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IOWA STATE TEACHERS COLLEGE 0CT4 1956 f LIBRARY Man-Hours Per Unit of Output THE BASIC STEEL INDUSTRY UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM ENT OF LABO R James P. Mitchell, Secretary BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS Ewan Clague, Commissioner This report contains information on trends in productivity in the blast furnaces, steel works and rolling mills industries, 1939-5$. This group of industries is commonly referred to as the "basic steel industry." The report w a 3 prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Productivity and Tech nological Developments. Allan D. Searle provided general direction to the study and developed the statistical techniques, assisted by Enzo A. Puglisi and Maurice Haven. Others who worked on the report were Harriet S. Taylor, Natalie Strader, and Frances Jemigan. Man-Hours Per Unit of Output in THE BASIC STEEL INDUSTRY 1939-55 Bulletin No. 1200 UN ITED STA TES DEPARTM EN T OF LABOR James P. Mitchell, Secretary BUREA U O F LA B O R S TA TIS TIC S Ew an Clague, Commissioner September 1956 F o r sale b y the Superintendent o f Documents, U , S . Government Printing O ffic e W a shing ton 2 5 , D . C ~ Price 3 0 cents CONTENTS Page Trends in unit man-hours ............................................ . . Trends from 1939-1*7 ............... • ............................... Trends from 1 9 1 * 7 - 5 5 .................................................... 2 2 3 Factors affecting productivity change ............... . ............... 10 Productivity and production v o l u m e ...................................... 10 Long-run comparisons ............. . . . . . ....................... 11 Short-run comparisons .............................................. 11 Employment changes, productivity, and production volume ............ 12 T e c h n o l o g y ............................................................... 12 Blast f u r n a c e s ......................................................... 12 Open hearth s t e e l ................ ll* Electric furnaces ................................................ l* l. Rolling m i l l s ......................................................... l* i. Primary m i l l s ..................................................... Rod mills and bar m i l l s .............................................. 15 Strip m i l l s ........................................... Cold reduction m i l l s ................................. Tin Plate ..............................................................15 Total employment and production worker e m p l o y m e n t ........................ 15 16 Concepts and l imitations .................................. C o v e r a g e ................................................................. 18 Plant i n t e g r a t i o n ....................................................... 18 20 Inventory c h a n g e ........................... Quality c h a n g e ......................................... Technical n o t e ................................. 20 Man-hours per unit, production workers, and total employees per unit . 20 Formulas .................................................................. 21 P r o d u c t i o n ............................................................... 21 Basic data on o u t p u t ................................................... 21 Weights ................................................ . . . . . . 22 (Employment and man-hours ................................................ 23 Adjustment to the 191*7 Census of M a n u f a c t u r e s .......................... 2h Charts and tables* Chart - Unit man-hours 1919-55 ........................................ Table 1.— Average annual percent decrease in man-hours per unit of output in the basic steel industry and in all manufacturing^ 1919-55 ..................................................... Table 2.— Indexes of production, man-hours,and productivity for selected companies in the basic steel industry, 191*2-1*6 . . ill - 5 6 7 CONTENTS— Continued Page Table 3.— Table 1*.— Table 5*— Indexes of production, employment, man-hours, productivity, and unit labor requirements in the basic steel industry, 1939-55 ..................................................... Indexes of production, employment, man-hours, productivity, and unit labor requirements in the basic steel industry, 1919-39 ..................................................... Annual percent change in production, number of workers, man-hours, and output per man-hour in the basic steel industry, 1 9 1 9 - 5 5 ....................... 8 9 13 Appendix t Table A.— Table B.— Percent of selected steel products made in the basic steel industry and in other industries in 19U7 Couparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939-1*7 index of steel p r o d u c t i o n .................................... - iv - 28 MAN-HOURS PER UNIT OF OUTPUT IN THE BASIC STEEL INDUSTRY, 1939-55 Man-hours of production workers per unit of output in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills (this group of industries is commonly referred to as the basic steel industry) decreased at an average annual rate of 2*8 percent between 19U7 and 1955* Stated the other way around, the output per man-hour increased at a rate of 2.9 percent per year. 1/ The year-to-year changes were quite irregular during this 8-year period7 influenced to some extent by the fluctuations of the business cycle. For example, a rapid expan sion of output in 1950 was accompanied by a sharp decrease in unit man-hours. During the cycle 1953-55, there was first a sharp decrease in production in 195 U accompanied by an increase in unit man-hoursj in 1955 there was a large increase in production as well as a large decline in unit man-hours. Changes in productivity tended to be more moderate in the other years studied. The decline in unit man-hours in the steel industry was somewhat less than that of all manufacturing in the postwar period, based on trends from 19 U 7 through 1953 , the last year for which data for total manufacturing are now available. Because of a better showing in steel from 1939 to 19U7, spanning World War II, the average percent decrease for the years 1939 to 1953 was 2.8 compared with 1.8 for all manufacturing. 2/ All these figures refer to productivity measures based on man-hours of production workers. Inasmuch as employees other than production workers have increased in relative numbers in recent years, the decline in unit man-hours for all employees would be somewhat less than for production workers alone. (See p.l 6. ) Man-hours per unit of output (and its reciprocal, output per man-hour) measures the relationship between one factor of input— labor time— and produc tion in physical units. This productivity ratio does not measure the specific contribution to output of labor or of capital or of any other factor of produc tion. Changes in the ratio may reflect the joint effect of a large number of separate, though interrelated, influences, such as technological improvements, the rate of operation, the relative contributions to production of plants at various levels of efficiency, the flow of materials and components, as well as 1/ nMan-hours per unit of output 11 is the reciprocal of "output per manhour,Tr which is frequently used to describe productivity trends. An increase in output per man-hour, of course, implies a decrease in man-hours per unit, and vice versa, but the percent changes may not be identical. 2/ Using comparable measures of productivity. See also Trends in Output per Mlah-Hour and Man-Hours per Unit of Output, Manufacturing, 1939-53, BIS Report 100, December 1955. ( 1) the skill and effort of the work force, the efficiency of management, and the status of labor relations. Technological and other factors contributing to the changes which have taken place in the basic steel industry are discussed on p. 10* Trends in Unit Man-Haul's An earlier measure of productivity in the steel industry— although not strictly comparable with the measure presented here— shows a somewhat larger rate of decline in unit man-hours for the 20 years preceding 1939 than in later years. 3/ From 1919 to 1939, man-hours per unit of output dropped an average of 3.5 percent a year, compared with an annual decrease in all manu facturing of 3*3 percent. (See tables 1 and 1*.) Most of the improvement in steel came in the decade 1919-29, when the average annual rate was 5»9 percent. During this decade, all manufacturing also experienced a higher than average annual change (5.0 percent), h/ Trends from 1939-U7 In 1939, when the country was recovering from the depression, steel works were operating at only 65 percent of capacity. The outbreak of war in Europe and the accompanying upsurge in industrial production in the latter half of 1939, resulted in a considerably higher level of capacity utilization. In addition, progress was made during 1939 in the form of further beneficiation or conditioning of raw materials, better control of blast furnaces and steel making units through metallurgical advance and instrumentation, and more exten sive use of controlled atmospheres. These advances also contributed to increased output per man-hour, decreases in man-hours per ton, and to improve ment in the quality of products. During the defense and war period from 191*0 to 191*1*, there was a great demand for steel and steel products, with the peak in 191*1* when 89.6 million net tons of ingots and steel for castings were produced, 70 percent more than in 1939. Steel works operated at over 95-percent capacity from 19l*l through 19l*l*, with virtually no work stoppages. Productivity estimates are not available for the entire steel industry for the World War II period (191*2-1*6) but there is evidence that unit man-hours 3/ Productivity and Unit Labor Cost in Selected Manufacturing Industries, 1919-T9UO, February 19l*2, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. h / Some of this decrease must be attributed to the shift from low to high value” added-per-man-hour industries. Estimates based on employment per unit of production indicate that the industry shift between the terminal years 1919 and 1929 accounted for nearly 18 percent of the total change in employment per unit. See Solomon Fabricant, Employment in Manufacturing, 1899-1939, New York, National Bureau of Economic Research, 19U2 (p. 335). - 2 - decreased. Data are available for selected companies which continued to produce only the normal products of the industry or which added only a minimum of purely military products. (See table 2.) Trends of man-hours per unit for these companies— representing over 75 percent of total output— declined significantly during the war period. 