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Hours, Overtime
and Weekend Work
Major Collective Bargaining Agreements
U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Bulletin 1425-15







Hours, Overtime
and Weekend Work
Major Collective Bargaining Agreements
U. S. Department of Labor
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
Bulletin 1425-15
1974

☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1975

0 - 583-670 (36)

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, GPO Bookstores, or
BLS Regional Offices listed on inside back cover. Price $1.45
Make checks payable to Superintendent of Documents.







Preface
This bulletin is one o f a series o f studies prepared by the Bureau o f Labor Statistics
designed to survey in depth the entire scope o f the collective bargaining agreement.
Other publications in the series are listed at the back o f this bulletin.
Collective bargaining provisions which establish regular hours o f work, hours subject
to overtime and weekend premium pay, premium pay rates, and the various rules related
to hours o f work and overtime are analyzed in this bulletin. These provisions, like wage
provisions, are among the most basic in the agreement. Most o f the workers covered by
the agreements are ensured o f minimum standards for weekly hours o f work and
overtime premium pay under the Fair Labor Standards A ct o f 1938, as amended. These
minimum standards serve as a basis for the negotiation o f more liberal terms that, in one
form or another, appear in most collective bargaining agreements.
Virtually all collective bargaining agreements in the United States covering 1,000
workers or m ore, exclusive o f those in railroads, airlines, and government, provide the
basis for this bulletin; it does not necessarily reflect practices under smaller agreements.
All agreements studied are maintained as part o f a current file for public and
government use under Section 211 o f the Labor-Management Relations A ct o f 1947.
The interpretation and classification o f contract clauses found in this bulletin
represent our understanding as outsiders and is not necessarily that o f the parties who
negotiated them. The clauses, identified in an appendix, are not intended as model or
recommended clauses.
This bulletin was prepared in the Division o f Industrial Relations, O ffice o f Wages
and Industrial Relations, b y Winston L. Tillery, assisted by Bernard J. Hause, Homer R.
Kemp, Jr., and Carl A . Batlin, under the general direction o f Leon E. Lunden, Project
Director.




iii




Contents
Page

Prevalence o f hours and overtime p r o v is io n s ................................................................................................................

1
1
1
2

Chapter II. Regularly scheduled hours o f w o r k ....................................................................................................................
Daily and weekly hours
..................................................................................................................................................

3
3

Chapter I. Introduction
...........................................................................................................................................................
Scope o f s t u d y ...................................................................................................................................................................
Related s t u d i e s ...................................................................................................................................................................

Industrial distribution o f daily and weekly hours

..........................................................................................

Scheduled days per w e e k ..................................................................................................................................................
Four-day week

3

4

......................................................................................................................................................

5

Comparison with the 1957-58 s t u d y .............................................................................................................................

5

Schedules for part-time w o r k e r s .....................................................................................................................................
Limitations on schedule c h a n g e s .....................................................................................................................................
Split s h i f t s ............................................................................................................................................................................

Chapter III.

Daily and weekly o v e r t i m e .................................................................................................................................

Hours subject to overtime p r e m i u m ..............................................................................................................................
Overtime premium r a t e s ..................................................................................................................................................
Daily r a t e ...................................................................................................................................................................

6
6
8
9
9
9
9

Weekly r a t e ................................................................................................................................................................... 10
Graduated overtime provisions
..........................................................................................................................................10
Daily graduated overtime
......................................................................................................................................... 10
Weekly graduated overtime
..................................................................................................................................... 11

Provisions banning pyramiding o f premium rate
........................................................................................................... 11
Premium pay for working through lunch period
....................................................................................................... 11
Paid meal, meal period or rest period during overtime h o u r s .................................................................................. 12
Advance notice o f o v e r t i m e ....................................................* ..................................................................................... 13
Limitations on hours o f work or overtime work
....................................................................................................... 13
Minimum overtime payments
................................................................................................................................. 14
Prohibition on compensatory time o f f ............................................................................................................................. 14
Minimum rest period between s h i f t s ................................................................................................................................. 1 $
Continuation o f premium pay during extended overtime period

......................................................................... 15

Penalty for employer violation o f overtime p r o v is io n s ................................................................................................... 16
Distribution o f overtime work
..........................................................................................................................................16
Restrictions on eligibility o f certain groups for overtime w o r k ..................................................................... 18
Effect o f absence during overtime period on overtime d is t r ib u t io n ................................................................. 18
Effect o f absence on eligibility for overtime rate
Overtime record keeping

.......................................................................................... 19

..........................................................................................................................................19

Overtime record upon entering new u n i t ................................................................................................................ 19
Right to refuse o v e r t i m e ...................................................................................................................................................... 20
E ffect o f refusal o f overtime on future overtime opportunities
.................................................................22
Discipline for refusal o f overtime work



................................................................................................................22

v

Contents— Conti n ued
Page
Chapter IV. Premium pay for weekend work, and related weekend p r o v is io n s ............................................................ 24
Weekend premium p a y .......................................................................................................................................................... 24
Weekend premium days, b y industry
................................................................................................................24
Premium pay for Saturdays and Sundays not part o f the regular schedule
........................................................ 25
Variations in Saturday and Sunday premium r a t e s .......................................................................................... 25
Premium pay for Saturdays and Sundays included in the regular work week
....................................................26
Premium pay for the sixth and seventh w o r k d a y ....................................................................................................... 27
Graduated weekend premium rates
.................................................................................................................................27
Comparison with 1959 s t u d y ............................................................................................................................................. 28
Minimum work requirements for weekend premium pay
...................................................................................... 28
Advance notice o f weekend work

.....................................................................................................................................30

Distribution o f weekend work
......................................................................................................................................... 30
Right to refuse weekend work
......................................................................................................................................... 31
Limitations on weekend w o r k ....................................................................
31
Tables:
1. Hours and overtime provisions in major collective
bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
2. Regularly scheduled hours o f w ork in major
collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

...........................................................................................

32

........................................................................................................33

3. Scheduled daily hours in major collective
bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73

.......................................................................................... 34

4 . Scheduled weekly hours in major collective

35

bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
5. Scheduled workdays per week, in major
collective bargaining agreements, by industry,
1972-73

....................................................................................................................................................................37

6 . Limitations on

schedule changes, in sample o f

major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73 ......................................................................................
7. Daily and weekly hours after which overtime premium pay
provisions apply in major collective bargaining agreements,
b y industry, 1972-73
8 . Daily overtime rates in major collective bargaining
agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
9. Weekly overtime rates in major collective bargaining
agreements, b y industry, 1972-73

1 0 . Graduated daily overtime hours, in major collective

39
41
42
43

agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
11. Graduated daily overtime hours, in major collective

44

bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73

1 2 . Graduated weekly overtime hours in major collective
bargaining agreements, 1972-73

3g

........................................................................................................................ 45

13. Distribution o f overtime work in sample o f major
collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

....................................................................................................... 45

14. E ffect o f refusal o f overtime in sample o f major
collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

.......................................................................................... ..

.

45

15. Weekend work premiums in major collective bargaining
agreements, 1972-73




45

Contents—Continued
Page
16. Premium pay rates fo i nonregularly scheduled
Saturdays in major collective bargaining agreements,
b y industry, 1972-73
..................................................................................................................................... 47
17. Premium pay rates for regularly scheduled Saturday
work in major collective bargaining agreements,
b y industry, 1972-73

48

18. Premium pay rates for regularly scheduled Saturday
work in major collective bargaining agreements,
b y industry, 1972-73
19. Premium pay rates for regularly scheduled Sunday

49

work in major collective bargaining agreements,
by industry, 1972-73
20. Premium pay rates for the sixth day worked
in a work week in major collective bargaining
agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
21. Premium pay rates for the seventh day worked
in a w ork week in major collective bargaining
agreements, b y industry, 1972-73
22. Weekend graduated premium rates, in major
collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

50

51

52

....................................................................................................... 53

23. Weekend graduated premium hours, in major

collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73 ....................................................................................................... 53

24. Minimum work requirements for weekend
premium pay, in sample o f major collective
bargaining agreements, 1972-73 ........................................................................................................................ 54
25. Advance notice o f weekend work, in sample
o f major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

..................................................................................54

Appendixes:
A. Selected hours, overtime, and weekend work provisions

............................................................................. 55

B. Identification o f c l a u s e s ............................................................................................................................................. 6 6







Chapter I. Introduction
A fundamental section o f most collective bargaining

433 o f the agreements, or approximately one in four,

agreements establishes the basic daily and weekly hours

based on descending order o f worker coverage within

o f work, and the conditions under which employers will

Standards A ct was passed. In general, the law requires

industries, was selected for a more detailed analysis o f
various aspects o f these provisions.
Where possible, comparisons have been made with a
Bureau study o f agreements in effect in 1 9 5 6 -5 7 Premium Pay for Night, Weekend, and Overtime Work in

employers engaged in interstate comm erce to pay their

Major Union Contracts (BLS Bulletin 1251, June, 1959).

employees one and one-half times the regular wage rate
for all work over 4 0 hours a week .1
Although most collective bargaining agreements do

Significant changes are discussed.
As far as possible the present study has been limited
to an analysis o f the hours and overtime provisions

not exceed FLSA standards for weekly overtime as such,

applicable to single shift or daytime shift workers, or to

pay overtime or weekend premium rates. A workweek o f
40 hours has been the legal standard for most American
workers

since

1938, when the Federal Fair Labor

within the FLSA framework negotiators have developed

provisions covering employees on multiple shift or

or fewer hours,

rotating shift operations which establish an identical
number o f hours for all shifts, and (usually) a wage

rules requiring daily overtime pay after

8

and premium pay for w ork on Saturdays, Sundays, or

differential for the less desirable schedules. In agree­

equivalent rest days. Many agreements d o require weekly
overtime pay after less than 40 hours, a premium higher
than time and one-half, or both. Many count certain
absences as time worked in computing overtime hours.
The agreements also com m only establish rules governing
the distribution o f overtime w ork, the right o f em­
ployees to decline such w ork, and many other condi­
tions not covered by the FLSA or other laws. These
rules are discussed in this bulletin.

ments that establish differing numbers o f hours, usually
scheduling evening or night shift workers for shorter
periods, only the terms applicable to the day shift
workers are included in the study. Shift differential
payments are not within the scope o f this study.
Clauses quoted in this bulletin were selected to
illustrate either typical procedures or the variety o f ways
in which negotiators handled a specific situation. The
clauses are numbered, and the agreements from which
they were taken are identified in appendix B. Appendix

Scope o f study

A contains several complete hours, overtime and week­
end provisions, to show how the various parts o f the
clauses are integrated in an agreement. Minor editorial
changes were made to enhance clarity or to eliminate
irrelevant wording.

For this study the Bureau examined 1,690 major
collective bargaining agreements, each covering 1,000
workers or m ore, or nearly all agreements o f this size,
excluding railroads, airlines, and government, in the
United States. The contracts covered approximately 7.4

Related studies

million workers, or almost half the total under collective
bargaining agreements outside the excluded industries.
O f these, 879 agreements, covering about 3.7 million

Most closely related o f the present series o f agree­
ment analyses is Bulletin 1425-9 - Major Collective

workers, were in manufacturing industries, and 811,

Bargaining Agreements: Vacation and Holiday Provi-

covering almost the same number o f workers, were in

sions-specifically, the holiday section. In most agree­

non-manufacturing. All agreements were in effect in

ments, work on holidays is paid for at premium rates, as

m id-1972, with the majority remaining in effect during

is most work on weekends, as noted in the present
study. In many agreements holiday and weekend work

1973 and later.
All the agreements were examined for the basic

are subject to similar rules and restrictions. The hours,

hours, overtime, and weekend provisions. A sample o f

overtime, weekend, and holiday provisions often appear
in the same section o f the agreement.
Several other bulletins in the 1425 series indirectly or

1The law has been modified several times to cover employer
categories previously excluded.




broadly

1

relate

to

the present one. Clauses defining

management rights, including the scheduling o f hours
and overtime, were analyzed in Management Rights and
Union - Management Cooperation (Bulletin 1425-5).
Guarantees o f minimum daily or weekly hours o f work

Process Industries, 1966 (Bulletin 1480). The earlier
Bulletin 1251 - Premium Pay for Night, Weekend, and
Overtime Work in Major Union Contracts — has already
been mentioned.

were studied in Supplemental Unemployment Benefit
Plans

and

Wage-Employment

Guarantees

(Bulletin

Prevalence o f hours and overtim e provisions

1425-3). Sections on limitations on overtime during
layoffs, and shortened working hours to avoid layoffs
are included in L ayoff, Recall, and Worksharing Provi­

Virtually

all o f the

1,690 agreements examined

referred to regular hours o f work, overtime hours and

sions (Bulletin 1425-13).
A related bulletin not in the series is Premium Pay
Provisions for Weekend Work in Seven Continuous-

rates, or both . (See table 1.) A bout 7 percent o f the
agreements referred to overtime hours only, with no
direct reference to regularly scheduled straight-time
hours .2 One percent o f the agreements referred to
regular hours on ly, without mentioning overtime. More

3These usually specified daily
indicated that hours cited were for
only. Therefore, in a technical sense
defined as establishing basic daily or
that may have been their intent.




and weekly hours, but
use in computing overtime
the provisions could not be
weekly schedules, although

than 75 percent o f the agreements in all industries
except services contained b oth hours o f work and
overtime provisions. The prevalence o f weekend work
provisions is discussed in a later section.

2

Chapter II. Regularly Scheduled Hours of Work
in this section is a guarantee o f work or any number
o f hours o f work, or a limitation on scheduling the
work.

O f the 1,690 agreements examined, 1,524, or more
than 90 percent, specified the regularly scheduled or
basic daily or weekly hours o f w ork, or b o th .1 The
provisions applied to nearly 6.1 million workers, or 82

Provisions, usually brief, establishing the exact times

percent o f the 7.4 million workers covered by all
agreements studied. (See table 2.)

defining the 24-hour day and 168-hour week, were

D a ily and w eekly hours

help prevent or settle disputes over the computation and

the workday or workweek was to begin or end, i.e.,
com m on to many agreements. These definitions may
allocation o f hours and pay:

Both daily and weekly hours were specified in 92
percent o f the agreements referring to basic hours o f

(2 )

A work day shall be defined to be from 7 :30
a.m. to 7 :3 0 a.m. A work week shall be defined to
be from 7 :3 0 a.m. Monday to 7 :3 0 a.m. the
following Monday.

(3 )

The work week shall consist o f 7 consecutive
days o f 24 hours each beginning at the end o f the
Friday evening shift and ending at the conclusion o f
the evening shift on the following Friday.

(4 )

For the purpose o f this agreement the term
“ workday” shall be a period o f 24 hours following
the starting time o f the employee regular shift.

(5 )

For the purpose o f timekeeping, a work week
shall begin and end at midnight, Sunday night.

work. Almost three-quarters o f these stipulated the same
40-hour basic, or straight-time workweek established
under the Fair Labor Standards A ct but, unlike the
FLSA, they also divided the basic workweek into five

8 -hour

days. Another 147 agreements—about 10 percent

o f those setting daily and weekly hours—established
basic hours shorter than 8 and 40. Provisions setting
hours in excess o f

8

daily or 4 0 weekly were rare.

A small proportion o f the agreements having daily
and weekly hours provisions varied the hours with the
employees’ occupation or type o f w ork performed, or
with location or season o f the year. A fairly com m on
occupational arrangement set

8

Industry distribution o f daily and weekly hours

daily and 40 weekly

hours for production and maintenance workers, with
The

fewer hours for clerical employees.

8 -hour

day and the 40-hour week prevailed in

most industries. (See tables 3 and 4 .) A working
schedule o f less than 8 hours a day, or 40 hours a week,
was the predominant pattern in three manufacturing
industries, and was found with some frequency in several
other industries. A 71£-hour day, 37%-hour week was
/

The sole reference to work schedules was to daily
hours in about 6 percent o f the agreements. Most o f
these contracts established a basic 8 -hour day, with a
few setting a 7-hour day or varying daily hours by
occupation or other conditions. A bout 1 percent o f the
agreements establishing regular weekly hours only—
usually 40 hours—and a similarly small proportion
provided n o information on basic hours, but established
a 5-day workweek.

relatively standard in the tobacco industry, and most
apparel agreements established a 7-hour day, 35-hour
week; half the printing agreements also set a 7-35
schedule, while most o f the remainder in printing

Many o f the basic hours clauses stated that the
provision should not be interpreted as either a guarantee

2
The terms “ regular,” “ basic,” “ normal,” and so forth,
applied to working hours, do not necessarily indicate the number
o f hours actually scheduled or worked. The hours actually
worked tend to vary with circumstances. During periods o f
strong demand for a product or service, for example, employers
may schedule considerable overtime and weekend work, while
during slow periods they may schedule short hours as alternative
to layoffs. For a discussion o f the latter situation see Major
Collective Bargaining Agreements: Layoff, Recall and Work­
sharing Procedures (BLS Bulletin 1425-13), chapter II, pp. 3-28.

o f work or a limitation on scheduling :2
(1)

The normal work day shall be 8 hours and the
normal work week shall be 40 hours, being the
normal time worked at straight time rates. Nothing

‘ The hours indicated as basic almost always indicate the
maximum straight-time hours, or hours beyond which the
employer must pay a premium rate.




3

provided schedules of less than 40 hours a week. A
7-hour day or 35-hour week was established by more
than 10 percent of the construction agreements. A small
number of construction agreements established a
36-hour workweek of 8 hours Monday—
Thursday and 4
hours Friday. A few shorter hour provisions were found
in other industries, including hotels and restaurants, and
communications. Few agreements contained regular
schedules greater than 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week.
Some retail food agreements provided for a 5-day,
40-hour week which could consist of unequal daily
hours. The variation in hours reflects the need to keep
the meat counter attended during all hours that the store
is open, and to have more meat cutters available during
peak sales hours and sales days:
(6)
The regular workweek for full time employees
shall consist of 40 hours to be worked in either:
(a) 5-8 hour days.
or
(b) 3-8-hour days, 1 short and 1 long day. The
short day shall consist of 5 or 6 hours; the long day
of 10 or 11 hours in accordance with applicable law.

the parties hereto. Any employee who works more
than 5 hours without a meal period shall be paid for
all work in excess of said 5 hour period (at the
applicable overtime rate) until a meal period is
provided (such pay shall be reckoned by the hour
and a half hour).
The regular work week shall consist of 40 hours
Monday through Friday at straight time.
(C) Monterey, San Benito, Santa Cruz and Santa
Clara Counties shall observe a 38 hour work week
effective August 1, 1971, consisting of 8 hours per
day. Monday through Thursday, and 6 hours on
Friday. Effective June 16, 1972, the work week for
these Counties shall be 36 hours and the work day
and work week shall thereafter be the same as
provided for those counties in Subsection A above.
(9)

Variations in hours of work according to occupation,
type of work performed, or location appeared primarily
in nonmanufacturing industry agreements. A minority of
the agreements in the food processing industry varied
hours according to the season, reflecting the seasonality
in canneries and frozen food processing plants:3
(7) The working hours per week on which the minimum
wage is predicated shall be 40 hours within 5 days of
the week for captains, hostesses and all tip classifica­
tions covered by this agreement, and 35 hours in 5
days of the week for all non-tip classifications
covered by this agreement.
(8) (A) For Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, San Fran­
cisco and San Mateo Coupties, 8 hours worked
between 8 a.m. and 4:30 p.m. shall constitute a
regular day’s work, Monday through Thursday. On
Friday, 4 hours worked between 8 a.m. and 12 noon
shall constitute a regular day’s work.
Four and one-half days, Monday through noon
on Friday, shall constitute a regular week’s work.
All hours worked in excess of 36 in 1 week shall
be paid for at the overtime rate.
(B) For all other counties listed in Section 1A
hereof except Monterey, San Benito, Santa Clara and
Santa Cruz, 8 hours between 8 a.m. and 5 p.m.
except as provided under shift work, excluding meal
period, shall constitute a regular day’s work at
straight time rates, unless otherwise agreed upon by

Scheduled days per w eek

Virtually all the agreements specifying the regular or
basic workweek indicated a 5-day week, (See table 5.)
The provisions often established a Monday through
Friday schedule. Many, as in the last illustration, also
specified the exact hours of work on these days:

9Because some sectors of the food processing industry are
characterized by a short, intense processing season, the Fair
Labor Standards Act does not require employers to pay overtime
until after 48 hours during the busy season.




The processing season shall include any week in
which fresh fruit or vegetables are processed or
packed.
During the off-processing season the workday
shall be 8 hours and the workweek 40 hours. Time
and 1/2 shall be paid for all hours worked in excess
of 8 hours a day or 40 hours a week. During the
off-processing season, Saturday work shall be
compensated at overtime rates.
During the processing season the workday shall
be 8 hours. The workweek shall be 48 hours during
the two periods referred to in Section 7 (c) and 7 (d)
of the Fair Labor Standards Act, and 40 hours in
any other week. Time and one-half (1 1/2) will be
paid for all hours worked in excess of 8 hours a day,
and double (2) time will be paid for all hours worked
in excess of 12 hours in any one day; or time and
one-half (1 1/2) will be paid for all hours worked in
excess of the applicable 40 or 48 hours worked per
week.
W the company selects a particular week as a
hen
week exempt under Section 7 (c) or 7 (d) of the Fair
Labor Standards Act, that fact shall be designated at
the start of each workweek. Notice thereof shall be
given to employees by placing a notice on the
bulletin board by the end of latest shift commencing
on Wednesday of said week. The company when
posting W and Hour Law exemption notices shall
age
specify that during such exempt week overtime will
be paid according to the terms of the union contract.

(10)

4

The normal schedule of hours shall consist of 8
hours per day and 40 hours per week, Monday
through Friday.

(11)

(15)

Seven hours shall constitute a day’s work
between the hours of 8:30 a.m. and 11:55 a.m.
and from 12:30 p.m. to 4 p.m., 5 days a week,
except Saturday, Sunday and Holidays... .

For employees assigned to 4 ,10-hour days, time
and one-half shall be paid for all hours worked in
excess of 40 hours in a week or in excess of 10
hours in a day. An employee who works on the
sixth report shall be paid time and one-half the
straight time hourly rate for all work performed
on that day. An employee who works on the
seventh report shall be paid double the straight
time hourly rate for all work performed on that
day.

Many agreements, however, indicated the employee
might be scheduled to work any 5 days of the week, or
any 5 consecutive days. These often were found in
industries in which some or all of the employees work
on continuous operations, that is, operations such as
most steel manufacturing which, if shut down, even
temporarily, can be restarted only with much difficulty
and expense. Many agreements indicated that the em­
ployee’s workweek would not be split, that is, he would
normally receive 2 consecutive days of rest. Some
clauses however, indicated that the 5 working days need
not be consecutive:
(12)

(13)

The scarcity of the 4-day, 40-hour week, in collective
bargaining agreements may in large part be due to the
difficulty of negotiating daily overtime provisions.
Unions generally demand continuation of the usual
provisions requiring overtime pay after 8 or fewer hours,
while employers are reluctant to pay overtime for work
within the basic 10-hour schedule required for the
shorter workweek.

Forty hours, consisting of 5 days of 8 hours
each in a calendar week, Sunday through Satur­
day, shall constitute a week’s work as provided in
this entire section. Employees other than those
scheduled to work 6 days in a week shall receive 2
days off, not necessarily consecutive, in each
calendar week.

Although work on Saturdays, Sundays, or equivalent
days off is common in many industries, often for
considerable periods, only a handful of agreements set
regular schedules in excess of 5 days a week:

The regular workweek for all inside employees
shall consist of 5 consecutive working days. The
regular work day, with the exception of drivers,
shall be 8 hours per day and the regular workweek
shall be 40 hours per week.. . .
The regular workweek for drivers shall be 40 hours
to be worked within any 5-consecutive-day period.

(16)

Four-day week

Despite the publicity surrounding the 4-day, 40-hour
week, particularly among smaller companies, only a
handful of the major agreements made any reference to
it. No agreement provided a 4-day, 40-hour week for all
regular full-time employees. One stated only that a study
would be made to determine the feasibility of the 4-day
week. A few indicated that such workweek would be
optional or was in effect in certain units:
(14)

Six days shall constitute a week’s work. Eight
hours shall constitute a day’s work. All full-time
employees shall receive 1 day off in establishments
operating 7 days a week. No employee shall be
required to be on ‘standby’ during his or her day
off except by written authorization of his or her
employer. All ‘standby’ time shall be paid for at
his or her regular scheduled hourly rate for that
day for each standby hour or fraction thereof.

Comparison w ith th e 1 9 57 -58 study

A comparison of daily work schedules in the present
study with similar data from agreements in effect in
1956-57 revealed relatively minor changes. The propor­
tion of agreements establishing basic daily hours in­
creased to 89.2 percent from 85.8 percent, although the
worker coverage declined slightly, to 81.4 percent from
84.2 percent. The latter change may be due to a
tendency for larger agreements to establish daily hours
for purposes of determining overtime only; such provi­
sions were counted in the overtime statistics, but not in
daily hours statistics. The comparison also showed a

The company shall have the option of schedul­
ing work for its wholesale milk drivers on a
5-consecutive 8-hour day basis, Monday through
Friday or Tuesday through Saturday, or on a
4-day a week, 10 hours a day basis. In the event
the company schedules work for any of its drivers
on a 4-day-a-week, 10-hours-a-day basis, such
drivers must be scheduled to receive 2 of his 3
day’s off consecutively between Saturday and
Monday inclusive . . .




For employees assigned to 5, 8-hour days, time
and one-half shall be paid for all hours worked in
excess of 40 hours in a week or in excess of 8
hours in a day.

5

slight trend toward shorter daily hours schedules over
the 15-year period:

holiday week) and no more than 30 hours per
week.
A part-time employee shall not work more than
5 days in any 1 week. . .
(18)
For part-time messengers, not less than 20 hours
shall constitute their five-day work week. The
work days need not be of equal length. The regular
work schedule shall be posted by the company.
Any such schedules of more than four but less
than six hours in any one day shall include a
fifteen minute paid time short relief. Schedules in
excess of 6 hours in any one day shall be for a
regular work day with normal relief periods. In
view of the part-time status of such employees,
time and one-half payment for sixth day assign­
ment shall be paid only when any such employee
actually has worked his regular 5-day assigned
work week.
(19)
The normal workweek for part-time employees
shall be at least 20 hours but less than 40 hours of
work on not less than 4 days in each week.

Percent
19 5 6 5 7
Item

Agreements

Workers

A ll agreements
establishing daily
h o u r s ......................... 1 0 0 .0
Less than 8 hours .
8 h o u r s ......................
M o re than 8 hours.
O t h e r .........................

1972-73

7 .8
8 5 .2
6 .8 f

Agreement

Workers

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

8 .0
80 .1

1 0 .0
8 1 .4
.2
8 .5

10 .3
7 4 .7
.1
15.1

11 1 .9

1 Separate percentages n o t available.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items m ay
n o t equal totals.

A comparison of weekly hours data yielded similar
findings. Overall, the proportion of agreements establish­
ing specific weekly hours of work rose to 85 percent
from 83.2 percent, and worker coverage also increased,
to 78.2 percent from 74.7 percent. As with daily hours
clauses, the comparison revealed a very slight shift
toward shorter weekly hours:

Definitions setting both minimums and maximums
serve to assure part-time workers of reasonably steady
employment. At the same time, management was pro­
hibited from assigning part-time workers-who usually
are eligible for lower vacation, pension and holiday
benefits than full-time employees— full-time work
to
with no change in status.
A number of provisions, not enumerated, defined
part-time workers only as employees who work fewer
than normal or regular daily or weekly hours:
(20)
“Regular part-time employee” is a regular em­
ployee whose normal assignment of work is less
than the normal basic work week.

______________________ Percent__________________

1956-57
Item

1972-73

Agreements Workers

A ll agreem ents
establishing
w ee kly hours . .

Agreements Workers

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

8 .4
8 4 .0

9 .9
7 9 .4

1 0 .9
8 0 .8

1 0 .8
7 6 .6

1.3

.4
1 0 .5

.9
7 .6

.6
1 2 .2

Less than

4 0 hours . . .
4 0 h o u r s ................
M o re than
40 h o u r s . . .
O t h e r .....
6 .5

Lim itations on schedule changes

Management's right to make unilateral changes in
established work schedules often was restricted by
agreement in various ways. Of the 433 sample agree­
ments, 246 imposed such limitations, most commonly
by requiring advance notice to the union or affected
employees. (See table 6.)
(21)
W
henever possible, advance notice shall be given
the division chairmen of general changes from the
current operating schedule.
(22)
The employer must establish a regular starting
time, then if the employer desires to change the
established starting time, the employee(s) must be
notified before the quitting time of the employee(s) regular workday of any change in the
established starting time for the following day.

N O T E : Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items m ay
n o t equal totals.

As in the 1956-57 study, the current study indicated
that the vast majority of agreements established a 5-day
workweek.
Schedules fo r part-tim e workers

Part-time workers are employed in significant num­
bers by many companies, particularly those in the retail
trade, hotel and restaurant, and service industries. Of the
sample of 433 agreements studied in detail, 20 estab­
lished specific minimum or maximum working hours for
part-time workers:
(17) A part-time employee is one who, on a regular
basis, works no less than 15 hours (12 hours in a



In over half the provisions, the company had to
consult the union, or obtain its approval before a
schedule change could be made:
6

(23)

(24)

(2 5 )

those hours worked outside his previously
scheduled hours.
Forty-eight hours’ notice shall be considered to
have been given if the employe is notified o f the
proposed change before he is released from duty
on the second day preceding the change.

The company shall designate the starting and
stopping times o f each shift; the lunch and rest
periods for each shift; and, may stagger such times
as between the various departments, and as be­
tween groups o f employees or individuals within a
department. Present practices will be continued
and any proposed changes therefrom will be
reported to and discussed with the union at least 5
plant working days before such changes are made.
In no event will arbitrary changes be made b y the
company.

In a few agreements, the regulations on schedule
changes depended on the number or proportion o f
employees affected:
(2 8 )

The company shall have the right to schedule
working hours and days, provided that if a change
is made in the hours o f any shift, the company will
discuss the change with the union. (This means
that whenever a weekly schedule involving 25 or
more employees in a single department is changed,
the company will notify the Chief Plant Repre­
sentative prior to the effective date o f the change.)

(29)

The union agrees to make exception o f 1 hour
in the starting time, set forth above, for a limited
number (one to a shop or 2% o f total employees)
o f service employees necessary to prepare for
production on a regular shift basis. This is not to
include emergency work, and such employees shall
not perform production work.
In exception to the above and at the request o f
either party, the employer and the union shall
meet and confer on an addendum covering a work
week or work hours that may be required by
special conditions in any company. This paragraph
shall not be subject to the grievance procedure.

(3 0 )

The employer shall arrange for starting time for
work as is convenient to his operations and shall
prepare a schedule showing the starting time for
each employee and a cop y shall be delivered to the
union and to the shop steward. The starting time
shall not be changed during the full term o f this
agreement unless mutually agreed to by the union
and the employer.

The company may adjust the starting time for
certain second shift and third shift work crews up
to 1 hour in advance o f the normal starting time
for the shift. It is understood that such adjustment
will not apply to more than 100 employees at any
given time, without mutual consent.

The regular work week shall consist o f 35 hours,
to be worked in 5 days, 7 hours per day,
commencing Monday morning and ending Friday
afternoon. The schedule o f hours now existing in
each shop shall not be changed except by agree­
ment between the union and the employer.

Thirty-nine agreements in the sample imposed a
premium pay penalty if sufficient notice o f a schedule
change was not given:
(26)

(27)

When 24 hours or more notice before the start
o f work on a changed daily tour is given, the
changed tour shall be the em ployee’ s scheduled
tour and he shall be compensated at the basic
straight-time rate, plus applicable premiums. When
less than 24 hours notice before the start o f work
on the changed daily tour is provided, the follow ­
ing shall apply:
Straight-time compensation will be paid for all
hours worked in the changed tour that coincide
with the regularly scheduled tour. A nonscheduled tour premium o f one-half (Vz) the basic
straight-time rate will be paid for all hours worked
that did not coincide with the regularly scheduled
tour.

Some agreements regulated the duration o f a change
in schedule. This generally meant that once the change
was made, no further alterations were allowed for a
stated period:
(31)

(3 2 )

Presently established daily working hours o f the
basic work week will be continued in effect, unless
changed in accordance with the provisions o f this
article.
In case o f a change in the basic work days o f an
em ploye’s basic work week, notice o f at least
forty-eight hours shall be given prior to the
change. If not given this notice, the employe shall
be paid at the overtime rate on the first day o f the
new schedule.
Similar notice shall be given prior to a change in
the daily working hours o f the basic work week. If
such notice has not been given, or if a change in
scheduled working hours is for less than 3 days,
then the employe shall be paid at the overtime rate
on the first basic work day o f the new schedule for




. . . When an employee is required to change his
regularly scheduled work hours from one period to
another, the change shall be for a minimum o f five
days unless agreed otherwise.
Eight hours shall constitute the regular work
day between the hours o f 8 :0 0 A.M. and 12:00
N oon and 12:30 to 4 :3 0 P.M., Monday through
Friday, inclusive.
Where in any locality existing traffic conditions,
jo b conditions, or weather conditions render it
desirable to start the day shift at an earlier or later
hour, such starting may with the mutual consent
o f the individual employer and the union be earlier
or later without requiring payment o f overtime
rates b y reason o f the changed starting time. In
that event, the starting time agreed to must
continue for the duration o f the jo b or until
changed b y mutual consent.

7

A larger number of agreements regulated the amount
of time by which daily hours could be changed within a
designated schedule; often, union approval was required
for the change:
(33)
The employer shall post, not later than Thurs­
day, the schedule of days off and the startingtimes for the week immediately following. One
week’s notice shall be given of any change in the
starting-time of more than 2 hours. In case of an
emergency, the starting-time may be changed for 1
day only in a week by more than 2 hours, but a
change in the starting-time shown on the posted
schedule may be made for 1 day only in any one
week, and only in case of an emergency.
Except for bona fide relief men, an employe’s
starting-time shall not vary more than 2 hours
earlier nor 2 hours later than the posted starting
time for the first day of the week. (Relief men—
12
hours between shifts).
(34)

busy and slow periods during the normal business day.
Their agreements sometimes allow employers to
schedule split shifts—
divide the work day into 2 parts
separated by more than a normal lunch period— cope
to
with the fluctuating busy periods with a minimum of
full-time personnel:
(35)
Eight hours within 11 hours shall consitute a
day’s work. There shall be no more than one split
in any one shift, and no split after 7 p.m.
(36)
Employer shall be free to fix the daily working
hours in the hotel and may split watches so as to
effect a total of 8 hours out of 13 with the
exception of bartenders. This practice, however, is
to be avoided except where absolutely necessary
which determination, however, shall rest in the
sole discretion of employer. W respect to
ith
bartenders, where mutually agreeable between
union and employer, hours of work shall be 8 in 8
rather than 8 in 9 as sometimes previously existed.
This provision shall not apply to the housekeeping
department.

