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Labor Force
Characteristics
by Race and
Ethnicity, 2008
U.S. Department of Labor
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
November 2009
Report 1020

125 YEARS

BLS

Labor Force Characteristics
by Race and Ethnicity, 2008
125 YEARS

BLS
U.S. Department of Labor
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics
November 2009
Report 1020

Contents
Page
Page
Overview............................................................................................................................................................................. 1
Labor force participation..................................................................................................................................................... 1
Employment........................................................................................................................................................................ 1
Education............................................................................................................................................................................ 2
Occupation and industry..................................................................................................................................................... 2
Families and mothers.......................................................................................................................................................... 2
Unemployment and not in the labor force.......................................................................................................................... 3
Earnings.............................................................................................................................................................................. 3
Tables
		 Table 1. 	 Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by sex, age, race, and Hispanic
			
or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages................................................................................................. 5
		 Table 2. Labor force participation rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
			
1972–2008 annual averages....................................................................................................................... 6
		 Table 3. Employment-population ratios by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
			
1972–2008 annual averages....................................................................................................................... 7
		 Table 4. 	 Employment status of persons 25 years and older by educational attainment, sex, race,                               
                         and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages........................................................................... 8
		 Table 5. Employed persons by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
			
2008 annual averages............................................................................................................................... 11
		 Table 6. 	 Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,                                                                                          
                         2008 annual averages............................................................................................................................... 14
		

Table 7. 	 Employed persons by industry, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages....... 27

		 Table 8. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino
			
ethnicity, 2008 annual averages............................................................................................................... 29
		 Table 9. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, sex, race, and Hispanic
			
or Latino ethnicity, 1996–2008 annual averages..................................................................................... 30
		 Table 10. Unemployment rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
			
1972–2008 annual averages..................................................................................................................... 34
		 Table 11. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,                                             	
			
2008 annual averages............................................................................................................................... 35
		 Table 12. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,                                                         	
			
2008 annual averages............................................................................................................................... 36
		 Table 13. 	Persons in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics,
			
2008 annual averages............................................................................................................................... 37
		 Table 14. 	Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, race, and Hispanic
			
or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages..................................................................................... 39
		 Table 15. 	Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational attainment, sex,
			
race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages ............................................................... 43
		 Table 16. 	Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation, sex, race, and
			
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages................................................................................ 44    
     
Technical Note ................................................................................................................................................................ 47
ii

Labor Force Characteristics
by Race and Ethnicity, 2008

O

Overview

tion rates for whites (66.3 percent) and Asians (67.0
percent) were roughly midway between the rates for
blacks and Hispanics, continuing a long-term pattern.
Compared with annual average data for 2007, the participation rates for whites and Hispanics were down
slightly in 2008, while the rate for blacks held steady
and the rate for Asians continued to trend up.

verall labor market conditions deteriorated markedly in 2008 following the onset of the recession
in December 2007. Although individuals in all race
and ethnicity groups experienced labor market difficulties,
labor market problems for blacks or African Americans and
Hispanics or Latinos were especially acute in 2008. For example, in 2008, the unemployment rate was 10.1 percent
for blacks and 7.6 percent for Hispanics. These figures were
considerably higher than the unemployment rates for whites
and Asians, at 5.2 percent and 4.0 percent, respectively.
The labor market difficulties of blacks and Hispanics are
associated with many factors, not all of which are measurable. Some of these factors are their lower average levels
of schooling; their tendency to be employed in occupations
with high levels of unemployment; their greater concentration in the central cities of urban areas, where job opportunities may be relatively limited; and the likelihood that they
experience discrimination in the workplace. These and other factors may make it especially difficult for some black
and Hispanic workers to find or keep jobs as the overall
demand for labor contracts during economic downturns.
This report describes the labor force characteristics and
earnings patterns among the major race and ethnicity groups
and provides detailed data through a set of supporting tables.
These data are obtained from the Current Population Survey (CPS), a monthly survey of 60,000 households that is a
rich source of information on the labor force. For definitions
of terms and concepts used in this report, see the Technical Note. For additional information about the CPS, see the
explanatory note for the household survey online at http://
www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Employment
• In 2008, employment among the major race and ethnicity groups, with the exception of Asians, was lower
than a year earlier. The employment-population ratios
(the proportion of the population that is employed)
for whites, blacks, and Hispanics fell over the year,
reflecting the declines in employment. In 2008, the
employment-population ratio for blacks was 57.3
percent, compared with 64.3 percent for Asians, 63.3
percent for Hispanics, and 62.8 percent for whites.
This pattern of a relatively low employment-population ratio for blacks has persisted for decades. (See
tables 1 and 3.)
• Among adult men (age 20 and older) in 2008, Hispanics had the highest employment-population ratio (78.6
percent), followed by Asians (75.6 percent) and whites
(72.4 percent). The employment-population ratio for
black men, at 63.9 percent, remained lower than the
ratio for men in other groups in 2008, continuing a
long-term pattern. Among adult women, Asians had the
highest employment-population ratio, at 59.3 percent,
followed by blacks (59.1 percent) and whites (57.7
percent). Unlike Hispanic men, the ratio for Hispanic
women (54.6 percent) was lower than their Asian,
black, and white counterparts. (See table 1.)

Labor force participation
• The overall labor force participation rate peaked at 67.1
percent in the late 1990s into 2000 and then began to
trend down. The participation rate was 66.0 percent
in 2008. (See tables 1 and 2.)

• Black, Asian, and Hispanic teenagers (ages 16 to 19)
tend to have relatively low employment-population
ratios compared with whites. In 2008, the ratios for
black (20.2 percent), Asian (21.3 percent), and Hispanic teens (28.6 percent) were lower than that for
white teens (35.9 percent). All teenage groups experienced declines in their employment-population ratios
in 2008, reflecting—at least in part—the downturn in
the economy.

• Among the major race and ethnicity groups, Hispanics
continued to have the highest labor force participation
rate (68.5 percent) in 2008, while the participation rate
for blacks was the lowest (63.7 percent). The participa-

1

• Blacks made up 11 percent of all employed workers
in 2008, but they accounted for about one-quarter
or more of those in several specific occupations,
including nursing aides (35 percent), security guards
and bus drivers (about 30 percent each), and social
workers (25 percent). Hispanics—who accounted
for 14 percent of all workers—were substantially
overrepresented in several job categories, including
grounds maintenance workers (41 percent), maids and
housekeeping cleaners (41 percent), and construction
laborers (44 percent). Asians accounted for 5 percent
of all employed workers but made up a much larger
share of workers in several job categories, including
computer software engineers (29 percent); physicians
and surgeons (17 percent); and electrical, electronics,
and electromechanical assemblers (18 percent). (See
table 6.)

Education
• In 2008, about 90 percent of blacks and Asians (25
years of age and older) in the labor force had received
at least a high school diploma, the same proportion
as whites. In contrast, about 68 percent of Hispanics
had completed high school. Asians were most likely
to have graduated from college; fifty-eight percent
had a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared with 34
percent of whites, 24 percent of blacks, and 16 percent
of Hispanics. Although blacks and Hispanics were less
likely than whites and Asians to have obtained a college degree, the proportion of college graduates for all
groups has increased over time. (See table 4.)
• For all groups, higher levels of education are associated with a greater likelihood of being employed and
a lower likelihood of being unemployed. Individuals
with higher levels of education generally have better
access to higher paying jobs—such as those in management, professional, and related occupations—than
individuals with less education. Nonetheless, at nearly
every level of education, blacks and Hispanics were
more likely to be unemployed in 2008 than Asians
or whites.

• By industry, black workers were disproportionately
represented, relative to other race and ethnicity groups,
in education and health services, transportation and
utilities, and public administration in 2008. Hispanic
men were very heavily concentrated in construction
(21 percent), as compared with white (14 percent),
black (7 percent), and Asian (4 percent) men. Both
Hispanic men and women were disproportionately
employed in the leisure and hospitality sector. Asians
were overrepresented in professional and business
services, in manufacturing, and in leisure and hospitality. (See table 7.)

Occupation and industry
• Blacks and Hispanics are less likely to be in management, professional, and related occupations—the
highest paying major job category—than whites and
Asians. In 2008, half (50 percent) of Asian men worked
in management, professional, and related occupations,
compared with 34 percent of white men, 23 percent
of black men, and 15 percent of Hispanic men. (See
table 5.)

Families and mothers
• The likelihood of having an employed family member declined from 2007 to 2008 for white, black, and
Hispanic families, and was littled changed for Asian
families. Asian families remained the most likely to
have an employed family member (90 percent) in
2008, followed by Hispanic families (87 percent) and
white families (82 percent). Black families remained
the least likely to have an employed family member
(78 percent). (See table 8.)

• About 4 in 10 black men were employed in service
jobs and sales and office jobs in 2008, while about 3
in 10 Hispanic, Asian, and white men were employed
in the same occupations. Black men also were more
likely than other men to work in production, transportation, and material moving occupations. In 2008, over
one-half of Hispanic men were employed in two job
groups—natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations and production, transportation, and
material moving occupations.

• In 2008, nearly one-half (44 percent) of black families
and about one-quarter (24 percent) of Hispanic families
were maintained by women (with no spouse present).
About 12 percent of Asian families and 15 percent of
white families were maintained by women. In general,
families maintained by women are less likely to have
an employed member than other families.

• Among women, in 2008, Asians were more likely than
other groups to be employed in management, professional, and related jobs. About 46 percent of Asian
women were employed in this occupation group, compared with about 41 percent of white women, 31 percent
of black women, and 24 percent of Hispanic women.
In contrast, 64 percent of Hispanic women worked in
service jobs and in sales and office jobs, compared with
about 60 percent of black women, 53 percent of white
women, and 46 percent of Asian women.

• Historically, black mothers with children under 18
have been more likely than white mothers with children under 18 to be in the labor force. In 2008, 76.7
percent of black mothers were labor force participants, compared with 70.8 percent of white mothers.
In contrast, Hispanic women with children under 18
2

typically have lower levels of labor force participation than either black or white mothers. In 2008, 61.4
percent of Hispanic mothers were in the labor force.
Asian mothers (68.8 percent) were more likely than
Hispanic mothers to be in the labor force, but less
likely than black or white mothers. Since 1996, the
labor force participation rates of Hispanic mothers and
black mothers have grown by 4.7 and 3.4 percentage
points, respectively, while the rate for white mothers
has remained about the same. (See table 9.)

Between 2007 and 2008, the number of persons who
were on temporary layoff increased among all the
major race and ethnicity groups. (See table 12.)
• Black men are more likely than other men to be out
of the labor force. Among men age 25 to 54, the proportion of blacks who did not participate in the labor
force in 2008 was higher than that of whites, Asians,
and Hispanics. Among women of the same age, the
percentage of Hispanics not in the labor force was
higher than that of whites, blacks, and Asians. (See
table 13.)

Unemployment and not in the labor force
• Among the major race and ethnicity groups, blacks had
the highest unemployment rate in 2008, at 10.1 percent,
compared with 7.6 percent for Hispanics, 5.2 percent
for whites, and 4.0 percent for Asians. Historically,
the jobless rate for blacks generally has been at least
twice that for whites, whereas the unemployment rate
for Hispanics has hovered between the rates for whites
and blacks. From 2007 to 2008, unemployment rates
increased for all the major race and ethnicity groups.
(See tables 1 and 10.)

• In 2008, blacks made up 11 percent of the civilian labor
force, but 24 percent of persons marginally attached
to the labor force. Persons marginally attached to the
labor force are individuals who were not in the labor
force, who wanted and were available for work, and
who had looked for a job sometime in the previous 12
months—but not in the 4 weeks preceding the CPS.
Hispanics and Asians were represented about proportionately among the marginally attached. Blacks also
comprised a high proportion of discouraged workers
(28 percent) in 2008. Discouraged workers, a subset
of the marginally attached, are persons not currently
looking for work because they believe no jobs are
available for them.

• Higher unemployment rates for blacks and Hispanics
occur across all major age and sex groups. In 2008,
the rates for black adult men and women (age 20
and older) were 10.2 and 8.1 percent, respectively,
compared with 6.8 and 6.9 percent for Hispanic adult
men and women, respectively. The unemployment
rates were 4.9 percent for white adult men and 4.4
percent for white adult women. The jobless rates for
Asian adult men and women were 3.9 and 3.5 percent,
respectively. (See table 1.)

Earnings
• Although blacks and Hispanics have attained higher
levels of education and have moved into higher paying
occupations, they still have considerably lower earnings
than Asians or whites. In 2008, the median usual weekly
earnings of full-time wage and salary workers were
$589 for blacks and $529 for Hispanics, compared with
$861 for Asians and $742 for whites. The earnings of
black men ($620) and Hispanic men ($559) were 75 and
68 percent, respectively, of the earnings of white men
($825). The earnings of black women ($554) were 85
percent of the earnings of white women ($654), a higher
ratio than among black and white men. Median earnings
for Hispanic women were $501, about 77 percent of
white women’s earnings. (See tables 14 and 15.)

• Teenagers (ages 16 to 19) are especially vulnerable to
joblessness. In 2008, black teenagers had the highest
unemployment rate among the major race and ethnicity
groups at 31.2 percent, compared with 22.4 percent for
Hispanics, 16.8 percent for whites, and 14.6 percent
for Asians.
• Unemployed blacks have been jobless for longer
periods than unemployed workers in other groups.
In 2008, the median duration of unemployment for
blacks was 12.1 weeks, compared with 10.2 weeks
for Asians, 8.8 weeks for whites, and 8.4 weeks for
Hispanics. (See table 11.)

• For men, the earnings disparity between black or Hispanic workers and Asian or white workers holds steady
across all major occupational groups. For example,
in 2008, median usual weekly earnings of Asian men
($1,403) and white men ($1,255) working full time
in management, professional, and related occupations
were well above the earnings of Hispanic men ($1,002)
and black men ($892) in the same occupations. This
disparity is evident toward the other end of the earnings
spectrum as well; Hispanic and black men employed
in production, transportation, and material moving
occupations had median earnings of $514 and $559

• In 2008, more than half (53.7 percent) of unemployed
workers (8.9 million) were job losers. Reentrants to the
labor force (27.7 percent), job leavers (10.0 percent),
and new entrants (8.6 percent) constituted the balance
of unemployed persons. Over the year, the number of
job losers who did not expect to be recalled to work
(that is, not on temporary layoff) accounted for about
four-fifths of the increase in unemployed job losers.
3

per week, respectively, which were less than the median earnings of their white ($658) or Asian ($585)
counterparts. (See table 16.)

categories, earnings levels are fairly close. In management, professional, and related occupations, for
example, the earnings of black women ($763) and
Hispanic women ($775) were around 85 percent of
those of white women ($900). In most occupational
categories, Asian women had the highest earnings.

• Among women, the earnings gap is generally smaller
than that for men, and, in some major occupational

4

Table 1. Employment status of the civilian noninstitutional population by sex, age, race, and Hispanic
or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Employment status, sex, and age

Black or African
American

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Total

White

Total, both sexes
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

233,788
154,287
66.0
145,362
62.2
8,924
5.8
79,501

189,540
125,635
66.3
119,126
62.8
6,509
5.2
63,905

27,843
17,740
63.7
15,953
57.3
1,788
10.1
10,103

10,751
7,202
67.0
6,917
64.3
285
4.0
3,549

32,141
22,024
68.5
20,346
63.3
1,678
7.6
10,116

Men, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

113,113
82,520
73.0
77,486
68.5
5,033
6.1
30,593

92,725
68,351
73.7
64,624
69.7
3,727
5.5
24,374

12,516
8,347
66.7
7,398
59.1
949
11.4
4,169

5,112
3,852
75.3
3,692
72.2
160
4.1
1,260

16,524
13,255
80.2
12,248
74.1
1,007
7.6
3,270

Men, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

104,453
79,047
75.7
74,750
71.6
4,297
5.4
25,406

86,056
65,483
76.1
62,304
72.4
3,179
4.9
20,573

11,194
7,962
71.1
7,151
63.9
811
10.2
3,232

4,787
3,767
78.7
3,621
75.6
146
3.9
1,021

14,971
12,629
84.4
11,769
78.6
860
6.8
2,342

Women, 16 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

120,675
71,767
59.5
67,876
56.2
3,891
5.4
48,908

96,814
57,284
59.2
54,501
56.3
2,782
4.9
39,531

15,328
9,393
61.3
8,554
55.8
839
8.9
5,934

5,639
3,350
59.4
3,225
57.2
125
3.7
2,289

15,616
8,769
56.2
8,098
51.9
672
7.7
6,847

Women, 20 years and over
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

112,260
68,382
60.9
65,039
57.9
3,342
4.9
43,878

90,400
54,508
60.3
52,124
57.7
2,384
4.4
35,892

13,974
8,991
64.3
8,260
59.1
732
8.1
4,982

5,333
3,278
61.5
3,162
59.3
116
3.5
2,055

14,127
8,274
58.6
7,707
54.6
567
6.9
5,853

Both sexes, 16 to 19 years
Civilian noninstitutional population.....................
Civilian labor force...........................................
Percent of population................................
Employed.....................................................
Percent of population................................
Unemployed.................................................
Unemployment rate..................................
Not in labor force.............................................