5/ The experience of the steel industry differed sharply from that of all manufacturing during World War II and the period immediately thereafter. The industry did not share the large conversion and reconversion problems of many other industries. This fact, plus high demand for steel, provided a favorable setting for the productivity increases which occurred. Other industries— such as aircraft and shipbuilding— experienced large wartime productivity gains because they were able to use techniques adapted to large volumes of more or less standardized output. Some gains of this type could not be maintained after cessation of hostilities brought a reduction in munitions production. In another group of industries— the so-called civilian goods industries opera ting under adverse conditions such as low volume, low priorities in men and machines, and interruptions to production— wartime productivity drorr>edc Between 1939 and 19i*7, unit man-hours in the steel industry declined at an average annual rate of 2.8 percent, slightly lower than the 3.1-percent rate of the preceding 10 years (table 1). This was quite different from total manufacturing, where the reductions in unit man-hours dropped from a 2.2-percent annual rate (1929-39) to a 0.5-percent rate between 1939 and 191*7. During this latter period, production in steel rose 71 percent and production-worker employ ment in the steel industry increased from an average of 391.2 thousand in 1939 to 1*79.0 thousand in 191*7. Trend s from 191*7-55 Man-hours per unit in the steel industry declined at an average annual rate of 2.8 percent from 19l*7 to 1955* These trends partly reflect continued investment in plant and equipment by the steel industry. For example, expan sion after World War II provided for increased blast furnace capacity by enlargement and improvement of existing facilities as well as construction of new furnaces and mills. Despite the general improvement during the period, some factors tended to retard productivity advance--particularly in the early years following World War II. Utilization of capacity fell off between 191*8 and 19li9. Scrap was of 5/ Heavy steel plates made up the greatest proportion of total rolled products in the war years. The effect of the increasing proportion of these items is minimized by weighting plates separately. - 3 - mixed types and poor quality. The quality of coking coal and the iron content of many ores continued to decline. 6/ The effects of this quality decline were partially offset b y increased coal washing to reduce sulphur ash and slate content, increased beneficiation of iron ore to concentrate iron content and reduce silica content, and greater use of sinter and limestone. On the whole, trends in the steel industry tended to follow those of all manufacturing from 19U7 to 1953, with average annual reductions in unit man hours of 3.2 percent in steel compared with 3*3 percent for manufacturing. 7/ As in the case of all manufacturing, trends in unit man-hours in the steel — industry are influenced not only by long-run improvements in technology, but also by changes in the general level of business activity. Volume fluctuations m a y affect an industry1s ability to make most effective use of productive facilities, and this in turn may influence the trend of unit man-hours. Thus, in 19U9, production in the steel industry followed the downward trend of business in general. Increased efficiency of existing facilities and installa tion of up-to-date furnaces and mills in the postwar years began to show their effect in portions of the year during which the industry was in full operation, but a nationwide steel strike in October 1 9U9 left less than 10 percent of the industry’s capacity in operation. These and other factors resulted in only moderate gains in man-hour output and in a less-than-average decline in unit man-hours. O n the other hand, the business upturn in 1950 had a generally favorable effect on total manufacturing and unit man-hours declined at a rate almost double that for the period as a whole. Steel shared in the favorable business situation— in 1950, steel works operated at about 97 percent of capacity. The reduction in unit man-hours in this year— as in many other individual manufacturing industries— was large. In steel the decline was over 8 percent. Again, the decline in activity between 1953 and 195U (and subsequent recovery) resulted, first, in an increase in unit man-hours, and then in a large decline between 19 $ k and 1955* 8/ In general, however, trends in unit man-hours after 19li7 were more moderate and reflect continued progress in improving plant efficiency, modified to some extent b y changing production volume. (See further discussion on p. 10.) 6/ See Steel, January 3, 19U9 (p. 265); and William T. Hogan, S. J., Productivity in the Blast-Furnace and Open-Hearth Segments of the Steel Industry 1920-19ii6, Fordham University Press, 1950. 7/ trends. See footnote 2, table 1, for method of calculating average annual 8/ Year-to-year changes may vary widely; therefore, long-run inferences should! not be drawn from data covering only a short span of years. - k - INDEXES OF UN IT M AN-HOURS, PRODUCTION, AND M AN-HOURS IN THE BASIC STEEL INDUSTRY 1919-41 and 1947-55 IN D E X (1947-49=100) (1947-49=100) IN D E X UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREA U OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S 5 Table 1*— Average annual percent decrease in man-hours per unit of output in the basic steel industry and in all manufacturing, 1919-55 1/ Years Steel 2/ a h Manufacturing 2/ 3.6 3.3 1919-29 • ......................... 5.9 5.0 1929-39 ............................ 3.1 2.2 1939-55 .............................. 2.7 (3/) 1939-53 ........................... 2.8 1.8 1939-U7 ............................ 2.8 o.5 19U7-53 ............................ 3.2 3.3 19^7-55 ............................ 2.8 (3/) 1919-39 .............................. ~ y Data far 1919-39 are not strictly comparable with those for 1939-55. Trends far steel are computed from production data combined with unit value-added weights rather than unit man-hours as in the years following 1939. (See technical note, p. 20.) Trends for total manu facturing 1919-39 are derived from production indexes far the odd-numbered years from Employment in Manufacturing 1899-1939 by Solomon Fabricant. Far even numbered years, the Federal Reserve Board index was used for interpolating. Man-hours are based on Census and BLS data. Component industry series are combined with value-added weights. For the later period 1939-55, the total manufacturing index is the current-yearweighted physical output productivity index (component industries combined with man-hour weights) as described in Trends in Output per Man-Hour and Man-Hours per Unit of Output— Manufacturing, 1939-53, BLS Report 100, Decent) er 1955. 2/ Computed frcm the least squares trend of the logarithms of the index"”numbers of output per man-hour. 3/ Information not available. - 6 - Table 2.— Indexes of production, man-hours,and productivity for selected companies in the basic steel industry, 19U2-U6 ( 1939 = 100 ) Tear Production 1/ Man-hours 2/ Output per man-hour Man-hours per unit 19i*2 (last 6 months) . . 152.1 11*1.1* 107.6 93.0 191*3........ 158.3 11*9.3 105-7 91*.6 191*1*......... 161*. 6 11*6.9 112.0 89.2 191*5........ 153.0 136.7 111.9 89.3 191*6......... 13U. 9 116.5 115.3 86.1* 1/ 1939 data secured from reports of selected companies to the Bureau of the Census; 191*2-1*6 data secured from reports of these companies to the W a r Production Board and Civilian Production Administration. The methods used in constructing the indexes for these companies differs from that used in the series for the industry as a whole mainly in that alloy steel is not weighted separately from carbon. 2/ Based on reports made to BLS by the same selected companies for which data were included in the production index. - 7 - Table 3.~Xndexes of production, employment, man-hours, productivity, and unit labor requirements in the basio steel industry, 1939-55 (1947—49*100) Weighted Produc produc tion All tion employees workers Year . . . . 59 #0 73 #3 95 #5 94 #9 1943 y . . 1944 y , . 1945 y , • 1946 y . . 99#1 100 #3 92 #4 80 #0 1947 1948 1949 1950 . . . * . . • . . • . . 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 . . , . . . . • . . . . . . . 1939 1940 1941 1942 . . . . . • j/. 80.9 92.6 105.8 — 82.9 94.8 108.6 — Output per — Man-hours of production workers All employees 72.9 79.2 90.3 — 75.1 90.0 110.6 — Unit labor requirements Produc Produc tion tion worker worker man-hour 71.2 7^.3 87 .9 — 78.6 81.4 86.3 — All employees per unit Produc tion worke rs per unit Production worker man-hours per unit 137.1 126.3 110.8 — 140.5 129.3 113.7 — 127.3 122.8 115.3 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — _ — — — 100.9 104.8 94.3 104.6 101.4 105.2 93.4 104.4 101.5 106.6 91.8 106.9 99.8 101.1 98.8 113.2 99.3 100.8 99.9 113.4 99.2 99.4 101.6 110.3 100.2 96.9 101.2 88.3 100.7 99.2 100 .1 88.2 100.3 100.6 98.4 90.3 110.2 97.8 111.9 99.5 108.8 109.7 95.3 109.6 96.5 106.7 115.2 97.9 114.0 93.9 llloO 116.6 116.0 119.2 107.5 129.6 117.1 119.0 121.7 110.9 132.1 111.5 116.0 117.0 114.0 127.0 85.8 86.1 83.9 93.0 77.2 85.4 84.0 82.2 90.2 75.7 89.6 86.2 85.5 87.8 78.7 «— — — 100 #7 106 #0 93.3 118 #4 128 #5 113 #4 133.4 107.0 141.0 j — 1/ Production index for the i*ar years is understated because it includes some of the strictly war products made in these industries during the war# The regularly published BLS employingt series, hotwver, oovers the special wartime activities oarried on in these industries# Owing to the la ok of comparability between the pro duction index and the employment index, indexes of labor, output per man-hour and unit labor requirements are not shown# Table 1* — Indexes of production, employment, man-hours, productivity, and unit . labor requirements in the basic steel industry, 1919-39 (191*74*9-100) Weighted produc tion Tear Produc tion workers Man hours 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. . . . . 