sugar on barrels of whiskey would
be bad stowage.
Captains Drinkwater and Hopkins, shipmasters, testified that they would stow sugar
on whiskey; considered it good stowage. Barrels of whiskey are stronger than hogs­
heads of sugar.
Messrs. Candler and Tinkham, two of the marine surveyors, testified that they made
a survey of the whiskey, and the same was very badly stowed. Hogsheads of sugar
were stowed on barrels of whiskey, without being dunnaged and bedded; the barrels
were pressed down or crushed, so that the liquor ran out. Hogsheads on barrels are
bad stowage.
Messrs. Spear, Kennedy, and Bergeny, coopers, testified that they coopered twentynine casks, which were in very bad order. The bilges were flattened from bad stow­
age, so as to leak; they were well made casks; appeared to have been stowed under
sugar.
Mr. Dick, a carman, saw the whiskey in the vessel and on the dock; sugar, lard, and
lead were stowed atop of it; the bilges were very much flattened. The barrels had no
dunnage under them at all.




Mercantile Law Cases.

379

Mr. Dunlap, a clerk of consignee, testified the casks were so much flattened that you
could run your hand under the quarter hoops. The whiskey which the coopers worked
at was the lot in question. The whiskey was stowed with heavy weight on it.
Mr. Waring, inspector of the Atlantic Company, Mr. Ricketson, inspector of the Sun
Company, and Mr. Thompson, inspector of the Alliance, testified that they had thirty,
thirty-five, and forty years’ experience; such stowage is decidedly bad. Hogsheads on
barrels, and barrels on the bottom, without beds and dunnage, is very bad stowage.
The Court: The point submitted by the parties is, whether the goods were properly
stowed. It appears to the Court that the goods were negligently and insufficiently stow­
ed in the vessel, and that the libellant sustained damage in the goods by bad stowage,
and is not, accordingly, entitled to recover freight.
The libel must be dismissed with costs.
WHALING VOYAtjE— SEAMEN’ S WAGES.

In the Supreme Judicial Court of Mass., Judge Wilde, presiding, Bishop vs. Shepard.
This action was founded upon the 11th section of the act of 1784, commonly called
the old habeas corpus act. It was brought by a father to recover damages for the loss
of the services of his son, who, in 1832, went on a whaling voyage in the defendant’s
ship, without his father’s consent, having first produced to the defendant a document
purporting to contain such consent. Evidence was introduced tending to show that this
document was forged. Judge Wilde instructed the jury that, if they deemed the plain­
tiffs case sustained by the evidence, they would give him, as damages, the value of his
son’s services from the time he entered the defendant’s service till he became of age,
(about two years and a half.) with interest from the date of the writ.
The jury found for the plaintiff, and assessed his damages at $466.
INSURANCE— VERBAL EVIDENCE INADMISSIBLE.

It was recently decided by the Court of Errors of New York, in the case of Alison
vs. Troy Insurance Company, that verbal evidence of what passed between the insured
and the underwriters, at and previous to the delivery of the policy, is not admissible with
a view to vary the terms of insurance. Everything should be stated in the policy, to
make it binding. It appears that Alison, on receiving his policy, promised verbally that
he would discontinue the use of a certain fire-place, and use a stove in the place thereof,
which he omitted to d o ; and the consequence was, the building was burnt up. The
court were of the opinion that the omission of the plaintiff constituted no defence of the
insurance company, as they should have had his promise expressed in the policy.
PROMISSORY NOTES— PLEA OF INFANCY.

In the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts; December, 1843, an action was
brought by Josiah F. Leach vs. N. W . C. Jameson, to receive the amount of a promis­
sory note signed by the defendant, and of which the plaintiff was endorsee.
It appeared in evidence that the defendant, in February, 1838, about commencing bu­
siness in a new firm, gave to John Dallinger, Jr., with whom he had formerly been con­
nected, a note for $3,000, payable on demand, with interest, in payment of stock pur­
chased of the old concern. The note was soon after endorsed, without recourse, by
Dallinger, to his father, who subsequently endorsed it to the plaintiff.
The defendant pleaded infancy. It was proved that he was not of age until the July
following the date of note. But it was proved, on the part of the plaintiff, that the de­
fendant, at different times after he came of age, had distinctly ratified the original pro­
mise, by re.promises to Dallinger, who acted as agent for the holder of the note, in de­
manding its payment.
Verdict for the plaintiff, the amount of the note and interest.




Commercial Regulations.

380

C OMMERCI AL

R E CUL A TI 0 N S.

COLONIAL TARIFF OF NEWFOUNDLAND.
The following colonial tariff of Newfoundland went into operation July 5, 1843:—
Articles.
Duties.
$0 60
Wines, viz: all wines in bottles,......................................................... per gallon
“
all other wines,................................................................
“
36
For every gallon of brandy, Geneva, and cordials, not exceeding the strength
of proof by Sykes’s hydrometer, and so in proportion for any greater
strength, or for any greater or less quantity than a gallon,...........per gallon
60
For every gallon of rum and whiskey, not exceeding the strength of proof by
Sykes’s hydrometer, and so in proportion for any greater strength, or for
any greater or less quantity than a gallon,.....................................per gallon
30
For every barrel of apples,...................................................................................
36
For every 112 lbs. of meat, salted or cured,......................................................
36
For every 112 lbs. of bread or biscuit,.................................................................
6
For every 112 lbs. of butter,................................................................................
48
For every ton of coals,.........................................................................................
24
For every barrel o f flour, not exceeding in weight 196 lbs.,.............................
36
For every barrel o f oatmeal, not exceeding in weight 200 lbs.,.........................
12
For every gallon o f molasses,..............................................................................
3
Salt,.........................................................................................................................
free.
Implements and materials fit and necessary for the fisheries— that is to say,
lines, twines, hooks, nets, and seines,.............................................................
free.
Coin and bullion,....................................................................................................
free.
Horses, mares, and geldings,................................................................................
free.
Neat cattle and calves,..........................................................................................
free.
Sheep and hogs,.....................................................................................................
free.
Corn and grain unground, and all seeds,.............................................................
free.
Potatoes, and all other vegetables,........................................................................
free.
Manures of all kinds,............................................................................................
free.
Printed books, pamphlets, maps, and charts,......................................................
free.
For every thousand feet of lumber, one inch thick,..........................................
60
For every ton of timber, and for every ton of balk, of any kind, including
scantling..............................................................................................................
36
For every thousand of shingles,........................................................................... '
24
For every pound o f tea,........................................................................................
6
1 20
For every 112 lbs. of refined sugar,...................................................................
Unrefined or clayed sugar,....................................................................................
free.
For every thousand of cigars,..............................................................................
2 40
For every pound of manufactured, and for every pound of^eaf tobacco,.......
4
For every 112 lbs. of tobacco stems,...................................................................
48
Coffee,.....................................................................................................................
&ee.
Ale, porter, beer, cider, and perry— for every .£100 of the true value thereof,.
48 00
Household furniture, manufactured from wood—for every £100 of the true
value thereof,.....................................................................................................
48 00
Goods, wares, and merchandise, not otherwise enumerated, described, or
charged with duty in this act, and not herein declared to be duty free—for
every £100 of the true value thereof,.............................................................
24 00

MERCHANDISE ADMITTED A T GONAIVES, ST. DOMINGO, DUTY FREE.
The following articles are free of duty at this port since January 1,1844
Fish, of all descriptions; salt pork and beef, in bbls.; nails, boards and planks, scant­
ling, shingles, empty hogsheads, and nest casks; box and hogshead shooks, hoops,
coffee-bags, ropes, engines, and pieces of machinery for sugar estates ; sugar-kettles,
iron and copper tanks, sugar-pans, and bricks.
All vessels intending to discharge and load entirely at this port, must consequently
bring no other articles but those enumerated above.




Railroad and Steamboat Statistics.

381

GRAINS IMPORTED INTO RUSSIA FREE.
Information has been received at the department of state at Washington, and officially
published, that, “ by an ukase of the 6th of November, 1843, His Majesty,the emperor
of all the Russias, taking into consideration the badness of the harvests in the govern­
ment of Esthonias this year, has deigned to authorize the importation, free from duty, of
the foreign grains hereinafter described, until the 1st of July, 1844, viz : Rye, wheat,
oats, barley, and buckwheat, in grain, as well as in flour and paste ; but, at the same
time, the transportation of these said sorts of grains, from the said ports to other Russian
ports, shall be prohibited during all the season of navigation of 1844. The transporta­
tion by land of the grains of Esthonias to the government of St Petersburg, shall be also
prohibited in the same manner as in 1836.”