17,075
6,858
40.2
5,573
32.6
1,285
18.7
10,218

13,084
5,644
43.1
4,697
35.9
947
16.8
7,440

2,676
787
29.4
541
20.2
246
31.2
1,889

630
157
24.9
134
21.3
23
14.6
473

3,042
1,121
36.9
870
28.6
251
22.4
1,921

Asian

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

4

5

Table 2. Labor force participation rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2008 annual averages
(Percent)
Year

Total

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

1972….… 60.4
1973…… 60.8
1974…… 61.3

78.9
78.8
78.7

43.9
44.7
45.7

60.4
60.8
61.4

79.6
79.4
79.4

43.2
44.1
45.2

59.9
60.2
59.8

73.6
73.4
72.9

48.7
49.3
49.0

----

----

----

-60.2
61.1

-81.5
81.7

-41.0
42.4

1975……
1976……
1977……
1978……
1979……

61.2
61.6
62.3
63.2
63.7

77.9
77.5
77.7
77.9
77.8

46.3
47.3
48.4
50.0
50.9

61.5
61.8
62.5
63.3
63.9

78.7
78.4
78.5
78.6
78.6

45.9
46.9
48.0
49.4
50.5

58.8
59.0
59.8
61.5
61.4

70.9
70.0
70.6
71.5
71.3

48.8
49.8
50.8
53.1
53.1

------

------

------

60.8
60.8
61.6
62.9
63.6

80.7
79.6
80.9
81.1
81.3

43.2
44.3
44.3
46.6
47.4

1980……
1981……
1982……
1983……
1984……

63.8
63.9
64.0
64.0
64.4

77.4
77.0
76.6
76.4
76.4

51.5
52.1
52.6
52.9
53.6

64.1
64.3
64.3
64.3
64.6

78.2
77.9
77.4
77.1
77.1

51.2
51.9
52.4
52.7
53.3

61.0
60.8
61.0
61.5
62.2

70.3
70.0
70.1
70.6
70.8

53.1
53.5
53.7
54.2
55.2

------

------

------

64.0
64.1
63.6
63.8
64.9

81.4
80.6
79.7
80.3
80.6

47.4
48.3
48.1
47.7
49.7

1985……
1986……
1987……
1988……
1989……

64.8
65.3
65.6
65.9
66.5

76.3
76.3
76.2
76.2
76.4

54.5
55.3
56.0
56.6
57.4

65.0
65.5
65.8
66.2
66.7

77.0
76.9
76.8
76.9
77.1

54.1
55.0
55.7
56.4
57.2

62.9
63.3
63.8
63.8
64.2

70.8
71.2
71.1
71.0
71.0

56.5
56.9
58.0
58.0
58.7

------

------

------

64.6
65.4
66.4
67.4
67.6

80.4
81.0
81.0
81.9
82.0

49.3
50.1
52.0
53.2
53.5

1990……
1991……
1992……
1993……
1994……

66.5
66.2
66.4
66.3
66.6

76.4
75.8
75.8
75.4
75.1

57.5
57.4
57.8
57.9
58.8

66.9
66.6
66.8
66.8
67.1

77.1
76.5
76.5
76.2
75.9

57.4
57.4
57.7
58.0
58.9

64.0
63.3
63.9
63.2
63.4

71.0
70.4
70.7
69.6
69.1

58.3
57.5
58.5
57.9
58.7

------

------

------

67.4
66.5
66.8
66.2
66.1

81.4
80.3
80.7
80.2
79.2

53.1
52.4
52.8
52.1
52.9

1995……
1996……
1997……
1998……
1999……

66.6
66.8
67.1
67.1
67.1

75.0
74.9
75.0
74.9
74.7

58.9
59.3
59.8
59.8
60.0

67.1
67.2
67.5
67.3
67.3

75.7
75.8
75.9
75.6
75.6

59.0
59.1
59.5
59.4
59.6

63.7
64.1
64.7
65.6
65.8

69.0
68.7
68.3
69.0
68.7

59.5
60.4
61.7
62.8
63.5

------

------

------

65.8
66.5
67.9
67.9
67.7

79.1
79.6
80.1
79.8
79.8

52.6
53.4
55.1
55.6
55.9

2000……
2001……
2002……
2003……
2004……

67.1
66.8
66.6
66.2
66.0

74.8
74.4
74.1
73.5
73.3

59.9
59.8
59.6
59.5
59.2

67.3
67.0
66.8
66.5
66.3

75.5
75.1
74.8
74.2
74.1

59.5
59.4
59.3
59.2
58.9

65.8
65.3
64.8
64.3
63.8

69.2
68.4
68.4
67.3
66.7

63.1
62.8
61.8
61.9
61.5

67.2
67.2
67.2
66.4
65.9

76.1
76.2
75.9
75.6
75.0

59.2
59.0
59.1
58.3
57.6

69.7
69.5
69.1
68.3
68.6

81.5
81.0
80.2
80.1
80.4

57.5
57.6
57.6
55.9
56.1

2005……
2006……
2007……
2008……

66.0
66.2
66.0
66.0

73.3
73.5
73.2
73.0

59.3
59.4
59.3
59.5

66.3
66.5
66.4
66.3

74.1
74.3
74.0
73.7

58.9
59.0
59.0
59.2

64.2
64.1
63.7
63.7

67.3
67.0
66.8
66.7

61.6
61.7
61.1
61.3

66.1
66.2
66.5
67.0

74.8
75.0
75.1
75.3

58.2
58.3
58.6
59.4

68.0
68.7
68.8
68.5

80.1
80.7
80.5
80.2

55.3
56.1
56.5
56.2

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, estimates for white, black or African American, and Asian race groups include persons who selected that race
group only; previously, multiracial persons were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000 –02 include
Asian and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asians are a separate category. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino
may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

6
5

Table 3. Employment-population ratios by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2008 annual averages
(Percent)
Year

Total

White

Black or African American

Asian

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

1972….… 57.0
1973…… 57.8
1974…… 57.8

75.0
75.5
74.9

41.0
42.0
42.6

57.4
58.2
58.3

76.0
76.5
75.9

40.7
41.8
42.4

53.7
54.5
53.5

66.8
67.5
65.8

43.0
43.8
43.5

----

----

----

-55.6
56.2

-76.0
75.7

-37.3
38.4

1975……
1976……
1977……
1978……
1979……

56.1
56.8
57.9
59.3
59.9

71.7
72.0
72.8
73.8
73.8

42.0
43.2
44.5
46.4
47.5

56.7
57.5
58.6
60.0
60.6

73.0
73.4
74.1
75.0
75.1

42.0
43.2
44.5
46.3
47.5

50.1
50.8
51.4
53.6
53.8

60.6
60.6
61.4
63.3
63.4

41.6
42.8
43.3
45.8
46.0

------

------

------

53.4
53.8
55.4
57.2
58.3

71.5
71.1
73.6
74.9
75.6

37.4
38.6
39.1
41.3
42.5

1980……
1981……
1982……
1983……
1984……

59.2
59.0
57.8
57.9
59.5

72.0
71.3
69.0
68.8
70.7

47.7
48.0
47.7
48.0
49.5

60.0
60.0
58.8
58.9
60.5

73.4
72.8
70.6
70.4
72.1

47.8
48.3
48.1
48.5
49.8

52.3
51.3
49.4
49.5
52.3

60.4
59.1
56.0
56.3
59.2

45.7
45.1
44.2
44.1
46.7

------

------

------

57.6
57.4
54.9
55.1
57.9

73.5
72.4
68.9
69.4
72.1

42.4
43.0
41.3
41.1
44.2

1985……
1986……
1987……
1988……
1989……

60.1
60.7
61.5
62.3
63.0

70.9
71.0
71.5
72.0
72.5

50.4
51.4
52.5
53.4
54.3

61.0
61.5
62.3
63.1
63.8

72.3
72.3
72.7
73.2
73.7

50.7
51.7
52.8
53.8
54.6

53.4
54.1
55.6
56.3
56.9

60.0
60.6
62.0
62.7
62.8

48.1
48.8
50.3
51.2
52.0

------

------

------

57.8
58.5
60.5
61.9
62.2

72.1
72.5
74.0
75.3
75.8

43.8
44.7
47.4
48.8
48.8

1990……
1991……
1992……
1993……
1994……

62.8
61.7
61.5
61.7
62.5

72.0
70.4
69.8
70.0
70.4

54.3
53.7
53.8
54.1
55.3

63.7
62.6
62.4
62.7
63.5

73.3
71.6
71.1
71.4
71.8

54.7
54.2
54.2
54.6
55.8

56.7
55.4
54.9
55.0
56.1

62.6
61.3
59.9
60.0
60.8

51.9
50.6
50.8
50.9
52.3

------

------

------

61.9
59.8
59.1
59.1
59.5

74.9
72.1
71.2
71.7
71.7

48.6
47.3
46.8
46.3
47.2

1995……
1996……
1997……
1998……
1999……

62.9
63.2
63.8
64.1
64.3

70.8
70.9
71.3
71.6
71.6

55.6
56.0
56.8
57.1
57.4

63.8
64.1
64.6
64.7
64.8

72.0
72.3
72.7
72.7
72.8

56.1
56.3
57.0
57.1
57.3

57.1
57.4
58.2
59.7
60.6

61.7
61.1
61.4
62.9
63.1

53.4
54.4
55.6
57.2
58.6

------

------

------

59.7
60.6
62.6
63.1
63.4

72.1
73.3
74.5
74.7
75.3

47.3
47.9
50.2
51.0
51.7

2000……
2001……
2002……
2003……
2004……

64.4
63.7
62.7
62.3
62.3

71.9
70.9
69.7
68.9
69.2

57.5
57.0
56.3
56.1
56.0

64.9
64.2
63.4
63.0
63.1

73.0
72.0
70.8
70.1
70.4

57.4
57.0
56.4
56.3
56.1

60.9
59.7
58.1
57.4
57.2

63.6
62.1
61.1
59.5
59.3

58.6
57.8
55.8
55.6
55.5

64.8
64.2
63.2
62.4
63.0

73.3
72.7
71.3
70.9
71.6

57.1
56.4
55.8
54.9
55.1

65.7
64.9
63.9
63.1
63.8

77.4
76.2
74.5
74.3
75.1

53.6
53.3
52.9
51.2
51.8

2005……
2006……
2007……
2008……

62.7
63.1
63.0
62.2

69.6
70.1
69.8
68.5

56.2
56.6
56.6
56.2

63.4
63.8
63.6
62.8

70.8
71.3
70.9
69.7

56.3
56.6
56.7
56.3

57.7
58.4
58.4
57.3

60.2
60.6
60.7
59.1

55.7
56.5
56.5
55.8

63.4
64.2
64.3
64.3

71.8
72.7
72.8
72.2

55.9
56.5
56.6
57.2

64.0
65.2
64.9
63.3

75.8
76.8
76.2
74.1

51.5
52.8
53.0
51.9

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, estimates for white, black or African American, and Asian race groups include persons who selected that race
group only; previously, multiracial persons were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000–02 include
Asian and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asians are a separate category. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino
may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

6

7

Table 4. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 25
years and over

Less than a
high school
diploma

High school
Some college,
graduates, no
no degree
college

Associate
degree

Bachelor's
degree and
higher

Total
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

196,304
132,255
67.4
126,161
64.3
6,094
4.6

26,122
12,166
46.6
11,073
42.4
1,092
9.0

61,115
38,263
62.6
36,097
59.1
2,166
5.7

33,493
23,268
69.5
22,092
66.0
1,176
5.1

17,611
13,449
76.4
12,948
73.5
502
3.7

57,962
45,108
77.8
43,951
75.8
1,158
2.6

Men
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

94,204
70,982
75.3
67,605
71.8
3,377
4.8

12,990
7,790
60.0
7,108
54.7
682
8.8

29,298
21,364
72.9
20,093
68.6
1,270
5.9

15,631
11,959
76.5
11,356
72.6
603
5.0

7,620
6,258
82.1
6,021
79.0
236
3.8

28,665
23,612
82.4
23,027
80.3
585
2.5

Women
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

102,100
61,273
60.0
58,555
57.4
2,717
4.4

13,133
4,376
33.3
3,965
30.2
410
9.4

31,817
16,899
53.1
16,004
50.3
896
5.3

17,862
11,310
63.3
10,737
60.1
573
5.1

9,991
7,191
72.0
6,926
69.3
265
3.7

29,297
21,497
73.4
20,924
71.4
573
2.7

White
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

160,541
107,849
67.2
103,373
64.4
4,475
4.1

20,653
9,843
47.7
9,036
43.8
807
8.2

50,101
31,065
62.0
29,495
58.9
1,570
5.1

27,281
18,713
68.6
17,873
65.5
840
4.5

14,597
11,113
76.1
10,742
73.6
371
3.3

47,910
37,115
77.5
36,228
75.6
888
2.4

Men
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

77,984
58,957
75.6
56,446
72.4
2,511
4.3

10,566
6,590
62.4
6,066
57.4
524
7.9

24,180
17,668
73.1
16,741
69.2
927
5.2

12,883
9,829
76.3
9,397
72.9
433
4.4

6,378
5,249
82.3
5,070
79.5
179
3.4

23,977
19,620
81.8
19,171
80.0
449
2.3

Women
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

82,558
48,892
59.2
46,928
56.8
1,964
4.0

10,086
3,253
32.3
2,970
29.4
284
8.7

25,922
13,396
51.7
12,753
49.2
643
4.8

14,398
8,883
61.7
8,477
58.9
407
4.6

8,218
5,864
71.4
5,672
69.0
192
3.3

23,933
17,495
73.1
17,056
71.3
439
2.5

See note at end of table.

8

7

Table 4. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages—Continued
(Numbers in thousands)

Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 25
years and over

Less than a
high school
diploma

High school
Some college,
graduates, no
no degree
college

Associate
degree

Bachelor's
degree and
higher

Black or African American
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

22,254
14,973
67.3
13,786
62.0
1,187
7.9

3,629
1,443
39.8
1,234
34.0
209
14.5

7,918
5,200
65.7
4,719
59.6
482
9.3

4,379
3,232
73.8
2,972
67.9
260
8.0

1,956
1,533
78.4
1,439
73.6
95
6.2

4,372
3,564
81.5
3,423
78.3
141
4.0

Men
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

9,810
6,978
71.1
6,357
64.8
621
8.9

1,645
730
44.4
616
37.5
114
15.6

3,684
2,636
71.6
2,358
64.0
278
10.6

1,862
1,420
76.2
1,296
69.6
124
8.7

767
617
80.5
579
75.6
37
6.1

1,852
1,575
85.0
1,508
81.4
67
4.2

Women
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

12,444
7,995
64.2
7,429
59.7
566
7.1

1,983
713
35.9
617
31.1
95
13.4

4,234
2,564
60.6
2,361
55.8
203
7.9

2,517
1,812
72.0
1,676
66.6
136
7.5

1,189
917
77.1
859
72.3
57
6.3

2,520
1,990
79.0
1,915
76.0
74
3.7

Asian
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

9,248
6,518
70.5
6,290
68.0
229
3.5

1,028
469
45.7
439
42.8
30
6.4

1,847
1,190
64.4
1,139
61.6
51
4.3

879
626
71.2
602
68.5
24
3.8

639
477
74.7
459
71.9
18
3.8

4,856
3,757
77.4
3,651
75.2
106
2.8

Men
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

4,358
3,498
80.3
3,370
77.3
128
3.7

372
221
59.4
203
54.6
18
8.0

805
603
74.9
577
71.8
26
4.2

438
346
79.0
330
75.4
16
4.6

286
236
82.5
225
78.7
11
4.7

2,459
2,093
85.1
2,035
82.8
58
2.8

Women
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

4,890
3,020
61.8
2,920
59.7
101
3.3

656
248
37.9
236
36.0
12
4.9

1,043
587
56.3
562
53.8
25
4.3

441
280
63.4
272
61.6
8
2.8

353
241
68.4
234
66.4
7
2.9

2,397
1,664
69.4
1,616
67.4
48
2.9

See note at end of table.

8 9

Table 4. Employment status of persons 25 years and over by educational attainment, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages—Continued
(Numbers in thousands)

Employment status, sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total, 25
years and over

Less than a
high school
diploma

High school
Some college,
graduates, no
no degree
college

Associate
degree

Bachelor's
degree and
higher

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

25,479
18,235
71.6
17,115
67.2
1,120
6.1

9,555
5,911
61.9
5,426
56.8
485
8.2

7,526
5,576
74.1
5,232
69.5
344
6.2

3,371
2,627
77.9
2,484
73.7
142
5.4

1,612
1,288
79.9
1,236
76.7
52
4.1

3,414
2,833
83.0
2,736
80.1
97
3.4

Men
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

13,081
11,035
84.4
10,363
79.2
672
6.1

5,025
4,021
80.0
3,714
73.9
307
7.6

3,986
3,444
86.4
3,231
81.1
213
6.2

1,677
1,448
86.3
1,371
81.8
77
5.3

732
633
86.5
607
82.9
26
4.1

1,660
1,489
89.7
1,439
86.7
50
3.3

Women
Civilian noninstitutional population…………
Civilian labor force..................................
Percent of population…………………
Employed............................................
Employment-population ratio………
Unemployed........................................
Unemployment rate.........................

