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■2A3-&.
MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS
AND

LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN
Medical Series Bulletin No. 203-4 C/ 9s'f
oa>®si*Bra

WMlfos

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

3-3i.it'l*sns3ljr

JrdM

James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, Director

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
James P. Mitchell, Secretary
WOMEN'S BUREAU
Mrs. Alice K. Leopold, Director

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS
AND

LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES EOR WOMEN
Medical Series Bulletin 203—4

FIRST PRINTING: JUNE 1954
SECOND PRINTING: JUNE 1956
THIRD PRINTING: NOVEMBER 1958

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office,
Washington 25, D. C. - Price 25 cents

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN
Medical Series

Physical Therapists. Bulletin 203-1, revised 1952.
Occupational Therapists. Bulletin 203-2, revised 1952.
Professional Nursing Occupations. Bulletin 203-3, revised 1953.
Medical Technologists and Laboratory Technicians. Bulletin 203-1
(1954).
Practical Nurses and Auxiliary Workers on the Nursing Team.
Bulletin 203-5 (1953).
Medical X-Ray Technicians. Bulletin 203-8 (1954).
n

This bulletin presents job information and training re­
quirements for the Medical Technologist and for a
diversified group of Medical Laboratory Technician
occupations. It excludes such scientific medical special­
ists as the biochemist, hematologist, bacteriologist, serologist, and histopathologist, except for reference to show
laboratory staff relationships, or as possible specializa­
tions for the medical technologist who takes additional
academic training.
Among all medical laboratory occupations, the Medical
alone has been given definition and stand­
ardization in accordance with minimum requirements set
by the Kegistry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists, in cooperation with the
American Medical Association.
Technologist

and Assistant Technician jobs are
loosely defined in practice but an effort is made in this
report to group and describe them in broad outlines.

Medical Technician

and Aides are classified as entry jobs
which do not usually require experience.

Laboratory Helpers

hi

Acknowledgments . . .
are made to a number of persons and agencies for assistance in the
preparation of this bulletin, including:
(1) The staff of the Pathology Service, United States Public Health
Service Hospital, Baltimore, Md., as arranged through Dr. G. H.
Hunt, Assistant Surgeon General and Associate Chief, Bureau of
Medical Services, Washington, D. C., for their careful review of
the manuscript.
(2) Medical, research, and administrative personnel at several other
Federal agencies, especially the Armed Forces Institute of
Pathology, the National Institutes of Health, and the Veterans Ad­
ministration.
(3) Officers and staff of the Registry of Medical Technologists of the
American Society of Clinical Pathologists; the American Society
of Medical Technologists; and the American Medical Technologists;
and especially to Dr. Lall G. Montgomery, Chairman, and Mrs. Ruth
Drummond, Registrar, of the A. S. C. P. Registry for their technical
review.
(4) The National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology.
(5) Pathologists, medical technologists, and medical technicians at
some 20 hospitals, clinics, and laboratories, both private and
governmental.
(6) For their courtesy in providing photographs, acknowledgment is
made to the following:
Oscar B. Hunter Memorial Laboratory (figs. 3-B, 4-C, 5-B, 5-C).
Indiana University Medical Center (figs. 2-A, 2-C, 4-B)
Merck & Co., Inc. (fig. 6).
National Institutes of Health—
National Cancer Institute (figs. 2-B, 4-A, 5-A, 7).
National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Disease (fig. 1).
National Microbiological Institute (fig. 3-A).
IV

CONTENTS

Page

Medical laboratory occupations: A preview
vn
I. The medical laboratory and its staff
Behind the scenes with the medical team_____________________
Fact-finders for the physician
Fifty years ago or so
Formal recognition of the medical technologist in 1928_________
Technicians and technologists—-what’s in a name?_____________
Laboratory staffing patterns
II. The medical technologist
10
Versatility comes first in job demands
10
Specialization may follow
10
Service supersedes research
11
In order to qualify
11
Required college courses for M. T. (A. S. C. P.) registration___
Some facts about hospital schools
13
Cost of training
13
Inquiries may be addressed
13
III. Medical laboratory technicians
15
In support of research and service
15
A word to the student
15
Representative jobs—thumbnail definitions___________________
Entry jobs—laboratory assistants and helpers_________________
IV. Opportunities
21
Accent on women workers-__________________________________
More jobs than qualified candidates
21
Looking ahead—job requirements and training________________
Openings for mature women
24
Hospitals lead in employment
24
A wide range of jobs outside hospitals
26
Medical technicians in military service
26
Geography and the job-seeker
28
V. Bread-and-butter questions How much does a medical laboratory worker earn?____________
What is the workweek?
31
“Fringe” benefits
31
Are there part-time opportunities?
32
VI. Guide-lines for the career choice
33
Appendix:
1. Work performed by the medical technologist___________________
2. Requirements for registration by the Registry of Medical Tech­
nologists of the A. S. C. P
39
3. Professional organizations for medical technologists_____________
4. Number of registered medical technologists and number per
100,000 population, by region and State, 1954________________
5. Approved schools for medical technologists, February 1954______
Bibliography
53
Tables:
1. Medical technicians in hospitals in continental United States: 1952_
2. Facilities and services in medical technology and related services
in 6,076 hospitals: 1952

v

1
1
1
2
3
3
4

12

15
19
21
23

30
30

36

40
41
43

25
26

NOTE TO THIRD PRINTING
On July 25, 1958, the U. S. Civil Service Commission
established standards for the Medical Technologist under
its “Formal Education Requirements for Appointment to
Certain Scientific, Technical, and Professional Positions,”
thus clarifying the professional status of these workers.

VI

MEDICAL LABORATORY OCCUPATIONS: A PREVIEW
y/ Among all trained medical laboratory workers, the majority, by
far, are women.
V About 9 out of every 10 registered medical technologists are
women.
V In 1954 there were 576 hospital schools (approved by the Ameri­
can Medical Association) in 48 States, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and tire Canal Zone which offered training
courses for medical technologists.
V About two-thirds of approved hospital schools charged no tuition
in 1954, and about one-fourth paid students a small stipend during
training.
V There is no upper age limit for qualified trainee candidates, al­
though most trainees enter hospital schools right from college
science courses, and the majority are under 30.
V Salaries for medical technologists and other trained laboratory
personnel compare favorably with many jobs in teaching and social
work which require as much, or more, training.
V Employment opportunities for medical laboratory workers exceed
the present number of qualified candidates and seem to be increas­
ing year by year, both in diagnostic services and in research into
disease.
V Part-time work is common in medical laboratories: in 1952, about
10 percent of hospital technicians worked part time. This means
that there are opportunities for women who wish to plan on com­
bining careers with homemaking or who need to supplement
income.
V Medical technology is a field for the woman who finds rewards
in work that provides services to people and is an essential part
of the practice of medicine, with its exacting demands and high
standards. At the same time, it is a vocational field which has
limited contacts with patients and requires a good measure of
scientific aptitude and manual dexterity.
V In this generation and those to come, the race against time to pre­
vent and control the major illnesses, such as cancer, poliomyelitis,
multiple sclerosis, heart disease, lukemia, tuberculosis—and many
others—can be considerably shortened by a continuing supply of
trained medical technologists and technicians.
VII

Figure 1.—Among the common clinical tests performed in the medical
laboratory are those to determine blood type. This technician is typing
an unknown sample of blood by mixing it with known serums and
precipitins.
vm

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN
AS MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS
AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
I. THE MEDICAL LABORATORY AND ITS STAFF
Behind the Scenes With the Medical Team

Teamwork of the physician and nurse on behalf of the patient has
been extended in recent years to include a number of specialized
medical workers whose services may be tapped according to individual
needs. A medical “team” for only one patient may consist of the
attending physician and one or more specialized physicians, of a
'professional nurse, supplemented by or assisted by a practical nurse or
nurse aide, and also of such specially trained medical personnel as an
occupational therapist, a physical therapist, and an X-ray technician—
all of whom become known to the patient, with whom direct contact is
made.
Behind the scenes are a variety of medical laboratory personnel,
who are key members of the team to aid in diagnosing and treating
illness. As a group, they are known mainly as Technologists or
Technicians, although there are other workers among them whose
duties will be explained.
Sometimes a laboratory worker is singled out and identified for
the hospital patient because the physician has summoned her to assist
in a task like taking a blood sample from the patient’s arm or finger­
tip. A patient may also make the brief acquaintance of a laboratory
technician or technologist when he is sent by liis physician to a medical
laboratory or clinic for tests of various kinds. Unlike the X-ray
technician or nurse, however, laboratory personnel may never see
patients whose body tissues and substances they examine carefully
for signs of illness or disease.
Fact-Finders for the Physician
In the course of his examination of a patient, the physician’s
trained eye and the storehouse of experience and information he
carries in his mind frequently lead him to accurate diagnosis of ill­
ness. On the other hand, the symptoms he can observe may not be

1
487135 O—58---- 2

2

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

sufficient to guide him to any conclusions. There are some diseases
which cannot be diagnosed, and many which may not be identified
with certainty, unless the deeply probing eye of the microscope is
used, or the detective work of chemistry is applied to ferreting out
information concerning the condition of certain body substances, or
the presence of foreign or harmful substances in the body.
A number of physicians maintain limited laboratories in which they
or their assistants make routine tests. But the tasks of conducting
medical tests have become highly specialized and increasingly com­
plex in the last 30 years. New and shorter methods, new equipment,
and more accurate determinations of disease have been introduced
into medical practice through the discoveries of research scientists.
Practicing physicians are able neither to maintain complete labora­
tories nor to devote the special time required for all of the useful
laboratory methods. Therefore, they must rely upon the medical
laboratory of a hospital or clinic, or one conducted by a private
physician who devotes himself to discovering and reporting upon the
nature and condition of disease.
All of the trained medical laboratory staff are fact-finders for the
physician. They are adept in tracking down the minute details of
illness, especially those symptoms which cannot be observed by the
naked eye. In addition, they carry on a continuous research for new
facts and improved techniques.
Fifty Years Ago or So . . .
Hospitals at the beginning of the 1900’s probably had less laboratory
equipment than most physicians’ offices of today. The microscope was
in use, as well as methods of counting the cells in a tiny drop of blood
and looking for bacteria, or other minute organisms, in blood or body
tissue. Chemical tests were used for analyzing urine, and for dis­
covering the presence of poisons in the body. Physicians and hospital
internes, as part of their regular work, usually made the tests, many
of which were simple and crude in comparison with methods in
present use. As they got busier and the number of tests increased,
physicians sometimes enlisted the help of hospital attendants or
orderlies, who were at hand, to perform some of the routine tasks.
This is how the medical laboratory began: Some of the helpers
were very skillful and gradually learned how to assist the doctors to
a greater degree. Medical doctors began to see the advantage of
setting up training courses for assistants to do laboratory work. In
their offices and in hospitals, physicians began to devote some of their
time to teaching laboratory methods to promising candidates. At
fiist this was done on a small counter, with little more than a micro-

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

3

scope and some test tubes and jars. Later, as laboratory equipment
became more elaborate and new tests and techniques were developed,
separate quarters were needed.
Formal Recognition of the Medical Technologist in 1928
As the usefulness of laboratory personnel increased, questions of
training and reliability of staff became of great importance to
physicians. After the First World War, there was much discussion
among members of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists and
among the new group of laboratory workers themselves about the
standards which should be set for medical laboratory occupations. It
was not until 1928, however, that the A. S. C. P. created a registry to
examine and certify Medical Technologists and assist them in finding
suitable jobs. The same Registry of Medical Technologists of the
American Society of Clinical Pathologists is in existence in 1954,
although the occupation itself has gradually raised its standards
through the years. In 1933, the Medical Technologists certified by
the Registry organized a society of their own called “The American
Society of Clinical Laboratory Technicians”; in 1936 the name was
changed to “The American Society of Medical Technologists”
(A. S. M. T.).
Technicians and Technologists—What’s in a Name?
A most difficult subject to explain is the meaning of medical labora­
tory job titles and their usage among a variety of employers. The
same job title frequently is used to describe different jobs. All of the
medical laboratory workers perform useful and essential services, but
some of the laboratory jobs have been more exactly defined than others.
Furthermore, in occupations that are relatively new, as in the medical
laboratory field, it is to be expected that occupational changes are
taking place and will continue to take place for some time to come,
so that the exact definitions of today—where they exist—may be
obsolete tomorrow.
There is still another point to keep in mind when thinking about
occupational titles: general terms or alternate titles for the same jobs
are in common use, and the title of a job does not necessarily describe
it. For common usage, a general title may be descriptive enough.
For anyone who is seeking information about the requirements and
training for jobs, it is important to be exact.
As previously noted, the occupation known as Medical Tech­
nologists was first defined in 1928, and still exists.
In accord with
the terms of the Registry affiliated with A. S. C. P., an exact set
of training-and-job specifications is established, and the official title
“Medical Technologist (American Society of Clinical Pathologists)”
may be used only by those certified by the Registry. On the job,