CUSTOMS A T THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE.
By an order in Council, dated 2d October last, it is ordered that, upon the following
articles, imported into the colony of the Cape of Good Hope, there shall be levied, upon
the entry thereof for consumption, the following customs-duties :—
Meat— Salted or cured, of all sorts, not being the production or manufacture of the
United Kingdom, 3s. per cwt. Salted or cured, of all sorts, being the production or
manufacture of the United Kingdom, or of any British possession, Is. 3d. per cwt.
Oil—Train and blubber, the produce of fish, or creatures living in the sea, of foreign
fishing, £ 3 per tun, imperial measure. Spermaceti, of foreign fishing, £ 7 10s. per tun,
imperial measure.
Fish— Dried or salted, and fins and skins, the produce of creatures living in the sea,
of foreign fishing or taking, for every £100 of the value thereof, £12.

RAI LROAD

AND STEAMBOAT

STATI STI CS.

PHILADELPHIA, WILMINGTON, AND BALTIMORE RAILROAD.
are indebted to the politeness of M. Brooke Buckley, Esq., the president of the
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Railroad Company, for their two last annual
reports, made January 9th, 1843, and January 8th, 1844. From these reports, it appears
that the whole amount of receipts for the year ending 21st of December, 1842, were
$469,858 04. The whole expenses for the year ending the same day, were $239,965 07.
The revenue for 1842 was $134,010 65 less than in 1841, and the expenses were less
by $102,979 70. The whole receipts for the year ending 31st December, 1843, were
$430,434 4 7 ; while the current expenses for the same period were $230,384 86. It
appears, by the last report, that the funded debt of the company amounted to
$2,972,887 16. The president alludes to the adverse circumstances of the company
during the past year; but hopes that, from the favorable prospects of the country, the
period is approaching when it will receive such substantial assurance of prosperity as
will confirm the anticipations of the most sanguine. Of the probability of this, however,
no speculations are offered. It was stated in an article on the Progress of the Doctrine
of Low Fares, in the Merchants’ Magazine, for October, that the charge from Philadel­
phia to Baltimore, $4, and Baltimore to Washington, $2 50, or $10 50 from New York
to Washington, was, in these days, on such a route, entirely too high. This statement
gave offence to the Philadelphia and Baltimore company, which we regret, as we were
actuated only by a desire to promote the interests equally of the company and the public ;
and we still believe that a greatly reduced fare would materially increase the revenue
W

e




382

Railroad and Steamboat Statistics,

of the road; and we are sustained in this opinion by the results which have been realized
by the railroad companies of Massachusetts. As pertinent to the subject, we quote a
passage from a little work just published in Boston, entitled “ Tw o Months Abroad ;
or, A Trip to England, France, Baden, Prussia, and Belgium, in August and Septem­
ber, 1843, by a Railroad Director of Massachusetts.” The author is E. H. Derby, Esq.,
a director o f the Western railroad, and a large stockholder. He says:—
“ Extremes are ever to be avoided. The opinion of the author has uniformly, for the
last seven years, been in favor of an average rate of two cents per (passenger a) mile,
as most productive, and is founded upon results derived from close observation and long
experience. He has not advocated a lower rate except to meet direct or indirect com­
petition. During the past year, the Western railroad has increased its through passen­
gers 60 per cent, by reducing its rate from two and a half to two cents per mile ; and
the Newton train has nearly trebled its numbers by a still larger reduction. The printed
report of the Portland, Saco, and Portsmouth railroad, under date of December 19th,
1843, confirms this opinion ; showing, as it does, that this railroad has earned 3 per cent
nett during the six months ending November 30th last, derived principally from passen­
gers carried at one cent per mile, against a most formidable steamboat opposition; and
also showing that, during the previous six months, while engrossing the whole travel be­
tween Boston and Maine, at four cents per (passenger a) mile, it earned but one-half of
1 per cent.
“ Making due allowance for the season, the result, drawn from rates far below those
advocated by the author, is irresistible evidence in favor of the moderate fare. The price
should be such as to move the masses, and move them often— to draw to the great cities
not merely the trader, but his family and customers, as is done by the steamers on the
North river. In this country, the masses decide dividends as well as elections.”
RAILROADS OF MASSACHUSETTS.
T he

state of the

Corporate Names.

R ailroads

in

M assachusetts

Length Cost o f roads
in
and appurtenances.
miles.

Cost
per
mile.

in the t e a r

1843.

Expenditure Receipts Excess o f reduring the during the ceipts and
year, expenditures.
year.

Western,.......................... 156 $7,570,000 $48,525 $573,883 $303,972 $269,909
Boston and Worcester,....
2,836,169 64,458 404,141 206,641 197,500
44
Boston and Providence,..
1,914,474 46,694 233,388 125,374 208,014
41
Boston and Lowell,.........
1,863,746 71,682 277,315 109,367 167,948
26
Norwich and Worcester,.
650,421 32,521
54,112
45,821 • 8,291
20
26,450
215,930 23,992
Nashua and Lowell,........
9
50,445
23,995
2,388,631
61,246 279,562 104,640 174,922
Eastern,............................
39
534,612 26,730
25,298
Boston and Maine,...........
64,998
39,700
20
50,672
27,391
N. Bedford and Taunton,.
20
428,543 21,427
22,281
22,855
Taunton Branch,.............
250,000 22,727
74,251
51,396
11
Berkshire,.........................
21
250,000
leased at 17,500
250,000
Charlestown Branch,.......
7
Total number of miles ran in 1843,...............
1,379,676
The above roads are all situated within the territory of Massachusetts, except about
38 miles of the Western road ; but, as that portion of the Western road was built prin­
cipally with Massachusetts capital, and is in the hands of the Massachusetts corporation,
which has the pre-emptive right of purchase, we have included it in the Massachusetts
roads. The Berkshire road was built, in part, by contract, and has been leased to the
Housatonic company. The Charlestown Branch corporation have entered into a con­
tract with the Fitchburg corporation, which is now constructing a railroad to Fitchburg.
A charter is about being granted to extend this road to Brattleborough, Vt., and thence
through that state to Lake Champlain.
Two bills are before the legislature of Massachusetts for the incorporation of railroad
companies. The route of one is from Athol, through Greenfield, to Brattleborough.
The effect of so many avenues to Boston, which may be passed with such rapidity,
has shown itself in the growth of that city within a few years past, and the increase of
her trade.




Mercantile Miscellanies.

383

ATLANTIC STEAM NAVIGATION, BETWEEN NEW YORK AND LIVER­
POOL, FOR 1844.
The Great Britain, of 3,500 tons, is to be placed on the line between Liverpool and
New York, in addition to the Great Western, of 1,700 tons. The arrangement for their
departure from the two places, for the coming season, is as follows:—
F rom L iverpool.

F rom N ew Y ork .

Great Western,... .Saturday, 27th April.
Great Britain,......... Saturday, 25th MayGreat Western,... .Saturday, 15th June.
Great Britain,......... Saturday, 13th July.
Great Western,___ Saturday, 3d August
Great Britain,......... Saturday, 31st August.
Great Western,....Saturday,21st Sept’mb’r.
Great Britain,........ Saturday, 19th Octobej.
Great Western,....Saturday,9thNovember.

Great Western,....Thursday,23d May.
Great Britain,........ Thursday, 20th June.
•Great Western,. . . .Thursday, 11th July.
Great Britain..........Thursday, 8th August.
Great Western,. ...Thursday, 29th August.
Great Britain,........ Thursday, 26th Sept’r.
Great Western,....Thursday, 17thOctober.
Great Britain,........ Thursday, 14th NoVr.
Great Western,. . . .Thursday, 5th Dec’r.

The fare by both ships, it is announced, wi 1 be at reduced rates.

MERCANTILE
TH E

MISCELLANIES.

M ERCH ANT.

B Y CORNELIUS MATHEWS.

W

ho

gathers in com e in the narrow street,

Or, climbing, reaps it from the roughening sea,
His anchor Truth should fix —should fill his flowing sheet;
His weapon, helm, and staff, the truth should be.
Wrought out with lies each rafter of thine house,
Black with the falsehood every thread thou wearest—
A subtle ruin, sudden overthrow,
For all thy household’s fortune thou preparest.
Undimmed, the man should through the trader shine,
And show the soul unbabled by his craft;
Slight duties may not lessen, but adorn
The cedar’s berries round the cedar’s shaft.
The pettiest act will lift the doer up,
The mightiest cast him swift and headlong down ;
If one forget the spirit of his deed,
The other wears it as a living crown.