12,398
7,200
58.1
6,752
54.5
448
6.2

4,530
1,889
41.7
1,712
37.8
178
9.4

3,541
2,132
60.2
2,001
56.5
131
6.2

1,694
1,179
69.6
1,113
65.7
65
5.6

879
655
74.5
629
71.6
26
4.0

1,754
1,344
76.6
1,297
73.9
47
3.5



NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are
not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

9 10

Table 5. Employed persons by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages
White

Black or
African
American

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)………………………………… 145,362
Percent……………………………………………………………………
100.0

119,126
100.0

15,953
100.0

6,917
100.0

20,346
100.0

36.3
15.2
10.9
4.3

37.0
15.9
11.6
4.3

27.4
10.0
6.3
3.7

48.2
16.5
10.6
5.9

18.3
8.1
5.7
2.4

Professional and related occupations……………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations……………………………
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Community and social services occupations…………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations……………………

21.1
2.5
2.0
.9
1.6
1.1
5.9
1.9
5.1

21.1
2.3
2.1
.9
1.5
1.2
6.2
2.1
5.0

17.4
1.7
.9
.6
2.7
.7
5.0
1.1
4.7

31.7
8.9
4.1
2.3
.8
.7
4.8
1.7
8.5

10.2
.9
1.0
.3
1.0
.5
3.2
1.2
2.1

Service occupations…………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations…………………………………………
Protective service occupations……………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations…………………………………

16.8
2.2
2.1
5.4
3.7
3.4

15.7
1.8
2.0
5.2
3.6
3.1

24.4
5.2
3.7
5.9
5.1
4.5

16.3
2.0
.8
6.1
2.2
5.2

24.2
2.1
1.6
8.1
9.0
3.4

Sales and office occupations………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations……………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations…………………………

24.5
11.2
13.2

24.5
11.4
13.1

25.5
9.9
15.7

21.5
11.1
10.4

21.4
9.3
12.1

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations………………………

10.2
.7
6.0
3.5

11.0
.7
6.5
3.7

6.4
.3
3.4
2.7

4.1
.2
1.8
2.1

18.2
1.9
12.6
3.7

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations…………
Production occupations……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations………………………

12.2
6.2
6.1

11.9
6.1
5.8

16.2
6.9
9.3

9.9
6.7
3.2

17.8
9.3
8.5

Occupation and sex

Total

Management, professional, and related occupations……………………
Management, business, and financial operations………………………
Management occupations………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations………………………

See note at end of table.

10

11

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Table 5. Employed persons by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages—Continued
Occupation and sex

Total

Men, 16 years and over (thousands)…………………………………… 77,486
Percent……………………………………………………………………… 100.0

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

64,624
100.0

7,398
100.0

3,692
100.0

12,248
100.0

33.5
16.3
12.8
3.5

34.0
17.2
13.6
3.6

23.0
9.6
7.1
2.5

50.1
16.6
12.2
4.4

14.8
7.7
6.0
1.6

Professional and related occupations……………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations……………………………
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Community and social services occupations…………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations……………………

17.2
3.6
3.3
.9
1.2
1.0
2.9
1.9
2.4

16.8
3.2
3.3
.9
1.1
1.1
2.9
2.0
2.3

13.3
2.4
1.7
.6
2.3
.5
2.4
1.4
2.0

33.5
12.7
6.1
2.5
.7
.6
3.5
1.7
5.6

7.2
1.2
1.4
.3
.6
.3
1.2
1.1
1.1

Service occupations…………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations…………………………………………
Protective service occupations……………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations…………………………………

13.5
.5
3.0
4.4
4.2
1.4

12.6
.3
2.9
4.1
4.0
1.2

20.1
1.3
4.9
5.9
5.9
2.1

13.6
.8
1.1
6.7
2.5
2.6

19.6
.4
2.2
7.5
8.3
1.2

Sales and office occupations………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations……………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations…………………………

16.9
10.6
6.3

16.7
10.9
5.8

18.2
8.4
9.8

17.5
10.9
6.6

13.9
7.5
6.4

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations………………………

18.3
1.0
10.9
6.4

19.4
1.1
11.7
6.6

13.0
.5
7.0
5.6

7.2
.3
3.2
3.7

29.1
2.6
20.7
5.9

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations…………
Production occupations……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations………………………

17.8
8.1
9.7

17.3
8.1
9.2

25.7
9.2
16.5

11.6
6.8
4.9

22.6
10.6
12.0

Management, professional, and related occupations……………………
Management, business, and financial operations………………………
Management occupations………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations………………………

See note at end of table.

1112

Table 5. Employed persons by occupation, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages—Continued
Occupation and sex

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total

White

Women, 16 years and over (thousands)………………………………
Percent……………………………………………………………………

67,876
100.0

54,501
100.0

8,554
100.0

3,225
100.0

8,098
100.0

Management, professional, and related occupations……………………
Management, business, and financial operations………………………
Management occupations………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations………………………

39.5
13.9
8.7
5.1

40.6
14.3
9.3
5.1

31.3
10.4
5.7
4.7

46.0
16.4
8.8
7.6

23.5
8.8
5.2
3.6

Professional and related occupations……………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations……………………………
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Community and social services occupations…………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations……………………

25.6
1.3
.6
.9
2.0
1.3
9.4
2.0
8.1

26.3
1.2
.6
.9
1.9
1.4
10.0
2.2
8.1

20.9
1.1
.2
.5
3.1
1.0
7.2
.8
7.0

29.7
4.4
1.7
2.0
.9
.8
6.2
1.6
11.9

14.7
.6
.3
.3
1.7
.9
6.0
1.2
3.8

Service occupations…………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations…………………………………………
Protective service occupations……………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations…………………………………

20.6
4.2
1.0
6.5
3.2
5.7

19.3
3.5
.8
6.5
3.1
5.4

28.2
8.5
2.6
6.0
4.5
6.6

19.4
3.4
.4
5.5
1.9
8.3

31.3
4.8
.8
8.9
10.0
6.8

Sales and office occupations………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations……………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations…………………………

33.1
11.9
21.2

33.7
12.0
21.7

31.9
11.1
20.7

26.1
11.4
14.7

32.9
12.1
20.7

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations………………………

.9
.3
.3
.3

.9
.3
.3
.3

.7
.1
.3
.3

.6
.2
.1
.3

1.7
.9
.4
.4

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations…………
Production occupations……………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations………………………

5.9
3.9
1.9

5.4
3.6
1.8

7.9
4.8
3.1

7.8
6.6
1.2

10.6
7.4
3.2

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are
not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

12 13

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Total, 16 years and over …………………………………………………… 145,362
Management, professional, and related occupations ……………………… 52,761
Management. business. and financial operations..................................
22,059
Management occupations ..................................................................
15,852
Chief executives ..............................................................................
1,655
General and operations managers ..................................................
985
Legislators .......................................................................................
23
77
Advertising and promotions managers…………………………………
922
Marketing and sales managers …………………………………………
64
Public relations managers ………………………………………………
Administrative services managers ……………………………………
100
475
Computer and information systems managers ………………………
1,168
Financial managers ………………………………………………………
293
Human resources managers ……………………………………………
243
Industrial production managers …………………………………………
193
Purchasing managers ……………………………………………………
239
Transportation, storage, and distribution managers…………………
217
Farm, ranch, and other agricultural managers…………………………
751
Farmers and ranchers ……………………………………………………
1,244
Construction managers …………………………………………………
Education administrators ………………………………………………
829
Engineering managers …………………………………………………
109
1,039
Food service managers …………………………………………………
45
Funeral directors …………………………………………………………
18
Gaming managers ………………………………………………………
177
Lodging managers ………………………………………………………
561
Medical and health services managers…………………………………
Natural sciences managers ……………………………………………
15
41
Postmasters and mail superintendents…………………………………
Property, real estate, and community association managers ………
558
Social and community service managers ………………………………
338
3,473
Managers, all other ………………………………………………………
6,207
Business and financial operations occupations…………………………
Agents and business managers of artists, performers,
and athletes……………………………………………………………
50
Purchasing agents and buyers, farm products………………………
6
Wholesale and retail buyers, except farm products…………………
191
Purchasing agents, except wholesale, retail, and
264
farm products……………………………………………………………
312
Claims adjusters, appraisers, examiners, and investigators…………
Compliance officers, except agriculture, construction, health
179
and safety, and transportation…………………………………………
100
Cost estimators……………………………………………………………
Human resources, training, and labor relations specialists …………
803
Logisticians………………………………………………………………
50
Management analysts ……………………………………………………
731
55
Meeting and convention planners………………………………………
Other business operations specialists …………………………………
254
See notes at end of table.

1314

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

82.0
83.6
85.9
87.3
90.8
89.2
1
( )
84.4
89.4
90.6
86.0
80.0
85.1
86.3
89.7
83.9
88.7
95.9
97.6
93.3
83.7
87.2
79.0
( 1)
( 1)
80.8
83.8
1
( )
( 1)
87.8
84.3
86.0
82.1

11.0
8.3
7.2
6.4
3.9
5.4
1
( )
7.6
4.9
3.5
8.9
7.7
7.9
8.2
4.9
12.9
7.7
.9
1.0
3.7
12.2
1.1
7.3
1
( )
( 1)
5.5
10.1
1
( )
( 1)
7.7
10.1
6.8
9.4

4.8
6.3
5.2
4.6
4.0
4.3
1
( )
5.8
4.1
( 2)
2.3
10.2
5.7
4.0
3.8
2.5
1.7
1.7
.7
1.4
2.6
8.0
11.8
1
( )
( 1)
12.2
4.2
1
( )
( 1)
3.1
2.2
5.3
6.5

14.0
7.1
7.5
7.3
4.8
6.2
1
( )
9.7
6.2
5.4
5.7
5.3
8.6
7.3
9.6
3.7
12.7
4.6
2.4
9.1
7.6
4.9
12.9
1
( )
( 1)
9.1
7.3
1
( )
( 1)
8.2
7.7
7.6
7.9

88.0
1
( )
82.7

5.8
( 1)
7.6

4.8
( 1)
6.1

6.5
( 1)
12.2

87.1
80.4

6.7
14.6

4.8
3.6

11.2
7.6

88.3
98.0
79.2
82.0
86.6
78.2
76.0

7.9
.7
14.0
12.3
6.2
14.0
12.2

3.1
1.2
3.5
5.5
5.8
4.1
9.2

6.4
5.3
7.9
12.2
4.6
6.2
10.0

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Accountants and auditors ………………………………………………
Appraisers and assessors of real estate………………………………
Budget analysts……………………………………………………………
Credit analysts ……………………………………………………………
Financial analysts…………………………………………………………
Personal financial advisors………………………………………………
Insurance underwriters…………………………………………………
Financial examiners………………………………………………………
Loan counselors and officers……………………………………………
Tax examiners, collectors, and revenue agents………………………
Tax preparers……………………………………………………………
Financial specialists, all other……………………………………………
Professional and related occupations………………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Computer scientists and systems analysts……………………………
Computer programmers…………………………………………………
Computer software engineers……………………………………………
Computer support specialists……………………………………………
Database administrators…………………………………………………
Network and computer systems administrators………………………
Network systems and data communications analysts………………
Actuaries…………………………………………………………………
Mathematicians……………………………………………………………
Operations research analysts……………………………………………
Statisticians………………………………………………………………
Miscellaneous mathematical science occupations……………………
Architecture and engineering occupations………………………………
Architects, except naval…………………………………………………
Surveyors, cartographers, and photogrammetrists……………………
Aerospace engineers……………………………………………………
Agricultural engineers……………………………………………………
Biomedical engineers……………………………………………………
Chemical engineers………………………………………………………
Civil engineers……………………………………………………………
Computer hardware engineers…………………………………………
Electrical and electronics engineers……………………………………
Environmental engineers…………………………………………………
Industrial engineers, including health and safety………………………
Marine engineers and naval architects…………………………………
Materials engineers………………………………………………………
Mechanical engineers……………………………………………………
Mining and geological engineers, including mining
safety engineers…………………………………………………………
Nuclear engineers…………………………………………………………
Petroleum engineers……………………………………………………
Engineers, all other………………………………………………………
Drafters……………………………………………………………………
Engineering technicians, except drafters………………………………
See notes at end of table.

14 15

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

1,762
102
64
20
110
430
82
7
392
58
105
78
30,702
3,676
837
534
1,034
382
93
227
422
26
3
75
41
3
2,931
233
49
137
3
9
64
346
69
350
37
177
17
40
318

79.9
90.2
71.9
( 1)
80.0
86.5
79.3
( 1)
82.9
72.4
84.8
71.8
81.9
74.3
75.0
77.9
64.8
78.0
80.6
79.7
82.0
1
( )
( 1)
86.7
1
( )
( 1)
83.5
88.8
( 1)
81.0
( 1)
( 1)
81.3
83.5
65.2
81.7
( 1)
84.7
( 1)
( 1)
84.0

8.3
5.2
17.5
( 1)
6.0
5.9
13.3
1
( )
10.6
19.7
9.1
20.6
9.0
7.2
9.7
5.7
4.7
11.1
6.3
8.0
7.1
( 1)
( 1)
8.6
( 1)
( 1)
5.1
3.3
( 1)
6.1
1
( )
( 1)
9.5
3.2
3.0
3.0
( 1)
5.9
( 1)
( 1)
4.5

10.2
2.0
8.3
( 1)
12.9
5.9
5.5
1
( )
4.4
4.2
5.7
5.3
7.1
16.7
13.7
14.1
29.0
8.2
13.5
9.8
9.2
( 1)
( 1)
4.1
( 1)
( 1)
9.6
6.1
( 1)
11.1
1
( )
( 1)
8.6
11.2
30.7
13.4
( 1)
7.6
( 1)
( 1)
10.6

7.6
7.2
5.0
( 1)
9.8
6.1
7.1
1
( )
11.5
4.4
12.6
14.9
6.7
5.1
5.3
4.0
3.7
7.9
3.8
7.4
6.4
( 1)
( 1)
8.3
( 1)
( 1)
6.7
8.2
( 1)
5.0
1
( )
( 1)
.5
9.2
4.1
5.3
( 1)
5.2
( 1)
( 1)
4.1

10
9
18
363
162
416

( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
82.4
85.8
81.0

( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
4.7
3.0
10.9

( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
11.7
7.2
5.4

( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
4.5
9.0
10.3

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Surveying and mapping technicians……………………………………
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Agricultural and food scientists…………………………………………
Biological scientists………………………………………………………
Conservation scientists and foresters…………………………………
Medical scientists…………………………………………………………
Astronomers and physicists……………………………………………
Atmospheric and space scientists………………………………………
Chemists and materials scientists………………………………………
Environmental scientists and geoscientists……………………………
Physical scientists, all other……………………………………………
Economists………………………………………………………………
Market and survey researchers…………………………………………
Psychologists………………………………………………………………
Sociologists………………………………………………………………
Urban and regional planners……………………………………………
Miscellaneous social scientists and related workers…………………
Agricultural and food science technicians………………………………
Biological technicians……………………………………………………
Chemical technicians……………………………………………………
Geological and petroleum technicians…………………………………
Nuclear technicians………………………………………………………
Other life, physical, and social science technicians…………………
Community and social services occupations……………………………
Counselors…………………………………………………………………
Social workers……………………………………………………………
Miscellaneous community and social service specialists……………
Clergy………………………………………………………………………
Directors, religious activities and education……………………………
Religious workers, all other………………………………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Lawyers……………………………………………………………………
Judges, magistrates, and other judicial workers………………………
Paralegals and legal assistants…………………………………………
Miscellaneous legal support workers……………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Postsecondary teachers…………………………………………………
Preschool and kindergarten teachers…………………………………
Elementary and middle school teachers………………………………
Secondary school teachers………………………………………………
Special education teachers………………………………………………
Other teachers and instructors…………………………………………
Archivists, curators, and museum technicians…………………………
Librarians…………………………………………………………………
Library technicians………………………………………………………
Teacher assistants………………………………………………………
Other education, training, and library workers…………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
See notes at end of table.

15
16

105
1,307
38
101
24
132
19
10
118
85
136
19
134
176
2
32
41
24
24
53
9
3
129
2,293
674
729
303
441
50
95
1,671
1,014
54
346
257
8,605
1,218
685
2,958
1,210
387
751
35
197
44
1,020
101
2,820

White

94.3
78.8
( 1)
79.2
1
( )
64.4
1
( )
( 1)
71.2
91.8
65.4
1
( )
88.8
88.6
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
75.5
( 1)
( 1)
76.0
75.9
73.4
70.5
72.9
86.4
96.0
87.4
88.6
91.4
92.6
83.5
84.0
85.3
81.1
83.1
86.4
89.5
89.4
83.6
( 1)
89.3
1
( )
81.3
89.1
87.4

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American
1.5
7.1
( 1)
4.2
( 1)
8.1
( 1)
1
( )
4.7
4.0
6.1
1
( )
5.7
7.2
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
18.0
( 1)
1
( )
12.5
19.0
20.5
24.5
20.9
10.2
1.7
10.1
7.0
4.6
6.8
11.6
10.0
9.2
5.2
11.7
9.9
7.2
8.0
9.3
1
( )
6.7
( 1)
13.9
6.1
6.1

1.2
12.0
( 1)
13.3
( 1)
24.8
( 1)
1
( )
22.3
2.7
27.8
1
( )
3.3
3.1
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
6.9
( 1)
1
( )
8.5
2.5
2.2
2.9
2.6
2.7
.8
.8
2.8
2.9
.3
2.2
3.9
3.8
11.9
3.5
2.2
1.8
1.3
3.8
1
( )
3.5
( 1)
2.8
3.6
4.1

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity
8.0
4.7
( 1)
3.9
( 1)
2.7
( 1)
1
( )
6.9
4.1
1.7
1
( )
5.8
6.6
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
7.0
( 1)
1
( )
5.7
8.9
8.9
10.0
14.5
3.6
4.5
11.0
6.6
3.8
3.2
10.3
13.3
7.5
4.0
9.8
6.8
6.5
3.7
8.2
1
( )
3.7
( 1)
15.0
5.5
8.3

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Artists and related workers………………………………………………
Designers…………………………………………………………………
Actors………………………………………………………………………
Producers and directors…………………………………………………
Athletes, coaches, umpires, and related workers……………………
Dancers and choreographers……………………………………………
Musicians, singers, and related workers………………………………
Entertainers and performers, sports and related workers,
all other……………………………………………………………………
Announcers………………………………………………………………
News analysts, reporters and correspondents…………………………
Public relations specialists………………………………………………
Editors………………………………………………………………………
Technical writers…………………………………………………………
Writers and authors………………………………………………………
Miscellaneous media and communication workers……………………
Broadcast and sound engineering technicians
and radio operators……………………………………………………
Photographers……………………………………………………………
Television, video, and motion picture camera operators
and editors………………………………………………………………
Media and communication equipment workers, all other……………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations………………………
Chiropractors………………………………………………………………
Dentists……………………………………………………………………
Dietitians and nutritionists………………………………………………
Optometrists………………………………………………………………
Pharmacists………………………………………………………………
Physicians and surgeons…………………………………………………
Physician assistants………………………………………………………
Podiatrists…………………………………………………………………
Registered nurses…………………………………………………………
Audiologists………………………………………………………………
Occupational therapists…………………………………………………
Physical therapists………………………………………………………
Radiation therapists………………………………………………………
Recreational therapists…………………………………………………
Respiratory therapists……………………………………………………
Speech-language pathologists…………………………………………
Therapists, all other………………………………………………………
Veterinarians………………………………………………………………
Health diagnosing and treating practitioners, all other………………
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians……………………
Dental hygienists…………………………………………………………
Diagnostic related technologists and technicians……………………
Emergency medical technicians and paramedics……………………
Health diagnosing and treating practitioner
support technicians……………………………………………………
See notes at end of table.