4

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

tlie “M. 1\ (A. S. C. P.) ” may be called a “laboratory technician” or a
“medical technician,’■ or by some other title if she becomes a specialist
in one phase of the work.
In recent years, another group of medical laboratory workers has
begun to use the title of “medical technologist.” They, too, have
established an organization, “The American Medical Technologists,”
for certifying their members, and seek full professional recognition.
Although there is no connection between them and the AMA affiliates,
they have a legal right to use the title “M. T.,” which stands for Medical
Technologist. (The standards for both M. T. (A. S. C. P.) affiliates
and A. M. T. members are set forth in appendix 3.)
Although medical technologist as a job title was distinguished from
a number of loosely classified laboratory jobs in 1928, distinctions
between titles sometimes disappear in common usage, and two or three
different kinds of medical laboratory workers (some of higher, and
some of lesser qualifications) may be called “medical technicians.”
Among professional groups, however, the term Technologist is under­
stood to carry definite requirements which are somewhat more
demanding than the qualifications for workers designated as Tech­
nicians (i. e., laboratory technicians, clinical laboratory technicians,*
or medical technicians). It should be kept in mind, however, that
titles are likely to be misleading and that job definitions have not been
standardized for all medical laboratory jobs.
Laboratory Staffing Patterns
The physician directly responsible for all of the clinical laboratory
work is known as a Pathologist or, sometimes, Clinical Pathologist.
He is a doctor of medicine who has specialized in the nature and causes
of disease, and is, in a sense, a sort of medical Sherlock Holmes. On
his staff are sleuths with specialized training in tracking down various
kinds of diseases of the blood, the tissues, and the organs of the body,
or in carrying out research on medical problems and developing im­
proved methods for tests.
Depending upon the size of the medical laboratory and its capacity
to carry out certain types of tests and research, a great variety of
staffing patterns are found. These factors have a direct bearing upon
the job duties and requirements for individual laboratory employees.
In a small unit, for example, the pathologist may perform some of the
tests, assisted by a medical technologist or a laboratory technician; or
he may interpret and report upon the tests carried out by an assistant.
As the unit grows in size, there is an accompanying breakdown and
distribution of tasks, as well as an increase in the number of personnel,
and a medical technologist may become a chief, in charge of other
technologists.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

5

mm

A. Flocculation tests can be used for
syphilis and tuberculosis. The medical tech­
nologist and her assistant treat serums taken
from patient with biochemical substances.
If the result is a precipitate, the presence of
disease is indicated.
B. Paper chromatography method is
sometimes used to test for unknown sub­
stances in specimens and samples. A drop
of the specimen is placed on a specially pre­
pared paper strip, and if a certain color
develops, the substance may be identified.

C. Microscopes are
used extensively in the
medical laboratory to
examine tissues, note
cell structures, detect
the presence of para­
sites or bacteria, and,
very commonly, to
count blood cells, as
this medical techni­
cian is doing.

Figure 2. Hundreds of tests to determine disease must be learned by
medical technologists.

6

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

A small laboratory staff may be shown, on a diagram, to look
like this:
Chart No. 1

Pathologist or
M. D.-in-charge

Medical
technologist

.--J--,

-L—
Laboratory
technician
I---------------------------,1

technician

Helper

The dotted-line boxes in the diagram indicate that the number of
assistants reporting to the medical technologist may vary. If all po­
sitions are filled, there will be four levels of work, including the
helper, who divides time between two technicians.
In considerable contrast, a large laboratory staffing pattern, where
many more specialized scientific personnel are likely to be found, is
shown on the opposite page.
It should be noted that the technicians who assist in bacteriology,
biochemistry, serology, hematology, and histopathology, on chart
No. 2, may fit any one7 of the following occupational categories,
depending upon the requirements of the particular job:
(a) Medical technologist (registered).
(5) College graduate with a bachelor of science degree in biology,
biochemistry, or bacteriology.
(c) Medical technician with 2 years of accredited college work in
biological science or chemistry, and 1 year of special experience in a
medical laboratory.
Generally, the medical technologist is required to have an extensive
knowledge of tests and test methods in all of the special fields
mentioned.

Pathologist

Hematologist

Blood bank
technician

Hematology
technician

Tissue
technician

Chief medical
technologist

Bacteriologist

Biochemist

Serologist

Medical
technologist

Histologist

Bacteriology
technician

Biochemistry
technician

Serology
technician

Helper

Helper

Helper

Medical
technician

Laboratory
helper

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

Chabt No. 2

<1

8

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

mm**;

A. Two technicians are weigh­
ing chicks to be used for research
into the effective control of
diphtheria.

B. Medical technician inocu­
lates mice for one of hundreds of
possible tests to determine disease.

Figure 3.—Animals are examined and studied in the laboratory both for
medical tests and research into disease.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

9

The bacteriologist, hematologist, serologist, or biochemist is usually
well qualified in theory, in his own special field, in order to carry
out research, and is usually not required to make tests in any other
field. In fact, this group of personnel may seldom perform tests in
relation to the direct diagnosis or treatment of patients. They may
work on long-term research projects and otherwise be called upon as
consultants on current problems. Generally, a master’s degree or a
doctoral degree in one of the sciences is required for this kind of
specialization. Some medical technologists have moved into these
scientific research fields through special training and experience.
Laboratory technicians are not generally required to have as much
training as the medical technologist. They may be employed to as­
sist the medical technologist or any of the scientific specialists. Under
the guidance of a technologist, a technician may obtain experience
on several test methods, and under a specialist, an intensive knowledge
in one field. On the other hand, a medical technologist who has
specialized in a single field, such as hematology, may assist another
specialist or the clinical pathologist himself.
In addition to the laboratory technicians there may be some special­
ized technicians to perform a limited number of routine tests, and also
assistants and helpers who do a great deal of the manual work in
cleaning equipment, making simple solutions, labeling materials, keep­
ing up supplies and lending a hand in various ways.
On the other hand, the tissue technician or histologic technician
is usually trained on the job to perform the sole task of mounting
and staining tissue on the glass slide which is to be examined under
the microscope by the histopathologist. Again, it is emphasized that
the title “technician” is not, in itself, descriptive.
More details concerning job definitions and training requirements
are discussed in the sections following. Diagrams and staffing pat­
terns have been considered at this point to lay the foundation for
understanding a group of jobs which are often closely interrelated,
in a field where standards are likely to change from time to time—
and place to place.
With reference to standards, some recommendations have been made
by professional groups for the clearer definition of medical labora­
tory jobs. (See p. 23.)

487135 0-58-

■3

II.

the medical technologist

Versatility Comes First in Job Demands

In order to qualify as a medical technologist the student learns to
perform hundreds of medical tests which involve minute and accurate
examination of body tissues, fluids, and by-products. Underpinning
this wide range of medical testing methods there must be a working
knowledge of anatomy, biological chemistry, bacteriology, and good
grounding in mathematics and physics. The tests themselves require,
in addition, a great deal of information about a variety of scientific
laboratory equipment and skills in the step-by-step application of the
methods of chemistry, microscopy, preparing bacterial culture media,
separating and measuring blood content, and many other procedures
which are used only in the medical laboratory.
Occasionally, the medical technologist may be required to make
tests outside the laboratory, with the patient. Usually she learns how
to operate basal metabolism equipment, the electrocardiograph, and
the electroencephalograph.
It is standard practice in many large hospitals and clinics to have
a nurse or physician-intern obtain samples of most body substances;
tissue specimens are taken only by the surgeon, except possibly for
post-mortem cases, when the physician-intern may assist. In some
hospitals the medical technologist may take blood samples as a regu­
lar procedure, or she may be called upon to take a sample, or assist,
on other occasions. For this purpose the technologist learns how to
use a hypodermic needle and syringe skillfully with patients. She
may also handle the inoculation of laboratory animals which are used
for a number of tests.
Specialization May Follow

A versatile technologist is needed in the small laboratory. As the
laboratory services expand, or as the technologist moves into the em­
ployment of a clinical pathologist with a crew of specialists, she may
find herself assigned to a narrower range of tests. For example, she
may work, for a time, almost exclusively in hematology and specialize
in blood counts, blood typing, measure of coagulation rates, analysis
of blood content, and tests for sedimentation and volume. Or she
may perform a combination of these tasks with work in another field,
such as the microscopic examination of blood or spinal-fluid samples
for parasites which cause disease.
10

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

11

There is, of course, significant interrelationship between the hun­
dreds of tests of different body substances. The clinical pathologist
and the attending physician are expected to interpret the findings of
any one test, or group of tests, and draw conclusions. But they depend
upon the accurate work of the technologist, and often upon her judg­
ment in checking and double-checking results. The broader founda­
tion a specialist has, the greater is her value, even in a narrow field.
Reference is made to appendix 1 for details of the work performed
by a medical technologist.
Service Supersedes Research

Although the medical technologist may follow a career pattern
which leads eventually to medical research, her job is essentially one
of providing scientific services in answer to immediate needs. She
is trained to carry out the instructions of the physician who wants to
know the cause or character of an illness, or the cause of death, if a
post-mortem diagnosis is requested. There are emergencies in which
as many facts as possible must be ascertained in a very short time to
save a life or prevent serious complications. This is not to under­
estimate the significance of research: as a matter of fact, the accumu­
lated medical test data on current problems often become part of, or
lead to, a research project. The medical technologist may also spend
a part of her laboratory time on research, or in the improvement of
techniques. But the medical technologist job was established, first
of all, to provide laboratory services to the physician.
In Order to Qualify

Career preparation of the medical technologist begins with highschool science courses. Because all schools for medical technologists
that are approved by the Council on Medical Education and Hospitals
of the American Medical Association have set forth a requirement of
2 years or more of college, the student who wishes to qualify for
A. S. C. P. approved registration will need to prepare for college
entrance.
In the education of medical technologists there is a noticeable trend
toward higher academic prerequisites, which is hardly surprising,
in view of the versatility demanded by the job and the new develop­
ments in medical science.
There are a number of privately conducted laboratory technician
schools which accept high-school graduation or the equivalent, but
these schools do not prepare the student for employment which re­
quires registration of the medical technologist through the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists.
Generally speaking, 4 years of college-level training is needed to

12

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

qualify a medical technologist for the M. T. (A. S. C. P.) title and
certification, but a choice is possible between two educational plans:
(1) 2 years of accredited college work followed by a course in an approved
hospital school for medical technology of 12 (minimum) or 24 months; or
(2) 4 years in a college which combines an approved hospital-school course
with academic education, and which leads to a bachelor of science degree
in medical technology.

Some educators in the field of medical technology predict that the
M. T. (A. S. C. P.) registration will eventually require the second
plan of a straight 4-year college course leading to a bachelor of science
degree for all candidates. If this occurs, a plan will undoubtedly be
devised to protect the professional status of medical technologists
who previously met the requirements for registration and who have
been successfully employed.
Required College Courses for M. T. (A. S. C. P.) Registration
The Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the American
Medical Association provides the following standards for the mini­
mum 2 years of college work required for a student’s acceptance by
an approved hospital school.
The required college work must be done in a college or university
approved by a recognized accrediting association and must consist of
at least 60 semester hours (or 90 quarter hours) which include the
following courses:
(1) 12 semester hours (or 18 quarter hours) of biology, which may be taken
in general biology, bacteriology, parasitology, physiology, anatomy,
histology, embryology, and zoology;
(2) 6 semester hours (or 9 quarter hours), including lectures and laboratory,
of general inorganic chemistry; and
(3) 3 semester hours (or 4 quarter hours), including lectures and laboratory,
of quantitative analysis, organic chemistry, or biochemistry.

The remaining 39 semester hours (or 59 quarter hours) which are
required for the minimum 2-year course may be taken in other college
courses such as mathematics, physics, English, and psychology, de­
pending upon the requirements of the individual college or university.
(The first two subjects and typing are highly recommended by the
Registry of Medical Technologists.) These additional studies, be­
yond the required courses in biology and chemistry, will be helpful
to the student in her chosen career and in extending her understand­
ing of people, including patients. Furthermore, they should serve
to broaden her interests and opportunities for exchanging ideas and
experiences with others.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

13

Some Facts About Hospital Schools

In February 1954, there were 576 approved hospital schools for
medical technologists located in 48 States, the District of Columbia,
Puerto Rico, Hawaii, and the Canal Zone. (See appendix 5.)
Three-fourths of the 537 schools on which detailed information was
provided for the year 1953 accepted 2 years of college for entrance.
Of the remaining 124 schools, 1 required 2^ years, 83 required 3
years, and 40 required a college degree.
Length of training in the schools ranged from 12 to 24 months,
but 12 months was by far the most common. Only 83 schools (15
percent of the total) specified more than 12 months’ training. The
enrollment capacity of the 537 schools reporting was just under 4,100,
an average of 7 or 8 students per school. A majority of the schools
accommodated fewer than 10 students; the largest had a student ca­
pacity of 60.
Cost of Training

If a student can provide her own maintenance she can obtain a tui­
tion-free education in medical technology in many approved hospital
schools. About two-thirds (369) of the 531 approved schools that
reported in regard to fees for 1953 charged no tuition, and an addi­
tional 88 charged only $20 to $100 for the complete course. Among
the remaining schools, 50 specified tuitions ranging from $105 to $425,
and 24 provided for the regular tuition fee of the affiliated university.
Students in hospital schools are required to wear uniforms, which
are usually paid for by the student herself; however, laundering of
the uniform may be provided by the hospital. Board and room and
other personal expenses, also, are usually paid for by the student, but
routine medical care may be provided by the hospital. In addition,
some schools charge a small breakage fee in connection with the re­
quired laboratory work. On the other hand, about 25 percent of the
531 schools paid some sort of stipend to students. Some scholarship
assistance is available, both locally and nationally. Hospital schools
and the Registry of Medical Technologists usually keep current in­
formation on this type of aid.
Many private commercial schools offer both day-time and evening
courses in medical technology, with the day-time course lasting about
12 months and the evening course about 24 months. The cost of train­
ing in these schools varies widely; for example, an examination of
the catalogs of four schools in four cities in 1953 showed a tuition
range from $380 to $500. Charges in addition to tuition (such as
for application fees, laboratory fees, books, breakage, diploma, locker,
and health service) at these schools ranged from about $53 to $337.

