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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner

BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES \
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS/ * ‘ ‘
WAGES

AND

HOURS

OF

LABOR

{No. 407
SERIES

LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION AND
WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN
THE PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY




OCTOBER, 1926

WASHINGTON
GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE
1926

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The commissioner desires to acknowledge as especially contribut­
ing to the preparation of this report the services of John M. Foster
and William A. Fuller, members of the bureau staff.




CONTENTS
Page

Part I. Labor cost of production in a two-week period, 1924 and 1925:
Introduction-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Effect of shortened hours on output______________________________
Time cost of labor in terms of one-man hours required to produce a
ton of paper box board, 1924 and 1925_________________________
Money cost of labor required to produce a ton of paper box board,
1924 and 1925_______________________________________________
Labor cost per one-man hour____________________________________
Total hours worked and production in a two-week period, 1924 and
192 5
______ ________
Production and labor cost per one-man hour______________________
Time and labor cost per ton----------------------------_-------------------------Full-time positions as affected by change from two tours to three
tours------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Increase in wage rates due to change from two tours to three tours. >
Full-time earnings per employee under both two-tour and three-tour
operation____________________________________________________
Full-time earnings per occupation as a whole under both two-tour and
three-tour operation__________________________________________
Total hours worked, total wages, output in pounds and labor cost per
one-man hour, production, cost per ton under both two-tour and
three-tour operation__________________________________________
Detailed tables for each establishment under both two-tour and threetour operation----------------------------- ------------------------------------- Part II. Wages and hours of labor in the paper box-board industry, 1925:
Brief history of the paper box-board industry_____________________
Importance of the industry_____________________________________
Extent and summary of survey---------------------------------------------------Regular or customary hours of operation_________________________
Changes in wage rates since January 1, 1924______________________
Extra pay for overtime and for work on Sunday and holidays______
Bonus systems_________________________________________________
Days worked in one pay period__________________________________
Average and classified days of operation during the year 1924______
General tables--------------------------------------------------------------------------T able A.— Average hours and earnings and classified full-time
hours per week, 1925, by occupation and State___ __________
T able B.— Average and classified earnings per hour of employees
in seven typical occupations, 1925, by State________________
T able C.— Average and classified hours actually worked in two
weeks by employees in seven typical occupations, 1925, by State,
T able D.— Average and classified amounts actually earned in
two weeks by employees in seven typical occupations, 1925, by
State___________________________________________________
General processes of manufacture________________________________
Description of occupations—
Beater room__________________ _____________________________
Machine room_____________________________________________
Finishing department_______________________________________




hi

1-3
3-5
5,6

9-11
11-13
13-16
16,17
18,19
20, 21
22-24
25,26
27-49
50, 51
51-53
54-57
58, 59
59, 60
60, 61
61, 62
62, 63
63,64
65-85
66-74
75-77
78-81
82-85
86,87
87, 88
88,89
89




BULLETIN OF THE

U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
NO. 407

WASHINGTON

OCTOBER, 1926

LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION AND WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR
IN THE PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY
Part I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION IN A TWO-WEEK
PERIOD, 1924 AND 1925
INTRODUCTION

On May 2, 1924, a conference of paper box-board manufacturers
was held m Washington, D. C., for the purpose of bringing about a
much-needed reform in this industry by means of shortening the
hours of labor. At least 80 per cent of the paper box-board plants
in the United States and probably 95 per cent of the paper boxboard products factories were represented at this conference. The
two-tour system of the alternating week of 11 and 13 tours,
with the cleaning up done on Sunday, had prevailed in many of the
paper box-board mills, and the object of this conference was to devise
ways and means of shortening tnese long hours of labor and doing
away with the Sunday work. It was hoped that by mutual agree­
ment within the industry the 8-hour day that predominates in the
majority of industries could be established in the paper box-beard
mills.
At this conference, during the discussion over the elimination of
Sunday work there was a wide diversity of opinion as to the length
of time required for the clean-up. (The “ clean-up” is a necessary
operation that must be performed at the beginning or end of every
operation period at the paper box-board mill and consists of chang­
ing the paper-machine felts, repairing the equipment, and making
preparation for another week’s work.)
It was particularly noticeable in the 70 establishments visited in
the wage study that in the three-tour mills the time consumed in
cleaning up rarely varied from 8 hours each week, while in the twotour mills the clean-up time was nearly constant at 11 hours per
week.
A very few mills seemed to make an effort to have the clean-up
done in less time than the regular hours of one tour. In these few
mills the clean-up time varied from 4 to 6 hours. It appears reason­
able to assume that if some mills can reduce this time to a minimum
the majority could do the same. It would seem that it was not
strictly necessary to close the mill all day Saturday in order to
eliminate Sunday work.
There does not appear to be any good reason why the clean-up
could not be performed by the tour which starts work at 3 or 4 p. m.
on Saturday m a three-tour mill, or at 6 p. m. in a two-tour mill.
Another variation of the time for clean-up, which has been tried and




1

2

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

found satisfactory by several mills, is to have the clean-up work done
by the first tour on Monday. Of the 70 establishments visited in
this study, 5 have Monday a. m. clean-up and 7 have Saturday p. m.
clean-up, while in 1 mill the beater-room clean-up was done on
Saturday p. m. and the machine room on Sunday a. m. Of the 5
having Monday a. m. clean-up, 4 are three-tour mills and 1 is a twotour mill; while of the 8 having Saturday p. m. clean-up, 4 are threetour and 4 are two-tour mills.
A few paper box-board mills had in recent years adopted the threetour or 8-hour day system, while a few others operated 5 days instead
of 6 days a week, and clean up on the sixth day. By January 15,
1925, wnen a second conference of the paper box-board manufac­
turers was held, over 75 per cent of the mills had eliminated Sunday
work.
Since large quantities of water are required in this industry, in
addition to that necessary for generating power (a modern mill uses
from 35,000 to 80,000 gallons of water per ton of paper produced),
paper mills are often located in remote places near rivers or streams
yielding a good supplv of reasonably pure water. This fact may to
some extent account for the long hours of labor of mill employees.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics recently secured detailed informa­
tion from 11 paper box-board mills for a representative two-week
pay period in 1924 and a similar period in 1925, presenting in detail
the changes resulting from reduced working hours; however, no
attempt was made to apply the principles of cost accounting to this
study as in practically all these mills men were shifted for a short
time as needed from one position to another. In some mills the time
worked in different occupations was shown in detail on the pay roll,
while in others the total time worked was shown under the regular
occupation. This shifting in occupation occurred mainly in the un­
skilled or semiskilled occupations, such as laborers, cutter boys, broke
boys, etc.
Seven of these mills had changed from two tours to three tours; of
these, 2 had reduced the working-davs from 6 to 5, 3 had been oper­
ating 5 days during both periods scheduled, while 2 continued pro­
duction through 6 days.
Of the other 4 mills, 3 had been working three tours and 1 two
tours prior to the conference, and had made no change in hours
subsequent thereto, although all 4 had reduced the working-days
from 6 to 5.
Of the 11 mills, 3 had been doing the clean-up work on Saturday
prior to the conference, 6 had changed the clean-up from Sunday to
Saturday, while 2 continued the Sunday clean-up.
The 7 plants that changed from two to three tours employed 1,458
persons in 1925 against 1,274 in 1924, and had a daily tonnage of 166 in
1925 against 150 in 1924. Of the 4 plants that reduced their days of
operation from 6 to 5 per week, 3 were running on three tours and 1
on two tours during both periods, employed 620 in 1925 against 659 in
1924, and had a daily tonnage of 106 in 1925, as against 107 in 1924.
Nine plants, employing 1,714 persons, reported no Sunday work in
1925, and the average output of these plants was 170 tons per day.
The 11 plants selected for this productivity study had, with 2 ex­
ceptions, tne same equipment during both periods. One of these 2,
in the group that changed from two tours to three tours, increased the



PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

3

number of the drying rolls on one of its paper machines by about 20
per cent, while the other mill, which had made no change in the hours
worked by the tour employees but had reduced the days of work from
6 to 5, had increased the arying rolls on one of its paper machines by
approximately 24 per cent and in addition had added a Shartle beater
to the equipment of its beater room.
The periods used in this study vary for each establishment, as it was
essential for comparison purposes to secure periods in each year in
which the product was as nearly alike as possible and in which the mill
was operated full time. In 9 of the mills the product in the two
periods scheduled was practically the same. The other 2 establish­
ments had made several kinds of higher quality box board in 1925
than in 1924, in consequence of which their 1925 production was
proportionately less and their cost per ton proportionately greater.
In 1 of the mills that reduced its days of operation from 6 to 5 but made
no change in the time of tour workers this decreased production, and
the increased cost was especially pronounced.
The daily output of tne 11 mills averaged 124 tons in the 1924
period and 134 tons in the 1925 period.
It will be noted that in practically all of the tables in this study the
11 establishments have been divided into two groups, the first group
consisting of 7 mills and the second group consisting of 4 mills.
The first group comprises those mills which were operating two tours
in the period covered in 1924, but had changed over to three-tour oper­
ation before the period covered in 1925. In addition to this change,
2 of these 7 mills had reduced their days of operation from 6 to 5.
The second group consists of 4 mills, all of which had reduced their
da^s of operation from 6 in the period covered in 1924 to 5 in the
period covered in 1925, but none had made any change in the time
worked by the tour employees.
In the following tables the time cost expressed in hours and the
labor cost expressed in money are given for the beater room and the
machine room, the two principal departments concerned with the
manufacture of paper box board, and for all departments combined.
The productivity of labor is the return the workingman gives for
the wages he receives. In order to make a productivity study, it is
necessary, therefore, to secure records of time and output, i. e., of
one-man hours and of pounds or tons produced. The number of oneman hours required to produce a given output is the time cost, and the
quantity of output produced in a given time is the productivity of
labor. The labor cost, also given in one of the following tables,
represents an aggregate of the wages paid over a two-week productive
period.
EFFECT OF SHORTENED HOURS ON OUTPUT

In the 7 establishments that changed from two tours to three tours
the average days of operation decreased 5.1 per cent, or from 11.1
days in 1924 to 10.5 days in 1925. The average daily tonnage output
of these 7 plants, however, increased 19.6 per cent, or from 150 tons
in the two-week period in 1924 to 166 tons in the two-week period of
1925.
In the 4 plants that reduced their working week from 6 days to 5
days, the average daily tonnage output decreased 0.7 per cent, or from
107 tons in the two-week period of 1924 to 106 tons m the two-week
period of 1925.



4

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

For the 11 plants combined, the average days of operation decreased
9.5 per cent, or from 11.5 days in 1924 to 10.4 days in 1925. The
average daily tonnage of these 11 mills increased 8.7 per cent, or from
124 tons in the two-week period of 1924 to 134 tons in the two-week
period of 1925.
Table 1, which follows, gives the output in pounds per one-man
hour. This production is arrived at by dividing the total output (in
pounds) for the two-week period by the total nours worked in the
beater room, the machine room, and in all departments. In this
table and in the following tables the establishments are indicated by
numbers, and in order to prevent identification the arrangement and
numbering is different in the various tables.
T able 1 .— OUTPUT IN POUNDS PER ONE-MAN HOUR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIOD, 1924

AN D 1925, BY ESTABLISHM ENTS

Output per one-man hour in—
Beater room

Machine room

All departments

Establishment
1924

Per cent
of
change

1925

1924

1925

Per cent
of
change

1924

1925

Per cent
of
change

Changed from %tours to 3 tours1

1.............................
2.............................
3.............................
4.............................
5........................... .
6.............................
7.............................

Lbs.
421
649
588
663
548
938
684

Lbs.
424
787
719
680
704
1,064
907

+0.7
+21.3
+22.3
+ 2.6
+28.5
+13.4
+32.6

Lbs.
333
565
814
643
636
682
854

Lbs.
360
713
1,001
706
857
871
1,054

+ 8.1
+26.2
+23.0
+9.8
+34.7
+27.7
+23.4

Lbs.
113
135
175
162
145
216
188

Lbs.
119
147
209
173
179
246
236

+5.3
+8.9
+19.4
+ 6.8
+23.4
+13.9
+25.5

Average..............

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

642

723

+ 12.6

612

729

+19.1

162

180

+ 11.1

-2 0.9
-3 .1
-3 .0
+ 8.6

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
636
551
663
646

410
536
516
762

- 12.0
+1.5
+5.7
+37.5

513

565

+ 10.1

632

596

674

+13.1

618

8.............................
9.............................
10...........................
11...........................

466
528
488
554

Average..............
Grand average__

No.
No.
No.
No.

531
585
651
617

-1 6.5
+ 6.2
- 1.8
-4 .5

139
131
134
197

110
127
130
214

613

-3 .0

151

146

-3 .3

695

+12.5

158

170

+7.6

* Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.

Study of Table 1 reveals that for the 7 plants that changed from
two tours to three tours the output in pounds per one-man hour in
the beater room increased in every plant, the increases ranging from
0.7 per cent to 32.6 per cent. In the machine room the hourly
output increased in all 7 plants, the increases ranging from 8.1 per cent
to 34.7 per cent. For all departments the hourly output also in­
creased m all 7 plants, the increases ranging from 5.3 per cent to
25.5 per cent. For the 7 plants taken as a whole the output increased
12.6 per cent in the beater room, 19.1 per cent in the machine room,
and 11.1 per cent in all departments. These 7 plants that changed
from two tours to three tours show that a decrease in hours was
followed by an increase in hourly output.




PART I.—-LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

5

In the 4 mills that reduced their days of production from 6 to 5,
the output in the beater room increased in 3 plants, the increases
ranging from 1.5 per cent to 37.5 per cent, while the output decreased
12 per cent in 1 plant. In the machine room the output decreased in
3 plants, ranging from 1.8 per cent to 16.5 per cent, while in 1 plant
the output increased 6.2 per cent. For all departments the output de­
creased in 3 plants, the decreases ranging from 3 per cent to 20.9 per
cent, and 1 plant increased its output 8.6 per cent. For these 4 plants
taken as a whole, however, the output increased 10.1 per cent m the
beater room, but decreased 3 per cent in the machine room and 3.3
er cent in all departments. The 1 plant that reported the largest
ecreases in the beater room, machine room, and in all departments
manufactured a better grade of board in 1925 than in 1924.
In terms of the number of pounds of board produced in one hour by
one man, these 11 plants averaged in the beater room 674 pounds per
hour in 1925 as against 596 pounds in 1924, in the machine room
695 pounds in 1925 as against 618 pounds in 1924, and for all depart­
ments 170 pounds in 1925 as against 158 pounds in 1924.

S

TIME COST OF LABOR IN TERMS OF ONE-MAN HOURS REQUIRED
TO PRODUCE A TON OF PAPER BOX BOARD, 1924 AND 1925

Inasmuch as the beater room and the machine room are more con­
cerned with the production of board than the other departments, the
time cost will be compared in these two departments first. The
cost per ton of paper box board in terms of one-man hours decreased
in the beater room of the 7 plants which changed from 2 tours to 3
tours. These decreases ranged from 0.8 of 1 per cent to 24.3 per cent.
One plant reported an 0.8 percent decrease, 1 a 2.6 per cent decrease,
1 an 11.7 per cent decrease, 1 a 17.5 per cent decrease, 1 an 18.2 per
cent, while the other 2 showed decreases of 22.2 and 24.3 per cent.
The average cost in one-man hours for the 7 plants decreased 10.9
per cent.
Taking the changes that occurred in the machine room as regards
cost per ton of board in terms of one-man hours in these three-tour
mills, 7 decreases are shown, ranging from 7.5 per cent to 25.8 per
cent. These decreases were 7.5 per cent in 1 plant, 9 per cent in
another, 18.7 percent in 1 and 18.8 per cent in another, ana 20.9,21.5,
and 25.8 per cent in 3 others. For these 7 plants the time cost in the
machine department decreased 15.9 per cent after the plants changed
to three tours.
Regarding all departments, which include not only the beater room
and the machine room, but the receiving and shipping room, main­
tenance, power, and general work, the cost per ton of paper box board,
in one-man hours, decreased in all 7 plants. The decreases ranged
from 5 to 20.1 per cent, the average decrease for the 7 plants bemg
10.2 per cent. The daily tonnage production in the 7 plants
increased 10.6 per cent.
In the 4 plants that were operating two tours or three tours both
eriods, the time cost decreased in the beater room in 3 plants, the
ecrease ranging from 1.6 per cent to 27.4 per cent, and 1 plant
reported an increase of 13.8 per cent. The average decrease for the
4 plants was 9.2 per cent, in the machine room the one-man hours
decreased 5.8 per cent in 1 plant and increased in the other 3, the
range being from 1.7 per cent to 19.7 per cent. The average one-

S




6

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

man hours for the 4 plants increased 3.2 per cent. Considering ail
departments in these 4 establishments, 3 plants reported increases
ranging from 3 to 26 per cent, while 1 reported a decrease of 7.6
per cent, the average time cost for the 4 plants increasing 3.8 per cent.
The largest increase reported in time cost in terms of one-man hours
occurred in the establishment that began the manufacture of highergrade and consequently slower-running board in 1925.
The time cost m terms of one-man hours required to produce a ton
of paper box board in 1925 compared with 1924 in the 11 establish­
ments included in this study, decreased 11.3 per cent in the beater
room, 11.1 per cent in the machine room, and 6.7 per cent for all
departments. The daily tonnage production for the 11 plants
increased 8.7 per cent in 1925 while the days of operation decreased
9.5 per cent.
In terms of one-man hours, the average time required in these
11 plants to produce a ton of board was 2.97 hours in 1925, compared
with 3.35 hours in 1924 in the beater department; 2.88 hours in 1925
compared with 3.24 hours in 1924 in the machine department, and
11.78 hours in 1925 compared with 12.62 hours in 1924 in all depart­
ments. It therefore took less time to produce a ton of paper box
board in 1925 with decreased hours of labor than it did in 1924.
It will be observed that, in the 11 establishments, the number of
hours of one man’s time that would be required to produce a ton of
paper box board, if he performed a part of all the processes from the
raw to the finished state of the product, varied from 9.24 to 17.75
hours in 1924, and from 8.13 to 18.15 hours in 1925. This is a wide
variation, but inasmuch as some of the grades of paper box board
take much longer to produce than others this would account for a
considerable amount of the difference in time.
T a b l e 2 .— LABOR COST PER TON OF PRODUCT IN ONE-MAN HOURS IN A TW O-W EEK

PERIOD, IN 1924 AN D 1925, B Y ESTABLISHMENTS

Labor cost per ton of product in one-man hours in—
Beater room

Establishment
1924

1925

All departments

Machine room

Per cent
of change

1924

1925

Per cent
of change

1924

1925

Per cent
of change

Changed fro m %tours to 8 to u r s 1
Oneman
hours
3.40
No. 1.............................
4.75
No. 2.............................
3.08
No. 3.............................
2.92
No. 4...................... . . . .
2.13
No. 5.............................
3.65
No. 6.............................
3.02
No. 7.............................
3.11
Average..............

Oneman
hours
2.78
4.71
2.54
2.21
1.88
2.84
2.94
2.77

—18.2
-.8
-17.5
-24.3
-11.7
- 22.2
- 2.6
-1 0.9

Oneman
hours
2.46
6.00
3.54
2.34
2.93
3.14
3.11
3.27

Oneman
hours
2.00
5.55
2.80
1.90
2.30
2.33
2.83
2.75

-18.7
-7 .5
-20.9
—18.8
-21.5
-2 5.8
-9 .0
-1 5.9

Oneman
hours
11.41
17.75
14.85
10.61
9.24
13.75
12.36
12.36

Oneman
hours
9.59
16.87
13.63
8.48
$.13
11.16
11.56
11.10

-16.0
-5 .0
- 8.2
- 20.1
- 12.0
—18.8
-6 .5
- 1<X
2

C hanged fro m 6 days t o 5 days o f p roduction
No.
No.
No.
No.

8.............................
9.............................
10...........................
11...........................
Average..............
Grand average__

3.61
4.10
3.79
4.29
3.90
3.35

2.62
3.88
3.73
4.88
3.54
a 97

-2 7.4
-5 .4
- 1.6
+13.8
-9 .2
-11.3

3.10
3.02
3.63
3.15
3.17
3.24

3.24
3.07
3.42
3.77
3.27
2.88

* Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.




+4.5
+1.7
-5 .8
+19.7
+3.2
- 11.1

10.13
14.90
15.27
14.41
13.23
12.62

9.36
15.34
15.74
18.15
13.73
11.78

—7.6
+a.o
+3.1
+26.0

...

+SLJ
-6 .7

PART I.---- LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

MONEY COST OF LABOR REQUIRED TO PRODUCE A TON
PAPER BOX BOARD, 1924 AND 1925

7
OF

For the purpose of comparing the money cost of labor required to
produce a ton of board m 1925 and in 1924, the 7 plants which
changed from two tours to three tours will be considered first. In
the beater room of these plants this cost decreased in 3 plants and
increased in the other 4. The increases ranged from 2.7 per cent
to 23.1 per cent,while the decreases ranged from 6.8 to 9.3 percent,
the average for the beater room showing an increase of 7.8 per cent.
The average cost per ton was $1.66 in 1925, as compared with $1.54
in 1924. In the machine room of these 7 establishments five de­
creases and two increases were reported, the average increase in
money cost per ton of product being 2.3 per cent more in 1925 than
in 1924. For all departments the individual establishments show
five decreases and two increases in the cost of labor, the average in­
crease for all 7 mills being 0.7 per cent, or from $6.69 per ton of
product in 1924 to $6.74 in 1925.
In the other 4 plants that operated two tours or three tours in
both periods, the money cost of labor per ton of board in the beater
room increased 32.2 per cent in the mill in which the 1925 product
was of a higher grade of board than in 1924. The labor cost of the
other 3 plants showed a decrease. The beater room of all 4
establishments combined showed an average decrease of 6.7 per cent
in labor cost. The cost per ton of product was $1.81 in 1925, as
compared with $1.94 in 1924. In the machine room the average
increase in money cost of labor per ton of board was 3.6 per cent.
Two mills reported increases, 1 reported a decrease, and 1 no change.
The cost per ton in 1925 was $1.71, as compared with $1.65 in 1924.
In all departments the money cost increased 6.3 per cent in 1925
as compared with 1924, so that the cost per ton in 1925 was $7.39,
as against $6.95 in 1924.
Taking the 11 plants together in connection with the money cost
of labor required to produce a ton of board in 1925 as compared
with 1924 when the plants operated longer hours, the beater room
showed a 2.4 per cent increase in this cost, the machine room showed
a 2.9 per cent increase, and all departments showed a 2.1 per cent
increase. Thus, in the beater room it cost $1.70 for the labor re­
quired to produce a ton of board in 1925 as compared with $1.66 in
1924; in tne machide room, $1.75 in 1925 as compared with $1.70 in
1924; and in all departments, $6.91 in 1925 as compared with $6.77
in 1924.
One mill, because of better beater-room or machine-room facilities
or more modem equipment may be able to produce board at a less
cost per ton than another mill, but in this study we are not concerned
in the cost as between mills, but in the cost in the same mill before
and after the change in working time. It should be noted that the
grade of product would in some degree affect the labor cost as be­
tween mills.




PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

8.

TABLE 3.—LABOR COST P E R TON OF PRODUCT IN A TW O-W EEK PERIOD, 1924 AND
1925, B Y ESTABLISHM ENTS

Labor cost per ton of product in—
Beater room

Establishment
1924

1925

Machine room

Per cent
of change

1924

1925

All departments

Per cent
of change

1924

1925

Per cent
of change

Changed from % tours to 3 tours1
1...................
2.............................
3.............................
4.............................
5.............................
6.............................
7.............................

$1.50
1.12
1.76
1.43
1.77
1. 61
2.07

$1.36
1.15
2.06
1.76
1.65
1.47
2.14

-9 .3
+2.7
+17.0
+23.1
- 6.8
-8 .7
+3.4

$1.35
1.63
1. 67
1.51
1.34
1.99
2.82

$1.34
1.55
1.88
1.72
1.33
1.76
2.78

-0 .7
-4 .9
+ 12.6
+13.9
-.7
- 11.6
- 1 .4

$5.94
5.35
7.13
6.36
6.40
8.65
8.61

$5.31
5.45
7.12
6.83
6.10
8.38
a 40

- 10.6
+1.9
-.1
+7.4
-4 .7
-3 .1
-2 .4

Average..............

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1.54

1.66

+7.8

1.73

1.77

+2.3

6.69

6.74

+ .7

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
No. 8.............................
No. 9.............................
No. 10...........................
No. 1 1 - ................. —

$2.26
1.69
2.05
1.98

Average..............

1.94

Grand average. __

1.66

$2.19
1.25
2.71
1.87

$1.97
1.67
2.23
1.48

-5 .3
+5.0
+32.0
(2
)

$9.27
5.51
7.53
7.43

1.65

1. 71

+3.6

6.95

7.39

+ 6.3

1.70

1.75

+2.9

6.77

6.91

+ 2.1

-3 .1
-26.0
+32.2
-5 .6

$2.08
1.59
1.69
1.48

1.81

-6 .7

1.70

+2.4 j

1Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.

$9.70
4.97
10.08
7.62

+4.6
-3 .5
+33.9
+ 2.6

2 No change.

LABOR COST PER ONE-MAN HOUR

The labor cost covers the wages paid during the production period
scheduled. The labor cost per one-man hour is found by dividing
the aggregate pay roll for the particular production period by the
aggregate hours worked during the same period.
In the 7 plants which changed to three tours in 1925 the labor cost
per man-hour increased in the beater rooms of all establishments,
the increases ranging from 4.6 per cent to 50.8 per cent, the average
increase for all the plants being 21.5 per cent or from 49.3 cents in
1924 to 59.9 cents in 1925. In the machine rooms of these establish­
ments the increases ranged from 6.4per cent to 51:4 per cent, the aver­
age increase being 22.0 per cent. The average labor cost for the ma­
chine room was 64.4 cents per one-man hour in 1925 as against 52.8
cents in 1924. For all departments the increase ranged from 2.7 per
cent to 22.9 per cent, the average increase for all plants being 12.2
per cent. The labor cost per one-man hour was 60.7 cents in 1925 as
against 54.1 cents in 1924.
Of the 4 plants operating two tours or three tours in both periods,
2 reported slight decreases in the beater room, the average for the 4
lants being an increase of 3 per cent. The labor cost per one-man
our increased from 49.7 cents m 1924 to 51.2 cents in 1925. Although
1 of these 4 establishments reported a decrease of 1.8 per cent and 1
reported no change in the labor cost in the machine room, the average
for the 4 plants was an increase of 0.6 of 1 per cent or from 52.0 cents
an hour in 1924 to 52.3 cents an hour in 1925. For all departments

S




9

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

these 4 plants averaged an increase of 2.3 per cent, or a cost of 53.8
cents an hour in 1925 compared with 52.6 cents in 1924.
Taking the 11 plants together, the beater room averaged an increase
in labor cost per one-man hour of 16.0 per cent, the machine room 16.0
per cent, and all departments 9.3 per cent. In terms of cents this
cost increased from 49.4 cents to 57.3 cents in the beater room, from
52.5 cents to 60.9 cents in the machine room, and from 53.6 cents to
58.6 cents in all departments.
With decreased hours of labor and increased wages, the workingman
with his longer hours of leisure and increased earnings is enabled to
improve his living standards.
T able 4.—LABOR COST PER ONE-MAN HOUR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIOD, 1924 AND 1925,

B Y ESTABLISHM ENTS
Labor cost per one-man hour in—
Machine room

Beater room

Establishment
1924

Per cent
of change

1925

1924

1925

All departments

Per cent
of change

1924

1925

Per cent
of change

Changed from %tours to 3 tours1
No. 1............................. $0,523
.521
No. 2.............................
.435
No. 3.............................
.524
No. 4_...........................
.475
No. 5 .. . ........................
.482
No. 6.............................
.513
No. 7....... .....................
Average..............

.493

$0,580
.593
.455
.609
.597
.727
.616

+10.9
+13.8
+4.6
+16.2
+25.7
+50.8
+ 20.1

$0.561
.547
.470
.557
.486
.531
.576

.599

+21.5

.528

$0,627
+ 11.8
.664
+21.4
.500
+6.4
.677
+21.5
.606 . +24.7
.804
+51.4
+22.4
.705
.644

$0,583
.561
.485
.579
.515
.519
.560

$0.615
.636
.498
.671
.591
.638
.627

+5.5
+13.4
+2.7
+15.9
+14.8
+22.9
+ 12.0

.541

.607

+ 12.2

$0,499
.523
.508
.607

$0.497
.555
.532
.616

-0 .4
+ 6.1
+4.7
+1.5

+ 22.0

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
No. 8............................. $0,484
.478
No. 9.............................
.468
No. 10...........................
.596
No. 11...........................

$0,482
.555
.478
.588

-0 .4
+16.1
+ 2.1
-1 .3

$0,490
.537
.514
.574

$0,481
.593
.513
.576

- 1.8
+10.4
(*)
+ .3

Average..............

.497

.512

+3.0

.520

.523

+ .6

.526

.538

+2.3

Grand average__

.494

.573

+16.0

.525

.609

+16.0

.536

.586

+9.3

1Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.

