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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR JAMES J. DAVIS, Secretary  BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS ETHELBERT STEWART, Commissioner  BULLETIN OF THE UNITED STATES } BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS  . . . . No.384  MISCELLANEOUS  SERIES  LABOR CONDITIONS IN THE SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1920-1924 By ROBERT S. BILLUPS and PHILIP L JONF.S 01 the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistica  ••• :1;;,A,&NTo,.-:  •..,.'1[~  \ ~..  .  ,····•~..  ;  \. .,... ··:')',it  ~-"n.sof.  MARCH, 1925  WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 1925   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ADDITIONAL COPIES OJ' THIS PUBLICATION MAY BE PROCURED FRO)( THE SUPERINTENDENT OF DOCUMENTS GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON, D, C. AT  10 CENTS PER COPY  CONTENTS Page  Introduction------------------------------------- 1-6 Causes of depression.._______________________________________ 4 Agreements and adjustments______________________________________ 4, 5 Kinds of shoes made_____________________________________________ 5,6 Haverhill---------------------------------------------------- 6-22 Working agreement in Haverhill--------------------------------- S-11 Haverhill Shoe Board------------------------------------------11-22 Arbitration of disputes in Haverhill__________________________ 15, 16 Rulings of Haverhill Shoe Board--------L------------------- 16-22 Strikes and lockouts in HaverhlU -------------------22 shoe workers ------------------22 LynnEfficiency of Haverhill_______________________ :_ __ 23-30 Reasons for removal, liquidation, or failure in 23-25 Efficiency of Lynn shoe worker.,_________________________ 25 25 Shoe workers' unions in Lynn____________________________________ Union agreement of 1924 in Lynn_________________________________ 26 Strikes in Lynn__________________________________________ 26, 27 Open or nonunion shop..____________________________________ 27,28 Working rules of 1924 in Lynn ___________________________________ 28-30 At:arket, dividends, and rentals--Haverhill and Lynn___________________ 80, 81 Average hours and earnings______________________________________ 81-38 Cost of producing and selling shoes--Haverhill and Lynn_______________ 88-41 Brocktoll----------------------------------------- 42-45 Production, 1914 1924_________ ------------ 42-44 42 Strike of 1928 in to Brockton _______________________________________ Working agreement in Brockton __________________________________ 44,43 Production of shoes, by States --------- 45, 46   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  Lynn_______________  m   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  BULLETIN OF THE  U. S. BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS N0.384  WASHINGTON  MARCH, 1921  WOR CONDITIONS IN THE SHOE INDUSTRY IN ~ACBUSETTS, 1920 TO 1924 INTRODUCTION Haverhill, Lynn, and Brockton, Mass., were, according to United States Census of Manufactures, three of the five leading cities in the United States in number of pairs of shoes produced in the years 1914, 1919, and 1921? New York City and St. Louis being the other two oities. Production figures by cities are not available for 1922 In 1914 Lynn produced 18,383,022 pairs of shoes and Haverhill 17,781579 pairs, and ranked first and second in production. In 1919 Haverhill produced 21,830,680 pairs, New York City, 18,867,516 pairs, and Lynn, 18,579,693 pairs, ranking first, second, and third, respectively. In 1921 New York City produced 20,548,895 pairs, Haverhill, 13,624,549jairs, and Lynn, 13,260,093 pairs. Haverhill's loss in 1921, compare with 1919, was 8,206,131 pairs, or 38 per cent, and Lynn's loss was 5,319,600 pairs, or 29 per cent. It is generally conceded that production in Haverhill and Lynn was less in 1922 and 1923, and proportionately less during the first seven months of 1924 than in 1921. In 1923 there were produced in Massachusetts 89,517.,331 pairs of shoes, or 22 per cent less than in 1914; 23 per cent less than m 1919; and 4 per cent more than in 1921. The loss in 1923, as com_pared with 1914 and 1919, was due largely to the losses in Haverhill and  L~~ number of pairs of shoes produced in the United States in  1923 was 351,114,273, or 20 per cent more than the number of pairs produced in 1914; 6 per cent more than in 1919; and 22 per cent more than in 1921. The information upon which this report is based covers 19201 1921, 1922, 1923, and January to August, 1924, and was obtained directly from the manufacturers, their associl!,tions, union officials, and other available sources by agents of the Bureau of Labor Statistics who visited Haverhill, Lynn? Brockton, and Boston. All persons who were asked for information, except one shoe manufacturer in Lynn, cooperated with the agents to the fullest extent. For the information and the very courteous treatment received acknowledgment and thanks are here expressed.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1  2  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  Every e:ffort was made by the agents to obtain 1922 and 1923 production figures for the above-named Massachusetts cities, with limited success, because census figures for 1923 were not available and apparently little or no e:ffort had been made to compile such :figures locally e:1;cept by the Brockton Dail:y Enterprise. The table following shows for each of the cities, Haverlrlll, Lynn, and Brockton, and for each year, 1920 to 1923, and for January to Au~, 1924, the number of shoe manufacturers in business at the begmning of the year the number starting in business after the beginning of the year, the number moving out of the city the number liquidating or going into bankruptc_y during the year, anci the number in business at the end of the year. Stitching shops are not included in this table. TABLE 1.-CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN HAVEBHILL, LYNN, AND BROCKTON, 1920 TO 1924, BY YEARS Number of shoe manufacturersCity Bild year  Haverhill:  1920••••••••••••••••••••••• 1921.•••••••••••••••••••••• 1922••••••••••••••••••••••• 1923•••••••••••••••••••••••  11124 ' · · · · · · · · - - -  In bWllness Starting In  at begin• ulng of year  122 119 122  123 110  Total···---····· ........... . Lynn:  1920••••••••••••••••••••••• 1921••••••••••••••••••••••• 1922••••••••••••••••••••••• 1923••••••••••••••••••••••• 1924 •••••••••••••••••••••••  g1nu1ng of  ;rear  Cl 19 20 20 1  Total In business durlug year  128 138 142 143 111  86 ••••••••••••  llK •••••••••••• 100 Z1  104 127  M ..,_# Llquidato ....,. 11111 or In In business out of city bauiruptcJ at end of duriug during year ;rear ;rear.  2 6 6  119  8  122 128 110 98  23  67  ----·--·---··  2  2 6 13  JOO 115 106  Cl  13 7  128  90  4  94  6 9 9 1  Ill ••••••••.••.  Z1  113  7  10 13 80  115 106  Total ••· - - - - · •••••••••••.  Brockton:  ~  7  14 5  40  90 88  .........................  1===1====1====1====1====1====  43 •••••••••••• 43 1920••••••••••••••••••••••• 43 ··········••1----Ill 1921••••••••••••••••••••••• 43 13 56 · - - - • 5 51 6 57 •••••••••••• 1 611 1~ •••••••••••••••••••••• 60 •••••••••••• 6 56 4 M 1923•••••••••• - - M 1 56 •••••••••••••••••••••••• 56 1924•----Tot.'\l ••• _ _ _ _ .1••-••-••-••-••-••-1---24-+.••-••-••-••-••➔ ••-••-••-••-••-••-1.- - - 1 - 1,,~ ••-••-••-••-••-•• l JBJluary to August, 1924.  Haverhill.-At the beginning of 1920 Haverhill had 122 shoe factories in business. Between January 1, 1920, and August, 1924, 66 factories started in business and 23 moved away, 17 going to other localities in Massachusetts, 5 to cities in New Hampshire, and 1 to Philadelphia. A total of_, 67 factories liquidated or went into bankruptcy. The 98 factories in business in August, 1924, consisted of 62 of the 122 in business at the beginning of 1920 and 36 of the66 starting in business between the beginning and the ending of the period covered by the study. Very few, if any, of the 66 factories that started in business after January 1, 1920, were large either in number of workers or in number of pairs of shoes produced per day, while those that moved, liquidated, or went into bankruptcy   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  INTRODUCTION  3  included at least 25 of the leading factories that were in business January 1, 1920, ranging in number of shoe workers from approximately 50 to 1,000. For further discussion of Haverhill, see pages 6 to 22. Lyrvn,.-At the beginning of 1920 this city had 104 shoe factories. Between January 1, 19201 and August, 1924, 51 factories started in business, 27 moved from the city, 12 going to Boston, 7 to other cities in Massachusetts, 6 to cities in New Hampshire, 1 to Maine, and 1 to New York City, and a total of 40 factories liquidated or went into bankruptcy. The 88 in business in August, 1924, were made up of 58 of the 104 in business January 1, 1920, and 30 of the 51 factories starting in business after January 1, 1920. Practically all of the 51 factories starting in business after J anua.ry 1, 1920, were small while those that moved, liquidated, or went into bankruptcy included at least 30 of the largest in business on January 1, 1920, the number of workers ranging from 40 to 500. For further discussion of Lynn, see pages 23 to 30. It will be observed from the above that, of the 50 factories that moved out of Haverhill and Lynn, only two (both small) left New England, one going to New York City and one to Philadelphia. While this does not bear out the statement and impression frequently made that shoe factories are leaving New England, it must not be assumed that New England has held its prestige in the shoe industry. Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire produced 53 per cent of the shoes manufactured in the United States in 1914; 48 per cent in 1919; 41 per cent in 1921, and 37 per cent in 1923. Boston.-Between January 1, 1920, and August 1924, one Haverhill and 12 Lynn shoe factories moved to Boston. These factoriest in the aggregate, employed 2,117 workers immediately prior to date of removal, produced an average of 17,600 pairs of shoes per day, and are responsible for an article in the Boston News Bureau, December 6, 1923, in which it was stated that : The city of Boston has been gaining at the expense of Lynn and Haverhill in attracting here some of the shoe manufacturing concerns which, on account of never-ending labor troubles have left and are leaving the major shoe manufacturing cities of Massachusetts. The result is that Boston is gradually developing into an important shoemaking center. Leather men declare that many shoe manufacturers have concluded that Boston offers labor and raw material advantages not possessed by other shoe cities. In most of the Boston shoe factories the operatives work 5½ days a week against a maximum of 5 days in the outside shoe cities. Strikes and other labor complications are fast becoming intolerable in Lynn and elsewhere. In the past 18 months 50 shoe firms have been lost to the city of Lynn.  The statement above as to operatives in Boston working 5½ days per week against a maximum of 5 days in the outside shoe cities applied at that time and for a number of years before to Haverhill and LYil!l, where factories when working full time worked 9 hours per day Monday to Friday with no work on Saturday, or 45 hours per week, but did not apply to Brockton, where factories when workmg full time have for many years worked 5 days of 8% hours each and 5 hours Saturday, or 48 hours per week. Under the December, 1923, agreement, to be in force until December, 1928.J the reg11lar working time in Haverhill factories during the months June to November, inclusive, is 5 days of 9 hours each or   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  4  LABOl't CONDITIONS IN S:!l:OE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  45 hours per week, and December to· May, 5½ days or 48 hours per week. (Seep. 9, section 5, of agreement.) Under the Au~st, 1924, agreement, in force until April 30, 1925, the regular working time in Lynn factories is 5 days of 9 hours each2 or 45 hours per week during June, July, and August; and 5 days ot 9 hours each and a half day on Saturday, September to May, not to exceed 50 hours per week. The regular working time in Boston factories is and has been for a number of years 8¾ hours per day Monday to Friday, and 4¼ hours on Saturday, or 48 hours per week. Brockton.-I.n comparison, Brockton at the be!ri.nning of 1920 had 43 factories in operation. During the period :January 1 1920, to August, 1924, a total of 24 factories started in business, and 11 liquidated or went into bankruptcy. The 56 factories in operation at the end of the period consisted of 39 of the original 43 and 17 of the 24 factories which had come in later. Consequently, the 11 factories liquidating or going into bankruptcy consisted of 4 of the 43 in business January 1, 1920, and 7 of the 24 starting in business between January 1, 1920, and August, 1924. None of the 24 factories starting in business or of the 1\:::S:idating or going into bankruptcy was large either as to the n er of shoe workers or pairs of shoes produced per day. The 11, in the aggregate, employed not to exceed 500 shoe workers and produced about 1,800 to 2,000 pairs of shoes per day. As Haverhill lost 23 and Lynn 27 factories by removal to other cities, attention is here called to the fact that no factories moved out of Brockton durin~ the period covered by this study, indicating conditions were satisfactory to Brockton manufacturers. One factory moved into Brockton. For further discussion of Brockton, see pages 42 to 45. CAUSES OF DEPRESSION  The depression of the shoe industry in Haverhill and Lvnn in recent years-that is, th~ loss in the number of _pairs of shoes produced and the decrease m number of shoe workers-may be summarized as due to the extreme novelty shoes, delays in reaching working agreements and wage adjustments, delays in filling orders, cancellation of orders, high piece rates or labor costs, inability of manufacturers to make a profit and at the same time sell at prices at which manufacturers in other States and localities sell shoes of like grade and style, and to restrictive rules as to hiring and discharging employees. AGREEMENTS AND ADJUSTMENTS  In a piece working industry there is a distinction between a general atgreement and minor agreements that must be made from time to time as the character of the work varies. In both Haverhill and Lynn the formulation and final acceptance of basic working agreements between the union and the manufacturers have been very difficult and caused more or less cessation of work and loss of production. In Haverhill minor adjustments in piece prices due to   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  INTRODUCTION  5  ch~ in style have usually been made without cessation of work, hut 1n Lynn differences as to piece prices arising owing to change of style have caused considerable loss of work and production. KINDS OF SHOES MADE  The shoes produced in Haverhill are women's and misses' fan.oy, novelty turns and McKays, and slippers. The city is often called the "turn shoe city" or "slipper city," because the production of its factories consists principally of turn shoes and slippers. A large per cent of the shoes made in Lynn are women's and misses' fancy McKays. 'I'he styles of the women's and misses' extreme, fancy, novelty shoes, such as have been and are being made in Haverhill and Lynn, change very frequently, making it necessary to fi~re and adjust piece rates or labor cost for each new style. Time 1S a very important element in the manufacture and sale of such shoes, as it is necessary to make and fill orders of customers on schedtule time in order to avoid cancellation of orders and larg-e losses thereby. Manufacturers stated that many orders call for delivery within four or five weeks from date of ordering. Manufacturers make up sample shoes, figure or estimate piece prices or labor cost and other costs of manufacture for each sample or style, basing their figures or estimates on shoes of somewhat similar style and grade that have already been made, take orders, and then, in case the piece prices of the manufacturer are acceptable to the workers, proceed to make and fill the orders. It has been necessary in many cases to change proposed piece rates as the workers have asked higher piece rates than had been figured or estimated by the mamdacturer. The loss of time in negotiations caused delays in production, resulting in cancellation of orders. This condition prevailed in both Lynn and Haverhill in 1920 and up to the creation of the Haverhill Shoe Board in 1924 under the ' peace pact" or agreement of December, 1923, and in Lynn on and up to the date of this study, August, 1924. Under the agreement now in effect in Haverhill, each manufacturer, before beginning the making of a shoe of different style, makes and sends a sample to the manufacturers' association, where experts figure prices for the various operations, the aim being in every case to do justice to the manufacturer and to the workers. If the prices are not acceptable to either side and representatives of the union and the association are not able to adjust the differences, the case is submitted to the Haverhill Shoe Board for arbitration. Novelty shoes, on account of the rapid change in styles, have a higher cost of production due to new patterns, dies, and lasts for each new style. Further, the .Price of shoes sinks very low as the style goes out. Some of the highly colored novelty shoes priced at $1 $8, and even $10 a pair at retail may in six months or less be ottered on bargain counters at $1.98 a pair or under. This illustrates the fact that the more radical the style of the shoe the greater the cut in the price when the shoe is out of style. A story bringing out this point runs like this: A buyer _placed an order for some highstyle novelties. The shoes were finished in time to be delivered on time, but so soon had the style cha~d in the interval between order 25328° -25--2  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  6  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  and delivery that when the manufacturer telegraphed, "Shall I ship your shoes by express, freight, or parcel post¥ ' the reply was: " Ship them in a casket. They will be dead by the time they get here, anyway." HAVERHILL The 23 factories that moved out of Haverhill and the 67 that liquidated or went into bankruptcy employed a total -of 3,500 to 4,000 shoe workers, ranging from 2 or 3 to 1,000 employees, and produced in the aggregate an average of 30,000 to 35,000 :pairs of shoes per day. Each of those that moved was of coDS1derable importance both as to number of employees and number of shoes produced, while 20 to 25 of those that liquidated or went out of business were very small. Haverhill has an unusual number of small shoe factories. Fafl!ures of small fo.ctories.-Most of the failures of small factories were due to lack of finances, lack of credit, canceled orders., or to lack of business training. Examples of the small Haverhill factories that discontinued business are as follows: No. 1. Employed 10 to 12 shoe workers, did cutting and packing, and had all other work done outside by contract. No. 2. Proprietor did the cutting, and also did the packing, assisted by wife and sometimes by one employee. All other work was done outside by contract. No. 3. Employed 6 workers, produced 300 pairs of women's turns and sandals per day1 did the cutting and packing, and had all other work done outside city by contract. No. 4. Employed 15 or 16 workers, produced 108 to .288 paiJ:i:t.of women's turns per day, and did all work except stitching, which was done by contract. Under the rule-equal division of work amonf, workers in times of slack work-there was no reduction in " crew ' or number of workers when production was less than 288 pairs per day. Consequently, there was less work and less earnings per worker when production was low. No. 5. Employed 20 workers and produced 250 pairs of women's McKay's per day. Oontraat work.-As indicated by the examples above, some manufacturers let .J,>art of the work to contractors located in the city or near-by territory. This was done by a considerable number of medium and small sized establishments·. Between J anuag, 1920, and August_, _1924, approximately 20 shops did contract stitchin~. About one-third of them are not now (August, 1924) in business m the city. Nwmber of shoe workers in Haverhill.-Accordi.ng to reports covering individual members of the Haverhill Shoe Manufacturers' Association, the association members as a whole employed an average of 6,987 shoe workers in 1920; 6,503 in 1921; 6,213 in 1922; 6,244 in 1923; and 3,733, January 1 to July 1, 1924, a loss of 47 per cent in 1924, compared with 1920. In 1920 there were 65 association members reported as employ~ approximately 90 per cent of the total number of shoe workers m the city. In 1924 there were 39   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  7  association members employing approximately 80 per cent of the shoe workers and producing 80 per cent of the average output per day, or approximately 95,000 pairs of shoes. Reasom for removal or failure.-Reasons for moving out of Haverhill, for liquidating, or going into bankruptcy varied as indicated by reports of 25 of the 90 factories lost to the mdustry between January 1, 1920, and August, 1924, as follows: 1. Unable to compete with outside manufacturers due to high wages. 2. Depreciation of stock on hand, canceled orders, and high labor costs. 3. Labor troubles, mostly in fixing piece rates on new style shoes. 4. High labor costs, restrictions as to days and hours of work and as to hiring and fl.ring employees, lack of proper handling of the sales department, and dissension between members of the fl.rm. 5. I{,igh rent, wage rates, and general labor troubles. 6. High labor cost and canceled orders. 7. Limitation of work to five days per week and Interference by union agents. 10. Cutthroat pikers in Haverhill selling at prices we were unable to meet and at the same time pay Haverhill wage rates. 11. Change in value of material on hand, or depreciation in Talue of leather and other material used in the manufacture of shoes, and repudiation of contracts by large brokers. 12. Labor union conditions, no control by manufacturers over employees, and canceled orders. 13. Depreciation in value of material with which the factory was overloaded and canceled orders. 14. Lack of orders and high labor costs. 15. Exhorbitant demands by unions in making new piece rates. 16. Small capital, lack of experience, and canceled orders. 17. Canceled orders, returned shoes, and failure of jobbers to whom shoes were sold. 18. Returned shoes, high labor costs, and lack of orders caused by jobbers being afraid shoes would not be completed on time. 19. Depression in value of material. Leather bought at as hig~ as $1.25 per foot dropped to about 35 cents per foot. 20. Loss on•canceled orders by selling $4 shoes at $2 and $2.25 per pair. 21. Disagreement between partners. 22. Didn't have enough money to run the business and couldn't get any. The banks wouldn't lend to us as they do to big factories. Canceled orders also helped to put us out of business. 23. Inability to sell style of shoes we were making, and not caring to engage in the manufacture of extreme novelty shoes demanded by the women, because manufacturers in other localities, on account of difference in labor costs, can produce and sell them at 35 to 50 cents per pair less than the Haverhill manufacturers. 24. Lack of orders. For nine months we could get no orders because we could not compete and pay the Haverhill labor cost. During the nine months overhead expenses amounting to a little more than $40 per day continued. 25. Canceled and returned orders. Jobbers, after having given orders and, while shoes were in process of manufacture, canceled the orders, or after having received the orders returned the shoes, stating, in some instances, that the shoes were faulty in workmanship or that they were not delivered on time. The orders being for shoes of the extreme novelty style Jn vogue, owing to rapid change in style, were sold at great loss, often less than the cost of manufacture including cost of material. Cancellations are frequently made, as we believe, in order to get goods by sharp practices at much less than the regular selling price. Representatives of the jobbers practicing such methods approach the manufacturer, after orders have been canceled, or shoes have been returned, and ask the manufacturer if he has anything to sell, and, if answered in the negative, ls asked "What about the goods returned from - - " An attempt was made to get shoes in this way from us.  The reasons reported b_y other manufacturers are of practically the same tenor as those above. The high cost of labor compared with other localities is one of the principal reasons, probably the outstanding one. This conclu https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  8  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSA.-ORUSE'rl'S  sion was reached after giving due weight to the above, to the May 8, 1924). reduction.z a.nd to the statement of the _chairman of the Haverhill i:::ihoe Boarct, shown on pages 11 to 15. WORKING AGREEMENT IN HAVERHILL  The following agreement called the "Peace Pa.ct" is ( August, 1924) in effect between the union and the shoe manufacturers' association, and between the union and all except two of the 59 factories that are not members of the association. On August 8, 1924, a strike was called in the two factories not working under the agreement, to force recog.nition of the union and union wage rates. When the strike was called these factories employed 135 shoe workers. WORKING AGREEMENT BETWEEN THE SHOE WoBXEBs' PBoTEcnvE UNION AND '1'JD: HAVERHILL SHOE MANUFAOTUBEBS' AsSOCIATION  This agreement between each and all the members of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union, of Haverhfil, Mass., and such other· persons as shall become members of said union during the term of this agreement, party of the first part, hereinafter referred to as employee or employees, and the following named persons, firms, and corporations engaged in the business of manufacturing shoes, members of the Haverhill Shoe Manufacturers' Association, namely: [List of firms omitted] and such other manufacturers as shall become members of said association during the aforesaid term, excepting those under prior contract with some other labor union, party of the second part, and hereinafter referred to as manufacturer or manufacturers, witnesseth : 1. There shall be no strike, lockout, or cessation of work, and nothing shall be done by either party to hinder, impede, retard, or prevent production. This article ls not arbitrable. 