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V Z . z 4/ ? 3 W o. °*yton g, 6 fin. Public J U ‘ <1 MAJOR $ istjy ww'* w «>utenm l£ COLLECTIVE BARGAINING AGREEMENTS SUBCONTRACTING Bulletin No. 1425-8 April 1969 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S M AJO R C O L L E C T IV E B A R G A IN IN G AG REEM ENTS SUBCONTRACTING Bulletin No. 1425-8 A p ril 1969 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR George P. Shultz, Secretary BUREAU O F LA B O R STATISTICS G e o ffre y H . M oore, C o m m issio n er For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 2 04 02 - Price 55 cents Preface This bulletin is the eighth in a Bureau of Labor Statis tic s se rie s of studies surveying the entire scope of the collectiv e bargaining agreem ent. Previous reports are listed on the last page. Subcontracting rem ains one of the sensitive issu es of day-to-da y labor-m anagem ent relations, a frequent subject of arbitration and National Labor Relations Board cases, and a m atter which has required U. S. Supreme Court decision s. Agreem ent provisions governing contracting out of in-plant production, construction, or maintenance w ork embody the settlement reached by the parties to r e s o l v e their contracting out problem s. This bulletin d e scrib e s subcontracting provisions and reports on their prevalence in m ajor con tracts. The study is based on agreem ents in the United States covering 1,000 w orkers or m o re , exclusive of the r a il road and airline industries and the government. These con tracts accounted for alm ost half of the estim ated c o v erage of all agreem ents outside of the excluded industries. The study does not n e ce ssa rily reflect pra ctices in m inor collectiv e bargaining situations. The clau ses quoted in this report, identified in appen dix B, are not intended as m odels. The cla ssifica tion and interpretation of clau ses, it must be e m p h a s i z e d , re fle ct the opinion of ou tsiders, but not n ecessa rily of the parties who negotiated them. The bulletin was prepared in the O ffice of Wages and Industrial Relations by Leon E. Lunden, assisted by Theesa E llis a n d Ernestine M oore of the D ivision of Industrial R elations. iii Contents Page 1 Related stu d ie s-------------------------------------Scope o f study---------------------------------------P reva len ce and tren ds------------------------------T r e n d s ---------------------------------------------------Types of p rov ision s ---------- -------------- ---- -— A reas of perm itted subcontracting- 2 2 3 3 6 6 P rov isio n s protecting in-plant em ploym ent opportunties------------------------------------------------------N otice and consultation p r o v is io n s _______________________________________________________ Layoff and p a rt-tim in g o f w o r k e r s -------------------------------------------—__________ ______ ________ P rotectin g individual w o r k e rs---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------P rotectin g con tract and union stan d ards_____________________________________________________ P rotectin g the su b con tra ctor1s em p loy ees------------------------------------------------------------------------Lim itations concerning co st, production, and other business c o n d itio n s ---- --------------- ---- — Equipment, skill, and m anpow er—-------------------------------- --------------- -----------------------------------Disputes settlem ent and savings p r o v is io n s --------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 9 10 12 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 21 21 22 24 24 25 26 27 27 27 29 T ables: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Subcontracting p rov ision s in m a jor agreem ents by industry, 1965— 66----------------------Subcontracting perm itted subject to lim itations in m a jor agreem ents, sele cte d in du stries, 1959 and 1965— ------------------------------------------------------------- ------66 A ctivities and operation s governed by subcontracting lim itations, Specified conditions w here subcontracting lim itations apply by a ctivities and operation s governed, m a jor agreem ents, 1965— 66-_________________ L im itations affecting in-plant em ploym ent opportunities in subcontracting p ro v isio n s, m a jor agreem ents, 1965— 6 ---------------------------------------6 Lim itations affecting union and con tract standards in subcontracting p ro v isio n s, m a jo r agreem en ts, 1965— 66-----------------------------------------------------------------Lim itations con cern in g co st, production, and other business conditions in subcontracting p ro v ision s, m a jor agreem ents, 1965— 6 -----------------6 30 31 32 32 33 33 Chart: Subcontracting p ro v isio n s in m a jor c o lle ctiv e agreem ents, A ppendixes: A. S elected subcontracting p r o v is io n s ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- v 35 Major Collective Bargaining Agreements— Subcontracting Introduction In the Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act of 1959, 3 there was, among several amendments to the Labor-Manage ment Relations Act of 1947, one pertaining to "hot cargo" a g r e e m e n t s , section 8(e), which stated that it would be an unfair labor practice for any employer and labor organi zation to agree openly or tacitly to arrange ments under which the employer would not handle, use, sell, or transport the goods of another employer or would not do business with him. Apparel and construction indus tries were specifically exempted from this proscription. This section of the law, which was intended to handle hot cargo problems, also was pertinent to contracting out provi sions, since such provisions in effect gov erned the relationship b e t w e e n a primary employer and a secondary employer (the sub contractor). Accordingly, contracting out clauses had to be written carefully to avoid the prohibition on secondary boycotts or also be declared unenforceable in any subsequent litigation. Few firms can perform all of the activ ities necessary to operate their businesses successfully, and consequently they contract with other companies to assume responsibility for specified work activities. Some com panies contract out infrequently; others, more regularly. Some let out excess production or the manufacture of parts; others engage con tractors to perform only ancillary mainte nance, construction, or janitorial services. Although appearing to be a normal eco nomic practice and having characteristics of a peaceful, unencumbered activity, subcontract ing is a volatile and complicated collective bargaining issue. For management, subcon tracting raises issues of company flexibility, of the firm 's ability to progress economi cally, and of management's right to pursue freely its e c o n o m i c goals. For workers and unions, subcontracting evokes job inse curities, challenges from competing groups of workers and unions, and threats that con tract s t a n d a r d s will be undermined. The degree to which these problems trouble the parties may vary according to the economic health of the e n t e r p r i s e , industry, and economy. Since the earlier Bureau study, NLRB policies have undergone a significant trans formation, a process which was aided by cru cial court decisions. The board has been involved in subcontracting matters for over a quarter-century. As early as 1941, the board had decided that e m p l o y e r s were obliged to bargain with unions over the effects that subcontracting decisions had upon work ers. 4 Management also was required to bar gain over a decision to contract out that had an antiunion motivation. However, econom ically motivated decisions were not subject to bargaining until the board released its findings in the Town and Country Manufac turing Case. 5 Although the board ordered bargaining when subcontracting was based in part on economic motivation, the U. S. Court of Appeals, in upholding the NLRB, ignored the economic motivation rule and justified its The importance of contracting out for management and organized labor is apparent in their confrontations, especially in disputes which eventually go to arbitration or reach the courts, and in the growing prevalence of subcontracting provisions in collective bar gaining agreements. An earlier Bureau of Labor Statistics study1 reviewed the status of published arbitration decisions involving subcontracting issues where there were no subcontracting provisions in the agreement to guide the arbitrator. The study also high lighted the I960 decision of the U. S. Supreme C o u r t in the United Steelworkers vs. the Warrior and Gulf Navigation Company case w h i c h held that subcontracting— and other issues— were arbitrable, even in the absence of specific contract language. 1 2 1 Subcontracting Clauses in Major Collective Bargaining Agreements (BLS Bulletin 1304, 1961V. 2 363 U.S. 574. 3 73 Stat. 519, as amended 79 Stat. 888. 4 Brown vs. McLaren Manufacturing Company, 34 NLRB 984(1941). 5 316 F. 2d 846 (Fifth Circuit, 1963). The focus now has shifted towards sub contracting as a collective bargaining issue; it results from legislative action and a series of decisions by the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) and the courts. 1 2 d ecision solely upon the e m p lo y e r’ s antiunion m otivation. T hus, there was no c l e a r c u t court recognition that the board had re v e rse d its rule, until the F ib reb oa rd Paper P rodu cts C orporation d e c i s i o n . 6 In this ca se , the U .S. Supreme Court concluded that, because the e m p lo y e r’ s econ om ica lly m otivated d e c i sion to con tra ct out affected the term s and conditions of em ploym ent, management was required to bargain with the union b e fo re it could im plem ent its d ecision . Bargaining did not mean agreem ent, but "g ood faith" b a r gaining, which con ceivea b ly could term inate in an im passe. The court*s decision was lim ited n a r row ly. It has since been am plified in addi tional NLRB and cou rt d e c is io n s .7 T hese ca se s have distinguished between econ om ica lly m otivated d ecision s in which bargaining is m andatory, and those in which bargaining is not requ ired. F or exam ple, the board has decided that certain m a n a g e m e n t rights clau ses o r certain subcontracting provision s have fre e d the em ployer of the duty to b a r gain ov er the d ecision to let out con tra cts. At the present tim e, the p r o c e s s of refining the F ib reb oa rd doctrine continues, and even tually should provide a c le a r e r understanding o f the e m p lo y e r's obligation to negotiate on econ om ica lly m otivated d e cisio n s. The present exam ination of su bcon tract ing p rov ision s found that such clau ses w ere m uch m ore w idespread in 1965— 66 than in 1959, w h e n the B ureau's f i r s t study was initiated. In the intervening 7 y e a r s , the number o f contracting out p r o v i s i o n s has alm ost doubled. Although few er t h a n half the agreem ents studied r e fe r r e d to subcon tractin g, these a g r e e m e n t s affected over th ree-fifth s of the w o r k e r s in the study. Over fo u r-fifth s o f the p rov ision s established rules governing the subcontracting o f all or som e of the p r o d u c t i o n p r o c e s s (a term sp e cifica lly applicable to manufacturing) or of the m a jor a c t i v i t y (a term sp e cifica lly a p p l i c a b l e to nonm anufacturing), w hereas only slightly m ore than on e-th ird o f the p r o vision s established ru les applicable to a n cil la ry c o n s t r u c t i o n , m aintenance, a n d /o r s e r v ic e s . Frequently, provision s p re se rv e d in-plant job opportunities, protected con tract standards, or established certain business conditions under which re strictio n s on co n tracting out would not be operable. Subcontracting p rov ision s a ccom p lish ed their regulatory goals in a va riety o f w ays. M ost prom inently— and significantly, for the recent N LRB trends cited above— c l a u s e s required notice to the unions of the subcon tracting d ecision and the right o f unions to consult or negotiate with m a n a g e m e n t . 8 Others p e r m i t t e d subcontracting if there w ere no layoffs; if unem ploym ent would not r e s u l t ; or if subcontractors ob serv ed the prim e em p lo y e r's agreem ent or w ere them selv es "union" su bcon tractors. Contracting out also was perm itted if the prim e em ployer needed equipment or lacked the sk ills and m anpower; if costs or the efficien cy of the en terprise would otherw ise be affected; if business was at a peak; or if em erg en cies required subcontracting. Related Studies. Subcontracting r e fe r ences in m anagement rights clau ses w ere d i s c u s s e d in an e a rlie r bulletin in this s e r ie s . 9 Pertinent job secu rity issu e s , in cluding plant m ovem ent, inter plant tran sfer, reloca tion allow ances, and layoff and re ca ll p ro ced u res, are subjects of other studies, either in p ro g re ss or planned, in this Bureau s e r ie s . Scope of Study. F o r this s t u d y , the Bureau e x a m i n e d 1,823 m a jor co lle ctiv e bargaining agreem ents, each cov erin g 1,000 w ork ers or m o re , or virtually all a g r e e m ents o f this size in the U n i t e d S t a t e s , ex clu siv e of those in the ra ilroa d and airline industries and in governm ent. T hese a g re e m ents applied to 7. 3 m illion w ork ers, or a l m ost on e-h a lf of the total co v e re d by c o l le c tive bargaining agreem ents o u t s i d e o f the excluded industries. Of these, 4. 2 m illion w ork ers co v e re d by 1,048 con tracts w ere in m anufacturing; and the rem aining 775 a g re e m ents, applying to approxim ately 3. 2 m illion w ork ers, w ere in nonmanufacturing. M ost of the con tracts w ere in effect in 1966 o r later. F ew er than one-tenth expired during the last 3 months o f 1965. F o r these, renewed a g re e m ents w ere not available at the tim e that tab ulations fo r this study w ere com pleted. F o r purposes of this analysis, p rov ision s banning con v ersion of w ork ers into subcon tra ctors and barring lumping (i. e. , con tra ct ing out of labor s e rv ice s only) w ere tabulated fo r the fir s t tim e, as w ere letters of intent. The fo rm e r did not affect com parison s to the 6 379 U.S. 203 (1964). 7 For instance, it has been held that there is no require ment to bargain unless the subcontract would have an immediate adverse impact upon the bargaining unit. Puerto Rico Telephone Company, NLRB 359 F. 2d 983 (1966). 8 In Shurtenda Steaks, Inc. vs. Meat Cutters, 161 NLRB 88 (1967) the Board held that notice and c o n s u l t a t i o n were required even if subcontracting was for economic reasons. 9 Major Collective Bargaining Agreements: Management Rights and Union-Management Cooperation (BLS Bulletin 1425-5, 1966). 3 Bureau*s 1959 study since in 6 out of 7 ca se s , these p rov ision s also contained other r e f e r ences to subcontracting. L etters o f intent had no im pact on p rov ision prevalen ce, but w ork er cov era ge was influenced becau se one was the General M otors-U A W letter. Clauses w ere selected fo r quotation in this rep ort to illu strate either the typical ch a ra cte ris tics under con sideration o r the variety of ways in which negotiators have m odified that fo rm . M inor editoria l changes w ere made w here n e ce ssa ry to highlight p a r ticular c h a ra cte ris tics , and irrelev a n t parts w ere om itted. A ll illu stration s w ere taken from agreem ents in effect during the last quarter of 1967 or later. M ost provision s used w ere effective in 1968 o r later. The clauses are num bered and the agreem ents from which they have been taken are identified in appendix B. In appendix A, sev era l p r o vision s are produced in their entirety to illu s trate how the various features fit together. P reva len ce and Trends * 7 Out o f 1,823 agreem ents studied, 4 3 .9 percen t contained clau ses re fe rrin g to c o n tracting out (table 1). T hese agreem ents c o v ered 4.5 m illion w o rk e rs, o r 61 percent of the 7. 3 m illion in the study. C lauses w ere evenly divi led between m anufacturing (396) and non manufacturing (405) industries, but in term s of w ork er cov e ra g e , m anufacturing provision s affected about 600,000 m o re w ork ers than sub contracting clau ses in nonm anufacturing. The differen ce re fle cts con tracts coverin g la rge, m ultiregion al e m p loy ers, e sp e cia lly in p r i m ary m etals and transportation equipment. In both m anufacturing and nonmanufacturing, h o w e v e r , about th ree-fou rth s of the w ork fo r c e was protected by subcontracting cla u ses. Six industries accounted fo r ov er on e-h alf the con tracts (58. 5 percent) and over th re e fifths o f the w ork ers (62. 3 percent) cov ered by subcontracting p ro v isio n s. Included w ere constru ction and apparel, in which contracting out is the accepted way of doing business, as w ell as transportation, u tilities, m achinery, and transportation equipment. Interregional agreem en ts, becau se of the large size of many o f the units, continued to exert a sp ecia l influence on w ork er covera ge and accounted fo r only 16. 8 percent of the contracts re fe rrin g to subcontracting, but for 49 percen t of the a ffected w o rk e rs. This in fluence was even m ore dram atic when data w ere cla ssifie d by size o f bargaining unit. There w ere 86 agreem ents, or 10. 2 percent of all those re fe rrin g to subcontracting, each of which co v e re d 10,000 em ployees or m o re. In total, 2.7 m illion w ork ers w ere affected, o r 59.3 percent of all persons co v ered by co n tracting out cla u ses. Seventy-three different national and in ternational unions, ex clu siv e o f s in g le -firm independent unions, had affiliates which had negotiated one subcontracting clause o r m ore. Twenty unions each accounted fo r 20 clau ses o r m ore, including 6 whose affiliates had n e gotiated 40 subcontracting clau ses or m o re . T ren d s. This s t u d y of subcontracting provision s in m a jor co lle ctiv e b a r g a i n i n g agreem ents is the second fo r the Bureau. The fir s t study analyzed clau ses in effect in 1959— a period shortly b efore the enactment of the LMRDA amendments to the T aft-H artley A ct and the decision s in two m a jor court ca ses noted e a rlie r (U .S. Steelw orkers vs. W a rrior and Gulf Navigation C orporation, and F ib r e board Paper P roducts C orporation vs. Na tional Labor R elations B oard). P rov ision s in m a jor agreem ents r e fe r ring to subcontracting have doubled over the 7 -y e a r period ; risin g from 22.6 percent in the total studied in 1959 to 43. 9 percen t in 1965— 66. W orkers affected by contracting out p rovision s in crea sed about as sharply and a c counted for th ree-fifth s of the w ork ers in the present study (chart, page 4). An exam ination of industry changes r e vealed that the number of construction indus try agreem ents included in the study had risen m arkedly, fro m 155 in 1959 to 256 in 1965— 66; w orker cov era ge rose from 701,900 in 1959 to 970,000 in 1965— 66. A relative as w ell as an absolute in crea se o ccu rre d in co n struction agreem ents and w ork ers cov ered . Since the construction industry is one in which contracting out is a regular way of doing b u si ness, and since it is likely to have a high prevalence of contract clau ses, it was co n ceivable that co n s tru ctio n s in crea sed co n tri bution to the study would influence the resu lts. A ccord in gly , data from the two Bureau studies w ere review ed, fir s t including and then e x cluding the construction industry. Percent referring to subcontracting Construction Year of study included 1959: Agreements------ -—— 22.6 Workers------------------------34.6 1965-66: Agreements —- — ----------43.9 Workers — ------ --------60.8 Construction excluded 19.3 31.5 38.2 57.3 Within the confines of each study, rem oval of construction industry data d ecrea sed the p r o portion of con tracts referrin g to subcon tracting and w ork ers affected by them. How ever, exclusion of construction industry data SUBCONTRACTING PROVISIONS IN MAJOR COLLECTIVE AGREEMENTS 1959 AND 1965-66 Percent 70 Workers affected 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1959 1965-66 1959 1965-66 5 had little e ffe ct on the upward trend o f sub contracting p rovision s fro m the fir s t to the second study. The prop ortion o f agreem ents re ferrin g to contracting out doubled, even with the absence of con stru ction industry data. M ore unions have negotiated agreem ents that contain subcontracting p ro v isio n s. As noted e a r lie r , affiliates of 73 differen t na tional and international unions, ex clu siv e of sin g le -firm independent unions, com pared to 56 in 1959, had negotiated one contracting out p rovision o r m o re . In general, how ever, subcontracting p rov ision s w ere concentrated in con tracts involving a ffiliates of a handful of unions. The number of labor organizations having affiliates which negotiated 10 clau ses o r m ore alm ost doubled, risin g fro m 11 in 1959 to 20 in 1965— 66. Four of the nine new unions in this category w ere in the building trades (B rick la y e rs, Iron W ork ers, P ain ters, and P lu m b ers), again reflectin g the in crea se of constru ction industry agreem ents in the study. Of the rem aining fiv e , three w ere in m anufac turing industries (Furniture W ork ers, Rubber W ork ers, and E le ctrica l W ork ers, IUE); and two (U tility W ork ers, S erv ice E m ployees) o r ganized nonmanufacturing em ployees. P ro v isio n s re fe rrin g to m a n a gem en ts right to subcontract, as w ell as clau ses p e r mitting contracting out subject to lim itations, shared in the general rise in p rev a len ce. A l though still not num erous, agreem ents leaving the em ployer fre e to subcontract ro se fro m 4 in 1959 to 38 in 1965— 66. T hese w ere p a r ticu larly clu stered in the e le c tr ic a l m achinery industry, which alone accounted fo r alm ost on e-th ird o f the agreem ents and o v er on e-h alf the w ork ers co v e re d by cla u ses declaring m an agem en ts right to subcontract. The m arked rise o f this particu lar group o f p rov ision s follow s the W a rrio r and Gulf d e cision in I960, which, as noted e a r lie r , had d ecla red that a m atter could not be excluded from arbitration unless there was fo r c e fu l e v idence that the parties contem plated such an exclusion . Am ong the 12 p rov ision s in the e le c tr ic a l m ach in ery industry w ere sev era l which s p e cifica lly excluded subcontracting as an arbitrable i s s u e . G eneral E le c tr ic and W estinghouse negotiated about on e-h a lf the in d u stry ^ p rov ision s. 1959 All industries------------Total (6 industries)------------Primary metals-------------Machinery--------------------Electrical machinery-----Transportation equipment Transportation-------------Construction------------------ 378 158 9 11 6 26 23 83 P rov ision s which in som e manner r e stricted management*s right to subcontract w ere far m ore num erous and accounted for m ost of the upswing in subcontracting cla u ses. In 1959, a total of 378 clau ses w ere in this c a t e g o r y , com pared with 763 in 1965— 66. C lauses which prohibited subcontracting or which vaguely established lim its rem ained the same during the 7 -y ea r span, so that the in cre a se cen tered en tirely in the agreem ents setting lim itations on subcontracting. The latter ro se from 369 in 1959 (21.9 percent of all contracts studied) to 755 in 1965— 66 (4 1 .4 percent of all c o n t r a c t s studied) (table 2). The ris e was even m ore m arked for the prop ortion of w ork ers cov ered , in crea sin g from 34 percen t in 1959 to 57. 1 p e r cent in 1965— 66. F ive industries com bined, accounted for ov er th ree-fifth s of the rise in agreem ents lim iting subcontracting and alm ost th re e fourths o f the in crea se in w ork ers cov ered (table 2). The rise in p rovision s was p a rtic ularly dram atic in the p rim ary m etals indus try, where steel*s experim ent with subcon tracting p ra ctice s under the Human Relations C om m ittee was finally in corp orated into the contract. The m achinery industry also ex p e rien ced a sharp r is e . To a large extent this re fle cte d the heavy representation of S teel w ork ers and Auto W ork ers in the industry. T h r e e other industries (transportation equipment, transportation, and construction) significantly in crea sed their totals. In each, subcontracting p rov ision s lim iting the rights of the prim e em ployer had established a fo o t hold in 1959. By 1965— 66, there had been a d isp ersion to a la rg er number of em ployers in transportation equipment and transportation. The in crea se of p rov ision s in the construction industry, as noted e a r lie r , results from a la rg er number of agreem ents in the 1965— 66 study than in the 1959 study. Four m anufacturing and two nonm anufac turing industries experien ced s h a r p r is e s , either in the number of agreem ents or in the number of w ork ers affected, or in both. These six industries, com bined, accounted fo r th reefifths of the in crea se in agreem ents and th reefourths of the rise in w ork ers affected from the fir s t to the second Bureau study: _________ Having reference to subcontracting__________ Agreements__________ ________ Workers (in thousands) 1965-66 Increase 1959 1965-66 Increase 801 422 45 47 22 49 56 203 423 264 36 36 16 23 33 120 2,588.1 1,411.3 35.0 17.5 11.6 654.3 240.7 452.2 4, 464.4 2, 858. 