,

A grace, be sure, in all true duty dwells ;
Humble or high, you always know it thus—
For, beautiful in act, the foregone thought
Confirms its truth, though seeming ominous.
Pure hands, and just, may therefore well be laid
On duties daily as the air we breathe ;
And Heaven, amid the thorns of harshest trade,
The laurel of its gentlest love may wreathe.
COINAGE OF COPPER IN CHINA.
It is stated in the Hong-Kong Gazette, of July 13th, 1843, that permission is given,
at the request of the proper officer, to cast copper cash in Shan.se province. It appears
that none has been made for ten years past, and that now the present value of copper
cash is 1,440 to 1,450 for a tael of silver. In old times, two taels and one mace of
silver was worth no more. At the present rate, it is held fit to issue a fresh supply of
cash. W e learn there are six furnaces at Shan-se mint— each will furnish annually
17,400 teaou tseen, or 17,400,000 cash. It is intended to employ at present only four
for one year. The composition of the cash is stated to be a mixture of copper, zinc,
and lead.




384

Mercantile Miscellanies.
A BENEVOLENT QUAKER MERCHANT.

The following just eulogy on the Society of Friends has met our eye in a small work
by Mr. Goyder, entitled “ Acquisitiveness : its Uses and Abuses —
“ If I wished to point to a model where wealth seems to have been accumulated for
the sole purpose of doing good, I would hold up to admiration the people called Quakers.
They are wealthy to a man; and where, throughout Christendom, in its varied ramifica­
tions, is there a body of people who have done so much good, and with so much disin­
terestedness ? not choosing their own connection as the sole recipients of their bounty,
but extending it to every shade of religious creed. In the proper and legitimate uses of
wealth, I present this people as a model worthy of general imitation. The late venera­
ted Richard Reynolds, of Bristol, who had amassed a princely fortune in the iron trade,
looked upon himself merely as the steward of#the Almighty. His entire income, after
deducting the moderate expenses of his family, was devoted to benevolence; and he
thought his round of duty still incomplete, unless he devoted his time likewise. He
deprived himself of slumber to watch beside the bed of sickness and pain, and to ad­
minister consolation to the heart bruised with affliction. On one occasion, he wrote to
a friend in London, requesting to know what object of charity remained, stating that he
had not spent the whole of his income. His friend informed him of a number of per­
sons confined in prison for small debts. He paid the whole, and swept the miserable
mansion of its distressed tenants. Most of his donations were enclosed in blank covers,
bearing the modest signature of ‘ A Friend.’ A lady once applied to him in behalf of
an orphan, saying, ‘ When he is old enough, I will teach him to name and thank his
benefactor.’ ‘ Nay,’ replied the good man, ‘ thou art wrong. W e do not thank the
clouds for rain. Teach him to look higher, and to thank Him who giveth both the clouds
and the rain. My talent is the meanest of all thlents— a little sordid dust; but as the
man in the parable was accountable for his one talent, so am I accountable to the great
Lord of all.’ ”
COMMERCIAL PROSPERITY OF SINGAPORE.
The Friend of India, of the 27th July, 1843, has the following remarks relative to the
prosperity of the settlement of Singapore :—
“ It is impossible to contemplate the state of prosperity which the colony has now
reached, without a strong feeling of exultation. Here is a maritime entrepot, in one of
the most advantageous commercial positions in the world, to which, during the past year,
952 square-rigged vessels resorted, and 2,824 native vessels, from the various ports and
islands in the Archipelago. The burden of these vessels was 363,600 tons, and the value
of the goods they imported and exported amounted to five crores of rupees. This set­
tlement is maintained at an expense not exceeding £50,000 a year, and this sum is
raised on the island itself. All the advantages which it confers, directly and collaterally,
on British commerce in the Eastern seas, are gained without one farthing of expense to
the mother country. W e question whether the records of the colonial office could show
us any crown colony, of equal importance and value, which is managed with the same
economy, or which makes no annual demand on the British exchequer. Singapore
stands almost alone in the British colonial establishments as a self-supporting colony.”
WOODEN W AR E IMPORTED TO ENGLAND.
The New York Express says, that the packet ships are carrying out wooden ware to
London. The London and Liverpool packets continue to go out full—new articles all
the while coming into the market, which are taken out as a speculation, and which gen­
erally are successful. The last “ new notions” taken out, are wooden clothes pins,
wooden bowls, spoons, churns, rocking chairs, &c., of which several tons measurement
were on board the Victoria for London. Her freight list amounted to about $10,000.




Commercial Statistics,

COMME RC I AL

385

STATISTICS.

WHALE FISHERY OF THE UNITED STATES.
Annexed are the arrivals and imports of whale and sperm oil into the United States
for 1843, and the six preceding years:—
Ships anil
Bbls.
Ports.
Barques. Brigs.
Schrs. Bbls. Whale.
Sperm.
18
53
14
4
0
3
2
3
2
2
3
4
2
0
2
2
20
7
3
24
4
1
1
1
11
1
1
0
3
2
1

Nantucket,........................................
New Bedford,...................................
Fairhaven,..........................................
Westport,..........................................
Wareham,..........................................
Mattapoisett,....................................
Sippican,............................................
Edgartown,........................................
Holmes’ Hole,..................................
Provincetown,...................................
Boston,..............................................
Falmouth,..........................................
Fall River,.........................................
Plymouth,..........................................
Somerset,..........................................
Salem,................................................
New London,....................................
S t o n i n g t o n , ........................................................
M y s t i c , ..................................................................

Sag Harbor,......................................
Greenport,.........................................
New Suffolk,.....................................
Bridgeport..........................................
Bristol,...............................................
Warren,.............................................
Providence,.......................................
Newport,............................................
Bath, M e.,.........................................
New York,........................................
Cold S p r i n g . . . . . . ...........................................
Poughkeepsie,..................................
Per merchantmen, from whalers,...

2

4
0
0
2
1
2
1
0
5
3
0
1
2
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
1
1
0
0
0

4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
2
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

30,480
61,557
14,230
2,400
1,093
1,700
1,220
6,460
1,800
3,900
2,165
5,700
780
390
442
920
4,250
2,415
360
4,220
964
200
300
620
7,740
190
2,050
300
1,520
150
350
6,278

1,545
4,199
11,900
35
00,000
320
1,540
110
1,700
820
1,510
820
4,015
55
367
1,800
37,750
12,345
4,560
47,980
7,100
2,000
2,100
0,000
9,910
2,410
50
0,000
6.100
3,320
2,500
0,000

13

167,144

205,861

...

■28

194

Total in 1843,......................

It will be seen that, for the year 1843, we have given a detailed account of the num­
ber of ships, barques, brigs, &c., arrived at each port, and the quantity of oil imported
into the same.
Imports o f Sperm and Whale Oil into the United States, from 1838 to 1843, inclusive.
Sperm.

Years.
1838,............
1839,............
1840,.............

Whale.

Bbls.

Bbls.

132,356
142,336
157,791

226 ,55 2
229,783
207,908

Years.

Sperm.

Bbls.
..
1841,
1 842,
.
1 843,.............

1 59,304
165,637
166,985

Whale.

Bbls.
207 ,34 8
161,041
205,861

Exports o f Sperm Oil, Whale and other Fish Oils, (in bbls.,) and Whalebone, (in lbs.,)
from the United States, from October 1, 1837, to June 3 0 ,1 8 4 3 , inclusive.
Bone.

Years.

Sperm.

W h ale.

Bbls.

Bbls.

Lbs.

1837,
1838,
1839,
1840,

5 ,225
2,731
13,797
11,091

153,154
47,076
143,519
130,124

1,634,570
1,445,098
1,892,259
1,271,363

V OL. X .— NO. I V .




Years.

Sperm.

Bbls.
1841,
9 ,1 3 5
1842, >
to J’ly, > 12,127
1843,

S

33

W hale.

Bbls.

Bone.

Lbs.

124,118

918,280

79,907

898 ,77 3

386

Commercial Statistics.

Exports and Value o f Spermaceti Candles from the United States, during the nine
months ending June 30, 1843.
Quantity,..........................................................................................................lbs.
Value,........................................................................................................dollars

964,210
234,049

W h a l e F is h e r y of S a s H a r b o r .