2. This agreement applies only to the employment of labor in the opera· tion of factories in Haverhill, Mass. 8. Except as may be otherwise agreed upon only members of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union 1n good standing shall be employed by the manufacturer to perform operations in the manufacture of shoes. When a manufacturer lacks a sufficient number of union. operatives to do bis work, before he can employ operatives who are not members of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union he shall at once notify the union headquarters and give the union an opportunity to supply union operatives; if the union does not supply a sufficient number of competent operatives within 24 hours, then the employer shall have the right to employ operatives who are not members of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union to fill the places of those the union is unable to :fill; and the union agrees to accept such operatives into the union at the regular initiation fee, provided that the manufacturer, upon being notified that the union can supply union operatives, states that he wishes to retain such operatives who are not members of the union ; and such statement by the manufacturer shall make the said operatives regular members of the shop crew. This is not to be construed as meaning that the union must take in any person or persons not having a clean labor record, and manufacturers shall replace B1;1Ch operatives upon request from the union. . Upon hiring operatives who are not members of said union, the manufacturers shall immediately forward in writing to the union the name and address of such operative. Shop committees shall have full privileges to perform their official duties. The manufacturer agrees that there shall be no laying off of members of the crew during slack periods, and during the slack periods work shall be distributed as equally as possible among the crew. 4. The provisions of this agreement shall not apply to work performed by office forces, salesmen, superintendents and foremen, -foreladies, assistant fore-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  9  men, assistant foreladle!!!, not to exceed three persons In any one departrnent, one of whom may be designated as a shipper, unless the production of such department exceeds 1,200 pairs daily when a greater number of assistants in proportion to the work required may be had, machinists who do no work on shoes, engineers, and other persons employed by the manufacturers in executive, managerial, or administrative capacities, and persons holding such positions need not be members of the union. During their spare time, but not amounting to more than half their time, superintendents, foremen, foreladies, assistant foremen, and assistant foreladies may be employed to a reasonable extent in working on shoes in any of the departments without being members of the union. Any claim of the union that the designation of any employee as one holding such a position is a pretext or that any such person is to an unreasonable ·extent employed or engaged as a shoe worker, if not adjusted with the union, shall be referred to arbitration. Manufacturers, including in cases of corporations, officers, may work on shoes in any of the departments of the business without being members of the union. 5. During the months of June, July, and August regular working time shall be 5 days of 9 hours each, and there shall be no Saturday work during· those months. During the months of December, January, February, March, April, and May of each year, the regular working time shall be 51/2 days each week of 48 hours. During September, October, and November the regular working time shall be 5 days of 9 hours each, but each local agent may, if in his opinion it is necessary, grant Saturday work. Each local agent may within legll]. limits, if in bis opinion overtime work is necessary, grant additional hours. For overtime work operatives shall be paid additional compensation at their regular rate. This article is not arbitrable. 6. All controversies between the parties to this agreement shall be subject to adjustment and arbitration as herein provided. 7. In case of a dispute concerning a price to be paid for new work, namely, work of a kind not heretofore done or by process not heretofore used, pending the consideration and adjustment or arbitration of such dispute concerning a price, the work shall be at the price then paid for work nearest or most similar thereto. In the event of any misunderstanding as to a price to be paid, the price that has been or is being paid shall continue to be paid until the matter is adjusted. In both instances enumerated above the difference between the price paid and the price finally determined for such work to be paid or refunded, as the case may be, dating from the time the new work was introduced. 8. The discharge of any employee which the union claims to be unjustifiable shall be arbitrated. 9. All differences shall be referred for final settlement to a board of arbitration which shall consist of three members, who are to be chosen as follows: One member to be appointed by the general agent of the union, one member to be appointed by the manager of the association, both of whom shall serve until the determination of the particular controversy for which they were appointed; the third member, who shall be known as the neutral arbitrator, shall be chosen by the said general agent and manager, provided, however, that if within 12 secular days from the date hereof they shall fail to agree upon and designate the third or neutral member of said board, then the neutral member shall be named in writing by any four of the followingnamed persons: William D. McFee, Rev. John J. Graham, Jefferson L. Alexander, Martha R. St. Onge, Matthew J. Fowler, Rev. Hiram W. Hook, and Daniel J. Cavan, acting upon the written application of said manager or said general agent, but no neutral member shall be so named unless he has the indorsement of either said manager or said general agent. Said neutral member shall serve until the expiration of this agreement. A vacancy in the membership of said board of arbitration caused by the death, resignation, refusal, or inability to serve of the third or neutral member, shall be filled by the appointment of a new member of said board by the then general agent of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union and the then manager of the Haverhill Shoe Manufacturers' Association, provided, however, that if within 12 secular days from the creation of such vacancy the said general agent and the said manager shall fail to agree upon and designate the third or neutral   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  10  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  member of said board, then said appointment of the third or neutral member shall be made as provided in case of failure to agree on the ftrst appointment of · said neutral member. In case of the failure of any member of said. board other than the neutral member to serve for three days for any cause, then the said general agent in the case of said failure of a union member to serve or the said manager of the association in the case of said failure of a manufacturer's member to serve, shall, within three secular days after receipt of written notice of such failure to serve from the other party to the agreement, appoint a representative who shall act as a member of said board in place of said member faillng to serve. If the said general agent or the said manager, whose duty it is to appoint such representative, fails within said three secular days to do so, then the other members of the board of arbitration shall proceed and transact business and in such case their decision shall be the decision of the board, and if they fall to agree the decision of the neutral member shall be the decision of the board. Said board of arbitration may summon witnesses and conduct a full investigation of all matters in dispute which shall be referred to it, and shall have power to determine and settle by a vote of a majority of its members, except as otherwise provided, all matters of controversy referred to it, and every determination or finding made as aforesaid by said board of arbitration shall · be conclusive and binding upon the parties. The board shall have power to determine the manner of conducting its hearings and the nature and character of the evidence. Every decision of said board of arbitration shall, so far as it may be possible, relate back to and become effective as of, the ~te of the original claim for arbitration, and the same matter shall not be brought before the board again within six months from the date of said declsion. If either party shall refuse to arbitrate any controversy under the foregoing provisions and such provisions for legal reasons can not be enforced, then and in such case the parties respectively agree that they will submit such con• troversy to arbitration under the provisions of chapter 251 of the General Laws, and will execute an agreement therefor in accordance with said chapter, which agreement shall name as arbitrators the persons then constituting the aforesaid board of arbitration, and shall contain, so far as it properly may, the provisions of this agreement respecting arbitration; and it is further agreed thut in case of a refusal to sign such agreement, this agreement itself shall constitute an agreement for arbitration under the provisions of said chapter. Reference to the board of arbitration may be claimed at any time, in writing, by the Haverhill Shoe Manufacturers' Ai;isoclation, acting through its manager, or by the Shoe Workers' Protective Union, acting through its general agent. Written notice shall be given by the party to this agreement claiming such reference to the other party to this agreement to the effect that such reference ls claimed, and describing brleffy the matter or matters in controversy to be settled thereby. The said board of arbitration shall give notice in writing to both parties hereto of the time and place of the hearings upon all matters referred to it as aforesaid, and may order the production before it of any shoes, machinery, or materials which it may deem relevant to any matter to be decided by said board. Within three secular days after the reference to said board of arbitration of any matter, complaint, or controversy, a hearing or hearings thereon shall be had before said board, and shall proceed with all reasonable expedition. All decisions and orders of said board of arbitration shall be made in writing, and shall be signed by a majority of its members, except as otherwise provided, and shall be made within three days after the close of the evidence. The third or neutral member-of said board of arbitration shall be reimbursed for all expenses and disbursements incurred by him in the performance of his duties; and shall be paid a reasonable .compensation for his services. the parties hereto Jl.greeing to pay in equal shares all sums of money required for the above-mentioned purposes. Clerical or stenographic services incurred by the board shall be borne equally by the association and union. 10. The collector and business agent of each local union of the Shoe Workers' Protective Union shall, after giving notice to the office or to the foreman of ·the department visited, have access to the departments of the factory in which the work under the jurisdiction of such local ls done for the purpose of performing their official duties. The persons or board having under the terms of this   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  11  agreement the duty of adjusting or determining any controversies shall have access to the department involved to investigate the subject matter with or without the business agent of the local involved. 11. The various clauses of this agreement are to be Independent of each other, and If any one clause is for any reason invalid, the Invalidity thereof shall not affect the other clauses. 12. This agreement shall remain In force until December 31, 1928, provided, should either party to this agreement desire to alter, amend, or annul It before its expiration, it shall give written notice thereof to the other party not later than September 1, 1925, in which event the agreement shall remain in force until December 31, 1925. If no notice is given on or before September 1, 1925, the agreement remains In full force and effect until December 31, 1928. If such notice is given and mutually satisfactory amendments are entered Into by the parties, then the agreement as amended shall continue in full force and effect until December 31. 1928. In case such notice is given meetings shall be held between the parties not later than 10 days after the giving of the notice. If the party giving the notice falls or refuses to meet the other party within said 10-day period, then the original agreement shall continue in full force and effect until December 31, 1928. Any proposed changes or amendments agreed upon by the representatives of the parties to the agreement shall be submitted for approval or ratification to the parties themselves an<l such approval, ratification, or rejection (as the case may be) shall be made known to the parties on or before October 1, 1925.  HAVERRILL SHOE BOARD  The Haverhill Shoe Board, or~anized as provided by section 9 of the above agreement, is funct10ning and is reported by many manufacturers and others directly interested in the improvement of conditions in the industry in the city, as being of great service in promoting peace and harmony between the union and manufacturers, ana the direct cause of improved business conditions in the industry immediately after the beginning of August, 1924. The board has rendered many decisions, all being accepted by the union and the manufacturers. Reduction of piece rates.-One of the decisions, undoubtedly the one of greatest importance, rendered May 8, 1924, made a reduction in piece rates. When this decision was made the following statement as to conditions was issued by Mr. Edwin Newdick, chairman of Haverhill Shoe Board. STATEMENT  The accompanying ruling and decisions provide for a general revision ot piece rates in association factories making turn shoes. The reduction is an average decrease of nearly one-fifth, or 20 per cent, of present piece rates on fancy shoes In the average factory where the making room Is classified as Grade 3. On plain base shoes, the reduction will be about 15 per cent. The reductions applied vary widely on different operations, patterns, ana shoes, and -the average reduction within the several departments also varies considerably. The reduction of piece rates average, by departments, a~proxlmately as follows on fancy shoes : Cutting, 25 per cent ; stitching, :.!O per cent; making (including stock fitting and goodyear stitching), 10 pe1• cent ; finishing, 22½ per cent ; wood heeling, 25 per cent ; treeing, 33¾ per cent. The above summary, however, leaves much unsaid. For example, Goodyear stitchers are reduced 25 per cent although the making room averages a reduction of about 10 per cent. About two-thirds of the operations in the stitching room are not reduced at all, while the others are reduced 20 and 25 per centIn one case, hand pressing, 33¾ per cent.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  12  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  Bour rates are not dealt with in the present decisions but may be revised later 1t necessary. It is, however, the hope and belief of the board that those o• hour ud week work can and will do enough more work per hour so that the cost per pair of the work they perform will be reduced 20 per cent without lowering hour rates. To accomplish this, hour and week workers must do onequarter more work than they have been doing. The case for !5 per oent.-A strong case for 25 per cent reduction has been presented to the board. The chairman believes that a 25 per cent reduction is not more than the manufacturers are justified in asking, in view of the losses which they have sustained and the conditions now confronting them. An attempt was made to work out a revision of rates which would net 25 per cent reduction in labor cost per pair. The attempt had to be abandoned because the chairman could not justify such terrific cuts as many workers would have been obliged to take in order to yield an average cut of 25 per cent. The manufacturers have, it is true, shown numerous operations yielding earnings per week high enough to stand substantially more than a 25 per cent cut. But these were instances shown by taking selected factories, selected operatives, and selected weeks, and were too exceptional to warrant accepting such figures as a fair indication of the earning power of average operatives at full-time work under average conditions. The board regrets that it has appeared unwarrantable fully to meet the requirements of Witherall & Dobbins.1 The chairman confidentially informed the heads of this company on Monday of the general nature of the prospeetlve reduction and wishes to record his appreciation of their response. They agreed to do their best to figure out a way by which they could, under the forthcoming decisions, continue in operation and refill their factory with shoes made and sold on a profitable basis. There is, therefore, still hope that this large, old, and honored fl.rm will be saved to Haverhill. Conditions confronting Haverhill.-The general conditions of the city's chief industry are well known. The chairman and numerous representatives of the union, as well as manufacturers and citizens generally, are convinced that an emergency exists demanding immediate action to avoid workers' earnings being still further reduced by unemployment and factory losses being still further increased by low volume of production. The number of shoe workers out of work, though large, does not fully measure the unemployment. Numerous crews are so overmanned that full-time work would not be given them even at capacity production. Many of the shoe workers who have employment are earning but a fraction of what they need to live on. Royalty slips• show Haverhill to be operating at only one-third of normal while the country as a whole is producing shoes at better than four-fifths of normal. Very few factories are operating at or near their full volume of production, and production at less than full volume means increased cost per pair. The present market will not pay Haverhill costs for shoes, much less pay the higher prices needed to cover losses from part-time operation. Manufacturers have been taking losses which they could not long continue to take. This situation brings these necessities: Shoe workers need more income to enable them to live; shoe manufacturers need lower production costs to enable the business to live. There is only one possible way to meet both requirements: Make more shoes in Haverhill.-If, at present rates, a shoe worker works the equivalent of 30 full-time weeks in a year, at $40 a week, he or she earns $1,200. If 45 weeks' work is secured at 25 per cent lower wage rates, the total earnings for the year will be $1,350-12½ per cent more earned at lower rates. If a manufacturer has an overhead cost of 40 cents per pair when making 1 ~ pairs per day but makes only 500 pairs a day, the overhead cost increases to 80 cents per pair. Losses result and these losses will be greater If he raises the price of his shoes, because that will still further reduce the orders obtainable. But if he can lower the price of his shoes sufficiently to make 1,200 pairs a day, the overhead burden per pair falls from 40 cents to 33¾ cents. This makes evident how manufacturers who have been losing money This company and other shoe factories, as irtated above, requested a reduction of 25 cent In wage rates. It continued in business In Haverhill In AUlfUSt, 1924. • Monthly reports by shoe m8llufacturers to shoe machlnerJ' comp&DJ', showing the amount of work done by speclfted machines. 1  ~   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  13  can nevertheless give the buyer all or practically all which they now get off the labor cost of the shoe; some can give the buyer more than the amount by which the labor cost is reduced. This wage adjustment can justify itself .only by bringing more orders for shoes into Haverhill factories. The causea.-It is not difficult to understand how a drastic and abrupt reduction has become necessary. Three factors are prominent in causing i t (1) the boom, (2) fancy shoes, and (3) inflexible wage rates. 1. The war and postwar boom brought sharp competition for workers and skyrocketing living costs. Wage rates·· advanced, yielding large increases in the earnings possible from most operations. Profits were large and the country's shoe factory capacity increased so that it is now possible to make shoes much faster than they are bought in normal times. Competition between shoe manufacturers is therefore likely to be very keen for a long period. To stay in the race, manufacturers must strip down to low production costs. 2. The system used in making piece prices, involving numerous extras, has added unduly to the labor cost of the fancy shoes now in vogue, continuing the labor cost of Haverhill shoes upward during a period when wholesale and retail prices have generally been falling, and the consumer demanding goods "at a price." The seller's market of boom times has become a buyer's market with Haverhill shoes unable to compete at prices low enough to obtain any large amount of what is called the "volume of business." 3. Throughout the period of change which has been underway during several years past, the wage rates in Haverhill shoe factories have been rigid. There ltave been some reductions here and there, but increases elsewhere, principally due to extras on fancy shoes. Had wage rates been flexible and properly adjusted in relation to changing conditions, no such severe change would be required as must now be made all at once to meet an emergency which has been accumulating over an extended period. The system of wage adjustment which Haverhill must develop to yield the best results to manufacturer and worker must be flexible ; first, to permit the manufacturer to more steadily sell Haverhill shoes and thus give steadier work ; and, second, to permit the worker the best living which the industry t'lln afford to pay him and still yield capital a reasonable return compared with opportunities for profit in the shoe industry elsewhere. An increase should be made just as promptly when conditions warrant as the decrease is now being made. The increase should not be delayed until living costs have gone ballooning, any more than the decrease should have been postponed until heavy losses have piled up which demand drastic action to defend the welfare of the city's industry, as at present. The price situation.-Something approximating a revolution is going on in the merchandising of shoes. The small retailer dealing through the jobber ls being rapidly displaced by the chain store buying in huge volume and retailing at lower margins above factory eost and at fixed price levels. Shoes retailing at four, five, and six dollars now comprise a huge amount of the total shoes sold. It is necessary for Haverhill to meet this situation if its future is to be prosperous as a shoe manufacturing center. Whatever the kind or gr11de of Haverhill shoe studied, it is found that the proposed wage reduction is the least which promises to put Haverhill factories into the running to get this business; and those factories now getting some of this business must have the reduction to retain it and continue operation in this city. It would be sheer folly to make a readjustment of wages which is insufficient to meet this situation, for little or nothing would result but reduced earnings of workers and consequent and justified resentment on their part. It is confidently expected that the reductions made will meet this price stiuation, thus giving the manufacturer more orders, less losses, and a profit, and giving the workers more earnings, less loafing, and a living. Competition by workers.-When factories of Haverhill are slack, Haverhill shoe workers go to competing factories in the surrounding territory and work for less than Haverhill wage rates. They thus help competitors of Haverhill but do not help themselves, nor even the shoe workers employed in Haverhill at higher rates. The inevitable outcome is that Haverhill workers at higher rates get less work and less in total earnings. It is not in the interests of Haverhill 25328°-25---3   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  14  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  shoe workers as a whole to maintain wage rates far out of line with factories in surrounding territory, because doing so is taking shot's out of Haverhill to be made elsewhere. Better work for $35 in Haverhill than work for $35 soaewhere else, even though rates in Haverhill remain sufficient to yield $50 were there plenty of work, yet actually yielding only $25 because of slack work. It is not intended to criticize anyone for going wherever nec~sary to get a job, for one must work to live. The point is that Haverhill wage rates should be adjusted in accord with plain common sense and the interests of the city and its people. Haverhill is a better place to live and work, so let us see to it that we make it possible to live and work here. The tum shoe.