14

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Ihus, the total cost for 1 year of training in medical technology at
the four private commercial schools examined ranged from $433 to
$837. Students were required to purchase and wear uniforms and
were responsible for all their personal expenses and for board, room,
medical care, and laundry.
Inquiries May Be Addressed . . .
A list of AMA-approved schools is given in appendix 5. Inquiries
about their college affiliations and general requirements should be
addressed to the Registry of Medical Technologists, 700 South Council
Street, Muncie, Ind.
No list of privately operated schools is available. One or more
such schools will be found in most large cities. Inquiries may be ad­
dressed to the American Medical Technologists, Post Office Box 88,
Easthampton, Mass.

III. MEDICAL LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
In Support of Research and Service
A rather wide range of medical laboratory technician jobs has
developed out of the need for medical service and research workers
to assist at varying levels of technical skill and responsibility. Some
of the medical technician jobs are essentially routine to handle the
volume of work in large establishments. They are none the less sig­
nificant, and tend to produce refinements and increasing precision in
medical testing methods and reduce the time demanded by long-term
research projects.
As noted earlier, the term “medical laboratory technician” is a
general designation which may be applied to a scientific specialist
with advanced academic training or to a technician who has learned
to perform one or more medical tests through training on the job.
Nevertheless, some standardization has begun to develop in laboratory
technician jobs.
A Word to the Student
An effort is made here to present some broad definitions of repre­
sentative jobs as a guide to the student seeking career information
in this field. A fuller explanation of terms can be found in a medical
dictionary. For the student who wishes to probe further into the
subject of medical tests and techniques, and who has some background
in biological science and chemistry, one of several basic textbooks
in clinical laboratory procedures may be consulted. (See Bibli­
ography.)
Representative Jobs—Thumbnail Definitions
A Bacteriology Technician’s chief duties are to isolate and iden­
tify bacteria and other micro-organisms in all types of body sub­
stances and by-products. She may also be assigned to analyze water
or food products for bacteria, and work either in medical services
or research. A great part of the bacteriology technician’s time may
be spent at such tasks as preparing culture media (vegetable or
animal substances favorable to the growth of micro-organisms) and
producing various “families” of bacteria under controlled conditions,
so that they can be studied. Another set of tasks may involve the care
and treatment of laboratory animals for bacterial research. She may
be required from time to time to work on projects leading to the
15

16

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

A. Technician em­
beds a piece of tissue
in liquid paraffin.
When the paraffin so­
lidifies the tissue is
ready for cutting to
make microscopic sec­
tions.

Sip

B. Sometimes tissue
is solidified by a freez­
ing process and then
cut by a technician
who runs it through a
special machine which
produces ribbon-like
sections.

C. Tissue technician colors sections of body tissue by dipping them in a series
of chemical stains so that their structure and composition may be viewed under the
microscope.

Figure 4.—Steps taken in the preparation and examination of body tissue
are classified as histologic technique.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

17

development and use of antibiotic medicines and new discoveries,
about the nature and treatment of bacterial diseases.
The bacteriology technician works under the supervision of the
bacteriologist (especially in research) or under a chief medical tech­
nologist (in services), and uses standard procedures for determining
results. When test findings do not fall into recognized patterns, she
consults with the supervisor.
Qualifications are usually specified for this job as: a minimum of
2 years of accredited college science courses, particularly general
chemistry and biology, and 1 year of training in an acceptable school
for medical technicians, including courses in bacteriology, or 1 year
of experience in bacteriology techniques in a medical laboratory
which meets the employer’s standards. The bachelor of science
degree with a bacteriology major may be accepted without additional
experience or training, but some employers require special training
beyond the B. S. degree.
A Biochemistry Technician makes qualitative and quantitative
chemical analyses of body fluids such as blood, urine, spinal fluid, and
gastric juices for the purpose of diagnosing disease, or in research into
the cause and treatment of disease. She applies her knowledge,
obtained during training, of a wide variety of standardized chemical
tests and reactions. Included in the job may be such assignments as:
Making tests for determining the content and purity of other sub­
stances such as food products and water; inoculating test animals and
checking results; skillful use of scientific equipment like the spectro­
graph, photelometer, and microscope.
Education requirements for biochemistry technicians usually specify
a minimum of 2 years of accredited college work, including courses
in qualitative and quantitative chemistry, and 1 year of training in
an approved school for medical technicians, including courses in medi­
cal chemistry, or 1 year of experience in biochemistry in an acceptable
medical laboratory. A bachelor of science degree with a major in
chemistry 13 preferred.
The biochemistry technician is generally supervised by a bio­
chemist.
A Hematology Technician prepares blood specimens sent to the
laboratory for study and testing, but she may also be required to take
blood samples from patients. Determination of the structure, con­
tent, volume, and properties of blood (such as type, coagulation time,
and sedimentation rate) and checking for parasites are all part of the
regular duties. Bone-marrow specimens are examined under the
microscope because of an important relationship between bone marrow
and blood-cell formation.
4871:15 0 -58-

1

18

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

This job is generally a part of medical services and the technician
may be supervised by either a medical technologist or a hematologist.
Employers usually require a minimum of 2 years of accredited
college courses, including chemistry and biology, and 1 year of ex­
perience in hematology techniques, or 1 year of training in an ap­
proved school for medical technicians. Some employers prefer to
hire a hematology technician who has a bachelor of science degree in
biology and provide on-the-job training in hematology methods.
A Blood-Bank Technician maintains the hospital or clinic blood
bank, usually under the general supervision of a hematologist or medi­
cal technologist. Her duties include routine check of pulse, tem­
perature and blood pressure of patients; drawing blood from donors
by hypodermic needle and syringe; performing tests to determine
blood type; maintaining proper conditions for preserving blood from
donors; processing blood plasma for future use; keeping detailed
records; scheduling appointments for donors. She may also assist
with transfusions.
This job requires at least 2 years of accredited college science courses
and 1 year of specialized training and experience in blood-bank tech­
niques in a recognized hospital laboratory school. According to the
extent of responsibility demanded by a particular job, additional
academic training and experience requirements are often specified.
A Serology Technician works under the supervision of a medical
technologist, serologist, or bacteriologist. She applies standard pro­
cedures to assist in preparing serums, vaccines and other agents for
use in medical tests and for treatment of patients with bacterial
disease, allergies, virus infections, or toxic conditions which result
from contact with infected animals or insects. In the medical service
field, the serologist should know how to make the common tests for
determining syphilis, tuberculosis, typhoid fever, pneumonia, and
streptococcus infection. On some jobs, the entire work assignment
may be related to the preparation of vaccines or antitoxins; or it may
be in research on immunization. On other jobs, a majority of time
is spent in services to patients.
A bachelor of science degree in biology is the preferred minimum
requirement for the job, although some employers will accept a com­
bination of 2 years of college science courses and 1 year of special
experience in an acceptable laboratory.
A Tissue Technician (sometimes called a histologic technician),
prepares tissue specimens for microscopic examination by the special­
ist (pathologist or histopathologist), under his supervision, or directly
under a medical technologist, who checks the work. The duties in­
volve standard procedures for trimming, staining, and affixing the
specimens on a glass slide, and labeling them.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

19

Hospital laboratories will accept and train high-school graduates
for this job if they have successfully completed courses in chemistry,
biology, or physics. To become a proficient tissue technician, how­
ever, at least 1 year of training on the job is required. During the
training period, the candidate may work as a laboratory assistant and
perform other duties, in addition.
Entry Jobs—Laboratory Assistants and Helpers
Although some college training is recommended for most tech­
nician jobs, it is possible to break any of these jobs down into duties
which inexperienced, but scientifically alert and manually skillful,
high-school graduates can perform. Beginning jobs as laboratory
assistants, helpers, and aides generally require high-school science
courses, particularly in biology, chemistry, and mathematics.
Advancement on the job is very limited, however, unless the labora­
tory assistant obtains further academic training at the college level.
Assistants may become adept at making some of the routine tests or in
preparing materials to be tested, but today’s medical laboratory, with
its great responsibilities toward patients and its increasing scientific
complexity, requires technicians with more theory and information
than high-school courses provide. Without additional education, the
high-school graduate cannot expect to advance beyond the job of assist­
ant to a medical technician, a job which is most likely to be found in
large laboratories with a number of specialized personnel.
Laboratory helper jobs are distinguished from assistant jobs mainly
by the number of routine physical or manual tasks which they require.
“Helpers” and “assistants” are loosely used terms; other titles, such as
“aides” are also used in a general way for a great many entry jobs for
which no experience is needed.
A helper or an aide may be a “chief bottle washer”—in charge of
keeping test tubes and other containers clean. Or a helper may keep
supplies in order, run errands, sterilize equipment, and prepare solu­
tions. A beginning job of this kind will serve as introduction to the
medical laboratory, and may arouse a career interest in the young
woman who has not decided upon a vocation. Meanwhile the job
itself will help to keep the medical team functioning so that preven­
tion and treatment hold a wide margin over disease.
Further details on the jobs described in this section may be found in
the United States Department of Labor’s Job Descriptions and Organ­
izational Analysis for Hospitals and Related Health Services.

20

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

A. Distillation apparatus is
assembled by two technicians.
This is used for many specimens
to separate the chemical con­
tents by distilling.

•

..

.

'•

B. Van Slyke apparatus is used by
a technician to analyze nitrogen con­
tent of a body specimen by reducing
it to a gaseous substance.

C. Chemical analysis is
sometimes made by using a
spectrophotometer (or flame
photometer) by which the
technologist can determine the
presence of certain elements
by subjecting a sample to
measurements of light inten­
sity.

Figure 5.—Medical technologists and technicians become expert in the
use of many kinds of apparatus, of which three are shown here.

IV. OPPORTUNITIES
Accent on Women Workers
From the very beginning, women were widely accepted in medical
laboratory jobs. Most recent figures reported by the Registry of
Medical Technologists (as of January 1954) indicate that about 90
percent of the 18,000 registered technologists are women. However,
the number of men in the field has been increasing since World War
II. Only 4 percent of the medical technologists certified as a result
of the fall 1947 examination were men, but 14 percent of those
registered in the spring of 1951 were men.
Although the proportion of women among all medical technicians
is not known, and may not be quite so high as among registered tech­
nologists, there is no doubt that women predominate in the field. In
the 1950 decennial census, medical technologists and technicians were
classified, along with X-ray and dental technicians, in a group of
78,000 called “medical and dental technicians,” of whom nearly 60 per­
cent. were women. If dental technicians could be separated from the
combined group, the percentage of women would be higher for the
remaining occupations, as a majority of dental technicians are known
to be men. A rough guess is that about three out of four of all medi­
cal laboratory technicians are women.
Estimates from a variety of sources, including the Registry of
Medical Technologists and the President’s Commission on Health
Needs of the Nation, placed the total number of medical laboratory
technicians at about 30,000 in 1950-51. About 2,000 new medical
technologists have been graduated from approved schools annually
since that time.
More Jobs Than Qualified Candidates
Prospects for employment of medical laboratory workers now, and
for some time ahead, are better than good: there is an urgent need for
medical technologists and technicians.
The National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology
(organized under the sponsorship of the American Society of Medical
Technologists, American Society of Clinical Pathologists, and the
College of American Pathologists) began a Nation-wide campaign in
1954 to recruit young people into medical technology and medical
technician jobs. Among the first financial backers of this recruit­
ment drive were the American Cancer Society and the National Cancer
21

22

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Institute. Health groups with research programs for treatment of
tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, leukemia and other diseases are expected
to lend active support and some financial assistance to the campaign.
Plans for drawing new workers into medical laboratory vocations
include the establishment of scholarship aid to promising students.
Estimates of the number of medical laboratory workers needed are
made from time to time, but it is not possible to obtain accurate pre­
dictions about future supply and demand. Spokesmen for the Na­
tional Committee for Careers in Medical Technology have suggested
a goal of 50,000 trained medical technologists to be employed by 1960.
This would mean 20,000 more employed medical technicians (includ­
ing technologists) than were estimated for 1950. Other sources esti­
mate a need for 45,000 employed medical technologists by 1960.
Unfilled hospital positions for laboratory technicians (including
medical technologists) were estimated at more than 3,700 in Febru­
ary 1952 by the American Hospital Association. This meant that
about 15 percent of hospital laboratory technician jobs were vacant,
largely because of a shortage of trained workers, according to the
AHA survey.
Additional evidence of the shortage of skilled medical technicians
is shown by the number of unfilled job orders in the files of State
Employment Service offices each year since 1950. No reliable totals
are available for these years, but the demand was such that many local
employers sought applicants in neighboring States and in other parts
of the country, through the national Employment Service system of
job clearance.
One of the chief difficulties in making realistic estimates of the need
for medical laboratory personnel lies in the problem of job classifica­
tion. Although the key job of medical technologist was defined and
standardized over 25 years ago, most of the other laboratory jobs
differ in their requirements from place to place. (See the discussion
on staffing patterns and job titles in Section I.) Hospital and clinic
employers everywhere are dealing continuously with the problem of
dividing job responsibilities among their personnel in the best pos­
sible ways to meet their own work load. Their staffing patterns and
their standards differ. Furthermore, they have been forced to employ
untrained or partly trained technicians and give them training on
the job in one or two clinical tests. Meanwhile, the increase in routine
jobs has created a corresponding need for more supervisory staff at
higher levels of work, and many trained medical technologists have
been placed in positions of considerable responsibility. As a result,
the standards for training of medical technologists have tended to
advance.