TOTAL

HOURS

WORKED AND PRODUCTION
PERIOD, 1924 AND 1925

IN

*No change.

A TWO-WEEK

Table 5 shows by establishments for each of the two periods, for
the beater room, the machine room, and for all departments the
total hours worked, the production in pounds, and the per cent of
change in production per establishment and per man hour. In a
study of this table it should be borne in mind that 2 mills of the
first group and all of the second group reduced their days of opera­
tion from 6 to 5.
In the beater room, although the total hours worked in the first
group of mills was 5.5 per cent less in the two-week period of 1925
than in the two-week period of 1924, yet the production per estab­
lishment increased 6.3 per cent, and per man hour 12.6 per cent.




10

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

In the second group of mills, although both the total hours worked
and the production per establishment show a decrease, yet the
production per man hour shows an increase. This also applies to
the 11 mills taken as a whole. However, it should be stated here
that the large decrease shown in the hours worked and the large
increase shown in the production per man hour for establishment
No. 11 is due in some measure to the installation of new equipment
and a consequent reduction in the number of men required m this
department.
In the machine room the total hours worked by the first group of
mills decreased 10.7 per cent, while the production per establishment
increased 6.3 per cent, and the production per man hour increased
19.1 per cent. In the second group of mills the total hours worked,
the production per establishment and per man hour all show a
decrease. The totals for the 11 mills show a decrease in total hours
worked and production per establishment, but an increase in the
production per man hour. The large increases in production both
per establishment and per man hour in mill No. 7 is due in some
degree to the installation of new equipment.
in all departments combined, the total hours worked show a
decrease in both groups of mills and for all mills, while the produc­
tion per establishment shows an increase in the first group of mills,
a decrease in the second group, and a decrease for all mills com­
bined. However, the production per man hour shows an increase
in the first group of mills, a. decrease in the second group of mills,
and an increase for all 11 mills.
T a bl e 5.— TO TAL HOURS W ORKED AND PRODUCTION IN A T W O -W E E K PERIOD-

1924 AND 1925, FOR B E A TE R ROOM, M ACHINE ROOM, AND A L L D E PA RTM E N TS, B Y
ESTABLISHMENTS
BEATER BOOM
Total hours worked

Production (pounds)
Per cent < change
)f

Establishment
1924

1925

Per cent
of
change

1924

1925
Total

Per man
hour

Changed from 2 tours to 3 tours i
4,075
3,394.3
6.366.0
4,057.8
5,588.5
5.106.0
7.364.0

3.534.8
2.659.8
4.800.0
3.479.0
6.635.0
5.334.8
7.518.0

—13.3
—21.6
—24.6
—14.3
+18.7
+4.5
+ 2.1

2,645,620
2,323,225
5,970,180
2,384,095
2,352,263
3,384,604
4,032,000

2,781,950
2,412,460
5,106,520
2,501,695
2,816,132
3,628,980
5,296,000

+5.2
+3.8
—14.5
+4.9
+19.7
+7.2
+31.3

+21.3
+32.6
+13.4
+22.3
+ .7
+ 2.6
+28.5

Total........................... 35,951.6

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

33,961.4

—6.5

23,091,987

24,543,737

+ 6.3

+ 12.6

1.....................................
2.....................................
3.....................................
4....................................
5.....................................
6.....................................
7.....................................

Changed from 6 days to- 5 days of production
No.
No.
No.
No.

8.....................................
9.....................................
10...................................
11...................................

7.641.5
3.350.5
2.485.5
6.546.5

6,266.3
2,986.5
2,119.0
3,671.8

—18.0
—10.9
—14.7
-4 3 .9

Total....... .... ...... ........ 20,024.0

15,043.6

—24.9

Grand total................. 55,975.6

49,005.0

—12.5

3,729,205
1,767,650
1,157,422
3,625,530

3,232,329
1,602,000
868,555
2,798,650

—13.3
—9.4
—25.0
—22.8

+5.7
+1.5
—12.0
+37.5

10,279,807

8,501,534

—17.3

+ 10.1

33,371,794

33,045,271

—1.0

+13.1

* Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.




11

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

T able 5.—T 0 T A L HOURS W O R K E D AND PRODU CTION IN A TW O -W E E K PERIO D,

1924 A N D 1925, FOR B E A T E R ROOM , M ACH IN E ROOM, AND A LL D E P A R T M E N TS, BY
ESTABLISHM ENTS—Continued
MACHINE BOOM
Production (pounds)

Total hours worked
Establishment
1924

Per cent
of
change

1925

Per cent < f change
:>
1924

1925
Total

Per man
hour

Changed from 2 tours to 3 tours1
4.685.0
2.720.0
8.754.5
2.927.5
7.057.5
5.260.0
6,335.8

3.900.5
2,288.8
5.861.0
2.498.5
7.819.0
5,139.8
6.180.5

—16.7
—15.9
—33.1
—14.7
+ 10.8
—2.3
—2.5

2,645,620
2,323,225
5,970,180
2,384,095
2,352,263
3,384,604
4,032,000

2,781,950
2,412,460
6,106,520
2,501,695
2,816,132
3,628,980
5,296,000

+5.2
+3.8
—14.5
+4.9
+19.7
+7.2
+31.3

+26.2
+23.4
+27.7
+23.0
+ 8.1
+9.8
+34.7

Total........................... 37,740.3

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

33,688.1

—10.7

23,091,987

24,543,737

+6.3

+19.1

1.....................................
2.....................................
3.....................................
4.....................................
5.....................................
6.....................................
7.....................................

Changed from f days to S days of production
ly
4,966.3
2.738.8
1.635.8
4,538.5

—11.8
—14.6
—10.2
—19.2

Total........................... 16,267.8

13,879.4

—14.7

Grand total_________ 54,008.1

No.
No.
No.
No.

47,567.5

—11.9

8.....................................
9.....................................
10...................................
11...................................

5.628.0
3,205.3
1.821.0
5,613.5

3,232,329
1,602,000
868,555
2,798,650

—13.3
—9.4
—25.0
—22.8

10,279,807

8,501,534

—17.3

—3.0

33,371,794

33,045,271

—1.0

+12.5

3,729,205
1,767,650
1,157,422
3,625,530

—1.8
+ 6.2
—16.5
—4.5

ALL DEPARTMENTS
Changed from 3 tours to 3 tours1
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

1..........
2..........
3..........
4..........
5___ ...
6..........
7......... .
Total.

18.962.5
10,224.0
20.764.5
11.993.8
23,750.3
20.979.8
29,562.7

—3.5
—17.1
—24.7
—11.8
+13.8
+ .3
+6.7

2,645,620
2,323,225
5,970,180
2,384,095
2,352,263
3,384,604
4,032,000

2,781,950
2,412,460
5,106,520
2,501,695
2,816,132
3,628,980
5,296,000

+ 5.2
+3.8
—14.5
+4.9
+19.7
+7.2
+31.3

+8.9
+25.5
+13.9
+19.4
+5.3
+ 6.8
+23.4

142,664.3 136,237.6

—4.5

23,091,987

24,543,737

+6.3

+ 11.1

19.643.3
12.326.5
27.586.6
13.605.5
20.877.5
20.911.4
27.713.5

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
No. 8....................
No. 9....................
No. 10..................
No. 11..................
Total..........
Grand total.

27.778.1
13,499.8
8,340.9
18.361.2

24.791.4
12.604.5
7,881.5
13,090.8

—10.8
—6.6
—5.5
—28.7

67,980.0

58,368.2

—14.1

210,644.3 194,605.8

—7.6

3,729,205
1,767,650
1,157,422
3,625,530

3,232,329
1,602,000
868,555
2,798,650

—13.3
—9.4
—25.0
—22.8

—3.0
—3.1
—20.9
+ 8.6

10,279,807

8,501,534

—17.3

—3.3

33,371,794

33,045,271

—1.0

+7.6

* Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.

PRODUCTION AND LABOR COST PER ONE-MAN HOUR

Table 6 shows by establishments for each of the two periods, for
the beater room, the machine room, and for all departments, the
number of employees, production rate or output per one-man hour,
and labor cost per one-man hour. In the beater room in the mills that
changed from 2 tours to 3 tours, both the production rate and the labor
cost increased in all of the 7 mills, while in the second group of mills
the production rate increased in 3 and the labor cost increased in 2.



12

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

In the machine room in the first group of mills, both the production
rate and the labor cost increased in all 7 of the establishments, while
in the second group only 1 mill increased in production rate and 2
increased in labor cost.
In all departments in the first group of mills, all 7 increased in both
production rate and labor cost, while in the second group only 1 in­
creased in production rate, while 3 increased in labor cost.
It will be noted that for all 11 mills, the production rate increased
in the beater room from 596 to 674, in the machine room from 618 to
695, and in all departments from 158 to 170. In mill No. 8 the de­
crease in production rate is attributable to a change in product, a
higher grade of board being made in the 1925 period than in the 1924
period, while for mills Nos. 5 and 11 the increase in production rate
is due in some slight measure to the introduction of new and im­
proved machinery.
The labor cost per one-man hour increased in all of the mills that
changed from 2 tours to 3 tours, this being due to an increase in wage
rates on account of the reduction in working time. In the 4 mills
that reduced their working-days from 6 to 5, the change in labor cost
is due to the fluctuation in number of employees, with the exception
of mill No. 8, in which the wage rates in the beater room and the
machine room were increased from 10 to 16 per cent.
The labor cost per one-man hour for the 11 mills increased from
$0,494 to $0,573 m the beater room, from $0,525 to $0,609 in the
machine room, and from $0,536 to $0,586 in all departments.
T a b le 6 .—PRODUCTION AND LABOR COST PER ONE-MAN HOUR FOR B E ATER ROOM .
M ACHINE ROOM, AND ALL D E PA RTM E N TS IN A TW O-W EEK PERIOD, 1924 AND
1925, B Y E S T A B L I S H M E N T S

BEATER ROOM
1924
Establishment

Number
of
employees

Produc­
tion rate
(pounds)
per oneman hour

1925

Labor cost Number
of
per oneman hour employees

Produc­
tion rate
(pounds)
per oneman hour

Labor cost
per oneman hour

Changed from 2 tours t o 3 t o u r s 1
1.........................................
2.........................................
3.........................- ..............
4.........................................
5.........................................
6.........................................
7.........................................

55
34
29
41
63
50
33

421
649
588
663
548
938
684

$0.435
.523
.521
.475
.482
.524
.513

75
42
37
60
86
58
40

424
787
719
680
704
1,064
907

$0,455
.580
.593
.597
.727
.609
.616

Average...........................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

44

642

.493

57

723

.599

Changed from 6 days to 5 days o f production
8.........................................
9.........................................
10........................................
11........................................

25
34
85
46

Average............... ...........
Grand average................

No.
No.
No.
No.

466
528
488
554

$0,478
.596
.484
.468

25
33
86
33

410
536
516
762

$0.555
.588
.482
.478

48

513

.497

44

565

.512

45

596

.494

52

674

.573

i Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.




13

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

T a b i e 6 . — PRODU CTION A N D LABO R COST PE R ONE-M AN HOUR FOR B E A TE R ROOM ,

M ACH INE ROOM, A N D A L L D E P A RT M E N TS IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 AN D
1926, BY ESTABLISHM ENTS—Continued
MACHINE BOOM
1924
Establishment

Number
of
employees

Produc­
tion rate
(pounds)
per oneman hour

1925

Labor cost Number
per oneof
man hour employees

Produc­
tion rate
(pounds)
per oneman hour

Labor cost
per oneman hour

Changed from 2 tours to 3 tours1
1.........................................
2.........................................
3.........................................
4.........................................
5.........................................
6.........................................
7.........................................

73
38
19
46
59
61
34

333
665
814
643
636
682
854

$0,470
.561
.547
.486
.531
.557
.576

93
43
25
59
68
73
30

360
713
1,001
706
857
871
1,054

$0,500
.627
.664
.606
.804
.677
.705

Average..........................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

47

612

.528

56

729

.644

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
No.
No.
No.
No.

8.........................................
9.........................................
10........................................
11.......................................

18
33
68
38

636
551
663
646

$0,537
.574
.490
.514

18
32
59
37

531
585
651
617

$0,593
.576
.481
.513

Average............... ..........

39

632

.520

37

613

.523

Grand average................

44

618

.525

49

695

.609

ALL DEPARTMENTS
Changed from 3 tours to 3 tours1
No. 1.........................................
No. 2_........................................
No. 3.........................................
No. 4.........................................
No. 5.........................................
No. 6.........................................
No. 7.........................................

200
176
107
181
279
207
124

113
135
175
162
145
216
188

$0,485
.583
.561
.515
.519
.579
.560

245
200
119
220
318
237
119

119
147
209
173
179
246
236

$0,498
.615
.636
.591
.638
.671
.627

Average...........................

182

162

.541

208

180

.607

Changed from 0 days to 5 days of production
No.
No.
No.
No.

8...
9...
10_.
11..

100
130
294
135

139
131
134
197

$0,523
.607
.499
.508

102
129
279
110

110
127
130
214

$0,555
.616
.497
.532

Average............

165

151

.526

155

146

.538

Grand average..

176

158

.536

189

170

.586

1 Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.

TIME AND LABOR COST PER TON

Table 7 shows by establishments for a comparative period, 1924
and 1925, for the beater room, the machine room, and for all depart­
ments, the number of employees, full-time positions, time cost per
ton of product, and the labor cost per ton of product. In the beater
74391°—26------2




14

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

room it will be noted that, in the 7 establishments changing from
two tours to three tours, while the number of full-time positions
increased in every plant, the time cost decreased. The labor cost in
these mills decreased in 3 and increased in 4.
In the machine room of the 7 establishments that changed from
two tours to three tours the time cost decreased in all 7, while the
labor cost decreased in 5 and increased in 2.
The figures for all departments show that of the mills changing
from two tours to three tours the time cost decreased in all 7, and the
labor cost decreased in 5, while in the 4 mills that decreased the
number of working-days from 6 to 5 the time cost and the labor cost
both increased in 3.
The large increase in labor cost shown for establishment No. 8
is due to a change in product, a higher grade of board being made in
the 1925 period than in the 1924 period, as well as an increase in wage
rates in the beater room and the machine room of from 10 to 16 per
cent. Also, the decrease in time cost for mill No. 5 and the decrease
in both time and labor cost for mill No. 11 are due in some measure
to a change in equipment.
It seems especially worthy of note that in the 7 mills changing from
two tours to three tours the time cost per ton of product in the beater
room, the machine room, and in all departments is less in 1925 than
in 1924, while the increase in the labor cost per ton of product in the
beater room is only 12 cents, in the machine room only 4 cents, and
in all departments only 5 cents.
T able 7.—TIM E AN D LABOR COST PE R TON IN B E A TE R ROOM, M ACH INE ROOM ,

AND ALL D E P A RT M E N TS IN A TW O-W EEK PERIOD, 1924 AND 1925, B Y ESTABLISH­
M EN TS
BEATER R OOM
1924

Establishment

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees

1925

Labor
Labor
Full­ Time cost
Num­ FuU- Time cost
cost
cost
time (man hours) (money) ber of time (man hours) (money)
posi­ per ton of per ton of
posi­ per ton of per ton of em­
tions
product
product
tions
product ployees
product
Changed from 2 tours to 3 tours1

No. 1.................................
No. 2.................................
No. 3.................................
No. 4.................................
No. 5.................................
No. 6.................................
No. 7.................................

55
34
29
41
63
50
33

41
32
26
40
52
46
24

4.75
3.08
3.40
3.02
3.65
2.13
2.92

$2.07
1.61
1.77
1.43
1.76
1.12
1.50

75
42
37
60
86
58
40

61
36
33
57
77
57
33

4.71
2.54
2.78
2.94
2.84
1.88
2.21

$2.14
1.47
1.65
1.76
2.06
1.15
1.36

Average...................

44

37

3.11

1.54

57

51

2.77

L 66

Changed from 6 days to 5 days of production
25
33
75
44

4.29
3.79
4.10
3.61

$2.05
2.26
1.98
1.69

25
33
86
33

25
33
75
30

4.88
3.73
3.88
2.62

48

44

3.90

1.94

44

41

3.54

1.81

45

40

3.35

1.66

52

47

2.97

1.70

No. 8.................................
No. 9.................................
No. 10...............................
No. 11................................

25
34
85
46

Average...................
Grand average........

i Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.




$2.71
2.19
1.87
1.25

15

PAET I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

T able 7 . — T IM E A N D LABO R COST PE R TON IN B E A TE R ROOM , M ACH INE ROOM ,

AND A L L D E P A R T M E N T S IN A TW O-W EEK PE RIO D , 1924 AND 1926, B Y ESTABLISH­
M EN TS—Continued
MACHINE B O O M
1924
Establishment

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees

1925

Labor
Full­ Time cost
Num­
cost
time (man hours) (money; ber of
posi­ per ton of per ton of em­
ployees
tions
product
product

Labor
Full­ Time cost
cost
time (manhours)
(money)
posi­ per ton of per ton of
tions
product
product

Changed fro m 2 tours to 3 t o u r s 1
1.................................
2.................................
3.................................
4.................................
5.................................
6. ................................
7.................................

73
38
19
46
59
61
34

55
36
18
36
45
57
18

6.00
3.54
2.46
3.11
3.14
2.93
2.34

$2.82
1.99
1.34
1.51
1.67
1.63
1.35

93
43
25
59
68
73
30

76
42
24
54
63
66
27

5.55
2.80
2.00
2.83
2.33
2.30
1.90

$2.78
1.76
L33
1.72
1.88
1.55
1.34

Average...................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

47

38

3.27-

1.73

56

50

2.75

L77

Changed fro m 6 days to 5 days o f production
No. 8. ................................
No. 9.................................
No. 10...............................
No. 11...............................

18
33
68
38

18
31
52
37

3.15
3.63
3.02
3.10

$1.69
2.08
1.48
1.59

Average...................

39

35

3.17

1.65

44

37

3.24

1.70

$2.23
1.97
1.48
1.67

34

49

3.77
3.42
3.07
3.24
3.27

1.71

44

37

Grand average.......

18
32
59
37

2.88

1.75

18
31
51
37

ALL DEPARTM EN TS
1924
Establishment

Time cost
Number of (man hours)
employees
per ton of
product

1925
Labor cost
Time cost
(money)
Number of (man hours)
per ton of employees
per ton of
product
product

Labor cost
(money)
per ton of
product

Changed from %tours to 3 tours*
1.................................
2.................................
3.................................
4.................................
5.................................
6. ..............................
7.................................

200
176
107
181
279
207
124

•
17.75
14.85
11.41
12.36
13.75
9.24
10.61

$8.61
8.65
6.40
6.36
7.13
5.35
5.94

245
200
119
220
318
237
119

16.87
13.63
9.59
11.56
11.16
8.13
8.48

$8.40
8.38
6.10
6.83
7.12
5.45
5.31

Average..................

No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.
No.

182

12.36

6.69

208

11.10

6.74

Changed from 6 days to 5 days o f p roduction
100
130
294
135

14.41
15.27
14.90
10.13

$7.53
9.27
7.43
5.15

Average..................

165

13.23

6.95

155 |

13.73

7.39

Grand average........

No.
No.
No.
No.

176

12.62

6.77

189

11.78

6.91

8.................................
9.................................
10...............................
11...............................

i Two of these mills also reduced their days of production from 6 to 5.




102
129
279
110

18.15
15.74
15.34
9.36

$10.08
9.70
7.62
4.97

16

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

The five tables following, numbers 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12, apply only
to the 7 mills that changed from two tours to three tours. As
practically all of the employees affected by the change from two
tours to three tours are in the beater room and the machine room,
these tables will deal only with these two departments.
FULL-TIME POSITIONS AS AFFECTED BY CHANGE FROM TWO
TOURS TO THREE TOURS

From a perusal of table 8 it would appear that in both the beater
room and the machine room there is a possibility that with the
decreased working time due to the change from two tours to three
tours the number of employees per tour can be decreased.
The practice in some of the mills is to carry one or more spare
hands in a few of the more important occupations. Wherever this
was the settled policy of the mill these spare hands have been in­
cluded in the respective occupations in this table.
In the beater room, only 1 mill found it necessary to increase
its force 50 per cent, the increase in the other mills ranging from
13 to 48 per cent, the average increase for all 7 mills being 35 per cent.
In the machine room, omy 1 mill found it necessary to increase its
force 50 per cent, the other increases in this department ranging
from 16 to 39 per cent, the average for the 7 mills being 31 per cent.
In the beater rpom and the machine room combined the increases
in full-time positions ranged from 15 to 44 per cent, the average of
all 7 establishments being 33 per cent.
The figures in this table seem to be conclusive evidence of the cor­
rectness of the assertions of some members of the conference that
in most of the mills it would not be necessary to increase the number
of tour workers 50 per cent in order to change from two tours to
three tours.




TABLE 8.—N U M B E R OF FU LL-TIM E POSITIONS IN THE BEATER AND THE M ACH IN E ROOMS AS A FFE C T E D B Y CHANGE FROM 2 TOURS TO 3
TOURS
Establishment
No. 1

Establishment
No. 2

Establishment
No. 3

Establishment
No. 4

Establishment
No. 5

Establishment
No. 6

Establishment
No. 7

Total

PR
AT

Department and occu­
pation
Per
Two Three cent Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per
tours, tours, of in­ tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent
of in­
of in­
of in­
of in­
of in­
of in­
of in­
1924 1925
crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease 1924 1925 crease
BEATER BOOM

20

40

60

50

30

42

33

27

52

77

48

40

57

2
2

3
3

50
50

2
6
4

3
7
6

50
17
50

6
6

2
6
2

3
6
3

50
(»)
50

5
18
4

7
24
6

40
33
50

4
20

50

2

3
3

50

2
6

W
50

2

3

50

2

3

50

4
4

50

2

2
4

6
6

50
50

2

3

50

2
--

50

2

2
3

2
50

“ 16"

3

2
2

3
3

50
50

m
3

3

(i)

2

3

50

6

9

50

17

24

41

g
14

12
21

R
A
ou
50

6
3

18

40

2
2
32

3
8
48

50
50
50

26

27

4

18

24

33

36

42

17

12
4
2
202

267

K
A
O
U
ou
50
32

43

40

60

50

32

36

13

24

33

38

47

57

21

261

353

35

7
6

17
0)

6
6

9
9

50
50

4
4

6
6

50
50

2
2

3
3

50
50

7
6

9
9

29
50

2
33
30

3
44
42

50
33
40

6
30

50
50

12
18
6

15
24
9

25
33
50

4
18

6
15

50
U7

2
8

3
12

50
50

6
32

9

33

50
3

6

2

3

4

4
2

50

50
2

<>
*

8100

2

3

50

49
144
18
3
g
m
3
9
33

40
20
50
50
50
3 100
50
50
50

50
50

g

MACHINE BOOM

Tour bosses................ .
Machine tenders...........
Back tenders.................
Finishers, third hands,
and calender men___
Cutter boys...................
Broke boys............... .
Weighers............... ........
Stackers out__________
Slitter men________ _
Inspectors..................
Felt checkers.................
Screen men....................

2
2

3
3

50
50

2
2
4

3
3
6

50
50
50

4

6

50

6

9

50

2

3

50

4

6

50

35
120
12
2
4
2
2
6
22

Total....................

18

24

33

47

65

38

40

55

38

54

75

39

36

42

17

18

27

50

57

66

16

270

354

31

Grand total.........

44

57

30

99

142

43

80

112

40

94

135

44

68

78

15

42

60

43

104

123

18

531 | 707

33




i No change.

* Occupation abolished.

* Decrease.

O PRODUCTION
F

24

26

3

CS
OT

20

Total....................

2

I.— LABO
R

Tour bosses...................
Head beater men..........
Head beater men,
assistants....................
Jordan men............ ......
Plug pullers and roll
setters.........................
Breaker beater men
Liner beater men___ _
Beater men___________

18

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

INCREASE IN WAGE RATES DUE TO CHANGE FROM TWO TOURS
TO THREE TOURS

Where such a drastic cut in earning capacity as a reduction of
approximately one-third of the working time was inaugurated, it
would seem only just and proper that the wage rates should be
increased so as to compensate in some degree for the large decrease
in the weekly earnings. Table 9 shows the increases in wage rates
by establishments. In establishment No. 5 the increase for all
tour occupations with two exceptions amounted to 50 per cent,
which provided practically the same weekly earnings for 8 hours'
work as had previously been paid for 12. In establishment No. 4
the increase was 25 per cent for all occupations except machine
tenders, who received an increase of 33 per cent. The increases in
the other 5 establishments varied greatly, the increase in establish­
ment No. 3, ranging from nothing to 10 per cent; establishment No. 2
from 5 to 13 per cent; establismnent No. 1 from 8 to 29 per cent;
establishment No. 6 from 10 to 29 per cent; and in establishment
No. 7, from 10 to 36 per cent. It will be noted that with few excep­
tions the largest increases occurred in the skilled occupations. In
sharp contra-distinction to this (although it does not appear in this
table) 1 of the group of 4 mills that reduced the number of days
worked per week from 6 to 5 but did not change the hours worked
per tour changed its wage rates, increasing the least skilled occupa­
tions to a greater extent than the others, thus, the head beater men
were increased 12J^ per cent while the beater men received 16 per
cent. The machine tenders were increased 10 per cent, back tenders
and finishers 13 per cent, while cutter boys and screenmen were
increased 16 per cent. This was the only mill in the group of 4
that increased the wage rates.




T a b l e 9.—IN CREASE IN H O U R LY W AGE RATES IN THE BEA TE R AND THE M ACH INE ROOMS DUE TO CHANGE FROM 2 TOTJRS TO 3 TOURS

Establishment
No. 1
Department and
occupation

Establishment
No. 2

Two Three Per
cent Two
tours, tours, of in­ tours,
1924 1925
crease 1924

Establishment
No. 3

Per
Three cent Two
tours, of in­ tours,
1925 crease 1924

Establishment
No. 4

Establishment
No. 5

Per
Three cent Two Three Per
cent Two
tours, of in­ tours, tours, of in­ tours,
1925 crease 1924
1924
1925
crease

Establishment
No. 6

Per
Three cent Two
tours, of in­ tours,
1925
1924
crease

Establishment
No. 7

Per
Per
Three cent Two Three cent
tours, of in­ tours, tours, of in­
1925
1924 1925
crease
crease

PA T
R

BEATEB BOOM

20 $0.75

17
10

.5375

.5875

.45
.475
.425

5

.45

.5625

.79
.568

10
10

.75
.55

1.00
.6875

9

10

.50

.55

10

.45
.475
.405

29
15

.80
.6375

.90
.70

13
10

.721
.5143

25

8

.55

.6875
.625

25

8$0.60
.75

9
50

$0.70

$0.90

.65

25

.50

$0.55
.50

.75

15

.55

.65

18

.55
.55

.70
.70

27
27

29 $0.77 $1.05

36

.39

.585

50

.46

.69

50

25

.32

.48

50

.50

.55

10

.50

.55

10

33
25

.833
.62
.42

1.25
.93
.63

50
50
50

.905
.70

1.15
.825

27
18

.85
.60

1.15
.80

35
33

.52
.53
.50

.65
(’ )
.55

25

.50

.55

10

MACHINE BOOM

Tour bosses......................
Machine tenders_______
.85
Back tenders___________ .65
Finishers, third hands,
and calender men____ .60
Slitter m e n ..................
Cutter boys..................
.50
Broke boys....................... .50
Weighers—.......................
Stackers out-.................
Inspectors........................
Felt checkers___________ r .36
Screen men____________
.50




1.10
.75
.65

8

.55

.60

9

.475

.52

9

.45

.5625

25

.36

.54

50

.65

.77

18

.55
.55

10
10

.50

.55

10

.405
.405

.425
.425

5
5

.40

.50

25

.31
.32

.465
.48

50
50

.50

.55

10

.55

.62

13

.55

.65

18

.50
.57
.55

* N o change.

14
10

.525

5

.50

.525

5

.405

.425

5

1 Occupation abolished.

.40

.50

25

.46
.34
.32

.625
.51
.48

36
50
50

* Did not change to three tours.