9 423.6 158.9 175.3 821.6 463.9 815.6 1,876.3 1,447.6 388.6 141.4 163.7 167.3 223.2 363.4 6 Types o f P rov ision s Of the 801 clau ses re fe rrin g to con tra ct ing out, only 38, o r le ss than 5 percen t stip ulated that the e m p lo y e r's subcontracting a c tivities would not be r e stricte d (table 1). M ost of these (29) sp e cifie d that m anagem ent had the right to farm out production a n d /o r m ainte nance w ork. The B u re a u s 1959 study o f sub contracting p rov ision s found only four clauses assertin g m anagem ent's right. In the 1963— 64 study o f m anagem ent rights p ro v isio n s, 31 contracts r e fe r r e d to subcontracting, but not all left the em ployer com pletely free o f r e strictio n s. 1 1 M o re o v e r, the Bureau did not 0 exam ine the agreem ent beyond the m anage m ent rights clause to determ ine if additional p rov isio n s m odified the e x e r cis e o f m anage m en t's rights in this area. In the present Bureau study, the 29 agreem ents stipulating the e m p lo y e r's freedom to subcontract w ere not lim ited by other p ro v isio n s. T ypically, the statem ent that m anagem ent was free to c o n t r a c t out appeared in the managem ent rights cla u se, as in the follow ing exam ples: Except as otherwise specifically provided in this agreement, the employer has the sole and exclusive right to exercise all rights or functions of management, and the exercise of any such rights or functions shall not be subject to the grievance or arbitration provisions of this agreement. Without limiting the generality of the foregoing, as used herein, the term "rights of management" includes . . . the placing of production, service, maintenance, or distribution o f work with outside contractors or subcontractors. (1) * * * Subject to the provisions of this agreement, the company re tains the sole right to manage its business and direct the working forces, including, but not limited to the right to: . . . distribute work among departments and yards, to subcontract work, . . . (2) * * * The company shall retain all rights, powers, and authority it had prior to entering into this agreement, including, but not limited to the sole right to manage its business and direct the working force including the rights . . . to determine, whether and to what extent any work shall be performed by employees. . . . (3) As in the fir s t illu stration above, sev era l stipulated that all rights set forth in the m an agement rights clause would be excluded from arbitration p ro ce d u re s . The i l l u s t r a t i o n below is m ore d ire ct in barrin g su bcon tract ing issu es from arbitration: The management of the plant and the direction of the working forces, including, but not limited to . . . the contracting or subcontracting of production, service, maintenance, or other type of work performed by the company . . . are vested ex clusively in the company, and, excepting disciplinary sus pensions and discharges, are not subject to the arbitration procedure provided in this agreement. (4) Another nine have the same fo rce as a managem ent rights clau se, but are found e l s e where in the agreem ent. These either stip ulated that the e m p lo y e r's subcontracting a c tivities w ere not subject to arbitration or com bined this kind of declaration with another statement in the m anagement rights clau se. Among these was the follow ing which made subcontracting subject to arbitration only by m anagem ent's voluntary agreem ent: All requests for arbitration which are not subject to arbitration as a matter of right . . . are subject only to voluntary arbi tration. In particular, it is specifically agreed that arbitration requests shall be subject only to voluntary arbitration, by mutual agreement, if they . . . Involve issues which were discussed at national level negotiations, but which are not expressly covered in this national agreement (e. g ., subcontracting). . . . (5) Such p rov ision s w ere found m ostly in G eneral E le c tr ic and W estinghouse agreem ents. At the other end o f the continuum of r e f eren ces to subcontracting w ere four a g re e m ents which b a rred contracting out: There shall be no subcontracting. (6) In addition, four con tracts alluded to sub contracting in div erse w ays. One re fe r r e d to a sp ecia l m em orandum on subcontracting that was not part o f the agreem ent; one r e fe rre d subcontracting issu es to lo ca l n eg oti ations; and two noted that contracting out a c tivities could cause la yoff. A l t h o u g h not lim iting the em p lo y e r's action s, one gu ar anteed severan ce pay to affected w ork ers, and the second made affected w ork ers eligible fo r preferen tia l hiring through an "Industry Wide Automation Unemployment L ist. " M ost agreem ents referrin g to subcon tracting (755) perm itted the p ra ctice , but at the sam e time establish ed various r e s t r ic tions that w ere designed to safeguard w ork e r s , unions, and con tract standards. The rest of this study w ill d iscu ss details of these arrangem ents. A reas o f P erm itted Subcontracting Of the 755 p rov ision s perm itting subcon tracting, ov er 85 percen t regulated farm ing out of production p r o c e s s e s or m a jor a ctiv i ties of the em ployer 1 (table 3). In 35 percen t 1 o f the agreem ents, con trols w e r e placed on 10 Ibid., p. 14. 11 Major activity, for purposes of this study, is the non manufacturing equivalent o f production work, i. e . , the basic function o f the firm to which all others are ancillary. 7 contracting out con stru ction , m aintenance, r e pair and installation a ctiv itie s; se r v ice s w ere sp e cific a lly r e fe r r e d to in slightly m ore than 7 p ercen t o f the agreem en ts. Construction and s e r v ice s together (as in the 1959 study) accounted fo r 275 agreem en ts, o r 36 percen t o f the total perm itting subcontracting subject to re strictio n . Those p rov ision s governing the p rod u c tion p r o c e s s o r m a jo r activity w ere found m ore often in nonmanufacturing than in manu facturing in du stries. To a large extent, this finding was influenced by the preponderance o f these p rov ision s in the building trades, as w ell as by the p resen ce o f substantial num bers of such clau ses in e le c tr ic and gas u tilities. H o w e v e r , p rov ision s controlling production also w ere fa ir ly w idespread in m anufacturing. Among those clau ses lim iting production o r m a jor activity subcontracting w ere the follow in g: The company recognizes and acknowledges the rights of its employees to perform its telephone work, and agrees not to contract work out that is not customarily contracted out in such a way as to currently and directly cause layoffs and/or part-timing of present employees . . . (7) * * * In the event company shall contract or sublet any electrical work which under ordinary circumstances it would perform in the regular line of its operation, it agrees to impose the con ditions as outlined herein upon such contractor or subcontractorj it being understood, however, that this section does not apply to work not so classified . . . (8) * * * This provision shall apply only to contracts and subcontracts for the performance of logging and lumbering operations and shall not apply to building construction contracts or other contracts outside logging and lumbering operations themselves. (9) Clauses regulating con stru ction , m ainte nance, and rep a ir w ere preponderantly in m anufacturing in du stries, e sp e cia lly in p r i m a ry m eta ls, m ach in ery, and transportation equipment. T ypical of the language in these p rov ision s w ere the follow in g: The union shall have jurisdiction over all maintenance, re pair and other work in and around the plants under this con tract, except when the manufacturer decides that such work will be done by contract. Manufacturer shall not exercise this right unreasonably. The manufacturer also agrees to keep the local union officers informed o f construction jobs that are to be contracted. (10) * * * When maintenance d e p a r t m e n t employees are laid-off or working in other departments, the company will not hire out side contractors to come into the plant and do the work until the company has first discussed the proposed work with the bargaining committee. A violation of this obligation shall result in pay to the appropriate employees for time loss, if the work was of the kind, quality, and amount normally per formed by the maintenance department. (11) * * * Maintenance work, in-plant repair work, and in-plant con struction work, of the nature that employees of the bargaining unit are able to do such work with due regard to their own safety, through the exercise of their normal skills, and within the time limits imposed by the company’ s business require ments, shall be performed by employees of the bargaining unit. (12) As noted e a r lie r , subcontracting o f co n stru c tion and maintenance w ork may lead o c c a sionally to conflicting claim s between the in plant union seeking to retain such w ork and the outside union seeking it fo r seasonally unemployed m em b ers. In such ca s e s , the dispute not only involves labor and m anage ment, but also causes ju risd iction a l riv a lrie s between in-plant and outside u n ion s.12 One avenue for the peaceful settlem ent of these ju risd iction a l con flicts was to d if ferentiate in the agreem ent between the kinds of construction and maintenance w ork that would be retained by in-plant w ork ers and the kinds that could be subcontracted. Of the 267 agreem ents which contracted out construction and m aintenance, 42 percent adopted such dem arcations. The clustering in p r i m a r y m etals was p articu larly strong. As a rule, clauses coverin g these areas perm itted sub contracts for m a jor or new construction or installation, or additions to existing plants: New construction including major installation, major replace ment, and major reconstruction of equipment and productive facilities at any plant may be contracted out, subject to any rights and obligations o f the parties which, as o f the begin ning of the period specified above, are applicable at that plant. (13) * * * The company reserves the right to contract work when it does not take work from the production and maintenance unit or when men are unavailable in the unit for temporary or seasonal jobs to perform the work when required. Contracting major new surface construction, or major altera tions o f existing surface facilities, excluding short connecting lines to the project, shall not be considered as taking work from the production and maintenance unit. (14) * * * 12 For an interesting exposition of this view, see Margret Chandler, Management Rights and Union Interests. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1964, 329 pp. 8 The company agrees that it will not subcontract maintenance work (as distinguished from new construction or major modifi cation or rehabilitation work) to be performed on company premises when such subcontract covers continuing work opera tions. . . . (15) The sm all num ber that allow ed se rv ice s to be con tracted— i. e. , trucking, ja n itorial, and c a f e t e r i a s e r v ic e s — was concentrated la rg ely in p rim a ry m etals. V ery few stipu lated s e r v ice s perhaps, because of the broad interpretation that might be given to m ainte nance p ro v isio n s. The few specifying se r v ice s largely adopted un iform language as follow s: If production, service, and day-to-day maintenance has in the past been performed 'within the plant under some cir cumstances . . . and under some circumstances by em ployees o f contractors, or both, such practice shall remain in effect . . . (16) * * * Irrespective of any other provision or provisions of this agree ment, the company retains and may exercise the free and unrestricted right and privilege to contract or subcontract . . . for the performance of any work, services, projects, jobs, or operations of the character or nature heretofore so contracted or subcontracted and performed by outside contractors. The company shall not contractor subcontract for or assign any work, services, projects, jobs, or operations to outside contractors not heretofore performed by outside contractors or subcon tractors and which is normally performed by employees within the bargaining unit before discussing same with the union. (17) Over on e-fifth of the agreem ents p e r mitting subcontracting co v e re d m ore than one area, m o st often production and construction; but 45 co v e re d production, con stru ction , and s e r v ic e s . Am ong these com binations was the follow ing letter of intent regulating the sub contracting of production and maintenance work: All production and maintenance work customarily performed by the employer in its own plant and quarries and/or mines and with its own employees shall continue to be performed by the employer with its own employees . . . so long as the company has the facilities and equipment and available trained personnel to properly perform the work required. (18) As the follow ing pages w ill indicate, the area o f subcontracting, in som e ca se s , has influenced the kind of lim itation placed on such a ctivities. bargaining unit which cam e under the sub contracting p ro v isio n ’ s re strictio n s . By im plication, all w ork not falling within t h i s vaguely defined area was excluded from the p ro v isio n ’ s ju risd iction : Work usually performed by employees in this bargaining unit will not be contracted out if it will result in layoff of the employees covered by this agreement. (19) In c o n t r a s t , very few provision s d e scrib ed the kind of w ork which would not be cov ered by the clause: It is recognized that the employer and the union have a common interest in protecting work opportunities for all em ployees covered by this agreement. Therefore, except for work which is exclusively inventory or janitorial (such as washing windows, washing or waxing floors, and cleaning rest rooms) work or work hereinabove excluded (e. g . , stocking, rearranging, and displaying of nonfood merchandise . . . such as drugs, health and beauty aids, housewares, soft goods, books and magazines is being done by an employee of a rack jobber or service merchandiser in all or any of the retail food stores of an employer within the geographical jurisdiction of the contract . . .) , no work covered by this agreement, . . . shall be performed under any sublease, subcontract, or other agreement unless . . . (20) * Two hundred and tw e n ty -six provision s a t t e m p t e d to define, in broad te rm s, the lim its o f perm itted subcontracting. Although no p re c is e data w ere available, m ore than on e-h a lf o f the clau ses retained a m easure of flexib ility . They did not stipulate the w ork that would be excluded fro m the cla u s e ’ s lim itations, but sp e cifie d the w ork n orm ally, regu la rly, or cu stom a rily p e rfo rm e d by the * When overtime work by contractors is authorized and controlled by the company, equal opportunity for such overtime work shall be afforded those company employees normally doing the same type of work within the same exchange in which contract labor is employed. As an example, the work of tree trimming, on an extensive scale, is a specific type of work not normally performed by company employees. (21) Additional clau ses cited w ork which habitually the em ployer had subcontracted and stipulated that such past p ra ctice , when already estab lish ed, should be allow ed to continue: . . . nothing herein shall prevent the company from following companywide past practices in engaging outside contractors to do work when necessary. (22) * * * * The employer shall not engage any outside persons, firms, or corporations to do any of the work that can be efficiently performed by the employees covered by this agreement, except work that has normally been sublet. (23) * G eneral P rov ision s * * * The company agrees not to contract out work customarily per formed by its employees. However, nothing herein contained shall prevent the company from continuing to have work per formed outside of the company which prior to April 30, 1962, it customarily has had performed outside the company. (24) Other p rov ision s reliev ed the em ployer from increasing the size of the regular in plant labor fo rce fo r short duration jo b s . A cco rd in g ly , a few clau ses allowed such jobs to be subcontracted without restriction : 9 . . . the company may subcontract where . . . the work is of such urgency or short duration as to make it impractical to add additional men to the regular production or mainte nance force . . . (25) Clauses a lso might define short duration as in the follow ing: Work performed by a subcontractor within the plant for periods in excess o f 2 consecutive weeks will be discussed with the union . . . (26) * * * The company agrees that it will not subcontract maintenance work operations to be performed on company premises when such subcontract covers continuing work operations to be per formed for longer than two (2) months and when the work operations involved have normally been performed by employ ees in the bargaining unit, unless a sufficient number of em ployees are not available to perform such work operations within the time required. (27) One variant of d escrib e d job s contracting another variant a given cost: the short duration p rovision outside the scope of the subclause as on e-tim e jo b s , and in e ffect excluded job s over The company will not subcontract work normally performed by men in the association, except for one-time jobs. (28) * * * The company agrees that it will not subcontract maintenance work (as distinguished from new construction or major modifi cation or rehabilitation work) to be performed on company premises when the work operations involved have normally been performed by employees in the bargaining unit, except in the following instances: . . . Where unusual or one-shot jobs are required which are not usually performed by the company. (29) * * * Where the company contracts for an item or service which is made or worked on by its own employees, for which it has not contracted for in the past, and which exceeds $750.00 in cost, it will, upon the request o f the grievance and negotiating committee, explain the reason for so doing. Such request shall be made by the unit chairman to the personnel director. (30) P ro v isio n s which s t i p u l a t e d that the volum e of subcontracting would be maintained at present le v e ls w ere ra re: . . . With respect to work or functions which in the past have been performed for the company both by persons within and without the unit the company may continue to have such work performed outside the bargaining unit to a degree no greater than heretofore. . . . (31) P rov ision s P rotectin g In-Plant Em ploym ent Opportunities About tw o-th irds (498) of the agreem ents perm itting subcontracting had one rule or m ore which d ire ctly or in d irectly safeguarded in-plant w ork ers and their job s (table 4). Of the three categ ories of con trols (to p rotect in-plant w ork ers, and union and c o n t r a c t standards, and to establish business con d i tions perm itting subcontracting), regulations protecting in-plant w ork ers w ere the m ost num erous. Included w ere 16 p rovision s which also p rotected em ployees o f regular rather than occa sion a l su bcon tractors. The 4 9 8 p r o vision s cov ered over th ree-fou rth s of the w ork ers (3. 2 m illion ) under provision s p e r mitting subcontracting. Manufacturing c o m panies w ere m ore lik ely to have included em ploym ent protection ru les, where p r o v i sions w ere found in m ore than 78 percen t of manufacturing agreem ents, than nonm anufac turing firm s, where slightly under 55 percent protected in-plant w ork opportunities. Nonm anufacturing^ low er prevalence was influ enced by the construction industry, where only about on e-th ird of the p rov ision s sa fe guarded in-plant job opportunities. The construction industry subcontracts as an accepted daily activity and since the same unions rep resen t both subcontractors * and prim e contractors* w ork ers, su bcon tract ing p o licie s concentrate m ore on insuring contract and union standards than on retaining job opportunities. H ow ever, the apparel in dustry, which also subcontracts as a m atter o f co u rse , follow ed different p o licie s . A l m ost all o f app arel's 52 p rov ision s regulating contracting out contained one rule or m ore safeguarding w ork opportunities. In part, this divergence can be explained by the differing attachments that w ork ers have to em ployers in each industry. Attachment in the co n stru c tion industry is casual. W ork ers are likely to be em ployed by se v e ra l different construction com panies during one season. A ccord in gly , construction w ork ers are m ore interested in areawide contract standards then in p r e s e r v ing em ploym ent opportunities with a single firm . In the apparel industry, on the other hand, attachment to an em ployer is rela tiv ely firm . W orkers are lik ely to be em ployed by one m anufacturer fo r the season; they also m ight w ork casually fo r him during the rest of the y ear. In addition, there is a regularity in the attachment of su bcon tractors to p a r tic ular prim e co n tra ctors. As a consequence, som e effort is made to safeguard em ploym ent opportunities for w ork ers o f both the inside shop and the regular su bcon tractors. In part, the divergence of subcontracting p o licie s between construction and apparel also can be explained by div erse strategies to co n trol contract standards. As w ill be noted in 10 a later section , con stru ction contracts often provide that the co lle ctiv e bargaining a g r e e m ent o f the prim e em ployer w ill co v e r w o rk e rs of the su bcon tractor. This firm con trol assu res that wages and other working con d i tions w ill not be undercut. The apparel in dustry has not protected standards in this way; instead, it has stipulated that the sub c o n t r a c t o r be organ ized by a union, and usually, be re g iste re d by the prim e em ployer. Both are gen eral con trols of subcontracting. By requiring notice o r union approval o f sp e c ific subcontracting action s, industries other than apparel ord in a rily allow in-plant w o rk ers to com pete with outside w ork ers fo r job opportunities. Thus, apparel unions have o b tained an additional con trol against abuse of subcontracting to the detrim ent o f in-plant w ork ers and their standards. P rov ision s which applied to con stru ction, m aintenance, and s e r v ice s w ere m ore lik ely to p rotect in-plant em ploym ent opportunities than p rov ision s which co v e re d the production p r o c e s s o r m a jor activity. A lm ost tw o-thirds of the clau ses coverin g the production p r o c e s s (65. 1 percen t) protected in-plant opportuni ties, but fou r-fifth s of those pertaining to constru ction and maintenance (81. 3 percen t) and alm ost nine-tenths o f those dealing with s e r v ic e s (89. 1 percen t) had one rule o r m ore concern in g in-plant w ork ers and their jo b s . Again, the low er prevalen ce o f clau ses p e r taining to production or a m a jor activity was influenced la rg e ly by con stru ction industry data. In addition, the subcontracting of p r o duction o r a m a jo r activity is lik ely to occu r in em e rg e n cie s, when fa c ilitie s becom e o v e r taxed o r when deadlines m ust be m et. Con sequently, production w ork ers would be less con cern ed about lo st opportunity than m ainte nance w ork ers who, in periods o f dim inishing em ploym ent, see w ork that they can p erform going to outside co n tra cto rs. N otice and Consultation P ro v is io n s . In light of the recen t focus on m anagem ent’ s duty to bargain ov er its e co n o m ica lly m o ti vated subcontracting d e cisio n s, it is sig n ifi cant that s p e cific notice and c o n s u l t a t i o n clauses w ere the m ost prevalent o f those p r o vision s dealing with em ploym ent opportunities (258), but accounted fo r only about on e-th ird of the 755 p rov ision s regulating contracting out (table 5). These clau ses co v e re d about 45 percen t o f the w ork ers under provision s governing subcontracting a ctivities. There are probab ly additional co lle ctiv e bargaining situations in which a notice o f in tention is provided. F ir st, if a regu latory p rov ision e x ists in the con tract, em ployers in form ally m ust give notice of their d ecision s to activate, in good faith, existing contractual rules or subcontracting. Second, even in the absence of a subcontracting p rov ision , it is also p ossib le that the F ibreboard and su b se quent d ecision s have in crea sed the in form al p ra ctice o f providing a notice of intention to subcontract. Although the 258 notice and consultation p rov ision s w ere relativ ely w idespread among all industry grou ps, five i n d u s t r i e s had m arked concentrations. Together, these five accounted fo r on e-h a lf of the agreem ents and th ree-fou rth s o f the w ork ers c o v e r e d by notice and consultation cla u ses: Having notice and participation provisions Industry Total — -----------Apparel---------------------Primary metals —— — Machinery —---------— Transportation equipment— Utilities — — ------------- Agreements Workers (in thousands) 132 1,417.2 21 40 24 24 23 173.0 414.4 117.0 648.0 64.9 The totals w ere affected p a rticu la rly by the p rim a ry m etals industry w h e r e the S teelw o r k e rs ’ settlem ent with Big Steel established a pattern fo r the re st of the industry. B e cause o f the large size of many steel b a r gaining units, its influence was p a rticu la rly strong on w ork er cov era ge; in the tra n sp or tation equipment industry w ork er cov era ge was affected sim ila rly . O ver on e-h a lf of the construction a n d maintenance contracts (58. 1 p ercen t)cov erin g th ree-fou rth s of the w ork ers (75. 3 percent) provided fo r notice and consultation p r o v i sions com pared with few er than on e-th ird of the production p r o c e s s or m a jor activity agreem ents (31. 