Since the above1tables were prepared, and in type, we have received from our worthy
friend, Luther D. Cook, Esq., a gentleman extensively engaged in the whale fishery at
Sag Harbor, as owner and managing agent, full and complete tables of that branch of
commerce at Sag Harbor, for the year 1843. If some managing agent or owner, in the
different districts engaged in this important branch of productive commerce, would send
us similar tables annually, we should be able to furnish authentic statements of the entire
business in the United States; which would, of course, exhibit a comparative view of
the movement in the different districts.
List o f Arrivals o f Whaling Vessels, with the amount o f the Produce o f the Fishery,
within the District o f Sag Harbor, (L. /.,) New York, during the year 1843.
Tim e o f arrival.
1843.

Names o f Vessels.

March 16,.
April
3,.
it
6,.
««
9,.

Ship
“
Brig
Bark
Ship
Bark
Ship
“

ii

2 2 ,.

it

25,.
7,.
7,.
7,.
10,.
10,.
22,.
24,.
10,.
10,.
16,.
28,.
30,.
5,.
14,.
14,.
5,.
5,.
12,.
13,.
24,.
25,.
25,.
21,.
21,.
‘ 21,.

May
«

U
«•

It
June
it
a
a
it

July
it
it

Aug.
tt
It
tl
ft
if
it

Oct.
it

Columbia,
Thames,
Wickford,
Concordia,
Washington,
Noble,
Neptune,
Bayard,
“
Triad,
“
Henry,
“
Ann,
“
Washington,
44 D. Webster,
Bark Superior,
Ship France,
44 Delta,
Bark Cadmus,
“ Nimrod,
44 Barbara,
“ Marcus,
Ship Hamilton 2d,
Bark Gem,
Ship Hannibal,
“ Huron,
44 Crescent,
Bark American,
44 Camillus,
44 Romulus,
Ship Fanny,
“ Panama,
“ Silas Richards,

T im e

absent.

Tons. Months• Days.

285
414
115
265
340
274
338
339
336
333
299
236
397
275
411
314
307
280
260
283
455
326
311
290
340
283
345
233
391
465
454

20
20
15
28
22
21
23
19
22
22
21
19
22
11
20
18
20
10
13
19
30
11
12
11
22
13
20
14
28
27

18
28
15
12
20
6
5
11
24
21
22
16
11
9
11
8
1
6
26
23
23
2
23
16
5
15
4
30
14

Total,................................... 9,994
it

Sp. Oil.

W halebone.

Bbls.

398
76
40
261
15
118
40
214
109
100
56

2,263
3,102

23,542
28,500

291
126
251
113
230

997
2,270
2,048
2,691
1,798
2,027
2,264
2,359
1,665
3,175
881
2,384
1,264
2,085
1,030
897
647
3,306
2,182
910
1,102
2,253
1,358
1,011
713
2,734
3,455
3,175

8,905
19,004
18,889
27,900
11,797
11,190
20,135
19,593
110,000
25,500
7,456
17,539
.9,794
11,670
7,272
7,874
3,090
37,159
16,797
5,000
7,925
16,521*
11,502
7,490
5,536
21,200t
30,561
26,300

4,959

58,050

476,644
10,500
25,200

13
215
297
163
100
442
563
323
49
79
280

Thomas Dickason ex Silas Richards,......

Lbs.

512,344

Total,..




W h . oil.

Bbls.

* Including 1,300 whale, sold at Rio.
t Including oil sent home and abroad.

387

Commercial Statistics,

List of Vessels engaged in the Whale Fishery, sailed from the District of Sag Harbor,
N. Y.j during the year 1843.
Vessel’s name.

Time of sailing.

March 25,.
April 21,.
June 10,.
it
15,.
“
19,.
(i 20,.
ii 29,.
July
5,.
“
7,.
ii
7,.
(I 19,.
it 20,.
(i
21,.
“
24,.
Aug. 11,.
it
17,.
it
17,.
it 24,.
it
26,.

Bark Caroline,..........
Ship Citizen,............
“ Neptune,..........
Bark Sarah & Esther,
Ship Washington,,...
Bark Columbia,.........
“ Concordia,........
Ship Henry,..............
“ Ann,................
“ Thames,..........
“ Washington,....
Bark Noble,..............
Ship France,............
Bark Superior,..........
Ship Triad,...............
“ Daniel Webster,
“ Delta,...............
“ Cadmus,..........
Bark Nimrod,...........

Tons.

252
464
338
157
340
285
265
333
299
414
236
274
411
275
336
397
314
307
280

Time o f sailing.

Aug.
it
it
tc
it
Sept.
it
ii
it
ii
it
Oct.
it

ii
it
“
Nov.
Dec.

26,.
28,.
30,.
31,.
31,.
16,.
16,.
18,.
21,.
27,.
28,.
4,.
11,.
18,.
25,.
30,.
8,.
4,.

Tons.

Vessel’s name.

Bark Barbara,..........
Ship Hamilton 2d,...
“ Hannibal,....... .
Bark Marcus,..........
Ship Ontario 2d,..... .
“ Alexander,.....
Bark Gem,..............
“ American,...... .
Ship Huron,...........
Bark Bayard,...........
“ Romulus,........
Ship William Tell,..
“ Crescent,........
“ Helen,............ .
“ Illinois,..........
“ Josephine,....... .
“ Manhattan,..... .
“ Fanny,...........

260
455
311
283
489
370
326
283
290
339
233
370
340
424
413
397
440
391

List o f Vessels engaged in the Whale Fishery, sailed from the District o f Sag Har­
bor, which have not returned during the past year, and are now at sea, January lsf,
1844.
Time o f sailing.

1841.
July 12,.
“ 14,.
Sept. 26,.
Dec. 6,.
1842.
June 30,.
July 1,.
“ 30,.
Aug. 2,.
31
37
3
17

Tons.

Vessel’ s name.

Bark Franklin,.............
Ship Thos. Dickason,.
“ Arabella,.............
“ Wiscasset,...........
“
“
“
“

Ontario 1st,.........
Hamilton 1st,....
Phoenix,..............
Portland,.............

Tim e o f sailing

1842.
391 Aug. 29,.
454 Sept. 2,.
367
“ ii,.
380
“ 27,.
Oct. 1,.
3G8
“
7,.
322
“
7,.
314
“ 11,.
292 Nov. 25,.

Vessel’ s name.

Bark
Ship
“
“
Bark
Ship
“
“
“

Tons.

Acasta,...............

286
409
378
289
251
494
299
368
380

H e n r y L e e , ...........

Alciope,..............
Tim or,................
Roanoke,............
John Jay,............
Tuscany.............
Hudson,..............
Ann Mary Ann,
Tons.

Tons.

arrivals in the district in 1843......
departures from the district in 1843,..................................................................
vessels in port on 1st January, 1844,................................................................
vessels sailed from the district in 1841 and 1842, and now out,....................

12,391
1,264
6,042

Tot. tonnage in the district employed in the whale fishery on 1st Jan., 1844,

19,697

The progress made in the whale fishery, at the port of Sag Harbor, has been very
rapid. From a statement furnished by Mr. Cook, it appears that in 1815 there were but
3 ships owned there ; yet that, in 1838, the number had increased to 29 ; being an ad­
dition of 26 ships in 23 years. In 1837, there were 23 arrivals and 29 departures of
whaling ships ; the number of men and boys employed on board of which, exceeded
800. Mr. Cook states that, from 1804 to 1837, there were 198 arrivals of whaling ves­
sels at Sag Harbor, producing 338,690 barrels of whale oil, 40,504 barrels o f sperm, and
6,596,765 pounds of bone. The whole number of vessels engaged in the whaling busi­
ness from this district, in 1843, was 52 ; the registered tonnage o f which is 17,310,
and the number of hands employed 1,217.
The prices of sperm and whale oil, and whalebone, from 1838 to 1842, inclusive,
were as follows :—
Years.

1838,
1839,
1840,
1841,
1842,
1843,

Sperm oil.

75
98
90
81
64
53

a
a
a
a
a
a

97
110
106
105
92
78

c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,




av.
av.
av.
av.
av.
av.

W hale oil.

83c.
103c.
100c.
94c.
73c.
63c.

30
30
30
30
32
31

a 37
a 39
a 32
a 36
a 38
a 40

c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,

av.
av.
av.
av.
av.
av.

W halebone.

32 c.
34£ c.
30£ c.
3 1 f c.
33f c.
34£ c.

17
17
18
18
20
26

a 21
a 19
a 22
a 23
a 32
a 50

c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,
c.,

av.
av.
av.
av.
av.
av.

