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Bulletin No. 203-1, Revised
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
Frieda S. Miller, Director





The Outlook for Women
Physical Therapists

Bulletin of the Women’s Bureau No. 203-1, Kevised
Medical Services Series


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government
Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.

Price 20 cents

United States Department of Labor,
Women’s Bureau,

Washington, March 27,1952.
I have the honor of transmitting a report on the employment
outlook for women as physical therapists. This is a field in which
women did the pioneering during World War II, and in which women
have continued to be predominant both in numbers and in leadership.
Because its aim is the physical restoration of health and of well-being
in the individuals served and because of the delicate manipulative
skills required, it is a field peculiarly suited to women.
Although issued as a revision of a previous bulletin on Physical
Therapists (Bulletin 203, No. 1) in the Women’s Bureau Medical and
Other Health Services Series, the present study is based on new and
extensive research and has been entirely rewritten. The research was
carried out and the report prepared by Grace E. Ostrander of the
Branch of Employment Opportunities for Women in the Bureau’s
Division of Research, under the direction of Mary N. Hilton, Chief,
Division of Research.
I want to express appreciation here for the generous cooperation
rendered by the many organizations, agencies, and individuals who
contributed information and photographs for this study.
Respectfully submitted.
Frieda S. Miller, Director.
Hon. Maurice J. Tobin,
Secretary of Labor.


Since 1944, when the Women's Bureau first issued a brief report on
the outlook for women in this field, physical therapy has proved its
value in the treatment of a wide range of disabilities and diseases,
including casualties of war, workers injured on the job, crippled
children, arid persons with arthritis and other disabling conditions.
Two major Federal grant-in-aid programs—the vocational rehabili­
tation program and the crippled children’s program—require physical
therapists in large numbers for their effective operation. In addition,
physical therapists are needed in hospitals for members of the armed
services, veterans, and civilians; in rehabilitation and treatment cen­
ters; in visiting nurse associations and other public health and welfare
agencies; in physicians’ offices; and in special schools.
The supply of well-qualified physical therapists has failed to keep
pace with these rapidly expanding needs. Although the number of
physical therapists has doubled in 8 years, from an estimated 3,100 in
1944 to approximately 6,‘200 at this time, the forecast is that it must
be more than doubled in the next 8 years if the estimate of an effective
demand for 15,000 physical therapists by 1960 is to be met. This would
mean over 1,000 graduates a year. During 1951, however, only 432
persons, of whom 241 were women, were graduated from the 28
accredited schools.
A very real need exists, therefore, for bringing the opportunities
for a useful and rewarding career in physical therapy to the attention
of women students now in college and high school. The present bulle­
tin is planned for the use of deans of women in colleges and universities,
vocational counselors in high schools, and other persons in a position
to advise girls and women as to the choice of a profession. It covers
the situation preceding the outbreak of war in Korea, including all
pertinent historical facts from the previous report (Bulletin 203-1),
and the defense period outlook for women in one of the occupations
in the field of medical services, in which women in 1951 composed at
least 85 percent of the workers.
Although over 1,000 books, articles, or pamphlets have been culled
for information, the principal information for this series has been
obtained from professional organizations, public and voluntary
agencies, schools of medicine, and individuals. To these contributors
the Bureau is indebted for the raw material which made this report



The Bureau is also grateful to the following for the illustrations
used in this bulletin:
The Milwaukee Journal, Milwaukee, Wis. (fig. 1).
TJ. S. Department of the Air Force (fig. 5).
U. S. Department of the Army (figs. 2, 3, 9, cover picture).
(IT. S.) Federal Security Agency, Children’s Bureau (figs. 4, 6, 8).
Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo. (fig. 7).



Foreword------ ------------------------------------------------Definitions— ______________________________________________
The sotting
Physical therapy in a medical rehabilitation program--------------------------Physical therapy in Federal hospitals.— - ---------------------------------------Physical therapy in rehabilitation or treatment centers-----------------------Physical therapy in State crippled children’s programs - _ -------Other settings for physical therapy __________________________ —
The outlook
___________________________ -----------;------------------------Areas of employment—
Suggestions to those interested in physical therapy work.......... ........ - _
In hospitals
In rehabilitation or treatment centers--------------------------------In State crippled children’s programs- _ _
In voluntary nursing agencies---------------------------------------------------------In other agencies ___________________________
Physical therapists in research and administration-----------------------------Geographic variations in employmentSupply______________________________________________________
-- ----------------------------------------------------------------In-service training---------------------------------------------------Scholarships--------------------------------------------------------Volunteers_____________________________________
Earnings, hours, and advancement ____________________________________
Hours and other working conditions---------------------------------------Advancement
Physical therapy before 1950
Number and distribution of physical therapists before World War 11_„ _
Wartime changes
Minimum requirements for entrance to a school for training physical
therapists approved by Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of
the American Medical Association---------------------------------------------------Requirements for registration as a physical therapist by the American
Registry of Physical Therapists - _---------------------------------------------------Requirements for active membership in the American Physical Therapy
Minimum requirements for beginning Civil Service position as physical
therapist in United States Public Health Service, the Children’s Bureau,
and St. Elizabeths Hospital, in Washington, D. C., and in United States
Public Health Service hospitals throughout the United States and in
Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands —-----------------------------------------VII









Minimum requirements for beginning Civil Service position as physical
therapist in hospitals and regional offices of the Veterans’ Administration
throughout the United States and in Puerto Rico______________
Minimum requirements for appointment as a physical therapist in the
Women’s Medical Specialist Corps Reserve, Army Medical Service,
United States Army, and in United States Air Force (WMSC) Reserve
(with the pay and allowance of a second lieutenant) ________________
Schools providing training for physical therapists approved by Council
on Medical Education and Hospitals of American Medical Association,
March 1952___________
, _.
Some of the principal general rehabilitation centers in the United States,
March 1952__ _ _
____ ________
_ _ __ ____________
____ ____ ______
1. Type of employment of 602 physical therapists registered with the
American Registry of Physical Therapists, 1951-52, in the United
States, by region,
__________ ________
_ _______________
2. Estimated number of physical therapists employed in the United States,
by type of agency, 1951 .
3. Geographic distribution of physical therapists in 1951-52 compared
with that of the general population in 1950, United States_____






1. Physical therapist using miniature stairs to teach a crippled child
to walk.
_ ____________________________
2. Medical corps officer examining a patient with fractured femur and
advising physical therapist and occupational therapist as to his
treatment-. _____________
3. Army physical therapist giving instruction in resistive exercises to
patient on Elgin table-________________________
_ _________
4. Cerebral palsy patient being trained to walk, using a walker with
crutch bars_____ _____________________________________
5. Physical therapist in Women’s Medical Specialist Corps of USAF
administering short-wave diathermy to a patient who has had knee
6. Physical therapist assists patient in crippled children’s hospital with
posture exercises______ ____
7. Crutch-walking class for physical therapy students who must become
adept in order to instruct patients properly.__ _ _______________
8. Physical therapist doing muscle reeducation with a poliomyelitis patient
in a crippled children’s hospital____
_ . ___________________
9. Army physical therapist instructing an amputee in the use of pros­
thetic leg _
Cover picture.—Army physical therapist giving electrical stimulation to
the paralyzed muscles of a patient’s leg.

Physical Therapist as Defined in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles

Physical Therapist, 0-52.22. Treats disorders, such as fractures,
sprains, nervous diseases, and heart trouble according to patient s
needs or as prescribed by a physician, giving all of the physical
therapeutic arts: Gives exercises to patients designed to correct muscle
ailments and deficiencies. Administers massage and performs other
body manipulations, ref. Masseur; artificial sun-ray treatments, ref.
Heliotherapist; ultraviolet or infrared ray treatments, ref. Electro­
therapist; therapeutic baths and other water treatments, ref.
Physical Therapy as Defined by the American Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is the treatment of disease and injury by physical
means such as heat, light, water, electricity, massage and therapeutic
exercise consisting of progressive relaxation; assistive, active, resistive
and passive movements; exercises for postural defects; breathing
exercise; ante and post partum exercises; progressive resistance
exercises; stretching; muscle reeducation; coordination and rhythm
exercises; exercise by means of mechanical apparatus; ambulation
training with or without braces, crutches, prostheses; functional
training and activities of daily living; physical rehabilitation pro­
cedures; manual and electrical muscle testing; measurement of joint
motion and functional achievement tests. It does not include treat­
ment by X-ray, radium, or electrosurgery. Physical therapy pro­
cedures are applied only upon the prescription of a qualified physical)
who may be a specialist in physical medicine or an orthopedist,
neurologist, pediatrician, surgeon, or general practitioner. In a
broader sense, physical therapy includes “therapeutic teaching” as
well as the administration of physical treatment procedures, since
patients and relatives may need to be instructed in muscle reeducation
technics; the use of prosthetic devices and other treatment procedures.

996673—52------ 2



Figure 1.—Physical therapist using miniature stairs to teach a crippled child to walk.

About 6,200 persons, 85 percent of them women, were estimated
to be working as physical therapists in 1951. The great majority of
these workers were employed in hospitals, in rehabilitation or treat­
ment centers, and in public health and welfare agencies. The physi­
cal therapist, like the occupational therapist, works with a rehabili­
tation team including the physician, teacher, nurse, medical and
psychiatric social workers, psychologist, speech therapist, vocational
counselor, recreational worker, volunteer and other professional work­
ers. She cares for the patient in bed and uses restorative medicine
by physical means.
Physical therapists give physical therapy as prescribed by a phy­
sician for almost every type of illness or condition. Their cases
include persons with fractures; with cerebral palsy; with polio­
myelitis; workmen injured in industrial accidents; paraplegics and
amputees; the artliritics; cardiac patients; patients with hypertension
or obesity; the mentally ill; injured athletes; persons with physical
ills such as chronic backache or weak feet; and also, persons needing
their posture improved or their abdominal muscles strengthened.
Most physical therapists work in a hospital setting (general, special,
or veterans’), but they also work in rehabilitation centers, public
health and welfare agencies, schools, industrial clinics, physicians’
offices, and educational and research organizations. In 1950 approxi­
mately 2i/2 million patients were treated in the 2,277 physical therapy
departments reported by 5,863 hospitals. Of these departments, 315
were in Federal hospitals and 1,962 in other hospitals (49 in tuber­
culosis hospitals, 221 in mental and allied hospitals, and 1,692 in
general and special hospitals) as reported in the 1950 Statistical
Guides of the American Hospital Association, dhe number of tieatments per day per therapist may vary from 5 to 15 depending upon
the size of the staff and amount of treatment required; in some clinics
a therapist may handle 2 or 3 patients at a time. In a school for
cerebral palsied children there may be only 100 patients per year,
while in a public health clinic as many as 180 patients, including
40 to 50 new patients, may be treated each day. Seasonal variations



may alter the case load. During the polio epidemic of 1949 the case
load was more than doubled in many instances.
General duties of the physical therapist as described by the Ameri­
can Physical Therapy Association consists of (1) giving treatments
and diagnostic tests prescribed by the physician, (2) instructing the
patient or his family in continuation of treatment in the home, (3)
attending ward rounds and clinics, (4) demonstrating treatment
procedures and correlating the work of the physical therapist with
other services, such, as occupational therapy and nursing, (5) main­
taining appropriate records and administrative procedures as re­
quired, and (6) instructing physical therapy students or students of
allied professions and other nonprofessional personnel.
Under the immediate supervision of a physician, physical thera­
pists treat injuries, disease, or disabilities by nonmedical and physical
means such as massage, exercise, heat application, light, water, or
electricity (except X-ray, radium, and electrosurgery). The physical
therapist also encourages cooperation and an intelligent interest of
the patient during the application of all physical therapy procedures. •
Physical Therapy in a Medical Rehabilitation Program

The first comprehensive medical rehabilitation program reported
in any general hospital in the United States was started in the spring
of 194( at New York University—Bellevue Medical Center in New
York City, which enlarged its rehabilitation service in January 1951.
The program, as described by Rusk and Taylor, in The Annals, offers a
comprehensive rehabilitation program for civilians both on an in­
patient and an out-patient basis. Its integrated program of physical
medicine, physical therapy, occupational therapy, corrective physical
rehabilitation, social service, psychologic services, vocational guidance
and testing, prosthetic services, and recreation are designed to restore
the patient with a physical disability to the fnllest usefulness of
which he is capable. The Department of Hospitals of the City of
New Y ork plans eventually to provide all patients in municipal hos­
pitals with medical rehabilitation services.
Rehabilitation had been available in some tuberculosis, mental, and
other specialized hospitals previous to the setting up of the program
at Bellevue, but little provision had been made for convalescent care
and rehabilitation for the millions of patients in general hospitals
throughout the country. However, progress is being made in this
direction in some cities. Examples are: The Institute of Physical
Medicine and Rehabilitation, Peoria, 111.; the Rehabilitation Service
of the Chicago Welfare Department, Chicago, 111.; and the Rehabili­
tation and Physical Medicine Service, Massachusetts General Hos­
pital, Boston, Mass.




Figure 2.—Medical corps officer examining a patient with fractured femur and
advising physical therapist (nearer the patient) and occupational therapist as
to his treatment.