10

PRODUCTION

.65

7 $0.65 $0.8125

O
F

$0.80

CS
OT

11 $0.75
.60

$0,833

I.— LABO
R

Tour bosses......................
Head beater men_______ $0.75 $0.90
Head beater men, assist­
ant—..............................
H ug pullers and roll
setters.......................... . .60
.70
Jordan men____________
.50
.55
Breaker beater men____
Liner beater men----------Beater men____________ .50
.55

20

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

FULL-TIME EARNINGS PER EMPLOYEE UNDER BOTH TWO-TOUR
AND THREE-TOUR OPERATION

Table No. 10 shows the full time earnings of the individual in the
various occupations.
In this table and its companion Table No. 11 the earnings are
based on full-time hours. Full-time hours in the two-week periods
used in this study are the regular hours during which under normal
conditions employees in an occupation are on duty.
Clean-up time has been included in full-time hours, and as has
previously been noted this time usually amounted to the time of one
tour; therefore 11 hours per employee every other week in the twotour operation and 8 hours per employee every third week in the
three-tour operation has been used.
The first column for each establishment shows the amount earned
in a two-week period under normal conditions under the two-tour
system. The second column shows the amount earned under the
same conditions under the three-tour system. The third column
shows the per cent of decrease or, in other words, the per cent of
earnings which the employee lost by the change from two tours to
three tours. In both tne beater and the machine rooms the decrease
varied all the way from 2 to 39 per cent.
It will be noted that, with the exception of mill No. 2, the em­
ployees in the beater room and the machine room, although receiving
a higher rate per hour as shown in Table No. 9, actually earned much
less in a pay period under the three-tour system than under the
previous two tours.
As has been stated previously, 2 of the mills in the group of 7 had,
in addition to changing from two tours to three tours, also reduced
their days of production from six to five. In both Table 10 and
Table 11 this will have to be given due consideration in studying the
figures for establishments 6 and 7, as it is to be expected that the full­
time earnings would be materially reduced owing to this change in
operation.
One of these 7 establishments paid a bonus based on production.
As the amount received varied from week to week and tour to tour
it was impossible to show it in either Table 10 or Table 11. It is only
fair to the establishment to state that the bonus was of such a sub­
stantial amount that the earnings of the employees in the beater room
and the machine room of this mill were the nighest paid by any of
the other mills covered in this study.




T a -'.LE 10.—FU LL-TIM E EARN ING S PER EM PLOYEE IN THE B E A TE R A N D TH E M ACH IN E ROOMS FOR A TW O -W E E K PERIOD,1924 AND 1925,
:
U N D E R B OTH TW O-TOU R A N D THREE-TOUR OPERATION, A N D PER CEN T OF DECREASE DUE TO CHANGE FR O M TWO TOURS TO
T H R E E TOURS
Establishment No. 1 Establishment No. 2 Establishment No. 3 Establishment No. 4 Establishment No. 5 Establishment No. 6 Establishment No. 7
Department and
occupation

Per Two Three Per
Per
Per
Two
Two Three
cent Two Three cent tours, tours, cent tours, tours, cent tours,
tours,
of de- 1924
of de- tours, 1925 of de­ 1924
1925 of de- 1924
1925
1924
crease

Per
Three cent Two
tours, of de- tours,
1924
1925

Per
Three cent
tours, of de1925

$72.05 i $78.60
64.00

22 65.50

iifoo

63.90
67.45
57.51

45.60
48.13
43.07

65.50

53.33

58.88

4L92

476
09

58.95

70.41

50.13

29

85.25
85.25

59.73
59.73

30
30

65.” 56

46.93*

77.50

46.93

39

131.75
93.00

98.13
68.27

26
27

55.47
46.93

31

77.50

82.15

(?)

77.50

46.93

85.25

55.47

35

MACHINE BOOM

Tour bosses................. .
Machine tenders______
Back tenders................ .
Finishers, third hands
and calender men___
Cutter boys................ ..
Broke boys......... ..........
Weighers____ _____ . . . .
Stackers out____ ______
Slitter men....... ............
Inspectors......................
Felt checkers_________
Screen men....................




109.12
81.22
55.02

106.67
79.36
53.76

98.25
72.05

85.33
58.67

102.38
73.03

80.05
57.56

93.00
77.50
77.50

77.50
77.50

65.87
55.73
55.73

47.16
40.61
41.92

46.08
39.68
40.96

58.95
52.40

48.00
42.67

67.45
57.51
57.51

52.69
43.07
43.07

57.76
55.73

60.26
44.54
41.92

53.33
43.52
40.96

52.40

1 Did not change to three tours.

42.67

19

57.51

43.07

25

76.80
59.73

140.28
108.50

98.13
70.40

70.05
65.50

21

104.80
83.51

51.20
46.93

100.75
77.50

65.71
46.93

32

52.91

44.80

85.25

65.50

131.75 111. 47
100.75 76.00

44.80

32

65.50

85.25

55.47

35

35

O PRODUCTION
F

25

64.00

77.55

65.87

58.67

$119.35 $89.60

28 $108.50 $76.80
100.75

49.92

60.26
28

24 $98. 25 $71.08

CS
OT

85.20

72.05
51.09

$106.50 $81.07

$85.15 569.33

I.— LABO
R

BEATER BOOM

Tour bosses...................
Head beater men.......... $116.25 $91.20
Head beater men, assist­
ant..............................
Plug pullers and roll
93.00 70.93
setters.........................
Jordan m en .............. .
77.50 55.73
Breaker beater men ....
Liner beater men..........
Beater m en............ ...... 77.50 55.73

PR
AT

Per
Two Three cent Two Three
tours, tours, of de­ tours, tours,
1925
1924
1925 crease 1924

39

1Occupation abolished.

to

22

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

FULL-TIME EARNINGS PER OCCUPATION AS A WHOLE UNDER BOTH
TWO-TOUR AND THREE-TOUR OPERATION

Table 11 continues the exposition of full-time earnings, but as
applied to the occupation as a unit rather than to the individual in
the occupation as did Table 10.
This table is based on full-time hours and includes clean-up time,
both of which have been explained for Table 10.
In the first column for each establishment is shown by occupation
the amount of full-time wages that would under normal conditions be
paid to all employees in that occupation under the two-tour system,
while in the second column is shown the amount that would be paid
under similar conditions under the three-tour system. The third
column shows the per cent of change.
T able 1 1 .— FULL-TIM E EARNINGS PER OCCUPATION IN THE B E A TE R A N D THE

THE PER CENT

Establishment No. 1
Department and occupation

Two
tours,
1924

Establishment No. 2

Per
Three
Two
tours, cent tours,
of
1925 change 1924

Establishment No. 3

Per
Three
Two
tours, cent tours,
of
1925 change 1924

Per
Three
tours, cent
of
1925 change

BEATER BOOM

i
l
+9
+47 $170.30| $208.00
288.20 352.00
+47
+14 204.36 299.52
-1-8____
262.00 320.00
i 120.52 "176.64 '" + 4 7
..........|
.............
-1 4 1,676.80 2,457.60
+47 1,768.50.2,015.92

Tour bosses_________________
Head beater men_____________ $232.50 $273.60
Head beater men, assistant____
Plug pullers and roll setters___ 186.00 212.80
Jordan men_________________
155.00 167.20
Breaker beater men_________
Liner beater men___ . . . . . . . . . .
Beater men____________ . . . . _ 1,550.00 1,337.60

$144.10 $157.20
•4-18 262.00 384.00

Total................................. 2,123.50 1,991.20

- 6 2,407.78 3,474.96

+44 2.489.002.895.92

+16

+1
-1 9

+22
+22
+22
+14

MACHINE ROOM

Tour bosses_________________
Machine tenders_____________
Back tenders..............................
Finishers, third hands, and cal­
ender men_________________
Cutter boys_________________
Broke boys_ . . . . . ___________
_
Weighers_____ . . . . . . _________
Stackers out_________________
Slitter men__________________
Inspectors__________________
Felt checkers________________
Screen men_____ ________ ____

263.50
201.50

334.40
228.00

! 218.25
+27 i 479.46
+13 220.08

320.00
555.52
322.56

+47
+16 " 589."50 " 597."33
+47 432.30 352.00

186.00
465.00
155.00

197.60
334.40
167.20

+6 235.80
-2 8 s 730.98
+ 8j 167.68

322.56
952.28
245.76

+37 235.80; 288.00
+30 1.048.001.280.00
+47

155.00
155.00

173.28
167.20

120.52
89.08
167.68

160.00
130.86
245.76

+33
+47
+47

___!
+12
+8

209.60

256.00

+22
+22

+22

Total................................. 1,581.00 1,602.08

+1:2,429.53 3,255.30

+34 2,515.202,773.33

+10

Grand t o t a l.__________ 3,704.50 3,593.28

—3j4,837.31 6,730.26

+ 3 9 5,004.20,5,669.25

+13

* Less than one-half of 1 per cent.




23

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

As explained previously 2 of the establishments, Nos. 6 and 7 had,
in addition to changing from two tours to three tours, also reduced
their days of production from 6 to 5. In these 2 mills it is to be
expected that the full-time earnings of the occupations would be
materially reduced owing to the latter change in operation.
It will be seen that in 4 establishments the full-time labor cost
in the beater room was less under three tours than under two tours,
the decreases being 6,14,18 and 22 per cent, while in 3 establishments
the cost was greater, the increases being 12, 16, and 44 per cent.
In the machine room 3 establishments show decreases of 4, 15, and
22 per cent, while the other 4 show increases of 1, 7,10, and 34 per cent.
Taking the beater room and the machine room combined 4 estab­
lishments show decreases of 3, 9, 16, and 22 per cent, while 3 show
increases of 9, 13, and 39 per cent.
M ACHINE ROOMS UN DER BOTH TW O-TOUR AND THREE-TOUR OPERATION AND
OF CHANGE
Establishment No. 4 Establishment No.5 Establishment No.6 Establishment No.7
Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two Three Per Two
Two Three
cent
cent
cent
tours, tours, cent tours, tours, of tours, tours, of tours, tours, of tours,
of
1925 ch’ge 1924
1925 ch’ge 1924
1925 ch’ge 1924
1924 1925 ch’ge 1924

Total
Three Per
tours, cent
of
1925 ch’ge

127.80 136.80
134.90 144.40
1840.32 2067.19

$144.10 $157.20
+6 $333.27 $268.80 -1 9 1624.57 1821.25
—5
660.10 741.60
"511.50 537.60 "‘ +5 901.86 1049.92
281.65 300.80 +7 170.50 166.40 - 2 170.50 179.20 +5 1039.65 1133.60
248.32 313.44
+7
....... |
134.90 144.40
+7
+12 1703.00 1267.20 -2 6 1395.00 1126.40 -1 9 2790.00 1971.19 -2 9 12723.62 12243.10

+9
+12
+12
+16
+9
+26
+7
-4

2486.42 2789.19

+12 2181.15 1781.25 -1 8 1984.00 1715.20 -1 4 3805.27 2956.79 -2 2 17477.12 17604.51

+1

$213.00 $243.20
170.40 197.60

614.29 720.48
438.18 518.01
809.40 790.40
1035.18 1033.60
345.06 387.60

345.06 387.60

+14 $196.50 $213.25
+16

+9 $217.00 $230.40
201.50 192.00

+17 419.20 460.80 +10 280.55 294.44
+18 334.05 358.40 +7 217.00 211.20

218.25 320.00 +47
+5 922.25 883.20 - 4 3568.75 3846.17 + 8
- 3 558.00 614.40 +10 2401.11 2604.57 +8

- 2 288.20 307.20 +7 201.50 197.12 - 2 483.60 499.20 +3 2440.30 2602.08 +7
(0 1179.00 704.00 -4 0 620.00 563.20 -1 0 2480.00 1548.79 -3 8 7558.16 6416.27 -1 5
677.74 800.56 +20
+12
170.50 158.72 —7
170.50 158.72 —7
262.00 268.80 +3
262.00 268.80 +3
164.30 <> -100 164.30
—100
(2
)
*
120.52 160.00 +33
131.00 134.40 +3
375.08 438.54 +17
170.50 166.40 —2 310.00 281.60 — 1357.84 1504.56 +11
9
+12

3587.17 3837.69

+7 2613.45 2233.60 -1 5 1660.05 1591.08

- 4 4918.15 3827.19 -2 2 19304.55 19120.27

6073.59 6626.88

+9 4794.60 4014.85 -1 6 3644.05 3306.28

- 9 8723.42 6783.98 -2 2 36781.67 36724.78 0)

* Occupation abolished.




-1

24

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

The preceding figures show full-time earnings according to actual
operating conditions. However, it may be of some interest to show
what would have been the result had none of the mills reduced their
days of operation from six to five but continued the same produc­
tion time under three tours as formerly obtained under two tours.
Based on this assumption computations for the 7 establishments
have been made, ana in Table 11a the results of this theoretical
treatment are presented, together with the actual operating condi­
tions, as shown in Table 11.
Although the details for the theoretical figures are not shown, it
can be stated that in the beater room 4 establishments show in­
creases and 3 decreases. In the machine room 5 show increases and
2 decreases, while for the beater room and the machine room com­
bined, 4 show increases ranging from 8 to 39 per cent, while the other
3 show decreases ranging from 3 to 16 per cent.
A comparison of the two totals shows that under operating condi­
tions as actually existent the full-time earnings in the beater room
and the machine room decreased less than one-half of 1 per cent,
while had the days of production in all the establishments been the
same under three tours as under two tours, the full-time earnings
would have increased only 5 per cent.
T able 1 1 a .— FULL-TIM E EARNINGS OF THE 7 ESTABLISHMENTS UN DER ACTUAL

OPERATING CONDITIONS AND FULL-TIME EARNINGS W HICH WOULD HAVE BEEN
SHOWN HAD A LL OF THE ESTABLISHMENTS CONTINUED THE SAME N U M BER
OF DAYS OF PRODUCTION U N DER THREE TOURS AS UNDER TWO TOURS
Full-time earnings un­
der actual operating
conditions
Department and occupation
Two tours, Three tours,
1924
1925

Per
cent of
change

Full-time earnings un­
der theoretical oper­
ating conditions
Two tours, Three tours,
1924
1925

Per
cent of
change

BEATER BOOM

Tour bosses...........................................
Head beater men...................................
Head beater men, assistant..................
Plug pullers and roll setters.................
Jordan men...........................................
Breaker beater men..............................
Liner beater men...................................
Beater men............................................

$144.10
1,624.57
660.10
901.86
1,039.65
248.32
134.90
12,723.62

$157.20
1,821.25
741.60
1,049.92
1,133.60
313.44
144.40
12,243.10

+9
+12
+12
+16
+9
+26
+7
-4

$144.10
1,624.57
660.10
901.86
1,039.65
248.32
134.90
12,723.62

$157.20
1,914.85
777.60
1,150.72
1,198.40
313.44
144.40
12,823.91

+9
+18
+18
+28
+15
+26
+7
+1

Total............................................

17,477.12

17,604.51

+1

17,477.12

18,480.52

+6

Tour bosses...........................................
Machine tenders...................................
Back tenders..........................................
Finishers, third hands, and calender
men.....................................................
Cutter boys...........................................
Broke boys.............................................
Weighers................................................
Stackers out...........................................
Slitter men.............................................
Inspectors..............................................
Felt checkers.........................................
Screen men............................................

218.25
3,568.75
2,401.11

320.00
3,846.17
2,604.57

+47
+8
+8

218.25
3,568.75
2,401.11

320.00
4,066.93
2,759.37

+47
+14
+15

2,440.36
7,558.16
667.74
170.50
262.00
164.30
120.52
375.08
1,357.84

2,602.08
6,416.27
800.56
158.72
268.80
(*)
160.00
438.54
1,504.56

+7
—15
+20
-7
+3
-100
+33
+17
+11

2,440.30
7,558.16
667.74
170.50
262.00
164.30
120.52
375.08
1,357.84

2,732.64
6,813.08
800.56
188.48
268.80
<
’)
160.00
438.54
1,588.56

+12
-1 0
+20
+11
+3
-100
+33
+17
+17

Total............................................

19,304.55

19,120.27

19,304.55

20,136.16

+4

Grand total............... .................

36,781.67

36,724.78

36,781.67

38,616.68

+5

MACHINE ROOM




*Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

-1
0)

* Occupation abolished.

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

25

TOTAL HOURS WORKED, TOTAL WAGES, OUTPUT IN POUNDS AND
LABOR COST PER MAN-HOUR, PRODUCTION, AND COST PER TON
UNDER BOTH TWO-TOUR AND THREE-TOUR OPERATION

In contemplating a change from two tours to three tours the
thought uppermost in the mind of the mill official is the additional
burden this will add to the cost of the product and whether this can
be partially overcome by reducing the operating force or by increasing
production. In Table 8 it has been shown that several of the mills
found it possible to reduce the operating force per tour, while Table
5 shows that production may be increased, undoubtedly due in part
to the reduced working time required of the tour workers.
Table 12 brings the figures of both Table 5 and Table 8 into
juxtaposition with the result that it appears that the change can be
made with little additional ultimate cost per ton of product.
A study of the data for the individual mills shows that the output
in pounds per one-man hour increased in every instance, ranging
from 5 to 32 per cent. The labor cost per one-man hour also increased
in all 7 mills, ranging from 6 to 51 per cent. The production increased
in all 7 of the mills. Even though 2 of the 7 mills reduced their
days of production from 6 to 5, the cost per ton of product increased
in 3 of the mills from 1 to 18 per cent and decreased in the other 4
mills from 2 to 10 per cent.
Taking the 7 mills as a whole, the table shows that while the total
hours worked decreased 8 per cent the wages increased 12 per cent.
The output in pounds per one-man hour increased 50 pounds, or 16
per cent. The labor cost per one-man hour increased $0.11, or 22 per
cent, while the production increased .6 per cent. The cost per ton
increased $0.16, or 5 per cent.




T a b l e 1 2 .- T 0 T A L HOURS W O R K E D , T O T A L WAGES, OUTPUT IN POUNDS AND LABOR COST PER M AN-HOUR, PRODUCTION, A N D ^ O S T PER TON

IN TH E B E A T E R ROOM A N D THE M A CH IN E ROOM IN A TWO-WEEK PERIOD IN 1924 AN D 1925, U N DER BOTH TW O-TOUR A N D THREE-TOUR
O PERATION

Establish­
ment

Total hours
worked
1924

Per
cent
of
change

Total wages

1924

1925

Per
cent
of
change

Output in
pounds per
one-man hour
1924

1925

Per
cent
of
change

Labor cost
per one-man
hour
1924

1925

Per
cent
of
change

Production in tons

1924

1925

Per
cent
of
change

Cost per ton
of product
1924

1925

Per
cent
of
change

1925

$4,758.35
4,984.21
6,918.36
5,747.10
8,212.77
3,307.13
3,713.26

$4,494.30
6,299.08
10,435. 35
6,931.31
6,893. 60
3,252. 53
3,723.81

-6
+26
+51
+21
-1 6
-2
0)

302
327
294
186
395
380
341

374
346
387
195
479
488
419

+24
+6
+32
+5
+21
+28
+23

$0,543
.481
.505
.454
.543
.541
.532

$0,604
.601
.762
.480
.647
.657
.623

+11
+25
+51
+6
+19
+21
+17

1,322.81
1,692.30
2,016.00
1,176.13
2,985.09
1,161.61
1,192.05

1,390.98
1,814.49
2,648.00
1,408.07
2,553.26
1,206.23
1,250.85

+5
+7
+31
+20
+14
+4
+5

$3.60
2.95
3.43
4.88
2.75
2.85
3.12

$3.23
3.47
3.94
4.92
2.70
2.70
2.98

-1 0
+18

73,691% 67,649%

-8

37,641.18

42,029.98

+12

313

363

+16

.511

.621

+22

11,545.99

12,271.87

+6

3.26

3.42

+5

i Less than one-half of 1 per cent.

INDUSTRY




-2
-5
-4

BOX-BOARD

-1 5
+1
0)
+14
-2 9
-1 9
-1 4

PAPER

7,435%
8,760
No. 1— .......
10,366 10, 474H
No. 2______
No. 3........... 13,699% 13,698V2
14,454
No. 4______ 12,646
No. 5______ is, 120y2 10,661
No. 6............ 6,114% 4,948V2
No. 7............ 6,985% 5,977V2
Total.

fcO

C>

PART I.— LABOR COST OF PRODUCTION

27

DETAILED TABLES FOR EACH ESTABLISHMENT UNDER BOTH
TWO-TOUR AND THREE-TOUR OPERATION

Table 13 is a detail table for individual establishments showing by
occupations the number of employees, full-time positions, total hours
worked, total wages, output in pounds and labor cost per one-man
hour, and the cost per ton of production in one-man hours and in
wages.
The figures for departments other than the beater room and the
machine room are not strictly comparable for any one period with
some other period. In the receiving room the amount of raw material
received varies from period to period, which may affect both the
hours worked and the number o f employees in this department. In
the shipping room the amount of finished material shipped would
also affect the shipping force in the same manner, while the hours
worked by the maintenance crew is very materially affected by the
amount 01 repairs necessary.




T jlblb 13.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O -W E E K PERIO D, 1024 AN D 1925
ESTABLISHM ENT NO. 1
Cost per ton of product
Department and occupation

Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

1924

1925

1924

1925

ater room:
Boss beater men........... ............
Jordan men................................
Liner beater men__________ __
Beater helpers............................

3
3
6
22

3
3
6
21

3
3
6
21

3
3
6
21

326^
326M
625
2,072M

34

33

33

33

3,350H

3
3
7
7
3
3
3
3
1

3
3
7
6
3
3
3
3
1

3
3
6
6
3
3
3
3
1

3
3
6
6
3
3
3
3
1

315^
306
596
689
263%
299
306
314
116

Total........................................

33

32

31

31

3,205H




1925

In one-man hours

Wages

1924

1925

1924

1925

282 $248.95 $215.00
157.20
267H 191.80
320.00
550M 363.35
1,193.37 1,062.70
1, 886^

5,414
5,414
2,828
853

5,681
5,989
2,910
849

$0,763
.687
.581
.576

$0.762
.588
.581
.563

0.369
.369
.707
2.345

0.352
.334
.687
2.355

$0,282
.217
.411
1.350

$0,268
.196
.400
1.327

2,986^ 1,997.47 1,764.90

528

536

.596

.588

3.791

3.729

2.260

2.191

233.35
184.10
231.10
319.05
159.60
136.30
129.00
125.80
59.90

5,598
5,777
2,966
2,566
6,708
5,912
5,777
5,629
15,238

5,836
6,091
3,120
3,013
6,023
6,023
6,209
6,209
14,833

.846
.700
.460
.595
.600
.512
.600
.488
.530

.850
.700
.450
.600
.600
.512
.500
.488
.555

.357
.346
.674
.780
.298
.338
.346
.355
.131

.343
.328
.641
.664
.332
.332
.322
.322
.135

.302
.242
.304
.464
.179
.173
.173
.173
.070

.291
.230
.289
.398
.199
.170
.161
.157
.075

2,738% 1,838.10 1,578.20

551

585

.574

.576

3.627

3.419

2.080

1.970

274M
263
513H
531^
266
266
258
258
108

267.05
214.20
268.20
409.80
158.10
153.20
153.00
153.10
61.45

1924

1925

1924

1925

INDUSTRY

Total........................................
ichine room:
Machine tenders........................
Back tenders...............................
Cutter boys................................
Finishers.....................................
Carriers................. .....................
Broke boys.................................
Screenmen......... ........................
Felt boys.....................................
Felt washers...............................

1924

Labor cost per
one-man hour

BOX-BOARD

1925

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

PAPER

1924

jL irtrfu yt o g r o

Cost per ton of product
Total wages

Department and occupation

'

74391

Number of em­
Total hours worked
ployees

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

1
8

1
7

104
800

108
692

$64.50
378.70

$70.00
318.70

16,997
2,210

14,833
2,315

$0,620
.473

$0,648
.461

0.118
.905

0.135
.864

$0,073
.429

$0,087
.398

800

443.20

388.70

1,955

2,003

.490

.486

1.023

.999

.502

.485

8

904

9
1

10
1

1,057%
118^

1,172
114

587.50
69.95

651.25
66.70

1,672
14,917

1,367
14,053

.556
.590

.556
.585

1.196
.134

1.463
.142

.665
.079

.813
.083

Total.... .......

10

11

1,175%

1,286

657.45

717.95

1,503

1,246

.559

.558

1.330

1.606

.744

.896

Shipping room:
Laborers...........
Others..............

4
2

4
2

437^
222

450
222

243.10
136.70

250.10
136.70

4,040
7,962

3,560
7,216

.556
.616

.556
. .616

.495
.251

.562
.277

.275
.155

.312
.171

6

6

14
13

12~
13

1,541%
1,425

General:
Laborers...........
Others..............

4
7

4
10

421
817

659H

Total.............

11

14

1,238

Grand total __

130

129

13,499%




672

379.80

386.80

2,680

2,384

.576

.576

.746

.839

.430

.483

1,364%
1,378

997.90
988.50

954.75
980.15

1,147
1,240

1,174
1,163

. 647
.694

.700
.711

1.744
1.612

1.703
1.720

1.129
1.118

1.192
1.224

361
1,018

233.60
661.25

200.40
806.70

4,199
2,164

4,438
1,574

.555
.809

.555
.792

.476
.924

.451
1.271

.264
.748

.250
1.007

1,379

894.85

1,007.10

1,428

1,162

.723

.730

1.401

1.722

1.013

1.257

12,604^ 8,197.27

7,768.55

131

127

.607

.616

15.274

15.736

ft 275

9.699

O PRODUCTION
F

Total...........
Maintenance....... .
Power......................

CS
OT

9

I.— LABO
R

Total.............
Receiving room:
Laborers...........
Others..............

P T
AR

Finishing room:
Head finishersFinishers..........

to

CO

T able 13.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y A N D COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 A N D 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 2
Cost per ton of product
Number of
employees
Department and occupation

Total hours
worked

Full-time
positions

1925

3
21
1

288
2,063
134^

256
1,783
80

$172.80
959.32
56.45

$172.80
962.82
39.60

25

25

2,485^

2,119

3
3
3
6
3

3
3
3
6
3

3
3
3
6
3

301^
329
333^
540H
S16H

18

18

18

1924

1925

Beater room:
Head beater m e n __________
Beater men_____ _____________
Spare hands.......... ........... ..........

3
21
1

3
21
1

3
21
1

Total........................................

25

25

Machine room:
Machine tenders_________ .
Back tenders_______________ _
Finishers___________________
Cutter boys__________________
Screenmen___________________

3
3
3
6
3
18




1,821

1,188.57 1,175.22 |

In one-man hours

1924

1925

1924

1925

4,019
561
8,605

3,393
487
10,857

$0,600
.465
.420

$0,675
.540
.495

a 498
3.565
.232

0.590
4.106
.184

$0,299
1.658
.098

$0,398
2.217
.091

466

410

.478

.555

4.295

4.879

2.054

2.706

1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

261H
280H
287X
542%
263^

225.03
179.95
180.35
246.39
146.17

209.20
168.45
172.35
282.23
137.03

3,839
3,518
3,471
2,141
3,657

3,321
3,094
3,024
1,600
3,296

.746
.547
.541
.456
.462

.800
.600
.600
•.520
.520

.521
.569
.576
.934
.547

.602
.647
.661
1.250
.607

.389
.311
.312
.426
.253

.482
.388
.397
.650
.316

1,635%

977.89

969.26

636

531

.537

.593

3.147

3.767

1.690

2.232

INDUSTRY

1924

1925

Labor cost per
one-man hour

BOX-BOARD

1925

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

PAPER

1924

1924

Total_____ . . . _____________

Total wages

Cost per ton c> product
f
Department and occupation

Number of em­ Total hours worked
ployees

1924

12
4

14
4

1924

1925

684M
205

3$

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

1924

1925

1924

$280.05
112.78

$323.90
119.29

1,691
5,646

1925

Labor cost per oneman hour

1924

1925

1,107
3,699

$0,409
.550

$0,413
.508

In one-man hours
1924

1925

1.183
.354

1.807
.541

Wages
1924

1925

$0,484
.195

$0,746
.275

16

18

889H

1,019H

392.83

443.19

1,301

852

.442

.435

1.537

2.348

.679

1.021

12
20
9

12
20
9

1,32434
1,248^
572

1,277M
1,223%
mH

804.04
757.08
239.60

785.95
745.54
257.19

874
927
2,023

680
710
1,432

.607
.606
.419

.615
.609
.424

2.288
2.158
.988

2.941
2.817
1.397

1.389
1.308
.414

1.810
1.717
.592

Grand total.—.................................

100

102

8,340&

7,881^ 4,360.01

4,376.35

139

110

.523

.555

14.413

18.148

7.534

10.077

O SI
O

O
S
PRODUCTION




I.— LAB R
O

Total................................................
Maintenance..............................................
Power.........................................................
General......................................................

PR
AT

Receiving and shipping:
Laborers..............................................
Others................... - ............................

1925

Total wages

T a b l e 13*— P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 A N D 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 3
Cost per ton of product
Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

i oiai wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour

Department and occupation

1925

1924

1925

11,810
5,924
644

11,859
6,151
1,024
11,308

$0,700
.512
.450

$0,700
.512
.447
.550

0.169
.338
3.104

a 169
.325
1.953
.177

$a ii9
.173
1.397

$0,118
.167
.873
.097

6,546*6

3,671^ 3,060.99 1,755.46

554

762

.468

.478

3.611

2.624

1.689

1.255

4
4
4
2
2
10
4
4
2
1

669
541K
602^
417
313
1,433^
587
610^
299H
140

527
504M
472
240
244
1,230
484
481^
227
128^

395.25
292.61
248.57
115.20
117.12
555.45
217.80
216.68
113.50
57.83

5,419
6,695
6,017
8,694
11,583
2,529
6,176
5,939
12,105
25,897

5,311
5 547
>
8,929
11,661
11,470
2,275
5,782
5,812
12,329
21,779

.750
.580
.530
.480
.480
.450
.450
.450
.500
.450

.750
.580
.527
.480
.480
.452
.450
.450
.500
.450

.369
.299
.332
.230
.173
.791
.324
.33?
.165
.077

.377
.361
.387
.172
.174
.879
.346
.344
.162
.092

.277
.173
.176
.110
.083
.356
.146
.152
.083
.035

.283
.209
.178
.082
.084
.397
.156
.155
.081
.041

37

5,613M

4,538M 2,882.36 2,330.01

646

617

.514

.513

3.097

3.243

1.590

1.665

1925

Beater room:
Head beater men__________ __
Valve men______________ ____
Beater men__________________
Beater men (Shartle)_________

2
4
40

2
4
25
2

2
4
38

2
4
22
2

307
612
5,627K

Total........................................