W
hen traffic patterns on the highways or
conditions at the job site require different starting
times, upon agreement between the negotiating
committee and the employer the 8-hour day may
be worked without penalty between the hours of 7
a.m. and 5 p.m.

Unions and their members generally consider split
shifts undesirable, and consequently, many of the
agreements examined prohibited split shift scheduling
altogether:
(37)
There shall be no split shifts. This means that
each employee shall work the hours of his shift
continuously, except for the meal time, which
meal time shall not exceed 1 hour.
(38)
There shall be no split shift scheduled.

S p lit shifts

A number of industries, such as the hotel and
restaurant industry, are characterized by alternating




8

Chapter III. Daily and Weekly Overtime
worked before or after the scheduled hours, as well as
any work performed during the lunch period:
(41)
W
ork performed before or after the hours
established for the regular work day, shall be paid
for at the rate of one and one half times the
employee’s regular rate regardless of the number
of hours worked on such work day, unless, with
respect to hours worked after the regular work
day, the employee shall have failed to report for
work at the regular shift starting time.
(42)
Forty hours shall constitute a workweek con­
sisting of 5 days of 8 hours each day, between the
hours of 8 a.m. to 12 Noon and 12:30 p.m. to
4:30 p.m. beginning Monday through Friday.
(a)
All overtime, which is work performed
before 8:00 a.m. and between 12 Noon and 12:30
p.m. and after 4:30 p.m. daily and on Saturday,
Sunday, New Years Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of
July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day and Christmas
Day, will be paid at the rate of double time or as
herein after provided...
The proportion of provisions requiring overtime for
all work outside regular hours mcreased significantly-to
29 percent of all agreements from 13 percent, since the
earlier study of such provisions of agreements m effect
in 1956-57. This in part points to a liberalization of the
overtime provisions, and to the inclusion in the present
study of a much larger number of contract construction
agreements in which such clauses are fairly common.
The proportion of such clauses also has increased in
construction agreements, as well as in agreements in
several other industries.
Only 30 agreements established the weekly overtime
hours alone, and made no reference to daily premium
hours:
(43)
Time and one-half an employee’s regular rate of
pay will be paid for all hours worked in excess of
40 hours in a workweek.

Hours subject to overtim e premiums

The daily or weekly hours of work beyond which an
overtime premium was required was found in all but 34
of the 1,690 agreements examined. (See table 7.) Both
daily and weekly hours were specified in nearly half the
agreements. Under approximately 93 percent of these,
overtime payments were required after 8 hours a day
and 40 hours a week. Provisions for overtime after fewer
daily and weekly hours were relatively rare:
(39)
All work performed in excess of 8 hoi rs in any
continuous 24 hours, beginning with the starting
time of the employee’s regular work shift, or in
excess of 40 hours in any work week shall
constitute overtime work, and shall be paid at the
rate of time and one-half the employee’s regular
rate of pay.
(40)
W
herever the word “overtime” is used in this
agreement, it means time during which an em­
ployee shall have worked for the employer (a) in
excess of 7 hours in any peiiod of 24 consecutive
hours; (b) in excess of 35 hours in the regular
payroll week; (c) before or after the regular
working hours; or (d) on any Saturday or on any
paid holiday or paid half-holiday mentioned in . . .
this agreement.
Overtime was provided for after specified daily hours
only, or for all work outside of regular daily hours in
nearly all the remaining agreements. Overtime was to be
paid after 8 hours in slightly over 90 percent of the daily
hour provisions, and after fewer than 8 hours in the
remainder. In 490 agreements, or about 30 percent of
the overtime provisions, the premium was payable for all
work outside of regularly scheduled daily hours.1 Some
provisions defined “outside o f’ to include all time
1Technically a provision requiring a premium payable for ail
woik outside regular daily hours also encompasses all work
outside regular weekly hours, as well as for all work performed
after the number of hours specified. (Included in the total are a
number of provisions that required overtime rates both for work
outside regular hours and after regular daily and weekly hours.)
These clauses do not necessarily mean that an overtime premium
is always paid for all work falling outside the employee’s regular
hours. For example, a worker who reports late to work may not
be eligible for premium pay until he completes a period equal to
the length o f his regular working day.



O vertim e prem ium rates

D aily rate

Premium pay rates payable foi daily overtime were
established in 1,536 of the 1,690 agreements. (See table
8.) The predominant rate, in ail but the construction
industry, was time and one-half. In construction, more
than half the agreements established a daily overtime
9

(49)

rate o f double-time, or double-time for some types o f
work and time and one-half for other types. Construc­
tion agreements contained 124 o f the 138 clauses
specifying double-time, as well as 41 o f 55 in which the
rate varied:
(44)

(45)

Double time shall be paid for all work in excess
o f 8 hours on any regular workday or all work
performed before 8 a.m. or after 4 :3 0 p.m. except
when more than 1 shift is employed as herein­
above set forth.

Graduated overtim e provisions

In addition to the usual overtime provisions, unions

Double time shall be paid for all overtime.

have negotiated many provisions that require an addi­

[except that]

tional premium for overtime in excess o f a specified
number o f daily or weekly hours, as, for example, time

Watchmen and guards are to receive time and
one-half as overtime pay.
(4 6 )

and one-half after 8 hours, double-time after 12 hours.
These “ graduated”

Time before or after the established starting or
quitting time will be at the overtime rate.
The employer agrees to pay employees double
(2 ) times the regular rate o f pay for all work
performed over 8 hours per day com m only known
as overtime, and double (2 ) times the regular rate
o f pay for all work performed on Saturday, except
that when the Laborers are the only trade on the
job or when the other trades which are employed
on the jo b at the same time are receiving time and
one-half rather than double time for such overtime
or Saturday work, then the employees covered by
this agreement shall receive time and one-half
rather than double time for such overtime or
Saturday work.

overtime provisions tend to dis­

courage employers from requiring prolonged consecutive
hours o f w ork, except in emergencies, and to com ­
pensate employees for fatigue.
Graduated overtime provisions were contained in 400
o f the 1,656 agreements with overtime provisions. (See
table

10.)

The concentration among manufacturing

agreements was 31 percent, or about twice that in
non-manufacturing. More than half the agreements in
printing, stone, clay and glass, electrical machinery and
communications industries contained graduated over­
time clauses. The rate was generally time and one-half
for the initial period o f overtime, double-time thereafter.

A handful o f clauses provided for a flat amount o f
premium pay to be paid for overtime, instead o f the
usual time and one-half or double-time:
(47)

Employees shall be compensated at one and
one-half times their regular straight time hourly
rate o f pay for:
(a) All hours worked in excess o f 8 hours in a
working day,
(b ) All hours worked in excess o f 40 hours in a
work week.

Daily graduated overtime
Additional premium pay after specified daily over­
time hours was called for in 352 agreements. (See table
11.) The number o f hours after which the higher rate
applied ranged from 8 to 24, with 12 hours the most
com m on. An increase in the overtime rate after fewer

Overtime. Should the actor rehearse more than
the hours stipulated in this rule, the manager shall
pay overtime o f $9 per hour for any hour or part
thereof for each instance o f such overtime re­
hearsal.

than 12 hours was most often stipulated in printing and
construction agreements, 12 hours in stone, clay and
glass, and machinery, both electrical and non-electrical,
and 16 hours in paper and utilities agreements. In some

Weekly rate
A weekly premium rate' was established in 1,088 o f
the major agreements, or about two-thirds o f the total.
(See table 9 .) As with the provisions for daily rates,

paper industry agreements, there was no increase in the
overtime rate, but the premium was paid retroactive to
the start o f work if the employee worked beyond the
specified time:

construction agreements contained most o f the provi­
sions requiring a double-time rate for weekly overtime:
25 o f 32 double-time clauses were in construction, as
well as 18 o f 22 clauses in which either time and

(50)

one-half or double-time might apply, depending on the

. . . Overtime rates shall be on the following
basis:

type o f work performed or other condition. In all other
industries, time and one-half was the usual weekly

(A ) For each o f the first 2 hours worked in
excess o f the standard work day and any day
from Monday to Friday, inclusive, an em­
ployee shall receive one and one-half times
his hourly shift wage.

overtime premium:
(48)

Premium pay at the rate o f time and one-half
shall be paid as follow s: for all work performed in
excess o f eight hours in any twenty-four hour
period and for all work performed in excess o f 40
hours in any work week.




(B ) For the third and each additional hour
worked in excess o f such standard work day
10

payment o f the graduated rate for work in excess o f 49
hours per week:

from Monday to Friday, inclusive, an em­
ployee shall receive 2 times his hourly shift
wage.

(5 6 )
(51)

(57)

SECTION 2 -D o u b le time will be paid for hours
worked in excess o f 12 in one work day. Such
hours will not be counted in computing hours
worked for weekly overtime.
(5 2 )

(53)

The normal working schedule shall be seven and
one-half (IVi) hours per day and 5 days per week.
Monday through Friday, inclusive, with over­
time pay o f time and one-half for all work
performed over IVi hours in any one day or 37*/2
hours in any one week. Work performed before a
mutually agreed upon starting time or in excess o f
l l hours (plus one-half hour for lunch) after a
h
mutually agreed upon starting time will be paid at
the rate o f time and one-half. All work in excess o f
3% hours before a mutually agreed upon starting
time or in excess o f 1 l l hours (plus one-half hour
A
for lunch) after a mutually agreed upon starting
time will be paid at the rate o f double time.

Pay at time and one-half shall apply to
authorized time worked . . .
In excess o f 8 hours in 24 consecutive
hours. . . .
Pay at double time shall apply to authorized
time worked . . .
In excess o f 49 hours o f authorized time
worked in the workweek, except that the hours
not worked for which an employee is paid in
observance o f a designated holiday in accordance
with Paragraph 2 o f Article 0 0 -P a y for Holidays
o f this Agreement shall be credited in computing
such 49 hours o f authorized time worked.

Provisions banning pyramiding o f prem ium rates

Situations often arise in which an employee theoreti­
cally is eligible for payment under two or more overtime
provisions (i.e., pyramiding o f rates) for the same

When an employee actually works more than 16
hours in a 24 hour period beginning with the
starting time o f a designated shift, he shall be paid
at the overtime rate for all hours worked, be­
ginning with the first hour, until he has had a rest
period o f 8 consecutive hours. The meal time
taken during the first 8 hours will count as time
worked towards the 16 hours but not for pay
purposes.

working period. For example, he may work on a Sunday
after completing 40 hours o f work, and be eligible for
both overtime and Sunday premiums. In practice,
however, the employee is paid only one premium.
Pyramiding was prohibited to prevent misunderstand­
ing and possible grievances in slightly more than half
(218) o f the 433 agreement sample. The contract usually
limited pay to the premium carrying the higher rate:

A three-step increase in the overtime rate was
established in a small number o f agreements:
(54)

All time worked in excess o f 40 hours in any
payroll week shall be paid for at time and one-half
except time worked which has been otherwise
compensated at time and one-half or more. For
time worked in excess o f 49 hours in a week the
maximum overtime compensation rate shall be
increased to double time.

SECTION 1—Time and one-half will be paid for
hours worked in excess o f 8 in one work day. Such
hours will not be counted in computing hours
worked for weekly overtime.

Overtime shall consist o f all work performed
before or after the established daily and weekly
schedule o f hours . . .

(58)

Overtime payment shall not be duplicated for
the same hours worked under the terms o f this
agreement, but the higher o f the applicable pre­
miums shall be used. To the extent that hours are
compensated for at overtime rates under one
provision, they shall not be counted as hours
worked in determining overtime under the same or
any other provisions; provided, however, that
when a holiday occurs on any day for which
overtime would not otherwise be paid, the hours
worked on such holiday shall be counted as hours
worked in determining overtime.

(5 9 )

Nothing herein contained shall be construed as
requiring a duplication or a pyramiding o f holiday,
Sunday, daily, or weekly overtime payments in­
volving the same hours o f labor.

For the first 3 consecutive hours o f continuous
work, time and one-half; for any part o f the
succeeding three (3) hours o f continuous work,
double time, and for any part o f the third 3 hours
o f continuous work, triple time.
(55)

Hours worked under the following conditions
will be compensated at the following premium
rates . . .
Hours worked in excess o f 12 in any one
workday, off-day, or continuous work period —
double time. Hours worked in excess o f 18 — 2Vi
times the straight-time hourly rate.

Weekly graduated overtime
Graduated weekly overtime clauses were found al­

Premium pay fo r w orking through lunch period

most entirely in the communications agreements, and in
communications equipment (Western Electric) agree­

Premium pay for working through a regular lunch

ments. (See table 12.) These for the most part required

period was required in 66 sample agreements. Some o f




11

the clauses permitted employees who were required to
work during their lunch period a later paid period to eat
lunch, or occasionally, equal time off at the end of the
work day:
(60)
Employees may be required to work during a
part of or all their lunch period, in which case they
shall be paid 30 minutes at time and one-half, or a
total of 45 minutes. However, should an employee
be required to work dunng his regular lunch
period, such time will be allowed him to eat his
lunch within the limits of the 4th and 6th hours
after commencement of his work shift, without
deduction in pay.
(61)
If an hourly day employee is requested to work
during his regular lunch hour, he will be paid time
and one-half for all his regular lunch hour, and will
be allowed an equal lunch period within 1 hour of
his usual lunch time without pay, unless the
employee desires to be given an equal time off at
the end of the work day in lieu thereof, subject to
the approval of his supervisor.

overtime, particularly for long periods. The 433 agree­
ment sample included 114 clauses of this type.
Agreements
T o ta l s t u d i e d ...........................................

433

1 ,7 0 4 .6

T o ta l referring to paid m eal, rest o r
meal p e r i o d .......................................

114

3 3 6 .9

Paid m eal period o r restperiod . . .
M eal provided or paid f o r ..................
B o t h .............................................................

47
31
36

1 2 4 .5
1 1 9 .8
9 2 .6

The paid meal period or rest period sometimes was
given before the start of overtime hours, and could be
paid at straight-time rates. Other clauses allowed the
break, payable at a premium rate, only after a given
period of overtime. Occasionally, additional breaks were
allowed during prolonged overtime periods:
(63)
Employees who, in the absence of advanced
notice and by request of the company, work 4 or
more hours overtime beyond their regular shift,
shall receive a 30 minute break period before
starting the overtime hours. Such 30 minute break
periods shall be paid for by the company at
straight time average hourly earnings, including
shift premium if applicable.
(64)
W 2 hours or more of overtime is scheduled
hen
an employee who has been working during the
immediate preceding straight-time hours shall be
allowed a meal period of 20 minutes on the
individual employer’s time at the overtime rate.
The time for taking the meal period shall be
scheduled by the individual employer at or about
the end of the first hour of overtime.
(65)
In the event employees are required to work
overtime on regular work days and said overtime
amounts to 2 hours or more, such employees shall
be allowed a 5-minute break immediately prior to
commencement of the overtime work. If said
overtime amounts to 4 hours or more, such
employees shall be allowed an additional 10
minute break upon the completion of 2 hours
overtime.

Some agreements granted premium pay to em­
ployees required to work in excess of a specified number
of hours without a break for a meal. The premium rate
continued in effect until a meal period had been
provided:
(62)
Employees required to work (exclusive of
clothes changing time) more than 5 consecutive
hours without a meal period shall be compensated
at 1li the regular hourly rate for all time working
/
in excess of 5 hours until a meal period is granted
by the company except*
A. In the case of employees engaged in con­
tinuous operations who are entitled to eat lunch
on company time;
B. In the case of the first meal period in the
day, where SVz hours will complete the day’s
work;
C. In the case of a mechanical breakdown
affecting the first meal period in the day, only
mechanical department employees shall receive
such overtime rate.
In those cases where employees who are ex­
cluded from the requirement of a meal period
after 5 hours under the provisions of B. and C.
above are required to work more than
hours
without a meal period, the overtime rate shall be
paid for all time worked in excess of 5 hours until
a meal period is granted. Local bargaining com­
mittees may waive the requirements that time and
one-half shall be paid for hours worked in excess
of 5 hours until a meal period is granted provided
such waiver or modification is arranged and agieed
to by local collective bargaining.

Paid meals ordinarily were famished only after the
employee had completed a stated number of overtime
hours. Some of the clauses made no reference to the
paid time allowed (if any) for eating, but othe :s provide
both for the paid mtal and for a specific paid meal
period:
(66)
Supper money in the amount of $2.50 shall bo
paid to all employees after 10 hours of worl.
(67)
A $1.75 meal allowance after working 2 hours
overtime beyond his regular shift will be allowed
eich \ i plcyoc Tf th° overtime emuirues 5 oi
'T
more hours beyond the original 2 hours he will be
entitled to another SI.75 meal allowance. Any

Paid meal, meal period or rest period during overtim e
hours

A paid meal or a paid rest period often was provided
by employers when employees were required to work



Workers
(thousands)

12

(72)

employee called at home and asked to report to
the plant within 8 hours for work outside his
regular shift will receive a $1.75 meal allowance
after working 4 hours and an additional $1.75
meal allowance after each additional 5 hours of
work outside his regular schedule. An employee
who works a double shift (16 consecutive hours)
will receive 2 meal allowances of $1.75 each.
(68)
An employee required to work 10 or more
hours in a row, not counting in a regular lunch
period, shall be furnished lunch, or if he chooses,
$1.75 lunch money, and will be allowed 30
minutes to eat on company time. The 30 minutes
is not allowed if an employee doesn’t eat, or if he
eats after he has punched out.

Lim itations on hours of w o rk or overtim e w o rk

Limiting the number o f daily or weekly overtime
hours that an employee must work was spelled out in 85
o f the 433 sample agreements. Conceivably, such limita­
tions may be designed to spread the work or to ward o f f
excessive fatigue accompanying prolonged work periods:

(73)

Overtime not exceeding 8 hours per week, nor
more than 2 hours per day, shall be permitted.
(74)
In cases where normally no relief is required, no
employee shall work in excess of 16 consecutive
hours. The hour beyond which an employee shall
not work will be arrived at by including all paid
meal periods.
(75)
No employee will be required to work more
than 16 hours in any one workday . . .

Advance notice o f overtim e

Advance notice o f daily overtime provisions were
present in 90 o f the 433 sample agreements. Advance
notice may enable the employees scheduled to work
overtime time to arrange their outside affairs to conform
to longer hours. Usually the period o f notice was short
in comparison to that com m only required for weekend
work and could be waived:

In some instances an employer, with union approval
or in an emergency, could schedule overtime work
beyond the specified Emits:

(69)

Insofar as practicable and consistent with pro­
duction requirements, the company will make
every effort to notify employees scheduled . . . for
daily overtime 2 hours prior to the end of their
shift.
(70)
W an employee is required to work past his
hen
regular quitting time, he shall be notified at least 4
hours prior to the end of his regular shift. W an
hen
employee is required to work on Saturday, Sun­
day, or a holiday, he shall be notified at least 24
hours in advance.
The above paragraph shall not apply where the
overtime is necessary because of an emergency
condition, or it is impossible to give the required
notice.

(76)

Overtime shall not exceed 3 hours per week,
except by permission of the union.
(77)
Except in emergency situations an employee
will not be required nor permitted to work more
than 16 consecutive hours. This provision takes
precedence over any other provision or under­
standing which may be in conflict with this
provision.
The specific right to grieve excessive daily overtime
was granted in a few agreements:

(78)

Some agreements required earlier notice, i.e., 24
hours or more. Notice to the union may enable its
representatives to check in advance for violations o f the
agreement terms, and may ensure union representation
during the overtime period:

(71)

The union reserves the right to file a grievance
against any employer who consistently insists that
an employee work 10 or more hours in any 1 day.

In industries with seasonal employment fluctuations,
o f which apparel is typical, some clauses restricted
overtime during certain months or seasons:

An employee scheduled for overtime shall work
unless he or she has adequate reason for not doing
so, in which event the employee may be excused
provided that other qualified employees normally
engaged on the work involved are available. The
interested union representative and the employees
involved shall be given at least 24 hours’ advance
notice of scheduled overtime unless an emergency
arises which precludes giving such notice.

(79)

Overtime shall be limited to 10 hours per week
during 2 months of each of the two seasons of the
year, except that the number of hours of overtime
work in the shipping department shall not be
limited by the agreement, and the employer need
not ask the union’s permission for working over­
time in said department. There shall be no more
than one shift of workers per day.

Some agreements contained policy statements or
rules designed to prevent or Emit overtime where it
would delay the recaU o f laid o f f employees. The clauses

Employees were sometimes excused from required
overtime work if they had not been given sufficient
notice:



Employees required to work overtime will be
given as much advance notice as is reasonably
possible. At his request, an employee shall be
excused from working daily overtime if not
notified at least 2 hours before the end of his
shift. ..

13

often required management to discuss the problem with
union representatives:
(80) (a) The parties recognize that schedules that
regularly require overtime over extended periods
are undesirable and should not be used solely for
the purpose of preventing the recall of laid-off or
demoted employees.
(b) W
hen employees qualified to perform the
work could be recalled because it is reasonably
foreseeable that there will be work for such
employees for a period of two or more weeks, and
management determines that such work should
nevertheless be done on an overtime basis instead
of recalling such employees, it will first notify the
union and, upon the request of the appropriate
grievance committeeman, will discuss its reasons
and review with him any suggested alternative in
an effort to reach a mutually satisfactory solution.
(Such discussion and review will constitute full
compliance with the requirements of the Subsec­
tion 21-b and Subsection 21-a above.)
(81)
Except under circumstances beyond the control
of management, overtime will not be worked for
extended periods in classifications which include
laid-off employees. W overtime in excess of 2
hen
weeks is necessary, alternative suggestions of the
union will be considered.

for computing overtime. Generally, the periods ranged
from 6 minutes to an hour, and an employee required to
work any part of a period was to be paid for the entire
period:
(85)
For the purposes of overtime and other time
calculations as set forth elsewhere in this agree­
ment, time will be computed as hours and frac­
tions of hours, said fractions to be one-tenth of
the hourly rate of increments of 6 minutes. For
calculating the applicable times in this context,
each one-tenth of an hour or fraction thereof
worked or waited will be applied to the
appropriate rate as set forth elsewhere in the
agreement.
(68)
Overtime will be figured by quarter hours. An
employee working overtime will be paid for a
quarter hour when he works any part of it.
(86)
W
henever time is worked which calls for the
payment of overtime, overtime will be allowed for
the first hour whether the first hour be fully
worked or not. Time worked thereafter, which
involves overtime, will be paid for in half-hour
periods; a fraction of such period to count a half
hour.

No absolute ban on overtime work was found in the
433 sample agreements examined. A few clauses, how­
ever, did limit overtime to emergency situations:
(82)
It is agreed that overtime will not be worked
except in case of emergency.

Some agreements in the sample guaranteed a mini­
mum amount of work or pay— hour or more—
1
to
employees given overtime assignments. Such clauses tend
to discourage employers from requiring short overtime
periods which inconvenience employees out of propor­
tion to their additional earnings. In some instances, there
were exceptions to the guaranteed minimum:

Employers with fluctuating labor needs occasionally
may seek to reduce costs by requiring employees to take
time off from their regular hours so as to offset overtime
hours already worked. In some instances compensatory
time off may be used to avoid any payment of overtime
whatever. Unions are likely to oppose such practices,
since the compulsory time off may result in employees
being required to work irregular hours for little or no
additional earnings. Compensatory time off was pro­
hibited in 89 of the 433 sample agreements examined:
(87)
The regularly scheduled hours of work shall not
exceed 8 hours in any 1 day, nor 40 hours in any
workweek at straight time. The workweek of any
employee shall not be reduced by any overtime
which he may have worked during any preceding
week.

(83)

(88)

Quite similar to minimum overtime guarantees were
provisions in some agreements establishing the time units

Agreements which permitted compensatory time off
in lieu of premium pay were rare:
(90)
Employees on the building maintenance staff
may, but shall not be required to take compensa­
tory time off for work performed on a Saturday,
Sunday, or holiday .. . except that a regularly

Prohibitions on compensatory tim e o ff

Minimum overtime payments

An employee who works overtime will be
guaranteed a minimum of 2 hours of work or 2
hours of pay at his overtime rate.
(84)
W an employee is required to work overtime
hen
beyond the end of his scheduled shift, he shall
receive not less than 4 hours pay at straight time
or Vh times his regular rate for such work
performed, whichever is greater. It is understood
that this does not apply to an employee who may
be required to remain on his assignment due to the
absence or tardiness of another employee who is
scheduled to relieve him.




All overtime shall be classed as emergency work
and not subject to loss of time to keep within the
established work week regulations.
(89)
If an employee is required to work outside of
the regular schedule, the employee shall not be
required to take time off from the schedule that
week in order to avoid overtime.

14

requiring a premium rate for all consecutive overtime
hours:
(95) SECTION 3. Sucessive Days. Overtime normally
will be worked on one day but it may extend from
one day to another when the time worked is
continuous. Overtime may be worked either prior
to, or after, or both prior to and after, the formal
tour.
SECTION 4'. Continuous W
ork. Overtime work
continuous with a formally scheduled tour shall be
compensated at the applicable overtime rate for
actual time worked. W time shall be considered
ork
as continuous if it immediately precedes or follows
hours worked in a formal tour of duty or if the
employee is requested to go back to work within
30 minutes before he has initially left the prem­
ises. W the employee is permitted, at his own
hen
request, to take reasonable time off for a meal,
and then return to work, the additional time
worked shall be considered continuous for the
purposes of this Section.

scheduled night watchman may be required to
take compensatory time off for work performed
on a Saturday or Sunday.
M inim um rest period between shifts

A break of specified length—
generally 8 hours or
more for rest or sleep-between periods of work was
required in 39 of the 433 sample agreements. Some of
these provisions, in effect, were restrictions on overtime,
since they limited the number of consecutive hours that
could be worked:
(91)
No employee will be allowed to work more than
16 consecutive hours without an 8 hour break,
except as mutually agreed to between the contrac­
tor and the business manager.
(92)
Employees working overtime before or after
their regular shift shall not be required to take
time off from their regular work schedule, pro­
vided there is at least 8 hours lapse between the
end of their last work period and their next regular
scheduled time for work. W
henever less than 8
hours intervenes such employees shall not be
permitted to work except in case of extreme
emergencies. No employee will be permitted to
work more than 16 consecutive hours except in
case of extreme emergency.

Often, these provisions did not specify the period of
time off required to break continuous hours. Occasion­
ally a clause, however, established a minimum of 8
hours:
(96)
An employee required to work in excess of 16
hours in a 24-hour period, beginning with the
starting time of a designated shift, shall be paid
one and one-half times his straight-time hourly
wage rate for all hours worked beginning with the
first hour until he has had a rest period of 8
consecutive hours. The first 8 hours worked under
this paragraph will be counted in the computation
of weekly overtime. Those regularly scheduled
hours compensated at time and one-half due to the
employee returning to work before he has had 8
hours off shall also be counted in the computation
of weekly overtime.

Others were less restrictive, requiring only that the
break be given after the employee completed a work
period of unspecified length:
(93)

Once an employee has completed a day’s work
or a night’s work, said employee shall be relieved
from duty for a period of at least 10 hours before
he may be given a new assignment.

A few provisions guaranteed the employees a day or
days off during the workweek:
(94)
Each technician shall be granted two consecu­
tive days off during each workweek (except when
a different pattern of days off may be agreed to by
the union on behalf of the technicians affected).
Saturday followed by Sunday as days off shall be
considered as consecutive. A day off shall consist
of 24 hours preceded by a 12-hour rest period; 2
days off shall consist of 48 hours preceded by a
12-hour rest period.

Rarely did a provision require continuation of pre­
mium pay for all consecutive days worked beyond a
given number until the employee was provided with a
day of rest:
(97)
The company will pay double time for the 7th
consecutive day worked, and for each consecutive
day worked until the employee receives a day off.
Holidays shall be counted as days worked for the
purpose of computing the seventh day worked for
double time pay.
A number of provisions required the employer to pay
a premium or penalty payment to an employee starting a
new day’s work with less than a specific period of time
off:
(98)
W employees have worked 14 or more hours
hen
in the 24 hours immediately preceding the starting
time of a scheduled tour on a week day, time
worked during such scheduled tour equal to the

Continuation o f prem ium pay during extended overtim e
period

Technically, the continuation of an employee’s over­
time period into the next workday or workweek, as
defined in the agreement, might permit the employer to
revert to paying the employee at straight-time rates.
Many of the agreements sought to prevent this by



15

time worked in excess of 13 hours during the
preceding 24 hours shall be paid for at the
overtime rate.
(99)
Any employe who starts a new day’s work in
accordance with his prearranged starting time prior
to the expiration of 12 hours from the completion
of his previous day’s work shall be paid for all time
worked within such 12-hour period at 1x times his
h
applicable rate and will be guaranteed a minimum
of 4 hours’ work at time and one-half (1l ) his
A
applicable rate, in addition to his pay for hours
worked after the expiration of 12 hours from the
completion of his previous day’s work.

shall be a situation in which the employer could
not reasonably have known of the need for
overtime work prior to the time of notice. An
employee compelled to work overtime in the
absence of an emergency, who is not given the
notice required by this section, shall be com­
pensated as the arbitrator may determine.
If an employee has been notified before the
start of his shift of an overtime assignment to
commence at the end of such shift, and if, for
reasons beyond his control, overtime work is not
available, the employee shall receive straight-time
pay for the scheduled overtime not worked unless
he is given not less than 12 hours’ notice before
the overtime was scheduled to commence that the
overtime work will not be available.
(103) W the company has notified operators of
hen
intent to work overtime on any regular work day,
it may cancel such overtime by giving notice not
later than 1 hour before the regular quitting time
of such employees. Failure to give such notice of
cancellation within the time specified shall entitle
the employees involved to one-quarter hours wage
at straight time.

In a few agreements, the full rest period was required,
and the employee was paid for any part of the period
that extended into his regularly scheduled working
hours:
(100) An employee who has worked 14 or more
consecutive hours shall, upon his release, be
entitled to an 8-hour rest period before he returns
to work. If this rest period extends into his
regularly scheduled working hours for 4 hours or
more, he shall be excused from his regular tour of
duty for that day and shall lose no pay thereby. If
the rest period extends into his regularly scheduled
hours for less than 4 hours, he shall be excused
from that portion of his regular tour and lose no
pay thereby.

D istribution o f overtim e w ork

The allocation of overtime work among employees
was provided for in 209 of the 433 sample agreements.
(See table 13.) The majority required that overtime
opportunities be equally or equitably distributed,
usually among qualified employees of the department or
other specified unit:
(104) Overtime will be distributed by rotation within
a classification, as equally as reasonably possible
among the employees in the department scheduled
to work overtime. The individual employer will
not be required to schedule an employee for
overtime unless he has previously satisfactorily
performed the assigned work.
(105) Overtime shall be divided as equally as possiblea. W
ithin departments or within other pre­
sently existing units of distribution as the
case may be, or
b. W
ithin such units of distribution as may be
otherwise agreed.
A minority of the clauses required the overtime work
to be offered to employees in descending order of
seniority:

Penalty fo r em ployer violation o f overtim e provisions

Financial penalties were to be levied against em­
ployers who failed to comply with the overtime provi­
sions in 34 of the 433 sample contracts. Some clauses
required the employer to pay an employee if overtime to
which he was entitled was assigned to another worker.
Usually, however, the penalty could be avoided by
assigning the aggrieved employee to overtime work at a
subsequent date:
(101) If through the fault of the company the low
man on the overtime list is not called out, he will
be compensated at the appropriate overtime rates
for the number of hours worked by the employees
who were called unless the company has given the
employee an opportunity to make up the overtime
lost within 60 days after the mistake occurred.
At times, penalties could be applied if the employer
failed to give advance notice, or cancelled overtime that
previously had been scheduled:
(102) If an employee, while on the job, is assigned to
work overtime following the employee’s shift, the
employee shall be given as much notice as possible,
and in any event not less than 2 hours’ notice of
such assignment, except in cases of emergency,
when the employee shall be given as much notice
as is possible in the circumstances. An emergency



(106)

16

The company shall have the sole right to
determine the number of employees necessary for
overtime work. Overtime shall be assigned in the
following manner in so far as it is practical for
efficient plant operation:
(a) W the full group is required the overtime
hen
shall be assigned on the basis of seniority

(111)

(a) For the sole purpose of preventing favori­
tism or discrimination in the distribution of
overtime, the company will distribute overtime
work equally among the qualified employees
under the jurisdiction of each foreman who are
regularly employed on such work, insofar as it
may be practicable to do so. Such overtime
distribution shall be made on the respective shifts
on which the overtime work occurs. There is no
obligation on the part of the company to dis­
tribute overtime equally between shifts nor be­
tween employees under the jurisdiction of dif­
ferent foremen.
(b) A grievance alleging failure of the company
to comply with subsection (a) above must show a
substantial inequality in such overtime distribution
during the twenty-six week period immediately
preceding the filing of such grievance.
(112) The company will endeavor to distribute the
opportunity to work time which requires payment
at premium or overtime rates as equitably as the
needs of the service will permit. Employee groups
established for this purpose shall be the same as
those established for selection of vacation. Such
work opportunity occurring during an employee’s
absence from the job (vacations excepted) may or
may not be considered by the company in
distributing subsequent work opportunity. The
provisions of this section shall not be subject to
arbitration.
Clauses in 33 sample agreements provided that
overtime opportunities within a given overtime unit
would be extended to employees in other units under
certain conditions. The provision applied usually when­
ever there were insufficient qualified employees available
within the unit scheduling the overtime:
(63)
If the company is unable to get the number of
employees required for overtime work within the
department, it may then ask qualified employees
from other departments if they wish to work the
required overtime.
(113) Overtime work shall be assigned on the follow­
ing basis:
(a) Overtime, when worked, shall be offered to
the employee in the department, on the
shift, and within the overtime group, with
the least overtime hours charged.
(b) If additional employees are required to
perform such overtime work the company
will, so far as practicable, select on a rotating
basis those qualified employees outside the
overtime group who have volunteered for
such assignments, but wherever possible giv­
ing preference to qualified employees within
the department on the same shift and
thereafter to employees in the same or lower
labor grades. Employees wishing to volun­
teer for overtime work in departments other
than their own, for work on which they are
qualified, will sign the overtime roster in the
Employee Relations Office.

and classification to those employees of the
group who have the ability to perform the
work efficiently.
(b) W less than the full group is required the
hen
overtime shall be assigned on the basis of
seniority and classification to those em­
ployees of the group who have the ability to
perform the work efficiently. However,
when the overtime work assigned requires
the services of two or more classifications,
the overtime shall be assigned on the basis of
seniority to those employees of the group
who are in the same or higher wage grade of
the work involved, provided they have the
ability to perform the work efficiently. An
employee, so assigned, will be paid the rate
for his regular classification or the final rate
for the classification of work performed
whichever is higher.
(65)

Extra work in periods of parttime and overtime
operations shall be by seniority among the em­
ployees in their respective departments provided
the senior employees are competent to perform
the work which is to be done . . .