19£
18|
19
19§
23
35J

c.
c.
c.
c*
c.
c.

388

Commercial Statistics.

Average prices for the six years above are—
Sperm oil,...............................................................................
Whale oil,...............................................................................
Whalebone,............................................................................

86
cents.
32 5.6 “
22 J
“

The New Bedford Shipping List gives the following estimate of ships and oil to come
in 1844:—
There are 72 sperm whale ships which may arrive in 1844, (that will
Sperm.
W hale.
be 36 to 60 months out,) with 1,500 bbls. sperm and 150 whale each, 108,000 10,800
3 sperm whale ships that may arrive in 1844, (that shipped a part or
the whole o f their sperm oil home in 1843,) with 500 bbls. sperm
1.500
1,500
and 500 bbls. whale each,....................................................................
106 two-season right whalers that may arrive in 1844, with 1,950
26,500 206,700
whale and 250 sperm each,..................................................................
10 one-season right whalers may arrive in 1844, with 100 sperm and
1,000 14,000
1,400 whale each,..................................................................................
40 Atlantic sperm whalers that may arrive in 1844, with 275 sperm
11,000
1,000
and 25 whale each,................................................................................
3.500
.......
Estimated quantity to be sent home from outward-bound whalers, &c.,
Deduct for oil to be sold in South America,,
Total....................................................................................... bbls.

148,500 234,000
......
8,000
148,500 226,000

FRENCH AN D SPANISH TRADE.
From the report of Senor Mateo Durou, recently removed from the Spanish consulate at
Bordeaux, we gather the following statistics of the commerce between France and Spain,
during the year 1842. It appears, from this report, that the imports into France from
Spain, by sea, amounted to 29,740,267 francs; and by land, to 9,263,335 francs. Total
import into France from Spain, during the year 1842, 39,003,602 francs. The articles
o f highest amount were—Wools, 8,743,364 f . ; lead, 5,365,474 f . ; oil, 4,827,828 f .;
fruits of all sorts, 3,928,326 f . ; cork-wood, 3,359,802 f., (estevas;) mats, 2,16,7,839 f.,
(esparto ;) raw material of do., 1,474,969 f . ; wines of all sorts, 809,166 f .; woollenstuffs, 764,813. The French exports amounted to 34,161,622 f. by sea, and 37,330,699 f.
by land. Total, 71,492,321 f . ; showing a balance in favor of France, according to
Senor Durou’s report, of 32,488,719 f. The principal articles of French export to Spain
were— Cotton-stuffs, 21,768,450 f . ; woollen do., 11,177,387 f . ; silk do., 8,190,636 f . ;
mules, 3,519,600 f.; linen-stuffs, 3,393,932 f . ; merceries, 2,230,926 f . ; machinery,
1,449,661 f . ; furniture, 1,163,180 f . ; paper, books and prints, &c., 1,290,582 f . ; wood
of all kinds, 1,035,392 f . ; porcelain and glass, 946,726 f .; iron and steel, 850,842 f .;
nails, 807,819 f. The total importations into France, from Spain, were— 1839,
37,351,914 f . ; 1840, 42,684,761 f .; 1841, 37,162,689 f .; 1842, 39,008,602. The total
exportations from France into Spain, were— 1839, 82,656,086 f .; 1840, 104,679,141 f.;
1841,100,893,906; 1842,71,492,321. In the same year there entered French ports,
proceeding from Spain, 901 vessels, of which 492 were Spanish, 374 French, and 35 of
other nations; and there left French ports, for Spain, 590 vessels, of which 446 were
Spanish, 94 French, and 50 of other nations. How far this statement is to be relied
upon, we are unable to say. The greater part of the French trade being a smuggling
trade, must be taken into account; but Senor Durou may have had sources of informa­
tion that enabled him to make a tolerably accurate calculation. It is published, at all
events, with his signature as Spanish consul, and dated Bordeaux, December 30, 1843 ;
and must, therefore, be viewed as official.




Commercial Statistics.

389

BRITISH EXCISE DUTIES.
By a parliamentary document of last session, a return was made of the quantities of,
and of the amount of duties received on, the several articles liable to excise duty in the
United Kingdom, during the years ending January, 1841, 1842, and 1843, distinguishing
England, Ireland, and Scotland. Also, a return of the consumption of imported com­
modities, and of the receipt of customs duties thereon, within the United Kingdom, in
the three years ending January, 1841,1842, and 1843. It appears that the duty on sale3
by auctions, in the United Kingdom, in the year ending the 5th of January, 1841, was
,£320,062 13s. 6d. ; of which £286,624 11s. 3d. was for England, £20,060 16s. Id. in
Scotland, and £13,377 5s. 8d. in Ireland. In 1842, the duty in the United Kingdom
was £314,073 12s. Id., and in 1843, £297,146 4s. 9d., on auction sales. On bricks,
the duty in the last year was £400,086 3s. 5d., and on glass, £766,540 14s. 3d., in
the United Kingdom; of which £703,194 6s. 2d. was paid in England on the last men­
tioned article. The duty on hops in England, in the year ending January, 1843, was
£310,025 8s. lOd. On licenses in the United Kingdom last year, £1,014,941 Is.; the
number being 592,342. The duty on malt in the last year, in England, was £4,176,742
19s. lOd.; on paper in England, £495,955 17s. 6d.; on post-horses in England,
£156,397 8s. 9d.; on post-horse licenses, £3,849; on soap in England last year,
£35,523 Is. 4 d .; on spirits in England in the one year, £316,121 3 s.; on sugar, £4,382
17s. 5 d .; on vinegar in England, £27,106 9s. lOd. in one year, and £10,832 17s. on
game certificates in Ireland. From the second return, it appears that the total amount
of customs duties on imported articles in the year ending January, 1843, was £22,596,263
__________________________________
3s. 2d.
EXPORTS OF PORT WINE FROM OPORTO.
The official list o f the exportation of wine from Oporto during the year 1843, shows
that while the export to Great Britain alone has been 21,244 pipes, that to all other
countries, including British colonies, has been only 5,156 pipes. In 1842, the exporta­
tion was 21,728; so that the fall off last year was 500 pipes. W e must, however, look
to the years 1839 and 1840 to see the real extent of the decline, the exportation to Great
Britain being 26,159 pipes in the former year, and 25,678 in the latter. The decline in
the wine trade is naturally accompanied by an increase of agricultural distress in Portu­
gal ; and accordingly the official statement of emigration, which is published in the gov­
ernment journal, gives some melancholy facts. In the first half of 1842, the number of
poor persons emigrating to Brazil was 459 from Oporto, and 47 from Lisbon. In the
last half, the number from Oporto was 775, and from Lisbon 218; and in the first half of
1843, the respective numbers were 715 and 291. The hardships which these poor peo­
ple have to undergo, are of the most fearful description; and some of them, on their
arrival in Brazil, are obliged to sell themselves for a term into slavery. And this distress
is brought about solely by bad management, for Portugal is but thinly populated, and
contains provinces which are yet but imperfectly developed, and which only require cul­
tivation to become most abundantly productive.

DEBTS OF INSOLVENT HONG MERCHANTS.
By a late letter from Canton, we are informed that the Hong merchants have made
arrangements to pay off all the old debts of the insolvent Hongs, which has been insisted
on by the mandarin, preparatory to the commencement of the new system. Of the
$1,560,000 required, it is believed that How-qua will pay $1,000,000; Poon-ke-qua,
$130,000; Gow-qua and Sam-qua, each $100,000 ; Mow.qua, King-qua, and Sao-qua,
$50,000 each ; Foo-tae and Pun-hoy-qua, each $30,000; and Ming.qua, $20,000.