-Haverh-ill turn shoes are under a more severe competitive handicap on price than McKay shoes. The shoemaking operations on turns are hand work as against machine operation on McKays. This increases the labor cost on turns over Mc.Kays and gives the former their price handicap against the latter. Haverhill turns must compete against other turns, and against some McKays besides. The Haverhill turn shoe has quality appeal to set against its competitive disadvantages, but the consumer is not at present sufflcl.ently aware of the difference. The board is unanimously of the opinion that tum shoemakers. do not eam as much as the high skill and hard work of their craft should yield them. Nevertheless, it appears to the chairman that some reduction is advisable to safeguard their jobs and their earnings. If Haverh1ll turn factories get reduction only in departments common to both McKays and turns, the tum shoemaking of the city will remain in danger even though ·Haverhill McKays do not directly compete with Haverh1ll turns. This is true because Haverhill McKays must have labor costs to enable them to compete with McKays made elsewhere, and McKays made elsewhere do certainly compete with Haverhill turns. The chairman considers that the turn workmen have shown moderation in securing increases in the past, and they certainly have been open-minded and fair in the proceedings of the present readjustment. All of this causes regret that any reduction whatever of tum workmen should appear advisable; nevertheless economic facts dictate the present course and the board believes that it would be unwise to ignore them. Special effort will be made to cause tum manufacturers to improve conditions so that the tum workmen can do more pairs per day. Re'ViBion of specific ratea.-It has appeared to the chairman so highly important to take prompt action and reap full advantage· of the selling period now upon us that not all the time desired by the union could be granted. ~he accompanying ruling therefore provides for revision of specific rates in less than the six-months' period established in the working agreement as the minimum during which a decision shall remain in force, for although the ruling sets forth that a general revision of rates covered by the decision for each department can not be made inside six months, speclff.c rates for one operation may be ,revised within that period. This ruling is based on advice of legal counsel for the board. The ruling doe'll not furnish so broad an opportunity for revisions of the present decisions as the chairman had in mind to allow by a temporary decision permitting reconsideration of any part or all of the rates set at any time after issuance. In the recent injunction proceedings counsel for the union argued that the board has not the authority to make a temporary decision and a temporary decision is therefore not made. Any revisions made within the six-months' period will be so applied as to protect the manufacturer from any substantial increase in cost on shoes already sold and in process. The workers' problem.-The fundamental question which the Haverhill shoe worker is called upon to answer is, Can the peace pact be made to work to any advantage? About 18 months remain in which to answer that question. The peace pact can then be annulled if either side wishes to do so. The ·conditions met with at the outset are about as difficult as they could be. On the success or failure of our efforts to cope with those difficulties the union will be judged, the Haverhill shoe industry will be judged, and our experiment with permanent arbitration machinery will be judged. can we together make a success of the experiment? If we do, benefit must accrue to both parties to the pact, for nothing else would be success. If we do not make a success of it the condition must again be one either of deadlock, or struggle, or dictatorial rule by manufacturers or union. Does anyone believe that the industry can prosper during any such condition? If the industry can not vrosver neither ~IJ either part, to the struggle Ion~ prosper, ·   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  15  The way to determine whether the peace pact can benefit the worker is to give it a good, thorough trial. While union officials find frequent occasion to express threats and regrets because they are in the peace pact the right attitude is not being taken to give the pact an honest trial. The manufacturers' duty.-The manufacturers are being awarded a large reduction in labor costs so that they can sell more shoes. It is their duty to go out immediately and fill their factories. The manufacturers have given assurance that they can do it with 25 per cent reduction. Careful study convinces the chairman that they can do it with 20 per cent reduction. They will have forfeited a serious measure of confidence if they fail. Most of the manufacturers have a further responsibility. Where conditions in their factories unduly slow up the worker those conditions should be remedied, for at the reduced rates it is unjustifiable to put obstacles in the way of pieceworkers trying to make a day's pay. A good grade of work must assuredly be required, but there should be no hampering or annoyance of workers by too much supervision nor by inconsiderate words or acts of supervisors. There must at the same time be greater effort than heretofore to see that the work gets to each worker in proper condition for performance of the next operation with the minimum of avoidable difficulty. Manufacturers, supervisors, crews, and union agents should work together for constructive betterment of manufacturing details. Any factory official is unwise who does not listen open-mindedly to suggestions. Any worker or agent is unwise who adopts so aggressive, critical, or disrespectful a manner as to anger the person addressed and thus befog the merit of a suggestion with a vapor of resentment. The community's duty.-Everyone in Haverhill is largely dependent upon the shoe industry for his income, either directly or indirectly. The community must share the industry's burdens. One party to the industry, the manufacturer, has shown burdens too great for him to continue to carry. Part of that burden is being taken over by the shoe workers. It is the intention of the board to transfer part of the shoe workers' burden to the community. This will be done, first, by an appeal to merchants and real estate owners to reduce prices and rents. Second, the Haverhill Shoe Board will proceed to investigate prices and rents. The results will be presented to an advisory committee which has agreed to assist the chairman and which will presently be announced with further plans for determined action to get results. It appears that some landlords and retailers need to be notified that the war is over. ARBITRATION OF DISPUTES IN HAVERHILL  As provided by section 6 (p. 9) of the agreement between the Shoe Workers' Protective Union and the Haverhill Shoe Manufa~turers' Association, " All. controve1:3ies between the parties to this agreement shall be subJect to adJustment and arbitration as herein provided." In case of controversy between one or more manufacturers anil the shoe workers of such manufacturers and inability of these parties to adjust their differences, the general agent of the union and the manager of the association, on the request of either party, endeavor to adjust the question at issue. If these two, one representing the union and the other representing the manufacturers, are unable to render a decision acceptable to both parties, the coutro':'ers~ is referred_ to t?e Hayerhill Shoe Board, in writing, for arbitration, as provided m section 9 of the agreement. This board consists of three members, one selected by the general agent of the union, one by the manager of the manufacturers' association, and one known as the neutral arbitrator selected by the said general agent and manager, or by a specified committee of leading citizens of Haverhill. The board has full power in fixing piece rates and in adjusting any and all differences between the union and the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  16  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN :MASSACHUSETTS  association, or between the union or one or more locals of the union and any manufacturer. There is no appeal from the decisions of the board. Prior to the establishment of the board by the December 19, 1923, agreement the industry: in Haverhill was greatly affected and much business and work was lost owing· to the fact that it was extremely difficult for the union and the association to settle differences within a reasonable period of time. In June, 1920, the manufacturers' association, representing 65 factories, made a request for a reduction of wages, claiming inability to sell shoes in competition with factories in other localities where wage rates were less than in Haverhill. The union refused the request. This started a disagreement that was not settled until the December 12, 1920, agreement was signed. While there was no general strike or lockout, work dropped off because of lack of orders, lack of ability of manufacturers to get orders on account of the trouble and long period of disagreement. A few small strikes occurred in individual factories. Wage rates were not reduced. Like differences and results occurred in i922 and 1923 prior to the agreements in those years. The manufacturers' association was for and the union was against the time-clock system. The inauguration of the system will furnish the amount of time worked by pieceworkers for the earnings per day or week, the time worked being needed especially for time studies of occupations or operatfons and for accuracy in fixing piece rates. The following decisions are indicative of the work of the Haverhill Shoe Board: RULINGS OF HAVERHILL SHOE BO.ARD CASES  Nos. 75  by pieceworkers and payment of pieceworkers for waiting for work  AND 126.-Ringing of time clocks  (Case No. 75 referred to arbitration by the association June 9, 1924. Preliminary hearing June 11. Hearing continued August 4. Case No. 126 referred to arbitration by the union July 30. Preliminary hearing August 1. Hearing continued'August 4.) The association refers to the board Case No. 75, asking that manufacturers be authorized to require pieceworkers, as well as week workers, to use time clocks. The union refers Case No. 126, asking that pieceworkers be paid for time at the employers' disposal when the employee is required to wait for work. The union objects to pieceworkers being required to use time clocks, basing the objection on principle. The manufacturers object to paying pieceworkers for waiting for work, basing the objection on the impossibility of accurately figuring this element of cost into the price of the shoes. Waiting for work has long been a grievance of pieceworkers. As a result of lt the timing-out practice arose, under which crews left the factory for the day if work was not provided for them within a specified period after starting tim~usually one hour. The evil of waiting for work is an evil of slack times and has recently caused dissatisfaction, several cutting-room crews having followed the timing-out practice within the last few weeks. The manufacturers· ask permission to require pieceworkers to register on time clocks in order that pay-roll figures of earnings may be subject to check to show whether or not the earnings represent full working time spent i~ the factory. Much contradictory testimony would·be eliminated from hearings of the board if time-clock records were available. The manufacturers' objection to any element of cost .which can not be accurately figured, like paying piece~orkers for waiting, is entitled to serious consideration. At the same time, 1t must be recognized that there are inevitably elements of cost which can not be accurately figured-cancellations, for example.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  :HAVERHILL  17  The board recognizes that anything which contributes ....to a feeling at freedom is precious to a wage earner, and, therefore, appreciates that pieceworkers value the absence of such rigid tlme requirement as they feel ls imposed when they must register their entrance to, and exit from, the factory on a time clock. The board is strongly of the opinion that substantial advantages will accrue to both manufacturers and workers if their objections are overruled. Pieceworkers should be paid for time which they are required to place at the manufacturers' dlsposaL If not receiving piece wages, they should be receiving time wa~ This is obvious justice and common sense. · The manufacturers should realize that, when employees are kept waiting for work, there is an indication of something wrong somewhere. Production ls impeded. The work expected to arrive at a given place in the factory at a certain time did not arrive there on schedule. In the final analysis, the money invested in the business of manufacturing shoes was slowed up in its turnover, which means reduced profit or increased loss. The manufacturer will himself benefit if he is stimulated to eliminate the need of workers waiting around for something to do. The manufacturer will be further benefited by getting rid of one of the worst causes of dissatisfaction among his crew. Pieceworkers will be benefited by elimination of waiting, for they will then either have the time free or else be getting compensation for it. TWs ruling deals definitely with waiting for work at the beginning of the morning and afternoon. There is also much time lost by pieceworkers waiting for work between jobs. Part of this is due to too large crews for the work in hand, but waiting is an evil which the board ls convinced can and should be minimized, during whatever part of the day it occurs. • There Is at present no record of any kind made to show how much time pieceworkers are forced to wait for work, and it ls a complicated matter to devise a plan which will completely cover requirements and work well for all operations and all factories. The board will initiate experiments in difl'.erent factories on difl'.erent operations in the attempt to work out a method by which records can be made available to show the amount of waiting between jobs which pieceworkers encounter. The chairman has designated a special committee to recommend installation of experimental systems and to devise a uniform system for general use. This committee ls composed of Mr. Frank U. Ryan, representing the chairman; Mr. William J. Ryan, representing the union, and Mr. Fred L. Cooper, representing the association. This committee is requested to devise a form of slip, for use as soon as possible, which will show the opemtion, the work done, by whom done, and the time consumed in doing the work. When an operative finishes all WQl'k then available, and he or she is required to wait ~or another job for a considerable period, the data will be at hand on the proposed slips upon which the board can base an order for time payment to that operative for time lost in waiting. When such records are available, the board wm hear any case in which the union asks payment for excessive time lost in any factory. No definite order will be issued at present requiring payment for waiting between jobs, but manufacturers are warned to minimize waiting unless they are ready to face the prospect of paying pieceworkers for excessive time which they are required to wait between jobs. The board further rules as follows: Effective September 1, 1924, or at the beginning of the next pay-roll week thereafter, and until otherwise ordered, each time and piece worker may be required to register entrance into and departure from the factory on a time clock, provided that time clock be reasonably well located and in proper operating condition. Similarly effective, if a time clock be provided, every Pi!!Ceworker shall be paid for one hour's time for the first full hour which he or she is required to wait continuously for work immediately after his or her starting time, and half such hour rate for each 30 minutes of waiting over the first full hour of continuous waiting immediately after bis or her starting time : PrO'IJid,ed,, That no payment for waiting shall be made for time in advance of the time at which the worker was ordered or expected to report for work, nor in advance of the time at which entrance into the factory was registered on the time clock : .A.nd, provided, further, That no worker shall be entitled to be thus   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  18  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  . . .paid unless he or she has regularly registered entrance into, and exit from the factory on the time clock in accordance with requirements. Similarly effective, if no time clock is provided, every pieceworker shall be paid the hour rate on his or her operation for each hour which he or she is required to wait continuously for work immediately after the regular starting time of that factory, and half such hour rate for each 30 minutes of waiting over the first full hour or subsequent full hours of continuous waiting immediately after the regular starting time of that factory; it being provided by this paragraph that any manufacturer who fails to furnish a time clock on which pieceworkers may record entrance must pay pieceworkers for waiting, on the assumption that they entered the factory at the regular time when that factory• began operation on the day in question. Similarly effective, any pieceworker asked or expected to report for work in any morning and who does report and register on a time clock, if a time clock is provided, and who receives no work and (having waited less than one hour) receives no hour pay for waiting, shall be paid for one-half hour for reporting; and, if asked to return for work later in the same day, said peiceworker, upon duly reporting and registering later in the day, shall be entitled to payment for waiting In accordance with the foregoing provisions; Provided, That when reporting for work more than once In one day, a pieceworker shall be paid for each half hour of continuous waiting immediately after reporting time. Similarly effective, any pieceworker asked to report for work at any time of the day other than the regular starting time shall be paid for waiting in accordance with the foregoing provisions. Any pi~ce or time worker who registers on a time clock his or her entrance into the factory within 5 minutes after the regular starting time for that factory shall be deemed ·to have registered at or before starting time if more than 50 employees are required to register on any one clock. No pieceworker shall be entitled to pay for waiting for work when such waiting is caused by tardiness or absence of a worker on a preceding operation. No week or hour worker shall suffer deduction from his or her pay for tardiness of more than an amount equal to his or her rate of pay multiplied by the time tardy. No time clock shall be set during working hours. August 8, 1924. CABE  No. 142.-0hange of grade of edge making: Hartman Shoe Oo.  (Referred to arbitration by the union September 2, 1924. Preliminary hearing September 4. Hearing continued September 17.) The union asks that the Hartman Shoe Co. be changed from Class 3 to Class 2 in rates paid for edge trimming and edge setting. Pay-roll figures show setters in the Hartman factory able to make $40 per week. The company states that the setters did not work full 9-hour days to make this amount. The local to which these operations belong is opposing the use of time clocks by its members to show when they enter and leave the factory. The board, therefore, accepts the testimony of the company upon this point and concludes that present rates received by the setters are not shown to require revision at this time by the evidence offered and the attitude taken by the union. · Edge trimmers in the HartIJlUn Co. show substantially lower earnings than setters. The principal reason is that there are seven trimmers to six setters. The retention of the extra trimmer is required by the terms of the working agreement providing against dismissal of operatives because of slack work. The board can not adjust rates to furnish adequate earnings to overmanned crews. Case No. 142 is dismissed. September 18, 1924. CASE  No. 18.-Di1Jision of work in the cutting room of the H. 8. OoUins factory  (Referred to arbitration by the union March 6, 1924. Preliminary hearing March 9. Hearing continued March 11. Board meeting March 12.) This cw;;e involves the interpretation of the working agreement as to whether during slack periods workmen may be laid off and work done by supervisory employees, If the total volume of work done by each does not exceed one-half of his time. The last paragraph of article 3 of the working agreement Is as follows:   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  19  " The manufacturer agrees that there shall be no laying off of members of the crew during slack periods, and during the slack periods work shall be distributed as equally as possible among the crew." Article 4, paragraph 8, states: " During their spare time, but not amounting to more than half their time, superintendents, foremen, foreladies, assistant foremen, and assistant foreladies may be employed to a reasonable extent in working on shoes in any of the departments without being members of the union." These two clauses must be interpreted together. It is to be noted tbat the maximum amount of work authorized for a supervisory employee, not a member of the union, is one-half his time. Manifestly the agreement contemplates that such supervisors shall frequently, or perhaps usually, work less than the maximum one-half of their time. The last paragraph of article 3 states explicitly and unconditionally tbat there shall be no laying off of members of the crew during slack periods but tbat work shall be distributed as equally as possible among the crew. The interpretation hereby made is as follows : Supervisory employees as specified in the above portion of the second paragraph of article 4 shall during slack times be considered in the division of work as one of the crew. That is, the two sections of the agreement above quoted shall be interpreted and applied as if the last paragraph of article 3 were made to read as follows : " The manufacturer agrees that there shall be no laying off of members of the crew during slack periods and during the slack periods work shall be distributed as equally as possible among the crew, including such supervisory employees as are specified in the first sentence of paragraph 3, article 4, except that such division of work shall not give to any such supervisory employee more work than can be performed in one-half his or her time each week." The division of work in the cutting room of the H. S. Collins factory during the period in issue is held to have been a fair application of the terms of the working agreement and of this decision. March 12, 1924. CASE  No. 90.-Piece rates for pulZing off and relasting boots: M. T. Ornsteen Shoe Co.  (Referred to arbitration by the union ,Tune 17, 1924. Preliminary hearing June 19. Hearing continued July 24, 1924.) The union requests a higher price for pulling off and relasting boots In the M. T. Ornsteen factory. The board finds conditions in that factory not substantially difl'erent than elsewhere, and not substantially different than before the wage adjustment. It appears, however, that the present total price of 6-½ cents per dozen for relasting and pulling off boots is not accurately divided. It is easier to relast a boot than an oxford, but a little more difficult to pull off a boot than an oxford. The present 6-½ cents gives 4-½ cents for relasting and 2 cents for p)Jlling off. Effective at the beginning of the next pay-roll week, the price for relasting boots shall be 4 cents per dozen, and for pulling off 2-½ cents per dozen, with no change in the price of 1 cent per dozen for throwing away lasts. This change applies to all McKay factories. July 29, 1924. No. 98.-Piece rates for fancy stitching saddle on patterns 178"/ and 1!188 (Ladd), Hartman_ Shoe Co., and basis for computing prices on simllar pat-  CASE  terns  (Referred to arbitration by the association June 23, 1924. Preliminary hearIng June 25. Hearing continued July 31.) The association asks that a change in the piece rates for fancy stitching saddle on patterns 1737 and 1738 (Ladd) of the Hartman Shoe Co., and asks that this change be made by figuring the price from a tip instead of from a vamp throat as has been done heretofore. Such an order of the board, lf made, will have weight as a precedent on similar patterns but will perhaps have no effect on the specific patterns on which the case arises, as no work on these patterns is now being done by the Hartman Shoe Co. As figured from a vamp throat base, the fancy stitching on pattern 1737 came to 63 cents per dozen pairs. The rate actually paid was 63 cents minus the 25 per cent reduction recently made by the board   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ~0  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE iNbUSTRY tN :M:ASSACHtiSET'l'S  The assoclatlon's proposal to figure the price from the tip base would make the price 88 cents a dozen, from which the 25 per cent reduction on fancy stitching would similarly apply. The association's proposal would give a rate nearly 40 per cent lower than the basis of figuring actually followed. The board ls able In this case to get full time earnings from this particular operation made by a number of different fancy stltchers. Ten operatives worked exclusively on this pattern over periods of from four to eight weeks. The pay-roll data shows earnings per week on these patterns averaging from $89.93, "the lowest, to $48.68, the highest. The lowest operative-worked four weeks exclusively on these patterns, five operatives, including the one with the highest earnings, worked eight weeks exclusively on these patterns. Ten operatives who worked a total of 60 operative weeks, averaged $43.24 ea.ch per week. These earnings were made with the 25 per cent reduction In effect as ordered by the board ·several months ago. Had the same work been done ·before this reduction, the average weekly earnings of the ten fancy stltchers on this work would have been about $57.50 per week, and the highest Individual would have . averaged over $63 and made over $85 In her best week. Had the patterns been figured on the tip base, the operatives would have made an average of about $26 each on the work done. The board considers $26 too low for full-time earnings for fancy stitchers on work of this natureunder the conditions applying. The operatives worked entirely on this one operation for several weeks, thus having a chance to acquire their maximum speed on the work. Evidence was offered to ·show that the operatives were requested by supervisors to hurry the work. They doubtless exceeded the speed which should be assumed in fixing prices, In view of this, and the conditions highly favorable to unusual speed, high earnings should appear. Operatives ought to feel free to go after high earnings without fear of rate cuts merely because they may substantially exceed a fair average wage. Nevertheless, the board believes that the tip ls the base which the patterns more closely approximate. The base vamp upon which the price· for short throat is made has a throat with curvature on a radius of about five-eighths inch. The base tip on which prices are made has a curvature on a radius of about 9 Inches. The length of the row to be stitched varies less, jl.Jld matters less to · the operator, than the degree ol curvature. The maximum curvature of the saddle straps involved in this case ls about 4/ir Inches. The board rules as follows : Etrectlve during the next pay-roll week beginning on or after September 15, 1924, patterns No. 1737 and 1738 (Ladd), Hartman Shoe Co., and similar patterns shall be figured from the short vamp throat base when the radius of the maximum curvature is 1½ inches or less for a distance of 1 inch or more, or when the radius ls 1½ inches to 3 inches for a distance of 3 Inches or more, or when the radius ls 3 inches to 5 inches for a distance of 5 Inches or more. The distance In each case shall be measured along the chord of the curve ; 1. e., the straight line drawn between the ends of the curve. In any case In which the radius ls more or the distance less than specified herein, the price shall be figured from the tip base. The provisions as to curvature and distance shall be figured separately for each row to be stitched· unless the union and the association shall otherwise agree. This case is continued to September 10, 1924, at 10 o'clock a. m., at which time the parties wlll be heard on prices for fancy stitching tips. August 8, 1924. CASE  No. 13.-Discharge of a treer b71 Knighta:AZZen Oo.  (Referred to arbitration by the union, March 3, 1924. Hearing March 4.) Concerning the treer discharged from this factory on Monday, March 8, 1924, the following ruling is made: 1. The treer shall be reinstated after suspension for a period of one week, returning to work Monday :m-0rning, March 10. 2. The treer shall receive no pay for this period of suspension. 8. One-half the regular piece price for treeing the last case of shoes done by said treer Friday afternoon, February 29, shall be deducted from the next pay envelope ol said treer as further penalty for defective workmanship. 4. The union agrees to furnish a thorough, competent, substitute or substitutes required by the -Knights-Allen Co. to perform any work held up by · suspension of said treer.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  HAVERHILL  21  5. The treer is warned that high standard of workmanship may properly be demanded by Haverhill shoe manufacturers, and that a more severe penalty might have appeared justified but for the long service of about 18 years of good work done by this treer. It is further calledl to the attention of the employee that too much talk or irritating manner or language is to be carefully avoided. March 4, 1924. r CASE  No. 159.-Discharge of a vamper: Hartnwn Shoe Oo.  (Referred to arbitration by the union September 2, 1924. Hearing September 5.) The union asks reinstatement with pay for lost time of a vamper discharged for leaving the factory without permission of the foreman. The association asks confirmation of the discharge. Testimony indicates that the discharged vamper waited several hours for work on three consecutive mornings. On the first two she eventually received work; on the third she went home after waiting several hours without being given any work. Upon reporting for work on the following morning she was discharged. · The vamper asserts that she reported to the foreman that she was kept waiting an excessive length of time for work. The foreman denies that she reported the fact to him. The vamper further asserts that the foreman told the operator on the next machine to hers that he wished to know if this operator was kept waiting. The vamper· also asserts that the foreman said this in her hearing and in such a manner as to convince her that she was being discriminated against or being intentionally irritated. The foreman denies the facts and denies any intention to irritate or discriminate against the discharged vamper. Testimony indicates that the foreman and the vamper each made remarks bound to anger the other. The foreman told this vamper that no employee gained anything by going over his head to the union with a complaint, and that she would not gain anything if she went to the ·union. The vamper retorted by charging the foreman with favoritism. The earnings of the discharged vamper during these several days were substantially lower than those of other operators around her, although she is a fast operator, but evidence does not show any intentional discrimination. The discharged operator did not report the facts to the union before leaving her place, nor did she report them until the• following day after she had been discharged. In ruling on this case, these facts and considerations are given decisive weight: 1. The vamper, a pieceworker, was kept waiting for work an undue length of time three consecutive mornings, without explanation from the foreman and without any indication of considerate attitude on his part. The enforcement of undue waiting upon pieceworkers by an executive placed the employer in an unfavorable position in any case before this board in which it is involved. 2. The foreman, in making a remark discouraging the vamper from reporting to the union, was directly opposing the proper functioning of an integral part of the .arbitration machinery. Evidence indicated that the foreman acted contrary to the attitude of higher officials of the Hartman Shoe Co. in this matter. 3. The vamper left her work without permission, which she should not have done; nevertheless, she did only what it was formerly customary fercrews to do (after shorter periods of waiting) under the timing out rule. She also failed to report to the union in time to allow opportunity for the matter to be adjusted with the least possible difficulty and the minimum of interference with production. The order in this case is as follows : 1. The vamper shall be immediately reinstated. 2. She shall be paid for time lost between her discharge and her reinstatement, but not for the day on which she left the factory without permission. Payment for time lost shall be at the rate of 60 cents per hour, and shall 25328°-25---4   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  22  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  be for 9 hours for each working day beginning with the day of the discharge, · Thursday, August 29. 3. The vamper in this case is fined $5 for leaving the factory without permision of the foreman or authorization of the agent of her union. 4. The foreman is fined $10 for attempting to intimidate the vamper and for attempting to prevent her from following the proper course of reporting the matter to the union. 5. The fines shall be deducted from the next pay envelope o:8 the vamper and the foreman and paid by the Hartman Shoe Co. to the Haverhill Shoe Board to be expended only for relief in any case of need or misfortune in the immedi"ate family of a Haverhill shoe worker and only upon recommendation of some agent or official of the union. 6. Notice is hereby given tQ all executives that intimidation and obstruction of the proper functioning of the arbitration machinery, including the union and its accredited representatives, are offenses likely to be dealt with more severely by this board hereafter. September 9, 1924.  STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS IN HAVERHILL  The agreement that there shall be " no strike, lockout, or cessation of work, and that nothing shall be done by either party to hinder, impede, retard, or prevent production" was part of the December 12, 1920, agreement in effect until December~ 1922: of the December. 1922, agreement in effect until January 1, 1924, and is part of the December 19, 1923, agreement in force and effect to December 31, 1928. There has been little or no violation of these agreements on the part of the union or association. A small number of strikes have occurred, none of them general. The strikes were usually by workers in only one of the departments of the factory, participated in by- a small per cent of the total number of workers of the factory, and were· of short duration. EFFICIENCY OF H:AVERRILL SHOE WORKERS.  The manufacture of shoes in Haverhill began about 1640 and is the principal-in fact, almost the only-industry in the city. In discussing business conditions with citizens, it is the only industry referred to,. as is always the case in a one-industry city. When. shoe factories a.re busy labor in Ha.verhill is employed and business generally good or excellent, but when the factories, on account of lack of orders or for other reasons, are working part time and dividing the available work equally among workers, as provided in times of slack work, labor is employed part time and business is fair, poor, or bad according to the amount of work available. The manufacture of shoes under these conditions is, therefore, so necessary to the city and to labor that one hears the expected when told that the shoe workers in the city are unusually skilled in giving touch, style, and finish to shoes. Manufacturers, with one or two exceptions, so expressed themselves as to their employees. In addition? it is stated that some of the factories that IQ.Oved from the city are having stitching and finishing done in union contract shops in 1.):averhill, because the workers in Haverhill are more efficient than those in the towns in which the factories are now locat.ed.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LABOR CONDIT'IONS IN SHOE .INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  28  LYNN The 27 factories that moved out of Lynn and the 40 that liquidated or· went into bankruptcy include 46 that were in business prior to and on January 1, 1920. One of the 46 began business in 1885 and several between 1890 and 1900, or more than 20 years before the beginning of the period covered by this study. In the aggregate, the 67 factories, employed an average of more than 4,000 shoe workers, and, when working the customary fulltime hours, produced an average of between 45,000 and 50,000 pairs of shoes per day. The tremendous loss in number of shoe workers forced out of employment, in earnings, and in value of products, is shown in a statement of " Facts," prepared by the Lynn Chamber of Commerce and published in the Lynn Telegram-News in the latter part of 1923, after 49 of the 67 factories had closed their doors, in which it was stated that : During the last 30 months, 49 shoe manufacturing plants for one reason or another have closed their doors. In the neighborhood of 4,000 workers have been forced out of employment. It is conservatively estimated that under normal production these plants were capable of turning out daily 42,740 pairs of shoes. On the basis of a 5-day week, this amounts to 213,700 pairs, and on a yearly basis of 40 weeks, amounts to 8,548,000 pairs. At the extremely low average value of $2.50 per pair, the normal daily loss in value of product amounts to $107,850, or in a 5-day week to $539,250, and in a 40-week year to $21,570,000. At the rock-bottom labor cost of 90 cents per pair, the wage loss amounts to $38,466 per day, or iI} a 5-day week amounts to $192,330, and in a 40-week year to $7,693,200. If the estimated wage loss above referred to was divided equally among the 9,000 shoe workers, which the State department of labor contends are normally employed in Lynn, each would receive $854.80 or a weekly average of $21.37. Think of what a tremendous buying power this would be. In arriving at these conclusions we have used as a basis the known normal capacity of the concerns which have gone plus labor cost and shoe value so far below average Lynn prices as to prohibit criticism. The figures do show, however, in a clear and concise way the magnitude of Lynn's financial loss.  REASONS FOR REMOVAL, LIQUIDATION, OR FAILURE IN LYNN  Practically every manufacturer who moved and every one who liquidated reported that he did so only as a last resort and after an earnest and honest effort to make shoes in Lynn, and attributed his action to labor conditions. The same is true of those who went into bankruptcy except a few who failed on account of bankruptcy of brokers to whom they sold their shoes, or because of lack of finances in times of slack business. Maufacturers assert that they really have little or nothing to say as to the operation of their factories because they claim, in substance, , thatThere are certain working rules which are burdensome, though they were accepted by both parties to the agreement. Unions enforce the rule, " During slack times the foreman shall divide the work evenly and no one shall be discharged because of slack work." The unions insist that workers who do certain operations, such as lasting, etc., leave the factory whenever a certain amount of work is not in readiness at a stated time. Example: Ten !asters report for work in the morning. The foreman has nine cases of shoes ready for them. All leave the factory because work is not ready for 10, even though assured by the foreman that another case will be provided as soon as possible.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  24  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  Unions, under the " permit system " rule, dictate whom the manufacturer may hire, and when he may increase or decrease his crew. Under the permit system the manufacturer, when in need of employees, asks the union to furnish a specified number of cutters, !asters, stitchers, etc. The union issues individual permits authorizing workers to go to the specified manufacturer and work at the occupation designated in the permit. The permit is limlted to the particular manufacturer and occupation. This system was also enforced in Haverhill part of the time between 1920 and 1924, but was abandoned after strong opposition by the Haverhill Manufacturers' Association. Union officials do not appear to have enough control over their members to prevent them from striking. When factories have an abundance of orders and shoes are in process of manufacture, unions demand increases in wage rates and strike to enforce the demand, as in August, 1923, when !asters demanded an increase of 40 per cent for !asters and 50 per cent for assemblers. The .lasters, by this strike, which was in violation of agreement and against the advice of the Joint Council of Amalgamated Shoe Workers, obtained an increase of 17 Pfr cent in piece rates of !asters and 19 per cent in piece rates of assemblers. Nearly every factory was tied up by the August, 1923, strike, and approximately 5,000 workers were out of work for three or four days.  The Ma,ssachusetts Department of Labor and Industries reports 12,131 shoe workers in Lynn shoe factories in 1919; 9,340 in 1920; 9,500 in 1921; 8,329 in 1922; and 8,221 in 1923-a loss of 12 per cent in 1923 compared _with 1920. _ According to information obtained from union officials, from an official of the manufacturers' association, and from an official of the chamber of commerce there were approximately 8,000 shoe workers in Lynn in 1924. Owing to slack business or lack of orders a very large per cent of the 5,000 to 6,000 workers, who were employed in 1924, were working part time, approximately 1,000 of them in 15 open or nonunion shops. Part time is necessary under the rule requiring equal division of work among workers and no reduction of crew or force in times of slack work. Under this rule when there are only a few hours' work per day an employee may get his share by working on one or more days per week, that is, for example, work 7½ hours in one day or 1½ hours per day for 5 days. The number of workers may, therefore, be the same when a factory is working full time and when it is working part time. A considerable number, while still living in Lynn, were working in factories in near-by cities-Boston, Beverly, Chelsea, Danvers, and Salem-making daily trips from Lynn to the place of employment and return, and frequently working, as manufacturers assert, at lower rates and on more days per week and under di:fferent rules, regulations, and conditions than those in Lynn. In Au~st, 1924, a member of one of the large real estate companies in Lynn said : There are now thousands of feet of vacant floor space in Lynn, 1,500,000 or more, formerly occupied by shoe manufacturers who have either moved from Lynn to other cities or have gone into bankruptcy, principally on account of labor troubles. This space may be had at a rental of 20 cents per foot, including heat and power. In 1920 all space in Lynn was in use. We have the rental of much of the space. At the price of 20 cents per foot, owners can not make anything but are glad to have the buildings occupied and get something, as many of them have mortgages on them carried by the banks in Lynn. Rental prices on homes have come down -very little except for those that are not modern and have few if any conveniences, but there are a number of vacancies caused by families of shoe workers moving out of Lynn, while others are doubling up, which is frequently done to save expenses.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LYNN  25  Rentals range from $5 to $15 per week for houses of 4 to 8 rooms. The $5 rate is for 4 rooms without conveniences, while the $15 rate _is for houses with conveniences and well located. Many shoe workers who bought houses when prices were high are now in danger of losing their equity in them on account of being unable to meet second mortgage payments. They come to us frequently and ask us to sell their homes at most any price as they say they are going to Salem, Boston, Chelsea, Lowell, or other places where they have work or hope to be able to get work. Many are living in Lynn and working elsewhere at wage rates less than the rates paid for the same work in Lynn. We are at present renting houses to 200 or more families.  The above statement as to factory buildings and shoe workers' homes was corroborated in the main by another large Lynn real estate company. EFFICIENCY OF LYNN SHOE WORKERS  Lynn shoe workers are, according to their employers, as skillful and efficient as workers in any other locality. One manufacturer said: Our employees are very efficient and do as much or more work per man per hour and do it as well if not better than shoe workers elsewhere, giving the shoes a style and finish that can not be beaten, and our machine workers do the work with the minimum amount of wear and tear on the machines.  .Another said : Lynn shoe workers are faster and more efficient and do a better grade of work than workers in factories in near-by States. This statement is made after having visited a number of localities in those States as well as one city in this State and seen employees at work. The trip was made when we were seriously thinking of moving out of Lynn to get away from labor conditions. We decided not to move. Lynn-made shoes of our make can, on account of better workmanship, be sold at 5 cents more per pair wholesale than shoes of the same style made outside Lynn at a labor cost of 5 cents less per pair.  Other manufacturers, including many of those that moved, liquidated, or went out of business, spoke of Lynn workers in like manner. SHOE WORKERS' UNIONS IN LYNN  The .Amalgated Shoe Workers of .America, with approximately 5,000 members, is by far the largest shoe workers' union in Lynn, followed in order by the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, Independent Lasters, Shoe Workers' Protective Union, Independent Stock Fitters, and Independent Packers, and mixed unions. The lasters, stock fitters, packers, and mixed unions were locals under the amalgamated but seceded and frequently are called "Rebels." The feeling between the amalgamated and the "Rebels" is extremely bitter, and has resulted in numerous petty strikes, delaying the work on shoes in the process of manufacture and causing cancellation of orders on account of manufacturers not being able to finish and deliver shoes on time. It is the general opinion that the industry, manufacturers and workers, will continue to suffer as long as the above conditions as to unions exist. 2532s 0 -25---o   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  26  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  UNION AGREEMENT OF 1924 IN LYNN  The 1924 agreement 8 between the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America and individual manufacturers in Lynn, which was to go into effect September 1, is as follows: 1. The parties to this agreement are the Joint Council No. 1 of Lynn, of the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America, the locals affl.llated therewith, and each and all of the Jpembers of said locals, hereinafter called the union, and - -- - of said Lynn, hereinafter called the employer. The agreement applies to the employment of direct labor on shoes produced in departments ,of the employer's factory in Lynn. It shall not apply to superintendents, foremen, assistants, office help, or other employees not commonly represented 1n a shoe craft 2. There shall be no lockout on the part of the employer and no strike or (:()ncerted cessation of work on the part of employees. 3. Only members of a local of the Amalagmated Shoe Workers of America, now or hereinafter afflllated with Joint Council No. 1, of Lynn, Mass., shall be employed in a department where the work commonly performed by the craft composing such local is done, and the employer may hire any such member ; providing, however, that if the union falls at any time to supply such members in sufficient numbers as requested by the employer to carry ,on said work in any such department, any person or persons may be employed. 4. The employer agrees that there shall be no discrimination against any member of the union because of his or her activity in union affairs. 5. Any difference not settled between the employer and the business agent ,of the local involved shall at the request of either be submitted to an adjustment board composed of three representatives of the employer ha vlng the difference and three representatives of the local. Unless such board meets and settles the matter in five days from the date such board is re.quested by either, the matter shall be referred for arbitration to the State Board of Conciliation and Arbitration whose decision shall be binding. In ,case either party fails to sign an arbitration application, signatures to this agreement shall be treated by the State board as such application. While any difference ls being considered the work shall be performed without any interruption. Decisions on new work shall date from the time the new work was begun. 6. A discharge shall be considered a difference if the local so notifies the ~mployer. In such case the place of the discharged employee Shall be tilled temporarily if the employer desires. and if the difference ls determined in his or her favor the discharged employee shall be reinstated. 7. The employer agrees that otl.lcials and stewards of the union acting in their official capacity shall not be hindered or obstructed in performing their -official duties in the factory. · 8. During the months of June, July, and August the working time shall be ~ days a week, of 9 hours each, beginning Monday of each week; during the other 9 months the time shall be the foregoing and a half day on Saturday, the total not to exceed 50 hours. Concerns manufacturing slippers may work the Saturday half day in June, July, and August or any of said months, providing they select other three months in which to omit the Saturday half  day.  .  9. The term of this agreement shall be until April 30, 1925. STRIKES IN LYNN  Notwithstanding the provision in the various agreements during the last five years between the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America and the Lynn Manufacturers' Association, and between the amalgamated and mdividual manufacturers that there shall be no strikes or lockouts, strikes have occurred in each of the years, 1920 in  • Newspaper items IDdicate tbat this a,reemeut bas not altogether settled eonditiol18 LynD,   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LYNN  27  to 1924, and in nearly every month up to and including July and August, 1924, with such :frequency and regularity as to create fear and doubt by customers as to the ability of Lynn manufacturers to fill orders on time. Time is a very important element in. the manufacture, delivery, and sale of novelty shoes. In order to continue in the shoe business, with the continually changing styles, the jobber and the retai.ler find it necessary to purchase shoes in smaller lots than formerly, and from manufacturers who assure prompt delivery. The files of the Telegram-News and the Daily Evening Item covering the last five years record numerous strikes in individual shops by stitchers, vampers, !asters, heelers, pa.eking-room workers, or workers in other occupations. Strike data compiled by the Lynn Chamber of Co.mn:ierce and published as "Facts" in the Telegram-News show that 12 strikes occurred in 1920, 1 of which was general; 14 in 1921, 1 being general; 17 in 1922, 5 of which were general; and ~2 in 1923, 2 of which were general. In discussing these strikes it was stated thatA review of the circumstances surrounding these strikes shows that in practically every instance the primary issue was wages and conditions, which, under existing agreements, should have been adjusted in an orderly way and without interference with production. This record does not embrace the frequent walkouts and cessation of work in various factory departments, all of which played a more or less important part in temporarily at least curtailing production. Practically all of these strikes and some of the walkouts and cessation from work led to court litigation which cost parties involved a great deal of time, effort, and money, all of which could have been avoided had channels distinctly outlined in existing agreements for the settlement of differences been followed, thereby permitting contending parties to engage in productive pursuits. OPEN OR NONUNION SHOPS  In the study of conditions in Lynn 15 factories were found operating as open or nonunion shops. S[x of them were in business J a.nuary 1, 1920, and nine began business after tha-t date. An official of the amalgamated said, " There are about 20 open shops in Lynn, 8 of which are paying union wage rates, operating under union rules and conditions, and are also open to union agents." He was asked if he would name them and replied, "I prefer not to do so." The largest open shop has a capacity of 450 workers and 2,160 pairs of shoes per day, and in August, 1924, was employing approximately 400 workers and producing 1,720 pairs per day. Prior to December, 1923, this factory was operated as a union shop. The ' change as stated was made on account of union rules and conditions which interfered with completion of shoes in process of manufacture. The smallest open shop factory working at capacity employed five workers and produced 72 pairs per day. Two of the open shop :factories moved into Lynn. One moved from Boston in July, 1924, and said: "The change was made because we can get better labor here," and the other moved from a near-by town in June, 1924, on account of" Lack of factory space and because the majority of our workers were from Lynn." These two factories employed 115 workers and produced an average of 1,008 pairs of shoes per day.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  28  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  The 15 open shop factories in the aggregate employed between 1,000 and 1,100 shoe workers in August, 1924, and produced an average of a_pproximately 8,000 1;>airs of shoes per day. Five of these reported that they had been union shc;>ps and changed to open shops on account of labor conditions. WORKING RULES OF 1924 IN LYNN'  The union rules governing the various departments in Lynn shoe factories are as follows: CUTTINGRooM:  1. There shall be no discrimination between cutters. 2. Where it ls the custom in any factoi:y to work by the piece no cutter shall work by the hour except when requested by the employer. 3. Cutters shall not be required to cut missing pieces or cripples after the case has been accepted as full by the stitching department. 4. Any damaged shoes in question shall be referred to the cutters' executive board for decision before being charged to the cutter. If the decision of the executive board ls that the damage is not the fault of the cutter, the question of whether the cutter shall be charged therefor becomes a matter for arbitration under the provisions of the existing agreement. 5. P.rices for fancy shoes and special patterns shall be based upon the prices for regular work; if an agreement can not be reached as to the price to be paid, the same shall be determined under the provisions of the existing agree. ment. In any event the work is to be performed without delay or interruption. 6. A list of cutters waiting for work shall be kept by the foreman when necessary, and all cutters shall take their regular turn on the list. 7. During slack time the foreman shall divide the wor~ evenly among the men and no man shall be discharged because of slack time. 8. Cutters must keep their boards in good condition and to do so must buff and dress them at least once a week. 9. During slack time cutters shall report for work as required and at any time during the morning untll 9 o'clock, but shall not be required to wait for work longer thlln one hour from the time they are ordered to report. 10. Cutters shall wait for work 45 :rplnutes from the time of getting caught up, -If requested to wait, before leaving the factory; any abuse of this rule to constitute a difference to be arbitrated under the terms of the existing agreement. 11. There shall be a sufficient number of proper patterns provided so that no more than three cutters shall work on the same width patterns at the same time. 12. A sufficient number of grindstones kept in good condition shall be furnished for the cutters. 13. Factories employing 20 or more outside cutters shall have a pattern boy. 14. A full allowance of top and vamp stock shall be given with each job. 15. Cutters shall receive from the office slips for correction within 48 hours , from the time of sending them ln, and if required shall send slips dally. 16. Cutters shall not be responsible for the keeping together of matched parts of colored shoes unless paid for match marking. , The continued unsettled conditlon In Lynn 111 Indicated by news Items in the Jan. 8, 9, and 10, 1925, Issues of the Lynn Dally Evening Item stating In substance that the - - Co. recently moved to Salem because it could obtain more favorable conditions from the Shoe Workers' Protective Union there than from the Amalgamated Shoe Workers of America In Lynn. Some of the locals of the amalgamated were unwilling to join with others in olferinc a reduction In wage rates to retain the company In Lynn. One of the locals of tbe amalgamated requested that the amalgamatA!d poll a referendum as to affiliation with the boot and shoe workers' union, the request being made because of the desire of many Lynn shoe workers for unity and the. strengtliening of thelr organization, and beca1188 the amalgamated had sustained l<isses through the withdrawal of the Iasters' local unton and the growth of the open-llhop movement in Lynn. The Lynn representative of the boot and shoe workers' union sent a letter to all the locals of the amalgamated and to the district council of the amalgamated presumably on the 81lbject of affiliation. This representative was reported to have said that he and his associates will do everything In their power to bring about a better understandinc among the Lynn shoe workers with a view to improving the situation.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  LYNN STITCHING  29  Roov  1. To insure a fair division of the work a tag system shall be used on all operations where there are two or more operators working. 2. Each operator is entitled to one lot of work in their box besides the -one they are working on, providing this amount of work does not exceed a day's work for the operator. 3. Any operator having one lot in the box besides the one they are working on, or any operator having a full day's work, may be passed. 4. An equal division of work shall be made during slack time; providing, !l.owever, that n!) operators shall be given more work than they can complete in one day. 5. During dull season no operator should be laid off except such as have been speciflcally hired for a short period of time to help out. 6. No operator shall be compelled to pay for damaged shoes unless it can be ,clearly shown to be the fault of the operator. 7. t,..ny damaged parts or shoes in question that are to be charged shall first be shown to the operators, a charge slip presented to them to sign before such ~harge is made. If any question arises over the justice of such charge, the parts or shoes in question shall be reported to the stitchers' executive board for decision. If the decision of the executive board is that the damage is not the fault of the operator, the matter then becomes a subject for arbitration under the provisions of the agreement. 8. Shoes damaged in departments other than the stitching room shall not be done over free of charge. Each shoe shall be paid for as one pair. 9. Any operator that is hired for any specific part must be paid the hour price as such part or operation calls for by the list E>f hour rates when working on any hour basis, except in case the work done shall be of such nature that the hour rates would call for higher rating; then the higher hour rate shall be paid. 10. If any operator has to wait for any work one hour for any cause other than the breaking of any part of the machinery of the plant, or for conditions over which the head of the department has no responsibility or control, they shall go home and no more work shall be given out that day on that particular part or operation. 11. Each operator shall report to the head of the department when they get caught up and if they do not receive work in one hour from the time reported shall go home. The rest of the operators on that particular part or operation must finish all the work that they have in their boxes before going out. 12. Work to be held in their box for operators for one hour from the time they are ordered to report to work. Executives may distribute said work after the expiration of said hour either during slack or rush periods. 13. During slack time operators shall report for work as requested and at any time during the. morning and up to 2 p. m., but wm not be required to wait longer than one hour for work from the time ordered to report. 14. Each operator shall be responsible for the cleaning of the parts of his or her machine or bench. Said machine or bench must be kept clean. 15. Each case must be counted by every operator and in case of shortage reported to the foreman or forelady. Any shortage not so reported may be charged to the last operator handling the same. 16. Operators must see that their work is done properly and must avoid all waste. The operators wm be held responsible. 17. Operators shall receive slips for correction 11'.rom the office within at least 48 hours after sending them ih, and, if required, must send slips daily. 18. The shoes damaged in the stitching room shall be done over by the operators free of charge. · 19. Fancy shoes and special patterns or operations, the prices shall be figured from the new base price on regular work on all such operations. 20. If it is not possible to arrive at the exact price to be paid for operations -0n new work, the operators will send their numbers in, in any event, and the manufacturer will pay on account, pending adjustment of the prices. McKAY OPEBATOBS  1. The work is to be divided among the shop's crew and the McKay sewers shall sew· as many cases as are lasted each day, allowing no surplus to ac-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  30  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  cumulate. In cases of rush work to be done, or samples coming through, the McKay sewers agree that men shall be there to perform it. In no instance shall a surplus of any work be allowed to accumulate which is more than one case for each operator to work on in the morning and one case on the floor. · GooDYEAB OPERATORS  2. There shall be as many cases operated as are lasted each day, allowing no surplus to accumulate through fault of the operators; work to be divided among the shop's crew. . 3. It is suggested that regular production be not operated the same morning or afternoon that it is lasted or welted. In cases where the employer wishes rush work to travel faster, any question arising over faulty work is to be taken up for adjustment. 4. The present working conditions are to remain unchanged. Any differ.ence arising, whether relating to interference with production or otherwise, is to be taken up between the sole fasteners' local committee and a representative of the manufacturer for determination ; failing to agree, the question becomes a matter for arbitration under the terms of· the existing agreement. SOLE  FASTENERS  5. Any damaged shoes in question that are to be charged to the operator shall first be shown to the operator and a charge slip presented to him to sign, before such charge is made. If any question arises over the justice of such charge, the shoes in question shall be referred to the sole fasteners' executive board for decision. If the decision of the sole fasteners' executive board is that the damage is not the fault of the operator, the matter then becomes subject to arbitration under the provisions of the existing agreement. FINISHING DEPARTMENT  · Any damaged shoes in question that are to be charged to the operator shall first be shown to the operator and a charge slip presented to him to sign before such charge is made. If any question arises over the justice of such charge, the shoes in question shall be referred to the bottom finishers' executive board for decision. If the decision of the bottom finishers' executive board is that the damage is not the fault of the operator, the matter then becomes a matter for arbitration under the provisions of the agreement. IBoNING AND PACKING DEP.A.RTMENT  1,. Buc'k Sgatem.-Eacb operator after receiving his turn passes the buck to the next operator. This is continued right along until each operator has had his quota, but in no instance can an operator hold more than two cases besides the one he is working on. This does not necessarily mean that each man must receive exactly the same number of cases per day when there isplenty of work as it is recognized that some operators can handle more work than others; therefore their quota is larger proPortionately. 2. Operators shall report for work at any time during the morning and at 1 p. m. if required. Work wlll not be held for operators for more than one hour from the time they are ordered to rePort. 3. To insure a continuous flow of work through this department during slack time, operators shall arrange to report alternately mornings and afternoons and keep work caught up so that there will be no delay in shipments.  MARKET, DIVIDENDS, AND RENTALS-HAVERRILL AND LYNN.  The distribution of the product of individual factories in Haverhill a.nd Lynn, by geographical divisions, varies greatly. One factory sold 5 per cent of its product in New England, 20 per cent in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, a.nd Maryland, 40 per cent in   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS  81  the South, east of the Mississippi River, 30 per cent in Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin, and 5 per cent in the States west of the Mississippi River, selling mostly to retailers through traveling men. Another factory sold its entire product to brokers in Boston, another to brokers in New York City, and another sold only to chain stores in the Middle West. Only two or three factories in Haverhill and Lynn reported exports. Dividends, as such, have been paid in recent years by a comparatively small per cent of the factories in Haverhill or in Lynn. If the organization was a partnership and there was a net profitreported as a rare occurrence in recent years-a division of the profit was made in proportion to the amount invested by each partner. Of the 90 Haverhill and 67 Lynn shoe manufacturers that moved, liquidated, or went into bankruptcy between January 1, 1920, and August, 1924, 90 per cent or more rented the buildings in which they made shoes. In August, 1924, the vacant factory space as reported by real estate companies, manufacturers, and others amounted to at least 1,000,000 feet in Haverhill and from 1,500,000 to 1,750,000 feet in Lynn. Rentals were as high as 35 cents per foot in 1920 in Haverhill and 45 cents per foot in Lynn, with little or no vacant space. In August, 192!, inducements such as three months' free rent could be had in Haverhill, with a maximum of 25 cents per foot rental after the first three months, and floor space in Lynn could be obtained as low as 20 cents per foot. AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics has for a number of years, with the cooperation of a number of representative shoe manufacturers in States in which the production o:f shoes is of real importance, obtained information as to hours and earnings of shoe workers from the pay rolls and other records of shoe manufacturers. This information was used in computing the averages in the tab)j following, and in compiling Bulletins 232, 260, 278, and 324, and the article in the June, 1924, Monthl_y Labor Review, giving detailed figures as to hours, earnings, and working conditions in the shoe industry. The great mass of the 1924 information was taken from pay rolls in Januarv and February. The 1924 averages are, therefore, as of these two"' months and the Haverhill avera~ earnings per hour ($0.81) shown in Table 2 are representative of earnings before the 20 per cent reduction in piece rates on fancy shoes and 15 per cent on plain shoes. The average earnings per hour of Haverhill workers in all occupations combined, even if based on a straight 20 per cent reduction of the $0.81 per hour for all workers instead of the 20 or 15 per cent reduction in piece rates as stated above, would give avera~e earnings of $0.648 per hour for Haverhill workers, compared with $0.531 for Boston, $0.652 for Lynn, $0.691 for Brockton, $0.562 for Massachusetts, not including these four cities; $0.709 for New Y-ork City, and $0.493 for New York State, not including New York City.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  32  LABOR CONDITION'S IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  .A. comparison of the 1924 State averages in Table 3 shows fewer hours per week ( 47.8) and higher average eatnings per hour ($0.595) in Massachusetts than in any other State, and more hours per week (53.4) in Maine, and lower earnings per hour ($0.405) in Virginia and Maryland combined than in any other State. 2.-AVERAGE FULL•TIME HOURS PER WEEK, EARNINGS PER IiOUR, AND FULL-TIME EARNINGS PER WEEK FOR SHOE WORKERS IN ALL OCCUPATIONS COMBINED, BY SPECIFIED LOCALITY, 1924  TABLE  Average full•time hours per week  Locality  HaverhllL•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••. Lynn .•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• Brockton••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••••••••••••••••••••••••••. Boston ••••..••••••••.••.••.• _••••.•..••••••••••••••••••..•••••••••• Massachusetts, excluding above cities •••••••.••••••••••.••••••••••• Massachusetts-State ••••••••••••••••••••••••.••••••••••••••••••••• New York ,-,;ty •.•••••..•••••••••.•.••.•..•...••...••••••••••••.••• New York State, excluding New York City •••••••••••••••••••••.•• New York State•••••••••••••••••••••••••.•••.••••••••••.••••••••••• United States ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••  48.0 45.0 48.0 48.0 47.9 47.8 45. 7 48. 7 47.9  Average earnings per hour I  $0. 810 .652 .691 .531 .562 .595  • 709  .493 .546 .516  49.1  Av~rsge full-time earnings per week 1 $38. 88 29.34 33.17 25.49 26.97 28.44 32.40 24.01 26.15 25.28  1 This average is of Ianuary and February, or prior to the May 8, 1924, reduction of approximately 20 per cent In piece rates on fancy shoes and of 15 per cent on plain shoes.  TABLE  3.-AVERAGE HOURS AND EARNINGS OF SHOE WORKERS IN ALL OCOUPA• TIONS COMBINED, BY STATES, 1916, 1918, 1920, 1922, AN;D 1924 A versge full-time hours per week  Average  earnings hour  per  Average full•time earnings per week  State 1916 1918 1920 1922 1924 1916 1918 1920 1922 1924 1916  Ou. Massachusetts•••• 54.0 51.6 47.5 47.4 47.8 28.2 47.4 47.9 52. 5 50.8 47.6 28.6 Nl!w Yo!k..•••••• MISSoun•••••••••• 55.0 53.2 47.6 49.0 49.8 23.4  Ohin .•••••••••••• 55.2 53.8 lilinns)tlvanis..... 54.8 54.5 New 1LII1pshlre•• 55.0 50.5 Maine•••.•.•••••• 57.9 53.1 Illinois•••••••••••• 54.2 52.6 Wisconsin ••••• -. 57.0 54. 2 New Jersey••••••• 55.0 54. 7 Minnesota•••••••• 57.8 54. 3 55.1 Michl~---····· Virgima •••••••••• 59~0 54.2 0  Virginia anC: Maryland ••••••  49.9 50. 7 48.6 52.4 50.0 48.8 49.1 48.2 49. 7 48.0  50.0 50.6 48.5 52.2 49.8 48. 7 47. 7 48.0 49.7 47.9  49.9 50.1 48. 7 53.4 49.8 49.0 48.4 48.0 49. 7 48. 7  22.6 21.8 23.6 25.5 29.0 19.1 23.4 24.8  ----19.8  eta. 36.6 36.5 28. 9 29.8 27.1 34.9 35.6 31.8 27.0 27.0 30.1 26.8 25. 7  1918  1920  1922  1924  Ou. Ct,. Ou. 59.6 52. 7 59.5 $15.23 $18.89 $28. 31 $24. 98 $28.44 64. 2 53.5 54.6 15.02 18.54 30.56 25.36 26.15  50.2 49. 7 47.9 58.5 55.6 52.1 48.0 46.9 54.4 44. 7 45.9  48.5 48.9 41.8 45.8 48.3 47.3 46.5 44.5 52.0 44. 9 45.1  ----- ----- ----- ...........  47;6 44.9 44. 7 50.5 44.0 52.0 53.0 54.6 50.5 45. 7  12.87 12.48 11.95 12.98 14. 76 15. 72 10.89 12.87 14. 33  15.37 16. 08 14. 77 17.62 18. 90 16. 73 14.63 14. 77 16.34 14. 77 11.68 13.93  ......... ·----40.5  23.90 24.80 24.29 28.43 29.13 26.05 23.42 23.03 26.22 22.22 22.03  ------ ------ ..  23.77 24.45 21.15 22.21 25.21 23.56 22.65 21.23 24. 96 22.32 21.60  .. .........  .  19.'n  23. 70 22.36 22.39 24. 51> 23.50 25. go. 25.97 26.43 24.24 22.71  Total••••••• 54. 6 52.3 48..6 48. 7 49.0 25.9 33. 6 55.9 50.1 51.6 14.11 17.54 26.97 24. 45 25.28 Total, all States except Masss• ehusetts ••••••••   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  =  =1. -.  49.4 ..  ....... -----  ·---l---.1:: ------ ·-•-•l•-··••I::  33  COST OF PRODUCING AND SELLING SHOES  4.-AVERAGE FULL-TIME HOURS PER WEEK EARNINGS PER HOUR, AND FULL-TIME EARNINGS PER WEEK, FOR 14 SPECIFIED OCCUPATIONS IN THE BOOT AND SHOE INDUSTRY IN THE UNITED STATES, AND IN HA VERRILL AND LYNN, BY OCCUPATION AND SEX, 1924  TABLE  Average full•tlme Average earnings per Average full•time hour hours per week earnings per week Occupation  Ha• Ha• HaUnited ver• United ver• Lynn United ver• Lynn States h!IJI States hill Lynn States hill I  ---Cutters, vamp and whole shoe, hand, malA ··•·•·•••••••••··••··•··••·•··•· 48.4 Ski ~:ieupper: ••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48.0 Female ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.0 Cementers and doublers: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.6 Female••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.1 Lining makers, female •••••••••••••••••• 49.3 Top stitchers: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 47.9 Female ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.3 Vampers: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48.2 Female••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.4 Assemblers, pulling over machine: Male .•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.3 Female ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 50.0 Bed machine operator!i male ••••••••••• 49.1 'l'urn !asters/ hand, m e ••••••••••••••• 48.2 Goodyear st tchers, male ..••••••••.•••• 48.8 Edge trimmers, male ••••••••••••••••••• 49.1 Edge setters, male•••••••••••••••••••••• 49.1 Treers: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48. 8 Female ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48.8 Repairers: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48.9 Female••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48.8 All occupations: Male ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 48. 8 Female••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 49.0  48. 0  45.0 $0. 837 $1. 241 $0.939 $40. 51 $59.57  48.0 48.0  45.0 45.0  .619 .472  1.233 .824  .692 .992  29. 71 23.13  59.18 39.55  $42.26 31.14 44.64  ·45:0· ·48:o· 48.0 45.0  .332 .328 .369  ··:wr ··:41r .423  16.47 16.10 18.19  ·24.-3g" ··2i:5ii  .499  ·48:o· ·45:0·  .675 .462  ··:153·  ··:65r  32.33 22. 77  ·aii:i4. ··29.-34  • 707 .519  1.028 .800  ··.-600·  34.08 25.64  49.34 38.40  • 743  45.0 45.0 45.0 45.0  .554 .399 .692 • 790 • 773 • 767 • 756  • 776 .598 .811 1.190 1.188 .962 .910  .921 .824 • 780 • 737  27.31 19.95 33.98 38.08 37. 72 37.66 37.12  37.25 28. 70 38. 93 57.12 57.02 46.18 43.68  45.0 45.0  .624 .431  1.096 • 769  30.45 21.03  .. ............  24. 99 19.67  ·25:00· --2i:14  48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48.0 48. 0 48.0  ............  ·45.-ij" 45.0  ·45.-ij"  ·is.·o· ·45:0}48.o  .511 .403  .983  -------  ··:s1ii"  ··:i22· ··:4Bii·  45.0 { .479 .349 } .810  23.95  47.18  .652 {23.38 17.10 ~8.88  19.04  ··21:21 33.44  --aii::.iD 41. 45 37.08 35.10 33.17 49.32 34. 61  29.34  1 The averages In this column are as of January and February, 1924, or prior to the May 8, 1924, reduction of approximately 20 per cent in piece rates on fancy shoes, and 15 per cent on plain shoes.  