3 percen t) cov erin g tw o-fifth s of the w ork ers (42 p ercen t). H ow ever, m ore agreem ents involving production or a m a jor activity had notice and consultation clau ses (203) than those involving constru ction and maintenance (155). This dichotom y m e re ly reflected the grea ter number of agreem ents l i m i t i n g subcontracting of production that w ere in the study. P rop ortion a tely, co n stru c tion and m aintenance p rov ision s which had notice p o licie s w ere m ore prevalent becau se retention o f jo b opportunities was a m ore s e n s i t i v e issu e fo r in-plant maintenance w ork ers than it was fo r production w ork ers. 1 1 Timing the n otice was c r it ic a l to the effectiven ess of the clau se. D iscu ssion at the time or after a con tract was already let o b viously gave the union little room to act for its in-plant m em bersh ip except that by r e t r o spective review a p olicy fo r future subcon tracting a ctivities of the em ployer could be established. Few p rovision s would give notice or d iscu ssion after the d e cisio n had been m ade. Among the few was the follow ing: work, when so performed, under the company's basic mana gerial responsibility is not more costly and can be performed as timely and effectively as compared with outside repair work personnel. The arrangements therefore shall be worked out in advance between the parties; however, should the parties be unable to work out arrangements in advance, there shall be no delay in maintenance and repair work. The wages, hours of work, and other conditions of employment for such work shall be negotiated between the union and the company. Any dispute arising hereunder shall be subject to provisions of section 2 of the agreement. (37) If the union wishes an explanation as to why the company has contracted out certain work, the union shall make an inquiry at the personnel office and receive a prompt answer as to why the company deems it necessary to contract out such work. (32) The union was designated m ost often as the party to re ce iv e n otice. H ow ever, several individuals and groups might re ce iv e n otice. Stewards, shop delegates, chairm en of the shop com m ittee, shop com m itteem en, and loca l union o ffice r s w ere sp ecified in various p rov ision s. In oth ers, an u n n a m e d c o m m ittee, or the shop, u n i o n , or bargaining com m ittee a lso m ight be notified or consulted. P ro v isio n s in which timing of n otice was vague w ere equally ra re: If any question arises concerning the effect o f subcontracting on bargaining unit employees' jobs or hours o f work, the com pany will negotiate with the union. . . . (33) M ost o f the p rov ision s stipulated that notice had to be given b efore a con tract could be let. A number o f prov ision s furnished both advance notice and a com m ittee review of subcontracting p o lic ie s . By specifying p rior notice the union had m ore opportunity to co n vince management of the advantages of p e r mitting inside w ork ers to do the job: Prior to engaging an independent contractor, the company will notify the union and will outline the nature of the project or plan, and the union will be given an opportunity to make prompt suggestions for consideration by the company. (34) * * * . . . In any case in which it is proposed to use an outside contractor for work usually done by the regular employees of the company which does not result in the discharge or layoff o f regular employees or in a reduction in their rate o f pay, the union shall be given notice and an opportunity to be heard before the contract is let. (35) * * * Without diminishing in any way its right to subcontract, the company agrees to give the local union advance notice in writing of work to be subcontracted. (36) An occa sio n a l clau se recogn ized that under certain circu m sta n ce s, the com pany m ight not be able to give ea rly n otice of subcontracting. The follow ing prov ision insured the com pany against delay in ca se tim ely arrangem ents could *not be a greed to with the union: Maintenance and repair work on any of the mechanized, semimechanized, or retrofit vessels of the company while the vessels are in port, which falls within the jurisdiction of the licensed engineers and can be performed aboard the vessel, shall be performed by the regular complement of ship's engineers or licensed engineers who have been cleared by the union for such work, and shall not be contracted out, provided that the N otice prov ision s allow ed the union to try to retain w ork fo r in-plant w ork ers. These provision s gave the union the opportunity to request detailed ju stification from the c o m pany, file a grievan ce if the em ployer p e r sisted in his d ecision to s u b c o n t r a c t , or consult and discu ss the decision with the em ployer to convince him to abandon his d e c i sion. B asically , h ow ever, the decision r e m ained with the em ployer. H o w e v e r , 32 provision s m odified m anagem ent’ s right to farm out work to the extent that agreem ent or union consent was n e ce ssa ry fo r the prim e em ployer to subcontract. Fully one-third of these provision s w ere in the apparel industry, where union consent was a regulatory tool adopted fo r plant rem oval as w ell as for sub contracting: It is agreed that no member of the association shall have any work performed or any of its products or parts thereof (including binding and piping) manufactured outside of its own shop ex cept with the consent of the union, . . . (38) * * * Employers shall not manufacture or cause to be manufactured in whole or in part, in places other than on the premises owned, operated, or leased by them; however, employers whose factory space and facilities are used to full capacity . . . may apply to the union for consent to have ladies' or children's hats manufactured in other shops . . . (39) Work regularly performed by the bargaining unit employees shall not be contracted out except by mutual agreement of the company and the union. (40) Under a few p rov ision s, the em p loy er’ s subcontracting program was to be subject to p eriodic review . These stipulations perm itted m anagem ent’ s p olicy to be questioned, and the union to exert an influence towards changing 12 the com pany’ s subcontracting p olicy . As a rule, these provision s sim ply stipulated the period of review : It is the intent and desire of the company to utilize its own employees to do the kind of work they have customarily done in the past in our plants to the extent it is practical and economical to do so. It is the intention of the company to use the machine shops in the plants wherever it is efficient and economical to do so with the existing machinery, equip ment, and manpower. The company will meet locally with the union officers periodically, but no less often than once each three (3) months, for the purpose of discussing sub contracting. . . . (41) * * * F ifty-th ree agreem ents com bined two of the various types of notice and consultation p rov ision s. F or exam ple, in the following prov ision , the com pany was required to give written notice of its intention to contract out, and the union was allow ed a m inimum o f 10 days to discu ss the m atter b efore the sub contracting o ccu rre d . In addition, a c o m m ittee was established to discu ss with m an agement sp e cific contracting out problem s: When the contracting out o f such work is being considered, the company shall withhold taking such action to provide the union a reasonable opportunity for discussion of the matter. The company agrees to review annually with the union in formation showing by crafts the work contracted out and the number of men employed to perform the work. (42) A reasonable opportunity for union discussion shall mean a period fixed by written notice to the union o f not less than 10 working days, unless the company explains to the union the reason why a shorter discussion period is specified. In the follow ing cla u se, the period ic m eeting requ ired the com pany to furnish detailed in form ation . It sp e cifica lly exem pted subcon tracting d ecision s fro m grievan ce proced u res or other con tract p rov ision s: . . . The purpose of this committee shall be to discuss other specific problems raised by either party in connection with contracting o f work regularly and customarily performed by employees and to develop a background o f experience for future guidance. (44) In recognition of the union’s interest in the company's makeor-buy or subcontracting activities, and the mutual desire of the company and union to maximize employment opportunities, the parties agree that during the term of this agreement they will engage in discussions of such matters in the following manner and to the following extent. 1. A committee of three union representatives to represent all . . . unions representing employees of the company will be established. 2. The said committee will meet quarterly on a regularly scheduled day beginning June 1964 with the executive vice president of the company (or his personal representative) and two additional company representatives to be d e s i g n a t e d by him. 3. At each quarterly meeting, the following areas will be reviewed: a. The significant make-or-buy, and subcontracting decisions of the previous quarter; b. The significant anticipated business of the coming quarter, and the probable direction of make-or-buy, or sub contracting decisions anticipated during that quarter; c. The recommendations and suggestions of the union committee with respect to anticipated decisions and their com ments or views as to the decisions of the previous quarter, will be given consideration with a view to retaining at the com pany's Long Island facilities the maximum amount of work feasible under all relevant circumstances, such as scheduling and cost. d. Any special problems that may arise with respect to these areas. 4. It is recognized and agreed that decisions as to makeor-buy and subcontracting must finally rest with the company, and shall be the responsibility solely of the company. 5. No matter or issue related to or growing out of sub contracting or make-or-buy decisions of the company or the effect of such decisions, or concerning this memorandum, shall be subject to the grievance or arbitration procedures of the contract, under any provisions of the contract or any pro vision of this or any other memorandum or understanding. (43) Of the 53 com binations, 35 w ere in p r i m ary m etals. The clause was lengthy, but in ess e n ce , it provided that agreem ent (1) would be required to subcontract production, s e r v ice s , and d a y -to -d a y maintenance and r e pair within the plant where the practice had been to have the w ork perform ed by the b a r gaining unit; (2) would be required i f there w ere any change in past p ra ctice where such w ork (a) had som etim es been contracted out, or (b) had always been contracted out. In addition, the parties established a joint c o m m ittee to resolv e problem s in the operation, application, and adm inistration of the sub contracting p rov ision and to discu ss current subcontracting problem s and related item s. 1 3 L ayoff and P a rt-T im in g o f W ork ers. Of the 498 p rov ision s protecting job opportuni ties, 187, or over on e-th ird , applied to rules restrictin g contracting out w h e r e in-plant w ork ers w ere on la yoff or working part tim e; or if, as a result of subcontracting, w ork ers would be laid off or placed on a part-tim e schedule (table 5). A lm ost one-fourth o f all c l a u s e s regulating subcontracting included such a la yoff or p art-tim e p rov ision . N early tw o-thirds w ere in nonmanufacturing, where they w ere heavily concentrated in tra n sp or tation (45), utilities (44), and com m unications (20). These three in du stries, com bined, a c counted fo r 58 percent of the 187 clauses and 13 The full clause appears in appendix A. 13 alm ost 72 percent o f the w ork ers co v e re d by such ru les. P ro v isio n s concerning layoffs and part-tim e w ork w ere w idely scattered in manufacturing but no significant con cen tra tions exist. A greem ents pertaining to con stru ction and maintenance had proportion ately m ore provision s with la yoff or pa rt-tim e rules (33.3 percent) than those concerning the production p ro ce ss (24. 9 percen t). A variation of the layoff or p a rt-tim e rule was the p rov ision stipulating that w ork could not be subcontracted unless the inside shop was fully supplied with w ork. These provision s w ere found in 55 a greem en ts, 38 of which w ere in the apparel industry. The l a n g u a g e was p a rticu la rly suited to such piecew ork in du stries. Combined, la yoff or pa rt-tim e provision s and those stipulating that regular em ployees be fully supplied with w ork w ere found in 240 con tracts coverin g 1.4 m illion w orkers which contained p rov ision s to protect regular em ployees fro m the a d v erse effects of sub contracting. This total does not double count two agreem ents which had both prov ision s and which co v e re d 3, 700 w o rk e rs. This number was slightly over 30 p ercen t of the contracts and w ork ers under the 755 agreem ents regu lating con tract w ork. T ypical of those p rovision s which p r o hibited subcontracting if w ork ers w ere a l ready laid off a re the two illustrations below , both fro m differen t plants o f the sam e c o m pany and each organized by a differen t union. Although the prin cip le rem ained the sam e, ch oice of language was differen t and an o v e r time w aiver was included in the secon d p r o vision . The w aiver applied to sk illed crafts in the plant: It is the intention o f the company to provide full and regular employment for its employees except during periods when conditions necessitate reduction in plant output. In accord ance with this intention, the company agrees that work per formed by members o f the unit shall not be contracted out . . . so long as there are qualified employees available from among present and/or laid off employees eligible to return to work under the recall provision. (45) * * * The company will not contract out maintenance work while there are employees available on the active payroll working in the required craft or working in another department in lieu o f layoff, or employees entitled to recall from layoff who have seniority in the required craft . . . This provision above shall not obligate the company to pro vide overtime work for employees in the required crafts or craft, nor shall it obligate the company to hire additional employees. (46) In the follow ing p rov ision , norm al and rou tine w ork could be let if there was no layoff, but if layoff should occu r during the con tract, no further w ork would be farm ed out: . . . the company will enter into outside contracts for normal and routine work such as laying mains and services or installing or regulating gas appliances only when all employees engaged in such work are working full time and when the work con tracted for is of such a nature that it cannot be postponed. In case layoffs for lack of work occur in a line of work which is being performed under a contract, the company agrees not to enter into any additional contract or contracts affecting that work, until all regular employees so laid off have been re turned to work. The c o m p a n y will continue, as in the past, to employ architects and contractors, as occasion and fair outside busi ness relations may require, for construction and building oper ations and for special maintenance projects not regularly a part of its activities in producing and distributing natural gas. The company will not undertake to regulate the conditions of employment which may prevail under outside contracts or subcontracts covering such construction, building or mainte nance. (47) Other agreem ents barred contracting out if regular em ployees w ere not working 40 hours a week or a full week plus overtim e: Each member shall manufacture its requirements of dresses, completed articles, parts, wigs, masks, shoes, stockings, and clothing in its plant wherever located to the limit of its maxi mum capacity. A member shall be deemed to be manufacturing its require ments of the items referred to above to the limit to its maxi mum capacity only when all of its employees who have not lost their seniority under this agreement are working at least a full 40 hours a week during the entire period in which work is given to companies or contractors or is purchased from outside. (48). * * * It is agreed that . . . the company will not subcontract or send out work to be performed by any other company unless the employees covered by this agreement are working at least forty (40) hours weekly in the department within which such work would be normally performed. . . . (49) * * * No work shall be given to any contractor, subcontractor, or branch factory of said employer unless all employees covered by this agreement are working a full week including maxi mum overtime . . . (50) M ost num erous w ere those provision s which prohibited subcontracting if, as a r e sult, w ork ers would be laid off or placed in part-tim e status. The concentration was e s pecially heavy in e le ctric and gas u tilities which alone accounted for 42 out of 90 p r o vision s. Some of these clau ses stipulated that work would not be subcontracted i f w ork ers would be laid off, disp la ced , or deprived o f em ploym ent. The fir s t illustration protected 14 only w ork ers who had 10 years of s e r v ice . In a second variation, m anagem ent agreed to con sid er em ploym ent secu rity b efore subcon tracting as in the third illu stration below : The company may let independent contracts but will not let a maintenance contract . . . that will cause an employee in either mechanical division who has 10 or more years of plant service to be laid off for lack o f work during the term o f this agreement. (51) * * During the time that any outside contract is in effect for work which could be done by the company's own mechanics, no regular mechanic will be transferred out or laid off from his skill, nor scheduled for less than a 5-day workweek. An ex ception will apply when work is fabricated elsewhere in order to secure the materials. . . , (57) In 18 ca s e s , subcontracting was perm itted if in-plant w ork ers either w ere not on layoff or if layoff would not result: * The company shall have the right at any time to enter into a contract or contracts with any person, firm, or corporation for plant repairs, changes, improvement, or major mainte nance, or for the installation, removal, or changes o f ma chinery and equipment, provided that no company employees who are capable of performing such work will be displaced, and the union will not interfere with such independent con tract work. . . . (52) * * * When it becomes necessary to determine when, or what, to subcontract, it is, and will be, the policy of the company to first consider the impact on the employment security of its employees. . • • (53) Other prov ision s sp e cifie d that a reduction in w eekly h ou rs, in addition to la yoff, might be sufficien t grounds to deny subcontracting. In the secon d illu stration , subcontracting that resulted in the dem otion of regu lar em ployees was forbidden : The company agrees that the work ordinarily and customarily performed by its own employees will not be contracted out if such contracting would result in the direct layoff o f its forces or in a reduction o f their workweek below the normal workweek o f the company. . . . (54) The company will not enter into a contract or contracts for the construction of telephone plant or the installation of tele phone equipment . . . without first having obtained in each instance the consent of the union . . . ; except that where (it) is not coincident with or will not result in any layoff of employees who could perform the contracted work, the con sent of the union need not be obtained. (58) The variant noted e a r lie r , appearing in 38 agreem ents, b a rred subcontracting unless regular em ployees w ere fully supplied with w ork. The illu stration below requ ired, in addition, that in-plant w ork ers would have to be working ov ertim e: When transfers, upgrading, overtime, and rehiring of laid-off personnel will not meet the overload situation, we must meet it by hiring new personnel or-subcontracting. Under normal circumstances, we would not subcontract unless our own people were on overtime. . . . (59) In the apparel industry eight a g r e e m e n t s allow ed expansion of subcontracting only if in-plant w ork ers and w ork ers of regular sub con tra ctors w ere fu lly supplied with w ork: * * * All work contracted by the company with a contractor will not in any way cause layoff, curtailment below a normal scheduled workweek, or demotion. (55) Two interesting clau ses provided w ork guarantees. In the fir s t, in-plant job s could be elim inated, but if the su bcon tractor did not hire d isp la ced w ork ers in com parable jo b s , the prim e em ployer would be obligated to place them in equivalent w ork. The second p rov ision s insured w ork ers against la yoff or reduced w eekly hours, but w aived the gu a r antee when it would be n e c e ssa ry to p re fa b ricate w ork elsew h ere to obtain m a te ria ls: When the transferring or contracting of work to others involves the elimination of jobs of regular full-time employees, it is agreed that if the transferee or contracting company does not afford said employees the opportunity to continue the same general type of work, the company shall furnish such em ployees with work requiring comparable skill. When such employees are furnished such other work within the com pany, their tenure of employment shall thereafter be subject to the same conditions as apply to other regular full-time employees. (56) * * * A member of the association shall have the right to desig nate an additional contractor or contractors, when the em ployees of his inside shop, if he maintains one, and all of his designated permanent contractors who employ workers in the crafts covered by this agreement are fully supplied with work . . . (60) * * * In order to safeguard working standards and employment op portunities of the workers covered by this agreement, it is agreed . . . that the employer shall not sell or handle, pur chase or obtain, as sales agent or otherwise, directly or in directly, from or for other manufacturers, jobbers, merchants, wholesalers, or contractors, any other wholly or partly finished garments whatsoever during the term of this agreement unless his inside shop and the shops of his duly designated contractors are fully supplied with work, and no such purchase and sale shall be made unless the same is bona fide and genuine or if the employer's purpose is to avoid any of his obligations under this agreement. (61) M iscellan eou s P ro te ctio n s. In 33 a g re e m ents, se v e ra l different p r o t e c t i v e ap proach es w ere adopted to retain jo b op p o r tunities fo r in-plant w ork ers and, in 16 of these, fo r w ork ers of su bcon tractors. Fifteen 15 of the 33 p rovision s w ere in the apparel in dustry and accounted la r g e ly for the a g r e e m ents covering w ork ers of su bcon tractors. M o st num erous w ere 17 p rovision s that o b li gated the p rim e em p loyer to use his b est effo rts to obtain job s for laid off em p loyees with the subcontractor or em p loyees who could be re le a se d to w ork for the subcon tra c to r: In all operations, when contract work is necessary, the com pany agrees to use its best offices that the contractor employ available Continental employees who can be released or Con tinental laid-off employees who are qualified . . . (62) One p rovision stipulated t h a t an em ployee working for the s u b c o n t r a c t o r would be guaranteed reem ploym en t with his fo rm e r e m p lo y e r: The employer agrees that its employees then engaged in the particular work which is contracted out shall become em ployees of the initial contractor or any successor contractor, and agrees to employ or reemploy those employees in the employment of the contractor at the time of termination or cancellation of the contract . . . (63) Fourteen provision s p rotected the seniority of in -plan t em p loyees assign ed to a subcon tr a c to r: Employees granted leaves of absence to work for a contractor performing services for the employer shall retain their seniority on the same basis as though they had continued to work for the employer. (64) Among the cla u ses that protected su b c o n tr a c to r s em p loyees w ere a number e s tablishing the principle that w ork would be shared equally among em p lo yees of the in side and the reg u larly designated outside shop during sla ck se a so n s. This clause was typ ically found in apparel a g r ee m e n ts: It is further agreed that during the slow season, all work shall be divided as equally as possible between the inside shop and the shops of the duly registered regular or per manent contractors or submanufacturers w o r k i n g for the employer. . . . (65) O thers provided that the w ork ers of a regular subcontractor who planned to term inate op erations or se v er the contractual relationship with the p rim e em p loyer would be absorbed by the inside shop or the rem aining subcon tr a c to r s: Should a contractor designated by a member of the associa tion abandon his designation or cease to operate his busi ness . . . the workers of such contractor shall immediately be absorbed either by the inside shop of the member, if he maintains one, or by the remaining designated contractors of such member. . . . (66) P re feren tia l C on sideration . F ifty -fo u r p r o v i s i o n s covering over o n e -h a lf m illio n w ork ers stipulated that the e m p l o y e r , in making his subcontracting d ecisio n , would give p referen ce or consideration to in-plant w o r k e r s (table 5). About o n e -h a lf of the agreem en ts as w ell as 87 percent of the w ork ers covered by such p rovision s were concentrated in m a c h i n e r y , transportation equipment, and transportation. The p r o v i sions w ere about evenly divided between those who subcontracted production w ork and those who farm ed out construction a ctiv itie s. B a s ic a lly , p rovision s of p referen tial con sideration weakly re stricte