33*

390

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THE BOOK TRADE.
1-—A Geography o f Pennsylvania; containing an Account o f the History, Geograph­
ical Features, Soil, Climate, Geology, Botany, Zoology, Population, Education, Gov­
ernment, Finance, Productions, 'Hade, Railroads, Canals, f c . , o f the State. With
a Separate Description o f each County, and Questions fo r the convenience of Teach­
ers. To which is appended a Traveller's Guide, or Table o f Distances on the prin­
cipal Railroad, Canal, and Stage Routes in the State. By C harles B. T rego, late
Assistant Geologist, etc. Illustrated by a map of the state, and numerous engravings.
12mo., pp. 384. Philadelphia: Edward C. Biddle. 1844.
W e are prepared, after a careful examination of this work, to say that it is, without
exception, the best of its class that has fallen under our observation. It appears to have
been prepared with great care, and its arrangement is concise and systematic. We
scarcely know where to put our hand upon a work that furnishes so condensed a view of
the past history, or so comprehensive a description of the present condition of a single
state, as the one before us. The work is divided into two parts, with a historical intro­
duction prefixed. The first part contains an account of the general geographical features
of the state, its soil, climate, & c.; with a descriptive exhibit of its geology, botany, and
zoology; the character of its population, education, government, and finances ; its produc­
tions of agriculture, manufactures, mines, and forests; its internal improvements, trade,
and commerce. The second part gives a description of each county, in alphabetical
order; embracing its physical aspect, geological character, mineral products, soil, streams,
towns and villages, productions, canals, railroads, turnpikes, bridges, & c.; the assessed
value o f property; the state of education; colleges, academies, and schools; religious
denominations, natural curiosities— with a historical account of the early settlement, and
a great number of other interesting particulars. The chapter relating to the trade and
commerce of Pennsylvania furnishes so complete a view of the subject, in a form so com­
prehensive, that we concluded to adopt it; and have accordingly transferred it entire to a
former part of this Magazine.
—Manual o f Classical Literature. From the German of J. J. E schenbtjrg, Profes.
sor in the Carolinium at Brunswick. With Additions. By N. W . F isk , Professor in
Amherst College. Fourth edition. 8vo., pp. 690. Philadelphia: E. C. Biddle.
This is one of the best, if not the very best, manuals of classical literature ever pub­
lished in this country. It embraces treatises on Classical Geography and Topography,
Classical Chronology, Greek and Roman Mythology, Greek Antiquities, Roman Anti­
quities, Archaiology of Greek and Roman Literature, and of A r t; History of Greek and
Roman Literature, &,c. Its adoption in many of the most popular literary institutions
in the United States, and the high encomiums bestowed upon it by many of the most
distinguished classical scholars of our time, renders our humble appreciation of its merits
almost a work of supererogation. More than six thousand copies of it have been pub­
lished since its first appearance. It is beautifully printed, and illustrated by a great num­
ber of appropriate engravings.

2.

3. — The Correspondence between Burns and Clarinda. With a Memoir o f Mrs.
M Lehose, {Clarinda.) Arranged and edited by her Grandson, W. C. M ’ L ehose.
New York : Robert P. Bixby & Co.
The correspondence of Burns and Clarinda, so long sought for with a view of publi­
cation, is at length given to the world by a grandson of “ Clarinda,” now an adopted
citizen o f the United States. It does not, however, seem to meet the expectations of
the critics. It will, no doubt, be read by the numerous admirers of the bard, and circu­
late as freely as his poetical works. Clarinda refused to sanction the publication during
her lifetime ; and, indeed, we think they add little to the reputation or fame of either
party. The volume is beautifully printed on fine paper, and very neatly bound.




The Book Trade.

391

4. —An Elementary Treatise on Human Physiology, on the Basis o f the Preus Elementaire de Physiologie. Par F. M agendie, Member de l’Institute de France, &c.
Translated, enlarged, and illustrated with diagrams and cuts. Especially designed for
the use of Students of Medicine. By J ohn R evere , M. D., Professor of the Theory
and Practice o f Medicine in the University of New York. 8vo., pp. 539. New
Y ork: Harper & Brothers.
The present work is a translation from the fifth and last edition of the French, in
which the science is brought down to the present time. It is not, like many modem
systems, merely eclectic, or a compilation of the experiments and doctrines of others.
All the important questions discussed, if not originally proposed and investigated by the
author, have been thoroughly examined and experimented upon by him. His observa­
tions, therefore, on all these important points, carry with them great interest and
weight, derived from their investigations. The American editor has added numerous
diagrams and pictorial illustrations, with mubh additional matter, in order to present a
system of human physiology which shall exhibit, in a clear and intelligible manner, the
actual state of the science, and adapt the work to the use of students of medicine in the
United States.
—Border Wars o f the American Revolution. By W illiam L . S tone. In tw o
volumes, pp. 384, 381. New Y ork: Harper & Brothers.
The popular work of Mr. Stone on the border wars of the American Revolution, ap­
pears to have been here embodied in two volumes, constituting the 167th and 168th
numbers o f Harpers’ Family Library. It includes, of course, a particular account of
Joseph Brant, who figured somewhat prominently in those wars, and is of value to all
who wish to understand this portion of our history. The author has spared no pains in
consulting records for the purpose of making his work authentic, and we are indebted to
him for much new and interesting matter illustrating his subject.

5.

6. —Essays, Moral, Economical, and Political. By F rancis B acon. The Conduct o f
the Understanding. By J ohn L ocke, Esq. With an Introductory Essay, by A . P ot ­
ter , D.D., Professor of Moral Philosophy in Union College.
18mo., pp.299. New
York: Harper & Brothers.
The Essays of Bacon have arrived at that solid and standard reputation as to supersede
the necessity of a commendation in our own age. As regards sound maxims of life and
conduct, speculative and practical, they stand on the highest ground; and the reflections
upon weighty topics of our human condition, are invaluable. The essay of Locke upon
the Conduct of the Understanding, is of equally solid and established character, and
the efforts of these two great authors are compressed into a convenient form for gene­
ral circulation, with a critical and judicious introductory essay by Professor Potter, which
adds to the solid value of the volume.
7. —Harper's Illuminated and New Pictorial Bible. No. 1. 4to., 24 pp. New
York: Harper & Brothers.
This is by far the most elegant specimen of printing ever produced in New York.
When completed, it will embrace sixteen hundred historical engravings, exclusive of an
initial letter to each chapter, by J. A. Adams, more than fourteen hundred o f which are
from original designs, by J. G. Chapman. It is printed from the standard copy of the
American Bible Society, and is to contain marginal references, the apocrypha, a con­
cordance, chronological table, list of proper names, general index, table of weights,
measures, & c .; and will unquestionably, when completed, judging from the initiatory
number, form the most perfect and splendid edition of the Bible extant. It is to be com­
pleted in about fifty numbers, at twenty-five cents each.
8. — Warnock’s Spare Minutes; or. Resolved Meditations, and Premeditated Resolu­
tions. Philadelphia: Henry F. Anners.
A very pretty pocket edition of a well known and really excellent little work.




392

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9. — The Psalmist ; a New Collection o f Hymns, for the use o f the Baptist Churches.
By B aron S tow and S. F. S m ith . 12mo., pp. 762. Boston: Gould, Kendall &
Lincoln.
This elegantly printed volume contains nearly twelve hundred hymns, selected from
about three hundred hymn-books, and writers of sacred song. W e have never seen a
collection, so extensive, combining, in so eminent a degree, the requisites of devotional
poetry. There is not, in the whole book, a hymn that is void of lyrical spirit or excel­
lence. The editors, it would seem, had read every hymn ever written ; and, guided by
a pure, correct, and elevated taste, selected only the best pieces. Setting aside its higher
and more religious purposes, as a mere collection of chaste and exquisite poetical com­
positions, we know of no selection in our language that can compare with it. Although
this collection was prepared for the Baptist denomination of Christians, but few of the
hymns refer to their peculiarities ; and these relate to baptism and immersion. If these,
and the words “ for the use of the Baptist churches,” in the title-page, were struck out,
we venture to say that there is not a church in the land but would find hymns enough,
agreeable to the order of mental association, and all Christian experience.
10. — Poems. By J ames R ussell L o w e ll . 12mo. Cambridge : John Owen. 1844.
This little volume is one of the brightest gems of American literature. It is charac.
terized throughout by a high poetical genius; and there are passages in it of such ex.
quisite beauty as to entitle their author to rank with the first poets in the English lan.
guage. The “ Legend of Brittany” is original in conception, style, and sentiment. With
all the classic beauty of the past, it combines the higher moral tone of the present age.
The Christian ideal, diffused among and acted out by the race, must bestow upon poetry
a transcendant beauty, such as the passions of the dark ages could never call forth, even
from their most gifted bards. In this Legend, “ The Forlorn," and a few other of the
minor poems, Mr. Lowell has given a chaste expression to the highest sentiment of our
time ; thus fulfilling the poet’s noblest sphere. The typographical execution of the
volarne is every way in keeping with its inner spirit.
11. — The Beethoven Collection o f Sacred Music. By E. I ves, jr., W . A lters, and II.
C. T im m . 4to., pp. 192. New Y ork: J. Winchester, New World Press.
This elegant volume of sacred music embraces themes now first arranged from the
instrumental compositions of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, and other eminent composers;
original tunes, chaunts, and anthems, harmonized in four parts, with an accompaniment
for the organ. The first fifty pages are occupied with a new method of instruction in
the rudiments of music, and the art of reading with annotations. A slight examination,
with our limited knowledge of the science of music, convinces us of the singular excel­
lence of this collection; and we have no hesitation in commending it to the attention of
the musical world. It is beautifully printed.
12. — Sonnets, and other Poems. By W illia m L loyd G arrison . Boston : Oliver
Johnson.
Mr. Garrison may not, perhaps, take rank among the most gifted of the poets of our
time, although his effusions are not without merit on that score ; and although some are
inclined to consider him fanatical on the abolition question, no free and unbiassed mind
can fail to appreciate his ardent love for Christian democratic freedom, and his martyr­
like hatred of oppression and wrong whenever, and in whatever form, they appear. The
sentiment in bis comprehensive motto, “ My country is the world, and my countrymen
are all mankind,” seems to be infused into every line that flows from his pen.
13. — Poems o f Bernard Barton. Philadelphia: Henry F. Anners.
This is a very neat pocket edition of the “ Quaker poet,” and the only American that
has ever been published in this country. Many of the poems are of a devotional char­
acter, and all of them seem to flow from the inspiration of a pure heart.