16 17

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

213
834
30
154
252
25
186

92.0
87.1
( 1)
84.4
84.5
( 1)
85.5

2.0
5.6
1
( )
8.9
10.3
1
( )
9.7

3.7
6.1
1
( )
4.0
2.3
1
( )
1.6

5.4
8.2
1
( )
7.3
8.3
1
( )
10.8

39
41
94
135
171
47
186
83

( 1)
1
( )
92.6
90.4
92.4
( 1)
93.0
77.1

( 1)
( 1)
2.1
5.1
3.5
1
( )
4.1
6.1

( 1)
( 1)
3.9
1.7
2.5
1
( )
1.1
12.1

( 1)
( 1)
2.9
7.3
2.2
1
( )
3.3
27.4

98
181

79.6
89.5

11.0
4.3

5.9
3.9

12.9
10.1

50
1
7,399
60
152
100
37
243
877
99
12
2,778
12
87
197
20
17
109
133
107
56
20
351
143
298
138

94.0
( 1)
80.0
96.7
82.9
75.0
( 1)
76.1
75.8
87.9
( 1)
80.5
1
( )
93.1
82.2
( 1)
1
( )
81.7
91.7
82.2
92.9
( 1)
74.4
91.6
84.2
90.6

5.2
1
( )
10.2
1.8
3.3
20.3
( 1)
8.7
6.2
6.6
1
( )
10.0
( 1)
1.2
3.9
1
( )
1
( )
10.4
2.3
14.7
4.0
( 1)
14.6
4.1
8.8
4.7

.1
1
( )
8.0
.3
12.0
3.7
( 1)
12.6
16.6
5.2
1
( )
7.8
( 1)
6.3
13.0
1
( )
1
( )
4.6
4.8
2.6
3.7
( 1)
8.8
2.0
5.3
.1

12.8
1
( )
5.9
4.7
5.2
7.1
( 1)
2.5
5.8
9.3
1
( )
4.7
( 1)
5.5
3.5
1
( )
1
( )
7.4
6.2
3.7
4.1
( 1)
9.0
5.3
5.0
6.6

447

81.2

10.8

5.2

10.8

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Licensed practical and licensed vocational nurses……………………
Medical records and health information technicians…………………
Opticians, dispensing……………………………………………………
Miscellaneous health technologists and technicians…………………
Other healthcare practitioners and technical occupations……………
Service occupations……………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations……………………………………………
Nursing, psychiatric, and home health aides……………………………
Occupational therapist assistants and aides……………………………
Physical therapist assistants and aides…………………………………
Massage therapists…………………………………………………………
Dental assistants……………………………………………………………
Medical assistants and other healthcare support occupations…………
Protective service occupations………………………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of correctional officers………………
First-line supervisors/managers of police and detectives………………
First-line supervisors/managers of fire fighting and
prevention workers………………………………………………………
Supervisors, protective service workers, all other………………………
Fire fighters…………………………………………………………………
Fire inspectors………………………………………………………………
Bailiffs, correctional officers, and jailers…………………………………
Detectives and criminal investigators……………………………………
Fish and game wardens……………………………………………………
Parking enforcement workers……………………………………………
Police and sheriff’s patrol officers…………………………………………
Transit and railroad police…………………………………………………
Animal control workers……………………………………………………
Private detectives and investigators………………………………………
Security guards and gaming surveillance officers………………………
Crossing guards……………………………………………………………
Lifeguards and other protective service workers………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Chefs and head cooks………………………………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of food preparation
and serving workers………………………………………………………
Cooks…………………………………………………………………………
Food preparation workers…………………………………………………
Bartenders……………………………………………………………………
Combined food preparation and serving workers,
including fast food…………………………………………………………
Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession,
and coffee shop……………………………………………………………
Waiters and waitresses……………………………………………………
Food servers, nonrestaurant………………………………………………
Dining room and cafeteria attendants and bartender helpers…………
Dishwashers…………………………………………………………………
See notes at end of table.

1718

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

566
98
50
139
52
24,451
3,212
1,889
7
75
147
263
831
3,047
42
117

71.9
80.6
92.0
66.2
82.7
76.4
67.1
58.4
( 1)
86.7
81.0
88.6
75.6
76.5
1
( )
83.8

22.1
13.9
7.5
23.3
5.6
15.9
25.8
34.5
1
( )
8.4
7.0
6.9
16.9
19.1
( 1)
12.5

3.6
4.0
.3
8.4
6.5
4.6
4.2
4.3
1
( )
4.0
8.0
2.0
4.2
1.8
( 1)
2.9

7.1
9.9
8.4
5.5
8.0
20.2
13.6
13.1
1
( )
8.0
7.4
17.3
15.3
10.9
( 1)
6.1

54
102
293
27
403
139
4
6
674
5
9
89
867
68
148
7,824
351

88.9
79.4
88.4
( 1)
74.4
84.9
( 1)
1
( )
82.2
( 1)
1
( )
82.0
63.1
64.7
93.2
79.2
73.2

5.8
14.5
8.2
1
( )
22.0
10.6
( 1)
( 1)
13.6
( 1)
( 1)
13.8
31.0
29.9
5.7
12.1
10.3

1.3
2.2
.3
1
( )
.6
2.3
( 1)
( 1)
1.8
( 1)
( 1)
.8
3.0
.4
.8
5.4
14.1

9.5
12.2
9.4
1
( )
10.4
9.5
( 1)
( 1)
11.6
( 1)
( 1)
6.5
12.4
16.4
9.6
21.0
22.7

635
1,997
724
365

79.7
73.5
80.2
91.2

14.4
18.1
9.8
3.5

3.8
5.0
6.6
2.3

14.1
30.2
24.6
9.6

323

77.7

15.6

2.0

17.2

323
2,010
187
349
289

78.9
83.2
71.1
77.9
80.6

12.2
7.3
20.5
13.1
12.0

4.5
6.2
6.5
5.6
3.4

15.4
14.6
18.0
26.9
35.7

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Hosts and hostesses, restaurant, lounge, and coffee shop……………
Food preparation and serving related workers, all other………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
First-line supervisors/managers of housekeeping
janitorial workers…………………………………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of landscaping,
lawn service, and groundskeeping workers……………………………
Janitors and building cleaners……………………………………………
Maids and housekeeping cleaners………………………………………
Pest control workers………………………………………………………
Grounds maintenance workers……………………………………………
Personal care and service occupations……………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of gaming workers……………………
First-line supervisors/managers of personal service workers…………
Animal trainers………………………………………………………………
Nonfarm animal caretakers………………………………………………
Gaming services workers…………………………………………………
Motion picture projectionists………………………………………………
Ushers, lobby attendants, and ticket takers………………………………
Miscellaneous entertainment attendants and related workers…………
Funeral service workers……………………………………………………
Barbers………………………………………………………………………
Hairdressers, hairstylists, and cosmetologists…………………………
Miscellaneous personal appearance workers……………………………
Baggage porters, bellhops, and concierges……………………………
Tour and travel guides………………………………………………………
Transportation attendants…………………………………………………
Child care workers…………………………………………………………
Personal and home care aides……………………………………………
Recreation and fitness workers……………………………………………
Residential advisors…………………………………………………………
Personal care and service workers, all other……………………………
Sales and office occupations…………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations………………………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of retail sales workers…………………
First-line supervisors/managers of non-retail sales workers……………
Cashiers………………………………………………………………………
Counter and rental clerks…………………………………………………
Parts salespersons…………………………………………………………
Retail salespersons…………………………………………………………
Advertising sales agents……………………………………………………
Insurance sales agents……………………………………………………
Securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents…………
Travel agents………………………………………………………………
Sales representatives, services, all other…………………………………
Sales representatives, wholesale and manufacturing…………………
Models, demonstrators, and product promoters…………………………
See notes at end of table.

18

19

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

263
7
5,445

88.6
( 1)
78.9

6.2
1
( )
15.0

3.0
1
( )
2.8

11.6
1
( )
33.4

296

79.1

18.6

1.1

23.7

258
2,125
1,434
71
1,262
4,923
155
174
40
157
111
7
42
166
13
87
773
229
72
35
139
1,314
871
353
70
114
35,544
16,295
3,471
1,287
3,031
161
119
3,416
216
573
388
98
521
1,343
74

93.4
74.3
75.2
85.9
87.3
75.2
87.7
74.7
( 1)
91.7
60.4
( 1)
( 1)
85.5
( 1)
59.8
80.1
37.6
63.9
( 1)
76.3
77.8
67.6
84.4
70.0
81.6
82.0
83.4
85.9
86.2
73.8
73.3
88.2
83.1
85.6
88.1
86.3
78.6
84.5
91.0
83.8

4.5
18.4
18.1
6.1
7.7
14.7
7.2
11.1
1
( )
2.9
13.1
1
( )
( 1)
7.1
1
( )
33.3
11.3
4.4
23.9
( 1)
16.8
17.4
21.8
9.6
28.1
11.3
11.5
9.7
7.3
6.9
16.3
14.8
7.5
10.7
10.3
7.6
7.2
9.8
8.9
3.9
8.0

.6
3.4
3.7
2.8
1.6
7.4
3.2
13.8
1
( )
1.9
21.8
1
( )
( 1)
2.7
1
( )
4.1
6.5
55.0
8.1
( 1)
3.3
2.7
6.7
3.3
.1
3.7
4.2
4.7
5.2
4.9
6.4
7.9
1.7
4.1
2.2
2.7
5.1
10.3
4.5
3.8
6.7

16.8
28.2
40.5
15.3
41.0
14.2
10.3
7.5
1
( )
12.3
3.5
1
( )
( 1)
11.3
1
( )
20.2
11.0
6.3
19.9
( 1)
13.1
20.0
17.4
9.5
4.7
12.3
12.3
11.7
10.4
11.0
16.6
13.7
14.7
12.3
8.4
9.4
9.2
6.4
8.8
8.6
6.6

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Real estate brokers and sales agents……………………………………
Sales engineers……………………………………………………………
Telemarketers………………………………………………………………
Door-to-door sales workers, news and street vendors,
and related workers………………………………………………………
Sales and related workers, all other………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations……………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of office and
administrative support workers…………………………………………
Switchboard operators, including answering service……………………
Telephone operators………………………………………………………
Communications equipment operators, all other………………………
Bill and account collectors…………………………………………………
Billing and posting clerks and machine operators………………………
Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks…………………………
Gaming cage workers………………………………………………………
Payroll and timekeeping clerks……………………………………………
Procurement clerks…………………………………………………………
Tellers………………………………………………………………………
Brokerage clerks……………………………………………………………
Correspondence clerks……………………………………………………
Court, municipal, and license clerks………………………………………
Credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks…………………………………
Customer service representatives…………………………………………
Eligibility interviewers, government programs……………………………
File clerks……………………………………………………………………
Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks………………………………………
Interviewers, except eligibility and loan…………………………………
Library assistants, clerical…………………………………………………
Loan interviewers and clerks………………………………………………
New accounts clerks………………………………………………………
Order clerks…………………………………………………………………
Human resources assistants, except payroll and timekeeping…………
Receptionists and information clerks……………………………………
Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks………
Information and record clerks, all other…………………………………
Cargo and freight agents…………………………………………………
Couriers and messengers…………………………………………………
Dispatchers…………………………………………………………………
Meter readers, utilities………………………………………………………
Postal service clerks ………………………………………………………
Postal service mail carriers…………………………………………………
Postal service mail sorters, processors, and processing
machine operators…………………………………………………………
Production, planning, and expediting clerks ……………………………
Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks……………………………………
Stock clerks and order fillers………………………………………………
Weighers, measurers, checkers, and samplers, recordkeeping………
See notes at end of table.

1920

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

962
40
139

87.8
1
( )
71.2

7.2
1
( )
23.6

3.5
1
( )
.7

8.6
1
( )
16.6

243
212
19,249

84.0
92.5
80.9

9.5
4.8
13.0

3.7
1.2
3.7

14.4
7.4
12.8

1,641
49
48
11
232
516
1,434
16
158
26
466
5
7
100
64
1,908
63
364
120
146
107
122
23
112
52
1,413
136
107
19
261
286
45
167
373

84.2
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
74.6
80.8
86.9
( 1)
82.9
( 1)
79.0
( 1)
( 1)
81.0
81.3
75.5
68.3
78.0
70.0
77.4
84.1
88.5
1
( )
85.7
78.8
84.3
75.0
78.5
1
( )
82.4
79.0
( 1)
60.5
77.5

10.4
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
20.0
13.5
6.9
1
( )
11.8
1
( )
12.3
( 1)
1
( )
11.1
12.7
18.3
22.1
15.5
19.1
18.4
8.9
7.1
( 1)
11.8
15.3
9.8
14.3
15.5
( 1)
13.9
15.9
( 1)
27.0
14.5

3.4
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
2.2
3.6
4.4
1
( )
4.1
1
( )
6.1
( 1)
1
( )
3.7
1.4
3.7
6.5
4.4
3.9
1.9
4.5
2.4
( 1)
1.5
5.7
3.8
6.5
4.1
( 1)
1.7
1.9
( 1)
8.5
6.4

10.5
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
18.2
12.6
8.0
1
( )
10.8
1
( )
15.8
( 1)
1
( )
10.5
12.1
14.5
23.7
12.0
9.6
17.7
5.7
18.3
( 1)
18.0
10.0
15.2
14.8
11.7
( 1)
21.1
11.8
( 1)
10.5
9.8

90
269
543
1,481
63

53.3
84.4
81.8
76.0
81.0

34.1
8.9
11.6
16.8
13.6

10.9
3.7
2.8
3.6
5.2

11.4
7.3
20.2
18.6
17.8

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Secretaries and administrative assistants………………………………
Computer operators…………………………………………………………
Data entry keyers……………………………………………………………
Word processors and typists………………………………………………
Desktop publishers…………………………………………………………
Insurance claims and policy processing clerks…………………………
Mail clerks and mail machine operators, except postal service………
Office clerks, general………………………………………………………
Office machine operators, except computer……………………………
Proofreaders and copy markers…………………………………………
Statistical assistants………………………………………………………
Office and administrative support workers, all other……………………
Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations …………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations…………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of farming, fishing,
and forestry workers………………………………………………………
Agricultural inspectors………………………………………………………
Animal breeders……………………………………………………………
Graders and sorters, agricultural products………………………………
Miscellaneous agricultural workers………………………………………
Fishers and related fishing workers………………………………………
Hunters and trappers………………………………………………………
Forest and conservation workers…………………………………………
Logging workers……………………………………………………………
Construction and extraction occupations……………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of construction trades
and extraction workers……………………………………………………
Boilermakers…………………………………………………………………
Brickmasons, blockmasons, and stonemasons …………………………
Carpenters …………………………………………………………………
Carpet, floor, and tile installers and finishers……………………………
Cement masons, concrete finishers, and terrazzo workers……………
Construction laborers………………………………………………………
Paving, surfacing, and tamping equipment operators…………………
Pile-driver operators………………………………………………………
Operating engineers and other construction
equipment operators………………………………………………………
Drywall installers, ceiling tile installers, and tapers………………………
Electricians…………………………………………………………………
Glaziers………………………………………………………………………
Insulation workers…………………………………………………………
Painters, construction and maintenance…………………………………
Paperhangers………………………………………………………………
Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters………………………
Plasterers and stucco masons……………………………………………
Reinforcing iron and rebar workers………………………………………
Roofers………………………………………………………………………
See notes at end of table.