Physical Therapy in Federal Hospitals

The physical therapy section in United States Army general hospi­
tals is one of three sections in the Physical Medicine Service, which
also includes an occupational therapy section and a physical recondi­
tioning section. Physical therapists are assigned to Army hospitals
that vary in size from 250 to 2,500 beds. Women physical therapists
are officers in the Women’s Medical Specialist Corps, which also
includes dietitians and occupational therapists. Physical therapists
are professionally responsible to the chief of the service, who is a
medical officer with special training and experience in the field of
physical medicine. Under medical direction, study programs are
maintained, clinical research is encouraged, and every opportunity
is provided for the professional growth and guidance of the physical
In the United States Air Force, physical therapists are assigned to
Air Force hospitals, which vary in size from 150 to 1,500 beds. In
hospitals with a bed capacity under 750, the therapist is professionally
responsible to the orthopedic surgeon or to the chief of surgery. In
hospitals with a bed capacity over 750, the physical therapy section is



a part of the Physical Medicine Service. All therapists are officers
in the WMSC and serve as integral members of the Air Force medical
Physical medicine and rehabilitation as a major part of the entire
service of the Veterans’ Administration hospitals include physical
therapy, occupational therapy, corrective therapy, manual arts ther­
apy, and educational therapy. In most veterans’ hospitals all five
therapies are provided.
The United States Public Health Service also furnishes physical
therapy services in its hospitals and out-patient clinics that annually
serve 425,000 patients. Each hospital has a staff of 1 to 11 physical
therapists, who use the equipment and technics normally employed
in hospitals with a wide diversity of conditions under treatment.
Physical Therapy in Rehabilitation or Treatment Centers

In rehabilitation or treatment centers the physical therapist works
in cooperation with the physician, the nurse, occupational and speech
therapists, the brace maker, the medical social worker, the vocational
counselor, and many others. Her work consists of the application
of all physical therapy procedures in accordance with the physician’s
prescription. Electrical and manual muscle testing, testing for joint
range of motion, and tests to determine the patient’s functional
abilities are extremely important phases of her work. A great deal
of the work is with the industrially injured and insurance and com­
pensation cases. One insurance company founded a rehabilitation
center in Boston in 1943 and one in Chicago in 1951 to rehabilitate
patients by restoring them physically and renewing their mental cour­
age so that they would be able to return to work. Through the Boston
program of physical, occupational, and recreational therapy guided
by trained therapists, Aitken found that men and women injured in
industrial accidents have been sent back to their jobs, their work
capacity rebuilt and their ambition and spirit renewed.
Among centers visited by persons and agencies initiating and organ­
izing work for the handicapped are New York University—Bellevue
Medical Center, Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation;
Institute for the Crippled and Disabled in New York; the Cleveland
Rehabilitation Center; the Altro Workshops in New York; the several
Connecticut workshops and the Rehabilitation Center at Bridgeport;
the State-wide homebound service of the Wisconsin Homecraft pro­
gram ; the homebound and placement services of the Illinois Associa­
tion for the Crippled; the physical restoration and personnel training
program of the Curative Workshop of Milwaukee; the employment,
training, and rehabilitation services of the Goodwill Industries in
Dayton, Detroit, and Milwaukee; and the expanding rehabilitation



program for the tubercular of the Saranac Lake Study and Craft
Guild, Saranac, N. Y.
Physical therapy is an integral part of the Federal-State program
of vocational rehabilitation operated by the Federal Government
through the Office of Vocational Rehabilitation in the Federal Secu­
rity Agency. This is the most extensive governmental activity in this
field, and since 1943 has been authorized to provide all services neces­
sary to rehabilitate the individual, including medical services, and to
serve the mentally ill. The services include medical examination,
counseling, guidance, placement and follow-up without cost to the
disabled person. For persons requiring medical, surgical and hospital
care, the cost is based upon the individual’s ability to pay.
The State agency for vocational rehabilitation usually engages or
contracts for the services of physical therapists and others, and is then
reimbursed for its expenditures from Federal funds. There are some
variations. For example, the Woodrow Wilson Rehabilitation Cen­
ter at Fishersville, Va., employs its own physical therapists. This
center, begun in 1947, has as its function the provision of counseling,
physical restoration, and vocational training to persons with residual
handicapping disabilities in order that they may again resume suitable
employment. Specific physical therapy, functional training, teach­
ing in the use of appliances, and general medical supervision are the
chief services. These are provided in a medical unit consisting of
a well-equipped physical therapy building including a functional
training building, and adequate X-ray and laboratory facilities.
Physical Therapy in State Crippled Children’s Programs

The Federal grant-in-aid program for crippled children, adminis­
tered through the Children’s Bureau in the Federal Security Agency,
includes rehabilitation services for orthopedically handicapped per­
sons under 21 years of age. The services are provided through State
agencies for crippled children, usually in the State department of
health. Physical therapists are employed in staff positions, super­
visory positions, and consultative positions. In the State crippled
children’s agencies the physical therapist works as a member of a
team composed of the physician, the nurse, the medical social worker,
the nutritionist, and sometimes other workers. As a result of this
approach, each member of the team has a chance to work with a
patient through all the stages of his treatment until he is restored
as completely as possible—physically, mentally, and emotionally.
In Delaware, for example, when physical therapy is prescribed
in the clinic, a physical therapist visits the home, carries out the
treatment and demonstrates it to the parent so it can be executed daily
until the time of the next visit.



Other Settings for Physical Therapy

The visiting nurse association serves tire housebound in many large
cities. In Boston, for example, Mary Macdonald reported in 1948
that home visits were made by a physical therapist as frequently as
the patient’s condition required. Each physical therapist was ex­
pected to have a car, and mileage was paid to the worker who used
her own car. Approximately 15 to 20 percent of the workday was
spent in travel.
The physical therapist working in the office of a physician or in a
clinic group necessarily adapts her program to the talents and inter­
ests of the medical personnel with whom she is associated. She may
become proficient in certain phases of her profession. The scope of
the physician’s practice will determine her activities, and she learns
thoroughly his methods in dealing with his patients.
Other programs of rehabilitation through physical therapy are car­
ried out in schools for physically handicapped children, in convales­
cent homes, and in educational and research institutions or organiza­
tions. In California under a program sponsored by the State Depart­
ment of Education, the State Department of Health and the Medical
School of the University of California, cerebral palsied children
requiring special study may have the services of one of the two State
cerebral palsy centers, comprised of a diagnostic clinic for cerebral
palsied children and a State residential school. In regular schools
special classes for children needing physical therapy have trained
teachers and adequate medical and health services from qualified
workers, including registered physical therapists.
The physical therapist in schools for crippled children contacts
many of the community physicians through conferences and clinics,
and her knowledge and training grows because of the varied ap­
proaches to the problem. She has often the responsibility of organ­
izing clinic services and assisting parents in learning the community
facilities available to help their children. In the school for crippled
children, the physical therapist can carry out the treatment at regular
intervals and can help supervise the child’s activity throughout the
school day.
The demand for physical therapists far exceeds the supply and
will continue to do so for some years to come. This situation is caused
by the continued awareness to the problems of the chronically ill and
the handicapped and the rapid development of medical care programs
for them, together with advances in medical knowledge making it
possible to treat and retrain many persons who formerly had no
favorable prognosis for resuming their activities. This has stimu-



lated the development of rehabilitation and treatment centers, and of
" additional and expanded departments of physical medicine and re­
habilitation in hospitals of all types.
The incidence of chronic disability and disease can be expected to
increase as the average age of the population advances. In 1950,
according to the decennial census, there were 12,322,000 persons 65
years of age and over in the United States; this is 1 in 12 of the entire
Estimates of the total number of persons in the United States who
have some handicap, such as an orthopedic impairment, a chronic
disease, or a serious defect of vision or hearing, have ranged as high
as 28,000,000, according to the Report of the Task Force on the Handi­
capped issued as of January 25,1952, from the Executive Office of the
President. This would include estimates of the Commission on
Chronic Illness of some 9,200,000 cases of heart disease, hypertension,
and nephritis; 50,000 to 100,000 persons with multiple sclerosis;
750.000 with epilepsy; about 2,000,000 with diabetes; and 500,000 with
tuberculosis; between 4,000,000 and 5,000,000 chronic alcoholics, and
from 11/2 million to 3 million persons with hearing defects. In the
past 2 years, according to the National Foundation for Infantile
Paralysis, there were over 60,000 cases of poliomyelitis, 28,500 in 1951
and 33,350 in 1950.
These figures are for persons of all ages, and include large groups
who may never need physical therapy. The Crippled Children’s
Services of the Children’s Bureau in the Federal Security Agency
estimated that there were at least 550,000 children and young persons
with serious orthopedic impairments in 1948, a ratio of 1 to 100 persons
under 21; and that there were another 500,000 persons under 21 with
rheumatic heart disease. These figures are based on names listed in
the State Registers of Crippled Children, and are corroborated by
scattered estimates from other sources indicating that there were some
175.000 cerebral palsied children, 100,000 with crippling conditions
resulting from poliomyelitis, and 275,000 children crippled from other
causes including accidents, infectious diseases, nerve and muscle in­
juries, and rickets.
Areas of Employment

Hospitals employ the largest number of physical therapists, but
there is a growing demand for physical therapists to work in the re­
habilitation or treatment center, the public health or welfare agency,
the doctor’s office, and the school for crippled children. Of the 5,863
hospitals listed by the American Hospital Association in 1950, 2,277
had physical therapy departments as noted previously. More hos­
pitals are adding departments as the need is felt. A report of the
996673—52------ 3



Figure 3.—Army physical therapist giving instruction in resistive exercises to
patient on Elgin table.

Hospital Council of Greater New York suggested that 25 percent of
the bed capacity of the city’s general hospitals be used for convales­
cence and rehabilitation. This would mean one such bed for each
1,000 of the city’s population. The New York City hospital commis­
sion has said that each city hospital being built or planned will have
a large and active rehabilitation unit. The interest in extending
medical rehabilitation (of which physical therapy treatments are one
part) in genera] hospitals is not limited to New York.
The Veterans’ Administration has established medical rehabilita-



tion services as major departments with specified bed allocations in
some of its hospitals. The Veterans’ Administration alone could ab­
sorb the output of the schools of physical therapy. The approved
ratio of physical therapy personnel to patients is 1 physical therapist
to 100 patients in veterans’ general medical and tuberculosis hospitals
and 1 to 2001 in neuropsychiatric hospitals. The need in veterans’
hospitals will continue as new hospitals are built.
A 1948 survey by Covalt of patient participation in physical medi­
cine and rehabilitation service in five general hospitals of the Veterans’
Administration ranging from 350 to 500 bed capacity found that 25
percent of the patients required physical therapy.
Although attention has been centered on the disabled veteran, the
number of disabled among the civilian population is much larger.
According to Dr. Busk there were 19,000 amputations in the military
service during World War II, but over 120,000 major amputations
during the same period in the civilian population. Some 265,000 men
were permanently disabled as a result of combat injuries during the
war, but 1,250,000 civilians were permanently disabled by disease
and accident in those 4 years. Industrial injuries, which create
both temporary and long-time needs for this type of service, increased
9 percent in 1951 compared with 1950. The Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics of the United States Department of Labor estimated that 2,100,000
disabling work injuries occurred in 1951, of which 91,000 resulted in
permanent impairment, either partial or total. The American Physi­
cal Therapy Association, during World War II, reported that, ac­
cording to insurance statistics, “adequate physical therapy reduces the
period of disability and puts a man back to work without the handi­
cap of stiff joints and weakened muscles, thereby not only rehabilitat­
ing the workman but saving industry the costs of compensation for
longer or complete disability.”
As techniques and equipment continue to be developed, more physi­
cians will recommend physical therapy for patients. Especially is
this likely to be true of those returning from military service, where
they have seen the best and most modern therapy equipment and
practices. More and more orthopedic physicians, for example, are
employing physical therapists to supplement their work.
The public interest in rehabilitation and services to the handi­
capped is resulting in a desire by institutions to expand their services,
but such expansion is retarded by the lack of trained personnel.
Many communities throughout the country are interested in establish­
ing rehabilitation or treatment centers. In some communities, these
centers would be a part of and located within the community general
hospital; in others, they would be adjacent to a community hospital.
As evidence of this growing interest in rehabilitation, new community
centers were planned or started in 1949 in Evansville, Ind.; Dayton,



Ohio; and. Detroit, Mich. The Goldwater Memorial Hospital for
chronic disease was opened, and rehabilitation service was started at
Ball Memorial Hospital in Muncie, Ind. A chronic-disease hospital
that was being built in Peoria, 111., by the Forest Park Home Founda­
tion in 1949 has a rehabilitation service. The Federal Vocational
Rehabilitation Act makes these services for rehabilitation possible.
The interest in sheltered workshops has grown tremendously during
the last 10 years. Since 1943 the standards set up for these shops by
the National Advisory Committee on Sheltered Workshops have in­
cluded some or all of the following services: Physical, occupational,
and work therapies along with employment, employment training,
occupational advice and placement, social services, medical super­
vision, psychiatric care and other services designed for the rehabilita­
tion of the client. A few workshops provide auxiliary services in
addition to work in prescribed doses, but many depend upon other
community agencies for treatment services. Cooperation has been
developed between the workshop and the State Division of Vocational
Rehabilitation and also with the case work, medical, and vocational
agencies in the community. The annual report of the Wage and
Hour and Public Contracts Divisions of the United States Department
of Labor for the fiscal year ended June 30,1951, states that there were
181 sheltered workshops in operation, an increase of 32 over the pre­
vious fiscal year. Moreover, many workshops had enlarged their
facilities and expanded their programs in an effort to meet the urgent
needs of severely disabled groups of workers.
The expanding public health program will furnish employment for
an increasing number of physical therapists. The crippled children’s
programs, in which States are aided by Federal funds, also have en­
couraged the use of physical therapy in the rehabilitation of the
children served.
Of the 2,600,000 disabled by orthopedic conditions, over 400,000
were under the age of 21 in 1948. Under the Social Security amend­
ments of 1950 the amount authorized for annual appropriation to the
United States Children’s Bureau for services to crippled children was
doubled, from $7,500,000 to $15,000,000 beginning July 1951. The
Bureau’s physical therapist reports that some of the more common
types of cases treated by the physical therapists in State crippled
children’s programs are poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, scoliosis, club
feet, torticollis, poor posture, dislocated hips and birth injuries.
In 1949, 21 State agencies were making plans for increasing their
physical therapy staffs so that they could serve crippled children in
public health situations. During July 1951 to July 1952, 18 States
increased their staffs; 3 States decreased their staffs. In addition to
these services, visiting nurse associations will continue to employ
physical therapists in their programs of serving the housebound.