The Book Trade .

393

14. — The Remains o f the Rev. James Marsh, D. D., late President and Professor of
Moral and Intellectual Philosophy in the University o f Vermont. With a Memoir
o f his Life. 8vo., pp. 642. Boston: Crocker & Brewster.
The contents of this volume were committed to Mr. Torrey by the lamented subject of
the memoir, (which, with the letters, and extracts from his diary, occupies the first one
hundred and sixty pages of the volume,) a short time before his death, with the request
that selections should be made from them, and published. The volume consists chiefly
of outlines of a systematic arrangement of the departments of knowledge, with a view
to their organic relations to each other, in a general system; remarks on some of the
leading points connected with physiology, and several discourses on the nature, ground,
and origin of sin. The writings of Dr. M. evince eminent and peculiar powers of mind
in the discussion of metaphysics; and, as an expounder of the highest truths of philoso­
phy and moral science, the few fragments he has left are enough to place him among
the first intellects of the age. The memoir is in good taste, and sketches with fidelity
the simple incidents in the life o f an unpretending scholar and Christian; and the wjiole
is worthy of a place in the most valuable and select library. Dr. Marsh, it is well known,
was a disciple of Coleridge, in the spiritual philosophy ; and published, several years
before his death, an edition of “ Aids to Reflection,” with an introduction, of marked
ability and discrimination.
15. — The Sacred Order and Offices o f Episcopacy Asserted and Maintained. To which
is added, A Discourse o f the Office Ministerial. By J eremy T a y l o r , D. D., Lord
Bishop of Down, etc. New Y ork: D. Appleton & Co.
The practical writings of the “ Shakspeare in Divinity,” as Bishop Taylor has been ^
called, form an important part of the standard religious literature of the Christian world ;
and are read wherever the English language is understood, by men of widely different
tenets. The present work, selected from his polemical writings, is published to meet
the wants of the time, with reference to the discussion that is agitating the conflicting
branches of the Christian church. It will no doubt be read by all who take an interest
in the subject, and have great weight on minds predisposed to sustain the claims of Epis­
copacy. The volume is beautifully printed, uniform with the Churchman’s Library, in
course of publication by the enterprising house named in the title quoted.
16. — The Mothers o f England: their Influence and Responsibility. By Mrs. E llis ,
New Y o rk : D. Appleton & Co.
This is the last of the series of works, by Mrs. Ellis, on the women of England, in
their relations as wives, daughters, and mothers. It contains many valuable hints and
observations relative to the present state of English society, the tendency of modern edu­
cation, and the peculiar social and domestic requirements of the country and the times.
Mrs. Ellis’s views, touching the rights of women, may perhaps be considered too con­
servative for our republican countrywomen ; but she says many things adapted to the
condition and circumstances of the women of America.
17. — The Adventures o f Daniel Boone, the Kentucky Rifleman. By the author of
“ Uncle Philip’s Conversations.” 18mo., pp. 174. New York: D. Appleton & Co.
The fifth volume of the admirable series o f books under the general title of the 44Li­
brary for my Young Countrymen,” is one o f the most interesting and attractive of books
for the 44lads of America” ever published. The extraordinary incidents in the life of
Boone possess all the interest of romance; and, in the hands of the gifted author of
“ Uncle Philip’s Conversations,” are rendered at once fascinating and instructive.
18. —Lalla Rookh. An Oriental Romance. By T homas M oore. A new edition, revised
by the author. With a new Preface and Notes. New Y ork : D. Appleton & Co.
A new and elegant diamond edition of one of the most delightful poems in the Eng­
lish language.




/

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19. —A Treatise on the Law o f Usury. To which is added, the Statutes o f the several
States relating to Usury, now in Force. Together with a Digest o f all the Decisions,
and an Index to the Reported Adjudications, from the Statute o f Henry VIII. to the
Present Time. By J. W . B lydenburgh , Counsellor at Law. 8vo., pp. 320. New
Y ork : John S. Voorhees.
This work is designed as a supplement to PowelJ, Comyn, and Ord. The numerous
decisions since the publication of these books render it at once convenient, and almost
indispensable. It is the only work on the subject ever published in this country. The
statutes of every state in the Union, now in force, are given ; and a long array of deci.
sions of the courts under them, from the respective state reporters, follow the statutes.
The arrangement and execution of the work is excellent; and, as the plan of repealing
the usury laws has of late been, and will continue to be, discussed in many of the state
legislatures, this work will, we have no doubt, be found as valuable to the statesman as
to the lawyer, to whom we should consider it invaluable.
20.— The Education o f Mothers; or, the Amelioration o f Mankind by Woman. By
L. A ime M ar tin . Translated from the French. By E dwin L ee, Esq., author of the
“ Baths of Germany.” 12mo., pp. 303. Philadelphia : Lea & Blanchard.
An elegant translation of the work to which the prize of the French Academy was
awarded. It is divided into three parts, or books, and discusses in the first the influence
o f woman, and necessity of her education ; in the second, the education of the soulpsychology and philosophy of the mother of a family; and in the third, the moral and
political studies of mothers of families. The author points out, with great clearness, the
defects of the old systems of education, and delineates in fascinating colors the rule of
maternal duty. His arguments have a force and beauty which have never before been
applied to the subject. It should be studied by all who are or expect to become mothers.
21. — The Life and Adventures o f Robinson Crusoe. By D aniel D e F oe. New York:
Alexander Y. Blake.
It is refreshing to take up a genuine and complete copy of a book that charmed us in
our boyhood, and a work that has been read and admired, for several generations, by
almost every boy and girl in Christendom. It is one of the few narratives of the past
that must, from its intrinsic excellence, retain its freshness for the present, and unnum­
bered generations to come. It will never grow old, especially if it shall be' hereafter
sent forth as elegantly bound in gilt, and printed on paper as lily-white as is the present
edition.
22. — Letters from a Father to his Son at College. By S amuel M iller , D. D., Profes­
sor in the Theological Seminary, Princeton, N. J. 12mo., pp. 344. Philadelphia:
Grigg & Elliott.
The author of this excellent work has had five sons educated in the college of New
Jersey, and the substance of these letters were actually addressed to them. They touch
every subject connected with the physical, mental, and moral life of the collegian; and
their influence must inevitably prove most salutary.
23. -r-Leo; or, the Baptism in Jordan in the Second Century. By G. F. A. S trauss,
author o f “ Helon’s Pilgrimage,” etc. Translated from the German. By Mrs. F. C.
C on an t . New York: Saxton & Miles.
Strauss, the author of the present tale, is one of the most distinguished among the
learned orthodox clergy of Prussia, and holds several of the highest offices in the royal
gift, being court-preacher, professor in the royal university, ecclesiastical counsellor, &c.
A deep spirit of piety glows upon his pages, that cannot fail of awakening an answering
fervor in kindred hearts.
24. — Edwards' First Lessons in Geometry. By the author of the “ Theory of Teach­
ing,” and “ Edwards’ First Lessons in Grammar.” Boston: W . D. Ticknor.
It needs only a superficial examination of this admirable little elementary treatise, to
convince every one that it is the best thing of the kind that has yet been published.