COST OF PRODUCING AND SELLING SHOES-HAVERHILL AND LYNN In making this study data were obtained, from quite a number of individual shoe manufacturers, for each of the years (1920 to 1924) that the factory was in business in Haverhill or Lynn, covering (1) the number of pairs of shoes produced and sold by the factory; (2) sales price less discounts; (3) the cost of all materials used in the manufacture of shoes; (4) the labor cost; that is, the amount paid in wages to shoe workers; ( 5)" all other specified expenses incurred in the manufacture and sale of shoes, including such expenses as rent of buildings rent of machines and payments of royalties for use of machines, fuel, light, power, maintenance and repair, freight, interest, taxes, insurance, etc. · Data for many factories, especially for those that moved, liquidated, or went into bankruptcy, were not available or were incomplete. The per cent which each item of cost is of the net amount received for the shoes and the cost per 100 pairs of shoes for each specified item, based on the number of pairs of shoes produced and the   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  84  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN :MASSACHUSETTS  expense incurred therein, have been computed and are presented in Table 5. . It will be observed that the costs of manufacture for some of the subdivisions vary considerably from year to year. In factory No. 1, in Haverhill, the cost of officials was $9.2'7 per 100 pairs in 1922 and $11.22 in 1923, the last year that this factory was in operation. The 1923 increase over 1922 was due to a 27 per cent reduction in the num. her of pairs of shoes produced in 1923 compared with 1922 with only 12 per cent reduction is salaries of officials. This factory lost money in each of the years it was in business, the net loss being $13.30 per 100 pairs in 1921, $8.66 in 1922, and $32.82 in 1923. Bad accounts, causmg a loss of $8.07 per 100 pairs in 1922 and $15.54 per 100 pairs in 1923, was the cause of nearly all of the net loEB in 1922 and nearly half of the loss in 1923. · Variation in cost, as a rule, is due in part to the variation in the number of shoes :produced in· different years. The overhead, such as salaries of officials, rents, taxes, insurance, etc., continues regardless of the number of shoes produced. This point is vividly illustrated by factory No. 16 in Lynn, in which coi;;t of officials was $22.77 per 100 pairs in 1920; $20.64: in 1921; $22.4o in 1922, and $55.52 in 1923, the 1923 increase being due to a decrease of only 7 per cent in salaries of officials against a decrease of 62 per cent in number of pairs of shoes produced in 1923 compared with the 1920 figqres. Cost figures covering materials used in the manufacture of shoes vary with the price of materials and the style of shoes. In 1920, when the price of materials, especially leather, was very high, the cost of materials per 100 pairs of shoes, as shown by factory No. 3 in Haverhill, was high. The deflation or reduction in the price of leather in 1920 contributed to the failure of a number of shoe factories. It was reported by one manufacturer that a grade of leather which he b9ught in considerable quantity early in 1920 at more than $1 per pound sold at less than 35 cents per pound in later years. A change in style increasing or decreasing the quantity of leather and other material means a change in cost of materials per 100 pairs. Variation in cost figures for materials as well as for labor also results from a change in the kind of shoe produced. A change from infants' and children's turn shoes to infants'.: children's, and misses' welt shoes in 1922, and from infants' children's, and misses' welt shoes to infants', children's, and misses; welt and turn shoes in 1924, as was done by factory No. 9 in Lynn, increased the cost of materials per 100 pairs in 1922 and reduced the cost of materials per 100 pairs m 1924. Comparison of the figures of this factory for turn shoes in 1920 or 1921 should not be made with the figures for 1922 or 1923 for welt shoes, nor should the 1924 figures for welt and turn shoes be compared with figures for ·any of the preceding years for turn shoes or for welt shoes. Cost figures covering labor vary with the amount of work or the number of operations necessary in the making of different styles of shoes. A change from a plain standard shoe to .an extreme novelty with many straps, cut-outs, etc., means additional operations with increased labor cost.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  COST OF PRODUCING AND SELLING SHOl!lS  85  TABLE 4.-PER CENT THAT SPECIFIED ITEMS CONSTITUTE OF NET BALES, AND COST PER 100 PAIRS, BY ESTABLISHMENT AND ITEM OF COST, 1920 TO 11124  JUVEBllILL, KASS,  [A blank column indicates that the factory was not in operation daring the year or that data were not available]  Establishment, kind of shoes, and Item of expense  Per cent that specified Items constitute of net sales  Cost per 100 pairs  i--.---r---.-, ---+---.--.-- -.---r-1920  1921  1922 1923  1924  1920  1921  1922  1923  192i  ----------1 ---- -- _ _,.__ , _ --- ------ --Establishment No. 1.-Women•s turns and slippers: 43.1 4,4. 0 ------ -------- $169. 40 $136. 86 $165. 78 -------Materlals_--------------- -----Labor cost________________ ______ 46. 36. 92  35. 1 2. 9 1. 3 Bales force..________________ ______ L 3 3.1 1.1 1· 5 chines.... _________________ -----•7 •5 Fuel, light, and power__________ •6 •8 Maintenance and repair__ ______ •3 •2 Freight in and out________ ______ •4 •4 Interest paid______________ ______ 1. 5 •7 Taxes, except real estate-.. ______ •2 •1 6 .5 Lasts, dies, and patterns-_ ______ 2. 9 2. 6 Bad accounts ___________________ ------ 2. 5 Depreciation______________ ______ •. 56 All other________________________ •• 4 7 Net loss. __________________ ------ 3. 9 2. 7 Establishment No. 2.-Women's turns and McKay: Materials-_--------------_ 60. 67 34. 52. 89 36. 49. 73 Labor cost________________ 33. Officials.__________________ 3. 0 3. 0 1. 6 Office clerks..------------•6 •4 •2 Bales force..________________ •1 • 4 2. 6 Rent of buildings __ ------- 2. 1 L1 1. 2 Rent and roysltles on 7 .8 •5 Fuel, light, and power____ .8 •8 •7 Maintenance and repair___ •3 •4 Freight in and out________ •8 .6 •5 .8 Interest paid __ ------------ L 1 •4 Taxes, except real estate__ •3 .2 •5 .3 •1 Lasts, dies, and patterns__ (')6 •3 Bad accounts _____________ -----.4 Loss on returned shoes____ (') (') Depreciation._____________ 1 .4 All other__________________ .•47 .8 •6  Officials.__________________ ______ Office clerks.______________ ------  2. 2 1. 7  ~:~:~esoiiiiii;- ------  Insurance _________________ ------ .  macb!nes.______________ .  ·""  Insurance----------------- .  ·""  <?  i:~  37. 1 3. 0 1. 6 3. 6 1. 3  ------ -------- 123.13  ---------------------  -----------------------------  7. 49 6. 94, 4. 51 6. 19  • 7 ------ -------• 7 ------ -------• 2 ------ --------  2. 42 1. 93 1. 02  .1 ------ --------  1. 33 4. 98  . 6 ------ -------2. 4 ------ --------  1. 97  • 3 ------ --------  1. 99 13. 30  • 9 ------ -------.1 ------ --------  • 57  18. 02 4.1 ------ -------- ·------• 6 ------ -------1. 73  8.1 ------ -------(1) !Ill  ------ --------  1 ------ --------  1. 1 ------ -------• 8 ------ -------4. 3 ------ --------  4 ------ --------  1  . 8 ------ -------• 7 ------ -------. 6 ------ -------• 5 ------ --------  . 1 ------ --------  • 6 ------ -------• 4 ------ -------• 7 ------ --------  <?1  :::::: :::::::: • 5 ------ --------  96. 69 63. 71 5.49 .80 • 70 3.15 Ll2  L41  .82 1.07 L42  111. 69 9. 27  4.11  9. 95  3. 55  L52  2.60 .73 1.26 2.21 .28  1.49 8.27 8.07 1.35 2. 25 8.66 00.85 66.23 2. 811 .39  4. 72 2.23  1.00  1.24 • 74  .97  139. 95 -------11. 22 5. 76 13. 4,7 4. 87  2.82 2. 46 • 72 • 48 3. 38 • 31 2.14 9.02  --------  ----------------------  15. 54 2.11 1.12 32.82 .//i_>48 1.98  1.35 7. 65 -------2. 60 -------1. 43 -------1. 17 --------  1. 09 --------  • 91 --------  .33  .75 .87  1. 17 -------1 11.1 --------  .81  .46  1. 25 --------  .49  .72 (') . 75 LM  l:~ :::::: :::::::: i:~  .23  • 66 --------  - (') -- ---(') -- -------. 20 1.09  .21 .91  Net llllin-----------------Net foss_____ ______ ______ __ (•) (I) ~~ Establishment No. 3.-Women's McKay: Materials_________________ 64. 2 48. 7 38.1 42. 2 ______ 1$328. 37 196. 08 125. 70 167. 82 -------Labor cost________________ 21. 2 35. 7 40. 0 143. 09 132.12 Officials.__________________ Office clerks.____________ Bales force.._______________  Rent of buJldings_________ Rent and royalties on machines______________ Fuel, light, power____ Maintenanceand and repair___ Freight in and out________  Interest paid______________  1. 3  1. 4 3. 3 (')  •4 (1)  •3 •1  1. 2  Taxes, except real estate__ Insurance_________________ .• 45 Lasts, dies, and patterns__  L7  ~':'°:1t!ie<r8lioes::::--.:-6Depreciation______________ . 4  All other__________________  Net gain __________________ Net foes.__________________  !Not reported.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  2. 5 2. o 3. 5  (•)  43. 1 ------ 105. 96 • 8 -----6. 39 1. 7 -----6. 97 2. 3 ------ 16. 48 (')  ------  (')  S!  10.19 8.09 14.04  3.88 6.8' 1L44 (')  171. 59 3. 22 6. 92 0 '.16 (')  2. 30 (L')72  (')  •5  •7  • 8 ______  1. 80  1. 97  (') •4 .1  (') •5 .1  (') • 4 ______ .1 ____ _  •6 2. 8  •4 1. 5  (') 1. 52 • 82 5. 98 2. 73 1. 98 8. 59  (I) 1. 72 • 58 4. 34 1. 26 2. 38 lL 18  L1 •1  •6  •3  i~ ~: •7  • 7 ______ • 5 ______  • 3 ______ 3. 6 ______  .: ______ --2'i'.49-  • 28 2. 06 • 98 1. 26 6. 11  s:g: t~ 2. 73 2. 23  ---------------  ---------------  3.18 _______ _ (') 1. 46 • 21 2. 63 2. 09 1. m 14. 07  -------_______ _ _______ _ _______ _ _______ _  _______ _ _______ _  i~ ::::::::  •7 • 5 ______ 1. 82 L 98 _______ _ 2. 9 2. 4, -----8. 81 9.17 9. 55 9. 36 _______ _ 4.1 ______ ------ -------- -------- 13. 55 _______________ _ .6 ------ . 7 ------ 27. IH 2.11 -------2. 70 _______ _ •Not IJ4lllle&8ted; included in "all other,"  1. 8 2. 4, ------ ______ 6.4,  1. 2  2.1 3. 6 (')  ~:!  86  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  TABLE 5.-PER CENT THAT SPECIFIED ITEMS CONSTITUTE OF NET SALES, AND COST PER 100 PAIRS, ETC.-Conttnued · KAVERRILL, JU.SS.-COntinued Per cent that specified items Cost per 100 pairs constitute of net sales Establishment, kind of shoes, and item of expense t---,---.---~--,r---+---.----,----,,-----.--1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924  -----------1·--1·--+--l--+---l--- - - - - - - - - - - - Establishment No.4.-Wom•  en's tnrns:  Materials ••••••••••••••••. 67. 5 Labor cost................ 22. o Officials••••••••••••• ~..... 2. 2 .6 Office clerks............... Sales force................. .3 Rent of buildings......... .4 Rent and royalties on machines................ .3 Fuel, light, and power.... .6 Maintenance and repair... .2 Freight in and ont........ .3 Interest paid.............. .6 Taxes, except real estate... 1.1 Insurance................. .5 Depreciation.............. 1.1 All other.................. .5 Net gain •••••••••••••••••• 1.7 Net loss•.••••••••••..•..••.••••• Establislunent No. o.-Wom· en's turns: Materials................. 48. 3 Labor cost................ 28. 5 Officials................... 1. 2 Office clerks............... 1. 2 Sales force................. 2. 6 Rent of buildings......... 1. 3 Rent and royalties on machines................ .1 Fuel, light, and powerO • • • •2 Maintenance and repru.r.• . .9 Freight In and out........ •3 Interest paid.............. .2 Taxes, except real estate... .4 Insurance................. .3 Lasts, dies, and patterns.. .6 Bad accounts............. .4 Loss on returned shoes.. • • 2. o Depreciation.............. 3. 3 All other.................. 2. 4 Moving expenses•••••••••..••••• Net gain.................. 2. 3 Establishment No. 6.-Wom• en's and misses' McKay: Materials................. 48. 1 Labor cost •••••••••••••••• 25. 3 Officials................... (•) Office clerks............... (') Sales force................. 3. 3 Rent of buildings......... (•) Rent and royalties on machines................ . ·5 Fuel, light, and power.... (') Maintenance and repair... .3 Freight in and out........ •5 Interest paid.............. .1 Taxes, except real estate... .3 Insurance................. .3 Lasts, dies, and patterns.. (•) Bad accounts ..•.••••••••••••••• Loss on returned shoes .••..••••• Depreciation.............. .3 All other.................. 8. 0 Net gain.................. 8. 5  55.6 30.1 6.3 1. 2 .8  1.0  M.0  34.2 4.1 1.3 1.0 2.0  51. 9 $272. 70 $191. 68 $157.14 $147.18 36.1 89.02 103.85 97.67 94. 75 2.6 9.08 21.55 11. 71 7.06 1.5 2.62 4.01 3.58 3. 75 1.1 1.24 2. 72 2.52 2.81 (') 1. 58 3.57 5.59 3. 76  .4 .4 .6 .8 1.14 1. 4 1. 2 1. O (2) 2. 29 .3 .3 .3 .2 . 82 .3 .3 .2 .3 1. 10 1. 2 1. o •6 •6 2. 23 3. 3 .4 .1 .1 4. 45 1. 2 1.1 . 9 1.1 2. 08 2. 2 . 9 1. o 2.1 4. 42 1.2 .6 .5 3.2 2.20 •...••.•.•... 1 ••..•• 6.93 6.5 3.8 •••••• 1.5 ••••••••  1. 22 4. 73· 1.00 ":95 4.29 11. 52 4.12 7.43 4.07  1. 28 3.49 . 76 1.00 2.86 1.14 3.27 2.68 1. 79  1. 64 2. 80 . 74 .58 1. 78 .19 2.54 2. 73 1.34  22. 24  10. 82  • 29  49. 7 .•••.....•.......• ·148.83 87.88 32.0 3. 75 .9 1.0 3. 74 8.03 3.3 4.10 .8  175.08 112. 54 3.15 3.55 11.69 2.95 .33 12.09 2.22  •••••• •••••• ••••••  .34 .• 6ir 2.64 .96 .58 1. 25 1.00 1.86 1.13 6.08 9.10 7.46  ··••••••••••••••••  7.04  .1  .6 1.1 .2 .1  .5 .3 .5 3.0 2.4 1. 2 .4 2.7 46.3 35. 6 1.1 .6 1.9 1.2 .8  •••••• ··•••· ··•••· .•••.•.•••.. ••••••  47.7 47.3 38. 7 40. 3 1.2 1.1 .7 .8 1.9 1.6 1.0 1.0  .8  .9 1.0 .3  .8 1.1 .3  (")  ··i:o·  1.3 .2 .9 .3 1.1 .3 1.1 2.9  .3 .6 .1 1.4.  .3 .7 5.9  • Not segregated, included in "all other."   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  53.8 34.6 2.6 1.4 .9 1.4  1. 2· .8 1.2 .2  (1)  2.0 .3  .7  147. 24 77.39 (') (1)  10.15 (1)  1.56 (•)  .95 1.51 .44 .98 .98 (1)  1.3 ••••.•••••.••. .3 .95 .9 ...•.. 24.33 1.2 ·•·••• 25.89  $137. 55 95.60 6.89 4.06 2.95 {•)  2.21 (•) .64  .69 1.48 .20 2.85 5.56 .8.48  4. 05  .83  .49 1.80  .oo  1. 73  10. 55 .••••• : ...• :: •. : .• :.:::: 8. 53 •••••••• ••·••••· ••••••••  4.22 •••••••. •••••••· •••••••• 1.32 .••••••••••••••.•••••••• 9.67 •••••••• ••••••.. •·••••••  106. 81 82.19 2.49 1.49 4.30 2.82  89.35 ·72.55 2.23 1.31 3.a6 1.92  87.83 74.88 2.04 1. 56 2. 93 1. 77  1.90 1.98 2.29 .63 .07 3.10 .48 2.19 . 72 2.43  1. 58 1.42 1.97 .63  2.25 1.50 2.21 .34 .08 3.63 .53 1.27  .64  2.59 6. 72  ···i:iii" .49 1.22 .17 2.59 .51 1.34 11.08  -------·--2:46· -------.• 48 1. 75 -------2.25  • Less than one•tenth of l per cent.  87  COST OF PRODUOING AND SELLING SHOES ~ABL■  G.-PBlR CENT THAT SPECIFIED ITEMS CONSTITUTE OF NET SALES, AND COST PER 100 PAIRS, ETC.-Continued  LYNN, KASS, Per cent that speclfled items Cost per 100 pairs constitute of net sales Establlshment, kind of shoes, and Item of expense 1--,---,---,---.---1---,----.-----,,-----1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 Establishment No. 7-Wom• en'sMoKay: Materials................. 54. 2 47. 5 •••••••••••••••••• $178. 14 $1«. 11 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Labor oost ...•••...•.••••. 22. 2 43. o •••••• •••••• •••••• 73. 04 130. 50 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Offiolals................... 3. 4 1. 7 •••••• •••••• •••••• 11. 23 r, t.6 ........................ Office clerks............... 1. 4 1. 2 •••••• •••••• •••••• 4. 72 3. 62 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Sales foroe................. 2. 3 2. 2 ...... •••••• •••••• 7 '"I 11 ~7 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Rent of buildings......... 1. 5 2 o •••••• •••••• •••••• 4. 78 6. 06 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Rent and royalties on machines................ . 4 • 7 •••••• .••••• •••••• 1. 47 :>. 9A ........................ Fuel, light, and power.... .1 • 2 ··-··- •••••• •••••• • 46 • 75 •••••••••••••••••••••••• Maintenance and repair... • 3 • 9 •••••• •••••• •••••• • 97 2. 73 •••••••• --·-·-·· •••••••• Freight In and out........ • 2 • 6 •••••• •••••• •••••• • 74 1. 69 ······-- •••••••••••••••• Interest paid.............. • 9 1. 3 •••••• --···- •••••• 2. 79 4. 04 •••••••••••••••••••••••• · Taxes, except real estate... • 3 .1 ····-- •••••• •••••• . 94 • 43 •••••••• ·-·-·-·- •••••••• Insurance................. • 2 • 5 •••••• •••••• •••••• . 65 1. 46 •••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ t s ~ : , d patterns •••2.2•••ii-:i° ••.........•••••.•••. 7. 07•••is:°i4• ·····--· -······· ...... .. ~~:.~:............. L: ••1. 3 •••••• Netloss................... • 8 12. 7 •••••• Establishment No. 8-Women's ohildren's, and Infants' MoKay and welts: Materials................. 57. 3 43. 8 41. 9 Labor oost................ 25. 1 38. 5 39. 0 Offiolals................... 4. 5 6. 6 3. 4 Office clerks............... • 5 1. o 1. 2 Sales force................. L 5 2. 7 2. 8 Rent of buildings......... (I) (I) (I) Rent and royalties on machines•••••••••••••••• Ll 1.4 L7 2.(l)l (I) Fuel, light, and power.... (I) Maintenance and repair... L 4 1. 2 Freight lnand out........ .1 .1 .1 Interest paid.............. . 5 •1 .5 Tues, except real estate... • 4 •3 .1 Insurance................. .3 .3 .7 .6 .2 Badaocounts••••••••••••• (I) Depreciation.............. 2. 1 4. o 4. s Another•••••••••••••••••• 2.2 4.9 6.8 Net gain •• - - - · · · · · 3. 3 •••••• •••••• Net loss••••••••••••••••••••••••• 6.1 3.3 Establishment No. II-Infants' and ohlldren's turns In 1920  •••••• •••••• •••••• ••••••  4. ~ ···4. 08 •••••••••••••••••••••••• 2. 66 38. 65 ••••••••••••••••••••••••  47. 5 «. 9 233. 93 139. 00 $112. 97 $133. 46 $126.'JJT 39. 7 36. 1 102. 31 122. 26 105. 02 111. 34 100. 53 2. 7 2. 7 18. 40 17. 79 9. 29 7. 67 7.52 L5 .8 2. 08 3. 02 3. 14 4. 26 2.36 3. 1 2. 2 6. 26 8. 56 7. 63 8. 71 6.14 (I)  (I)  (I)  (I)  (I)  (I)  (')  LS  2.0 (I)  4.29  4.50 3. 14 .32 1. 28 • 38  6.0'J 2.(1)..  (I)  .37 1. 96 L 46 1.06  4.38 6.(1)53 .47 . 48 1. 06 1.0'J  • 34 2. 66  31.44 26.81  46.43 31.25  86.64 73.83 20.68  7L46 64.20 19.50  (I) •9  .1 .9 .1  L2 .1 .4 •••••• .7  (I) 6. 86  (I)  uu  6.67 3. 25  .29 1.07 .33 ••••••••  1.92 L62 1.91 .s .08 1.61 .46 L71 .oo 1. 9 s. 71 12. 71 lL 56 s. 22 5. 41 6.1 8.98 16.41 17.57 11.83 14.33 •••••• 6. 6 13. 63 •••••••• •••••••• •••••••• 18. 40 6.9 •••••••••••••• 16.21 8.96 16.47 •••••••• .6 .1  2. 9 4.2  ::a~~~:f~~~  1923; Infants' ohlldren's, and misses' welts and turns In 1924: Materials................. '6. 6 49. 2 39. 9 43. 3 (1)8 Lsborcost •••••••••••••••• 34.6 33.9 34.0 32.8 38; Offiolals................... 6. 6 9. 8 9. 5 11. 8 8. 6 Office clerks............... (1) (I) (1) (I) Sales force................. 4. 7 3. 6 3. 1 2. 4 ~ Rent of buildings......... (I) (I) (I) (I) -, Rent and royalties on  ii)  ~tiiniiiiowei:::: ··(')·· ··(')·· ··(')·-  Freight In and out........ .3 •6 Tues, except real estate... L 1 •7 Insurance................. .3 LS Bad aooounts... •••••••••• •••••• 2. 6 Delll'8CiBtion.............. •••••• •••••• Alfother.................. 5. 8 9. O  .5 •5 1.6 •7 1. 6  ~  .4  5.12  9.00 (I)  r65  (') 3.99 (')  --cl)·· ···cl)··· ···cl)··· ·--cl)·,  ci>14  .6  • 8 ••••••  ~64  (I)  .'JJT . 86 .20  3.31  (I)  .42 • 68  .3 L5 1.66 • 8 1. 5 •••••••• 2. 42 L 9 -··-·- ··-···-- •••••••• 9. o 15. O 12. 2 4. 47 8. 29  (I)  1.1.. 1. Oli  3.53 1. 51 3. 44 19. 53  ~~-89 9.58 (I)  .04  (I)  ·-·,_;.,···  • 73 .55 1. 33 ••••••••  .57 1.73 1. 28 1. 73 3.18 •••••••• 24. 71 13. 77  :=: r:::::::::::::::::::: ..~.~. ·icff .•.:~. ··iff :::::: ...~-~. ··°i:86- •••~:~. ··io~oo· :::::::: 1 Not reported.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  • Not segregated; Included In "all other.''  • Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.  38  LABOR CONDITIONS .IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  TABLE 5.-PER CENT THAT SPECIFIED ITEMS CONSTITUTE OF NET SALES, AND COST PER 100 PAIRS, ETC.-Continued LYNN, MASS.-Continued  Per cent that specified items Cost per 100 pairs constitute of net sales Establishment, kind of shoes, i--.----;--,---:---t----;---,------,-----and item of expense 1920 1921 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1922 1923 1924  ------------1--- --- --- --- --- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Establishment N o.10.-Wom• en's welts: Materials .•••..•••....... _ 59. 2 44. 8 38. 0 50. 2 ·····- $326. 76 $176. 74 $123. 82 $167. 50 147. 86 164. 73 147. 23 157. 17 Labor cost •.••.••. __ ...... 26. 8 41. 8 45. 2 47.1 1. 7 1. 7 5. 1 20.23 26. 34 Officials................... 4. 8 5.63 5. 53 1. 1 1. O 1. 3 .8 4. 21 4. 61 Office clerks..•....... -.... 4. 25 3. 28 3. 8 12. 62 1. 8 3. 9 7.23 7.30 12. 54 Sales force- ......•....•. -.. 1. 3 2.3 1.2 2.4 4. 70 .8 4. 33 Rentofbuildings ....... -7. 71 7. 57 Rent and royalties on ma6.12 5. 97 2.1 1. 9 6.13 1.6 6.87 chines __ ··-·•···· -·•···· · 1. 1 . 63 .1 .59 .2 •3 Fuel, light, and power.... 1.02 .2 • 77 5. 87 .4 2.48 .7 .7 Maintenance and repair... 2. 31 1. 5 2. 32 .2 Freight in and out........ 1.05 .4 1.68 1. 33 .6 1. 87 .3 . 59 1. 48 3. 64 .3 .97 .5 .1 .7 Interest paid·-···········2. 78 1. 32 .2 .5 • 77 .4 (') Taxes, except real estate... .14 .2 . 93 1. 57 .6 2.12 .09 (') .3 Insurance ........ ·-······· 6.65 Lasts, dies, and patterns.. 1. O .2 5. 67 .12 .......• 11. 96 .. . 23 5. 64 (3) •••••• .1 Bad accounts............. 1. o 3.0 1. 13 ( 3) •••••• •4 .2 1.85 Depreciation.............. .5 .11 ·•·•··•• 1. 20 3. 32 .7 3. 71 • 7 ...... ....•. All other.................. .8 2. 34 ········ ····•··· .3 Net gain .•.••••......... -. R 22 ..•.•.•••••••••• 1. 84 2. 5 ····-· •••••• 7. 0 •••••....•.... 24. 07 23. 31 Net loss __ ···••·······-···· --··-· 6.1 Establishment No. 11.-Wom• en's welts: Materials ..••••..••..••. __ 87. 8 43. 5 48. 5 48. 3 590.15 184. 78 159. 82 163. 23 114. 63 124. 77 106. 47 133. 49 Labor cost................ 17. 1 29. 3 32. 3 39. 5 (') (') (') (') (') (') Officials................... (') (') (') (') (') (') (') (') Office clerks_.............. (') (') 2. 2 2. 5 2. O 9. 27 11. 47 Sales force................. 1. 7 8. 23 6. 75 (') (') (') (') Rent of buildings......... (') (') (') (') Rent and royalties on ma· 5.89 2. 4 1. 8 6. 49 8.18 chines..............•... _ 1. o 1. 4 6.05 (') (') (') (') (2) (') (') Fuel, light, and power.... (') 2.17 •4 •5 1. 72 •4 1.90 .3 1. 27 Maintenance and repair... 1. 34 •4 .4 1.24 .3 .2 1. 50 1.40 Freight in and out........ . 42 3. 43 1. 37 .4 .1 .5 Interest paid_·····-······· .3 .5 1. 3 5. 35 22. 29 Taxes, except real estate... 3. 3 1. 76 . 85 2. 35 .3 .7 2.30 .6 .4 2.38 1. 10 Insurance................. 11.25 7.80 3. 3 .......•...... 34. 38 Bad accounts.•·-············--· 8. 1 2. 4 1.62 • 4 -·-··· •..••..••••• 15. 71 Loss on returned shoes.... 2. 3 8.55 7. 46 1. 7 5.90 Depreciation..••......... _ 1. 1 2. o 3. 3 10. 92 52. 84 56.38 53. 72 39. 56 All other ...••.. ·-··-······ 8. o 12. 4 17. 1 11. 7 (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) Net gain .•••••.•....... ___ (') (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) (1) Net loss .....••.... ·-··-·-- (1) Establishment N o.12.-W omen's welts: 83.19 Materials ....•..•..••......•.•. -····· 37. 1 28. 7 .••.......•••..••••... 124. 98 Labor cost ...•...............•. -····· 39. 9 43. 6 ...•.............•.... 134. 26 126. 44 20.20 21.m . ............... ····-· 3 9. O 6. -····· Officials .....•..•••............. 3. 98 3.39 Office clerks......................... 1. O 1. 4 .............. -······· 3.12 -······· ........•..... 2 1. 3. 37 9 . Sales force............................. (') -····· .....•...••...•. (') (') Rent of buildings ........ _............ (') Rent and royalties on ma• 8. 24 6. 52 2. 8 ...••. ....•.•• ...•••.• chines........ -...................... 1. 9 (') (') (') ...... ........ ........ Fuel, light, and power .... -··•··...... (') 2. 43 1. 88 . 8 ...... .•••.•.. ........ .6 Maintenance and repair .. _ ...... ··-··· 1. 04 • 96 . 4 ...•.. .••••.•. ....••.. •3 Freight in and out. ..•...... ~ ... -····· • 26 . 1 .•••...•.•.......•.... --······ Interest paid._.............................. . 11 92 . ........ ..••••.. .•.... (') 3 . ..••.. estate......... Taxes, except real . 77 . 76 . 3 .••... ..••.••. ........ .2 Insurance .............. -........ ...•.. 6.14 4. 93 2.1 ...... .....•.. ....•... Lasts, dies, and patterns.............. 1. 5 . 05 ............... . Bad accounts......................... (') •··-·· .••.•. ...•.••• ....••.. 80 6. 76 5. •••••••• •••••••• •••••• 3 2. 7 1. shoes................ Loss on returned 3. 58 .......• 2. 49 1. 2 ..•••........• -······· .7 Depreciation._........................ 05 ....... . 4. .......• .......• ..•••••. Moving expenses_ ..••••... -··•·· ...•.. -····· 1. 4 .•.••. 16. 20 ..•....• 5. 6 .••••. .••••••. ...•.•.. 12. 73 All other........................ .•.•.. 3. 8 ··-····· ..•••... 91 13. ...•••.. ••..•.•. Net gain.............................. 4.1 ...•.. .••••. Net loss .•....•.......•... -·····............ -~ 1 ..•... ......•. .....•.. ••...•.. 14. 73 ....••.. 1 Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent. 1 Not segregated; included in "all Qther.'' I Not reported.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  39  COST OF PRODUCING AND SELLING SHOES  TABLlil 5.-PER CENT THAT SPECIFIED ITEMS CONSTITUTE OF NET SALES, AND COST PER 100 PAIRS, ETC.-Contlnued LYNN, MASS,-Continued  Establishment, kind of sh008, and item of expense  Per cent that specified items constitute of net sales 1920  1921  Cost per 100 pairs  1923  1924  1920  1921  1922  1923  41. 7 47.7 25. 7 25.6  (1)  27. 3  ----------------------------------------------------------------  $77. 06 41.46  $70.17 43.36  $80.95 43.41  (') (')  (') (')  1922  -Establishment No. 13.-Men's and women's McKay, and turn: Materials _________________ Labor cost_ _______________ OfficiaJs ___________________ Office clerks _______________ Sales force _________________ Rent of buildings _________ royalties on and ________________ Rent machines  --------------------------  ----------Fuel, light, and ~wer ____ ------  Maintenance an repair ___ Freight in and out ________ Taxes, except real estate __ Insurance _________________ All other__________________ Net gain __________________ -----Net Joss ___________________ Establishment N o.14.-Women's McKay: Materials ---------- -- - 65.3 Labor cost____ ________________ Officials ___________________ 23.1 .9 Office clerks_______________ .8 Sales force ________________ .5 Rent of buildings _________ (') Rent and ________________ royalties on machines (') Fuel, light, and ~ower_____ (') Maintenance an repair ___ .4 Freight in and out ________ .2 Interest paid ______________ .3 Taxes, except real estate___ 3.0 Insurance _________________ All other__________________ 1..25 Net gain __________________ (1) Net loss ___________________ (1) Establishment N o.15.-Women's McKay:_________________ Materials Labor cost ________________ Officials ___________________ Office clerks _______________ Sales force _________________ -----Rent of buildings __________ Rent and royalties on machines ________________ Fuel, light, and power ____ Maintenance and repair ___ Freight in and out_ _____.__ Interest paid ______________ Taxes, except real estate ___ Insurance ___ ______________ -------------- -----Depreciation All other __________________ Net gain __________________ Net Joss ___________________  ------  ----------------------------------------------  1 Not  reported.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  1 Not  44.4 23.9 (')  (') (')  (') (')  (') (')  5.1 1.5  2.3 1.5  4.0 1.6  1.9 2.8  (')  .5 .1 2. 5 .4  .5 .1 3. 6 .4 2.6 6.51 .2 .2 7.5 7. 3  .7 .7 .2 .1 2.3 4. 7 .4 .o 3. 7 -----.2 .4 8.3 11. 8  (1) (1)  (1) (1)  (1) (1)  68.0 20. 5 .9 1.1 .6  51.8 33. 7 1.9 1.2 1.2  52. 2 37.8 1. 7 2. 8 2.3  (')  (')  (')  .1 (')  .3 .2 (')  3.5 .1 1. 8 (1) (1)  .2 (') .6 .3 (')  4.9 .6 5.5  (1) (1)  .2 (')  .6 .3 .1 1.6 .2 7.9 (') (1)  49.9 46. 2 43.6 33. 2 40.4 44.5 5.8 4.6 1. 7 .6 .9 .6 1.2 .7 2. 3 (1)  .6 (')  .6 .6 .3 .2 .1 1. 0 5.3  (1) (1)  (')  .7 (')  .4 .4 .2 .2 .2 2. 2 2.0 1.1  (')  .8 (')  .8 .3 .1 .1 .2 1.1 2. 5 1. 7  (1) (1)  ---------------  -----------------------------  $283. 53 ----------- 100.3. 