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

23

At present, because of expanding medical services and a shortage
of qualified workers, it is understandable that surveyors and census
takers have had to combine a number of jobs, requiring different
kinds of training, into broad groups. If som9 additional standards
for division of function among all medical laboratory workers can
be set in the next few years, a much clearer estimate of needs and
better plans for developing trained workers may be achieved.
Looking Ahead—Job Requirements and Training
Students preparing now for medical laboratory occupations will be
interested in the recommendations made, in a recent issue of the
American Journal of Medical Technology, for the establishment of
four classifications of laboratory personnel:
Classification
Suggested education and training
Laboratory Aide (L. A.)______ (a) High-school diploma.
(6) Some theoretical scientific background
through night extension courses at a university,
or lectures by A. S. C. P. registered M. T.’s in a
hospital school.
(e) One year’s training course in a hospital
where one or more M. T.’s (A. S. C. P.) are
working in the laboratory.
Laboratory Technician (L. T.)_. Two years of college and 1 year in an approved
M. T. school. (Present A. S. O. P. Registry
minimum requirements.)
Medical Technologist (M. T.) __ Three or 4 years of college with 1 year (at
least) in an approved training school. Nothing
less than B. A. or B. S. degree. (Present stand­
ards of many schools.)
Medical Technologist-Specialist Advanced degrees in any of the special fields
(M. T. S.)
such as chemistry, bacteriology, etc., with train­
ing in medical technology.

Before any steps are taken to standardize jobs, a great deal of dis­
cussion and planning will necessarily take place among the profes­
sional groups concerned. It is likely that changes will be made
gradually, but a reasonable guess is that standards for the medical
technologist occupation will be among the first to be revised, with
the bachelor of science or bachelor of arts degree as a minimum
requirement.
Questions of this kind are of considerable importance to the student
in terms of future opportunities: those who obtain training which
exceeds present minimum requirements should be able to meet future
competition better than if they aim toward satisfying only today’s
minimum standards.
Numerous employers of laboratory personnel, as well as those con­
cerned with the Nation’s health, have emphasized that the shortage

24

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

of medical laboratory staff is one of quality, as well as quantity.
Fewer than 14,000 of the total estimated 30,000 medical technicians
in 1950 were registered medical technologists, according to the Presi­
dent’s Commission on Health Needs of the Nation. Doubtless some
of the non-registered technicians can meet minimum qualifications for
registration, but a majority have entered the medical laboratory field
by securing only sufficient training to equip them for relatively routine
jobs. As a result, some employers have expressed the opinion that
many of today’s technicians, particularly those who have acquired
their skills solely on the job, without the benefit of college-level train­
ing in the sciences, are severely limited in possibilities for advance­
ment to supervisory or specialized positions. Opportunities for
advancement are plentiful, but the better-paying jobs go to candidates
who are fully trained.
Openings for Mature Women
Some approved hospital schools do not accept women who are over
30 years of age, but several of those questioned on age limitations in
1954 indicated that they impose no upper age limit on a prospective
trainee, provided she has the necessary qualifications. One hospital
school had graduated students as old as 50 years, but all schools indi­
cated that most applicants come directly from college and few are
older than 25 or 27 years of age. It would appear, therefore, that
women over 30, with at least 2 years of college training in the required
subjects, can and do find opportunities for training in some approved
hospital schools.
Because of severe shortages in medical laboratory personnel, both in
number and in quality, few barriers to employment of older women
exist, particularly if such women are fully qualified, have secured their
training in recognized institutions, and have had laboratory experi­
ence. Many older women are currently employed as medical tech­
nologists in positions of responsibility, and the Registry of Medical
Technologists of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists im­
poses no age limits on registration.
Hospitals Lead in Employment
Although medical technologists and technicians may be found work­
ing for a variety of employers, such as public health laboratories,
private laboratories, clinics, and doctor’s offices, the majority wTork in
hospital laboratories. Recent data from the American Hospital As­
sociation and the American Medical Association indicate that some
24,000 were employed in hospitals in 1952. (See table 1.)

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
Table

1.—Medical Technicians

in

States:

Hospitals

in

Continental United

1952
Medical technicians
employed—

Total
Employer control

Percent dis­
tribution
by type of
control

Number

_

_

Percent
distribu­
tion

‘ 23, 822
Total governmental__

25

100

8, 046

2 34

2 100

3,
1,
1,
1,

Full
time

21, 373
7, 586

Part
time

2, 449

_____ __

460

Federal___
—
State_____
- -County - -City.--------------------------City-county _ - - Total nongovernmental -

235
007
331
579
294
15, 776

14
7
6
7
1
2 66

40
20
17
20
4
100

200
482
174
467
263
13, 787

35
125
157
112
31
1, 989

Church
-Nonprofit association____
Individual, partner
Corporation
_ - —

5, 364
8, 947
793
072

23
38
3
3

34
57
5
4

4, 608
7, 956
647
576

756
991
146
96

3,
1,
1,
1,

l
1 Includes 8,612 medical technologists registered by the ASCP.
2 Percents do not add to total due to rounding.
Source: Journal of the American Medical Association, May 9, 1953.

Private hospitals employ the largest number of medical technicians.
In 1952, almost twice as many medical technicians were employed by
nongovernmental hospitals as by governmental hospitals, and less than
15 percent of all hospital medical technicians were employed in hos­
pitals operated by the Federal Government. (See table 1.)
The importance of the clinical tests in hospital service is indicated
by the fact that 85 percent of the 6,076 hospitals surveyed by the
American Hospital Association in 1952 provided clinical laboratory
services. The extent to which other services,.such as blood bank and
electrocardiograph, were provided by these hospitals is indicated in
table 2.

26
Table 2.

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN
Facilities

and

Services

Services

in

in

Medical Technology

and

Related

6,076 Hospitals: 1952
Hospitals

Facilities and 'services
Number

Clinical laboratory
Metabolism apparatus___
Electrocardiographs__
Blood bank
___
Cancer clinic_____
Electroencephalograph
Radioactive isotopes . -

5, 173
4, 863
4, 771
2, 779
996
789
348

Percent (of
6,076)

85
80
79
46
16
13
6

Source: The American Hospital Association.

A Wide Range of Jobs Outside Hospitals

Jobs for laboratory technicians outside of hospitals are distributed
among a wide range of employers: Private physicians who maintain
their own laboratories; public health laboratories whose special con­
cern is contagious and communicable disease; and private laboratories
established by pathologists or other physicians to provide laboratory
services to individual physicians.
Public health opportunities include State laboratories of all kinds,
such as those where tissues are examined for purposes of disease pre­
vention or to determine causes of death and medical research projects
where special studies of disease are conducted, such as the Cancer
Clinic of the National Institutes of Health.
Pharmaceutical and biological companies use medical technicians
for research and manufacture of drugs, serums, vaccines and
antibiotics.
Medical technologists who have special training or many years of
experience may work in educational institutions as full-time instruc­
tors, and all are expected to instruct, on a part-time basis, in order
to “break in” new employees on the job.
Medical Technicians in Military Service

The three major branches of the Armed Forces—the Army, Navy,
and Air Force—offer opportunities to enlisted women to train as medi­
cal technicians. All three also have some women commissioned as offi­
cers who hold college degrees with training in special fields, such as
bacteriology, biology, parasitology, hematology, serology, and toxi­
cology. The Marine Corps and the Coast Guard do not train or place
women in medical laboratory work because major medical care for

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

27

v'f if

figure 6.—Bacteriology technicians often work with samples which
require the use of sterile procedures. This technician wears a face
mask to protect the cultures she is preparing.

28

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

these services is provided by the Navy and the Public Health Service,
respectively.
Of course, no individual recruit of the Armed Forces can be assured
that she 'will bo trained and utilized as a medical technician. Recruits
are selected for various types of training according to the needs of the
services. However, an effort is made, wherever feasible, to consider
the vocational preference and interests of women who enlist.
WAC, WAVE, and WAF recruits are required first to take 8 to 9
weeks of basic military training which provides for indoctrination,
career guidance, testing, and classification. Those who are to be
trained in the medical field are then assigned to special training
courses given by the medical and scientific specialists. Among the
courses provided for the training of medical laboratory technicians
are general chemistry, blood chemistry, hematology, bacteriology, and
histology. These courses are directed toward teaching basic medical
laboratory procedures and techniques, and are supplemented by prac­
tical experience in military hospitals.
After leaving the service, it should be possible for a woman who
has had training and experience in medical testing in a military hos­
pital to obtain a civilian job as an assistant laboratory technician.
However, military training in laboratory techniques does not, in itself,
qualify anyone for civilian employment, because military occupations
often differ markedly from those outside the services. A tour of duty
in the medical laboratory of a military hospital should provide a good
foundation for further training, nevertheless, and accumulated GI
benefits make it easy for young women who leave the services to finance
further education in their chosen fields.
Geography and the Job-Seeker
As might be expected, the largest number of medical technologists
are employed in the most populous States; however, some larger
States have fewer technologists in proportion to their population
than some smaller States. (See appendix 4.) Of course, this does
not necessarily mean that the medical services of the larger States
are any less adequate because (1) information is available only for
some 18,000 registered medical technologists and not for other medical
laboratory personnel; and (2) the necessary or desirable ratio of
medical laboratory workers to persons in the population is not known.
As of January 1954, there were 11 registered medical technologists
per 100,000 population in the United States, but the proportion in
individual States varied from a low of 6 per 100,000 in New York
and South Carolina to a high of 28 per 100,000 in Colorado. Some
populous States, such as Massachusetts and California, showed ratios

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

29

below the national average of 11 per 100,000, while some less populous
States, such as Kansas and Montana, showed ratios above the na­
tional average. It would seem reasonable to assume thnt in States
where the ratio is low and the medical facilities prefer to employ
registered medical technologists, opportunities for fully qualified
laboratory personnel would be greatest. Thus, substantial employ­
ment opportunities should exist in States showing the lowest ratio
of registered technologists to population. Nevertheless, since the
shortage of qualified technologists is relatively widespread and medi­
cal services are expanding throughout the country, opportunities
should continue to exist even in States showing a higher than average
ratio.

V. BREAD-AND-BUTTER QUESTIONS

How Much Does a Medical Laboratory Worker Earn?
Salaries for trained laboratory personnel, especially registered med­
ical technologists—“M. T. (A. S. C. P.)”—compare favorably with
those for such predominantly woman-employing occupations as
nursing, social work, and teaching.
Among all medical laboratory classifications reliable information
is on hand for registered medical technologists as a result of a 1953
study of 5,400 M. T.’s (A. S. C. P.) employed in 48 States. The
median 1952 salary for the group surveyed was between $3,300 and
$3,600 per year. Almost three-fourths of the group were paid between
$2,700 and $3,900 per year; less than 10 percent received under $2,700
per year and 18 percent received $3,900 or more. About 11 percent
received $4,200 or more.
Of course, quite a bit of variation existed in salaries from State
to State, but the median salary in most States fell in the range $3 000
to $3,300 or $3,300 to $3,600. Only the following States showed
median salaries below these ranges: Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Vermont. Their
median salaries fell in the range $2,700 to $3,000 per year. The only
median salaries above $3,600 were in the range $3,600 to $3,900 and
these were found in California, Delaware, Michigan, and Nevada.
Present salaries may be slightly higher than those indicated in this
survey since shortages still exist in this field. Of course, salaries for
individual technologists and technicians vary according to education,
training and experience, the locality, the size of the establishment or
institution, the number of persons in the medical laboratory, and the
nature of the job assignment.
In order to obtain reliable information about medical technician
salaries it would be necessary to make a survey of standardized jobs—
but this could not be done, for reasons previously explained (see Sec­
tions I, TV), except for the medical technologist group. From several
sources, however, it is possible to estimate the salary ranges for the
broad group of undifferentiated medical laboratory workers.
Exclusive of laboratory helpers, which are essentially unskilled or
entry occupations, beginning salaries for a broad group of medical
technicians in one large eastern city in 1953 were reported as ranging
from $200 to $250 a month. Higher salaries were paid to persons in
30

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

31

this group who had some college training. It was common practice to
grant periodic increases for satisfactory work after each 3 to 6 months
of uninterrupted service. For those who advanced into supervisory
positions (presumably technologists or specialists) salaries of $300
to $400 per month where shown. A few outstanding supervisory spe­
cialists with long and varied experience were paid as much as $500
per month.
A survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics in 19511
showed that 75 percent of the 2,738 medical technicians employed at
that time by agencies of the Federal Government were in positions
which were classified in grades 4 and 5. For these grades the current
salary ranges (1954) are $3,175 to $3,655 and $3,410 to $4,160 per
year. Some medical technicians (probably laboratory helpers) were
in grade 1 positions, with a current salary range of $2,500 to $2,980;
a very few were in grades 7 or 8, for which the top salaries are now
$4,955 and $5,370.2 An annual increase is given until the top salary
for the grade is reached.
Among private employers (hospitals, clinics, and pharmaceutical
manufacturers) it would be reasonable to conclude that wages for
unskilled laboratory helpers follow the hourly rates for other un­
skilled workers in the locality, ranging from 80 cents to $1 per hour.
What Is the Workweek?
Full-time workers in medical laboratories are usually scheduled
for an 8-hour day and a workweek of 40 to 44 hours, depending upon
the employing institution. Where the laboratory, such as those in
hospitals, operates on a 24-hour basis, arrangements are usually made
for shift work, emergency duty, and weekend duty.
A great deal of variation exists among individual laboratories in
schedules for providing 24-hour service. Some have separate shifts
of workers, whereby certain persons work only at night or on week­
ends. Others provide for schedules in which the complete staff or
selected members alternate between day work, night work, and week­
end work. Many provide extra compensation for necessary emer­
gency and overtime work by the regular staff. Some institutions use
part-time workers on weekends and for emergency conditions and
vacation periods.
"Fringe” Benefits
As is true for most occupations, the kind and amount of “fringe”
benefits, such as retirement provisions, vacations with pay, sick leave
1 Federal White-Collar Workers, June 1951. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Bulletin 1117.
1953.
a At the time of the survey, in June 1951, Federal salaries for these grades were from
$300 to $500 a year lower than in 1954, and the average annual salary for the 2,738 medical
technicians included was $3,207 per year.

32

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

with pay, uniform laundry service, room, board, free medical care,
and annual bonuses, depend upon the practices of the individual
employer.
All Federal and most State and city institutions provide for vaca­
tions and sick leave with pay and also a retirement program to which
employees make contributions. Most private employers also provide
for vacations and sick leave with pay as well as for retirement benefits
through the Social Security program; some make arrangements for
additional retirement payments over and above the benefits provided
through Social Security.
Individual private employers differ greatly in their practice so far
as other types of “fringe” benefits go. However, many provide
laundry service for uniforms and routine medical care. A few,
especially those institutions which are isolated, or in rural locations,
provide room and board.
Are There Part-Time Opportunities?
Part-time work is quite common in medical laboratory occupations,
particularly in hospital laboratories which must operate on a 24-hour,
7-day basis. Part-time workers frequently supplement the regular
staff in order to cover peak loads, evening and wTeek-end work, and
emergency situations.
About 10 percent of the medical technicians employed in hospitals
in 1952 were part-time workers. Whereas only 6 percent of all the
technicians employed in governmental hospitals were part-time
workers, over 12 percent of all those in nongovernmental hospitals
were employed on a part-time basis. (See table 1.)
Part-time work is frequently very suitable to married women or
older women who do not wish to work full time because of other
responsibilities. This is particularly true for women who, though
temporarily unable to work full time, want to keep informed of chang­
ing techniques so that they may resume full-time work at a future date.
A women’s Bureau study3 in 1950 of part-time jobs for women in 10
cities showed that the most common hourly rate for laboratory tech­
nicians doing part-time work in hospitals was $1.25 to $1.50 per hour.
The usual working hours of the part-time workers in hospital labora­
tories were 3 and 5 hours daily and 20 to 24 hours weekly.
8 Women’s Bureau Bulletin No. 238, published in 1951.

VI. GUIDE-LINES FOR THE CAREER CHOICE
Is this your -field?—Stories told by successfully employed medical
laboratory workers about the ways in which they reached a career
decision in this field often have one thread in common: a strong inter­
est in medical service, coupled with a feeling for the precise methods
of scientific inquiry. Many small interests, talents, and personal
characteristics combine to make the stuff from which the bright thread
of positive choice is spun. Some of the details are intangible, but
most of them can be identified, with the help of an interested counselor.
In school work, the potential medical technician should be able to
achieve average grades in mathematics and in the science courses like
chemistry, zoology, botany, physics. If not, the chances are that
college-level science courses will prove too difficult or demanding.
As for -personality, the candidate for a medical laboratory career
should find it pleasant to be surrounded by test tubes and scientific
apparatus, working for long stretches at quiet, precise and detailed
tasks, her busy hands guided by an alert and ordered judgment. She
must be fastidious about order and detail, but she cannot be squeamish
about the strange sights and scents that may confront her from time
to time: Like the doctor and the nurse, the laboratory technician
must; learn to work, in scientific detachment, with materials that lay­
men often find objectionable.
More detached from people than the physician or nurse, because
patient contacts are relatively limited, the trained technician never­
theless may be required to play a nurse’s role from time to time, as
when she takes a blood sample or gives a metabolism test.
Among the hard-to-measure characteristics required of medicallaboratory technicians are a strong sense of responsibility and a great
deal of patience.
Concerning physical demands, it is essential that medical techni­
cians possess normal vision, including color discrimination, that they
have the full use of both arms and hands, and be able to stand during
a part of the time. Some employers may allow handicaps which in­
clude impaired hearing or walking, but not to the degree to which
these disabilities may create hazards in a particular job setting.
Generally, the hazards of the medical laboratory lie in contamina­
tion from infectious or toxic substances, but only on the part of the
careless worker who does not observe the strict regulations concerning
33

34

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

figure 7.—Research laboratories often require many workers trained to
perform a single procedure. All medical technicians here are part of
a cancer research team to examine specimens microscopically for the
detection of malignant tumors.

antiseptic or aseptic practice. Because the success of a majority of
medical tests depends extensively upon a knowledge of antiseptic and
sterile procedures, the likelihood of contagion for the technician is
remote, even when assignments involve work with disease-producing
bacteria. Treatment is readily available for the worker who may
have been exposed to infection. However, test mistakes are not likely
to be excused easily by the employer because of the hazards to the
public.
Candidates for medical laboratory careers can check their voca­
tional aptitudes in several ways: (1) Through consultation with school
counselors; (2) by taking aptitude tests offered on request, and free
of charge, by most State employment offices; (3) by taking summer
jobs as medical-laboratory helpers or aides.
A survey conducted among medical-technology students and work­
ers by a professional group in 1952 revealed that the paths to the
career choice were quite varied. They could be traced back, in some
instances, to a single incident which served as a spark to set off the
vocational decision, such as a visit to a hospital laboratory, a lecture

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

35

by a medical technologist, discovery of a book on the subject. Some
students wishing to work in the medical field, but unable to undertake
the physician’s long-term, rigorous training, found a rewarding sub­
stitute in medical technology. One young woman, in a letter to the
survey group mentioned previously, explained her career choice in
this way:
This job is useful to humanity, the wage is good, and technologists are needed
in the world to save lives. These are some of the reasons why I want to be
one. Also it is a profession that you may leave for a while and go back to it
again. . . ‘
‘"About Medical Technology—A Survey." By Sr. M. Alcuin, OSB. The American
Journal of Medical Technology, Vol. 18, No. 2, March-April 1952, page 55 ff.

APPENDIX 1
Work Performed by the Medical Technologist1
Prepares for Laboratory Tests: Receives written requisition from physician
for routine and special laboratory tests. Sets up and adjusts laboratory equip­
ment and apparatus, such as chemical glassware, balance, microscope, slides,
and reagents.
Obtains specimens: Obtains laboratory specimens, such as urine, blood, and
sputum, from wards or directly from patient, using established laboratory tech­
niques. Punctures ball of patient’s finger or lobe of ear with sterile blood lancet
in order to obtain capillary blood. Smears blood on microscope slide prepara­
tory to examination. To obtain venous blood, applies torniquet about patient’s
elbow in order to distend vein. Cleanses site of puncture with alcohol, and
punctures vein with needle attached to hypodermic syringe. Places specimens
in containers under aseptic conditions. Stoppers and labels containers.
In large hospitals, and those engaged in research, Medical Technologists
may be responsible for tests and examinations in only one of several fields of
clinical pathology. In smaller hospitals, technologists may perform clinical
tests in any one or a combination of following areas of specialization, depending
on size and type of laboratory and scope of its activity :
In area of biochemistry: Makes qualitative and quantitative analyses of urine
for determination of sugar and albumin; and performs laboratory tests to detect
presence of acetone bodies, blood, bile derivatives, Bence-Jones protein, and va­
rious drugs and poisons in urine. Adds specific reagents, which act as indi­
cators, to urine samples ; and notes change of color or appearance of precipitates.
Makes quantitative determinations by comparing resultant colors against stand­
ards, or by making simple calculations based on quantity of reagent or sample
used to obtain specific color. May detect presence of blood by means of a
spectroscope. Centrifuges urine and examines resultant sediments under a
microscope to detect presence of various types of cell bodies. Determines spe­
cific gravity of urine, using a urinometer, and notes general odor, color, and
turbidity of sample.
Tests gastric content for presence of free acids, using identifying reagents
and noting changes of color. Titrates samples against standard reagents to
make quantitative determinations.
Tests for presence of vitamins and hormones, using established chemical pro­
cedures or by observing their effect on test animals under experimental
conditions.
Makes blood determinations for urea nitrogen, glucose, and carbon dioxide
content of blood, and tests blood to determine impairment of liver functions.
In the area of bacteriology, parasitology, and serology: Cultivates and iden­
tifies micro-organisms found in air, milk, water, and such body materials as
feces, sputum, pus, serous fluids, and autopsy material. Makes cultures of
1 Excerpt from U. S. Department of Labor’s Job Descriptions and Organizational Analysis
for Hospitals and Related Health Services.
36

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

37

micro-organisms, under aseptic conditions, in suitable media such as meat ex­
tracts, sugars, and body products and discharges. Incubates cultures for pre­
scribed lengths of time before examination through a microscope. Collects
swabs from throat, ear, nose, and similar locations of patients, under supervision
of physician, and makes direct smears on microscope slides of material thus
obtained.
Stains specimen under examination to define more clearly essential features,
using one or a combination of standard stains.
Performs macroscopic and microscopic agglutination and precipitation tests to
detect presence of pathological bacteria in human host through identification of
specific antibodies which are formed. Identifies pathogenic bacteria, including
Rickettsiae and virus, and writes report on findings, including a count of number
of bacteria found.
Prepares culture media according to established formulas, titrating them to
determine degree of acidity. Sterlizes media by autoclaving under standard
conditions. Stores all media in refrigerators. Prepares bacteriophage (agents
which destroy micro-organisms) by filtering feces or pus through special filters.
Tests potency of phage by adding various dilutions to test tubes containing
growths of organisms and noting reactions.
Prepares standard reagents, solutions, and stains. Injects, and removes
blood sample from, laboratory animals.
Injects urine of women into rabbits, and makes a gross examination of rabbit’s
ovaries to determine presence of a reaction indicative of pregnancy.
Performs serologic tests for syphilis, using one of established laboratory
methods, such as Wassermann, Kahn, Kline, or Eagle. Makes cell counts of
cerebrospinal fluid. Places spinal fluid on counting chamber (glass microscope
slide ruled into squares) and counts cells distributed within ruled area of a
number of squares, as viewed through a microscope. Performs qualitative and
quantitative determinations for proteins, glucose, and other chemicals indicative
of abnormalities in cerebrospinal fluid; and performs such other tests as col­
loidal gold test for neurosyphilis.
In the area of hematology and metabolism : Makes platelet and total and dif­
ferential blood cell counts. Places blood sample on counting chamber and
counts number of cells within ruled squares of chamber as vewed through a
microscope. Calculates number of cells per cubic millimeter of blood sample.
Stains blood cells for clearer definition and to distinguish between various types
of cells.
Determines quantity of hemoglobin. Adds prescribed reagents to blood
sample, and compares resultant color with standard color scales representing
blood containing various amounts of hemoglobin, or makes color comparisons
in a colorimeter or pliotelometer and converts scale reading into percent and
grams of hemoglobin.
Groups or types blood by mixing red cells of person to be typed with typing
sera, and noting whether clumping of cells occurs. Cross-matches blood to deter­
mine compatibility of a donor’s blood with that of a patient. Determines Rh
factor in blood as a precaution against reactions occurring after transfusions
with blood of patient’s own group, and as a precaution in childbirth cases.
Performs coagulation, clot retraction, bleeding, and prothrombin time tests to
provide information used in diagnosis and treatment of hemorrhagic diseases.
Determines sedimentation rate and fragility of red blood cells to indicate progress
or presence of certain types of infectious diseases, and others resulting in destruc­
tion of red blood cells.

38

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Determines basal metabolism rate. Makes patient comfortable and at ease
during test, and resting period prior to test. Fills apparatus with air and stoppers
openings to test for leaks. Places mouthpiece in patient’s mouth, and applies
nose clip to patient to assure breathing through mouth. After prescribed
length of time, removes graph traced by automatic pen. Calculates patient's
rate of oxygen consumption based on height of graph lines, and temperature
and pressure involved. Compares test data with tables of normal values based
on age, weight, and height, to determine if patient’s metabolic rate is normal.
In the area of histology: Prepare autopsy and surgical material for exami­
nation by Pathologist to provide information relative to cause of death, and to
cause and progress of disease.
Prepares tissue specimens. Fixes tissue in formalin for prescribed lengths
of time. Prepares frozen sections or embeds specimen in paraffin or celloidin.
Cuts thin sections for examination, using a microtome. Stains sections with
standard dyes depending on type of structure to be examined. Sets up tissue
on microscope stage for examination by pathologist.
Prepares specimens for museum exhibition by positioning specimen in jar
so as to show up essential areas. Adds preservatives. Seals and labels jars.
Performs related tasks: May engage in research and teaching activities. May
operate electrocardiograph and be required to assist in X-ray laboratory.
Posts results of laboratory analyses on record cards and files report. Indicates
on patient’s charge card amount to be charged to patient’s account. Identifies
and labels all specimens to be retained, and files them for further reference
or research.

APPENDIX 2
Requirements for Registration by the Registry of Medical Technologists
of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists
Many employers of medical technologists require that they be registered or
eligible for registration with the Registry of Medical Technologists of the
American Society of Clinical Pathologists since this Registry is recognized by
the American Medical Association, the Canadian Medical Association, the
American College of Surgeons, the American College of Physicians, the Ameri­
can Hospital Association, the Catholic Hospital Association, and by pathologists,
other physicians, and hospital administrators. Registration by this organiza­
tion entitles the technologists to use the letters “M. T. (A. S. C. P.)” after her
name and is a widely-recognized designation of an established level of achievement.
Application for the required examination for registration by the Registry of
Medical Technologists may be filed with the Registry at Muncie, Ind., after
completion of training in an approved hospital school. This examination is
given twice yearly, usually in May and October, in various locations in the
United States, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Canada. Under no circumstances are
exemptions from the examination allowed.
In addition to certifying qualified medical technologists, the Registry also
provides for the certification by examination of other medical laboratory classi­
fications, namely, Specialist, Laboratory Aide, Histologic Technician, Chemist,
Microbiologist and Blood-Bank Technician. Details on the requirements for
these certifications and for medical technologists who completed their training
at any time since 1928 may be secured from the Registry.
39

APPENDIX 3

Professional Organizations for Medical Technologists
The American Society of Medical Technologists
The professional organization for medical technologists is the
American Society of Medical Technologists which was organized in
1933 and has a number of State and local affiliates. The Society has a
membership of about 5,500, the majority of whom are women. Mem­
bers customarily join through their State or local affiliate. Any
technologist who has been certified by the Registry of Medical Tech­
nologists (A. S. C. P.) and is willing to abide by the code of M. T.
(A. S. C. P.) ethics is eligible for membership.
The Society has three main purposes: (a) to elevate the status of
the medical technologist and to promote higher standards by co­
operating with medical groups and related organizations; (b) to
have an affiliated organization of medical technologists in each State;
and (c) to promote the mutual aid and benefit of the members.
The official journal of the Society is The American Journal of
Medical Technology, which is published bimonthly. Inquiries about
membership may be directed to the American Society of Medical Tech­
nologists, Suite 25, Hermann Professional Building, Houston 25, Tex.
The American Medical Technologists
A more recent organization, the American Medical Technologists,
was formed about 1940. This organization registers its own medical
technologists and designates them as “M. T.’s”; it is in no way affiliated
with either the Registry of Medical Technologists of the American
Society of Clinical Pathologists, or the American Society of Medical
Technologists. This group publishes a bimonthly journal called The
Journal of the American Medical Technologists from its headquar­
ters at Easthampton, Mass. Its objectives are: (1) to gain profes­
sional status, (2) to provide quality service to the sick, and (3) to
secure State licensure for technologists. Membership and registration
are open by examination to those who have a high-school education
or the equivalent and have completed 12 months of training in an
acceptable school of clinical laboratory technique or 24 months of
on-the-job training. No college work is required.
40

APPENDIX 4
Number

of

Registered Medical Technologists and Number Per 100,000
Population, by Region and State, 1954
Registered 1 rnec ical technologists
Region and State
Total number

United States

3 17, 773

_ _.

New England
___
Central Atlantic
Southeast
..
Southwest___ __
...
East North Central
.
West North Central-. _ .
Rocky Mountain .
Far West.. .
New England:
Connecticut.. _
___
.
Maine__
_ _. _
Massachusetts__
New Hamsphire
.
Rhode Island
.
Vermont. _
Central Atlantic:
_.
Delaware
District of Columbia
Maryland.
_ _
New Jersey___
..
New York
Pennsylvania.
___
West Virginia
_.
Southeast:
Alabama
___ . .
Arkansas
..
Florida _
Georgia____.
Kentucky__ __
Louisiana. _
_
Mississippi..
.

.

Number per 100,­
000 population 2

n

885
943
408
644
974
292
716
1, 911

9
8
13
12
16
19
12

220
86
404
84
55
36

10
10
8
16
7
10

57
128
252
365
899
1, 086
156

16
15
10
7
6
10
8

286
141
376
304
458
455
159

9
8
12
9
16
16
7

2,
3,
1
3,
2,

10

■ These figures Include only those medical technologists who were registered by the Registry of Medi­
cal Technologists of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.
1 Based on provisional estimates of the population of States, .Tulv 1,1953, U. S. Department of Commerce,
Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 89.
i An additional 536 registered medical technologists resided in Canada, Alaska, the Canal Zone, Hawaii,
Panama, and Puerto Rico.

41

42

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Number

op

Registered Medical Technologists and Number Per
Population, by Region and State, 1954-—Continued

100,000

Registered 1 medical technologists
Region and State
Total number

Number per 100,­
000 population 3

324
122
330
453

8
6
10
13

126
95
261
1, 162

14
13
12
14

950
455
916
1,054
599

10
11
13
12
17

227
427
654
594
218
84
88

9
21
21
15
16
14
14

406
69
128
78
35

28
12
21
10
11

1, 105
21
324
461

9
11
20
18

Southeast—Continued

Southwest:

East North Central:

Michigan__

_

_ _

_ _

West North Central:

South Dakota _
Rocky Mountain:

Utah

_______

_

_

___

Far West:

> These figures Include only those medical technologists who were registered by the Registry of Medical
Technologists of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.
2 Based on provisional estimates of the population of States, July 1, 1963, U. S. Department of Commerce
Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, No. 89.
Source: Registry of Medical Technologists of the American Society of Clinical Pathologists.

APPENDIX 5
Approved Schools for Medical Technologists, February 1954
Note: NA means Not Available.
Name and location
of school

Alabama:

Dg means Degree

Minimum
prerequisite Name and location
college
of school
(years)
m

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(year8)

California—Continued
Baptist Hospital, Birmingham. 2
Children’s Hospital, Los An­
Carraway Methodist Hospital,
geles -------------------------------- Dg
Birmingham2
Los Angeles County Hospital,
Jefferson-Hillman
Hospital,
Los AngelesDg
Birmingham3
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Los
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Bir­
AngelesDg
mingham 2
Veterans Administration Cen­
South Highlands Infirmary,
ter, Los Angeles __________ Dg
Birmingham2
White Memorial Hospital, Los
Lloyd Noland Hospital, FairAngeles3
field2
U. S. Naval Hospital, Oakland. 3
Holy Name of Jesus Hospital,
Collis P. and Howard Hunting­
Gadsden2
ton Memorial Hospital, Pasa­
Mobile Infirmary, Mobile2
dena 3
St. Margaret’s Hospital, Mont­
St. Luke Hospital, Pasadena__ 2
gomeryDg
Sacramento County Hospital,
Druid City Hospital, Tusca­
SacramentoNA
loosa 2
San Bernardino County Charity
Hospital, San Bernardino_ 3
_
Arizona:
Mercy Hospital, San Diego___ 2
Samaritan
Hospital,
Good
Letterman Army Hospital, San
Phoenix3
Francisco3
Memorial Hospital, Phoenix_ 2
_
University of California School
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Phoenix. 3
of Medicine, San Francisco_3
Tucson Medical Center, Tuc­
O’Connor Hospital, San Jose— 2
son3
Santa Clara County Hospital,
Arkansas:
San JoseDg
St. Vincent Infirmary, Little
Santa Barbara Cottage Hos­
RockNA
pital, Santa BarbaraDg
University of Arkansas School
St. John’s Hospital, Santa
of Medicine, Little Rock___ 2
MonicaDg
Veterans Administration Hos­
Colorado:
pital, Little Rock2
St. Michael’s Hospital, Tex­
Glockner-Penrose Hospital, Col­
orado Springs2
arkana 2
St. Francis Hospital, Colorado
California:
Springs2
Kern General Hospital, Bakers­
Colorado General Hospital,
field----------------------------------NA
Denver3
Herrick Memorial Hospital,
Denver General Hospital, Den­
Berkeley2
ver3
St. Joseph Hospital, Burbank_3
Mercy Hospital, Denver3
Glendale School of Medical
St. Anthony Hospital, Denver. 3
Technology (Associated with
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Denver.. 3
Kimball Clinical Laborato­
Colorado
State
Hospital,
ries, Glendale Sanitarium
Pueblo2
and Hospital, Behrens Me­
Connecticut:
morial Hospital and Physi­
cians and Surgeons Hospital,
Danbury Hospital, Danbury__ 2
Glendale), GlendaleNA
Hartford Hospital, Hartford_2
43

44

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Name and location
of school
_

_

Connecticut—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

St. Francis Hospital, Hartford. 2
Middlesex Hospital, Middletown 2
New Britain General Hospital,
New Britain-----------------------Dg
Grace-New Haven Community
Hospital, New Haven______ NA
Hospital of St. Rapliael, New
Haven2
Norwalk Hospital, Norwalk_ 2
_
Stamford Hospital, Stamford_2
Charlotte Hungerford Hospital,
Torrington2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Waterbury2
Waterbury Hospital, Waterbury2

Delaware:
Delaware Hospital, Wilming­
ton----------------------------------- 2
Memorial Hospital, Wilming­
ton______________ ________ 3
Wilmington General Hospital,
Wilmington2

District of Columbia:
Doctors Hospital, Washington. 2
Garfield Memorial Hospital,
Washington2
Georgetown University Medical
Center, WashingtonDg
George Washington University
Hospital, Washington2
Providence Hospital, Washing­
ton2
Sibley
Memorial
Hospital,
Washington2

Florida:
Florida State Hospital, Chat­
tahoochee2
Duval Medical Center, Jack­
sonville2 .
St. Luke’s Hospital, Jackson­
ville2
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Jackson­
ville2
Jackson Memorial Hospital,
MiamiDg
Mount Sinai Hospital, Miami
Beacjh2
Escambia General Hospital,
Pensacola2

Georgia:
Athens
General
Hospital,
AthensN A
St. Mary’s Hospital, Athens__ ISA
Crawford W. Long Memorial
Hospital, Atlanta2
Georgia Baptist Hospital, At­
lanta2

Name and location
of school

Georgia—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Grady Memorial Hospital, At­
lanta-------------------------------- 2
Piedmont Hospital, Atlanta___ Dg
St. Joseph’s Infirmary, At­
lanta Dg
Veterans Administration Hos­
pital, AtlantaNA
University Hospital, Augusta_2
Columbus City Hospital, Co­
lumbus ----------------------------- 2
Emory University Hospital,
Emory University2
Kennestone Hospital, Marietta. 2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Savan­
nah ..______________________2

Idaho:
St. Alphonsus Hospital, Boise. 2
St. Luke’s Hospital, Boise2
Idaho Falls Latter-Day Saints
Hospital, Idaho Falls2

Illinois:
Copley Memorial Hospital,
Aurora3
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Bloom­
ington2
Burnham City Hospital, Cham­
paignNA
Alexian Bros. Hospital, Chi­
cago2
Augustana Hospital, Chicago_NA
City of Chicago Muncipal Tu­
berculosis Sanitarium, Chi­
cago2
Evangelical Hospital, Chicago. 2
Grant Hospital, Chicago3
Hospital of St. Anthony de
Padua, ChicagoNA
Michael Reese Hospital, Chi­
cago ---------------------------------2
Mount Sinai Hospital, Chi­
cago2
Northwestern University Medi­
cal School, Chicago2
Norwegian-Ameriean Hospital,
Chicago2
Ravenswood Hospital, Chicago. 2
St. Bernard’s Hospital, Chi­
cago2
St. Luke’s Hospital, Chicago.. NA
St. Mary of Nazareth Hospital,
Chicago2
Wesley Memorial Hospital,
Chicago2
St. James Hospital, Chicago
Heights2
Lake View Hospital, Danville. 2
Evanston Hospital, Evanston_2
St. Francis Hospital, Evanston. 2
Ingalls Memorial Hospital,
HarveyNA

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
Name and location
0} school

Illinois—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite Name and location
college
of school
(years)

Methodist Hospital of Central
Illinois, Peoria2
St. Francis Hospital, Peoria— 2
St. Mary's Hospital, Quincy_ 2
_
Rockford Memorial Hospital,
Rockford2
St. Anthony Hospital, Rock­
ford2
Swedish-American
Hospital,
Rockford2
Memorial Hospital, Springfield2
St. John’s Hospital, Springfield2
St. Therese’s Hospital, Wau­
kegan 2

Kansas:

45

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Grace Hospital, Hutchinson_ 2
_
St. Elizabeth Mercy Hospital,
Hutchinson2
Bethany
Hospital,
Kansas
City----------------------------------2
Providence Hospital, Kansas
City---------------------------------- Dg
St. Margaret's Hospital, Kan­
sas CityDg
University of Kansas Medical
Center, Kansas CityDg
Lattimore-Fink
Laboratories
(St. Francis, Stormont-Vail
and Santa Fe Hospitals),
Topeka2
Veterans Administration Cen­
ter, Wadsworth2
Indiana:
St. Francis Hospital, Wichita- 2
St. John’s Hickey Memorial
Wesley Hospital, Wichita____ 2
Hospital, Anderson2
Wichita-St. Joseph Hospital,
Protestant Deaconess Hospital,
Wichita2
Evansville2
Kentucky:
St. Mary's Hospital, Evans­
ville2
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Coving­
Lutheran
Hospital,
Fort
ton3
Wayne----------------------------- 2
Good Samaritan Hospital, Lex­
St. Joseph Hospital, Fort
ington2
Wayne2
St. Joseph Hospital, Lexing­
Indiana University Medical
ton2
School, Indianapolis3
Norton Memorial Infirmary,
Methodist Hospital, Indian­
Louisville2
St. Anthony Hospital, Louis­
apolis ---------------------------------Dg
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Indian­
ville2
apolis ------------------------------- 2
St. Joseph Infirmary, Louis­
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Lafay­
ville2
SS. Mary and Elizabeth Hos­
ette
South Bend Medical Founda­
pital, Louisville2
tion (Memorial and St.
University of Louisville School
Joseph Hospitals), South
of Medicine, Louisville2
Bend2
Louisiana:
St. Anthony’s Hospital, Terre
St. Frances Cabrini Hospital,
Haute2
Alexandria2
Good Samaritan Hospital, Vin­
Baton Rouge General Hospital,
cennes2
Baton Rouge2
Iowa:
Our Lady of the Lake Sani­
Mercy Hospital, Cedar Rapids- 2
tarium, Baton Rouge2
St. Luke’s Methodist Hospital,
St. Francis Sanitarium, Mon­
Cedar Rapids---------------------- 2
roe2
Mercy Hospital, Council Bluffs- 2
Charity Hospital of Louisiana,
Mercy Hospital, Davenport----- 2
New OrleansDg
Broadlawns Polk County Hos­
Hotel Dieu, Sisters’ Hospital,
pital, Des MoinesNA
New Orleans3
Mercy Hospital, Des Moines— 2
Mercy Hospital-Soniat Memo­
Finley Hospital, Dubuque-------2
rial, New OrleansDg
St. Joseph Mercy Hospital,
Ochsner Foundation Hospital,
Dubuque2
New OrleansNA
Veterans Administration Hos­
Sara Mayo Hospital, New
pital, Iowa CityNA
Orleans3
St. Joseph Mercy Hospital,
Southern Baptist Hospital, New
Sioux City2
Orleans2
St. Vincent's Hospital, Sioux
Touro Infirmary, New Orleans. 3
CityNA

46

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Name and location
of school

Minimum
prerequisite
college
[years)

Louisiana—Continued
U. S. Public Health Service
Hospital, New Orleans3
T. E. Schumpert Memorial
Sanitarium, Shreveport2
Shreveport Charity Hospital,
Shreveport2
Maine:
Eastern Maine General Hos­
pital, Bangor3
Central Maine General Hos­
pital, Lewiston2
Maine General Hospital, Port­
land2
Mercy Hospital, Portland____ 2
Maryland:
Mercy Hospital, Baltimore___ 2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Balti­
more 2
Union Memorial Hospital, Bal­
timore2
Memorial Hospital, Easton___ NA
Massachusetts:
Beverly Hospital, Beverly.____ 2
Faulkner Hospital, Boston___ 3
Massachusetts Memorial Hos­
pitals, Boston-------------------- 2
New England Deaconess Hos­
pital, Boston2
New England Hospital, Boston- 2
Truesdale
Hospital,
Fall
River2
Burbank Hospital, Fitchburg_2
Holyoke Hospital, Holyoke___ 2
Lawrence General Hospital,
Lawrence2
St. Luke’s Hospital, New Bed­
ford---------------------------------- 2
Newton-Wellesley
Hospital,
Newton Lower Falls2
St. Luke’s Hospital, Pittsfield-- 2
Quincy City Hospital, Quincy— 3
Salem Hospital, Salem2
Mercy Hospital, Springfield__ 2
Springfield Hospital, Spring­
field 2
Tewksbury State Hospital and
Infirmary, Tewksbury2
Memorial Hospital, Worcester- NA
Worcester
City
Hospital,
Worcester2
Worcester
State
Hospital,
Worcester2
Michigan:
University Hospital, Ann Ar­
bor------------------------------------3
Leila Y. Post Montgomery Hos­
pital, Battle Creek2
Mercy Hospital, Bay City____ 2
Veterans Administration Hos­
pital, Dearborn3

Name and location
of school

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(yearsy

Michigan—Continued
City of Detroit Receiving
Hospital, Detroit3
Detroit Memorial Hospital,
Detroit__________ 2
Evangelical Deaconess Hos­
pital, Detroit2
Grace Hospital, Detroit2
Henry Ford Hospital, Detroit_Dg
Herman Kiefer Hospital, De­
troitDg
Jennings Memorial Hospital,
Detroit2
Mount Carmel Mercy Hospital,
Detroit3
Providence Hospital, Detroit_2
St. John Hospital, Detroit____ NA
St. Joseph Mercy Hospital, De­
troit 2
Woman’s Hospital, Detroit___ 3
Wayne County General Hos­
pital and Infirmary, Eloise_3
Hurley Hospital, Flint3
McLaren General Hospital,
Flint3
St. Joseph Hospital, Flint3
Blodgett Memorial Hospital,
Grand Rapids2
Butterworth Hospital, Grand
Rapids2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Grand
Rapids2
Mercy Hospital, Jackson3
Borgess Hospital, Kalamazoo- 2
Bronson Methodist Hospital,
Kalamazoo2
Edward W. Sparrow Hospital,
Lansing3
Michigan
Department
of
Health, Division of Labora­
tories, Lansing3
St. Lawrence Hospital, Lan­
sing3
Hackley Hospital, Muskegon_2
Port Huron Hospital, Port
Huron2
Saginaw General Hospital,
Saginaw2
Minnesota:
St. Luke’s Hospital, Duluth__ 2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Duluth_ 2
_
Minneapolis General Hospital,
MinneapolisDg
Swedish
Hospital,
Minne­
apolis 2
University of Minnesota Hos­
pital, Minneapolis3
St. Cloud Hospital, St. Cloud— 2
Ancker Hospital, St. Paul3
Charles T. Miller Hospital, St.
Paul3
St. Joseph’s Hospital, St. Paul- Dg

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
Name and location
of school

Mississippi:

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Mississippi Baptist Hospital,
Jackson2
Mercy Hospital-Street Memo­
rial, Vicksburg2

Missouri:

Name and location
of school

Nevada:

47

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

St. Mary’s Hospital, Reno____ 3

New Hampshire:

Mary Hitchcock Memorial Hos­
pital, Hanover2
Notre Dame de Lourdes Hos­
pital, Manchester2
Sacred Heart Hospital, Man­
chester2

St. Louis County Hospital,
Clayton2
Independence Sanitarium and
Hospital, Independence2
New Jersey:
St. John’s Hospital, Joplin___ 2
Atlantic City Hospital, Atlantic
Kansas City General Hospital
City---------------------------------- 2
No. 1, Kansas City-------------2
West Jersey Hospital, Camden. 2
Kansas City General Hospital
Englewood Hospital, Engle­
No. 2, Kansas City2
wood2
Menorah Hospital Medical Cen­
Monmouth Memorial Hospital,
ter, Kansas City2
Long Branch2
Research Hospital, Kansas
Fitkin Memorial Hospital, Nep­
City----------------------------------2
tune---------------------------------- NA
St. Joseph Hospital, Kansas
Hospital of St. Barnabas and
CityDg
for Women and Children,
St. Luke's Hospital, Kansas
Newark2
City2
Newark Beth Israel Hospital,
St. Mary’s Hospital, Kansas
Newark3
City---------------------------------- 2
Presbyterian Hospital, New­
Trinity Lutheran Hospital,
ark 3
Kansas City----------------------3
St. Michael’s Hospital, Newark. 2
Missouri Methodist Hospital,
Passaic General Hospital, Pas­
St. Joseph2
saic---------------------------------- NA
Barnes Hospital, St. Louis,__ 2
St. Mary Hospital, Passaic___2
DePaul Hospital, St. Louis__ NA
Barnert Memorial Hospital,
Homer G. Phillips Hospital,
Paterson2
St. Louis2
Paterson General Hospital,
Missouri Baptist Hospital, St.
Paterson2
LouisNA
Muhlenberg Hospital, PlainSt. John’s Hospital, St. Louis_2
field2
St. Louis City Hospital, St.
Overlook Hospital, Summit___ NA
Louis-------:2
Holy Name Hospital, Teaneck. 2
St. Louis University School of
Mercer Hospital, Trenton____ 2
Nursing, St. Louis2
Burge Hospital, Springfield___ 2
New Mexico:
St. John’s Hospital, Spring­
St. Joseph’s Sanatorium and
field_ _2
_
Hospital, Albuquerque2

Montana:

St. Vincent’s Hospital, Billings. 2
Butte Community Memorial
Hospital, ButteDg
Columbus
Hospital,
Great
Falls3
Montana Deaconess Hospital,
Great Falls2

Nebraska:
Bryan Memorial Hospital, Lin­
coln2
Lincoln General Hospital, Lin­
coln2
Bishop Clarkson Memorial Hos­
pital, Omaha2
Creighton Memorial, St. Jo­
seph’s Hospital, Omaha____ 2
University of Nebraska Hos­
pital, Omaha2

New York:
Albany Hospital, Albany_____ NA
Bender School of Medical Tech­
nology, Albany2
Binghamton City Hospital,
Binghamton2
Our Lady of Lourdes Memorial
Hospital, Binghampton____ NA
Jewish Hospital, Brooklyn___ 2
Prospect Heights Hospital,
Brooklyn2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Brook­
lyn----------------------------------- 2
Buffalo General Hospital, Buf­
falo2
Edward J. Meyer Memorial
Hospital, Buffalo2
Mercy Hospital, Buffalo2

48

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Name and location
of school

New York—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
{years)

Name and location
of school

North Dakota—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
{years)

Millard Fillmore Hospital, Buf­
St. Michael’s Hospital, Grand
falo2
Forks-------------------------------- 3
Arnot-Ogden Memorial Hos­
Trinity Hospital, Minot2
pital, Elmira2
Ohio:
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Elmira_ 2
Children's Hospital, Akron___ 2
Flushing Hospital, Flushing__ 2
City Hospital, Akron2
Meadowbrook Hospital, Hemp­
Peoples Hospital, Akron2
stead2
St. Thomas Hospital, Akron__ 2
Mary Immaculate Hospital,
Alliance City Hospital, Alli­
Jamaica2
ance 2
Charles S. Wilson Memorial
Aultman Hospital, Canton___ 2
Hospital, Johnson City____ 2
Mercy Hospital, Canton------------2
St. John’s Long Island City
Bethesda Hospital, Cincinnati- 3
Hospital, Long Island City_2
Christ Hospital, Cincinnati___ 3
Northern Westchester Hospital,
Cincinnati General Hospital,
Mount Kiseo2
Cincinnati3
Beth Israel Hospital, New York
Good Samaritan Hospital, Cin­
City----------------------------------3
cinnatiDg
Monteflore Hospital for Chron­
Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati__ 2
ic Diseases, New York City- Dg
Our Lady of Mercy Hospital,
St. Barnabas Hospital for
Cincinnati3
Chronic Diseases, New York
City Hospital, Cleveland_____ 2
City3
Cleveland
Clinic
Hospital,
St. Clare’s Hospital, New York
Cleveland2
City---------------------------------- 2
Mount Sinai Hospital, Cleve­
United Hospital, Port Chester. NA
land2
Rochester General Hospital,
University Hospitals, Cleve­
RochesterDg
land2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Rochester- 2
Grant Hospital, Columbus____ 2
Ellis Hospital, Schenectady— 2
Mount Carmel Hospital, Co­
U. S. Public Health Service
lumbus2
Hospital, Staten Island____ 2
Ohio State University Hospital,
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Syracuse- 2
Columbus3
Samaritan Hospital, Troy____ 3
Good Samaritan Hospital, Day­
St. Mary’s Hospital, Troy_____ NA
ton------------------------------------- 2
Utica State Hospital Labora­
Miami Valley Hospital, Daytory Institute, Utica----------- 2
ton2
St. John’s Riverside Hospital,
St. Elizabeth Hospital, DayYonkers2
ton2
North Carolina:
Veterans Administration Cen­
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Ashe­
ter, Dayton2
Huron Road Hospital, East
ville2
Cleveland2
University of North Carolina
Elyria
Memorial Hospital,
School of Medicine, Chapel
Elyria-----------------------2
Hill2
Mercy Hospital, Hamilton___ 2
Charlotte Memorial Hospital,
Lakewood Hospital, Lakewood- 2
Charlotte3
St. Rita’s Hospital, Lima____ 2
Mercy Hospital, Charlotte___ 2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Lorain_2
Presbyterian Hospital, Char­
Mansfield General Hospital,
lotte 2
Mansfield2
Duke Hospital, Durham_____ 2
Watts Hospital, Durham_____ 2
Mercy Hospital, Portsmouth_ 2
_
Rex Hospital, Raleigh2
Mercy Hospital, Springfield__ 2
North Carolina Baptist Hos­
Springfield
City
Hospital,
pital, Winston-Salem_______ 3
Springfield2
Ohio Valley Hospital, Steuben­
North Dakota:
ville2
Bismarck Hospital, Bismarck— 2
Flower Hospital, Toledo-------- 2
St. Alexius Hospital, Bismarck- 2
Maumee Valley Hospital, To­
St. Luke’s Hospital, Fargo___ 3
ledo2
Grand Forks Deaconess Hos­
Mercy Hospital, Toledo2
pital, Grand Forks2

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS

Ohio—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Riverside Hospital, Toledo----- Its
St. Vincent's Hospital, Toledo- 3
Toledo Hospital, Toledo-------- 3
Trumbull Memorial Hospital,
WarrenNA
Si. Elizabeth Hospital, Youngs­
town
Youngstown Hospital, Youngs­
town

Oklahoma:
Mercy Hospital, Oklahoma
City---------------------------------- 2
St. Anthony Hospital, Okla­
homa City-------------------------- Dg
University Hospitals, Okla­
homa City-------------------------3
Wesley Hospital, Oklahoma
City----------------------------------- Dg
Hillcrest Memorial Hospital,
Tulsa-------------------------------3
St. John’sHospital, Tulsa-------- Dg

Oregon:

Sacred Heart General Hospital,
Eugene-------------------------------2
Emanuel Hospital, Portland— 2
Good Samaritan Hospital, Port­
land ---------------------------------- 2
Portland Sanitarium and Hos­
pital, Portland-------------------- 3
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Port­
land-— Dg
Lhiiversity of Oregon Medical
School Hospitals and Clinics,
Portland---------------------------- 2
Salem
Memorial
Hospital,
Salem2

Pennsylvania:
Abington Memorial Hospital,
Abington-------------------------- 2
Allentown Hospital, Allen­
town — 2
Sacred Heart Hospital, Allen­
town — 3
St. Luke’s Hospital, Bethle­
hem— 2
Ilryn Mawr Hospital, Bryn
Mawr 2
Butler County Memorial Hos­
pital, Butler---------------------- 2
Geo. F. Geisinger Memorial
Hospital and Foss Clinic,
Danville_____________ _____ 2
Fitzgerahl-Mercy Hospital,
Darby------------------------------- 2
Easton Hospital, Easton-------- 2
St. Vincent’s Hospital, Erie— 2
Harrisburg Hospital, Harris­
burg— 2
Harrisburg Polyclinic Hospital,
Harrisburg----------------------- 2

Name and location
of school

Pennsylvania—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Hazleton State Hospital, Hazle­
ton
Mercy Hospital, Johnstown—
Lancaster General Hospital,
Lancaster------------------------St. Joseph’s Hospital, Lan­
caster------------------------------- 2
Frankford Hospital, Phila­
delphia------------------------------- 2
Germantown Dispensary and
Hospital, Philadelphia-------- 2
Hahnemann Hospital, Phila­
delphia2
Jefferson Medical College Hos­
pital, Philadelphia---------------- 2
Jewish Hospital (Northern Di­
vision—Albert Einstein Med­
ical Center) Philadelphia— 2
Lankenau Hospital, Philadel­
phia------------------------------------2
Misericordia Hospital, Phila­
delphia
Mount Sinai Hospital (South­
ern Division—Albert Ein­
stein Medical Center), Phila­
delphia-------------------- :-------- 2
Nazareth Hospital, Philadel­
phia2
Pennsylvania Hospital, Phila­
delphia-------------------------- - 2
Philadelphia General Hospital,
Philadelphia---------------------- 2
Presbyterian Hospital, Phila­
delphia2
St. Agnes Hospital, Philadel­
phia2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Phila­
delphia2
School of Auxiliary Medical
Services, Graduate School of
Medicine, University of Penn­
sylvania, Philadelphia-------- 3
Temple University Hospital,
Philadelphia------------------------2
Allegheny General Hospital,
Pittsburgh-------- ----------------- 2
Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh— 2
Montefiore Hospital, Pitts­
burgh *2
Pottsville Hospital, Pottsville_ 2
Community General Hospital,
Reading------------------------------2
Reading Hospital, Reading----- 2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Reading- 2
Robert Packer Hospital, Sayre_ 2
Moses Taylor Hospital, Scran­
ton2
Scranton
State
Hospital,
Scranton-------------------------- 2
Sharon
General Hospital,
Sharon3
to to

Name and location
of school

49

50

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Name and location
of school
_
.

Pennsylvania—Continued

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

„
Name and location
of school

Minimum
prerequisite
college

Tennessee—Continued

Allegheny Valley Hospital,
Nashville General Hospital,
Tarentum 2
Nashville
2
Wilkes-Barre General Hospital,
St. Thomas Hospital, Nash­
Wilkes-Barre_____________
2
ville
2
Williamsport Hospital, Wil­
Veterans Administration Hos­
liamsport 2
pital, Nashville___________
2
Rhode Island:
Texas:
State Hospital for Mental Dis­
Hendrick Memorial Hospital,
eases, HowardDg
Abilene
2
Memorial Hospital, Pawtucket- Dg
Brackenridge Hospital,
Rhode Island Hospital, Provi­
Austin Dg
denceDg
Baptist Hospital of Southeast
St. Joseph's Hospital, Provi­
Texas, Beaumont___________
2
dence
2
Hotel Dieu Hospital, Beau­
South Carolina:
mont
2
St. Therese’s Hospital, Beau­
Anderson County Memorial
Hospital, Anderson________
2
mont
2
Baylor University Hospital,
Medical College of the State
of South Carolina, Charles­
Dallas
2
ton
2
Parkland Hospital,Dallas____NA
St. Paul’s Hospital,Dallas____NA
McLeod Infirmary, Florence_
2
Hotel Dieu Sisters’ Hospital,
Greenville General Hospital,
El Paso
Greenville 2
2
Spartanburg General Hospital,
Harris Hospital, FortWorth-_
3
Spartanburg_____________
2
Pennsylvania Avenue Hospital
(Affiliated with Fort Worth
South Dakota:
Medical Laboratories and
St. Luke’s Hospital, Aberdeen- 2
Texas Department of Public
St. John’s McNamara Hospital,
Health), Fort Worth______ Dg
Rapid City
2
Terrell’s Laboratories
(All
McKennan Hospital, Sioux
Saints and City-County Hos­
Falls,____________________
2
pitals), Fort Worth_______
2
Sioux Valley Hospital, Sioux
St. Mary’s Infirmary, Galves­
Falls 2
ton ---------------------------------2
Sacred Heart Hospital, Yank­
University of Texas Medical
ton
2
Branch Hospitals, Galves­
Tennessee:
ton ---------------------------------2
Baroness Erlanger Hospital,
Hermann Hospital, Houston—
2
Chattanooga_____________
2
Jefferson Davis Hospital, Hous­
Memorial Hospital, Chatta­
ton ---------------------------------2
nooga
2
Methodist Hospital, Houston—
2
East Tennessee Baptist Hos­
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Hous­
pital, Knoxville___________
2
ton
2
Knoxville General Hospital,
Midland Memorial Hospital,
Knoxville 2
MidlandNA
St. Mary’s Memorial Hospital,
St. Mary’s Hospital, Port
Knoxville 2
Arthur
2
Madison Sanitarium and Hos­
Shannon West Texas Memorial
pital, Madison College____ NA
Hospital, San Angelo______
2
Blount Memorial Hospital,
Baptist Memorial Hospital,
MaryvilleNA
. San Antonio______________
2
Baptist Memorial Hospital,
Robert B. Green Memorial Hos­
Memphis 2
pital, San AntonioNA
John Gaston Hospital, Mem­
phis
2
Nix Memorial Hospital, San
Methodist Hospital, Memphis- 2
Antonio 2
St. Joseph Hospital, Mem­
Santa Rosa Hospital, San
phis ___________
2
Antonio.
2
Geo. W. Hubbard Hospital,
U. S. Air Force Hospital (Lack­
Nashville 2
land), San Antonio_______
2

MEDICAL TECHNOLOGISTS AND LABORATORY TECHNICIANS
Name and location
of school

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Washington—Continued
St. Joseph’s Hospital,Tacoma.
2
Tacoma General Hospital, Ta­
coma
2
St. Elizabeth Hospital, Yak­
ima
2
West Virginia:
St. Luke’s Hospital,Bluefleld. 2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Clarks­
burg
2
Fairmont General Hospital,
Fairmont 3
School of Medicine, West Vir­
ginia University, Morgan­
town
3
Camden-Clark Memorial Hos­
pital, Parkersburg_______
2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Parkers­
burg
2
Myers Clinic Hospital, Phillippi---------------------------------- 2%
Wisconsin:
St. Agnes Hospital, Fond du
Lac
2
St. Francis Hospital, La
Crosse
2
Madison General Hospital,
Madison
St. Mary’s Hospital, Madison_
State of Wisconsin General
Hospital, Madison_________
3
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Marsh­
field
2
Columbia Hospital, Milwau­
kee
2
Evangelical Deaconess Hospi­
tal, Milwaukee___________
2
Milwaukee County Hospital,
Milwaukee
2
Milwaukee Hospital, Milwau­
kee —----------- :___________
2
Mount Sinai Hospital, Milwau­
kee _________
2
St. Joseph’s Hospital, Milwau­
kee
2
St. Luke’s Hospital, Milwau­
kee
2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Milwau­
kee
2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Racine_
2
St. Mary’s Hospital, Wausau..
2
Veterans Administration Cen­
ter, Wood
2
Wyoming:
DePaul Hospital, Casper____ NA
Memorial Hospital, Cheyenne. 2
Canal Zone:
Board of Health Laboratory
Gorgas Hospital, Ancon___
2
<N <N

Texas—Continued
Scott and White Hospital,
Temple 2
U. S. Air Force Hospital
(Sheppard), Wichita Falls_
2
Utah:
St. Benedict’s Hospital, Og­
den
2
Thomas D. Dee Memorial Hos­
pital, Ogden 2
Utah Valley Hospital, Provo_ 2
Dr. W. H. Groves Latter-Day
Saints Hospital, Salt Lake
City
3
Holy Cross Hospital, Salt Lake
City
3
St. Mark’s Hospital, Salt Lake
City
2
Salt Lake County General Hos­
pital, Salt Lake City______
3
Vermont:
University of Vermont College
of Medicine, Burlington____
3
Virginia:
University of Virginia Hospi­
tal, Charlottesville________
2
Chesapeake and Ohio Hospital,
Clifton ForgeNA
Memorial Hospital, Danville_
2
Mary Immaculate Hospital,
Newport News____________
3
Riverside Hospital, Newport
News
2
DePaul Hospital, Norfolk___
2
Norfolk General Hospital, Nor­
folk
2
Grace Hospital, Richmond___
2
Johnston-Willis Hospital, Rich­
mond
2
Medical College of Virginia,
Hospital Division, Richmond 2
Stuart Circle Hospital, Rich­
mond
2
Jefferson Hospital, Roanoke__
2
Lewis-Gale Hospital, Roanoke- 2
Memorial and Crippled Chil­
dren’s Hospital, Roanoke__
2
Washington:
Children’s Orthopedic Hospi­
tal, Seattle
2
King County Hospital, Seattle. Dg
Providence Hospital, Seattle—
2
Swedish Hospital, Seattle____ NA
University of Washington
School of Medicine, Seattle.
3
Deaconess Hospital, Spokane_
2
Sacred Heart Hospital,
Spokane
2
St. Luke’s Hospital, Spokane.. 2

Name and location
of school

51

52

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR WOMEN

Name and location
of school

Hawaii:

Minimum
prerequisite Name and location
college
of school
(years)

Puerto Rico:

Minimum
prerequisite
college
(years)

Kuakini Hospital, Honolulu_
3
University of Puerto Rico,
Queen’s Hospital, Honolulu__
3
School of Tropical Medicine,
St. Francis Hospital, Hono­
San Juan Dg
lulu
3
Health Department, Common­
Tripler Army Hospital, Moanawealth of Puerto Rico, Sanlua, Honolulu_____________
3
turee 2
Source: Council on Medical Education and Hospitals of the American Medi­
cal Association, 535 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, 111.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
American Hospital Association. Administrators’ guide issue. Hospitals 27 : 26,
June 1953, Part II.
----- Critical shortage of personnel: results of a survey. Hospitals 26: 70-71,
April 1952.
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