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25. —History o f all Christian Sects and Denominations, <J-c. By J ohn E vans , LL. 1).
12mo., pp. 288. New Y ork: James Mowatt & Co.
This volume purports to be a reprint of the fifteenth London edition. It contains the
origin, peculiar tenets, and present condition of the religious world, and some account o f
atheists, deists, Jews, Mahommedans, &c. It appears to us, so far as we are capable o f
judging, to give an impartial view of the peculiarities of the different sects.
26. —Infant Treatment; loith Directions to Mothers for Self-Management before, du­
ring, and after Pregnancy. By Mrs. B ar w e ll . 12mo., pp. 148. New York : James
Mowatt & Co.
This first American edition of an English work has been enlarged, and adapted to
the habits and climate of the United States, by a physician of New York, it has the
approval and recommendation of Dr. Valentine Mott, and Charles A. Lee, M. D., which
will be considered a sufficient guarantee o f its excellence.
27. — The Little Garden o f Poses, and the Valley o f Lilies. By T homas a K empis.
Now first correctly translated from the original Latin. New York : Casserly & Son.
The “ Imitation of Christ,” by the same author, has been published by Protestants as
well as Catholics, and held in high estimation by Christians of different denominations.
The present work is considered by the translator more practical, better adapted to the
individual wants of the religious, and more within the comprehension of the many.
28. — The Child's Own Story Booh; or, Tales and Dialogues for the Nursery. By Mrs.
J f.kram . Philadelphia: George S. Appleton.
This is the first American, from the third London edition. It is designed for little chil.
dren, and is admirably calculated to awaken in their hearts kindly and affectionate feel­
ings towards each other, submission and loving confidence towards their parents, and
reverence and love towards God. It describes scenes and objects familiar to every child.
29. —Lucy and Arthur. A Booh for Children. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton.
Similar in its character and design to the “ Child’s Story Book.” It is elegantly print­
ed, and illustrated with several pretty engravings.
30. — Very Little Tales for Very Little Children. Philadelphia: George S. Appleton.
Printed in large type, in single syllables of three and four letters, it is meant only for
children who have just acquired the knowledge of their alphabet. The tales are pro­
gressive ; and, by an easy, gradual ascent, lead the young learner on to the various early
lessons provided by the many excellent writers of the present day.
31. — The Following o f Christ. In Four Boohs. Translated from the Original Latin.
By the Right Reverend and Venerable R ichard C halloner , D. D. T o which are
added, Practical Reflections, etc. Translated from the French. By the Rev. J ames
Jones. Baitimore : John Murphy.
This little volume, designed for the Roman Catholic portion of the Christian church,
has been familiar to the religious world for upwards of four centuries. Fontenelle pro­
nounced it “ the most excellent production that ever came from the hand of man.” It
is beautifully printed, and elegantly bound in gilt.
32. — The Sacred Harp. First American, from the fifteenth London edition : Philadel­
phia : Henry F. Anners.
Of all subjects, religion is the one best suited to the exercise of high and pure poetical
inspiration. The specimens collected in this volume, from nearly a hundred of the most
distinguished poets of the past and present, are made with a true appreciation of poetic
excellence and the religious sentiment.
33. — The Spirit o f Prayer; or, the Soul Rising out o f the Vanity o f Time into the
Riches o f Eternity. By W illia m L a w , A . M. New Y ork: John S. Taylor.
This is, we understand, the first American edition of a work by the popular author of
the “ Serious Call,” a book familiar to most Christians. It is practical, and generally
free from sectarianism.




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34. — Combination . A
Y o r k : M . W . Dodd.

T a le , fo u n d ed on F a c ts .

By C harlotte E lizabeth .

New

This story furnishes a melancholy illustration o f the corrupting influence o f evil com.
munications ; and vividly and truly does it exhibit the fact that no combination in vice
has power to stay the punishment that naturally and directly follows every transgression
o f the moral law.
35.

— The W r o n g s o f W om a n.

By C harlotte E lizabeth .

W e have noticed the several parts o f this spirited expose o f the wrongs o f several
classes o f the female operatives o f England, as they were republished. W e have now
before us two rival editions, one in two handsome 18mo. volumes o f about two hundred
and fifty pages each, in large type, published by M. W . Dodd ; and the other in one neat
volume o f three hundred pages, published by John S. Taylor & Co. Each edition is
complete, and embraces the four parts, v iz : 1. Milliners and Dressmakers. 2. The
Forsaken Home.

3. T he Little Pin-Headers.

4. T he Lace-Runners.

These tales are

drawn from real life, and are among the best and most useful productions o f their popular
author.

BOOKS IN PAMPHLET FORM, PUBLISHED SINCE OUR LA£T.
1. —The Life and Adventures of Jack of the Mill, commonly called Lord Othmill; created, for
his eminent services, Baron of Waldeck, and Knight of Kitcottie. A Fireside Story. By
W il l ia m H o w i t t . 8vo., pp. 91. New York: J. Winchester, and Harper & Brothers.
2. —Alice; or, the Victim of One Indiscretion, and the Runaway Match. 8vo., pp. 65. New
York: John Allen.
3. —The Jew. By C. S p in d l e r , author of “ The Jesuit.” Translated from the German.
New York: Harper & Brothers, and J. Winchester.
4. —Hans of Iceland; or, the Demon of the North. A Romance o f Victoi' Hugo. Translated
from the French. By J. T. H udson . 8 vo., pp. 141. New York: J. Winchester.
b.—The Grumbler. A Novel. By Miss E l l e n P ic k e r in g . 8vo ., pp. 134. New York:
Harper & Brothers.
6. — The Unloved One. A Domestic Story. By Mrs. H o fla n d . 8 vo ., pp. 160. New York :
Harper & Brothers.
7. —The Heretic. Translatedfrom the Russian of Sajetchnikoff. By T homas B. S h a w , B. A.
8vo., pp. 150. New York : Harper & Brothers.
8. —Animal Magnetism, or Mesmerism: its History, Phenomena, and Present Condition. Con­
taining Practical Instructions, and the Latest Discoveries in the Science. By W il l ia m L ong.
With a Supplement by Rev. C iia u n ce y H a r e T o w n sh en d . 12mo., pp. 144. New York :
James Mowatt & Co.
9. —Mrs. Ellis's Housekeeping Made Easy ; or, Complete Instructor in all branches o f Domestic
Economy. 12mo., pp. 108. New York: James Mow att & Co.
10. —Cyclopcedia of Biblical Literature. By J ohn K it t o , Editor of the Pictorial Bible, etc.
Assisted by various able Scholars and Divines. Parts 5 and 6. New York: Mark II.
Newman.
11. —The Lady's Hand-Book of the Toilette. A Manual o f Fashion, Health, and Beauty. 18mo.,
pp. 64. New York: James Mowatt & Co.
12. —Quacks and Quackery ; or, a Popular Treatise on Medical Philosophy, and Imposture in
Medicine. By C a le b T ic k n o r , M. D. New York: Mark H. Newman.
13. —The Lady's Guide to Embroidery. With fifteen engraved patterns. London edition.
Enlarged by an American Lady. 18mo., pp. 48. New York: James Mowatt & Co.
14. —The Lady's Work-Box Companion ; being lnstmictionsin all Varieties of Canvass-Work.
With twenty-nine engraved specimens. 18mo., pp. 44. N^ew York: James Mowatt & Co.
15. — The Management of the Sick-Room, with Rules for Diet, Cookery for the Sick and Con­
valescent, dye. Compiled from the latest medical authorities by a Lady of New York, under
the approval of C. A. L e e , M. D. 12mo., pp. 107. New York: James Mowatt & Co.
16. —The Mysteries of London. Translated from the French. By H en ry C. D em ing . Part
1. New York: J. Winchester.
17. —Letters of the late Bishop England to the Hon. John Forsyth, on the subject of Domestic
Slavery. To which is prefixed Copies, in Latin and English, of the Pope's Apostolic Letter
concerning the African Slave Trade. With Introductory Remarks. By W. G eorge R ea d .
8vo., pp. 156. Baltimore : John Murphy.
18. —Lecture on the Philosophy of History, and some Popular Errors which are Founded on it.
Delivered before the Culvert Institute, January, 1844. By S. T e a c k l e W a l l is , Esq.
8vo., pp. 32. Baltimore : John Murphy.
19. —Advice to Wives on the Management of themselves during the period of Pregnancy, Labor,
and Suckling. By Dr. P ye H en ry C harosse , Member of the Royal College of Surgeons,
i London. From the second London edition. 18mo.,pp. 92. New York: I). Appleton & Co.