Overtime work sometimes was offered first to the
employees who normally performed the work during
regular hours:
(107) The company will make reasonable effort to
assign overtime work (either on regular work days
or Saturdays) to the employee who normally
performs that work during the regular work hours.
In the event such employee is not available the
work will be assigned to employees in the same job
classification starting with the one with the greater
length of continuous service for the company. The
next in line for such overtime work shall be the
senior employee from the department in the same
rate range qualified to perform the job.
(108) W
hen equipment is operated before or after
shift, (or on Saturdays, Sundays or holidays) the
employee assigned to such equipment during the
regular shift shall be offered the overtime work
except in the case of immediate emergency.
A few agreements referred the method of distribution
of overtime work to local plant level negotiations or
practice:
(109) Division of overtime will be scheduled according
to local or departmental past practices.
(110) Conditions beyond the control of the company
may necessitate overtime and extended work
weeks. Such overtime shall be distributed as may
be established by local supplementary agreements.
A few provisions specified the employees’ rights to
file a grievance over alleged inequities in overtime
distribution. Such complaints were only rarely excluded
from the grievance or arbitration procedure:



17

(c)

ployees will not perform overtime to the extent
that they displace regular employees .. .
(118) Casual employees may be used to replace
absentees but shall not be used to deprive regular
employees of overtime.

In the event that subsections (a) and (b)
above do not provide a sufficient number of
employees to meet operational require­
ments, the company may require employees
to work overtime, assigning them as under
subsection (a) in the order of their eligibility
for overtime work; provided, however, that
the time worked in excess of 10 hours per
day or 50 hours per week shall not be
mandatory.

Effect o f absence on overtime distribution

Often an employee may miss an overtime oppor­
tunity, or his turn in the rotation, because he is absent
from work. Of the 433 sample agreements examined, 43
mentioned the effect of such absence on the distribution
of overtime.

Restrictions on eligibility o f certain groups for
overtime work

Overtime opportunities may be limited or prohibited
for certain groups of employees. Provisions in 35 sample
agreements included such restrictions. The majority of
the clauses applied to probationary employees, while a
few applied to temporary and part-time workers, and
apprentices. Members of these groups were excluded
from consideration entirely, or permitted overtime only
if the opportunity to work was first made available to all
regular employees of the unit:
(114) Overtime in a classification will be offered first
to employees having seniority except if the whole
group is scheduled the probationary employee will
also work.
A probationary employee will be offered over­
time within a classification before it is offered to
anyone outside the classification.
On a down day where employees are called in
for cleanup work or other work not falling within
their classification, employees in the department
having seniority shall be offered such overtime
before it is offered to the probationary employee.
Out-of-department overtime will not be offered
to a probationary employee.
(115) All overtime work is to be divided as equally as
possible in the respective departments, excluding
probationary, temporary, and part-time workers.
(116) No apprentice will work hours in excess of the
predominant work schedule of the department to
which he is assigned, nor will an apprentice work
any overtime hours unless all other available
employees on his shift who are qualified to
perform the overtime work have accepted or
refused the overtime assignment.

Effect o f absence on
overtime distribution
E m p loyee charged w ith am o u n t
o f o vertim e l o s t .............................
E m p loyee loses tu rn in o vertim e
r o t a t i o n ...........................................
E m p loyee charged in unexcused
absence, b u t no t if absence
is e x c u s e d ........................................
E m ployee loses o vertim e privileges
fo r specified period if absence
is u n e x c u s e d ....................................

Workers
(thousands)

26

5 5 .0

2

2 .5

14

4 3 .8

1

2 .4

Usually, the employee’s record was to be charged with
the overtime missed in the same manner as if he had
worked:
(119) An employee’s overtime record shall be credited
with overtime when he is asked whether he works
or not. If the department works overtime, an
absent employee’s overtime record shall be
charged with any overtime for which he would
have been eligible had he not been absent.
(120) Employees absent from the time equalization
group for a period not exceeding 30 days, will be
charged with hours which would have been over­
time hours worked had they been present.
An employee on lay-off or an authorized leave
of absence for a period in excess of 30 calendar
days shall upon return to any equalization group
be charged with the average hours of that group.
Some of the agreements did not charge the absent
employee if his absence was excused, as when he was on
approved leave or vacation:
(121) Employees who are absent because of disability,
vacation, funeral leave, jury duty or military
reserve annual encampment shall not be charged
with any overtime worked in their department
during their absence. Employees absent for any
other reason shall be charged with overtime which
they otherwise would have worked. ..

The purpose of these limitations usually was to
protect regular full-time employees from being deprived
of overtime work as made explicit in several contracts:
(117) The company will make a fair and equitable
division of overtime opportunities among em­
ployees performing the same class of work on the
same shift in the same department. Cooperative
students, summer and other temporary employees,
part-time employees and apprentice classified em­



Agreements

18

Effect o f absence on eligibility for overtime rate

Overtime record keeping

The manner in which straight-time and overtime
hours were to be computed was defined in many
agreements. Time absent for designated reasons was
counted as time worked in qualifying for the overtime
pay. Some agreements did not specify the types of
absences considered as excusable, while others listed
them in detail:

As time passes and overtime is charged or credited to
each employee’s record, maintaining a relatively equal
distribution of overtime hours becomes more difficult.
For this reason, many clauses provide for periodic
adjustment of the overtime records:
(105) Overtime records will be returned to zero at the
beginning of this labor agreement.
(92) Overtime records will be maintained on a
contract period basis. At the end of the calendar
year, in which the contract agreement is made, the
employee(s) with the average overtime hours (i.e.:
the sum of each employee’s overtime divided by
the number of employees in the group sharing
overtime) will revert to zero. All employees lower
in overtime will revert to zero. All employees
higher in overtime will be adjusted to the average
overtime hours (i.e.: the difference between their
overtime hours and the average overtime hours).
Employee(s) restricted all year will revert to zero.
Employee(s) restricted after the contract year
starts, and ends up with more hours than the
average hours will be adjusted to the average
overtime hours. Employee(s) removed from re­
striction will be adjusted to the high employee in
the group. Employee(s) signing an overtime waiver
will be adjusted to the high employee in the group
at the end of each month.
The first of each month, all figures will be
adjusted to the nearest whole number of hours.
All overtime, regardless of the day of the week
on which it occurs, will be kept on a single record.
Such records will be available to proper personnel
for examination. Records will be posted monthly
except in those instances where they are presently
being posted at other lesser intervals.

(122) Absent hours considered as excusable will be
considered as hours worked for determining over­
time.
(123) Time not worked Monday through Friday be­
cause of legal holidays, lack of work, or excused
absences such as the following (substantiated with
positive proof) shall be counted as time worked
for the purpose of computing overtime pay.
1. If an employee is expected to report for
work and the employee reports and is sent home
because of lack of work, or other reasons beyond
his control.
2. Absence caused by sickness, death, funerals,
and weddings of immediate relatives.
3. Absences caused by personal illness (not
caused by personal abuse) and medical and dental
care.
4. Absences caused by orders or summons of
the Federal, State, County or City authorities,
such as selective service requirements or jury duty.
An employee detained by a government unit for a
law violation will not be excused.
5. Absence caused by transportation diffi­
culties because of weather or service.
6. Absence because of performing some legiti­
mate union service.
7. Any question arising on the legitimacy of
any absence shall be settled between the manage­
ment and the shop committee.

Overtime record upon entering new unit

Under provisions requiring relatively equal distribu­
tion of overtime, problems in charging overtime records
may arise when employees are hired into or transferred
between overtime units. Because of variations in over­
time worked from unit to unit, a transferee may have
worked more or fewer hours of overtime than other
employees in his new unit. A newly hired employee, of
course, will have worked no overtime. Many clauses deal
with this problem by adjusting the new entrant’s
overtime record to conform with records of other
employees of the unit-often to match the record of the
employee charged with the most overtime:
(127) When an employe moves to another overtime
area (e.g. shift, department, line, group, etc.) he
will assume the high overtime hours in that
overtime area.
Daily, as well as weekend overtime will be
charged to the record, except when the whole

A few contracts did not count absences for which pay
had been received as time worked in computing overtime
hours:
(124) Where an employee receives pay for time not
actually worked, such time shall not be counted as
hours actually worked for the purpose of comput­
ing weekly overtime.
Management sometimes reserved the right to assign
overtime work only to employees with good attendance
records:
(125) The employers shall have the option to with­
hold overtime from employees who do not work
everyday in a work week, except for illness.
(126) Employees who are frequently or habitually
absent from work shall be denied the privilege of
working on overtime schedules.



19

department is scheduled to work overtime on a
day-to-day basis. In this case no charge will be
made to the overtime record.
(128) New employees, and employees permanently or
temporarily transferred to another job description,
or division, will assume immediately upon en­
trance the overtime hours of the employee in his
job description in the division entered having the
highest number of overtime hours charged to him,
excluding any hours in excess of 8 charged as a
result of any unexcused absence. An employee
temporarily transferred shall again, upon returning
to his regular job description, or division, assume
the total hours charged to him when he left plus
all hours charged while in his temporary assign­
ment.
Only rarely does a transferee carry his actual overtime
charges with him into the new unit:
(67) An employee assigned to training will remain in
his previous overtime group until such time as he
takes over the new job.
An operator moving from one overtime group
to another will carry his actual overtime standing
to his new group.

Em ployee Rights on Refusal o f
Overtim e
T o t a l ......................................................
Can refuse, no exceptions
in d ic a te d ..................................
Can refuse under specified
c o n d itio n s ...............................
Can refuse, b u t conditions, if
any, are n o t specified . . . .
Cannot r e f u s e ..............................

Workers
(thousands)

142

4 2 2 .5

21

7 3 .9

83

2 6 2 .0

30
8

6 9 .3
17.4

Most commonly the provisions gave employees a
limited right to turn down overtime. Generally, the
employee had to have a reasonable excuse, and the
clauses often stated that another employee had to be
available to do the work:3
(129) An employe may refuse an overtime assignment
only when he has a reasonable excuse and the
refusal in such event will not prejudice his right to
future overtime.
(130) Employees shall accept overtime work unless
they have a reasonable or justifiable excuse to
refuse such work.
Some agreements gave senior qualified employees the
option of accepting or declining offers of overtime, but
required junior employees to work if sufficient volun­
teers were unavailable:
(131) ...Section 8. Insofar as is practicable, the
company will distribute hours of work as equally
as possible on any given operation and in any given
department following seniority on the job or in
the department involved. Overtime work shall be
distributed as nearly equally as possible among all
employees in a given job classification within a
department and such overtime work shall be
offered to such employees on the basis of their
job, department and then plant seniority. When­
ever special knowledged, skill or ability is required,
or in the case of new and untrained employees, the
company and the union may mutually agree to
bypass seniority in that special instance. When
overtime work is required on Saturday and the

Right to refuse overtim e

Traditionally, management has reserved the right to
require employees to work overtime. Many employees,
on the other hand, may at times want to refuse to work
overtime, because they feel that they have fulfilled their
obligation to the employer by working their regular
hours; even those who welcome overtime often feel they
should be asked rather than told. In recent years,
compulsory overtime has become an increasingly im­
portant bargaining issue. Many unions, including some
that do not question management’s general right to
schedule and require overtime, maintain that employers
can recruit enough employees on a voluntary basis to
satisfy most overtime needs. Management, on the other
hand, generally takes the position that overtime must be
compulsory at times, because of skill requirements,
emergencies, short-term increases in labor needs, or the
interdependence of operations.2
Compulsory overtime was referred to in nearly a third
of the 433 sample agreements examined. The provisions
varied considerably in their treatment of the subject.

3
The United Automobile Workers recently negotiated
provisions with the three major auto makers allowing employees
to refuse daily and weekend work under specified conditions. In
general, work is voluntary beyond 9 hours a day, on a third
consecutive Saturday, and on all Sundays, provided employees
satisfy advance notice and attendance requirements. For some
plants, management may elect an alternate plan requiring work
up to 10 hours a day and 8 hours on Saturday, with 6
nonvoluntary Saturdays per model year. The provisions make
various exceptions to the voluntary plans for designated critical
plants, during build-out and model change periods, emergencies,
or in the event o f concerted refusals to work overtime. These
agreements were not on file in the Bureau o f Labor Statistics at
the time this study was completed.

2 A vexing problem is that many operations, such as parts
assembling and some data processing, must be performed in
sequences requiring a full crew during all working hours.
Employees not wishing to work overtime on such operations,
however, sometimes are excused if surplus employees, such as
those who normally fill in for absentees, are available.




Agreements

20

this provision, it may be necessary to transfer
those technicians whose names appear on the lists
to assignments where no overtime is required.
Each of these lists will be firm for a period of 6
consecutive months but may be changed by
mutual agreement between the employer and the
union at the end of each such 6 month period.
All other technicians will be subject to the
provisions of Section 3.10 (g).
A few clauses sanctioned the right of individuals to
decline overtime, but banned concerted or group refusal
of the extra work:
(134) Immediately upon the employer becoming cer­
tain that overtime work is required on that day,
the employer shall so notify the employees.
Notification and the amount of overtime work
shall be made before noon. The employees agree
that there will be no concerted refusal to perform
reasonable overtime work requested of them. Any
individual employee who desires not to work shall
notify his foreman of his intentions of not
working at the time notification of overtime work
is made.
Eight agreements permitted no refusals, stating that
employees would be required to work overtime when­
ever called upon.
(135) The company shall be the sole judge as to the
necessity for overtime work, and employees shall
be obligated to work overtime when requested to
do so.
A right to refuse overtime was indirectly referred to
in 30 agreements, usually through indicating that the
employee’s record would be charged with the number of
hours turned down, for equalization purposes. These
clauses did not make clear whether the right to refuse
overtime was restricted or unrestricted.
(136) Overtime shall be divided as equally as possible
in each section. This shall also apply to time
workers. A record of all overtime shall be kept in
each section. An employee who refuses overtime
shall be charged with the hours refused.
Some agreements provided for union-management
negotiations of problems arising from refusal to work
overtime:
(137) Employees are expected to work overtime as
required by production and maintenance needs.
The company agrees that in making requests for
overtime work outside of the regular established
basic work day or work week, it will recognize the
employee’s right to decline overtime work; how­
ever, concerted refusals by groups of employees
cannot be tolerated. No employee shall be disci­
plined or lose holiday pay for declining overtime
or holiday work, in the absence of prior accep­
tance. Should the overtime acceptance drop below
70 percent of the scheduled overtime needed, or

company has given forty-eight (48) hours notice of
such overtime, the least senior employees in the
department able to do the job will be required to
accept the overtime where more senior, employees
have declined it. When the entire department is
scheduled to work the overtime, all employees in
that department are required to work such over­
time just as on any other regular workday.
When the overtime is scheduled on a daily basis
on regular workdays, the least senior employees in
the department who are able to do the work shall
be required to accept such overtime where more
senior employees have declined it.
When additional employees over and above
those in the department are required for overtime
work, then such overtime work shall be offered to
other employees in the plant on a plant seniority
basis, and the least senior employees able to do the
job shall be required to accept such overtime work
where more senior employees have declined it.
However, when special skills, abilities or knowl­
edge are required, the company and the union may
mutually agree to bypass seniority in that parti­
cular instance.
Whenever seniority is bypassed by mutual agree­
ment, the employee or employees so bypassed
shall be offered the next available overtime work.
Employees could decline overtime without any stated
limitations in 21 agreements:
(132) All overtime hours worked shall be voluntary on
the part of the employees.
(133) All overtime work shall be on a voluntary basis.
Although overtime may be voluntary, the union may
be called upon to encourage its members to accept extra
work during the busy season:
(25) Overtime of any kind for employees is not
compulsory. However, due to the seasonal charac­
ter of the industry, and for the sake of stability in
the market, the union recognizes that overtime
work is necessary at certain periods of the year,
and therefore the union will recommend to its
members to work such overtime as may be
required during busy seasons.
Under the terms of a small number of agreements,
employees had the option of being removed entirely
from consideration for overtime for a specified period;
they then would no longer be asked or be eligible to
work overtime during this period, or until they re­
quested a change of status:
(94) Each local union may submit to the employer a
list of those technicians who do not desire any
overtime work. The employer shall have the right
to determine the number on each such list and to
accept or reject the names for valid reasons. Once
such list is established, the technicians whose
names appear on such lists shall not work any
overtime. In order to accomplish the purposes of



21

below 50 percent of the qualified employees in a
particular classification, the company and the local
union executive committee shall meet in an effort
to resolve the matter. Should the matter not be
resolved within 24 hours, the least senior qualified
employees in the needed classification shall work.

Sometimes the employee who declined overtime, or
accepted, but failed to report, was denied further
overtime opportunities for a given period:

(126) ...W hen overtime work is necessary and is
scheduled in advance, it is expected that the
employees shall work such overtime schedule
unless the employee has a valid reason for not
working the overtime. Should an employee refuse
to work overtime, he may be denied the privilege
of overtime work for a period of 30 calendar days.

Effect o f refusal on future overtime work

The effect of refusing overtime on the employees’
eligibility for further overtime opportunities was men­
tioned in 74 of 142 agreements referring to employees’
rights on the subject. (See table 14.) By far the most
common provision (50 agreements) equated overtime
offered with overtime worked, and charged the em­
ployee’s overtime record with the time refused:
(138) Overtime refused or overtime missed because of
absence for any reason shall be counted as
overtime worked for equalization purposes.
Provisions of this type often imposed a greater
penalty on an employee who accepted an overtime
assignment and later refused work or failed to appear,
charging his record with a multiple of the number of
hours actually missed:
(139) Section 10. Overtime Opportunities.. .. Em­
ployees who accept offers of overtime and do not
report for such work shall be charged with twice
the overtime hours offered.

(65)

No agreements in the sample were found that
required, or even permitted, employees to make up
declined overtime work at a later date.

Discipline for refusal o f overtime work

Although most clauses referring to the refusal of
overtime limited the employee’s right to refuse, only
nine stipulated a disciplinary penalty, or penalty other
than some loss of future overtime rights. Some clauses
did not indicate the nature of the discipline, while others
progressively increased the penalty for repeated refusal
of overtime to include ultimate discharge:
(142) Overtime in each classification will be offered to
the employees in the classification on a voluntary
basis but if an insufficient number of employees in
the classification volunteer for such overtime
work, the employer will assign employees with the
least seniority in the classification qualified to
perform such overtime work. Such employees
refusing to perform such overtime work shall be
subject to disciplinary action.

Some provisions did not charge the employee’s record
under certain conditions, for instance, refusals of over­
time work in a unit other than his own:
(140) Employes who work overtime in another de­
partment or unit of distribution will have the
amount of such overtime credited to their record
on their regular overtime list. Refusals to work
overtime in another department, or refusals to
work overtime in another unit of distribution
within the employe’s department will not be
charged to the employe’s record.
A few contracts did not charge an employee’s record
with the specific time refused, but instead stated that his
name would be placed at the bottom of the overtime
list. He would then be denied overtime until it had been
offered to all other employees on the list:
(141) Each employee must accept overtime work at
the time it is assigned to him, otherwise, he must
wait for a complete rotation of overtime work in
his line or group to again be assigned such work.
An employee who accepts oveitime offered to him
and then does not report for work on the day
agreed upon will lose his turn on the next overtime
seniority rotation.



Any employee who accepts an assignment to
perform overtime work and who fails to report for
such overtime shall forfeit all rights to future
overtime work for a period of 30 days unless he
presents an excuse which is mutually acceptable to
the company and the union.

(115) (a) The first time the employee refuses to work
overtime (without a proven excuse) a warning
notice in writing shall be given him in the presence
of the steward and a copy shall be sent to the
union office.
(b)The second time the employee so refuses
(without a proven excuse), a warning notice in
writing shall be given him in the presence of the
steward and a copy shall be sent to the union
office, and the employee shall be suspended for
three days.
22

(c) The third time the employee so refuses In rare instances, discipline could also be applied to
(without proven excuse) the employee shall be employees refusing to work the extra hours as a group:
subject to automatic discharge.
(143) Individual requests to be excused from overtime
work where such requests are based upon good
If notice tp work overtime is not given by the
personal reasons shall be honored by the em­
employer as provided above, the employee may
ployer; provided, however, employees may be
refuse to work overtime without being subjected
discharged for concerted refusal to work overtime.
to discipline.




23

Chapter IV. Premium Pay for Weekend Work, and
Related Weekend Provisions

Nearly all employees covered by collective bargaining
agreements work a basic 5-day week, and usually are
paid a premium for working on their regular days off, or
weekends. For the majority of workers, these regular
off-days are the traditional Saturday and Sunday, but
for a sizeable minority, typically those on continuous
operations, the “weekend,” or sixth and seventh days of
work may be any 2 (usually consecutive) days of the
week.
Many agreements provide for premium pay both for
Saturday-Sunday and for the sixth and seventh day. This
is because within a single plant some workers may be on
traditional Monday-Friday schedules, while others may
work either fixed or rotating shifts involving any 5 days
of the week. Companies in industries involving con­
tinuous processes, such as primary metals production
and utilities, may assign 5-day schedules without regard
to Saturday or Sunday to all or nearly all workers;
companies in other industries may schedule production
workers for a basic Monday-Friday workweek, but other
workers engaged in round-the-clock operations (such as
plant security, maintenance, and power house) for any 5
days:
(144) Section 8.1 Overtime will be paid at the rate of
IVi times the employee’s base rate for . ..
b. All hours worked on Saturday

regard to specific days or weekends. Consequently, the
separately negotiated weekend premium pay provisions,
like the daily overtime provisions, represent a significant
collective bargaining achievement. In addition, negotia­
tors often have agreed to premium rates above the
regular overtime rates, particularly for work on Sunday
or the seventh day. Some agreements provide premiums
for work on Sunday, or more rarely, Saturday, even
when these days are included in a regular 5-day schedule.
In addition, many agreements contain clauses applicable
to weekend work, similar to those on overtime, covering
advance notice, the right to refuse work, distribution of
and limitations on work, and other matters.
Weekend prem ium pay

Provisions for the payment of weekend premiums
were contained in more than 90 percent of the agree­
ments studied. (See table 15.) By far the largest
proportion of the agreements, or about 43 percent,
established premium rates for both Saturday and Sun­
day, while about 11 percent applied to Sunday work
only. A similar proportion set rates for Saturday,
Sunday, and the sixth and seventh days of the work­
week. Provisions applying to Saturday, Sunday, and the
seventh day, and the sixth and seventh day, each
accounted for 7 or 8 percent of the agreements. The
remaining provisions represented less common weekend
pay practices reflecting the needs of individual establish­
ments. The 24 provisions requiring premium pay for the
sixth day only, for example, may suggest that employees
are neither required nor permitted to work a seventh
day.

Section 8.2 Overtime will be paid at the rate of
2 times the employee’s base rate for all hours
worked on Sunday.
Section 8.4 An employee assigned to a job
requiring continuous coverage and scheduled to
work a shift which normally includes Saturday or
Sunday shall not be subject to the provisions of
Section 8.1, subdivision (b), and Section 8.2 of
this Article, but shall be paid at the rate of lVi
times his base rate for all hours worked by him on
the sixth day in his scheduled work week and shall
be paid at the rate of 2 times his base rate for all
hours worked by him on the seventh day in his
scheduled work week.
The Fair Labor Standards Act requires a premium
only for work exceeding 40 hours a week, without



Weekend premium days, by industry

Agreements in several industries showed strong
patterns in their treatment of weekend premium pay. In
construction agreements, which usually stipulate specific
Monday-Friday straight-time hours, fully 95 percent of
the provisions referring to weekend work established
premium rates for both Saturday and Sunday. These
24

one-half. Any employee ordered to work on
Saturday shall be guaranteed not less than 4 clock
hours of work.
Any work performed on Sundays or legal
holidays shall be paid for at the rate of double and
one-half times.
(146) Time and one-half the straight time rate shall be
paid for all work performed (a) in excess of eight
(8) hours in any one day or (b) in excess of forty
(40) hours in any work week, whichever is the
greater, and (c) on Saturdays. Except for emer­
gency work and breakdown which shall be paid for
at time and one-half, double time the straight time
rate shall be paid for all work performed on
Sundays.

were also the premium days in more than half the
weekend provisions in transportation equipment (64
percent), nonelectrical machinery and leather products
(each 58 percent), and transportation (56 percent). In
the hotel and restaurant industry, over 70 percent of the
week-end provisions set premium rates for the sixth and
seventh day, enabling the companies to arrange schedul­
ing to meet Saturday and Sunday business without
penalty. Since few firms in the apparel industry schedule
work on Sunday, 60 percent of the apparel provisions
established Saturday as the sole premium day. In most
communications provisions (61 percent) a premium
applied only to Sunday— day when most businesses are
a
closed and the volume of telephone calls is low.1 In 54
percent of the provisions in primary metals, premiums
applied to the sixth and seventh day, and to Sunday,
when worked as part of the regular 5-day schedule. The
provisions in the remaining major industries showed a
wider variation in their definition of weekend premium
days.

Variations in Saturday and Sunday premium rates

In a minority of the provisions covering Saturday and
Sunday pay, the premium rate varied with occupation or
type of work performed, season, location, or other
factors. Most prevalent were variations with the type of
work being performed, largely found in construction
agreements. Some clauses, particularly in agreements
with the Laborers’ Union, provided time and one-half on
Saturday except when working with another craft
commanding a higher rate. Other clauses set double time
for most new construction, but a lower rate applied
under certain conditions, as for repair work, possibly
because of non-union competition:
(147) Double time will be paid for all work performed
by hodcarriers and tenders for brick masons and
plasterers on Saturdays, when brick masons and
plasterers are working; otherwise, time and onehalf will prevail for Saturdays. .. .
Double time shall be paid to any laborer
specifically tending another craft whose members
then are receiving double time.
(148) (4) All time worked in excess of a regular work
day or the regular work week, or before the start
of after the end of the regular work day and all
work performed on Saturdays, Sundays and Holi­
days, shall constitute overtime and shall be paid at
double the straight time rate except that all such
overtime on jobbing and repair work shall be paid
at one and one-half times the straight time rate.
The Saturday or Sunday rate under some clauses also
varied with the location of the work or with the season.
The seasonal variations sometimes allowed food pro­
cessors and other employers to schedule weekend work
at lower rates during the busy season:
(149) District 1 .... Double time shall be paid for all
work performed on Saturday ...
Districts 2A, 2B, 3 and 4 ... All time worked in
excess of 8 hours in one work day and 40 hours in

Premium pay rates fo r Saturdays and Sundays n ot part
o f th e regular schedule

Of the 1,560 agreements establishing weekend
premium rates, 63 percent (990) applied these rates to
work on Saturdays not scheduled as regular work days,
and 82 percent (1,281) applied the rates to Sundays
similarly outside of regular schedules. (See tables 16 and
17.)
The Sunday pay provisions not only appeared in
more agreements than provisions covering Saturday
work, but usually required a higher premium rate. In
part this may be attributed to the greater significance
most workers attach to Sunday as a traditional day of
rest and religious holiday; in part it may be attributed to
the greater fatigue factor Sunday work usually entails.
Nearly three-quarters of the Sunday provisions re­
quired payment of double time, and a small additional
number set an even higher rate. By contrast, 70 percent
of the Saturday clauses stipulated time and one-half. A
double-time rate was required in only 22 percent of the
Saturday provisions, largely concentrated in construc­
tion industry agreements. In some instances, exceptions
were made under certain conditions such as emergencies:
(44) Double time must be paid for all work per­
formed on Saturdays, Sundays and holidays:
(145) Any and all work performed on Saturday shall
be compensated for at the rate of time and
1The weekly graduated overtime provisions (usually provid­
ing a higher rate after 49 hours) may also to some extent serve as
a premium provision for a seventh day worked.




25

1 workweek (including Saturday) shall be paid at
the rate of 1V2 times the basic rate . . .
(150) Inter-Campaign Overtime: During the inter­
campaign period, work performed by employees in
excess of 8 hours in any one day or upon Saturday
shall be considered as overtime work and payable
at the rate of one and one-half times the basic
hourly rate applicable and double time shall be
paid for Sundays worked except the Sunday
immediately preceding and the Sunday imme­
diately following campaign, except in cases where
an employee takes time off without pay during the
regular workweek, Monday through Friday, in
which event he may be paid straight time until a
full 40 hours have been worked for the week.
Campaign Overtime: During the campaign
period, all work performed in excess of 40 hours
in said workweek, or work performed in excess of
8 hours in any one day, shall be considered
overtime and payable at the rate of one and
one-half times the basic hourly rate applicable.
Small numbers of other provisions established a time
and one-half rate, usually for Sunday, increasing to
double time on the basis of consecutive days, or
consecutive Sundays, worked. These apparently were
designed to compensate for the employees’ fatigue:
(151) Sunday work shall be paid at IV2 times the
regular hourly rate, unless it is the 7th consecutive
diy, in which case this shall be paid at 2 times the
regular hourly rate.
(152) Payment for Non-Consecutive Sunday WorkAn employee who works on Sunday will be paid
the basic hourly wage rate on the same basis as on
a weekday, plus any evening or night differential
associated with the assigned trick and, in addition,
a Sunday premium payment consisting of one-half
the basic hourly wage rate for the hours of the
assigned trick worked.
Payment for Work on Consecutive Sundays-An
employee who works two or more consecutive
Sundays shall be paid, for time worked on the
second consecutive Sunday and each subsequent
consecutive Sunday, a Sunday premium payment
consisting of the basic hourly wage rate for the
hours of the assigned trick worked. Whenever
employees voluntarily exchange Sunday assign­
ments, and the exchange would cause an employee
to work two or more consecutive Sundays, this
provision for Sunday premium payment shall not
apply.

19.) These often occurred in conjunction with clauses
establishing premium pay for the sixth and seventh day
worked. About 14 percent of the 1,560 weekend pay
clauses required a bonus for regularly scheduled Sunday
work, or more than three times the proportion for
Saturday work. The Saturday provisions were widely
scattered among industries, although they were most
common in manufacturing agreements. Sunday provi­
sions were most frequently encountered in the primary
metals industry and in utilities.
Premium rates for Saturdays and Sundays as part of
the regular workweek were time and one-half in the
majority of Sunday provisions and about half of those
for Saturday. The Sunday rate in many primary metals
agreements recently was raised from time and onequarter:
(153) Overtime pay at IV2 times the regular rate will
be paid for work performed on Saturday or
Sunday as to an employee assigned to necessary
continuous operations (jobs which by their nature
normally require operating on a 7^iay-per-week
basis; such as fireman and stationary engineers).
(154) For all hours worked on Sunday which are not
paid for on an overtime basis . .. a premium of 25
percent based on the average straight time hourly
earnings. .. shall be paid for such hours worked
on Sunday. Effective August 1, 1973, the
premium for Sunday work shall be increased from
25 percent to 50 percent.
For the purpose of this provision, Sunday shall
be deemed to be the 24 hours beginning at 12:01
a.m., Sunday, or the regular turn changing time
nearest thereto.
(155) When Sunday is a regular scheduled day, such
regular scheduled hours worked shall be com­
pensated for at 1V2 times the employee’s basic rate
per hour.
The lesser time and one-quarter rate was mentioned
under some agreements, often as a minimum if no higher
rate applied. Provisions for double time were rare, and
usually applied to Sunday work:
(156) Employees on continuous operation jobs, (as
indicated in appendix B,) shall be paid a premium
rate of 25 percent for hours worked on the
calendar Saturday.
(157) When Sunday is scheduled as part of an em­
ployee’s regular five day workweek, if no half-time
or full-time premium applies to the time worked, a
premium of 25 percent of the employee’s straighttime rate shall be paid for such time worked on
Sunday.
(158) Employees working on a continuous seven day
operation... . shall be paid double time for all
hours worked on a Sunday.

Premium rate fo r Saturdays and Sundays included in the
regular w orkw eek

A minority of weekend provisions established
premium rates for Saturdays or Sundays when worked as
a part of the regular 5-day schedule. (See tables 18 and



26

terms of work on regular days off rather than sixth or
seventh days worked:
(162) An employee who works on his regular
scheduled day or days off shall be paid time and
one-half for all hours worked on such day or days
off provided that he works his regular work
schedule in the week in which such day off falls.
(163) If employees are required to work on their
scheduled day off, they shall be paid at the rate of
time and one-half their regular rate.
In a few agreements, the premium applied to the days
in which the least number of hours was worked, rather
than the regular days off:
(164) Where 6 days, Monday through Saturday are
worked in any one week, time and one-half shall
be paid for work on the day the least number of
hours are worked.

The premium for regularly scheduled Saturdays and
Sundays was at times a flat cents-per-hour amount. The
flat rate usually applied only to the specific day, but in a
few clauses the bonus applied to all hours worked on
essential continuous operations:
(159) Employes who are scheduled to work on Satur­
day as a part of their regular work schedule shall
be paid 150 per hour in addition to their regular
rate for Saturday’s work.
(160) An employee working on 40 hour rotating
schedules on necessary continuous 7 dayoperations will be paid a bonus equal to ten cent
(100) times the number of hours he has worked
during any such workweek.. .. This bonus shall
only be paid to employees working on a necessary
continuous 7 day operation involving work on
Saturdays, Sundays, and holidays.
Premium pay fo r the sixth and seventh w orkday

Graduated weekend prem ium rates

A bonus for work on the employees’ sixth day was
stipulated in 526 of the 1,560 agreements referring to
weekend premiums; 514 agreements required a bonus
for work on the seventh day. (See tables 20 and 21.) In
436 agreements the provisions applied to both days.
More than half the agreements in the chemical, petro­
leum refining, primary metals, electrical machinery, and
hotel and restaurant industries set premium rates for
both the sixth and seventh days.
The premium rate for work on the sixth day was time
and one-half in more than 90 percent of the provisions,
while a double time rate was required in about 70
percent of the seventh day provisions:
(16\)Overtime Computation - 7-day coverage employee
Pay at time and one-half shall apply to authorized
time worked . . .
On the employee’s day in lieu of Saturday .. .
Pay at double time shall apply to authorized time
worked . ..
On the employee’s day in lieu of Sunday.
(1)

The weekend premium provisions sometimes required
increased rates after specified hours of work, similar to
the graduated daily overtime rates discussed previously.
(See tables 22 and 23.) By far the most common clauses
applied to Saturday work, and were found in 129
agreements, or 13 percent of all those referring to
Saturday premium pay. Fewer than 5 percent of the
provisions applying to other weekend days called for a
graduated rate. The provisions were widely distributed
among industries, and occurred in most of the agree­
ments (for Saturday work) in only one industrytobacco products. No provisions were found in agree­
ments in apparel, textiles, leather products, petroleum,
mining, or hotels and restaurants.
Most graduated weekend provisions required a rate
increase after 8 hours of work, usually from time and
one-half to double time, and in a sense may be
considered a variation of the typical daily overtime
provisions. In a relatively few provisions the increase
occurred after a longer or shorter period:
(165) A. Time and one-half of the regular of pay shall
be paid for all time worked. .. .
For the first 8 hours on Saturday, except for
custodial maintenance and plant maintenance em­
ployees assigned to a work week of 5 consecutive
days other than Monday thru Friday who shall be
paid time and one-half for the first 8 hours worked
on their sixth consecutive work day in their
regular work week.
B. Two times the regular rate of pay shall be
paid for all hours worked:
In excess of 8 hours on Saturday .. . except for
custodial maintenance and plant maintenance em­
ployees assigned to a work week of 5 consecutive

A. Time and one-half shall be paid for time
worked by an employee on the sixth consecutive
day worked in his regularly scheduled workweek.
B. Double time shall be paid for time worked
by an employee on the seventh consecutive day
worked in his regularly scheduled work week.