46

33

44

30

Machine room:
Machine tenders......... ..............
Back tenders________________
Finishers____________________
Finishers’ helpers____________
Third hands_________________
Cutter boys__________________
Broke boys______ ____________
Screenmen___ ____ ___________
Testers____________ __________
Felt washers_________________

4
4
4
3
2
10
4
4
2
1

4
4
4
2
2
10
4
4
2
1

4
4
4
2
2
10
4
4
2
1

Total........................................

38

37

37

501.76
314.07
319.34
200.16
150.24
645.12
264.16
274.76
149.75
63.00

INDUSTRY

236
$214.90 $165.20
455
313.60
232.95
2,733^ 2,532.49 1,221.18
136.13
247H

1924

BOX-BOARD

1925

1925

PAPER

1924

1924




1924

1925

1925

1925

Wages

1924

1924

1924

In one-man hours

Department and occupation

Number of em­ Total hours worked
ployees

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

>f
Cost per ton < product
Labor cost per oneman hour
In one-man hours

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

1
2
1

172
449M

um

149
300
125

$103.20
230.77
52.58
256.00

$96.85
153.00
55.00

21,079
8,066
30,339
6,553

18,783
9,329
22,389

$0,600
.513
.440
.463

$0,650
.510
.440

0.095
.248
.066
.305

0.107
.214
.089

$0,057
.127
.029
.141

$0,069
.109
.039

Total................................................

10

4

1,294^

574

642.55

304.85

2,801

4,876

.497

.531

.714

.410

.355

.218

Receiving room:
Laborers..............................................
Others...............................................

10
3

8
3

1,128H
415M

609%
386

464.11
207.01

249.24
216.34

3,213
8,726

4,590
7,250

.411
.498

.409
.561

.623
.229

.436
.276

.256
.114

.178
.155

995%

553M

Total................................................

13

11

1,544

671.12

465.58

2,348

2,811

.435

.468

.852

.712

.370

.333

Maintenance..............................................
Power.........................................................
General.......................................................

7
18
3

5
17
3

813%
2, 100*
449

621% 481.13
2,318% 1,206.20
371
386.00

408.81
1,318.00
378.60

4,455
1,726
8,075

4,505
1,207
7,544

.591
.574
.860

.658
.568
1.021

.449
1.159
.248

.444
1.657
.265

.265
.665
.213

.292
.942
.271

CS
OT

Grand total......................................

135

110

18,361%

13,090% 9,330.35

6,961.31

197

214

.508

.532

10.129

9.355

5.147

4.975

O PRODUCTION
F

I.— LABO
R

1
3
1
5

PR
AT

Finishing room:
Foremen and shipping clerks............
Rewinders...........................................
Cutters......... ......................................
Pasters...............................................




T a b l e 1 3 . — P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O -W E E K PERIOD, 1924 AND 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 4
Cost per ton of product
Department and occupation

Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

Beater room:
Head beater men...................... .
Jordan and valve men........... .
Beater men__________________

2
4
28

3
6
33

2
4
26

3
6
27

265
528
3,282

1924

1925

1925

1924

1925

279
$205. 75 $237.79
m y 2 283.90
338.17
2,680K 1,641.00 1,474.20

9,983
5,011
806

9,971
4,834
1,038

$0,776
.538
.500

$0,852
.588
.550

0.200
.399
2.481

0.201
.414
1.927

$0.156
.215
1.241

$0.171
.243
1.060

649

787

.523

.580

3.081

2.541

1.611

1.474

1924

1925

1924

34

42

32

36

4,075

3,534% 2,130.65 2,050.16

4
4
4
20
4
2

5
6
6
17
6
3

4
4
4
18
4
2

6
6
6
15
6
3

524U
521%
522
2,347^
507%
262

525
433.60
553M 342.35
528
293.11
1,501M 1,173.76
530
253.88
262^ 131.00

482.50
395.46
321.33
825.86
281.18
137.81

5,044
5,076
5,068
1,127
5,210
10,098

5,299
5,026
5,269
1,853
5,249
10,598

.827
.657
.562
.500
.500
.500

.919
.715
.609
.550
.531
.525

.397
.394
.395
1.775
.384
.198

.377
.398
.380
1.080
.381
.189

.328
.259
.222
.887
.192
.099

.347
.284
.231
.594
.202
.099

Total________ __ ___ ______
_

38

43

36

42

4,685

3,900M 2,627.70 2,444.14

565

713

.561

.627

3.542

2.804

1.987

1.757




INDUSTRY

Total.................. .....................
Machine room:
Machine tenders........................
Back tenders...............................
Third hands...............................
Cutter boys_________ _____ _
Stackers out_________________
Felt boys......... ......... ................

BOX-BOABD

1924

1925

PAPER

1924

Wages

Department and occupation

Number of em­
Total hours worked
ployees

Cost per ton of product
Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1924

Total................................................

1925

1925

1924

$158.55
472.43
99.00
459.76

$361.32
158.06
147.18
416.84
178.50

10,636
2,629
13,998
3,792

1,261.90

1,139

1,307

1925

1924

1925

$0,637
.470
.524
.659

$0.590
.458
.519
.787
.500

a 188
.761
.143
.528

.549

.593

1.756

1.530

.964

.907

1924

1925

1924

1925

26

22

2,322%

2,128% 1,275.60

Receiving:
Laborers......... ....................................
Others.................................................

11
4

19
4

1,113M
4173^

1,455%
485M

556.75
227.93

727.88
261.88

2,376
6,337

1,911
5,730

.500
.546

.500
.539

.842
.316

1.047
.349

.421
.172

.523
.188

Total................................................

15

23

1,531

1,941%

784.68

989.76

1,728

1,433

.513

.510

1.157

1.396

.593

.712

Shipping:
Laborers..............................................
Others..................................................

9
2

15
2

i, my2
233

489.15
155.00

742.87
159.34

2,732
12,026

1,856
11,940

.505
.705

.496
.684

.732
.166

1.077
.168

.370
.117

.534
.115

181

968%
220

85.86*

14,617"

4,540
8,052
9,813
5,249
7,793

....... ."474*

.137

0.441
.248
.204
.381
.257

$0,120
.357
.075
.348
.065

$0.260
.114
.106
.300
.128

Total.................................................

11

17

1,188%

1.731H

644.15

902.21

2,226

1,607

.542

.521

.898

1.245

.487

.649

Maintenance..............................................
Power.............................. .........................
General......................................................

21
26
5

19
29
5

2,401%
2,842^
597^

2,207% 1,654.68
2,936% 1,777.67
581%
550.13

1,566.00
1,902.54
542.26

1,102
931
4,428

1,260
947
4,782

.689
.625
.921

.709
.648
.932

L 815
2.149
.452

1.587
2.111
.418

1.250
1.344
.416

1.126
1.368
.390

Grand total......................................

176

200

19,643%

18,962H 11,445.26 11,658.97

135

147

.583

.615

14.850

13.633

8.652

8.382




O PRODUCTION
F

248%
1,006%
189
697%

CS
OT

6
4
3
6
3

2

612%
345^
283M
530
357

1924

I.— LAB R
O

3
10
2
9

1924

P T
AB

Finishing room:
Pasters.......................... .....................
Liners........... .....................................
Cutters................................................
Finishers.......... ..................................
Rewinders...........................................
Grainers...... .................... .................

1925

Wages

CO

O
r

00
05

T able 13.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A T W O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 A N D 1925—Continued
ESTABLISHM ENT NO. 5
Cost per ton of product
Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Department and occupation

Total hours
worked

1924

1925

1924

1925

Beater room:
Head beater men........................
First helpers1.............................
Jordan m en................................
Beater men.................................

2
4
4
31

3
6
6
45

2
4
4
30

3
6
6
42

260
517
503
3,826

1924

1925

Labor cost per
one-man hour

In one-man hours

Wages

1924

1925

1924

1925

283H $169.00 $230.35
417.67
607M 284.35
371.57
594y2 251.50
3,849^ 1,721.71 2,165.24

13,018
6,547
6,729
885

12,801
5,974
6,104
943

$0,650
.550
.500
.450

$0,813
.688
.625
.563

a 154
.306
.297
2.261

0.156
.335
.328
2.121

$0,100
.168
.149
1.017

$0,127
.230
.205
1.193

BOX-BOARD

1925

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

PAPER

1924

Total wages

1924

1925

1924

1925

41

60

40

57

5,106

5,334%[ 2,426.56 3,184.83

663

680

.475

.597

3.017

2.940

1.434

1.755

6
6
4
4
26

7
6
6
6
34

4
4
4
4
20

6
6
6
6
30

874
789
525
524
2,548

803
803.00
655.50
402.54
585M 433.95
529
297.57
236.25
517
209.60
258.50
2,705& 1,022.35 1,352.64

3,873
4,290
6,447
6)459
1,328

4,519
6,198
6,860
7,019
1,341

.750
.550
.450
.400
.401

1.000
.688
.563
.500
.500

.517
.466
.310
.310
1.506

.443
.323
.292
.285
1.491

.387
.256
.140
.124
.604

.443
.222
.164
.143
.746

Total........................................

46

59

36

54

5,260

5,

643

706

.486

.606

3.108

2.833

1.511

L716




2,557.65 3,114.25

INDUSTRY

Total........................................
Machine room:
Machine tenders......................
Back tenders............... ..............
Third hands...............................
Screenmen..................................
Cutter boys................................

Cost per ton of product
Number of em­
Total hours worked
ployees

Total wages

Department and occupation

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

9
6

948
723

936
748H

$426.60
374.76

$421.27
377.64

3,570
4,681

3,877
4,847

$0,450
.518

$0,450
.504

0.560
.427

0.516
.413

$0,252
.222

$0,232
.208

Total................................................

15

15

1,671

1,684$*

801.36

798.91

2,025

2,154

.480

.474

.987

.929

.474

.440

Shipping room:
Laborers...........................................
Others......... ....................................

12
3

16
3

MM
206*

283.44
93.09

363.78
99.62

4,869
17,573

3,990
17,608

.408
.483

.400
.483

.411
.114

.501
.114

.168
.055

.201
.055

1,115 H

695*
192H

Total................................................

15

19

887*

376.53

463.40

3,813

3,253

.424

.415

.525

.615

.223

.255

Maintenance....... ......................................
Power.........................................................

21
17

20
20

2,417
2,367*

2,540^ 1,641.42
2, 120* 1,369.84

1,746.76
1,409.46

1,400
1,429

1,428
1,711

.679
.579

.688
.665

1.428
1.399

1.400
1.169

.970
.810

.963
.777

General:
Laborers..............................................
Others.................................................

17
9

15
12

1,945
1,257

i,m %

811.14
784.94

723.46
949.07

1,740
2,693

2,042
2,865

.417
.625

.407
.749

1.149
.743

.979
.698

.479
.464

.399
.523

3,043H 1,596.08

1,672.53

1,057

1,192

.499

.550

1.892

1.677

.943

.922

.515

.591

12.357

11. 562

6.364

6.828

Total................................................

26

27

3,202

Grand total......................................

S T

220

20,911%

* Called assistant head beater men in 1925




1,776^

20, m n 10,769.44 12,390.14

162*

173~

I.-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9
6

PAET

Receiving room:
Laborers................... ..........................
Others___________________________

C
O

«<
r

T a b l e 13 ^ -P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 A N D 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 6
aBBsasss-TiJiaii..1
.:-..........

■
Cost per ton of product

Department and occupation

Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

1925

3
3
3
66

310%
317M
404%
6,609

1925

1924

1925

Beater room:
Beater engineers................... .....
Assistant boss beater men_____
Plug pullers................................
Beater men_______ _____ _____

3
3
4
75

3
3
4
76

3
3
3
66

1924

1925

Labor cost per
one-man hour

In one-man hours

Wages

1924

1925

1924

1925

259% $224.94 $187.96
339% 182.58
195.07
388^ 222.61
213.68
5,27934 3,069.08 2,425.02

12,020
11,746
9,214
564

12,468
9,528
8,320
612

$0,725
.575
.550
.464

$0,725
.575
.550
.459

0.166
.170
.217
3.545

0.160
.210
.240
3.267

$0.121
.098
.119
1*646

$0,116
.121
.132
1.501

488

516

.484

.482

4.098

3.877

1.984

1.870

31,077
5,936 ""6,039"
6,391
5,788
6,737
5,509
1,485
1,463
3,027
3,003

.750
.775
.575
.550
.411
.413

.769
.571
.550
.401
.414

.064
.337
.313
.297
1.347
.661

.331
.346
.363
1.367
.666

.048
.261
.180
.163
.553
.273

.255
.198
.200
.549
.276

.490

.481

3.018

3.073

L479

1.476

86

75

75

7,641^

6,266% 3,699.21 3,021.73

1
6
6
5
38
12

6
6
6
29
12

1
6
6
6
21
12

6
6
6
21
12

120
628%
583H
553H
2,5102*
1,232

90.00
535% 486.90 " U lW
558^ 335.53
319.14
586% 304.43
322.72
2,209% 1,031.64
886.80
446.13
1,076H 508.61

Total---------------------------------

68

59

52

51

5,628

4,966% 2,757.11 2,386.14

663

651

1925

1924

1925

INDUSTRY

85

1924

BOX-BOARD

Total........................................
Machine room:
Foremen............ ........................
Machine tenders........................
Back tenders...............................
Second back tenders..................
Gutter boys...............................
Screenmen___________________




Output in pounds
per one-man hour

PAPER

1924

1924

Total wages

Cost per ton < f product
>
Department and occupation

Number of em­
Total hours worked
ployees

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1924

1925

1924

7
2

7
1

919H
190

747H
114^

1924

1925

$434.77
76.00

1924

1925

1924

1925

$355.27
45.80

4,055
19,627

4,324
28,230

$0,473
.400

$0,475
.400

0.493
.102

0.463
.071

$0,233
.041

$0,220
.028

1924

1925

1924

1925

9

8

1,109^

862

510.77

401.07

3,360

3,750

.460

.465

.595

.533

.274

.248

24
5

14
5

1,871&
553

1,237K
561M

788.81
249.83

520.33
250.10

1,993
6,744

2,613
5,757

.422
.452

.421
.445

1.004
.297

.766
.347

.423
.134

.322
.155

29

19

2,424M

1,798^ 1,038.64

770.43

1,538

1,797

.428

.428

1.300

1.113

.557

.477

50
37
16

45
35
27

4,946Vs
3,937V2
2,090M

4,3112/s 2,736.43
3,377H 2,224.28
3,209M
885.55

2,399.96
1,909.63
1,429.26

754
947
1,784

750
957
1,007

.553
.565
.424

.557
.565
.445

2.653
2.112
1.121

2.668
2.090
1.986

1.468
1.193
.475

L 485
1.182
.884

Grand total......................................

294

279

27,778*

.49*T

.497

14.898

15.340

7.429

7.622

,

134

13(T

O
F
PRODUCTION




24,791^ 13,851.99 12,318.22

CS
OT

Total................................................
Maintenance..............................................
P o w e r.......................................................
General.......................................................

I.— LABO
R

Total................................................
Receiving room:
Laborers..............................................
Others..................................................

PR
AT

Finishing room:
Finishers..............................................
Cutters................................................

1925

Wages

T a b l e 13.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PE RIO D , 1924 AN D 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 7
Cost per ton of product
Department and occupation

Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

Total wages

1924

2
6
4
6
68

2
4
2
4
40

1924

$0,759
.691
.639
.539
.439

$0,974
1.049
.960
.818
.666

0.131
.256
.131
.257
2.877

0.100
.209
.107
.209
2.216

$0,100
.177
.084
.139
1.263

$0,097
.219
.102
.171
1.476

3,551.46 5,466.69

548

704

.482

.727

3.653

2.839

1.762

2.065

63

86

52

77

7,364

2
3
6
4
5
2
5
4
28

3
3
7
6
7
3
6
6
27

2
2
4
4
4
2
4
4
18

3
8
6
6
6
3
6
6
24

246
795
462H
603%
265
569%
505
2,620%

268H

487.51
275
283.00
164.23
262% 113.36
863.91
682% 672.81
563% 284.10
489.26
643% 300.46
485.96
266% 124.53
191.71
251.29
362.03
538
367.80
546H 225.11
2,402% 1,112.24 1,556.25

15,017
16,390
5,072
8,718
6,678
15,215
7,077
7,984
1,539

19,258
20,156
7,763
9,394
8,233
19,891
9,844
9,691
2,204

1.054
.461
.846
.614
.498
.470
.441
.446
.425

1.773
.625
1.266
.868
.756
.720
.673
.673
.648

.133
.122
.394
.229
.300
.131
.283
.251
1.300

.104
.099
.258
.213
.243
.101
.203
.206
.907

.140
.056
.334
.141
.149
.062
.125
.112
.552

.184
.062
.326
.185
.184
.072
.137
.139
.588

Total........................................

59

68

44

63

6,335%

6,180y2 3,366.90 4,968.66

636

857

.531

.804

3.143

2.334

1.670

1.876




INDUSTRY

Total........................................
Machine room:
Tour bosses.................................
Inspectors....................................
Machine tenders........................
Back tenders...............................
Third hands...............................
Felt b o y s ...................................
Screenmen..................................
Broke boys..................................
Cutter boys.................................

BOX-BOARD

20,023
9,594
18,780
9,581
903

7,518

2
4
2
4
51

1925

PAPER

15,258
7,814
15,215
7,773
695

264K $200.59 $257.58
356.51
552
578.81
169.27
282
270.78
552% 279.47
452.12
5,866% 2,545. 62 3,907.40

Beater room:
Tour bosses.................................
Head beater men........................
Breaker beater men...................
Valve men......... .........................
Beater men.................................

1925

1924

1925

1925

264%
516
265
518%
5,800

1925

Wages

1924

2
6
3
6
60

1924

In one-man hours

1925

1925

1925

Labor cost per
one-man hour

1924

1924

1924

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Cost per ton cif product
Department and occupation

Number of em­ Total hours worked
ployees

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per oneman hour
In one-man hours

1924

1925

Finishing department:
Rewinder men....................................
Ream cutters......................................
Finishers ___________ ____________
Others..................................................

3
3
4
15

3
4
5
17

357H
342
387%
1,470%

383
482^
512^
1,649

1924

1925

$147.26
157.32
205.76
730.86

1924

1925

1924

1925

$171.27
221.29
302.18
739.09

11,278
11,789
10,412
2,741

13,828
10,976
10,334
3,419

$0,412
.460
.531
.497

$0,447
.459
.590
.477

0.177
.170
.192
.730

0.145
.182
.194
.585

$0,073
.078
.102
.363

$0,065
.084
.114
.279

1,241.20 .1,433.83

1,577

1,809

.485

.490

1.269

1.105

.616

.542

I.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1925

PR
AT

1924

1924

Wages

1925

1924

1925

Total................................................

26

29

2,557K

2,927

Receiving department:
Laborers..............................................
Others..................................................

16
4

27

4

1,651^
462

2,553
416^

666.92
243.64

1,038.52
223.48

2,441
8,727

2,074
12,715

.404
.527

.407
.537

.819
.229

.964
.157

.331
.121

.392
.084

Total................................................

20

31

2,U3H

2,969M

910.56

1,262.00

1,908

1,783

.431

.425

1.048

1.121

.452

.477

Shipping department:
Laborers..............................................
Others..................................................

13
1

20
1

1,237^
114

1,879^
114

493.86
66.00

754.81
66.00

3,258
35,368

2,818
46,456

.399
.579

.402
.579

.614
.057

.710
.043

.245
.033

.285
.025

2,983

2,657

.414

.412

.670

.753

.278

.310

1,097
1,357
2,996

1,242
2,116
4,391

.649
.595
.445

.662
.614
.453

1.823
1.474
.668

1.611
.945
.455

1.184
.877
.297

1.066
.580
.206

145

179

.519

.638

13.747

11.164

7.135

7.122

Total................................................

14

21

1,351H

1,993H

569.86

820.81

Maintenance..............................................
Power.........................................................
General.......................................................

32
65
11

37
36
10

3

4,265% 2,386.18
2,602% 1,768.63
598.47
1,206

2,823.77
1,536.73
545.84

Grand total......................................

279

318




, my2

2,971
1,345%

y2

27,713

29,562/ji 14,383.26 18,858.33

.

T a b l e 13.—P R O D U C TIV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 AN D 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 8
Cost per ton of product
Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Total hours
worked

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour

Department and occupation
1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

In one-man hours
1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

2
2
2
2
32
1

3
3
3
3
48
1

271H
266
131
243
4,557
120

301H $203.63 $241.20
159.60
226.78
386
165.85
62.23
344
87.30
109.35
194
5,289M 1,845.77 2,249.73
48.60
48.60
120

8,664
8,843
17,956
9,680
516
19,602

9,340
7,296
8,186
14,516
532
23,468

$0,750
.600
.475
.450
.405
.405

$0,800
.588
.482
.450
.425
.405

0.231
.226
.111
.207
3.875
.102

0.214
.274
.244
.138
3.757
.085

$0,173
.136
.053
.093
1.569
.041

$0,171
.161
.118
.062
1.598
.035

Total........................................

55

75

41

61

5,588H

6,635

2,429.18 3,019.46

421

424

.435

.455

4.712

4.752

2.065

2.144

Machine room:
Machine tenders_____ . . . . . . _Back tenders..___ ___________ Finishers___ __ ____________ _
Cutter b oy s..______. . . . . _____
Broke boys___ ____________ _
_
Screenmen______ ___ . . . ___ _
Felt washers...............................

7
7
13
20
18
7
1

10
10
16
30
16
10
1

6
6
12
18
6
6
1

9
9
15
24
9
9
1

870M
841H
1,297
2,026
1,067
846
109y2

626.60
930
993H 434.08
1,368H 613.88
824.25
2,305
432.19
1,187
930^ 342.57
4135
104^

720.89
561.49
704.50
985.49
501.66
395.49
42.33

2,702
2,795
1,814
1,161
2,205
2,708
21,482

3,028
2,835
2,058
1,222
2,372
3,026
26,949

.720
.516
.473
.407
.405
.405
.405

.775
.565
.515
.428
.423
.425
.405

.740
.716
1.103
1.723
.907
.719
.093

.661
.706
.972
1.637
.843
.661
.074

.533
.369
.522
.701
.368
.291
.038

.512
.399
. 500
.700
.356
.281
.030

T o ta l--............................. ......

73

93

55

76

7,057%

7,819

3,317.92 3,911.85

333

360

.470

.500

6.001

5.553

2.821

2.778




INDUSTRY

3
4
3
2
62
1

BOX-BOARD

2
2
1
2
47
1

PAPER

Beater room:
Head beater men____________
Assistant head beater men........
Liner beater men..
Breaker beater m en.__________
Beater m e n ..__________ _ _
_ _
Cleaners......... - ................ - ........

Cost per ton of product
Department and occupation

Number of em­ Total hours worked
ployees

1924

1925

1924

1925

Total wages

1924

1925

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

1924

1925

Labor cost per oneman hour
In one-man hours
1924

1925

1924

1925

Wages
1924

120
105M
114

$60.00
47.48
51.30

19,602
22,296
20,634

$0.500
.450
.450

0.102
.090
.097

$0.051
.040
.044

339H

158.78

6,929

.468

.289

.135

3
14
1

13
1

1,291M
120

1,347H
120

579.19
70.00

$606.62
70.00

1,821
19,602

2,090
23,468

.449
.583

$0.450
.583

1.098
.102

0.957
.085

.493
.060

$0.431
.050

Total...............

15

14

1,411H

1,467M

649.19

676.62

1,666

1,919

.460

.461

1.200

1.042

.552

.481

Shipping room:
Laborers............
Others................

13
3

23
3

1,360^
360

2,133^
376

550.06
168.00

861.71
193.00

1,729
6,534

1,320
7,490

.404
.467

.404
.513

1.157
.306

1.515
.267

.468
.143

.612
.137

16

26

1,720K

2,509M

718.06

1,054.71

1,367

1,122

.417

.420

1.463

1.782

.611

.749

23
13
2

19
12
6

2,647M
1,850M
262

2,550% 1.675.69
933.23
1,837^
240.00
931

1,648.66
919.78
596.80

888
1,271
8,978

1,104
1,533
3,025

.633
.504
.916

.646
.501
.641

2.251
i. 573
.223

1.812
1.305
.661

1.425
.794
.204

1.171
.653
.424

Grand total...

200

245

20,877M

23,750% 10,122.05 11,827.88

113

119

.485

.498

17.751

16.867

8.606

8.400




O PRODUCTION
F

T otal.............
Maintenance............
Power.......... ............
General.....................

CS
OT

Total...............
Receiving room:
Laborers............
Others................

I.— LABO
R

1
1
1

PA T
R

Finishing room:
Finishing bosses
Cutters...............
Re winders.........

1925

CO

T a b l e 13.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK PERIO D, 1924 AND 1925—Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 9

Department and occupation

Number of
employees

Full-time
positions

Cost per ton of product

Total hours
worked

wo croc

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

Beater room:
Boss beater men.........................
Valve men..................................
Jordan men__________________
Beater men........................ ........

3
6
2
39

3
10
3
42

2
6
2
36

3
9
3
42

393
854
309
4,810

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

1925

262 $286.61 $275.10
765 470.70
535.50
258
169.95
180.60
3,515 2,406.50 1,933.25

15,191
6,991
19,321
1,241

19,491
6 675
19*793
1,453

$0,729
.551
.550
.500

$1,050
.700
•7nn
#uu
era
♦oou

UX
. 6Z
OA
Q
A
» 1A
l\r±
1.611

A 1\6 W Uw
Q
U 1 J £A A A
. A
* A
A
•Q A
Uw
.158
.101
.057
1 047
T
1. O 4
.806

1924

1925

1924

1925

$0,108
.210
.071
.757

58

46

57

6,366

4,800 3,333.76 2,924.45

938

1,064

.524

A
•A Q
Ow

2.133

1.880

1.117

1.145

7
6
7
4
35
2

9
10
9
6
39

7
6
6
4
32
2

9
9
9
6
33

1,081
933
1,043
608M
4,780
309

779 918.83
895.85
794
559.80
6 .* 20
35
747
542.36
485.65
304.25
526
289.30
3,015 2,390.00 1,663.15
163.77

5,523
6,399
5’ 724
9,811
1 249
19’ 321

6,555
6,431
6,836
9 708
1 694
,’

.850
.600
.520
.500
.500
.530

1.150
A
•Q A
Ow
k
•A a
oou
•O U
O
f\ O
K
•O *
O

.362
IO
•O
616
O
IQ
•o/u
6\
r*
1.601
.104

.305
.311
.293
.206
1.181

.308
.188
.182
.102
.801
.055

.351
. 249
.190
.113
.651

Total........................................

61

73

57

66

8,754^

5,861 4,879.01 3,969.15

682

871

.557

047
**
•074

OVO
Q
A OQ
. O

1.635

1.555




...
2.296

INDUSTRY

50

BOX-BOARD

Total_______________ ______
Machine room:
Machine tenders_____________
Back tenders_________________
Calender men.............................
Screenmen..................................
Cutter boys___ ______________
Slitter men.................................

PAPER

1924

Wages

,168*2,

Number of
em
ployees

Total hours w
orked

Total w
ages

Department and occupation
1924

1925

1924

14

22

Receiving room:
Laborers_
_
Others........
Total.

1925

1924

1925

3,774
53,193
10,244

$0,767

.164

a 530
.038
.195

$0,230

.726

$0,753
.549
.812

a 300

12,"234

.119

$0,399
.021
.159

1,475.70

4,317

2,622

.752

.758

.463

.763

.349

.578

.174
.052

.196
.053

$686.29 $1,018.22
52.68
354.24
404.80

1,947^ 1,040.53

1924

6,671

1924

1925

248

964
211

519.48
154.10

501.28
135.94

5,976
24,073

5,297
24,202

.520
.621

.520
.644

.335
.083

.378
.083

11

1,247

1,175

673.58

637.22

4,788

4,346

.540

.542

.418

.460

22

1924

1925

.250

1,251

1,435.17

J588.04

2,097

4,082

.504

.550

.954

.490

.481

.270

2,719^
2,350H

1,931^ 2,010.73
2,244
1,449.11

1,479.09
1,642.80

2,195
2,540

2,644
2,276

.739
.617

.766
.732

.911
.787

.757
.879

.674
.485

.579
.643

General:
Laborers.
Others__

1,029K

624.56

320.25
788.72

5,799
6,708

7,973
5,587

.509
.702

.500
.863

.345
.298

.251
.358

.176

.125

1,554H 1,148.56

1,108.97

3,110

.713

.643

20,764H 15,970.45 13,925.42

216

246

.579

^671

9.242

Total..........

13

14

1,919^

Grand total.

207

237

27,586K




640H
914

8.133

O PRODUCTION
F

2,846M

Maintenance..
Power...........

CS
OT

Shipping roam:
_
Laboi
borers___

1925

In one-m hours
an

I.— LABO
R

Total.

1,353
96
498H

1924

Cost per ton of product

P T
AR

Finishing room:
Finishers__
Rewinders..
Others........

1925

Output in pounds Labor cost per oneper one-man hour
man hour

Cn

T able 13.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y AN D COST OF LABOR IN A TW O-W EEK P E RIO D , 1924 A N D 1925—Continued
ESTABLISHMENT NO. 10
Cost per tan of product
Number of
employees

Total hours
worked

Full-time
positions

JU W
L vcU agCO

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour
In one-man hours

Department and occupation
1924

1925

Beater room:
Boss beater men.... ............. ......
Assistant boss beater men_____
Jordan men__________________
Beater men__________________

2
2
2
27

3
3
3
31

2
2
2
18

3
3
3
24

268^
291%
292%
2,541%

Total........................................

33

40

24

33

3,394%

2
2
2

3
3

2
2
2

3
3

303H
289%
289%

3
2
23

4
3
2
15

Total______________________

34

30




2
2
8
18

3
3 ' ” '424'"
276
3
12 1,137
27

2,720

1925

1924

1924

1925

9,208
9,498
8,042
1,308

$0,684
.645
.524
.478

$0,900
.750
.650
.552

0.231
.251
.252
2.188

0.217
.211
.249
1.529

$0.158
.162
.132
1.046

$0,196
.158
.162
.843

684

907

.513

.616

2.922

2.205

1.498

1.358

7,655
8,018
8,018

8,837
9,104

.905
.675
.621

1.150
.825

.261
.249
.249

.226
.220

.260
.181

.525
.524
.484

.770
.650
.620
.550

.365
.238
.979

.287
.238
.161
.765

.237
.168
.155
.192
.124
.474

.221
.155
.100
.421

.576

.705

2.342

1.897

1.349

1.338

1924

1925

262 $183.53 $235.80
254
188.20
190. 50
300
153. 53
195.01
1,843% 1,214.44 1,017.28

8,653
7,963
7,936
914

2,659% 1,739.70 1,638.59
273
265

274.67
195.49
180.00

1925

313.95
218.64

346
“ 266.42"
287
"222.46’ 186.55 ‘ “ 5,"479"
120.59
8,417
194H 144. 50
507. 79
2,043
923% 550.37
2,288% 1,567.43 1,613.94

854

6,972
8,406
12,403
2,613
1,054

1924

1925

1924

1925

INDUSTRY

Machine room:
Machine tenders_____________
Back tenders_________________
Third hands -.
Second hands.
_
Screenmen (wet end)_________
Weighers____________________
Cutter boys__________________

1924

BOX-BOARD

1925

PAPER

1924

Wages

Department and occupation

Number of
em
ployees
1924

Total hours w
orked

1925

1924

1925

Total w
ages

1924

1925

Output in pounds Labor cost per oneman hour
per one-man hour

1924

1925

1924

1925

Cost per ton of product
In one-man hours
1924

1925

Wages
1924

1925

Finishing room.....................................

2

1

319%

110

$153.42

$51.70

7,266

21,931

$0,480

$0,470

0.275

Receiving room:
Laborers........................................
Others...........................................

15
8

7
7

1,206^
779

734
719

545.35
383.50

33a 32
359.08

1,926
2,982

3,287
3,355

.452
.492

.450
.499

1.039
.671

.609
.596

.470
.330

Total..........................................

23

14

1,985H

1,453

928.85

689.40

1,170

1,660

.468

.475

1.709

1.205

.800

.572

•M
aintenance........................................
Power..................................................
General................................................

9
17

6

10
17
7

1,216
1, 886%
804%

1,227^
831.76
1,743
1,268.85
742
415.70

839.50
1,172.12
405.28

1,911
1,231
2,889

1,965
1,384
3,251

.684
.673
.517

.684
.673
.546

.047
1.624
.692

.018
.716
1.445
1.092
.615 • .358

.696
.972
.386

124~

U9~

12,326%;

.560

”627

10.612

8.476

6,905.71

6,410.53

188~

236~

5.945

.274
.298

5.315

I.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------




10,224

$0,043

PR
AT

Grandtotal.................................

a 091 $0.132

T able 13.—P R O D U C T IV IT Y AND COST OF LABOR IN A TW O -W E E K PERIO D, 1924 A N D 1925-Continued

ESTABLISHMENT NO. 11
Cost per ton of product
Number of
employees

Total hours
worked

Full-time
positions

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Labor cost per
one-man hour

Department and occupation

$228.75 $270.00
181.20
211.40
145.16
165.01
1,558.35 1,417.38

7,817
7,894
7,810
758

8,339
8,284
8,339
971

$0,750
.600
.476
.495

$0,900
.700
.550
.550

a 256
.253
.256
2.639

0.240
.241
.240
2.060

$0,192
.152
.122
1.307

$0,216
.169
.132
1.133

PAPER

2,113.46 2,063.79

588

719

.521

.593

3.404

2.781

1.773

1.650

343.75
271.88
235.63
311.31
179.03
170.50
147.92

7,635
6,009
6,457
2,542
7,684
8,228
7,660

8,005
6,901
6,901
4,420
7,686
8,070
9,640

.850
.628
.528
.476
.488
.486
.488

1.100
.750
.650
.550
.550
.550
.570

.262
.333
.310
.787
.260
.243
.261

.250
.290
.290
.453
.260
.248
.208

.223
.209
.164
.374
.127
.118
.127

.275
.217
.188
.249
.143
.136
.118

BOX-BOARD

2,498*6 1,599.80 1, 66a 02

814

1,001

.547

.664

2.456

1.997

1.342

1.327

300
302
300
2,577
3,479

Beater room:
Head beater men_......................
Roll setters and plug pullers...
Stuff boxes..................................
Beater helpers.............................

2
2
2
23

3
3
3
28

2
2
2
20

Total........................................

29

37

26

33

4,057M

Machine room:
Machine tenders........................
Back tenders..............................
Finishers _ ..................................
Cutter boys................................
Broke b o y s ...............................
Screenmen................................
Felt ch eck ers...........................

2
3
2
6
2
2
2

3
4
3
6
3
3
3

2
2
2
6
2
2
2

3
3
3
6
3
3
3

312**
396%
369*4
938
310**
289H
311**

Total........................................

19

25

18

24

2,927*6

1924

312*6 265.41
362*6 249.21
362*6 195.05
566
446.15
325*6 151.36
310
140.76
259*6 151.86

1925

1924

1925

1924

INDUSTRY

1925

305
302
305**
3,145*6

1925




1924

3
3
3
24

1924

1925

1925

1925

1925

Wages

1924

1924

1924

In one-man hours

Number of
employees

Total hours worked

Total wages

Output in pounds
per one-man hour

Department and occupation
1924

10
3

8
3

1924

763y2
353%

13

11

1,116%

21
16

19
17

2,508}*
1,851%

General:
Laborers..............................................
Others.................................................

3
6

3
7

325
819

9

10

1,144

Grand total____________________

107

119

13,605M

656%
271

$305.40
182.66

$270.25
163.78

3,123
6,749

3,812
9,231

927%

488.06

434.03

2,135

2,235% 1,677.98
1,751% 1,137.18

1,603.06
1,118.10

951
1,288

110.00
637.63

1924

1925

1924

1925

1924

a 641
.296

1925

1924

1925

$0,400
.517

* $0.412
.604

2,698

.437

.468

.937

.741

.409

.347

1,119
1,428

.669
.614

.717
.638

2.104
1.553

1.787
1.400

1.408
.954

1.282
.894

7,336
2,911

9,097
3,025

.417
.579

.400
.771

.273
.687

.220
.661

.114
.398

.088
.510

a 525
.216

$0,256
.153

$0,216
.131

275
827

135.50
474.25

1,102

609.75

747.63

2,084

2,270

.533

.678

.960

.881

.512

.598

11,993% 7,626.23

7,626.63

175

209

.561

.636

11.414 J

9.589

6.398

6.097

O PRODUCTION
F




1925

CS
OT

Total................................................

1924

Wages

I.— LABO
R

Total _ ................... ..........................
Maintenance..............................................
Power— ...................................................

1925

In one-man hours

PR
AT

Receiving:
Laborers..............................................
Others..................................................

1925

>
Cost per ton < f product
Labor cost per
one-man hour.

Part

n .—

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR IN THE PAPER BOXBOARD INDUSTRY, 1925

BRIEF HISTORY OF THE PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

Before 1817 all paper in the United States was made by hand.
In order to produce a thick board, handmade sheets of paper were
coated with an adhesive substance and then pressed together. The
first paper machine operated in this country (the cylinder machine)
was invented by Gilpin, of Wilmington, Del., in 1816, and his ma­
chine, with many added improvements, forms the backbone of the
paper-board industry of to-day. George A. Shryock, of Chambersburg, Pa., probably developed the first paper machine for producing
thicker paper or boards. His mill operated between 1828 and 1831
and made the first heavy-weight strawboard. Both the Gilpin and
the Shryock machines originally formed only the sheets, which then
had to be pressed by hand and were loft or sun dried. Presses,
driers, and calenders were added to Gilpin's machine shortly after
its introduction.
Between 1830 and the period of the Civil War the paper-board
business experienced slow expansion, but shortly after the war there
was a great demand and this industry enlarged considerably. From
that period on the business increased rapidly to its present large and
overexpanded condition. The chief centers of growth' were the
regions west of the Alleghanies—Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana—
where straw was both plentiful and cheap. From 1892 to 1893 new
mills sprang up in or near cities and close to large centers of supply
for raw material and to paper-board markets, as more and more
board was made from waste paper. Improvements were effected in
a number of ways, in cooking the straw, in beating, and in Jordaning
facilities, as well as in the cylinder machines. Only three or four
cylinders were used on the early machines because it was thought
that only free stock, such as straw, could be used on multicylinder
machines. It was soon found, however, that by increasing the num­
ber of cylinders, applying a thinner film of pulp to each and by care­
fully regulating the suction and speed of the machine, waste papers,
wood pulp, etc., could be successfully made into boards. Machines
with five, six, and seven cylinders began to be put into operation
and the development of various grades of paper board was started.
The two recent developments mat have tended to the further ex­
pansion of this industry are, first, the increasing demand for folded
fiber-board boxes and the beginning of the fiber shipping container,
due to the scarcity and the increasing cost of wood for the manu­
facture of wooden boxes and shipping containers; and, second, the
fact that the Interstate Commerce Commission has indorsed the
fiber shipping container and strengthened the position of the manu­
facturers of tnis article.
50




PART* II.— WAGES AND HOURS 03? LABOR

51

It becomes evident that the paper-board industry is an important
one when it is considered that in the summer of 1923 the United
States had 788 paper mills, of which 262, or 33.2 per cent, were
board mills operating 320 cylinder machines and 180 wet machines
Both in tonnage and in number of mills the manufacture of paper
board comprises approximately one-third of the paper industry of
this country.1
IMPORTANCE OF THE INDUSTRY

The following table gives the production and value of the various
grades of box board made in the United States, according to the
United States Bureau of the Census. The varieties and grades of
paper board and similar products are multitudinous. For instance
white patent-coated news board is made in an enormous number of
grades, considering the different finishes, colors, qualities of printing
surface, relative compactness, etc., depending on the policy of the
mills, the requirements of the customer, state of the raw-material
market, and equipment at- the mill. In no two board mills is the
equipment identical, and this difference is reflected in the product.
* “ Paper/’ article by Arthur O. Bragg, Vol. X X X IV , No. 10, June 26, 1924.




T a b l e 14.—PR O D U C TIO N A N D VALUE OP VARIOUS GRADES OF P A PE R BOARD M A D E IN TH E U N ITED STATES, B Y Y EA R

[United States Census of Manufactures!

Wood-pulp
board

Strawboard

News board

Binders, trunk,
and press board

Leather board

Year
Tons

60,863 $2,347,250
71,036 2,639,496
116,419 4,227,493
179,747 14,887,881
138,766 11,007,365

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

Tons

Value

*253,960 *$9,070,531 669,711 $19,724,001
39,060 $2,764,444
167,278 $4,367,560 38,660 $1,174,216
* 422,196 *13,720,697 791,076 25,678,664
61,449 3,352,151
171,789 3,750,851 74,606 2,215,469 8
8
8
8
8
*700,844 *23,652,095 1,291,805 44,869,608
175,424 4,270,519 127,966 3,602,134 61,453 $2,663,744 26,689 $1,177,189 83,010 5,376,434
1
(2
)
228,248 12,229,837 88,839 4,604,082 43,091 3,787,860 28,167 2,263,288 84,987 11,104,105 695,963 $37,749,210 518,022 37,464,380 1,867,064 124,090,643
186,124 10,701,648 138,163 6,032,602 32,682 3,179,940 21,830 1,564,728 163,216 12,784,560 609,718 27,261,027 449,312 31,834,727 1,739,801 104,346,697

* Not reported separately.

^included in “ All other boards.**

^Including chip board.

BOX-BOARD
INDUSTRY




Value

Total

All other boards

Chip board

PAPER

1904....
1909----1914----1919----1921-----

Tons

Value

Cardboard, bristol board, card
middles, tickets,
etc.

PART

n.—

53

WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

The following table shows by States the production of the different
classes of paper board in the years 1921, 1919, and 1914, together
with the value of production in 1921. These figures are taken from
the United States Census of Manufactures.
T a b l e 1 5 .— CLASS A N D VALUE O F PAPER BOARD PRODUCED, 1921, AND CLASS AN D
QU AN TITY PRODU CED, 1921,1919, AN D 1914, B Y STATES

[United States Census of Manufactures]

Value of
production,
1921

Kind and State

Quantity produced (tons o f
2,000 pounds)
1921

1919

1914

Wood-pulp board:
New York________________________________________
A1*nthar Statns
1

$3,942,907
7,064,458

42,533
96,223

44,927
134,820

32,376
84,043

Total..............................................................................

11,007,365

138,756

179,747

116,419

Strawboard:
Indiana........................... ..................................................
Illinois........... _ _________
_ _
___________
Ohio..................................— ...........................................
All other States...............................................................

4,301,236
2,411,630
1,486,323
2,502,459

80,273
34,241
27,222
44,388

42,246
48,618
137,384

<
9

60,363
42,952
39,496
32,613

Total..............................................................................

10.701.648

186.124

228,248

175,424

News board:
New Jersey_______________________________________
All nthftr States

1,348,219
4,684,383

34,533
103,630

25,989
62,850

42,328
85,638

Total............................................................ .................

6,032,602

138,163

88,839

127,966

Binders, trunk, and press board:
Connecticut___________ ____________________
___
New Jersey.............. ....................................................... .
All other States....... .... ...................................................

1,196,071
599,598
1,384,271

9,901
6,924
15,857

8,814
34,277

12,895
0)
48,558

<
9

Total.............. ...............................................................

3,179,940

32,682

43,091

61,453

Cardboard, bristol board, card middles, tickets, etc.:
Massachusetts_____________________________________
All other States_____________________________ ______

3,843,278
8,941,282

25,795
137,421

23,910
61,077

34,899
48,111

Total...............................................................................

12,784,560

163,216

84,987

83,010

Leather board:
New Hampshire.._________________________________
All other States................. ......... ......................... ...........

264,962
1,289,766

3,932
17,898

6,250
21,917

•3,972
22,717

28,167

26,689

Total...............................................................................

1,554,728

21,830

Chip board:
Michigan___________ ____ ___ _______ _____ _________
Ohio...................................................................................
Illinois...............................................................................
New Jersey,_______________________________________
Pennsylvania______________________________________
New York_______________________________ _________
Indiana....... ......................................................................
Connecticut____________ ___________________________
All other States.................................................................

6,049,730
4,899,477
3,042,779
2,314,618
2,139,943
1,644,232
1,581,314
564,169
5,014,765

135,614
95,216
74,608
56,375
54,693
41,966
24,648
13,749
112,849

22,047
467,491

SI

75,385
41,041

(9
0)

89,999

<*)

Total..............................................................................

27,251,027

609,718

695,963

All other boards:
New York.........................................................................
Ohio...................................................................................
Michigan______________________ ___________________
New Jersey________________________________________
Connecticut___________________ ____________
Indiana..............................................................................
All other States.................................................................

5,549,821
4,741,870
4,714,801
4,001,568
2,211,278
1,882,281
8,733,108

65,049
70,658
61,937
61,221
36,814
28,958
124,675

82,316
47,959
0)
53,236
69,514
41,405
223,592

135,467
127,814
80,482
74,569
62,937
55,285
164,290

Total...............................................................................

31,834,727

449,312

518,022

700,844

1 Included in “ All other States."




1 Included in “ All other boards.”

54

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

EXTENT AND SUMMARY OF SURVEY

In connection with the study a survey was made of wages and hours
in the paper box-board industry in 1925. This survey covered 70
representative establishments employing 9,985 wage workers, dis­
tributed by States as follows:
Number of Number
establish­
of
ments
employees

State

Massachusetts_______________________________
Connecticut_____ _________________ _____ _____
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont............. .
New York__________ ______ ___________ ______
New Jersey and Pennsylvania .............................
Ohio.........................................................................
Indiana_____________________ ________________
Illinois-....................................................................
Michigan____________________________________
Minnesota and Wisconsin.......... ...........................
Virginia and West Virginia............. ...................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina,
and Tennessee_____________________________

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3
7

772

Total..............................................................

70

9,985

436
722
338
1,168
1,076
1,399
417
886
1,913
676
182

Of the 70 establishments covered in this survey there were two or
three which had a department for the sorting of waste paper, also a
number of the mills had box factories in which containers of various
kinds were made. In order that the data for all mills should be as
comparable as possible, none of the employees in the box factories or
sorting rooms were included in this study.
The figures were computed from data taken by the agents of the
bureau directly from the pay rolls or other records of the establish­
ments fo'r a representative pay period. These pay rolls were not for
any particular month, but were secured from the January records of
2 establishments, the February records of 21, the March records of 13,
the April records of 11, the May records of 6, the June records of 8,
the July records of 6, and the August records of 3. The spring of 1925,
therefore, covers the majority o f the data.
In Table 16 are shown the number of establishments, number of
employees, and average hours and earnings, by States.
T a bl e 16.—N U M BER OF ESTABLISHMENTS AND EM PLOYEES, AVERAGE FULL-TIM E

HOURS PER TW O W EEKS, AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR, AND FULL-TIM E EARN ­
INGS PE R TW O WEEKS, 1925, B Y STATES

State

Massachusetts________ -________________ ____ ____
Connecticut______. ______________________________
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont____________
New York______________________________________
New Jersey and Pennsylvania____________________
Ohio...............................................................................
Indiana.. ___________________ - __________________
T llin n is______________________________________________________
"M ich iga n
__
__

Minnesota and Wisconsin ________________________
Virginia and West Virginia_______________________
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee..___________________________________
Total______- _______________ _______ . . . __ __




Average
Average
Number Number full-time Average full-time
of estab­
of em­ hours per earnings earnings
lishments ployees
per hour per two
two
weeks
weeks
4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3

436
722
338
1,168
1,076
1,399
417
886
1,913
676
182

98.8
105.4
102.0
109.8
110.2
106.1
130.4
101.6
98.9
106.9
128.2

$0,623
.529
.480
.545
.569
.558
.444
.553
.557
.504
.343

$61.55
55.76
48.96
59.84
62.70
59.20
57.90
56.18
55.09
53.88
43.97

7

772

137.8

.301

41.48

70

9,985

108.6

.517

56.15

PART II.— WAGES AND HOURS OP LABOR

55

It will be noted from Table 16 that the average full-time hours per
two weeks for all occupations range from 98.8 in Massachusetts to
137.8 in the southern group of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee, the average for the 70 establishments being
108.6 hours.
The average earnings per hour show the reverse of the full-time
hours; that is, the lowest hourly earnings, 30.1 cents, occur in the
southern group that has the longest full-time hours per two weeks,
while the highest hourly rate, 62.3 cents, occurs in Massachusetts, the
State having the shortest full-time hours, the average hourly earnings
for the 70 establishments being 51.7 cents. In tms same southern
group are found the lowest average full-time earnings for two weeks,
namely, $41.48; the highest average full-time earnings of $62.70
per two weeks are found m New Jersey and Pennsylvania, the average
for all the States being $56.15.
In Table 17, which follows, are shown the average full-time hours
per week, average earnings per hour, average full-time earnings per
week, and per cent of employees working each classified full-time
hours per week for each occupation and for all occupations combined,
by sex. The group designated *‘Other employees” includes employees
whose occupations are not peculiar to tne industry but rather are
common to most industries, and employees in occupations too few in
number or of too little significance to warrant a separate classification.
Since the “ clean-up” time in the large majority of the mills equaled
the hours of one tour, this time has been included in the computation
of full-time hours. In a small number of the mills, this is not abso­
lutely accurate but as the “ clean-up” time in these mills varied from
week to week, it was decided for the sake of comparability to use the
time of one tour to represent “ clean-up” time.
It will be noted in Table 17 that the average full-time hours per
week for all occupations for males are 54.3 and for females 53.9.
Only 9 of the establishments scheduled employed females, the total
number being 53, or an average of less than 6 for each of these plants.
Fifty-one of these females employees were found in the finishing and
the receiving departments performing such work as cutter girls,
markers, sorters, counters, and plater helpers. One woman was a
cleaner and another a weigher in the shipping department.
It will also be noted in the various occupations that the average
earnings per hour range from 42.3 cents for laborers to 79.9 cents for
machine tenders.




56

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

T a b l e 1 7 .— A VE R AG E HOURS A N D EARNINGS, AN D CLASSIFIED FULL-TIM E HOURS

P E R W EEK, 1925, BY OCCUPATION A N D SEX

Num- Num­
ber
of
of
Occupation and sex es- em­
tablish- ploy­
ments ees

Aver- Aver­ Aver­
age
age
full- earn­ full­
time
time
hours ings earn­
per
ings
per
per
week hour week

Per cent of employees whose full-time hours per
week were—
Over
Over
Over
Over
54
40
48
60
40 and 48 and 54 and 60 and 72 Over
un­
un­
un­
un­
72
der
der
der
der
54
48
60
72

MALES

Head beater m en ...
A s s is ta n t head
beater men______
Plug pullers______ _
Jordan men_______
Beater helpers_____
Machine tenders__ _
Back tenders______
Third hands______
Finishers_________
Windermen_______
Finishers’ helpers—
Weighers_________
Cutter boys___ - __
Broke boys_______
Screenmen________
Felt checkers...........
Finishers, finishing
room.....................
Cutters, finishing
room ..... ......... ....
Re winders, finish­
ing room _______
Laborers__ _____ _
Other employees___
All occupations,
males..— . . ___

70

227

20
69
24
118
17
76
70 1,873
70 300
70 307
34
154
34 215
16
66
11
71
6
20
57
775
39
187
231
52
19
57

52.6 $0,669 $35.19

51

12

5

1

15

54.9
49.4
50.2
50.6
52.2
62.0
50.2
49.9
57.4
48.9
56.6
50.1
54.1
49.8
58.0

43 16
71
64 " T
58 9
51 12
51 12
66 8
52 10
14 32
41
50
61
8
48 3
61
8
42

4
5
8
8
7
9
2
9
18
27

6

3
6
15 2
13
12 "~2~
14 4
13 4
1
13
11 4
9
3
~30"
4
16 2
5
10
14
7

.520
.511
.530
.462
.799
.582
.519
.501
.449
.512
.458
.446
.438
.472
.435

28.55
25.24
26.61
23.38
41.71
30.26
26.05
25.00 " e "
25.77
25.04 ' l 8‘
25.92
22.34
23.70
23.51
25.23

8
13
9
11

1
1
1
3
5

5
1

1

25

208

56.7

.531

30.11

4

16

27

7

39

4

18

38

55.2

.514

28.37

3

32

18

16

29

58.5
56.7
57.7

.493
.423
.564

28.84
2
23.98
32.54 11

2
3

8
14

7
6
9

32
26
20

21 25
9 37
14 21

70 9,932

54.3

.518

28.13 i 1

28

10

8

11

53

53.9

.283

15.25

9

26

26

70 9,985

64.3

.517

28.07

10

9

12

11
22
7
11
10
11
11
10
5
27
11
10
7
17
6
26

3

13
28
70 1,459
70 3,453

5

7

14

2

7
3 ” 2
5
6

7
3
7

8

4

8

8

4

8

FEMALES

Other employees___
All occupations,
m a le
and
female_______

9

4

»1

28

34

7

14

i Including 2 employees whose full-time hours were 12,1 whose full-time hours were 24,1 whose full-time
hours were 26, and 1 whose full-time hours were 28.

Table 18 shows for each of 7 typical occupations the number of
establishments, the number of employees, the average earnings per
hour, and the per cent of employees earning each classified amount
per hour. The total number of employees in these occupations rep­
resent 51.8 per cent of all the employees covered.
A study of this table will show that the largest number of head beater
men and machine tenders earned 80 and under 90 cents per hour, the
largest number of back tenders earned 60 and under 65 cents an hour,
the largest number of beater helpers, cutter boys, and screenmen
earned 50 and under 55 cents an hour, and the largest number of
laborers earned 40 and under 45 cents an hour.




T a b l e 1 8 .— A V E R AG E AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR OF EM PLOYEES IN 7 T Y P IC A L OCCUPATIONS, 1925

Per cent of employees whose earnings per hour were—
Occupation




Average
earn­
ings
per
hour

227
1,873
300
307
775
231
1,459

.462
.799
.582
.446
.472
.423

25
80
90
100 125
50
70
20
30
35
40
75
45
55
65
Un­ and and
and
and and and
and
and
der under under under and under and and and and and under and under under under and
under
under under under under under
under
under
20
80
75
150
25
30
35
90
100 125
55
60
40
45
50
70
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents 65
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
10
1
4
26
2
1
(0

13
7
13
0)
0)

20

5
0
22

II.------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1Less than 1 per cent.

Num­
ber of
employ-

PR
AT

Head beater men.
Beater helpers
Machine tenders
Back tenders.......
Cutter boys........
Screenmen_____
Laborers.............

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

<
1

58

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

REGULAR OR CUSTOMARY HOURS OF OPERATION

By regular or customary hours of operation is meant the regular
or usual time between beginning work m the morning and closing in
the afternoon minus the regular time off duty for midday lunch or
dinner. The amount of employment as well as the amount of unem­
ployment within the pay period covered is indicated in the comparison
of 'average full-time hours per pay period” with “ average hours
actually worked in the pay period.
This information is furnished
in Table A (p. 66). The averages under “ full-time hours per pay
period” show the possible hours of opportunity for work in one pay
period under normal conditions, while the averages for hours actually
worked in the pay period show what was actually done in one pay
period. ‘
Some of the employees in an occupation or an establishment may
have worked more than the full-time hours during the pay period
scheduled because of overtime work, while others may have worked
less than the full-time hours because of illness or of being laid off part
time, or on account of termination of service before the end of the
pay period covered or of having entered service after the beginning
of the pay period.
Table 17 shows the per cent of employees working each classified
number of regular or customary hours a week while Table A shows
the number of employees within each group. The full-time hours
per week of 28 per cent of the 9,985 employees covered are over 40
and under 48; of 10 per cent are 48; of 12 per cent are 54; of 14 per
cent are 60; and of 8 per cent are over 72.
Twenty-four of the 70 establishments covered reported a reduction
in their regular or customary full-time hours between January 1, 1924,
and the period covered by this study. These reductions in hours
affected the tour workers in all the establishments except one, in which
the yard crew alone received a reduction of 1 hour a day. Although
employees in the power department are tour workers, it is necessary
for them to be employed longer hours than the other tour workers
on account of the nature of their work. Only 3 of the establishments
that reported a reduction in hours to tour workers included the power
einployees, as will be noted in Table 19.
In 18 of the establishments the days of operation were reduced
from 6 days to 5 days a week. Three of the establishments had
been operating 5 days a week prior to January 1, 1924, but their
weekly hours were reduced from 60 to 40 hours.
The following table covers the establishments reporting a reduction
in their regular hours, the employees affected, and the hours of
operation:




59

PABT II.---- WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

1 9 .— CHANGES IN REGU LAR OR CUSTOM ARY HOURS OP OPERATION
BE TW E E N JAN U ARY 1, 1924, A N D THE PERIOD COVERED B Y THIS STUDY

T a bl e

Number of Employees whose hours were
establish­
ments
Tour workers, except power
employees.
.do.
Tour workers, including pow­
er employees.^
Tour workers, except power
employees.
----- do......................................
.— .do____
Yard crew.