Figure 4.—Cerebral palsy patient being trained to walk, using a walker with
crutch bars.

It is estimated that polio and cerebral palsy account for 85 percent
of orthopedic conditions in children, and that about 20,000 new cases
of poliomyelitis occur each year.
Work on cerebral palsy increased vastly from 1946 to 1950. If ade­
quate treatment for all the educable children suffering from the ef­
fects of cerebral palsy could have been provided, 3,750 full-time
physical therapists would have been kept busy. Only 16 centers gave
emphasis to cerebral palsy cases in 1946, according to the National
Society for Crippled Children and Adults, and the 1950 total was 364.
Also, the Society spent $2,170,000 in 1949-50 for direct service for
cerebral palsied. An estimated 10,000 new cases of cerebral palsy
occur each year. Adequate treatment facilities are available for only
4,000 to 5,000 or about half the new cases of cerebral palsy. Since
there is no immediate prospect of reducing the incidence materially,
emphasis must be put on possible ways to lessen the crippling effects,
Some hope of rehabilitating 75 out of 100 cerebral palsied children
exists. Many of them could be made self-supporting.



Iii 1949 there were more than 150 parents’ councils set up by the
National Cerebral Palsy Parents Council of the National Society for
Crippled Children and Adults and associated with the more than
2,000 local and State societies for the crippled affiliated with the Easter
Seal movement which raised funds through the sale of Easter seals.
Rehabilitation activities are carried on by the Arthritis and Rheuma­
tism Foundation, the National Multiple Sclerosis Society, the Ameri­
can Epilepsy League, the Muscular Distrophy Association, and other
agencies. Through the United Cerebral Palsy Association and the
National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis outstanding efforts have
been made in aiding the handicapped. The United Mine Workers
are carrying out a rehabilitation program made possible by their
Welfare and Retirement Fund.
As some evidence of the continued need for physical therapists,
the Federal Office of Vocational Rehabilitation reported 58,000 rehabilitants in 1949. The State vocational rehabilitation agencies spent a
total of $40,290 on physical and occupational therapy for 522 of the
754 rehabilitants who received these services. The average cost to
the agencies was $77 per rehabilitant. In some cases the rehabilitant
paid part of the cost; in other cases, an agency other than the Office
of Vocational Rehabilitation furnished the service.
No data on the number of persons receiving physical therapy and
occupational therapy are available for 1950 and 1951, but in the
latter year, the operating program cost the State Rehabilitation
Agency $457 per person for a total of 66,193 rehabilitants. In
December 1949, there were 1,500 unfilled positions for physical thera­
pists in the vocational rehabilitation program.
Although figures on the demand for physical therapists in the
United States by type of employment are not available for all the
4,955 physical therapists registered with the American Registry of
Physical Therapists for 1951-52, an analysis has been made of 602
registered physical therapists (about 90 percent of them women)
for whom type of employment was reported by the Registry (see
table 1). Over four-fifths (81.1 percent) of the physical therapists
were employed in hospitals—the largest proportion (49.7 percent of
the total) in public hospitals, the others (31.4 percent of the total)
in voluntary hospitals. The remaining physical therapists (almost
one-fifth of the total) were teaching in schools of physical therapy
or were working with pupils in schools, were assisting physiatrists
or other physicians in private practice, were employed in rehabilita­
tion or treatment centers and in public health and welfare agencies,
or were working in clinics. Uniformity in the distribution of the
physical therapists by type of employment was noted in the several
geographical regions (Northeastern, North Central, South, and West)
of the United States.



Table 1.—Type oj Employment of 602 Physical Therapists Registered With the
American Registry of Physical Therapists, 1951-52, in the United States, by Region
Number of physical therapists employed
Type of employment






Total reporting---------- ------- -------------------------

i 602




Hospitals---------------------------------------------- ------------





Voluntary. ----------- --------------------------- -----------









2 23

1. 7



Rehabilitation or treatment centers------------------------Public health and welfare agencies................ ..................
Other agencies:
Schools, teaching physical therapy............................
Physicians' offices------------------------------------------Clinics _ ---------------------------------------- -----------Schools, working with children........... -........... ........


1 Represents 12 percent of the 4,956 registered physical therapists in the United States, 1951-52.
s Included are physicians who are also physiatrists.
Source: Tabulation made from 1951-52 directory of the American Registry of Physical Therapists.

Suggestions to Those Interested in Physical Therapy Work

A college education, with specialization in physical education or in
the biological and physical sciences, or combined with physical ther­
apy courses in an approved school is considered essential for success
in the physical therapy field. Personal characteristics such as good
health, emotional maturity, interest in and aptitude for science (espe­
cially in biology and physics), and the desire to be of service are also
essential. Other special qualifications of the physical therapist are
described by the United States Employment Service in the United
States Department of Labor in its Joh Descriptions and Organizational
Analysis for Hospitals and Related Health Services, published in 1952,
as follows: She must be willing to work with the realization that
errors may have serious consequences for the patient and to work with
a variety of types of patients, many of whom are in disturbed con­
ditions. She must be gentle and sympathetic in dealing with patients
and alert to detect symptoms of unfavorable reactions. She must
be accurate in the adjustment of sensitive electrical instruments and in
timing of treatments and must use considerable initiative and judg­
ment in administering treatments as prescribed by the physician.
Personal qualifications differ somewhat depending upon the type of
employment in which the physical therapist will be engaged. For
example, in the industrial clinic the therapist must be capable of
treating adults, both men and women. In the small general hospital
the success of the work of the physical therapist may depend upon
her ability to acquaint medical men as well as members of the com­
munity with the services available; in the physician’s office she must



be prepared to meet the frequently rigorous demands of a busy phy­
sician's practice; in the school for crippled children she must have a
natural talent for teaching children along with an appreciation and
genuine liking for them.
The usual educational requirements for becoming a physical ther­
apist are (1) 3 years of college in addition to a minimum 12-month
course in physical therapy in an approved school of physical therapy,
and (2) graduation from a school of nursing or physical education.
High-school students planning to go into this work should take the
college preparatory course, including chemistry, physics, or biology.
If the undergraduate college student plans to enter the physical ther­
apy field, she should plan her program with emphasis on chemistry,
physics, biology, anatomy, physiology, psychology, hygiene, first aid,
and physical education. These courses will give her an excellent back­
ground for the special training that follows in the school of physical
therapy. (See Training section of this bulletin.) After the students
have finished their training, schools of physical therapy and the
American Physical Therapy Association strongly recommend that
they work under supervision for their first year’s service. The
education and experience requirements vary according to the agency
in which the physical therapist finds employment. The American
Medical Association and the American Hospital Association recom­
mend that physical therapists employed in civilian hospitals be qual­
ified graduates from approved schools of physical therapy.
To qualify for a position under Federal civil service as a physical
therapist in the United States Public Health Service, the United
States Children’s Bureau and St. Elizabeths Hospital in the District
of Columbia and in the United States Public Health Service hospitals
throughout the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands,
the candidate must (1) be a graduate of a school of physical therapy
which is approved by the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals
of the American Medical Association, or (2) have 4 years of experience
in physical therapy, or (3) have a time-equivalent combination of (1)
and (2). (See appendix, p. 44.) In tSate agencies for crippled
children, physical therapists must be graduates of an approved school
and in some States the staff physical therapist is required to have had
a year of supervised experience under a qualified physical therapist.
To be eligible for appointment with commissioned status as junior
assistant physical therapist in the United States Public Health Ser­
vice one must have been graduated from an accredited high school or
possess equivalent college entrance requirements, must have been
granted an academic or professional degree from an approved school,
college, or postgraduate school, must have completed the prescribed
courses in an approved school of physical therapy and have been
granted a degree or a certificate in physical therapy, and must present




Figure 5-—Physical therapist in Women’s Medical Specialist Corps of USAF ad­
ministering short-wave diathermy to a patient who has had knee surgery.

evidence of general suitability including professional and personal
Applicants for work under Federal civil service in the hospitals
and regional offices of the Veterans’ Administration must be graduates
of schools of physical therapy approved at the time of their graduation
by the American Medical Association. (See appendix, p. 45.)
The minimum requirements for appointment as a physical ther­
apist in the Women’s Medical Specialist Corps Reserve, Army Medical
Service, United States Army, include completion of not less than 3
years of training in college or university including satisfactory
courses in the biological and physical sciences and in psychology and
a course in physical therapy, both of which must be acceptable to the
Surgeon General of the United States Army. (See appendix, p. 45.)
The Minimum requirements for appointment as a physical therapist
in the USAF (WMSC) Reserve include completion of not less than 90
semester hours with major emphasis on the biological sciences or
physical education in a college or university and a training course
in physical therapy, both of which are acceptable to the Surgeon
General of the USAF. (See appendix, p. 46.)
Other requirements, such as age, differ with the employing agency.
For civil service positions, the candidate must be 18 years of age or
over but under 62, and the upper age limit is waived for veterans and
also for certain war service indefinite employees. For appointment as
a physical therapist in the Women’s Medical Specialist Corps Reserve
of the United States Army, applicants must be between 21 and 45 years
of age and have no children nor dependents under 18 years of age.
996673—62----- 4



(See appendix, p. 45.) For appointment in the USAF (WMSC)
Reserve, applicants must be between 21 and 45 years of age and have
no dependents under 18 years of age. To take the physical therapy
course given by the WMSC, the applicant for the Regular Army must
not have passed her twenty-eighth birthday.
A man or woman who plans to teach the techniques of physical
therapy should be a graduate of an approved school of physical
therapy and should have 3 years of general experience in the field
of physical therapy, including a minimum of 1 year of specialized
experience in the techniques or procedures to be taught, for example,
muscle reeducation and electrotherapy.
Selection and choice.—Physical therapy work is hard, but it offers
the reward of seeing a crippled child walk again, a member of the
armed services again take his place in civilian life, or a civilian worker
go back to his job. If you want to become a physical therapist, the
American Physical Therapy Association has suggested that you test
yourself by answering the following questions and if your answer
is “yes” to all of them you should find a happy, remunerative future
in physical therapy:
1. Do you like to work with your hands ?
2. Do you like meeting all types of people ?
3. Do you work well as part of a team ?
4. Are you interested in the scientific reason for things?
5. Do hospitals challenge your curiosity ?
6. Do you enjoy being of service to others ?
A deciding factor in making a choice of the place of employment
in the physical therapy field may hinge on the type of disability
in which the individual is interested. The nonchronic cases such
as new cases of poliomyelitis, or those with recent surgery, fractures,
sprains, amputations, nerve injuries, and arthritis are found chiefly
in hospitals. Physicians’ offices, like the hospitals, deal primarily with
new cases and post-surgery of the chronic ones. Classes in schools
for crippled children have mostly children who are poliomyelitis
or cerebral palsy victims. The physical therapists of the visiting
nurse associations go into homes to care for house-bound patients.
An important part of their work is instructing the mothers or other
members of the family in ways of assisting with the treatments.
Public health work may be done in homes or in centers. A great
part of this work is in the field of supervision.
Obtaining employment.—The American Registry of Physical
Therapists and the American Physical Therapy Association give
placement guidance to registrants and members. Hospitals and other
agencies desiring physical therapists may utilize those services.
Although registration with the American Registry of Physical
Therapists is not required by law, registration in it assists in the



securing of better positions as does membership in the American
Physical Therapy Association. Medical journals publish lists of
varied types of positions. The National Society for Crippled
Children and Adults set up in 1946 the National Personnel Registry
Employment Service. This service is available not only to affiliated
units of the National Society but to other public and voluntary
agencies working with the handicapped.
Conservative estimates for 1951 would put the employment of
physical therapists in the United States at approximately 6,200 (of
whom 85 percent are women) with a demand for approximately
15,000 by 1960. From scattered reports and from data obtained from
interviews, estimates have been made to give an over-all picture
of the number of physical therapists employed in the United States
in 1951 as follows:
Table 2.—Estimated Number of Physical Therapists Employed in the United States,
by Type of Agency, 1951
Type of agency
Total employed______________________________________




Hospitals....................................................................................... ..........



Federal Government..!_____________ ________ ______ _____
State and voluntary_____________________________________

4, 250


Rehabilitation or treatment centers___________________________
State crippled children’s programs____________________________
Voluntary nursing agencies__________________________________
Other State and local public agencies in the health and welfare field.



Agencies not elsewhere classified................. ...................................... .