d m anagem ent’ s a c tiv itie s. The decision to subcontract r e m ained with m anagem ent and was virtu ally un im peded, except that the em p loyer would allow in -p lan t w ork ers to com pete fo r the w ork; would p r e fe r in -p lan t w orkers to the fu llest extent p ra ctic a b le; would give advantages that can be reasonably provided to his em p lo y e e s; or would consider them : The employees covered by this agreement shall be given pref erence for maintenance and construction work in the plant to the fullest extent practicable. (67) * * * The method or combination of methods used will vary de pending upon the circumstances, but we can state as a gen eral principle that our intent in all cases is to give our own people all the advantages that can reasonably be provided before we hire new people or subcontract. I feel sure that union and company can agree on this principle and that dif ferences in opinion will arise only in deciding in specific instances what advantages for our own people can reasonably be provided . . . (59) * * * In cases of unusual items of work which the company con templates letting out on contract, consideration will be given to having such work done by its production and maintenance employees. (68) O vertim e P r o v is io n s . One m eans of p e r suading em p lo yers not to sublet work was to r a ise the co st of such contracts so that the em ployer would benefit by keeping the work in the plant. In 29 p r o v is io n s , o vertim e was employed towards this goal. In the fir s t illu s tration, plant em ployees would re c e iv e o v e r tim e if w ork ers for subcontractors w ere r e ceiving o v e r t i m e ; in the second , in -p lan t w orkers m u st be receivin g overtim e before work could be contracted out. The second illustration waived this obligation for new construction: If contractors' or other utilities' employees are used on com pany property during emergencies and are receiving double time, company employees in the same department and district working on the emergency shall be paid two times the straighttime wage rate. This shall also apply to employees from other departments working on such emergencies. . . . (69) 16 It will be company policy to accomplish its general mainte nance work with its own employees . . . In every instance, consistent with said policy, company employees will be utiUzed, in preference over outside contractors, and a 6th day of work will be offered to such numbers and classifications of its employees as the company’s needs may require. In the case of new construction it will be company policy to accomplish a large amount of such work with the employees of the new construction section of its own maintenance de partment and to employ outside contractors for new construc tion when deemed advisable, without any obligation as to lengthening the workweek for any of the employees of the company. . . . (70) W a iv e r s , in fact, w ere ch a ra cte ristic of o v e r tim e re str ic tio n s. The fir s t p rovision below gave in -p la n t w ork ers p referen ce over the su b co n tra ctor’ s em p loyees for o vertim e w ork, if it did not affect efficien cy or o v e r -a ll cost. The second w aived overtim e requirem en ts when the sk ills required by governm ent and in surance regulations w ere not available among c o m p a n y e m p lo y e e s; and the third would forego overtim e when industry p ractice or the continuous b a sis of the job n ecessitated sub c o n tr a c to r ^ em p loyees working o v e r tim e : . . . The company will, as far as practicable, restrict contractors to the same workweek as that established for employees under this agreement. With regard to overtime work, the company will, as far as is practicable, follow the policy of assigning such work to its own employee work forces rather than those of contractors in those instances where the effect of such assignment would not adversely affect either the efficiency or over-all cost of doing the job. (71) avoid this potentiality, four agreem en ts stipu lated that in -p lan t w ork ers did not have to work with c o n tr a c to r s ’ e m p lo y e e s: When construction work is being performed by outside con tractors, company employees are not to be required to work in conjunction with contractors' employees. (74) Seventy-nine provision s prohibited e m ployer effo rts to convert in -p lan t w orkers into individual su b co n tra ctors. Such contracts w ere b a s ic a lly contracts for labor only, and could re su lt in rem oving job s fro m the plant and in undercutting contract standards by changing the existing e m p lo y e r-e m p lo y e e r e lationship: No employer shall set up any employee in his own shop as a contractor or in any other shop, directly or indirectly, in order to evade the terms o f this agreement. (75) Sixty-one of the 79 c la u ses w ere in co n str u c tion industry a gree m e n ts. A number of these c le a r ly prohibited contracts for labor s e r v ices only— so m e tim e s ca lled lum ping. Thus, construction industry p rovision s appeared to be d irected m ore towards maintaining con tract standards than retaining jo b s : No journeyman shall be permitted to subcontract or lump the installation o f any work under the jurisdiction o f the local union. Both parties violating this section shall be penalized by their respective organizations . . . (76) * * * * * * Contract work performed on the company's manufacturing premises at its Rumford plant . . . will be done only while the company is providing a 48-hour workweek for an equiv alent number of its own employees corresponding to those the contractor is using. Where governmental or insurance regu lations require on such work the use of men with special qualifications or licenses not possessed by Oxford employees than the foregoing obligations to work corresponding employ ees on a 48-hour basis will not apply. (72) * * * With respect to skilled trades within the plant, it is under stood that if a contractors' employees work overtime, then, at least an equivalent number of available plant employees of the same skill will be permitted to work overtime on the same day, except when special circumstances exist, such as: 1. Industry practice as regards to brick masons provides that overtime must be worked. Example: Silicate furnace tank repair—contractor per sonnel cannot be obtained unless they work 10 hours a day. 2. Where the job must be worked on a continuous basis. Example: Where welding and annealing pipe lines is involved and must be continued until job completion. (73) P r o t e c t i n g Individual W o r k e r s . The p resen ce of su b co n tra ctor’ s em p loyees w ork ing in the plant can create resentm en ts which eventually could re su lt in trouble between the in -p lan t and the su bco n tra ctor’ s w o r k e r s. To No work covered by this agreement shall be performed at piece rates and no work shall be let by piece, contract or lump sum for labor services only. The only method of pay ment shall be on an hourly basis in accordance with the pro visions o f this agreement. (77) * * * No work will be let by piece, contract or lump sum direct with journeymen or apprentices for labor services on carpenter work. The prime contractor agrees that he will not award a subcontract pertaining to carpenter work to be performed on any construction site unless it provides for the furnishing o f power equipment and carpenters necessary to do the work. The union agrees that no carpenter shall be allowed to do piece work or contract for labor services only. (78) S evera l contracts prevented m anagem ent from converting w ork ers into individual sub contractors by banning their buying m achines or equipment as a condition of em ploym ent: The employer shall not require, as a condition o f continued employment, that an employee purchase a truck, tractor, and/or tractor and trailer, or other vehicular equipment. (79) P rotecting C ontract and Union Standards The p revalen ce of re stric tio n s designed to p rotect contract and union standards was n ea rly as high as lim itations for protecting 17 in-plant job opportunities (table 4). There were 471 agreements covering 2.6 million workers protecting contract and union stand ards. Manufacturing covered fewer provi sions and w o r k e r s than nonmanufacturing agreements, reflecting the influence of con struction industry agreements. This industry accounted for 40 percent of all clauses pro tecting contract standards (191) and repre sented about 30 percent of the workers cov ered by such clauses (780, 000). Four industries accounted for over 30 provisions controlling contract standards, and each covered over 300, 000 workers. The 4 were responsible for two-thirds of the 471 provisions protecting standards and threefourths of the 2.6 million workers covered: Having provisions T o t a l----------- Agreements - Industry Apparel - - - - - - - - - - - Primary metals — — Transportation--------Construction191 319 48 31 49 Workers (in-thousands) 1,981.2 381.0 380.1 440.2 780.0 Provisions concerned with the production process or a major activity were more likely to protect contract standards than agreements bearing upon construction, maintenance, in stallation, and repair work. Three of the four industries having the largest proportion of contract protection provisions (apparel, construction, and transportation) in particular influenced this conclusion. In the first two, subcontracting was part of the normal mode of operations, and in the third (transportation), leasing operations normally occurred during peak capacity. As a rule, the same unions organize both in-plant and subcontractors* workers. Thus, in all three, the concern is not to preserve opportunities— in this respect, their provisions are permissive— but to pro tect wages and terms of employment of reg ular in-plant workers from being undercut when excess production work or major activ ity is let. Compliance Provisions. One hundred and eighty-one provisions required the subcon tractor to comply with the prime employees labor contract (table 6). These represented slightly under one-fourth of all 755 agree ments and applied to 20 percent of the 4 .2 million workers under contracts which had subcontracting controls. Compliance clauses were overwhelmingly a construction industry phenomenon. Almost three-fourths of these provisions (131 out of 181) involved building trades unions and contractors. Another 190 agreements contained gen eral compliance clauses— i.e., provisions re quiring the subcontractor to observe union rates or prevailing standards of the contract rather than the specific norms established in the prime employees agreement, or re quiring prime employer or subcontractor not to evade the agreement. These provisions were clustered in three industries: Trans portation (48), primary metals (31), and con struction (31). Together these accounted for over 57 percent of the general compliance agreements and more than 72 percent of the workers affected by thepn. In 23 provisions, the subcontractor could be required to adopt the terms and conditions of the prime employer* s collective bargaining agreement under certain circumstances, but in other situations he could be required to adopt only general observance of prevailing rates. When these 23 provisions were taken into ac count, there were a total of 348 compliance provisions, or just under 50 percent of the 755 c o n t r o l l i n g employer subcontracting activities. Provisions requiring the subcontractor to apply the prime employer*s agreement to his employees w e r e the most numerous of all contract compliance provisions, accounting for 115 of the 181 provisions. In requiring this observance, they used diverse language. For example, the contractor had to comply or be bound by the agreement; or the terms of the prime contract had to be equally effective for workers of subcontractors: It shall be the duty of all contractors subletting bricklaying or masonry contracts to ascertain that the subcontractor is re liable, financially responsible, and will comply with the pro visions of this agreement. (80) * * * If a contractor, bound by this agreement, contracts or sub contracts, any work covered by this agreement to be done at the job-site of the construction, alteration or repair of a building, structure or other work to any person or proprietor who is not signatory to this agreement, the contractor shall require such subcontractor to be bound to all the legally en forceable provisions of the agreement. . . . (80) * * * No member of the association shall send any work, including shoulder straps, to be done by, or obtain work horn, any contractor or submanufacturer unless such contractor or sub manufacturer is under contract with the union and maintains the conditions of labor specified in the contract . . . (82) * * * It is agreed that all provisions of this agreement shall be equally effective under any subcontract covering work done in the hotels within the classifications of work herein set forth. (83) 18 These guarantees w ere autom atic and did not ca ll fo r separate negotiations between the union and the su bcon tractor. Thus, the prim e con tra ctor b ecom es resp on sib le fo r the en forcem en t o f con tract standards. Other p rov ision s added extra insurance by requiring that the su b con tra ctor's p rom ise In a rare to c o m p l y m ust be in w riting. ca se , the su bcon tractor m ight have to sign the prim e e m p lo y e r's agreem ent or a short form agreeing to com ply with the contract: The employer shall require the contractor to become a party to this agreement and to file a subassent hereto with the union through (the association), and the contractor shall agree to be bound by all the terms and provisions thereof in the same manner and to the same extent as members o f (the asso ciation) . . . (84) The m ost frequent written com plian ce p rov ision stipulated that the con tract between the prim e em ployer and the su bcon tractor (i.e . , the agreem ent establishing the business term s of the subcontract) had to guarantee com plian ce with the wages and conditions of the prim e e m p lo y e r's co lle ctiv e bargaining agreem ent. S ixty-fou r p rovision s included this requirem ent: The employer agrees to specify in all contracts and sub contracts that all subcontractors performing work on the job site within the councils jurisdiction must comply with the terms and provisions o f this agreement, including the union membership provision, or be a party to an agreement with the council for such work. (85) * * * That if a contractor shall subcontract job-site construction work covered by this agreement, said subcontract shall contain the provisions: That the wages, benefits, hours, and other conditions (of this contract) shall be paid and observed on all such sub contract work by the subcontractor . . . (86) * * * If the contractor or subcontractor shall subcontract job-site work covered under the jurisdiction o f the union, including the furnishing and installation o f materials, performance o f labor, or the operation o f equipment, provisions shall be made in writing for the observance and compliance by the subcon tractors with the full terms of this agreement. (87) The 190 gen era l com plian ce provision s took se v e ra l distin ct fo r m s . F o r instance, som e stipulated that subcontracted w ork would have to be p erform ed under union conditions: In the event new construction is contracted out, such work shall be performed under the applicable building trades wages and conditions. (88) * * * In all new construction work where outside contractors may be employed it will be the established policy o f the company to have such work done under union conditions if possible. (89) Others did not s p e cifica lly require com pliance with the p r i m e em p lo y e r's contract, b u t n ev erth eless achieved this goal by awarding the subcontract dependent upon the subcon tr a c to r 's w ork ers receivin g the same c o m pensation and other conditions of employm ent enjoyed by in-plant w ork ers: The contractors agree that whenever any work covered by this agreement is subcontracted, it shall be subcontracted only to a subcontractor whose employees enjoy wages, hours, and other conditions o f employment equal to those contained in this agreement. (90) * * * The company shall require subcontractors to pay all persons employed on or in connection with said work at least the basic rate o f pay prevailing at the shipyard for the same or comparable class o f work. In a d d i t i o n the subcontractor shall pay the appropriate overtime premium, the recognized paid holidays and the vacation schedule prevailing in the shipyard. (91) C om pliance p r o v i s i o n s , appearing in 94 a g r e e m e n t s , banned subcontracting which would evade con tract obligations: Maintenance and repair work performed within the plant, other than that described in paragraph one, and installation, re placement and reconstruction o f equipment and productive facilities, other than that described in paragraph three, m a y not be contracted out . . . unless contracting out . . . as o f the time o f decision to contract out . • • can be demon strated by the company to have been the more reasonable course . . . Whether the decision was made at the particular time to avoid the obligations o f this paragraph may be a relevant factor for consideration. (92) * * * It is further agreed that the intent o f this clause and this entire agreement is to assure the payment o f the union scale o f wages as provided in this agreement and to prohibit the making and carrying out o f any plan, scheme or device to circumvent or defeat the payment o f wage scale provided in this agreement. . . . It is further agreed that the employer or certificated or per mitted carrier will not devise or put into o p e r a t i o n a n y scheme, whether herein enumerated or not, to defeat the terms o f the agreement, wherein the provisions as to com pensation for the services on and for use o f equipment owned by owner-driver shall be lessened, nor shall any owner-driver lease be canceled for the purpose o f depriving union employ ees o f employment, and any such complaint that should arise pertaining to such cancellation o f lease or violation under this section shall be subject to the grievance procedure o f the agreement. (93) One variation of the contract evasion r e s t r ic tion b a rred subcontracting if it deprived em ployees of w ork. These d iffered fro m those clau ses d iscu ssed e a rlie r where w ork could not be con tracted out if la yoff or part-tim ing 19 would resu lt. The con tract evasion p r o v i sions cited h ere involve lo ss of w ork as a d e l i b e r a t e purpose of subcontracting and barred such actions: The employer agrees not to subcontract work normally per formed by the employees under this agreement . . . in order to deprive employees o f work. (94) * * * The company subscribes to the principle o f telephone work for telephone employees and will not contract out work pres ently and regularly done by employees for the sole purpose o f decreasing the available work for employees in the bar gaining unit. . . . (95) A second variation prohibited subcontracting which discrim in ated against the union or em ploy ees: The company agrees not to transfer any o f its work to any other concern for the purpose o f discrimination against the union. (96) * * * * * . . . The company agrees it shall manufacture garments only in such outside factories as are under contract with, and employ numbers of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers of America. (99) * * * Each individual employer agrees that he will not contract to have performed any work at the site o f construction altera tion, roofing, or repair of a building, structure or other work with anyone not signatory to a collective bargaining agreement with (1) a national or international union now or previously affiliated with the building and construction trades depart ment, AFL-CIO, or (2) a labor organization whose national or international union was or is now affiliated with the build ing and construction trades department AFL-CIO or its pred ecessor, or (3) a State or local building and construction trades council. (100) * . . . it is understood that the company will not exercise these rights (to subcontract) for the purpose o f discriminating against the union, or an employee, or a group o f employees. (97) Union C on tractor R equ irem en ts. One hundred and sixty-eigh t p rov ision s stipulated that the prim e em ployer had to ch oose a union subcon tractor (table 6). O ver tw o-thirds of these had been negotiated in the apparel and constru ction in du stries, both of w h i c h had been sp e cifica lly exem pted, as noted e a r lie r, from section 8(e), the hot ca rg o provision of the L abor Management Relations A ct of 1947, as amended. The fir s t illu stration requ ired the sub con tra ctor to have an agreem ent with the same union, but not n e c e ssa rily the same agreem en t, as the prim e em ployer*s. The second clau se n ecessita ted the su bcon trac to r 's having a con tract with a lo ca l in the same international union. In the third illu s tration, the s u b c o n t r a c t o r could have an agreem ent with any of the building trades unions. The expulsion of the T eam sters from the A F L -C IO has not obviated the need for constru ction unions to w ork harm oniously with this labor organization. Consequently, this third p r o v i s i o n perm itted relations with unions now or prev iou sly affiliated with the A F L -C IO 's Building and C onstruction T rades Department or related interm ediate bodies: The employer agrees that when subletting or contracting out work covered by this agreement which is to be performed within the geographical coverage of this agreement and at the site of construction, alteration, painting, or repair of a building, structure or other work, he will sublet or contract out such work only to an employer who has signed or is covered by a written labor agreement with the union (which agreement shall be in substance identical with this agreement) and who employs or agrees to employ two (2) or more journeymen dur ing at least thirty-nine (39) weeks of the year. (98) The u n i o n subcontractor requisite was not a rigid rule. T y p ically , flexibility was injected by setting conditions under which the union stipulation might be w a i v e d . Thus, apparel and construction unions w ere able to con trol the use of nonunion con tra ctors to the advantage o f union em p loy ers. F or exam ple, a nonunion con tractor could be hired only if the union and em ployer reached agreem ent: A manufacturer who employs contractors shall employ only c o n t r a c t o r s who are in contractual relationship with the New York Joint Board of the Amalgamated Clothing Work ers of America and shall not cause or permit any work to be performed for him, directly or indirectly, by any person, partnership, c o r p o r a t i o n or contractor who is not in con tructual relationship with the New York Joint Board except by mutual agreement of the Exchange and the New York Joint Board. (101) A prim e em ployer could hire a nonunion subc o n t r a c t o r if no unionized subcontractors w ere available. The second illustration below also required that the union be given the name and location of the nonunion subcontractor— obviously with the intent to organize his w ork e rs . The fir s t illustration required the non union subcontractor to sign a union contract following a trial period: The employer may use the services of nonunion contractors only under the following circumstances, but only if it has first given the union written notice thereof, and in no event shall such contractor be one whom the union is picketing or otherwise engaging in a labor dispute. 