Hours of operation
Prior to Jan. 1,1924

Since Jan. 1,1924

Alternating, 11 and 13 hours, Alternating, 11 and 13 hours,
6 days.
5 days.
8 hours, 6 days....................... 8 hours, 5 days.
Alternating, 11 and 13 hours,
Do.
6 days.
Alternating, 11 and 13 hours,
Do.
5 days.
Alternating, 11 and 13 hours, 8 hours, 6 days.
6 days.
Alternating, 11 and 13 hours, 8 hours, 5 days.
5 days, and 11 hours on
Saturday.
10 hours, 6 days......... ............ 9 hours, 6 days.

i In 1 of these establishments the hours of operation for power employees were decreased from alternating
11 and 13 hours for 7 days, with every other Sunday off, to 8 hours for 7 days with every other Sunday off;
in another establishment the hours of operation of power employees were reduced froifi alternating 11 and
13 hours for 7 days to 8 hours for 6 days, while in the third establishment the hours of operation of power
emifloyees were decreased from 8 hours for 7 days to 8 hours for 6 days.

CHANGES IN WAGE RATES SINCE JANUARY 1, 1924

Of the 70 establishments covered, 12 made changes in their wage
rates between January 1, 1924, and the period covered by this study.
It will be noted in a study of Table 20 that in 8 of these establishments
the increases in wage rates vary considerably according to the dif­
ferent occupations. In only 1 establishment a straight increase of
50 per cent applied to all tour workers. In 3 other plants all the
employees that worked four or more nights received the same pay
for five nights that was previously received for six nights. In only
2 establishments were reductions in wage rates reported and these
affected only the tour bosses, 1 establishment reducing their weekly
wage 17 per cent and the other 14 per cent.
The various occupations affected by the wage increases and the
per cents of increase applicable to each occupation are presented
m the following table:
T a bl e 2 0 .— CHANGES IN WAGE RATES OP EM PLOYEES B E TW EEN JAN UARY 1, 1924,

AN D THE PERIOD COVERED B Y THIS STUDY

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Per cent of in­
Employees whose wage rates were increased or decreased between Jan. 1,1924, crease (+ ) or
and the period covered by this study
decrease (—) in
wage rates

Tour bosses.............................................................
Head beater m and m
en
achine tenders......................
Back tenders................... ................ ......................
Finishers.................................................................
Cutter boys, screenm broke haulers, beater helpers.
en,
Head beater men...................... ...............................
Beater men..............................................................
Machine tenders......................................................
Back tenders... ........................................................
Broke boys..............................................................
Screenm
en__________________________________
Boss beater men..... .................. .............................
Machine tenders......................................................
Back tenders............................................................
Checkers, Jordan m and valve men.......................
en,
Calender men..........................................................
Screenm beater m cutter boys, shipping laborers
en,
en,
Boss beater men______________________________
Assistant boss beater men................... ................. ...




-1 7
+7
+10
+9
+5
+20-27
+12-46
+17-19
+25
+19
+12-18
+36
+35

+33H

+27
+25
+10
+38
+25

60

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

T a b l e 20.—CHANGES IN W AGE RATES OF EM PLOYEES BETW EEN JANUARY 1, 1924,

AN D THE PERIOD COVERED B Y THIS STUDY—Continued

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Per cent of in­
Employees whose wage rates were increased or decreased between Jan. 1,1924, crease (+ ) or
and the period covered by this study
decrease (—) in
wage rates
Jordan men and screenmen. ...................................................
Beater men and cutter boys.................... ................................
Machine tenders and back tenders..........................................
Third hands..............................................................................
Weighers....................................................................................
Filter men.................................................................................
Head beater men......................................................................
Jordan men and valve men.....................................................
Beater men and cutter boys.....................................................
Machine tenders.......................................................................
Back tenders.............................................................................
Third hands and ash men........................................................
Stackers out and felt boys........................................................
Head beater men......................................................................
Beater men.............................................................................. .
Machine tenders.......................................................................
Back tenders and finishers.......................................................
Cutter boys and screenmen.....................................................
Engineers in power department............................................. .
All tour workers...................................................................... .
____ d o .....................................................................................
Tour bosses.............................................................................. .
All tour workers, except machine tenders...............................
Machine tenders.......................................................................
Tour bosses.............................................................................. .
Head beater men............................... ......................................
Roll setters and plug pullers. ................................................ .
Jordan men, cutter boys, broke boys, screenmen, and oilers.
Beater men.............................................................................. .
Machine tenders................................................................... .
Back tenders............................................................................ .
Finishers and firemen...............................................................
Felt boys.................................................................................. .

+30
+22
+27
+28
+24
+5
+6-18
+9-10
+10
+ 12^
+8
+9
+5
+ 12M
+16
+10
+13
+16
+8
(0
+50
-1 4
+25
+20
+16%
+22
+10
+29
+15
+8H
+26%

i When these plants started a 5-day productive operation, employees working 4 or more nights received
the same pay for 5 nights that was previously received for 6.

EXTRA PAY FOR OVERTIME AND FOR WORK ON SUNDAY AND
HOLIDAYS

Between January 1, 1924, and the period for which 1925 data were
obtained, 12 of the 70 establishments covered paid an extra rate for
any time worked over the customary full-time hours per day or per
week and for work on Sunday and holidays. In 6 of tnese establish­
ments all of the employees were affected, while in the remaining 6,
certain specified classes of labor received the extra rate. One establish­
ment paid to all its employees time and one-quarter over the regular
rate for overtime as well as for Sunday and holiday work—the highest
rate reported. Two establishments did not pay extra for overtime
but paid double the regular rate for Sunday and holiday work.
Another establishment paying double the regular rate for Sunday and
holiday work paid time and a half for overtime to employees after
working lj^ shifts, while 2 establishments paid time and a half for
overtime as well as for Sunday and holiday work. In 1 of these
establishments, however, the extra rate was paid only for work done
before 6 a. m. or after 6 p. m. Three establishments that did not
pay for overtime paid one and one-half times the regular rate for Sunday
and holiday work. Two other establishments that did not pay for
overtime paid time and a quarter for Sunday and holiday work. In
1 establishment where no overtime was paid for, all employees were
aid for 1 hour extra if they worked all day Sunday and for one-half
our extra if they worked a half day on Sunday.

E




61

PART II.---- WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

The following table presents in detail the 12 establishments report­
ing extra rate for overtime and for Sunday and holiday work and the
employees affected:
T a b l e 21.—N U M BER OF ESTABLISHM ENTS PAYIN G E X T R A RATE FOR OVERTIM E

AND FOR SUNDAY AND HOLIDAY W ORK, PERIOD COVERED, AND EMPLOYEES
AFFECTED
Rate for—

Number
of estab­
lishments

1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

Employees affected

/Maintenance employees*.________________
\Productive employees__________________
All employees_______ __________________
All employees, except 7-day and clean-up
workers.
Maintenance employees___________ _____
All employees__________________________
Shipping and receiving employees_______
Day workers, except power employees___
All employees__________________________
____do_________________________________
All employees except yard______________
All employees__________________________

Period during which em­
ployees were entitled to
extra pay

Jan. 1,1924, to date of study.
____do____________________
....... do....................................
____ do____________________

Over­
time

Regular rate, multipliecI by—
2
2
*1H
IK
1M

....... do______________ _____
....... do_____________ ______
....... do__................................
IZZIIdoI IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII
....... do____________________
. .... d o ....................................
....... do....................................

Sunday
and holi­
days

1M
2

2H

<2
IX

1After working l l shifts.
A
* Before 6 a. m. or after 6 p. m.
1 One hour extra pay if employees work all day Sunday and half-hour extra pay if they work half day
Sunday.

BONUS SYSTEMS

Eleven of the 70 paper box-board establishments for which data
are presented had in operation, during the period for which 1925
figures are shown, bonus systems which increased the earnings of
employees over and above earnings at the regular rates.
It will be noted from the following table that 8 of these bonus sys­
tems are based on production, on the excess above a certain set stand­
ard or minimum. This standard varies, of course, with each mill,
according to size and equipment. In 1 mill, however, the bonus is
paid on all board produced. In 4 of the establishments all of the
employees receive the production bonus, while the remaining 7 mills
make eligible only those employees engaged in specified occupations.
One establishment paid a service bonus to all wage earners after
6 months' service witn the company. This bonus specifies a 2 per
cent advance in wages every 6 months until the end of 3 years when
the employees receive a life-insurance policy for $1,000. The bonus
table presents detailed information relative to the “ service” bonus,
which also includes a ‘ ‘ compensation-for-injury ” feature whereby
50 per cent of the weekly wages of an employee is paid after the second
week of injury.
Another establishment reported a bonus system based on a gradu­
ated scale of 15-minute intervals between 6.30 and 7.30 a. m., with
specified amounts for each 15-minute period. The highest amount
($2) is paid at 6.30, and for every 15 minutes later than 6.30 the
amount is $1. In order for the worker to be eligible for this bonus
the paper must pass over the machine continuously for 30 minutes
on Monday morning before 8 o'clock*
74391°—26------5




62

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY
T a b l e 2 2 .—BONUS SYSTEMS OF ELEVEN ESTABLISHM ENTS

Period covered

Employees entitled

Jan. 1, 1024, to
date of study.

Wage earners, after 6
months with com­
pany.

Amount

Conditions

2 per cent advance in wages every Permission to be absent
6 months until end of 3 years
must be secured on the
when they receive a life insur­
previous day and rea­
ance policy for $1,000, effective
son for same must be
as long as employee is with the
approved by the super­
company in good standing, or
intendent.
Employ­
its equivalent if ineligible for
ees absent from duty
life insurance. Any employee
more than 5 days in
injured while in the employ of
any one month without
showing sickness as
company will receive 50 per
cent of his weekly wages effec­
cause and supported
tive the second week of injury.
by physician’s certifi­
This is in addition to insur­
cate, will not be enti­
ance payable under the work­
tled to benefits.
men’s compensation law.
Do............. All productive employ* Head beater men and machine On excess above a certain
ees, including receiv­
tenders, 13 cents per ton; back
set standard or mini­
ing and shipping de­
tenders, third hands, and
mum
partments.
others, 10 cents per ton; laborers
5 cents per ton.
All..
lH per cent for each 5 tons...........
Do.
D o.
-do..
Do..
H of the per cent that excess pro­
Do.
duction is of the standard.
Machine tenders.......
33% cents per ton..........................
Do.
Other machine hands. . . 18 cents per ton............................ .
Do.
Beater foremen..........
26H cents per ton......................... .
Do.
D o ..
Other beater-room hands 13M cents per ton......................... .
Do.
Millwrights................
10 cents per ton............................ .
Do.
Master mechanics___
15 cents per ton............................ .
Do.
Machine tenders.......
Do..
14 cents per ton............................ . On all board produced.
All..............................
Do..
From 2 to 12 cents per ton............ On excess above a certain
set standard or mini­
mum.
Maintenance foremen, $2, and $1 additional for each 15 That the paper must pass
bead beater men, ana
minutes prior to 7.30 a. m., up
over the machine con­
machine tenders.
tinuously for 30 min­
to $6.
utes on Monday morn­
ing before 8 o'clock.
Back tenders..
Do.
Do..
$1, and $1 additional for each 15
minutes prior to 7.30 a. m. up
to $5.
Third hands..
$1, and $1 additional for each 15
Do.
minutes prior to 7.15 a. m. up
to $4.
Jan. 1, 1925, to All who have been with H of the per cent that excess pro­ On excess above a certain
date of study.
the company 3 months
duction is above the standard.
set standard or mini­
mum.
or over, except straight
piece work and sal­
aried employees.
D o.............
.do.............................
.do..
Do.
May 11,1925, to AIL.
2 per cent for 5 tons and 2H per
Do.
date of study.
cent for each additional 5 tons.

DAYS WORKED IN ONE PAY PERIOD

Table 23 shows, for 7 typical occupations in the paper box-board
industry, the average and specified number of days o f work in each
occupation, the number 01 employees, and average and specified
number of days worked by employees during the pay period for which
data are presented.
“ Days of work in the occupation” means the number of calendar
days or parts of days on which there was work for the occupation as
a whole in the two-week pay period. Any part of a day worked is
counted a day for the purpose of this table.
Of the 70 mills covered in this study, 43 were on a five-day produc­
tion week and 27 on a six-day production week.
The average number of days of work in the occupation was ob­
tained by weighting the number of days on which there was work in
the occupation in each establishment by the number of employees in
the occupation in that establishment, without regard to the actual
days worked by individual employees.



PART II.---- WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR

63

The average number of days worked by employees in each occu­
pation is a simple average obtained by dividing the aggregate number
of days on which some work was done by the total number of em­
ployees in the occupation.
In 5 of the 7 typical occupations shown the average number of
days actually worked by employees is less than the average number
of days of work in the occupation. This is due to the fact that some
of the employees did not work the entire time that there was work in
the occupation. In the two occupations where the average days
worked by employees equal the average number of days of work in
the occupation all the employees in these occupations worked full
time during the pay period covered. If there had been some over­
time worked in addition to the full time during the pay period, the
average number of days actually worked would have exceeded the
number of days of work in the occupation.
T a b l e 33.—AVERAGE AN D CLASSIFIED DAYS OF W ORK IN SEVEN T Y P IC A L OCCU­

PATIONS IN ONE PAY PERIOD, 1925

Occupation

Average Number of employees who in two weeks worked
Average
specified number of days
Num­ number Num­ number
of days ber of of days
ber of of work
worked
estab­ in occu­ em­
by em­
lish­
ploy­ ployees
ees
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
ments pation
in two
in two
weeks
weeks

Head beater men___
Beater helpers..........
Machine tenders----Back tenders............
Cutter boys..............
Screenmen...............
Laborers...................

70
70
70
70
57
52
70

11.3
11.2
11.3
11.3
11.2
11.1
11.9

227
1,873
300
307
775
231
1,459

1
11.3
10.0 59 24 14 28
__ __ 3
11.3
11.0 2 1 2 __
9.8 18 18 18 8
10.5 5 3 1 2
10.4 32 29 15 16

1
50 '27
2 3
2 5
21 20
1 5
34 51

2
31
1
4
16
1
35

3 2 29 91 62
48 103 439 567 363
3 3 35 101 101
1 9 44 98 105
15 42 167 283 115
7 8 39 90 48
47 64 157 183 649

30
94
42
32
30
17
96

6
26
6
2
4
4
51

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED DAYS OF OPERATION DURING THE YEAR
1924

Table 24 shows for each State, and for all States combined, average
and classified days of operation during the year ending December 31,
1924, in the industry.
It will be noted that data are given for 68 establishments, infor­
mation for 2 plants not being available. The number of days of
operation for these 68 establishments ranged from 62 to 311 days,
the average being 270 days.
The difference between the average days of operation and the
possible full time of 366 days was due to the following conditions:
Sixty-two establishments did not operate on any Sunday, 5 estab­
lishments were closed from 42 to 51 Sundays, and 1 was closed on 11
Sundays.
Six establishments were closed on all Saturdays, 1 was closed on all
except 2 Saturdays*, 14 establishments were closed from 35 to 48
Saturdays, and 15 were closed from 1 to 35 Saturdays.
Sixty-seven establishments were closed for holidays from 2 to 13
days, 49 were closed on account of market conditions from 2 to 80
days, and 19 were closed for repairs from
to 231 days.
Seven establishments were closed from 1 to 7 days for such causes
as no fuel oil, high or low water, electrical trouble, fire, and vacation.




64

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

T able 34.—AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED DAYS OF OPERATION DURING Y E A R ENDING

D E OEM BER 31, 19!M

Number of establishments in which days of
operation in year were—
Num­ Average
number
ber
of days
of
100 175 230
250 260 270 280 290 300 310
estab­ of opera­ and and and and and and and and and and and
tion
lish­
un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ments in year der der der der der der der der der der der
125 200
250 260 270 280 290 300 310 315

State

Massachusetts..................................
Connecticut____ ___________________
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont
New York..................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania___ _
O h io ..............................................
Indiana........ .............. ....................
Illinois.............. — ..........................
Michigan..........................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin............ .
Virginia and West Virginia...............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee................. .

300
250
285
279
248 I I
270
294
266
265
273
233
278

Total..

270 *2

* Less than 100 days.
* Not including 1 for which data are not available.
* Not including 2 for which data are not available.
4Including 1 in which the days of operation were less than 100.

The average number of days that the 68 establishments were idle
during the year and the cause of same are shown in Table 25.
T able 3 5 .— AVERAGE N U M BE R OF DAYS OF OPERATION AND AVERAGE NUM BER

OF DAYS IDLE DU RIN G Y E A R EN DIN G DEC E M B E R 31, 1924, B Y SPECIFIED CAUSES

State

Massachusetts_________
Connecticut___________
Maine, New Hamp­
shire, and Vermont....
New York____________
New Jersey and Penn­
sylvania_____ _____
Ohio.............................
Indiana_______________
Illinois___ ____________
Michigan_____________
Minnesota and Wiscon­
sin___ ______________
Virginia and West Vir­
ginia...........................Alabama, G e o r g i a ,
Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennessee..
Total.....................

Average number of days idle during year on account of—
Num­ Average
ber
number
of
of days
estab­ of opera­
Market
lish­
tion in Saturday Sunday Holiday
con­
Repairs
Other
ments
year
ditions
4
5

300
250

3
9

285
279

8
26
5
6
8

248
270
294
266
265

17
25

5
3

52
52

6
7

7
19

18

52
52

5
4

22
10

23
28

52
51
44
52
51

4
3
4
4
4

15
15
22
8
16

273

29

52

4

8

233

28

52

4

14

36

2
(*)

2

2
(1)

30
1
2
13
2

*6

278

5

50

5

24

4

368

270

18

51

4

15

8

1Less than 1 day.
l Not including 1 for which data are not available.
8Not including 2 for which data are not available.




1

35

1

<)
>

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— GENERAL TABLES

65

GENERAL TABLES

In addition to the text tables already shown, four general tables
are presented as follows:
Table A shows average hours and earnings and classified full-time
hours per week, 1925, by occupation and State.
In this table the average number of days of work and average full­
time hours of work in the two-week pay period are presented in
parallel columns with the average days and hours actually worked
in order that the regular full-time days and hours during which, under
normal conditions, it is possible for employees in an occupation to
work may be compared with the days and hours actually worked
during the two-week pay period by ail the employees in the occupa­
tion, including those who worked less than the days of opportunity.
Likewise, the average full-time earnings per two-week pay period
and the average amount actually earned in the two-week pay period
are presented m parallel columns, so that the regular earnings which,
under normal conditions, it would be possible for employees in an
occupation to receive may be compared with the earnings actually
received during the two-week pay period by all the employees in the
occupation.
This table also presents a classification of the full-time weekly
hours of the employees in the different occupations and the average
full-time hours per week.
Table B shows the average and classified earnings per hour of
employees in 7 typical occupations during the two-week pay period,
1925, by State.
Table C gives the average and classified hours actually worked in
two weeks by employees in 7 typical occupations, 1925, by State.
Table D presents average and classified amounts actually earned
in two w e e k s by employees in 7 typical occupations, 1925, by State.




T a b le A.— AVEBrAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1925, BY OCCUPA-

TION AND STATE

Average num­
ber of days—

Occupation and State

Aver- Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­
amount
age
age
full­ earn­ time actu­
earn­
ally
time
ings earned
hours ings
per
per
in
per
two
week hour
two
weeks weeks

97.1
101.4

96.8
102.3

99.7
100.9

48.5 $0,806 $78.26
.733 74.33
50.7

$78.04
74.97

11.8

11.8

11.4
11.4
10.7
11.4

11.7
11.9
10.4
11.5
11.3

104.8
104.6
117.4
95.5
130.3
88.9

99.0
105.0
105.5

10.9

11.0

9a 0

11.0

10.9
11.7

99.8
131.7

103.8
109.8
123.8
95.6
136.1
92.6
93.8
101.4
136.3

52.4
52.3
58.7
47.7
65.2
44.4
45.0
49.9
65.8

.563
.705
.690
.763
.492
.732
.767
.592
.354

58.48
77.36
85.41
72.91
66.91
67.78
71.93
60.06
48.29

71.6

.507

11.1
11.7

100.1
104.5
104.2
104.2
101.6
103.5

12.0
70

227

11.8

143.1

137.7

96.2

1L 3

11.3 ! 105.2

107.6

102.3

12.0

1L 8

11.3
13.0

11.4

94.7
102.7
140.5

12.0

11.4

98.6
113.2
90.6
97.5
118.8
93.2
103.5
117.7
125.2
111.3

115

28

12

34

12

24

59.00
73.74
81.01
72.87
64.11
65.07
69.03
59.08
46.62
72.55

69.77

70.38

52.6

71.97

66.24
54.42
75.02
79.24
58.69
55.06
5a 92
70.80
42.56
35.88

65.32
61.63
68.03
77.28
69.61
51.38
52.70
83.33
53.29
39.91

ASSISTANT HEAD BEATER MEN

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut.........................................
New York................. ..........................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania..........
Ohio......................................................
Indiana................................................
Illinois.-..............................................
Michigan.......................................... —
Minnesota and Wisconsin......... ........
Virginia and West Virginia................




10.7
11.7
10.7

11.8

12.0
1L 2
11.5
lft 7
12.3

10.7

lft9

12.0

12.3

96.0
90.7
155.0
113.2
85.3
148.0
85.3

120.2
85.3

m o

li a4

101.3
138.0
88.3
141.5
106.8
133.5

48.0
45.3
77.5
56.6
42.7
74.0
42.7
60.1
42.7
60.0

.600
.484
.700

.688
.372
.597
.589
.499
.299

INDUSTRY

Total...........................................

12.1
11.1

BOX-BOARD

11.1

12.1

PAPEB

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
Per
week were—
cent
of
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
60
54
40
48
hours
and 72 Over
and 48 and 54 and
actu­ 40
72
un­
un­
un­
un­
ally
der
der
der
der
worked
72
60
54
48

HEAD BEATER MEN

Massachusetts................................ -- Connecticut....... ............................... Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont................... ............................ New York....... .....................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania...........
Ohio......................................................
Indiana....................... ........................
Illinois-.............................................. .
Michigan............... .............................
Minnesota and Wisconsin..................
Virginia and West Virginia................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee........ ........

09

Earnings

Hours

Num­ Num­
Of
ber
ber
Aver­ Aver­
work
age
of
of
age
in
Worked full­ hours
estab­ em­
the
lish­ ploy­ occu- by em
time actu­
ally
ments ees
in two hours worked
tion
per
in
weeks
in
two
two
weeks weeks
two

g

Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
Total.

13.0

11.4

155.6

137.3

88.2

11.6

11.4

109.7

114.7

104.6

10.8
10.7
10.8
10.8
10.7
10.9
10.8
12.0

11.0
11.3
10.3
11.0
9.5
10.0
12.0

96.8
85.3
99.4
103.6
85.3
87.6
108.2
144.0

103.1
98.9
96.9
111.5
76.5
86.4
105.4
144.0

106.5
115.9
97.5
107.6
89.7
98.6
97.4
100.0

12.1

11.2

144.9

133.6

92.2

11.0

10.5

98.8

98.4

99.6

11.0

11.0

131.0

133.5

12.0
10.7
11.4
10.7
10.7
11.6

20

12.0
10.9
11.0
10.3
10.8
10.6

96.0
85.3
108,4
91.9
85.3
105.2

96.0
101.4
105.4
98.1
93.0
98.5

77.8
30

15

11

.284

44.19

>9.06

57.04

54.9

59.70

plu g puller s

118

52.66
44.44
63.91
49.21
59.71
48.97
57.24
40.80

56.02
51.54
62.29
53.00
53.55
48.35
55.83
40.80

38.40

35.45

.511

50.49

50.30

101.9

65.5

.475

62.23

63.45

100.0
118.9
97.2
106.7
109.0

48.0
42.7
54.2
45.9
42.7
52.6

.480
.545
.673
.497

46.03
46.49
63.20
54.22
57.41
52.28

46.03
55.28
61.41
57.89
62.60
49.01

77.5

.175

27.13

21.77

50.2

.530

53.21

54.24

48.5
51.1

.545
.439

52.87
44.82

52.98
41.42

49.9
55.6
52.1
46.0
66.6

43.2
44.6
47.9
62.5

.419
.483
.517
.551
.375
.504
.480
.451
.277

41.82
53.66
53.87
50.75
49.95
43.50
42.82
43.21
34.63

40.27
50.06
51.08
48.66
48.78
38.59
37.55
38.90
32.97

72.0

.214

30.79

23.59

50.6

.462

46.71

42.62

JORDAN MEN

Connecticut........................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont.................................................
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania..........
Ohio.....................................................
Illinois--..............................................
Michigan.............................................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Sobth
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
Total..

13.0

10.3

155.0

124.4

80.3

76

11.2

10.8

100.4

102.3

101.9

159

12.1
10.9

11.8
9.8

102.1

97.0

97.3
94.3

100.3
92.4

73
192
211
243
64
127
419
156
27

1L9
11.5
11.3
10.7
11.4
10.8
11.1
10.8
11.7

11.2
10.7
10.8
9.8
11.2
9.4
9.3
9.5
10.3

99.8

104.2
92.1
133.2
86.3
89.2
95.8
125.0

96.1
103.6
98.8
130.2
76.6
78.3
86.4
118.9

96.3
93.2
94.8
95.8
97.7
88.8
87.8
90.2
95.1

113

17

12.1

9.3

143.9

lias

76.7

1,873

11.2

10.0

101.1

92.3

91.3

49

10

BEATER HELPERS

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut.......................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont.................................................
New York.......................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania......... .
Ohio.....................................................
Indiana................................................
Illinois.................................................
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin.................
Virginia and West Virginia...............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
T o ta l-




70

111.1

88.2

17

102
110
207
12
115
334
123

1,089

65

12

30
80
17

168

159

17

228

12

TABLES

.265

18

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

72.4
49.4

84

HOURS

24

.544
.521
.643
.475
.700
.559
.529

AD
N

Total..

10.2

48.4
42.7
49.7
51.8
42.7
43.8
54.1
72.0

WAGES

Connecticut......... ...............................
New York....... ....................................
Ohio.................................................... .
Indiana. ..............................................
Illinois................................................ .
Michigan............................................ .
Minnesota and Wisconsin................ .
Virginia and West Virginia.............. .
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

T able A .— AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1925, BY OCCUPA-

TION AND STATE— Continued
Average num­
ber of days—

Earnings

Hours

$97.78
84.13

.645
.779
.857
.897
.630
.895
.878
.790
.498

64.76
85.07
96.58
85.75
82.09
79.57
80.34
79.55
64.14

68.83
87.64
97.53
97.48
85.14
84.64
83.39
83.41
69.64

Tnriiaxift

..

_

___

_

_____

Illinois
....
_ __ ___ . . . . _ _
_
Michigan. . . . __ _____ ______ ___
Minnesota and Wisconsin
Virginia and West Virginia................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee
Total............ .............................

4

5
3

9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3

17
21

12.4
11.0

12.4
10.5

104.9
99.9

105.8
104.5

100.9
104.6

16
36
31
40
13
27
53
21
8

11.9
11.5
11.3
10.7
11.4
11.1
11.0
11.0
11.8

1L 6
11.3
11.6
11.2
1L5
11.4
11.0
11.2
12.1

100.4
109.2
112.7
95.6
130.3
88.9
91.5
100.7
128.8

106.7
112.6
113.9
108.7
135.0
94.5
94.9
105.6
139.9

106.3
103.1
101.1
113.7
103.6
106.3
103.7
104.9
108.6

12

9
3

6

2

6
2
4
6

14
20

3
9

9
31

9

2

3
18
46
15

9

3
4

4
2

4

41

9
5

..... .....

2

17

12.3

11.5

146.6

139.2

95.0

300

1L3

11.3

104.4

108.9

104.3

154

35

21

4
5

18
21

12.3
11.0

12.3
11.1

98.7
99.9

98.5
103.4

99.8
103.5

12

9
3

9

3
9
8
7

19
38
33
36
13
28

11.8
11.4
11.4
10.7
11.4
11.1
11.0

10.9
10.8
11.0
10.9
11.6
10.7
10.8

103.4
106. 5
108.9
95.5
130.3
88.8
92.8

99.4
104.3
104.4
101.1
136.3
88.4
91.6

96.1
97.9
95.9
105.9
104.6
99.5
98.7

22
12
28
3
19
45

4
2

50.2
54.6
56.4
47.8
65.2
44.4
45.7
50.3
64.4

11

6

7
70

2

13

73.3

.582

85.32

81.00

32

52.2

.799

83.42

87.02

49.3
50.0

.666
.613

65.73
61.24

65.60
63.42

51.7
53.2
54.4
47.7
65.2
44.4
46.4

.496
.620
.613
.645
.473
.637
.625

51.29
66.03
66.76
61.60
61.63
56.57
58.00

49.24
64.69
64.02
65.21
64.50
56.24
57.19

BACK TENDERS

Massachusetts
Connecticut
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont
New York
______
_______
New Jersey and Pennsylvania
Ohio
_____ __ _
_______
Indiana
^
. r
Illinois
- - __ . _____ __________
Michigan..............................................




5

6
8

£3

15

4
.11

9
3

6
4
4
8
2
4
4
8 ..... .....
2
5

INDUSTRY

52.5 $0,925 $97.03
.805 80.42
50.0

MACHINE TENDERS

Massachusetts
Connecticut
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont
N e w York
New Jersey ^
Pennsylvania - __
Ohio
________________________ _

BOX-BOARD

Aver­
age
amount
actu­
ally
earned
in
two
weeks

PAPER

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
Num­ Num­
Of
Aver­
Per
week were—
ber
ber
Aver­ Aver­ cent
work
Aver­ Aver­ age
age
of
of
age
in
full­
age
of
Worked full­ hours
estab­ em­
age
the
full­
time
full­
lish­ ploy­ occu­ by em­ time actu­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time earn­ earn­
ally
ployees hours
time
ments ees
60
54
ings
48
40
pa­
ings
in two
per worked hours 40 and 48 and 54 and 60 and 72 Over hours per
tion
per
per
in
weeks
actu­
72 week hour two
un­
un­
un­
in
un­
two
two
ally
der
der
der
der
weeks weeks worked
two
weeks
72
54
60
weeks
48

Occupation and State

©
°°

Minnesota and Wisconsin.......... ......
Virginia and West Virginia................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
Total..........................................

21
8

11.0

11.8

10; 7
11.5

100.7
128.8

104.0
133.1

103.3
103.3
92.5

19

12.3

11.5

146.3

135.4

307

11.3

11.0

104.0

103.6

18
14
12
21
3
13
30
14
2

12.0
10.9
10.7
11.5
10.8
10.7
10.7
10.9
10.7
12.0

11.9
10.8
10.6
9.8
10.4
11.0
10.5
10.6
10.8
11.0

96.0
92.2
85.3
116.0
102.7
85.3
85.3
86.9
91.9
144.0

99.2
95.8
89.7
95.3
105.8
93.5
84.1
88.9
100.3
132.0

103.3
103.9
105.2
82.2
103.0
109.6
98.6
102.3
109.1
91.7

18

12.3

11.6

147.0

132.0

154

11.1

10.8

100.4

99.5

•9.1

101

12.7
10.4

101.3
94.7

100.0
96.6

98.7
102.0

31

12.0
11.6
10.7
10.7
11.3
10.7
11.1
10.9
11.8

12.0
10.8
10.7
10.6
10.1
10.7
10.2
10.1
11.5

96.0
108.6
88.7
85.3
125.9
85.3
89.0
111.4
131.8

96.5
104.7
92.5
88.4
112.5
97.4
84.2
103.3
134.7

100.5
96.4
104.3
103.6
89.4
114.2
94.6
92.7
102.2

12.0

10.5

143.0

129.9

11.2

10.7

99.7

99.3

12.7

11.6

101.3

97.8

96.5

12
8
5
9
9

12.0
13.0
10.8
12.0
11.3

12.0 96.0
10. 8’ 155.0
11.0 113.6
11.4
96.0
11.2 90.7

96.1
127.6
107.1
93.0
95.2

100.1
82.3
94.3
96.9
105.0

4

39

90.8

215

4
2

89.8

12.7
10.7

70

4

15

36

27

73.2

.430

62.91

58.18

33

52.0

.582

60.53

60.32

48.0
46.1
42.7
58.0
51.4
42.7
42.7
43.5
45.9
72.0

.600
.540
.604
.528
.571
.500
.688
.534
.504
.334

57.60
49.79
51.52
61.25
58.64
42.65
58.69
46.40
46.32
48.10

59.50
51.72
54.15
50.27
60.40
46.75
57.85
47.44
50.54
44.13

73.5

.313

46.01

41.35

16

50.2

.519

52.11

51.64

50.7
47.3

12

.554
.368

12

7
156

50.3
64.4

12

2

.615
.520

62.30
49.24

61.50
50.17

48.0
54.3
44.3
42.7
62.9
42.7
44.5
55.7
65.9

.463
.509
.581
.566
.442
.505
.550
.500
.354

44.45
55.28
51.53
48.28
55.65
43.08
48.95
55.70
46.66

44.71
53.25
53.75
50.04
49.80
49.15
46.34
51.65
47.64

2

55.79
47.40

57.60
48.94

THIRD HANDS

2
2
8
3

2

4

2

6
12

3

20

2

Total_______________________

22
23
40
8
14
15
26
7*
10

34

12

13
18
8
3
15
20
3

3
22

3
8

8
7

2
6

6
4

5

4
2

4
4

71.5

.296

42.33

38.39

11

49.9

.501

49.95

49.69

9

50.7

.531

53.79

51.88

8
2
3

48.0
77.5
56.8
48.0
45.3

.506
.489
.431
.521
.529

48.58
75.80
48.96
50.02
47.98

48.69
62.44
46.18
48.43
5a 33

4
12

111

22

20

6

24

9

WINDER MEN

Massachusetts.....................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont.................................................
New York________________________
Indiana...............................................
Illinois.............................................
Michigan..............................................




12
3
6

9

TABLES

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut.........................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont_________ ____ _____________
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania...........
Ohio.....................................................
Indiana___________ _________ ______
Illinois. ............ ..................................
Michigan..............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin..................
Virginia and West Virginia................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

FINISHEBS

HOURS

34

9
3

AD
N

Total..........................................

13
14
6
13
3
13
27
12

WAGES

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut.........................................
New York________________ _______
New Jersey and Pennsylvania...........
O h io ..................................................
In d ia n a ..............................................
Illinois.................................................
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin......... ........
Virginia and West Virginia_________
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

o>

CO

T a b l e A .—

AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1925, BY OCCUPA­
TION AND STATE— Continued
Average num-*
ber of days—

Occupation and State

Earnings

Hours
Number of employees whose full-time hours per
Per
week were—
cent
of
full­
Over
Over
Over
Over
time
40
48
54
60
hours
actu­ 40 and 48 and 54 and 60 and 72 Over
72
un­
un­
un­
un­
ally
der
der
der
der
worked
54
72
60
48

Aver­ Aver­
age
Aver­ Aver­ age
age
fufl- amount
age
full­
time actu­
ally
time earn­ earn­
ings earned
hours ings
per
per
in
per
week hour
two
two
weeks weeks

M a s s a ch u s e tts ..............__ _____
New York__________________ . . . __
New Jersey and Pennsylvania____ _
Indiana____ _ . _ _
__________
Michigan____________
_______ __
Minnesota and Wisconsin.. . . . . . . ^
Total..........................................

13.0
7.5

155.0
131.0

147.0
87.3

2

6

13.0

12.8

155.3

150.5

66

12.1

11.2

114.8

106.1

92.4

1
3
2
1
3
1

3
17
29
4
16
2

12.7
11.2
10.4
11.0
10.7
11.0

12.7
10.4
10.3
11.0
9.9
10.0

101.3
101.7
91.8
156.0
85.3
131.0

100.0
96.8
83.8
132.0
83.7
120.0

98.7
95.2
91.3
84.6
98.1
91.6

11

71

10.8

10.4

97.8

91.3

93.4

13

New York_____ ______________ . . . . .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania...__ _
Illinois___________________ ________
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and T e n n e s s e e ...........

2
1
2

9
6
3

10.8
12.0
11.1

10.7
11.7
11.0

88.7
144.0
96.9

92.0
142.5
101.5

103.7
99.0
104.7

1

2

13.0

11.5

155.0

146.0

6

20

11.4

11.1

113.2

114.0

100.7

21

i

12

6

.203

31.53

30.62

.449

51.55

47.65

50.7
50.9
45.9
78.0
42.7
65.5

.551
.492
.554
.400
.501
.480

55.82
50.04
50.86
62.40
42.74
62.88

55.14
47.61
46.43
52.80
41.94
57.60

48.9

.512

50.07

46.74

44.4
72.0
48.4

.521 46.21
.432 62.21
.561 54.36

47.94
61.54
56.95

2

94.2

Total_____________ __________

9

57.4

8

6

77.7

4

13

94.8
66.6

77.5 $0,450 $69.75
65.5
.302 39.56

18

96.9

16

2
6

13.0
11.0

77.5

.249

38.60

36.38

2

56.6

.458

51.85

52.21

$66.15
26.40

FINISHERS' HELPERS
13

•
|
!
I

3
16

4

16
29

2
19

2

WEIGHERS




8

1
6

2

10

1

1

1

6

INDUSTRY

Total..........................................

2
6

1
1

BOX-BOABD

winder men—continued

Minnftsntft jypd Wis<»nnRln___ . . . . . .
Virginia and West Virginia.................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee . _______

PAPER

Num­ Num­
Of
ber
ber
work
Aver­ Aver­
age
of
of
in
Worked age
estab­ em­
the
full­ hours
lish­ ploy­ occu­ by em­ time actu­
ally
ments ees
pa­ ployees hours worked
in two
tion
per
in
weeks
in
two
two
weeks weeks
two
weeks

O

CUTTER BOYS

1L 8

33
77
75
130
14
87
168
57
11

11.2
1L 2
10.8
12.0
10.9
11.2
10.7
12.0

11.8

55
775

9.6
10.2
9.8
9.8
9.0
8.9
10.2
9.9
9.3

101.3
101.9
103.2
96.9
144.0
87.5
89.4
93.3
130.9

80.7
95.8
91.9
90.6
110.3
73.0
85.4
87.9
105.2

79.7
94.0
89.1
93.5
76.6
83.4
95.5
94.2
80.4

12.3

9.6

147.1

111.1

75.5

11.2

9.8

100.1

12.4
10.6

98.1
109.1
126.5
102.5
99.0
118.6
88.9
90.0
111.4
131.0

100.4
107.5
115.6
98.3
92.4
121.8
84.4
71.2
108.3
106.5

99.8
92.6

19.3

.548 52.61
.444 42.49

52.51

50.7
51.0
51.6
48.5
72.0
43.8
44.7
46.7
65.5

.407 41.23
.502 31.15
.471 48.61
48.35
41.62
.508 44.45
.472 42.20
.423 39.47
.295

32.84
48.04
43.27
45.19
31.92
37.08
40.29
37.16
31.05

73.6

.217

31.92

24.12

57

50.1

.446 44.64

19.90

49.1
54.6
63.3
51.2
49.5
59.3
44.4
45.0
55.7
65.5

.524
.419
.455
.491
.522
.416
.470
.469
.450

52.58
44.99
52.55
48.29
48.25
50.71
39.63
33.41
48.73
32.20

74.3

.211

31.38

25.28

54.1

.438

47.35

42.71

48.8
50.0
53.7
55.1
44.6
64.4
44.7
43.5
49.4
72.0

.552
.458
.483
.485
.550
.346
.507
.500
.428

53.88
45.75
51.92
53.50
49.01
44.56
45.28
43.50
42.29
47.95

51.26
47.01
53.73

12

12

125
47

18

474

43

64

84

BROKE BOYS

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut...... .............................. .
New York..........................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.........
Ohio....................................................
Indiana............................................... .
Illinois................................................
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin................ .
Virginia and West Virginia.............. .
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee............... .

11.1

11.2

10.9
11.0

11.0

11.2
9.9
11.3
10.4
8.2
10.7
9.0

102.3
98.5
91.4
95.9
93.3
102.7
94.9
79.1
97.2
81.3

12.5
187

9.8

148.7

120.0

80.7

11.3

10.1

108.1

97.6

90.3

12.2
11.0

TotaL.......................................

11.1
11.0
11.4
11.2
10.5
9.0
11.4
9.0

92.8
102.7
111.3
89.5
100.7
93.4
74.3
99.4
114.0

U

95.1
102.8
103.5
102.3
100.4
78.2
104.6
85.4
100.6
79.2

14
25

90

30

51.40
45.71
57.56
50.33
51.68
49.34
41.78
42.21
50.13
39.56

SCREENMEN

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut....................................... .
New York.......................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania_____
Ohio....................... ...........................
Indiana........ ..................................... .
Illinois................................................ .
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin................ .
Virginia and West Virginia.............. .
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
Total.........................................




9.5

97.6
99.9
107.5
110.3
89.1
128.8
89.3
87.0
98.8
144.0

12.0

11.3

143.0

141.2

98.7

11.1

10.5

99.5

96.2

96.7

11.4
11.3
10.7
11.4
11.2
10.9
10.9
12.0

52

231

11.1

112.8

71.5
142

19

23

19.8

54. 7?

49.26
34.86
47.32
37.16
42.57
38.00

40.90
.472

46.96

45.41

TABLES

48.0
47.9

37

41

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

95.8

12.3
10.9
12.0
11.2
10.8
10.9

57

96.0
95.7

HOURS

12L
0
10.9

AD
N

Total..........................................

9
59

WAGES

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut........................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont............................................ .
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania......... .
Ohio.................................................... .
Indiana......._..................... .................
Illinois........................................ .........
Michigan............................................ .
Minnesota and Wisconsin................ .
Virginia and West Virginia.............. .
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee..... ...........

T a b l e A .—

AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1925, BY OCCUPATION AND STATE— Continued
Average num­
ber of days—

Occupation and State

Earnings

Hours

O
u

4
1
2

10
15
9
2
10

12.7
12.3
11.7
10.8
11.0
10.7

12.3
10.5
10.6
10.3
12.0
8.5

101.3
134.1
113.4
105.6
131.0
85.3

97.0
112.1
107.3
105.6
155.5
68.4

95.8
83.6
94.6
100.0
118.7
80.2

3

8

12.5

11.9

149.0

147.1

98.7

19

57

11.6

10.5

115.9

107.8

93.0

35.76

35.36

.435

50.42

..

=====

.633
.530
.576
.472
.498
.513
.753
.558
.481

63.30
53.00
69.24
54.33
58.22
61.56
90.36
59.59
56.42

6

74.5

4

15

58.0

4
2
2

!

6

24

.240

7
2

10

=

$53.50
52.16
48.75
54.91
71.54
34.18

4

3

6
5

50.7 $0.552 $55.92
.465 62.36
67.1
.454 51.48
56.7
.520 54.91
52.8
.460 60.26
65.5
42.7
.500 42.65

50.0
50.0
60.1
57.5
58.4
60.0
60.0
53.4
58.7

3
3

8

===S

46.93

~

........

FINISHERS, FINISHING ROOM

Massachusetts.....................................
Connecticut................ ........................
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.........
Ohio.....................................................
Indiana................................................
Illinois..................................................
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin.................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................
Total..........................................




1
1
3
2
5
1
1
7
2
2
25

A

4
10

C .9
O
•04.4
88.6
95.2
91.3
107.7
75.2
88.9
90.7

15
81
9

12.0
12.0
11.8
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

12.3
11.2
11.0
11.6
11.2
11.4
10.8
10.2
1L6

100.0
100.0
120.2
115.1
116.9
120.0
120.0
106.8
117.3

100.9
104.4
106.5
109.6
106.7
129.2
90.2
94.9
106.4

10

11.5

9.7

137.5

111.3

80.9

101.9

89.9

10
20
17
35
7

208

12.0

10.8

113.3

i

i

63.89
55.36
61.34
51.71
53.20
66.26
67.88
53.00
51.14

7 .....
4
8

48
2

8

= = ,—

15

33

57

15

6
10
26
7
15
10
7

4

5

10

5

68.8

.212

29.15

23.63

81

9

5

56.7

.531

60.16

54.08

- ....... - ===== ----------

INDUSTRY

Total..........................................

1

Q
O
0

BOX-BOARD

FELT CHECKERS

Massachusetts.....................................
New York...........................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania........
Ohio— .................................................
Indiana................................................
Michigan.............................................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

PAPER

Number of employees whose full-time hours per
Num­ Num­
Of
Aver­ Aver­
Per
week were—
ber
ber
Aver- Aver­ cent
work
age
Aver­ Aver­ age
age
of
am mint.
of
in
full­ aiiiuuuv
age
hours
of
age
estab­ em­
the Worked fullfull­ earn­ time actu­
full­
Over
Over
Over
lish­ ploy­ occu­ by em­ time actu­
Over
earn­
ally
time
time
ally
ployees hours
60
54
48
40
ments ees
pa­
ings earned
hours ings
hours
per
per worked actu­ 40 and 48 and 54 and 60 and 72 Over per
tion in two
per
in
in
weeks
hour
72
un­
un­
un­
un­
two
in
two
two
week
ally
two
der
der
der
der
weeks weeks worked
weeks weeks
two
72
60
54
48
weeks

CUTTERS, FINISHING ROOM

12.0

12.5
9.8

100.0
102.0

50.0
51.0

.702
.532

70.20
54.26

70.35
45.03

100.0
78.8
55.9
96.7
108.3
96.2
95.1
108.3

48.0
60.0
58.0
54.1
60.0
54.0
63.0
60.0

.550 52.80
.519 62.28
.600 69.60
.509 55.12
.450 54.00
.543 58.64
.421 53.05
.340 40.80

52.80
49.06
38.93
53.31
58.50
56.43
50.40
44.20

60.0

.450

54.00

54.00

56.69

52.62

74.20
54.00
60.03
85.02
51.40
63.36
44.77
67.32

81.60
54.00
61.26
98.10
55.02
37.19
46.24
76.50

57.68

57.93

12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

12.0
9.7
5.5
10.4
12.0
11.7
12.0
13.0

120.0

96.0
94.5
64.9
104.7
130.0
103.9
119.8
130.0

12.0

12.0

120.0

120.0

100.0

12.0

10.7

110.3

102.3

92.7

13.0
12.0
12.0
12.7
12.0
11.3
12.0
12.0

13.0
12.0
11.0
12.7
11.8
8.0
9.8
12.0

100.0
108.0
118.4
141.7
115.5
107.1
132.0

110.0
108.0
120.9
155.2
123.5
70.5
110.6
150.0

110.0
100.0
102.1
109.5
106.9
58.8
103.3
113.6

50.0
54.0
59.2
70.8
57.8
60.6
53.6

10.8 117.0

117.5

100.4

58.5

11.1

97.9
108.6

95.2
100.7

97.2
92.7

10.6

104.0
108.6

94.5
104.6
106.8

12.0

12.0

18

38

96.0
120.0

116.0
108.3
120.0

108.0
126.0

55.2

12

REWINDERS, FINISHING ROOM

Massachusetts........................... .
Connecticut........................ .......
New York...................... . ...........
New Jersey and Pennsylvania..
Ohio.............................................
Illinois. .......................................
Michigan.....................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin____
Total..

13

28

12.0

120.0

66.0

.742
.500
.507
.600
.445
.528
.418
.510

LABORERS

Total...




10.6

12.0
11.6
12.0
11.9

10.5

9.4
10.4
10.7

113.8
112.6
121.8
118.4
107.8
117.4
128.5

116.1
95.4
84.9
101.7
113.6

10.4

127.3

109.4

1,459 I 11.9

10.4

113.4

101.0

11.9
12.0
12.0
12.3

165

12.0

10.8

10.7
11.1

10.0

101.6

14

36

31

121

87

384

14

51

11

.505
.463

49.44
50.28

48.11
46.64

52.0
54.3
56.9
56.3
60.9
59.2
53.9
58.7
64.3

.467
.493
.450
.415
.451
.459
.409
.273

38.06
50.72
56.10
50.67
50.55
53.40
49.48
48.02
35.08

34.58
48.85
52.66
45.75
48.21
43.08
38.95
41.61
31.05

63.7

85.9

27
225
145
230
80
97
226
67
31

70

48.9
54.3

20

90.9
96.3
93.8
90.2
95.3
80.6
78.8
£6.6
88.4

12.3

46

.210

26.73

23.00

56.7

.423

47.97

42.71

TABLES

12.1
11.9

Massachusetts...................... .............
Connecticut.......................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
m ont-..............................................
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania......... .
Ohio.................................................... .
Indiana............................................... .
Illinois................................................ .
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin.................
Virginia and West Virginia............ .
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

100.3
83.0

HOtTBS

100.3
84.7

AD
N

Total..

12.0

WAGES

Massachusetts...............................
Connecticut.........................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Ver­
mont......................... .......................
New York............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.........
Ohio.....................................................
Indiana..... ...........................................
Michigan.............................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin.................
Virginia and West Virginia...............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.................

<1

CO

T a b l e A .—

AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS AND CLASSIFIED FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK, 1925, BY OCCUPATION AND STATE— Continued
____
Average num­
ber of days—

Occupation and State

4
5

165
219

12.3
12.1

104.0
114.9

104.1
100.5

3
0
8
7
5
6
8
5
3

120
378
358
511
141
375
602
240
61

12.2
12.1
12.2
12.0
12.6
12.2
12.3
12.4
12.0

11.5
11.9
11.7
11.8
11.9
11.4
11.5
11.8
11.7

105.1
112.4
116.4
115.9
136.6
110.7
io a 2
117.1
126.5

102.5
113.9
115.9
114.7
128.0
106.0
104.8
116.0
126.5

97.5
101.3
99.6
99.0
93.7
95.8
96.0
99.1
100.0

5a 0 $a669 $66.83

2
19

2
17

9

57.1

.595

68.01

$69.63
68.30

4
69
70
130
24
127
39
34
43

2
7
21
65
17
13
12
17
7

2
23
28
4
20
2
10
17
9

6
36
27
35
44
10
14
4
2

52.5
56.2
58.2
58.0
68.3
55.3
54.6
58.5
63.2

.527
.599
.626
. 581
.497
.563
.620
.551
.391

55.39
67.33
72.87
67.34
67.89
62.32
67.70
64.52
49.44

54.02
68.30
72.61
66.62
63.58
59.66
64.91
63.90
49.44

.360

48.56

3
39

66
60
2

25
81
56
100
25
58
272
26

10
15
74
69
11
16
129
118
2

145

5

63

68

67.4

301

677

486

726

187

197

255

57.7
=== = =:

12

81
18

76
27

* 26
13

6
11
38

71
102
37
34

21
36

3
*3

6
25

74
38
22

<49

98

477

Aver­ Aver­
age
age
aulOUuV
full­ amAiinf
actu­
time
ally
earn­
ings earned
in
per
two
two
weeks weeks

41

1
33

14

1

Aver­
age
earn­
ings
per
hour

4& 67

7

283

12.9

12.0

134.9

135.0

100.1

70

3,453

12.2

11.8

115.3

113.7

98.6

1

T o t a l ..................................... ............

1

11.0

11.0

96.0

87.3

90.9

1

48.0

.520

49.92

45.41

1

12.0
10.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0
12.0

7.5
10.0
10.5
10.3
10.8
11.5
9.2

96.0
80.0
120.0
120.0
100.0
108.0

60.9
100.0
78.8
83.5
89.9
84.3
74.4

4
14

ioao

58.5
80.0
94.6
100.2
89.9
91.0
80.3

4

2

4
2
4
14
14
4
10

48.0
40.0
60.0
60.0
50.0
54.0
54.0

.339
.307
.330
.285
.211
.340
.296

32.54
24.55
39.60
34.20
21.10
36.72
31.97

19.83
24.55
31.21
28.50
19.01
3a 94
23.74

9

53

11.9

10.1

107.8

88.5

82.1

18

53.9

.283

3ft 51

25.00

— -....

... ... —■ ......
-

1
1

OTHER EMPLOYEES, FEMALE
M aine, N ew Hampshire, and VerVTfttir V A|»lr

1

Ohio

1

TnH iono
T llinnic

ichi^ n
Minnesota and Wisconsin.....................
Total

1

1
1

2
14
4
10
2

5

14

14

i Including 1 whose full-time hours were 28 hours a week.
* Including 1 whose full-time hours were 26 hours per week.
8 Including 2 whose full-time hours were 12, and 1 whose full-time hours were 24.
4
2 whose full-time hours were 12,1 whose full-time hours were 24,1 whose full-time hours were 26, and 1 whose full-time hours were 28.




.564 65.03
M ,1, ___ ==

■
1

64.10
::.. ■■=
■
■

INDUSTRY

99.9
114.3

12.4
11.9

Aver­
age
full­
time
hours
per
week

BOX-BOARD

Indiana.
Illinois
_________ — __—______
Michigan
Minriftsntft and Wisponsin
Virginia and W est Virginia...................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South
Carolina, and Tennessee.....................

Num ber of employees whose full-time hours per
N um ­ N um ­
Per
Aver­
Of
Aver­
week were—
ber
ber
cent
age
work
age
of
of
hours
of
Worked full­
in
Over
Over
Over
em­
estab­
Over
full­
actu­
b y em­
the
60
lish­
54
48
ploy­ occu­ ployees time
ally
40
time
hours
ments
and 60 and 72 Over
ees
and
and
worked hours 40
pation in two
54
48
per
72
un­
un­
un­
un­
actu­
in
weeks
in
two
der
der
der
der
ally
two
two
weeks
72
60
54
48
weeks worked
weeks

PAPER

OTHER EMPLOYEES, MALE
assaphlisp.t.ts
Connecticut
- ________ ________ ___
M aine, N ew Hampshire, and Ver­
mont
____________
N ew York _____________________ _____
N ew Jersey and Pennsylvania____—

Earnings

Hours

T a b l e B .—

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL OCCUPATIONS,
1925, BY STATE
Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—

3

15 $0,806
14
.733
.563
8
.705
29
.690
23
.763
27
.492
13
.732
18
.767
40
.592
16
.354
6
18

89
159
73
192
211
243
64
127
419
156
27

2

3

1
2
3

4

8
3
7

5

4
3
2
3
1

1
6
4
9
2
1
3

3
4
3
2
1
5
6
5

1

3
6

6

6

12
3
3

3

2
13

6
3

19

3

12

9

i

1

2

.669

4
5
3

1

.507

227

1
2

3

.545
.439
.419
.483
.517
.551
.375
.504
.480
.451
.277

5

3

3

4

2

1

2

11

5

6

11

20

22

28

1

81
45
38
17
34
22
20
1
45

22
20
50
7
2
12
18
216
109

36
40

52

16

62
49
75

42
110
57

15
3

6
64

4

6
i96

73
6

303

456

19

70

4

1
29

23

46

BEATER HELPERS

Massachusetts................................................
Connecticut...................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont.......
New York.......................................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania................ .
Ohio.................................................................
Indiana...........................................................
Illinois.............................................................
Michigan........................................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin.............................
Virginia and West Virginia...........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee__ ___________

7

113

.214

Total...............................................

70

1,873

.462




t

7
5
6
8
5
3

1

7

1
4
13
10

6
17

1

20

25

40
41

92

2

6

48

25

.........1
|
!

13

44

464

342

TABLES

7
70

2
2

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

Total.....................................................

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5'
3

HOURS

HEAD BEATER MEN

Massachusetts_____
.
_____________
Onnnfifitieilt,
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont____
New Y o r k ................... ............................. .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania____________
Ohio.................................................................
Indiana............................................................
Illinois.............................................................
Michigan_________ ______ _______________
Minnesota and Wisconsin........................... .
Virginia and West Virginia............. ............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee...................................

AD
N

125
90
100
and and and
un­ un­ un­
der der der
1Z)
100
125
cents cents cents

75
70
80
65
55
45
60
50
25
35
20
30
40
Un­ and and and and and and and and and amd and and and
un­ un­ un­
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un
der
der
der
der
der
der der
der
der
der
der
20
der der
90
75
80
70
65
60
55
50
40
45
cents 25
30
35
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

WAGES

Occupation and State

d u m ­ Num­ Aver­
ber
age
ber
earn­
of
of
ings
estab­
em­
lish­
per
ments ployees hour

T a b l e B .—

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED EARNINGS PER HOUR OF EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL OCCUPATIONS,
1925, BY STATE— Continued
Number of employees whose earnings per hour were—

Occupation and State

Aver­
Num­
age
ber
earn­
of
ings
em­
lish- ployees per
hour
ments

Num­
ber
of

125
90
100
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
35
30
25
20
Un­ and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and and
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
der der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der
der der der
20
125
150
100
80
90
75
65
70
60
55
45
35
40
50
30
cents 25
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents cents
cents cents cents cents cents cents cents

PAPER

MACHINE TENDERS

2

4

2

2
2

6

2

2

2

5
1
1

6
3

3

4

4
3
1
4
5

3
8
3
2

1

9

2

.799

14

2
22

3

7

11

15

21

29

3
10

6
3

1

8
5

1

10

3
10
14

15
9

4

78

BACK TENDERS

Massachusetts...............................................
Connecticut...................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont----New Y ork............................... .....................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania........ - ...........
Ohio.................................. ............................ .
Indiana.....................- .............- .....................
Illinois....................................... - ..................
Michigan........................................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin........................... .
Virginia and West Virginia..........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee...................................
Total______ _________________ _____




.613
.496
.620
.613
.645
.473
.637
.625
.554
.368
.430
70

307

4

9

9

4
4
6
5
3

2

3

2
3

4

2

6

9

2

3
3
3
3
15

44

5

2

14

2

1

4

4

1

31

51

81

2
1

4

26

41

6
13

1

26

6
6
4
6

9
2
5
14

31
3

6

5
9

5

12
2

1

34

6

2

3
17

2

1

12
5
17
5
15

5

19

66

INDUSTRY

300

2

1
1
2

1

1

.582
70

9

BOX-BOARD

Total................................................... .

2

1.925
.805
.645
.779
.857
.897
.630
.895
.878
.790
.498

Massachusetts.............................................. .
Connecticut....................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont----New York............................. - ..................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania-...................
O h io .......... ................- ...............................
Indiana..........................................................
Illinois...........................................................
Michigan......... - ...........................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin........................... .
Virginia and West Virginia-------- ------------Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee...................................