20 21

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

3,296
134
415
149
4
275
123
1,176
43
13
19
558
14,806
988

87.5
73.1
75.9
77.2
( 1)
75.3
69.1
77.9
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
79.9
88.3
88.9

8.1
19.9
17.6
17.3
( 1)
19.4
20.8
15.4
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
13.1
6.9
4.5

2.3
4.3
5.2
3.6
( 1)
2.8
7.1
4.7
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
4.8
1.9
1.7

9.6
5.1
12.9
13.1
( 1)
12.2
12.9
14.1
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
9.6
25.0
39.3

48
24
12
63
723
36
1
8
73
8,667

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
74.6
90.2
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
13.6
3.5
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)

( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
59.3
45.1
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)

87.7
89.4

5.9
6.3

( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
4.0
1.5
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
( 2)
1.4

12.3
29.6

844
22
230
1,562
224
90
1,651
24
3

94.2
( 1)
87.8
89.5
96.0
84.4
87.5
1
( )
1
( )

3.0
( 1)
7.4
6.0
1.9
7.4
7.7
( 1)
( 1)

1.2
( 1)
1.2
1.3
1.0
.1
1.9
( 1)
( 1)

16.1
( 1)
39.9
25.7
42.7
57.7
44.1
( 1)
( 1)

398
209
874
49
38
647
8
606
46
15
234

91.7
92.8
89.2
( 1)
1
( )
86.4
( 1)
90.1
( 1)
( 1)
85.5

5.1
3.6
5.9
( 1)
( 1)
7.3
1
( )
6.4
1
( )
1
( )
8.4

.5
.4
2.7
( 1)
( 1)
2.2
1
( )
.6
1
( )
1
( )
.4

17.4
56.9
16.2
( 1)
( 1)
40.1
1
( )
19.5
1
( )
1
( )
42.9

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Sheet metal workers………………………………………………………
Structural iron and steel workers…………………………………………
Helpers, construction trades………………………………………………
Construction and building inspectors……………………………………
Elevator installers and repairers…………………………………………
Fence erectors………………………………………………………………
Hazardous materials removal workers……………………………………
Highway maintenance workers……………………………………………
Rail-track laying and maintenance equipment operators………………
Septic tank servicers and sewer pipe cleaners…………………………
Miscellaneous construction and related workers………………………
Derrick, rotary drill, and service unit operators,
oil, gas, and mining………………………………………………………
Earth drillers, except oil and gas…………………………………………
Explosives workers, ordnance handling experts, and blasters…………
Mining machine operators …………………………………………………
Roof bolters, mining ………………………………………………………
Roustabouts, oil and gas…………………………………………………
Helpers—extraction workers………………………………………………
Other extraction workers……………………………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations…………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of mechanics,
installers, and repairers……………………………………………………
Computer, automated teller, and office machine repairers……………
Radio and telecommunications equipment
installers and repairers……………………………………………………
Avionics technicians………………………………………………………
Electric motor, power tool, and related repairers………………………
Electrical and electronics installers and repairers,
transportation equipment…………………………………………………
Electrical and electronics repairers, industrial and utility………………
Electronic equipment installers and repairers, motor vehicles…………
Electronic home entertainment equipment
installers and repairers……………………………………………………
Security and fire alarm systems installers ………………………………
Aircraft mechanics and service technicians………………………………
Automotive body and related repairers……………………………………
Automotive glass installers and repairers………………………………
Automotive service technicians and mechanics…………………………
Bus and truck mechanics and diesel engine specialists…………….
Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment service
technicians and mechanics………………………………………………
Small engine mechanics……………………………………………………
Miscellaneous vehicle and mobile equipment
mechanics, installers, and repairers……………………………………
Control and valve installers and repairers………………………………
See notes at end of table.

2122

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

136
77
113
93
38
38
23
103
15
11
38

89.0
93.5
80.5
87.1
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)

6.2
2.2
18.1
9.2
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)

80.6
( 1)
( 1)
1
( )

40
35
11
51
4
7
7
55
5,152

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

17.2
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)

1.2
.3
.3
1.6
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
( 2)
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)

11.8
14.4
41.3
5.4
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
10.2
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)

1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
92.2
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
90.9
86.4

( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
3.3
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
3.5
8.5

( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
5.6
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
1.0
2.8

( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
21.2
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
33.5
14.5

300
335

89.3
80.3

6.7
10.8

1.0
7.5

8.7
13.0

200
18
24

79.5
1
( )
1
( )

13.7
( 1)
1
( )

4.4
( 1)
1
( )

11.8
( 1)
1
( )

3
18
27

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

75
62
153
157
28
852
358

73.3
87.1
85.0
93.0
1
( )
88.5
87.7

13.5
8.2
5.5
5.2
( 1)
6.5
7.5

8.0
2.2
6.4
.7
( 1)
2.9
1.7

16.2
16.8
13.8
27.2
( 1)
19.7
11.6

217
64

92.6
90.6

5.0
6.0

.4
( 2)

10.5
10.9

86
21

86.0
1
( )

7.6
( 1)

.4
( 1)

22.0
( 1)

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration mechanics
and installers………………………………………………………………
Home appliance repairers…………………………………………………
Industrial and refractory machinery mechanics…………………………
Maintenance and repair workers, general………………………………
Maintenance workers, machinery…………………………………………
Millwrights……………………………………………………………………
Electrical power-line installers and repairers……………………………
Telecommunications line installers and repairers………………………
Precision instrument and equipment repairers…………………………
Coin, vending, and amusement machine servicers and
repairers……………………………………………………………………
Commercial divers…………………………………………………………
Locksmiths and safe repairers……………………………………………
Manufactured building and mobile home installers……………………
Riggers………………………………………………………………………
Signal and track switch repairers…………………………………………
Helpers—installation, maintenance, and repair workers………………
Other installation, maintenance, and repair workers……………………
Production, transportation, and material moving occupations………………
Production occupations………………………………………………………
First-line supervisors/managers of production
and operating workers……………………………………………………
Aircraft structure, surfaces, rigging, and systems assemblers…………
Electrical, electronics, and electromechanical assemblers……………
Engine and other machine assemblers…………………………………
Structural metal fabricators and fitters……………………………………
Miscellaneous assemblers and fabricators………………………………
Bakers………………………………………………………………………
Butchers and other meat, poultry, and fish processing workers………
Food and tobacco roasting, baking, and drying
machine operators and tenders…………………………………………
Food batchmakers…………………………………………………………
Food cooking machine operators and tenders…………………………
Computer control programmers and operators…………………………
Extruding and drawing machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic……………………………………………
Forging machine setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic…………………………………………………………
Rolling machine setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic…………………………………………………………
Cutting, punching, and press machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic…………………………………………
Drilling and boring machine tool setters, operator,
and tenders, metal and plastic……………………………………………
Grinding, lapping, polishing, and buffing machine
tool setters, operators, and tenders, metal and plastic…………………
See notes at end of table.

22 23

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

397
51
439
461
39
60
109
204
58

86.6
80.4
86.1
84.8
( 1)
91.7
89.9
81.4
91.4

8.6
10.2
8.8
10.2
1
( )
4.4
8.7
16.2
4.8

2.2
5.7
3.0
2.4
1
( )
1.6
.3
1.1
3.5

13.2
10.7
13.0
13.7
1
( )
5.9
8.9
15.0
12.4

41
3
31
12
8
5
23
213
17,800
8,973

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
86.9
79.3
80.4

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
7.9
14.5
12.2

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
2.4
3.8
5.2

( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
18.5
20.4
21.1

874
18
203
13
36
1,050
194
309

84.2
( 1)
66.5
1
( )
( 1)
76.4
81.4
75.7

9.5
( 1)
12.2
1
( )
1
( )
15.3
12.1
14.6

5.0
( 1)
17.5
1
( )
1
( )
5.9
5.0
6.7

14.9
( 1)
19.4
1
( )
1
( )
19.8
28.9
38.4

11
73
7
68

( 1)
79.5
1
( )
91.2

( )
11.7
( 1)
3.9

1

( )
6.2
( 1)
1.6

( )
29.0
( 1)
6.8

9

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

9

( )

1

( )

1

( )

1

( )

12

1
( )

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

105

84.8

9.1

4.0

22.0

4

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

50

86.0

6.6

5.8

19.6

1

1

1

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Lathe and turning machine tool setters, operators, and
tenders, metal and plastic…………………………………………………
Milling and planning machine setters, operators, and
tenders, metal and plastic…………………………………………………
Machinists……………………………………………………………………
Metal furnace and kiln operators and tenders……………………………
Model makers and patternmakers, metal and plastic……………………
Molders and molding machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic……………………………………………
Multiple machine tool setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic…………………………………………………………
Tool and die makers………………………………………………………
Welding, soldering, and brazing workers…………………………………
Heat treating equipment setters, operators, and tenders,
metal and plastic…………………………………………………………
Lay-out workers, metal and plastic………………………………………
Plating and coating machine setters, operators,
and tenders, metal and plastic……………………………………………
Tool grinders, filers, and sharpeners……………………………………
Metalworkers and plastic workers, all other………………………………
Bookbinders and bindery workers…………………………………………
Job printers…………………………………………………………………
Prepress technicians and workers………………………………………
Printing machine operators…………………………………………………
Laundry and dry-cleaning workers………………………………………
Pressers, textile, garment, and related materials………………………
Sewing machine operators…………………………………………………
Shoe and leather workers and repairers…………………………………
Shoe machine operators and tenders……………………………………
Tailors, dressmakers, and sewers…………………………………………
Textile bleaching and dyeing machine operators and tenders…………
Textile cutting machine setters, operators, and tenders………………
Textile knitting and weaving machine setters,
operators, and tenders……………………………………………………
Textile winding, twisting, and drawing out machine
setters, operators, and tenders…………………………………………
Extruding and forming machine setters, operator,
and tenders, synthetic and glass fibers…………………………………
Fabric and apparel patternmakers………………………………………
Upholsterers…………………………………………………………………
Textile, apparel, and furnishings workers, all other……………………
Cabinetmakers and bench carpenters……………………………………
Furniture finishers…………………………………………………………
Model makers and patternmakers, wood…………………………………
Sawing machine setters, operators, and tenders, wood………………
Woodworking machine setters, operators, and tenders,
except sawing……………………………………………………………

See notes at end of table.

2324

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

20

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

8
409
24
10

( )
86.6
( 1)
( 1)

1

( )
7.0
( 1)
1
( )

1

( )
4.2
( 1)
1
( )

1

( )
12.1
( 1)
1
( )

58

86.2

12.2

1.3

22.2

4
71
598

( )
94.4
85.5

1

( 1)
0.9
8.7

( 1)
1.2
3.7

( 1)
5.9
21.0

11
9

1
( )
1
( )

( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)

13
7
349
36
47
44
213
239
57
226
8
6
71
3
6

( 1)
1
( )
83.1
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
86.9
66.9
68.4
73.9
( 1)
( 1)
80.3
( 1)
1
( )

( 1)
( 1)
10.0
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
9.1
22.4
19.7
9.4
( 1)
( 1)
6.1
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)
5.5
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
2.9
7.7
10.0
14.1
( 1)
( 1)
12.2
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
( 1)
24.4
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
20.5
29.3
41.0
36.8
( 1)
( 1)
24.4
( 1)
( 1)

5

( 1)

( )

1

( )

1

( )

17

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

( 1)

2
2
56
21
85
19
0
44

( 1)
1
( )
69.6
1
( )
89.4
1
( )
( 1)
1
( )

( 1)
1
( )
27.2
( 1)
2.8
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
1
( )
.4
( 1)
5.7
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
1
( )
42.1
( 1)
13.0
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

22

( )

1

1

( )

1

( )

( 1)
1

1

1

( )

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Woodworkers, all other……………………………………………………
Power plant operators, distributors, and dispatchers……………………
Stationary engineers and boiler operators………………………………
Water and liquid waste treatment plant and system operators…………
Miscellaneous plant and system operators………………………………
Chemical processing machine setters, operators, and tenders………
Crushing, grinding, polishing, mixing, and blending workers…………
Cutting workers………………………………………………………………
Extruding, forming, pressing, and compacting
machine setters, operators, and tenders………………………………
Furnace, kiln, oven, drier, and kettle operators and tenders……………
Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers, and weighers……………………
Jewelers and precious stone and metal workers………………………
Medical, dental, and ophthalmic laboratory technicians………………
Packaging and filling machine operators and tenders…………………
Painting workers……………………………………………………………
Photographic process workers and processing
machine operators…………………………………………………………
Semiconductor processors…………………………………………………
Cementing and gluing machine operators and tenders…………………
Cleaning, washing, and metal pickling equipment
operators and tenders……………………………………………………
Cooling and freezing equipment operators and tenders………………
Etchers and engravers……………………………………………………
Molders, shapers, and casters, except metal and plastic………………
Paper goods machine setters, operators, and tenders…………………
Tire builders…………………………………………………………………
Helpers—production workers………………………………………………
Production workers, all other………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations…………………………
Supervisors, transportation and material moving workers……………
Aircraft pilots and flight engineers…………………………………………
Air traffic controllers and airfield operations specialists…………………
Ambulance drivers and attendants, except
emergency medical technicians…………………………………………
Bus drivers…………………………………………………………………
Driver/sales workers and truck drivers……………………………………
Taxi drivers and chauffeurs………………………………………………
Motor vehicle operators, all other…………………………………………
Locomotive engineers and operators……………………………………
Railroad brake, signal, and switch operators……………………………
Railroad conductors and yardmasters……………………………………
Subway, streetcar, and other rail transportation workers………………
Sailors and marine oilers…………………………………………………
Ship and boat captains and operators……………………………………
Ship engineers………………………………………………………………
Bridge and lock tenders ……………………………………………………
See notes at end of table.

24 25

White

1

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American
1

37
55
101
71
34
52
108
80

( )

( )

92.7
82.2
84.5
( 1)
78.8
80.6
83.8

29
16
751
59
95
261
183

1

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity
1

2.0
13.1
12.3
( 1)
16.2
14.5
8.0

( )
( 2)
2.4
( 2)
( 1)
4.4
1.4
5.1

10.5
7.2
7.0
( 1)
13.2
20.6
27.4

( 1)
( 1)
78.3
79.7
86.3
76.6
80.9

( 1)
( 1)
13.4
1.6
6.2
15.0
13.2

( 1)
( 1)
5.8
6.8
6.9
5.0
1.1

( 1)
( 1)
14.2
16.7
13.8
42.5
26.2

53
7
11

79.2
( 1)
( 1)

8.1
( 1)
( 1)

12.7
( 1)
( 1)

11.8
( 1)
( 1)

10
2
7
38
42
14
34
958
8,827
208
141
27

( 1)
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
78.7
78.3
78.8
94.3
( 1)

( )
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
16.4
16.9
14.4
1.8
1
( )

( )
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
2.8
2.5
5.5
2.4
1
( )

( )
1
( )
1
( )
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
23.9
19.7
12.0
2.5
1
( )

16
651
3,388
373
66
58
5
53
18
18
39
5
7

( 1)
65.4
82.2
61.4
71.2
84.5
( 1)
88.7
( 1)
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
30.4
14.3
26.3
24.0
14.5
( 1)
8.8
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
1.8
1.5
10.5
2.1
( 2)
( 1)
2.9
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

( 1)
12.2
17.8
18.9
15.2
6.0
( 1)
5.4
1
( )
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

1

1

( )

1

Table 6. Employed persons by detailed occupation, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Total
(In
thousands)

Occupation

Parking lot attendants ………………………………………………………
Service station attendants …………………………………………………
Transportation inspectors …………………………………………………
Other transportation workers ………………………………………………
Conveyor operators and tenders …………………………………………
Crane and tower operators ………………………………………………
Dredge, excavating, and loading machine operators …………………
Hoist and winch operators…………………………………………………
Industrial truck and tractor operators ……………………………………
Cleaners of vehicles and equipment ……………………………………
Laborers and freight, stock, and material movers, hand ………………
Machine feeders and offbearers …………………………………………
Packers and packagers, hand ……………………………………………
Pumping station operators …………………………………………………
Refuse and recyclable material collectors ………………………………
Shuttle car operators………………………………………………………
Tank car, truck, and ship loaders …………………………………………
Material moving workers, all other…………………………………………
1

83
87
51
19
5
69
60
5
568
317
1,889
34
391
25
98
5
2
48

White

Percent of total employed
Black or
African
Asian
American

72.3
80.5
68.6
( 1)
( 1)

15.7
10.3
21.5
( 1)
( 1)

85.5
88.3
( 1)
72.7
79.2
78.8
( 1)
76.5
( 1)
75.5
( 1)
( 1)
( 1)

13.9
4.5
1
( )
23.4
17.4
15.9
( 1)
15.3
( 1)
16.4
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

8.7
4.4
6.5
( 1)
( 1)
2
( )
2
( )
1
( )
1.5
.9
2.4
( 1)
4.6
( 1)
2.4
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )

Percents are not shown where base is less than 50,000.
Indicates no data or data that did not meet publication criteria.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data or data that do not meet publication criteria. Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or
African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as
Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.
2

2526

27.3
12.4
9.2
( 1)
( 1)
10.6
15.7
1
( )
26.7
28.8
21.2
( 1)
43.7
( 1)
31.1
( 1)
1
( )
1
( )

Table 7. Employed persons by industry, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
Industry and sex

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over (thousands)…………………… 145,362
100.0
Percent………………………………………………………

119,126
100.0

15,953
100.0

6,917
100.0

20,346
100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing……………………………
Mining …………………………………………………………
Construction……………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Durable goods………………………………………………
Nondurable goods…………………………………………
Wholesale and retail trade……………………………………
Wholesale trade……………………………………………
Retail trade…………………………………………………
Transportation and utilities……………………………………
Information……………………………………………………
Financial activities……………………………………………
Professional and business services…………………………
Education and health services………………………………
Leisure and hospitality………………………………………
Other services…………………………………………………
Other services, except private households………………
Private households…………………………………………
Public administration…………………………………………

1.5
.6
7.5
10.9
7.1
3.9
14.2
2.8
11.4
5.3
2.4
7.0
10.7
21.6
8.8
4.8
4.3
.6
4.7

1.7
.6
8.3
11.0
7.2
3.8
14.4
2.9
11.5
5.1
2.4
7.1
10.7
20.8
8.5
4.8
4.3
.6
4.4

.3
.3
3.8
9.5
5.4
4.1
12.9
2.1
10.8
7.7
2.6
6.3
9.1
27.9
8.8
4.3
3.8
.5
6.5

.4
.2
2.6
13.5
9.2
4.3
13.0
2.5
10.5
3.9
2.5
7.5
13.7
21.8
11.4
6.0
5.6
.4
3.5

2.2
.6
13.3
11.4
6.2
5.2
13.9
2.9
11.0
5.7
1.6
5.3
10.5
14.9
11.6
5.9
4.4
1.5
3.1

Men, 16 years and over (thousands)……………………
Percent………………………………………………………

77,486
100.0

64,624
100.0

7,398
100.0

3,692
100.0

12,248
100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing……………………………
Mining …………………………………………………………
Construction……………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Durable goods………………………………………………
Nondurable goods…………………………………………
Wholesale and retail trade……………………………………
Wholesale trade……………………………………………
Retail trade…………………………………………………
Transportation and utilities……………………………………
Information……………………………………………………
Financial activities……………………………………………
Professional and business services…………………………
Education and health services………………………………
Leisure and hospitality………………………………………
Other services…………………………………………………
Other services, except private households………………
Private households…………………………………………
Public administration…………………………………………

2.1
.9
12.8
14.5
9.9
4.6
14.6
3.7
10.9
7.7
2.6
6.0
11.6
10.1
8.0
4.4
4.3
.1
4.8

2.4
1.0
13.8
14.6
10.0
4.6
14.7
3.8
10.9
7.3
2.6
6.0
11.4
9.5
7.6
4.3
4.3
.1
4.7

.7
.5
7.3
13.5
8.2
5.4
14.5
3.3
11.2
12.2
2.9
5.1
10.2
13.4
9.2
4.5
4.5
.1
5.9

.4
.3
4.2
16.0
11.8
4.2
13.3
2.8
10.5
5.6
3.0
6.9
16.7
13.8
11.7
4.6
4.5
.1
3.5

3.0
1.0
21.2
13.2
7.6
5.6
13.4
3.5
9.9
7.5
1.7
4.1
10.9
5.8
10.6
4.9
4.8
.2
2.8

See note at end of table.