The sixth and seventh day premiums often were
contingent on the employee working all the days in his
regularly scheduled week. Many clauses were worded in



77

(170) The overtime rate shall be IV2 times the straight
time rate, it being understood, however, that work
performed by an employee on a Saturday, Sunday,
or holiday in excess of 8 hours shall be com­
pensated for at the rate of IV2 times the overtime
rate. The first 8 hours of work performed by
employees on a Saturday, Sunday, or holiday shall
be compensated for at IV2 times the straight time
rate.

days other than Monday thru Friday who shall be
paid 2 times their regular rate of pay for all hours
worked in excess of 8 hours on their sixth
consecutive work day . .. in their regular work
week.
(166) For work performed on Saturdays, time and
one-half will be paid for work not to exceed
one-half of the number of hours in the employee’s
normal daily working schedule. Work that con­
tinues beyond that time will be paid at the rate of
double time. (This provision does not apply to
power plant employees, air conditioning em­
ployees, watchmen and others who regularly work
on Saturdays.)

Comparison w ith 1 9 5 9 study

A comparison between the prevalence of weekend
premium pay provisions in the present study with
provisions in effect in 1958,2 for the most part,
disclosed relatively small changes. The overall proportion
of agreements and workers covered increased less than 1
percent. The proportion of agreements establishing
Saturday and Sunday premium rates showed a similarly
slight increase. Provisions for sixth and seventh day
premiums showed a decline— the sixth day from 35
for
percent to 31.1 percent, and for the seventh day from
35.8 percent to 30.7 percent. The proportion of workers
covered by the provisions fell from 41.1 percent to 34.8
percent for sixth day work, and from 43.9 percent to
30.7 percent for the seventh day work. These changes
largely may be attributed to differences in the industrial
distribution of the two studies. The present study
includes a much larger proportion of construction
agreements than the previous one, and a much smaller
proportion of agreements from primary metals, petro­
leum refining, and other continuous processing in­
dustries. The same industry distribution factor may be
responsible for an apparent liberalization in the rates
paid for non-regularly scheduled Saturdays (up from 11
percent to 22 percent) and a much higher proportion of
Saturday clauses stipulating a graduated rate.
The proportion of clauses setting a premium rate for
Saturdays included in the regular workweek also in­
creased.

The normal working schedule for hourly rated
employees engaged in continuous processes such as
printing and coherent tobacco production will be
8 hours per day, Monday through Friday inclusive,
with a mutually agreed starting time. For those
employees who work on Saturdays, the first 4
hours will be paid at the rate of time and one-half.
Work that continues beyond the first 4 hours will
be paid at the rate of double time.
(167) The first 10 hours of work performed on
Saturday shall be paid for at IV2 times the basic
hourly rates. All hours worked in excess of 10
hours on Saturday shall be paid for at double the
basic hourly rates.
Although most provisions stipulated rate increases
from time and one-half to double time, some required
higher premiums. A small number of clauses provided
for 2 rate increases:
(168) One and one-half times an employee’s regular
straight-time hourly rate shall be paid .. . for the
first 8 hours worked on Saturday.
Two times an employee’s regular straight time
hourly rate shall be paid ... for all hours worked
in excess of 8 hours on a Saturday ; for the first 8
hours worked on a Sunday ...
Two and one-half times an employee’s regular
straight time hourly rate shall be paid . . . for all
hours worked in excess of 8 hours on a Sunday;
(169) ... the following rate multiples shall apply for M inim um w o rk requirements fo r weekend prem ium pay
hours worked on Sundays ... and 7th consecutive
days...
Many of the weekend premiums, particularly those
Sunday - up to 8 hours
V/2 times for Sunday, were for work on the specified day as such,
Sunday - over 8 and up to
without regard to the number of hours or days pre­
12 hours
2 times
Sunday - over 12 hours
2x times viously worked during the week. A minority of con­
h
tracts, however, made eligibility for weekend premiums
contingent on the employee’s earlier attendance. Of the
433 agreements in the sample, 62 were of this type (See
7th consecutive day - up to
8 hours
2 times
table 24.) The clauses were much more likely to appear
7th consecutive day - over 8
and up to 12 hours
2Vi times
2 Premium Pay for Night, Weekend, and Overtime Work in
7th consecutive day - over
Major Union Contracts (BLS Bulletin 1251, June 1959).
12 hours
3 times



28

(i). Reporting for military pre-induction
in sixth-and seventh-day provisions than those dealing
examination.
with Saturday or Sunday. These clauses generally based
eligibility for premium pay on the number of consecu­
Some clauses did not refer to excused absences, but
tive days actually worked:
instead required the employee to work a stated portion
(171) 1. 6th and 7th Day Premium Pay. Time-and- of his regular workweek to qualify for a weekend
one-half shall be paid for all hours worked on the premium rate:
6th day worked in any week, and double time
Saturday premium
shall be paid for all hours worked on Sunday if the (175) employee has workedpay will not apply unless the
at least three days, other
6 immediately preceding days were days worked.
than Saturday, during the week.
The company will continue its past practice in
regard to the determination of what constitutes a (176) Time and one-half (1%) shall be paid [for]
day worked for the purpose of the provisions of
this paragraph, except that an employee shall not
All work performed on the 6th consecutive day
be given credit for excused absences in the
worked during the work week, providing at least 4
determination of what constitutes a day worked
hours work has been performed on each of the 5
for the purposes of 6th day premium pay.
previous days. Days lost due to lack of work will
count as days worked for purpose of computing
Considerable variation occurred in the requirements
the 6th consecutive day.
cited. Sometimes excused but unspecified absences were
considered as time worked in determining eligibility for
A few provisions required that the employee work his
premium pay. Other contracts listed the specific types of full regular schedule to be eligible for the weekend rate.
excused absences:
Such a clause, when combined with a time and one-half
(172) Employees who work their regularly scheduled premium rate, usually gives no special consideration to
work days during the work week, or are absent for weekend work as such, and is, in effect, only an
good and sufficient reason during the work week overtime provision. The overtime premium may, in fact,
and have made every effort to provide the be required by law:
company with prior notice of their absence, shall
be paid one and one-half times their average (177) One and one-half times the regular hourly rate
hourly earnings for the week for work on Satur­
of pay will be paid for all time worked by an
day.
employee at the direction of the company on a
Employees working on Sunday shall receive two
sixth or a seventh workday in a workweek,
times their average hourly earnings for the week
provided such employee shall have performed
for all hours worked on Sunday.
work at the direction of the company on each of
the other five workdays in such workweek and
(173) Time and one-half for the sixth day as such shall
shall have reported for all work for which he shall
not be paid to any employee who is absent from
have been scheduled, and shall not have been
work during the week for an unjustifiable personal
excused from work at his request, during such
reason.
workweek; it being agreed that the workweek is
the unit for the calculation of premium compensa­
(174) Time and one-half will be paid for all work
tion under the provisions of this Section and as
performed on Saturday if the employee has
required by law .. .
worked his scheduled shifts during the work week
except for the following excusable absences:
(a) . Union activities when authorized by the Failure to meet the minimum work requirements
usually meant that the employee could still work
local union and/or its officers.
weekends at this straight-time rate. A few clauses,
(b) . Sickness: When employee’s sickness is certi­
fied by the attending physician and/or the first aid however, indicated that unexcused absences could result
in the employee being denied weekend work altogether:
department of the company.
(c) . Where scheduling, production or mechani­ (178) The company shall not be required to assign
cal difficulties prevent him from working his
Saturday work to an employee who was out
regularly scheduled work day.
during the first five days of the calendar week as a
result of an unexcused absence. This shall not
(d) .Due to death in the immediate family,
apply to scheduled Saturday work for the third
pursuant to Article III, Section (G).
shift as hereinafter provided. Double time shall be
paid for all work performed on Sunday. In the
(e) . Due to subpoena from a court of record.
case of employees employed on continuous opera­
(f) . Jury duty.
tions in lieu of time and a half for Saturday and
double time for Sunday, the company shall pay
(g) . Authorized vacation.
such employee time and a half for the sixth
consecutive day worked in their scheduled work­
(h) .The employee has been excused from work
week and double time for the seventh consecutive
by written permission of his foreman.



29

day worked in their scheduled workweek; for such
purpose an excused absence shall count as a day
worked.
Most of the agreements examined did not mention
work requirements for weekend premium pay. Some of
these specifically stated that the premium was to be paid
regardless of the number of hours or days previously
worked in the week:
(179) One and one-half times the straight time hourly
rate of the employee for time worked on the sixth
shift of the employee’s work week.
Double the straight time hourly rate of pay of
the employee for time worked on the seventh shift
of the employee’s work week.
Regardless of the hours worked during the
employee’s regular work week, overtime payment
shall be made for time worked by him on his sixth
and/or seventh shift.
(180) In the event an employee does not work each of
his 5 guaranteed days and is used on what would
have been his 6th or 7th day, this work shall be at
the applicable premium pay.

Some clauses required employees to accept weekend
assignments upon proper notice, but allowed them to
refuse the work if notice were not given:

(181) Employees are required to do such overtime
work as is necessary in order to maintain produc­
tion requirements except that, on request, an
employee will be excused from doing such work if
notice was not given by noon of the day worked
for Monday to Friday overtime work [or by
Friday noon for Saturday overtime work or
earlier] that such work would be required, or may
be excused for other reasons at the discretion of
the company.
(72) Section 5. Employees required to work over­
time will be given as much advance notice as is
reasonably possible. At his request, an employee
shall be excused from working. .. Saturday or
Sunday overtime if not notified before the end of
his lunch period on Friday.

Distribution o f weekend w ork

Distribution of weekend work formed the subject of
41 of the sample agreements. Separate provisions for the
distribution of overtime and of weekend work may be
needed, in particular, where weekend work commands a
higher premium rate. As with other overtime clauses,
most of the weekend clauses stated that weekend
assignments were to be equally or equitably distributed
among eligible employees. A few provisions allocated the
weekend work on the basis of seniority:

Advance notice o f weekend w ork

Advance notice by the employer of work on Saturday
or the sixth day was included in 56 clauses of the 433
sample agreements; 48 similar clauses applied to Sunday
or the seventh day. (See table 25.) The required notice
period tended to be appreciably longer than notice of
daily overtime, perhaps to permit employees time to
change weekend plans. Many provisions stipulated that
notice be given on the same day for both Saturday and
Sunday work, thus providing a longer notice period for
Sunday:
(70) When an employee is required to work past his
regular quitting time, he shall be notified at least 4
hours prior to the end of his regular shift. When an
employee is required to work on Saturday, Sun­
day, or a holiday, he shall be notified at least 24
hours in advance.
The above paragraph shall not apply where the
overtime is necessary because of an emergency
condition, or it is impossible to give the required
notice.
(144) Section 7.3 At least 2 hours notice prior to the
end of the shift will be given to employees
requested to work overtime on weekdays. Em­
ployees requested to work overtime on Saturday
or Sunday will be given notice prior to their lunch
periods on Friday. This shall not apply to emer­
gencies. It shall not be considered an emergency
when the department supervision has knowledge
of approved weekday overtime 2 hours before the
end of the shift or approved weekend overtime
prior to the employees’ lunch time on Friday.



(182) Sunday and/or holiday work shall be isolated
and shall not be a part of the basic work week.
Each employee shall be given the opportunity to
post their name for Sunday and/or holiday work
and shall be entitled to such work. The employer
shall schedule employees from such list for Sunday
and/or holiday work, and shall rotate all such
listed employees, regardless of classification,
equally for all such Sunday and/or holiday work,
provided they have the ability to perform such
work and are otherwise authorized by this agree­
ment io do so.
In the event an adequate staff cannot be
obtained for Sunday and/or holiday work from
the list, the employer can require employees to
work in the reverse order of seniority to meet
staffing requirements. Employees who are not on a
Sunday and/or holiday list may at a later date add
their name to the list, and be entitled to such
work.
(183) If employment on the sixth or seventh day is
offered to employees covered by this contract. It
shall be offered on the basis of seniority in each
job classification.
30

(184) In case of overtime on Saturday, Sunday or
Holidays, the oldest seniority employee holding
seniority on a designated seniority line, group or
department on which the overtime occurs shall be
entitled to the overtime. Said employee shall
operate the job of his choice of those running that
day provided be is qualified to run the job.
However, if an employee’s regular job runs on
overtime and he is not displaced by an older
seniority employee, said employee must run his
regular job.

Lim itations on weekend w ork

Provisions restricting or banning weekend work
appeared in 51 of the 433 agreements selected for
detailed examination. These generally applied to the
scheduling of work on Saturdays and Sundays. Some
provisions totally prohibited work on the days named,
while others allowed it only upon union approval or in
emergencies:
(189) There shall be no work on Sundays . . .
(190) There shall be no Saturday work.
(191) Overtime shall not be worked on Saturdays,
Sundays, or on recognized holidays, or days
observed as such, unless or until proper representa­
tive of the union is notified by the company or its
representative.
(192) No work shall be permitted or performed on
Saturdays or Sundays. .. unless permission shall
have been given by the business representative in
writing. Such permission, however, shall only be
given in cases of danger to life or property. In such
cases where such permission shall have been given
the rate of compensation shall be the same as for
overtime to wit: double the straight time rate.

Right to refuse weekend w ork

For many employees, the right to refuse work on
regular days off is a more important issue than the right
to refuse overtime work on regular work days. This
concern was reflected in 44 provisions out of the 433
sample agreements. Sometimes the clause indicated that
weekend work normally would be voluntary, but re­
served to management the right to draft the least senior
workers if the number of volunteers proved inadequate:
(185) Under no circumstances shall an employee be
required to work a seventh day in any workweek.
(186) Overtime work on Saturday and Sunday will be
on a voluntary basis, provided a sufficient num­
ber of qualified employees in the department
volunteer to work. If there are not enough
qualified volunteers, the least senior employee’s in
the department will be required to work. In the
event more employees are required than are
assigned to the department, the senior employees
in the plant with ability to perform the work will
be offered the overtime.
Often the provisions limited the right to refuse
weekend assignments to employees who were opposed
to working because of their religious convictions:
(187) Recognizing the need for continuous operation,
the union agrees to continuous operation for the
term of this contract. Any employee who is
opposed to working on Saturday or Sunday
because of his religious beliefs shall not be
compelled to work on such day under the con­
tinuous operation plan nor shall he be discrimi­
nated against because of such religious beliefs.
Concerted action taken hereunder shall be con­
sidered a violation of this contract.
(188) No employee who because of his religion has
conscientious objections to working on Sunday
will be required to work on Sunday as a condition
of employment.




Since the scheduling of work on the sixth and seventh
days for the most part applied to essential continuous
operations, limitations on such scheduling were rare, and
normally applied to work by individual employees rather
than to the operation itself:
(193) No employee shall be required to work 7
consecutive days in the workweek; however, in
case of emergency work performed on the 7th day
in the workweek, or work performed on the 6th
day in a holiday workweek, exclusive of the
holiday, triple pay or 3 times the employee’s
regular rate shall be paid.
(194) No employee shall work 7 days in any work
week; however, it is recognized that infrequently,
for reasons beyond the control of the company,
this prohibition cannot apply. However, the
company shall not have the option under this
prohibition to work an employee 7 days in a work
week if a qualified relief can be provided in
accordance with the terms of the local agreements
in effect at the various plants. In the event work is
performed on the 7th day in a work week, the
employee shall be paid at 2l/i times the regular
straight time rate.

31

Table 1.

Hours and overtime provisions in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
Hours and overtime provisions
Industry

ah

agreements

Hours only

Total
Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Overtime only

Hours and overtime1

Workers

Agreements

Workers
1,109.4

Agreements

No
nours ana overtime
provisions

Workers

Agreements

Workers
136.2
13.5

All industries..............................................................

1,690

7,421.1

1,673

7,284.9

17

56.2

125

1531

6,119.3

17

M anufacturing...............................................

879

3,717.2

875

3,703.7

1

1.7

88

934.1

786

2,768.0

4

Ordnance and accessories..............
Food and kindred products............
Tobacco manufacturing .................
Textile mill products........................
Apparel and other finished
p ro d u c ts .................................
Lumber and wood products,
except f u r n itu r e ...................
Furniture and fix tu re s .....................
Paper and allied p ro d u c ts ..............
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries.....................
Chemicals and allied products . . . .
Petroleum refining and
related industries...................
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics p ro d u c ts ...................
Leather and leather products . . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p ro d u c ts .................................
Primary metal industries.................
Fabricated metal products ............
Machinery, except e le c tric a l.........
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies ..........................
Transportation equipment ............
Instruments and related
p ro d u c ts .................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries ...............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

_

_

1.8
29.3
1.0
—

16
92
7
21

50.1
262.3
22.1
63.7

—

-

—

—

47

392.8

47

392.8

2.0

46

390.8

_

_

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

15
15
46

24.4
24.8
82.2

7

27.1

6

25.8

N onm anufacturing......................................

811

3,703.9

798

3,581.2

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

15
71
70
67
19
108
45
55
344

105.1
497.7
722.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
269.8
1,222.0

—

—

—

—

4

6.2

4

6.2

-

Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production . . . .
Transportation2 ...............................
Com munications...............................
Utilities: Electric and gas ..............
Wholesale tr a d e .................................
Retail tr a d e ........................................
Hotels and restaurants.....................
Services...............................................
C onstruction......................................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing industries...............

-

—

—

—

1
10
1

—

—

—

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

_

_

3
13

3.9
22.6

_

24
50

50.3
91.9

24
50

50.3
91.9

—

—

13

27.7

13

27.7

_

_

22
20

105.8
50.6

22
20

105.8
50.6

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

34
71
40
86

78.4
433.9
102.7
232.6

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

108
100

490.2
1,000.6

14

32.8

14

32.8

_

-

1

2 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

_
2
—

1.7

—

—

—

—

—

—

3
4
1
8

-

—

16
19

_

_

_

-

-

_

-

16

54.5

9
-

1
1
2
3

-

2.5
2.0
3.4
6.3
-

—

—

—

_

_

—

—

—

—

_

_

11.0

24
44

50.3
80.9

-

—

_

13

27.7

_

_

20
20

84.0
50.6

_

_

—

6

_

—

1 Includes 24 agreements which established a 5-day week, but made no other reference to basic hours schedules.




1

-

-

-

5.7
15.3
1.0
14.9

30
67
39
78

71.0
418.6
101.7
217.8

78.5
725.5

92
81

411.7
275.1

14

32.8

21.8

_

1
—

1.1
—

—

-

—

-

_

_

2

ii.i

_

_

6

25.8

1

1.4

37

175.4

745

3,351.3

13

122.7

2
4
3
2
3
6
2
11
3

3.3
20.2
54.0
2.0
7.3
8.2
3.5
70.9
4.8

13
58
67
65
16
101
42
42
338

101.8
437.1
668.1
178.3
50.2
323.3
181.2
195.6
1,210.9

6
1

59.8
23.0

—

-

—

-

—

—

1

1.2

3

5.0

-

-

—

5
1

—

32.9
7.0
-

Table 2.

Regularly scheduled hours of work in major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
Scheduled hours of work

All agreements

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

u>




1,690

7,421.1

Total referring to scheduled hours of w o r k .....................................................................................................................

OJ

............................................................................................................................................................................

1,524

6,077.5

Daily and weekly hours
........................................................................................................................................
Less than 7 hours daily and 35 hours w e e k l y .............................................................................................
7 hours daily, 35 hours w e e k ly .....................................................................................................................
V h hours daily, 3772 hours weekly
.............................................................................................................
8 hours 4 days, 4 hours 1 day, 36 hours w e e k ly .........................................................................................
8 hours daily, 48 hours w e e k ly .....................................................................................................................
8 hours daily, 40 hours w e e k ly ....................................................................................................................
Daily varies, 40 hours weekly
.....................................................................................................................
Vary by occupation
....................................................................................................................................
Vary by location or geographical a r e a .........................................................................................................
Vary by season
............................................................................................................................................
Vary, condition not specified
.....................................................................................................................
Other daily and weekly hours1 ....................................................................................................................

1,419
6
95
39
7
6
1,132
12
58
9
6
10
39

5,769.1
26.0
431.0
124.5
12.3
18.5
4,388.9
24.2
405.4
50.9
64.9
56.7
166.1

Daily hours only
....................................................................................................................................................
7 hours daily
................................................................................................................................................
8 hours daily
................................................................................................................................................
Other daily hours2 ........................................................................................................................................

88
4
77
7

274.6
10.9
248.2
15.5

Weekly hours only
................................................................................................................................................
40 hours w e e k ly ............................................................................................................................................
Other weekly hours3 ....................................................................................................................................

17
14
3

33.8
24.3
9.6

166

1,343.6

No provision

....................................................................................................................................................................

1
Includes 10 agreements, 8 hours daily, weekly hours vary; 1 agreement, 8 hours daily, 56 hours weekly; 1 agreement, 8 hours 5 days, 4 hours 1 day , 44 hours weekly; 6 agreements, less
than 8 hours daily, 40 weekly, other than above; 3 agreements, more than 8 hours daily and 40 hours weekly; 4 agreements, hours subject to negotiation; 3 agreements, daily and weekly hours
unclear; 3 agreements, hours vary by occupation and location; 2 agreements, daily hours vary, weekly hours less than 40; 1 agreement, hours are option of employer; 1 agreement, daily hours
vary, no condition specified, weekly hours vary by occupation; 3 agreements, daily hours unclear, weekly hours 40 or less; 1 agreement, daily hours unclear, weekly hours vary by occupation.
3 Includes 3 agreements, daily hours vary by occupation; 1 agreement, daily hours vary by location; 1 agreement, daily hours vary by occupation and location; 2 agreements, daily hours
vary, condition not specified.
3 Includes 1 agreement, 60 hours a week; 1 agreement, weekly hours vary by location; 1 agreement, weekly hours subject to negotiation.
N O T E : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 3.

Scheduled daily hours in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
Sch eduled d aily hours

In d u stry

A ll
agreem ents

Less
than 7 '

T o ta l

TA

7

Varies
by o ccupation

8

No
provision

O th e r2

A g re e ­
m ents
A ll in d u s t r i e s ..................................................
M a n u fa ctu rin g

.....................................

W orkers

A gree­
m ents

W orkers

A gre e­
m ents

W orkers

A gre e­
m ents

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

W o rke rs

A gre e­
m ents

W orkers

A gre e­
m ents

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

W orkers

Agree­
m ents

W orkers

1,690

7,421.1

1,507

6.043.7

9

47.4

99

4 41.8

39

124.5

1,227

4,711.2

63

414.0

70

304.8

183

1,377.4

879

3,717.2

768

2,713.1

6

29.0

50

276.9

20

47.7

649

2,198.6

21

55.9

22

105.2

111

1,004.1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

4

7.8
21.7

2
14
1
—

3.0
34.3
1.0
—

_

28

213.3

O rd n an c e an d accessories ...........
F o o d and kindre d p ro d u cts . . . .
T o b a c c o m a n u fa ctu rin g .............
T e xtile m ill p r o d u c t s ...................
A p p are l and other finished
p ro d u cts
................................
L u m b e r and w o o d products,
except f u r n i t u r e .....................
Fu rn itu re and f i x t u r e s ................
Paper an d allied p ro d u cts ...........
Printing, p u b lish in g, and
allied industries
.....................
C h e m icals an d allied
p ro d u cts
................................
P etroleum refining and
related in d u s t r ie s .....................
R u b b e r an d m iscellaneous
plastics p r o d u c t s .....................
Leather and leather p ro d u cts . . .
Stone , clay, an d glass
p ro d u cts
................................
Prim ary m etal i n d u s t r i e s .............
Fa bricated m etal p r o d u c t s ...........
M ach in e ry , except electrical . . . .
Electrical m ach in ery, equipm ent,
and supp lies
...........................
T ran sp o rta tio n e q u i p m e n t ...........
In stru m e n ts and related
p ro d u cts
................................
M iscellan e ou s m an u fa ctu rin g
i n d u s t r ie s ................................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

15
88
7
21

48.9
257.3
22.1
63.7

47

392.8

46

390.8

7

27.1

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ................................

811

3,703.9

H o te ls and r e s t a u r a n t s ................
Services
.....................................
C o n stru c tio n
.............................

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

13
58
64
65
16
98
43
40
3 39

101.8
449.5
640.7
178.3
50.2
316.2
183.2
191.7
1,214.2

M iscellan e ou s n o n m a n u ­
facturing i n d u s t r i e s ................

4

6.2

3

5.0

M in in g , crude petroleum , and
natural gas p r o d u c t i o n ...........
T ra n sp o rta tio n 3 ...........................
C o m m u n ic a tio n s ........................
U tilities: Ele ctric and gas
...........
W h olesale t r a d e ...........................
R e ta il trade ................................

—

4

_

_

2
7
—

3.5
22.1
—

1

1.0

_

15
66
17

10
—

27.7
—

—

66.4
—
—

13

160.2

3

15.2

1

1.1

-

24.4
28.6
104.8

15
15
45

24.4
24.8
81.0

—
1

—
1.2

2
—

3.1
—

1
1

1.0
2.0

13
12
38

21.9
20.7
70.1

24

50.3

24

50.3

4

8.8

12

31.0

4

5.0

2

2.0

50

91.9

43

79.8

43

79.8

13

27.7

13

27.7

22
20

105.8
50.6

18
20

60.0
50.6

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

27
66
39
77

67.1
416.8
101.7
216.7

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

91
79

14

32.8

13

1
—

19.0
—

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

3

11.8

13

27.7

14
17

32.5
38.8
66.0
416.8
101.7
2 15.4

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—
-

—
-

—
—

26
66
39
76

-

-

-

-

1.4
-

88
73

395.5
253.8

_

_

_

_

_

12

27.5

—

—

—

—

-

-

410.0
265.4

-

28.8

_

6

25.8

-

-

-

-

-

739

3,330.6

3

18.4

49

165.0

19

1
—
—
—

16.0
—
—
—
—
1.2
1.2

—
4
—
1
—

—

—

—
20.1
—
—

1
2
41

1.7
7.5
137.5

6
—
—
1
7
2
2

-

-

-

1

1

—

1
1
-

17.4
—
1.0
—

_

48.9
151.0
42.0

15
18
59

_

_

1
—
5
_

_
_
_
—

_

1.2
—
7.8

_
_
_

6

1
—
—

1.3
—
—

3
14

3.9
23.8

2

3.6

_

_

_

_

_

_

3
—

8.5
—

—

1
—
—
-

2.8
_

_
—
_

—
1

_
_

7

12.1
_

4

45.9
—

1.1
—
—
-

8
5
1
9

12.5
17.1
1.0
16.0

2
5

13.2
8.8

17
23

80.2
746.2

1

_

1

2.0
_

_

—
—
1.3

-

1
_

1.3

1

4.0

6

25.8

-

-

-

1

1.4

578

2,512.6

42

358.1

48

199.7

72

373.3

5.0
23.0
23.0
3.2

12
46
38
63
12
76
23
27
2 79

21.8
378.4
461.1
174.9
42.9
264.6
80.2
96.6
989 .9

1
6
9
1
1
7
9
4
4

80.0
46.0
95.3
2.1
3.1
15.5
60.3
19.7
36.2

5
7
1
2
14
3
4
12

9.1
46.9
1.4
3.2
31.2
18.0
43.7
46.3

2
19
7
2
3
10
2
20
6

3.3
108.0
104.5
2.0
7.3
17.8
3.5
111.1
14.8

2.5

2

2.5

1

1.2

76.8

-

-

-

-

-

1 Includes 5 agreem ents, 6 hours; 1 agreem ent, 6 .75 hours; 3 agreements, 6.9 hours.
2 In clu d e s 3 0 agreem ents, d a ily h o u rs vary, c o n d itio n s not specified; 10 agreements, hours vary b y lo catio n; 7 agreements, d aily hours n o t clear; 6 agreem ents, ho urs vary w ith season; 6 agreem ents, ho urs vary w ith o ccupa­
tio n an d location; 4 agreem ents, ho urs subject to negotiation; 1 agreement, m anagem ent’s o p tio n ; 2 agreements, 9 hours; 1 agreem ent, 8.5 hours; 1 agreem ent, 7.2 hours; 1 agreement, 7.25 hours; and 1 agreement, 7.9 hours.
3 E xclu d e s railroad an d airline industries.
NOTE:

Because o f rounding, su m s o f individual item s m ay no t equal totals.




Table 4. Scheduled w eekly hours in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73
[Workers in thousands]
Weekly hours
All agreements

Less than
351

Total

Industry

36

35

37%

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

All industries........................................

1,690

7,421.1

1,436

5,802.9

6

26.0

96

433.6

10

33.6

39

124.5

Manufacturing..............................

879

3,717.2

736

2,631.7

4

8.8

51

279.4

2

20.1

20

47.7

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

12
86
7
21

39.2
249.7
22.1
63.7

_
—
—
—

_

_

_

_

_
_

_

—
—
—

4
—
4

7.8
—
21.7

—
—
—

—
—

_
2
7
—

3.5
22.1
—

47

392.8

46

390.8

_

_

28

213.3

1

1.1

1

1.0

_
—
—

_
2
—

3.1
—

_
—
—

—
—

1
1

1.0
2.0

8.8
—

12
—

31.0
_

—

—

4
—

5.0
_

—

—

—

1
—

19.0
—

3

11.8

—
—
—

—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—

1
—

2.6
—

—

—

1
—

1.4
_

Ordnance and accessories.........
Food and kindred products.......
Tobacco manufacturing ...........
Textile mill products...............
Apparel and other
finished products ..........
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture............
Furniture and fixtures..............
Paper and allied products.........
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products___
Petroleum refining and
related industries............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products............
Leather and leather products ___
Stone, clay, and glass
products.....................
Primary metal industries...........
Fabricated metal products.......
Machinery, except electrical......
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies .................
Transportation equipment ........
Instruments and related
products.....................
Misceltanous manufacturing
industries ....................
Nonmanufacturing........................
Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production ---T ransportation4
Communications....................
Utilities: Electric and gas .........
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade..........................
Hotels and restaurants.............
Services..............................
Construction........................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing industries.........
See footnotes at end of table.




15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

13
15
38

20.9
24.8
69.5

_
—
—

24
50

50.3
91.9

24
40

50.3
71.8

4
—

13

27.7

10

19.5

_

22
20

105.8
50.6

18
18

59.5
43.2

_
—

35
7t
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

30
60
37
74

71.0
403.0
97.7
205.7

_
—
—
—

_
—
—
_
—

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

91
77

410.4
262.5

_
—

14

32.8

14

32.8

_

_

7

27.1

5

24.2

-

-

—

_

—

_

_

—

811

3,703.9

700

3,171.3

2

17.2

45

154.2

8

13.5

19

76.8

15

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

12
55
63
65
16
100
43
42
301

99.4
429.8
634.6
178.3
50.2
318.3
183.2
195.6
1,077.1

—

—
17.4
—
1.0
—
1.7
7.5
126.7

—
—
—
—
—
—
1
7

—

71
67
19
106
45
60
345

—
6
_
1
7
2
2

_
20.1
_
_
_
5.0
23.0
23.0
3.2

4

6.2

3

5.0

1

2.5

77

1

16.0

—

—

—
—
—
—
—
1

—
—
—
—
1.2

-

-

_

4

—
1
—
1
2
37
-

-

-

—

—
_
_
—
1.2
12.3
-

Table 4. Scheduled w eekly hours in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73— Continued
[W orkers in thousands]
W e e k ly h o u r s
No
V a r ie s b y

M o re than

40

I n d u stry

o c c u p a t io n

402

p r o v is io n

O th e r3

A g re e m e n ts

W orke rs

A g r e e m e n ts

W orke rs

A g r e e m e n ts

W o rke rs

A g re e m e n ts

W o rke rs

A g r e e m e n ts

A l l i n d u s t r i e s .....................................................................................................

1 ,1 6 0

4 ,4 4 1 .7

11

3 0 .0

64

4 4 2 .5

50

2 7 1 .3

254

1 ,6 1 8 .2

M a n u f a c t u r i n g ........................................................................................

615

2 ,1 0 7 .0

2

3 .0

21

5 6 .0

21

1 0 9 .7

1 43

1 ,0 8 5 .6

O r d n a n c e a n d a c c e s s o r ie s ............................................................
F o o d a n d k in d r e d p r o d u c t s .......................................................

12

3 9 .2
1 3 3 .3

_

61
—
17

—
4 2 .0

13

T o b a c c o m a n u f a c t u r i n g ..............................................................
T e x t ile m ill p r o d u c t s ..................................................................
A p p a r e l a n d o th e r fin is h e d p r o d u c t s ........................................
L u m b e r a n d w o o d p r o d u c t s , e x c e p t f u r n i t u r e .........................

11

_

-

3 .0

10

2 7 .7

—

—
—

1 6 0 .2
1 8.4

—
—

—
—
—

—
—
3
1

—
—
1 5 .2

—

—
7 .9

2

—

1.2

-

7
—
—
—
1
—

5

7 4 .4
—
—

1 2.8

16
1

4 1 .9
1.0

—

—
1
2

3 .5

—

3

3 .9

F u r n it u r e a n d f i x t u r e s ................................................................
P a p e r a n d a llie d p r o d u c t s ............................................................

12

2 0 .7

32

5 9 .6

-

-

P r in t in g , p u b lis h in g , a n d a llie d i n d u s t r i e s ..................................

2

2 .0

-

—

—

—

C h e m ic a ls a n d a llie d p r o d u c t s ...................................................