£

5

8
.508
.472
.423
.295

2

10
1
5

5

4

55
57

.217

12

24

.446

12

26

32

2
24
1

23
27
7

7
1
15
7

8

9
21
28
32
70

27
24
14

3

20
5
41

13
126
11

36
1

38

131

180

197

107

12
5
2

4
6
16
15
15

11
23
9

1
6

3

14

10

3

6

3
2
6
15

3
2
2
2

10

54
1
1

6
21

19

775

8

25

AD
N

T ota l--.................................................

77
75
130
14
87
168
57
11

.548
.444
.407
.502
.471

WAGES

,168*2,

CUTTER BOYS

Massachusetts................................................
Connecticut...................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont......
New York..................................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.....................
Ohio................................................................
Indiana....... ...................................................
Illinois........................................................... .
Michigan..................... ................................ .
Minnesota and Wisconsin................. ...........
Virginia and West Virginia_____ ________
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee.................................. .

HOURS

SCREENMEN

Total.....................................................

3
2

2

2

231

.505
.463
.366
.467
.463
.450
.415
.451
.459
.409
.273

4

6

45

52

63

39

1
1

6
3

6
1
1
29
16
17

7
31
9
58
32
84
31
34

14
29

36
38

11

12

.472

68
98
27
225
145

11

6

2

6
52

3
1

O LABOR— GENERAL
F

.552
.458
.483
.485
.550
.346
.507
.500
.428
.333

Massachusetts..............................................
Connecticut......................... ..........................
New York..................................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania______ ____ _
Ohio....... ................................. ..................... .
Indiana........................................................ .
Illinois...........................................................
Michigan........................................................
Minnesota and Wisconsin_____ ______ —
Virginia and West Virginia______________
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee...................................

75
6
44

88
53
58
3
14
7

297

2

9

3
51
9
6
18
29

3
3

3
2

3

1

1

4

5

1

127

7

9

8

2

LABORERS

T otal....................................................




97
226
67
31

2
1

13

20

1

11

165
70

.210

52

62

47

.423

52

63

80

30

•1

4

1,459

25

14
18
12

TABLES

Massachusetts....................................... .—
Connecticut...................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont......
New York.................................................... .
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.....................
Ohio....... .................. .....................................
Indiana...................... .......................... .........
Illinois............................................................
Michigan...................................................... .
Minnesota and Wisconsin_______ ________
Virginia and West Virginia..........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Caro­
lina, and Tennessee....................................

95

477

212

%

78

PAPER BOX-BOABD INDUSTRY
T able

C.— AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURS ACTUALLY
OCCUPATIONS,
Number of employees whose hours actually worked
in two weeks were—
I
*3

Occupation and State

11
Un­
40
S'S der
40

3

z
I

Over Over Over Over
54
48
40
60
and 48 and 54 and 60 and
un­
un­
un­
un­
der
der
der
der
54
48
60
66

Over
66
72
and
un­ 72 and
un­
der
der
72
76

76
and
un­ 80
der
80

HEAD BEATER MEN

Massachusetts......................
Connecticut..........................
Maine, New Hampshire,
and Vermont.....................
New York............................
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania................................ .
Ohio......................................
Indiana.................................
Illinois................................. .
Michigan............................. .
Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Virginia and West Virginia..
Alabama, Georgia. Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee......................... .
Total.

4
5

15 96.8
14 102.3

3
9

8 103.8
29 109.8

8
7
5
6
8
5
3

23
27
13
18
40
16
6

123.8
95.6
136.1
92.6
93.8
101.4
136.3

7

227 107.6

2

1

1

1
1
1

T
4

1

1

1 8

2

2 1

18 137.7

70

1

1 1

]

2
10 1

2 2

BEATER HELPERS

Massachusetts......................
Connecticut..........................
Maine, New Hampshire,
and Vermont....................
New York............................
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania.................................
Ohio......................................
Indiana............ - ...................
Illinois...................................
Michigan..............................
Virginia and West Virginia..
Alabama, Georgia, Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee..........................
Total-

4
5

89
159

3
9

73 96.1
192 103.6

8
7
5
6
8
5
3

211 98.8
243 88.2
64 130.2
127 76.6
419 78.3
156 86.4
27 118.9

2 2
11 7
1
14 1
45 11
10 4
1

7

113 110.3

17

70 1,873

97.3
94.3

1 1

1 1..... 1.....
6 1
—
—
3

2
3 I

4
7

1 1
2 6

1 l
4
4

4

4 1
8 1
2

1
13
3

1 2
6 23
5

24 3

34

3

16 9

13 1

1

1
4

1

1..... .... 2
2 .....
----- 2
2—
24

2
4 "i

1

92.3 119 28

1—

2

1

4
1

1 25
6 13
1 1
3
20
11 ""’ 5 91
4
3 6
1
3

18 36

28

1
23 184

MACHINE TENDERS

Massachusetts......................
Connecticut..........................
Maine, New Hampshire,
and Vermont.....................
New York............................
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania..................................
Ohio......................................
Indiana................................ .
Illinois...................................
Michigan..............................
Minnesota and Wisconsin...
Virginia and West Virginia.
Alabama, Georgia, Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee......................... .
Total.

4
5

17 105.8
21 104.5

3
9

16 106.7
36 112.6

8
7
5
6
8
5
3

31
40
13
27
53
21
8

7
70

1

1
1

1

113.9
108.7
135.0
94.5
94.9
105.fii
139.9

1
1

1
1

1

1
2
4

1
1

3
1 3

1

17 139.2
300 108.9 ----- 2:
|

1 1

2

2

1 1

1

2 13

BACK TENDERS

Massachusetts......................
Connecticut..........................
Maine, New Hampshire,
and Vermont.....................
New York........................... .
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania.............................. —
Ohio......................................




4
5

18 98.5
21 103.4

3
9

19 99.4
38 104.3

8
7

33 104.4
36 101.11

1

1
1

2
1
1

1

3
1

1 ....

2
1

WAGES AND HOUBS OF LABOB— GENERAL TABLES

WORKED IN TWO WEEKS BY EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL
1925, BY STATE




79

80

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY
T a b l e C .—

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED HOURS ACTUALLY
OCCUPATIONS, 1925,
Number of employees whose hours actually worked
in two weeks were—

I
&
9
*3

I
Occupation and State

I !
’S 2
¥9 a .
0
Un­
der*
■ '10
40

|
1
§
BACK

is

1
Over Over Over
54
48
40
and ( and 5
4
un- 48 under
der
der
54
48
60

Over
60
and
under
66

, 66
‘and
un-72
ier72

Over
72
and
un­
der
76

76
and
un­ 80
der
80

t e n d e r s — c o n t in u e d

13 136.3
28 88.4
53 91.6
21 104.0
8 133.1

5
6
8
5
3

Minnesota and Wisconsin...
Vlrgin'ft and West Virginia._
Alabama, Georgia, Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and

1 1

1

1-

]L

1

7

19 135.4

70

307 103.6

5 1

1
5

9 95.8
50 88.6

4 1

3
8

33 80.7
77 95.8

3 1 ..... ]L ___
L...........
3

4
2 7
1

1
1

2

1..
1-.

2
2

1 \
2
1 iI

1 :2..........
1.
1 :l
1 :L..........

2
5

2

2 ..

2 ..

2

2

4 17

3

2 ..

1

CUTTER BOYS

Massachusetts...
M a in e ,

N ew

______

H a m p s h ir e ,

New York.............................
New Jersey and PennsylOhio

7
6
2
5
8
4
3

. . . __ -___ —.............

Illinois_. . . . . ____ _____ - _
Michigan...............................
Minnesota and Wisconsin—
Virginia and West Virginia..
Alabama, Georgia, Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee_____ _________

75
130
14
87
168
57
11

5
57

Total............................

91.9
90.6
110.3
73.0
85.4
87.9
105.2

5 1
9
3
14 4
10 1
4
2

55 111.1
775

89.4

1

1.
1 :
2
i.

2
1.
l.

7 1

9 -.

1

6

2
5

1 :
1
I
3
1 :2
3
3
1 .......
3
2
2 '" ’ 3
"2 i
4
4
4
1
3
1
1

2
1.

1
1

9
6

1.

7 7

1
15

616

1

63 8

12
18
1

1

2

1
1
3 5

18

20 53

SCREENMEN

Massachusetts______ . . . . . . .
Connecticut______________
New York.............................
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania . . . _______________
Ohio. —______ __________
Indiana__ . . . . . . . . . . _______
p ljyiftis_. . . . . . . _________Michigan...............................
Minnesota and Wisconsin—
Virginia and West VirginiaAlabama, Georgia, Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee____ . . . . . _____

3
4
6
8
5
4
6
7
5
1

29
24
10
24
56
24
2!

Total...........................

52!

1

10 92.8
21 102.7
23 111.3

a1

112.8
89.5
100.7
93.4
74.3
99.4
114.0 _

1

1
1
1

1 1 ..........

7

1

1.

%
2
2
1
3
2

1....

1

8I 141.2
231

96.2

1
C

1

2

2

1.

1.

a

5 7

1

1 10

]L

5 1
I
!
2 1

LABORERS

1 3
1.

1 1 .........
2.
2.

5
t
i)

ftr 94.1i ]L 221 104. e IS
>
i

1.
2 1

1.

iI
r
I
)
<
5
i5
J
3
j

[
Ul> 106.1\ 4
2 < 101. e 1 ) ;2
3)
> <
8() 116. ]L 4i
9'7 95.'I 1() iL
221 84.1) %
3
6'7 101.1J (5..
3: 113. (5 2
2
L

2
3 1
1
1

1.
1

4

1

7 2
2

7

Total.......................... . 1




3 .
L
I

16.5 109.'t

2

1 1

3 3

I

16 5

18j16

1
!

4
1
I>

Massachusetts____________
Connecticut_ _
_ _ ___ ___
Maine, New Hampshire,
and Vermont___________
New Y ork ............................
New Jersey and Pennsyl­
vania__________________
Ohio......................................
Indiana_________ ____ . . . . .
Illinois______________ _____
Michigan________________
Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Virginia and West Virginia.
Alabama, Georgia. Louisi­
ana, South Carolina, and
Tennessee______________
1

6i; 95.2!
9*; 100.7

J
s..

70 1,459| 101.1[) 9i :3
1
1
i

17 7

L
1

1 .......
1 .......
1“ 1\ "l
l
1
Jllll 6
i
<
\___ 2
]L 4.
2 4
1 ]L 7
5 4
2
5
3 4
’l
L—
2
]L 2
2 7
1.
i1 < . .
5
r
4 5

.

1
5 ...

8

9 -i

13

i:3

21

19

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR-— GENERAL TABLES

WORKED IN TWO WEEKS BY EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL
BY STATE— Continued




81

82

PAPER BOX-BOABD INDUSTRY
T a b l e D .—

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED AMOUNTS ACTUALLY
OCCUPATIONS,

Occupation and State

Number of employees whose actual
Aver­
earnings in two weeks Were—
age
Num­ Num­ am't
ber
ber
actu­
of
of
$15 $20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50
ally
estab­ em­ earned Un­ and and and and and and and and
lish­ ploy­
der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ Un­ un­ un­
in
ments ees
two $15 der der der der der der der der
weeks
$20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55

HEAD BEATER MEN
................ ... , . r _ _
Connecticut.................................................
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. __
New York____________________________
New Jersey and Pennsylvania,_ ___
Ohio.............................................................
Indiana_______________________________
Illinois_________ ______________________
Michigan__________ ___________________
Minnesota and Wisconsin..........................
Virginia and West Virginia........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and TimnfiSSftft
__
__
__
Total...........................................

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3
7
70

15
14
8
29
23
27
13
18
40
16
6

$78.04
74.97
58.48
77.36
85.41
72.91
66.91
67.78
71.93
60.06
48.29

2
1

Total..................................................1

1
3

2

6

14

1

1

18 69.77
227

3
1

71.97

1

2
r =
=

BEATER HELPERS
Massachusetts________ ________________
Connecticut., .
_ __
_ _____
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont—
New Y o r k .___________________________
New Jersey and Pennsylvania__________
Ohio
.....................................................
Indian a______________________________
Illinois ______________________________
Michigan_____________________________
Minnesota
Wisconsin______________
Virginia and West Virginia........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennesse_________________

2
2
1
2
2

6

1

2

3

1

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
8
7
70

89
159
73
192
211
243
64
127
419
156
27

52.98 2
41.42 9 3
40.27
1 2
50.06 4 2
2
51.08
48.66 ‘ io’ 2
1
48.78
38.59 12 4
37.55 41 12
7
38.90 9
1
i 32.97

7
1
3
4
10

2
2
4
5
2

i
12
2
1

16
4
4

X

2
6 26 27
4 32 9
3 33
2
3
7 51
8 11 28
3 11 13
9 15 49
21 83 139
12 54 28
8 11
2

14 41
48 25
20 2
45 27
32 47
41 52
5 13
3
28
53 22
17 10

21

9

14

38

23

1.R73 ! 49
_
r 1_____ 111

43

55

81

949
99 — iafti 303 1
I
i
I
—

113 ! 23.59

8

M
ACHINE TENDERS
Massachusetts________________ ________
Connecticut............................ ........... ........
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont—
New York....... ............................................
New Jersey and Pennsylvania.............. ....
Ohio.............................................................
Indiana._____ _____ __________________
Illinois...... ................................ ..................
Michigan..
T
Minnesota and Wisconsin...... ...................
Virginia and West Virginia........................
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennessee...............................

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
$
5
3

17
21
16
36
31
40
13
27
53
21
8

97.78
84.13
68.83
87.64
97.53
97.48
85.14
84.64
83.39
83.41
69.64

7

17

81.00

1

Total..................................................

70

300

87.02

1

Massachusetts.._______________________
Connecticut__ _____ ___________________
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont___
New York____________________ _______ _
New Jersey and Pennsylvania__________
Ohio.............................................................
Indiana_______________________________
Illinois________________________________
Michigan .
_ ______
Minnesota and Wisconsin___ ____ ______
Virginia and West Virginia....... ...............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennessee_________________

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3

18
21
19
38
33
36
13
28
53
21
8

65.60
63.42
49.24
64.69
64.02
65.21
64.50
56.24
57.19
57.60
48.94

7

19

58.18

1

Total— . ...........................................

70

307

60.32

4

1
1
1

1

7

1 ....

•
1

1

1

2

2

2

8

BACK TENDERS




1

1

1

2
1

1

1
1

2
2
1
1

1

1

2
3

1
3
2
6 ....
2
4
2
1 4
2
*’ 5" 3
6 16
5 3
1
2

1
1

1

4

3

5
11

38

40

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR---- GENERAL TABLES

EARNED IN TWO WEEKS BY EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL
1925, BY STATE




83

84

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY
T a b l e D .—

AVERAGE AND CLASSIFIED AMOUNTS ACTUALLY
OCCUPATIONS, 1925,

Occupation and State

Number of employees whose actual
Aver­
earnings in two weeks were—
age
Num­ Num­ am’t
ber
ber
actu­
of
of
ally
$15 $20 $25 $30 $35
estab­ em­ earned Un­ and and and and and $40 $45 $50
and and and
lish­ ploy­
in der un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­ un­
ments ees
two $15 der der der der der der der der
weeks
$20 $25 $30 $35 $40 $45 $50 $55

CUTTER BOYS
Massachusetts____ ____________________
Connecticut Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont. __
New York__________ __________________
"Nfaw Jersey and Pennsylvania
__
Ohio........ ............... .......... .......................
__
___ - Indiana___
Tllinnis __ _
Michigan.,,,
_ . _
_ __
Minnesota and Wisconsin
Virginia and West Virginia________ ____
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennessee_________________

1
5
3
8
7
6
2
5
8
4
3

9 $52.51
59 39.30
33 32.84
77 48.04
75 43.27
130 45.19
14 31.92
87 37.08
168 40.29
57 37.16
11 31.05

4
1 "T
2 1
1
4
2
8
3
12 " 3
9 3
1
4
2

3
2
1
5
3
1
5
4
2
1

5
2
6 12 6 13 10
6 8 8
1
3
5 15 17 16"
1 7 23 17 7
2 8 16 35 30
1
1
1
.... 7
13 24 17 8
1 7 53 45 24 9
2 17 12 5 3 4
1
1 2
1 3

3
2
1
1
2

5

55

24.12

8

5

18

8

57

775

39.90

57

21

45

24

Massachusetts________________________
Connecticut___________________________
New York____________________________
New Jersey and Pennsylvania__________
_________________________________
Ohio
TnrH
svpfl._______________________________i
Illinois.........................................................
Michigan
___ - Minnesota and Wisconsin _____________
Virginia and West Virginia-------------------Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina and Tennessee. - - _____________

3
4
6
8
5
4
6
7
5
1

10
21
23
29
24
10
24
56
24
2

1

1

3

8

40.38

T o ta l________________ __________

52

231

45.41

9

Massachusetts _ _ _________________
Connecticut _________________________
Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont...
New Y o r k ___________________________
New Jersey and Pennsylvania__________
Ohio ........................................................
Indiana.
__________________________
Illinois _____________________________
Michigan __________________________
Minnesota and Wisconsin ____________
Virginia and West Virginia....... ...............
Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, South Car­
olina, and Tennessee_________________

4
5
3
9
8
7
5
6
8
5
3

68
98
27
225
145
230
80
97
226
67
31

48.11
46.64
34.58
48.85
52.66
45.75
45.71
43.08
38.95
41.61
31.05

1
2
1
11
4
10
4
10
27
6
2

7

165

23.00

31

Total____. . . . . . . . ________________

70

1,459

.................................

T otal...

6

10

50 137 144 133

84

SCREENMEN
51.26
47.01
53.73
1
54.73
49.26 . . . .
34.86
47.32
37.16
7
42.57
38.00

1
1
2
1

1

1
1
2

1
1
4

4

1
2
1
4
8
3
2
10
1 ” 7" 2 ’ T
7
6
2
2
2
2
1 6 11
2
” 5" 10 12 15 2
1 2
3 13 2
1
1

2
6

1

11

32

3

1

61

17

7 17
7 27 11
2
1 12
7
8 17 29 39
6
5 11 11
4
7 37 63
2 8 29 11
5
5 17 25
15 42 40 20
1 13 21
7
1
8 13

18
17
1
40
18
41
6
14
9
5

38

LABORERS




1
3 4
1
4
3
1
1 3
2
2 4
1 2 5
3 8 11
1 .... 1
1
3
5 11 19
1
2
1 2 ” 4
18

42.71 109 42

27

61

64 111

23

5

75 134 226 204 169

85

WAGES AND HOURS OF LABOR— GENERAL TABLES

EARNED IN TWO WEEKS BY EMPLOYEES IN SEVEN TYPICAL
BY STATE— Continued
Number of employees whose actual earnings in two weeks were—
$55
and
un­
der
$60

$60
and
un­
der
$65

$65
and
un­
der
$70

$70
and
un­
der
$75

$75
and
un­
der
$80

$80
and
un­
der
$85

$85
and
un­
der
$90

$90
and
un­
der
$95

$95
and
un­
der
$100

$100
and
un­
der
$105

$105
and
un­
der
$110

$110
and
un­
der
$115

$115
and
un­
der
$120

$120
and
un­
der
$125

$125
and
un­
der
$130

2
2
7 12
3
12 11

2
1

T

1
3

1
9 ....
6

1

3

42

24

4

6

3
5
2
2
3

1 ....

1

3
3
5

2
3

3
3

1

2

7

1

2

7
3
3
4

3

1

1

1

1
1

4

2
-------1

17

14 | 8

8
6

5
15

4
3

32
42
23
1
5
7
4

19
23
17
3
11
6
7

8 6
8 2
3
2 ‘T

1

16

128 106 *4

3

1
1
1

7

i

13

1

17




10

4

2

1

$130
and
un­
der
$135

$135
and
un­
der
$140

$140
and
un­
der
$145

$145
and $150
un­ and
der over
$150

86

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

GENERAL PROCESSES OF MANUFACTURE

The principal material used in the manufacture of paper box
board is waste paper, of which there are several grades. In the
manufacture of the better grades of board some wood pulp is used,
but in only two or three of the mills covered in this study is wood
pulp used exclusively or to a very large extent.
The paper-stock warehouse supplies the raw material to the
beaters m the beater room, while the beater room furnishes prepared
pulp fibers ready for making into the separate layers constituting
multicylinder-machine made paper board.
The beaters, large oval tanklike machines, about 25 feet long by
11 feet wide, hold from about 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of completed
stock. Into these beaters are fed the various other ingredients of the
paper board, as coloring matter, size and alum for waterproofing and
stiffening, and special material as fillers and stiffeners. The ma­
chines require intelligent and experienced supervision.
After the stock leaves the beaters the next operation is treatment in
the Jordan engine or some other type of refiner. The Jordan engine
consists of a conical cast-iron shell, the inside of which is fitted with long,
narrow steel bars, and rotating inside this conical shell is a conical cast­
ing called the “ plug” or runner, the outside surface of which is fitted
with long, narrow steel bars or knives. These engines weigh several
tons and the driving power required varies with the grade of paper
board being made. Kraft and jute stock take considerably more
power than any other kind on account of their long fiber and heavy
consistency. The Jordan engine gives the paper “ stuff” the last
refining touch before it goes to the cylinder machine, which is the
standard machine for making paper box board. The design of this
machine, however, is often greatly altered so that certain grades of
board can be made on it. This machine is really a modification of
the Fourdrinier machine, which is the standard machine in the papermaking industry.
The leading characteristics of the cylinder machine are the cylinder
vat and the cylinder molds. The number of vats varies, some ma­
chines having only one while the largest contain as many as eight.
The cylinder molds, covered with wire mesh, are immersed in a vat
of stock in which they rotate, and, while turning, the fiber is drawn
from the water to the cylinder wire and thence carried on to the felt.
Circulation of the stock is separate and self-contained for each cyl­
inder vat and mold without interfering in any way with the other
cylinder vats and molds. The finished sheet of paper is made up of
stock from all the vats and contains as many layers as there are vats
in use. The outside layers, which are formed of stock from the first
and last vats, are called liners. The intermediate layers are called
fillers. The liners are composed of material best suited for the out­
side in color and finish, while the fillers may be composed of less
expensive stock. The paper so made is called board and is named
according to the fillers and liners, as white-lined, news board, box
board, etc. The cylinder machine can make a board eight layers
thick. Since the “ stuff” employed for making boards parts with its
moisture slowly, thick board is made by forming a thin sheet on
each of the cylinders of the cylinder machine and then pressing these
together into a single sheet.




DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS

87

The presses remove all water possible from the sheet by pressure
and the driers complete the removal of water by evaporation from
the paper-board web. The calender rolls of the board machine
(usually three) give finish and quality to the paper board, after which
the board is slit to size and cut into sheets or wound into a roll. In
a number of mills the slitter, rewinder, or cutter is considered as much
a part of the paper machine as the calender, the board, after leaving
the drying cylinders, passing through these machines in a continuous
operation. Other mills have a separate and distinct finishing depart­
ment. Slitters are used to trim the rough and usually dirty edges
of the sheet and also to cut the large rolls into narrower widths.
The rewinders wind the large roll into rolls of smaller diameter and
more uniform hardness. Cutters are used to cut the roll into sheets
suitable for further operations at the mill, or for shipment. In some
mills the sheets are counted, wrapped, and tied into bundles imme­
diately after being removed from the cutter table and the men engaged
in this work are considered a part of the machine-room crew. In
mills maintaining a separate and distinct finishing department, this
work is done in that department. In a few mills the wrapping and
tying of sheets and the wrapping of rolls is performed in the shipping
department.
The pasting process is used for pasting together two or more sheets
of paper.
Coated papers have been developed within comparatively recent
years. It costs considerably more to produce these coated grades
than it does to make the plain box board. The object of the coating
is to form an even, semiabsorbent surface for printing and to form
a glazed or other specially prepared paper for box covering, folders,
etc. Coating mixture ordinarily consists of from 6 to 12 ingredients.
There are many kinds of coated papers constantly being introduced
to fit some special requirement. Single-coated papers are coated on
one side only, while double-coated papers are papers in which coat­
ing is appliea to both sides.
A description of the typical occupations of the industry follows:
DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS
BEATER ROOM

Tour loss.— This employee is a skilled head beater man employed
in some mills to supervise the beater room, directing and assisting
the individual head beater man and performing the usual duties of
a room foreman.
Head heater man (boss beater man, beater engineer).—Has charge
of the beater room or of a group of machines in that room, directing
the tour he works; directs the loading and dumping of the beaters,
the mixing and addition of sizing, clay, alum, and color, and the
refining process in the Jordan engine. He is responsible directly to
the mill superintendent or in a few of the larger mills to a special
supervisor known as a tour boss.
Assistant head beater man.—Assists the head beater man, and, in
mills not having plug pullers or Jordan men, usually performs the
work done by them.
Plug 'puller (valve man, dropper, dumper).—After the material
has been beaten to the necessary consistency the plug puller dumps



88

PAPER BOX-BOARD INDUSTRY

the stock into the storage chest by removing plug in bottom of the
beater.
Jordan man.— The duties of the Jordan man are to regulate the
setting of the knives in the Jordan engines and the flow of stock
to ana from the Jordan engines to the stuff boxes or cylinders.
Beater helper (beater man, furnisher, broke beater, sJiartle beater) .—
Loads stock into beater, usually by hand except in mills having
shartle beaters, adjusts the beater roll, adds size, alum, color, etc.,
as directed by the head beater man, and in those mills having no
separate and distinct plug pullers, dumps the beater upon comple­
tion of the beating process.
MACHINE ROOM

Tour boss.—Is a skilled machine tender employed in some mills to
supervise the machine room, directing and assisting the individual
machine tenders and performing the usual duties of a room foreman.
Machine tender.—Has charge of one machine and its crew and
directs the process from the time the stock leaves the Jordan engines
until the board is ready to be sent to the shipping department or, in
some instances, where a mill has a separate finishing department, to
that department. However, he works principally at the wet end of
the machine, watching the flow of stock, etc. The machine tender
is responsible for the operation of his machine. He directs the work
of the back tender, third hands, and other helpers, although the more
detailed supervision of these men is largely in charge of his assistant,
the back tender. The machine tender is responsible for starting the
machine.
Back tender.— This employee is the machine tender's principal
helper and is in charge of the dry end of the machine, controlling the
speed and heating of the drying rolls. When the board is started over
the machine he leads the web from the felts to the drying rolls and
from the drying rolls to the calender stack, watching to see that the
dryers are hot enough to dry the sheet thoroughly before it is led
through the calender stack. He is largely responsible for the third
hands and other helpers. In case of breaks in the paper the chief
responsibility devolves upon the back tender. He must see that the
other help are in their proper places to take the paper after he has
passed it over the dryers, etc.
Third hand (calender man).— The assistant to the back tender is
the third hand or calender man, who generally has direct charge of
the calender stack, seeing that the rolls are kept clean and properly
adjusted; also assists back tender in taking the web from the wet end
to the drying rolls and from the drying rolls to the calender stack.
Finisher.—Ties the sheets in bundles, usually of 50 pounds, and
places same on truck or truck platform to be taken to shipping de­
partment or stock room. Where no weigher is employed the finisher
usually weighs the sheets before tying them up.
Winder man.—Has charge of the winder, starting the new rolls of
board and taking them off when completed. He usually weighs the
rolls and keeps a record of the weights.
Finisher’s heifer (winder man’s heifer, filer down, stacker out,
carrier).— The work of this employee varies according to the product
of the mill. When sheets are being made he assists the finisher in




DESCRIPTION OF OCCUPATIONS

89

tying the bundles and placing them on a truck. When rolls are being
made he assists the winder man in starting new rolls and removing
the completed ones.
Weigher.—Weighs the sheets before they are tied into bundles by
the finisher.
Cutter boy.—Takes the sheets off the cutter table and, if the finish­
ing is done immediately behind the paper machine, places them on
the stand of either the weigher or the finisher. If the finishing is
done in a separate department, he places the sheets on a truck.
Broke boy.—The broke boy gathers up trimmings and “ broke”
(paper which accumulates when the web of paper breaks) and trucks
them back to the beater room or to the broke beater.
Felt checker— Watches the felts and when necessary guides them
so that they will run true and even.
Felt washer.—Washes the felts which have been taken from the
machine during the previous clean-up period.
Screenman (stuff boxes).— The work of the screenman is to keep
the surfaces of the screens cleaned off so as to permit the free flow of
the fibers into the stuff boxes; also regulates the pumping or flow by
gravity from the stuff boxes to the machine vats.
FINISHING DEPARTMENT

Finisher.— The finisher performs practically the same work as the
finisher in the machine room except that in some instances the
bundles of better-grade board are wrapped before being tied.
Reunnder.—Places the rolls of paper coming from the board ma­
chine onto a winding machine to be rewound evenly or cut to smaller
rolls by slitters. He also rewinds rolls that have been doubled or
tripled, according to the thickness required.
Cutter {trimmer).— The piles of sheets are evened up bv the cutter,
who jogs them against the walls of the trimmer table and releases the
knife which cuts off the edges squarely.
Paster.—Operates the machine which pastes together two or more
thicknesses of board.
Liner.—Operates the machine which lines one side or both sides of
the ordinary board with board of better quality or with colored board.