1. The employer contemplates the manufacture of a new garment or style for which production facilities in the existing factories are inadequate} or 20 2. Production facilities of the p e r m a n e n t contractors are inadequate to take care of an increased volume of pro duction; or 3. A permanent contractor refuses to accept a garment or style at the piece rate established for that or similar work in the Bay Area industry by collective agreement. The period of trial for any such nonunion contractor shall be agreed upon in writing between the employer and the union. After such trial period, the contractor shall become a signatory to the union agreement. Failure to sign the agreement by the contractor shall make it mandatory upon the employer to cease dealing with such nonunion contractor. (102) * * * No work shall be caused to be performed by an employer in a shop not under contract with the union, unless the union upon written notice from the employer, fails within seven days thereafter to notify the employer in writing of a shop under contract with the union which can reasonably perform the work and which is willing to take the work. If work is sent to a nonunion shop, the employer, at the request of the union, shall furnish the union with the name and address of such nonunion shop. (103) The union su bcontractor rule a lso might be waived for certain kinds of operations not n orm ally p erform ed by the prim e em ployer. Thus, building trades, landscaping and tru ck ing operation s, and sp ecia l equipment in sta ll ers w ere excluded fro m the nonunion bar: . . . However, the employer agrees he will not subcontract on-site construction work except to subcontractors having co l lective bargaining agreements with unions affiliated with the local building trades council and shall so advise prospective subbidders. The a b o v e shall not apply to installation by technically trained factory representatives, and other such special situations. (104) In these situations, one type of clause called for the em ployer and the union to co n fer and coop erate should the work of in-plant em ployees be tran sferred . M ore prevalent, how ever, w ere construction industry p r o v i sions which required the prim e em ployer, in his agreem ent with the subcontractor, to in clude a clause binding the latter to the ju r i s dictional settlem ent m achinery in the industry: In recognition of the rights of the employees covered hereby to perform available work of the character covered by this agreement for the company, the company agrees to confer and cooperate with the union on any matter involving the efforts of other labor organizations to take such work away from em ployees of the company. (107) * * * The employer agrees that it is in the best interests of j o b progress and efficiency to, insofar as possible, develop and encourage a uniform labor policy on any particular job. In order to promote, insofar as possible, the principles set forth above, the employer agrees to insert in his subcontract docu ments, a provision which would require the subcontractor and his subcontractors to be bound by the terms and provisions of the agreement creating the National Joint Board for the Settle ment of Jurisdictional Disputes. In addition, the employer agrees, through the association's respective committees, to encourage the architects to include in their specifications a requirement that all contractors on the job, whether general, prime, sub, or sub-sub shall be bound by the terms and pro visions of the agreement of the National Joint Board. Nothing in this article shall be construed to limited or restrict, in any way, the employer's right to determine which portion of the work, if any, he may perform with his own employees or may subcontract to others. (108) * * * The employer agrees that all subcontractors performing work covered by this a g r e e m e n t must be union subcontractors. Except that the above shall not apply to landscapers, vendors furnishing material solely or to any persons furnishing trucking or transportation. (105) One interesting prov ision was designed to prevent abuse of the union subcontractor r e q u isite to con trol the supply of em ployers in the industry: The employer agrees that no firm, person, or corporation shall be engaged as a subcontractor to perform any of the work covered by this collective bargaining agreement unless such firm, person, or corporation is in contractual agreement with a local union of the (international union). This section shall not be used to prevent an employer from entering the segment of the building industry covered by this agreement. (106) The em ploym ent of union labor by the subcontractor was s p e cifica lly re fe rre d to in 56 agreem ents— again overw helm ingly in the construction i n d u s t r y . In 44 agreem ents, union labor was a requ isite. Such provision s might stipulate that workm en hired by the subcontractor had to be furnished through the union hiring hall. In the second illustration, unions extended their ju risd iction to the tra n s portation of m aterials to the site, whether by the prim ary em ployer or his subcontractor: . . . in the event it subcontracts any work coming under the provisions of this contract . . . it shall subcontract the same only to another employer either a party to this contract or who adopts the same by employing employees through the hiring hall established under this contract . . . (109) * * * T hirty-nine agreem ents dealt with p o s sible ju risd iction a l disputes between c o n tra c tor and su bcon tractor em ployees. T h irty-one of these w ere in the con stru ction industry w h e r e ju risd iction a l problem s are of long standing. So far as it is within the control of the employer or his sub contractor all materials, supplies, and equipment used on the job shall be transported to or from the site of the work by workmen furnished by the appropriate craft union signatory hereto. Nothing herein contained shall be construed to pro hibit the normal delivery of freight by railroad. (110) 21 In 12 p ro v isio n s, sp e cific language reliev ed the su bcon tractor of an o b l i g a t i o n to h ire union la b or. H ow ever, the su bcon tractor had to com ply with the prim e e m p lo y e r’ s a g r e e ment or with sim ila r standards: The contractors agree that whenever any work covered by this agreement is subcontracted it shall be subcontracted only to subcontractors whose employees enjoy wages, hours, and other conditions of employment equal to those contained in this agreement. . . . The union agrees that the scope of this article is expressly restricted to the aforesaid subjects, and shall not be construed to include union recognition, union security, or hiring clauses, or any other provisions related thereto. ( I l l ) Unfair G oods a n d S trik es. F o r ty -fiv e agreem ents re stricte d the handling o f unfair goods. A ll but three provision s w ere either in the apparel (28) or con stru ction (14) in dustry, both o f which are exem pted lega lly from the hot ca rg o prohibition (section 8(e) of the LM RA). Tfao k i n d s of goods w ere designated as unfair in these p rov ision s: (1) Those p ro c e ss e d by nonunion su b con tra ctors, and (2) those p ro ce ss e d by em ployers whose w ork ers w ere on strik e. 14 T hese types of p rov ision s in the apparel industry b a rred the p r i m e em ployer fro m doing business with nonunion su b con tra ctors. C onstruction indus try cla u se s, on the other hand, w ere le ss clea r when requesting con tra ctors and sub con tra cto rs to refra in fro m using m aterials or equipment which might cause d isco rd and disturbance. Such p rovision s could apply in a variety of situations and disputes: No member of the association shall . . . obtain work from any contractor or submanufacturer unless such contractor or submanufacturer is under contract with the union and maintains the conditions of labor specified in this contract, and unless the name of said contractor is included in the list of union shops furnished by the union. (112) * * * That the contractors and their subcontractors shall have free dom of choice in the purchase o f materials, supplies, and equipment save and except that every reasonable effort shall be made by the contractors and their subcontractors to re frain from the use of materials, supplies, or equipment which use will tend to cause any discord or d i s t u r b a n c e on the project. (113) P ro v isio n s a g a i n s t struck goods w ere c lo s e ly a llied with cla u ses which re stricte d subcontracting with em p loy ers whose w ork ers w ere on strik e. Such p rov ision s gen erally a b solved w ork ers fro m any d isciplin e stem ming fro m a refu sal to handle hot goods. As the fir s t illustration show s, prim e em ployers also could be r e stricte d in handling struck goods: The members of the association shall not, directly or indi rectly, handle or obtain any goods or merchandise or parts and/or components thereof, whether finished or partly finished, of the type usually made by workers employed under union agreement from . . . any contractor, jobber, or manufacturer against whom a strike declared by the (union) or any of its affiliates is pending, and the members of the' association shall in no event request any of their respective employees to perform work destined directly or indirectly for any such concern. Such work shall not be deemed in the workers' regular course of employment and the workers need not per form such work. (114) * * * . . . in no event shall (the employers) request any o f its employees to perform work destined, directly or indirectly, for such concern (against which a strike or labor dispute exists). Such work shall not be deemed in the workers' regular course of employment. (115) Seventy-one provision s stipulated t h a t s i g n a t o r y em ployers would not deal with struck em p loy ers, either as a subcontractor or prim e em ployer. F ailure to handle such work was not to be con sid ered a con tract violation: No member of the perform work for ucts from or sell there is a pending its locals. (116) association shall, directly or indirectly, or have work performed by, obtain prod products to, any concern against which strike declared by the ILGWU or any of * * * If work on a project is declared to be unfair by a (union) and the work thereon is stopped for that reason, the union shall not be deemed to have violated this agreement if, during the period of said work stoppage, the members of the union fail to perform their work for the contractors or the subcon tractors. (117)* * * * If a contractor is performing work on a job, it shall not be a violation of this agreement or cause for discharge or dis ciplinary action in the event that the (union) or any of its affiliated unions places a lawful primary picket line on such job and any employee refuses to go through or work behind any such lawful picket line. Nor shall the contractors be deemed to have violated this agreement if they cease opera tions during the period if a stoppage of work by unions other than those who are parties hereto. (118) R e g i s t r a t i o n P r o v is io n s . Sixty - f ou r agreem ents made reg istra tion o f the subcon tra ctor a requisite fo r letting out the contract and gave the unions con siderable con trol over I I4 A third category of unfair goods would be prefabricated items which conflicted with the work preservation goals of in-plant unions. No attempt was made to tabulate these prefabrication provisions as such since they were more pertinent for study of secondary boycotts than of subcontracting. However, the discord and disturbance clauses in the construction industry are broad enough to include prefabrication prohibitions. 22 such arrangem ents. Each agreem ent allow ed the union to investigate the su bcon tractor, his w ages, and working conditions when he operated under a separate con tract. R e g is tration p rov ision s w ere e sp ecia lly co n ce n trated in the apparel industry (34) and to a le s s e r degree in construction (14). The rest w ere scattered among eight other in du stries, som e of which, like textile and toy m anufac turing, had operating p roced u res somewhat sim ila r to apparel: No member of the association shall have work performed outside its own shop . . . unless such outside shop . . . is registered by the members of the association with the union herein . . . (119) In som e, registration was requ ired at the same time that the business relationship was established or within a short tim e th e re after. In the secon d illu stration , the union, in turn, was to furnish a current list of o r ganized con tra ctors to the em ployer a s s o c ia tion. In oth ers, registration had to be c o m pleted b e fo re the su bcon tractor re ce iv e d any work. In the illu stration s below , the subcon tra cto rs fir s t had to be reg iste re d with a lab or-m anagem ent com m ittee: The individual employer will give written notice to the union of any subcontract involving the performance of work covered by this agreement within 5 days of entering such subcon tract, and shall specify the name and address of the sub contractor. (120) * * * The employers are to register with the union the names of all the shops they buy goods from immediately upon entering into business relations with them, and in no event later than 1 week after business relations have been entered into. . . . The union shall furnish the council with a list of all shops in contractual relations with the union, which is to be kept upto-date weekly . . . (121) * * * . . . Painting contractors will be permitted to sublet contracts and in such cases shall mail to the county joint committee, prior to the start of such sublet contract work, the list of the subcontractors’ names and address . . . (122) A sm all num ber of agreem ents attempted to maintain stability in the industry by co n trollin g further contracting out by subcon tra cto rs. Such activity was either banned outright or was subject to the p e rm issio n o f the prim e em p loy er, as in the second illu stra tion. Thus, resp on sib ility for the su bcon trac to r 's actions rested on the prim e em ployer: No employee shall lump or work piece work for any employer. All T. and G. Flooring shall be laid by employees on the job unless this work has been sublet for labor and material to an employer who accepts this agreement. Upon request the union shall be furnished with the names and addresses of all sub contractors on the job doing work which is covered by this agreement. The subcontractors must be such employers who have agreed to this agreement. The subcontractor shall not sublet any part of the subcontract. No employee shall while working for an employer, rent or furnish either bench clamps, handscrews, mechanical mitre boxes, power tools, trucks, or lock mortising machines. (123) * * * The contractor shall not permit subcontracting by subcontrac tors without his knowledge and permission in writing. (124) P rotecting the Subcon tractor's E m ploy e e s . Even though c o m p l i a n c e provision s assu re negotiated wages and working con d i tions to em ployees of su bcon tractors, a num ber of agreem ents (82) provided that actual payments to em ployees a n d /o r trust funds w ere the ultim ate resp on sib ility of the prim e con tra ctor. This guarantee against delin quency by the subcontractor took s e v e r a l fo rm s. T ypically, the prim e em ployer was required to negotiate and en force a contract com pliance clause with the su bcon tractor, or, alternatively, he had to be resp on sible for payments to su b con tra ctors' w ork ers or make the payments h im self. In the second illu s tration, the prim e em p loy er, in e ffect, guar anteed payments by accepting resp on sibility fo r violations by the subcontractor: In the event employer subcontracts out any work that would otherwise be subject to this agreement, employer shall have the option either (1) to obtain from the subcontractor an agree ment to comply with the minimum compensation provisions in this agreement and cause such subcontractor to comply with such provisions, or (2) in the alternative, employer shall make such payments. (125) * * * Employers shall be held liable for all violations of this agree ment, including violations committed by subcontractors. (126) S everal apparel industry agreem ents in cluded stipulations that the con tract had to provide sufficient com pensation to enable the subcontractor to m eet labor and operating costs: It is recognized that the employer is a substantial ultimate source of employment for and of wages and other benefits paid to or for employees of contracting shops to which the e m p l o y e r supplies work, and that the employer is con cerned with the payment of wages and other benefits to or for employees in contracting shops. The employer agrees therefore that, if and when it contracts out work, it shall, in order to prevent undermining of union wage scales and their standards of benefits, pay to each of the contracting shops for work performed for the employer an amount sufficient to enable each of said contracting shops, after retaining a rea sonable amount for overhead for producing the employer's work, to pay to its employees the wages and benefits provided for in the agreement now, or hereafter in force between the contracting shop and the union during the term of this co l lective bargaining agreement. (127) 23 F or delinquency, som e con stru ction in dustry con tracts requ ired prim e em ployers to (1) exert p re ssu re on su b con tra ctors, to (2) withhold payments to the subcontractor until w ork ers w ere paid, (3) use withheld payments to pay w o rk e rs, (4) requ ire ce rtifica tio n of payments by the su bcon tractor, or (5) post a bond to co v e r at least trust fund paym ents. The second illu stration a lso placed a time lim it upon the prim e e m p lo y e r's lia b ility, a provision frequently included, and waived liability when the union continued to r e fe r w ork ers to delinquent su bcon tractors: If such notice is given, the individual employer shall pay and satisfy the amount o f any such delinquency by such sub contractor occurring within 60 days prior to the receipt o f said notice from the union, and said individual employer may withhold the amount claimed to be delinquent out of the sums due and owing by the individual employer to such subcontractor. In the event any subcontractor or an individual employer fails to comply with the terms or conditions of this agreement . . . upon notice from the union the individual employer shall immediately demand that the subcontractor remedy any such noncompliance and comply fully with the terms and conditions o f this agreement. In the event any such subcontractor fails to respond to such demand o f the individual employer and fails to comply, . . . the individual employer shall withhold payment o f the next payable amount due to the subcontractor until such sections have been complied with in full by such subcontractor} provided, however, that if the payment next due to the subcontractor is the last or terminal payment under the subcontract then the individual employer shall require a certification from the subcontractor, as a condition of making such last or terminal payment that the subcontractor has com plied in full and has made all payments in full. In one agreem ent, the p rim e em ployer could enlist the assistan ce of the union to determ ine c o n t r a c t com pliance by subcon tra ctors: The individual employer shall require all subcontractors per forming work covered by this agreement, prior to the com mencement o f work under the subcontract, to post a surety bond, or cash bond in lieu thereof, in the amount o f ten thousand dollars ($10,000.00) to cover payment o f contribu tions to the trust funds specified in this agreement. A copy o f said bond shall be posted with the trust funds. Each of such trust funds shall certify that such bond has been so posted and the subcontractor will deliver such certification to the individual employer. Failure o f the individual employer to enforce the provisions o f this subsection shall make said indi vidual employer liable for payment to the appropriate trust fund or trust funds with respect to all contributions and payments specified herein for all work performed by the subcontractor on the job or jobs o f the individual employer. The provisions o f this subsection requiring the posting o f a bond shall become effective on or before October 13, 1965. (128) * * * An individual employer who provides in the subcontract that .the subcontractor will pay the wages and benefits and will observe the hours and all other terms and conditions o f this agreement, shall not be liable for any delinquency by such subcontractor in the payment of any wages or fringe benefits provided herein . . . except as follows: The individual employer will give written notice to the union o f any subcontract involving the performance of work covered by this agreement within 5 days o f entering such subcontract, and shall specify the name and address o f the subcontractor. If thereafter such subcontractor shall become delinquent in the payment o f any wages or benefits as above specified, the union shall promptly give written notice thereof to the indi vidual employer and to the subcontractor specifying the nature and amount o f such delinquency. The individual employer shall not be liable for any such de linquency if the local union where the delinquency occurs refers any employee to such subcontractor after giving such notice and during the continuance o f such delinquency. The individual employer shall not be liable for any such de linquency occurring more than 60 days prior to receipt o f written notice from the union. (129) The employer agrees that all subcontractors shall comply with and be governed by this agreement. Failure to do so shall constitute a violation of this agreement and the employer shall be responsible therefore. The employer may request the local union to check and verify if their subcontractor on his job-site has complied with all wages and fringe benefits. The union shall reply to such a request of the employer within a reason able time thereafter. This paragraph shall not apply to ven dors furnishing materials solely, or to any person furnishing trucking or transporation. (130) In the apparel industry, alm ost all of the agreem ents included a provision which p r o tected the subcontractor from abuse by the prim e em p loy er. By protecting subcontrac to rs , the union stabilized the industry and thereby in directly p r o t e c t e d the w ork ers. These sophisticated and extensive clauses r e quired prim e em ployers to distribute work equitably among its permanent or designated subcontractors and governed the a d d i t i o n , diminution, or substitution of subcon tractors. Some a lso set conditions for the use of tem p orary su bcon tractors, and others regulated tria l or probationary periods fo r newly d e s ignated su bcon tractors. The follow ing p ro v i sions illustrate som e, but not a ll, of these regulatory devices: The employer shall distribute its work among its factories and the factories of its permanent contractors on as equitable a basis as is practically possible. . . . The services o f a permanent contractor shall not be terminated by the employer except upon 4 weeks' notice and only for just cause. (102) * * * In order to protect employment opportunities • . • and to insure that there shall be no discrimination in the distribution o f work against employees working in shops o f contractors designated . . . by a member o f the association, it is agreed that . . . a member of the association whose garments are manufactured in shops o f his contractors . . . shall not open an inside shop on his own premises or elsewhere, nor shall he enlarge his inside shop, wherever situated, if at the date o f the execution o f the agreement he maintained one, by employ ing a larger number o f machine operators, unless with the consent and approval of the administrative board. (131) * * * 24 All contractors (and the workers thereof) who were designated by a member o f the association as o f May 31, 1967, shall continue to be the designated contractors o f such member during the term o f this agreement provided they and each of them continue to maintain union shops. The determination o f whether a member o f the association requires additional contractors and the number o f contractors which shall be designated by a firm which becomes a mem ber o f the association after the effective date of this agree ment, shall be made on the following basis: (1) The annual volume o f such firm’s production} (2) the capacity o f the designated contractors to produce. If such firm has not there tofore been in business, it shall designate the member o f con tractors, if any, which it actually requires. . . . He shall distribute his work equitably among his con tractors with due regard to their ability to p r o d u c e and perform. If the member making such designation shall, at any time, change the character o f his product and the contractors desig nated by him or any o f them and the workers thereof shall be incapable o f meeting his changed requirements he shall have the right to substitute and/or add such other contrac tors in place of those incapable of meeting his changed re quirements. . . . (132) In a few co lle c tiv e bargaining situations, how e v e r, a prov ision has been in serted absolving the prim e em ployer of any resp on sibility: It is recognized that if the terms of employer’s lease, con tract or other agreement obligates the lessee or other party, as the case may be, to pay the wages and observe the other terms and conditions o f this agreement, then the union agrees that the sole and entire financial responsibility for meeting the costs o f observance of this agreement shall be upon said lessee or other party and not upon this employer and that he shall be, and by these presents is, hereby released from any and all financial liability in connection therewith. (133) * * * . . . No individual employer who has complied with t hi s requirement shall be liable to the union or any employee for any default o f his subcontractor in the observance of the terms and conditions of this agreement. (134) Lim itations C oncerning C ost, P rod u ction . and Other B usiness Conditions Of the t h r e e m a jor areas into which restrictio n s upon subcontracting have been grouped, lim itations concerning co st, p rod u c tion, and other business conditions w ere the least prevalent (table 4). Under 40 percent of the 755 agreem ents perm itting subcon tracting su bject to re strictio n s (294) pertained to business conditions. T hese, h o w e v e r , applied to over on e-h a lf of the w ork ers c o v ered by such prov ision s— i. e. , to 2. 1 m illion w ork e rs. A pparently, agreem ents involving large em ployers accounted fo r this substantial w ork er im pact. P rov ision s of this nature appeared m o re frequently in m anufacturing than in nonmanu facturing agreem en ts. Of the 294 p ro v isio n s, 205, coverin g 1. 6 m illion w ork ers, w ere in manufacturing; o n l y 89, coverin g 560, 700 w ork ers, w ere in nonmanufacturing. N either the apparel nor the construction industries contained any significant number of p rovision s about business conditions perm itting su bcon tracting, since in both, subcontracting was a regular m ode of operations. A greem en ts con cern ed about construction, m aintenance, and installation a ctivities w ere m ore likely to include provision s dealing with business conditions than con tracts about p r o duction or m a jor a ctiv itie s. This con clu sion , too, was influenced by the absence of building trades agreem ents. Industries having concentrations of b u si ness conditions p rov ision s included prim ary m etals (41), m achinery (27), transportation equipment (37), transportation (41), and u til ities (24). These five industries accounted for 170 (57. 8 percent) of the 294 agreem ents and 1. 8 m illion w ork ers (83. 5 percent) out of 2.1 m illion w ork ers co v e re d by them. T ra n s portation equipment, transportation, and p r i m ary m etals had a p articu larly strong im pact on w orker cov era g e totals. In a sen se, re striction s or lim itations about business conditions are a m isn om er. A greem ent p rov ision s falling into this c la s s i fication actually set conditions which p e r m itted em ployers to contract out. A s table 7 show s, these fe ll into four ca te g o rie s , a ll of which are d iscu ssed below . Cost and E fficie n cy . The 149 co st and efficien cy requirem ents (table 7) appearing in subcontracting p rov ision s w ere found largely in m anufacturing industries (which accounted alone for 124 prov ision s) and w ere con cen trated esp ecia lly in p rim a ry m etals (37), m a chinery (24), and transportation equipment (20). The p rov ision s w ere about evenly d i vided between those coverin g the production p ro ce ss or a m ajor activity (112) and those covering con stru ction , maintenance, and in stallation (121). The cla u ses used relatively inexact lan guage, which was la rg ely im p re cise and unde fined to anyone not fam iliar with the bargain ing relationship. G enerally, a broad prin cip le is established which m ust be applied on a c a s e -b y -c a s e b a s is . F or e x a m p l e , som e p rov ision s allow ed subcontracting when it was p ra ctica l and expeditious, econ om ica lly fe a s i b le, when the em ployer had strong econ om ic 25 and p ra ctica l rea son s, and when it was a d is tinct econ om ic advantage, or when it was not p ractica b le to use the in-plant w ork fo rce because it could not p erfo rm the w ork e c o n om ica lly or efficie n tly : . . . Insofar as p r a c t i c a l , all work within the factory grounds, including maintenance o f equipment at receiving stations, except for emergency or minor repairs, shall be per formed by employees covered by this agreement. . . . (135) * sk * It is the policy o f the company to use its own employees as much as possible in the performance of construction and maintenance work consistent with such consideration as effi ciency, economy, quality, governmental, customer, or time requirements, and with regard for the interest of affected employees . . . (44) Others adopted even m ore general te r m i nology. Thus, the com pan y's operating r e quirem ents might requ ire decision s in light of sound business p ra ctice , or contracting out m ight be the' m ore reasonable co u rse : The company recognizes the union's desire to retain work normally performed and will continue its practice o f using unit employees to perform this work. However, it is recog nized that the company's operating requirements may neces sitate the contracting out o f such work after a thorough review o f its decision in the light o f sound business practice. Such action will be reasonably and fairly applied . . . (136) Whenever the journeymen skilled trades employees in any given craft are scheduled for less than forty (40) hours per week or are laid o ff and are available for immediate recall, the company may not contract work normally done by such journeymen except when the company has made the deter mination that: . . . The company can obtain the work to be performed at a cost at least fifteen (15%) percent less than the cost of doing the work with its own employees using its established cost account ing procedures. If in order to meet a time limitation as set forth . . . it would be necessary to schedule company em ployees overtime, the company shall be entitled to calculate such overtime costs as part of the total cost in determining whether or not there is sufficient cost differential to warrant contracting the work, . . . (139) Equipment, Skill, and M anpower. Over th ree-fifth s o f the contracts concerning b u si ness conditions (180) provided that the e m ployer could subcontract whenever he lacked the sk ills, m anpow er, or equipment to do the contem plated w ork inside the shop. These conditions w ere m ore lik ely to be found in manufacturing agreem ents than in nonmanu facturing, e sp e cia lly in transportation equip ment (32) and m achinery (20). They also w ere m ore lik ely to be found in agreem ents c o v ering con stru ction , m aintenance, and in stalla tion activities than production p r o c e s s e s o r a m a jor activity. * * * Maintenance and repair work performed within the plant other then that described (above), and installation, replacement, and reconstruction o f equipment and productive facilities, other than that described (above), may not be contracted out for performance within the plant unless contracting out under circumstances existing as o f the time o f the decision to con tract out was made can be demonstrated by the company to have been the more reasonable course than doing the work with bargaining unit employees, taking into consideration the significant factors which are relevant . . . (137) P ro v isio n s also could focus on the co st fa ctor. Thus, the em ployer could su bcon tract if the c o st of in-plant w ork was high, but contracting out would not be allow ed if in-plant costs w ere reason ably com petitive as in the follow ing illu stra tion : Fabrication and machine shop work normally performed for a plant by its mechanical departments will not be contracted out if such departments are equipped and qualified to perform such work at a reasonably competitive cost and within the alloted time . . . (138) In one con tract, the parties defined the co st level that would allow the em ployer to sub contract as at least 15 p ercen t le ss than in plant c o s t s : Few p rov ision s stated in positive term s that the lack of m anpower o r equipment would be a reason fo r letting out a contract, as in the follow ing: The employer agrees that he will hire equipment to supple ment his own equipment only when he does not have the num ber or type of equipment required for his purpose. (140) M ore frequently, p rov ision s s t a t e d a p olicy of not contracting out and then waived the p o licy in the event o f a shortage of skills o r m ach in ery: It is the intent of the company to utilize its employees for all work in the yard which it customarily performs; except, however, the company may subcontract work if the require ments for men or materials make such subcontracting neces sary. The company may subcontract work on new facilities for the yard. (141) * * * It is the policy of the (company) to perform, maintenance work with its own employees,-provided it has the manpower, skills, equipment, and facilities to do so. . . . (142) 26 A s in co st and efficien cy p ro v isio n s, the use here of such term s as n e c e s s a r y , su fficien t, or sp ecialized sk ills or equipment gave a great deal of flex ib ility to the c la u se . F or e x a m p le : stances in the plant w arranted. In 128 a g r e e m e n ts, for ex am p le, the usual lim itations did not apply if the em p loyer experien ced either a peak period in operations or other e m e r g e n c ie s: The company states that it will be its policy and intention to use the employees covered by this contract and will not subcontract work customarily performed by such employees to another firm . . . unless adequate existing equipment and/or other facilities are not available to perform the work when it is needed or unless the company does not have employees covered by this contract in sufficient number and/or with sufficient skill to perform such work . . . or xmless it is deemed necessary to transfer or subcontract such work because of other demands on such equipment and other facilities to do other work which is to be performed. (143) . . . Overflow loads may in any event be delivered by drivers other than the employer's employees p r o v i d e d all provisions of this contract are observed. Loads m a y also be delivered by other agreed to m e t h o d s or as presently agreed to. (148) The c la u ses fa ll into two c la s s e s : F ir s t, there w ere the p rovision s which waive su b contracting re stric tio n s in an e m e r g e n c y . N o rm a lly , em e rg en cy was undefined: * * * During the life of this agreement, the company agrees that it will not contract out work, other than work which is cus tomarily contracted out, except when the work force does not have the skill, or ability to do the work, the necessary equip ment, or machines to perform the work . . . (144) The employer represents that it will not change its present and normal practice of using its normal sources of supply for any lithographic production work. Any deviation from the normal practices will not be considered to be in conflict with the above provisions where such deviations are due to emer gencies . . . (149) * * * * * * The company agrees that it will not subcontract maintenance work (as distinguished from new construction or major modi fication or rehabilitation work) to be performed on company premises . . . when the work operations involved have nor mally been performed by employees in the bargaining unit, provided there are sufficient employees possessing the neces sary maintenance skills then available to perform such work operations within the time required. (145) . . . Insofar as p r a c t i c a l , all work within the factory grounds, including maintenance of equipment at receiving stations, except for emergency or minor repairs, shall be per formed by employees covered by this agreement. It is under stood, for example, that situations may arise wherein it is necessary to employ t e m p o r a r i l y or to contract out work where; . . . such work cannot be completed by employees within required time limits. (135) * * * * * * The situations which develop into problems in our relations with employees involve subcontracting of maintenance and in some cases certain tool and die work. In this area, there is recognition by the union that among other things: 1. It is necessary to contract work which requires spe cialized tools or equipment and special skills . . . It is our intent and desire to utilize our own skilled trades employees to do the kind of work they have customarily done in our plants in the past, to the extent that it is practicable and economical to do so. We have neither the equipment nor personnel to do all of the maintenance and tool and die work in our plants • . . (146) * * * Where deemed advisable, contracts will be let to outside contractors under certain conditions. Such outside assistance will be engaged where peculiar skills are involved, where specialized equipment not available at (the company) is re quired, or where for other reasons economics can be realized because specialized contractors can better perform the work in question . . . (147) Production N e e d s. Subcontracting r e striction s could be w a i v e d when c ir c u m The management of the company believes that as a general rule it is not desirable to obtain the services of contract engineers who are not employees of the company for the pur pose of using such engineers in the plants of the company on work equivalent to that performed in various job classifications covered by this agreement. However, to meet certain emer gencies or special conditions, it may be in the best interests of the company to obtain and use such services. . . . (ISO) In public u tilitie s, on the other hand, an em e rg en cy m a y be defined, as in the fo llo w ing illu stration , as any condition endangering the p ublic: Overhead line work . . . may be let to a contractor when . . . an emergency exists jeopardizing life, public safety, property, and service to customers . . . (151) In its second fo r m , the clause under sc o r e s the im portance of the volum e of p r o duction or w ork. T hus, the em p loyer m a y subcontract w h e n the volum e of w ork in c r e a s e s or when the shop is so busy that the w ork subcontracted could not be done in the p la n t. 27 . . . In addition, work may be contracted out on occasions where the volume of work, or the time limits for completing the work, precludes the possibility of effectively using our own personnel. (152) * * * All work which has been performed in the tool and die depart ment . . . shall continue to be done there and shall not be contracted out except where the shop is so busy that it is unable to do necessary work . . . (153) Among the 128 p ro v isio n s, 11 re fe rre d sp e cifica lly to the em p loyer m eeting d eliv ery d a te s : It shall be the policy of the company to utilize its seniority employees by continuing to use its best efforts to keep the production of work parts, tools, dies, fixtures, and mainte nance in the works insofar as practical and efficient to do so. . . . The objectives of the policy will require the company's consideration of whether (a) there are adequate numbers of qualified seniority employees available to perform the needed work within any required time limitations as well as continuing to meet time limitations on other scheduled work . . . (154) C u stom er R ela tio n s. Fourteen p rovision s stipulated that cu stom er a n d /o r public r e la tions requirem ents would be a consideration whether to contract out. Such con sid era tio n s, how ever, also underlie the cla u ses w h i c h refer to production requirem en ts and sim ila r needs in subcontracting d e c isio n s: The c o m p a n y will have the right to contract out work when . . . public and customer relations require it. (155) * * * The company shall have the right, at its discretion, to appor tion work by subcontract to company employees or others, as it may see fit in order that the contractual work to which the company may be committed at that time, may be car ried out in the most economical and expeditious manner for the benefit of the customer and the remainder of the work or any particular vessel or vessels. (156) D isputes Settlem ent and Savings P ro v isio n s Disputes S ettlem en t. A s a rule disputes over contract p rovision s are subject to the traditional settlem en t procedure of the a g r e e ment— n am ely, the grievance and arbitration m ach in ery. Y et, over on e-fou rth of the 755 subcontracting p rovision s (192) sp e c ific a lly establish ed p roced u res to settle d ifferen ces and/crr c o m p e l observance of the subcon tracting p ro vision . Another seven clau ses were at the other pole and stipulated that subcontracting p rovision s w ere outside the scope of the c o n tr a c ts grievance and a r b i tration p ro ced u res. These 192 p rovision s w ere about evenly divided between manufacturing (100) and non m anufacturing (92). Although p rovision s w ere c lu stered in the construction industry (47 out of 202), actual s h o r t-te r m em ploym ent on building p ro je cts m eant that enforcem en t by the grievance procedure was not as p ra ctica l as in industries c h ara cterized by y e a r-ro u n d em ploym ent. Over o n e -h a lf of the c o n str u c tion in d u stry ’ s en forcem en t p ro vision s s p e c i fied that building trad esm en could strike if they concluded that the subcontracting p r o v i sion had been v i o l a t e d . Other industries having substantial num bers of enforcem en t p rovision s sp e c ific a lly relating to subcon tracting included apparel (32), p rim a ry m eta ls (35), and transportation (38). The four in d u stries together accounted for over th re e fourths of the p rovision s p articu la rly dealing with com p liance. N either provision s concerning production or m a jo r activities nor p rovision s about con struction, m aintenance, and i n s t a l l a t i o n tended to include enforcem en t p roced u res in any great n um b ers. Although the fo rm e r had a lm o st 3 tim es as m any p rovision s (184) as the latter (63), relative to the total number of p rovision s each had in the study, the p r a c tice was re la tiv e ly c lo s e : 2 8 .4 percent of the agreem en ts concerning production and 2 3 . 6 percent of the contracts pertaining to con stru ction, in stallation , and m aintenance had enforcem en t p ro v isio n s. A ll p rovision s which b arred enforcem en t stated that neither the e m p lo y e r ^ subcon tracting actions nor subcontracting disputes would be subject to grievance a n d /o r a r b i tration p ro ce d u re s: . . . The company will give the union . . . notice of its intention to contract out . . . . if such contracting out of work will result in the layoff of regular full-time employees covered by this agreement, and will discuss such action with union representatives. Contracting out of work shall not be subject to the grievance procedure or arbitration and in all cases the final decision will be left to the company. (157) * * * Arbitration of disputes before an impartial arbitration shall not be mandatory in the following instances: . . . Where a subcontractor performs work exclusively on the jo b site and with the knowledge of the contractor and after written notification from the union has failed, refused, or neglected to comply with the terms and provisions of this agreement. (158) Of the 192 enforcement provisions, 129 specifically utilized the contracts grievance and arbitration machinery; 32 permitted work ers to strike; 9 provided financial remedies or the suspension of management violators from their employer association; and 22 com bined these enforcement remedies. In 129 28 con tra cts, the grievance and arbitration p r o cedure represen ted the sole e n f o r c e m e n t m easu re, and in another 17 cla u se s, it was com bined with other p ro ce d u re s: The area grievance committee members will be given notice by the company when the company believes it should have significant items of work performed in the plant by outside contractors. Should the area grievance committee members believe discussion to be necessary, they shall so request the company in writing within three days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays) after receipt of such notice and such a discussion shall beheld within three days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays) thereafter. Should the company fail to give notice as provided above, or should the matter not be resolved by the discussion, then not later than (30) days f r o m the date of the commencement of the work a grievance re lating to such matter may be filed under the grievance and arbitration procedure. (159) * * * It is further agreed that the company, when it thinks it neces sary to contract a job out, will, well in advance notify the union of its intention by letter, and by means of discussion, if requested by union officers, qualify their reasons for desiring to contract the work out. Any differences that are left unresolved shall be settled through the grievance procedure. It shall be the general policy of the company not to subcon tract tool and die work when there are tool and die journey men on layoff, unless the work is of a nature that the com pany does not have the equipment or skills to perform, and in such instances the union will be notified, in advance, by letter and afforded the opportunity to question and discuss the job in question. Any differences remaining unresolved will be settled through the grievance procedure. (160) * * * When major construction work is to be done, the company will call in the union, outline the work to be done, establish insofar as practicable the duration of time involved, and set down the manner in which the work will be done, whether by contractor or otherwise. Any major construction work as de fined in its constitution within the jurisdiction of LAM will be performed by members of LAM. Any disputes shall be subject to the grievance procedure as now provided. (161) In e ss e n ce , the availability o f the g r ie v ance proced u re allow ed the em ployer to in iti ate action subject to a subsequent challenge by the union. R ecou rse to the grievance p r o cedure thus becam e a p e a c e f u l m eans to balance equities without obstructing a ctivities. This p ra ctice was rather c le a r ly set forth in the follow ing p ro v isio n s: When the company is about to contract work . . . it will notify the chairman of the skilled trades council . . . The chairman . . . accompanied by as many as three other union representatives may meet with the company's representative who has issued the notice for the purpose of discussing the company's intent to let such contract. This provision is not to be construed to mean that the company may not let such contract until the union representatives have agreed that let ting of the contract is justified. If the c h a i r m a n of the skilled trades council believes that letting the contract was unjustified, he may file a grievance under the grievance pro cedure, challenging the company's determination under this section. (139) A sensitive issu e, esp e cia lly when w ork ers fear fo r their jo b s , subcontracting o c c a sionally has been a ccord ed sp ecial treatm ent sim ila r to appeals from disch arge. E a rly steps of the grievance proced ure could be b y -p a sse d to expedite settlem ent: Within five (5) working days of filing of grievance claiming violation of this (subcontracting) article, the parties to this agreement shall proceed to the final step of the grievance pro cedure, without taking any intermediate steps, any other pro vision of this agreement to the contrary notwithstanding. (162) In a few p rov ision s, the parties substi tuted negotiation fo r arbitration between high lev el com pany and union o fficia ls where a subcontracting com plaint had been p ro ce s s e d fir s t through the low er steps o f the grievance p roced u re without arrivin g at a settlem ent: . . . It does not prevent the union from processing a griev ance through the normal steps of the grievance procedure. Such grievance is not subject to arbitration, however, should the union not agree with the third step disposition, then the chairman and international representative may discuss the dis position with the corporate director of industrial relations or his designated representative. (163) Under 32 p r o v i s i o n s , w ork ers could strike if subcontracting regulations w ere v io lated. These agreem ents w ere c l u s t e r e d la rgely in the construction industry w here, as noted e a rlie r, strikes w ere m ore likely to produce a m eaningful settlem ent than g r ie v ance p roced u res because o f the tim e elem ent. Another 14 agreem ents allow ed strikes as w ell as other enforcem ent m ea su res: (The) local union . . . is a part of the International Brother hood of Electrical Workers, and any violation or annulment of working rules or agreement of any other local union of the IBEW, or the subletting, assigning, or the transfer of any work in connection with electrical work to any person, firm, or corporation not recognizing the IBEW as the collective bar gaining representative will be sufficient cause for cancellation of this agreement, after the facts have been determined by the international office of this local union. (164) * * * . . . The employer, in an effort to maintain work juris diction peace, shall require all subcontractors to sign an agree ment stipulating that the subcontractor shall agree to be bound by this agreement, including the submission by all subcontrac tors of all jurisdictional disputes, wherein this craft is involved, to the National Joint Board for the Settlement of Jurisdictional Disputes. All subcontractors shall be bound by that board's decision. In the event any employer under the terms of this article does not comply with its contents, this agreement is considered to be abrogated. (126) * * * Upon failure of the subcontractor to comply with such non monetary terms or conditions within one (1) full working day after the determination by the association or its agent and the union or the arbitration committee, then in that e v e n t the union shall in addition to any and all other remedies available to it, be released from any provision of this agree ment which restricts or delays their right to strike. (165) 29 Twenty-seven agreements provided that financial penalties could be assessed against employers violating the subcontracting clause or that such employers might be suspended from association m em bership. These clauses were confined almost exclusively to the ap parel industry. The union's financial rem edies were designed to counteract any advan tage gained by the employer as a result of his violation: The parties acknowledge that should a member of the asso ciation violate (the requirement that the subcontractor hold a contract with the union), such violation would have an ad verse effect upon the interest of the workers, as well as upon the interest of the union in the establishment and maintenance of the labor standards provided for in union agreements with other employers in the industry. The parties also acknowledge that the damage to the union flowing from such violations is difficult, if not impossible, of accurate ascertainment. Therefore, the parties agree that in the event of such vio lation by a member of the association, such member shall pay to (the local union) liquidated damages computed as follows . . . (166) * * * Should a member of the association send piece goods to be cut to a "cut up" contractor or send garments to be manu factured by any "struck" contractor or, except as otherwise provided in subdivision . . . should a member of the asso ciation be found giving work to or dealing with a contractor who is not in contractual relations with joint council, such member shall pay to joint council damages for each such violation in a sum equivalent to twenty (20%) percent of the total amount (not merely the payroll of the contractor) paid by him and still due from him to such contractor for said work. A member of the association who is in collusion with a con tractor who sends such member's garments to be manufactured by other contractors or by "struck" contractors or to be cut by 'tut up" contractors shall pay to joint council damages for each such violation in a sum equivalent to twenty (20%) percent of the total amount (not merely the payroll of the other contractor) paid out still due to such other contractor. (131) The few contracts stipulating suspension from association membership for employers violating subcontracting jobs varied the dura tion of suspension, contingent upon the number of offenses and the magnitude of the offense: Should an employer be found guilty of violating this article, he shall be subject to sanctions as follows: (a) Upon a first conviction involving a system of violation (i. e . , a number of garments at one time, or the repeated giving out or purchase of garments): Three months' suspen sion from the association. (b) Upon a second conviction: the association. One year's suspension from (c) Upon a first conviction growing out of isolated or minor transaction: Payment of the labor cost plus liquidated dam ages not to exceed one thousand dollars . . . (167) Savings Clauses. Twenty-six agreements set the conditions under which subcontracting restrictions might be waived. M ost w e r e concentrated in t r u c k i n g and construction and were concerned with the possible conflict between clause requirements and the law. Like general savings clauses in the c o lle c tive bargaining agreement, those provisions specifically referring to subcontracting stipu lated that illegal language would become in operative : If this article shall be held to be illegal, the same shall be eliminated from this agreement. (75) One clause specified t h a t if the provision was determined to be inoperative, then the parties would renegotiate the clause: . . . This provision shall be operative only to the extent permitted by law. Should any final determination of any board or court of competent jurisdiction affect this provision, the contractors and the union shall meet within ten (10) days of such final determination for the purpose of renegotiating this paragraph D. (168) Clauses, in addition to waiving r e s tric tions for legal reasons, also might relinquish controls for economic reasons. These r e sembled cost and efficiency provisions noted above; thus, the following provisions were inoperative if cost would be unreasonable or excessive, or if the work would be delayed, or if the contractor would not be readily available or equipped: If it becomes necessary for the company to contract out work of the type regularly and customarily performed by employ ees covered hereby, it shall so notify the union and give preference to qualified contractors in agreement with unions affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. Nothing herein shall require the company to violate any regulations, ordinance, or statues of a n y kind whatsoever, nor s h a l l it be required hereby to assume unreasonable or excessive cost. . . . (169) * * * When building or construction work of the type customarily performed by the Building Trades Unions of the American Federation of Labor is contracted out, preference shall be given to qualified contractors employing members of these trades unions, provided that nothing herein shall require the company to violate Federal, State, or municipal regulations, to delay the work or to employ a contractor either not readily available or not equipped to do the work. . . . (170) T a b le 1. S u b c o n tr a c tin g P r o v i s i o n s in M a j o r A g r e e m e n t s b y I n d u s t r y , 1 9 6 5 —6 6 (W o rk e rs in thousands) Subcontracting— T o ta l studied Ind ustry T o ta l A gree W o rk e rs m ents U n re s tric te d A gree W o rk e rs m ents A gree W o rk e rs m ents A llow ed but lim ite d A gree W o rk e rs m ents Other 1 P rohibited A gree W o rk e rs m ents No re fe re n ce A gree W o rk e rs m ents A gree W o rk e rs m en ts . 1 ,8 2 3 7 ,3 3 9 .2 801 4 ,4 6 4 .4 38 2 4 0 .6 755 4 ,1 8 6 .8 4 9. 3 4 <J \ 00 1, 022 2, 8 74. 8 M an u factu rin g__________________________________ 1, 048 4 , 155. 5 396 2, 5 42. 0 35 231. 2 356 2, 2 7 8 . 0 ! 5. 0 4 27. 8 652 1 ,6 1 3 . 5 O rdnance and a c c e s s o r i e s ______________________ F ood and kindred p ro d u cts . . . . . . . . . _____ _______ T o b a cco m a n u fa ctu re s__ _______ ____ ____ _______ T e x tile m i ll p r o d u c ts __________ — ---------------- — . A p p a re l and other fin ish e d p r o d u c t s ....__ ___ L u m b er and w ood p ro d u c ts , excep t fu rn itu re _ _ . . . . . . ____ . . . . — F u rn itu re and fix tu r e s — — . __ — _ — P a p er and a llie d p r o d u c ts _____ _ —____ _______ _ P r in tin g , p u blish in g, and a llie d in d u s t r ie s — C h e m ic a ls and a llie d p r o d u c ts -------------------------P e tr o le u m refining and re la te d i n d u s t r ie s ... R ubber and m is c e lla n e o u s p la s tic s p ro d u cts — .. ---------------------— . L e a th er and lea th er p ro d u c ts_____ _____ _______ Stone, c la y , and g la s s p r o d u c ts _______________ P r im a r y m e t a l in d u strie s . . . . . . F a b ric a te d m e ta l p ro d u cts --------------------------------M a c h in e ry , excep t e le c t r i c a l---------------------------E le c t r ic a l m a c h in e ry , equ ipm ent, and s u p p lie s __ rT,-r_____________________ _____ , , __ T ra n sp o rta tio n eq u ip m e n t________ ___ __________ In stru m e n ts and r e la te d p r o d u c ts -------- ----------M isc e lla n e o u s m anu facturing in d u strie s . . —. 18 126 11 30 55 69. 9 382. 0 2 4 .2 71. 8 392. 0 5 31 1 10 52 32. 9 1 3 1 .7 1. 1 37. 0 388. 5 1 1 2 - 6 .4 2. 8 3. 6 - 4 28 1 8 52 26. 5 120. 9 1. 1 3 3 .4 388. 5 1 - 5. 0 - 1 _ - 3. 0 - 13 95 10 20 3 13 18 50 28 61 20 2 4 .6 2 9 .6 112. 2 59. 1 106. 8 44. 9 6 4 12 13 20 15 9 .6 5. 0 1 8 .4 2 9 .5 37. 5 31. 2 1 1 2 .6 2. 8 6 4 12 13 19 14 9 .6 5. 0 1 8 .4 2 9 .5 34. 9 2 8 .4 _ - _ - - _ - 7 14 38 15 41 5 15. 0 2 4 .6 93. 9 2 9 .6 69. 3 13. 7 21 23 37 106 55 115 1 0 7 .6 73. 8 115. 5 5 4 5 .7 129. 9 3 1 4 .6 13 8 19 45 12 47 7 0 .7 32. 3 75. 8 4 2 3 .6 3 3 .5 158. 9 1 2 1 1 1 5 1. 1 4. 5 1. 1 3 .5 1. 5 13. 5 11 6 18 44 11 42 49. 3 27. 8 74. 7 420. 1 32. 0 1 4 5 .4 - - 1 - 20. 3 - 8 15 18 61 43 68 36. 9 41. 5 3 9 .7 122. 2 9 6 .5 1 5 5 .8 106 118 25 12 398. 7 1, 075. 5 4 8 .6 28. 9 22 49 6 6 175. 3 8 2 1 .6 10. 0 1 8 .4 12 5 1 135. 1 50. 2 2 .6 - 9 43 5 6 3 7 .4 769. 7 7 .4 1 8 .4 - - 1 1 - 2. 8 1 .7 - - - - - 84 69 19 6 223. 253. 38. 10. Nonm an ufacturing-------- ----------- ——— . — -------- 775 3, 183. 8 405 1, 9 2 2 . 5 3 9 .5 399 1 ,9 0 8 . 8 3 4. 3 _ _ 16 91 88 80 19 119 37 65 256 1 1 1 .4 607. 0 5 24. 9 180. 0 35. 3 3 1 7 .6 171. 5 2 5 8 .2 970. 9 10 56 28 62 6 16 4 20 203 103. 0 463. 9 22 0 . 3 138. 3 9. 3 32. 4 41. 3 98. 5 8 1 5 .6 1 1 - 1 .6 6. 7 - 9 56 27 62 6 15 4 18 202 1 0 1 .4 46 3. 9 2 1 3 .6 138. 3 9 .3 30. 9 41. 3 95. 9 814. 3 1 1. 5 - _ - - - - - - 1 1 1. 5 1. 3 - - - 4 7. 2 " “ ” A l l in d u s t r ie s . —— ...... .. —— M in in g, cru de p e tro le u m , and n a tu ral gas p r o d u c tio n .___ __. . — ----------- -------- ----- ----T r a n s p o r t a t io n 1 — _ — — . 2 — - . C om m u n ic ation s-------------- ----- -------— -----------------. . . U tilitie s : E le c tr ic and g a s --------------------------------W h o le sa le t r a d e ----------------------------------------------------R eta il tra d e— ---------------------------------------------------------H otels and r e s t a u r a n t s --------------- ----- ----- ------------S e r v ic e s — --------------— — --------- —---------------—— — Cons t rue tion--------------- ----- —----- --------- ------ ------------M isc e lla n e o u s nonm anufacturing in d u s t r ie s ------------------------------------------------------------ - “ - - - - - - - 1 1. 2 “ - 1 Su bcon tracting m ention ed in the a g re em en t but details a re vague or sub ject to n egotiation s. 2 E x clu d es ra ilr o a d and a ir lin e in d u s trie s . NOTE: B ecau se o f r o u n d in g , su m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y not e q u a l t o t a l s . “ “ 37. 250. 23. 34. 3. 0 4 1 9 5 4 9 7 5 370 1, 2 6 1 . 3 - 6 35 60 18 13 103 33 45 53 8. 4 143. 1 304. 7 4 1 .7 26. 0 2 85. 2 130. 2 1 5 9 .7 155. 4 - 4 7. 2 - T a b le 2 . S u b c o n tr a c tin g P e r m it t e d S u b je c t to L im it a t io n s in M a j o r A g r e e m e n t s , S e le c t e d I n d u s t r i e s , 1 9 5 9 and 1 9 6 5 —66 (W ork ers in thousands) A g reem en ts N um ber studied A ll i n d u s t r ie s . ____ _____ _______ T o ta l (5 in d u str ie s)____________ ____ . . . _______ _ ___ ________ P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t r ie s ____ _ M a c h in e ry , e x c e p t e l e c t r i c a l ._______ _______ __ _ _ T r a n sp o rta tio n e q u ip m e n t_______ _______________ _ T r anspo r tation-------------- -- ------------------------------------------C o n stru c tio n .______ _ _____ _ ____________ _ 1 9 6 5 -6 6 1959 Ind ustry W o rk e rs P rop ortion with p ro v isio n N um ber N um ber with studied p ro vision s 1959 1 9 6 5 -6 6 N um ber studied J P roportion with [ pro vision s 1 9 6 5 -6 6 1959 N um ber with p ro v isio n s N um ber N um ber with studied p ro v isio n s N um ber with p ro v isio n s 1959 1 9 6 5 -6 6 34. 0 57. 1 I----------------| 40. 5 - 74. 4 i ! i ] ! ! 77. 0 46. 2 7 1 .6 7 6 .4 83. 9 1 ,6 8 7 369 1, 823 755 2 1 .9 4 1 .4 7 ,4 7 7 .3 2, 5 4 5 .6 7, 3 3 9 .2 4 , 1 8 6 .8 618 148 686 387 24. 0 5 6 .4 3 ,4 3 6 . 0 1 , 3 9 1 .6 3, 5 1 3 . 7 2 ,6 1 3 .4 124 117 127 95 155 9 11 26 23 79 106 115 118 91 256 44 42 43 56 202 7. 3 9 .4 20. 5 24. 2 51. 0 41. 5 36. 5 3 6 .4 61. 5 78. 9 724. 283. 1, 152. 573. 701. T able 3. 8 9 2 2 9 35. 0 17. 5 6 54. 3 2 4 0 .7 444. 1 545. 7 3 1 4 .6 1, 0 75. 5 607. 0 9 70. 9 420. 1 1 4 5 .4 7 6 9 .7 463. 9 8 1 4 .3 4 .8 6 .2 56. 8 42. 0 63. 2 A c tiv itie s and O peration s G overn ed by Subcontracting L im ita tio n s, M a jo r A g r e e m e n ts , 1965—66 (W o rk e rs in thousands) N u m ber P e rcen t A c tiv itie s and operations A g re e m e n ts T o ta l, a ll a r e a s ______________ Production p ro c e s s or m ajor activity o n ly ------------------------------------C onstruction , m aintenance only — S e rv ic e s o n l y ________________________ C om binations--------------------------------------Production and co n stru ctio n ___ Production , con struction, and s e r v i c e s --------------------------------------Production and s e r v i c e s -----------C onstruction and s e r v i c e s -------Vague __________________________________ A r e a s sp ecified : 1 P roduction p ro c e s s or m a jo r a c t i v i t y ---------------------------------------C onstruction , m aintenance, S e r v i c e s ------------------------- -------------Vague ---------------------------------------------- 1 N onadditive. NOTE: W o rk e rs 755 4. 186. 8 100. 0 100. 0 477 100 2 173 120 2, 238. 1 606. 8 3. 9 1, 300. 0 8 4 3 .6 63. 13. . 22. 15. 2 3 3 9 9 53. 14. . 31. 20. 5 5 1 1 2 6. . . . 0 8 3 4 10. . . . 2 6 1 9 45 6 2 3 425. 26. 4. 38. 6 2 7 0 A g re e m e n ts W o rk ers 648 3, 543. 6 85. 8 84. 6 267 55 3 1 ,8 8 0 .7 460. 3 38. 0 35. 4 7. 3 . 4 44. 9 11. 0 . 9 M o re than 1 a re a is sp e cifie d in 173 a g re e m e n ts . B ecause of rounding, su m s o f individual item s m ay not equal to ta ls. 2 S p e c i f ie d C o n d it io n s W h e r e S u b c o n tr a c tin g L im it a t io n s A p p ly b y A c t i v i t i e s an d O p e r a t io n s G o v e r n e d , M a j o r A g r e e m e n t s , T o ta l C onditions s p e c if i e d 1 A gree m ents A ll a g r e e m e n t s _______________________________ Union and con tract sta n d a rd s-------------- ------------C o st, production , and other b u sin e ss con ditions------------------ --------------------------- 1755 W o rk ers 4 , 1 8 6 .8 (W ork e rs in thousands) C onstruction , Production p r o c e s s m ainten ance, or m a jo r activity only only A gree A gree W o rk e rs W o rk e rs m en ts m ents 477 1 9 6 5 —6 6 C om binations S e rv ic e s only A gree m ents W o rk e rs A gree m ents W o rk e rs 1 N onadditive. M o r e than B ecau se o f rounding, W o rk e rs 100 606. 8 2 3 .9 173 1, 3 00. 0 3 423. 1 121. 8 _ _ 2 3 .9 149 73 1, 2 3 8 . 7 510. 7 2 2 33. 1 36. 9 4 6 8 .2 “ “ 117 ' ' 498 471 3, 2 1 3 .6 2 ,6 0 9 .7 274 369 1, 5 1 8 .7 1, 9 36. 5 73 25 294 2, 1 4 3 .2 109 600. 5 68 1 condition m ay be sp e cified . su m s of individual item s m a y not equal to ta ls. Table 5. L im itatio n s A ffectin g In -P la n t E m p loym ent O pportunities in Subcontracting P r o v is io n s , M a jo r A g r e e m e n ts , 1965—66 (W o rk e rs in thousands) Lim itations affecting in -p lan t em ploym ent op p ortu n ities1 A g re e m e n ts W ork ers Total with l im it a t io n s ____________________________________________ 498 3. 213. 6 L im itatio n s specified: L a yoff and p a r t-t im in g -----------------------------------------------------------------------F u lly supplied with w o r k -------------------------------------------------------------------W orking with su b con tracto rs' e m p lo y e e s -------------------------------------N otice and co n su lta tio n ---------------------------------------------------------------------S eniority p ro te c te d ___________________________________________________ O vertim e re q u ir e m e n ts ---------------------------------------------------------------------C onsideration a n d /o r p re fe ren ce to in -p la n t w orker s -------------C onversion of em ployee into s u b c o n tra c to r--------------------------------M iscella n eo u s em ploym ent p r o t e c t io n s ----------------------------------------- 187 55 4 258 14 29 54 79 33 983. 397. 30. 1, 905. 81. 121. 559. 343. 281. 1 N onadditive. i A gree m ents 2, 2 3 8 . 1 1, 074. 5 I ____________ _ NOTE: Not cle a r C O 00 o T a b le 4 . A g reem en ts m ay sp e cify m o re than 1 lim itation, 7 3 9 5 3 4 1 2 6 Table 6. L im itatio n s A ffectin g Union and C ontract Standards in Subcontracting P r o v is io n s , M a jo r A g r e e m e n ts , 1965—66 (W o rk e rs in thousands) L im itatio n s affecting union and con tract standards 1 Total with lim itation s _____________________________ L im itations sp e cified : C ontract c o m p lia n c e ______ ____________ G eneral c o m p lia n c e _________________ ________________ Union subcontractor re q u ir e m e n t___________________ Union labor r e q u ir e m e n t _____________________________ U nfair goods _____________________________ S t r ik e s _ _ ...... _ _ R egistratio n r e q u ir e m e n t ____________________________ P rotecting su b co n tra c to rs' w o r k e r s _______________ P rotecting the s u b c o n tra c to r_________________________ 1 Nonadditive. A g re e m e n ts W o rk e rs 471 2. 6 09. 7 181 190 168 56 45 71 64 82 25 8 44. 2 1, 3 52. 5 8 50. 3 216. 7 3 1 4 .4 418. 8 547. 0 6 4 0 .4 206. 6 A g re e m e n ts m ay sp e cify m o r e than 1 lim itation . Table 7. L im ita tio n s Concerning C o s t, Production , and O ther B u sin ess Conditions in Subcontracting P r o v is io n s , M a jo r A g r e e m e n ts , 1965— 6 6 (W o rk e rs in thousands) L im itations con cern in g c o s t , production, and other b u sin ess conditions 1 Total with lim itation s _____________________________ L im itations specified: C ost and effic ie n cy r e q u ir e m e n ts ___________________ Equipm ent, sk ill and m anpow er r e q u ir e m e n t s _________________________________________ Peak p e rio d s, e m e r g e n c ie s , and unusual order bu ild-up s _______________________________________ C ustom er or public relations req uirem ents _________________________________________ N onadditive. A g re e m e n ts W ork e rs 294 2. 143. 2 149 1, 328. 5 180 1, 322. 8 128 1, 273. 7 14 38. 9 A g re e m e n ts m ay sp e cify m o re than 1 lim itation . 8 A ppendix A. Selected Subcontracting Provisions This appendix illu stra tes how various parts of the subcontracting clause fit together. These clau ses should not be con sid ered as m odel or typical p rov ision s. F rom the agreem ent between New England Sportswear Manufacturing Association and the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires June 1970) 1. The em ployer shall em ploy or continue em ploying only such con tractor or co n tra c tors who are conducting union shops and who are in contractual relations with the union. The em ployer shall not o rd e r or purchase goods or otherw ise deal or continue dealing with any con tra ctor not in contractual relations with the union. A union contractor* s shop is herein defined to m ean one which has a co lle ctiv e bargaining agreem ent with the International L a d ies1 Garment W o rk e rs1 Union. The em ployer ag rees that it w ill not do business with or give any w ork to any con tra ctor or subcontractor who is not in contractual relations with the International L a d ie s1 Garment W o rk e rs1 Union. 2. The em ployer shall have no work perform ed by a con tractor unless the w ork ers of its inside shop are fully supplied with w ork, and unless such con tractor is under a contract with the International L a d ie s1 Garment W o rk e rs1 Union. The em ployer shall designate and re g iste r with the union the nam es of all con tra ctors presently doing w ork for the em ployer. Any needed additional con tra ctor designated by the em ployer shall be reg istered with the union. In the event of a change in the existing situation, the union re s e rv e s the right to r e open this clause fo r the purpose of negotiating new p rov ision s regarding con tractors in co n form ity with law. 3. Where an em ployer u ses m ore than one co n tra ctor, it shall, during the slack season, distribute its w ork proportion ately among all its con tra ctors in sofar as p racticable. Where an em ployer with an inside shop uses co n tra ctors, it shall, during the slack season, distribute its w ork proportion ately between the inside shop and its regular con tra ctors, giving p refe re n ce where p ra ctica b le to the inside shop. 4. In o rd e r to safeguard working standards and em ploym ent opportunities of the w ork ers co v e re d by this and other agreem ents in the garm ent industry, it is agreed that all garm ents or parts th ereof handled by the em ployer during the term of this agreem ent, whether finished or partly fin ish ed, shall be m anufactured ex clu siv ely either in its own shop o r, as parts of an integrated p r o c e ss of production under the jo b b e r-co n tra cto r system of production, in a shop under contract with the International L a d ies1 Garment W ork ers1 Union; and a cco rd in g ly the em ployer shall not handle, purchase, im p ort, or otherw ise obtain, d irectly or in d irectly , any other wholly or partly finished garm ents w hatsoever during the term of this agreem ent. 5. In the event the em ployer sends garm ents to be m anufactured by any '‘ stru ck ” con tra ctor after n otice that such con tractor is being struck, or in the event the em ployer at any tim e sends garm ents to be m anufactured by a non-ILGWU con tra ctor, including a non-ILGWU “ cutter c o n tr a c to r ” , the em ployer shall pay to the union dam ages fo r each such violation in a sum equivalent to twenty (20%) per cent of the total amount (not m erely the payroll of the con tra ctor) paid by it and still due from it to such con tractor fo r said work. Such payment shall include the obligation of the em ployer stated in A rticle X V(4). 35 36 F rom the agreem ent between United States Steel Corporation and the United Steelworkers of America (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires July 1971) The parties have existing rights and obligations with re sp e ct to various types of co n tracting out. In addition, the follow ing supplements protections fo r bargaining unit em ployees or a ffirm s existing management righ ts, w hichever the ca se m ay be, as to those types of contracting out sp ecified below : a. P roduction, s e r v ic e , and d a y -to -d a y maintenance and rep a ir w ork within a plant as to which the p ra ctice has been to have such w ork p erform ed by em ployees in the bargaining unit shall not be con tracted out fo r p erform an ce within the plant, unless otherw ise mutually agreed pursuant to paragraph 2 -A -4 -d . If production, s e r v ic e , and d a y -to-d a y maintenance and rep air w ork has in the past been perform ed within a plant under som e circu m sta n ces by em ployees within a b a r gaining unit and under som e circu m sta n ces by em ployees of co n tra cto rs, or both, such contracting out shall be p e rm issib le under circu m sta n ces sim ila r to those under which contracting out has been a p ra ctice , unless otherw ise mutually agreed pursuant to p a r agraph 2 -A -4 -d . P rodu ction , s e r v ic e , and d a y -to-d a y maintenance and repair w ork within a plant as to which the p ra ctice has been to have such w ork p erform ed by em ployees of con tra ctors m ay continue to be con tracted out, unless otherw ise mutually agreed pursuant to p a r agraph 2 -A -4 -d . H ow ever, in the event reduced operations are anticipated in the s e n iority unit to which the w ork would m ost appropriately be assigned, management shall, p rio r to contracting out the w ork, give consideration to the assignm ent of such w ork to the em ployees within said unit providing such w ork w ill not involve overtim e fo r such em ployees or alter schedules fo r the com pletion of other jo b s . b. Maintenance and repa ir w ork p erform ed within the plant, other than that d e scrib e d in paragraph 2 -A -4 -a , and installation, replacem ent and recon stru ction of equipment and productive fa c ilitie s , other than that d escrib ed in paragraph 2 -A -4 -C , m ay not be con tracted out fo r perform an ce within the plant unless contracting out under the circu m sta n ces existing as of the tim e the d ecision to contract out was made can be dem onstrated by the com pany to have been the m ore reasonable cou rse than doing the w ork with bargaining unit e m p loy ees, taking into consideration the significant fa cto rs which are relevant. Whether the decision was m ade at the particular tim e to avoid the obligations of this paragraph m ay be a relevant fa cto r fo r consideration. c . New construction including m a jor installation, m a jor replacem ent and m a jor r e con stru ction of equipment and productive fa cilitie s at any plant m ay be contracted out, subject to any rights and obligations of the p arties which, as of the beginning of the period com m encing August 1, 1963, are applicable at that plant. d. At each plant a regu larly constituted com m ittee consisting o f not m ore than four p erson s (except that the com m ittee m ay be enlarged to six person s by lo ca l agreem ent), half of whom shall be m em b ers of the bargaining unit and designated by the union in w riting to the plant management and the other half designated in writing to the union by the plant m anagem ent, shall attempt to re so lv e p roblem s in connection with the operation , application and adm inistration of the foreg oin g p rov ision s. In addition to the requirem ents of paragraph 2 -A -4 -e below , such com m ittee m ay d iscu ss any other current p rob lem s with re sp ect to contracting out brought to the attention of the com m ittee. e. The union com m ittee m e m b e rs w ill be given notice by the company m em b ers, when the com pany b e lie v e s it should have significant item s of w ork perform ed in the plant by outside co n tra cto rs. Such notice shall contain an adequate d escrip tion of the 37 w ork to be p e rform ed and shall be given at such early date as w ill allow good faith d iscu ssion of whether such w ork should or should not be contracted out, unless e m e r gency conditions prevent such ea rly n otice. Should the union com m ittee m em b ers b e lieve d iscu ssion to be n e ce ssa ry , they shall so request the com pany m em b ers in writing within five days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and Holidays) after receip t of such n otice and such a discu ssion shall be held within three days (excluding Saturdays, Sun days, and Holidays) th erea fter. The union m em bers of the com m ittee m ay include in the m eeting the union represen tative from the area in which the problem a r is e s . Should the com m ittee re so lv e the m atter, such resolution shall be final and binding. Should a discu ssion be held and the m atter not be resolv ed or in the event a d iscu ssion is not held, then within thirty days from the date of the com pany’ s notice a grievance relating to such m atter m ay be filed under the grievance and arbitration p roced u re. Should the com pany com m ittee m em b ers fail to give notice as provided above, then not later than thirty days fro m the date of the com m encem ent of the w ork a grievance relating to such m atter m ay be filed under the grievance and arbitration proced u re. F rom the agreem ent between Climax Molybdenum Company, a Division of American Metal Climax, Inc. and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires July 1968) 1. The com pany r e s e r v e s the right to contract w ork when it does not take w ork from the production and m aintenance unit or when m en are unavailable in the unit fo r tem porary or seasonal jo b s to p e rfo rm the w ork when required. 2. Contracting m a jor new su rface con struction, or m a jor alterations of existing surface fa cilitie s , excluding short connecting lines to the p ro je ct, shall not be con sid ered as taking work from the production and m aintenance unit. 3. The follow ing underground con struction p ro je cts m ay be contracted. Neither the company nor the union con ced es that sim ila r p ro je cts are or are not bargaining unit w ork. 3a. The con stru ction of a cru sh er underground. 3bc The con stru ction of any shaft or shafts for transportation of ore from under ground to the Storke L evel yard. 4. The union w ill be inform ed b efore any work is contracted. 5. The com pany shall maintain its surface maintenance and residual e le c tr ic a l crew s unless a reduction is brought about by a curtailm ent of operations, im proved m ethods or equipm ent, or automation. 6. A fter the con tra ctor has com pletely p erform ed the con tract, Clim ax em ployees w ill use and m aintain the fa cility constructed. 7. No em ployees w ill be laid off fo r the purpose of perm itting the company to contract w ork. 8. When the com pany tem p ora rily assigns an em ployee to p erform the w ork of a co n tra cto r at C lim ax, his hourly w ork rate shall be the highest of the follow ing: 8a. His hourly w ork rate as a C lim ax em ployee. 8b. The hourly w ork rate of Clim ax em ployees doing the same work to which he is tem p ora rily assigned. 8c. The prevailing union hourly w ork rate the con tractor would have paid had his e m p loyees done the w ork to which the Clim ax em ployee is tem p orarily assigned. 38 9. Any failure of the com pany to e x e r cis e any of its rights to contract out w ork shall not constitute a w aiver or qualification of those rights as to that w ork or any other w ork. 10. The com pany may submit to arbitration the question of the com pany’ s right to contract w ork a n d /o r the com pany m ay p roceed to contract the w ork and the union m ay submit the question to arbitration within (5) w orkdays after notification m eeting or the day follow ing the regu larly scheduled union m eeting w hichever is g rea ter. F or this paragraph one of the permanent a rb iters listed in a rticle 7 shall be selected i m m e d i a t e l y using the scratch system , the fir s t scratch being decided by a coin to s s . His d ecision shall be final and binding. F or said arbitration the grievan ce proced ure w ill not be used, and the facts w ill not be lim ited. 11. Any prop osals submitted in negotiations on this a r tic le , nor the agreem ent of Jan uary 24, 1962, m odifying a rticle 5 of the old agreem ent, shall not under any circu m sta n ces alter or affect the interpretation or application of this a rticle . F rom the agreem ent between Weyerhaeuser Company and the International Woodworkers of America (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires May 1969) The com pany shall requ ire its con tra ctors and su b -con tra ctors to maintain the standards of wages and working conditions provided fo r in this agreem ent, subject to the follow ing co n ditions: A . This p rovision shall not apply to a con tractor or su b -con tra ctor during the tim e that such con tractor or su b -con tra ctor has a co lle ctiv e bargaining agreem ent with his own e m p loy ees. B. This provision shall only apply to contracts and su b -con tra cts entered into h e r e after and to renew als of present con tracts which are m ade h erea fter. C. This provision shall apply only to con tracts and su b -con tra cts fo r the perform an ce of logging and lum bering operations and shall not apply to building construction contracts or other con tracts outside the logging and lum bering operations th em selv es. D. Contracts and su b -con tra cts fo r logging or w oods operations shall be made subject to the co lle ctiv e bargaining contract of the IWA, A F L — CIO, only if the co lle ctiv e bargaining contract o f the IWA, A F L — CIO, and the com pany co v e rs the w oods or logging em p loy ees. E. C o n t r a c t s and su b -con tra cts for m ill operations shall be m ade subject to the co lle c tiv e bargaining contract of the IWA, A F L — CIO, only if the co lle ctiv e bargaining contract of the IWA, A F L — CIO, and the com pany c o v e rs the m ill em p loy ees. F . This provision shall not apply to con tra ctors and su b -con tra ctors perform in g w ork which was not previou sly being p erform ed by em ployees of the com pany. F rom the agreem ent between General Telephone Company of Michigan and the International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires May 1969) Section 11— Contracting W ork Out A . The com pany re co g n iz e s and acknow ledges the right of its em ployees to p erform its telephone w ork and in protection of this right a g rees to con fer and cooperate with the 39 union with re sp e ct to effo rts of other labor organizations to take telephone w ork from its em ployees. B. Nothing in this agreem ent shall be construed to lim it the com pany in the em ployment of such contract labor as in the d iscretion of the com pany m ay becom e n e ce ssa ry for the prop er con stru ction , installation, and maintenance of com m unication fa cilitie s owned served, a n d /o r operated by the com pany for the rendition of prop er and adequate c o m m unication se r v ice to the public. C. W ork done by con tra cto rs shall in no way result in the laying off, part-tim ing, or dem otion of any em ployee qualified to p erform the w ork being done. D. When overtim e w ork by con tra ctors is authorized and con trolled by the com pany, equal opportunity for such overtim e w ork shall be afforded those com pany em ployees n o r m ally doing the same type of w ork within the same exchange in which contract labor is e m ployed. A s an exam ple, the w ork of tree trim m in g, on an extensive sca le, is a sp e cific type of w ork not n orm ally perform ed by com pany em ployees. E. None of the re strictio n s or lim itations ex p ressed herein shall apply to w ork done by em ployees of an equipment m anufacturer in the cou rse of a m a jor installation, m odification or rearrangem ent of equipment of his own m anufacture or equipment a ssocia ted with it in the o ffice s of G eneral Telephone Company of M ichigan. F rom the agreem ent between National Lead Company and the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers International Union (AFL-CIO) (expires F ebru ary 1970) It is the intention of the com pany to provide full and regular em ploym ent fo r its e m ployees except during p eriod s when conditions n ecessitate reduction in plant output. In accord a n ce with this intention, the com pany a g rees that w ork p erform ed by m em bers of the unit shall not be contracted out as long as the em ployer has the prop er and sufficient equip ment and so long as there are qualified em ployees available fro m among present a n d /or laid o ff em ployees eligible to return to w ork under the re c a ll prov ision . It is understood the plant cannot be staffed econ om ica lly and efficien tly fo r peak periods of m aintenance, con stru ction , m a teria l handling, e tc ., and w ill r e s o rt to outside con tra ctors to augment the working f o r c e , which w ill not preclude ov ertim e. The union a g rees it does not intend fo r the company to in crea se the w ork fo r c e , pur chase additional, new or sp ecia l equipment fo r the sole purpose to avoid the em ploym ent of co n tra cto rs. F u rth erm ore, it w ill not cause the com pany to w ork the present fo r c e on an overtim e b a sis when such w ork can be con tracted out on a straight tim e b a sis. On the other hand, this does not preclu de present fo r c e s working ov ertim e. The com pany w ill advise the union and discu ss the use of con tra ctors a n d /or sub con tra cto rs who w ill p erfo rm w ork r e fe r r e d to in Section 1, paragraph 2, on the p rem ises p erform ed by m em b ers of the union. Nothing in this section is intended to prevent the layoff of em ployees because of te ch n ologica l im provem ents or to prevent the hiring of additional em ployees when con sid ered n e ce ssa ry by the com pany. 40 F rom the agreem ent between Northern and Central California Chapter, the Associated General Contractors of America and the Laborers' International Union of North America (AFL-CIO) (ex p ires June 1968) Section 11— The te rm s and conditions of this agreem ent insofar as it a ffects em ployer and individ ual em ployer shall apply equally to any subcontractor under the con trol of, or working under contract with such individual em ployer on any w ork co v e re d by this agreem ent, and said subcon tractor with re sp e ct to such w ork shall be con sid ered the same as an individual e m ployer co v e re d h ereby. If an individual em ployer shall subcontract w ork h erein defined, such subcontract shall state that such subcontractor a g re e s to be bound by and com ply with the term s and p r o v ision s o f this agreem ent, A su bcon tractor is defined as any person , firm or corp oration who a g rees under c o n tra ct with the em p loy er, or any individual em p loy er, or a su bcontractor of the em p loy er, or any individual em ployer to p erform on the job site any part or portion of the construction w ork co v e re d by the prim e con tract, including the operation of equipment, perform an ce of labor and installation of m a te ria ls. An individual em ployer who provides in the subcontract that the subcontractor w ill pay the w ages and benefits and w ill ob serv e the hours and all other term s and conditions of this agreem en t, shall not be liable fo r any delinquency by such subcontractor in the payment of any w ages or fringe benefits provided h erein, including payments required by Sections 28 (A ), 28(B) and 28(C), except as fo llo w s: The individual em ployer w ill give written notice to the union of any subcontract in volving the perform a n ce of w ork co v e re d by this agreem ent within five (5) days of entering such subcontract, and shall sp ecify the name and add ress of the subcontractor. If th ereafter such su bcontractor shall b ecom e delinquent in the payment of any wages or benefits as above sp ecified , the union shall prom ptly give written notice th ereof to the individual em ployer and to the su bcon tractor specifying the nature and amount of such d e linquency. If such notice is given, the individual any such delinquency by such subcontractor receip t of said n otice fro m the union, and said claim ed to be delinquent out of the sums due su b con tra ctor. em ployer shall pay and satisfy the amount of occu rrin g within sixty (60) days p rior to the individual em ployer m ay withhold the amount and owing by the individual em ployer to such The individual em ployer shall not be liable fo r any such delinquency if the lo ca l union w here the delinquency o c c u r s r e fe r s any em ployee to such subcontractor after giving such notice and during the continuance of such delinquency. The individual em ployer shall not be liable for any such delinquency occu rrin g m ore than sixty (60) days p rio r to receip t of written notice from the union. A ppendix B. Identification o f Clauses E m ployer and union 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Sam sonite C orporation Rubber W ork ers (URW) N orfolk Shipbuilding and D rydock C orporation B oilerm a k ers (BBF) Burroughs C orporation Auto W orkers (UAW) (ind. ) C am eron Iron W orks, Inc. M achinists (IAM) G eneral E le ctric Company E le c tr ic a l, International (IUE) Building Maintenance E m ployers A ssocia tion S ervice E m ployees (SEIU) G eneral Telephone Company of Indiana Com m unications W orkers (CWA) Houston Lighting and P ow er Company E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) Potlatch F o r e s ts , Inc. W oodw orkers (IWA) G lass Containers M anufacturers Institute, Inc. G lass Bottle B low ers (GBBA) Hupp C orporation— G ibson R efrig era tor D ivision Auto W orkers (UAW) (in d .) A llis-C h a lm e rs Manufacturing Company Steelw orkers (USA) National Steel C orporation — Great Lakes Steel D ivision S teelw orkers (USA) A m erica n M etal C lim ax, Inc. Oil, C hem ical and A tom ic W orkers (OCAW) Lockheed A ir c r a ft C orporation— Lockheed -C aliforn ia D ivision M achinists (IAM) Bethlehem Steel C orporation Steelw orkers (USA) St. Joseph Lead Company S teelw orkers (USA) I /A C aliforn ia Cement Companies Cement W ork ers (CLGW) Iroqu ois Gas C orporation E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) I /A R etail F ood and Liquor Stores Retail C lerks (RCIA) G eneral Telephone Company of M ichigan E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) H olly Sugar C orporation G rain M ille rs (AFGM) G reater St. Louis Autom otive A ssocia tion M achinists (IAM) I /A Ice C ream D rivers T eam sters (IBT) (ind. ) K earney and T re ck e r C orporation E m ployees Independent Union (Ind. ) Rohr C orporation M achinists (IAM) 41 42 Clause number 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 Employer and union North A m erica n Aviation, Inc. A u to W o rk e rs (UAW) (Ind.) B altim ore Transit Company Transit Union, A m algam ated (ATU) Lockheed A ir c r a ft C orporation— L ock h eed-G eorgia D ivision M achinists (IAM) National Castings Company Auto W orkers (UAW) (ind. ) N ational Broadcasting Company B roadcast E m ployees and Technicians (NABET) B ird sb o ro C orporation Steelw orkers (USA) T or ring ton Company Auto W ork ers (UAW) (Ind. ) Crown Z elle rb a ch C orporation P aperm akers and P a p erw ork ers (UPP) Brooklyn Union Gas Company T ran sp ort W orkers (TWU) C a rrie r C orporation— E lliott D ivision Steelw orkers (USA) P a c ific M aritim e A sso cia tio n M arine E n gin eers' (MEBA) P le a te rs, S titch ers, and E m b roid ers A sso cia tio n , Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) A m erica n M illin ery M anufacturers A ssocia tion , Inc. Hatters (HCMW) Cartage of C hicago, Inc. Illin ois M otor Truck O perators A sso cia tio n , Inc. , Central M otor F reight A ssocia tion M achinists (IAM) National Lead Company— D o e h le r-J a rv is D ivision Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) Monsanto C hem ical Company M etal Trades Council Sperry-R an d C orporation E le c tr ic a l, International (IUE) M ack T ruck, Inc. Auto W ork ers (UAW) (Ind.) N ational Lead Company O il, C hem ical and A tom ic W ork ers (OCAW) National Lead Company— Titanium D ivision P ain ters and Paperhangers (BPDP) Southern Counties Gas Company C hem ical W ork ers (ICW) Stuffed Toy M anufacturers A sso cia tion T oy W orkers (IDTW) K oils man Instrum ent Company M achinists (IAM) U pholstery E m ployers A sso cia tio n U p h olsterers' (UIU) Humble Oil and Refining Company Independent Industrial W ork ers (in d .) B org W arner C orporation— G ear D ivision Auto W orkers (UAW) (In d .) B u cy ru s-E rie Company Steelw orkers (USA) Boston Gas Company D istrict 50 Mine W ork ers (UM W-50) (Ind.) East Ohio Gas Company S ervice E m ployees (SEIU) Expiration date Septem ber 1968 Septem ber 1968 July 1968 F ebruary 1968 M arch 1970 O ctober 1969 May 1970 July 1970 M arch 1968 M arch 1968 July 1969 F ebru ary 1970 D ecem ber 1968 A p ril 1970 June 1968 May 1970 June 1970 O ctober 1967 F ebruary 1970 M arch 1969 M arch 1969 June 1970 June 1968 August 1968 A p ril 1969 O ctober 1967 August 1970 O ctober 1969 June 1969 Employer and union 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 A m erica n Telephone and Telegraph Company— Long Lines C om m unications W ork ers (CWA) K ellogg Company Grain M ille rs (AFGM) G eneral Telephone Company of C alifornia Com m unications W ork ers (CWA) Leeds and N orthrup Company Leeds and N orthrup E m p lo y e e s’ (Ind. ) United Better D ress M anufacturers A ssocia tion , Inc. G arm ent W ork ers, L a d ies’ (ILGWU) New Y ork Coat and Suit A sso cia tion , Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, L a d ie s’ (ILGWU) Continental Oil Company Oil W ork ers of Oklahoma (in d .) Realty A d v iso ry B oard on L abor R elations, Inc. S ervice E m ployees (SEIU) Sinclair Refining C orporation Oil, C hem ical and A tom ic W ork ers (OCAW) A sso cia tio n o f Rain A pparel C on tractors of New Y ork and New J ersey Garm ent W o rk e rs, L a d ie s’ (ILGWU) National Skirt and Sportsw ear A ssocia tion , Inc. G arm ent W o rk e rs, L a d ie s’ (ILGWU) W orthington C orporation S teelw orkers (USA) The P eoples Gas Light and Coke Company S ervice E m ployees (SEIU) Pennsylvania E le ctric Company E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) Brown Company— 3 plants Pulp (PSPMW ) C onsum ers P ow er Company Utility W ork ers (UWU) Oxford Paper Company P aperm a kers and P a p erw ork ers (UPP) Pittsburgh Plate G lass Company A llied C hem ical and A lkali (In d .) L ibbey-O w ens -F o r d G lass Company G lass and C eram ic W ork ers (UGCW) S ch iffli L ace and E m b roid ery M anufacturers A ssocia tion T extile W o rk e rs, United (UTWA) Cook County A sso cia tio n of Plum bing, Heating and Cooling C on tractors Plum bing (P P F ) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors, N orthern and Central C aliforn ia C arpenters (CJA) A ss o cia te d Building C on tractors o f C olorado C arpenters (CJA) I /A G eneral Trucking A greem en t of New J e rse y -N e w Y ork T ea m sters (IBT) (Ind. ) B uilders A sso cia tio n of Chicago B rick la y e rs (BMP) A ss o cia te d G eneral C on tractors of Oregon and Southwest Washington Carpenters (CJA) A llie d U nderwear A sso cia tio n G arm ent W o rk e rs, Ladies'(ILG W U ) 44 Clause num ber 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 * 108 109 Expiration E m ployer and union San F ra n cisco Hotel A sso cia tio n Hotel and Restaurant E m ployees (HREU) Midtown Realty Owners A sso cia tion , Inc. S ervice E m ployees (SEIU) G eneral C on tractors A sso cia tio n of B ridgeport, Inc. C arpenters (CJA) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors and Other A ssocia tion s Phoenix Building T rades Council A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors of San Diego E n gin eers, Operating (IUOE) F lorid a P ow er C orporation E le c tr ic a l, Brotherhood (IBEW) P ublic S erv ice Company of C olorado E le c tr ic a l, Brotherhood (IBEW) Heavy C on stru ctors A sso cia tio n of the G reater Kansas City A rea L a b orers (LIUNA) Litton Industries— Ingall Shipbuilding C orporation M etal T rades Department United States Steel C orporation— A m erican Bridge D ivision Steelw orkers (USA) Oregon Draym en and W arehousem en’ s A ssocia tion T eam sters (IBT) (ind. ) G eneral Dynam ics C orporation— E le ctric Boat D ivision M arine and Shipbuilding W ork ers (IUMSW) R och ester Telephone Company Com m unications W orkers (CWA) B riggs and Stratton C orporation Industrial W ork ers, A llied (AIW) W arw ick E le ctro n ics, Inc. E le ctrica l, International (IUE) A llied C onstruction E m p lo y e rs’ A ssocia tion C arpenters (CJA) M erit Clothing Company Inc. Clothing W ork ers (ACWA) A ssocia ted Roofing C on tractors of the Bay A rea R oofers (RDWW) U niform s M anufacturers Exchange Clothing W ork ers (ACWA) I /A Sportsw ear Industry Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies* (ILGWU) Needle T rades E m ployers A sso cia tion Garm ent W ork ers, L adies’ (ILGWU) A ssocia ted G eneral C on tractors of St. Louis L a b orers (LIUNA) H artford G eneral C on tractors A ssocia tion L a b orers (LIUNA) Building T rades E m p lo y e rs’ A ssocia tion of R och ester L a b o re rs (LIUNA) G eneral Telephone of W isconsin Com m unications W orkers (CWA) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors of St. Louis Iron W ork ers (BSOIW) The Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the State of Washington Plumbing (PPF) date D ecem ber 1970 F ebruary 1969 June 1969 May 1970 May 1969 O ctober 1967 May 1968 July 1969 F ebruary 1968 July 1968 July 1970 M arch 1969 M arch 1970 July 1969 January 1969 May 1968 May 1968 July 1968 May 1968 August 1970 January 1970 A p ril 1969 M arch 1970 A p ril 1970 January 1970 A p ril 1969 May 1968 Employer and union no in 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 A ssocia ted G eneral C on tractors of A m e rica , San Diego Building C on tra ctors, Engineering and Grading C ontractors A sso cia tio n , Inc. , San D iego Chapter Building and C onstruction T rades Department, T eam sters (IBT) (In d .) Heavy C onstruction A sso cia tio n of the G reater Kansas City A rea E ngineers, Operating (IUOE) The N egligee M anufacturers A sso cia tion of New Y ork, Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) A ssocia ted G eneral C ontractors of A m e rica — Southern Nevada Building and C onstruction T rades Department Belt A sso cia tio n , Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) A ssocia ted Garm ent Industries of St. Louis— D ress Branch Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) L in gerie M anufacturing A ssocia tion Garm ent W o rk e rs, Ladies'(ILG W U ) Southern C alifornia G eneral C ontractors E ngineers, Operating (IUOE) Plum bing, Heating and Piping E m ployers Council of Southern C alifornia Plumbing (P P F ) New J e rse y W ashable D ress C on tractors Garm ent W o rk e rs, Ladies'(ILG W U ) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tra ctors, Inc. , Building, Heavy, Highway and Engineering C on structors L a b orers (LIUNA) New Y ork Industrial Council of the National Handbag A ssocia tion Leather G oods, P la stic and N ovelty W ork ers (LGPN) L os A ngeles County P ainters and D ecora tors Joint Com m ittee P ainters and Paperhangers (BPDP) A sso cia te d C on tractors o f E ssex County, Inc. C arpenters (CJA) M ason C on tra ctor's Exchange o f Southern C alifornia L a b o re rs (LIUNA) T elevision F ilm Labor A greem ent M usicians (AFM) M aster Builders A sso cia tio n o f B ergen County, New J e rse y Carpenters (CJA) M en 's N eckw ear A sso cia tio n of New Y ork, Inc. Clothing W ork ers (ACWA) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors of A m erica P la s te r e r s ' and Cement M ason s' (OPCM) A sso cia te d G eneral C on tractors of C alifornia L a b orers (LIUNA) New England Road B uilders L a b orers (LIUNA) Popular P rice d D ress M anufacturers' Group, Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) Infants' and C hildren's Coat A sso cia tion , Inc. , and M anufacturers of Snowsuits, N ovelty W ear, and Infants' C oats, Inc. Garm ent W ork ers, Ladies'(ILG W U ) I /A Retail G ro ce ry Industry R etail C lerks (RCIA) Employer and union 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 Plum bing, Heating and Piping E m p loy ers' Council of N orthern C alifornia Plumbing (P P F ) The A m algam ated Sugar Company G rain M ille rs (AFGM) O w en -Illin ois, Inc. G lass Bottle B low ers (GBBA) Phoenix Steel C orporation Steelw orkers (USA) F ireston e T ire and Rubber Company Rubber W ork ers (URW) Maytag Company Auto W ork ers (UAW) (In d .) New England Road B uilders A sso cia tion of M assachusetts T eam sters (IBT) (Ind. ) Todd Shipyards C orporation M arine and Shipbuilding W ork ers (IUMSW) C h rysler C orporation— A irtem p D ivision E le c tr ic a l, International (IUE) A nchor Hocking G lass C orporation G lass W o rk e rs' , Flint (AFGW) A . E. Staley M anufacturing Company Industrial W ork ers, A llie d (AIW) Lockheed A ir c r a ft C orporation— M is s ile s and Space D ivision A u to W o rk e rs (UAW) (Ind.) R ockw ell-Standard C orporation Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) F ord M otor Company Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) L abor Relations A d v isory A sso cia tion T eam sters (IBT) (Ind. ) G raphic A rts E m ployers A sso cia tion of San F ra n cisco Lithographers and P hotoen gravers (LPIU) Boeing Company Seattle P ro fe ssio n a l Engineering A ssocia tion (Ind.) W iscon sin Public S ervice C orporation E n gin eers, Operating (lUOE) Eaton Manufacturing Company Auto W ork ers (UAW) (Ind. ) Eastern P rodu cts C orporation Furniture W orkers (UFW) International H arvester Company Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) Pennsylvania P ow er and Light Company E m ployees Independent A sso cia tion (in d .) Alabam a D ry Dock and Shipbuilding Company M arine and Shipbuilding W ork ers (IUMSW) I /A Sugar Plantation Com panies L on gsh orem en 's and W arehousem en's (ILWU) Ohio C on tractors A sso cia tio n T eam sters (IBT) (In d .) Calum et and H ecla, Inc. S teelw orkers (USA) White M otor Company Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) F riden , Inc. M achinists (IAM) 47 Clause number 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 Employer and union Central States A rea L o ca l Cartage A greem ent T ea m sters (IBT) (Ind. ) L in g -T em co-V ou g h t, Inc. Auto W orkers (UAW) (Ind. ) National E le c tr ic a l C on tractors A ssocia tion , Inc. , St. Paul Chapter E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) C onstruction Industry E m p lo y e rs’ A ssocia tion of Buffalo Carpenters (CJA) N ational A sso cia tio n o f B louse M anufacturers G arm ent W o rk e rs, L a d ies’ (ILGWU) A ssocia ted Fur M anufacturers, Inc. Meat Cutters (MCBW) A ssocia ted G eneral C on tractors of N orthern and Central C alifornia C arpenters (CJA) J e rse y Central P ow er and Light Company and New J e rse y P ow er and Light Company E le c tr ic a l, B rotherhood (IBEW) N arragansett E le ctric Company Utility W ork ers of New England (In d .) Expiration date M arch 1970 N ovem ber 1968 May 1969 May 1969 May 1970 F ebruary 1969 June 1968 O ctober 1969 M arch 1968 NOTE: A ll unions are affiliated with the A F L -C IO except those follow ed by (Ind.) The Bulletin 1425 series on major collective bargaining agreements is available from the Super intendent of Documents, U. S. Government Pointing Office, Washington, D. C ., 20402, or from the BLS Regional Offices, as shown on the inside back cover. Bulletin number Price Major Collective Bargaining Agreements: 1425-1 Grievance Procedures 45 cents 1425-2 Severance Pay and Layoff Benefit Plans 60 cents 1425-3 Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Plans and Wage-Employment Guarantees 70 cents 1425-4 Deferred Wage Increase and Escalator Clauses 40 cents 1425-5 Management Rights and Union-Management Cooperation 60 cents Arbitration Procedures $1 1425-6 For a list of other industrial relations studies, write for A Directory of BLS Studies in Industrial Relations, 1954— 65. * U S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1 9 69 0 - 3 3 8 - 2 4 9 BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS REGIONAL OFFICES Region II Region I 341 Ninth Ave. 1603-B Federal Building New York, N.Y. 10001 Government Center Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212) Boston, Mass. 02203 Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617) Region III 406 Penn Square Building 1317 Filbert S t Philadelphia, Pa. 19107 Phone: 597-7796 (Area Code 215) Region IV Suite 540 1371 Peachtree St. NE. 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