39.5 1*9.1 22.7 39.8 83.0 85.0 50.3 61*.3 135.0 131.6 1923. 192U. 1925. 1926. . . . . 50.0 Ul. 9 50.U 5U.o 81*.1 78.2 79.2 81.2 119.0 1927. 1928. 1929. 1930. . . . . 50.7 58.1* 61*.1 1*7.2 77.1 77.1* 83.1 72.7 100.I* 102 .i * 1 1 1 .8 1931. 1932. 1933. 193U. . . . . 30.8 17.0 28.0 31.1* 1935. 1936. 1937. 1938. . . . . 1939. . Output per — produc Man tion hour worker Unit labor requirements Production workers per unit Man hours per unit 1*7.6 57.8 15.1 61.9 29.3 37.3 3U.0 1*3.1* 210.1 173.1 221.6 161.6 31*1.8 268.0 293.8 230.2 59.5 53.6 168.2 186.6 157.1 150.U 238.0 66.5 1*2.0 1*2.7 1*8.5 1*9.9 206.3 200.6 87.1 65.8 75.5 77.1 6U.9 50.5 57.0 57.3 5U.2 152.1 132.5 129.6 15U.0 198.0 175.3 17U.U 18U.5 55.1 1*6.5 57.2 69.u 58.6 31.0 1*7.5 51*.1 55.9 36.6 1*9.0 1*5.2 52.6 5U.8 58.9 58.0 178.9 273.5 20U.3 221.0 190.3 182.1* 169.6 172.3 la. i 57.8 61*.l 35.9 7U.2 86.3 99.5 73.5 66.0 90.1 98.2 53.9 55.1* 67.0 6U.U 1*8.8 62.3 6U.2 65.3 66.6 180.5 H*9.3 155.2 2 0 k .7 160.6 155.9 153.2 150.1 59.0 82.9 75.1 71.2 78.6 lho.5 127.3 66.7 91.6 98.2 10lu0 108.3 63.6 2 3 h .k Source: Productivity and Unit Labor Cost in Selected Manufacturing Industries 1919-19UO, U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, February 19l*2, linked to the current series in 1939. (See footnote 1, table - 9 - 1 .) Factors Affecting Productivity Change As indicated earlier, many factors can affect the rate of productivity— in varying degrees among different industries. Ranking high in importance, although impossible to quantify, is the human factor as expressed in the effort, skill, organization, and application of both management and labor. Adoption of technological improvements is enhanced by a work force which has the capacity and willingness to learn, change, and adapt. Union and manage ment organizations have helped in this direction by developing higher pay scales, pension programs, increased leisure, incentive pay plans, and machinery for resolving grievances. The introduction in 191*7 and 191*8 of a revised job classification program in steel plants, for example, contributed to better personnel relations and general efficiency through a reduction in the number of grievances and in the amount of time lost from work. Also contributing to the advance in productivity has been the willingness and ability of management to experiment, to invest in new machinery and research, and to seek new markets. Productivity and Production Volume Productivity (output per man-hour) 9/ is also often associated with changes in production volume. However, the relationship between these two items is often elusive. In some industries, during some periods of time, production may increase while productivity declines, or vice versa, thus running counter to "normal*' expectations. Observation of year-to-year changes, influenced b y all the vagaries of business cycle, war, and temporary factors, may lead to conclusions which differ from those derived from observa tion of long-term trends. For example, as will be seen later, sharp, shortrun (year-to-year) changes in level of activity in the steel industry have overshadowed many of the other factors and strongly influenced the change in productivity. Over the years, however, although production volume has fluc tuated quite widely, output per man-hour has maintained a persistent upward trend (with a few minor interruptions) reflecting the influence of constant technological improvements. Even where long-term changes in productivity and production volume are highly correlated, cause-and-effect relationships are not necessarily established. It is true that high volume may permit higher utilization of capacity 10/ and more efficient use of facilities, thus result ing in higher productivity. At the same time, increases in productivity may permit the maintenance of a price level which leads to greater demand and, hence, to greater volume of output. 9 j Trends in output per man-hour, the reciprocal of unit man-hours, will be used in the analysis in this section. 10/ During the period studied, there was a significant positive correlation between annual changes in volume and changes in capacity utili zation. Thus, for short-run periods, increased volume has generally been accomplished b y increased use of existing capacity. - 10 - Long-run comparisons* Determination of long-run trends and the relation ship between productivity and production in the steel industry is rather difficult because of the extremely wide fluctuations which have occurred in volume of output. The problem can be overcome to some extent by using average annual rates of change which take into account, not only the terminal years, but the intervening years as well, 11/ or by comparing base and terminal years of roughly equal capacity utilization. Using average trends, somewhat different relationships appear for the prewar and postwar periods. From 1939-55 average annual production increased somewhat more rapidly than productivity (li.O percent compared with 2.8 percent). This average rate of productivity gain was about the same in the subperiods 1939-li7 and 19li7-55> but production increased more rapidly in the earlier years (5*5 percent) than in the later years (3.5 percent). In order to remove, roughly, the influence of cyclical variation on average trends, another set of calculations was made for the postwar period, in which only the peak production years of 19U8, 1951* 1953, and 1955 were used. The average annual increase in output per man-hour, using only these selected years, was 3*5 percent, compared with the 2.9 percent average obtained when all the years 19U7 to 1955 were included in the calculation. The average annual increase in production was U.l percent using the selected years and 3.5 percent using all years. Thus, the average annual rates of change, for both production and output per man-hour, were higher when computed for selected, peak output years, than when all years were included. However, the relationship of average productivity change to average production change was the same, whether all or selected years were used. During the 20 years 1919-39, the average annual increase in volume of output was very low (0.3 percent) while output per man-hour increased at an average yearly rate of 3*7 percent. However, production fluctuated widely during these two decades so that an average figure is less meaningful for production than for output per man-hour, which maintained a much steadier rate of change. Consequently, comparison of specific years may be more meaningful. Identical production peaks were reached in 1929 and 1937; yet, between these years, output per man-hour increased by lli percent. In 1932, production volume was 25 percent below that of the previous low point in 1921; but pro ductivity rose 61 percent from 1921 to 1932. These figures further illustrate the "non-reversability” of productivity gains over the long run despite declines in volume. Short-run comparisons. The relationship between productivity and volume of production in the steel industry is more apparent when short-run or 11/ That is, computed from the least squares trend of the logarithms of the inHex numbers. - 11 year-to-year changes are examined. With occasional exceptions, productivity gains have been very much influenced by recession and recovery in the industry— sharp gains have generally been achieved when volume expanded rapidly and when such expansion followed a previous year's reduction in the employed labor force. Bnployment changes, productivity, and production volume. Q f the 30 years (since 1919) for which data on annual changes are available, large produc tivity increases ( * percent or more) occurred in 12 years. (See table 5.) In 1 10 of these 12 years production increased by more than 10 percent. Output per man-hour declined in 6 years; production declined by 10 percent or more in U of these years, and increased 10 percent or more in the other 2. The relationship of changes in output per man-hour to changes in production is placed in sharper focus if employment figures are examined. 0! the 12 years f registering large increases in output per man-hour, 8 were preceded b y a decline in production worker employment during the previous year, and 3 were preceded b y an increase in employment. No information is available for the other year. However, it does not necessarily follow that large increases in volume are accompanied by large increases in output per man-hour. In 16 of the years since 1919 production increased by more than 10 percent, but produc tivity increases of U percent or more occurred in only 10 of these years. Five of the remaining 6 years— in which large production increases occurred but in which productivity increased moderately or declined— were preceded by a year in which prediction worker employment increased. Technology 12/ Numerous technological improvements have been developed in the basic steel industry. These, however, have not been introduced at a uniform rate, or uniformly in the various parts of the industry. Moreover, improvements introduced during any specified year may not contribute their full effect until a later period. Technological improvement in the steel industry has involved raw materials, processing controls, and materials handling. Some of the more important changes are described below. Blast Furnaces. Greater efficiency has been achieved in the blast furnace industry both b y conditioning the coke and iron ore used as raw materials, and by improvements in the blast furnace and its auxiliary equipment. Coal washing has offset the declining quality of coke, and the addition of sintering plants to convert flue dust into large pieces of material suitable for reuse in the furnaces as part of the charge has helped in furnace performance. Beneficiation and sintering of iron ore before it is 12/ Iftich of the description of technological improvements was compiled from Information furnished to BLS by William T. Hogan, S. J., of Fordham University. - 12 - Table 5* Annual percent change in production, number of workers, man-hours, and output per man-hour in the basic steel industry, 1919-55 1 / Weighted production Tear Production workers Man-hours of production workers Output per production worker man-hour 1919. 1920. 1921. 1922. . . . . . . . . (2/) / 2H .3 -53.8 /75.3 (2/) /2.1* -1*0.8 /27.7 (2/) - 2.5 -1*9.3 /37.3 (2/) /27.3 - 8.8 /27.6 1923. 1921*. 1925. 