54 77 ----------- 3.28  ------  ---------------------------------------------------  2.08  (')  2.66  .84 .15 4.31 • 71  11. 27 .35 13.03 (1) (1)  3.85 2. 65 .85 . 17 6.06 .69 4. 35 . 35 12. 33 (1) (1)  6.85 2.80 1.25 . 21 3.96 . 64 6. 27 .37 14.17  189. 59 137. 32 6. 35 10.12 8. 26  (')  (')  (')  .67  (')  1. 66 .97 I. 13 12.86 .98 6. 68  2.06 1. 45 .13 21. 51 .65 11.24  18.06 .18 20. 51  2.30 1.11 .44 5.63 .67 28. 66  112. 33 76. 65 13. 08 2. 01 2.87  111.05 97.18 10.97 1. 39 1. 79  108. 88 110.93 4. 33 I. 52 5.66  (')  (')  (')  1.46  1.68  2.12  (')  (')  (')  (1)  ------ ------------- ------------- ------------------------- ------------- ------------- ------------- ------------- ------------- --------  ------ --------  ------ ------ ------ --------  (1) (1)  1. 28 1.37 . 71  .45 .28 2. 34 12. 03 (I) (1)  (1)  2.22 1.20 • 14  (1) (1)  1.01 .99 .58  3.33 4.114 1.28 .28 8. 39 1.00  -------.67  21.02  ---------------------______  192.10 125. 08 6.90 4.56 4. 32 .57  (•) (')  (1) (1)  1)  417. 57 125. 87 5.44 6. 75 3. 61 .49  (1)  $48.43  t  .20 (')  ------ (1) ------------------------------------------ ------------- --------  segregated; includedi n "all other".  (') (') 8. 80  1924  (')  (1) (1)  1. 94 .67 .33 .33 .42 2. 73 6.34 4.12  ..,_  --------  -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------' ----------------------  --------  ----------------------------·------- -------- --------------• 54 .45 5. 34 4. 84 2.68  • Less than one-tenth or 1 per cent.  40  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  TABLE 5.-PEJR CEJNT THAT SPECIFIEJD ITEMS CONSTITUTEJ OF NEJT SALES, AND COST PEJR 100 PAIRS, EJTC.-Contlnued LYNN, MA.SS.-Continued  Establishment, kind of shoes, and item of expense  Per cent that specified Items constitute of net sales  . Cost per 100 pairs  1---,---,--------1----,---------,.--1920  1921  1922  1923  1924  1920  1921  1922  1923  1924  - - - - - - - - - - i - - -----------l----+----1----1--EstablishmentNo.16.-Women's welts: Materials................. 57. 6 42. 1 41. 5 45. 2 ·•··•· $287. 84 $149. 42 $125. 22 ,$164. 30 94. 31 110.01 108. 76 135. 54 Labor cost ..••••.....•••.. 18. 9 30. 9 36. 0 37. 3 22. 77 20.64 Officials................... 4. 6 22. 45 5. 8 7.4 15. 3 65.52 1. 7 3. 74 1. 76 Office clerks............... .7 2. 24 .5 .7 6. 20 Sales force................. 1. 6 2.7 7.80 8.68 2. 4 10.17 3. 4 9. 76 Rent of buildings......... 1. 2 3.4 6.81 3.20 .9 1. 4 4. 26 12. 31 Rent and royalties on machines................ .9 1.6 1. 7 2. 7 4. 70 5.57 5.10 9. 74 .••••••. Fuel, light, and power.... .4 .5 .6 .8 1. 84 1. 88 1. 79 2. 92 ••••.•.• -Maintenance and repair... .3 .6 .5 .5 1. 57 1. 99 1. 44 1. 81 ••...... Freightinandout......... .2 .2 .2 .3 .90 .86 .70 1.06 .•..••.. Interest paid.................... (3) • 3 ...... ...... ........ . 15 . 85 .•..•..•.....••• Taxes, except real estate... 1. 0 .8 .8 1. 4 5. 11 2. 71 2. 46 5. 00 Insurance................. .3 .2 .3 . 1 .•.•.. 1. 37 . 74 . 94 . 31 ...•••.. Lasts, dies, and patterns.. .7 2. 5 1. 5 1. 7 ...... 3. 30 8. 92 4. 59 6. 30 •••.•..• Bad accounts................... 1. 1 1. 1 6. 9 ..•... ..•..... 4. 06 3. 46 25. 11 ..•.•.•. Depreciation.............. .2 .2 . 4 ...... ...... . 91 . 83 1. 09 ••.•.....•.•••.. All other.•.••••••.•.••••... 3 .4 .7 1.5 ....•• 1.28 1.29 1.99 5.43 .•••.•..· Net gain ..••••••.......•.• 12.1 10.1 3. 7 ...... ..•••. 60. 65 35. 94 11. 29 .•.............. Net loss................... ••••.. ...•.. ....•. 17. 9 .•.••• .•••..•• .••••••• .••••••• 65. 09 .•.•••.. EstablishmentNo.17.-Wom~  'I  en'sMcKay:  Materials................. 57. 9 46. 5 32. 4 .•.••• ••.••• 301. 54 194. 49 96. 05 ••••••.•.•••••.. Labor cost................ 25. 0 35. 2 48. 6 ...•.• .••••• 130. 46 147. 52 153. 65 •••...•• ···-··· Officials................... 2. 8 3. 1 3. 8 .•.... .••••• 14. 45 12. 89 12. 13 ..............•. Office clerks............... .7 .8 1. 6 .•.... .••••• 3. 47 3. 43 5. 15 ............... . Sales force................. 3. 3 4. 0 3. 3 ••.... ..•.•• 17. 02 16. 60 10. 39 ..•............. Rent of buildings......... ('} (2) (') •••••• •••••• (') (') (') •••••••••••••••. Rent and royalties on machines................ 3.41 .4 4.40 .8 1. 4 .••••• .••••• 2. 12 Fuel, light, and power.... (2) ( 2) ( 2) •••••• •••••• (') (') (') Maintenance and repair... 4.55 , 3. 34 .9 1. 1 1. 1 .•...• .•.••• 4. 90 Freight in and out........ .2 .3 .93 . 3 .•.•.. .....• 1. 29 1. 21 Interest paid.............. .6 .63 .2 3.00 . 9 •.••.. •••••• 3. 25 Taxes, except real estate... .1 .2 . 3 ...••• ..•••. . 72 .88 .81 Insurance................. .4 1.00 .5 . 3 .•...• ..••.• 1. 85 2. 23 Lasts, dies, and patterns... 1. 2 7.80 11. 13 1. 9 3. 5 ..•... ..••.• 6. 50 1.20 Bad accounts............. 2. 6 7.99 1. 9 . 4 ...•.• ..•••• 13. 71 Depreciation.............. .1 .48 .1 . 3 .....• •••••• . 45 .89 All other.................. 2. 9 4. 6 5. 4 .•.••• •••••• 15. 22 19.24 17.15 Net gain.................. 1. 0 ...... ...... ..•..• .•••.• 5. 41 .•........••....••............•. Net loss......................... 1. 2 2.1 .••••• .•••.• •••••... 4. 95 6. 62 ••............•• • Not segregated; Included In "all other."  • Less than one-tenth of 1 per cent.  The figures furnished by a Haverhill manufacturer and presented in Table 6 show for each half year, 1920 to 1924, the per cent that each item of expense in making and selling shoes is of the amount received for the shoes. It will be observed that this factory has lost money each half year since the first half of 1920, the loss rang• ing from 5.3 per cent in the second half of 1922 to 18.9 per cent in 1924. The manufacturing expense includes salaries of officials, which were reduced in 1923 and again in 1924, the 1924 salaries being only 35 per cent of those paid in each of the three years, 1920, 1921, and 1922. The manufacturer is still in business in Haverhill, hoping for better conditions and a. balance on the right side of his ledger.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  41  COST OF PRODUCING AND SELLING SHOES  T.lBLII 8.--PER CENT EAOB BPECil!'IED ITEM OF EXPENSE IS OF AMOUNT RECEIVED FOR SHOES SOLD BY A HAVERHILL FIRM, 1920 TO 1924 Per cent each specified item of expense Is of amount received for shoes sold 1920  Item of expeDII  I  1921  1922  1923  111M  First Second First Beoond First Second First Second First half half half half half half half half half of year of year of;vear of year of year of year of year of year of year Materials used in shoes______ FiJidinp used in shoes _______ Labor __  47.9 Ill.II 2.2 2.4 22. 7 2U 15.2 26.11 .. 9 7.2 .. 8 -------10. 1  Manufacturing. Commtsslons_ Net-•NetlOSS.-  --------1  TotDI  100.~  I  100.0  39.7 2. 7 33.3 29.0 5.9  '1.8 2.8 35.9 20.7 6.9  10.6  7.9  100.0  100.0  39.li 2.8 38.0 24.0 S.li  80.7 3.0 "4.1 21.4 6.1  35.9 3.1 41.0 24.5 6. 9  5.3  11.4  100.0  100.0  --iii~ii" 100.0  39.3 2.8 42.9 26:9 7.0  32.7 2.8 38.4 24.4 7.9  6.2 \----18~9 100.0  I  100.0  The figures of Table 7, furnished by a factory that is still in business in Haverhill, show the cost-1 per 100 pairs, of the materials used in manufacturing women's suede shoes and women's patent leather shoes of medium or cheap grade, the cost of labor in wa~es of shoe workers, the cost of selling the shoes, and all other expenses incurred in their manufacture and sale in August, 1924. TABL& 7.-0OBT OF PRODUCTION AND BELLINO BY A HAVERHILL FIRM IN 1924, BY ITEM  Cost per 100 pairs  Item  Women's  Women's  shoes  leather shoes  suede  Materials._ Labor Bales expense.  All other expense •• Total_ - -------------------  patent  $127.17 113.42 2. 50 88.00  $129.33 97.86 2.50 38.00  281.09  267.69  A factory that is still in business in Lynn furnished the data for Table 8, wliich show the cost, per 100 pairs, of materials used, labor, and all other expense incurred in the manufacture and sale of men's turn slippers in 1920 and 1921 and in 1923 and 1924, and of women's McKay oxfords in 1921 and 1922 and in 1923 and the first part of 1924. TABU 8.-00ST. OF PRODUCTION AND BELLINO BY A LYNN FIRM IN  YEARS, BY ITEM  Men's turn slippers  SPECIFIED  Women's McKay oxfords  Item 1920and 1921 1928 and 11124 1921 and 1922 1923and 1924  Materials_. Labor. All other C<"¢  TotaJ _____   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  ---------------------  $70. 78 87.33 22.39  $52.11 35.56 21.33  $1"4.92 51.44 30.86  $113.83 411.08  130.50  109.00  227.22  192. 35  29.44  42  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  BROCKTON PRODUCTION, 191' TO 192,  The Brockton Daily Enterprise carefully compiles from railroad, ~ress and posto:ffice shipments the number of cases of shoes shipped from the city each week. It has published such figures weekly. and annually since the beginning of 1900. The figures by years, 1914 to 1924, are as follows: Number of oases  ana number of f)alrs  of shoes s'IK9f)ed eaoh weele, 1914 to 19!4  Year  1914 _________________________ 1915 _________________________ 1916 _________________________ 1917 _________________________ 1918 _________________________ 1919 _________________________ 1920 _________________________ 1921 _________________________ 1922 _________________________ 1923 _________________________ 1924 1 ________________________  Number of oases  Number of pain  648,198 694,919 795,634 621,900 679,023 759,352 611,006 631,536 680,192 609,232 429,444  16,204,950 17,373,975 19,890,850 15,547,500 16,975,575 18,983,800 15,275,150 15,788,400 17,004,800 15,230,800 10,736,100  llan. 1 to Nov.1.  From the above it is seen that during the years 1920 to 1923, inclusive, production held up to a fairly uniform level, notwithstanding a strike of 11 weeks' duration, beginning May 14, 1923, which t,J.osed all factories in the city, causing considerable loss in production. The January 1 to November 1, 1924, figures (10,786,100 pairs) indicate a total of 12,000,000 to 13,000,000 pairs in 1924, a considerable loss, compared with previous _years.. .A large majority of tlie factories in Brockton are considerably larger in number of shoe workers and in output of shoes per day than the factories in Haverhill, Lynn, and many other localities. Practically all of the shoes produced by the Brockton factories are standard men's welt, with fewer changes in style and in labor cost. STRIKE OF 1923 IN BROCKTON  In discussing the strike just referred to, union officials ss.id : For more than 20 years prior to the strike the shoe mantlfacturers In Brockton, through its association, In cooperation with the shoe workers' union through its officials, worked in peace and harmony. Early in 1923 the local union of dressers and packers appealed to the State board of arbitration for an increase of wages. The appeal was re.fused. An unauthorized strike, in violation of agreement and against the advice of union officials, followed. Of the 13 local unions, all except 3 (edge workers, dressers, and lasters) voted against the strike. Radicals came into the city from other localities. :Meetings and parades were held, shoe workers not in sympathy with the strike were attacked, and every effort was made to get them to withdraw from their union and join another, many of them being visited at their homes. :Mantlfacturers refused to employ any shoe workers· other than members of the union with which they had an agreement.  . During this strike the union and the manufacturers' association issued the ·following statements, which were published in the local papers:  https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  BROCKTON  48  STATEYENT OF UNION  To the shoe worker& of Brockton:  The Brockton Joint Shoe Council for over a quarter of a century has carefully pided the welfare of the local unions as authorized by the constitution of the boot and shoe workers' union. It has guarded zealously the best interests of the shoe workers of this community and maintained the highest wages and working conditions consistent with the competitive conditions in the shoe trade. E:tforts have not been spared to keep Brockton in the first rank as a shoe center where steady employment with good remuneration may be secured. We are now confronted with a condition which aims to destroy the constructive work of our organization and threatens to cripple progress of the future. Groups of individuals have, without any regard for honorable agreements, openly violated contracts and are now engaged in the task of inducing others to follow them. Misrepresentation of the issues Involved is the instrument employed to conceal the real facts. The paramount question is the preservation of our contracts. An organization that deliberately permits its members to repudiate a solemn agreement can not succeed in maintaining good wages and favorable conditions of employment. Promises from those who regard these principles lightly constitute an insecure foundation upon which to build for the future. It can only result In the infliction of injury upon the homes and famllles of the people of Brockton. We appeal to every shoe worker to return to work at once and thus manifest his loyality to the cause of organized labor. The issue Is now between those who would violate a trade agreement and those who would maintain its integrity. Let us show to the world that an agreement entered into with E>mployers by the shoe workers of this city will be honorably respected. Every shoe worker must realize the wisdom of this course. It is the only means by which his interests may be cared for. The Brockton Joint Shoe Council No. 1 appeals to you to stand firmly by these principles and again asks you to return to work at once. STATE:MENT OF l'd:ANUFAOTUBJ;.'BS' ASSOCIATION  The Brockton Shoe Manufacturers' Association includes manufacturers in Brockton and near-by towns of the Old Colony District. For more than 20 years the manufacturers, in cooperation with the trade-union of their employees, the boot and shoe workers' union, have avoided the grave dangers and heavy losses imposed by strikes and lockouts throughout the successful practice of peaceful adjustment, under the plan of the union stamp and arbitration contract of the boot and shoe workers' union, which is recognized and approved by the American Federation of Labor. In the faithful fulfillment of the contract obligations by the employees, via their union, and by the employers of the manufacturers' association, there has been maintained peace in our various communities, and prosperity and progress, in which the vitally Interested public has shared. Beginning May 15, groups of employees in various crafts of our great industry, launched an assault seeking to wreck the peaceful adjustment plan t.hat has contributed to our general progress and enabled our industry to fill the orders of its customers on schedule time. The purpose of this assault ls to tear down all that has been accomplished in more than 20 years of success in peaceful relationship between employees and employers, and to set up In Its place the warfare in industry that is common where so-called independent unions rule, or ruin. A vast majority of our employees by being present at their work, or anxious to resume as members in good standing of the boot and shoe workers' union demonstrate their desire to fulfill their contract obligations, and to continue peace and its benefits in our industry to the advantage of the public. The manufacturers of Brockton and near-by towns stand unalterably by their earlier declarations that they intend to abide firmly by their contractll with their employees' union, the boot and shoe workers' union. The manufacturers will not deal with independent unions. The adoption of suclf a program would be disastrous ·to the industry and opposed to the public welfare.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  44  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  Our loyal employees know this, the hundreds of employees, whom we have promoted to better jobs, understand it and that we intend to protect them in thelr future rights; and we desire the public to be correctly Informed of our position. Production in our factories is constantly improving. Some workers are still missing their pay envelopes because unwise leaders seeking to upset our peaceful communities have temporarily hampered production in volume. But the situation is rapidly stablllzing so that the public soon will not be further obliged to sutl:er its share of the losses due to irresponsible leadership that bas temporarily guided some of our employees away from the duty of honoring their pledged agreements. The manufacturers of Brockton and near-by towns will not submit to the upheavals and interruptions of work that are common in strike-ridden places, outside of this district. We are glad to say to the public that the vast ma-· jority of our employees are also opposed to the rule or ruin policy that would deprive them often of their pay envelope, cause frequent decreases in earnings, and ln1llct losses on the community as a whole. WORKING AGREEMENT IN BROCKTON  The following agreement is now in effect between the union and all of the large shoe manufacturers in Brockton and a majority of the others: .Agreement entered into thi.~-------daY o----------, 192 , _____ shoe manufacturer o..___ _ _ __ by and between hereinafter known as the employer, and the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, with headquarters at 246 Summer Street, Boston, Mass., hereinafter known as the union, witnesseth : FmsT. The union agrees to furnish its union stamp to the employer free of charge, to make no additional price for the use of the stamp, to make no discrimination between the employer, other firms, persons, or corporations who may enter into an agreement with the union for the. use of the union stamp, and to make all reasonable efforts to advertise the union stamp, and to create a demand for the union-stamped products of the employer, in common with other employers using the union stamp. SEcoND. In consideration of the foregoing valuable privlleges the employer agrees to hire as shoe workers only members of the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union, in good standing, and further agrees not to retain any shoe worker in his employment after receiving notice from the union that such shoe worker is objectionable to the union, either on account of being in arrears for dues, or disobedience of union rules or laws. The employer agrees that there shall be no discrimination against any member of the union because of his or her activity in union aJrairs. THDID. The employer agrees that he will not cause or allow the union stamp to be placed on any goods not made in the factory for which the use of the union stamp is granted and the employer agrees that it will be a violation of this contract to use the union stamp or stamps in any other place than the particular factory for which the use of the stamp is granted. · FotmTH. It is mutually agreed that the union wlll not cause or sanction any strike, and that the employer will not lock out his employees while this agreement is in force. All questions of wages or conditions of labor, which can not be mutually agreed upon, shall be submitted to the State board of arbitration. The decision of this board of arbitration shall be final and binding upon the employer, the union, and the employees. The employer agrees that where a change of system or methods ls made, be will notify the local union aJrected and endeavor to mutually agree upon a price to be paid. Falllng to agree, the matter shall be arbitrated, and the decision rendered shall date from the time of change in system and method. In the event of the employer or local union, or a duly authorized agent giving written notice to the general president of their- desire to refer to arbitration any matter in dispute relative to wages, conditions of employment, interpreta-   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  PRODUCTION OF SHOES, BY STATES  45  tion ot contract, or any other difl'erence of opinion, he shall insist that the apP.llcatlon for same shall be signed within seven days from hiJI receipt of said aetice. Failure of either party to comply with this clause shall constitute a jlrect violation of this contract. l.l'I:rTJL The union agrees to assist the employer in procuring competent shoe workers to fill the places of any empleyees who refuse to abide by section 4 of this agreement, or who may withdraw or be expelled from the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union. Slr.rH. The employer agrees tbat the regnlarly appointed collectors, or business agents acting in the capacity of collectors, shall not be hindered or obstructed in collecting dues from members working in the factory. SlmcNTH. The employer agrees that the general president of the union, or his deputy upon his written order, may visit the employees in the factory at any tlme.  EIGHTH. The employer agrees that the union is the lawful owner of the union stamp, and the employer agrees n:ot to make or cause to be made any union stamp or stamps, and it is further agreed that the union will furnish free ot cost, all stamps necessary to be used under the agreement. NINTH. The union agrees that no person except the general president, or his deputy upon his written order, shall have tbe right to demand or receive the union stamp from the employer. TENT:e:. Should the employer violate this agreement, he agrees to surrender the union stamp or stamps in his possession to the general president or his deputy, upon his written order, and tbat the said general president or his deputy may take said stamp or stamps, wherever they may be, without being llable for damages, or otherwise. ELB:vENT:e:. In case the said employer shall for any cause fail to deliver the said stamp or stamps to the general president, or his deputy, as provided 1n this agreement, the employer shall be liable to the general president for the sum of $200, as liquidated damages, to be recovered by the general president in an action of contract, brought 1n the name of the general president, for the benefit of the union against employer. TwELFTH. The agreement shall remain ln force unti.._________ . Should either party desire to alter, amend, or annul this agreement, it shall give a written notice thereof to the other party three months before expiration of the agreement ; fllld if the parties fail to give such notice the agreement shall continue in force for another year; and so on from year to year until such notice Is given. TBmTl:ENTH. In case the employer shall cease to do business, or shall transfer it.s business, or any part thereof, to any person or persons, or corporations, this agreement shall be ended, and the stamp or stamps shall be returned to the general president forthwith, without demand from the union, when a new agreement of similar tenor to this may be entered into between the employer and the general executive board of the Boot and Shoe Workers' Union. Signed, by___________ for the employer; bY-----.1.or the union.  [UAL.]  PRODUCTION OF SHOES, BY STATES Table 9, computed from reports of the United States Department of Commerce, shows a total production in the United States of 351,114,273 pairs of shoes other than rubber in 1923; 286,771,101 in 1921; 331,224,628 in 1919; and 292,666,468 in 1914; thus showing that the production in 1923, one of the so-called years of depression, exceeds that of any other year by. approximately 20.iQ<>0,OO0 pairs. Massachusetts, the State in which Ha"."erhill1 Lynn, .JjrocktoI?,, and Boston are located, shows a production of 115,224,383 pairs in 1914; 116,992,912 pairs in 1919; 85,819,586 pairs in 1921; and 89,517,331 pairs in 1923, an increase of nearly 4,0001000 pairs in 1923 over 1921 and a loss of about 27,000,000 pairs m 1923 compared with 1919, the year of peak production in Massachusetts.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  46  LABOR CONDITIONS IN SHOE INDUSTRY IN MASSACHUSETTS  Production in New York increased from 38,798,158 pairs in 1914 to 75,821,623 in 1923, or 95 per cent, and in Missouri from 20,868,352 , in 1914 to 56,050,116 in 1923 or an increase of 169 per cent. It will also be observed in Table 9 that there has been from year to year little difference in production in Pennsylvania, Ohio, or Maine; that in New Hampshire there has been very little change except in 1921 when production was 14,631,976 pairs compared with 22,700,694 in 1919; that while the production in Illinois in 1923 was less than in 1919 or 1921 it was approximately the same as in 1914; and that while production in Wisconsin in 1921 was only 7 per cent less than in 1919, the 1923 production was 105 per cent more than in 1914. Thus it appears that while the figures show no depression in the ·industry in the country as a whole in 1923 and little or none in 192'1, they do actually show a decrease in Massachusetts of 22 l?er cent in 1923 compared with 1914, and 23 per cent compared with 1919, with an increase of 4 per cent in 1923 over 1921. TABLE  9,-PRODUCTION OF SHOES, BY STA.TES, 1914, 1919, 1921, and 11123 (Computed from reports of U.S. Department or Commerce.) Pairs or shoes produced  State 1914  Massachusetts- _____________________ : __ New York ______________________________ Missouri  1919  1921  1923  Ohio Wisconsin ______________________________ ID!nois _________________________________ All other States_-----------------------  24,659,886 22,184,502 15,709,277 17,973,441 8,382,882 8,292,659 2Al, 572, 928  116,992,912 62,773,081 26,362,397 22,700,694 23,617,362 19,175,387 17,870,148 11,142,456 10,638,609 19,951,582  85, 819, fi86 63,696,324 27,423,938 14,631,976 19,195,193 16,515,142 16,835,245 10,407,318 12,295,206 19,951,173  89,517,331 75,821,623 56,050,116 21,718,392 21,533,047 17,261,279 17,243,519 17,150,437 8,645,160 26,173,369  Total- -------- -------------------  292, 666, 468  331, 224, 628  286, 771, 101  351,114,273  Maine~__________________________________ :~~~:' ~::======================  115,224,383 38,798,158  :1Al, 868, 352  Figures from the same source, for the country as a whole, show a production of 213,203,556 pairs in January to July, inclusive, 1923, and 179,290,629 pairs in the corresponding seven months of 1924, a loss of about 34,000,000 :pairs or 16 per cent. Considerable improvement has been reported m the shoe industry in the United States as a whole since July, 1924. It is estimated that production during August to December, 1924, will amount to about as much as in the same months of 1923, resulting in a total production for the year of about 315,000,000 pairs, thus showing little depression in the country as a whole in 1924, even when compared with the peak years, 1919 and 1923, and none when compared with 1914 and 1921.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  SERIES OF BULLETINS PUBLISHED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS [Tie pablicatioa ol tlte -al and special reporta card of tlae 6imontll7 6alletin wa, iiacolltiaud in Jrd7, 1912, card since tut time a b.Uetin lta, l,eea pablialie,l at irre,.,ar iaten1al,. Bad -6er coatain, lllatfer ieooted to one ol a ,aia ol ,-ral .,,J,ject,. TMN 6.Uetiu are •-ered couecatillel7, 6egirurin, witli No. 101. u, to No. 236 t-, al,o carried c-cllfille IUllllber, under each series. Beginning witli No. 231 tie ,erial -6ering ltaa 6een diacontimred. A list ol tlte ama is gioen 6elow. Under each is ,rn,ed all tlte 6alletiu which contain material relating to tlte mject nudfer ol that ,eria. A list ol tlte reports and balletiu ol tie Bnrean iamed prior to Jal.1 l, 1912, will 6e hmtia6e4 on application. Tie l,alletiu marked tmu • are ont ol print.] Whol•ale Prices. •Bui. 114. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1912. Bui. 149. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1918. •Bui. 178. Index numbers of wholesale prices in the United States and foreign •Bui. 181. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1914. *Bui. 200. *Bul. 226. Bui. 269. Bui. 284.  Bui. 296. Bul. 820. Bul. 885. Bui. 867.  countries. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 19111. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1916. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1919. Index numbers of wholesale prices ln the United States and foreign countries. [:tlevislon of Bulletin No. 178.J Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1920. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1921. · Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1922. Wholesale prices, 1890 to 1928. [In preBL]  Retail Prieea and Coat of LiTfnl'. •Bui. 105. Retail prices, 1890 to 1911 : Part I. Retail prices, 1890 to 1911 : Part II-General tablea. •Bul. 106. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912 : Part I. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1912 : Part II-General table& Bui. 108. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1912. Bui. 110. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1912. Bul. 118. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1912. Bul. 115. Retail prices, 1890 to February, 1913. •Bui. 121. Sugar prices, from reftner to consumer. Bui. 125. Retail prices, 1890 to April, 1918. *Bui. 180. Wheat and flour prices, from farmer to consum.-. Bui. 182. Retail prices, 1890 to June, 1913. Bui. 136. Retail prices, 1890 to August, 1913. •Bui. 138. Retail prices, 1890 to October, 1918. *Bui. 140. Retail prices, 1890 to December, 1918. Bui. 156. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1914.  Bui. 164. Bui. 170. •Bui. 184. Bui. 107. Bui. 228. Bui. 270. Bui. 300. Bui. 815. Bui. 834. Bui. 857. Bui. 366. Bui. 869.  Butter prices, from producer to consumer. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. Retail prices, 1907 to June, 1915. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1915. Retail prices, 1907 to December, 1916. Retail prices, 1918 to December, 1919. Retail prices, 1913 to December, 1920. Retail prices, 1918 to 1921. Retail prices, 1918 to 1922. Cost of living in the United States. Retail prices, 1918 to December, 1928. The use of cost-of-living ftgures In wage adjustments.  [In press.]  Wase• and H011n of Labor. Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-eandng women In  ' selected Industries In the District of Columbia. •Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. BuL 119. Working hours of women In the pea canneries of Wisconsin. •Bui. 128. Wages and hours of labor In the cotton, woolen, and silk industries, 1890 to 1912.  •Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (I)  Waares and Hours of Labor-Continued.  *Bui. 129. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1890 to 1912. •BuL 1111. Union scale of Waies and hours of labor, 1907 to 1912. *Bui. 134. .Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe and hosiery and knit goods industries, 1890 to 1912. •Bui. 135. Wages and hours of labor in the cigar and clothing industries, 1911 and' 1912. Bui. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the building and repairing of steam railroad cars, 1890 to 1912. Bui. 148. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1918. *Bui. 146. Wages and regularity of employment and standardization of piece rates in the dress and waist industry of New York City, •Bui, 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. *Bui. 150. Wages and hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, a.nd silk industries, 1907 to 1918. •BuL 1.51. Wages and hours of labor in the iron a.nd steel industry In the United States, 1907 to 1912. BuL 153. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture Industries, 1907 to 1913. •Bui. 154. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe a.nd hosiery and underwear industries, 1907 to 1913. Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women in Indiana mercantile establishments and garment factories. Bui. 161. Wages and hours of labor in the clothing and cigar industries, 1911 to 1913. But. 163. Wages and hours of labor In the building a.nd repairing of steam railroad cars, 1907 to 1913. Bui. 168. Wages and hours of labor in the Iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1913. •But.171. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1914. But. 177. Wages and hours of labor In the hosiery and underwear industry, 1907 to 1914. Bul.178. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe Industry, 1907 to 1914. •But. 187. Wages and hours of labor in the men's clothing industry, 1911 to 1914. •Bui. 190. Wages a.nd hours of labor in the cotton, woolen, a.nd silk industries, 1907 to 1914. •Bui. 19~. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 1, 1916. Bui. 204. Street railway employment in the United States. But. 214. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1918. BuL 218. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel Industry, ltO'I' to 191G. BuL 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. Bui. 225. Wages and hours of labor in the lumber, millwork, and furniture industries, 1915. Bui. 232. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1916. Bui. 238. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1916. Bui. 239. Wages and hours of labor In cotton-goods manufacturing and finishing, 1916. Bui. 245. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1917. Bui. 252. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1917. Bui. 259. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1918. Bui. 260. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe Industry, 1907 to 1918. Bui. 261. Wages and hours of labor In woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1918. Bui. 262. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing and finishing, 1918• . Bui. 265. Industrial survey in selected industries in the United States, 1919. Prellm1nary report. BuL 274. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1919. Bui. 278. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1920. Bui. 279. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mining. Bu.I. 286. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1920. Bui. 288. Wages and hours of labor in cotton-goods manufacturing, 1920. Bui. 289. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted ·goods manufacturing, 1920. • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (II)  Wages and Hours of Labor--Contlnued.  Bui. 294. Wages and hours of labor In the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in 1921. Bui. 297. Wages and hours of labor in the petroleum industry. Bui. 802. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1921. Bui. 805. Wages and hours of labor in the iron and steel Industry, 1907 to 1920. Bui. 316. Hours and earnings in anthracite and bituminous coal mlnlng--anthracite, January, 1922; bituminous, winter of 1921-22. Bui. 817. Wages and hours of labor in lumber manufacturing, 1921. Bui. 324. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 19-07 to 1922. Bui. 825. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1922. Bui. 327. Wages and hours of labor in woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1922. Bui. 328. Wages and hours of labor In hosiery and underwear Industry, 1922. Bui. 329. Wages and hours of labor in the men's clothing industry, 1922. Bui. 345. Wages and hours of labor In cotton-goods manufacturing, 1922. Bui. 848. Wages and hours of labor In the automobile Industry, 1922. Bui. 353. Wages and hours of labor in the Iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1922. Bui. 354. Union scale of wages and hours of labor, May 15, 1923. Bui. 356. Productivity costs in the common-brick industry. Bui. 358. Wages and hours of labor in the automobile-tire industry, 1923. Bui. 360. Time and labor costs in manufacturing 100 pairs of shoes. Bui. 862. Wages and hours of labor in foundries and machine shops, 1923. Bui. 368. Wages and hours of labor in lumber manufacturing, 1923. Bui. 865. Wages and hours of labor in the paper and pulp industry. Bui. 871. Wages and hours of labor In cotton-goods manufacturing, 1924. Bui. 373. Wages and hours of labor in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1923. [In press.] Bui. 874. Wages and hours of labor in the boot and shoe industry, 1907 to 1924. [In press.] Bui. 376. Wages and hours of labor in the hosiery and underwear Industry, 1907 to 1924. Bui. 377. Wages and hours of labor In woolen and worsted goods manufacturing, 1924. Bui. 381. Wages and hours of labor in the Iron and steel industry, 1907 to 1924. [In press.] Employment and Unemployment.  • Bui. 109. Statistics of unemployment and the work of employment offices. Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of wage-earning women in selected industries in the District of Columbia. Bui. 172. Unemployment in New York City, N. Y. •Bul.182. Unemployment among women In department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. •Bui. 183. Regularity of employment In the women's ready-to-wear garment industries. Bui. 192. Proceedings of the American Association of Public Employment Offices. •Bui. 195. Unemployment in the United States. Bui. 196. Proceedings of the Employment Managers' conference held at Minneapolis, Minn., January, 1916. •BuL 202. Proceedings of the conference of Employment Managers' Association of Boston, Mass., held May 10, 1916. Bui. 206. The British system of labor exchanges. Bui. 220. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the American Association of Public Employment Offices. Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Great Britain during the war. *Bui. 227. Proceedings of the Employment Managers' Conference, Philadelphia, Pa., April 2 and 3, 1917. Bui. 235. Employment system of the Lake Carriers' Association. Bui. 241. Public employment offices in the United States. Bui. 247. Proceedings of Employment Managers' Conl:erence, Rochester, N. Y., May 9-11, 1918. Bui. 310. Industrial unemployment: A statistical study of its extent and causes. Bui. 311. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public Empl_oyment · Services. • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (Ill)  Employment and Unemployment-Continued. Bul.-887. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public Employment Services. Bui. 3(io. Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Public Employment Services. Women in Industry.  Bui. 116. Hours, earnings, and duration of employment of ·wage-earning women in selected Industries In the District of Columbia. •Bui, 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. *Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working-day for women and young persons. Bui. 119. Working hours of women in the pea canneries of Wisconsin. •Bui. 122. Employment of women in power laundries in Milwaukee. Bui. 160. Hours, earnings, and conditions of labor of women In Indiana mercantile establishments and garment factories. •Bui. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. •Bui. l 'ffl. Summary of the report on condition of woman and child wage earners in the United States. •Bul.176. Elfect of minimum-wage determinations in Oregon. •Bui. 180. The ·ooot and shoe Industry In Massachusetts as a vocation for women. *Bui. 182. Unemployment among women in department and other retail stores of Boston, Mass. Bui. 198. Dressmaking as a trade for women in Massachusetts. BuL 215. Industrial experience of trade-school girls in Massachusetts. Bui. 217. Elfect of workmen's compensation laws In diminishing the necessity of industrial employment of women and children. Bui. 228. Employment of women and Juveniles in Great Britain during the war. Bui. 258. Women in the lead industries. Workmen'• Imurance and Compensation (includinir laws relatlnir thereto), •Bui. 101. Care of tuberculous wage earners in Germany. •Bui. 102. British National Insurance Act, 1911. Bui. 103. Sickness and accident insurance law of Switzerland. Bui. 107. Law relating to insurance of salaried employees in Germany. •Bui. 126. Workmen's compensation laws of the United States and foreign countries. •Bui. 155. Compensation for accidents to employees of tbe United States. *Bui. 185. Compensation legislation of 1914 and 1915. •Bui. 208. Workfnen's compensation laws of the Unit~ States and foreign countries. Bui. 210. Proceedings of the Third Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 212. Proceedings of the conference on social insurance called by the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 217. Elfect of workmen's compensation laws In diminishing the necessity of Industrial employment of women and children. Bui. 240. Comparison of workmen's compensation laws of the United States. Bui. 243. Workmen's compensation legislation In the United States· and foreign countries. Bui. 248. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 264. Proceedings of the Fifth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 272. Workmen's compensation legislation of the United States and Canada, 1919. •Bui. 273. Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the International As11ociatiou of lndustri.al Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 275. Comparison of workmen's compensation laws of the United States and Canada. Bui. 281. Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial Accldent Boards and Commissions. Bui. 301. Comparison of workmen's compensation insurance and administration. Bui. 304. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Commissioas. Bui. 812. National Health Insurance In Great Britain, 1911 to 1920. Bui. 882. Workmen's compensation legislation of .the United States and Canada, 1920 to 1922. • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (IV)  Workmen'■ ln■uanee and Com~tlon (lndadlns law■ relatinir tltereto)-Contlnued. Bul. 888. Proceedings of the Ninth Annual Meeting of the International Association of Indulltrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 8ll9. Proeeedhlgs of the Tenth Annual Meeting of the International ABBoclation of Indwrtrial Accident Boards and Commissions. Bui. 879. Comparison of workmen's compensation laws of the United States as ot J'anuary 1, 1925. lndastrlal Aeeidenta and ]qslene. *Bui. 104. Lead poisoning in potteries, tile works, and porcelain enameled sanitary ware factories. Bul.120. Hygiene of the painters' trade. *Bul.127. Dangers to workers from dust and fumes, and methods of protection. *Bui. 141. Lead poisoning In the smelting and re1lning of lead. *Bui. 157. Industrial accident statistics. *Bui. 165. Lead poisoning in the manufacture of storage batteries. *Bui. 179. Industrial poisons used In the rubber industry. Bui. 188. Report of British departmental committee on the danger In the use of lead In the painting of buildings. •Bui. 201. Report of committee on statistics and compensation Insurance cost of the International .Association of Industrial Accident Boards and Com• missions. [Limited edition.] Bui. 205. Anthrax as an occupational disease. Bui. 207. Causes of death by occupation. Bui. 209. Hygiene of the printlll&' trades. *Bui. 216. Accidents and accident prevention in machine building. Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health In British munition factories. Bui. 2110. Industrial efficiency and fatigue In British munltlon factories. •Bui. 281. Mortallty from respiratory diseases in dusty trades. *Bul. 234. Safety movement In the Iron and steel Industry, 1907 to 191'1. Bui. 286. Effect of the air hammer on the hands of stonecutters. Bul. 251. Preventable death in the cotton manufacturing Industry. Bui. 258. Women in the lead industries. Bui. 256. Accidents and accident prevention In machine building. Revision of Bui. 216. Bul. 267. Anthrax as an occupational disease. [Revised.] Bui. 276. Standardization of industrial accident statlstics. ,. Bui. 280. Industrial poisoning in making coal-tar dyes and dye intermediates. Bui. 291. Qarbon monoxide poisoning. Bui. 298. The problem of dust phthisis in the granite-stone industry. Bui. 298. Causes and prevention of accidents In the Iron and steel industry, 1910 to 1919. Bui. 1106. Occupation hazards and diagnostic signs: A guide to impairment to be looked for In hasardous occupations. Bui. 889. Statlstics of Industrial accidents in the United States. Conelllatlon and A.nitration (lncladlnir atrikea and leekoafll). *Bui. 124. Conciliation and arbitration In the building trades of Greater New York. *Bui. 1811. Report of the 1ndustrial council of the British Board of Trade on its inqulcy into industrial agreements. *Bnl. 189. Michigan copper district strike. Bul.144. Industrial court of the cloak, suit, and skirt Industry of New York City._ Bul. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City. Bul.191. Collective bargaining In the anthracite coal Industry. *Bul.198. Collective agreements In the men's clothing industry. Bu).. 2113. Operation of the Industrial Disputes Investigation Act of Canada. Bui. SOS. Use of Federal power In settlement of railway labor disputes. Bui. 841. Trade agreement In the Bilk-ribbon industry of New York City. Labor Laws of the United States (lncladins decisions of eoarfll relatlns to lallor). •Bui. 111. Labor legislation of 1912. *Bui. 112. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1912. *Bui. 148. Labor laws of the United States, with decisions of courts relating thereto. •Bui. 152. Declsions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1913. •Bui. 166. Labor legislation of 1914. •Bui. 169. Decislons of courts affecting labor, 1914.  • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (V)  Labor Laws of the United States (including decisions of courts relating to labor)-Continued. *Bul. 186. Labor legislation of 1915. •Bui. 189. Decisions of courts afl'ecting labor, 1915. Bnl. :n1. Labor laws aBd their administration in the Pacific States. *Bui. 218. Labor legislation of 1916. Bui. 224. Decisions of courts affecting labor, 1916. Bui. 229. Wage-payment legislation In the United States. •Bui. 244. Labor legislation of 1917. Bui. 246. Decisions of courts afl'ecting labor, 1917. *Bui. 257. Labor legislation of 1918. Bui. 258. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1918, •Bui. 277. Labor legislation of 1919. . Bui. 285. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States: Bui. 290. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1919-1920. Bul. 292. Labor legislation of 1920. Bul. 808. Labor legislation of 1921. Bui. 309. Decisions of courts and opinions affecting labor, 1921. Bui. 321. Labor laws that have been declared unconstitutional Bul. 322. Kansas Court of Industrial Relations. Bui. 330. Labor legislation of 1922. Bui. 343. Laws providing for bureaus of labor statistics, etc. Bui. 344. Decisions of courts and opinions affactlng labor, 1922. Bui. 370. Labor laws of the United States with decisions of courts relating thereto. [In press.] Foreign Labor Laws. •Bui. 142. Administration of labor laws and factory inspection in certain European countries. Vocational Education. Bul. 145. Conciliation, arbitration, and sanitation in the dress and waist industry of New York City. •Bui. 147. Wages and regularity of employment in the cloak, suit, and skirt industry. •Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners, and a factory school experiment. •Bui. 162. Vocational education survey of Richmond, Va. Bui. 199. Vocational education survey of Minneapolis, Minn. Bul. 271. Adult working-class education (Great Britain and the United States). Labor as Affected by the War. Bui. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. Bui. 219. Industrial poisons used or produced in the manufacture of explosives. Bui. 221. Hours, fatigue, and health in British munition factories. Bul. 222. Welfare work In British munition factories. Bui. 223. Employment of women and juveniles in Grent Britain during the war. Bui. 230. Industrial efficiency and fatigue in British munition factories. Bui. 237. Industrial unrest in Great Britain. Bui. 249. Industrial health and efficiency. Final report of British Health of Munition Workers Committee. Bui. 255. Joint industrial councils In Great Britain. Bui. 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917 to 1919, Bui. 287. National War Labor Board. Safety Codes.  Bui. 331. Cocle of lighting factories, mills, and other work places. Bui. 336. Safety code for the protection of industrial workers in foundries. Bui. 338. Safety code for the use, care, and protection of abrasive wheels. Bui. 350. Rules governing the approval of headlighting devices for motor vehicles. Bui. 351. Safety code for the construction, care, and use of ladders. Bui. 364. ·Safety code for mechanical power-transmission apparatus. Bui. 375. Safety code for laundry machinery and operations. Bui.. 378. Safety code for woodworking plants. Bui. 382. Code of lighting school buildings. Miscellaneous Series. •Bui. 117. Prohibition of night work of young persons. •Bui. 118. Ten-hour maximum working dny for women and young persons. · •Bui. 123. Employers' welfare work. •Bui. 158. Government aid to home owning and housing of working people. In foreign countries. •Bui. 159. Short-unit courses for wage earners and a factory school experiment. • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (VI)  llll■cellaneou■  Serlea---Continued. •Bul. 167. Minimum-wage legislation in the United States and foreign countries. Bul. 170. Foreign food prices as affected by the war. •Bul. 174. Subject index of the publications of the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics up to May 1, 1915. Bui. 208. Profit-sharini:- in the United States. Bul. 222. Welfare work in British munition factories. Bul. 242. Food situation in central Europe, 1917. •Bul. 250. Welfare work for employees in industrial establishments in the United States . . Bui. 254. International labor legislation and the society of nations. Bui. 263. Housing by employers in the United States. Bui. 266. Proceedings of Seventh Annual Convention of Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada. Bui, 268. Historical survey of international action affecting labor. Bui. 271. Adult working-class education in Great Britain and the United States. Bui. 282. Mutual relief associations among Government employees in Washington, D. C. Bui. 295. Building operations ln repres.entative cities in 1920. Bui. 299. Personnel research agencies: A guide to organized research in employment management, industrial relations, training, and working conditions. Bui. 807. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Convention of the Association of Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada. Bui. 813. Consumers' cooperative societies in the United States in 1920. Bui. 314. Cooperative credit societies in America and foreign countries. Bui. 818. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1921. Bui. 319. The Bureau of Labor Statistics: Its history, activities, and organization. Bui. 823. Proceedings of the Nintl1 Annual Convention of the Association or Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada. Bui. 326. Methods of procuring and computing statistical information of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bui. 340. Chinese migration, with special reference to labor conditions. Bui. 842. International Seamen's Union of America: A study of its history and problems. Bui. 346. Humanity in government. Bui. 347. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 1922. Bui. 849. Industrial relations in the West Coast Juml:ier industry. Bui. 352. Proceedings of the Tenth Annual Convention of Governmental Labor Officials of the United States and Canada. Bui. 361. Labor relations in the Fairmont (W. Va.) bituminous coal field. Bui. 868. Building permits in the principal cities of the United States in 19:!3. Bui. 372. Convict labor in 1928. Bui. 880. Post-war labor conditions in G<>rmany. [In press.] Bui. 383. Works council movement in Germany. [In press.]  SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS ISSUED BY THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS Description of occupations, prepared for the United States Employment Service, 1918-19. *Boots and shoes, harness and saddlery, and tanning. •Cane-sugar refining and flour milling. Coal and water gas, paint and varnish, paper, printing trades, and rubber goods. •Electrical manufacturing, distribution, and maintenance.  Glass. Hotels and restaurants. •Logging camps and sawmills. Medicinal manufacturing. Metal working, building and general construction, railroad transportation, and shipbuilding. •Mines and mining. •Office employees. Slaughtering and meat packing. Street railways. •Textiles and clothing. •water transportation. • Supply exhausted.   https://fraser.stlouisfed.org Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis  (VII)  0