40

7 1 .8

—

—

—

—

10

1 9.5

—

—

R u b b e r a n d m is c e lla n e o u s p la s t ic s p r o d u c t s

15

3 3 .5

—

—
—

—
—

—

P e t r o le u m r e fin in g a n d re la te d i n d u s t r i e s ..................................

—

—

—
2

—
7 .0

L e a t h e r a n d le ath e r p r o d u c t s .....................................................

14

3 0 .3

S t o n e , c la y , a n d g la s s p r o d u c t s

28

-

1.1
2 .4

............................

............................................................

60

6 8 .6
4 0 3 .0

F a b r ic a te d m e ta l p r o d u c t s ..........................................................

37

9 7 .7

P r im a r y m e ta l in d u s t rie s

M a c h in e r y , e x c e p t e le c tric a l

.................................................

.....................................................

73

2 0 4 .4

2

—

—

—

1

—

—

2

—

—
—

—

—

—
—

—

—
—
1
—

—

—

—

—
—
1

1 0.6

4
1

.......................

88

3 9 5 .9

72

2 5 1 .7

—

—

.............................................

13

3 1 .5

-

—

—

—

M is c e lla n e o u s m a n u f a c t u r in g i n d u s t r i e s ....................................

5

2 4 .2

-

-

-

—

—
29

1

—
2 .8

N o n m a n u f a c t u r i n g ..................................................................................

545

2 ,3 3 4 .7

9

2 7 .0

43

3 8 6 .5

M in in g , c r u d e p e tr o le u m , a n d n a tu r a l g a s p r o d u c t io n .............
T r a n s p o r t a t io n 4 ..........................................................................

10
40

1 7 .9
3 4 8 .0

1

1.5
8 .5

1
7

8 0 .0

3

C o m m u n i c a t i o n s .........................................................................

38

4 6 1 .1

—

U tilitie s : E le c t r ic a n d g a s ............................................................

63

W h o le s a le t r a d e ...........................................................................

1 7 4 .9
4 2 .9

—

12

R e t a il t r a d e ...................................................... ...........................

86
21

H o t e ls a n d r e s t a u r a n t s ................................................................
S e r v i c e s ........................................................................................
C o n s t r u c t i o n ...............................................................................
M is c e lla n e o u s n o n m a n u f a c t u r in g in d u st rie s

............................

—

8.1

25

749.1

1.3

—

—
1 6 1 .6

2

3 .0

111

5 3 2 .6

3

5.7
1 27 .7

9
1

9 5 .3
2.1

1 10 .5

1

1.4

2

2 .0

1

—

—
-

3.1

2
4

3 .2

3

1 2.0

8

7.3
15.7

3

1 8 .0

2

3 .5

4

4 4 .5

18

1 0 7 .2

5

3 4 .0

44

1 51 .9
1.2

8

1 6.7
6 2 .3
4 3 .2

3

3 4 .2

—

1.5
-

7 9 .8

8

8
5

1

5.1
2 7 .0

17

22

3 .5

-

3 0 .9

3

4 0 .8

1 2 .0

2 .5

7 .5
8 .5

6

1

8 64 .1

2
5
11
12

-

-

8 .2
4 6 .3

7.7

3

2

3
4

4

6 6 .2
7 6 .2

—

3 5 .3
20.1

4 9 .6

281 .1

28
245

21
—
10

—

In s t r u m e n t s a n d re la te d p r o d u c t s

E le c t ric a l m a c h in e r y , e q u ip m e n t , a n d su p p lie s

3 .6

—
1.3

T r a n s p o r t a t io n e q u i p m e n t ..........................................................

2 .0

1.3

—

5

W o rke rs

-

-

-

-

1

1 in c lu d e s 2 a g r e e m e n ts w h ic h s c h e d u le 3 0 h o u r s w e e k ly ; 1 agre e m e n t, 3 3 .8 h o u rs; a n d 3 a gre e m e n ts, 3 4 .5 h o u rs.
2 In c lu d e s 1 a g r e e m e n t w h ic h sc h e d u le s 4 4 h o u r s w e e k ly ; 2 agre e m e n ts, 4 5 h o u rs; 6 a g re e m e n ts, 4 8 h o u rs; 1 a gre e m e n t, 5 6 h o u r s; a n d 1 a g re e m e n t, 6 0 h o u r s.
3 In c lu d e s 15 a g r e e m e n ts, w e e k ly h o u r s v a r y , c o n d it io n n o t sp e cifie d ; 1 0 a gre e m e n ts, h o u r s v a r y b y lo c a tio n ; 9 a g re e m e n ts, h o u r s v a r y w it h se a so n ; 3 a g re e m e n ts, h o u r s v a r y w it h o c c u p a tio n a n d lo c a tio n ;
5 a g r e e m e n ts, h o u r s su b je c t t o n e g o t ia t io n ; 3 a gre e m e n ts, n u m b e r o f w e e k ly h o u r s n o t clear; 1 a gre e m e n t, m a n a g e m e n t 's o p t io n ; 1 a g re e m e n t, 3 6 . 2 5 h o u r s ; 1 a gre e m e n t, 3 7 h o u rs; a n d 2 a g re e m e n ts, 3 9 .5 h o u rs.
4 E x c lu d e s r a ilr o a d a n d a ir lin e in d u strie s.
NOTE:

B e c a u se o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u al to tals.




Table 5.

Scheduled w orkdays per week in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
Num ber of w orkdays
A ll agreements
Total

Industry

5

Varies by
occupation

6

NO
provision

Other1

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

1,690

7,421.1

1,445

5,867.3

1,369

5,407.2

12

43.2

22

190.7

42

226.3

245

1,553.8

....................................

879

3,717.2

742

2,666.8

709

2,516.9

3

21.2

12

29.6

18

99.1

137

1,050.4

Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
To b acc o m a n u fa c t u r in g .............
Textile m ill products
...............
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum ber and w o o d products,
except furniture ..................
Furniture and f ix t u r e s ...............
Paper and allied p r o d u c t s ..........
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u s t r ie s ....................
Chem icals and allied
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Petroleum refining and related
industries ............................
R ubbe r and m iscellaneous
plastics p r o d u c t s ..................
Leather and leather products . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary metal industries
..........
Fabricated metal products . . . .
M achinery, except electrical . . .
Electrical m achinery, equip­
m ent and supplies ...............
Transportation equipm ent . . . .
I nstruments and related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s ............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

13
86
7
21

40.4
249.5
22.1
63.7

13
72
7
21

40.4
155.2
22.1
63.7

_

_

_

_

_

_

1
—
—

1.0
—
—

4
—
—

14.4
—
—

9
—
—

78.9
—
—

4
16
1
—

11.6
42.1
1.0
—

47

392.8

46

390.8

46

390.8

1

2.0

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

13
15
41

20.9
24.8
74.8

12
15
34

19.7
24.8
62.8

—
1.2

1
—
5

1.2
—
7.8

_
3.0

2
3
18

3.5
3.9
30.0

9

19.0

A ll in d u s t r ie s .................................................
M anufacturing

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................
M ining, crude petroleum and
natural gas p r o d u c t io n ..........
T ransportation2 .......................
C o m m u n ic a t io n s .......................
Utilities: Electric and g a s ..........
Wholesale t r a d e ..........................
Retail t r a d e ...............................
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ...............
S e r v i c e s ....................................
C o n s t r u c t i o n ............................
M iscellaneous nonm anu­
facturing in d u s t rie s ...............

24

50.3

24

50.3

24

91.9

41

72.9

41

72.9

13

27.7

10

19.5

10

105.8
50.6

18
18

81.5
43.2

15
17

55.5
42.1

—
1

19.5

22
20

1

50.3

50

-

Workers

_

_

1
—

19.0
—

3

—

—

_

8.2

2
1

7.0
1.1

4
2

24.4
7.5

35
71
40
36

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

28
61
37
75

68.8
404.9
97.7
206.8

27
61
36
75

67.7
404.9
94.2
206.8

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
1
—

—
3.5
—

1
—
—
—

1.1
—
—
_

7
10
3
11

10.8
29.0
5.1
25.9

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

90
80

408.7
273.3

89
76

406.1
265.1

—

—

1

2.8

1
3

2.6
5.5

18
22

81.5
738.3

14

32.8

13

28.8

13

28.8

1

4.0

-

_

_

_

_

_

7

27.1

5

24.2

5

24.2

811

3,703.9

703

3,200.5

6 60

2,890.3

9

22.0

10

161.1

24

127.2

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

12
59
64
65
16
98
43
42
301

99.4
438.2
657.6
178.3
50.2
317.7
183.2
195.0
1,076.1

10
48
61
65
15
90
37
32
299

17.9
379.8
639.2
178.3
49.0
299.0
155.5
119.1
1,047.6

1
1
—
—
—
1
3
2
1

1.5
1.1
—
—

1
4
1
—

80.0
32.7
9.2
_

6
2
_

24.6
9.2
_

1
7
1
6
1

1.2
15.2
2.0
48.1
27.0

4

6.2

3

5.0

3

5.0

-

—

—

3.5
12.0
2.4
1.5

—

—

—

-

-

-

2
2

—
_

13.7
25.5

-

-

2

3.0

108

503.4

3
18
7
2
3
10
2
18
44

5.7
119.3
87.6
2.0
7.3
16,3
3.5
107.7
152.9

1

1.2

1 Includes 15 agreements, days per week vary, conditions unspecified; 9 agreements, d ays per week vary with season; 5 agreements, days per week vary by location; 1 agreement, days per week vary with occupation and location;
7 agreements, day s per week not clear; 5 agreements, days per week subject to negotiation.
2 Excludes railroad and airlines industries.
N O T E ; Because o f rounding, sum s o f individual items m ay not equal totals.







Table 6.

Lim itations on schedule changes in sample o f major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

(Workers in thousands]
Agreements

Workers

433

1,704.6

...........................................................................

431

1,699.4

Total referring to limitations on schedule changes ............................................................
Advance notice ...........................................................................................
Duration of change limited ..............................................................................
Time change limited .....................................................................................
Limitation depends on number of proportion of employees............................................
Changes prohibited or permitted only in emergencies .................................................
Premium pay penalty.....................................................................................
Union participation required..............................................................................

246
234
12
20
5
2
39
136

932.0
896.3
26.3
71.1
15.5
3.1
174.1
464.6

No reference to lim itations......................................................................................

185

767.4

2

5.2

Limitation
All agreements

...............................................................................................................

Total with hours and overtime provisions

No reference to hours and overtime
N O T E : Nonadditive.

........................................................................................

Table 7. D aily and w eekly hours after which overtime premium pay provisions apply in major collective bargaining agreements,
by industry, 1972-73
[Workers in thousands]
D a ily o ve rtim e o n ly
A ll
agreem ents
In d u stry

T o ta l w ith
o ve rtim e
p ro v isio n s

A ft e r Less
than 8 h o u r s1

A ft e r 8 h o u r s2

W e e k ly o vertim e o n ly

R e ference to
d a ily overtim e,
n u m b e r o f h o u rs
n o t specified

Fo r w o rk o u t­
side o f d a ily
sch edule

A ft e r 4 0 h o u rs

O th e r3

A g re e ­
m ents

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m en ts

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m en ts

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m en ts

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m e n ts

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m en ts

W o rke rs

A g re e ­
m e n ts

W o rke rs

A gre e­
m ents

W orke rs

1 69 0

7,421.1

165 6

7,228.7

22

6 8 .8

249

892.1

15

78.2

490

1,964.0

22

6 0.7

8

47.7

......................................

879

3,717.2

874

3 ,7 0 2 .0

16

5 4.5

127

4 1 1 .9

_

_

179

6 6 7 .8

9

14.6

2

12.9

O r d n a n c e a n d accessories ...........
F o o d a n d k in d re d p ro d u c ts . . . .
T o b a c c o m a n u fa c tu r in g .............
T e x tile m ill p r o d u c t s ...................
A p p a r e l a n d o th e r fin ish e d
p r o d u c ts ...........................
L u m b e r a n d w o o d p ro d u cts,
e x ce p t f u r n i t u r e ................
F u rn itu re a n d f i x t u r e s ................
P ape r a n d a llie d p ro d u c ts ...........
P rin tin g, p u b lish in g , a n d
allie d i n d u s t r i e s ................
C h e m ic a ls a n d allie d p ro d u c ts . . .
P e tro le u m re fin in g a n d
related in d u strie s .............
R u b b e r a n d m isce lla n e o u s
p la stic s p r o d u c t s ................
Le ath er a n d leather p ro d u c ts . . .
S to n e , c la y , a n d glass
p r o d u c ts ...........................
P rim a r y m etal i n d u s t r i e s .............
F a b ric a te d m e tal p r o d u c t s ...........
M a c h in e ry , ex cep t electrical . . . .
E le ctrica l m a c h in e ry , eq uipm ent,
a n d su p p lie s .....................
T r a n sp o r ta tio n e q u i p m e n t ...........
In stru m e n ts a n d related
p r o d u c ts ...........................
M isc e lla n e o u s m a n u fa c tu rin g
i n d u s t r i e s ...........................

17
102
8
21

51.9
2 91.6
23.1
63.7

17
1 02
8
21

5 1.9
2 91 .6
23.1
6 3 .7

_

_

_

_

_

—

1

2.5

—

—
—

12.9
2 6.5
11.3
17.7

_

—

5
12
4
3

_

—

1.2
18.9
-

_

—

1
8

6
1
1

10.7
1.0
1.2

—
—
—

—
—

47

392 .8

47

3 9 2 .8

5

14.6

24

237.3

1

11.6

A l l i n d u s t r i e s ...................................................
M a n u fa c t u r in g

N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ................................
M in in g , c ru d e p e tro le u m , and
natural g a s p r o d u c tio n . . .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n 6 ...........................
C o m m u n ic a t io n s ........................
U tilitie s: E le ctric a n d gas
...........
W h o le sa le t r a d e ...........................
R e ta il trade ................................
H o te ls a n d r e s t a u r a n t s ................
Se rvice s
......................................
C o n s t ru c tio n
.............................
M isc e lla n e o u s n o n m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g i n d u s t r i e s ...........

See footnotes at end of table.




15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

24
50

50.3
9 1.9

24
50

5 0.3
9 1 .9

13

27.7

13

1
—

4 .4
—

7

19.5

_

_

27.7

22

22

2
1
3

4 .0
1.2
5.3

—

—
—

3
7
6

4 .4
13.7
9 .8

1
—
—

1.7
—
—

—
—

—
—

4
—

17.8
—

4

6 .8

—

—

15
10

2 5.8
19.5

—

—

—

—

1

1.9

3

6.3

11.9
5.3

_

_

—

—

1
4

1.0
2 0.6

—

—

—

—

_

35
71
40
86

79.5
433 .9
102.7
232.6

71
40
86

76.7
4 3 3 .9
102.7
2 32 .6

—
—
—

108
102

4 90 .2
1,011.6

1 08
1 00

4 9 0 .2
1,000.6

14

32.8

14

3 2.8

_
-

7

105.8
5 0.6

27.1

6

25.8

811

3,703.9

7 82

3,5 2 6.7

15
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

15
62
70
67
19
1 07
53
341

105.1
4 57 .3
722.1
180.3
5 7.5
3 31 .5
184.7
2 66 .5
1.215.7

4

6.2

4

6 .2

77

44

_

1.0
—

t

105.8
50.6

33

_

_

—

20

20

-

3

5

11.8

3

—

_

4

—
—
—

5
9
21

7.0
10.2
4 4.7
6 5 .8

—
—
—

_

_

—

—

28
24

120.6
8 6.5

_

1

6

14.4

_

3

4.4

4
11

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—

—
—

13

8 .0
19.4
4 2 .5

1

1.4

17
31

3 9.2
128.6

—

—

—

—

_

1

1.3

-

-

2

18.0

_

-

-

-

4 80 .2

15

78.2

13

46.1

6

34.8

—
—
—
—
—

—
—
—

21
15
35

—
—
—

9

13.6
_
_
_
_

10
7
67

8 0.3
2 4.4
9 .2
6 .6
73.8
2 9.5
3 9 .9
215 .5

5
10

28.8
4 9 .4

7
215

1

1.2

-

-

-

—
—
—

—

—

2.1

_

1

1.6

122

15

_

311

1
—
—
—

1
—
—

1
4
-

—
—
—
1.0
—

—
3 .0
10.4

-

2
6

3
11

7
1

1,296.2

1.5
126.8
2 22 .6
1 07.6
3 6.8
18.3
5 .0
2 5.6
752 .3

-

—

—

4

4

21.7
2.6
_

—
_
_

8 .9
_

_

—

—

7.3
5.6

2

_

21.2

-

-

-

2

_

4
_

2
1
-

-




Table 7. Daily and weekly hours after which overtime premium pay provisions apply in major collective
bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73— Continued
[W orkers in thousands]6
5
4
3
2
1
Overtime varies by -

Daily and weekly overtime
After 7 or
35 hours

Industry

Agree­
ments

After 7% or
37% hours

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

After 8 or
40 hours

Occupation

Other4

N o reference
to overtime

Other5

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

A ll industries..............................................

11

88.8

14

40.4

726

3,313.3

29

142.3

46

331.9

24

200.8

34

192.4

M anufacturing...................................

9

81.1

5

9.8

488

2,233.7

17

100.5

11

33.7

11

81.9

5

15.2

11
50
15

37.9
111.4
38.3

_

_

_

1.7
2.2
—

11
—

Ordnance and acessories............
Food and kindred products . . . .
Tobacco m a n u fa c tu r in g ............
Textile mill p r o d u c t s ................
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ............................
Lumber and wood products,
except fu rn itu re ...................
Furniture and f i x t u r e s ..............
Paper and allied products .........
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u s t rie s ...................
Chemicals and allied products . . .
Petroleum refining and
related in d u s t r ie s ................
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products ................
Leather and leather products . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ............................
Primary metal in d u strie s............
Fabricated metal p ro d u c ts.........
Machinery, except electrical . . . .
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and s u p p lie s .......................
Transportation e q uipm ent.........
Instruments and related
p r o d u c t s ............................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries............................

_

_

_

4.0

—

3.5
4.2
—

69.4

_

_

_

_

_

3
-

6.4

2
1

1
4

_

3

32.5

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

_
—
—

_
—
-

_
—
—

_
—
-

2.4
—

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

-

—

—

—

_
_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

—

—

—

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

—

-

3

_

—

—

-

9
9
50

14.3
12.7
89.7

2.1
—

1
36

1.0
65.6

—

9

19.6

_

_

2
—
_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

16
10

92.9
12.9

26
62
20
51

65.4
415.8
38.6
123.0
268.8
783.8

1

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

—

52
44

_

_

_

_

11

28.2

_

_

_

-

-

-

3

6.2

-

-

-

-

238

1,079.6

41.8

35

298.2

13
17
36
23
4
68
15
22
38

23.6
202.2
321.7
59.6
6.6
189.6
48.7
80.6
144.8

—
3.8

1
5
6

80.0
34.5
67.2

2

2.5

9

_

-

2

7.7

_

—

—

_

—

1
1
-

-

—

—

_
1.7
6.0

-

—
8.9
—

—

—
—
—

30.6

2

—

—
—

9

6
—

—
19.3
—

-

-

1

2.5

—

11
—

12

—
2

—

—
—

—

5
2
1
2
-

61.7
—

15.1
18.5
2.2
. 2.2
-

—

3
7
8
4
1
-

—

5.3
19.7
59.1
28.5
4.0
-

1

1.7

1
-

2

1.3

_

-

—

2.8

_

2

11.1
_

1

1.4

13

118.9

29

177.2

—
3
1
1
3
1
1
3

—
52.0
1.4
1.2
6.2
3.0
23.5
31.7

15
1

100.2
23.0

-

-

-

—

—

—

—

1
1
7
4

1 Includes 16 agreements having daily overtime after 7 hours; and 6 agreements after 7% hours.
2 Includes 1 agreement specifying daily overtime after 8% hours.
3 Includes 1 agreement providing weekly overtime after 35 hours; 1 agreement, after 36 hours; 1 agreement after 37% hours; 1 agreement, after 45 hours; 1 agreement,
after 48 hours; 1 agreement, after 50 hours; and 2 agreements that refer to weekly overtime, but do not specify the number of hours.
4 Includes 6 agreements that refer to daily and weekly overtime, but do not specify the number of daily or weekly hours; 13 agreements that refer to both daily and
weekly overtime and specify the number of daily but not weekly hours; 4 agreements which refer to both daily and weekly overtime, and specify the number of weekly but
not daily hours; 1 agreement with overtime after 10 hours daily and 40 hours weekly; 1 agreement, after 7 9/10 daily and 39 1/2 weekly hours; 1 agreement, after 7 1/2 daily
and 40 weekly hours; 1 agreement, after 6 9/10 daily and 34 1/2 weekly hours; 1 agreement, after 8 daily and 37 1/2 weekly hours; and 1 agreement with daily overtime
hours subject to negotiation and 40 weekly hours.
5 Includes 10 agreements that vary overtime hours by season; 1 which varies hours by geographical location; 1 which varies hours by union; 1 agreement which varies hours
by both occupation and geographical location, and 11 agreements which vary hours but do not specify the factors involved.
6 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
N O T E : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

_
-

_

—
1.3

—

_

—

—

_

_

1

_

—

8.0

33.7
-

_

—

—

-

—

_

78.9
—

1
1

—

N on m a n u factu rin g............................
Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas p r o d u c t io n .........
Transportation6 .......................
Com m unications.......................
Utilities: Electric and gas .........
Wholesale t r a d e .......................
Retail trade ............................
Hotels and re stau ran ts..............
Services .................................
Construction ..........................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing in d u strie s..............

_

2.5
2.0
36.3
13.3

Table 8.

D aily overtim e rates in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
D a ily overtime rates
ivo provisions
Industry

Total

Tim e and one-half

Varies by occupation

D ouble time

O ther1

Agreements

Workers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

1,690

7,421.1

1,536

6,665.9

1,336

5,977.7

138

379.4

47

192.5

15

116.3

154

755.2

....................................

879

3,717.2

845

3.447.8

825

3,396.7

13

36.5

5

8.5

2

6.1

34

269.5

Ordnance and accessories ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
To b acc o m a n u f a c t u r i n g .............
Textile m ill p r o d u c t s ..................
A pparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum ber and w o o d products,
except f u r n i t u r e ....................
Furniture and f i x t u r e s ...............
Paper and allied products ..........
Printing, publishing, and
allied i n d u s t r i e s ....................
Chem icals and allied products . . .
Petroleum refining and related
in d u strie s...............................
R u bbe r and m iscellaneous
plastics products ..................
Leather and leather products . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary metal in d u s t r ie s .............
Fabricated metal p r o d u c t s ..........
M achinery, except electrical . . . .
Electrical m achinery, equipm ent,
and s u p p l i e s ..........................
Transportation e q u ip m e n t ..........
Instrum ents and related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
in d u strie s...............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

17
95
7
20

51.9
277.9
22.1
62.5

17
93
6
20

51.9
275.5
18.7
62.5

_
—
1
—

-

_

7

27.1

6

25.8

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................

811

3.703.9

691

3,218.2

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

15
58
64
52
18
103
44
48
285

105.1
443.7
675.6
146.6
55.5
322.6
184.7
236.5
1,042.0

15
54
64
51
18
102
44
41
118

105.1
405.3
675.6
145.2
55.5
320.6
184.7
182.2
500.9

4

6.2

4

6.2

4

6.2

A ll in d u s t r ie s ................................................
M anufacturing

M in in g, crude petroleum , and
natural gas p r o d u c t i o n ..........
Transp ortatio n3 ..........................
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s .......................
Utilities: Electric and gas ..........
W holesale t r a d e .........................
Retail trade ...............................
H o tels and r e s t a u r a n t s ...............
Services ....................................
C o nstructio n
............................
M iscellaneous nonm anu­
facturing i n d u s t r ie s ...............

47

392.8

37

197.4

37

197.4

Agreem ents

Workers

_

_

—
—

1.2
—
—

—

—

1.4
—
—

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

1
—

1.1
—

—
—

Agreements

—
—

_
1

2

2.7
—
—

1

_

—
3.4
—

_
7
1
1

13.7
1.0
1.2

10

195.4

1
1
1

1.7
2.0
2.2

1

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

14
17
58

22.7
26.6
102.6

12
16
58

20.0
25.5
102.6

—
—

24
50

50.3
91.9

23
50

48.7
91.9

23
50

48.7
91.9

_

_

_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1.6
—

13

27.7

13

27.7

13

27.7

22
20

105.8
50.6

22
18

105.8
41.1

22
18

105.8
41.1

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

—

—

—

—

—

—

2

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

33
71
40
85

76.7
433.9
102.7
231.3

32
69
37
84

75.7
429.6
95.3
230.0

_

_

_

_

2

—
—
—

—
—
—

—

1
—

—
2.7
—

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

107
98

487.6
978.4

107
91

487.6
950.9

_

_

_

_

6.0

—

—

14

32.8

14

32.8

14

32.8

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

25.8

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1.4

511

2.581.1

125

342.9

42

184.0

13

110.2

120

485.7

—
—

—
—

2
—
—
—
1
—

17.2
—
—

2
—
—
—
—
—

21.2
—
—
—
—
—

3
8

48.5
40.5

19
7
15
1
5
1
12
60

113.8
69.5
33.8
2.0
11.4
2.0
66.3
187.1

1
2
2
1

_
4

1

1.0
4.3
4.7
1.3

_
21.5

3

—
—
—
124

1.4
—
—
—
—
341.6

4
35

2.0
—
5.8
159.0

-

-

-

-

—

—

-

-

—
—

3 E x d u d e s railroad an d airline industries.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, sum s o f individual items m ay not equal totals.

9.5
2.8
—
—

1

1.4

1
4

2.6
33.2

_

-

1 Includes 3 agreements w hich provide a flat dollars and cents rate; 3 agreements in which the rate varies by location; 3 agreements, rate varies b y occupation and location; 1 agreement, rate varies by union, 1 agreement, rate
varies, but the condition fo r variation is not specified; and 4 agreements which refer to overtime rates, but do not specify them.




Workers

_

-

Table 9.

W eekly overtim e rates in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
W eekly overtime rates
mo provision

agreements

a ii

Industry

Total

Tim e and one-half

Varies by occupation

Double-tim e

Other*

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

1,690

7,421.1

1,088

5,064.3

1,024

4,827.4

32

69.7

21

116.2

11

51.0

602

2,356.8

....................................

879

3,717.2

655

2,831.0

6 36

2,769.4

7

12.7

3

3.4

9

45.5

224

886.3

O rdnance an d accessories ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
T o b acc o m a n u f a c t u r i n g .............
Textile m ill p r o d u c t s ..................
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum ber and w o o d products,
except f u r n it u r e .....................
Furniture an d f i x t u r e s ................
Paper and allied p roducts ..........
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u s t r i e s .....................
Chem icals and allied p roducts . . .
Petroleum refining and related
in d u st rie s...............................
R ubber and m iscellaneous
plastics pro ducts ..................
Leather and leather pro ducts . . .
Stone, clay, an d glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary m etal in d u s t r ie s .............
Fabricated metal p r o d u c t s ..........
M achinery, except electrical . . . .
Electrical m achinery, equip­
ment, an d supplies ................
Transportation e q u ip m e n t ..........
Instrum ents and related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
in d u st rie s ...............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

15
91
5
20

49.5
261.7
13.1
61.2

15
88
4
20

49.5
258.2
9.7
61.2

__

_

2.4
29.9
10.0
2.5

A l l in d u s t r ie s .................................................
M anufacturing

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................
M ining, crude petroleum , and
natural gas p r o d u c t i o n ..........
Transp ortation3 ..........................
Co m m u n ication s
.....................
Utilities: Electric and gas ..........
W holesale t r a d e ..........................
Re tail t r a d e ...............................
Hotels and r e s t a u r a n t s ................
Services ....................................
Constructio n
............................
Miscellaneous nonm anu­
facturing i n d u s t r ie s ................

_
1

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

_
_

_
_

47

392.8

17

140.9

17

140.9

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

12
12
55

19.2
18.7
97.3

11
12
55

18.0
18.7
97.3

24
50

50.3
91.9

9
46

12.7
85.1

9
46

12.7
85.1

13

27.7

12

25.8

12

25.8

_

22
20

105.8
50.6

17
12

93.9
24.0

17
12

93.9
24.0

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

28
64
29
62

68.4
419.2
55.6
143.5

28
63
27
61

68.4
417.4
50.9
142.2

1

1.2




30

251.9
5.2
9.9
7.5
37.7
6.8

1.1
3.4

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

3
6
4

_
_

_

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

15
4

_

_

1

1.9

—

5
8

11.9
26.6

7
7
11
24

11.1
14.7
47.2
89.1

38
40

145.2
168.7

_
—

—

—

_

_

_

1.8
4.7
1.3

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

2.0

—

1
2
1

—

—

_

_

106
102

490.2
1,011.6

70
62

345.0
842.9

63
59

304.0
838.2

14

32.8

12

29.5

12

29.5

_

7

27.1

5

24.2

5

24.2

-

-

811

3,703.9

433

2,233.4

388

2,058.1

25

57.0

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

15
37
65
46
11
91
31
34
100

105.1
317.3
616.9
135.8
41.7
246.2
147.2
184.2
434.1

15
36
65
46
11
90
31
34
57

105.1
313.3
616.9
135.8
41.7
244.2
147.2
184.2
264.8

4

6.2

3

5.0

3

5.0

Because o f rounding, sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

—

_

1
1

1.4
—

1

7

2.7

2

4 1.0
—

_

-

-

18

-

2

3.4

_

_

2

3.0

2

3 78

1,470.5

4.0

40
6
21
8
17
14
26
245

240.2
128.2
44.5
15.8
87.8
39.5
118.5
794.9

1

1.2

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

1
—

—

5.5

1

112.8

—

_
—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

25

57.0

17

110.8

-

-

-

—

2.0
—

-

1 Includes 9 agreements in w hich rate varies, but c o nditio ns were not specified; 1 agreement in which rate is unclear; and 1 agreement where the rate varied by occupation and location.
3 E xcludes railroad and airline industries.
NOTE:

—

_

1

1.0

2
11
3
1

1
-

—

1.5
-




Table 10.

Graduated overtime rates in major collective bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
.G raduated o vertim e rates

In d u stry

A ll agreem ents
w ith h o u rs an d
o ve rtim e p ro visio n s

T o ta l

T im e an d o ne-half
retroactive to
start o f sh ift

D o u b le tim e

O th e r1

A gre em e nts
A l l i n d u s t r i e s ...................................................
M a n u fa c t u r in g
O r d n a n c e an d accessories ...........
F o o d a n d k indre d p ro d u c ts . . . .
T o b a c c o m an u fa ctu rin g .............
T e x t ile m ill p r o d u c t s ...................
A p p a r e l an d o th er finished
p ro d u cts ...........................
L u m b e r a n d w o o d pro du cts.
ex cep t f u r n i t u r e ................
F u rn itu re a n d f i x t u r e s ................
P ape r a n d allie d p ro d u c ts ...........
P rin tin g, p u b lish in g, a n d
allie d i n d u s t r i e s ................
C h e m ic a ls an d allie d p ro d u c ts . . .
P e tro le u m refining a n d
related industrie s .............
R u b b e r a n d m iscellaneo us
p la stics p r o d u c t s ................
Le ather a n d leather p ro d u c ts . . .
S to n e , c la y , a n d glass
*
p ro d u cts ...........................
P rim a r y m etal i n d u s t r i e s .............
F a b ric a te d m etal p r o d u c t s ...........
M a c h in e ry , except electrical . . . .
E le ctrica l m ach in ery, eq uipm ent.
a n d supp lies .....................
T ra n sp o r ta tio n e q u i p m e n t ...........
In stru m e n ts a n d related p ro d u cts .
M isc e lla n e o u s m a n u fa ctu rin g
in d u s t r i e s ...........................
N o n m a n u f a c t u r in g ................................
M in in g , cru d e petroleum , and
natural gas p ro d u c tio n . . .
T r a n sp o r ta tio n 1
2
........................
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s ........................
U tilitie s: E le ctric and gas
...........
W h o le sa le t r a d e ...........................
R e ta il t r a d e ................................
H o te ls a n d r e s t a u r a n t s ................
Se rvice s
.....................................
C o n st ru c tio n
.............................
M isc e lla n e o u s n o n m a n u ­
fa ctu rin g i n d u s t r i e s ...........

W o rke rs

A gre em e n ts

W o rk e rs

A gre em e n ts

W o rke rs

A g re e m e n ts

W o rke rs

A g re e m e n ts

W o rke rs

165 6

7,228.7

400

1 ,822.0

369

1,677.0

11

26.3

20

118.7

874

3 ,7 0 2.0

273

9 1 0 .3

2 58

8 7 4 .8

11

26.3

4

9.9
100.4
12.1
—

6
21
4
—

9 .9
100 .4
12.1
—

_

_

_

_

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—
—

—
—

9.2

17
1 02
8
21

5 1.9
2 9 1 .6
23.1
6 3 .7

6
21
4
—

47

3 9 2 .8

—

—

15
18
59

2 4.4
2 8.6
104.8

1
6
19

1.2
10.6
3 8.7

1
6
6

1.2
10.6
8 .4

—
—

—
—

11

2 6.3

2

4.0

24
50

5 0.3
9 1 .9

15
16

3 6 .7
2 7.4

13
16

3 1.5
2 7 .4

—
—

—
—

2
—

5.2
_

13

2 7.7

1

1.0

1

1.0

—

—

—

—

7.3

—

—

—
—

—

—

7.3

6

—

20

105.8
5 0.6

—

—

—

33
71
40
86

76.7
4 3 3 .9
102.7
2 32 .6

21
8
13
38

5 7.2
12.8
4 7 .6
6 3 .7

21
8
13
38

5 7.2
12.8
4 7.6
6 3 .7

—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—

—
—

—

—

-

—

-

-

108
100
14

4 9 0 .2
1,000.6
3 2.8

67
27
3

3 7 1 .0
9 8.7
10.4

67
27
3

3 7 1 .0
98.7
10.4

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

6

2 5.8

1

4 .0

1

4 .0

-

-

-

111

8 0 2 .2

-

-

16

—

—

—

—

—

P

6

. —

782

3 ,5 2 6.7

1 27

9 1 1 .7

15
62
70
67
19
107
44
53
341

105.1
4 5 7 .3
722.1
180.3
5 7.5
3 3 1 .5
184.7
2 66 .5
1,215.7

2
4
47
31
1
4
2
12
23

2.8
2 3 .0
5 71 .3
77.1
3 .0
11.1
7.0
8 0.3
135 .0

2
1
47
27
1
4
2
7
19

2.8
3.0
571 .3
6 8 .4
3 .0
11.1
7.0
13.4
121.2

4

6 .2

1

1.2

1

1.2

109.5

3
—

2 E x c lu d e s railro ad a n d airline industries.
B ecau se o f rou n d in g, su m s o f individual item s m a y n o t equal totals.

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

-

-

4

5
4
-

1 In c lu d e s 2 agreem ents in w h ic h the overtim e rate d o e s n o t change, b u t 4 h o u rs' p a y is ad d e d if ove rtim e exceeds specified pe riod; 2 agreem ents in w h ic h the rate varies b y
lo c a tio n ; 1 agreem ent, w here the o ve rtim e rate increases t o d o u b le tim e after 10 h o u rs fo r e m p lo ye e s earn ing less than $ 3 0 0 per day , b u t rem ains at tim e a n d o ne -h alf fo r other
em p lo ye es; 1 agre em e nt w ith tim e an d one-half retroactive to start o f sh ift if o ve rtim e exceeds spe cified pe riod, p lu s d o u b le tim e thereafter; 1 agreem ent in w h ic h the rate varies
b y lo c a tio n a n d o ccu p a tio n ; 2 agreem ents w ith d o u ble tim e a n d one-fou rth ; 2 agreem ents w ith d o u b le tim e an d o ne-half; 2 agreem ents w ith triple tim e; an d 7 agreem ents w ith 2
o r m o re g rad u a te d rates (i.e., the initial graduated rate increases again if o ve rtim e exceeds spe cified h o urs).

NOTE:

—
20.0
8.8

—

6 6.9
13.9
-

Table 11.

Graduated daily overtim e hours in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

[W orkers in thousands]
Graduated daily overtim e after specified hours

Industry

w ith hours and overtime
provisions

8-9

Total

12-14

10-11

Other2

16 and over1

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

1,656

7,228.7

352

1,282.2

10

24.9

83

338.3

164

635.3

76

195.5

19

88.3

8 74

3,702.0

265

858.8

6

14.9

58

160.2

148

539.4

43

119.0

10

25.4

Ordnance and accessories ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
To b acc o m anufacturing .............
Textile m ill p r o d u c t s ..................
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum ber and w o o d products,
except f u r n it u r e .....................
Furniture and f i x t u r e s ...............
Paper and allied products ..........
Printing, p ublishing, and
allied i n d u s t r i e s .....................
Chem icals and allied p roducts . . .
Petroleum refining and
related i n d u s t r i e s ..................
R ubbe r and m iscellaneous
plastics p roducts
..................
Leather and leather products . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary metal in d u s t r ie s .............
Fabricated m etal p r o d u c t s ..........
M achinery, except electrical . . . .
Electrical m achinery, equipm ent,
and s u p p l i e s ..........................
Transportation e q u ip m e n t ..........
Instrum ents and related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
in d u strie s...............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

6
21
4
—

9.9
100.4
12.1
—

_

4
15
—

6.2
89.1

-

-

—

3.7
2.5
2.3
—

-

3.0
—

2
2
1
—

—
—

—

-

—

—

47

392.8

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

1
6
23

1.2
10.6
44.2

_

_

_

_

_

_

—
1

—
1.2

-

—
16

24
50

50.3
91.9

15
16

36.7
27.4

3
—

9.5
—

7
—

1.0

_

_

_

_

7.3

2
—

2.0
—

1
2
3
8

1.0
5.9
3.8
12.3

20
6
9
26

56.2
7.0
42.6
43.4

_

_

-

-

—
—
3

—
—
6.7

—
—
—

—
—
—

12
15

52.0
53.4

34
9

223.3
23.9

3
10

6.0
55.6

_

-

-

-

1

1.3

2

9.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................

10.0

25

178.1

—
—

19.0
23.0
2.1
3.0
—
7.0
51.7
72.3

A ll in d u s t r ie s .................................................
M anufacturing

....................................

M ining, crude petroleum , and
natural gas p r o d u c t i o n ..........
Transp ortation3 ..........................
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s .......................
Utilities: Electric and gas ..........
W holesale t r a d e ..........................
Re tail t r a d e ...............................
H otels and r e s t a u r a n t s ................
Services ....................................
Constructio n
............................
M iscellaneous no nm anu­
facturing in d u s t r i e s ................

_
1

13

27.7

1

22
20

105.8
50.6

6
—

_

_

—

—

—

33
71
40
86

76.7
433.9
102.7
232.6

21
8
12
37

57.2
12.8
46.3
62.3

_

_

—
—
—

—
—
-

106
100

490.2
1,000.6

49
35

281.3
134.0

_

2

1

14

32.8

3

10.4

_

6

25.8

1

4.0

-

782

3,526.7

87

423.5

15
62
70
67
19
107
44
53
341

105.1
457.3
722.1
180.3
57.5
331.5
184.7
266.5
1,215.7

2
4
3
32
1
4
3
12
25

2.8
23.0
74.0
78.7
3.0
11.1
12.7
79.9
137.2

4

6.2

1

1.2

4

_
1.2
_

—

—

—
—
1
1
2

—
5.7
1.1
3.2

2
1
1
1
—
2
6
12

-

-

-

—
—

—

2

_

1
3

3.3




—

2.2
-

1
4
4

1.2
8.4
5.3

18.1
—

1
7

1.0
12.7

_

1

1.0

-

4

5.3
—

-

-

-

-

—

—

—

—

-

—

1

4.0

16

96.0

2
1
2
—
—
4
—
4
2

2.8
1.6
51.0
—
11.1
—
25.9
2.4

1

1.2

9

_
-

—
32.8
_
14.7
-

—
2

5.0

4
—

8.1

-

-

—

9

62.9

33

76.6

_

_

_

—
—
30
—
—
—
1
2

—
—
72.6
—
—
—
1.2
2.8

1
—
1

—
4.0

—
—
—
—
7

“
—
—
—
56.6

-

-

-

1 Includes 2 agreements, rate increase after 17 hours; and 6 agreements, after 24 hours.
3 Includes 4 agreements requiring overtim e rate increase after 11% hours; 2 agreements, after 10% hours; 1 agreement, after 1 1% hours; 1 agreement, after 1 1 % hours; 1 agreement, after 1 5% hours; 2 agreements in which
hours specified vary b y location; 1 agreement, hours vary b y occupation; 1 agreement, hours vary b y occupation location, and d ay of the week; and 6 agreements p roviding rate increases in 2 or m ore steps.
3 Excludes railroad a n d airline industries.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, sum o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.

2.5
9.8

_
2.4

-




Table 12. Graduated weekly overtime hours in major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

All agreements.............................................................................................

1,690

7,421.1

Total with graduated weekly overtime provisions.....................................................

71

647.5

Overtime rate graduated after specified weekly hours
40 h o u rs...........................................................................................
44 h o u rs...........................................................................................
461 h o u rs.........................................................................................
/2
47-49 hours .......................................................................................
50-60 hours .......................................................................................
Other1 .............................................................................................

1
2
2
55
6
5

1.5
12.3
7.8
535.4
33.8
56.9

No graduated weekly overtime provision ..............................................................

1,619

6,773.6

Graduated weekly overtime hours

1 Includes 2 agreements with the timing of the rate increase based on a formula (number of daily overtime hours plus Saturday hours minus 9); 2 agreements with
timing varying by occupation; and 1 agreement with rate increase after 44 or 46% hours depending on regular schedules.
N O TE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 13.

Distribution of overtime work in sample of major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
Type of distribution

All agreements......................................

Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

433

1,704.6

Total having hours and overtime provisions . . .

431

1,699.4

Total referring to distribution of overtime work

209

795.8

158
16
16
5
9
5

479.7
62.1
37.4
8.8
171.0
37.0

222

903.6

2

5.2

Equal or equitable distribution within units1 .......................
Equal or equitable distribution, no reference to u n its...............
By seniority1 .........................................................
2
Overtime first offered to employees who regularly perform the work
Distribution subject to negotiation ..................................
Other3 .................................................................
No reference to distribution of overtime work
No reference to hours and overtime

1"Within units" refers to distribution of overtime restricted to employees working in the units of the plants or on the operations where the overtime is needed. Some
agreements provide that overtime opportunities will be extended to employees working in other units under specified conditions.
2 Includes 13 agreements that distribute overtime by seniority within specified units; and 3 agreements that make no reference to units.
3 Includes 2 agreements that distribute overtime on a volunteer basis; 1 agreement that distributes overtime by a combination of equal distribution and seniority
within specified units; 1 agreement that leaves distribution to management discretion; and 1 agreement in which the method of distribution is unclear.
N O TE : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 14.

Effect o f refusal o f overtime, in sample o f major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
Agreements

Workers
(thousands)

All agreements........................................................................................... *.

433

1,704.6

Total having hours and overtime provisions.......................................................

431

1,699.4

Total referring to effect of refusing overtime ...............................................

74

192.1

No effect ..............................................................................
Record charged with time refused.....................................................
Depending on conditions, record charged or not charged............................
Employee not assigned overtime for specified period................................
Employee's name moved to bottom of overtime list ................................
Record charged, or employee not assigned overtime for specified period...........
Record charged, and name moved to bottom of overtime lis t .......................

3
50
11
4
2
3
1

9.3
146.8
16.9
6.0
5.6
4.0
3.6

No reference to effect........................................................................

357

1,507.3

No reference to hours or overtime..................................................................

2

5.2

Effect of refusal

N O T E : Because of rounding, sum of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 15.

Premium pay for weekends in major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
Number
Premium pay
Agreements

Percent

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

Workers

All agreements.............................................................

1,690

7,421.1

100.0

100.0

Total referring to weekend work premium * .......................

1.560

6.792.8

92.3

91.5

Saturday o n ly ................................................
Sunday o n ly .................................................
Saturday and Sunday .......................................
Sixth day on ly................................................
Seventh day o n ly ............................................
Sixth and seventh d a y .......................................
Sunday and sixth d a y .......................................
Sunday and seventh day ....................................
Sunday, sixth and seventh day ..............................
Saturday, Sunday and sixth day ............................
Saturday, Sunday and seventh day..........................
Saturday, Sunday, sixth and seventh day ..................
Other2 ........................................................

40
181
731
24
21
118
54
24
129
10
33
188
7

249.9
880.7
2,590.7
46.9
47.0
378.1
155.8
184.5
714.7
20.7
193.4
1,238.4
92.3

2.4
10.7
43.3
1.4
1.2
7.0
3.2
1.4
7.6
0.6
2.0
11.1
0.4

3.4
11.9
34.9
0.6
0.6
5.1
2.1
2.5
9.6
0.3
2.6
16.7
1.2

No reference to weekend work premium..........................

130

628.3

7.7

8.5

1 Includes agreements providing for regularly scheduled Saturday or Sunday premium pay.
3 Includes 2 agreements having a premium for Saturday and sixth day; 1 agreement having a premium for Saturday, sixth and seventh day; and 4 agreements in which
the specific days to which the premium applies cannot be determined.
N O T E : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 16.

Prem ium pay rates for non-regularly scheduled Saturdays in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73

(W orkers in thousands]
Premium pay rates
Industry

All agreements

Time and one-half

Total

Other1

Varies by occupation

Double time

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

All industries........................................

1690

7,421.1

990

4,251.9

692

3,160.3

218

680.0

54

267.8

23

143.9

Manufacturing..............................

879

3,717.2

569

2,494.3

527

2,333.7

27

71.7

8

16.9

7

72.2

Ordnance and accessory ...........
Food and kindred products........
Tobacco manufacturing ...........
Textile mill products...............
Apparel and other finished
products.....................
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture............
Furniture and fixtures..............
Paper and allied products.........
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries..............
Chemicals and allied products----Petroleum refining and
related industries............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products............
Leather and leather products___
Stone, clay, and glass
products.....................
Primary metal industries...........
Fabricated metal products........
Machinery, except electrical......
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies .................
Transportation equipment ........
Instruments and related
products.....................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries

17
102
8
21

61.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

13
62
7
13

43.4
203.0
22.1
33.9

13
54
7
13

43.4
129.1
22.1
33.9

_

_

3
—
—

4.1
—
—

—
4
—
—

—
68.1
—

—

_
1.8
—
—

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
—
—

_
—

7

27.1

7

27.1

7

Nonmanufacturing........................

811

3.703.9

421

1,757.6

168

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

6
39
3
11
13
9
—
22
316

88.0
277.5
67.9
19.3
48.5
18.0
—
86.9
1,149.2

4

6.2

2

2.4

Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production ___
Transportation2
Communications....................
Utilities: Electric and gas .........
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade..........................
Hotels and restaurants..............
Services..............................
Construction........................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing industries

_
1
—

—

47

392.8

37

269.0

37

269.0

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

6
16
17

10.3
26.6
26.0

4
14
16

7.6
23.2
24.2

2
1
1

2.7
2.3
1.8

_
i
—

_
i.i
—

24
50

50.3
91.9

14
15

34.7
24.5

7
13

11.5
21.5

7
—

23.2
—

_
—

_
—

2

3.0

_
—

—

_
—

13

27.7

1

1.0

1

1.0

22
20

105.8
50.6

10
17

19.5
44.5

10
17

19.5
44.5

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

8
16
35
75

11.7
29.7
75.7
176.5

6
14
32
72

8.0
25.4
71.0
171.9

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

98
91

437.6
952.8

97
82

436.5
918.7

14

32.8

11

25.1

11

_

25.1

_
—

_
—

_
—
_

_

—

—

_

3.7
4.3
4.8
4.6

—

—

5

22.5

4

27.1

-

-

826.7

191

608.3

46

251.0

16

71.7

5
34
2
11
13
9
—
11
81

86.6
236.3
44.9
19.3
48.5
18.0
—
27.0
343.8

1
1
—
—
—
—
7
182

2.8
23.0
—
—
—
—
27.2
555.3

2
—
—
—
—
—
2
42

17.2
—
—
—
_
—
30.0
203.8

1
2
—
—
_
—
—
2
11

1.5
21.2
—
—
—
—
—
2.7
46.4

2

2.4

2
2
3
3

_

-

—

—

—
—

—

—

—

1
—

—

_

-

•-

-

11.7

-

-

—

-

—

1.1

_

-

1 Includes 1 agreement which pays time and one-quarter; 5 agreements which pay a flat rate; 4 agreements which are unclear; 4 agreements which vary the rate by season; 3 agreements which vary
the rate by location; 2 agreements which vary the rate by union; 1 agreement which varies the rate by both occupation and location; 2 agreements which pay time and one-half, but double time if Saturday is
the seventh day worked; and 1 agreement which pays time and one-half for the first Saturday, double time for following consecutive Saturdays.
2 Excludes railroad and airline industries.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 17.

Prem ium pay rates for non-regularly scheduled Sundays in major collective bargaining agreements by industry, 1972-73

[Workers in thousands]
Prem ium pay rates

I ndustry

A ll agreements

T im e and one-half

Total

Tim e and one-half in
som e instances; double­
time in others

D ouble time

Varies by occupation

Miscellaneous
premium rates'

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreem ents

Workers

1,690

7,421.1

1,281

5,499.0

222

1,052.3

15

174.7

948

3,842.9

36

180.6

60

248.6

879

3.717.2

677

2,658.9

102

335.0

8

15.9

543

2,254.6

4

6.7

20

46.8

Ordnance and accessories ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
T o b acco m anufacturing .............
Textile m ill p r o d u c t s ..................
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum ber and w o o d products,
except f u r n it u r e ....................
Furniture and f i x t u r e s ...............
Paper and allied products ..........
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u s t r i e s ....................
Chem icals and allied
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Petroleum refining and
related industries ..................
Rubbe r and m iscellaneous
plastics products
..................
Leather and leather products . . .
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary metal in d u s t r ie s .............
Fabricated metal p r o d u c t s ..........
M achinery, except electrical . . . .
Electrical m achinery, equip­
ment, and supplies ...............
Transportation e q u ip m e n t ..........
Instrum ents and related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
in d u st rie s...............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

16
70
7
12

50.0
220.0
22.1
32.9

3
14
—
1

20.1
84.0
—
7.8

1
2
—
—

2.9
3.4
—
—

12
46
7
11

27.1
109.8
22.1
25.1

-

-

-

—
—
—

—
—
—

8
—
—

22.8

47

392.8

14

45.4

4

14.4

_

_

10

31.0

_

_

-

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

11
14
59

18.8
23.6
104.8

5
1
23

9.4
1.9
47.4

_

_

8.2
21.8
47.3

1
—
—

1.2
—
—

-

—
4.7

5
13
32

-

—
2

—
2

—
5.5

24

50.3

19

43.7

1

1.3

_

_

15

37.2

2

3.5

1

1.7

50

91.9

21

32.8

7

9.6

_

_

12

20.4

_

_

13

27.7

4

10.4

2

6.3

1

3.1

_

_

-

22
20

105.8
50.6

21
15

102.3
41.9

1
1

1.7
1.0

-

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

31
36
35
77

74.2
106.4
75.7
179.9

21
15
-

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

102
93

460.7
955.9

_

14

32.8

13

30.8

7

27.1

7

27.1

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................

811

3,703.9

604

2,840.1

120

717.3

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

7
45
58
31
16
85
1
32
327

90.4
422.6
594.3
67.7
52.9
277.5
2.5
142.2
1,187.7

1
20
43
8
7
25
—
5
11

2.3
84.7
434.1
14.6
35.5
88.1
15.0
43.0

4

6.2

2

2.4

A ll in d u s t r ie s ................................................
M anufacturing

....................................

M ining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas p r o d u c t i o n ..........
Transp ortation2 ..........................
C o m m u n ic a tio n s..........................
Utilities: Electric and gas
..........
Wholesale t r a d e ..........................
Retail trade ...............................
H o tels and r e s t a u r a n t s ...............
Services ....................................
C onstruction
............................
Miscellaneous no nm anu­
facturing in d u s t r i e s ...............

1

1.0
_

100.6
39.0

_

—

20
13

_

—

—

56.8
67.4
-

1
1
—
-

2.0
1.9
—
-

9
17
35
76

15.4
30.0
75.7
178.7

_

_

—
—
-

—
-

_

_

_

455.1
953.9

-

-

-

_

-

2.9
-

—

-

1

2.0

-

-

2

-

-

2

_

99
92

4.2

_

_

11

26.6

-

-

-

-

1

2.0

1
_

7.2
1.2

3
1

3.7

2

2.0

-

7

27.1

-

-

-

-

7

158.8

405

1,588.3

32

173.9

40

201.9

3

145.5
—
2.1
—
3.2
8.0

3
18
5
18
7
39
1
22
290

82.1
154.0
71.0
37.3
13.4
92.9
2.5
98.0
1,034.9

1
2
3

2.2
17.2
28.7
—
6.2
—
22.0
97.7

2
2
7
4
2
18
2
3

3.9
21.2
60.6
13.7
4.0
90.4

2

2.4

-

-

1
—
2
1
-

-

—
3
—
1
22
-

-

-

' Includes 2 agreements which pay tim e and six-tenths; 1 agreement which pays time and two-thirds; 1 agreement which pays tim e and seven-tenths; 1 agreement which pays double time and one-quarter; 9 agreements which pay
double time and one-half; 3 agreements which pay triple time; 7 agreements which pay time and one-half but double time for consecutive Sundays worked; 7 agreements which pay a flat rate; 5 agreements which are unclear; 6 agree­
m ents which vary the rate b y season; 2 agreements w hich vary the rate by union; 1 which varies the rate by location; 14 which vary the rate for unspecified reasons; and 1 agreement which varies the rate by both occupation and
location.
2 Excludes railroad and airline industries.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




4.0
4.2
-

Table 18.

Prem ium pay rates for regularly scheduled Saturday work in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972*73

[W orkers in thousands]
Premium pay rates
1
ndustry

All agreements

Time and one-fourth

Total

Time and one-half

Other1

Flat rate

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

All industries........................................

1,690

7,421.1

71

408.4

15

43.8

35

227.5

18

106.7

3

30.4

Manufacturing..............................

879

3,717.2

61

319.3

15

43.8

28

164.9

16

104.0

2

6.6

Ordnance and accessories.........
Food and kindred products.......
Tobacco manufacturing ..........
Textile mill products...............
Apparel and other finished
products.....................
Lumber and wood products,
except furniture............
Furniture and fixtures.............
Paper and allied products.........
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries.............
Chemicals and allied products ....
Petroleum refining and
related industries............
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products............
Leather and leather products ....
Stone, clay, and glass
products.....................
Primary metal industries..........
Fabricated metal products .......
Machinery, except electrical......
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies .................
Transportation equipment .......
Instruments and related
products.....................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries ....................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

1
19
—
—

3.0
110.0
—
-

_
10
—
—

_
32.9
—
-

1
8
—
—

3.0
20.5
—
—

_
1
—
—

_
56.6
—
—

_
-

_
—

47

392.8

1

2.2

_

_

1

2.2

_

_

_

_

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

_
—
-

_
—
—

_
—
—

—
—

_
—

—
—

_
—
—

—
—

_
-

—

24
50

50.3
91.9

2
8

7.3
13.8

_
3

_
5.7

_
—

—

1
5

1.8
8.2

1
—

5.5
—

13

27.7

22
20

105.8
50.6

_
—

_
—

_
—

_
—

_
—

_
—

-

-

-

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

2
7
2
5

4.4
34.7
2.2
9.8

_
—
-

—
—
-

2
2
2
4

4.4
3.6
2.2
8.6

5
—
1

31.1
—
1.2

—
-

—
—
-

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

6
7

113.2
16.6

_
1

3.0

5
3

111.3
9.1

1
2

1.9
3.4

Nonmanufacturing ........................
Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production ....
Transportation2 ....................
Communications....................
Utilities: Electric and gas .........
Wholesale trade.....................
Retail trade..........................
Hotels and restaurants.............
Services..............................
Construction........................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing industries.........

14

32.8

7

27.1

811

3,703.9

10

89.1

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

1
1
1

1.5
18.0
23.8

1
—
1
4

25.0
—
—
2.0
17.7

4

6.2

1

1.2

1
-

—

—

_
2.3

-

-

-

-

-

1

—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
-

7

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




1

1.1

-

-

-

2

2.7

1

23.8

1

—

18.0

1
—

1.5
—

-

62.7

—

—

—

—

—

1

—

—

—

—

—

-

—

1
—
1
4

—

—

—
—
—
—

—
—
—

—
—
—
—

—
-

23.8
_
_
—

-

-

1.2

-

-

25.0
—
—
2.0
17.7
-

1 Includes 1 agreement which pays double-time; 1 agreement which pays double time and one-half; and 1 agreement which calls for a 15 percent differential.
2 Excludes railroad and airline industries.

_

_

2.3
-

—

1

—

Table 19. Prem ium pay rates fo r regularly scheduled Sunday w ork, in major collective bargaining agreements, b y industry , 1972-73
(W o r k e r s in t h o u s a n d s ]
Prem ium p ay rates
Industry

A ll
agreements

T im e and
one-quarter

Total

T im e and
one-half

D ouble time

Flat rate

Other*

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreements

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

W orkers

Agreem ents

Workers

1,690

7.421.1

212

1.467.1

29

399.6

123

885.4

18

49.7

30

82.1

12

50.3

....................................

879

3.717.2

144

1,105.6

16

371.7

90

622.3

16

43.0

18

60.2

4

8.5

Ordnance and a c c e s s o r ie s ...........
F o o d and kindred p roducts . . . .
T o b acc o m a n u fa c t u r in g .............
Textile m il 1pro ducts ................
Ap parel a n d other finished
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Lum be r and w o o d products,
except furniture ..................
Furniture and f i x t u r e s ................
Paper an d allied
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u s t r ie s .....................
Chem icals and allied
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Petroleum refining an d
related in d u s t r ie s ..................
R u b b e r and m iscellaneous
plastics p r o d u c t s ..................
Leather and leather
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Stone, clay, an d glass
p r o d u c t s ...............................
Prim ary metal industries ..........
Fabricated m etal
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M achinery, except
e le c tr ic a l...............................
Electrical m achinery, equip­
m ent, an d supplies ................
Transp ortatio n equipm ent . . . .
Instrum ents an d related
p r o d u c t s ...............................
M iscellaneous m anufacturing
i n d u s t r i e s ............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

19
—

51.5
—

—
—

—
—

15
—

44.3
—

—
—

—
—
—

1

—

6.1
—
—

—

1.1
—

47

392.8

1

2.2

_

1

2.2

—

_

_

_

-

_

IS
18

24.4
28.6

_

_

_

_

_

—

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

—

59

104.8

_

_

_

_

24

50.3

_

_

_

A ll in d u s t r ie s .................................................
M anufacturing

N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g ...............................
M in in g, crude petroleum , and
natural gas
production
.....................
Transportation3 .......................
C o m m u n ic a t io n s .......................
U tilities: Electric and g a s ..........
W holesale t r a d e ..........................
Retail t r a d e ...............................
H otels and re sta u r a n ts................
S e r v i c e s ....................................
C o n s t r u c t i o n ............................
M iscellaneous nonm anu­
facturing in d u strie s................

_

_

_

_
_

—

—

—

—

7

12.7

_

_

1

5.5

12.7
_

_

_

_

_

_

7
35

SO

91.9

12

25.3

13

27.7

_

_

22

105.8

2

_

20

50.6

38
71

79.5
433.9

10
46

29.0
392.2

40

102.7

6

12.7

3

_

6.8

4

5.9

_

3

_
_
_
_

_

3

1

5.5

9.2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_
—

_

22.3
350.1

_

_

—

—

_

3.9

6

2

-

-

_

16.2

_

_

_

_

_

_

12.7

_

-

-

-

_

_

-

_

_

6

2
6

1
2

5.3
32.3

_

_

5

11.5

1

1.2

_

5

48.4

4

8.9

1

1.2

6

4

112.3
10.8

2.8

1
2

1.9
3.4

2

3.4

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

86

232.6

12

84.2

2

25.8

106
102

490.2
1,011.6

10
15

153.3
319.9

3
8

39.1
302.9

14

32.8

2

3.4

_

_

_
1

_

_

_

_

_

_
_

—

—

7

27.1

1

1.2

1

1.2

-

-

-

811

3,703.9

68

361.5

13

27.9

33

263.2

2

6.7

12

21.9

8

IS

6

13.8
25.7
184.8
67.6
30.7
16.7
—

1
—
—

1.0
—
—

5
2

71
67
19
108
45
60
3 45

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

4.7
—
—
—
2.0
—
—
—

—
—
10
1

—
—
19.5
1.2
—
—
—
—

—
1.6

26.9
—

1
—
—
—
1
—
—
—

—
1

12
—

12.8
21.0
183.2
19.0
4.5
3.5
—
1.7
17.7

2

2.2

1

25.0
11.3
—
—
1.8

4

6.2

-

-

-

77

3
16
26

4
6
—

-

15

2
2
2

—

—

—
—
—

—

-

-

5

1.7
19.5

—
—
—

1

1.2

-

1

-

1

4

—

—
—
—
1

-

3
—
—
1

1.2

1C o ntains 3 agreements, graduated rate; 3 agreements unclear; 1 agreement, time and seven-tenths; 1 agreement, tim e and two-thirds; 1 agreement, tim e and six-tenths; 1 agreement, tim e and one-eighth; 1 agreement tim e and
one-fifth; 1 agreement, rate varies b y occupation.

3Excludes railroad and airline industries.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




1.4
6.0

41.9

-

Table 20. Premium pay rates for the sixth day worked in a workweek in major collective bargaining agreements, by industry, 1972-73
[w o rk e rs in t h o u s a n d s ]

Premium pay rates
Industry

Total

Time and one-half

Double time

Graduated rate1

Other2

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

All industries.....................................

1,690

7,421.1

526

2,583.7

484

2,414.2

5

13.3

26

135.0

1
1

21.3

Manufacturing............................

879

3.717.2

348

1,924.2

321

1,832.2

4.2

16

74.7

Ordnance and accessories........
Food and kindred products.......
Tobacco manufacturing ..........
Textile mill products..............
Apparel and other finished
products....................
Lumber and'wood products,
except furniture...........
Furniture and fixtures.............
Paper and allied products........
Printing, publishing, and
allied industries ............
Chemicals and allied products ....
Petroleum refining and
related industries...........
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics products...........
Leather and leather products ....
Stone, clay, and glass
products....................
Primary metal industries..........
Fabricated metal products .......
Machinery, except electrical.....
Electrical machinery, equipment,
and supplies ...............
Transportation equipment .......
Instruments and related
products....................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
industries ..................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

7
45
2
10

17.0
114.2
4.5
27.5

7
39
10

17.0
103.4

3
_
-

_
1
2
—

_
1.4
4.5
—

8
_
5
—

13.2
_
9.4
-

47

392.8

1

2.0

_

_

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

7
5
13

12.2
6.8
22.9

_
—

_
—
—

7

27.1

1

1.0

Nonmanufacturing.......................

811

3.703.9

178

659.6

15
77
71
67
19
108
45
60
345

105.1
557.5
745.1
180.3
57.5
334.0
186.7
302.7
1,229.0

5
19
21
31
4
53
29
12
3

11.5
55.6
163.4
89.9
6.7
174.8
109.9
30.6
16.2

5
18
20
28
4
48
28
11
1

4

6.2

1

1.2

Mining, crude petroleum, and
natural gas production ....
T ransportation3
Communications..................
Utilities: Electric and gas ........
Wholesale trade....................
Retail trade........................
Hotels and restaurants.............
Services............................
Construction.......................
Miscellaneous nonmanu­
facturing industries........

-

-

27.5

—

_
—

1

2.0

_

_

_

_

7
5
13

12.2
6.8
22.9

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

24
50

50.3
91.9

8
26

12.5
42.5

7
25

10.7
41.3

13

27.7

7

17.5

7

105.8
50.6

9
3

20.2
3.5

9
3

20.2
3.5

_

17.5

22
20

—

1
-

1.8
-

_
—

—

_

-

—

—

1

-

_

1.2

_
—

—

_

_
—

35
71
40
86

79.5
433.9
102.7
232.6

17
46
16
32

50.8
382.9
44.1
124.5

16
45
15
30

49.1
381.9
42.8
122.0

1
1
—

_
1.1
1.3
—

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

57
31

231.9
775.1

52
2£

201.9
739.9

_
—

_
—

3
6

27.4
35.3

14

32.8

5

10.9

4

9.0

_

_

1

1.9

_

1

1.0

-

-

-

-

-

163

582.0

2

9.1

10

60.4

3

8.1

11.5
54.0
162.0
85.0
6.7
121.5
108.7
29.1
3.7

—
—
1
—
—
—
1

—
—
2.1
—
—
—
7.0

1
—
2
—
5
—
1
-

1.6
—
2.8
—
53.3
—
1.5
-

—
1
—
—
1
—
1

1.4
—
—
1.2
5.5

-

-

1

1.2

-

-

-

-

1
—

—

—

—

—

1.7

—

—

2

2.5

—

—

2
—

2.7
—
_

1 In c lu d e s 23 agre em e nts tim e and one-half, do u b le tim e; 1 agreem ent tim e an d o n e half, d o u b le tim e an d o n e-fourth; 1 agreem ent d o u b le tim e, triple tim e ; 1 agreem ent tim e an d three-fourths, d o u b le
tim e .
3 In c lu d e s 6 agre em e nts w h ic h vary b y o ccu p a tio n al unit, and 5 agreem ents w h ich require tim e an d o ne-half unde r certain c o n d itio n s and d o u b le tim e unde r o th ers (e.g. tim e an d o ne-half fo r S u n d a y s
b u t d o u b le tim e if the S u n d a y w ere also the 7th consecutive day w o rke d ).
3 E x c lu d e s railro ad a n d airlin e industries.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




—

-

Table 21.

Prem ium pay rates for the seventh day worked in a workweek in major collective bargaining agreements, b y industry, 1972-73

[W orkers in thousands]
Premium pay rates

Industry

A ll
agreements

Tim e and
one-half

Total

Tim e and one-half
in some instances;
double-time in others

Double time

Other1
3
*

Graduated rate1

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

Agreements

Workers

1,690

7,421.1

514

2.779.7

122

724.8

355

1,873.1

17

134.3

10

22.5

10

25.4

...................................

879

3,717.2

372 .

2,092.8

69

384.3

274

1,543.6

15

131.1

8

19.7

6

14.2

Ordnance and a c c e sso r ie s ..........
F o o d and kindred products . . . .
T obacco m a n u fa c tu r in g .............
Textile m ill products ...............
Apparel and other finished
p r o d u c t s ..............................
Lum ber and w ood products,
except furniture ..................
Furniture and f ix t u r e s ...............
Paper and allied p r o d u c t s ..........
Printing, publishing, and
allied in d u strie s ....................
Chem icals and allied
p r o d u c t s ..............................
Petroleum refining and
related in d u s t r ie s ..................
Rubber and miscellaneous
plastics p r o d u c t s .................
Leather and leather
p r o d u c t s ..............................
Stone, clay, and glass
p r o d u c t s ..............................
Prim ary metal industries ..........
Fabricated metal
p r o d u c t s ..............................
M achinery, except
e le c trical..............................
Electrical m achinery, equip­
m ent, and s u p p li e s ...............
Transportation equipment
Instrum ents and related
p r o d u c t s ..............................
Miscellaneous manufacturing
in d u s t r i e s ............................

17
102
8
21

51.9
291.6
23.1
63.7

10
42
2
10

38.4
105.2
4.5
27.5

1
6
—
—

1.7
14.1
—
—

9
30
2
10

36.8
75.6
4.5
27.5

_

_

-

5.5
—
—

_
3

—

1.3
—
—

—
2
—
—

—

8.7
—
—

47

392.8

3

15.6

3

15.6

_

_

_

_

—

-

2
5
4

2.9
6.8
7.2

_

_

_

_

_

-

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—

—
—
_

A ll in d u s t r ie s ...............................................
M anufacturing

N o n m a n u fa c tu r in g ..............................
M ining, crude petroleum,
and natural gas
production
....................
Transportation3 .......................
C o m m u n ic a t io n s ......................
Utilities: Electric and
g a s .....................................
Wholesale t r a d e .........................
Retail t r a d e ..............................
Hotels and re stau ran ts...............
S e r v i c e s ...................................
C o n s t r u c t io n ...................
Miscellaneous nonm anu­
facturing industries ...........