1926. . . . . . . . . /25.6 -16.2 /20.3 / 7.1 /30.9 - 7.1 / 1.3 / 2.6 /29.9 -17.5 / 5.9 / l*.l - 3.2 / 1.7 /13.6 / 2.9 1927. 1928. 1929. 1930. . . . . . . . . - 6.1 /15.2 / 9.8 -26.1* - 5.1 / o.l* / 7.3 -12.5 - 7.3 / 2.0 / 9.2 -22.1 / 1.2 /12.9 / 0.5 - 5.U 1931. 1932. 1933. 1931*. . . . . . . . . -31*. 7 -1*1*.8 /1 2 .1 -21*. 2 -15.5 / 23.0 /21.3 -32.7 -1*7.1 /53.2 /13.9 / / - 1935. 1936. 1937. 1938. . . . . . . . . /30.9 / 1* 0.6 /10.9 -1* *.0 1 / 6.8 /16.3 A5.3 - 26.1 / 22.0 /36.5 / 9.0 -1*5.1 / 7.1* / 3.0 / 1.7 / 2.0 1939. . . 191*1. . 191*2-1*7 . . . . M . 3 M .2 /30.3 (2/) / 12.8 /ll*.l* /ll*.6 (2/) /39.3 /19.8 /22.9 (2/) / 18.0 / 3.6 / 6.0 (2/) . . 191*9. . . 1950. . . 1951. . . / 5.3 -12.0 /26.9 / 8.5 / 3.7 -1 1 .2 /II .8 / 5.1 / 5.0 -13.9 /16.1* / 7.8 / 0.2 / 2.2 / 9.1 / 0.6 1952. 1953. 1951*. 1955. -11.8 / 17.6 - 19.8 / 3 1.8 -13.1 / 15.0 -12.0 / 10.6 -15.1 / 16.6 - 17.6 / 18 .2 / l*.o / 0.9 - 2.6 /n.l* 191*0 . 191*8 . . . . . . . . . M -7 l/ Percent change from preceding year. 2/ Information not available. - 13 - (See tables 3 and I*.) 3.0 1*.2 7.5 1.5 used in the blast furnaces results in a richer ore charge and also contributes to lower unit man-hours. To the extent that this work is done in greater amount by workers employed in the steel industry the effect on unit man-hours might be somewhat offset. It is true, generally, that improved quality of production in one industry may contribute to higher productivity in another. Improvement in blast furnaces has been effected mainly by increasing their size. As a result, larger stoves have been built to preheat the air for the furnace blast. Turbo blowers, capable of delivering up to 120,000 cu. ft. of air per minute have been installed, replacing the reciprocating steam engines, which had less capacity and required more maintenance. In order to handle the increased output, enlarged and improved ladles, particularly the torpedo type, have been prut into service to carry the pig iron away from the furnace once it is produced. Open Hearth Steel. In the steel mills, the average size of the heat in the open hearth furnaces increased from approximately 125 net tons in 1939 to approximately 160 net tons in 1951 and 1952. This was due to the construction of some new open hearth shops capable of producing as high as 225-250 ton heats. In addition, the furnaces in most of the existing shops were enlarged to increase heat sizes. The use of oxygen in the open hearth sequent was another recent develop ment that decreased man-hour requirements in the furnaces, particularly during the years 191*7-53 > by reducing melting time per ton of steel ingots produced. This development was more prevalent in open hearths making low carbon steel (less than 0.1 percent carbon content), where it reduces carbon content quicker than other methods. Electric Furnaces. The amount of steel produced in electric furnaces increased from 2 percent of total steel production in 1939 to 6 percent in 195h> although the increase was not steady. The output per dollar invest ment is higher for electric furnaces than for the open-hearth type. In addition, the recent development of top charging in place of side charging will reduce still further the number of man-hours required to produce steel ingot. The greater efficiency of the electric furnace is illustrated by the fact that an electric furnace 17 feet in diameter can produce 15 tons an hour, whereas a 21*0-ton open hearth furnace 87 feet long produces 20 to 21 tons of steel an hour, only a third more than the much smaller electric furnace. Rolling Mills. Important technological advances have been made in roll ing mills, and additions to rolling mill capacity have kept pace with increases in ingot capacity. Since 1930 most primary mills constructed have been larger than before and are powered with electric motors. These larger mills are capable of handling heavier ingots with consequent decreases in man-hours required per ton. The substitution of electric motors for steam engines as a driving force on the mills, a change beginning as early as 1920, has added power to the rolling mills. The electrically driven mills operate more smoothly, and produce less shock each time the ingot passes through. Operations are smoother because, at low speeds, electrically driven mills can produce enough torque to make a sufficient reduction on thp ingot on each pass. Steam engines require higher speeds to develop equal torque. Primary Mills. An example of technological improvement in primary mills is that of a blooming mill installed during World War II. Before the war the steam-driven 35-inch blooming mill at this location had an annual capacity for rolling 500,000 tons of steel. During the war an electrically driven hU-inch blooming mill was built with a capacity for rolling 1,100,000 tons of steel annually. The Uh-inch mill employed the same size crew as the 35-inch mill. Rod Mills and Bar Mills. Replacement of the looping type mill by the continuous rod mill has promoted greater efficiency. The introduction of a multiple strand continuous rod mill which allows the same crew to account for 2 or 3 times as much production as the old methods, depending on the number of strands, represents a further improvement. In bar mills increased power has led to much higher speeds and higher production per man-hour. Strip Mills. A major technological development in the rolling of steel strips took place in the late 1920's. The continuous strip mills replaced to a great extent the earlier hand rolling mills. Today, there are few hand mills in operation. The hand mill is a small unit capable of producing 8 to 10 tons of steel per 8-hour turn, whereas the continuous mill can produce 1,000 tons per 8-hour turn without a proportionate increase in labor involved. Especially after 1939, the output of continuous mills increased appre ciably. Several new continuous hot strip mills, each capable of rolling 2,000,000 tons or more of steel strip annually have been finished since 1939. The additional output from continuous mills has increased man-hour output in this segment of the steel industry. Additional improvements since 1939 include (1) larger slab sizes, (2) increased furnace capacity for heating slabs about to be passed through the mill, (3) better coiling and handling equipment in the finishing operations of the mill, ( t better guides and i) improved furnace and run-out table construction, and (5) in?: roved slab condi tioning. These improvements are reported to have been accomplished without a large addition of manpower and have tended to alleviate bottlenecks. Cold Reduction Mills. Other important developments include improved cold reduction mills, which have grown in importance since 19U0. Newer mills are now capable of speeds in excess of 5>000 feet per minute. The speed of the mills that were in operation before 19U0 has also been increased by the installation of new motors and controls. For example, one mill was capable of a maximum speed of 1,500 feet per minute at its installation in 1935* hut after the motors, controls, and power were improved in the late 19U0' s, its speed was increased to 1*,500 feet per minute. The same size crew operated the mill before and after the changes, with the result that the same number of men are now turning out much more steel per hour. - 15 - Increase of mill speeds did present problems, however* Coils had to be fed in rapid succession and the product removed and passed quickly to the next operation. The economies of continuous operation would be lost if the mill passed a coil through in 2 or 3 minutes and then had to be stopped to put another coil through* The size of coils was therefore increased. Capacity of cold reduction mills increased from 5 million tons annually in 1939 to 11.5 million tons in 1951-52 as a result not only of mill improve ments but also of an increase in the number of such mills installed throughout the country. Tin Plate. The electrolytic process developed during World War II has gradually replaced the hot dip process of producing tin plate and reduced the man-hours required per ton. In conclusion, the technological improvements mentioned above, and other power equipment installed in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills, have reduced direct man-hours. However, additional indirect labor required for repairs, maintenance, and inspection of the new equipment, has offset somewhat the savings in direct labor. Total Employment and Production Worker Employment The productivity trends described in this report are based on the employ ment and hours of production and related workers. (See technical note, p. 23.) As in many other industries, production workers have been declining relatively to all workers in recent years. According to BLS statistics, the proportion of production worker employment to total employment in the steel industry remained fairly constant between 1939 and 19U7, at 88.0 and 87.9 percent, respectively. However, the proportion dropped to 85.7 percent between 19U7 and 1955* 13/ Consequently, the number of employees per unit of output declined less T h a n the number of production workers per unit of output, from 19U7 to 1955. It would be desirable to construct measures of productivity using the hours of all employees in order to study the change in total manpower require ments of an industry, and to compare the results with trends for production workers alone. However, man-hours for nonproduction workers are not generally available. In an effort to obtain some general indications of trend, two 13/ Source: For 1950-55* BIS Employment and Earnings, Annual Supplement Issue, June 1956; for earlier years, summary sheet for blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills, 1932-50, February 1953• Census figures for 1939 and 19U7 show proportions of 89.1 and 87.5 percent, respectively. Statistics of the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) reveal a greater trend toward employment of other than production workers. These data indicate that "employees receiving wages" comprised 88.1 percent of the work force in 1939, 85.3 percent in 191:7* and 83.1 percent in 1955. - 16 - experimental measures have been constructed, by combining the man-hours of production workers with the estimated man-hours (employment multiplied by estimated weekly hours) for other employees. In one measure, the weekly hours of other employees were assumed to be the same as for production workers; in the other, a constant l*0-hour workweek was assumed for other employees. The two assumptions about weekly hours yield approximately the same results. Using 19U7 as a base (i.e. 191*7=100) an index of unit man-hours for production workers would be 127-3 in 1939, compared with 125.3 for all employees assuming a l*0-hour week, and 123.9 assuming the same workweek as production workers. In 1955, the unit man-hour index for production workers would be 78.1 compared with 79.6 and 80.0 for all employees depending on concept of hours worked for all employees, ll*/ Concepts and Limitations The measures for the period 1939-55 have been constructed in accordance with the "physical output" concept of productivity measurement. It is possible to conform more closely, statistically, to this concept in construct ing measures for this industry than for some other industries for which data are less readily available. The index of man-hours per unit of production in this report is of the "current weight" form; it compares the actual man-hours of a given (current) year with the man-hours which would have been required in the base-period (average for 191*7-1*9) at base-period productivity rates to produce current year output. Formulas and detailed descriptions of the measures of unit man hours as well as the underlying production and man-hours series appear in the technical note. It should be noted here, however, that the comparable production index is of the fixed-weight (base year) variety and that the weights consist of man-hours per ton of the various steel products. In constructing productivity measures, problems are frequently encountered in adequately measuring output or in matching output series with man-hours. Some of the more important of these are described in this section. It should also be noted that the indexes in this report refer to the blast furnace, steel works, and rolling mill industries. Establishments classified in these industries may make products which are usually manufactured in other indus tries; that is, the products are "primary" to other industries, but "secondary" to the covered industries. Also, products primary to the covered industries, may sometimes be made as secondary products in other industries. (See p. 18.) 1)(/ AISI man-hour data for all employees and for "employees receiving wages1*'"showed similar differences. The hours of "other" employees are generally scheduled hours reported to the AISI. - 17 - Coverage Some of the products made in the steel mills (SIC 3-digit group 331) are also made in other industries (SIC 3392, Wire Drawing; 3393, Welded and Heavy Riveted pipe} 3399* Primary Metal Industries, n.e.c.; 3l*8l, Nails and Spikes} and 31*89, Wirework, n.e.c.). The production index covers the entire output of these products— both the amounts produced in steel mills and the amounts made in the other industries* The employment series of the BLS covers only the 3-digit SIC group 331, however, and this can result in some noncomparability between output and man-hours indexes* An attempt was made to evaluate the Importance of this by combining the man-hours of these other industries with those of the steel industry and relating the total man-hours to the production index. 15/ Industries SIC 3392 and 31*89 were omitted from the combined man-hour total, however, because only 12 and 25 percent, respectively, of the value of their output in 19U7 is common to SIC 331. Appendix table A shows that steel products represent a significant part of the total output of the remaining 3 industries (SIC 3393* 3399, and 31*81). A combined man-hour index for steel and these 3 industries differs from steel alone by a maximum of 2.7 percent in 191*7 to 1953. The effect on productivity is the same* Since not all of the output of these industries consists of products made by steel mills, their inclusion in the final index would represent an over-correction. For this reason, another comparison was made. Instead of adding all of the man-hours of these 3 industries to the man-hours for steel, only the estimated man-hours devoted to steel production were included. The man-hours devoted to steel in these industries were estimated by applying the ratio of value of steel output to total value of shipments. For example, 92.5 percent of the man-hours in SIC 3393 were included. The combined index of man-hours on this basis differs from steel alone by a maximum of 2.2 per cent in the period 191*7 to 1953. Ihe man-hours of production workers in these three industries accounted for 7 percent of the man-hours in the combination in 191*7 and 9 percent in 1953. Plant Integration Changes in the scope of an industry* s activity can affect productivity measures. When an industry becomes more integrated— that is, undertakes more work in the processing or manufacture of raw materials which it consumes or when it devotes more work to finishing or fabricating products— comparability 15/ Census man-hours data were used for this test because no BLS data were available. - 18 - between production and man-hours may be affected. Ordinarily an increase in the degree of integration in an industry would result in the addition of man hours without necessarily increasing the amount of production reported. As a result, productivity indexes would be understated, and unit man-hour indexes overstated. Increased specialization, an the other hand, would have an opposite effect* An increase (or decrease) in the degree of fabrication of end product will increase (or decrease) man-hour requirements without correspondingly affecting the measure of physical production. However, such changes will affect the value of production (or shipments) since additional fabrication obviously leads' to a product with higher value. In order to check on the importance of this problem, an index was constructed from estimates of value of shipments (adjusted for price change) of the steel industry, SIC 331* for the period 19U7-55* This agrees very closely with the physical output index, indicating that changes in the degree of final processing have had little influence. Integration may also change with respect to raw materials. For example, in the steel industry, some mills operate coke ovens on the same premises. Man-hours worked in these coke ovens may be reported either separately or in combination with man-hours worked in the production of steel. In the latter case, an increase (or decrease) in the importance of coke production will increase (or decrease) man-hours without a corresponding effect on the measure of physical production of steel. Since the proportion of coke made in the industry varies in proportion to total coke consumed, such reporting might spuriously accelerate or depress the rate of productivity change. However, this appears to be a factor of limited significance, for the follow ing reasons* (1) Employment in all byproduct ovens (including those which report man-hours separately and those which do not) was only 6.6 percent of that in steel mills in 19l*7. Since employment in the b y product coke ovens which do not report separately is even a smaller fraction of steel employment, it would have little effect on the total man-hours estimate* (2) The industry produced 93*6 percent of the total byproduct coke consumed by the industry in 19U7, and 97.9 percent in 195U. The proportion tends to vary with changes in steel production. This variation would affect annual changes in productivity, but there is no consistent bias, so the net effect over a period of several years would be small if not zero. (3) As an additional check a productivity index was prepared for the steel (SIC 331) and byproduct coke (SIC 2932) industries combined, for the period 1939-5U. The combined index was lower than the index for steel alone in every year, but the maximum difference in any one year was 1.3 percent. In all but 2 years the difference was less than 1 percent. - 19 inventory Change In the steel index, data on shipments rather than production are used for more than half of the index. When statistics on shipments are used to estimate production, comparability between output and man-hours indexes is affected by year-to-year changes in inventory holdings. Opinions of persons familiar with the industry lead to the conclusion that the inventory factor has been unimportant. From statistics on value of shipments and inventories, deflated with appropriate price series, it is estimated that the inventory change could have affected the indexes in the years 19U7-53 by less than 1 percent. Because some production data are in fact used in constructing the index, the actual effect would be smaller— probably by not more than 0.5 percent. Quality Change The intangibles of quality change cannot be measured. To the extent that quality is increasing, the unit man-hours indexes contain an upward bias. The steel index shares this limitation in varying degrees with all other indexes of production, productivity, and prices. Technical Note The Blast Furnaces, Steel Works, and Rolling Hills Industries Group represents the activities of 3 component industries as defined in the 19li7 Census of Manufactures and the Standard Industrial Classification: (1) estab lishments primarily engaged in manufacturing pig iron and blast furnace ferroalloys from iron ore and scrap, (the Blast Furnace Industry SIC 3311) (2) establishments primarily engaged in converting pig iron, scrap iron, and scrap steel into steel and in hot-rolling iron and steel into shapes such as plates, sheets, strips, rods, bars, and tubing, (the Steel Works and Rolling Mills Industry SIC 3312) and (3) establishments primarily engaged in manu facturing ferrous and nonferrous additive alloys by electrometallurgical processes, (the Electrometallurgical Products Industry SIC 3313)• The trends shown are averages for the group as a whole, and do not necessarily represent the trend for any one plant or company. Man-Hours per Unit, Production Workers, and Total Employees per Unit The indexes of man-hours per unit, production workers per unit and total employees per unit are obtained by dividing an index of man-hours or employment b y a production index. The production index is computed from physical quantities of the various products of the industry combined with fixed unit man-hour weights. The use of unit man-hour weights in the pro duction index removes the effect on the unit man-hour series which would result from changes in the relative volume of production of the various items. Thus, within the limits of the data, the index measures the average change in unit man-hours and output per man-hour for products of the industry. The general formulas used as well as details of construction of the production, man-hours, and employment series are set forth on page 21. - 20 - Formulas The index of man-hours per unit of production used in this report is of the foro l nit man-hours l = H ^t ^t £V5T where 1 q t o s man-hours used to produce one unit of a product — number of units (quantity) of a given product = current year z base year This index form employs current year quantity weights. The comparison is between actual total man-hours in the current year (1^ q^.) and the total man-hours which would have been required to produce the current quantity of goods if base year productivity prevailed (10 q^). In practice, the unit man-hour measure is derived by dividing an index of man-hours by an index of production thus* E H qt = I i t qt qt 511o % ^ £ i0 % % * The fixed unit man-hour weights of the base period "10 " are used to construct the production index. Production The annual production index is based on production data for pig iron, ferroalloys, and steel ingots, and net shipments— or net production for sale— of steel mill shapes and forms, all measured in short tons, combined with unit man-hour weights. Basic Data on Output. Because of changes in product detail, the number of classes was increased from 69 in 1939 through 19U3 to 73 in 19h k -k$> 7U in 19U6-U8, 76 in 19U9, 82 in 1950-5U, and 83 in 1955. The index was constructed from data compiled by the American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), and adjusted in 1939 and 19li7 to data from the Census of Manufactures. Except for some unpublished AISI figures on alloys and stainless steel for earlier years, all the data are from the published Annual Reports of the Institute. Table B shows the methods used for estimating some of the detailed shipments figures and compares the 1939 and 19ii7 AISI data with the data used in the Census adjustments for those years. Ten items of relatively snail volume were introduced after 19U35 alloy rails, standard and other; alloy wheels; alloy axles; alloy bars, reinforcing; alloy galvanized sheets; alloy steel piling; stainless wire nails and staples; - 21 - stainless structural shapes, heavy; and stainless woven wire fencing. Alloy bars, reinforcing, have not been shown since 1950 and have subsequently been dropped. All of these items contributed a combined total of only O.Ol; percent of the total weighted production in 1950 and less than 0.01 percent in 1955. In addition, four items previously included with other items were shown separately. These include carbon sheet, all other coated; carbon sheet, enameling; carbon, electrical sheet and 3trip; and alloy electrical sheet and strip. For years in which data were not available, production of all new items was considered to be zero. For the four items previously included with other items, the increased detail was used with no adjustment when it became available. As indicated below, the production index consists of weighted output of pig iron and ingot to which is added the output of finished or semi finished products weighted with the additional man-hours required to produce the product from ingot. One of these product classes is ingots, blooms, billets, etc., shipped. The quantity of ingot in this figure represents duplication of counting, inasmuch as ingot production is counted at an earlier stage. This duplication was eliminated in 1950 when separate figures became available for ingots shipped. An estimate of the duplication for earlier years was made by applying to the combined figure for ingots, billets, and slabs shipped in earlier years the ratio of ingots to the combined figure in 1950 and 1951. This is a small adjustment, inasmuch as ingots shipped con stituted only 1.2 percent of total steel products in 1950. Weights. The basic data from which the pig iron and carbon steel weights were derived were obtained from an analysis of the experience during 19h6-h7 of companies considered to be representative of the industry and assumed to be adequate for the purposes of this study. The basic data for 25 products represent raw materials and steel plant man-hours and gross total man-hours for the production of pig iron and carbon steel. The weight for pig iron represents the number of man-hours per ton required in blast furnaces. The weight applied to ingot production is the additional man-hours per ton for processing beyond the pig iron stage and represents steel mill requirements, not the total number of man-hours needed for ingot production in earlier processes. For other finished or semi finished products, the weights used are the additional man-hours required per ton in steel mills to produce the product from ingot. In order to obtain weights which represent unit man-hour requirements beyond the ingot stage of manufacture, it was necessary to subtract the man hours spent in ingot production from the gross man-hours required for the end product. A ton of end product requires more than a ton of ingot in its manufacture, however, and it was necessary to determine the yield of end products from ingot and adjust the unit labor requirement figure for ingot by the yield factor for each end product before subtracting. - 22 - The yield factors themselves were estimated from the ratio of man-hours required per ton of raw material (iron ore and coal) in ingot manufacture to man-hour requirements for manufacture of each product. Since the man-hours expended on the raw materials which enter into each product are actually expended in the pre-ingot stage of manufacture, the ratios based on man-hour requirements for raw materials actually represent yield ratios. It is believed that the calculated yield factors are in close accord with actual experience of the industry. From these man-hour weights for carbon steel, additional man-hour requirements for alloy (other than stainless) and for stainless were estimated. These weights for stainless steel and alloy shapes and forms are BLS estimates obtained by applying alloy-carbon and stainless-carbon steel price ratios to the carbon steel weights. The unit labor requirement weight for the ferroalloys was obtained from the 19U7 Census of Manufactures. Employment and Man-Hours The employment index is based on the series regularly published by BLS, adjusted to levels indicated b y the Census of Manufactures in 1939 and 19U7. The adjustment method consists in: (1) computing the ratios of the Census to the BLS employment figure for the 2 years 1939 and 19k7> (2) interpolating the ratio for noncensus years and (3) multiplying the interpolated ratio b y the BLS figure for the given year. The BLS series is based on a sample show ing the percent change for identical establishments in overlapping 2-raonth periods. The index of man-hours is derived from the adjusted BLS employment series and BLS average weekly hours. The man-hour series cover only production and related workers and exclude salaried officers, superintendents, other supervisory employees, and professional and technical employees. The data used to compute the indexes of man-hours and man-hours per unit include man-hours paid for but not worked— vacations, call-ins, etc. It is not possible to eliminate from the indexes the effect of changes in the proportion which such man-hours bear to total man-hours. 16/ The regularly published BLS employment series covers the special wartime activities carried on in these industries during the war but the production index excludes some of the special war products made b y these industries. Owing to this lack of comparability, industrywide indexes of output per man hour and unit labor requirements are not shown for the years 19U2-1*6. 16/ For practices of the U. S. Steel Corporation with respect to paid vacations, holidays, and other related wage matters, see Wage Chronology, United States Steel Corp. U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Report 106. This publication indicates a practice in 1939 of a 1-week paid vacation after 5 years* service, and in 1952, 1 week after 1 year, 2 weeks after 5 years, and 3 weeks after 15 years. In 1939, no paid holidays were provided; in 1952, there were 6 paid holidays. - 23 Adjustment to the 19k 7 Census of Manufactures The labor data were adjusted to levels shown by the Census of Manufactures for 1939 and 19U7. The production data were adjusted to Census levels for 1939 and 19k7» using Census data (supplemented by AISI data where necessary). The index is based on data for 81 product classes (including pig iron, ferro alloys, steel ingots, and steel mill shapes and forms), all measured in short tons, combined with unit man-hour weights. Hie data for pig iron and ferro alloys represent production for sale and interplant transfer in 1939 and shipments and inteiplant transfers in 19U7» Hie figures on ingots and steel for castings are for total production in both 1939 and 19U7. The data for steel mill shapes and forms represent production for sale and interplant transfer in 1939 and shipments and interplant transfers in 19U7• For shapes and forms, for which receipts of the item (for manufacture into other basic shapes and forms) were of importance, receipts were deducted from the 19U7 shipments and transfer figures and the 1939 Census figures were converted to a net basis using AISI ratios of net to total tonnages. For weighting purposes, some combined Census figures were separated on the basis of AISI ratios. - 2k - A P P E N D I X - 25 - Table A.---Percent of selected steel products made in the basic steel industry and in other industries in 19^7 Value 0# product class made in industry Total 1/ sic 33i| sic 33921 sic 33931 sic 33$91 sic 3W I Product class Nails, spikes, brads ............... Wire, steel .............. .......... Cold rolled sheet, strip, bars, shapes Pipe and tubes...... ................ (PercerL ) t (2 /) (2 /) A. 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1/ 6.3 32.0 69.3 67.7 78.5 80.3 (2/)“ " 3/ 2k.6 88 21.5 (2 /) sic 3^ 19.3 (2/) (2 /) (2/) (2/)"’ (2/)”” Value of industry shipments accounted for by steel products B. Product class Nails, spikes, brads................. Wire, steel ........................ Cold rolled sheet, strip, bars, shapes Pipe and tubes.... ......... ........ Total, selected steel products........ Other products...... ................ T o t a l ...................... ♦........ l/ 2/ 3/ — 0.8 1 1 .1 SO (SO (so (2/) (V) (Percei r <> m _ 88.1 92.5 92.5 7.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 m M _ 11.9 (V) 63.^ 100.0 78.3 (V) (v T 78.3 21.7 100.0, 5/ (V) 25.1 * (v T ' 25.4 7^.b 100.0 Figures may not add to totals because of small amounts made in industries not listed. Information not available. Figures add to more than 100 because of duplication in reporting. Quantity unknown. Included with other products. 5/ This figure is probably considerably overstated. It includes the total amount of wlrework n.e.c. made in the industry without regard to material; not merely steel wire. That the true amount is small is evident from the fact that section A above shows that SIC 331 and 3392 account for 99.7 percent of all steel wire. X J Source: Census of Manufactures, 19^7 Table B.— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939-^7 index of steel production Quantity (short; tons) ----------------------Weights 2/ Type of product AISI Furnace products Pig iron 2/.............. Ferroalloy ........... Ingots and steel for casting Carbon steel Ingots 8 / ....... . Steel for casting 1o/.... Alloy steel Ingots 8/.............. Steel for casting 10/.♦.. Stainless steel Ingots 6/.......... . Steel for casting 10/.... 6/ -------------------j - j . ------------------------------------------------------- V 5/ CENSUS 3^,808,682 868,1*15 5/ 3^,711,800 877,61*9 1/ AISI kf 5/ CENSUS 58,328,912 1 ,788,1*07 5/ 58,339,9^2 1 / 1 ,877,357 - Semifinished shapes and forms 12, Carbon steel Blooms, slabs, etc...... Skelp ................. Wire rods.............. Alloy steel Blooms, slabs, etc...... Wire rods............... Stainless steel Blooms, slabs, etc...... Wire rods.............. See footnotes at end of table. 1.00 17 .1* 1/ 1939 1.37 1-37 2 .jk 2 . 7k 15.77 15.77 ^9,586,759] J * 9 j 1 9 ,569,863 3,032,3351 J 33/ 179,620 0 11/ 0.29 2,950,362 188,613 6 ,908,298^ 91,096 6 ,737,51*8 109,520 180,177 0 519,933 51*1,628 (iV) §26,508 dV) 1 ,697,175 160,989 665,263 IF/ 1 ,697,175 160,989 665,263 277,072 1,3 11 IV w 277,072 1,3 11 6,917 708 5/ 6,917 708 (§l^508 (15 /) 0.h9 3-37 (13 /) (15 /) $! 2.51 (13 /) (15 /) (iV) @ 0 34/ 77,21*1*,331 J 2.83 1.97 16 .3! * 77 ,1* ,81*01 65 170,179 Table B .— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939-47 index of steel production— Continued Type of product Weights 2/ AISI Finished shapes and forms Carbon steel Structural shapes 16/....... Steel piling 18/............ Plates 19/.......... •...... Alloy steel Structural shapes 16/....... Plates...................... Stainless steel Plates ..................... Rails 26/ Carbon steel Standard tee....... ......... Light tee.................... All others........... ....... Alloy steel Standard tee................ All others.................. Rail joints and track spikes Carbon steel Joints and splices 29/....... Tie plates 29/ .... .......... Track spikes 32/**.......... See footnotes at end of table. Quantity (short tons) 1 / 1939 CENSUS AISI 5/ 1.49 1.49 (17 /) 171,428 1.14 (go/) 2.57 1.94 (17 /) ( a /> (23/) (21/) 9.37 (20/> (25/) 1.31 1.31 1.31 21/ 3,140,866) J 2,946,628 1,316,272 ’ 125.109J 4,368,551 5/ 324,224 6,167,837 22/ 4 ,999,997) J 5,690,817 67,578 67,578 23/ H/ 172,315 11,273 24/ 16,173 166,106 2,213,046 211,825 191,750 31,646 (27/) (27/) 4.71 132,880 147,465 369,955 119,719 4.71 CENSUS 2 ,206,989 1 ,161,988 2.26 2.26 3.80 12/ 1947 333,367 119,719 28/ 157 28/ 75 28/ 173,923 504,779 163,746 28/ 157 75 217,242 542,345 163,746 Table B.— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939-47 index of steel production— Continued Type of product Quantity (short tons) l/ 1939 CENSUS AISI Weights 2/ AISI Wheels and axles Carbon steel Wheels 31/.............. Axles lo/............... Alloy steel Wheels 31/• •••.... ..... . Axles l5/............... Bars Carbon steel Hot rolled 33/........... Concrete reinforcing 18/.. Cold finished 18/........ Tool steel 33/TT......... Alloy steel Hot rolled 3j J ...... . Cold finished 18/ ........ Tool steel 37/77...... . Stainless steel Hot rolled 33/........... Cold finished l£/........ Pipe 39/ Carbon steel Standard 33/..... ....... Oil country goods 4-3/.... Line 43/................ See footnotes at end of table. 32/ 27.8 32/ 26.3 32/ 47.3 32/ 44.7 150,750 73,970 21/ 27/ 0 0 2.83 (3»/) i w (W) 23.51 23.51 (38/) (3s/) 7.97 (40/) (W) ($§/) 0 0 (a§/) 4.83 4.83 4.83 27/ 27/ 2.83 2.20 5.69 5.71 184,461 53 5 ,602,717 1,378,521 1 ,361,367 24/ 20,785 1 ,716,187 196,200 62,780 24/ 1,844,993 235,910 24/ 63,619 25,176 ) 24/ 23,723 22,762 (I/) 644,677 558 1,426,541 24,499 ) 1,746,467 998,734 28/ §5/ 6,242,485 (34/) 4l/ W 51/ 415,767 184,46i 1 ,452,908 (34/) W 28/ 53 558 (34/) 1,225,409 (35/) (35/) W CENSUS 356,820 159,484 73,970 3 ,292,876 1,214,202 592,514 2.83 28/ 1947 42/ 55/ 52/ 23,063 2,241,396 1,264,377 1,321,849 2,362,549 1,200,791 1 ,618,295 Table B.— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939-^7 index of steel production— Continued See footnotes at end of table. Table B.— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S. Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939 -57 index of steel production--Continued Type of product Weights 2f AISI Quantity (short tons) 1/ 1939 CENSUS AISI 191*7 CENSUS Alloy steel P l a i n ...................... Stainless steel Plain ................. 7.60 (5§/) (!>!/) 28,1*36 55,101 37-03 (56/) <5l/> 8,891 11,590 Other wire material 58/ Carbon steel Wire nails, spikes.......... Wire staples................ Barbed and twisted wire...... Woven wire fencing..... ..... Wire bale ties.............. 7.23 7.23 10.09 10.09 5.56 678,786j 689,553 28,735 230,765 Tin mill products Carbon steel Black plate 50/............. Tin plate 18/ Electrolytic ............. lot d i p p e d ........ ...... . Terae plate (short temes) 18/ Sheets Carbon steel lot rolled ................. Cold rolled ................ Galvanized .... ............. Long t e m e .................. See footnotes at end of table. 231,021 273,596 59,557 6.37 6.37 6.37 1.56 2.80 5.29 k .29 2 ,561,551 280,1*83 820,997 25/ 312,130 2 ,560,721] 1 52/ 256,991 507,295 119,917 59/ 85,783 59/ 269,351 51 / 5.20 53/ J 52/ 175,355 “ (55/) (55/) , , (it/) 1,395,922] 57/ 1 ,619,576 (55/) J J 799,536] 119,598 1,617,659, 2,093,159] J 7,115,070 22/ 5 ,185 ,621* §5/ 1,609,8811 57/ I 807,700 35,1*03 257,781 577,609 159,202 861,625 1,778,623 1 ,902,882 99,280 7,188,061* 5 ,236,510 1,501,535 11* 8,363 Table B.— Comparison of data from American Iron and Steel Institute and U. S . Bureau of the Census for deriving 1939 “^7 index of steel production— Continued Quantity (short tons)-!/ Type of product 1939 Weights 2/ AISI Alloy steel Hot r o l l e d ...... •. •...... Cold rolled ............... Stainless steel Hot rolled................. Cold rolled ............... Strip Carbon steel Hot rolled................. Cold rolled................ Alloy steel Hot rolled......... ....... Cold rolled..... .......... Stainless steel Hot rolled........... . Cold rolled................ Index of production of basic steel products (191*7 = 100) ........... See footnotes at end of table 2.1*9 ^.77 1.1*6 2.80 2.1*9 1*.77 12.00 23.20 21*/ 815,888 55/ 208,737 (25/) (55/) 32,358 2 b/ 67,1*80 15/ 66,1*67 (59/) (§5/) 1 ,671,079 2 b/ 1 ,1* 07,998 25/ 1,302,791 1,363,127 (59/) (®/) 67,972 61/ 103,719 15/ 91*,1*31 m 1 ,03^ 61/ 101,288 15/ 0 10l *,928 100.0 100.0 f f l (15/) (5b/) (W) (5b/) (IV) 57.5 CENSUS 2 5 1M b W > (5b/) 1947 AISI 7^5,370 (5it/) ®/) 12.00 23.20 CENSUS 58.6 ^3,825 0 APPENDIX, Table B — Continued FOOTNOTES 1j Figures refer to net shipments or production for sale except as noted. Data are from various editions of the Annual Report of the American Iron and Steel Institute, the Census of Manufactures, and other sources. For specific source references, noted in the stub of the table, see p. to. 2/ The actual weights are 19*1-7 man-hour requirements per net ton; those for alloy and stainless steel were estimated from the carbon steel weights, using weighted price ratios as estimating factors. (See description on p. 22.) With the exception of the figures for ferro alloys, and wheels and axles (footnotes 6 and 32)> the figures in this column are directly proportional to the actual weights used. 3/ Source reference 1 on p. to. hj Figures refer to total production. 5/ Shipments to other companies and interplant transfers. 6/ The ferroalloy weight (man-hours required per net ton produced) is com puted from 19 * Census of Manufactures data on man-hours expended and 1-7 quantities shipped. An electric furnace ferroalloy man-hours figure is estimated from the published figure for man-hours expended in the Electrometallurgical Products Industry, using the ratio of the value of shipments of electric furnace ferroalloys (made in the industry) to the total for the Electrometallurgical Products Industry. A quantity figure is computed in a similar fashion from the published quantity of electric ferroalloys shipped (total less shipments of blast furnace ferroalloys) using the ratio of value of electric furnace alloys made in the industry to the total value made in all industries. The ratio of the resulting estimate of man-hours expended in producing electric furnace ferroalloys to the quantity shipped yields the weight— the man-hours required per net ton of ferroalloys produced in electric furnaces. 7/ 19to data represent shipments; 1939 data represent production} shipments data are not available. 8/ Source reference 2. 2/ Grade breakdown for 1939 Census figure estimated. See 19 I AISI (pp. 1-5 33) for source of 1939 production data used in the estimating ratios. (See footnote 1.) 10/ Source reference 3- AISI castings data include only those foundries operated by companies producing steel Ingots. - 3* * 32 - APPENDIX, T a b le B - -C o n tin u e d Footnotes — Continued 11/ 1939 figure reported in 1953 AISI, p. kl, for stainless steel ingots RT d castings combined is the same as that reported for stainless steel > ingots in 19^-5 AISI (p. 33)* Hence, it is concluded that (l) no stain less castings were produced in 1939 > and (2 ) the 1939 figure for alloy Including stainless reported in 1953 AISI (p. kl) represents alloy castings only. 12/ Source references k and 5* Blooms, slabs, etc., are reported in combi nations with ingotsj the breakdown between products is estimated using 1950 and 1951 AISI data. 13 / 1 ,305,866 Ik/ AISI data were used in the computations because the Census method of confuting net shipments has resulted occasionally in a negative net shipments figure. 15/ 550,OkO tons of wire rods were shipped in 1939* ments are unpublished estimates. 16/ Source references 5 and 7* 17/ tons of carbon, alloy and stainless blooms, slabs, etc., and ingots were shipped in 1939* Data for alloy and stainless steel grades are unpublished estimates; the figure for carbon steel was obtained by subtracting these estimates from the total. The details for ship 2 , 5 ^ , 5 1 5 tons of structural shapes were shipped in 1939* p. 56 .) A IS I (See 19k8 18/ Source reference 7* 19/ Plates are shown in I9H7 CM as floor plates, and plates other than floor plates. Source references 6 and 8. 20/ 2 ,793,798 21/ tons of plates were shipped in 1939 . Reported in 1939 C M as total production (including that consumed by the producing plant) of carbon and alloy plates combined (2 ,968,^63 long tons) and of armor plate (31,k20 long tons). Shipments are first esti mated from total production, and then the grade breakdown of the ship ments figure is also estimated. The 1939 data used in the two sets of estimating ratios are derived as follows: total shipments from 19 k8 AISI (p. 58); the grade breakdown of shipments from unpublished esti mates, and total and stainless production from 19k0 AISI (pp. 2 and kl ) . Both numerator and denominator of the estimating ratios exclude stain less plates. - 35 - APPENDIX, T a b le B — C o n tin u e d Footnotes --Continued 22/ Shipments less receipts. table 3 (p* 6). 23/ AISI alloy data are used because I9V 7 C M reports the production of alloy structural shapes as part of the category other rolled and drawn alloy steel products. 2\ j Shipments less receipts. 6 - e (pP . 5110-5^1 ). 25 / 1939 C M (p. 188) reports the shipments of stainless steel plates and sheets as a combined figure (25,185 long tons). Census shipments and the product breakdown are estimated simultaneously. Unpublished esti mates furnished the 1939 data on shipments of stainless steel plates which are used in the estimating ratio. For data on the production of stainless plates and hot rolled sheets, reported separately, see I9H0 AISI (p. Hi). 26/ Source references 5 and 6 . The product listing of the I9H7 CM (p. 5^3) is used. AISI shows two categories: (l) Standard (over 60 pounds), and (2 ) all other. 27 / Assumed to be zero. 28/ No Census data are available; therefore, the corresponding AISI data have been used. 29/ Source reference 6 . Joint and splice bars, and tie plates (except for I9H7 AISI ) are reported as a combined figure. The product breakdown is estimated; for the 1939 data used in the estimating ratios, see I9H 7 AISI (p. H8). 30/ Source reference H. 31/ Source references 5 and 7 . Listed b y Census as wheels, rolled, including tires and rims; and b y I9H9 AISI (p. 5H) as wheels (rolled or forged). 32/ The man-hours per net ton of end product used in computing the weights for wheels and axles were estimated from data in the article, Man-Hours of Labor per Unit of Output in Steel Manufacturing by Bernard H. Topkis and H. 0. Rogers, Monthly Labor Review, May 1935. The method used was the same as that employed for carbon weights for the current year; see description in the Technical Note. 33/ Source reference Source of receipts figure is FFI M22-B-09, Source of receipts figure is I9H7 CM, table See p. 21 of text. 8. - 36 - APPENDIX, T a b le B — C o n tin u e d F o o t n o t e s — C o n t in u e d 3I./ 1939 4 “ CM reports total production of hot rolled steel bars and tool steel bars combined (h,1 ^ 3 ,2 31 long tons') under beading steel bars, total. Census net shipments figure estimated from AISI ratio of shipments to total production. AISI total production data from 19^3 AISI (p. 8 ). Grade breakdown is estimated using 1939 alloy data from unpublished estimates. 35/ Breakdown b y grade estimated from data supplied b y unpublished source. 36/ I- ,117 tons of tool steel were shipped in 1939* j5 37 / S o u r c e r e f e r e n c e 6 . 38/ 702,322 tons of alloy (including stainless} steel bars and of cold finished bars were shipped in 1939 * 66,38b tons 39/ 1939 AISI shipments of steel pipe and tubing are reported under 5 classificationsj buttweld, lapweld, electric weld, seamless, and conduit. Classification here corresponds to the listing as shown in the 1939 CM. kof 3 *626,137 ■k°ns of carbon steel pipe and tubing (excluding miscellaneous) were produced in 1939* Shipments of all steel pipe (including alloy and stainless) totaled 3*505*582 tons. After subtracting the amounts of alloy and stainless steel pipe and tubing, the remainder was apportioned among the various grades in the same proportions as the production. Data for alloy and stainless steel pipe and tubing were obtained from an unpublished source and the other data from AISI Annual Statistical Reports— 19^0 (pp. 35-36) and I9W (p. 56). The proportions of alloy steel and stainless steel pipe and tube in each category were estimated based on their respective shipment proportions in the biennium 1950 and 1951* see AISI Annual Statistical Report— 1950 (p. 55) end 1951 (p* 56). hi/ The breakdown between carbon and alloy steels is estimated by using AISI 1939 data by grade. Census reports carbon and alloy shipments of seamless line pipe and oil country goods as a combined figure. These products separated using data from 19^0 AISI (p. 36) in the estimating ratio. ^ 2/ Total shipments of pipe and tubing separated into grade using 19 V 7 stain less and alloy data cited in 19^9 AISI (p. 56). Estimating ratios applied to obtain desired product classifications derived from 1950 AISI (p. Vf). k-3/ Sou rce r e fe r e n c e 9* - 37 - APPENDIX, Table B--Continued Footnotes — Continued 44/ Census reports one figure for alloy miscellaneous pipes and tubes (including standard and line). Therefore AISI data are used. 45/ Estimated from the combined production figure for stainless steel mechanical and pressure tubing ( 3 U 5 long tons) reported b y 1939 CM (p. 190) b y subtracting AISI figure for shipments of stainless steel standard pipe. 46/ 1 ,354,992 47/ 1,375,262 tons were shipped in 1939. The distribution among the types of steel has been made on the same basis as the AISI items. 48/ Source reference 10. 49/ The 1947 Census category of fence gates, wire (except chain link) is excluded from 1947 data. The 1939 Census reports total production of fencing and fence gates as one figure and includes the wire fence gates (except chain link) category. The shipments in 1939, excluding this category, are estimated using 1947 Census data in the estimating ratio. 50/ Source reference 11. 51/ Includes output produced and consumed in same plant, reported as 2,970,471 long tons. Shipments estimated from ratio of AISI shipments and AISI production from 1940 AISI (p. 30). 52/ AISI reports hot dipped tin plate and terne plate under the classifi cation tin and t e m e plate— hot dipped. 53/ Long ternes and t e m e plate are reported as a combined figure. The product breakdown is estimated using 1939 AISI production data. 54/ The following shipments of sheet and strip wire were made in 1939. tons of drawn steel wire were shipped in alloy and stainless steel. 5 ,087,886 2 ,021,859 tons tons 1,160,513 tons 676,397 tons 1939 > including hot rolled sheet cold rolled sheet hot rolled strip cold rolled strip Data for alloy and stainless sheet and strip were obtained from unpub lished estimates. 55/ 9,454,345 long tons or 10,588,866 short tons of hot rolled carbon and alloy (except stainless) steel hot rolled sheets were produced in 1939 . Estimated shipments are based on the proportion of production for sale - 38 - APPENDIX, Table B — Continued Footnote s --Continued to total production shown in the AISI Report, 19^0,(P P • 2 and ^l). Esti mated Census shipments of carbon and alloy sheet are distributed in the same proportion as AISI detail. tons of cold rolled sheet were produced in 1939* Estimated shipment by type was based on proportion of total production of cold rolled sheet reported in the AISI report and on data from an unpub lished source. See AISI 19^5 (p. 59) and AISI 191*) (p. 3). IS ^ 56/ 2,767,526 Figures include galvanized strip. Figure refers to shipments less receipts and includes electrical and enameling sheets. 59/ Total production reported estimates. 60/ Shipments estimated from AISI shipments to production ratio. AISI ship ments data in I9W AISI (p. 56) and AISI production data in 19^0 AISI (p. 2 ). 6l/ Shipments less receipts is negative figure, these shipments are assumed to be zero. 1,755,^-75 - 39 tons. - Details from unpublished APPENDIX, Table B — Continued Source: n i e f : ■■ ------------------- 1539 A I S I 1 No. For convenience in reference the following table contains all the source references for the data in this table. "AISI" refers to Annual Statistical Report of the American Iron and Steel Institute, "CM" refera to the particular Census of Manufactures, and "FFI" refers to the Facts for Industry series published by the Bureau of the Census. CENSUS AISI I5C7----------------------------CENSUS 191*7 CM (pp. 538-539) 191*8 AISI (p. 16) 191*7 CM (pp. 538-539) 1953 AISI (p. 1 1) * 1939 CM (p. 187) 1953 AISI (p. 1 1 *) 191*7 CM (p. 5U1) 3. . . 1953 AISI (p. 1 1) * 1953 AISI (p. 1 1) * 1953 AISI (p. 1 *1) 1953 AISI (p. 1*1) 1. . . * 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 191*9 AISI (pp. 51*,56) 191*9 AISI (p. 5 *) 1 5. . . Unpublished 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) 191*9 AISI (p. 56) 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) 6. . . Unpublished 191*8 AISI (p. 16) 2. . . GOVERNM ENT PRINTING O FFIC E : 1956 O - 397229 1. . . 1939 CM (pp. 187-188) 191*9 AISI (p. 56) 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) 191*9 AISI (pp. 51*,56) 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) S. . * 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 1939 CM (pp. 187-188) 191*9 AISI (pp. 51*,56) 191*7 CM (pp. 51*0-51*3) 9. . . 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 1939 CM (p. 190) 191*9 AISI (pp. 51*,56) 191*9 FFI M22-BT3 10. . . 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 191*7 CM (p. 572) 191*8 AISI (p. 56) 191*7 CM (p. 572) 11. . . 1939 CM (p. 188) 191*9 AISI (pp. 51*,56) 191*7 CM (p. 51*7) 7. . . 191*8 AISI (p. 56)