27

26

Table 7. Employed persons by industry, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
—Continued
Industry and sex

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total

White

Women, 16 years and over (thousands)…………………
Percent………………………………………………………

67,876
100.0

54,501
100.0

8,554
100.0

3,225
100.0

8,098
100.0

Agriculture, forestry, and fishing……………………………
Mining …………………………………………………………
Construction……………………………………………………
Manufacturing…………………………………………………
Durable goods………………………………………………
Nondurable goods…………………………………………
Wholesale and retail trade……………………………………
Wholesale trade……………………………………………
Retail trade…………………………………………………
Transportation and utilities……………………………………
Information……………………………………………………
Financial activities……………………………………………
Professional and business services…………………………
Education and health services………………………………
Leisure and hospitality………………………………………
Other services…………………………………………………
Other services, except private households………………
Private households…………………………………………
Public administration…………………………………………

.8
.2
1.6
6.9
3.9
3.0
13.6
1.8
11.9
2.6
2.1
8.3
9.7
34.8
9.7
5.3
4.2
1.1
4.5

.9
.2
1.7
6.8
3.9
2.9
14.0
1.9
12.1
2.5
2.1
8.4
9.9
34.3
9.6
5.4
4.3
1.1
4.1

.1
.1
.8
6.0
3.0
3.0
11.5
1.1
10.4
3.8
2.3
7.3
8.1
40.5
8.4
4.1
3.3
.9
7.0

.3
.1
.7
10.7
6.2
4.4
12.7
2.1
10.5
2.1
2.0
8.1
10.4
30.9
11.1
7.5
6.9
.7
3.5

1.0
.1
1.3
8.8
4.1
4.7
14.7
2.0
12.6
2.9
1.4
7.2
10.0
28.7
13.0
7.3
3.9
3.5
3.6

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because
data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

27
28

Table 8. Employment and unemployment in families by type of family, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages
(Numbers in thousands)

Family type and employment status of family members

Total

Total families ……………………………………………………………

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity

77,943

63,490

9,297

3,403

10,500

With employed member(s) …………………………………………………
As a percent of total families ……………………………………………

64,058
82.2

52,273
82.3

7,290
78.4

3,052
89.7

9,135
87.0

With unemployed member(s) ………………………………………………
As a percent of total families …………………………………………
Some member(s) employed ……………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)……………
Some usually work full time …………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)………

6,104
7.8
4,319
70.8
3,830
62.7

4,506
7.1
3,332
74.0
2,955
65.6

1,188
12.8
686
57.8
605
50.9

215
6.3
172
79.9
158
73.4

1,159
11.0
846
73.0
743
64.1

Married-couple families …………………………………………………

58,125

49,967

4,311

2,747

6,839

With employed member(s) …………………………………………………
As a percent of total families ……………………………………………

48,541
83.5

41,468
83.0

3,648
84.6

2,476
90.1

6,162
90.1

With unemployed member(s) ………………………………………………
As a percent of total families …………………………………………
Some member(s) employed ……………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)……………
Some usually work full time …………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)………

3,796
6.5
3,133
82.5
2,837
74.7

3,076
6.2
2,552
83.0
2,301
74.8

446
10.3
356
79.8
328
73.5

167
6.1
142
85.0
133
79.6

726
10.6
586
80.7
528
72.7

Families maintained by women ………………………………………

14,383

9,459

4,049

424

2,515

With employed member(s) …………………………………………………
As a percent of total families ……………………………………………

10,929
76.0

7,331
77.5

2,914
72.0

360
84.9

1,936
77.0

With unemployed member(s) ………………………………………………
As a percent of total families …………………………………………
Some member(s) employed ……………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)……………
Some usually work full time …………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)………

1,666
11.6
817
49.0
666
40.0

978
10.3
513
52.5
416
42.5

591
14.6
252
42.6
208
35.2

36
8.5
22
61.1
17
47.2

295
11.7
168
56.9
133
45.1

Families maintained by men ……………………………………………

5,435

4,064

937

233

1,145

With employed member(s) …………………………………………………
As a percent of total families ……………………………………………

4,589
84.4

3,474
85.5

728
77.7

217
93.1

1,036
90.5

With unemployed member(s) ………………………………………………
As a percent of total families …………………………………………
Some member(s) employed ……………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)……………
Some usually work full time …………………………………………
As a percent of families with unemployed member(s)………

642
11.8
368
57.3
326
50.8

452
11.1
267
59.1
238
52.7

150
16.0
78
52.0
69
46.0

12
5.2
8
66.7
7
58.3

138
12.1
92
66.7
83
60.1





NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race .

28

29

Table 9. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity, 1996–2008 annual averages
(Percent)
Both sexes

Year
Total

Men

White
Women

Total

Men

Black or African American
Women

Total

Men

Women

With no children under 18 years
1996…………
1997…………
1998…………
1999…………

60.1
60.4
60.3
60.4

66.8
67.0
67.0
66.8

53.5
53.8
53.9
54.1

60.5
60.8
60.6
60.7

67.6
67.8
67.6
67.5

53.6
53.8
53.8
53.9

56.9
57.3
58.0
58.3

61.5
61.2
62.0
62.1

52.3
53.5
54.2
54.6

2000…………
2001…………
2002…………
2003…………
2004…………

60.6
60.4
60.0
59.7
59.6

67.0
66.7
66.2
65.4
65.3

54.3
54.3
53.9
54.1
54.0

60.9
60.8
60.4
60.1
60.0

67.7
67.4
66.8
66.1
66.1

54.3
54.3
54.0
54.1
54.0

58.4
57.9
56.8
56.5
56.4

62.5
61.7
61.0
60.0
59.5

54.5
54.4
52.7
53.2
53.5

2005…………
2006…………
2007…………
2008…………

59.8
60.0
59.8
59.9

65.5
65.8
65.6
65.6

54.2
54.2
54.0
54.3

60.1
60.4
60.3
60.3

66.2
66.5
66.4
66.3

54.1
54.2
54.1
54.3

57.3
57.1
56.5
56.9

60.8
60.5
60.1
60.4

53.9
53.9
53.0
53.6

With children under 18 years
1996…………
1997…………
1998…………
1999…………

81.1
81.8
81.8
82.0

94.5
94.6
94.6
94.6

70.8
71.9
71.8
72.2

81.8
82.4
82.2
82.3

95.3
95.4
95.3
95.4

70.7
71.7
71.3
71.5

78.5
79.6
81.0
82.0

89.7
89.6
90.4
89.3

73.3
75.0
76.7
78.5

2000…………
2001…………
2002…………
2003…………
2004…………

82.1
81.9
81.6
81.2
80.7

94.7
94.6
94.3
94.1
94.1

72.3
72.1
71.8
71.1
70.4

82.3
82.2
81.9
81.4
81.1

95.3
95.3
94.8
94.7
94.8

71.6
71.5
71.1
70.3
69.8

82.2
81.8
81.9
81.5
80.5

90.3
89.7
90.3
89.7
88.4

78.2
77.9
77.7
77.5
76.5

2005…………
2006…………
2007…………
2008…………

80.7
81.0
81.4
81.5

94.1
94.1
94.3
94.1

70.5
70.9
71.0
71.4

81.1
81.4
81.7
81.8

94.8
94.9
95.0
94.8

69.8
70.2
70.3
70.8

80.4
80.5
81.2
81.1

88.7
88.1
89.6
89.7

76.3
76.9
76.6
76.7

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger
1996…………
1997…………
1998…………
1999…………

84.5
84.7
84.5
84.8

93.5
93.6
93.5
93.4

77.5
77.9
77.6
78.2

85.3
85.4
84.9
85.4

94.4
94.4
94.2
94.4

77.7
78.0
77.3
78.1

81.3
81.8
83.1
83.2

87.9
88.1
88.2
86.7

78.1
78.7
80.6
81.4

2000…………
2001…………
2002…………
2003…………
2004…………

85.1
85.0
84.8
84.5
84.1

93.5
93.6
93.3
93.1
93.1

78.7
78.3
78.2
77.8
77.3

85.7
85.5
85.1
84.7
84.5

94.3
94.5
94.0
93.7
93.9

78.6
78.1
77.8
77.3
76.9

83.3
83.3
84.3
84.0
82.7

87.8
87.5
89.2
88.0
86.3

81.0
81.1
81.8
82.1
80.9

2005…………
2006…………
2007…………
2008…………

83.7
83.8
84.3
84.3

93.0
93.1
93.2
93.1

76.5
76.7
77.2
77.3

84.1
84.3
84.6
84.7

93.8
94.0
94.0
93.9

76.3
76.3
76.7
77.0

82.4
82.4
83.7
83.1

86.9
85.7
87.7
87.8

80.2
80.8
81.5
80.6

See note at end of table.

30
29

Table 9. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity, 1996–2008 annual averages—Continued
(Percent)
Both sexes

Year
Total

Men

White
Women

Total

Men

Black or African American
Women

Total

Men

Women

With children under 6 years
1996…………
1997…………
1998…………
1999…………

77.2
78.3
78.6
78.5

95.6
95.8
96.1
96.1

63.2
64.8
64.9
64.8

77.9
78.8
78.9
78.5

96.3
96.5
96.6
96.7

62.7
64.1
64.1
63.4

75.4
77.1
78.5
80.6

91.9
91.3
93.0
92.5

68.2
70.8
72.0
74.9

2000…………
2001…………
2002…………
2003…………
2004…………

78.4
78.1
77.7
77.2
76.5

96.1
95.8
95.5
95.4
95.4

64.6
64.3
63.7
62.8
61.8

78.2
78.1
77.9
77.3
76.8

96.5
96.2
95.9
96.0
96.0

63.0
63.0
62.7
61.5
60.7

80.9
80.0
78.9
78.2
77.6

93.3
92.5
91.8
92.1
91.1

74.9
73.9
72.5
71.8
70.8

2005…………
2006…………
2007…………
2008…………

77.0
77.5
77.8
77.9

95.4
95.4
95.7
95.4

62.8
63.5
63.3
64.0

77.2
77.7
77.9
78.0

96.1
95.9
96.2
95.9

61.6
62.5
62.3
62.9

77.8
78.0
77.9
78.6

91.2
91.1
92.3
92.4

71.4
71.8
70.4
71.7

With children under 3 years
1996…………
1997…………
1998…………
1999…………

75.4
76.6
77.2
77.0

95.8
95.9
96.2
96.4

59.4
61.4
61.9
61.5

76.2
77.5
77.7
77.0

96.5
96.5
96.7
97.0

59.2
61.4
61.5
60.1

72.1
73.6
75.8
78.7

92.2
92.1
93.2
92.4

63.1
65.1
67.5
72.0

2000…………
2001…………
2002…………
2003…………
2004…………

76.3
76.0
76.1
75.2
74.4

96.4
95.9
95.8
95.7
95.7

60.4
60.2
60.2
58.9
57.5

76.3
76.1
76.3
75.6
74.9

96.7
96.4
96.2
96.2
96.3

59.0
58.9
59.2
57.8
56.8

77.6
77.3
76.9
74.7
74.7

93.6
92.6
93.2
91.4
91.0

69.8
69.7
68.6
67.0
66.4

2005…………
2006…………
2007…………
2008…………

74.8
75.8
75.6
76.1

95.5
95.5
95.9
95.7

58.4
60.2
59.2
60.4

75.1
76.2
76.0
76.4

96.4
96.2
96.4
96.2

57.2
59.3
58.3
59.4

74.7
75.0
74.8
75.0

90.6
90.6
92.8
92.4

67.0
67.2
65.7
66.7

See note at end of table.

3031

Table 9. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity, 1996–2008 annual averages—Continued
(Percent)
Asian

Year
Total

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

With no children under 18 years
1996……………………………
1997……………………………
1998……………………………
1999……………………………

-

-

-

61.6
62.6
62.8
62.5

71.3
72.1
72.1
71.6

50.5
51.4
51.7
52.2

2000……………………………
2001……………………………
2002……………………………
2003……………………………
2004……………………………

61.2
59.7
59.1

67.8
66.4
65.0

55.0
53.7
53.5

63.7
63.0
63.9
62.8
63.5

73.2
72.4
72.7
72.1
72.6

52.6
52.6
53.2
51.5
52.5

2005……………………………
2006……………………………
2007……………………………
2008……………………………

59.9
60.0
60.2
60.3

66.0
66.2
66.6
66.6

54.3
54.1
54.0
54.4

63.0
63.7
63.7
63.5

72.1
73.0
72.8
72.7

51.9
52.2
52.4
52.1

With children under 18 years
1996……………………………
1997……………………………
1998……………………………
1999……………………………

-

-

-

72.3
74.0
74.2
74.6

93.7
93.4
92.9
93.8

56.7
59.6
60.2
60.3

2000……………………………
2001……………………………
2002……………………………
2003……………………………
2004……………………………

78.3
78.9
77.9

93.2
93.5
93.8

66.6
67.0
64.9

75.7
75.7
75.8
75.1
74.9

93.8
93.6
93.2
93.4
93.9

62.0
62.0
62.7
61.2
60.4

2005……………………………
2006……………………………
2007……………………………
2008……………………………

77.9
78.3
78.9
80.0

93.1
93.2
93.1
93.0

65.6
66.3
67.1
68.8

74.5
75.3
76.5
76.4

94.2
94.2
94.8
94.4

59.6
60.9
61.4
61.4

With children 6 to 17 years, none younger
1996……………………………
1997……………………………
1998……………………………
1999……………………………

-

-

-

77.3
77.6
77.5
78.6

92.3
91.2
90.6
91.2

66.7
68.2
68.1
69.5

2000……………………………
2001……………………………
2002……………………………
2003……………………………
2004……………………………

82.6
82.9
82.6

91.6
93.5
93.8

75.7
74.3
73.4

79.3
79.6
79.0
78.8
79.6

91.5
91.7
91.1
91.5
92.8

70.5
70.9
70.2
69.4
70.2

2005……………………………
2006……………………………
2007……………………………
2008……………………………

80.7
80.8
81.8
82.7

92.3
91.8
91.7
91.8

71.2
72.0
73.6
74.9

78.8
79.1
80.5
80.4

92.9
92.6
93.1
93.2

68.7
69.4
70.4
70.0

See note at end of table.

32
31

Table 9. Labor force participation rates by presence and age of youngest child, sex, race, and Hispanic or
Latino ethnicity, 1996–2008 annual averages—Continued
(Percent)
Asian

Year
Total

Men

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity
Women

Total

Men

Women

With children under 6 years
1996……………………………
1997……………………………
1998……………………………
1999……………………………

-

-

-

68.5
70.9
71.3
71.2

94.8
95.1
94.9
95.9

48.7
52.3
53.0
52.1

2000……………………………
2001……………………………
2002……………………………
2003……………………………
2004……………………………

73.5
74.2
73.1

94.8
93.4
93.8

56.3
58.5
56.0

72.5
72.2
73.1
71.9
70.6

95.7
95.2
94.8
94.9
94.8

54.5
53.8
56.1
53.4
51.2

2005……………………………
2006……………………………
2007……………………………
2008……………………………

74.9
75.6
75.8
77.1

94.0
94.8
94.8
94.3

59.3
59.9
59.9
61.9

70.6
71.7
72.9
72.7

95.4
95.6
96.1
95.5

50.9
52.7
53.0
53.0

With children under 3 years
1996……………………………
1997……………………………
1998……………………………
1999……………………………

-

-

-

66.2
68.6
69.5
68.8

94.6
94.6
95.0
96.2

44.7
48.0
48.9
47.4

2000……………………………
2001……………………………
2002……………………………
2003……………………………
2004……………………………

72.1
73.0
70.2

95.4
94.5
93.8

53.5
55.1
50.4

70.4
69.7
70.3
69.5
68.2

96.2
95.3
95.1
95.2
95.2

50.0
48.7
50.3
47.9
46.0

2005……………………………
2006……………………………
2007……………………………
2008……………………………

72.4
73.4
73.6
75.9

92.9
94.2
94.2
94.4

55.8
56.8
56.2
59.5

67.7
69.5
69.9
70.3

96.0
95.9
96.0
95.9

45.0
48.6
47.6
47.9

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, estimates for white, black or African American, and Asian race groups include persons who selected
that race group only; previously, multiracial persons were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for
2000–02 include Asian and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asians are a separate category. Persons whose ethnicity is identified
as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Children are "own" children and include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted
children. Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, and other related and unrelated children. Dash indicates data not
available.

3233

Table 10. Unemployment rates by sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1972–2008 annual averages
(Percent)
Year

Total
Total

Men

1972….…

5.6

5.0

1973……

4.9

4.2

1974……

5.6

1975……
1976……

Black or African American

White
Women

Asian

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

Total

Men

Women

6.6

5.1

4.5

5.9

10.4

9.3

11.8

--

--

--

--

--

--

6.0

4.3

3.8

5.3

9.4

8.0

11.1

--

--

--

7.5

6.7

9.0

4.9

6.7

5.0

4.4

6.1

10.5

9.8

11.3

--

--

--

8.1

7.3

9.4

8.5

7.9

9.3

7.8

7.2

8.6

14.8

14.8

14.8

--

--

--

12.2

11.4

13.5

7.7

7.1

8.6

7.0

6.4

7.9

14.0

13.7

14.3

--

--

--

11.5

10.8

12.7

1977……

7.1

6.3

8.2

6.2

5.5

7.3

14.0

13.3

14.9

--

--

--

10.1

9.0

11.9

1978……

6.1

5.3

7.2

5.2

4.6

6.2

12.8

11.8

13.8

--

--

--

9.1

7.7

11.3

1979……

5.8

5.1

6.8

5.1

4.5

5.9

12.3

11.4

13.3

--

--

--

8.3

7.0

10.3

1980……

7.1

6.9

7.4

6.3

6.1

6.5

14.3

14.5

14.0

--

--

--

10.1

9.7

10.7

1981……

7.6

7.4

7.9

6.7

6.5

6.9

15.6

15.7

15.6

--

--

--

10.4

10.2

10.8

1982……

9.7

9.9

9.4

8.6

8.8

8.3

18.9

20.1

17.6

--

--

--

13.8

13.6

14.1

1983……

9.6

9.9

9.2

8.4

8.8

7.9

19.5

20.3

18.6

--

--

--

13.7

13.6

13.8

1984……

7.5

7.4

7.6

6.5

6.4

6.5

15.9

16.4

15.4

--

--

--

10.7

10.5

11.1

1985……

7.2

7.0

7.4

6.2

6.1

6.4

15.1

15.3

14.9

--

--

--

10.5

10.2

11.0

1986……

7.0

6.9

7.1

6.0

6.0

6.1

14.5

14.8

14.2

--

--

--

10.6

10.5

10.8

1987……

6.2

6.2

6.2

5.3

5.4

5.2

13.0

12.7

13.2

--

--

--

8.8

8.7

8.9

1988……

5.5

5.5

5.6

4.7

4.7

4.7

11.7

11.7

11.7

--

--

--

8.2

8.1

8.3

1989……

5.3

5.2

5.4

4.5

4.5

4.5

11.4

11.5

11.4

--

--

--

8.0

7.6

8.8

1990……

5.6

5.7

5.5

4.8

4.9

4.7

11.4

11.9

10.9

--

--

--

8.2

8.0

8.4

1991……
1992……

6.8
7.5

7.2
7.9

6.4
7.0

6.1
6.6

6.5
7.0

5.6
6.1

12.5
14.2

13.0
15.2

12.0
13.2

---

---

---

10.0
11.6

10.3
11.7

9.6
11.4

1993……

6.9

7.2

6.6

6.1

6.3

5.7

13.0

13.8

12.1

--

--

--

10.8

10.6

11.0

1994……

6.1

6.2

6.0

5.3

5.4

5.2

11.5

12.0

11.0

--

--

--

9.9

9.4

10.7

1995……

5.6

5.6

5.6

4.9

4.9

4.8

10.4

10.6

10.2

--

--

--

9.3

8.8

10.0

1996……

5.4

5.4

5.4

4.7

4.7

4.7

10.5

11.1

10.0

--

--

--

8.9

7.9

10.2

1997……

4.9

4.9

5.0

4.2

4.2

4.2

10.0

10.2

9.9

--

--

--

7.7

7.0

8.9

1998……

4.5

4.4

4.6

3.9

3.9

3.9

8.9

8.9

9.0

--

--

--

7.2

6.4

8.2

1999……

4.2

4.1

4.3

3.7

3.6

3.8

8.0

8.2

7.8

--

--

--

6.4

5.6

7.6

2000……

4.0

3.9

4.1

3.5

3.4

3.6

7.6

8.0

7.1

3.6

3.6

3.6

5.7

5.0

6.8

2001……

4.7

4.8

4.7

4.2

4.2

4.1

8.6

9.3

8.1

4.5

4.5

4.4

6.6

5.9

7.5

2002……

5.8

5.9

5.6

5.1

5.3

4.9

10.2

10.7

9.8

5.9

6.1

5.7

7.5

7.2

8.0

2003……

6.0

6.3

5.7

5.2

5.6

4.8

10.8

11.6

10.2

6.0

6.2

5.7

7.7

7.2

8.4

2004……

5.5

5.6

5.4

4.8

5.0

4.7

10.4

11.1

9.8

4.4

4.5

4.3

7.0

6.5

7.6

2005……

5.1

5.1

5.1

4.4

4.4

4.4

10.0

10.5

9.5

4.0

4.0

3.9

6.0

5.4

6.9

2006……

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.0

4.0

4.0

8.9

9.5

8.4

3.0

3.0

3.1

5.2

4.8

5.9

2007……

4.6

4.7

4.5

4.1

4.2

4.0

8.3

9.1

7.5

3.2

3.1

3.4

5.6

5.3

6.1

2008……

5.8

6.1

5.4

5.2

5.5

4.9

10.1

11.4

8.9

4.0

4.1

3.7

7.6

7.6

7.7

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, estimates for white, black or African American, and Asian race groups include persons who selected that race
group only; previously, multiracial persons were included in the group they identified as the main race. Asian estimates for 2000 –02 include
Asian and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asians are a separate category. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino
may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

34
33

Table 11. Unemployed persons by duration of unemployment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages
Duration of unemployment

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over (In thousands)……….………
Percent………………………………………………………

8,924
100.0

6,509
100.0

1,788
100.0

285
100.0

1,678
100.0

Less than 5 weeks……………………….....……………………
5 to 14 weeks……………………………………………….........
15 to 26 weeks……………………………................................
27 weeks and over……………………………………………….

32.8
31.4
16.0
19.7

35.0
31.4
15.5
18.0

25.3
31.3
17.7
25.7

30.6
31.2
16.3
21.9

36.8
31.2
14.7
17.3

Average (mean) duration, in weeks……………………………
Median duration, in weeks………………………………………

17.9
9.4

16.7
8.8

21.7
12.1

20.4
10.2

16.0
8.4

5,033
100.0

3,727
100.0

949
100.0

160
100.0

1,007
100.0

Less than 5 weeks……………………….....……………………
5 to 14 weeks……………………………………………….........
15 to 26 weeks……………………………................................
27 weeks and over……………………………………………….

33.3
30.5
16.1
20.1

35.4
30.6
15.8
18.2

25.8
29.8
17.5
26.9

28.6
31.4
16.9
23.1

38.4
30.3
14.7
16.6

Average (mean) duration, in weeks……………………………
Median duration, in weeks………………………………………

18.0
9.5

16.8
8.8

22.2
12.4

20.9
10.8

15.3
8.1

Women, 16 years and over (In thousands)……….……
Percent………………………………………………………

3,891
100.0

2,782
100.0

839
100.0

125
100.0

672
100.0

Less than 5 weeks……………………….....……………………
5 to 14 weeks……………………………………………….........
15 to 26 weeks……………………………................................
27 weeks and over……………………………………………….

32.3
32.6
15.8
19.3

34.5
32.5
15.2
17.8

24.7
33.0
17.9
24.4

33.2
31.0
15.5
20.2

34.3
32.7
14.6
18.4

Average (mean) duration, in weeks……………………………
Median duration, in weeks………………………………………

17.7
9.3

16.6
8.7

21.1
11.7

19.7
9.5

16.9
8.7

Men, 16 years and over (In thousands)……….…………
Percent………………………………………………………





NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

35
34

Table 12. Unemployed persons by reason for unemployment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity,
2008 annual averages
Reason for unemployment

Total, 16 years and over (In thousands)……….………
Percent……………………………………………………

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

8,924
100.0

6,509
100.0

1,788
100.0

285
100.0

1,678
100.0

53.7
13.2
40.5
29.9
10.6
10.0
27.7
8.6

54.9
14.9
40.1
29.9
10.1
10.4
26.7
8.0

50.6
7.9
42.7
30.1
12.6
8.2
31.2
9.9

48.9
6.6
42.3
33.7
8.6
11.7
27.9
11.4

55.8
15.3
40.5
26.2
14.3
8.6
25.8
9.8

5,033
100.0

3,727
100.0

949
100.0

160
100.0

1,007
100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs………
On temporary layoff.............……………………………………
Not on temporary layoff.....................................……………
Permanent job losers.............………………………………
Persons who completed temporary jobs...................……
Job leavers.....................................……………………………
Reentrants.....................................………………………………
New entrants.....................................……………………………

60.7
15.9
44.8
32.3
12.5
9.1
22.4
7.8

62.5
18.0
44.5
32.2
12.4
9.3
21.2
6.9

55.1
9.2
45.9
32.1
13.9
7.8
26.8
10.3

57.5
6.9
51.3
42.5
8.8
11.3
20.6
10.6

65.2
18.7
46.6
29.0
17.6
8.0
19.3
7.4

Women, 16 years and over (In thousands) ……….……
Percent………………………………………………………

3,891
100.0

2,782
100.0

839
100.0

125
100.0

672
100.0

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs………
On temporary layoff.............……………………………………
Not on temporary layoff.....................................……………
Permanent job losers.............………………………………
Persons who completed temporary jobs...................……
Job leavers.....................................……………………………
Reentrants.....................................………………………………
New entrants.....................................……………………………

44.6
9.7
34.9
26.8
8.1
11.3
34.6
9.6

44.8
10.7
34.0
26.9
7.2
11.8
34.0
9.4

45.4
6.6
39.0
27.8
11.2
8.8
36.4
9.4

37.6
6.4
31.2
22.4
8.0
12.0
37.6
12.8

41.7
10.3
31.4
22.0
9.4
9.4
35.7
13.2

Job losers and persons who completed temporary jobs………
On temporary layoff.............……………………………………
Not on temporary layoff.....................................……………
Permanent job losers.............………………………………
Persons who completed temporary jobs...................……
Job leavers.....................................……………………………
Reentrants.....................................………………………………
New entrants.....................................……………………………
Men, 16 years and over (In thousands)……….………
Percent……………………………………………………



NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data
are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

36
35

Table 13. Persons in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics, 2008 annual averages
(Number in thousands)
Not in the labor force
Race, age, sex,

Civilian

and

labor
force 1

Hispanic origin

Want a job

Total

Do

Searched for work in the prior year
Total

2

Available for work now

Total
Total

Discouraged
workers 4

not
3

Other

want
job
now

Total
Total, 16 years and over................... 154,287
22,032
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years................................. 104,396
55 years and over…………………… 27,858

79,501
15,452
21,255
42,794

4,983
1,733
2,168
1,082

2,157
819
1,023
314

1,614
568
780
266

462
145
226
90

1,152
422
554
176

74,519
13,719
19,087
41,712

Men, 16 years and over....................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………............

82,520
11,538
56,202
14,780

30,593
7,372
5,876
17,345

2,228
885
850
494

1,041
437
449
156

827
314
376
137

282
93
138
51

545
221
238
86

28,365
6,487
5,027
16,851

Women, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over………................

71,767
10,494
48,195
13,078

48,908
8,080
15,379
25,449

2,755
848
1,319
588

1,115
383
574
158

787
254
404
129

180
52
88
39

607
201
315
90

46,154
7,233
14,060
24,861

Total, 16 years and over...................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over………................

125,635
17,786
83,922
23,927

63,905
11,212
16,346
36,347

3,596
1,216
1,531
850

1,501
559
701
241

1,097
370
525
203

293
84
143
66

804
285
382
137

60,309
9,996
14,815
35,497

Men, 16 years and over....................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………….........

68,351
9,394
46,056
12,901

24,374
5,347
4,258
14,769

1,594
621
580
393

720
298
300
122

559
203
248
108

176
53
85
38

383
150
163
70

22,780
4,726
3,678
14,376

Women, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………............

57,284
8,392
37,866
11,026

39,531
5,865
12,088
21,578

2,002
595
951
457

781
261
401
119

538
166
277
95

117
31
58
28

421
135
219
67

37,529
5,270
11,137
21,121

Total, 16 years and over...................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………….........

17,740
2,767
12,589
2,384

10,103
2,822
3,054
4,227

964
369
427
168

466
192
223
50

382
153
184
45

129
51
61
16

253
102
123
28

9,139
2,453
2,627
4,059

Men, 16 years and over....................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………............

8,347
1,369
5,901
1,077

4,169
1,337
1,146
1,686

438
180
188
70

225
99
104
22

195
83
92
20

81
34
40
8

114
49
53
12

3,731
1,157
958
1,616

Women, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over………................

9,393
1,399
6,688
1,307

5,934
1,485
1,909
2,540

526
189
239
98

241
94
119
29

187
71
92
25

48
18
22
9

139
53
70
16

5,408
1,296
1,670
2,443

White

Black or African American

See notes at end of table.

37

36

Table 13. Persons in the labor force and not in the labor force by selected characteristics,
2008 annual averages—Continued
(Number in thousands)
Not in the labor force
Race, age, sex,

Civilian

and

labor
force 1

Hispanic origin

Want a job

Total

Do

Searched for work in the prior year
Total

2

Available for work now

Total
Total

Discouraged
workers

4

not
3

Other

want
job
now

Asians
Total, 16 years and over...................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………….........

7,202
683
5,408
1,110

3,549
819
1,207
1,523

213
54
116
43

91
24
51
16

66
15
38
13

21
4
11
6

45
11
27
7

3,336
765
1,091
1,480

Men, 16 years and over....................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over……………………

3,852
353
2,921
578

1,260
400
268
592

102
32
48
22

50
14
27
9

38
10
21
7

13
3
7
4

25
7
14
3

1,158
368
220
570

Women, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………….........

3,350
330
2,488
532

2,289
419
938
932

111
22
68
21

41
9
25
7

28
5
16
6

7
1
4
2

20
4
12
4

2,178
397
870
911

Total, 16 years and over...................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over……………….....

22,024
3,789
16,117
2,118

10,116
2,873
3,913
3,331

831
334
394
103

339
151
158
29

258
115
118
26

77
31
40
7

181
84
78
19

9,286
2,539
3,519
3,228

Men, 16 years and over....................
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over…………….........

13,255
2,220
9,813
1,222

3,270
1,224
781
1,264

315
148
124
43

145
71
59
15

118
55
49
14

41
18
20
4

77
38
29
11

2,954
1,075
658
1,221

Women, 16 years and over..............
16 to 24 years.................................
25 to 54 years.................................
55 years and over……………….....

8,769
1,569
6,304
896

6,847
1,649
3,131
2,066

516
186
270
60

193
80
99
14

140
59
69
12

36
13
20
4

104
47
49
8

6,331
1,463
2,862
2,006

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity

1

The sum of the employed plus the unemployed.

2

Includes those who did not actively look for work in the prior 4 weeks for such reasons as school or family
responsibilities, ill health, and transportation problems, as well as a small number for whom reason for nonparticipation
was not determined.
3

Refers to persons who have searched for work during the prior 12 months (but not the prior 4 weeks) and were available
to take a job during the reference week, also are referred to as "marginally attached to the labor force."
4

Includes the following reasons for not actively looking for work in the prior 4 weeks: Thinks no work available,
could not find work, lacks schooling or training, employer thinks too young or old, and other types of discrimination.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because data are not
presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

38

37

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages
Years

Total

Black or African
American

White

Asian

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Total, both sexes
1979…………………

$241

$248

$199

—

$194

1980…………………
1981…………………
1982…………………
1983…………………
1984…………………

262
284
302
313
326

269
291
310
320
336

212
235
245
261
269

—
—
—
—
—

209
223
240
250
259

1985…………………
1986…………………
1987…………………
1988…………………
1989…………………

344
359
374
385
399

356
371
384
395
409

277
291
301
314
319

—
—
—
—
—

270
277
285
290
298

1990…………………
1991…………………
1992…………………
1993…………………
1994…………………

412
426
440
459
467

424
442
458
475
484

329
348
357
369
371

—
—
—
—
—

304
312
321
331
324

1995…………………
1996…………………
1997…………………
1998…………………
1999…………………

479
490
503
523
549

494
506
519
545
573

383
387
400
426
445

—
—
—
—
—

329
339
351
370
385

2000…………………
2001…………………
2002…………………
2003…………………
2004…………………

576
596
608
620
638

590
610
623
636
657

474
491
498
514
525

$615
639
658
693
708

399
417
424
440
456

2005…………………
2006…………………
2007…………………
2008…………………

651
671
695
722

672
690
716
742

520
554
569
589

753
784
830
861

471
486
503
529

See note at end of table.

39
38

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages–Continued
Years

Total

Black or African
American

White

Asian

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Men
1979…………………

$292

$298

$227

—

$219

1980…………………
1981…………………
1982…………………
1983…………………
1984…………………

313
340
364
379
392

320
350
375
387
401

244
268
278
294
303

—
—
—
—
—

234
251
269
274
287

1985…………………
1986…………………
1987…………………
1988…………………
1989…………………

407
419
434
449
468

418
433
450
465
482

305
319
327
348
348

—
—
—
—
—

296
299
306
308
315

1990…………………
1991…………………
1992…………………
1993…………………
1994…………………

481
493
501
510
522

494
506
514
524
547

361
375
380
392
400

—
—
—
—
—

318
323
339
346
343

1995…………………
1996…………………
1997…………………
1998…………………
1999…………………

538
557
579
598
618

566
580
595
615
638

411
412
432
468
488

—
—
—
—
—

350
356
371
390
406

2000…………………
2001…………………
2002…………………
2003…………………
2004…………………

641
670
679
695
713

662
689
702
715
732

510
529
524
555
569

$685
732
756
772
802

417
440
451
464
480

2005…………………
2006…………………
2007…………………
2008…………………

722
743
766
798

743
761
788
825

559
591
600
620

825
882
936
966

489
505
520
559

See note at end of table.

40

39

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued
Years

Total

Black or African
American

White

Asian

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Women
1979…………………

$182

$184

$169

—

$157

1980…………………
1981…………………
1982…………………
1983…………………
1984…………………

201
219
239
252
265

203
221
242
254
268

185
206
217
232
241

—
—
—
—
—

172
190
203
215
223

1985…………………
1986…………………
1987…………………
1988…………………
1989…………………

277
291
303
315
328

281
294
307
318
334

252
264
276
288
301

—
—
—
—
—

230
241
251
260
269

1990…………………
1991…………………
1992…………………
1993…………………
1994…………………

346
366
380
393
399

353
373
387
401
408

308
323
335
348
346

—
—
—
—
—

278
292
302
313
305

1995…………………
1996…………………
1997…………………
1998…………………
1999…………………

406
418
431
456
473

415
428
444
468
483

355
362
375
400
409

—
—
—
—
—

305
316
318
337
348

2000…………………
2001…………………
2002…………………
2003…………………
2004…………………

493
512
529
552
573

502
522
547
567
584

429
454
473
491
505

$547
563
566
598
613

366
388
397
410
419

2005…………………
2006…………………
2007…………………
2008…………………

585
600
614
638

596
609
626
654

499
519
533
554

665
699
731
753

429
440
473
501

See note at end of table.

41

40

Table 14. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by sex, race, and
Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 1979–2008 annual averages—Continued
Years

Total

Black or African
American

White

Asian

Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Women's earnings as a percent of men's
1979…………………

62.3

61.7

74.4

—

71.7

1980…………………
1981…………………
1982…………………
1983…………………
1984…………………

64.2
64.4
65.7
66.5
67.6

63.4
63.1
64.5
65.6
66.8

75.8
76.9
78.1
78.9
79.5

—
—
—
—
—

73.5
75.7
75.5
78.5
77.7

1985…………………
1986…………………
1987…………………
1988…………………
1989…………………

68.1
69.5
69.8
70.2
70.1

67.2
67.9
68.2
68.4
69.3

82.6
82.8
84.4
82.8
86.5

—
—
—
—
—

77.7
80.6
82.0
84.4
85.4

1990…………………
1991…………………
1992…………………
1993…………………
1994…………………

71.9
74.2
75.8
77.1
76.4

71.5
73.7
75.3
76.5
74.6

85.3
86.1
88.2
88.8
86.5

—
—
—
—
—

87.4
90.4
89.1
90.5
88.9

1995…………………
1996…………………
1997…………………
1998…………………
1999…………………

75.5
75.0
74.4
76.3
76.5

73.3
73.8
74.6
76.1
75.7

86.4
87.9
86.8
85.5
83.8

—
—
—
—
—

87.1
88.8
85.7
86.4
85.7

2000…………………
2001…………………
2002…………………
2003…………………
2004…………………

76.9
76.4
77.9
79.4
80.4

75.8
75.8
77.9
79.3
79.8

84.1
85.8
90.3
88.5
88.8

79.9
76.9
74.9
77.5
76.4

87.8
88.2
88.0
88.4
87.3

2005…………………
2006…………………
2007…………………
2008…………………

81.0
80.8
80.2
79.9

80.2
80.0
79.4
79.3

89.3
87.8
88.8
89.4

80.6
79.3
78.1
78.0

87.7
87.1
91.0
89.6

NOTE: Beginning in 2003, estimates for white, black or African American, and Asian race groups include persons who
selected that race group only; previously, multiracial persons were included in the group they identified as the main race.
Asian estimates for 2000–02 include Asian and Pacific Islanders; beginning in 2003, Asians are a separate category.
Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. Dash indicates data not available.

42

41

Table 15. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by educational
attainment, sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
Educational attainment, race, and Hispanic or Latino
ethnicity

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 25 years and over…………………………………..…

$761

$784

$611

$895

$568

Less than a high school diploma......…………………………
1
High school graduates, no college ...…………………………
Some college, no degree..................…………………………
Associate degree..............................…………………………
2
Bachelor's degree and higher …………………………………

453
618
699
757
1,115

466
643
723
782
1,133

408
515
600
623
912

419
568
689
706
1,167

422
553
640
704
945

857

883

654

999

591

497
709
803
883
1,285

502
738
836
914
1,329

449
581
663
668
966

485
600
725
770
1,349

472
603
696
795
1,059

Women, 25 years and over…………………………………

670

688

582

771

518

Less than a high school diploma......…………………………
1
High school graduates, no college ...…………………………
Some college, no degree..................…………………………
Associate degree..............................…………………………
2
Bachelor's degree and higher …………………………………

378
520
611
661
955

378
535
621
678
961

382
480
567
592
862

383
521
640
651
996

360
479
585
628
852

Men, 25 years and over…………………………………..…
Less than a high school diploma......…………………………
1
High school graduates, no college ...…………………………
Some college, no degree..................…………………………
Associate degree..............................…………………………
2
Bachelor's degree and higher …………………………………


1

Includes persons with a high school diploma or equivalent.
2
Includes persons with bachelor's, master's, professional, and doctoral degrees.
NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because
data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

43
42

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages
Occupation

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Total, 16 years and over……………………………………………………

$722

$742

$589

$861

$529

Management, professional, and related occupations………………………

1,025

1,043

814

1,233

873

Management, business, and financial operations occupations…………
Management occupations…………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations…………………………

1,128
1,204
974

1,147
1,231
998

866
899
823

1,250
1,442
1,024

906
941
857

Professional and related occupations………………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations………………………….……
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Community and social services occupations……………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations………………………

980
1,242
1,244
1,035
788
1,174
866
882
962

989
1,238
1,252
1,069
808
1,231
881
904
966

780
957
942
785
708
857
727
743
770

1,225
1,406
1,415
1,028
956
1,272
958
846
1,139

855
1,124
1,096
944
735
908
776
797
835

Service occupations……………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations……………………………………………
Protective service occupations………………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations………………………….…………

475
465
748
402
431
475

482
473
794
401
434
481

447
433
599
388
422
462

488
540
873
467
473
460

412
453
716
395
396
420

Sales and office occupations…………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations………………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations……………………………

614
656
601

623
692
604

557
507
578

654
653
654

542
524
549

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations…………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………..………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations……………………..…

702
420
688
774

709
432
696
785

635
341
599
688

746
365
697
792

534
371
546
626

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations……………
Production occupations………………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations……………………….…

594
595
593

610
611
609

521
520
521

531
521
561

485
481
492

See note at end of table.

44
43

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages—Continued
Occupation

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

$798

$825

$620

$966

$559

Management, professional, and related occupations………………………

1,238

1,255

892

1,403

1,002

Management, business, and financial operations occupations…………
Management occupations…………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations…………………………

1,343
1,384
1,167

1,363
1,403
1,220

913
976
879

1,440
1,556
1,170

992
998
977

Professional and related occupations………………………………………
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations………………………….……
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
Community and social services occupations……………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations………………………

1,169
1,320
1,286
1,156
860
1,696
1,020
951
1,210

1,182
1,295
1,299
1,191
890
1,739
1,035
974
1,236

881
1,052
952
732
686
1,072
888
804
926

1,387
1,446
1,469
1,342
969
1,159
1,135
999
1,454

1,012
1,155
1,120
1,081
765
1,448
980
847
968

Service occupations……………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations……………………………………………
Protective service occupations………………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations………………………….…………

537
512
794
432
488
591

551
506
834
430
492
606

500
510
651
406
460
558

518
676
1,076
474
500
527

448
452
760
417
416
520

Sales and office occupations…………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations………………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations……………………………

733
796
651

758
828
671

592
587
594

705
748
658

591
642
534

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations…………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………..………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations……………………..…

705
427
688
774

712
441
695
785

630
327
585
681

766
367
700
803

541
380
544
623

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations……………
Production occupations………………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations……………………….…

637
659
615

658
675
637

559
587
525

585
588
577

514
516
513

Men, 16 years and over………………………………………………………

See note at end of table.

45

44

Table 16. Median usual weekly earnings of full-time wage and salary workers by occupation,
sex, race, and Hispanic or Latino ethnicity, 2008 annual averages—Continued
Occupation

Total

White

Black or
African
American

Asian

Hispanic or
Latino
ethnicity

Women, 16 years and over…………………………………………………

$638

$654

$554

$753

$501

Management, professional, and related occupations………………………

892

900

763

1,041

775

Management, business, and financial operations occupations…………
Management occupations…………………………………………………
Business and financial operations occupations…………………………

941
979
885

948
990
891

838
868
779

1,059
1,224
982

821
832
809

Professional and related occupations………………………………………
867
1,088
Computer and mathematical occupations………………………………
Architecture and engineering occupations………………………….…… 1,001
Life, physical, and social science occupations…………………………
931
753
Community and social services occupations……………………………
Legal occupations…………………………………………………………
962
Education, training, and library occupations……………………………
818
Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations…………
777
909
Healthcare practitioner and technical occupations………………………

875
1,097
1,008
928
759
965
836
797
919

722
899
885
859
713
785
659
630
729

1,033
1,256
1,019
946
946
1,460
876
773
1,047

761
905
1,036
797
718
791
737
737
777

Service occupations……………………………………………………………
Healthcare support occupations……………………………………………
Protective service occupations………………………………………………
Food preparation and serving related occupations………………………
Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations…………
Personal care and service occupations………………………….…………

418
459
594
376
383
441

418
469
638
374
375
450

418
425
521
376
401
419

453
506
606
423
420
422

383
453
531
360
357
388

Sales and office occupations…………………………………………………
Sales and related occupations………………………………………………
Office and administrative support occupations……………………………

578
516
590

581
528
592

535
439
571

626
575
653

519
433
556

Natural resources, construction, and maintenance occupations…………
Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations………………………..………
Construction and extraction occupations…………………………………
Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations……………………..…

607
392
747
779

609
406
726
773

813
363
921
921

525
363
223
678

399
341
718
750

Production, transportation, and material moving occupations……………
Production occupations………………………………………………………
Transportation and material moving occupations……………………….…

462
464
455

467
472
449

441
430
488

467
470
440

382
386
372

NOTE: Estimates for the above race groups (white, black or African American, and Asian) do not sum to totals because
data are not presented for all races. Persons whose ethnicity is identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race.

46

45

Technical Note

The estimates in this report were obtained from the Current
Population Survey (CPS), a national monthly sample survey
of approximately 60,000 households that provides a wide
range of information on the labor force, employment, and
unemployment. Earnings data are collected from one-fourth
of the CPS monthly sample. The survey is conducted for the
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) by the U.S. Census
Bureau, using a scientifically selected national sample with
coverage in all 50 States and the District of Columbia.
Material in this report is in the public domain and, with
appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission.
This information is available to sensory-impaired individuals
upon request. Voice phone: (202) 691-5200; TDD message
referral phone number: 1 (800) 877-8339.

layoff, duration of unemployment represents the number of
full weeks they had been on layoff. Mean duration is the
arithmetic average computed from single weeks of unem­
ployment; median duration is the midpoint of a distribution
of weeks of unemployment.
Reason for unemployment. Unemployment also is catego­
rized according to the status of individuals at the time they
began to look for work. The reasons for unemployment are
divided into four major groups:
(1) Job losers, comprising (a) persons on temporary layoff, who have been given a date to return to work or who
expect to return within 6 months (persons on layoff need
not be looking for work to qualify as unemployed), (b)
permanent job losers, whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work, and (c) persons
who completed temporary jobs, who began looking for
work after the jobs ended;

Concepts and definitions
Civilian noninstitutional population. Included are persons
16 years of age and older residing in the 50 States and the
District of Columbia who are not confined to institutions
such as nursing homes and prisons, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

(2) Job leavers, persons who quit or otherwise terminat­
ed their employment voluntarily and immediately began
looking for work;

Employed persons. All persons who, during the refer­ence
week, (a) did any work at all (at least 1 hour) as paid employees, worked in their own business, profession, or on their
own farm, or worked 15 hours or more as unpaid workers in
an enterprise operated by a member of the family, and (b) all
those who were not working but who had jobs or busi­nesses
from which they were temporarily absent because of vacation, illness, bad weather, childcare problems, maternity or
paternity leave, labor-management dispute, job training, or
other family or personal reasons, whether or not they were
paid for the time off or were seeking other jobs.

(3) Reentrants, persons who previously worked but who
were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job
search; and
(4) New entrants, persons who had never worked.
Labor force. This group comprises all persons classified as
employed or unemployed in accordance with the criteria
described above.

Unemployed persons. All persons who had no employment
during the reference week, were available for work (except
for temporary illness) and had made specific efforts to find
employment sometime during the 4-week period ending with
the reference week. Persons who were waiting to be recalled
to a job from which they had been laid off need not have been
looking for work to be classified as unemployed.

Unemployment rate. This represents the number of unemployed persons as a percent of the labor force.
Participation rate. This represents the proportion of the pop­
ulation that is in the labor force.
Employment-population ratio. This represents the proportion
of the population that is employed.

Duration of unemployment. This represents the length of time
(through the current reference week) that persons classified
as unemployed had been looking for work. For persons on

Not in the labor force. Included in this group are all persons
in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither
47

respon­dent. If the respondent asks for a definition of usual,
inter­viewers are instructed to define the term as more than
half the weeks worked during the past 4 or 5 months. Data
refer to the sole or primary job of wage and salary workers
(excluding all self-employed persons regardless of whether
their businesses were incorporated).

employed nor unemployed. The marginally attached are
persons not in the labor force who wanted and were available for work and had looked for a job sometime in the prior
12 months (or since the end of their last job if they held
one within the past 12 months). They were not counted as
unemployed because they had not searched for work in the
4 weeks preceding the survey. Discouraged workers are a
subset of the marginally attached who were not currently
looking for work specifically because they believed no jobs
were available for them.

Median earnings. These figures indicate the value that di­
vides the earnings distribution into two equal parts, one part
having values above the median and the other having values
below the median. The medians shown in this publication
are calculated by linear interpolation of the $50 centered
interval within which each median falls.

Occupation, industry, and class of worker. This information
for the employed applies to the job held in the reference
week. Persons with two or more jobs are classified in the
job at which they worked the greatest number of hours. The
unemployed are classified according to their last job. Beginning in 2003, the occupational and industrial classification of
CPS data is based on the 2002 Census Bureau occupational
and industrial classification systems, which are derived from
the 2000 Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) and
the 2002 North American Industry Classification System
(NAICS). (Consistent data are available back to 2000. Earlier
data use a different classification system.)

Family. A family is defined as a group of two or more per­
sons residing together who are related by birth, marriage,
or adoption; all such persons are considered as members of
one family. Families are classified either as married-couple
families or as families maintained by women or men without spouses. A family maintained by a woman or a man is
one in which the householder is never married, widowed,
divorced, or separated.
Children. Data on children refer to one’s own children and
include sons, daughters, stepchildren, and adopted children.
Not included are nieces, nephews, grandchildren, other
related children, and all unrelated children living in the
household.

White, black or African American, and Asian. These are
terms used to describe the race of persons. Beginning in
2003, persons in these categories are those who selected
that race group only. (Previously, persons identified a group
as their main race.) Persons in the remaining race categories—American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian
or Other Pacific Islanders, and persons who selected more
than one race category—are included in the estimates of total
employment and unemployment but are not shown separately
because the number of survey respondents is too small to
develop estimates of sufficient quality. In the enumeration
process, race is determined by the household respondent.
More information on the 2003 changes in questions on race
and Hispanic ethnicity is available on the BLS Web site at
http://www.bls.gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.

Reliability of the estimates
Statistics based on the CPS are subject to both sampling and
nonsampling error. When a sample, rather than an entire
population, is surveyed, there is a chance that the sample
estimates may differ from the “true” population values they
represent. The exact difference, or sampling error, varies
depending on the particular sample selected, and this variabil­
ity is measured by the standard error of the estimate. There
is about a 90-percent chance, or level of confidence, that an
estimate based on a sample will differ by no more than 1.6
standard errors from the “true” population value because of
sampling error. BLS analyses are generally conducted at the
90-percent level of confidence.
All other types of error are referred to as nonsampling
error. Nonsampling error can occur for many reasons, in­
cluding the failure to sample a segment of the population,
inability to obtain information for all respondents in the
sample, inability or unwillingness of respondents to provide
correct information, and errors made in the collection or
pro­cessing of data.
For a full discussion of the reliability of data from the CPS
and information on estimating standard errors, see the House­
hold Data section of “Explanatory Notes and Estimates of
Error” in Employment and Earnings, on the BLS Web site
at http://www.bls.gov/cps/eetech_methods.pdf.

Hispanic or Latino ethnicity. This refers to persons who
iden­tified themselves in the enumeration process as being
Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino. Persons whose ethnicity is
identified as Hispanic or Latino may be of any race. More
information on the 2003 changes in questions on race and
Hispanic ethnicity is available online at http://www.bls.
gov/cps/rvcps03.pdf.
Usual weekly earnings. Data represent earnings before taxes
and other deductions, and include any overtime pay, commis­
sions, or tips usually received (at the main job, in the case
of multiple jobholders). Earnings reported on a basis other
than weekly (for example, annual, monthly, hourly) are
converted to weekly. The term “usual” is as perceived by the

48