In Hospitals

The largest number of physical therapists, an estimated 5,200
(83.8 percent of the total) are employed in hospitals. Almost twofifths (2,277 of 5,863 or 38.8 percent) of the hospitals listed by the
American Hospital Association in 1950 had physical therapy depart­
ments, as previously noted. The supply of physical therapists in
these departments was not meeting the demand. In February 1952,
1,940 job vacancies were reported in hospitals. Over three-fifths
(3,586 of 5,863 or 61.2 percent) of the hospitals listed by the American
Hospital Association in 1950 had no physical therapy departments..
As these hospitals add such departments, the probable need for physi­
cal therapists will increase greatly in the future.
The size of the staff of the physical therapy departments varies with
the size of the hospital. A large general hospital with 3,500 beds



would have in the physical medicine department a director of physi­
cal medicine, two resident physicians, one chief physical therapist,
ten staff physical therapists, two hydrotherapists, and other person­
nel consisting of maids, orderlies, attendants, and clerical help. The
designated number of physical therapists is flexible so that in an emer­
gency additional aid may be secured on short notice. A small gen­
eral hospital would have about two or three qualified physical thera­
pists and an aide. The Gallinger Municipal Hospital that has had a
total physical medicine and rehabilitation program since January 1951
had a staff in March 1952 that consisted of six physical therapists (in­
cluding four women), two occupational therapists, one vocational
counselor, one physiatrist, and two part-time physicians. The physi­
cal therapy department of St. Elizabeths, a well-known nervous and
mental hospital, employs two physical therapists. The case load is
about 15 treatments a day per therapist. The physical therapy de­
partment, it has been reported, needs at least four physical therapists.
Then the case load would be 10 or 12 a day per therapist.
In the Federal Government, the Veterans’ Administration is prob­
ably the largest employer of physical therapists. As of February
1952, it employed 593 physical therapists including about 385 women
in its 153 hospitals and 40 units in regional offices. The Veterans’
Administration gradually is hiring more men. Also, 480 physical
therapy aides were employed. Employment has increased from 102
physical therapists in March 1946. However, the need exists for 130
additional physical therapists. It has been estimated that more than
.1,000 physical therapists will be needed when the Veterans’ Admin­
istration completes its program.
The demand for physical therapists in all Federal hospitals is
greater than the supply. The Department of the Army that em­
ployed approximately 230 women physical therapists in September
1951 had a requirement of approximately 450 at that time; in Feb­
ruary 1952, it employed only 235 women physical therapists. The
European Command employed five physical therapists in June 1949.
The United States Air Force had in August 1951 approximately
50 commissioned officers as physical therapists. A projected require­
ment for 1952 of 115 physical therapists was reported.
The United States Navy had been employing nurses to give physi­
cal therapy treatments, but as of June 1951, nurses were no longer
trained and utilized in this way. Officers will be needed to replace
them. In August 1951, 20 WAVES were physical therapists, 14 in
the regular component and 6 in the Reserve component. The Navy
has a small number of enlisted personnel in the hospital corps. Be­
ginning July 1, 1952, the United States Navy will start procurement
of 10 physical therapists for the permanent part of the Medical Serv­
ice Corps.



The United States Public Health Service employed about 75 physi­
cal therapists in August 1951, including 55 women in its 23 hospitals
and in 8 of its 15 out-patient clinics. Seventeen physical therapists
including 11 women were in the Commissioned Corps of the Public
Health Service in February 1952. The rest of the physical therapists
were qualified from the civil service registry. The United States
Public Health Service could use twice the number of physical thera­
pists that it has, but funds are lacking. The number of physical
therapists on the staff of each of its hospitals ranges from one to
In Rehabilitation or Treatment Centers

The scope and pattern of services offered in rehabilitation centers
varies widely. Some centers provide services for a specific limited
group while others provide services for those with a wide range of
disabilities. Some are a part of a general or specialized hospital pro­
viding services both to in-patients and out-patients; others are inde­
pendent, community agencies. Regardless of the pattern of service of­
fered, each of these centers has one factor in common—physical ther­
apy is the “core” of the program. It has been estimated that there are
a minimum of 500 (8.1 percent of the total) physical therapists em­
ployed in such programs.
The Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation of the New
York University-Bellevue Medical Center is patterned after the
recommendations of the Baruch Committee on Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation and offers a complete program of physical medicine
and rehabilitation, psycho-social adjustment and vocational evalua­
tion and guidance. It has facilities for 86 in-patients and a daily
case load of 150 out-patients in its new, specially designed building.
Its professional personnel consists of physiatrists, internists, neurol­
ogists, psychiatrists, pediatricians, consultants in the other medical
specialties, physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech thera­
pists, social workers, psychiatric social workers, clinical psychologists,
guidance specialists, recreation specialists, prosthetic specialists, and
Other rehabilitation or treatment centers employ physical thera­
pists but no employment figures are available. Among them are the
Rehabilitation Institute of Kansas City, the May T. Morrison Re­
habilitation Center of San Francisco, the Woodrow Wilson Rehabili­
tation Center in Fishersville, Va., and the Washington Rehabilitation
Center in Seattle. The Cleveland Rehabilitation Center has been
operating for over 40 years. It was originally set up to care for
crippled children but has been assuming more and more responsibili­
ties for care of adult disabled. The Rhode Island Curative Center
was founded in 1943 and opened in 1945 as a division of the State



Department of Labor to make facilities for rehabilitation available
to men and women coming under the provisions of the Workmen’s
Compensation Act. It has one physical therapist. The rehabilita­
tion unit at Goldwater Memorial Hospital on Welfare Island has
been in operation since* July 1949. In its first year 50 of the 150
persons admitted were discharged and 9 were working. Goldwater
was the first hospital to start a program for giving the physically
handicapped persons “back to the community.” The Alfred I. du
Pont Institute for the care of crippled children was opened in 1940
by the Nemours Foundation. The 85-bed institute that operates as a
children's hospital offers hospitalization and specialized medical care
to children of parents or guardians who would be unable to pay for
private care. The Georgia Warm Springs Foundation was founded
in 1927 for the care of poliomyelitis cases.
The States are encouraged through the reimbursement arrangement
provided by the United States Office of Vocational Eehabilitation to
further the work of rehabilitation, thereby increasing the demand for
physical therapists’ services. For the most part, the State agencies
employ no physical therapists. (See Setting, p. 1.) The Woodrow
Wilson Eehabilitation Center employs six physical therapists. From
1947 to 1949, a period of 2% years, the center served about 600 dis­
abled persons. A center is getting under way in Oklahoma, and the
Federal Office of Vocational Eehabilitation maintains some relation­
ship with a center in Tuskegee. It is probably safe to speculate that
if there were more physical therapists available, more needy persons
could be treated.
Centers and programs of the Easter Seal Society affiliates of the
National Society for Crippled Children and Adults in October 1951
employed 225 physical therapists (approximately 90 to 95 percent of
whom were women) in the 48 States, Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto
Eico. About 65 to 70 percent of these physical therapists were work­
ing with cerebral palsied children; the others were working in pro­
grams for other types of handicapped persons. The president of the
Society reported in February 1949 more than 150 cooperating cerebral
palsy parent groups under the sponsorships of the Society’s State and
local units. By the end of the year more than 200 major centers
and programs were providing specialized services. This program
has been expanding rapidly since only 16 centers were operating in
1946. (See Outlook section of this bulletin.) The State societies
have not been able to open treatment centers to meet the needs of
treatment of handicapped persons, because properly qualified pro­
fessional personnel is not available. Other agencies spend a great
deal of money on centers and programs for rehabilitation, but they
do not sponsor the treatment center under their name.
The number of physical therapists in a given treatment center may



vary from 1 to 20. For example, the Hartford County Rehabilitation
Workshop opened in November 1048 with eight patients and one oc­
cupational therapist and one physical therapist. In 1950 the staff
was increased to 4, and the weekly patient load was 65 with a waiting
list. The Curative Workshop of Milwaukee established in 1919, has
grown to the point where it serves 2,400 patients a year. The services
available in the clinic required the employment in 1951 of 1 medical
social worker, and 2 other case workers, 12 physical therapists, 7 oc­
cupational therapists, and 2 speech therapists. The executive di­
rector of the workshop has reported that the shortage of physical
therapists has definitely hampered their work.
In State Crippled Children’s Programs

State crippled children’s programs and other State and local public
agencies in the health and welfare field in 1951 employed an estimated
370 (6.0 percent of the total) physical therapists. Physical therapy
services to crippled children have been expanding especially since the
passage of the Social Security Act which has made available increased
funds for such services. Some State crippled children’s agencies have
comparatively complete staffs. Others may have relatively few physi­
cal therapists and other workers. States that have large staffs of
physical therapists frequently assign one physical therapist to a dis­
trict. A State physical therapist, whether assigned to a district or
area, may develop physical therapy treatment centers. These centers
may be located in a hospital, school, local health department, con­
valescent home, or club building. The number of clinics varies among
the States. One State in 1946 had 10 regular clinics each month while
another had 35 centers with clinics held once or twice a year.
State crippled children’s programs, through the use of State and
grant-in-aid funds from the Children’s Bureau, in July 1951 employed
246 physical therapists in field service visiting the homes and in treat­
ment centers. In 1949, 34 of the 213 physical therapists in 42 State
and territorial crippled children’s agencies were employed in Cali­
fornia, at that time the State with the most physical therapists on its
staff. The entire program in this State was a direct treatment service
in day schools and two residence schools for the cerebral palsied.
In Voluntary Nursing Agencies

The expansion of services for patients with long-term illnesses and
for the physically handicapped has increased the demand in voluntary
nursing agencies for personnel prepared in physical therapy. Some
overlapping is noted here between the public and voluntary programs.
Out of 284 voluntary agencies included in a salary study made by the
National Organization for Public Health Nursing as of April 1, 1951,
26, or 9 percent, of the agencies were found to have physical therapists
on their staffs. These therapists, totaling 80 in all, were employed in



Figure 6.—Physical therapist assists patient in crippled children’s hospital with
posture exercises, using a mirror for self-evaluation.

several capacities. Thirteen were specialized supervisors, 19 were
nurse physical therapists, 33 were public health nurse physical thera­
pists, and 15 were non-nurse physical therapists. The Visiting Nurse
Association in Boston as early as 1948 had a physical therapy staff
consisting of orthopedic supervisor (a woman) and six staff physical
therapists, three of whom were public health nurses and three of whom
had physical education background. Waterbury, Conn., Elmira,
N. Y., and Plainfield, N. J., also have sizable physical therapy staffs in
their visiting nurse associations.



With the increased recognition of the value of physical therapy,
physical therapists are being employed in other State and local agen­
cies in the public health field.
In Other Agencies

The remaining physical therapists, an estimated 130 (2.1 percent of
the total), for the most part are teaching in schools of physical
therapy, working with children in public schools, or working in physi­
cians’ offices.
An estimated 100 physical therapists are teaching in schools of
physical therapy. A small number of physical therapists are working
in physicians’ offices. In January 1952 only 170 physicians had quali­
fied as diplomates of the American Board of Physical Medicine and
Rehabilitation (established in 1947). Practically all of them were in
active practice. About 20 physicians have qualified for board diplomate each year. Undoubtedly it will be a long time before the demand
for certified physiatrists will be met.
Physical Therapists in Research and Administration

A few physical therapists are participating in research projects
under medical supervision. Some research and educational assistants
are on the staff of the Institute of Physical Medicine and Rehabilita­
tion, New York University—Bellevue Medical Center, New York City.
Under the Baruch Committee that functioned from 1943 to 1951, re­
search in physical therapy was stimulated considerably at the Colum­
bia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons; New York Uni­
versity, College of Medicine; and the Medical College of VirginiaPhysical therapists are employed as consultants on the headquarters
staff' of national organizations such as the National Society for
Crippled Children and Adults that employs a full-time physical
therapist in the national headquarters office and a part-time physical
therapist on the New York office staff, and the National Foundation
for Infantile Paralysis.
At the consultant level the official State crippled children’s program
employs one physical therapist or more in each State. The con­
sultants are also members of the professional team. They are jointly
responsible with their professional associates for planning services
which will provide adequate care for the crippled children of the State.
Many State chapters of the National Society for Crippled Children
and Adults have positions for physical therapists as coordinators.
The activities include planning for the establishment of cerebral palsy
centers, as well as coordination of cerebral palsy work on a State-wide



The United States Children’s Bureau has a small staff of medical,
nursing, medical social work, nutrition, physical therapy, and hos­
pital administration consultants as well as some consultants offering
services on administrative methods. These consultants study and
evaluate the various services throughout the Nation and advise with
the State authorities administering the programs. In 1951 there was
one woman physical therapy consultant in the Division of Health
Services of the Bureau.
In 1951, 34 supervisors or consultants in physical therapy were
employed in public health nursing services according to a salary
survey of the National Organization for Public Health Nursing.
Thirteen of these physical therapists were working in voluntary agen­
cies; the others were working in public agencies or in a combined
public and voluntary agency.
Women administrators have jobs in the physical therapy field.
For example, a woman is medical director of the school of physical
therapy at the University of California Medical School, San Fran­
cisco, Calif. All the other schools of physical therapy are headed
by men. Women physical therapists were technical directors of
physical therapy in 28 schools in 1950. The headquarters staff of
the physical therapy services of the Veterans’ Administration in
Washington consists of two women and one man. There is no admin­
istrative staff outside Washington. Two women physical therapists
are in the office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army,
Washington, D. C. The chief of the Physical Therapy Branch is a
man, a lieutenant colonel, who is responsible for all Army physical
therapy activities. Physical therapists may also be assigned to
procurement duties in the Army Area Headquarters. The four head­
quarters outside of Washington are under the charge of one physical
therapist, one occupational therapist, and two dietitians. They oper­
ate only for recruitment purposes. The United States Air Force
has one physical therapist assigned to Headquarters, United States
Air Force, Office of the Surgeon General. The Physical Medicine
and Rehabilitation Service of the United States Public Health Service
employs one senior physical therapist, a woman, on its headquarters
staff. Five physical therapists are employed on the headquarters
staff of the APTA.
Geographic Variations in Employment

About three-fifths (57.8 percent) of the 4,955 physical therapists
registered with the American Registry of Physical Therapists in
1951-52 were employed or were living in the Northeastern and North
Central States. (See table 3.) These regions had about the same
proportion of physical therapists as they did of the estimated 1950



population of the United States. Of the remaining registered phys­
ical therapists, the West had almost half again as many as-the South.
The West also was more adequately supplied than the South in relation
to its proportion of the population.
Wide variations were noted in the number of registered physical
therapists per 100,000 population in the individual States. Arizona,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Minnesota, New
Hampshire, and Washington were the best supplied with physical
therapists, each having 5 or more per 100,000 population, as reported
in 1950. Alabama and Mississippi were the poorest supplied, each
having less than 1 physical therapist per 100,000 population. The
number of schools of physical therapy in these States might have
affected the distribution of physical therapists. California had 5
schools; Massachusetts, 3; Colorado, 1; and Minnesota, 2. Altogether,
these 4 States had 11 schools within their borders, almost half of the
28 schools of physical therapy in the whole United States. The other
States previously mentioned (Alabama, Arizona, Connecticut, and
Mississippi) had no schools of physical therapy. Thirteen schools
were located in 9 of the 25 States with 2 and under 5 physical thera­
pists per 100,000 population, and the remaining 4 schools were located
in 2 of the 13 States with 1 and under 2 per 100,000 population.
Table 3.—Geographic Distribution of Physical Therapists in 1951—52 Compared With
That of the General Population in 1950, United States
tion of
1950 2

Physical therapists, 1951-52










United States.








North Central-.. ---------------South....... .................. ............
West___ __________________









1 Regions: Northeastern—Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont; North Central—Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Min­
nesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, Wisconsin; South—Alabama, Arkansas,
Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North
Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia; West—Arizona, Cali­
fornia, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming.
2 U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Population of continental United States by
regions, divisions, and States, Apr. 1, 1950. Series PC-9, No. 1, Washington, D. C.
Source: American Registry of Physical Therapists. 1951-52 Directory.

The supply of physical therapists can only be estimated. In Feb­
ruary 1952, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, and New Mexico were
the only States requiring special licenses for practice as a physical
therapist. Other States providing legal registration for physical



therapists are: Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Massachusetts,
Minnesota, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Wash­
ington. Similar legislation is under active consideration in Arizona,
California, District of Columbia, Kentucky, South Carolina, and
Tennessee. A trend toward licensing of all physical therapists exists,
and in all probability most of the States will adopt some licensing pro­
cedure within the next few years. Until the several States provide
for such licensing, the standards set up by the American Registry of
Physical Therapists and the American Physical Therapy Association
furnish the chief controlling influence on supply of physical therapists.
(See appendix, p. 44, for registration and membership requirements.)
According to these standards, the source of supply tends to be limited
to graduation from an approved school of physical therapy. In addi­
tion, the Registry requires the passing of an examination.
In 1951 approximately 6,200 physical therapists were employed
in the United States according to a report of the American Physical
Therapy Association. Also, an additional estimated 700 physical
therapists (who were either registrants or members) were inactive
in this profession. According to recent estimates for the country as
a whole at least 85 percent of all physical therapists are women.
Among the registered physical therapists the percentage of women is
somewhat higher. The percentage of men physical therapists is
constantly increasing as evidenced from the proportion of men who
are being graduated from the schools of physical therapy.
Reports of shortages of physical therapists indicate that the supply
falls far short of meeting the demand. These shortages were pro­
nounced even before the present mobilization program was begun.
Shortages exist in military and in veterans’ hospitals and in public
and voluntary hospitals and other institutions such as workshops.
Reports in “Modern Hospital” indicate a shortage of therapists for
many years to come. The shortage of physical therapists, occupational
therapists and speech therapists, has become even more acute since
the modern care of poliomyelitis has been given over largely to physi­
cal medicine.
The 28 existing schools are maintaining capacity enrollments of
700 students for 1951-52. The actual enrollment for January to
October 1951 for which a sex breakdown was available was 529, includ­
ing 339 women (almost two-thirds of total enrolled), according to
figures reported by the American Physical Therapy Association. An
enrollment during the same time of 582 was possible. The number
graduated from January 1951 to December 1951 was 432, including
241 women. In 1951 the number of schools offering curricula for
physical therapists approved by the Council on Medical Education
and Hospitals of the American Medical Association had decreased
by one since 1949. This Council, cooperating with the Council on



Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, was anticipating an increase
in this number as a result of its 1950 communication to medical schools
that might be considering the establishment of training programs in
physical therapy. The need for replacements among the estimated
6,200 persons engaged in physical therapy would be at least 400 a year
if an attrition rate of 6.5 percent (slightly higher than that used for
nurses) were applied. With the addition of several schools of physi­
cal therapy, the supply might be adequate not only to take care of
replacements for a few years, but also to add a few physical therapists
to the increasing demands upon the field. However, it will probably
be a long time before the schools will graduate enough qualified physi­
cal therapists to fill the total need due to increased public interest in
rehabilitation and services to the handicapped and the expansion of
Federal agencies in the field of physical therapy in this defense period.
Training for the profession of physical therapy in the United States
is obtained usually through attendance at one of the schools approved
by the Council of Medical Education and Hospitals of the American
Medical Association for training physical therapists. In September
1951 there were 27 civilian schools and 1 military school located in 15
States. (See list of schools in appendix.) In some schools only the
certificate course ranging from 12 to 16 months is offered. In some,




Figure 7.—Crutch-walking class for physical-therapy students who must become
adept in order to instruct patients properly.



the course is 2 years in length and is open to persons who have com­
pleted 2 years of college; in other schools a student may enter as a
freshman for a 4-year degree course or transfer to a degree course in
any year up to the senior year.
Candidates for admission to the 1-year course should satisfy one
of the following requirements: (1) Graduation from an accredited
school of nursing; (2) graduation from an accredited school of physi­
cal education; (3) three years of approved college training including
satisfactory courses in biological and physical sciences. Courses in
general physics and chemistry, as well as biology, are highly recom­
mended for all who seek to enter training in physical therapy. A
higli-school graduate may select a college or university that offers a
program leading to a degree in physical therapy, may attend an ac­
credited college, university, or junior college for two years and trans­
fer to a 2-year physical therapy course, or may attend an accredited
college or university for 3 years of the study leading to a baccalaureate
degree with a major in science or physical education and enter a 1-year
course in physical therapy.
The student receives instruction in the school for physical therapy
training for a minimum of 12 months, spending two-tliirds of the
time attending classroom lectures and doing laboratory work and
the remaining one-third in clinical practice. Instruction in special­
ized subjects includes the applied sciences: Anatomy, pathology,
physiology, and physics; procedures, such as electrotherapy, radiation
therapy, hydrotherapy, massage, and therapeutic exercise; physical
therapy as applied to medicine, neurology, orthopedics and surgery;
ethics and administration and such electives as bandaging and first
aid. After the classroom instruction has been completed, the student
is assigned to a hospital or clinic for practical experience under
supervision. For example, clinical training for students from 17
schools is conducted in at least 22 Veterans’ Administration hospitals
and 4 out-patient clinics.
Graduation from an approved school is a prerequisite for admission
to the American Physical Therapy Association or to registration
in the American Registry of Physical Therapists. Today, without
such recognition, no physical therapist can expect to occupy a respon­
sible executive position or to attain distinction in a teaching career.
The Medical Department of the Army conducts a 12-month physical
therapy course consisting of two classes a year that is available to
qualified young women between the ages of 21 and 28 who have
a bachelor’s degree, including satisfactory courses in the biological
and physical sciences and in psychology. For the first half of the
course the student is assigned to the Medical Field Service School,
Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex. During
the last half she is assigned to a teaching Army general hospital,



where the emphasis is on supervised clinical practice. Those students
selected for the clinical practice program are commissioned as second
lieutenants in the Women’s Medical Specialist Corps Reserve and
agree to serve for two years, including the period of training. Upon
completion of their training, they are assigned as physical therapists
in Army general hospitals.
The Army Medical Service also conducts a physical therapy clinical
practice program for qualified young women between the ages of
21 and 28 who are enrolled in 1 of the 27 approved civilian schools
and have completed their classroom work of 9, 11, or 12 months.
These young women take 3 months of clinical practice in an Army
The United States Air Force can assign a limited number of
students to the 12-month physical therapy course conducted by the
Army at the Medical Field Service School, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.,
but does not participate in the clinical practice program. Applicants
for either program must at the time of application agree to volunteer
to serve on extended active duty for 2 years (which includes the
period of training). The Medical Service of the United States Air
Force has a training program whereby qualified young women may
receive training in civilian approved schools of physical therapy.
Following acceptance for training by the civilian school, students
are commissioned second lieutenants in the USAF and are ordered
to duty at the school. During the period of training they receive the
pay and allowances of a second lieutenant. At the completion of
the training period, the officer is assigned duty at a USAF hospital.
A small number of enlisted women are members of the hospital
corps of the Medical Department of the Navy. They must volunteer
and must have a combined score of 100 on the general classification
test and the arithmetic test. They must be interviewed by the Navy
physician and be temperamentally suited for duty. An 18 months’
obligated service is assumed upon entering. When these require­
ments are fulfilled, the volunteers are sent to a basic hospital corps
training school for 20 weeks. Upon completion of the course at this
school, graduates are transferred to a naval hospital for 6 months
of ward duty. Then, they are eligible to apply for technical training
in physical or occupational therapy.

Training for treating patients with various types of crippling
handicaps is offered in some schools and special centers. Various
opportunities are offered the graduate to obtain further training in
schools of physical therapy and special centers. The Children’s
Rehabilitation Institute at Cockeysville, Md., and the Coordinating
Council for Cerebral Palsy, New York City, are two agencies that



are training professional personnel, including physical therapists, who
treat cerebral palsied children. Also, cerebral palsy training pro­
grams are conducted at the Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City,
Michael Keese Hospital, the North Carolina Cerebral Palsy Hospital,
and Columbia University.
In-service Training

The in-service training programs are set up in large physical
therapy departments for the recent graduate of a school of physical
therapy, the experienced physical therapist who has been in the field
of specialization, and the “old-timer” who has had limited training.
In large physical therapy departments, such as Veterans’ Admin­
istration hospitals, the chief physical therapist is responsible for
the proper conduct of the in-service training program.
The main aim of this program is the education, training, and
retraining of physical therapists in order to better their work perform­
ance, to create an intelligent understanding of the principles involved
in the application of therapy, and the development of a professional
sense of responsibility and medical ethics. All new physical thera­
pists are given an orientation course consisting of a tour of the
clinics of the physical therapy department and a tour of the other
sections of the physical medicine service and the hospital as a whole.
Some in-service training for physical therapists in official State
crippled children’s programs is available through the State agencies.

In the physical therapy field, the National Foundation for Infantile
Paralysis is the principal source of scholarship funds. The $1,267,600
program that the Foundation established in 1945 allocated $1,107,000
for scholarships to train new physical therapists, $82,000 for fellow­
ships to provide additional teachers of physical therapy, and $78,600
for general development in the field of physical therapy. By 1949,
the training of over 1,100 physical therapists had been financed by
Foundation funds.
For 'physical therapy training.—The National Foundation for In­
fantile Paralysis offers scholarships to men and women who need
financial assistance to complete their training in physical therapy.
These scholarships are good only in schools approved by the Council
on Medical Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Asso­
ciation. Applicants must not have passed their thirty-sixth birth­
day and must be citizens of the United States or those who have
already applied for citizenship. The scholarships cover only the
approved physical therapy courses or the senior year of 4-year degree
courses. They do not cover any of the prerequisite work, or work
toward a degree after a physical therapy certificate has been obtained.



A scholarship student must agree to accept employment under the
supervision of a qualified physical therapist in an institution in the
United States or its territories for a year immediately following com­
pletion of training. There is no obligation to work exclusively with
poliomyelitis patients; neither is the National Foundation responsible
for placing a student in a position after graduation.
For graduate training.—The National Foundation for Infantile
Paralysis announced for 1951 scholarships for short-term courses in
(lie care of poliomyelitis patients. These scholarships were available
to qualified graduate physical therapists who needed financial assist­
ance to attend these courses. They were available to citizens of the
United States who planned to work in the United States after complet­
ing the training. A minimum of 2 years of clinical experience was
required as a prerequisite; and graduate physical therapists must
have senior registration by the American Registry of Physical Thera­
pists and/or membership in the American Physical Therapy
Long-term fellowships are available through the National Founda­
tion for Infantile Paralysis, Inc., to physical therapists who wish to
prepare for teaching or supervisory positions in approved schools of
physical therapy. The applicant must (1) be a member of the Ameri-

Figure 8.—Physical therapist doing muscle reeducation with a poliomyelitis patient
in a crippled children’s hospital.



can Physical Therapy Association and/or the American Registry ol
Physical Therapists; (2) have a baccalaureate degree; (3) have a
minimum of 3 years of satisfactory general experience as a physical
therapist; and (4) have United States citizenship. All recipients
must agree to accept employment on the instructional staff of a school
of physical therapy, either in the academic or clinical aspects of its
program. This fellowship may cover tuition, an allowance for books,
and a monthly stipend for maintenance.
Short-term fellowships are available to physical therapy instructors
now employed in the approved schools. The applicant must be a
member of tlie American Physical Therapy Association and/or the
American Registry of Physical Therapists, and must be a member of
the instructional staff of an approved school of physical therapy.
Written approval of the proposed program must be obtained from
the director of the school where the applicant is employed and sent
to the National Foundation before the application can be submitted
to the awards committee. These fellowships include tuition, traveling
expenses, books, and a monthly stipend for maintenance.
The .national scholarship program of the National Society for
Crippled Children and Adults was set up to assist professional
workers in acquiring specialized training for work with the cerebral
palsied and is financed by Alpha Chi Omega, women’s international
sorority. The program began in the spring of 1948, and, by the
middle of 1950, scholarships had been granted to 62 well-qualified
applicants; some were physical, occupational, and speech therapists;
others were orthopedists, pediatricians, and pathologists.
The Grand Lodge, Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, es­
tablished through its Elks National Foundation special grant awards
in the field of cerebral palsy. These grants are available to qualified
physical therapists for special advanced courses.
Scholarships frequently are available through the State crippled
children’s agencies for advanced study. State agencies may use Fed­
eral grants-in-aid funds from the Children’s Bureau to provide grad­
uate training for personnel participating in the care of crippled

Thirty-eight voluntary organizations representing the entire medi­
cal program are helping the Veterans’ Administration to screen per­
sons who can be effectively used in the Administration’s service centers.
These persons give volunteer help in the Veterans’ Administration’s
hospital programs. The Veterans’ Administration gives the original
instruction to the selected persons who are trained for nonpaid vol­
unteer jobs as companion escorts and assistants to physical therapists
in the treatment of patients as well as for clerical jobs. After the



basic instruction, the volunteers may be given on-the-job training
as assistants in physical therapy and in turn may go voluntarily to
rehabilitation centers.

A “reasonable minimum beginning salary for graduates of approved
schools” before World War II was $1,500 a year. In 1951, the physi­
cal therapist under a Federal Civil Service appointment received a
beginning salary of $3,410, with annual increases and opportunities
for promotion to higher grades. A few persons reach a maximum of
$6,940, depending upon experience and responsibilities. In the Vet­
erans’ Administration hospitals, quarters and subsistence are usually
available at a relatively low fee.
The beginning salary for a junior assistant physical therapist
without dependents in the commissioned corps of the United States
Public Health Service in 1951 was $3,789 a year. She could advance
to full-grade physical therapist with a salary of $6,111 a year. Peri­
odic increases in the basic pay are given based upon years of active
As a second lieutenant in the Army or Air Force, a physical
therapist in the Women’s Medical Specialist Corps in 1951 received
base pay of $2,565 plus $504 yearly subsistence. She could advance
to the rank of major. A major with 10 years’ service received annual
base pay of $4,959 plus $504 yearly subsistence. If government
quarters were not available, she would receive a quarters allowance
commensurate with her rank. Each officer receives an initial cash
allowance of $250 for uniforms.
In State crippled children’s agencies in 1951, salaries of physical
therapists varied with the responsibility of the position. The range
in salary for staff physical therapists was $2,700 to $3,200; for physical
therapy supervisor, $3,200 to $3,700; and for physical therapy con­
sultant, $3,600 to $5,000.
In 44 public and voluntary agencies giving public health nursing
services in April 1951, the median annual salary of 117 physical
therapists was $3,379, according to the 1951 salary survey of the
National Organization for Public Health Nursing. These salaries
ranged from $2,280 to $5,774 and included salaries of supervisors
and consultants in physical therapy, nurse physical therapists, public
health nurse-physical therapists, and other physical therapists. Su­
pervisors’ and consultants’ salaries were the highest and ranged from
$2,662 to $5,039.
Salaries for physical therapists in voluntary agencies in 1950 varied
with the type of agency. In rehabilitation centers, staff positions



carried salaries ranging from $2,800 to $3,600; supervisory positions,
from $3,600 to $4,500. The practice of furnishing lunches and laun­
dering uniforms varied with the center.
Salaries for the physical therapist working on special projects,
such as for cerebral palsy patients, vary considerably depending
upon the geographical location, the agency policies, and the responsi­
bilities of the therapist. In voluntary agencies and hospitals in 1950
the beginning salaries for experienced persons averaged from $3,000
to $4,000. For directors of units, supervisors, and consultants, the
salaries might range from $4,000 to $6,000. Some agencies have
established policies on hospitalization, and health and accident in­
surance. For positions which require travel there is remuneration
either on per diem or actual expense reimbursement.
Physical therapists receive salaries that compared favorably with
those received by persons in other professions requiring somewhat
similar qualifications of education and experience. In 1950, the
average annual salary of all social workers in the Bureau of Labor
Statistics survey was $2,960; of women social workers, $2,800. Teach­
ers in public schools averaged $2,980 in 1949-50, according to an
estimate of the National Education Association,
Hours and Other Working Conditions

The standard workweek for the physical therapist varied from
40 to 44 hours. The typical working day extends from 8:30 or
9 a. m. to 4 or 5 p. m., with perhaps a half day on Saturday. In most
civilian work, the physical therapist may expect a vacation of 2 to 4
weeks. Physical therapists who are under civil service get 13, 20, or
26 days annual leave, depending upon years of service. Officers in
the Public Health Service get 30 days’ annual leave, as do Army and
Air Force officers.
Advancement opportunities for physical therapists are fairly good.
Recent graduates of approved schools of physical therapy obtain be­
ginning positions under Federal Civil Service at the GS-5 rating in
the Veterans’ Administration hospitals, in the United States Public
Health Service hospitals, in the District of Columbia crippled chil­
dren’s program of the District Health Department, and in St. Eliza­
beths Hospital in the District of Columbia. In the Veterans’
Administration, after 1 year of professional experience in adminis­
tering physical therapy under medical supervision, physical ther­
apists may advance to a supervisory position at the GS-7 rating.
After 2y2 years of experience of the type required for GS-7, 6 months
of which must have included supervising or assisting in the supervi-



sion of a physical therapy section or unit or supervising physical
therapists, the physical therapist supervisor may advance to grade
GS-9. Persons appointed to the higher grades, GS-7 and GS-9, su­
pervise and instruct therapists and aides at the lower grade levels. A
few persons advance to GS-11.
Physical therapists in Federal agencies other than the Veterans’
Administration may advance from the beginning position at grade
GS-5 to GS-7 after at least 1 year of professional experience as a
physical therapist under medical supervision. (See U. S. Civil
Service Commission Announcement No. 169 (Appendix, p. 44).)
Persons may be appointed to grade GS-7 provided they meet the
training and experience requirements. All appointees in the Public
Health Service begin at grade GS-5; it is possible to advance as high
as grade GS-11.
In the State crippled children’s program, physical therapists may
advance from staff physical therapists to physical therapy supervisors
and sometimes to physical therapy consultants under State civil service
or merit system.
Physical therapists in the commissioned corps in the United States
Public Health Service begin as junior assistant physical therapists.
They advance to assistant physical therapists when they have com­
pleted 7 years of advanced education (after high school) and profes­
sional experience. They advance from assistant physical therapists
to senior assistant physical therapists after 3 years in the assistant
grade, and to full-grade physical therapists after 7 years in the senior
assistant grade. A full-grade physical therapist has a rank equivalent
to major in the Army. Some physical therapists then advance to
senior physical therapists after 7 years in the full grade.
Physical therapists in the Army begin as second lieutenants, and it
takes them 18 months to become first lieutenants. The next promotion
is to captain. Officers are eligible for selection to grade of major
after 14 years of service. One physical therapist is selected as chief
of the physical therapy section, Women’s Medical Specialist Corps,
and serves in the grade of lieutenant colonel. Also one may be eligible
for selection as chief of the WMSC in the grade of colonel. The rank
and advancement of Air Force officers is the same as for the Army.
Grade of appointment in the USAF Reserve is determined by the
applicant’s education and experience backgrounds and may range
from the grade of second lieutenant to major.
In hospitals, the line of advancement for physical therapists is
usually from physical therapist to senior or chief physical therapist
to administrative supervisor. The latter two positions are often com­
bined. Promotional opportunities are generally limited because of
the financial situation of most hospitals and the low rate of turn-over




Figure 9.—Army physical therapist instructing an amputee in the use of
prosthetic leg.

among supervisors. In small hospitals located in small communities
promotion is limited because the amount of work requires only a
limited staff.
The American Physical Therapy Association is the professional
organization of qualified physical therapists in the United States.
When the Association was founded in 1921 by a group of World War I
reconstruction aides, it was known as the American Women’s Phys­
ical Therapeutic Association; by 1922 a new name, the American
Physiotherapy Association, was selected for the Association; and
in 1949 the organization’s name was changed to its current one. The



Association began with 245 members. On September 1, 1951, 4,449
persons were members, of whom about 3,750 or 84 percent were women.
Since its inception, the Association has been concerned with main­
taining high educational and professional standards for physical
therapists; broadening the scope of training to meet the needs of the
expanding field of physical medicine; developing and increasing ad­
visory and consultant services; recruitment and guidance of students;
placement guidance for members; distribution of informational and
educational materials; promotion of closer coordination and under­
standing of the services of allied organizations.
Active membership is now limited to graduates of physical therapy
schools and courses approved by the Council on Medical Education and
Hospitals of the American Medical Association. Fifty-seven chap­
ters of the Association throughout the country and in the Territory
of Hawaii carry out the policies of the national organization at the
local level. These policies are established by an executive committee
of nine members and the House of Delegates. An advisory council
of five physicians, including a hospital administrator and an educator,
gives consultant service on all medical and professional policies.
The Association issues a monthly professional journal, The Physical
Therapy Review. It holds meetings and a scientific conference each
Physical therapy is as old as medicine. Hippocrates, a famous
physician of the fifth century B. C., prescribed sun treatment and baths
and exercise and massage. In modern times physical medicine, in­
cluding the use of physical therapy, was making notable strides in
England as early as the eighteenth century when the British surgeon
and physiologist, John Hunter, was laying the first principles of
muscle reeducation. Michael Faraday in 1831 opened the door not
only to development of electric power and electromagnetic devices,
but gave physical medicine a most important instrument for the
development of electrophysiology and for the classic method of elec­
trodiagnosis. Pathfinding contributions also have been made in the
fields of electrotherapy, scientific use of massage and exercise, manipu­
lation, graduated muscle exercise, applied physiology of radiant en­
ergy, modern balneotherapy and rheumatology.
In the United States, progress in the use of physical therapy was
negligible up to the time of World War I. There were no physical
therapy departments in hospitals and medical schools where the dif­
ferent physical methods could be correlated with each other and be
a part of a general therapeutic regime, and where clinical and labora­
tory research could be conducted. But during the First World War



physical therapy experienced a healthy rebirth in Army hospitals in
which broadly conceived physical therapy departments were installed
in order to benefit the injured and disabled. A new corps of workers
known as physical therapy aides appeared in Army hospitals directed
by Dr. Frank P. Granger, Office of the Surgeon General. These
women were civilian employees who were subject to Army regulations.
The work of physical therapy aides after the war was continued in
veterans’ hospitals. During World War I there were slightly less
than 800 physical therapy aides in service, almost 300 of whom were
overseas. These women were throughly trained in physical education
and supplemented that knowledge in special courses in massage and
muscle reeducation.
At the outbreak of World War I there were no schools of physical
therapy nor even any short courses. The first physical therapy course
was organized during World War I at Walter Reed General Hospital
with Miss McMillan and Miss Lehne the first buck privates to be sworn
into the reconstruction department. By 194G, 14 institutions had
established courses to meet the requirements of the Surgeon General’s
Office. The Army continued to graduate civilian physical therapy
aides yearly between World War I and World War II. The civilian
field of physical therapy profited after World War I by the physical
therapy experience of the Army and the Navy that had demonstrated
the value of systematic physical therapy and convalescent training
to reduce disability and restore working capacity.
The rehabilitation movement gained impetus after World War I
when the American Red Cross set up a program for training disabled
veterans to reenter the competitive labor market. However, only a
limited amount of the service was available to civilians. Projects
similar to the Red Cross programs were provided for disabled civil­
ians chiefly in large industrial centers. New Jersey was the first
State to feel the need for this kind of service, and in 1919 five rehabili­
tation clinics or centers were established. Their work not only bene­
fited a large number of physically handicapped persons but also
demonstrated the value of the service so ably that physical therapy
departments were established in several hospitals. Because of the
developing interest in increasing rehabilitation opportunities for the
disabled, other pioneer institutions were established such as the Insti­
tute for the Crippled and Disabled in New York City, the Curative
Workshop of Milwaukee, and the Cleveland Rehabilitation Clinic.
Legal action was taken also that tended to stimulate rehabilitation
of the handicapped. The Rehabilitation Act of 1920 provided for
vocational rehabilitation to persons disabled in industry or otherwise
and their return to civilian employment. By 1942 the annual grant
under this act amounted to 2i/s million dollars. The movement failed



to become an accepted part of medicine at that time, because it was
restricted largely to guidance, trade training, and the purely voca­
tional aspects of rehabilitation. Few provisions were made for phys­
ical restoration or reeducation of the physical disabilities of trainees.
The use of physical therapy in the care of crippled children had
been initiated by Vermont in 1914 for poliomyelitis patients, but Ohio
in 1919 was the first State to establish such services for all types of
crippled children. A Nation-wide program was made possible after
the passage of the Social Security Act in 1935. Through the pro­
visions of this act great impetus was given to treatment programs
for handicapped children thoughout the country.
Increased interest was taken in the training of physical therapists
after the American Medical Association, upon request from the
AP I A, in 1934 assumed responsibility through its Council on Medical
Education and Hospitals for the establishment of standards, ratings,
and inspections of schools for physical therapy. In 1936, 13 schools
were on the approved list, and 3 additional schools were approved
before World War II began.
Number and Distribution of Physical Therapists Before World War II

The American Registry of Physical Therapists estimated the pre­
war number of physical therapists at 3,100, of whom about half were
qualified. Fewer than 50 of these qualified persons were men. Some
2,500 of these physical therapists worked full time and 600 part time
in the physical therapy departments of approved hospitals. Some
were employed by orthopedic surgeons or in public health or social
service agencies serving crippled children, injured workers, and
others who needed physical therapy treatments. Those physical
therapists employed in hospitals usually had access to a wider variety
of equipment and tended to be less specialized than those working with
a particular physician or agency.
Before World War II, approximately 150 women a year were gradu ­
ated from approved schools for training physical therapists. Since
the occupation was a young one, withdrawals because of death or
retirement were few, probably less than 1 percent a year; withdrawals
for marriage were greater. The net annual increase in the number
employed in the occupation before the war was approximately 125
to 130 persons.
Wartime Changes

Even though physical therapy had its rebirth during World War I,
the Second World War with its many wounded needing treatment
by physical agents as well as by surgery and medicine created an urgent
need for trained physical therapists. The war suddenly increased
the demand for physical therapists in military installations and



created a shortage of services available to civilians. The Subcom­
mittee on Physical Therapy of the National Research Council in 1942
estimated the immediate demand for additional personnel in this
field at 1,154, including 778 for the Army Medical Corps, 292 for
civilian hospitals, 70 for Veterans’ Administration hospitals, and 14
for the United States Public Health Service. Using these figures
and estimating additional wartime needs in these and civilian hos­
pitals and agencies, Dr. John S. Coulter and Howard A. Carter
concluded that 6,076 physical therapists would be needed during the
war. They pointed out, however, that this need was based upon a
medical rather than an economic concept and did not imply that
the need necessarily would become an effective demand through the
financing of these positions.
Later, these estimates appeared to be conservative. In 1944 the
Army’s need for physical therapists was still acute. In one of
the large military general hospitals, Walter Reed, a fifth of all the
patients were referred to the department of physical therapy. At
one of the great civilian centers, the Mayo Clinic, approximately
one-twelfth of the patients admitted are directed to the physical
therapy section. The Civil Service Commission, faced with calls
from the Veterans’ Administration and the United States Public
Health Service, as well as with calls for trainee positions in Army
hospitals, was urging qualified women to apply for its examinations
for the student, apprentice, and junior grades, as well as for the
full grade of physiotherapy aide. By May 1945, the Medical Depart­
ment in the .United States Army included 1,000 physical therapists
in its program. At the beginning of the war qualified physical thera­
pists were classified in the Army as physical therapy aides working
under the auspices of the Civil Service Commission. However, in
March 1943 they were reclassified as military personnel and com­
missioned in the Army as medical department physical therapists
with relative rank of second lieutenant or above. About the latter
part of 1944 they were given full rank with commissions ranging from
second lieutenant to major.
The Navy established an office in the Bureau of Medicine and
Surgery in 1944, to develop, place in operation, and direct a rehabilita­
tion program for the Medical Department of the Navy. The program
included physical and occupational therapy, education and training,
educational and vocational counseling, physical training, recreation,
social service in its broad meaning, and for persons returning to
civilian life, assistance in their problems of readjustment.
Achievements of the armed services and the Veterans’ Administra­
tion in rehabilitating men disabled in battle, together with manpower
shortages on the home front, stimulated a considerable wartime expan­
sion of public programs for the civilian disabled. The Barden-



LaFollette Act of 1943 broadened the provisions of the Vocational
Rehabilitation Act of 1920 and greatly increased the amount of avail­
able Federal funds for the rehabilitation program. Grants-in-aid
were extended for vocational rehabilitation of all disabled persons
including the blind and the mentally and emotionally retarded and
by providing any service, including physical therapy, necessary to
render the disabled capable of engaging in a remunerative occupation
or becoming more advantageously employable. The work of the
Baruch Committee on Physical Medicine, created in November 1943
(Note: Disbanded in 1951) for the advancement of the science of
physical medicine increased the demand for physical therapists in the
United States by stimulating the establishment of community rehabil­
itation centers and hospital departments, by bringing about an increase
in the teaching of the branch of medicine, by providing fellowships
for physicians wishing to specialize in physical medicine and rehabil­
itation, and by establishing three major centers of physical medicine
and rehabilitation at medical schools at Columbia University, New
York University, and the Medical College of Virginia, as noted pre­
viously. Some industrial plants found a program of physical therapy
an aid in maintaining wartime production records. It kept workers
in condition and returned the injured to their jobs with a minimum
loss of time. In the industrial clinic at such large companies as
Kaiser Shipyards and the Ford plant, physical therapy remained in
1947 as part of the permanent program.
Increasing the supply through training.—A number of new training
centers for jihysical therapists were opened to meet the increasing
demand. By the spring of 1944, approved schools numbered 27, and
a year later there were 32 approved schools including the schools
with emergency courses. Before Pearl Harbor there were only 16 such
schools, 3 more than the 13 that appeared on the first list published by
the American Medical Association in 1936. From the regular courses
offered in approved schools 190 students were graduates in 1943, 23
percent more than the 154 who finished their training in 1941. In
addition, a 6-month emergency course approved for training physical
therapists for work in Army hospitals was well under way, and in
1943, 235 physical therapists were trained in 17 of the schools under
this new program.
The Navy has trained enlisted men and women in its Hospital Corps
as assistants to conduct physical therapy treatments under the super­
vision of a physical therapist or a medical officer. This training is
not designed to qualify these personnel for registration as physical
therapists but to meet Navy needs.
In spite of these increases, the estimated needs of the Army and Navy
for trained physical therapy personnel were over twice the numbersupplied by the schools. In 1944, 288 physical therapists were grad-



iuitcd from the regular course and 344 from the emergency courses,
totaling 632; this was far short of the needs for military, veterans’, and
rehabilitation services. The American Medical Association in 1944
urged universities, medical schools, colleges, or hospitals, having suit­
able facilities in physical therapy, to consider the establishment of
acceptable programs in this field.
Even before the war, a number of scholarships and loan funds were
made available for training in physical therapy through the National
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis, the Kellogg Foundation, and the
Rosenburg Foundation. The American Physical Therapy Associ­
ation, the National Organization for Public Health Nursing, and the
Kellogg Foundation handled applications.
Since 1922, training in Army hospitals has been available to selected
graduates of a school of physical education or to college graduates
with a major in physical education. From 1938 to 1943 the Army
has made its selections of persons who are to receive this training from
lists prepared by the United States Civil Service Commission on the
basis of its examinations for student physiotherapy aides.
In October 1943, the Medical Department of the Army made training
courses in physical therapy available to certain enlisted members of the
Women's Army Corps who could meet the minimum educational
requirement of 2 years of college with emphasis on the biological and
natural sciences, or who had completed an approved course in physical
education. In addition, certain other requirements were prescribed.
(See Training section of this bulletin, p. 27.)
During the latter part of the war period additional physical thera­
pists were needed in Army hospitals, and enlisted women of the
Women’s Army Corps without the educational background usually
required were selected for training in general hospitals designated to
train physical therapists. These students were chosen from training
schools for medical department technicians and sent to physical thera­
pist training schools for a 4-week course of instruction. Upon com­
pletion of this training they were classified as physical therapists and
assigned to Army hospitals to supplement the staffs of physical
t herapy departments.
Limited scholarships in approved emergency courses for women
promising to enter Army service were offered by Pi Beta Phi Sorority.
Three civilian training schools (the State University of Iowa Medical
School, the Cleveland Clinic Foundation Hospital, and Mayo Clinic)
charged no tuition for the regular curriculum, and two civilian schools
made no charge for the emergency course. Tuition fees averaged
$212 for the regular and $132 for the emergency curriculum. The
most common tuition charge was the same for both courses—$200.
During the last 9 months of 1945 the National Foundation for Infan­
tile Paralysis awarded 338 physical therapy scholarships under its



$1,267,600 therapy training program. The scholarships financed
courses of from 9 to 12 months at physical therapy schools approved
by the American Medical Association at leading universities through­
out the country. (See Scholarship section of this report.) This
program was stimulated by the 1944 poliomyelitis epidemic. How­
ever, recipients of the scholarships were not committed to work ex­
clusively with poliomyelitis patients.
Training volunteer assistants.—The use of volunteer assistants to
relieve the civilian shortage has not been so prevalent in this occu­
pation as in nursing. However, in 1945 the Polio Emergency Volun­
teer Program was initiated by the Women’s Division of the National
Foundation for Infantile Paralysis to assist the physical therapist and
nurse in applying hot packs and performing other routine duties. A
training syllabus was prepared by the Joint Orthopedic Nursing
Advisory Service and the American Physical Therapy Association.
Forty-five thousand women have been trained under this program.

Minimum Requirements for Entrance to a School for Training Physical
Therapists Approved by Council on Medical Education and Hospitals
of the American Medical Association
For 1-year course: Graduation from an accredited school of nursing or
graduation from a college or university with a major in physical education or
with the required science courses or 2 or 3 years of college with science courses
(courses in the laboratory physical, biological, and social sciences suggested) ; or
For 2-year course: Two years of college with science courses; or
For 4-year degree course: High-school graduation.

Requirements for Registration as Physical Therapist by the American
Registry of Physical Therapists
Graduation from an approved school of physical therapy, plus an examination.

Requirements for Active Membership in the American Physical Therapy
Graduation from a school or course approved by the Council on Medical
Education and Hospitals of the American Medical Association.

Minimum Requirements for Beginning Civil Service Position as Physical
Therapist in United States Public Health Service, the Children’s Bureau,
and Saint Elizabeths Hospital, in Washington, D. C., and in United
States Public Health Service Hospitals Throughout the United States
and in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands 1
(As taken from Announcement No. 169 (Unassembled), issued
April 19, 1949. Amended April 10, 1951. No closing date.)
Aye: Eighteen years of age or over but under 62 (waived for veterans and also
for certain war service indefinite employees).
Education and Experience:
Applicants must have successfully completed one of the following:
1. Graduation from a school of physical therapy which met the standards
established by the American Medical Association at the time of their graduation.
Applicants who graduated prior to 1936 must be graduates of a course of physi­
cal therapy approved by the American Physical Therapy Association at the time
of their graduation; or
2. Four years of successful and progressive technical experience in physical
therapy, under medical supervision, in a hospital, sanitarium, clinic, or in the
office of a licensed doctor of medicine who is an orthopedic specialist or who is
1 In November 1951 the beginning salary on this position was $3,410 per year (grade



specializing in physical medicine. This experience must show that the appli­
cant has an understanding of the fundamental theories of physical therapy
treatment and of their proper application, and must have included work in
electrotherapy, hydrotherapy, actinotherapy, and massage; and muscle reeduca­
tion, therapeutic exercise, and all other aspects of body mechanics as a means of
therapy. Applicants must also have had experience in performing diagnostic
tests, including voluntary (manual) muscle tests, electrical muscle tests, and
tesls for peripheral vascular disease, sucli as skin temperature tests or oscillometrie tests and determination of sensory patterns. For some positions appli­
cants must also have had experience in fever therapy or with crippled children ;


3. Any time-equivalent combination of 1 (Education) and 2 (Experience),

Physical requirements: A physical examination will be made by a Federal medi­
cal officer before appointment.

Minimum Requirements for Beginning Civil Service Position as Physical
Therapist in Hospitals and Regional Offices of the Veterans’ Adminis­
tration Throughout the United States and in Puerto Rico 1
(As taken from Announcement No. 233 (Unassembled), issued July
11, 1950. No closing date.)
Age: Eighteen years of age or over but under 62 (waived for veterans and also
for certain war service indefinite employees).
Applicants must be graduates of schools of physical therapy approved at the
time of their graduation by the American Medical Association. Applicants who
graduated prior to 1936 must be graduates of a course of physical therapy ap­
proved at the time of their graduation by the American Physical Therapy
Applications will be accepted from students who are enrolled iu a school of
physical therapy approved by the American Medical Association who are within
3 months of completion of their training; such students who are qualified in all
other respects may receive provisional appointments prior to completion of the
training, but may not enter on duty until they submit proof of graduation from
an approved school.
Physical requirements: A physical examination will he made by a Federal officer
before appointment.

Minimum Requirements for Appointment as a Physical Therapist in the
Women’s Medical Specialist Corps Reserve, Army Medical Service,
United States Army (with the pay and allowance of a second lieutenant
of $2,565 annually, plus $900 for quarters if government quarters are
not available, and $504 for subsistence)
General requirements: Female citizen of the United States; no children or de­
pendents under 18 years of age; physically qualified; and between 21 and 45
years of age.
Education and experience: Applicants must have completed not less than 3
years (90 semester hours) including satisfactory courses in the biological and
G g_ g1) November 1951 thc beginning salary on this position was $3,410 per year (grade



physical sciences and a course in physical therapy, both of which are acceptable
to the Department of the Army.

Minimum Requirements for Appointment as a Physical Therapist in
the USAF (WMSC) Reserve (with the pay and allowance of a second
lieutenant of $2,565, plus annual subsistence pay of $504, plus $900
quarters allowance if government quarters are not available)
General requirements: Female citizen of the United States ; no dependents under
18 years of age; physically qualified; between 21 and 45 years of age.
Education and experience: Applicants must have completed not less than 90
semester hours with major emphasis on the biological sciences or physical edu­
cation in a college or university and a training course in physical therapy, both
of which are acceptable to the Surgeon General of the USAF.

Schools Providing Training for Physical Therapists Approved by Council
on Medical Education and Hospitals of American Medical Association,
March 1952
Children’s Hospital Society,
Los Angeles, Calif.
College of Medical Evangelists,
Loma Linda, Calif.
Stanford University,
Palo Alto, Calif.

Boston University, Sargent College of
Physical Education,
Cambridge, Mass.
University of Minnesota,
Minneapolis, Minn.
Mayo Clinic,
Rochester, Minn.

University of California Medical School,
Washington University School of Med­
San Francisco, Calif.
University of Southern California,
St. Louis, Mo.
Los Angeles, Calif.
St. Louis University School of Nursing,
University of Colorado Medical Center, St. Louis, Mo.
Denver, Colo.
Albany Hospital,
Northwestern University Medical Albany, N. Y.
Columbia University,
Chicago, 111.
New York, N. Y.
University of Iowa,
New York University, School of Edu­
Iowa City, Iowa.
University of Kansas, School of Medi­ New York, N. Y.
Duke University, School of Medicine,
Kansas City, Kans.
Durham, N. C.
Bouve-Boston School of Physical Edu­
cation, in affiliation with Tufts Col­ Cleveland Clinic,
Cleveland, Ohio.
Medford, Mass.
D. T. Watson School of Physiatrics,
Simmons College,
Boston, Mass.

Leetsdale, Pa.



University of Pennsylvania School of University of Wisconsin Medical School,
Auxiliary Medical Services, Division Madison, Wls.
of Physical Therapy,
Medical Field Service School,
Philadelphia, Pa.
Brooke Army Medical Center,
San Antonio, Tex.
Hermann Hospital,
Houston, Tex.
Clinical affiliates:
(1) Fitzsimmons Army Hospital,
University of Texas, School of Medicine,
Denver, Colo.
Galveston, Tex.
(2) Walter Reed Army Hospital,
Medical College of Virginia,
Washington, D. C.
Baruch Center of Physical Medicine,
(3) Letterman Army Hospital,
Richmond, Va.
San Francisco, Calif.

Some of the Principal General Rehabilitation Centers in the United States,
March 1952
Cleveland Rehabilitation Center,
2239 East 55th Street,
Cleveland, Ohio.

New York State Reconstruction Home,
West Haverstraw, N. Y.

Okmulgee Rehabilitation Center,
Curative Workshop of Milwaukee, Inc., ()kmulgee Branch,
Oklahoma A. and M. College,
750 North 18th Street,
Okmulgee, Okla.
Milwaukee 3, Wis.
Institute for the Crippled and Disabled, Portland Rehabilitation Center,
Portland, Oreg.
4(H) First Avenue,
New York, N. Y.
Rehabilitation Center for tlie Disabled,
Institute of Physical Medicine and American Rehabilitation Committee,
28 East 21st Street,
New York University—Bellevue Medical New York 10, N. Y.
Rehabilitation Center of Liberty Mutual
400 East 34th Street,
Insurance Co.,
New York 16, N. Y.
691 Boylston Street,
Institute of Physical Medicine and Boston, Mass.
The Rehabilitation Institute,
Peoria, 111.
3600 Troost Street,
Kansas City, Mo.
The Kabat-Kaiser Institute,
Vallejo, Calif,
The Kabat-Kaiser Institute,
Washington, D. C.

Tuskegee Rehabilitation Center,
Tuskegee Institute,
Tuskegee, Ala.

Kessler Institute for Rehabilitation,
West Orange, N. J.

Washington Rehabilitation Center,
708 Fourth Avenue,
Seattle, Wash.

Morrison Rehabilitation Center,
Sau Francisco, Calif.

Woodrow Wilson Rehabilitation Center,
Fishersville, Va.

Aitken, Alexander P. Restoring injured workers: The rehabilitation center
serving the medical profession. Liberty Mutual Insurance Co., 1945. 20 pp.
Allgire, Mildred J. Physical therapy in State crippled children’s programs.
Physical Therapy Review 30 : 273-276, July 1950.
American Congress of Physical Medicine. 1951-1952 Directory: Members-—•
American Registry of Physical Therapists. Chicago, 111., the Congress,
1951. 50 pp.
American Physical Therapy Association (formerly the American Physiotherapy
Association). The American Physiotherapy Association is organized to serve.
Chicago, 111., the Association, 1944.
----- — Available physical therapy scholarships. Chicago, 111., the Association,
1943[ 7] (Folder).
------ The job of the physical therapist. New York, N. Y., the Association,
December 1950. 11 pp.
----- •— The job of the physical therapist. New York, N. Y.. the Association,
1951. 14 pp.
---------Organization guide for physical therapy schools. New York, N. Y.,
the Association, November 1950. 19 pp.
----- -— Physical therapy: A service and a career. New York, N. Y., the
Association, 1945. 15 pp.
-------- - Physical therapy: Suggestions for prospective students. New York,
N. Y., the Association, 1951. 4 pp.
Arrington, Clara M. Physical therapy in official State crippled children’s
agencies. In Physical therapy: Employment opportunities. New York, N. Y.,
American Physical Therapy Association, 1950. Pp. 11-13.
Bailey, Louise A. Physical therapy in the treatment of cerebral palsy.
Physical Therapy Review 30: 230-231, June 1950.
Barclay, Dorothy. Help for the seriously handicapped. New York Times
Magazine, April 16, 1950. P. 46.
The Baruch Committee on Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation disbands.
Physical Therapy Review 31: 337-339, August 1951.
Behlow, Dorothy, and Case, Hilda (et al.). Physical therapy in a large general
hospital. Physical Therapy Review (formerly Physiotherapy Review) 27:
107-108, March-April 1947.
Brown, Thelma. Physical therapy in a small general hospital. Physical
Therapy Review 30: 179-180, May 1950.
Bryson, Viola. Be a physical therapist. International Altrusan 27: 6-7,
December 1949.
Coulter, John S., and Carter, Howard A. Need for physical therapy technicians.
War Medicine 2 : 824-829, September 1942.
Covalt, Donald A. Space and personnel requirements necessary to establish
a physical medicine and rehabilitation service in hospitals. Archives of
Physical Medicine 29 : 161-166, March 1948.
Cunningham, Edward, and Reed, Leonard. Your career: How to choose a
profession and how to prepare for it. New York, N. Y., Simon and Schuster,
1949. 72 pp.



Daily, Edwin F. To restore crippled children. Child 14: 26-28, August 1949.
Dear, R. H. B. Physical medicine in Army hospitals. Archives of Physical
Medicine 30 : 720-720, November 1949.
Elks National Foundation offers special grants to study treatment of cerebral
palsy. Physical Therapy Review 31: 334-335, August 1951.
Executive Office of the President, Office of Defense Mobilization. Report to the
Chairman Manpower Policy Committee. Washington, D. C., Office of Defense
Mobilization by the Task Force on the Handicapped, Jan. 25, 1952. 89 pp.
Furscott, Hazel E., and Miller, Hattie (et al.). Physical therapy in the indus­
trial clinic. Physical Therapy Review (formerly the Physiotherapy Review)
27: 23-25, January-February 1947.
Gantzer, Alice V., and Rice, Betty (et al.). Physical therapy in schools for
crippled children. Physical Therapy Review (formerly Physiotherapy
Review) 28: 14-15, January-February 1948.
Hazenhyer, Ida May. A history of the American Physiotherapy Association.
New York, N. Y., American Physical Therapy Association (formerly the
American Physiotherapy Association), 1946. 39 pp.
--------- Physical therapy as a career. Bios 17: 191-197, December 1946.
Ilinshaw, David. Take up thy bed and walk. New York, N. Y., G. P. Putnam’s
Sons, 1948. 262 pp.
Hochhauser, Edward. Objectives of sheltered workshops. Reprinted from
The Jewish Social Service quarterly, Vol. 25, June 1949. 13 pp.
Hospital service in the United States. Journal of American Medical Associ­
ation 146: 109-123, May 12, 1951.
Huddleston, O. Leonard. Physical therapy and reconditioning in some of Army
hospitals. Clinics 4: 1574-1613, April 1946.
Huppert, Curtis R. Organization of an in-service training program in a physi­
cal therapy department. Physical Therapy Review 30: 174-178, May 1950.
Kessler, Henry Howard. A national program for the amputee. Journal of
Rehabilitation 12: 4-12, August 1946.
-------- - Rehabilitation of the physically handicapped. New York, N. Y.,
Columbia University Press, 1947. 274 pp.
Knudson, A. B. C. Dynamic aspects of physical medicine in the Veterans'
Administration. Archives of Physical Medicine 29 : 29-36, January 1948.
---------Progress in physical medicine during the past 25 years. New York
State Journal of Medicine 46: 1229-1232, June 1, 1946.
Krusen, Frank H., Director. Report of the Baruch Committee on Physical
Medicine for period of January 1, 1948 to June 30, 1949. Chicago, 111., the
Committee, 1949. 188 pp.
Linck, Lawrence ,J. Care of the cerebral palsied child in the U. S. A. Nerv­
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--------- and others. Teaching the orthopedically handicapped and the cardiopatliic. In The National Society for the Study of Education, 49th Year­
book, 1950. Chicago, 111., the Society, 1950. Pp. 194-217.
MacDonald, Mary. Physical therapy in a V. N. A. Public Health Nursing
40: 412-418, 1948.
Mackie, Romaine P. The cerebral-palsied in a program for the physically
handicapped. California Journal of Elementary Education 15: 69-78, No­
vember 1946.
McCarthy, Mary L. Physical therapy in the State crippled children’s services.
Delaware State Medical Journal 19: 182-183, September 1947.



McMillan, Mary. Physical therapy on three continents. The Physical Therapy
Review (formerly Physiotherapy Review) 26 : 254-267, September-October
Molander, C. O. Role in rehabilitation. Hospital Progress 27: 368-370, No­
vember 1946.
Montgomery, Howard H. Rehabilitation in the medical department of the Navy.
Occupations 23: 443-446, May 1945.
Morris, Edward L. “Rehabilitation team” needs new members. Occupational
Trends 2: 2-10, September-October 1950.
The National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis. Physical therapy scholar­
ships. New York, N. Y., the Foundation, February 1, 1951. 3 pp. Processed.
- ..... - The fourth critical year of polio. New York. N. Y., The Foundation,
1952. 3 pp. (Folder).
N. F. I. P. appropriates $1,267,600 for expanded physical therapy program.
National Foundation News 4: 17-18, March 1945.
National Society for Crippled Children and Adults. Committee on the Severely
Handicapped. Rehabilitation facilities for the severely handicapped. Chi­
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I’henix, Florence L. Nursing and physical therapy. Consultation in State
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Physical therapy in the Army. Submitted by Physical Therapy Branch, Wo­
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Physical therapy in the cerebral palsy field. Physical Therapy Review (for­
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Review 28 : 64-65, March-April 1948.
Physical therapy in the United States Public Health Service. Submitted by
Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Branch, Division of Hospitals, Public
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Physical therapy in a State crippled children’s service. Physical Therapy Review
(formerly Physiotherapy Review) 26:243-245, September-October 1946.
Piersol, George Morris. The nurse in physical medicine. American Journal of
Nursing 45 : 526-531, July 1945.
---------The possibilities of physical medicine from the standpoint of the in­
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Possibility of effective treatment seen. (U. S. Cerebral Palsy Association Con­
ference. Dr. Palmer cites inadequate facilities.) New York Times, Novem­
ber 5, 1950. P. 52.
Pratt, Ruth E. Physical therapy in schools for crippled children. Physical
Therapy Review 30: 233, June 1950.
Reinecke, Louise. Physical therapy in a physician’s office. In Physical therapy :
Eihployment opportunities. New York, N. Y.. the American Physical Therapy
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Rhode Island Department of Labor. The Rhode Island Curative Center. Provi­
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Rusk, Dr. Howard A. Rehabilitation: The third phase of medicine. Archives
of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Medicine 1: 411-418, April 1950.
Rusk, Howard A., and Taylor, Eugene J. A directory of agencies and organiza­
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York, N. Y., the New York Times, 1947. 133 pp.



•-------- Rehabilitation. Annals of the American Academy of Political and So­
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Schools for physical therapists (formerly physical therapy technicians). Jour­
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--------- Journal of American Medical Association 124: 918, March 25, 1944.
—■------ Journal of American Medical Association 127 : 849, March 31, 1945.
Schools of physical therapy. Hospital number of the Journal of the American
Medical Association 140: 196-197, May 12, 1951.
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February 1950.
Statistical guides, table 7—National specified facilities and services, 1950. Hos­
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Stern, Bernard Joseph. Medical services by Government: Local, State, and
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------------------- U. S. Employment Service. Dictionary of occupational titles,
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-----------------------------Job descriptions and organizational analysis for hospitals
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--------- Bureau of Labor Statistics. The employment status of women social
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