15
18
59

24.4
28.6
104.8

4
5
14

_

_

2

6.2
6.8
25.5

—
10

3.3
—
18.3

1

—

—

24

50.3

6

8.7

5

6.9

1

1.8

_

_

_

_

_

50

91.9

43

74.6

2

2.4

39

70.0

2

2.2

_

_

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

-

4.8

_

_

-

-

16.9

6.2

4

10.7

_

3

2

2.4

13

27.7

7

22

105.8

3

20

50.6

4

10.0

1

1.1

3

8.9

10
26

37.7
278.9

7
21

10.7
107.7

1

4.3

14

37.9

8.2

30

116.8

1

_

54
28

228.1
762.4

6
3

7.2

35
71

79.5
433.9

21
47

55.7
386.6

40

102.7

16

_

43.8

1

1
_

_

_

_

_

—

—

3
—

5.2
—

1.2

1

1.4

112.6
7.4

1
1

1.2
6.5

1

_

_

1
—

2.1
—

1

1.2

1

2.2

1.7

86

232.6

34

128.7

108
102

490.2
1,011.6

61
34

341.8
779.8

14

32.8

5

8.7

_

_

5

8.7

_

_

_

_

_

7

27.1

1

1.0

-

-

1

1.0

-

-

-

-

-

811

3,703.9

142

686.9

53

340.5

81

329.5

15
77
71

105.1
557.5
745.1

5
17
15

11.5
168.8
123.3

5
13

11.5
128.4
107.4

1
1
1

40.5
14.5

67
19
106
45
60
3 45

180.3
57.5
334.0
.186.7
302.7
1,229.0

43

33.3

34

3.0
27.0
13.5
16.5

3
6

4

117.6
7.0
91.7
99.2
48.5
18.2

4

6.2

1

1.2

4
19
24
10

_

1

6
7
1
11

1.5

—

—

3
4

81.2
4.0
56.3
84.5
29.3
18.2

-

-

1

1.2

5
5

18

2

—

1
1
—
—
—

3.2

—

2

_

_

4

2.6

11.2

—
—

—

—

—

1.4

—

—

—

1.8
—
—
—

—
—
—

1.4
—
—
—

1

_

_

—

—
8.5
1.2
1.5

—

—

—

—

1.
—

T.2
—

2
1
1
—

-

-

-

-

-

1 Includes 2 agreements, time and one-half, double time; 1 agreement, time and three-fourths, double time; 2 agreements, double time, double time and one-half; 3 agreements, double time and one-half, triple time; 2
agreements, double tim e and triple time.
3 Includes 2 agreements triple time; 2 agreements double time and one-half; 4 agreements, vary by occupation; 1 agreement, double time, but time and one-half for employees on regular 6 day week; 1 agreement, applicable
com pensation plus straight time.
3 Excludes railroad and airline industries.

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




_

—
-

Table 22.

Weekend graduated premium rates, in major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73

[W o rk e rs in t h o u sa n d s]

Weekend premium for—

Agree­
ments
Total agreements referring to premium day

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Sevenithday

Sixth day

Sunday1

Saturday1

Graduated premium rates

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers
2.279.7

Total having graduated premium rates

22.3

990

4.251.9

1.281

5,499.0

526

2.583.7

129

-

514

516.1

46

274.9

26

135.0

10

115

423.5

16

109.8

23

130.9

2

Rate increase from:
Time and one-half to double time . . . .
Time and one-half to double time and
one-quarter............................
Time and one-half to double time and
one-half.................................
Double time to double time and one-half
Double time to triple t im e ..............
Two step rate increase....................
Other2 ........................ ............

33.0

4
3

22.0

2
2
3

5.2
11.0
21.4

5

_

7
7
5
6

1.6

-

17.2
64.2
16.3
29.4

—

1
—
1

-

—
1.2
—
1.4

1

38.0

_

7.7
-

2
2
3
1

5.5
2.6
5.2
1.4

* Excludes provisions referring only to regularly scheduled Saturday or Sunday work. None of these established specific graduated rates for Vw edayt
»Includes: for Saturday and Sunday. 3 agreements, double time to quintuple tune: for Sunday, 1 agreement, tryletime toqu ^ i^
t i ^ ^ ^ ^ h a ^ f.
1 agreement time and one-half to double time for Sunday if part of regular workweek, otherwise double time for all hours; and one apeement. unable to
determine rates: for sixth and seventh day, 1 agreement, time and three-quarters to double time.

Ul

u>




NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.2
1

Table 23. Weekend graduated premium hours in major collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
[W orkers in thousands]

______________________
Weekend premium for—
Saturday1

Graduated premium hours

Seventh day

Sixth day

Sunday1

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

Workers

Agree­
ments

..........................

990

4.251.9

1,281

5,499.0

526

2.583.7

514

2,279.7

Total having graduated premium h o u rs........................

129

516.1

46

274.9

26'

135.0

10

22.3

2
16
5
69
8
18
3
8

6.6
47.3
13.5
265.3
36.1
105.1
8.6
33.7

—
3
29
1
8
5
—

—
7.0
192.7
2.3
56.7
16.3
—

2
—
—
19
4
1
—

-

-

2
4
1

5.5
5.1
6.5

Total agreements referring to premium day

Workers

Rate increase after:
Less than 4 hours ................................
4 h o u rs............................................
More than 4, less than 8 h o u rs..................
8 h o u rs............................................
10-11 hours........................................
12 hours or more ................................
More than one rate increase ....................
Other2 ............................................

6.6

—
—

96.1
30.7
1.7

1Excludes provisions referring only to regularly scheduled Saturday or Sunday work. None of these established specific graduated rates for these days.
2Includes 6 agreements in which the rate increased at a specific time of day instead of after a specific number of hours; 1 agreement in which the hours
subject to a higher rate varied with the employer; and 1 agreement in vtfiich the hours could not be determined.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

3

—

5.2




Table 24. M inim um w ork requirements for weekend premium pay in sample of major collective bargaining agreements,
1972-73
Applicability
All agreements

Workers
(thousands)

Agreements

...............................................................................................................

433

1,704.6

Total establishing minimum work requirements......................................................................

62

190.0

Saturday..........................................................................................................
Sunday ..........................................................................................................
Saturday and Sunday ..........................................................................................
Sixth day .......................................................................................................
Seventh day ....................................................................................................
Sixth and seventh d a y ..........................................................................................
Other1 ..........................................................................................................

12
4
5
2
7
24
8

24.1
8.8
10.6
5.6
11.5
103.1
26.5

1 Includes 2 agreements with minimum work requirements for Saturday . sixth and seventh days; 1 agreement, Sunday and sixth day; 1 agreement, Sunday, sixth and seventh days; and 4
agreements which do not permit an employee who fails to satisfy the work requirements to work on weekend premium days.
N O T E : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 25. Advance notice of weekend work in sample of collective bargaining agreements, 1972-73
[workers in thousands]
Notice applicable to —
Advance notice

Saturday or 6th day
Agreements

All agreements.............................................................................................

Agreements

Workers

1,704.6

433

1,704.6

1,699.4

431

1,699.4

228.9
28.3
153.9
9.6
3.9
2.0
4.0
27.3

48
4
14
13
4
1
4
8

284.6
5.6
140.7
70.1
21.9
2.0
26.4
18.0

; Workers

433

Total having hours and overtime provisions.......................................................

Sunday or 7th day

431
i

Total referring to advance notice of weekend...............................................
Less than 24 hours ....................................................................
24 hours, less than 48 hours...........................................................
48 hours, less than 72 hours...........................................................
3 days, less than 4 d a y s ...............................................................
4 days, less than 5 d a y s ...............................................................
5 days or more ........................................................................
Unable to determine ..................................................................

56
16
22
4
2
1
2
9

No reference to advance notice of weekend w o rk ..........................................

375

1,470.5

383

1,414.8

No reference to hours and overtime...............................................................

2

5.2

2

5.2

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Appendix A. Selected Hours, Overtime, and
Weekend W ork Provisions
where the employee was absent for one of the
following reasons:

To illustrate how hours, overtime, and weekend work
clauses are integrated into the collective bargaining
agreement, sections of several agreements are reproduced
in their entirety. Where necessary, intervening but
irrelevant clauses have been deleted.

(1) Sent home for lack of work after working
part of a day.
(2) Lost time due to disability caused by
occupational hazards.

From the agreement between the Monsanto Company,
Springfield, Massachusetts Plant and the International
Union of Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, (ex­
piration date: July 1974)

Section 4.
(a) Premium pay at the rate of time and one-half
shall be paid for all work performed on Sunday,
as such.
(b) An employee requested by the company to
work on his scheduled day of rest shall receive
premium pay at time and one-half for all work
performed on that day.

ARTICLE V
Hours and Overtime
Section 1. For the purpose of computing the pay
of an employee, the normal working day shall be
eight hours and the normal work week shall be 40
hours, and the work week shall begin at 11:00 p.m.
Sunday and end at 11:00 p.m. the following Sunday.

(c) An employee requested to work any hours
before or after his regularly scheduled hours
shall receive premium pay at time and one-half
for such hours worked except as provided
elsewhere in this agreement.

Section 2. Premium pay at the rate of time and
one-half shall be paid as follows: for all work
performed in excess of eight hours in any twenty-four
hour period and for all work performed in excess of
40 hours in any work week.

(d) If, after an employee’s work schedule is posted
in accordance with Article XVII, Section 13(d),
a subsequent change is made in his schedule and
such change is not posted before the end of the
employee’s last regularly scheduled day of work
of his work week, he shall receive premium pay
at the rate of time and one-half for the first day
worked on his changed schedule. Such premium
pay will not apply whenever an employee
changes his job or department or such work
schedule change is the result of layoff or
negotiated placement.

Section 3.
(a) Premium pay at the rate of time and one-half
shall be paid for all work performed on the
sixth consecutive day of work in a regularly
scheduled work week. In order to be entitled to
this premium rate of pay on the sixth day, the
employee must have worked at least 4 hours of
his regularly scheduled shift on each of the five
preceding days of the regular work week except
where the employee was absent for one of the
following reasons:
(1) Sent home for lack of work after working
part of a day.
(2) Lost time due to disability caused by
occupational hazards.
(b) Premium pay at the rate of double time shall be
paid for all work performed on the seventh
consecutive day of work. In order to be entitled
to this premium rate of pay on the seventh day,
the employee must have worked at least 4
hours on each of the six preceding days except



55

• • •
Section 8. A bonus of 50 cents per hour shall be
paid for all work performed on Saturday, as such. If
any work performed on Saturday falls under a
premium pay classification, the Saturday bonus will
not be paid.
Section 9. In the event that the company calls in
an employee to perform emergency work after he has
gone through the plant gates, and this work is of less
than four hours’ duration, he shall be paid four hours
at time and one-half for such emergency call-in. It is
understood that, if the emergency work is less than
four hours’ duration, the employee shall be entitled
to go home and he shall be paid as stated above.
Emergency work shall be defined as work performed

during a period o f time outside the em ployee’s
regularly scheduled shift and not continuing into or
extending beyond such scheduled shift.

any hours that coincide with his regularly
scheduled shift except that a man required to
work continuously from one regularly sche­
duled shift into his next regularly scheduled
shift will be provided the appropriate lunch
allowance during his second regularly scheduled
shift. The employee will be allowed to eat his
lunch at regular mealtimes during his rest
period which will be extended to twenty
minutes in a suitable location in the area where
he is working.

Section 10. In no case shall more than one
premium rate be paid for the same time worked. If
time worked falls under tw o or more premium
classifications, the rate paid shall be the higher single
rate applicable.
Section 11. T o assure proper application o f the
premium pay provisions o f this agreement, the
following interpretations shall apply :
(a) A premium day worked may be counted as a
day worked, as defined in Section 3 o f this
Article, for purposes o f sixth and seventh day
compensations.

(c )

(b ) Payment o f a premium rate on one day shall
not preclude the payment o f a premium rate on
another day.
(c ) Straight time and premium time worked not to
exceed a total o f eight hours on any one
calendar day may be used for purposes o f
computing premium payments for hours in
excess o f 40 in a work week.
(d ) For purposes o f sixth and seventh day compu­
tations only, a day shall consist o f a twentyfour hour period beginning at 1 1 :0 0 p.m., on
one calendar day and ending at 1 1 :0 0 p.m., on
the following calendar day. However, work
performed beyond the end o f a day as a
continuation o f the regular shift o f an em­
ployee shall only be credited for the purpose o f
sixth and seventh day computations if such
work is performed to the extent o f a full eight
hour shift into such day, except that all work
performed on the seventh consecutive day o f
work shall be compensated at double time.

An employee called in to perform emergency
work and who works four hours or more will be
furnished a lunch allowance o f $2 .00 and an
additional lunch allowance o f $ 2.00 at every
four hour interval o f continuous emergency
work thereafter. Except an employee requested
to work a specified number o f hours on his day
o f rest will not be entitled to such lunch
allowance unless, after reporting for work, he is
required to work tw o hours or more beyond
the hours specified. In that event or in the
event he works ten specified hours or more, he
will be entitled to the lunch allowance de­
scribed in this Section.

• • •
Section 13.
(a) The normal working hours for shift employees
will be 7 :0 0 a.m. to 3 :00 p.m., 3:00 p.m. to
11:00 p.m., and 11:00 p.m. to 7 :0 0 a.m.
(b ) The normal working hours for day workers
shall fall between the hours o f 7 :0 0 a.m. and
5:00 p.m., but the actual hours for any such
day shift shall be determined by the company.

ARTICLE XVII
General Provisions

(c ) It is understood that all work scheduled in
effect as o f the date o f this agreement shall
remain in effect for the duration o f this
agreement. The establishment o f new schedules
shall be a matter for discussion and agreement
between the company and the union.

• • •
Section 10.
(a)Any employee who is required to work two
hours or more beyond a weekly scheduled shift
or who is required to start work tw o hours or
more before a weekly scheduled shift will be
furnished a lunch allowance o f $2 .0 0 and an
additional lunch allowance o f $ 2.00 at every
four hour interval o f overtime work thereafter.
Employees scheduled on an extended shift basis
for each work day o f a scheduled week or more
will not be furnished a lunch allowance during
these scheduled hours. If a meal falls within the
normal breakfast period, he will be furnished a
hot breakfast complying with all the provisions
o f the company-union letter o f agreement
dated July 2, 1956 or the appropriate lunch
allowance at his option. However, an employee
shall not be entitled to a lunch allowance for




(b ) An employee punching out after working a
regularly scheduled shift and called back to
work overtime before leaving the plant, will be
entitled to a lunch allowance as provided in this
Section.

(d) Work schedules for shift workers will be posted
on department bulletin boards three days prior
to the start o f the schedules. In the event that
unforeseen changes in production requirements
necessitate changes in the schedules, such
changes will be posted as soon as possible.
Section 14. An employee who performs any
work in addition to his regularly scheduled hours in
his work week shall not be required to take equiva­
lent time o ff in that week.
Section 15. Employees in each classification in
each department will be offered an equal number o f
opportunities in accordance with departmental proce-

56

dures, to perform overtime and unscheduled premium
time work. Overtime records and procedures will be
kept in each department and will be available for
review by the employees concerned snd the Union

From the agreement between nine builders associations
and numerous independent i nntractors in Nassau
County, N.Y., and the United Brotherhood of Carpen­
ters and Joiners of America, (expiration date: June,
1975)
Working Hours: 7 hours, to wit: from 8 o ’clock in
the forenoon until three-thirty o ’ clock in ^he after­
noon shall constitute a working day. Five minutes
shall be allowed for cleanup et al 11:55 A.M. and
3:25 P.M. Half hour lunch from 12 noon to 12:30.
Any work performed during this time shall be a
double time and a half hour lunch time be taken
later.

Except in cases where it is absolutely necessary
and unavoidable, no work shall be permitted or
performed before 8 o ’ clock in the forenoon or after
3:30 o ’clock in the afternoon In such cases where
work shall be necessary to be done outside the iegular
hours o f the working day, permission must be first
obtained from the Business Representative and the
rate o f compensation for such overtime shall be
double the ordinary and existing wage rate for
carpenters and the rate for foremen for overtime shall
be double the existing rate for foremen. Any part o f
one hour worked overtime shall constitute one hour’s
overtime and shall be paid for as such.
No work shall be permitted or performed on
Saturdays or Sundays . . . unless permission shall have
been given b y the Business Representative in writing.
Such permission, howevei, shall only be given in cases
o f danger to life or property. In such cases where
permission shall have been given the rate o f compen­
sation shall be the same as for overtime to wit:
double the straight time rate.

From the agreement between Stokely-Van Camp, Inc.
Fairmont and Winnebago, Minnesota Plants and the
International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs,
Warehousemen, and Helpers of America find.), (expira­
tion date: February 1975)

ARTICLE XIII-HOURS, OVERTIME ^ N D HOLIDAYS
1 3.1

The purpose o f this article i* to outline the
normal hours o f work and to provide the
basis for computing overtime and holiday
pay and shall not be construed as a guaran­
tee wf, O’ ’ lmi-Ui^n v n. hourr c f work pe^
day, per week, or per year. All hours worked
on any shift beginning on or before 12:00




midnight shall belong to the day in which
such shift begins.
13.2 The normal workweek shall be 5 consecutive
8 hour days commencing at 12:01 a.m.,
M onday; howevei, the company reserves the
right to change the workweek, the starting
times and hours o f work as may be neces­
sary. The union will be notified o f changes
in the workweek 24 hours prior to the time
such change is effected.

O ve r tim e p a y

13.3 Time and one-half will be paid for all hours
worked b y employees:
(a)

Over 8 hours in any one day
except during the proper appli­
cation o f seasonal exemption.

(b)

Over 40 hours in any one week
except during the proper appli­
cation o f seasonal exemption.

(c )

Over 10 hours in any one day or
48 hours in any one week during
the pioper application o f 7 (c)
and 7(d) exempt weeks.

(d)

On Sunday during proper appli­
cation o f a 7(d ) exempt week.

13.4 Double time will be paid for all hours
worked b y an employee:
(a)

On Sunday except during the
proper application o f exempt
weeks or when Sunday is part o f
a regularly scheduled 5 day
workweek. When Sunday is part
o f an em ployee’s regularly sche­
duled 5 day workweek, the 7th
day o f that em ployee’s work­
week becomes his Sunday and
all hours worked on day would
be pa*d for at the double time
rate.

13.6 Paid holidays not worked falling within the
workweek, Monday through Friday, will be
counted as time worked foi the purpose o f
computing weekly overtime except during
proper application o f exempt weeks.
13 7 Both daily and weekly overtime will not be
paid for the ;ame hours worked. Employees
shall be paid whichever is greater but not
both. The allowance o f overtime or premium
pay for any hour or part o f an hour excludes
that hour from consideration for considera­
tion for overtime oi premium pay on any
o th 'r basis: thus eliminating pyramiding of
overtime or premium pay.

Relief periods

at respective starting times for each shift and shall
end not later than 7 :0 0 o ’ clock the following
Saturday morning.

• • •
13.13 Employees shall receive not more than a
l-hour lunch break, provided however,
during the processing season, employees may
be checked out to avoid standby time for a
period o f not more than 3 accumulative
hours exclusive o f the lunch period. The
meal period shall be scheduled as near as
possible to the middle o f the day’s work.
Any employee who is not relieved o f his
duties for his meal period shall be paid for
the meal period.

(b) The exception to the above is for the boiler
house employees and furnace servicemen who will
operate according to scheduled number o f hours
shown herein under Section 3, and on a non-consecutive basis. The work week o f these employees, when
operating on a continuous basis starts on Monday at
7 :0 0 a.m. and ends the following Monday morning at
7 :0 0 a.m.
(c ) When production requirements are curtailed
necessitating a reduction in hours in the normal work
week, every reasonable effort will be made to
schedule employees in such a manner that they will
be eligible to receive unemployment compensations.

13.14 During the fresh pack season any employee
may request o ff for each 3 Sundays worked
and shall have the same provided a substitute
can be procured. The company together
with the employee requesting time o ff will
make every effort to obtain such substitute.

Section 3.

The Work Schedule

(a) In the case o f one or two shift operations, the
hours shall be on all days worked as follow s and
include a half-hour unpaid lunch period:

• • •

1st S h ift...............................7 :0 0 A.M. to 3 :3 0 P.M.
2nd S h if t ................... 3 :3 0 P.M. to 12:00 Midnight

Exempt weeks
13.17The com pany is engaged in the processing o f
agricultural foodstuffs including perishable
fruits and vegetables o f a seasonal nature and
is entitled to limited overtime exemptions
under this Agreement as are provided by the
Federal Wage-Hour Laws.

(b) In the case o f 3 shift operations, the hours
shall be as follow s:

13.18 Exempt weeks as provided in this agreement
are to be used only when actual processing
o f perishable fruits and vegetables occur
during that calendar week, except that
exempt weeks may additionally be used for
preparation and storage o f planting and
harvesting equipment.

(c) When work is required on Saturdays and
Sundays, scheduled departments will work in accord­
ance with the hours o f a three-shift work schedule.

1st S h ift..................... ..
7:00 A.M. to 3 :0 0 P.M.
2nd S h i f t ............................ 3 :00 P.M. to 11:00 P.M.
3rd Shift .......................... 11:00 P.M. to 7 :0 0 A.M.

(d) A department beginning a work week with
three operating shifts which are continued through at
least Wednesday o f the week will work the hours o f a
three shift work schedule the balance o f that week.

From the agreement between the Dana Corporation,
Parish Frame Division, Reading Plant, and the United
Steelworkers of America, (expiration date: October

(e) Transportation and inspection employees shall
work the same hours as the departments they service;
also the following applies:
(1 ) If the department they service leaves the
plant o f their own accord, the servicemen
serving that department will also be sent
home.

1977)
ARTICLE 4. HOURS OF WORK

( 2 ) If the department they service is sent home
after 4 hours for any reason, the servicemen
serving that department will also be sent
home.

This provision describes the normal work day and
work week. It is not a guarantee o f hours o f work per
day or per week or o f days o f work per week.
Section 1.

The Work Day

The normal work day shall consist o f 8 consecu­
tive hours o f work exclusive o f any unpaid lunch
periods, beginning with the starting time o f the shift
worked b y the employees, except the boiler house
employees and furnace servicemen who will operate
on the schedule o f hours as shown under Section 3 o f
this article.
Section 2.

(3 ) If the department they service works over­
time during the week, the servicemen serving
that department will work overtime with the
department.
(4 ) If the department they service is sent home
before working 4 hours due to lack o f
material, machine breakdown, the service­
men serving that department will be moved
to other jobs in their respective departments
which they can do and the youngest men in
the department will be sent home.

The Work Week

(a) The normal work week shall consist o f 5
consecutive days beginning on Monday o f each week



58

(f)
The schedules o f paragraphs (a) and (b ) apply
to all departments, except the boiler house employees
and furnace servicemen.
(l)T h e schedule o f shifts for boiler house
employees for continuous operation will be:

1st Shift 2nd S h ift3rd Shift 4th S h ift-

M
8.5
8.5
8.5

0

T
8.5
8.5

0

8.5

W
8.5

0

8.5
8.5

T

0

8.5
8.5
8.5

F
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

S
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

Sun
6.5
6.5
6.5
6.5

Daily and Weekly Overtime

(b ) When employees mutually agree for their own
convenience to change shifts for one or more days,
the company shall not be penalized under the 24
hour provision, or be required to pay premium pay
under any Federal or State statute; if this occurs the
company has the right to refuse the shift change. In
addition, all employees shall have the necessary
comparable skills to make such shift changes.

Starting at 6:00 a.m. Monday morning each
man will work a 6 -hour shift from Monday
thru Friday, 2 men working 12 hours on
Saturday and 2 men working 12 hours on
Sunday, alternating Saturday and Sunday
work each week.
(g)
When boiler house and Furnace servicemen
operate on basis o f 5-day work week, each shift will
be 8 hours each as follow s:
1st S h i f t .......................... 6:00 a.m. to 2 :00 p.m.
2nd S h ift........................2 :0 0 p.m. to 10:00 p.m.
3rd S h if t ........................10:00 p.m. to 6 :00 a.m.
(h)
The determination o f starting time o f daily and
weekly work schedules shall be made by the com ­
pany; such schedules may be changed by the com ­
pany from time to time to suit varying conditions o f
business, provided however, that indiscriminate, or
arbitrary changes shall not be made in schedules.
Changes deemed necessary by the company shall be
made known to the plant representatives o f the union
at least 1 day in advance o f such change, if possible.
Lunch, Rest and Wash Periods

(a) The piesently established rest, lunch and wash
periods shah continue unless changed by the parties.

(c) Any new employee hired during the week shall
not receive premium pay for Saturday or Sunday
during the first week o f their employment unless
Saturday or Sunday is the sixth or seventh day
worked within the week in question.
(d) Overtime pay shall be paid for all work
performed before the regular starting time and after
the regular quitting time o f the shift to which the
employee is regularly assigned. However, employees
who, for personal reasons, have been unable to
complete their 8 hours at the end o f their regular
scheduled shift, may be permitted upon their request
to make up time for such loss at straight-time pay.
The exception to this will be the case o f union
committeemen who are on union work during the
course o f the day which shall not be considered
personal reasons. If they are working on productive
work before or after the state or finish o f their
regular shifts, they will be, and overtime pay in
accordance with the above,
(e) Overtime shall be paid on the basis o f the
average weekly earnings for the wrek in which the
overtime is worked.

(b) Lunch peiiods will be in accordance with the
present established practice. The practice is that on 3
shift operations, day workers will receive a 20 minute
maximum paid lunch period and incentive workers
will receive a 20 minute maximum unpaid lunch
period.
Section 5.

Section 1.

(a) Time and one-half shall be paid for all hours or
parts o f hours worked in excess o f 8 hours within the
24 and/or for hours or parts o f hours worked in
excess o f 40 hours in 1 work week, which ever is the
greater, unless the em ployee’s shift is changed due to
application o f Article 6 o f this agreement.

(2)The schedule o f shift for furnace servicemen
for continuous operations will be:

Section 4.

A R T IC LE S. OVERTIME AND PREMIUM PAY

(f) Overtime or premium payments shall not be
duplicated for the same hours worked under any o f
the terms o f this agreement and to the extent that
hours are compensated for at overtime rates under
one provision, they shall not be counted as hours
worked in determining overtime under the same or
any other provision.

Miscellaneous

(a) Should employees who are regularly scheduled
on the Monday through Friday basis be required for
Saturday, Sunday or holiday vork, the company shall
make every effort to give at least 48 hours advance
notice to such employees,

Section 2.

Deduction for Overtime

No employee shall be required to take regular time
o ff for any overtime worked in a scheduled work
week.

(b> The company shall post at the main entrance
each building a daily report o f the total hours
earned by each employee.

ol

Section 3.
Pay

(c> On any day when situations arise which would
necessitate maintenance employees working into the
next shift, sufficient employees will be obligated to
work to handle such occasions.

(a) Time and one-half shall be paid for work
performed on Saturday except where the employee
has for personal reasons absented himself from work
for one day during the work week with the following




59

Saturday and Sunday Work; Premium

equally distributed, a record o f overtime will be
maintained and posted in each department.

exceptions, in which case time and one-half shall be
paid in accordance with Section 1 above.

(a) Transpo tation Departments

(1) When on jury duty.

In scheduling work for Saturdays and Sundays,
crane operators and h o o l up men shall rotate such
work by shifts within a bay or unit, whichever the
case ma> be. Employ ees classified as truck operators
will be scheduled by rotating time among all such
employees within the department by shifts.
The bay system is established with the intention o f
providing a fair and equitable method o f distributing
Saturday and Sunday overtime work. Changes in the
physical layout o f the plant and/or other changes in
work or work conditions, may make it necessary to
levise the above bay definitions. Any revisions will be
made b y mutual agreement and will take into
consideration the basic intent o f the bay definitions
- i.e., to provide a method o f fairly and equitably
distributing available overtime.

(2 ) O ff due to hospitalization.
(3) When man is sent home by company doctor
due to out o f plant injury. (D octor’s decision is
final.)
(4 ) Death in immediate family. (The holiday
pay definition o f the immediate family, as de­
scribed under Section 5 (f) applies).
(5 ) When an employee presents a doctor’s
certificate substantiating time lost during the
normal work week as a result o f illness or outside
injury.
(b) Double time shall be paid for all work per­
formed on Sunday commencing at 7 :0 0 a.m. Sunday
and ending at 7:0 0 a.m. on Monday except where
employee ha?, for personal reasons, absented himself
from work one day during the work week or sixth
day, with the same exception provided under para­
graph (a) above, and except where employees request
and are granted permission to work on Sunday in
preference to Saturday. In such cases, employees shall
be paid time and one-half o\ertime in accordance
with paragraph (a) o f this section.

(b ) Inspect ion Department
The application o f sexdoiity in w orking employees
in Inspection Departments 4 0 1 ,4 1 1 ,4 2 1 and 431 for
Saturday and Sunday work will apply as follow s:
In scheduling work for Saturday and Sunday,
Inspectors will rotate such work by shifts within each
group . . . and within the department to which they
are normally assigned . . .
Utility men will divide overtime with the men in
the Process Group 3.

Regardless o f the number o f days o f f for personal
reasons an employee will be paid time and one-half
for all hours worked on Sunday.

(c ) Electrical Departments
(c) No employee shall be reprimanded for his
inability or refusal for good cause to work on
Saturdays, Sundays or the holidays listed on Section
5 o f this Article. However, the employee shall notify
his foreman at the time o f request, when unable to
work. Failure to d o so will constitute a violation.

The division o f Saturday and Sunday overtime in
Electrical Departments 71 and 72, combined under
one seniority list, will be accomplished as follow s:
Overtime work o f these employees will be divided
as equally as possible, b y shift, among all employees
working in both the Weiser and Lewis Buildings,
subject to the follow ing regulations:

(d ) When it is necessary to operate the boiler
house firemen and/or furnace servicemen on a 4 shift
continuous operation basis, such employees shall be
paid time and one-half for work performed or
Saturday, and double time for work performed on
Sunday except where they have, for personal reasons,
been absent from work during the work week other
than their regularly scheduled day o ff with the
exceptions provided under paragraph (a) o f this
Section; in such cases straight time will be paid for
work performed Saturday and time and one half paid
for work performed Sunday, in accordance with
Section 1 o f this Article. Premium pay will not be
compounded if employees work a sixth and seventh
day during a work week.

1. Men sched uled before the end o f dinner or the
meal period on Thursday o f respective shift for
Saturday and/or Sunday work will be notified by
weekend record board. No attempt will be made by
foreman to contact each man.
2. Employees so notified will be required to advise
their foiem an o f theii dec ision as to Saturday and/or
Sunday work by the end o f their respective Thursday
shift. All refusals o f men scheduled as in regulation
( 1 ) will be recorded on the overtime record.
3. Men scheduled after the end of dinner or the
meal period on Thursday o f respective shift for
Saturday and/or Sunday work will be contacted
individually by their foreman; any refusals will not be
recorded on record.

Section 4. Division o f Saturday and Sunday Over­
time Work
With the exceptions listed under this section,
Saturday and Sunday overtime work shall be divided
equally among all employees within a department, by
shift, or in accordance with present practices and will
be carried out as far as it is practicable and possible.
In order to com ply with the above where overtime is




4. There will be no swapping or exchanging o f
scheduled w oik except as provided under Section 1
o f this Article.
(d) Maintenance Department

60

the Business Agent, or the President, if the Business
Agent is absent from the city. The normal working
days in each week, if and when the company is
operating on the 40 hour week, shall be Monday
through Friday, inclusive. The working days may
include Saturday whenever the company is operating
on a week o f more than 40 hours.

The division o f Saturday and Sunday overtime in
Maintenance Departments 81 and 82, combined
under one seniority list, to be handled the same as
that covered above the electrical departments with
the provision that painters and oilers in these depart­
ments will rotate their overtime on the same basis as
handled in the past, on work they normally perform
during the week and a separate record for Saturday
and Sunday will be maintained for employees under
these jo b classifications.
(e)
Press Departments 4 , 11, 18, 60, 61, 63, 67,
108 and 109
When presses are to be operated on the sixth or
seventh day, the company will schedule the regular
operators and regular helpers who normally operated
the press during the week. The work on all presses
which have no regular operator or helper assigned to
them will be rotated among all employees in the
department by shift.
In the event the regular operator o f a press is laid
o ff on a Thursday and/or Friday due to lack o f work
and his press is operated by an older employee and
the press is scheduled for Saturday or Sunday work,
the regular press operator will be given the oppor­
tunity to operate that press on the overtime days. In
the event employees who normally work on a press
are unable to work Saturday and/or Sunda>, the
work shall be rotated among all the employees by
shift. In calling in employees by seniority, by shift,
such work over a period o f time shall be divided as
equally as possible among employees on the shift.

Section 2. At all times when the company finds
it necessary to d o so to meet emergencies, it may
operate at other hours or on other days than above
provided, subject to any restrictions imposed b y law.
The company will notify the Business Agent o f the
contents o f any notice to be posted b y it relative to
hours o f work which affect the employees as a whole.
The company agrees that to the extent practicable
under all the circumstances it will be its intention to
notify employees prior to noon if they will be
required to work after 4 :3 0 p.m. on that day.
Section 3. (a) Without hereby limiting the com ­
pany’ s right to require work at any such times, all
work performed b y any employee over forty hours in
any one workweek . . . 8 hours in any one d a y ,. . . or
(except in the case o f firemen and watchmen-firemen) on a Saturday shall be considered overtime
work and shall be paid for at time and on e-h a lf. . .

From the agreement between the Potomac Electric
Power Company and the Electric U tility Employees’
Union of Washington, D.C. (Ind.). (expiration date: May
1975)

On weekend work, in case o f tool or press
breakdown, the employee can be transferred to an
open press within his department for the balance o f
the day.

ARTICLE

6

Special Premiums
Section

6.

Daylight Saving Time

Section 1. Employees whose regular schedule
requires them to work a shift beginning at approxi­
mately midnight and ending at approximately 8 a.m.
(A Shift), or a shift beginning at approximately 4
p.m. and ending at approximately midnight (C Shift),
shall be paid 25 cents per hour above their basic rates
o f pay for the hours worked on the shift. These
additional payments are not to be paid to employees
working these shifts as overtime or receiving premium
payments because o f change o f schedule, but shall be
applicable only when the shift is worked as a regular
schedule. When half or more o f an em ployee’s shift is
within one o f the differential pay time periods, he
shall be paid the premium for his entire shift.

On the Sunday when daylight saving time goes
into effect, the payment o f double time to the third
shift, starting Saturday night, will not start until after
8 :0 0 a.m. daylight saving time.

From the agreement between the Melville Shoe Corpora­
tion, J. F. McElwain Company Division and the New
Hampshire Shoe Workers Union of Manchester (Ind.).
(expiration date: March 1975)
ARTICLE IV
HOURS OF WORK AND OVERTIME

Section 2. Employees required to work on Sun­
day as a part o f their regular weekly schedule shall be
paid a premium o f 25% above their basic rates o f pay
for hours worked on the shift.

Section 1. The normal working day shall contain
eight consecutive hours exclusive o f a one hour lunch
period. The starting time o f the working day shall be
determined by the company. The lunch period . . .
shall be from 12 noon to 1:00 P.M. No work shall be
performed during the lunch period except in case o f
an emergency, and then only with prior agreement by
the union representative in the department and from



Section 3. Whenever the basic working schedule
o f an employee is changed by the company and he
does not receive 96 hours’ notice before the change
takes place, he shall be paid at the rate o f time and
one-half for the first day worked on the new
61

to a meal allowance. When the overtime
continues and is expected to continue for a
total period in excess o f 8 hours, he shall be
entitled to a further meal allowance 6 hours
after the 2-hour allowance and others at
intervals o f 5 hours if the overtime work
continues. An employee released from work at
the end o f 8 hours’ overtime work shall not be
entitled to a second meal allowance.

schedule. When notice o f 96 hours is given before the
change takes place, no premium rate will be paid.

T o avoid any misunderstandings, the instructions
to the employee will be confirmed in writing and
given to him if he is present. If he is not present at
the time, confirming instructions in writing will be
provided for him upon his return to work.

B—When an employee is called out or is otherwise
instructed to report for overtime work and
does report within 2 hours after being released
from duty, he shall be entitled to a meal
allowance 2 hours after the time he was
previously released. Provided, however, if the
em ployee received a meal allowance during his
previous duty, he shall not be entitled to a
meal allowance until 5 hours from the time o f
his previous allowance.

A —Where a change in working schedule without
the required notice causes an employee to be
o ff duty instead o f working, he shall be paid
time and one-half for his next straight time
working day.
B—Changes in working hours whereby schedules
are shifted by one hour or less will not be
considered change o f schedule within the
meaning o f this Section provided notice is
given to the employee during his last pre­
ceding work shift or at least 12 hours prior to
the change.

C—When an employee is called out over 2 hours
after he was released from work, he shall be
entitled to a meal allowance after 5 hours’
overtime work and an additional meal allow­
ance, when the overtime continues, at the end
o f each continued 5 hours’ overtime work.
Provided, however, when an employee is
called out within 5 hours o f the beginning o f
his next regular shift and the overtime worked
extends to his normal starting time, he shall be
entitled to a meal allowance at the beginning
o f his shift if the overtime worked amounts to
hours.

C—A shift or off-day exchange within the same
workweek by mutual agreement between em­
ployees in the same jo b classification will be
permitted if approved by the supervisor, when
it does not require the payment o f overtime or
change in rate o f pay and in the opinion o f the
supervisor will not hinder the work or unduly
inconvenience fellow employees.

2

D—When an employee has been given notice to
change his schedule in accordance with this
Section, the changed schedule shall then be
considered his regular schedule for that
period. Any further change from this schedule
shall be considered as a further change in
schedule and notice given as required herein.

D—When a jo b is prearranged, an employee shall
be entitled to a meal allowance after working
consecutive hours and further allowances
thereafter at intervals o f 5 hours if the
overtime work continues.

12

E—If an employee is allowed time o ff for a meal,
no deduction from his time will be made if it
does not exceed one-half hour. Time taken in
excess o f one-half hour will be deducted from
his time.

E—The requirements o f this Section shall not
apply to employees who are permitted to
return to work on a limited or light duty basis
as the result o f agreement between the Medi­
cal Department and the management o f their
Departments. This exclusion shall apply also
at the time such employees are returned to a
regular schedule after release for regular duty.
When the return to regular duty and regular
schedule is to take place, the company will,
whenever possible, schedule an o ff day for the
employee between the days o f change when
such return would allow only one shift o f rest.

F—When it is apparent that meal allowances will
be due under this Section, supervisors may
release employees for meals at any convenient
period around normal meal times.

ARTICLE 7
Overtime

Section 4. Meal allowances o f $2.00 ($2.25
effective August 29, 1972) per meal shall be paid to
employees working overtime, under the following
conditions:

Section 1.
A—
The normal workday shall consist o f 8 con­
secutive hours o f work, exclusive o f meal
periods, and the normal workweek shall con­
sist o f 5 normal workdays.

A —When an employee is notified during his
currently assigned shift to remain on duty
after the end o f such shift, he shall be entitled
to a meal allowance after 2 hours’ overtime
work. However, if he is released with 2 hours’
or less overtime work he shall not be entitled




B—For payroll purposes the workday begins at
a.m. in the morning and ends at 12
midnight that night, and the workweek begins

12:01

62

overtime work and the hours worked are not
continuous with other hours worked, he shall
receive a minimum o f 4 hours’ pay exclusive
o f travel time.

at 12:01 Sunday morning and ends at 12
midnight the follow ing Saturday night.
C—When a normal workday begins before 12:01
a.m. and continues past 12:01 a.m., time shall
be charged on the day in which the majority
o f the hours is worked. When the normal
workday is divided evenly before and after
midnight, time shall be charged on the day on
which work was started.

C—Except as prohibited in Item E below , when
an employee is “ called ou t” for overtime
work, he shall be paid travel time o f one hour
at time and one-half rate in addition to time
worked, regardless o f whether the work con­
tinues on to be continuous with other hours
worked.

Section 2. Overtime is defined as time worked
in excess o f 8 hours in a workday or 40 hours in a
workweek. All overtime shall be paid for at the rate
o f one and one-half times basic rates except where
higher rates are provided for elsewhere in this
Agreement.

D—When an employee is “ called ou t” for over­
time work and reports for work within 6
hours o f the beginning o f his upcoming regular
shift and works at least 4 hours, he shall be
retained on duty and paid on overtime until
the beginning o f his upcoming regular shift.

Section 3. When an employee works his full
workweek o f 5 normal workdays, and in addition
works a minimum o f 4 consecutive hours on his first
o ff day in the same workweek as overtime, any work
on his second scheduled o ff day in the same
workweek shall be paid fo r at double time rates.
Excused time with pay and holidays will be con­
sidered time at work fo r the purpose o f this Section
3.

E—When an employee is “ called ou t” for over­
time work and reports for work within 2
hours o f his previous release from his regular
shift, he shall be paid as if he worked
continuously from his regular shift. In these
cases travel time will not be allowed.

Section 6.

Section 4.

A —Overtime work shall be distributed as equit­
ably as possible among employees in the job
classification in the occupational group in
which such overtime work is to be performed.

A —After 16 consecutive hours o f work, em­
ployees shall be paid double time for all
consecutive hours worked thereafter. An em­
ployee who has worked 14 or more consecu­
tive hours shall, upon his release, be entitled
to an 8-hour rest period before he returns to
work. If this rest period extends into his
regularly scheduled working hours for 4 hours
or more, he shall be excused from his regular
tour o f duty for that day and shall lose no pay
thereby. If the rest period extends into his
regularly scheduled hours for less than 4
hours, he shall be excused from that portion
o f his regular tour and lose no pay thereby.

B—The employee in the appropriate jo b classifica­
tion with the lowest amount o f charged
overtime hours shall normally be first consid­
ered for overtime work to be done taking into
account nature o f work, ability to perform it
satisfactorily within reasonable time limits and
availability o f the employee. No more than
one reasonable attempt to reach an employee
will be required. In emergency situations the
company may call any employee it deems
necessary under the circumstances.

B—An employee who has been released after 14
consecutive hours o f work may be recalled or
instructed to report back to work before the
end o f his 8-hour rest period if needed. If the
elapsed time between time o f release and time
o f reporting back to duty is less than 8 hours,
his rate o f compensation for consecutive hours
o f work after his return shall be at double
time.

1. In departments that have rotating 3-shift
operations, after the company has called
all employees on the overtime list once per
shift, it may request the employees with
the lowest amount o f overtime hours in
each jo b classification to remain on duty
for overtime work.
2. If through the fault o f the company the
appropriate employee on the overtime list
is not assigned to a particular case o f
overtime work, he will be compensated at
the appropriate overtime rate for the num­
ber o f hours he would have worked unless
the company gives him an opportunity to
make up such hours within 3 months after
the mistake occurred. Any absence o f the
employee due to vacation or sickness shall
be added to the 3-month period.

Section 5.
A —An employee is considered to be “ called ou t”
for overtime work when he is given notice
while o ff duty to report for work within 7
hours, and the hours worked are not con­
tinuous with other hours worked.
B—When an employee is “ called ou t” for over­
time work, or is instructed to report for




63

hourly rate payroll period (2 weeks) and
after the close o f each weekly rate payroll
period (2 weeks), listing overtime hours
worked, hours unavailable, and hours de­
clined with the consent o f the company,
fo r the period and cumulative for the year.

C—An employee will be charged as being unavail­
able for overtime work for the number o f
hours he could have worked without need for
any attempt to contact him in the following
situations:
1. When he does not have a telephone or a
current telephone number listed with the
company.

3. A cop y o f each posting shall be sent to
each appropriate local representative and
to each employee working out o f a head­
quarters where lists are not posted who is
being charged with being unavailable for
overtime during the period covered b y the
posting.

2. When he is on vacation, restricted to
limited duty or light duty, or absent on his
last previous regular schedule shift, or,
since his last previous regular schedule
shift, has reported to the effect that he is
not able to work.

4. The dates o f posting o f the lists for each
prescribed period in the areas specified and
dispatching to the local representative and
reasonable delivery dates to individual em­
ployees affected shall be the dates for
cause fo r the complaint under Article 17,
Section 2, regulating the time periods for
making complaints and filing grievances.

D—Overtime work offered to an employee but
waived with the consent o f the company and
overtime work which would be offered to an
em ployee if he were available shall be charged
to him as overtime hours.
E—When a jo b started on straight time cannot be
completed without overtime work, the com ­
pany shall have the option o f continuing on
overtime work the employees who started the
jo b or replacing them with other employees
w ho have a lower number o f charged overtime
hours.

H—An employee who wishes to be excused from
overtime work whenever possible may submit
a written request to his department head. An
employee shall not submit this written request
for a waiver from overtime work and a
department head shall not approve such a
request unless both the employee and depart­
ment head intend a bona fide waiver o f
consideration for overtime work. Such waivers
are not intended to be a vehicle for avoiding
the intent and purpose o f Article 7, Section 6 .

This paragraph may be modified in any
department to meet local conditions if the
local representative and department head
desire to d o so and conclude an arrangement
satisfactory to them which is stated in writing
with copies to the union and personnel ser­
vices.

1. After approval, if any, such employee will
be excluded from consideration fo r the
equitable distribution o f overtime but will
not be excused from the requirement to
work overtime as may be determined to be
needed by the company. Such employee
will be listed on the overtime record with a
“ W ” identification to indicate “ waiver” .
All overtime hours actually worked by
such employee will be shown for him on
the overtime lists.

F—Temporary employees may be called for over­
time in emergencies but shall not be scheduled
for prearranged overtime work until they have
completed 6 months’ continuous service.
G—The company will post lists o f employees for
overtime assignment consideration on appro­
priate departmental bulletin boards b y jo b
classification and occupational group. Further
subdivisions according to geographical assign­
ment areas may be agreed to by local repre­
sentatives and departmental management and
copies o f such agreements are to be sent to the
union and personnel services.

1.

2. The company or the employee may revoke
the waiver referred to above by notice in
writing to be effective at the beginning o f
the first pay period in the following
calendar month. When restored to regular
overtime status such employee shall be
listed at one hour above the highest num­
ber o f hours listed for any employee in his
jo b classification or one hour above his
previously charged overtime hours, which­
ever is higher.

A t the beginning o f the appropriate pay
period in each calendar year the lists o f
employees for overtime selection consider­
ation shall be prepared with the employee
having the lowest number o f charged over­
time hours in the preceding year listed
with zero hours and the remaining em­
ployees listed with a corresponding reduc­
tion in the previous year’s charged over­
time hours.

3. Waivers and revocations o f waivers shall be
valid only when prepared on the standard
forms agreed upon by the union and the
company with copies to the union and the
employment and records department. Not­
withstanding the above, all employee

2. Thereafter, postings shall be made within 4
working days after the close o f every other




64

waivers shall be revoked effective Decem­
ber 31, 1972. Any employees desiring to
be excused from overtime work after that
date may process written requests as here­
tofore provided in this Article 7.

3. Returning from military leave or maternity
leave.
4. Returning to bargaining unit within one
year o f prom otion to management status.
5. Transfer from non-bargaining unit to bar­
gaining unit.

I— No grievance may be filed on the distribution
o f overtime work in any particular case unless
the difference in charged overtime hours
between the employee assigned to the work
and the complaining employee exceeds 20
percent o f the charged overtime o f the as­
signed employee.

Section 7. When an em ployee has been pre­
viously instructed to work overtime on his o f f day
and the work is cancelled by the com pany, it will
give notice o f cancellation to the employee affected
8 hours before reporting time. If 8 hours’ notice is
not given, the employee may report to the work
location as planned and be paid an allowance o f 4
hours at the applicable overtime rate.
If the jo b is cancelled within 8 hours o f reporting
time and the employee requests permission not to
report, he may be excused b y his supervisor, and in
such case shall not be entitled to any pay allowance.

J— Overtime worked by an employee while in a
temporary upgraded status will be charged to
him in his regular jo b classification.
K—Employees changed from one overtime record
list to another or added to an existing list in
any o f the following situations shall be
charged with the highest number o f overtime
hours charged to any employee on the list to
which they are to be placed plus one hour:

1.

Section 8 . An employee shall not be required to
take time o f f on his regular basic work schedule in
lieu o f overtime worked or to be worked. This shall
not affect the com pany’s right to change the sched­
ule o f basic work and o ff days or hours o f duty o f
employees as set forth in Article 6 , Section 3.

Promotions, demotions, and transfers from
one seniority roster to another, or from
one geographical location to another.

2. New employees, and temporary employees
after 6 months’ service.




65

Appendix B. Identification of Clauses
All unions are affiliated with the AFL-CIO except those designated as (Ind.).

1

Aluminum Company o f America, Cleveland Plant,

2

A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
Proctor & Gamble Manufacturing C o ..........................
Port Ivory Factory, 0 .
Independent Oil & Chemical Workers, Inc. (Ind.)

3

Collins Radio C o m p a n y ...............................................

4

A.O . Smith Corp., Electric M otor D iv is io n .............

5

Northern Illinois Gas Company

6

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Acme Markets, Inc., Forty Fort, Pa............................

7

Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Hotel Association o f New Y ork City, Inc..................

8

9
10

11

12
13

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
................................

New Y ork Hotel and Motel Trades Council
Associated General Contractors o f California, . . .
Inc., Master Agreement
Carpenters (C JA)
Associated Producers & Packers, Inc., Seattle . . .
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
True Temper Corporation .........................................
Steelworkers (USA)
Building Trades Employers Association, Inc., . . .
and Builders Institute o f Westchester & Putnam
Counties, New Y ork, Inc.
Laborers (LIU NA)
Area F ood Store Contract, Alameda County, Calif.
Retail Clerks (R CIA)
Area Wholesale Grocers, Chain Stores and Others, .
Minneapolis

14

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Greater Pittsburgh Milk Dealers Association

. . . .

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

15

United Parcel Service, Inc., Atlantic A r e a ................

16

Long Beach and Orange County Restaurant Assn.,

17

First National Stores, Inc., B o s t o n ............................

18

RCA Global Communications, Inc., Commercial




Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Hotel and Restaurant Employees (HREU)
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Trade Division
Teamsters (IB T) (Ind.)

6
6

.

19
20

21

22

23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34

R.H. Macy & C o., Inc., Bambergers D iv is io n ...................
Retail Clerks (R C IA )
General Telephone Co. o f Pennsylvania, .........................
6 departments
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Kelly-Springfield Tire C o., Cumberland, M d.......................
Rubber Workers (URW )
Area Underground Contractors Association a n d .............
5 others, 111.
Operating Engineers (IUOE)
Acm e B oot C o., Inc., Tenn.....................................................
Rubber Workers (URW )
Area Industrial Refuse Collecting C on tra ctors,................
New Y ork City, N .Y.
Teamsters (IB T) (Ind.)
Garment Industries o f Illinois

............................................
Garment Workers; Ladies’ (ILGWU)

General Telephone C o., o f M ich iga n ...................................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Commonwealth Edison C o., Chicago (c le r ic a l)................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Maytag C o ..................................................................................
A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
California Metal Trades A s s o c ia tio n ...................................
Machinists (IA M )
Beech Aircraft Corp.................................................................
Machinists (IAM )
Kansas Power and Light C o....................................................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Associated General Contractors o f St Louis & ................

2

others
Carpenters (CJA)
Associated Milk Dealers, Inc., Chicago
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

............................

35

Associated Building Contractors o f Northwestern . . . .
Ohio, Inc.
Laborers (LIUNA)
Santa Barbara Restaurant Association & 2 others, . . . .
California
Hotel and Restaurant Employees (HREU)

36

Associated Hotels o f Atlantic City, N.J...............................

37
38

Hotel and Restaurant Employees (HREU)
Area Dye & Machine Print Companies, N .Y ., Conn., N.J.
Pa. and Mass.
Textile Workers Union (TW UA)
Big Apple Supermarkets, Inc., Ga., Ala., Tenn..................
Retail Clerks (R C IA )

39
40




Outboard Marine Corp., Johnson Outboards Division . .
Independent Marine and Machinists Association (Ind.)
Knitted Outerwear Manufacturers Association,
Pennsylvania District
Garment Workers; Ladies’ (ILGWU)
67

.............

41

43

National Association o f Doll Manufacturers, Inc. . .
T oy Workers (DTPN)
Construction Employers Labor Relations Assn, o f .
New Y ork State, Inc., Rochester area
Laborers (LIU NA)
West Point-Pepperell, Inc., Lindale Division .............

44

Textile Workers Union (TW UA)
Eastern New York Construction Employers, Inc., . .

42

45

Albany
Ironw orkers (BSOIW)
Construction Employers Labor Relations Assn.

. . .

o f New Y ork State, Inc., Syracuse area

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58

Laborers (LIUNA)
Employers Negotiating Committee, Evansville, Ind. .
Laborers (LIUNA)
League o f New Y ork Theatres, Inc.................................
A ctors’ Equity (A E A )
Monsanto C o., Springfield, Mass. P l a n t ......................
Electrical Workers (IUE)
Seeburg Corp. o f Delaware, Seeburg Products Div.
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

.

Milwaukee Lithographers A s s o c ia tio n .........................
Graphic Arts (G AIU )
National Lead C o., Titanium Pigment Division . . . .
Oil, Chemical and Atom ic Workers (OCAW )
American T obacco C o.......................................................
T obacco Workers (TWIU)
Georgia-Pacific Corp., Crossett Paper Division . . . .
Paperworkers (UPIU)
Photo-Engravers Board o f Trade o f New Y o rk , Inc. .
Graphic Arts (G AIU )
Detroit Edison C o ...............................................................
Utility Workers (UWU)
Michigan Bell Telephone Co., Comptroller Operations
Communications Workers (CW A)
Western Electric Co., Inc., D istr ib u tio n ......................
Organization o f the Service Division
Communications Workers (CW A)
Pickands Mather & Co., for Erie Mining Co. &
Mahoning Ore & Steel Co.

...

Steelworkers (USA)

59

Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., Akron Plants

60

KennecGtt Copper Corp., Utah Copper Division . . .

61

.............

Rubber Workers (URW)
Steelworkers (USA)
T exaco, Inc., Port Arthur Plant and Terminal . . . .
Oil, Chemical, and Atom ic Workers (OCAW)

62

Hygrade F ood Products C orp..........................................

63

Magee Carpet Co., Bloomsburg, Pa.................................

64




Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Textile Workers Union (TW UA)
California Beer Distributors, Area Agreement
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

6
8

. . . .

65

66
67

68

69
70
71

72

Pacific Car & Foundry C o., Kenworth M otor Truck and
Dart Truck Co. Subsidiaries
A uto Workers (LiAW) (Ind.)
Master Builders Association o f Western Pennsylvania . ,
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Union Carbide Corp., Chemicals & Plastics Operations .
Division, So. Charleston, W. Va. Plant
Machinists (IAM )
Proctor & Gamble Manufacturing Co., Ivorydale . . . ,
& St. Bernard, 0 .
Ivorydale & St. Bernard Employees’ Representation
Association (Ind.)
Bendix Corp., Kansas City D i v is i o n ..................................
Machinists (IAM )
Companies o f the Southern California Steel Fabricators
Boilermakers (BBF)
Western Electric Co., Inc., Baltimore Works ...................
Communication Equipment Workers, Inc. (Ind.)
Coleman C o., Inc., Wichita, Kansas

...............................

Steelworkers (USA)
73

United Knitwear Manufacturers League, I n c . , .............
New Y ork City, N.Y.

74

Scott Paper C o., Everett Plant, Wash.................................

Garment Workers; Ladies (ILGWU)
Pulp and Paper; Western (WPPW) (Ind.)
75

Hammermill Paper C o., Thilmany Pulp & Paper . . . .

76

Division, Wis.
Paperworkers (UPUI)
Madison Employers Council, Building and Construction
Contractors Division o f Wis.
Carpenters (C JA)

77

G u lf Oil Corp., T e x a s ........................................................

78

Area Local Cartage Agreement, for Hire and Private .
Carriers, Chicago
Truck Drivers; Chicago (C TD ) (Ind.)
Lingerie Manufacturers Association o f New Y ork , Inc.
Garment Workers; Ladies’ (ILGWU)

Oil, Chemical and Atom ic Workers (OCAW)

79
80

81
82

Jones and Laughlin Steel Corp., Stainless and Strip . .
Division, Warren Plant, Mich.
Steelworkers (U SA)
Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel C orp., Ohio Valley Plants .
Steelworkers (U SA)
Contra Costa Autom obile Dealers Association, Calif. .
Machinists (IA M )
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

83

A erodex, Inc., Miami

........................................................

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
84




Union Carbide Corp., Nuclear D iv is io n ,.........................
Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant
A tom ic Trades and Labor Council
Machinists (IA M )

69

85
86

87

Yellow Cab Co. o f San Francisco .........................................
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
United States Steel Corp., Unlicensed Seamen, Iron . . . .
Ore & Steel Products Vessels, Great Lakes Fleet
Steelworkers (USA)
Atlantic Richfield Co., Calif., Statewide

............................

Oil, Chemical and Atom ic Workers (OCAW )

88

Bowaters Southern Paper Corp., Calhoun, Tenn...................

89

Paperworkers (UPIU)
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Kroger C o., Pittsburgh Stores

90
91
92
93

...............................................
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Co., Wis.......................
Office Employees (OPEIU)
National Transient Membeis (Nationwide Tank Erection .
Contractors)
Boilermakers (BBF)
American Cyanamid Co., Bound Brook Plant, N.J...............
Chemical Workers (ICW)
Greater N.Y. Association o f Meat and P o u l t r v ...................
Dealers, Inc. and Meat Purveyors Association o f
N .Y ., Inc.
Meat Cutters (MCBW)

94
95
96
97
98
99

100

Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., In t e r s t a t e ................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
General Telephone Co. o f Ohio ............................................
Communications Workers (CWA)
Union Camp Corp., Bleached, Pulp and Paper Division, . .
Franklin, Va.
Paperworkers (UPIU)
Wholesale Bakers’ Group (Mechanized Bakery Agreement),
for the Los Angeles Area
Bakery W orkers (BCW)
South Central Bell Telephone C o.............................................
Communications Workers (CWA)
Swift & Co., Master Agreement ............................................
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Potom ac Electric Power Co., Washington, D.C.....................
Electric Utility Employees Union o f Washington, D.C.
(Ind.)

101

Kansas City Power & Light C o ..................................................

102

Californian and Hawaiian Sugar C o . , ......................................

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Crockett, Calif.
Seafarers (S1U)

103

Brown Shoe Co., In terstate.....................................................

104

Industrial Relations Council o f F u rn itu re............................

Shoe Workers; United (USW)
Manufacturers in Southern California

105




Carpenters (CJA)
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing C o., Springfield,
Illinois
Auto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)

70

................

106
107

108

109

Square D C o., Lexington, Ky. .........................................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
DeSoto, Inc., Fort Smith Furniture Division, .............
Arkansas
furniture Workers (UFW)
Associated General Contractors o f California, Inc. . .
and two others
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Anchor Hocking Corp., Plants 1 and 2 , .........................
Lancaster, O.
Glass Workers; Flint (AFGW )

110

Eaton, Yale & Towne, Inc...................................................

111

A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
United Aircraft Corp., Hamilton Standard Division, . .
Windsor Locks Plant, Conn.

112

Machinists (IAM )
Pacific Telephone & Telegraph C o., and

......................
Bell Telephone Co. o f Nevada, California and Nevada

Plant Department
113

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Norris Industries, Vernon Plant, Calif.

.........................

A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
114

115

116

117
118

119

120

121

S o >tt Paper C o ., S.D. Warren Co. D iv is io n ,................
Central Mill
Paperworkers (UPIU)
Area Picture Frame Manufacturing Companies, . . . .
Chicago
Upholsterers (UIU)
Colt Industries Operating Corp., Fairbanks. . . .
Morse Division, Power Systems Division,
Beloit Works
Steelworkers (USA)
Danly Machine Corp.............................................................
Steelworkers (USA)
Labor Relations Advisory Association, Central States .
Tank Truck Agreement
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Trane Co., La Crosse, Wis....................................................
Machinists (IAM )
Tappan C o., Tappan Division, Mansfield, O ....................
Independent Stove Workers Union (Ind.)
Sherwin-Williams C o., Plant N o. 2, Chicago ................
Oil, Chemical & Atom ic Workers (OC AW)

122

Westinghouse Electric Corp., In te rsta te .........................

123

Weyenberg Shoe Manufacturing Co. Milwaukee . . . .

Electrical Workers (U E) (Ind.)
Boot & Sh >e Workers (BSW #
124

Delmarva Poultry Processors Association,

...................

Md. & Del.
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
125




N.Y. Industrial Council o f the National Handbag
Association
Leather, Plastic, and Novelty Workers (LGPN)
71

. . .




Borg-Warner Corp., York D iv is io n ..................................................................
Ice Machinery Independent Employees’ Association (Ind.)
Ex-Cello Corp., Lima, O ......................................................................................
A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
White Pine Copper Co., White Pine, M ich........................................................
Steelworkers (U SA)
General Dynamics Corp., Electric Boat D iv is io n .........................................
G roton, Conn.

October 1973
March 1974
M y 1974
June 1973

Marine Draftsmen’ s Association, Port o f New London (Ind.)
Wire and Metal Products Manufacturers Guild, I n c . , ...................................
New Y ork City

October 1972

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Chicago Rawhide Manufacturing Company, Elgin D i v . , ............................
Elgin, 111.
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
International Harvester C o., Solar Division, ...............................................
San Diego
Machinists (IA M )

November 1973

Greater St. Louis A utomotive Association

July 1973

..................................................

July 1975

and 1 other
Machinists (IAM )
Area Fisheries, Gloucester, Mass........................................................................

April 1973

Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Columbus and Southern Ohio Electric C o ......................................................

July 1974

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Imperial Reading Corp., La Follette Division, Term.....................................

November 1973

Steelworkers (USA)
Carrier Corp., Elliot Co. Division, In te r s t a t e ............................ ..................

March 1974

Steelworkers (U SA)
M onfort o f Colorado, Inc., M onfort Packing Co. Division

......................

October 1973

Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Keystone Consolidated Industries, National L ock Co. D i v is i o n ,.............

April 1974

A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing C o . , ..................................................................
West Allis Plant, Wis.
A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
Zenith Radio Corp., C h ic a g o ...........................................................................
Independent Radionic Workers o f America (Ind.)
Area Soft Drink Agreement, Inside Workers, C h ic a g o ...............................
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
San Francisco Employers Council; Master Warehouse L a b o r ...................
Agreement

November 1973

June 1975
April 1975
May 1976

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Fairchild Industries Inc., Fairchild R e p u b l i c ...............................................
Co. Division, Farmingdale, N.Y.
Machinists (IA M )

July 1973

Eastern Electrical Wholesalers Association, Inc.,
New Y ork City, N.Y.

......................................

March 1974

R ock Products and Ready Mixed Concrete E m p lo y e r s ............................

March 1974

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
o f Southern California
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)

147

148

Associated General Contractors o f Colorado, Building .
Chapter, Inc., and 4 others
Laborers (LIUNA)
Industrial Contractors UMIC, Inc., C a l i f . .........................

149

Plumbers (PPF)
Associated General Contractors o f M in n e so ta ,................
Highway, Railroad and Heavy Construction

150
151

Carpenters (CJA)
Amalgamated Sugar C o., Interstate ...................................
Grain Millers (AFGM )
National Master Freight Agreement; Western States . . .
Area Pickup and Delivery, Local Cartage and D ock

152

153
154
155

Workers Supplement
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Indiana Bell Telephone C o., Inc., Plant, T r a f f i c ,.............
and Comptrollers Departments
Communications Workers (CWA)
Sprague Electric Co., North Adams, Mass...........................
Electrical Workers (IUE)
A rm co Steel Corp., Middletown, Ohio ............................
A rm co Employees Independent Federation, Inc. (Ind.)
General Telephone Co. o f Illinois, S e r v ic e ,......................
Construction and Supply Departments

156

Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Oscar Mayer and Co., Davenport, la. P l a n t ......................
Meat Cutters (MCBW)

157

Consumers Power Co., M ic h ig a n .........................................

158

Crane C o., Chicago, 111. P la n t ...............................................

159

Steelworkers (USA)
A R O , Inc., Arnold Air Force Station, Tenn.......................

Utility Workers (UWU)

Air Engineering Metal Trades Council and Affiliated
Unions
160

Ford M otor Co., Philco-Ford Corp., S u b s id ia r y ...............
Electronics Division, Lansdale Plants

161

162

163

A uto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
Western Electric C o., Inc., Teletype Corp........................... ..
Subsidiary, Skokie, 111.,
Teletype Employees’ Industrial Union (Ind.)
Glass Containers Corp., Western Union Shop Contract, . ,
California
Glass Bottle Blowers (GBBA)
Area Independent Super Markets, Grocery Division, . . ,
St. Louis
Retail Clerks (R C IA )

164

Allied Employers, Inc., S e a ttle ..............................................
Retail Clerks (R C IA )

165

A vco Corp., Aerostructures Division, Nashville

...............

Machinists (IAM )
166

Liggett and Myers Inc., Durham, N.C.................................. ..

167

Formica Corp., Cincinnati

T obacco Workers (TWIU)




.....................................................

Electrical Workers (IUE)

73




National Union Electric Corp., Eureka Williams C o ......................................

January 1976

Division, Bloomington, 111.
Machinists (IAM )
Industrial Employers & Distributors A s s o c ia t io n ,......................................

May 1976

San Francisco
Longshoremen’s and Warehousemen’s Union (ILW U) (Ind.)
General Portland Inc., In terstate.....................................................................
Cement Workers, (CLGW)
International Nickel C o., Inc., Huntington A lloy ......................................

April 1975
January 1973

Products Division, Huntington Works, W. Va.
Steelworkers (U SA)
E.J. Brach and Sons, Inc., C h ic a g o ..................................................................

July 1974

Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Massachusetts Leather Manufacturers Association........................................

September 1974

Leather Workers (LWU)
Mansfield Tire and Rubber C o., Mansfield, O .................................................

June 1976

Rubber Workers (URW )
Kohler C o., Kohler, Wis.......................................................................................

September 1974

Auto Workers (UAW ) (Ind.)
Timex Corp., Little R ock , A rk..........................................................................

December 1975

Machinists (IAM )
Atlantic Steel C o., Atlanta, Ga..........................................................................
Steelworkers (U SA )
Universal Manufacturing Corp., Mendenhall, Miss.........................................
Electrical Workers (IBEW)
Sperry Rand Corp., Vickers Division, Omaha P la n ts...................................
Industrial Workers; Allied (AIW )
National Master Freight Agreement; Western S ta te s ...................................
Area Automotive Shop and Truck Servicing Supplement
Teamsters (IBT) (Ind.)
Interco, Inc., International Shoe Company D iv isio n ...................................
United Shoe Workers (USW)
Kroger C o., Detroit B r a n c h ..............................................................................
Retail Clerks (R CIA)
Minneapolis Area Hotels and M o te ls ...............................................................
Hotel and Restaurant Employees (HREU)
Teledyne Industries Inc., Teledyne Continental M o to r s .............................
Division
A uto Workers (U AW ) (Ind.)
Metropolitan Garage Board o f Trade, Inc., New Y o r k ...............................

September 1974
February 1975
September 1973
March 1976

September 1974
March 1974
May 1974
May 1974

February 1974

Teamsters, (IB T) (Ind.)
Whirlpool Corp., Fort Smith Division, Ark.....................................................

September 1974

Industrial Workers; Allied (AIW )
Wheaton Industries, Millville, N.J......................................................................

April 1974

Glass Bottle Blowers (GBBA)
Mountain States Employers’ Council, Denver Retail

...............................

June 1974

Grocers Agreement
Retail Clerks (R C IA )
Area Retail Meat Markets, Chicago and C ook C o u n t y ...............................

January 1974

Meat Cutters (MCBW)
Association o f Slipper & Play Shoe M a n u fa ctu re rs,...................................
New York
United Shoe Workers (USW)

February 1975

191
192

193
194




Allied Building Metal Industries, Inc., New Y ork ......................................
Iron Workers (BSOIW)
Area Construction Agreement, Nassau County, New Y ork ......................
(9 Associations, and Independent Contractors)
Carpenters (CJA)
F ood Employers Council, Inc., So. C a l i f . .....................................................
Meat Cutters (MCBW)
CPC International, Inc., C om Industrial Division ......................................
Pekin, 111.
Oil, Chemical and A tom ic Workers (OCAW)

75

July 1975
June 1975

November 1973
July 1974

The Bulletin 1425 series on major collective bargaining agreements is available from the Superintendent o f
Documents, U.S. Government Printing O ffice, Washington, D.C. 20402, or from the BLS regional offices listed on
the inside back cover.

Bulletin
number

Title

Major Collective Bargaining Agreements:
1425-1 ............................... Grievance Procedures
1 4 2 5 -2 ............................... Severance Pay and L a y o ff Benefit Plans
1 4 2 5 -3 ...............................

Supplemental Unemployment Benefit Plans and Wage-Employment Guarantees

1 4 2 5 -4 ...............................

Deferred Wage Increase and Escalator Clauses

1425-5 ...............................
1 4 2 5 -6 ...............................

Management Rights and Union-Management Cooperation
Arbitration Procedures

1 4 2 5 -7 ...............................

Training and Retraining Provisions

1 4 2 5 -8 ...............................

Subcontracting

1 4 2 5 -9 ...............................

Paid Vacation and Holiday Provisions

1 4 2 5 -1 0 ............................
1425-11 ............................

Plant Movement, Transfer, and Relocation Allowances
Seniority in Prom otion and Transfer Provisions

1 4 2 5 -1 2 ............................. Administration o f Negotiated Pension, Health, and Insurance Plans
1 4 2 5 -1 3 ............................ L ayoff, Recall, and Worksharing Procedures
1 4 2 5 -1 4 ............................. Administration o f Seniority




76

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I

Region V

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Regions VII and VIII *

Region ill
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)

Region IV

Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Regions IX and X **

Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)




8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)

* Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
** Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco