View original document

The full text on this page is automatically extracted from the file linked above and may contain errors and inconsistencies.

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

WOMEN'S BUREAU
Mrs. Esther Peterson, Director

Women's Bureau Leaflet 20
Revised January 1963


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

For aale by the Superintendent of Doeum.enta, U.S. Government Printina Office
Wuhington 25, D.C. - Price 10 eenta

FOREWORD
The principle of equal pay, or payment -of a .rate based on the
job performed, is basic to the American free enterprise system. Both
employers and union leaders find its application important to the
morale and efficiency of workers in their everyday jobs. It benefits
the community by upholding the general level of wages and maintaining purchasing power. In practice it has proved workable and
advantageous.
'
Leading women's and civic organiz·a tions have long promoted ithe
equal-pay principle as furthering a major American objootive-the
maintenance and development of a high level of economic activity
and employment. In recent years the increasing employment of
women on many types of jobs, often in new fields and on the same
basis as men, has contributed to this objective. To encourage the
use of women's highe.gt skills many organizations and individuals
seek a more nearly universal application of the equal-pay principle
. through voluntary ·action by employers, collective bargaining, and
legislation.
This publication presents an~ explains the basic facts on equal
pay for the persons and groups that seek to know them and to use
them in pressing forward this vital principle.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

Ill

CONTENTS
Page

Everybody's stake_________________________________________________
Some practical interpretations of equal pay___________________________
State laws__________________ _______________ ___________ _______ _____
What about Federal legislation?___ __________________________________
Special groups_____________ _ __ ________ ____ _____ ___ __ ____ ____ _______
Union contracts___ ________________________________________________
Interest in equal pay___ ____ ___ __ ____ ______________________ _____ ___ _
Selected references___ _____ _________________ ______________ __ ___ ___ __
Organizations represented at congressional hearings____ ________________


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

IV

1
3
5
7
8
9
9.
11
12

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER
EVERYBODY'S STAKE
1. What does equal pay mean?
Equal pay means the payment of the same wage or salary rate to
men and women employed on the same or comparable jobs by the
same employer. In the United States it is part of our fundamental
wage philosophy to set wage rates in accordance with the requirements
of the job itself. The individual worker's family situation-whether
he is married or single, whether he has children or is responsible for
the support of others-is not generally taken into account. Payment
of the rate for the job is a basic principle of our American free enterprise system.
However, as between the sexes this principle is not fully applied.
Some employers pay a lower rate to women than me:q on a given job.
This practice runs counter to the philosophy of equal pay-which is
payment of the rate for the job irrespective of sex.
2. Are women entitled to equal pay?
Women workers have amply demonstrated their ability t-0 perform
a wide variety of jobs successfully and skillfully. Today, large
numbers of women are in jobs regarded only a few years ago as "men's
work." Women compose ~n integral and essential part of this
country's labor force, constituting approximately one-third of the
total number of workers.
The cost of food,' rent, and other essentials of living are the same
to both men and women consumers. Women as well as men work
because of economic necessity, and many working women support
children, dependent parents, or husbands. However, it is not these
considerations but the proven efficiency of women workers and the
essential part they play in the economy which entitle women to equal
pay.

3. Do equal-pay laws discourage the employment of women?
Evidence from those States which have equar-pay laws does not
show that the requirement of equal pay has prevented women from
keeping jobs they already hold. Data from the Bureau of the Census
indicate that the employment of women is increasing in States which
have equal-pay laws as well -as in other States.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

1

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

4. Who benelUs from equal pay?
Men workers as well as women workers, their families, and employers benefit from equal pay. Women benefit by receiving the rate for
the job instead of a lower rate based on their sex. Men benefit through
increased job security since employers are discouraged from replacing
them with lower-paid women. The families of both men and women
workers benefit. Employers benefit through the removal of a source
of poor morale, labor disputes, and unfair competition 011: the basis of
wage rates. The community as a whole benefits from the greater
purchasing power.
5. How widespread is equal pay?

Unequal pay between men and women employed by the same employer on the same or comparable jobs is found to some extent at
almost every occupational level. Wage discriminations exist both for
factory workers and for highly trained professional women and
business exoouti ves.
An outstanding example of progress toward equal pay through
collective bargaining is the meatpacking industry, where master
agreements covering major packers set the bargaining pattern. This
industry, which has many women employees, had a long history of
unequal pay. In October 1951, a Women's Bureau study showed
women were paid an average of 10½ cents an hour le.ss than men
doing the same or comparable work. By 1958, the differential was
eliminated entirely in a substantial segment of the industry.
Job openings listed by public employment offices often show that
not all employers offer the same rates to men and women for the
same jobs. The following examples were noted among the orders
received by public employment offices in five cities during 1961:
A retail store had vacancies for salespeople and offered $1.25 an hour for
men and $1 to $1.05 an hour for women.
A hotel needing an auditor offered a salary of $100 a week for a man
and $90 a week for a woman.
A distillery wanted a clerk typist. Salary offered-$2.19 an hour for a
man and $1.87 an hour for a woman.
A moving company was seeking a bookkeeper; $450 a month for a man$350 for a woman.
A drycleaning establishment wanted a machine presser, offering a salary
of $1. 75 an hour for a man and $1.50 an hour for a woman.

Often, the existence of unequal pay does not become widely known
until the decision is made to eliminate it. One example~ which was
given wide publicity a few years ago, occurred in the negotiation of the
new contract at the New England plant of a large chemical company.
The company approved a 5-cent increase to all employees, plus an
additional increase of 13 cents an hour to female employees, thus
wiping out past wage differentials.
2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY . PRIMER

6. Js ·the interest in equal pay limited to the United States?

Many other nations besides tlw United States are concerned with
the application of the principle of equal pay for women. Not only
in highly industrialized countries, but also in some of the less developed
areas, women-often with the support and assistance of their men
coworkers-are making considerable progress toward achieving equal
pay.
,
The United Nations has repeatedly emphasized the importance of
equal pay as an international standard. In 1951, one of its specialized
agencies, the International Labor Organization, adopted a Convention
Concerning Equal Remuneration for Men and Women for Work of
Equal Value. By June 1962, 38 countries had ratified this Convention: Albania, Argentina, Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Byelorussia, China (Taiwan), Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark,
Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Federal Republic of Germany, France,
Gabon Republic, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Iceland,
India, Indonesia, Italy, Ivory Coast, Mexico, Norway, Panama, Peru,
Philippines, Poland, Rumania, Syrian Arabic Republic, Ukraine,
United Arab Republic (Egypt), Union of Soviet Socialist Republics,
and Yugoslavia.

SOME PRACTICAL INTERPRETATIONS OF EQUAL PAY

7. A.re diHerences in earnings for the same or equivalent jobs
possible under equal pay?
Yes. Piecework, incentive systems, and bonus plans based on individual and group production are prevalent in many industries.
Such plans may give rise to variations in earnings, but they do not
violate the equal-pay principle as long as they apply uniformly,
irrespective of the employee's sex.
8. Does equal pay allow differences in rates based on seniority?
Yes. Senority and length of service vary with individuals.
Workers who are new on the job may be paid at lower rates than
those with longer service. Periodic increases in pay based on length
of service on a job or with an employer are acceptable reasons for
differences in wage rates of individuals performing the same work, as
long as women are given the same consideration as men.
9. Is merit rating consistent with equal pay?

Many employers have established plans for rating their employees
periodically in terms of their efficiency, attendance, work relations,
attitudes, and ·other such factors. Such plans provide the basis for
salary increases and promotions of individual workers. If applied


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

3

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

irrespective of sex, the resulting variations in rates do not affect equal
pay.
10. Does absenteeism f ustify a dilTerence in pay rates?
Absenteeism varies among individuals. In order to keep their jobs,
most employees, both men and women, are generally regular in attendance. Responsibilities for family care and home duties sometimes tend to increase the time lost by individual women. If a
worker is absent excessively, this will be reflected in his or her employment record or merit rating. Absenteeism of some individuals
does not justify the establishment of sex differentials in pay.
11. Are nightwork differentials consistent- with equal pay?
Shift differentials, providing higher rates for evening or night
hours, are consistent with equal pay. Such additions to basic rates
recognize the undesirability and the inconvenience of late-shift work.
Workers on the night shift may be paid at a higher rate than those on
the day shift; this does not violate the equal-pay principle so long as
the rates apply uniformly without regard to sex.
12. Does a man's greater physical strength entitle him to a higher
rate of pay?
The fact that one individual possesses greater physical strength
than another does not in itself justify a wage, differential. If a job
regularly requires the ability to do heavy work, this factor affects
the nature of the job, and should be given· proper weight in setting
the wage scale. If a job only occasionally involves performing heavy
work, the resulting strain or effort is too infrequent to justify a higher
wage. It should be noted that lifting devices, automatic conveyors,
and other equipment for handling goods have greatly reduced heavy
manual work and physical strains on most jobs in modern industry.
13. Is a worker with the training and ability to do higher skilled
jobs entitled to a higher rate?
Ideally, all workers should have an opportunity for employment at
their highest skills. However, this is essentially a matter of opportunity for advancement. Ability to do other work does not justify
a higher rate on a job on which skills are not being utilized. This is
1rue whether the worker is a man or a woman.
14. Does the. provision of sanitary or other facilities entitle the

employer to pay a woman less?
Although State laws requiring such facilities usually apply only to
women, good working conditions ars generally provided by progr-e.gsive employers. Such standards are well-lmown means of promoting
4


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

efficiency and good labor relations for both men and women. This
fact is recognized by the American Standards Association, which
advocates sanitary toilet, washing, and cloakroom facilities for both
men and women employees. Since provision of such facilities is part
of the employer's operating expense, and not a job requirement; they
do not affect application of equal pay.

15. Is the requirement of a rest period a valid reason for paying
a woman less?
Rest periods are required by law for women in 12 States. However,
modern industry is increasingly recognizing the benefit of a "break"
during the workday as an aid to increased efficiency. In practice,
rest periods usually are required either by collective-bargaining agreements or allowed on an informal basis for all workers. Like plant
facilities, rest periods are not a proper consideration in determining
application of the equal-pay principle.

STATE LAWS
16. Which States have equal-pay laws?
Twenty-two States have equal-pay laws: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas,
California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey; New York,
Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Washington, Wisconsin,
and Wyoming. Well over half of all employed women in the United
States live and wor~ in these 22 States. Most of these laws apply generally to employees in private industries operating within a State;
Montana and Colorado laws apply to public employees as well. One
State-Illinois-limits coverage to manufacturing. Groups of employees that are specifically exempt from certain State laws include
agricul·tural workers, domestic workers, workers employed by nonprofit organizations. In one State, hotel employee.s are also exempt.
ln 1959, Hawaii, Ohio, and Wyoming enacted equal-pay laws; in
1961, Wisconsin; and in 1962, Arizona. Michigan in 1962 amended
its law to extend coverage from only manufacturing to any employment. Three States-Illinois, New Hampshire, Rhode Islandexempt wage differentials based on sex where provided by collectivebargaining agreements.

17. What do State equal-pay laws provide?
In general, State equal-pay laws contain an affirmative statement
prohibiting the employer from discriminating in the payment of
wages as between the sexes or paying a lower rate to a woman than
he pays to a man for the same work. State equal-pay laws are ap676390 0-63-2


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

5

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

plicable to employees of both sexes ( Colorado, Connecticut, Michigan,
New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin).
A number of State equal-pay laws contain qualifications or "loopholes" which lessen their effectiveness. Essentially, these qualifications provide that factors not material to the requirements of a specific
job may be used as a basis for paying a woman worker less than a man
performing the same work. For example, some laws provide that the
payment of· wage differentials as between the sexes is not prohibited
where there is a difference in availability for other operations, 'or in
duties performed "whether regularly or occasionally," or some other
"reasonable differentiation, except difference in sex."
18. How are State equal-pay laws enforced?

The labor administrators of the respective States are generally responsible for enforcement of State equal-pay · laws. Actually, the
enactment of a labor law usually results in voluntary compliance by
a majority of employers.
The constitutionality of the Michigan equal-pay law ( one of the
first State equal-pay faws to be enacted) was upheld by the State
Supreme Court in 1940 in the case of General Motors Corporation v.
Read Atty. Gen. et al. (294 Mich. 558; 293 N. W. 751).
Employees who are discriminated against in violation of a State
equal-pay law generally have the right to sue the employer for wages
due. The right of a woman worker to bring a civil action for damages
under the Michigan act was upheld in 1944 in the case of St. John v.
General Motors Oorporatwn (308 Mich. 333, 13 N. W. 2d 840; 310
Mich. 392, 17 N. W. 2d 226).
19. What States have laws requiring equal pay for school-

teachers?
The equal-pay laws applicable to private industry do not apply to
schoolteachers. However, 16 States and the District of Columbia
have laws which require that men and women schoolteachers be
paid the same rate for comparable teaching services: California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina,
Oregon, Washington, Wyoming.
School boards are increasingly establishing the same rate for men
and women schoolteachers, even in States where it is not required
by law.
A report of the National Education Association for 1961-62 indicates that of 167 reporting cities with _a_population of 100,000 .a nd
over, only 3 schedules set a higher wage rate for men than for ·women
6


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

schoolteachers; of 594 -reporting cities having a population of 30,000
to 100,000, 12 schedules set a higher wage rate for men. Sinoo the Associatio!l's 1938-39 report, the percentage of salary schedules differentiating between men and women teachers has declined from 14.0
to 1.8 percent in cities of 100,000 and over, and from 31.3 to 2.0 percent
in cities of. 30,000 to 100,000.

WHAT ABOUT FEDERAL LEGISLATION?
20. ls there a Federal equal-pay law?
No Federal equal-pay law has been enacted as yet, although bills
have been introduced in every Congress since the 79th in 1945. These
bills applied to employers engaged in interstate commerce. National
women's organizations, civic groups, and unions support enactment
of Federal legislation.
President Kennedy stated in December 1961 when he established the
26-member Commission on the Status of Women:
"Women are entitled to equality of opportunity for employment in government and in industry. But a mere statement supporting equality of opportunity must be implemented! by affirmative steps to see that the doors are
really open for training, selection, advancement, and equal pay."

21. Have there been any hearings on Federal equal-pay bills?
Extensive hearings have been held on Federal equal-pay bills.
The 79th Congress, in October _1945, held hearings on S. 1178, sponsored by Senators Pepper (Fla.) and Morse (Oreg.). The 80th Congress, in February 1948, held hearings on bills introduced by Mrs.
Helen Gahagan Douglas (Calif.) and Mrs. Margaret Chase Smith
(Maine), H.R. 4273 and H.R. 4408. In the 81st Congress, in May
1950, hearings were held on equal-pay bills submitted by Mrs. Chase
Going Woodhouse (Conn.) and Mrs. Douglas (Calif.) , H.R. 1584 and
H.R.2438.
During the second session of the 87th Congress, after hearings,
both the House and Senate passed the Equal Pay Act of 1962, H.R.
11677, which was introduced by Representative Herbert Zelenko
(N.Y.). However, Senate amendments necessitated further action
which was not taken before the close of the 87th Congress.
22. Would a Federal law duplicate existing ·State laws?
A majority of the States have not enacted equal-pay legislation.
( See item 16.) In addition to bimefiting covered workers, the establishment by the Federal Congress of an equal-pay standard for interstate commeroo would serve as a guide to all employers, whether
operating across State lines or not.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

7

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

23. Would the Equal Rights Amendment result in equal pay?
Equal rights and equal pay are not the same thing. The proposed
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) to the United States Constitution,
in the form introduced in recent congressional sessions, states that
"Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or by any State on account of sex."
As the wording indicates, the ERA is specifically directed toward
the equality of men and women under the law, rather than toward
discriminatory practices. There is no law, either Federal or State,
which requires employers to pay women lower rates than men for
comparable or equivalent work. Actually, wage rates ( except minimum rates) are not usually set by law; therefore, the proposed
amendment could not achieve equal pay.

SPECIAL GROUPS
24. ls equal pay required for work on Government contracts?
There is no requirement that employers holding contracts for furnishing goods and services to the Federal Government must pay men
and women employees the same rate for the same, or comparable
work. Such workers are not employees of the Federal Government
but of private industry. The State equal-pay laws establish the
same coverage for such workers as for other workers in private
industry.
One method by which workers on Government contracts in all
States could be assured of equal pay irrespective of State law is
through enactment of Federal legislation. Another method is
through issuance of an Executive Order by the President of the
United States which would have the force of law.
Executive Orders have been issued applicable to various aspects
of work on contracts for the Federal Government. One such order
prohibits discrimination against workers on the basis of their race,
creed, color, or national origin. In recent years there have been
efforts to secure an Executive Order requiring that workers employed
on contracts for the Federal Government receive equal pay without
discrimination as to sex.
25. Do Federal _employees get equal pay?
Yes. Wage scales for employees of the Federal Government are
set by two principal methods: (1) the Civil Service Classification Act
of 1923, revised in 1949, which establishes a standard classification
system with uniform rates for each grade and class of service for
employees covered and specifically provides that there shall be no
discrimination with respect to any employee on account of sex; and
8


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

(2) occupational wage boards, which set rates on the basis of the job
to be performed and not on the sex of the worker. The Departments
of the Army and Navy, which employ large numbers of civilian workers in their military installations, have issued regulations expressly
requiring equal pay for equal work.
26. Do employees of State and local governments get equal pay?
There is no comprehensive information on the extent to which
employees of State and local governments receive equal pay. More
than half of the States have civil-service systems, under which the
wage rate is based on the job and not on the sex of the worker performing it.

UNION CONTRACTS
27. What is the relationship between union membership and
equal pay?
Membership in a union does not necessarily guarantee that a woman
worker will receive equal pay. · The national union may recommend
an equal-pay provision in its standard contract. However, to be
effective the provisions of a union contract must be agreed upon by
the employer and the local union. Not all local unions subscribe to
equal pay. Even where a local union supports the equal-pay principle, it may not have the bargaining strength to obtain an equal-pay
clause in the contract.
Women are nearly a sixth of all labor-union members. Women
members of national and international labor unions number 3.3 million, according to the latest (1960) estimate of the Bureau of Labor
Statistics.
28. Is an equal-pay clause the only way in which a union contract can provide equal pay?
No-but it helps. An equal-pay clause, when properly worded,
provides for the payment of the same wage rate to men and women
employed on the same or comparable jobs by the same employer. A
study of basic patterns in union contracts shows that equal-pay clauses
were included in approximately 20 percent of the contracts.
Equal pay also may be established by union contract even when
the contract does not contain an equal-pay clause. For example, the
contract may establish a single wage schedule based solely upon the
jobs performed.

29. How is equal pay enforced under union contracts?
A grievance procedure is usually outlined in the contract, and it
generally requires that a complaint be made alleging violation of a


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

9

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

specific provision. If no settlement is reached by regular grievance
procedure, the n~xt step ~ay be arbitration.
In arbitration proceedings, the alleged violation is studied by an
impartial board, which gives considerati9n to the pertinent provisions
of the entire contract, as well as usual practice within the plant.

INTEREST IN EQUAL PAY
30. Who supports equal- pay?

The principle of equal pay has the support of unions, management
groups, and women's and civic organizations. There is wide divergence of opinion, however, on the appropriate method of translating
this principle into practice. Women's and civic groups advocate
legislation on both a Federal and State level, as well as educational
campaigns to stimulate public interest in equal pay.

31. How do employers regard equal pay?
Employers generally support the principle of equal pay. The
National Association of Manufacturers has stated:
"The principle of equal pay for equal work performance within the
wage structure of a local business establishment is sound and should
be observed. Rates of pay should be based on the nature and requirements of each job, irrespective of age, sex, or other personal factors
of the workers."
Federal legislation is not favored by employers generally. The
reason usually given is their concern about inspection and enforcement.
32. How do unions regard equal pay?
Unions have always stre~ed collective bargaining as an important
method of obtaining equal pay. For many years, the Congress of
Industrial Organizations supported both Federal and State legislation.
After the merger of this organization with the American Federation of
Labor, the Executive Council of the AF~CIO at its June 1956
meeting endorsed Federal legislati_on to provide equal pay for comparable work for women workers. Likewise, the Fourth Constitutional Convention of the AF~CIO in December 1961 resolved: "This
convention reaffirms its traditional support of equal pay for equal
work through collective-bargaining contracts and through appropriate legislation, both State and Federal."
33. What organizations testified at congressional hearings?

Hearings on proposed Federal equal-pay legislation were held in
1945, 1948, 1950, and 1962. In the first hearing, representatives of
unions, both the Congress of Industrial Organizations a;nd the American Federation of Labor, submitted testimony favoring enactment.
10


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

In the 1948 and 1950 hearings, the Congress of Industrial Organizations continued its advocacy of Federal legislation; the Ameerican
Federation of Labor did not appear. Support for the equal-pay bill
was given at the 1962 hearings by officials of the combined AFL-CIO
and of individual unio•ns, and by State Labor officials and the United
States representative to the United Nations Commission on the Status
of Women, and by Members of CongrMS. Women's national organizations and civic groups supported the proposals at all hearings.
At the 1948, 1950, and 1962 hearings, some representatives of management and employers' groups opposed the bills, although they sup~
ported the principle.

34. What is the National Committee for Equal Pay?
The National Committee for Equal Pay, organized in 1953, is compo§ed of representatives of women's organizations, unions, and civic
groups concerned with the improvement of working conditions. The
comm.ittre was established to work for elimination of wage inequalities between men and women through education, collective bargaining,
and legislation at local, State, -and Federal levels. The chairman
of the committee is Mrs. Hattie B. Trazenfeld, Legislative Director
of the National Federation of Busine~ and Professional Women's
Clubs, Inc., 2012 Massachusetts Ave. NW., Washington 6, D.C.
Action is taken by the member organizations according to their
respective organizational policies.

SELECTED REFERENCES
Equal Pay for Equal Work. The growth of the idea in Canada. Department of
Labour of Canada, 1959. 28 pp.
Equal Pay for Equal Work. United Nations, New York, 1960. 65 pp.
U.S. Congress. House. Equal Pay for Equal Work. Hearings before the Select
Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Education and Labor. 87th
Cong., 2d sess., on H.R. 8898; H.R. 10'226 held (part 1) in Washingto.n, D.C.,
March 26, 27, and 28, 1962, 221 pp., and (part 2) in New York, N.Y., April 27
and 28, 1962, pp. 223-343. U.S. Govt. .Print. Off., Washington, 1962.
U.S. Congress. Senate. Equal Pay Act of 1962. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 87th Co.ng.,
2d sess., on S. 2494 and H.R. 11677. August 1, 1962. U.S. Govt. Print. Off.,
Washington, 1962. 103 pp.
Leopold, Alice K. Federal Equal-Pay Legislation. In Labm- La;w Journal,
January 1955, pp. 7-32. Reprinted by the United States Department of Labor,
Women's Bureau.
National Educatio.n Association of the United States:
State Laws Forbidding Discrimination in Salaries Paid Men and Women.
In Fm- Your Information, August 1956. 4 pp.
Family Allowances and Sex Differentials in Teachers' Salary Schedules,
Urban School Districts, 1960-61. In Research Memo, October 1961, 6 pp.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

11

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

Nix, James C. Equal Pay for Equal Work. I,n Monthly Lab<>r Review, January
1952, pp. 41-45. (Reprinted by the U.S. Department of Labor, Women's
Bureau.)
U.S. Department of Labor, Women's Bureau:
Digest of State Equal-Pay Laws, March 1960. Processed. 23 pp. (Inprocess of revision.)
Economic Indicators relating to Equal Pay, 1962. Pamphlet 9. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, 1962. Price-15 cents.
Equal Pay Facts. Leaflet 2, Revised Ja.n uary 1963.
*Progress Toward Equal Pay in the Meat-Packing Industry. Bulletin 251.
1953. 16pp.
*Report of the National Conference on Equal Pay: March 31 and April 1,
1952. Bulletin 243. 1952. 25 pp.
Suggested Language for An Act To Abolish Discrimi.n atory Wage Rates
Based on Sex. September 1952. Processed. 3 pp.
Text of State equal-pay laws: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California,
Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan,
Montana, New Hampshire, New Jersey, ew York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Isla.n d, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming. Processed.

PARTIAL LIST OF ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTED BY TESTIMONY OR WRITTEN STATEMENT AT CONGRESSIONAL.
HEARINGS ON FEDERAL EQUAL-PAY BILLS 1
Date of hearing

Organization
IN SUPPORT

1945

American Association of University Women ________
American Civil Liberties Union ___________________
American Federation of Labor-Congress of Industrial
Organizations ______________________________
American Federation of Labor __________________
Congress of Industrial Organizations ____________
American Federation of Teachers (AFL-CIO) ______
American Nurses' Association, Inc ________________
Automobile, Aircraft, and Agricultural Implement
Workez:s of America; International Union, United
(CIO) _______________________________________

X
X

1948 1950
X
X

1962
X
X
X

X
X

X

X
X
X

X

X

X

Xt

•out of print. Copies of other Women's Bureau materials listed are available from
the Women's Bureau, United States Department of Labor, Washington 25, D.C., while
the supply lasts.
tAFL-CIO in 1962.
Subcommittee on Education and Labor, Senate, 79th Congress, 1st Session, on S. 1178, Oct.
29, 30, and 31, 1945. Hearings, Subcommittee No. 4 of Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 80th Congress, 2d Session, on H.R. 4273 and H.R. 4408, Feb. 9,.10, 11, and 13, 1948. Hearings,
Special Subcommittee of Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 81st Congress,
2d Session, on H.R.1584 and H.R. 2438, May 17, 18, and 19, 1950; Committee on Labor and Public Welfare,
Senate, on S. 706, July 20, 1950. Hearings, Subcommittee of Committee on Education and Labor, House of
Representatives, 87th Congress, 2d Session, on H.R. 8898 and H.R. 10226, March 26, 27, and 28, 1962 in
Washington and April 27 and 28, 1962 in New York City; Subcommittee of Committee on Labor and Public
Welfare, Senate, 87th Congress, 2d Session, on S. 2494 and H.R.11677, Aug. 1, 1962.
1 Hearings,

12


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

EQUAL-PAY PRIMER

PARTIAL LIST OF ORGANIZATIONS REPRESENTED BY TESTIMONY OR WRITTEN STATEMENT AT CONGRESSIONAL
HEARINGS ON FEDERAL EQUAL-PAY BILLS 1-Continued
Organization

Date of hearinr1

SUPPORT-Continued
1945
Boilermakers, Iron Ship Builders, Blacksmiths,
Forgers and Helpers, International Brotherhood
of (AFL) ____ ____ _______ ______ _______ ____ ___ _
X
Clothing Workers of America, Amalgamated (CIO)_
X
Communications Workers of America (CIO)__ ______
X
Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers, International Union of (CIO)_________________________
X
General Federation of Women's Clubs_____________
X
Hotel and Restaurant Employees and Bartenders
International Union (AFL)______________ ______
X
International Association of Women Police ____ ___ _
International Ladies' Garment Workers' Union ___ __
League of Women Voters of the United States·____ _
X
National Consumers League___ __ __ ____ __ __ ___ ___
X
National Council of Catholic Women_ _ _ ___ _______
X
National Council of Jewish Women, Inc_ __ ________
X
National Council of Negro Women, Inc _____ ____ __
National Education Association of the United States_
X
National Federation of Business and Professional
Women's Clubs, Inc____ _____ ______ ___________
X
National Women's Trade Union League of America_ _
X
Railway and Steamship Clerks, Freight Handlers,
Express and Station Employees, Brotherhood of
X
(AFL) _ _ _ ______ __ ______________ ____ ______ ___
Rubber, Cork, Linoleum and Plastic Workers of
America, United (CIO) _ ________________ _ __ __ _
X
Textile Workers Union of America (CIO) _____ ____ _
Young Women's Christian Association of the United
States of America_ ____ ________________________
X
IN

1948

1950

1962

X
X

X

X

X

Xt
Xt
Xt

X
X

Xt
X
X

X

X

X

X

X
X

X
X

X
X
X
X

X
X

X
X

X

X

Xt

X

X

X
X
X

X
X

X
X

IN OPPOSITION

General Electric Co ______________________ ______ _
National Association of Manufacturers ____ _______ _
U.S. Chamber of Commerce ____________________ _

X
X

tAFL-CIO in 1962.


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

13
U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1963

o-676390


https://fraser.stlouisfed.org
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis