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U. S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LA B O R

S T A T IS T IC S

R O YA L M EEKER, Comm issioner

B U L L E T IN O F T H E U N IT E D S T A T E S \
B U R EA U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S /
LABOR

AS

J O IN T




AFFECTED

BY

IN D U S T R IA L
IN

G REAT

* # *
THE

WAR

(M
OCC
( IlO . Z D D
SERIES

C O U N C IL S

B R IT A IN

REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON RELATIONS
BETWEEN EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED,
AND OTHER OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS

JULY, 1919

W ASH IN G TO N
GOVERNM EN T PR INTING OFFICE
1919




CONTENTS.
Page.

Introduction and summary............................................................................... 5-15
Summary of publications reproduced in this bulletin................................. 7-10
Progress of organization of joint industrial councils................................... 10-14
Whitley plan in industrial establishments controlled by Government
departments..................................................................................... 12-14
Report on Whitley councils by Department of Labor commission of
employers............................................................................................... 14,15
Reports of committee on relations between employers and employed............... 16-44
Interim report on joint standing industrial councils.................................. 16-23
Appendix............................................................................................. 22, 23
Second report on joint standing industrial councils....................................24-31
Supplementary report on works committees............................................... 32-35
Report on conciliation and arbitration................................. .....................36^10
Final report on joint industrial councils..................................................... 41-44
Other official documents relating to joint industrial councils...........................45-198
British Government’s view of the proposals of the Whitley report.............45-49
Report of an inquiry into works committees............................................. 50-170
Preface................................................................................................. 50, 51
I. Introduction............................................................................... 51-57
Works committees before the w ar...........................................52-56
Nomenclature................................. . ...................................... 56,57
II. Origins and influence of war developments................................57-61
Shop stewards.................... ...................................................
58
Dilution.................................................................................. 58, 59
Methods of remuneration........................................................ 59, 60
Timekeeping..........................................................................
60
Welfare................................................................................... 60, 61
War charity.............................................................................
61
Other causes........................................................ ..................
61
III. Constitution.............................................................................
62-67
IV. Procedure.................................................................................... 67-73
V. Functions.................................................................................... 73-82
YI. Relations with trade-unions........................................................ 82-87
VII. General considerations................................................................ 87-92
Appendix I. Works committees: Questionnaire.................................. 92-94
Appendix II. Reports on individual works committees, etc..............95-157
(A) to (P). Engineering, shipbuilding, and iron and steel indus­
tries.......................................................................................... 95-137
(A) Messrs. Hans Renold (Ltd.), Burnage Works, Didsbury,
Manchester..........................................................................95-99
(B) Messrs. Rolls-Royce (Ltd.), Derby................................ 99-102
(C) The Phoenix Dynamo Co. (Ltd.), Thornbury, Bradford. 102-107
(D) Messrs. Barr < Stroud (Ltd.), Anniesland, Glasgow... 107-110
fc
(E) A large engineering establishment. Dilution commit­
tee................................................................................... 110-112
(F) An establishment making motor cars and airplanes___113-115
(G) The Horstmann Gear Co. (Ltd.), 93 Newbridge Road,
Lower Weston, Bath....................................................... 115-117
(H) H. O. Strong & Sons (Ltd.), Norfolk Works, St. Pauls,
Bristol.............................................................................. 117-120
(I) Messrs. Guest, Keen & Nettlefold (Ltd.), Birmingham. 120-123
(J) A firm of electrical engineers....................................... 123-125
(K) Hotchkiss et Cie, Artillery Works, Coventry...................
126
(L) A large engineering establishment............................... 126-128
(M) A munitions factory..................................................... 128,129
(N) Whitehead Torpedo Works (Weymouth) (Ltd.), Wey­
mouth............................................................................... 129-131




a

4

C O N TE N TS.

Other official documents relating to joint industrial councils—Concluded.
Report of an inquiry into works committees—Concluded.
Appendix II. Reports on individual works committees—Concluded. Page.
(A) to (P)—Concluded.
(0) A shipbuilding yard..................................................... 131-135
(P) Parkgate works joint trades committee......................... 135-137
(Q) to (W) Boot and shoe, woolen, and other industries............. 137-157
(Q) Boot manufacturers....................................................... 137,138
(R) Messrs. Reuben Gaunt & Sons (Ltd.), spinners and manu­
facturers, Farsley, Yorkshire........................................... 138-143
(S) Fox Brothers & Co. (Ltd.), Wellington, Somerset (and
Chipping Norton)'............................................................ 143-145
(T) Rowntree & Co. (Ltd.),, The Cocoa Works, York........ 145-149
(U) A printing office............................................................ 149-151
(Y) Welfare committee (or social union)............................ 151-153
(W) A miner’s statement on output committees................. 153-157
Appendix III. Summary of a district investigation in the engineer­
ing and shipbuilding industries..................................................... 157,158
Appendix IV. Joint timekeeping committees................................ 158-163
(A) I. Joint committees at collieries in Northumberland. Rules 159,160
(A) II. Note on committees at collieries in other districts......... 160,161
(B) I. Joint committees at iron works in Cleveland and Durham 161-163
(B) II. Note on working of these committees............................
163
Appendix V. National and district schemes. Shop stewards..........163-169
(A) Memorandum of conference between the engineering em­
ployers’ federation and 13 trade-unions.................................. 164,165
(B) Clyde shipyards joint trades’ vigilant committee............... 165-167
(C) Coventry engineering joint committee................................ 167-169
Appendix VI. Supplementary report on works committees............
169
Appendix VII. Scheme of local joint pits committees..................... 169,170
Joint committee of representatives of the Lancashire and Cheshire
Coal Association, and the Lancashire and Cheshire Miners’
Federation.............................................................................. 169,170
Industrial councils: The recommendations of the Whitley report.......... 171-174
The Whitley committee....................................................................
171
Objects of the Whitley report...........................................................
171
The recommendations....................................................................... 171,172
172
Industrial councils and the Government..........................................
Constitution of industrial councils.................................................... 172,173
Works committees.............................................................................
173
The need for industrial councils....................................................... 173,174
Procedure..........................................................................................
174
Constitution and functions of a joint industrial council.......................... 175-179
Preface.............................................................................................
175
(A) Functions of a joint industrial council.......................................175-177
(B) The constitution of a joint industrial council............................ 177-179
Industrial councils and trade boards....................................................... 180-187
Constitution and functions of district councils........................................ 188-192
Preface..............................................................................................
188
(A) Functions of district councils.................................................... 188,189
(B) Constitution of district councils................................................ 190-192
Constitution and functions of works committees...................................... 193-198
Constitution...................................................................................... 193-195
Procedure......................................................................................... 196,197
Functions............ ............................................................................ 197,198
Appendix A.—National council of the pottery industry............................... 199-201
Appendix B.—Constitution of joint industrial council of the rubber manu­
facturing industry............................................................................ 202-204




B U L L E T IN
U .

S .

B U R E A U

no. 255

O F

O F

T H E

L A B O R

S T A T I S T I C S .

WASHINGTON

July, 1919

JO T IN U R L C U C S IN G E T B IT IN
IN
D ST IA O N IL
RA R A .
INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY.
An entirely new departure affecting the relations between employ­
ers and employed in Great Britain, with a view to improving such
relations and fostering a better understanding on both sides in order
to prevent many of the difficulties which have heretofore interfered
with complete cooperation between employers and workpeople, is
the proposal to establish joint industrial councils, as set forth in the
report of the Reconstruction Committee1 subcommittee on relations
between employers and employed issued on March 8,1917. This sub­
committee was appointed in October, 1916, by the Prime Minister
(Mr. Asquith)—
1. To make and consider suggestions for securing a permanent improvement
in the relations between employers and workmen.
2. To recommend means for securing that industrial conditions affecting the
relations between employers and workmen shall be systematically reviewed by
those concerned, with a view to improving conditions in the future.

The chairman of the subcommittee was Hon. J. H. Whitley, M. P.,
chairman of committees, House of Commons, from which fact the
first report has come to be known as “ the Whitley report,” and the
committee as “ the Whitley committee.” The other members of the*
subcommittee were as follows:
Mr. F. S. Button, formerly member of the executive council, Amalgamated
Society of Engineers.
Sir G. J. Carter, K. B. E., chairman, Shipbuilding Employers’ Federation.
Prof. S. J. Chapman, C. B. E., professor of political economy, University of
Manchester.
Sir Gilbert H. Claughton, Bart., chairman, London and North Western Rail­
way Co.
Mr. J. R. Clynes, M. P., president, National Union of General Workers.
Mr. J. A. Hobson.
Miss A. Susan Lawrence, member of London County Council and member of
the executive committee of the Women’s Trade-Union League.




1 Subsequently the Ministry of Reconstruction.

5

6

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

Mr. J. J. Mallon, secretary, National Antisweating League.
Sir Thomas R. Ratcliffe-Ellis, secretary, Mining Association of Great Britain.
Mr. Robert Smillie, president, Miners’ Federation of Great Britain.
Mr. Allan M. Smith, chairman, Engineering Employers’ Federation.
Miss Mona Wilson, national health insurance commissioner.
Mr. H. J. Wilson, Ministry of Labor, and Mr. Arthur Greenwood, secretaries.

The committee has submitted to the Prime Minister the following
five reports, which have been printed in full or summarized by this
bureau in its M onthly L abor R eview ,1 as indicated:
Interim report on joint standing industrial councils. March 8, 1917. (Cd.
8606.) Printed in full in Bulletin 237 (pp. 229-235) and summarized in tlie
M o n t h l y R e t i e w f o r September, 1917 (pp. 130-132).
Second report on joint standing industrial councils. October 18, 1917. (Cd.
9002.) Summarized in the M o n th ly R eview for May, 1918 (pp. 59-61) and
printed in fuU in the M on th ly L abor R eview for September, 1918 (pp. 53-58).
Supplementary report on works committees. October 18, 1917. (Cd. 9001.)
Printed in fuU in the M on th ly R eview for June, 1918 (pp. 163-165).
Report on conciliation and arbitration. January 31, 1918. (Cd. 9099.)
Printed in full In the M o n th ly L abob R eview for August, 1918 (pp. 237-240).
Final r e p o r t . July 81, 1918. (Cd. 9153.) Printed in full in the M o n t h l y
L a b o b R e v i e w for December, 1918 ( p p . 31-34).

Other official reports, statements of policy, recommendations, etc.,
bearing upon the Whitley reports, have been issued from time to time
by the British Government, which adopted the recommendations of
the subcommittee, and these may be set down as follows:
Industrial councils. The Whitley reports, together with letter by the Minis­
ter of Labor, explaining the Government’s view of its proposals. October 20,
1917. Industrial Reports No. 1. Printed in full in the M on th ly R e v i e w for
March, 1918 (pp. 81-84).
Works committees. Report of an inquiry made by the Ministry of Labor.
1918. [Ministry of Labor] H. Q. 7B. Text of portions printed in the M on th ly
R eview for August, 1918 (pp. 8 1 -8 4 ).
Industrial councils. The recommendations of the Whitley report. April,
1918. [Ministry of Labor] H. Q. 7B. Text of portions printed in the M o n t h l y
L a b o b R e v i e w for July, 1918 ( p p . 27, 28).
. Suggestions as to the constitution and functions of a Joint industrial council.
May, 1918. Ministry of Labor. H. Q. 7A. Printed in full in the M o n t h l y
L a b o b R eview for August, 1918 (pp. 76-79).
Industrial councils and trade boards. Joint memorandum of the Minister of
Reconstruction and the Minister of Labor, explaining the Government’s view of
the proposals of the second Whitley report, together with the text of the report.
June 7, 1918. Industrial Reports No. 3. Printed in full in the M on th ly L aboe
R eview for September, 1918 (pp. 58-64).
Suggestions as to the constitution and functions of district councils of na­
tional joint industrial councils. September, 1918. Ministry of Labor. H. Q. 7L.
Printed in full in the M on th ly L abor R eview for May, 1919 (pp. 116-119).
Works committees. Suggestions prepared by the Ministry of Labor as to the
constitution and functions of works committees in industries in which national
* This publication was called Monthly Review prior to July, 1918.




7

JO INT INDUSTRIAL, COUNCILS IN GREAT BRITAIN.

joint Industrial councils are established. September, 1918. H. Q. 7K.
in full in the M
onthly Labob Review for May, 1919 (pp. 119-122).

Printed

It is the purpose of this bulletin to bring these reports together in
order that industry generally in this country, and particularly that
dranch having to do with manufacture, may become acquainted with
. movement which has come into operation in Great Britain and
which offers opportunity for labor and capital to compose many of
their differences and to get together on questions that vitally affect
the interests and well-being of each.

SUMMARY OF PUBLICATIONS REPRODUCED IN THIS BULLETIN.
The plan suggested by the Whitley committee has aroused very
great public interest in Great Britain and promises to be one of the
most significant and far-reaching developments of the war so far as
labor is concerned. The committee proposed in its first report that
joint standing industrial councils should be formed in the various
industries where they did not then exist, to be composed of repre­
sentatives of employers and employed, regard being paid to the
various sections of industry and the various classes of labor engaged,
for the purpose of considering “ matters affecting the progress and
well-being of the trade from the point of view of those engaged in
it, so far as this is consistent with the general interest of the com­
munity.” Cooperation between employers and employed is to bo
effected not only through these national industrial councils, but also
through district councils representative of trade-unions and of the
employers’ associations in the industry, and, finally, in the workshop
through the organization of works committees, representative of the
management and of workers. As the first Whitley report states:
The national industrial council should not be regarded as complete in itself;
what is needed is a triple organization—in the workshops, the districts, and
nationally.

Briefly stated, the aims of industrial councils are (1 ) to give the
employed a direct voice in determining workshop conditions, and (2 )
to bring employers and employed regularly together in joint consul­
tation. The questions with which it is proposed the national indus­
trial councils shall deal are fully set forth in the first report (pp.
16-23), to which attention is directed.
Several months after the publication of the interim report the com­
mittee (on October 18, 1917) issued its second report on joint stand­
ing industrial councils, dealing especially with industries in which
organization on the part of the employers and employed is less com­
pletely established than in the industries covered by the first report
and the industries in which such organization is weak or nonexistent.
As has been suggested, one of the features of the Whitley commit­
tee recommendations is the proposal for the establishment of works




8

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

committees within the shop. It was recognized by the committee
that better relations between employers and employed can best be
developed by granting to the latter a greater share in the consider­
ation of matters with which they are concerned. The primary pur­
pose of these works committees, as contemplated by the committee,
is to consider the many questions closely affecting daily life and
comfort in, and the success of, the business, which necessarily have an
important bearing upon the efficiency of the force. A spirit of co­
operation in all these workshop matters is strongly to be desired. To
emphasize the purpose of these committees, as a part of the joint
industrial council plan, the committee issued, on October 18, 1917,
a supplementary report on works committees.
The fourth report of the committee on relations between employers
and employed is dated January 31, 1918, but was not issued until the
following July. It deals with the question of conciliation and arbi­
tration. While pronouncing definitely against compulsory arbitra­
tion or conciliation, the committee advocates a continuance of the
voluntary schemes and suggests the establishment of a standing ar­
bitration council to which disputants may voluntarily refer such dif­
ferences as they are unable to settle among themselves.
On July 1 , 1918, the committee made its final report to the Prime
Minister. It embraces a brief review of the subject matter of the
preceding reports and reaffirms its “ conviction, expressed in the first
report, of the urgency of the matter.”
The Whitley report was adopted by the Government as a part of
the policy which it hopes to carry into effect in the field of industrial
reconstruction, and on October 20, 1917, the Minister of Labor ad­
dressed a communication to the leading employers’ associations and
the trade-unions, in which he explained fully the attitude of the
Government toward the proposals of the report.
In this connection, although somewhat later (April, 1918), the
Government issued a leaflet (H. Q. 7B) entitled “ Industrial coun­
cils: The recommendations of the Whitley report,” with a view to
making these recommendations as generally known as possible.
In addition to the supplementary report on works committees, to
which reference has been made, further data on the operation of
various types of shop committees are contained in the report of an
inquiry made by the Minister of Labor and issued in March, 1918.
This report is based on an investigation of works committees in a
number of different industries, including engineering, shipbuilding*
iron and steel, boots and shoes, mining, printing, woolen and
worsted, pottery, and furniture. The purpose of the inquiry was
to bring out the different objects, functions, methods of procedure*
and constitutions which have been tried in actual practice.




J O IN T IN D U STRIAL COUNCILS IN GREAT B R IT A IN .

9

Suggestions as to the constitution and functions of a joint indus­
trial council, to “ serve as a basis for discussion and help in concen­
trating attention upon certain outstanding points in the relations
of employers and workpeople which must be taken into considera­
tion in the actual formation of a council,” were set forth in a memo­
randum (H. Q. 7A) prepared by the Ministry of Labor and put out
in May, 1918.1
In the same connection the Ministry of Labor prepared and issued
in September, 1918, a circular (H. Q. 7L) containing suggestions as
to the constitution and functions of district councils of national
joint industrial councils, and also a circular (H. Q. 7K) giving
similar suggestions applicable to works committees.
Although the Government adopted the proposals of the Whitley
committee, it was not found advisable, from the administrative
point of view, to adopt the whole of the recommendations contained in
the second report. Certain modifications seemed necessary before these
recommendations could be put into effect, and the Government
deemed it essential to make clear the relations between trade boards
and industrial councils. Accordingly the Minister of Reconstruc­
tion and the Minister of Labor, on June 7, 1918, prepared and issued
a joint memorandum, entitled “ Joint industrial councils and trade
boards,” setting forth their reasons why the Government took the
position it did as regards the second report and suggesting modi­
fications which it has been found necessary to make.
Aside from the joint industrial councils and trade boards, to
which reference has been made, the Government has fostered the
establishment of what has been termed “ interim industrial recon­
struction committees ” formed by the Ministry of Reconstruction in
association with the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Labor in
certain industries where, for various reasons, progress toward the
formation of joint industrial councils has been slow. There are
thus three quite distinct bodies in the industrial council scheme, all
leading eventually to the same goal:
1 . For poorly organized industries, or poorly organized localities
of an industry, there are trade boards, which are in the hands of
the Ministry of Labor.
2. For moderately organized industries, or for industries which
evince a somewhat lukewarm interest in the subject and need to have
their patriotic feelings aroused, there are interim industrial recon­
struction committees, fostered by the Ministry of Reconstruction.
3. For well-organized industries there is the full-fledged joint
council, the scheme of which will probably continue to be credited to
1
See Appendixes A and B for copies of constitutions adopted, respectively, by the pot­
tery industry and the rubber manufacturing industry.




10

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

the Whitley committee, although that committee only crystallized an

idea long thought of and considered.
All the official documents thus briefly reviewed are published in
full in this bulletin, in the order noted on page 6. The reports
of the committee are in each case addressed to the Prime Minister,
Hon. D. Lloyd George.

PROGRESS OF ORGANIZATION OF JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.
The establishment of joint industrial councils under ther Whitley
plan has been under consideration in practically every trade in Great
Britain for more than a year. The first trade to appoint such a coun­
cil was the pottery industry, representing approximately 70,000
workers, and the first meeting of this council was held on January
1 1 , 1918, at which the constitution was adopted. The rubber manu­
facturing industry was the next industry of any size, representing ap­
proximately 50,000 'workers, to adopt a constitution, its council meet­
ing for this purpose on July 16, 19i8. Because they are typical of
the progress in other trades, a statement of the objects of these two
councils and a copy of the constitutions adopted are given, respec­
tively, in Appendixes A and B. Sixty-nine other industries (down to
May 13, 1919) had taken up the plan and considerable progress was
made during the months of September and October, 1918. In that
period eight councils were set up, and in each instance there ap­
peared to be evidence that the council is determined to perform
effectively and without delay the vitally important functions with
which it has been charged. Five councils were set up during March
of this year. The following chart1 traces the progress made, down to
May 13, 1919, in the establishment of joint industrial councils along
the lines outlined in the Whitley report.2 The figures in the second
column of the chart represent the estimated number of workpeople
in each industry. They are the closest estimates obtainable, and the
Ministry of Labor considers them very reliable.
1 Data furnished by M inistry of Labor, Great Britain.
2 Copies of constitutions of joint industrial councils which have been adopted in the fol­
lowing industries on the dates indicated (all in 1918, except the one noted) have been
received by the Bureau of Labor S ta tistic s: Bobbin and shuttle, October 2 2 ; bread
baking, September 1 8 ; building, August 1 ; chemical, August 1 6 ; china clay, October 1 ;
furniture, no date reported; gold, silver, horological, and allied trades, July 2 0 ; hosiery,
October 1 0 ; hosiery (Scottish), November 5 ; made-up leather goods {excluding boots and
shoes), no date reported; match manufacturing, no date reported; metallic bedsteads,
October 2 1 ; wool (and allied) textiles, January 15, 1919 ; paint, color, and varnish, Sep­
tember 18 ; pottery, January 1 1 ; rubber manufacturing, July 16 ; saw milling, November
2 1 ; silk, July 2 5 ; vehicle building, September 2 3 ; woolen and worsted (S co ttish ),
November 5.




JO IN T INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS IN GREAT BRITAIN.

11

E B
STA LISH E T O J IN IN U T IA C U C S.
MN F O T
D S R L O N IL

[CORRECTED
IN DUSTRY

ADM IRALTY
AIR MINISTRY
ASBESTOS

BAKING
.B A N K I N G

BEDSTEADS
BLEACHING, PYflNG, ETC.
BOBBINS
BOOTS AND SHOES
BUILDING
CARPETS
CEMENT
c h e m ic a l s
c h in a

clay

HO ET A f
S jMT
2 1,000

6,000
93.200
200,000
7.000
107.200

A,SOO
156,300
3 05,SO
O
3 1,400
12,400
118,500
5,600
960,000

COAL MINING
3.000
COIR MATTING
185,200
COMMERCIAL ROAD TRANSPORT
9 9t
000
DOCKS
22770
EDGE TOOLS
10,000
ELASTIC WEBBIN®
ELECTRICAL CONTRACTING, lijO O O 30,000
OT
3J000
ELECTRICITY SUPPLY
30.000
ENTERTAINMENTS
24.000
FLOUR MILLING
7490QTURNITUR.E
97.000
GAS
30000
GLASS
SOLD, SILVER, AND ALLIED TRADES 25,100
24,500
GUN MAKIN9
HEATIN6, A D DOMESTIC ENGINEERING
N
47,900
91.200
1HOSIERY
HOSIERY (SCOTTISH)
INSURANCE
9^000
216,000
IRON AND STEEL
67,000
IRON AND STEEL POUNDING
LEATHER.GOODS
5 5,400
LOCKS, SAFES, AND LATCHES
5,300
MATCHES
MINISTRY OF MUNITIONS
M
UNICIPALITIES CADM
INISTRA. A D CLER.)
N
MUNICIPALITIES CNONTRADIN©)
72000
•14-800
MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
4. SO
O
NEEDLES AND FISHHOOKS
41,800
NEWSPAPERS
995
OFFICE OF'WORKS
PACKING CASE MAKING
28,000
14; 245
PAINT AND VARNiSH
POTTERY
69,700
PRINTING
1
68,000
1,000
PRINT/NG INK
606,500
RAILWAYS
ROLLER ENGRAVM6
2,100
RUBBER
50100
SAWMILLING
63*100
91,199
SHIPPING
SILK
21,912
2,500
STATIONERY ^ OfFlCE
SURGICAL INSTRUMENTS;
zsxoo
TEACHING
TfN MINING
5,600
TIN PLATE
.17,705
68,300
TRAMWAYS
27,200
VEHICLE BUILDING
WALL PAPER MAKING
2,800'
W A R office:
15,800
WATER WORKS:
17,000
WIRE ORAW/NG
32,500
W O O L E N AND WORSTED
.283,SOO
WOOLEN AND WORSTED iSCQ&TlStl)
WROUGHT . HOLLOW. WARE
1 33,000
z i n c and- S p e l t e r
, 3, <4-5




TO

MAY 13, I9I9J

C N E E C DRAFT
OFRNE
ET AE
S IM T D
DRAFT
D P R M N R A Y F R HELD
EAT ET E D O
FIRST
N MF
U BR
CO STITU CONSTITU
N
­
provisional
MAKING
M
EETING
TiON
C N E E C committee
OFRNE
TION
WR
O K
IN U IE
Q IR S
A O TE F R U A E A P O E
PP IN D O M L T D P R V D HELD
POL
E PE

12

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Although the second report of the Whitley committee outlines an
adaptation of the plan to industries less organized than the industries
covered by the first report, or in which organization is nonexistent,
it has been maintained by some that the Whitley plan is applicable
primarily to the organized trades 1 and can not be readily adapted
to the interests of the large army of unorganized workers.2 More­
over, a further objection to the Whitley scheme voiced by many is
that it is essentially a Government plan and offers opportunity for
the Government to exercise a sort of supervision or influence over
the operation of the councils,3 whereas the workers demand an in­
dustrial self-government plan that will leave them free to control,
together with the employers, all matters affecting their interests.
iThis latter statement may explain to a degree the apparent slow
movement toward setting up industrial councils.4 There has existed
a disinclination on the part of workpeople to accept at face value
propositions advanced by those in authority which seem to promise
rather more than the workers believe possible. The constant strain
under which the laboring class has been living on account of the war
conditions has tended to-engender suspicion, and this, together with
a lurking fear that prewar union regulations may never be restored,
has operated to fill the minds of workmen with apprehension and to
make them reluctant to indorse the joint industrial council scheme.
This attitude appears to have been aggravated by the hesitation o f
the Government to adopt the plan as a whole in any department. It
can not be said, on the other hand, that employers have shown a,
greater willingness to adopt the industrial council idea. Both sides
have proceeded rather cautiously. I f it has been possible for a firm
to get along with its employees without friction, it has seemed to
evince little desire to adopt any new methods; on the other side*
if employees in any locality are dissatisfied with their working con­
ditions they are apt to be greatly in favor of this chance for im­
proving their position.
W H I T L E Y P L A N IN I N D U S T R IA L E S T A B L IS H M E N T S C O N T R O L L E D B Y G O V E R N ­
MENT DEPARTM EN TS.

Although approving the Whitley scheme and making every effort
to urge its adoption by industries generally, the British Government
1 This would seem to be confirmed by the Minister of Labor, who in his letter addressed
to leading employers* associations and trade-unions s a id : “ Although the scheme is only
intended, and indeed can only be applied, in trades which are well organized on both,
sides, I would point out that it rests with those trades which do not ®t present possess a
<
sufficient organization to bring it about if they desire to apply it to themselves.”
See­
page 48.
2 Of an estimated 18,000,000 workers it is claimed that the W hitley plan will not reach:
approximately 14,000,000, or about 78 per cent.
8 The intention to introduce an element of State interference was denied by the Min­
ister of Labor in his letter to leading employers’ associations and trade-unions.
See
page 45.
*
Down to the 1st of April, 1919, only three industries had fully developed the W hitley
scheme, that is, had organized national joint industrial councils, district councils, and
works committees. These are the match industry, the pottery industry, and the rubber
industry, representing in all about 123,000 workers.




J O IN T IN D U STRIAL COUNCILS IN GREAT B R IT A IN .

13

lias been slow in putting the plan into operation in industrial estab­
lishments controlled by Government departments, such as the
Treasury, War Office, Admiralty, Office of Works, Ministry of Labor,
etc. In February, 1919, however, a step in this direction was taken
when a draft scheme was approved by the War Cabinet providing
for the application of the Whitley industrial council plan to all
Government departments having industrial establishments. This
proposed scheme has for its basis the setting up of two types of
councils: ( 1 ) A departmental joint council in each department con­
cerned, composed of responsible officials appointed by the depart­
ment, a representative of the Ministry of Labor, and representatives
of the trade-unions having members employed in the various estab­
lishments belonging to the department. (2 ) A trade joint council,
composed of the representatives of the departments employing the
particular class of labor, and representatives of the unions in the
trade concerned, to deal with wages and other matters usually settled
on a trade basis. The Treasury and the Ministry of Labor will also
be represenetd on these trade councils.
The draft scheme provides for local machinery by way of one or
more of the following types of committee: (a) Works or yard com­
mittee; ( b) department committee (covering a department, including
several shops, of a works or yard); ( c) trade committee (covering a
trade or group of trades normally acting together on trade matters);
(d) shop committee. It is suggested that one of the many duties of
the department and trade joint councils will be to arrange for the
setting up of these bodies. The procedure of these committees is
described in the British Labor Gazette for March, 1919, as follows:
Following the lines which have been indicated above, a question which arises
In a shop would, according as it was of (a) a general, or (&) a trade character,
be dealt with as follows:
(a) A general question.—For example, a question of welfare, a question of
discipline, etc. If not capable of settlement between the workman or workmen
concerned (with the assistance of the secretary of the shop committee or other
shop steward) and the foreman, the question would be discussed by the shop
committee in meeting with the representatives of the management or by the
secretary of the shop committee and the shop superintendent or other official.
If it could not be thus settled the question would be referred to the works com­
mittee for discussion, and if possible, settlement with the representatives of
the management, or possibly the secretary of the works committee himself
might be able to settle the matter with the management. If a solution could
not be arrived at on the works committee, the question would be referred to the
departmental council.
In large works it may be found necessary to establish an intermediate com­
mittee between the shop and works committees—i. e., a departmental committee,
on which the procedure will be similar, and where settlement of certain ques­
tions may be achieved.
(&)
A trade question.—For example, a question of wages, etc. If not capable
of settlement between the workman or workmen concerned (with one or more
of their trade representatives in the shop) and the foreman, the question would




14

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be referred to the trade committee or its secretary for negotiation with the
works management. If the question could not be so settled the district repre­
sentative (or representatives) of the union (or unions) would take part in or
wholly take over the negotiations; if a settlement could not then be agreed
upon the matter would be referred to the trade joint council.

It is important to recognize that, in dealing with trade questions,
many of the most important trade-unions have district organizations
as an integral part of their structure, and that it is the practice for
the district officials to negotiate with the management of all works
(including Government establishments) in their district, on matters
affecting the district rate of wages or other district arrangements.
Provision has, therefore, been made above, that in the progress of a
trade question from the shop upwards to the trade joint council the
position of the district organization of the trade-union should, where
it exists, be recognized.
At a meeting of men and women delegates from the departments
concerned held on February 20,1919, a resolution was passed adopting
the scheme as presented by the Minister of Labor and recommending
the creation of a standing arbitration council, or other suitable body,
to which cases in which the Treasury or the employing departments
are not prepared to approve and adopt a recommendation of a joint
council could be referred. A provisional committee of 20 members
from the engineering, shipbuilding, building, miscellaneous trades,
and general labor was appointed to draft, in cooperation with the
Treasury, Admiralty, War Office, Ministry of Munitions, Air Min­
istry, Office of Works, and Ministry of Labor, the constitutions of the
various departmental and trade joint councils.

REPORT ON WHITLEY COUNCILS BY DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COMMIS­
SION OF EMPLOYERS.
In February and March, 1919, a commission of employers, desig­
nated by the Secretary of Labor, visited Great Britain to study
industrial conditions and the methods of dealing with labor recon­
struction problems, and this commission examined the Whitley system
with special interest and care. The attitude of employers and em­
ployed in this connection is thus briefly outlined in the report of
the commission which was submitted to the Secretary of Labor early
in April:
Tlie Whitley plan is viewed with much favor by officials of the Ministry of
Labor, which is endeavoring to effect the organization of various lines of
industry under this plan.
Various municipally operated public-serviee departments are also proposing
to organize under systems based on the general idea of the Whitley plan.
Inquiry developed that the employers, when conversant with the Whitley
plan, almost universally favor it; also that employers favor complete union
organization of the employed in established labor unions and favor not only




JOIN T INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS IN GREAT BRITAIN.

15

collective bargaining, but closer touch with the employed. About the only ribte
of doubt respecting the benefits of the Whitley system, on the part of the
employers, relates to the question of the possibility that it might later on lead
to undesirable results.
In short, the advocates of the Whitley plan expressed the belief that it would
result in complete unionization of all the workers in those industries adopting
i t ; also that it would prevent many strikes. The idea is that small grievances
would be adjusted around a council table rather than being allowed to continue
as foci of discontent until they grow into grave matters of discontent and
strikes.
On the other hand, while some of the higher labor-union officials favor the
Whitley plan, a large portion of the more radical among the minor labor-union
officials and the workmen do not indorse it enthusiastically.
Their objections seem to be based, first, on the impression that it would take
the place of the regular established labor organizations; and, second, that a
distaste for Government participation in negotiations and settlements between
employer and employed, which the Whitley plan contemplates in certain
situations.
Some of the strong and thoroughly organized labor unions, such as the Coal
Miners’ Union and the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (metal trades), take
the position that the machinery of the old-established organization and the
usual arrangements with the employers afford sufficient means of adjustment of
grievances.
In respect to a considerable number of industries both employers and em­
ployed explained that they had introduced the equivalent of the Whitley plan
years ago. But it usually developed that their arrangements for conference
and adjustment of differences between employer and employed did not include
the district councils of the Whitley plan, and only in some industries regularly
established joint industrial councils. Many of these individual mutual con­
ference arrangements have been very effective in preventing industrial conflict.
Some of them have been in operation for many years.
Fortunately, as some declare, England has been experimenting with methods
for the betterment of relations between employer and worker so that opportunity
has been afforded to witness results over a period of more than a generation.
As confidence was gained by experience, more rapid progress in later years was
accomplished. The plan simply carries out and defines more accurately oldestablished machinery for the adjustment; of labor disputes.




REPORTS OF COMMITTEE ON RELATIONS BETWEEN
EMPLOYERS AND EMPLOYED.
INTERIM REPORT ON JOINT STANDING INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.1

To the Right Hon. D. L lo y d G eorge, M. P., Prime Minister.
S ir : We have the honor to submit the following interim report
on joint standing industrial councils.
2. The terms of reference to the subcommittee are—
(1) To make and consider suggestions for securing a permanent improve­
ment in the relations between employers and workmen.
(2) To recommend means for securing that industrial conditions affecting
the relations between employers and workmen shall be systematically reviewed
by those concerned, with a view to improving conditions in the future.

3. After a general consideration of our duties in relation to the
matters referred to us, we decided first to address ourselves to tho
problem of establishing permanently improved relations between em­
ployers and employed in the main industries of the country, in which
there exist representative organizations on both sides. The present
report accordingly deals more especially with these trades. We are
proceeding with the consideration of the problems connected with
the industries which are less well organized.
4. We appreciate that under the pressure of the war both employ­
ers and workpeople and their organizations are very much preoccu­
pied, but, notwithstanding, we believe it to be of the highest impor­
tance that our proposals should be put before those concerned with­
out delay, so that employers and employed may meet in the near
future and discuss the problems before them.
.
5. The circumstances of the present time are admitted on all sides
to offer a great opportunity for securing a permanent improvement
in the relations between employers and employed, while failure to
utilize the opportunity may involve the nation in grave industrial
difficulties at the end of the war.
It is generally allowed that the war almost enforced some recon­
struction of industry, and in considering the subjects referred to us
we have kept in view the need for securing in the development of
reconstruction the largest possible measure of cooperation between
employers and employed.
Reconstruction Committee. Subcommittee on relations "between employers and em«
ployed. Interim report on joint standing industrial councils. London, 1917. 8 pp.
Cd. 8606. Price, Id. Printed in full in Bulletin 237 of this bureau, and summarized Ix
x
its Monthly Review for September, 1917 (pp. 130-132).— [Ed.]
16




IN T E R IM REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U STRIAL CO U N CILS.

17

In the interests of the community it is vital that after the war
the cooperation of all classes, established during the war, should
continue, and more especially with regard to the relations between
employers and employed. For securing improvement in the latter, it
is essential that any proposals put forward should offer to work­
people the means of attaining improved conditions of employment
and a higher standard of comfort generally, and involve the enlistment of their active and continuous cooperation in the promotion of
industry.
To this end, the establishment for each industry of an organ­
ization, representative of employers and workpeople, to have as its
object the regular consideration of matters affecting the progress
and well-being of the trade from the point of view of all those en­
gaged in it, so far as this is consistent with the general interest of
the community, appears to us necessary.
6. Many complicated problems have arisen during the war which
have a bearing both on employers and workpeople, and may affect
the relations between them. It is clear that industrial conditions will
need careful handling if grave difficulties and strained relations are
to be avoided after the war has ended. The precise nature of the
problems to be faced naturally varies from industry to industry, and
even from branch to branch within the same industry. Their treat­
ment consequently will need an intimate knowledge of the facts
and circumstances of each trade, and such knowledge is to be found
only among those directly connected with the trade.
7. With a view to providing means for carrying out the policy
outlined above, we recommend that His Majesty’s Government should
propose without delay to the various associations of employers and
employed the formation of joint standing industrial councils ii^ the
several industries, where they do not already exist, composed of rep­
resentatives of employers and employed, regard being paid to the
various sections of the industry and the various classes of labor
engaged.
8. The appointment of a chairman or chairmen should, we think,
be left to the council who may decide that these should be (1 ) a
chairman for each side of the council; (2) a chairman and vice
chairman selected from the members of the council (one from each
side of the council); (3) a chairman chosen by the council from
independent persons outside the industry; or (4) a chairman nom­
inated by such person or authority as the council may determine or,
failing agreement, by the Government.
9. The council should meet at regular and frequent intervals.
10. The objects to which the consideration of the councils should
be directed should be appropriate matters affecting the several in­
1063280— B ull. 255— 19-------2




18

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

dustries and particularly the establishment of a closer cooperation
between employers and employed. Questions connected with de­
mobilization will call for early attention.
1 1 . One of the chief factors in the problem as it at first presents
itself consists of the guaranties given by the Government, with
parliamentary sanction, and the various undertakings entered into
by employers, to restore the trade-union rules and customs suspended
during the war. While this does not mean that all the lessons
learned during the war should be ignored, it does mean that the
definite cooperation and acquiescence by both employers and em­
ployed must be a condition of any setting aside of these guaranties
or undertakings, and that, if new arrangements are to be reached, in
themselves more satisfactory to all parties but not in strict accord­
ance with the guaranties, they must be the joint work of employers
and employed.
12 . The matters to be considered by the councils must inevitably
differ widely from industry to industry, as different circumstances
and conditions call for different treatment, but we are of opinion
that the suggestions set forth below ought to be taken into account,
subject to such modification in each case as may serve to adapt them
to the needs of the various industries.
13. In the well-organized industries one of the first questions to be
considered should be the establishment of local and works organiza­
tions to supplement and make more effective the work of the central
bodies. It is not enough to secure cooperation at the center between
the national organizations; it is equally necessary to enlist the ac­
tivity and support of employers and employed in the districts and in
individual establishments. The national industrial council should
not be regarded as complete in itself; what is needed is a triplo
organization—in the workshops, the districts, and nationally. More­
over, it is essential that the organization at each of these three stages
should proceed on a common principle, and that the greatest measure
of common action between them should be secured.
14. With this end in view, we are of opinion that the following
proposals should be laid before the national industrial councils:
(a) That district councils, representative of the trade-unions and
of the employers’ associations in the industry, should be created or
developed out of the existing machinery for negotiation in the various
trades.
(b) That works committees, representative of the management and
of the workers employed, should be instituted in particular works
to act in close cooperation with the district and national machinery.
As it is of the highest importance that the scheme making pro­
vision for these committees should be such as to secure the support




INTERIM REPORT ON JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.

19

of tlie trade-unions and employers’ associations concerned, its design
should be a matter for agreement between these organizations,
Just as regular meetings and continuity of cooperation are essential
in the case of the national industrial councils, so they seem to be
necessary in the case of the district and works organizations. The
object is to secure cooperation by granting to workpeople a greater
share in the consideration of matters affecting their industry, and this
can only be achieved by keeping employers and workpeople in con­
stant touch.
15. The respective functions of works committees, district, councils,
and national councils will no doubt require to be determined sepa­
rately in accordance with the varying conditions of different indus­
tries. Care will need to be taken in each case to delimit accurately
their respective functions, in order to avoid overlapping and result­
ing friction. For instance, where conditions of employment are
determined by national agreements, the district councils or works
committees should not be allowed to contract out of conditions so
laid down, nor, where conditions are determined by local agreements,
should such power be allowed to works committees.
16. Among the questions with which it is suggested that the na­
tional councils should deal or allocate to district councils or works
committees the following may be selected for special mention:
(i) The better utilization of the practical knowledge and experi­
ence of the workpeople.
(ii) Means for securing to the workpeople a greater share in and
responsibility for the determination and observance of the condi­
tions under which their work is carried on.
(iii) The settlement of the general principles governing the condi­
tions of employment, including the methods of fixing, paying, and
readjusting wages, having regard to the need for securing to the
workpeople a share in the increased prosperity of the industry.
(iv) The establishment of regular methods of negotiation for issues
arising between employers and workpeople, with a view both to the
prevention of differences and to their better adjustment when they
appear.
(v) Means of insuring to the workpeople the greatest possible
security of earnings and employment, without undue restriction
upon change of occupation or employer.
(vi) Methods of fixing and adjusting earnings, piecework prices,
etc., and of dealing with the many difficulties which arise with re­
gard to the method and amount of payment apart from the fixing
of general standard rates, which are already covered by paragraph
(iii);
(vii) Technical education and training.




20

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(viii) Industrial research and the full utilization of its results.
(ix) The provision of facilities for the full consideration and util­
ization of inventions and improvements designed by workpeople, and
for the adequate safeguarding of the rights of the designer&of such
improvements.
(x) Improvements of processes, machinery, and organization and
appropriate questions relating to management and the examination
of industrial experiments, with special reference to cooperation in
carrying new ideas into effect and full consideration of the work­
people’s point of view in relation to them.
(xi) Proposed legislation affecting the industry.
IT. The methods by which the functions of the proposed councils
should be correlated to those of joint bodies in the different districts,
and in the various works within the districts, must necessarily vary
according to the trade. It may, therefore, be the best policy to leave
it to the trades themselves to formulate schemes suitable to their
special circumstances, it being understood that it is essential to se­
cure in each industry the fullest measure of cooperation between
employers and employed, both generally, through the national coun­
cils, and specifically, through district committees and workshop com­
mittees.
18. It would seem advisable that the Government should put tho
proposals relating to national industrial councils before the em­
ployers’ and workpeople’s associations and request them to adopt
such measures as are needful for their establishment where they do
not already exist. Suitable steps should also be taken at the proper
time to put the matter before the general public.
19. In forwarding the proposals to the parties concerned, we
think the Government should offer to be represented in an advisory
capacity at the preliminary meetings of a council, if the parties so
desire. We are also of opinion that the Government should under­
take to supply to the various councils such information on industrial
subjects as may be available and likely to prove of value.
20. It has been suggested that means must be devised to safeguard
the interests of the community against possible action of an antisocial
character on the part of the councils. We have, however, here as­
sumed that the councils, in their work of promoting the interests of
their own industries, will have regard for the national interest. I f
they fulfill their functions they will be the best builders of national
prosperity. The State never parts with its inherent overriding
power, but such power may be least needed when least obtruded.
2 1. It appears, to us that it may be desirable at some later stage
for the State to give the sanction of law to agreements made by the




INTERIM REPORT ON JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.

21

councils, but the initiative in this direction should come from the
councils themselves.
22. The plans sketched in the foregoing paragraphs are applica­
ble in the form in which they are given only to industries in which
there are responsible associations of employers and workpeople which
can claim to be fairly representative. The case of the less wellorganized trades or sections of a trade necessarily needs further con­
sideration. We hope to be in a position shortly to put forward
recommendations that will prepare the way for the active utilization
in these trades of the same practical cooperation as is foreshadowed
in the proposals made above for the more highly organized trades.
23. It may be desirable to state here our considered opinion that
an essential condition of securing a permanent improvement in the
relations between employers and employed is that there should be
adequate organization on the part of both employers and work­
people. The proposals outlined for joint cooperation throughout the
several industries depend for their ultimate success upon there being
such organization on both sides; and such organization is necessary
also to provide means whereby the arrangements and agreements
made for the industry may be effectively carried out.
24. We have thought it well to refrain from making suggestions
or offering opinions with regard to such matters as profit sharing,
.copartnership, or particular systems of wages, etc. It would be
impracticable for us to make any useful general recommendations
on such matters, having regard to the varying conditions in different
trades. We are convinced, moreover, that a permanent improvement
in the relations between employers and employed must be founded
upon something other than a cash basis. What is wanted is that the
workpeople should have a greater opportunity of participating in
the discussion about and adjustment of those parts of industry by
which they are most affected.
25. The schemes recommended in this report are intended not
merely for the treatment of industrial problems when they have
become acute but also, and more especially, to prevent their becoming
acute. We believe that regular meetings to discuss industrial ques­
tions, apart from and prior to any differences with regard to them
that may have begun to cause friction, will materially reduce the
number of occasions on which, in the view of either employers or
employed, it is necessary to contemplate recourse to a stoppage of
worki
26. We venture to hope that representative men in each industry,
with pride in their calling and care for its place as a contributor to
the national well-being, will come together in the manner here sug­
gested and apply themselves to promoting industrial harmony and




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

22

efficiency and removing the obstacles that have hitherto stood in
the way.
We have the honor to be, sir,
Your obedient servants,
J. H. W h i t l e y , Chairman. A . S u s a n L a w r e n c e .
J. J. M a l l o n .
F. S . B u t t o n .
T h o s . R . R a t c l if f e - E l l is .
G e o . J. C a r t e r .
R obt. S m il l ie .
S . J. C h a p m a n .
G . H . C lauohton.

A ll a n M . S m it h .

J. R.
J. A.

M o n a W il s o n .

Clynes.
H obson .

H. J.

W il s o n ,

A rthur G reenwood,

Secretaries.

8th

M arch,

1917.

APPENDIX.
The following questions were addressed by the Reconstruction
Committee to the subcommittee on the relations between employers
and employed in order to make clear certain points which appeared
to call for further elucidation. The answers given are subjoined.
Q . 1. In what classes of industries does the interim, report propose
that industrial councils shall be establishedf
fication has the subcommittee in view?

What basis of classi­

A. 1 . It has been suggested that for the purpose of considering the
establishment of industrial councils or other bodies designed to assist
in the improvement of relations between employers and employed the
various industries should be grouped into three classes: (a) Indus­
tries in which organization on the part of employers and employed
is sufficiently developed to render councils representative; (b) indus­
tries in which either as regards employers and employed, or both, the
degree of organization, though considerable, is less marked than in
(a) and is insufficient to be regarded as representative; and (<?) in­
dustries in which organization is so imperfect, either as regards
employers or employed, or both, that no associations can be said
adequately to represent those engaged in the trade.
It will be clear that an analysis of industries will show a number
which are on the border lines between these groups, and special con­
sideration will have to be given to such trades. So far as groups
(a) and (c) are concerned, a fairly large number of trades can readily
be assigned to them; group ( 6) is necessarily more indeterminate.
For trades in group {a) the committee have proposed the estab­
lishment of joint standing industrial councils in the several trades.
In dealing with the various industries it may be necessary to con-




IN T E R IM REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L CO U N CILS.

23-

sider specially the case of parts of industries in group (a) where
organization is not fully developed.
Q . 2. Is the machinery proposed intended to be in addition to or
in substitution for existing machinery? Is it proposed that existing
machinery should be superseded? B y “ existing machinery” is meant
conciliation boards and all other organizations for joint conference
and discussion between employers and employed.

A. 2. In most organized trades there already exist joint bodies for
particular purposes. It is not proposed that the industrial councils
should necessarily disturb these existing bodies. A council would be
free, if it chose and if the bodies concerned approved, to merge
existing committees, etc., in the council or to link them with the
council as subcommittees.
Q. 3 . Is it understood that membership of the councils is to be con­
fined to representatives elected by employers' associations and tradeunions? What is the view of the subcommittee regarding the entry o f
new organizations established after the councils have been set up?

A. 3. It is intended that the councils should be composed only of rep­
resentatives of trade-unions and employers’ associations, and that new
organizations should be admitted only with the approval of the par­
ticular side of the council of which the organization would form a part.
T
Q. 4- (a) Is it intended that decisions reached by the councils
shall be binding upon the bodies comprising them? I f so, is such
binding effect to be conditional upon the consent of each employers’
association or trade-union affected?
A. 4. (a) It is contemplated that agreements reached by indus­

trial councils should, while not, of course, possessing the binding
force of law, carry with them the same obligation of observance as
exists in the case of other agreements between employers’ associations
and trade-unions. A council, being on its workmen’s side based on
the trade-unions concerned in the industry, its powers or authority
could only be such as the constituent trade-unions freely agreed to.
Q. 4. (b) In particular is it intended that all pledges given either
by the Government or employers for the restoration of trade-union
rules and practices after the war shall be redeemed without qualifica­
tion unless the particular trade-union concerned agrees to alteration;
or , on the contrary, that the industrial council shall have power to
decide such question by a majority vote of the workmen's representa­
tives from all the trade-unions in the industry?
A. 4. (b) It is clearly intended that all pledges relating to the

restoration of trade-union rules shall be redeemed without qualifica­
tion unless the particular trade-union concerned agrees to alteration,
and it is not intended that the council shall have power to decide
such questions by a majority vote of the workmen’s representatives
from all the trade-unions in the industry.




SE C O N D R E P O R T O N JO IN T S T A N D IN G IN D U S T R IA L C O U N C IL S .1

P refatory N ote.—This report of the committee on relations be­
tween employers and employed is now receiving the joint consider­
ation of the Minister of Labor and myself, in the light of the
practical experience which has been gained in establishing joint
industrial councils in accordance with the proposals of the first
report. A statement2 will shortly be published with regard to any
modification of recommendations of this second report which may
be considered expedient from the administrative point of view.
C* A ddison.
F ebruary 28, 1918.

To the Right Hon. D. L loyd G eorge, M. P., Prime Minister.
Sir : Following the proposals made in our first report, we have
now the honor to present further recommendations dealing with in­
dustries in which organization on the part of employers and em­
ployed is less completely established than in the industries covered
by the previous report, and with industries in which such organiza­
tion is weak or nonexistent.
2. Before commencing the examination of these industries the
committee came to the conclusion that it would materially assist
their inquiries if they could have the direct advantage of the knowl­
edge and experience of some representative employers who were con­
nected with industries of the kind with which the committee were
about to deal; and it was arranged, with your approval, that Sir
Maurice Levy, Mr. F. N. Hepworth, Mr. W. Hill, and Mr. D. R. H.
Williams should be appointed to act with the committee while these
industries were under consideration. This arrangement made it pos­
sible to release from attendance at the earlier meetings of the com­
mittee Sir Gilbert Claughton, Sir T. Ratcliffe-Ellis, Sir George J.
Carter, and Mr. Allan Smith, whose time is greatly occupied in other
public work and whose experience is more particularly related to the
organized trades covered by our former report.
3. It is difficult to classify industries according to the degree of
organization among employers and employed, but for convenience of
consideration the industries of the country may be divided into three
groups:
1
Ministry of Reconstruction. Committee on relations between employers and employed.
Second report on joint standing industrial councils.
London, 1917.
5 pp.
Cd. 9002.
Price, Id. Summarized in the M o n t h l y R e v ie w for May, 1918 (pp. 5 9 - 6 1 ) , and printed
in full in the M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w for September, 1918 (pp. 5 3 - 5 8 ) .— [E d .]
a See pp. 180 to 187.— [E d.]

24




SECOND REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L COU N CILS.

25

Group A .—Consisting of industries in which organization on the
part of employers and employed is sufficiently developed to render
their respective associations representative of the great majority of
those engaged in the industry. These are the industries which we
had in mind in our first interim report.
Group B .—Comprising those industries in which, either as regards
employers or employed, or both, the degree of organization, though
considerable, is less marked than in group A.
Group C.—Consisting of industries in which organization is so
imperfect, either as regards employers or employed, or both, that no
associations can be said adequately to represent those engaged in the
industry.
The present report is concerned with groups B and C.
4. So far as groups A and C are concerned, a number of industries
can be definitely assigned to them. Group B, however, is necessarily
more indeterminate. Some of the industries in this group approach
closely to industries in group A, while others verge upon group C.
Further, most industries, in.whatever class they may fall, possess a
“ tail,” consisting of badly organized areas, or sections of the indus­
try. These facts we have borne in mind in formulating our further
proposals.
5. So far as industries in group B are concerned, we are of opin­
ion that the proposals of our first report should, in their main lines,
be applied to those which, on examination by the Ministry of Labor
in consultation with the associations concerned, are found to be rela­
tively well organized. We suggest, however, that where in these in­
dustries a national industrial council is formed there should be ap­
pointed one or at most two official representatives to assist in the ini­
tiation of the council, and continue after its establishment to act
in an advisory capacity and serve as a link with the Government.
We do not contemplate that a representative so appointed should
be a member o£ the national industrial council, in the sense that he
should have power, by a vote, to influence the decisions of the coun­
cil, but that he should attend its meetings and assist in any way
which may be found acceptable to it. By so doing he would acquire
a continuous knowledge of the conditions of the industry of which
the Government could avail itself, and so avoid many mistakes that
under present conditions are inevitable.
The question of the retention of the official representatives should
be considered by the councils in the light of experience gained when
an adequate time has elapsed. We anticipate that in many cases
their continued assistance will be found of value even after an indus­
try has attained a high degree of organization, but in no case should
they remain except at the express wish of the councils concerned.




26

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

6. It may be that in some group B industries in which a national
industrial council is formed certain areas are well suited to the estab­
lishment of district councils, while in other areas the organization of
employers or employed, or both, is too weak to be deemed represen­
tative. There appears to be no good reason why in the former
areas there should not be district industrial councils, acting in con­
junction with the national industrial councils, in accordance with the
principles formulated in the committee’s earlier report on the wellorganized trades.
7. An examination of some of the industries coming within group
B may show that there are some which, owing to the peculiarities of
the trades and their geographical distribution, can not at present be
brought readily within the scope of the proposals for a national in­
dustrial council, though they may be quite well organized in two or
more separate districts. In such a case we think there might well
be formed one or more district industrial councils. We anticipate
that in course of time the influence of the district councils would be
such that the industry would become suitable for the establishment
of a national industrial council.
8. In the case of industries in group B (as in the industries cov­
ered by our first report) we consider that the members of the national
councils and of the district councils should be representative of the
employers’ associations and trade-unions concerned. In the forma­
tion of the councils regard should be paid to the various sections of
the industry and the various classes of labor engaged, and the repre­
sentatives should include representatives of women’s organizations.
In view of the extent to which women are employed in these indus­
tries, we think the trade-unions, when selecting their representatives
for the councils, should include a number of women among those who
are appointed to be members.
9. It does not appear to us necessary or desirable to suggest any
fixed standard of organization which should exist 4 any industry
in
before a national industrial council should be established. The case
of each industry will need to be considered separately, regard being
paid to its particular circumstances and characteristics.
In the discussion of this matter we have considered whether it
would be feasible to indicate a percentage of organization which
should be reached before a council is formed, but, in view of the great
diversity of circumstances \n these industries and of the differing de­
grees to which the several sections of some of them are organized, we
have come to the conclusion that it is more desirable to leave the
matter to the decision of the Ministry of Labor and the organizations
concerned. Whatever theoretical standard may be contemplated, we
think its application should not be restrictive in either direction.




SECOND REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L COU N CILS.

27

10 . The level of organization in industries in group C is such as to
make the scheme we have proposed for national or district industrial
councils inapplicable. To these industries the machinery of the
Trade Boards Act might well be applied, pending the development of
such degree of organization as would render feasible the establish­
ment of a national council or district councils.
1 1 . The Trade Boards Act was originally intended to secure the es­
tablishment of a minimum standard of wages in certain unorganized
industries, but we consider that the trade boards should be regarded
also as a means of supplying a regular machinery for negotiation
and decision on certain groups of questions dealt with in other cir­
cumstances by collective bargaining between employers’ organiza­
tions and trade-unions.
In order that the Trade Boards Act may be of greater utility in
connection with unorganized and badly organized industries or sec­
tions of industries, we consider that certain modifications are needed
to enlarge the functions of the trade boards. We suggest that they
should be empowered to deal not only with minimum rates of wages
but with hours of labor and questions cognate to wages and hours.
We are of opinion also that the functions of the trade boards should
be extended so as to enable them to initiate and conduct inquiries on
all matters affecting the industry or the section of the industry con­
cerned.
12 . I f these proposals were adopted, there would be set up, in a
number of industries or sections of industries, trade boards (consist­
ing of representatives of employers and employed, together with
“ appointed members” ) who would, within the scope of their func­
tions, establish minimum standard rates and conditions applicable
to the industry or section of the industry which they represented,
and consider systematically matters affecting the well-being of the
industry.
13. Where an industry in group C becomes sufficiently organized
to admit of the institution of national and district councils, we con­
sider that these bodies should be set up on the lines already indicated.
Where it appears to a trade board that an industrial council should
be appointed in the industry concerned, they should have power (a)
to make application to the Minister of Labor asking him to approach
the organizations of employers and employed, and (Z to suggest a
>)
scheme by which the representation of the workers’ and employers’
sides of the trade board could be secured.
14. Whether in industries in group C the establishment of works
committees is to be recommended is a question which calls for very
careful examination, and we have made the general question of works
committees the subject of a separate report.




28

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

15. We have already pointed out that most of the industries in
groups A and B have sections or areas in which the degree of organ­
ization among the employers and employed falls much below what
is normal in the rest of the industry; and it appears to us durable
that the general body of employers and employed in any industry
should have some means whereby they may bring the whole of the
trade up to the standard of minimum conditions which have been
agreed upon by a substantial majority of the industry. We there­
fore recommend that, on the application of a national industrial
council sufficiently representative of an industry, the Minister of
Labor should be empowered, if satisfied that the case is a suitable
one, to make an order either instituting for a section of the industry
a trade board on which the national industrial council should be
represented or constituting the industrial council a trade board under
the provisions of the Trade Bo^ds Act. These proposals are not in­
tended to limit, but to be in addition to, the powers at present held
.by the Ministry of Labor with regard to the establishment of trade
boards in trades and industries where they are considered by the
ministry to be necessary.
16. We have already indicated (par. 9) that the circumstances
and characteristics of each of the several industries will need to be
considered before it can be decided definitely how far any of our
proposals can be applied in particular instances, and we have re­
frained from attempting to suggest any exact degree of organization
which would be requisite before a particular proposal could be
applied. We think, however, that the suggestion we have made in
the preceding paragraph to confer upon a national industrial council
the powers of a trade board should be adopted only in those cases
in which the Minister of Labor is satisfied that the council represents
a substantial majority of the industry concerned.
17. We are of opinion that most of the chief industries of the
country could be brought under one or other of the schemes con­
tained in this and the preceding report. There would then be
broadly two classes of industries in the country—industries with
industrial councils and industries with trade boards.
18. In the former group the national industrial councils would be
constituted either in the manner we have indicated in our first report,
carrying with them district councils and works committees, or on the
lines suggested in the present report, i. e., each council coming within
the scope of this report having associated with it one or two official
representatives to act in an advisory capacity and as a link with the
Government, in addition to the representatives of the employers and
employed.




SECOND REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L CO U N CILS.

29

19. It should be noted that in the case of industries in which there
is a national industrial council, trade boards might in some instances
be associated with the council in order to determine wages and hours,
etc., iQ certain sections or areas. It is possible that in some allied
t
trades really forming part of the same industry both sets of pro­
posals might in the first instance be in operation side by side, one
trade having its industrial council and the other its trade board.
Where these circumstances obtain, we anticipate that the trade board
would be a stepping stone to the full industrial council status.
20. It may be useful to present a brief outline of the proposals
which we have so far put forward:
(a) In the more highly organized industries (group A) we pro­
pose a triple organization of national, district, and workshop bodies,
as outlined in our first report.
(b) In industries where there are representative associations of
employers and employed, which, however, do not possess the author­
ity of those in group A industries, we propose that the triple organ­
ization should be modified by attaching to each national industrial
council one or at most two representatives of the Ministry of Labor
to act in an advisory capacity.
( c ) In industries in both groups A and B we propose that unor­
ganized areas or branches of an industry should be provided, on the
application of the national industrial council and with the approval
of the Ministry of Labor, with trade boards for such areas or
branches, the trade boards being linked with the'industrial council.
(d) In industries having no adequate organization of employers
or employed we recommend that trade boards should be continued or
established and that these should, with the approval of the Ministry
of Labor, be enabled to formulate a scheme for an industrial council,
which might include in an advisory capacity the “ appointed mem­
bers ” of the trade board.
21. It will be observed that the policy we recommend is based
upon organization on the part of both employers and employed.
Where this is adequate, as in group A industries, there is no need
of external assistance. In group B industries we think that the
organizations concerned would be glad to have the services of an
official representative who would act as adviser and as a link with
the Government. In unorganized sections of both groups of in­
dustries we believe that a larger measure of Government assistance
will be both desirable and acceptable, and we have therefore sug­
gested the adoption of the machinery of the Trade Boards Act in this
connection. In group C industries we think that organization will
be encouraged by the use of the powers under the Trade Boards Act,




30

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

and where national industrial councils are set up we recommend
that the “ appointed members ” of the trade board should act on the
councils in an advisory capacity. Briefly, our proposals are that the
extent of State assistance should vary inversely with the degree o f
organization in industries.
22. We do not, however, regard Government assistance as an alter­
native to the organization of employers and employed. On the con­
trary, we regard it as a means of furthering the growth and develop­
ment of such organization.
23. We think it advisable in this connection to repeat the following
paragraph from our former report:
It may be desirable to state here our considered opinion that an essential
condition of securing a permanent improvement in the relations between em­
ployers and employed is that there should be adequate organization on the part
of both employers and workpeople. The proposals outlined for joint cooperation
throughout the several industries depend for their ultimate success upon there
being sueh organization on both sides; and such organization is necessary also
to provide means whereby the arrangements and agreements made for the in­
dustry may be effectively carried out.

24. In considering the scope of the matters referred to us we have
formed the opinion that the expression u employers and workmen ” in
our reference covers State and municipal authorities and persons em­
ployed by them. Accordingly, we recommend that such authorities
and their workpeople should take into consideration the proposals
made in this and in our first report with a view to determining how
far such proposals can suitably be adopted in their case.
We understand that the Ministry of Labor has up to the present
circulated our first report only to employers’ and workpeople’s asso­
ciations in the ordinary private industries. We think, however,
that both it and the present report should also be brought to the
notice of State departments and municipal authorities employing
labor.
25. The proposals we have set forth above do not require legisla­
tion except on three points, namely, to provide—
(1) That the trade boards shall have power, in addition to deter­
mining minimum rates of wages, to deal with hours of labor and
questions cognate to wages and hours.
(2 ) That the trade boards shall have power to initiate inquiries,
and make proposals to the Government departments concerned, on
matters affecting the industrial conditions of the trade, as well as on
questions of general interest to the industries concerned, respectively.
(3) That when an industrial council sufficiently representative of
an industry makes application, the Minister of Labor shall have
power, if satisfied that the case is a suitable one, to make an order
instituting for a section of the industry a trade board on which the




SECOND REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L COU N CILS.

31

industrial council shall be represented, or constituting the council a
trade board under the Trade Boards Act.
26. The proposals which we have made must necessarily be
adapted to meet the varying needs and circumstances of different in­
dustries, and it is not anticipated that there will be uniformity in
practice. Our recommendations are intended merely to set forth
the main lines of development which we believe to be essential to
insure better relations between employers and employed. Their ap­
plication to the several industries we can safely leave to those inti­
mately concerned, with the conviction that the flexibility and adapta­
bility of industrial organization which have been so large a factor
in enabling industry to stand the enormous strain of the war will not
fail the country when peace returns.
27. Other problems affecting the relations between employers and
employed are engaging our attention, but ive believe that, whatever
further steps may be necessary to accomplish the object we have in
view, the lines of development suggested in the present report and
the one which preceded it are fundamental. We believe that in each
industry there is a sufficiently large body of opinion willing to adopt
the proposals we have made as a means of establishing a new relation
in industry.
We have the honor to be, sir,
Your obedient servants,1
J. H . W hitley , Chairman. A . S usan L awrence.
M aurice L evy .2
F. S. B utton .
J. J. M allon.
S. J. C h a pm an .
G. H. Claughton.
T hos. R. R atcliffe-E llts.
J. R. Clynes .
A llan M. S m it h .
F. N. H epworth.3
D . R. H . W illiams .2
W

ilfrid

H ill .2

M ona W

ilson.

J. A. H obson.
H. J. W ilson,
A . G reenwood,
Secretaries.

18th O ctober, 1917.
1 Sir G. J. Carter and Mr. Smillie were unable to attend any of the meetings at which
this report was considered, and they therefore do not sign it.
2 Additional member of tiie committee appointed in connection with tills report.




SU PPLEM ENTARY REPORT ON W O RK S COMMITTEES.*

To the Eight Hon. D. L lo y d G e o r g e , M. P., Prime Minister.
S i r : In our first and second reports we have referred to the estab­
lishment of works committees,2 representative of the management
and of the workpeople, and appointed from within the works, as an
essential part of the scheme of organization suggested to secure im­
proved relations between employers and employed. The purpose of
the present report is to deal more fully with the proposal to insti­
tute such committees.
2. Better relations between employers and their workpeople can
best be arrived at by granting to the latter a greater share in the
consideration of matters with which they are concerned. In every
industry there are certain questions, such as rates of wages and hours
of work, which should be settled by district or national agreement^
and with any matter so settled no works committee should be allowed
to interfere; but there are also many questions closely affecting daily
life and comfort in, and the success of, the business, and affecting in
no small degree efficiency of working, which are peculiar to the in­
dividual workshop or factory. The purpose of a works committee is
to establish and maintain a system of cooperation in all these work­
shop matters.
3. We have throughout our recommendations proceeded upon the
assumption that the greatest success is likely to be achieved by leav­
ing to the representative bodies of employers and employed in each
industry the maximum degree of freedom to settle for themselves
the precise form of council or committee which should be adopted,
having regard in each case to the particular circumstances of the
trade; and, in accordance with this principle, we refrain from indi­
cating any definite form of constitution for the works committees.
Our proposals as a whole assume the existence of organizations of
both employers and employed and a frank and full recognition of
such organizations. Works committees established otherwise than in
1 M in istry o f R eco n s tr u ctio n . C om m ittee on re la tio n s b etw een e m p loy ers a n d e m p loy ed .
S u p p lem en ta ry r e p o rt o n w ork s com m ittees. L on d on , 1918. 4 pp. Cd. 9001. P rice , I d .
P rin ted in fu ll in th e M o n t h l y R e v ie w fo r June, 1918 (p p . 1 6 3 - 1 6 5 ) .— [ E d .]
2 In th e u se o f th e term “ w ork s com m ittees ” in th is re p o rt i t is n o t in ten d ed t o use
the w o r d “ w ork s '* in a tech n ica l s e n s e ; in such an in d u stry as the co a l tra d e, f o r ex­
am ple, th e term “ p it co m m ittees ” w ou ld p rob a b ly be th e term used in a d o p tin g th e
?chem e»

32




SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT ON WORKS COMMITTEES.

33

accordance with these principles could not be regarded as a part of
the scheme we have recommended, and might, indeed, be a hindrance
to the development of the new relations in industry to which we look
forward. We think the aim should be the complete and coherent
organization of the trade on both sides, and works committees will
be of value in so far as they contribute to such a result.
4. We are of opinion that the complete success of works com­
mittees necessarily depends largely upon the degree and efficiency
of organization in the trade, arid upon the extent to which the com­
mittees can be linked up, through organizations that we have in
mind, with the remainder of the scheme which we are proposing,
viz, the district and national councils. We think it important to
state that the success of the works committees would be very seriously
interfered with if the idea existed that such committees were used,
or likely to be used, by employers in opposition to trade-unionism.
It is strongly felt that the setting up of works committees without
the cooperation of the trade-unions and the employers’ associations
in the trade or branch of trade concerned would stand in the way
of the improved industrial relationships which in these reports we
are endeavoring to further.
5. In an industry where the workpeople are unorganized, or only
very partially organized, there is a danger that works committees
may be used, or thought to be used, in opposition to trade-unionism.
It is important that such fears should be guarded against in the
initiation of any scheme. We look upon successful works commit­
tees as the broad base of the industrial structure which we have rec­
ommended, and as the means of enlisting the interest of the workers
in the success both of the industry to which they are attached and
of the workshop or factory where so much of their life is spent.
These committees should not, in constitution or methods of working,
discourage trade organizations.
6. Works committees, in our opinion, should have regular meetings
at fixed times, and, as a general rule, not less frequently than once a
fortnight. They should always keep in the forefront the idea of
constructive cooperation in the improvement of the industry to
which they belong. Suggestions of all kinds tending to improve­
ment should be frankly welcomed and freely discussed. Practical
proposals should be examined from all points of view. There is an
undeveloped asset of constructive ability—valuable alike to the in­
dustry and to the State—awaiting the means of realization; prob­
lems, old and new, will find their solution in a frank partnership of
knowledge, experience, and good will. Works committees would fail
in their main purpose if they existed only to smooth over grievances.
106328°— Bull. 255—19------3




34

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

7. We recognize that from time to time matters will arise which
the management or the workmen consider to be questions they can
not discuss in these joint meetings. When this occurs we antici­
pate that nothing but good will come from the friendly statement
of the reasons why the reservation is made.
8. We regard the successful development and utilization of works
committees in any business on the basis recommended in this report
as of equal importance with its commercial and scientific efficiency,
and we think that in every case one of the partners or directors or
some other responsible representative of the management would be
well advised to devote a substantial part of his time and thought to
the good working and development of such a committee.
9. There has been some experience, both before the war and during
the war, of the benefits of works committees, and we think it should
be recommended most strongly to employers and employed that, in
connection with the scheme for the establishment of national and
district industrial councils, they should examine this experience with
a view to the institution of works committees on proper lines, in
works where the conditions render their formation practicable.
We have recommended that the Ministry of Labor should prepare a
summary of the experience available with reference to works com­
mittees, both before and during the war, including information as
to any rules or reports relating to such committees, and should issue
a memorandum thereon for the guidance of employers and work­
people generally, and we understand that such a memorandum is
now in course of preparation.1
10. In order to insure uniform and common principles of action,
it is essential that where national and district industrial councils
exist the works committees should be in close touch with them, and
the scheme for linking up works committees with the councils should
be considered and determined by the national councils.
1 1 . We have considered it better not to attempt to indicate any
specific form of works committees. Industrial establishments show
such infinite variation in size, number of persons employed, multi­
plicity of departments, and other conditions, that the particular
form of works committees must necessarily be adapted to the cir­
cumstances of each case. It would, therefore, be impossible to for­
mulate any satisfactory scheme which does not provide a large
measure of elasticity.
*The reference is to the report printed on pages 50 to 170.— £Ed.]




SU P PLE M E N TA R Y REPORT ON W O R K S CO M M ITTEES.

35

We are confident that the nature of the particular organization
necessary for the various cases will be settled without difficulty by
the exercise of good will 011 both sides.
We have the honor to be, sir,
Your obedient servants,1
J. H. W hitley , Chairman. A. S usan L awrence.
M aurice L evy .2
F. S. B utton .
J. J. M allon.
S. J. C hapm an ,
G. H. Claughton .
T hos. E. E atcliffe-E llis.
J. E. Clynes .
A llan M. S m ith .
F. N. H e p w o r t i i . 2
D. E. H. W illiams .2
W

ilfrid

H ill .2

M ona W ilson.

J. A . H obson.
H . J. W ilson,
A . G reenwood,

Secretaries.
O ctober 18, 1917.
1 S ir G . J. C arter and M r. S m illie w ere un able t o a tte n d a n y o f th e m eetin g s a t w h ich
th is rep ort w a s con sid ered and th ey th e re fo re do n o t sig n it. S ir G. J. C arter has in t i­
m ated th a t in his view , in a cco r d a n c e w ith the p rin cip le s in d ica te d in p a ra gra p h s
4,
and 5 o f th e rep ort, it is im p o r ta n t th a t w ork s com m ittees sh ou ld n o t d eal w ith m a tte rs
w h ich ou g h t t o be d ire ctly d ea lt w ith by th e firm s con cern ed o r th e ir resp ectiv e a ss o cia ­
tio n s in co n ju n ctio n w ith the recog n iz ed rep resen ta tiv es o f the tra d e -u n io n s w h ose m em ­
b ers a re affected.
* A d d itio n a l m em bers o f th e com m ittee a p p oin ted in co n n e ctio n w ith th is re p o rt.




REPORT ON CON CILIATIO N A N D A R BITRATION.1

To the Eight Hon. D. L loyd G eorge, Prime Minister.
Sir : We believe that the recommendations made in our earlier
reports for the establishment of industrial councils will provide
facilities for full and free discussion of matters affecting the several
industries and so improve the relations between employers and em­
ployed. We have thought it necessary, however, to give some atten­
tion to the cases in which the parties may desire voluntarily to refer
some difference that has arisen to arbitration or conciliation. But
it must be understood that we do not intend to express any views on
the extent to which disputes can be equitably or satisfactorily set­
tled in this way. As regards arbitration, our sole concern in this
report is with the question of the machinery to be provided when it
is the expressed wish of both parties, for any reason, to have recourse
to it.
2. We are opposed to any system of compulsory arbitration; there
is no reason to believe that such a system is generally desired by em­
ployers and employed, and, in the absence of such general acceptance,
it is obvious that its imposition would lead to unrest. The experi­
ence of compulsory arbitration during the war has shown that it is
not a successful method of avoiding strikes, and in normal times it
would undoubtedly prove even less successful. Disputes can only
be avoided by agreement between employers and workers and by
giving to the latter the greater measure of interest in the industry
advocated in our former reports; but agreement may naturally in-,
elude the decision of both parties to refer any specified matter or
matters to arbitration, whether this decision is reached before or
after a dispute arises.
3. For the same reason we do not recommend any scheme relating
to conciliation which compulsorily prevents strikes or lockouts pend­
ing inquiry. But it is obviously possible and desirable that in some
instances arrangements should be voluntarily made in organized
trades for holding an inquiry before recourse to extreme measures;
and we suggest that the Ministry of Labor should be authorized to
hold a full inquiry when satisfied that it was desirable, without prej­
udice to the power of the disputing parties to declare a strike or
lockout before or during the progress of the inquiry.
1 M in is try o f R e co n s tru ctio n . C om m ittee on rela tion s betw een e m p loy ers and em p loy ed .
R e p o rt o n co n cilia tio n and a rb itra tio n .
L on d on , 1918.
5 p p.
Cd. 9099.
P rice , Id .
P rin ted in fu ll in the M o n t h l y L ab or R e v ie w fo r A u gu st, 1918 (p p . 2 3 7 - 2 4 0 ) .— [E d .]

36




REPORT ON CO N CILIATIO N AND ARBITRATIO N .

37

4 . I t is i m p o r t a n t t h a t i t s h o u l d b e c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t w e d o
n o t c o n te m p la te th e im p o s it io n o f a n e la b o r a t e s y s te m o f c o n c i li a ­
t io n a n d a r b it r a t io n u p o n in d u s tr y , in p la c e o f th e p r e s e n t w e llr e c o g n iz e d y o lu n t a r y c o n c ilia t io n a n d a r b it r a t io n m a c h in e r y w h ic h
e x is ts in s o m a n y o f th e im p o r t a n t tr a d e s o f th e c o u n t r y .
O n th e
c o n t r a r y , w e d e s ir e t o e m p h a s iz e th e a d v is a b ilit y o f a c o n t in u a n c e ,
as f a r as p o s s ib le , o f th e p r e s e n t sy ste m w h e r e b y in d u s tr ie s m a k e
t h e i r o w n a g r e e m e n t s a n d s e t t l e t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s t h e m s e lv e s .
5. T h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h m a c h i n e r y f o r t h e c o n c i l i a t o r y a d j u s t m e n t
o f d i s p u t e s e x i s t s i n t h e i m p o r t a n t t r a d e s o f t h i s c o u n t r y is o n e o f
th e m o s t m a r k e d fe a tu r e s o f its in d u s t r ia l o r g a n iz a t io n , a n d th e
v a lu a b le w o r k th a t h a s b e e n d o n e b y th e n u m e r o u s c o n c ilia t io n a n d
a r b it r a t io n b o a r d s in th e p a s t h a s r e n d e r e d it p o s s ib le f o r th e S ta te
t o r e m a in v e r y m u c h in th e b a c k g r o u n d . T h e r e seem s n o r e a s o n t o
s u p p o s e th a t a ft e r th e w a r th ese b o a r d s w ill n o t c o n t in u e t o w o r k
e ffe c tiv e ly , a n d it m a y b e (e s p e c ia lly in so f a r as th e y m a y b e c o m e
m e r g e d in o r c o r r e la t e d w it h th e jo i n t in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils , w h o s e
e s t a b lis h m e n t t h e c o m m it t e e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d ) t h a t t h e y w i l l
a c h ie v e a n e v e n la r g e r d e g r e e o f s u cce s s in s e c u r in g th e s e ttle m e n t o f
p o i n t s t h a t m a y a r is e b e t w e e n e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e d , w h e n r e g u ­
l a r j o i n t m e e t in g s , a p a r t f r o m a n y d is p u t e s , h a v e b e e n e s t a b lis h e d ,
a n d t h e i r b e n e f it e x p e r i e n c e d .
6. I t is d e s ir a b le , h o w e v e r , t o c o n s id e r th e p a r t t h a t s h o u ld b e
ta k e n b y th e S ta te in th e e v e n t o f th o s e d ir e c t ly c o n c e r n e d in in ­
d u s t r y b e i n g u n a b l e t o a d j u s t t h e i r d i f f e r e n c e s t h e m s e lv e s . T h e i n ­
t e r e s t o f th e c o m m u n it y m a y r e q u ir e t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld b e a n u n b ia s e d
a n d in d e p e n d e n t e x a m in a t io n o f t h e f a c t s a n d c ir c u m s t a n c e s c o n ­
n e c t e d w it h a n y d is p u t e b e t w e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d . O n t h is
p o in t th e c o m m it t e e h a v e h a d u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n th e C a n a d ia n I n ­
d u s t r ia l D is p u t e s I n v e s t ig a t io n A c t , a n d th e r e p o r t o n th e w o r k in g o f
th a t a c t m a d e b y S i r G e o r g e A s k w i t h [ C d . 6 6 0 3 ]. T h e y h a v e a ls o
h a d u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s c o n t a in e d in th e r e ­
p o r t o f th e I n d u s t r ia l C o u n c il [C d . 6952 o f 1 9 1 3 ].
T h e c o m m it t e e in d o r s e th e v ie w t h a t th e r e s h o u ld b e m e a n s b y
w h ic h a n in d e p e n d e n t in q u ir y m a y b e m a d e in to th e fa c t s a n d c ir ­
c u m s ta n c e s o f a d is p u t e a n d a n a u t h o r it a t iv e p r o n o u n c e m e n t m a d e
th e r e o n , a lt h o u g h t h is d o e s n o t c a r r y w it h i t a n y c o m p u ls o r y p o w e r
o f d e la y in g s t r ik e s o r lo c k o u t s .
7 . S e c t i o n 2 ( 1 (a) o f t h e C o n c i l i a t i o n A c t , 1 8 9 6 , e m p o w e r s t h e
)
M in is t r y o f L a b o r to ca u se a n in q u ir y to b e h e ld in t o th e fa c t s a n d
c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f d is p u t e . P r e s u m a b ly th e e x is t in g a c t e m p o w e r s th e
M in is t r y o f L a b o r t o p u b lis h r e p o r t s m a d e as a r e s u lt o f in q u ir ie s o f
th is c h a r a c tc r , b u t, i f n o t, th e n e ce s s a r y p o w e r s h o u ld b e o b ta in e d , s o
th a t th e re m a y b e im m e d ia te p u b lic a t io n , f o r th e in fo r m a t io n o f th o se




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

a ffe cte d b y th e d is p u te a n d o f th e p u b lic g e n e r a lly , o f a n in d e p e n d e n t
a n d a u t h o r it a t iv e a c c o u n t o f th e m a tte r s in d iffe r e n c e .
T h e q u e s tio n w h e th e r th ese p o w e r s s h o u ld b e e x e r c is e d in r e s p e c t
o f p a r t ic u la r ca ses is o n e w h ic h m u s t b e l e f t t o th e d is c r e t io n o f th e
G ov ern m e n t d ep a rtm e n t con cern ed .
8. A r b i t r a t i o n b e i n g r e c o g n i z e d a s a n a p p r o p r i a t e m e t h o d w h e r e b y
th e p a r t ie s t o in d u s t r ia l d iffe r e n c e s m a y v o lu n t a r i l y s e e k t o h a v e
t h o s e d iffe r e n c e s a d ju s t e d , it is n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s id e r w h a t f o r m o f
a r b it r a t io n t r ib u n a ls a r e c a lc u la t e d t o c o m m a n d t h e c o n fid e n c e o f
th o s e w h o m a y a p p e a l t o th em . U n d e r th e C o n c ilia t io n A c t th e u su a l
fo r m o f a r b it r a t io n t r ib u n a l w a s th e “ s in g le a r b it r a t o r ,” a n in d e ­
p e n d e n t p e r s o n a p p o in t e d b y th e B o a r d o f T r a d e s it t in g as s o le ju d g e
e x c e p t in ca s e s w h e r e th e p o in t s in d is p u t e n e c e s s ita te d t h e a s s is ta n c e
o f te c h n ic a l a ssessors. C o u r ts o f a r b it r a t io n (a n e m p lo y e r ’s r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i v e , a w o r k m e n ’s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e , a n d a n i n d e p e n d e n t c h a i r m a n )
w e r e e s t a b lis h e d in 1 9 0 8 , b u t c o m p a r a t iv e ly f e w ca ses a r e r e f e r r e d t o
th is fo r m o f t r ib u n a l.
9. U n d e r th e M u n it io n s o f W a r A c t , in a d d it io n t o s in g le a r b it r a t o r s
a n d c o u r ts o f a r b itr a tio n , t w o o th e r fo r m s o f tr ib u n a l w e r e e s ta b ­
lis h e d — th e c o m m it t e e o n p r o d u c t io n a n d th e s p e c ia l a r b it r a t io n
t r i b u n a l f o r w o m e n ’s w a g e s . T h e c o m m i t t e e o n p r o d u c t i o n c o n s i s t e d
gi t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t p e r s o n s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e G o v e r n m e n t , a n d t h e
m a jo r i t y o f t h e d is p u t e s r e f e r r e d t o a r b it r a t io n d u r in g th e w a r o t h e r
th a n th o s e a ffe c t in g th e w a g e s o f w o m e n o n m u n it io n s w o r k h a v e
b een s e ttle d b y th a t t r ib u n a l. I t s p e r s o n n e l h a s r e c e n t ly b e e n c h a n g e d
a n d it is n o w c o n s t it u t e d o n lin e s s im ila r t o a c o u r t o f a r b it r a t io n ,
e x c e p t t h a t i t s m e m b e r s h o l d c o n t i n u o u s o f f ic e a n d a r e n o t a p p o i n t e d
a d h o c . T h e s p e c ia l a r b it r a t io n t r ib u n a l f o r w o m e n ’ s w a g e s c o n s is t s
o f a n in d e p e n d e n t c h a irm a n a n d m e m b e rs ch o s e n e ith e r f o r th e ir
o ffic ia l e x p e r ie n c e o r t h e ir s p e c ia l k n o w le d g e o f t h e in te r e s ts o f
e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k p e o p le , r e s p e c t iv e ly .
10. A s a r b it r a t io n s a ffe c t in g th e sa m e tr a d e o r s e c tio n o f tra d e s
m a y r e c u r , th e r e a re a d v a n t a g e s t o b o t h e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k p e o p le in
k n o w in g t h a t th e t r ib u n a l t o w h ic h t h e y s u b m it a n y d iffe r e n c e s
w h i c h t h e y m a y h a v e f a i l e d t h e m s e lv e s t o s e t t l e i s o n e t o w h i c h
p r e v io u s d iffe r e n c e s h a v e b e e n s u b m itte d , a n d w h ic h t h e r e fo r e h a s
b e c o m e t o so m e e x te n t fa m ilia r w it h th e c o n d itio n s o f th e tra d e .
11. F o r th e se re a so n s it w o u ld a p p e a r d e s ir a b le th a t th e re s h o u ld
b e a s t a n d in g a r b it r a t io n c o u n c il o n th e lin e s o f th e p r e s e n t t e m p o ­
r a r y c o m m i t t e e xm p r o d u c t i o n t o w h i c h d i f f e r e n c e s o f g e n e r a l p r i n ­
c ip le s a n d d iffe r e n c e s a ffe c t in g w h o le in d u s t r ie s o r l a r g e s e c t io n s o f
in d u s t r ie s m a y b e r e fe r r e d in ca ses w h e r e th e p a r t ie s h a v e f a i l e d t o
c o m e t o a n a g r e e m e n t t h r o u g h t h e ir o r d in a r y p r o c e d u r e , a n d w is h
t o r e f e r th e d iffe r e n c e s t o a r b it r a t io n .




REPORT O N C O N CILIATIO N AN D ARBITRATIO N .

39

S u c h tr ib u n a l s h o u ld in c lu d e in its m e m b e r s h ip p e r s o n s w h o h a v e
p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e a n d k n o w le d g e o f in d u s tr y , a n d w h o a re a c ­
q u a in t e d w it h th e r e s p e c t iv e s t a n d p o in t s o f e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k ­
p e o p le .
12. T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e d if f ic u l t i e s c o n ­
n e c te d w it h th e u t iliz a t io n o f t r ib u n a ls o f th r e e o r m o r e p e r s o n s ,
p a r t ic u la r ly w h e r e th e p a r tie s d e s ir e th a t t h e ir c a s e s h o u ld b e h e a r d
lo c a lly , a n d w h e r e th e m a t t e r is o n e o f r e la t iv e ly s m a ll im p o r t a n c e ,
a n d i t is d e s ir a b le t h a t s u it a b le p e r s o n s s h o u ld b e a v a ila b le t o a c t a s
s in g le a r b it r a t o r s w h e r e th e p a r t ie s a g r e e t o s u b m it t h e ir ca se t o a
s in g le a r b it r a t o r . P e r s o n s p o s s e s s in g e x p e r ie n c e o f in d u s t r ia l c o n d i ­
tio n s a n d a c q u a in te d w it h in d u s tr ia l a n d w o r k s h o p life , in c lu d in g
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f la b o r , w o u ld see m th e m o s t lik e ly t o c o m m a n d
th e r e s p e c t a n d c o n fid e n c e o f th e p a r tie s . I t w ill b e o b v io u s t h a t th e
e f f ic ie n c y o f a n a r b i t r a t o r , p r o v i d e d t h a t h e p o s s e s s e s t h e r i g h t p e r ­
s o n a l q u a lific a tio n s , in c re a s e s w it h p r a c t ic e a n d th e s t u d y o f th e
c o n d it io n s w it h w h ic h h e h a s t o d e a l.
13. T h e q u e s tio n w h e th e r , a n d i f so, b y w h a t m e a n s, a w a r d s o f
s in g le a r b itr a to r s s h o u ld b e c o o r d in a t e d w it h th e m o r e g e n e r a l a w a r d s
o f t h e s t a n d i n g a r b i t r a t i o n c o u n c i l is o n e o f c o n s i d e r a b l e d i f f i c u l t y , a s
th e r e a re im p o r t a n t re a so n s w h y th e s e v e r a l a w a r d s s h o u ld n o t
c o n flic t .
T h e e x p e r ie n c e w h ic h h a s b e e n g a in e d o f th e v a r io u s fo r m s o f a r b i­
t r a t io n t r ib u n a ls s u g g e s ts t h a t th e r e a re g r e a t a d v a n t a g e s t o a ll
p a r tie s in fa c ilit a t in g c o o r d in a t io n o f d e c is io n s .
C o n flic tin g d e c i­
s io n s g iv e n b y d iffe r e n t t r ib u n a ls a re b o u n d t o c a u s e d is s a t is f a c t io n
t o o n e o r o th e r p a r ty . W i t h th e o b je c t o f a v o id in g su ch c o n flic t as
m u ch as p o s s ib le it is o f p a r a m o u n t im p o r ta n c e th a t th e d e p a rtm e n t
c h a r g e d w it h th e a p p o in t m e n t o f a r b it r a t o r s s h o u ld b e in a p o s it io n
t o in s u r e t h a t th e s e v e r a l a r b it r a t o r s s h o u ld h a v e o p p o r t u n it ie s o f
in t e r c h a n g in g v ie w s a n d e x p e r ie n c e s . T h e m e a n s t o in s u r e r e a s o n a b le
c o o r d in a t io n s h o u ld b e p r o v id e d th r o u g h th e s e c r e ta r ia t o f th e
s ta n d in g a r b itr a tio n c o u n c il.
T h e a w a r d s a n d d e c is io n s o f th a t
c o u n c il w o u ld b e c ir c u la t e d a m o n g th e s in g le a r b it r a t o r s w h o w o u ld
th u s b e k e p t in to u c h w it h th e m o r e g e n e r a l a n d c o m p r e h e n s iv e cases.
14. I n o r d e r t h a t t h e r e m i g h t b e th e r e q u is it e d iff e r e n t ia t io n b e ­
tw e e n q u e s tio n s o f g e n e r a l im p o r t a n c e o r p r in c ip le a n d q u e s tio n s o f
c o m p a r a t i v e l y le s s i m p o r t a n c e , t h e d e p a r t m e n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e f e r ­
r in g ca ses o f a r b it r a t io n s h o u ld p a s s a ll ca s e s t o th e s e c r e ta r ia t o f
th e s ta n d in g a r b itr a tio n c o u n c il.
T h e s e c r e t a r ia t s h o u ld in c lu d e a
h ig h ly tr a in e d s ta ff w it h e x p e r ie n c e o f in d u s tr y a n d k n o w le d g e o f
a r b it r a t io n w o r k s o t h a t p r o p e r d iffe r e n t ia t io n w o u ld b e m a d e b e ­
tw e e n th e v a r io u s ca ses a n d , s u b je c t t o th e c o n c u r r e n c e o f th e p a r tie s ,
th e se v e ra l cases r e fe r r e d to th e f o r m o f tr ib u n a l m o s t c o m p e te n t
to d e a l w it h th e m to th e s a t is fa c t io n o f th o s e c o n c e r n e d .




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

15. T h e q u e s tio n w h e th e r a w a r d s a n d a g r e e m e n ts s h o u ld b e m a d e
e n fo r c e a b le b y m e a n s o f m o n e ta r y o r o t h e r p e n a lt ie s w a s e x a m in e d e x ­
h a u s tiv e ly b y th e in d u s tr ia l c o u n c il in an in q u ir y c o m m e n c e d in 1912,
a n d th e c o m m itte e c o n c u r g e n e r a lly in th e v ie w s e x p r e s s e d in th e r e ­
p o r t m a d e b y th e c o u n c il in 1913 (C d . 6 9 5 2 ) t o th e e ffe c t th a t, w h ile it
is t o th e in te re s ts o f b o t h e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k p e o p le a n d th e c o m m u n it y
g e n e r a lly th a t in d u s tr ia l a g re e m e n ts s h o u ld b e d u ly fu lfille d , in th e
l o n g r u n t h is o b je c t is m o r e lik e ly t o b e s e c u r e d b y a n in c r e a s e d
r e g a r d f o r m o r a l o b lig a t io n , r e s p e c t f o r an in s tr u c te d p u b lic o p in io n ,
a n d r e lia n c e o n th e p r in c ip le s o f m u t u a l c o n s e n t r a t h e r t h a n b y
th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a s y s te m o f m o n e t a r y p e n a lt ie s .
1 6 . 0 , u r c o n c l u s i o n s , t h e r e f o r e , a r e {a)a tw h i l e w e a r e o p p o s e d
th
to a n y s y s te m o f c o m p u ls o r y a r b itr a t io n , w e a re in fa v o r o f a n
e x t e n s io n o f v o lu n t a r y m a c h in e r y f o r t h e a d ju s t m e n t o f d is p u t e s .
W h e r e th e p a r t ie s a r e u n a b le t o a d ju s t t h e ir d iffe r e n c e s w e t h in k t h a t
t h e r e s h o u ld b e m e a n s b y w h ic h a n in d e p e n d e n t in q u ir y m a y b e m a d e
i n t o th e f a c t s a n d c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f a d is p u t e , a n d a n a u t h o r it a t iv e
p ro n o u n ce m e n t m a d e th e re o n , th o u g h w e d o n o t th in k th a t th e re
s h o u ld b e a n y c o m p u ls o r y p o w e r o f d e l a y i n g s t r ik e s a n d l o c k o u t s ;
( 6 ) w e fu r t h e r r e c o m m e n d t h a t t h e r e s h o u ld b e e s t a b lis h e d a s t a n d in g
a r b it r a t io n c o u n c il f o r ca se s w h e r e t h e p a r t ie s w is h t o r e f e r a n y
d i s p u t e t o a r b i t r a t i o n , t h o u g h i t is d e s i r a b l e t h a t s u i t a b l e s i n g l e
a r b it r a t o r s s h o u ld b e a v a ila b le w h e r e th e p a r t ie s s o d e s ir e .
W e h a v e t h e h o n o r t o b e , s ir ,
Y o t i r o b e d i e n t s e r v a n t s ,1
J . H . W h i t l e y , Chairman. J . A H o b s o n .
.
F . S. B u tto n .
A . S u san L aw ren ce.
G eo. J . C a rte r.
M a u r i c e L e v y .2
S. J . Chapm an.
J . J . M a llo n .
G . H . C la u g h to n .
T h os. R . R a t c liffe -E llis .
J . R . C ly n e s .
T>. R . H .W i l l i a m s . 2
F . N . H e p w o r t h .2
M o n a W ils o n .
W

i l f r id

H

i l l .2

H.

J.

A.

G reen w ood ,

W ils o n ,

Secretaries.
3 1 st J a n u a r y , 1 9 1 8 .
1 Mr. Smillie was unable to attend any o f the meetings at which this report was consid­
ered and therefore does not sign it. Mr. Allan M. Smith has not signed the report, but
makes the follow in g statem en t: “ W ithout expressing any opinion on the views contained
in the arbitration report o f the committee, I have refrained from signing the report be­
cause I consider that the subject dealt with is one which, unprejudiced by any pronounce­
ment o f the committee, should be left to the free discussion and consideration o f the em­
ployers and workpeople in each branch o f industry ”
2 Additional members o f the committee appointed in connection with this report.




^ FINAL REPORT ON JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.1

T o t h e R t . H o n . D l. o y d G e o r g e , M . P . , P r i m e M i n i s t e r .
L
S ir : T h e c o m m i t t e e w a s a p p o i n t e d b y t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r i n O c t o ­
b er, 1916, w it h th e fo llo w in g te rm s o f r e fe r e n c e :
( 1 ) T o m a k e a n d c o n s id e r s u g g e s tio n s f o r s e c u r in g a p e r m a n e n t
im p r o v e m e n t in th e r e la tio n s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n .
(2 ) T o r e co m m e n d m e a n s f o r s e c u rin g th a t in d u s tria l c o n d itio n s
a ffe c t in g th e r e la tio n s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n s h a ll b e s y s ­
t e m a tic a lly r e v ie w e d b y th o s e c o n c e r n e d , w it h a v ie w to im p r o v in g
c o n d itio n s in th e fu tu r e .
T h is r e fe r e n c e m ig h t b e h e ld t o in v it e u s t o r e c o m m e n d in d e ta il
s c h e m e s a p p lic a b le t o v a r ie d in d u s tr ie s .
F r o m t h is w e h a v e r e ­
f r a i n e d , i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t is w i s e r t o i n d i c a t e a g r o u n d p l a n o n l y ,
a n d in v it e th e p e rs o n s a c tu a lly e n g a g e d in th e se v e ra l in d u s tr ie s to
b u il d th e f a b r ic s u it e d t o t h e ir o w n c o n d it io n s .
2. W e h a v e p re s e n te d fo u r re p o rts.
I n o u r fir s t r e p o r t o n jo i n t
in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils w e r e c o m m e n d th e e s ta b lis h m e n t f o r e a c h o f th e
p r in c ip a l w e ll-o r g a n iz e d in d u s tr ie s o f a t r ip le f o r m o f o r g a n iz a t io n ,
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d , c o n s is tin g o f jo i n t in d u s ­
t r ia l c o u n c ils , jo i n t d is t r ic t c o u n c ils , a n d w o r k s c o m m itte e s , e a c h o f
th e th r e e f o r m s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n b e i n g lin k e d u p w it h th e o t h e r s s o as
t o c o n s t itu t e a n o r g a n iz a t io n c o v e r in g th e w h o le o f th e tr a d e ,
c a p a b le o f c o n s id e r in g a n d a d v is in g u p o n m a tte r s a ffe c t in g th e w e l­
fa r e o f th e in d u s t r y , a n d g i v in g t o la b o r a d e fin ite a n d e n la r g e d
s h a r e in th e d is c u s s io n a n d s e ttle m e n t o f in d u s t r ia l m a tte r s w it h
w h ic h e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d a re jo in t ly c o n ce rn e d .
3. I n o u r s e c o n d r e p o r t o n jo i n t in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils w e p r o p o s e d
f o r t r a d e s w h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n is a t p r e s e n t v e r y w e a k o r n o n e x i s t e n t
a n a d a p ta tio n a n d e x p a n s io n o f th e s y ste m o f tr a d e b o a r d s w o r k in g
u n d e r a n a m e n d e d tra d e s b o a r d a c t ; a n d f o r tra d e s in w h ic h o r g a n i­
z a t io n is c o n s id e r a b le , b u t n o t y e t g e n e r a l, a s y s te m o f jo i n t c o u n c ils
w it h s o m e G o v e r n m e n t a s s is ta n ce w h ic h m a y b e d is p e n s e d w it h as
th e s e in d u s tr ie s a d v a n c e t o th e s ta g e d e a lt w it h in o u r fir s t r e p o r t .
I n th e s e c o n d r e p o r t w e p r o p o s e d a ls o a p la n w h e r e b y th e jo i n t
c o u n c il o f a n in d u s t r y w h e n it h a s a g r e e d u p o n a m in im u m s t a n d a r d
o f w o r k in g c o n d it io n s f o r th o s e e m p lo y e d in th e in d u s tr y m a y h a v e
th e m e a n s o f m a k in g th o s e c o n d it io n s g e n e r a l in a n y d is t r ic t o r
o v e r th e w h o le c o u n tr y .
1 M inistry o f Reconstruction.
Committee on relations between employers and em­
ployed. Final report. London, 1918. 4 pp. Cd. 9153. Price, Id. Printed in full in
the M onthly L abor R eview fo r December, 1918 (pp. 3 1 -3 4 ).— [E d .]




41

42

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

T a k in g o u r fir s t a n d s e c o n d r e p o r t s t o g e t h e r t h e y c o n s tit u t e a
sch e m e d e s ig n e d t o c o v e r a ll th e c h ie f in d u s tr ie s o f th e c o u n t r y a n d
t o e q u ip e a c h o f th e m w it h a r e p r e s e n t a t iv e j o i n t b o d y c a p a b le o f
d e a lin g w it h m a tte r s a ffe c tin g th e w e lfa r e o f th e in d u s tr y in w h ic h
e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d a re c o n c e r n e d a n d o f c a r in g f o r th e p r o ­
g r e s s iv e im p r o v e m e n t o f t h e in d u s t r y as a n in t e g r a l p a r t o f th e
n a tio n a l p r o s p e r it y .
4 . W e h a v e c o n s i d e r e d i t n o le s s i m p o r t a n t t h a t i n e a c h f a c t o r y o r
w o r k s h o p , w h e r e th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f th e in d u s t r y p e r m it , a n d w h e n
th e c o n d it io n s w h ic h w e h a v e s ta te d a r e fu lf ille d , th e r e s h o u ld b e a
w o r k s c o m m itte e , r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d th e m e n
a n d w o m e n e m p lo y e d , m e e t in g r e g u la r ly t o c o n s id e r q u e s tio n s
p e c u lia r t o th e in d iv id u a l f a c t o r y o r w o r k s h o p , w h ic h a ffe c t th e d a ily
l i f e a n d c o m f o r t o f t h e w o r k e r s a n d i n n o s m a l l d e g r e e t h e e f f ic ie n c y
o f th e w o r k , a n d in w h ic h p r a c t ic a l e x p e r ie n c e w il l b r in g a v a lu a b le
c o n t r ib u t io n t o th e im p r o v e m e n t o f m e th o d s . T h i s q u e s tio n w a s th e
s u b je c t o f o u r t h ir d r e p o r t .
5. W e w i s h t o r e a f f i r m o u r c o n v i c t i o n , e x p r e s s e d i n t h e f i r s t r e p o r t ,
o f th e u r g e n c y o f th e m a tte r . I n o u r o p in io n t h e r e is p r e s s in g n e e d
t h a t e v e r y o r g a n iz e d in d u s t r y s h o u ld e q u ip i t s e lf w it h a r e p r e s e n t a ­
t iv e m a c h in e r y c a p a b le o f d e a lin g w it h th e la r g e q u e s tio n s o f c o m ­
m o n in te r e s t t o e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d a r is in g in w a r tim e , d u r in g
d e m o b iliz a tio n , a n d in th e p e r io d a ft e r th e w a r. F u r t h e r , w e b e lie v e
th a t w h e n th e j o i n t c o u n c ils h a v e g a in e d c o n fid e n c e a n d e x p e r ie n c e in
d e a lin g w it h th e u r g e n t p r o b le m s o f th e m o m e n t t h e y w ill fin d th e ir
s p h e r e o f u s e fu ln e s s t o b e m u c h w id e r t h a n t h e y th e m s e lv e s im a g in e d
a t t h e ir fir s t in c e p t io n .
S im ila r ly , w o r k s c o m m itte e s , b e g in n in g p e r h a p s w it h * lim ite d f u n c ­
tio n s , w ill, w e a n t ic ip a t e , w it h o u t in a n y w a y t r e n c h in g u p o n m a t ­
te r s a p p r o p r ia t e t o th e in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils , fin d a c o n t in u a l g r o w t h in
t h e lis t o f q u e s tio n s a p p e r t a in in g t o th e in d iv id u a l f a c t o r y o r w o r k ­
s h o p th a t ca n b e d e a lt w it h b y m u tu a l a g re e m e n t.
W e have p u r­
p o s e ly r e fr a in e d , t h r o u g h o u t o u r r e p o r ts , fr o m m a k in g p r o p o s a ls in
d e ta il w it h r e g a r d t o th e c o n s titu tio n o f th e c o u n c ils a n d c o m m itte e s
o r th e s c o p e o f t h e ir fu n c t io n s , b e c a u se w e a re c o n v in c e d t h a t t h is
c a n o n ly b e d o n e s a t is fa c t o r ily b y th e p e o p le e n g a g e d in a n in d u s t r y
a n d f a m i l ia r w it h a ll it s c ir c u m s t a n c e s .
W e n o t e w it h s a t is fa c t io n th a t, f o l l o w i n g th e a p p r o v a l o f o u r fir s t
r e p o r t b y t h e W a r C a b in e t , t h e M in is t r y o f L a b o r h a s e s t a b lis h e d a
s p e c ia l d e p a r t m e n t t o g i v e a s s is ta n c e a n d in f o r m a t io n w h e r e it m a y
b e d e s i r e d , a n d t o c o l l e c t a n d c o d i f y t h e r e s u lt s o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s a n d
e x p e r ie n c e o f th e c o u n c ils th a t h a v e b e e n fo r m e d o r a re c o m in g in t o
e x is te n c e .




F IN A L REPORT ON J O IN T IN D U ST R IA L CO U N CILS.

43

C. I n o u r f o u r t h r e p o r t w e h a v e m a d e r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s o n c o n c i l i ­
a tio n a n d a r b itr a t io n . R e l y i n g in th e m a in o n th e m e th o d s b u ilt u p
b y a g r e e m e n t w it h in th e v a r io u s in d u s tr ie s a n d l o o k i n g t o a n e x p a n ­
s io n a n d im p r o v e m e n t o f th ese m e th o d s r e s u lt in g f r o m th e h a b it o f
d e a lin g w it h c o m m o n q u e s tio n s in jo i n t c o u n c il, w e h a v e lim it e d o u r
n e w p r o p o s a ls t o t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a s m a ll s t a n d in g a r b it r a t io n
c o u n c il, o n t h e lin e s o f t h e p r e s e n t c o m m it t e e o n p r o d u c t io n , t o d e a l
w it h ca ses w h e r e th e p a r tie s h a v e fa i l e d to c o m e t o a n a g r e e m e n t
u n d e r t h e ir o r d in a r y p r o c e d u r e a n d w is h t o r e fe r t h e ir d iffe r e n c e s t o
t h is c o u n c il.
I n t h is c o n n e c t io n w e h a v e m a d e s u g g e s t io n s d e s ig n e d t o m in im iz e
t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f c o n f l i c t i n g a w a r d s a i id t o s e c u r e a n i n t e r c h a n g e o f
k n o w le d g e a n d e x p e r ie n c e b e tw e e n p e r s o n s c a lle d u p o n to a c t as
a r b it r a t o r s .
7. O n th e q u e s t io n o f th e a d o p t i o n o f s c h e m e s o f p r o f it s h a r in g a n d
c o p a r t n e r s h ip w e h a v e c o n s id e r e d th e e v id e n c e a t p r e s e n t a v a ila b le
a n d h a v e f e lt b o u n d to co m e to th e c o n c lu s io n th a t it d o e s n o t ju s t if y
u s in p u t t in g fo r w a r d a n y g e n e r a l r e c o m m e n d a t io n s .
8. O u r r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s h a v e t h e e f f e c t o f c o n f e r r i n g u p o n t h e
jo i n t in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils , a n d t h r o u g h th e m u p o n th e s e v e r a l in d u s ­
tr ie s , a la r g e m e a s u r e o f s e lf-g o v e r n m e n t .
M a n y o f th e s u b je c t s
w h ic h m ig h t p e r h a p s h a v e b e e n s u g g e s te d as f o r m i n g o b je c t s o f i n ­
q u ir y b y th e p re s e n t c o m m itte e a re m a tte r s w h ic h , in o u r o p in io n , ca n
m o r e u s e fu lly a n d p r o fit a b ly b e c o n s id e r e d b y th e jo i n t o r g a n iz a t io n s ,
c o m p o s e d as th e y a re o f th o se a c tu a lly c o n c e r n e d in th e v a rio u s
tra d e s . M o r e o v e r , s in c e o u r c o m m itte e w a s c o n s t it u t e d t w o n e w d e ­
p a r t m e n t s o f S t a t e h a v e b e e n s e t u p , v i z ., t h e M i n i s t r y o f L a b o r a n d
th e M in is t r y o f R e c o n s tr u c tio n .
T h e f u n c t io n s o f th e se d e p a r tm e n ts a n d th e a c t iv it ie s o f th e v a r io u s
a d v is o r y c o m m it t e e s w h ic h t h e y h a v e e s t a b lis h e d w il l n e c e s s a r ily
in c lu d e t h e c o n s id e r a t io n o f th e r e la tio n s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d
e m p lo y e d a n d o f th e p r o b le m s c o n n e c t e d t h e r e w it h , a n d th e d e p a r t ­
m e n ts w il l n o d o u b t b e b e t t e r a b le ( t h r o u g h a n d w it h th e a s s is ta n c e
o f th e in d u s tr ia l c o u n c ils w h ic h w e h a v e r e c o m m e n d e d ) t o o ffe r s u ch
a d v ic e a n d g u id a n c e as m a y b e fo u n d n ece ssa ry th a n th e p re s e n t
c o m m itte e .
I t is c le a r , t h e r e fo r e , t h a t i f w e w e r e t o u n d e r t a k e fu r t h e r in q u ir ie s
th e r e w o u ld b e a c o n s id e r a b le a m o u n t o f o v e r la p p in g , e ith e r w it h th e
w o r k t h a t is n o w b e in g c a r r ie d o n b y th e c e n t r a l d e p a r tm e n ts o r w it h
th e d u t ie s a n d fu n c t io n s o f th e in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils .
F o r th e se re a s o n s w e b e g t o b e a llo w e d t o p r e s e n t t h is as o u r fin a l
rep o rt.
9. T h r o u g h o u t o u r w o r k w e h a v e r e c e i v e d m o s t v a l u a b l e a s s i s t a n c e
f r o m o u r s e c re ta rie s , M r . H . J . W i ls o n a n d M r . A r t h u r G r e e n w o o d ,




44

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

a n d w e w is h t o r e c o r d o u r g r a t it u d e t o t h e m f o r th e s e r v ic e s t h e y
h ave ren d ered .
W e h a v e th e h o n o r t o b e , s ir ,
Y o u r o b e d ie n t s e r v a n t s ,1
J . H . W h i t l e y , Chairman.
f J . A . H obson.
F . S . B u tto n .
fA . Su san L aw ren ce.
G eo. J . C a rter .

M a u r i c e L e v y .2

S. J. C h a p m a n .

t j. j.

M a llo n .

G . H . C laughton.

T

R. R

f J. R . C l yn e s.

D. R. H . W

F . N . H e p w o r t h ;3

|M ona W

hos.

a t c l if f e - E l l is .
i l l i a m s .2

il s o n .

W ilfr e d H i l l .2
H.

J.

A.

G reen w ood ,

W ils o n ,

Secretaries .
1 st J u ly ,

1918.

NOTE.

B y a t t a c h in g o u r s ig n a t u r e s t o th e g e n e r a l r e p o r t s w e d e s ir e t o
r e n d e r h e a r t y s u p p o r t t o th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s t h a t in d u s t r ia l c o u n ­
c ils o r t r a d e b o a r d s , a c c o r d in g t o w h ic h e v e r a r e t h e m o r e s u it a b le in
t h e c ir c u m s t a n c e s , s h o u ld b e e s t a b lis h e d f o r t h e s e v e r a l in d u s t r ie s o r
b u s in e s s e s a n d t h a t t h e s e b o d i e s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f e m p l o y e e s a n d
e m p lo y e d , s h o u ld c o n c e r n th e m s e lv e s w it h t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f m in i­
m u m c o n d it io n s a n d th e fu r t h e r a n c e o f th e c o m m o n in te r e s ts o f t h e ir
tra d es.
B u t w h ile r e c o g n iz i n g t h a t th e m o r e a m ic a b le r e la t io n s th u s e s ta b ­
lis h e d b e tw e e n c a p it a l a n d la b o r w il l a ffo r d a n a tm o s p h e r e g e n e r a lly
fa v o r a b le t o in d u s tr ia l p e a c e a n d p r o g r e s s , w e d e s ir e t o e x p r e s s o u r
v ie w th a t a c o m p le t e id e n t it y o f in te r e s ts b e tw e e n c a p it a l a n d la b o r
c a n n o t b e th u s e ffe c te d , a n d th a t s u ch m a c h in e r y c a n n o t b e e x p e c te d
t o fu r n is h a s e ttle m e n t f o r th e m o r e s e r io u s c o n flic t s o f in te r e s t i n ­
v o lv e d in th e w o r k in g o f a n e c o n o m ic s y s te m p r i m a r il y g o v e r n e d a n d
d ir e c te d b y m o tiv e s o f p r iv a t e p r o fit.
J . R . C ly n e s .
J . A . H obson.
A . S u san L a w ren ce.
J . J . M a llo n .
M

ona

W

il s o n .

1 Mr. Smillie was unable to attend any o f the meetings at which this report w&s consid­
ered, and therefore does not sign it. Sir Allan M. Smith signs subject to his note to the
report on conciliation and arbitration (see p. 4 0 ). The members whose names are marked
t sign subject to the note appended.
•A dditional members o f the comm ittee appointed in connection with this report.




O TH ER

O F F IC IA L

DOCUM ENTS
D U S T R IA L

B R IT IS H

R E L A T IN G

G O V E R N M E N T ’S V IE W O F T H E
W H I T L E Y R E P O R T .1
M

TO

JO IN T

IN ­

C O U N C IL S .

in is t r y of

L

abor,

M

PROPOSALS

ontagu

H

OF

TH E

o u se,

’Whitehall, /S 1 F W th October , 1917.
S i r : I n J u ly la s t a c ir c u la r le t t e r w a s a d d r e s s e d b y th e M in is t r y
o f L a b o r t o a ll th e p r in c ip a l e m p lo y e r s ’ a s s o c ia tio n s a n d tr a d e -u n io n s
a s k in g f o r t h e ir v ie w s o n th e p r o p o s a ls m a d e in th e r e p o r t o f th e
W h it l e y c o m m it t e e o n jo i n t s t a n d in g in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils , a fu r t h e r
c o p y o f w h i c h is i n c l o s e d . A s a r e s u l t o f t h e r e p l i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n
r e c e iv e d f r o m a la r g e n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e r s ’ o r g a n iz a t io n s a n d t r a d e u n io n s g e n e r a lly f a v o r i n g th e a d o p tio n o f th o se p r o p o s a ls , th e W a r
C a b in e t h a v e d e c id e d t o a d o p t th e r e p o r t as p a r t o f th e p o lic y w h ic h
t h e y h o p e t o see c a r r ie d in t o e ffe c t in th e fie ld o f in d u s tr ia l r e c o n ­
s t r u c t io n .
I n o r d e r th a t th e p r e c is e e ffe ct o f th is d e c is io n m a y n o t b e m is ­
u n d e r s t o o d , I d e s ir e t o d r a w a t t e n t io n t o o n e o r t w o p o in t s w h ic h
h a v e b e e n r a is e d in t h e c o m m u n ic a t io n s m a d e t o t h e m in is t r y o n th e
s u b je c t , a n d o n w h ic h s o m e m is a p p r e h e n s io n a p p e a r s t o e x is t in
so m e q u a rte rs.
I n th e fir s t p la c e , fe a r s h a v e b e e n e x p r e s s e d th a t th e p r o p o s a l t o set
u p in d u s tr ia l c o u n c ils in d ic a te s a n in te n tio n t o in tr o d u c e a n e le ­
m e n t o f S t a t e in t e r fe r e n c e w h ic h h a d h it h e r t o n o t e x is te d in i n ­
d u s t r y . T h i s is n o t th e ca se. T h e fo r m a t io n a n d c o n s t it u t io n o f th e
c o u n c i l s m u s t b e p r i n c i p a l l y t h e w o r k o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s t h e m s e lv e s .
A lt h o u g h , f o r re a so n s w h ic h w ill b e e x p la in e d la te r, th e G o v e rn m e n t
a r e v e r y a n x io u s t h a t s u ch c o u n c ils s h o u ld b e e s t a b lis h e d i n a l l th e
w e ll-o r g a n iz e d in d u s tr ie s w ith as lit t le d e la y as p o s s ib le , th e y f u ll y
r e a liz e t h a t th e su cce ss o f th e s c h e m e m u s t d e p e n d u p o n a g e n e r a l
a g r e e m e n t a m o n g th e v a r io u s o r g a n iz a tio n s w it h in a g iv e n in d u s t r y
a n d a c le a r ly e x p r e s s e d d e m a n d f o r t h e c r e a t io n o f a c o u n c il. M o r e ­
o v e r , w h e n fo r m e d , th e c o u n c ils w o u ld b e in d e p e n d e n t b o d ie s e le c t in g
t h e i r o w n o ff ic e r s a n d f r e e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e i r o w n f u n c t i o n s a n d p r o ­
1 M inistry o f Labor. Industrial Reports No. 1. Industrial councils. The W hitley re­
port, together with the letter o f the M inister o f Labor explaining the Government’s view
o f its proposals. London, 1917. 19 pp. Price, Id. This letter, which was addressed to
the leading employers’ associations and trade-unions, was published in full in the M o n t h l y
R e v i e w for March, 1918 (pp. 8 1 -8 4 ).
The pamphlet includes a copy o f the W hitley
report, which has not been repeated in this connection, since it appears in full on
pages 16 to 23.— [E d .]




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

c e d u r e w it h r e fe r e n c e to th e p e c u lia r n e e d s o f e a ch tr a d e . I n fa c t ,
t h e y w o u ld b e a u to n o m o u s b o d ie s , a n d t h e y w o u ld , in e ffe ct, m a k e
p o s s ib le a la r g e r d e g r e e o f s e lf - g o v e r n m e n t in in d u s t r y t h a n e x is ts
to -d a y .
S e c o n d ly , th e r e p o r t h a s b e e n in te r p r e te d as m e a n in g th a t th e g e n ­
e r a l c o n s t it u t io n w h ic h i t s u g g e s ts s h o u ld b e a p p lie d w it h o u t m o d if i­
c a t io n t o e a c h in d u s t r y . T h i s is e n t ir e ly C o n tr a ry t o t h e v ie w o f t h e
G o v e rn m e n t o n th e m a tte r.
T o a n y o n e w it h a k n o w le d g e o f th e
d iv e r s e k in d s o f m a c h in e r y a lr e a d y in o p e r a t io n , a n d th e v a r y i n g
g e o g r a p h ic a l a n d in d u s tr ia l c o n d itio n s w h ic h a ffe c t d iffe r e n t in ­
d u s tr ie s , it w ill b e o b v io u s th a t n o r i g i d sc h e m e c a n b e a p p lie d t o a ll
o f th em . E a c h in d u s t r y m u st t h e r e fo r e a d a p t th e p r o p o s a ls m a d e
in th e r e p o r t a s m a y s e e m m o s t s u ita b le t o its o w n n e e d s . I n s o m e
in d u s tr ie s , f o r in s ta n c e , i t m a y b e c o n s id e r e d b y b o t h e m p lo y e r s a n d
e m p lo y e d t h a t a s y s te m o f w o r k s c o m m it t e e s is u n n e c e s s a r y , o w i n g
t o th e p e r fe c t io n o f th e a r ra n g e m e n ts a lr e a d y in o p e r a t io n f o r d e a l­
i n g w it h t h e d iffic u lt ie s a r is in g in p a r t ic u la r w o r k s b e t w e e n t h e m a n ­
a g e m e n t a n d t h e t r a d e - u n i o n o ff ic ia ls .
I n o th e r w o r k s c o m m itte e s
h a v e d o n e v e r y v a lu a b le w o r k w h e r e t h e y h a v e b e e n in t r o d u c e d a n d
t h e ir e x t e n s io n o n a g r e e d lin e s d e s e r v e s e v e r y e n c o u r a g e m e n t . A g a i n
in in d u s tr ie s w h ic h a re l a r g e ly b a s e d o n d is t r ic t o r g a n iz a t io n s it
w il l p r o b a b ly b e f o u n d d e s ir a b le t o a s s ig n m o r e im p o r t a n t fu n c t io n s
t o th e d is t r ic t c o u n c ils t h a n w o u ld b e th e ca se in tr a d e s w h ic h a re
m o r e c o m p le t e ly c e n t r a liz e d in n a t io n a l b o d ie s . A l l th e se q u e s tio n s
w i l l h a v e t o b e t h r a s h e d o u t b y t h e i n d u s t r i e s t h e m s e lv e s a n d s e t t l e d
in h a r m o n y w ith th e ir p a r t ic u la r n eed s.
T h i r d l y , i t s h o u ld b e m a d e c le a r t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t io n o n th e in d u s ­
t r i a l c o u n c i l s is i n t e n d e d t o b e o n t h e b a s i s o f e x i s t i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s
a m o n g e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n c o n c e r n e d in e a c h in d u s tr y , a lth o u g h
it w ill, o f c o u r s e , b e o p e n t o th e c o u n c ils , w h e n fo r m e d , t o g r a n t r e p ­
r e s e n ta tio n t o a n y n e w b o d ie s w h ic h m a y c o m e in t o e x is te n c e a n d
w h ic h m a y b e e n title d t o r e p r e s e n ta tio n . T h e a u th o r ity , a n d c o n s e ­
q u e n t ly th e u s e fu ln e s s o f th e c o u n c ils w ill d e p e n d e n t ir e ly o n th e e x ­
t e n t t o w h ic h t h e y r e p r e s e n t th e d iff e r e n t in te r e s ts a n d e n jo y th e
w h o le -h e a r t e d s u p p o r t o f th e e x is t in g o r g a n iz a t io n s , a n d i t is t h e r e ­
f o r e d e s ir a b le t h a t r e p r e s e n t a t io n s h o u ld b e d e t e r m in e d o n as b r o a d
a b a s is as p o s s ib le .
L a s t ly , it h a s b e e n s u g g e s te d th a t th e sc h e m e is in t e n d e d t o p r o ­
m o te c o m p u ls o r y a r b it r a t io n . T h i s is c e r t a in ly n o t th e ca se. W h a t ­
e v e r a g r e e m e n t s m a y b e m a d e f o r d e a lin g w it h d is p u t e s m u s t b e l e f t
t o t h e i n d u s t r y i t s e l f t o f r a m e , a n d t h e i r e f f ic a c y m u s t d e p e n d u p o n
th e v o lu n t a r y c o o p e r a t io n o f th e o r g a n iz a tio n s c o n c e r n e d in c a r r y ­
in g th e m ou t.
I s h o u ld n o w lik e t o e x p la in s o m e o f th e re a so n s w h ic h h a v e m a d e
th e G o v e r n m e n t a n x io u s t o see in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils e s t a b lis h e d a s s o o n




g o v e r n m e n t 's

V IE W OF T H E W H IT L E Y REPORT PROPOSALS.

47

as p o s s ib le in th e o r g a n iz e d tra d e s . T h e e x p e r ie n c e o f th e w a r h as
s h o w n th e n e e d f o r fr e q u e n t c o n s u lta tio n b e tw e e n th e G o v e rn m e n t
a n d th e c h o s e n r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f b o th e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n on
v it a l q u e s tio n s c o n c e r n in g th o s e in d u s t r ie s w h ic h h a v e b e e n m o s t
a ffe c te d b y w a r c o n d it io n s . I n s o m e in s ta n c e s d iffe r e n t G o v e r n m e n t
d e p a r tm e n ts h a v e a p p r o a c h e d d iffe r e n t o r g a n iz a tio n s in th e sa m e in ­
d u s tr y , a n d in m a n y ca ses th e a b se n ce o f jo i n t r e p r e s e n ta tiv e b o d ie s
w h ic h c a n s p e a k f o r t h e ir in d u s tr ie s as a w h o le a n d v o ic e th e jo i n t
o p in io n o f e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n h a s b e e n fo u n d to re n d e r n e g o ­
t ia t io n s m u c h m o r e d iffic u lt t h a n t h e y w o u ld o t h e r w is e h a v e b e e n .
T h e ca se o f t h e c o t t o n t r a d e , w h e r e th e in d u s t r y is b e in g r e g u la t e d
d u r in g a v e r y d iffic u lt t im e b y a jo i n t b o a r d o f c o n t r o l, in d ic a t e s h o w
g r e a t ly th e ta s k o f th e S ta te c a n b e a lle v ia t e d b y a s e l f - g o v e r n in g b o d y
c a p a b le o f t a k i n g c h a r g e o f th e in te r e s ts o f th e w h o le in d u s t r y . T h e
p r o b le m s o f th e p e r io d o f tr a n s itio n a n d r e c o n s tr u c tio n w ill n o t b e
le s s d i f f i c u l t t h a n t h o s e w h i c h t h e w a r h a s c r e a t e d , a n d t h e G o v e r n ­
m e n t a c c o r d in g ly fe e l th a t th e ta sk o f r e b u ild in g th e s o c ia l a n d
e c o n o m ic fa b r ic on a b r o a d e r a n d su rer fo u n d a tio n w ill b e r e n d e re d
m u c h e a s ie r i f in th e o r g a n iz e d tr a d e s th e r e e x is t r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
b o d ie s t o w h ic h t h e v a r io u s q u e s tio n s o f d iffic u lt y c a n b e r e f e r r e d f o r
c o n s i d e r a t i o n a n d a d v i c e a s t h e y a r is e . T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f s u c h
q u e s tio n s o n w h ic h th e G o v e r n m e n t w il l n e e d th e u n ite d a n d c o n ­
s id e r e d o p in io n o f e a c h la r g e in d u s tr y , su ch as th e d e m o b iliz a t io n
o f th e fo r c e s , th e r e s e ttle m e n t o f m u n it io n w o r k e r s in c iv il in d u s tr ie s ,
a p p r e n tic e s h ip (e s p e c ia lly w h e re in te r r u p te d b y w a r s e r v ic e ), th e
t r a in in g a n d e m p lo y m e n t o f d is a b le d s o ld ie r s , a n d th e c o n t r o l o f r a w
m a t e r i a l s ; a n d t h e m o r e i t is a b l e t o a v a i l i t s e l f o f s u c h a n o p i n i o n
t h e m o r e s a t i s f a c t o r y a n d s t a b l e t h e s o l u t i o n o f t h e s e q u e s t i o n s is
lik e ly t o be.
F u r t h e r , i t w il l b e n e c e s s a r y in th e n a t io n a l in te r e s t t o in s u r e a
s e ttle m e n t o f th e m o r e p e r m a n e n t q u e s tio n s w h ic h h a v e c a u s e d d iff e r ­
e n ce s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d in th e p a s t o n s u ch a b a s is as
t o p r e v e n t th e o c c u r r e n c e o f d is p u t e s a n d o f s e r io u s s t o p p a g e s in th e
d iffic u lt p e r i o d d u r in g w h ic h th e p r o b le m s ju s t r e f e r r e d t o w il l h a v e
t o b e s o l v e d . I t .is f e l t t h a t t h i s o b j e c t c a n o n l y b e s e c u r e d b y t h e
e x is te n c e o f p e r m a n e n t b o d ie s o n t h e lin e s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e W h i t l e y
r e p o r t , w h ic h w il l b e c a p a b le n o t m e r e ly o f d e a lin g w it h d is p u t e s
w h e n t h e y a r is e , b u t o f s e t t l i n g t h e b i g q u e s t i o n s a t is s u e s o f a r a s
p o s s i b l e o n s u c h a b a s i s a s t o p r e v e n t s e r i o u s c o n f l i c t s a r i s i n g a t a l l.
T h e a b o v e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e f u n c t i o n s o f t h e c o u n c i l s is n o t i n t e n d e d
t o b e e x h a u s tiv e , b u t o n ly t o in d ic a te so m e o f th e m o r e im m e d ia te
q u e s tio n s w h ic h t h e y w il l b e c a lle d u p o n t o d e a l w it h w h e n set u p .
T h e ir g e n e ra l o b je c t s a r e d e s c r ib e d in th e w o r d s o f th e r e p o r t as b e ­
in g “ t o o ffe r t o w o r k p e o p le th e m ea n s o f a t ta in in g im p r o v e d c o n d i­
tio n s o f e m p lo y m e n t a n d a h ig h e r s ta n d a rd o f c o m fo r t g e n e r a lly , a n d




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

i n v o l v e th e e n lis t m e n t o f t h e ir a c t iv e a n d c o n t in u o u s c o o p e r a t io n in
th e p r o m o t io n o f in d u s t r y .”
S o m e fu r t h e r s p e c ific q u e s tio n s , w h ic h
th e c o u n c ils m ig h t c o n s id e r , w e r e in d ic a t e d b y th e c o m m it t e e in p a r a ­
g r a p h 16 o f th e r e p o r t ,1 a n d it w i l l b e f o r t h e c o u n c ils t h e m s e lv e s t o
d e te r m in e w h a t m a tte r s t h e y s h a ll d e a l w it h . F u r t h e r , s u ch c o u n c ils
w o u ld o b v io u s ly b e th e s u it a b le b o d ie s t o m a k e r e p r e s e n t a t io n s t o t h e
G o v e r n m e n t as th e le g is la tio n w h ic h th e y th in k w o u ld b e o f a d v a n ­
ta g e to th e ir in d u s try .
I n o r d e r , t h e r e fo r e , t h a t th e c o u n c ils m a y b e a b le t o fu lf il l th e
d u tie s w h ic h t h e y w ill b e a sk e d t o u n d e r ta k e , a n d t h a t t h e y m a y h a v e
t h e r e q u is it e s ta tu s f o r d o i n g s o , t h e G o v e r n m e n t d e s ir e s it t o b e u n d e r ­
s t o o d t h a t t h e c o u n c ils w il l b e r e c o g n iz e d as t h e o ffic ia l s t a n d in g c o n ­
s u lt a t iv e c o m m it t e e s t o th e G o v e r n m e n t o n a ll fu t u r e q u e s tio n s
a ffe c tin g th e in d u s tr ie s w h ic h t h e y r e p r e s e n t, a n d th a t th e y w ill b e
th e n o r m a l c h a n n e l t h r o u g h w h ic h th e o p in io n a n d e x p e r ie n c e o f a n
in d u s t r y w il l b e s o u g h t o n a ll q u e s tio n s w it h w h ic h t h e in d u s t r y is
c o n c e r n e d . I t w il l b e see n , t h e r e fo r e , t h a t it is in t e n d e d t h a t in d u s ­
t r ia l c o u n c ils s h o u ld p la y a d e fin ite a n d p e r m a n e n t p a r t in th e e c o ­
n o m ic l i f e o f th e c o u n t r y , a n d th e G o v e r n m e n t fe e ls t h a t it c a n r e ly
o n b o t h e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k m e n t o c o o p e r a te in o r d e r t o m a k e th a t
p a rt a w o rth y one.
I h o p e , t h e r e fo r e , t h a t y o u w il l ta k e t h is le t t e r as a f o r m a l r e q u e s t
t o y o u r o r g a n iz a t io n o n th e p a r t o f th e G o v e r n m e n t t o c o n s id e r th e
q u e s tio n o f c a r r y i n g o u t th e r e c o m m e n d a t io n s o f t h e r e p o r t s o f a r
as th e y a re a p p lic a b le t o y o u r in d u s try . T h e M in is t r y o f L a b o r w ill
b e w i l l i n g t o g i v e e v e r y a s s is ta n c e in it s p o w e r i n th e e s t a b lis h m e n t
o f in d u s t r ia l c o u n c ils a n d w ill b e g la d t o r e c e iv e s u g g e s tio n s as t o t h e
w a y in w h ic h it c a n b e g iv e n m o s t e ffe c t iv e ly . I n p a r t ic u la r , i t w il l
b e r e a d y t o a s s is t i n t h e c o n v e n i n g o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o n f e r e n c e s t o
d is c u s s th e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f c o u n c ils , t o p r o v id e s e c r e t a r ia l a s s is ta n c e ,
a n d t o b e r e p r e s e n te d , i f d e s ir e d , in a c o n s u lta tiv e c a p a c it y a t th e p r e ­
lim in a r y m e e tin g s . T h e M in i s t r y w il l b e g l a d t o b e k e p t in f o r m e d
o f a n y p r o g r e s s m a d e in th e d ir e c t io n o f f o r m i n g c o u n c ils . A l t h o u g h
t h e s c h e m e is o n l y i n t e n d e d , a n d i n d e e d c a n o n l y b e a p p l i e d , i n t r a d e s
w h ic h a r e w e ll o r g a n iz e d o n b o t h s id e s , I w o u ld p o i n t o u t t h a t i t
re s ts w it h t h o s e t r a d e s w h ic h d o n o t a t p r e s e n t p o s s e s s a s u fficie n t
o r g a n i z a t i o n t o b r i n g i t a b o u t i f t h e y d e s i r e t o a p p l y i t t o t h e m s e lv e s .
I n c o n c lu s io n I w o u ld a g a in e m p h a s iz e th e p r e s s in g n e e d f o r th e
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o r g a n iz a t io n s o f e m p lo y e r s a n d w o r k p e o p le t o c o m e
t o g e t h e r in t h e o r g a n iz e d t r a d e s a n d t o p r e p a r e th e m s e lv e s f o r t h e
p r o b le m s o f r e c o n s tr u c tio n b y fo r m i n g c o u n c ils c o m p e te n t t o d e a l
w ith th e m .
T h e G o v e r n m e n t tru s ts th a t th e y w ill a p p r o a c h th e se
p r o b le m s n o t as t w o o p p o s in g fo r c e s e a ch b e n t o n g e t t in g as m u c h




* See p. 19.— [E d .]

G O V E R N M E N T ^ V IE W OF T H E W H IT L E Y REPORT PROPOSALS.

49

a n d g iv in g as lit t le as ca n b e c o n t r iv e d , b u t as fo r c e s h a v in g a c o m ­
m o n in te re s t in w o r k in g to g e th e r f o r th e w e lfa r e o f th e ir in d u s tr y ,
n o t m e r e ly f o r th e s a k e o f th o s e c o n c e r n e d in it , b u t a ls o f o r
th e sa k e- o f th e n a t io n w h ic h d e p e n d s so la r g e ly o n its in d u s ­
t r i e s f o r i t s w e l l - b e i *ig. I f t h e s p i r i t w h i c h h a s e n a b l e d a l l c la s s e s t o
o v e r c o m e b y w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n t h e i n n u m e r a b l e d a n g e r s a n d d if f i ­
c u l t i e s w h i c h h a v e b e s e t u s d u r i n g t h e w a r is a p p l i e d t o t h e p r o b l e m s
o f r e c o n s tr u c tio n , I a m c o n v in c e d th a t th e y c a n b e s o lv e d in a w a y
w h ic h w ill la y th e fo u n d a t io n o f th e fu t u r e p r o s p e r it y o f th e c o u n t r y
a n d o f th o s e e n g a g e d in its g r e a t in d u s tr ie s .
I a m , s ir , y o u r o b e d ie n t s e r v a n t,
£ teo. H . R o b e r ts .
106328°— Bull. 255— 19------- 4




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.1
PREFACE.

O w in g t o th e g r e a t c h a n g e s in in d u s t r y w h ic h th e w a r h a s p r o ­
d u c e d , p a r t ic u la r ly in e n g in e e r in g , th e n e e d f o r c lo s e r r e la tio n s
b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r a n d w o r k m e n h a s b e c o m e in c r e a s in g ly fe lt.
The
o ld tr a d e -u n io n m a c h in e r y h a s o ft e n b e e n o v e r b u r d e n e d a n d h a s n o t
a l w a y s s u ffic e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e i n n u m e r a b l e q u e s t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m
d a y t o d a y in th e sh o p s.
T h e s e c o n d itio n s h a v e e n c o u r a g e d th e
g r o w t h o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s as a m e a n s o f d ir e c t a n d c o n s ta n t c o m ­
m u n ic a t io n b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r a n d w o r k m e n , a n d as th e fo r m a t io n
o f su ch c o m m itte e s in in d u s tr ie s w h e r e th e c o n d it io n s r e q u ir e o r f a v o r
th e m h a s b e e n r e c o m m e n d e d b y th e W h it le y c o m m itte e as p a r t o f th e
in d u s tr ia l o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e fu tu r e , it w a s th o u g h t th a t it w o u ld
b e u s e fu l to c o lle c t p a r tic u la r s o f e x is tin g w o r k s c o m m itte e s a n d t o
p u b lis h th e m f o r th e in fo r m a t io n o f th o s e w h o m ig h t b e in te re s te d
in th e m a tte r.
T h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t is b a s e d o n a n i n q u i r y m a d e b y m e m b e r s o f
th e d e p a r tm e n t as t o th e c o n s t it u t io n a n d w o r k in g o f w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s in a n u m b e r o f d iff e r e n t in d u s t r ie s , i n c lu d in g e n g in e e r in g ,
s h i p b u i l d i n g , i r o n a n d s t e e l, b o o t a n d s h o e , m i n i n g , p r i n t i n g , w o o l e n
a n d w o r s te d , p o t t e r y , a n d fu r n itu r e .
T h e in q u ir y d id n o t a im a t
b e in g e x h a u s tiv e , b u t an a tte m p t w a s m a d e t o e x a m in e c a r e f u lly
t y p ic a l c o m m itte e s in th e c h i e f in d u s tr ie s w h e r e t h e y w e r e k n o w n t o
e x is t, w it h a v ie w to b r in g i n g o u t th e d iff e r e n t o b je c t s , f u n c t io n s ,
m e th o d s o f p r o c e d u r e , a n d c o n s t it u t io n s w h ic h h a v e b ee n t r ie d in
a c t u a l p r a c t ic e . T h e o p in io n s o f th o s e in te r e s te d in th e c o m m itte e s ,
o n th e s id e b o t h o f th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d o f th e w o r k m e n , h a v e b e e n
s o u g h t , a n d th e s in c e r e th a n k s o f th e d e p a r t m e n t a re d u e t o d ir e c t o r s ,
m a n a g e r s , t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia ls , s h o p s t e w a r d s , a n d o t h e r s f o r t h e i r
c o u r t e s y a n d th e t r o u b le t h e y h a v e ta k e n t o h e lp th e in q u ir y a t a
t im e w h e n a ll w e r e b u r d e n e d b y th e e x t r a d u tie s im p o s e d o n th e m b y
th e w a r . O u r s p e c ia l t h a n k s a re a ls o d u e t o th e M in i s t r y o f M u n i ­
tio n s o f W a r a n d th e A d m ir a lt y s h ip y a r d la b o r d e p a rtm e n t, a n d to
th o s e in d iv id u a ls , fir m s , c o m m it t e e s , a n d a s s o c ia t io n s w h o h a v e g iv e n
p e r m is s io n f o r th e p u b lic a t io n o f th e p a r t ic u la r s o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s
w h ic h a p p e a r in th e a p p e n d ix e s .
1
Ministry of Labor. Works committees. Report of an inquiry made by the Ministry of
Labor. Industrial Reports No. 2. London, 1918. 146 pp. Price, 6d. Summarized in the
M o n t h l y L a b o r R e v i e w for August, 1918 (pp. 8 1 -8 4 ) .
Appendix V I o f this report is
the text of the third report of the Whitley committee, entitled “ Supplementary report on
works committees,” which appears on pages 32 to 35, and is therefore not repeated in
this connection.— [E d.]

50




REPORT OF A N IN Q U IR Y IN TO W O RK S CO M M IT TE E S.

51

N o a tte m p t h a s b e e n m a d e to d r a w a n y g e n e ra l c o n c lu s io n s o r to
s k e tch a n y id e a l f o r m o f w o r k s c o m m itte e . T h e o b je c t a im e d a t h a s
b e e n t o p r e s e n t th e fa c t s as a c c u r a t e ly a s p o s s ib le , t o p o iift o u t th e
v a r io u s d iffic u ltie s w h ic h h a v e b e e n e n c o u n t e r e d a n d th e v a r io u s
m e th o d s w h ic h h a v e b e e n d e v is e d to m e e t th e m . I n th is w a y i t w a s
h o p e d t h a t t h is r e p o r t m ig h t b e o f s o m e v a lu e a s f u r n i s h i n g g u id a n c e
a n d s u g g e s tio n s to th o s e w h o a re c o n c e r n e d w it h w o r k in g o u t th e
p r o b le m o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s f o r th e ir o w n in d u s t r y o r th e ir o w n
e s t a b li s h m e n t .
S in c e t h is v o lu m e w a s p r e p a r e d th e W h it l e y c o m m it t e e h a v e is s u e d
t h e ir t h ir d r e p o r t , w h ic h d e a ls w it h w o r k s c o m m itte e s a n d w h ic h
r e co m m e n d s th e c o lle c tio n o f in fo r m a t io n r e g a r d in g e x is tin g w o r k s
c o m m i t t e e s . T h i s r e p o r t is p r i n t e d a s A p p e n d i x V I . 1
D . J . S h a c k le to n .
M in is t r y of L abor,

M arch , 1918.

I. INTRODUCTION.
T h e e x t e n t o f th e e x is te n c e o f w o r k s c o m m it t e e s b e f o r e t h e w a r is
la r g e ly a m a tte r o f d e fin itio n .
O u r e s tim a te o f t h e ir s c o p e w i l l v a r y
a c c o r d in g a s w e g iv e t h e t e r m a w id e in t e r p r e t a t io n , o r c o n fin e it t o
c o m m i t t e e s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f a l l t h e w o r k p e o p l e i n a n e s t a b li s h m e n t .
W o r k s c o m m itte e s in t h is la t t e r sen se o f th e te r m e x is te d b e f o r e th e
w a r in v a r io u s in d u s t r ie s , a n d in s o m e in s ta n c e s th e y h a d b e e n in
e x is te n c e f o r m a n y y e a r s .
I f t h e t e r m is i n t e r p r e t e d i n a w i d e s e n s e ,
a n d ta k e n t o in c lu d e v a r io u s k in d s o f c o m m itte e s , s u ch as th o s e r e p ­
r e s e n ta tiv e o f in d iv id u a l tr a d e s o r d e p a r tm e n ts , o r th o s e w h ic h h a v e
c o m e in t o e x is te n c e a t p a r t ic u la r tim e s a n d f o r lim it e d p u r p o s e s , th e
n u m b e r i n e x i s t e n c e b e f o r e t h e w a r is g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d . 2 I n c e r t a i n
in d u s tr ie s , h o w e v e r , n o t a b ly e n g in e e r in g , th e c o n d it io n s o f w a r h a v e
p r o d u c e d s u ch a c h a n g e in b o t h th e fo r m a n d fu n c t io n o f w o r k s h o p
o r g a n iz a t io n t h a t th e d is c u s s io n o f th e g e n e r a l id e a o f w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s m a y b e s a id t o h a v e d e v e lo p e d o u t o f th o s e c o n d it io n s .
S in c e ,
h o w e v e r , th e w o r k s c o m m itte e , o n th e w h o le , s p r in g s f r o m th e c o m ­
m o n m e t h o d s o f t r a d e - u n i o n ,o r g a n i z a t i o n i n s i d e t h e w o r k s h o p , a s
H ie y e x i s t e d l o n g b e f o r e t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e w a r , s o m e r e f e r e n c e t o
th e se m e th o d s is n e c e s s a r y as a n in t r o d u c t io n t o t h is r e p o r t u p o n
so m e o f th e c o m m itte e s w h ic h a r e n o w in o p e r a tio n .
B e f o r e t h i s w o r k s o r g a n i z a t i o n is c o n s i d e r e d i t m a y b e n o t e d t h a t
c e r t a in o f t h e im m e d ia t e ca u s e s w h ic h h a v e le d t o t h e r is e o f w o r k s
c o m m itte e s d u r in g th e w a r — th e m e th o d s o f r e m u n e r a tio n (p ie c e ­
1 See footnote on p. 50.— [E d .]
2 For an explanation of the various terms used for different forms of workshop organi­
sation see under Nomenclature, pp. 5G. 57.




52

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

w o r k o r p r o f it -s h a r in g 1 o r b o n u s o n o u t p u t ) , w e lfa r e , c o lle c t io n s
f o r c h a r it y , a n d , t o s o m e e x te n t, d ilu t io n a ls o — w e r e a lr e a d y o p e r ­
a t iv e in th e f o r m a t io n o f e a r lie r w o r k s c o m m itte e s .
WORKS COMMITTEES BEFORE THE WAR.

T h e m a jo r i t y o f t r a d e - u n io n s h a v e o ffic ia l s h o p s te w a r d s , t h o u g h
t h e s e o f f ic ia ls m a y b e k n o w n b y s o m e o t h e r n a m e — s u c h a s “ s h o p d e l e ­
g a t e s ,” “ w o r k s r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s ,” “ c o lle c t o r s ,” “ y a r d c o m m it t e e m e n ,”
o r , in o n e c a se a t le a s t, “ w o r k s d ir e c t o r s .”
I n c e r t a in ca ses a ls o th e
n a m e c o m m it t e e — w a t c h o r v i g il a n t c o m m it t e e — is a t t a c h e d t o t h e
b o d y o f s h o p s t e w a r d s i n a n e s t a b li s h m e n t .
I t m a y e v e n b e s a id t h a t
t h e w o r k s c o m m i t t e e is o l d e r t h a n t r a d e - u n i o n i s m ; t h e “ c h a p e l , ” f o r
in s t a n c e (t h e a n c ie n t o r g a n iz a t io n o f t h e w o r k m e n in e a c h p r i n t i n g
o ffic e ), g o e s b a c k m u c h fa r t h e r th a n th e e n d o f th e s e v e n te e n th c e n ­
t u r y .2 S u c h s h o p c lu b s w e r e n o t c o n fin e d t o a n y o n e in d u s t r y . T h e y
w e r e , h o w e v e r , q u it e d iffe r e n t t h in g s f r o m a w o r k s o r g a n iz a t io n
fo r m e d o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f p e r m a n e n t tr a d e s -u n io n s , a n d w o u ld n o w
b e r e p r e s e n te d b y a c o m m itte e o f w o r k e r s in a n o n u n io n s h o p . T o ­
d a y th e d u tie s o f th e “ c h a p e l,” as la id d o w n in th e r u le s o f v a r io u s
u n io n s o f th e in d u s tr y , in c lu d e th o s e d is c h a r g e d b y s h o p s te w a r d s in
m a n y o th e r tra d es.
A p a r t fr o m ( 1 ) fu n c t io n s o b v io u s ly in te n d e d
t o s u s ta in t h e f a b r i c o f th e t r a d e - u n io n — t h e c o lle c t io n o f d u e s , th e
in t e r r o g a t io n o f d e fa u lt e r s a n d n e w c o m e r s , a n d th e lik e — th e d u tie s
o f s h o p s te w a r d s a r e s ta te d in th e r u le s o f d iffe r e n t u n io n s t o in c lu d e
(2 ) th e r e g u la r s u p p ly t o th e b r a n c h o r d is t r ic t c o m m itte e o f i n f o r ­
m a tio n r e s p e c tin g a n y e n cr o a c h m e n t u p o n r e c o g n iz e d tr a d e -u n io n
c o n d it io n s , p a r t ic ip a t io n in d e p u ta tio n s t o th e m a n a g e m e n t in c o n ­
n e c t io n w it h g r ie v a n c e s ,3 t h e c a ll i n g o f s h o p m e e t in g s o f th e m e m ­
b e r s t o d is c u s s g r i e v a n c e s , e t c . T h e s t e w a r d s a r e i n o n e c a s e h e l d
“ r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h e c o n d u c t o f th e s h o p a c c o r d in g t o r u le s .”
The
a c tu a l d e g r e e o f o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e s h o p s te w a r d s v a r ie s a m o n g th e
tra d e -u n io n s .
I n s o m e ca ses a ll th e s h o p s te w a r d s o f a u n io n in a
d is t r ic t h o l d r e g u la r m e e t in g s o n c e a m o n t h w it h th e d is t r ic t c o m ­
m itte e o f th e u n io n .
C e r ta in u n io n s s u p p ly th e ir s h o p s te w a r d s w it h
1 For some examples of committees in a variety of industries, which in 1894 were con­
cerned with schemes for profit sharing or cooperative production, see report on profit shar­
ing by Mr. D. F. Schloss (C -7 4 5 8 ).
2 See the appendix to Joseph Moxon’s “ Mechanick Exercises,” published in 1683. The
appendix headed “ Ancient customs used in a printing house ” tells us that “ every printing
house is, by the custom of time out of mind, called a ‘ Chappel.’ ”
3 Participation in deputations to the management has naturally tended to the formation
of committees. This may have happened when representatives of different trades joined
together to present common grievances; the management may again have suggested th©
formation of a committee as an alternative to a number of sectional deputations. The
appointment of deputations of workpeople to meet tlie management is, of course, not con­
fined to trade-unionist workmen ; it has always been a feature of modern industry in both
organized and unorganized establishments. In organized establishments, however, there
has always been a tendency for the shop stewards to be represented on such deputations.




REPORT OF A N IN Q U IR Y IN TO W O RKS CO M M ITTEES.

53

o ffic ia l c a r d s .
I n o t h e r ca se s, h o w e v e r , t h e r e is n o r e g u la r m a c h in e r y
f o r c o n s u l t a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s h o p s t e w a r d s a n d t h e u n i o n o f f ic ia ls ,
a n d n o c e r t ific a t e s o f o ffic ia l r e c o g n it io n a r e s u p p lie d t o t h e s h o p
stew a rd s.
T h e r e is v a r i e t y a l s o i n r e g a r d t o t h e e l e c t i o n a n d t h e
d e p o s i t i o n o f s h o p s t e w a r d s ; s o m e h o l d o f f ic e f o r a d e f i n i t e p e r i o d ,
w h ile o t h e r s m a y b e d e p o s e d a t a n y tim e . M o s t c o m m o n ly th e e le c ­
t i o n is m a d e i n t h e d e p a r t m e n t b y t h e m e n o f t h e u n i o n , t h o u g h t h e r e
a r e c a s e s i n w h i c h a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e o ff ic e is m a d e b y t r a d e - u n i o n
b ran ch es.
( 1 ) I n r e g a r d t o th e fir s t -m e n t io n e d d u tie s o f s h o p s te w a r d s — t h e
c o lle c t io n o f s u b s c r ip t io n s a n d th e e x a m in a t io n o f c r e d e n t ia ls o f
m e m b e r s h ip — t w o fa c t s m a y b e n o te d .
T h e f i r s t is t h a t s u c h m e t h ­
o d s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n a r e n o t c o n f i n e d t o w o r k e r s w h o s e d a i l y w o r k is
d o n e in a fix e d e s ta b lis h m e n t, b u t a r e a ls o u s e d o n c e r t a in f o r m s o f
m o r e o r le s s m i g r a t o r y w o r k , s u c h a s b u i l d i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n .
The
‘ ‘ t i c k e t ” s te w a r d c o m m o n ly e x a m in e s n e w m e n ta k e n in t o e m p l o y ­
m e n t o n a b u ild in g jo b .
T h e s e c o n d f a c t t o b e n o t e d is t h a t i n c e r ­
ta in in d u s tr ie s , in a n u m b e r o f a rea s, a r e g u la r sy ste m o f w o r k s
c o m m itte e s , lin k e d to g e t h e r in d is t r ic t o r g a n iz a t io n s , h a d d e v e lo p e d
s e v e r a l y e a r s b e f o r e t h e w a r f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e m o r e e f f ic ie n t
a c h ie v e m e n t o f th ese o b je c t s .1
(2 ) B u t b o t h in th e o r y a n d in p r a c t ic e th e w o r k o f s h o p s te w ­
a r d s — o r o f c o m m itte e s o f s h o p s te w a r d s — h a s g e n e r a lly e x te n d e d b e ­
y o n d th ese fu n c t io n s .
A s a n e x a m p le o f p r a c t ic e , th e a p p a r e n t ly
u n s u it a b le ca se o f b u ild in g w o r k m a y fir s t b e ta k e n .
C o m m itte e s —
s o m e w h a t lo o s e ly o r g a n iz e d it m a y b e , b u t n e v e r th e le s s c o m m itte e s ,
a n d so c o n s id e r e d b y th o s e r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h e ir fo r m a t io n — h a v e
b e e n fo r m e d in th e b u il d in g t r a d e ; a n d th e s c o p e o f th e se c o m m itte e s
h a s e m b r a c e d t h e s e c o n d a n d w i d e r c la s s o f d u t i e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e .
I t h a s f o r y e a r s b e e n c o m m o n in c e r ta in d is tr ic ts f o r th e “ t i c k e t ”
s te w a r d s o n a b i g b u ild in g jo b t o c o m e to g e th e r a n d t o e le c t a s e c r e ­
t a r y , w h o in so m e ca ses ( i t m a y b e n o t e d ) h a s b e e n a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e
o f th e la b o r e r s .
S u c h a c o m m itte e o f s te w a r d s m a y m a k e r e p r e ­
s e n t a t i o n s t o , o r b e c o n s u l by, t h e e m p l o y e r o n q u e s t i o n s s u c h a s
ted
t h e p r o p e r a l l o c a t i o n o f w o r k i n o r d e r t h a t s u f f ic ie n t i n s i d e o p e r a t i o n s
m a y b e re se rv e d f o r w e t w ea th er.
A n o t h e r q u e s tio n w h ic h s u ch c o m ­
m itte e s h a v e b e e n k n o w n to b r i n g f o r w a r d is t h a t o f e x t r a p a y m e n t
in c o n s e q u e n c e o f th e in c o n v e n ie n t s it u a t io n o f s o m e p a r t ic u la r jo b .
( T h i s , p e r h a p s , is s t r i c t l y t r a d e - u n i o n b u s i n e s s .) I n d e m a n d i n g a d e ­
q u a te p r o v is io n f o r th e h e a t in g o f te a ca n s a n d f o r th e e n jo y m e n t
o f m e a ls , s u c h c o m m i t t e e s m a y b e s a i d t o h a v e a n t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i r
o w n w a y th e m o d e r n w e lfa r e c o m m itte e .
I n m a n y in d u s tr ie s th e
sa m e c o m b in a tio n o f s h o p s te w a r d s a n d th e sa m e p r a c tic e in m a k in g
1 For example, the Clyde Shipyards joint trades’ vigilant committee formed at the be­
ginning of 1911.
[See pp. 1 6 5 -1 6 7 .— E d.]




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

u n it e d r e p r e s e n t a t io n s t o th e e m p lo y e r — a p r a c t ic e n o t n e c e s s a r ily
“ r e c o g n iz e d ” — h a v e b e e n a t t e m p te d a t d iffe r e n t tim e s a n d w it h
v a r y in g d e g re e s o f su ccess. I n so m e cases in w h ic h s u ch m e th o d s
h a v e b e e n s u c c e s s fu lly a p p lie d in e n g in e e r in g a n d s h ip b u ild in g th e
in it ia t iv e h a s c o m e f r o m th e s id e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t.
I t r e m a in s
tru e , o f c o u r s e , th a t th e s h o p s te w a r d sy ste m u p t o th e p re s e n t h a s
b e e n in th e m a in o n ly a tr a d e s y s te m , a n d th a t th e c o m m itte e s fo r m e d
u n d e r i t c a n b e c l a s s e d u n d e r w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s o n l y i f t h e t e r m is
g iv e n th e w id e s c o p e m e n t io n e d a t th e b e g in n in g o f t h is r e p o r t .
If
t h e t e r m is u s e d i n t h i s w i d e r s e n s e , c o m m i t t e e s w i l l b e f o u n d t o h a v e
e x is te d f o r m a n y y e a r s in a n u m b e r o f in d u s t r ie s w h e r e p ie c e w o r k
is in o p e r a t io n .
S o m e o f th ese a re d e a lt w it h in a la te r p a r a g r a p h .
A n o t h e r o f th e fu n c t io n s o f sh o p ste w a r d s — th e c a llin g o f s h o p
m e e t in g s — a p p e a r s t o f o r m th e b a s is o f a s y s te m o f w o r k s c o m m it ­
te e s i n c e r t a i n i n d u s t r i e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e , a t a n y r a t e i n s o m e d i s t r i c t s ,
t h e f u r n i s h i n g tr a d e s . T h e s h o p m e e t in g , f o r w h ic h t h e r u le s o f m o s t
t r a d e - u n i o n s m a k e p r o v i s i o n , is a m e e t i n g o f t h e m e m b e r s o f a u n i o n ;
b u t th e te r m h a s a n o th e r m e a n in g w h ic h h a s g a in e d c u r r e n c y d u r in g
t h e w a r , v i z , a m e e t i n g o f a l l t h e t r a d e s i n a w o r k s ; a n d i t is i n t e r e s t ­
i n g t o n o t e t h a t in p a r t , a t le a s t, o f th e fu r n i s h i n g in d u s t r y t h is h a s
lo n g b e e n th e r e c o g n iz e d m e a n in g .
H e r e th e m e e t in g s a r e r e g u la r
( m o n t h l y ) , a n d t h e s t e w a r d s — n o t n e c e s s a r ily d r a w n f r o m a ll t h e
tr a d e s — m a k e t h e ir r e p o r t a b o u t m e m b e r s h ip a n d t h e lik e . T h e s h o p
s t e w a r d s in a f u r n i s h i n g w o r k s m a y in t h is w a y f o r m a w o r k s c o m ­
m it t e e w it h a s e c r e ta r y . A t th e s a m e tim e , i t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t f o r
th e s e ttle m e n t o f p ie c e p r ic e s c e r ta in u n io n s in th e f u r n is h in g tr a d e s ,
s u c h as th a t o f th e u p h o ls te r e r s , w o r k th r o u g h th e ir o w n s h o p
s t e w a r d s .1
C o m m itte e s f o r th e a r r a n g e m e n t o f p ie c e p r ic e s , w h ic h a r e fo u n d
i n a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f i n d u s t r i e s , a r e c o n v e n i e n t e x a m (a) s t roaf d e
p le
o r d e p a r tm e n ta l o r g a n iz a t io n as c o n tr a s te d w ith w o r k s o r g a n iz a ­
t i o n ; a n d(b ) t h e i n f o r m a l n a t u r e a n d c o m p o s i t i o n o f m a n y c o m m i t ­
te e s . I n r e g a r d t o ( a ) , t h e m e t h o d o f t h e u p h o l s t e r e r s h a s a l r e a d y
b e e n m e n t io n e d . U s u a lly th e r e a re o n ly a s m a ll n u m b e r o f u p h o l ­
s t e r e r s i n a n y o n e e s t a b l i s h m e n t ; 15 w o u l d m e a n a v e r y c o n s i d e r a b l e
fi r m .
I n s m a lle r e s ta b lis h m e n ts th e s h o p s t e w a r d o r s t e w a r d s o f
th e u n io n u s u a lly c a r r y t h r o u g h th e n e g o t ia t io n s f o r a n y n e w w o r k
n o t c o v e r e d b y th e s h o p “ l o g ,” o r lis t o f p ie c e p r ic e s . I f th e y a re u n ­
x The position in the furnishing trade is somewhat indefinite.
Some years ago there
would appear to have been joint committees of employers and employees in several dis­
tricts, but these have disappeared. An example will be found in the Eleventh Report of
Proceedings under the Conciliation Act, page 161. A system of departmental committees
for the fixing o f rates for subnormal workers is still in operation in certain districts, and
was more common until quite recently, when piecework was abolished in some areas. In
a few establishments these committees appear to have been works and not departmental
committees. These committees are ad hoc bodies, called into being for a particular pur­
pose by the shop steward (or stewards) who form the element of continuity.




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s u c c e s s f u l , t h e f u l l - t i m e t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia l c o m e s i n t o t h e b a r g a i n ­
i n g o p e r a t io n s . I n o n e e s ta b lis h m e n t, h o w e v e r , in w h i c h a n e x c e p ­
t io n a lly la r g e n u m b e r o f u p h o ls te r e r s a re e m p lo y e d in s e v e r a l d e p a r t ­
m e n ts o r “ flo o r s ,” th e d e p a r tm e n ta l o r t r a d e c o m m itte e h a s b e e n in
e x is te n c e f o r m a n y y e a r s .
T h i s is c o m p o s e d o f a l l t h e s t e w a r d s —
th r e e e le c te d f r o m e a c h o f th e “ flo o r s ” — a n d f r o m t h is c o m m it t e e
a g a in th r e e h e a d s t e w a r d s a re ch o s e n . F o r th e p a r t ic u la r w o r k o f
a n y flo o r th e a p p r o p r ia te ste w a rd s u n d e rta k e th e p r e lim in a r y n e g o ­
t ia t io n s ; b u t i f th e se a re u n s u c c e s s fu l, th e q u e s tio n in d is p u t e w ill
c o m e b e fo r e th e c o m m itte e a n d b e d e a lt w ith b y th e h e a d s te w a r d s in
c o n s u l t a t i o n w i t h t h e m a n a g e m e n t b e f o r e i t is , p r o b a b l y w i t h t h e
a ss e n t o f a s h o p m e e t in g , g iv e n in t o th e h a n d s o f t h e t r a d e - u n io n
o f f ic ia l. T h e p o t t e r y i n d u s t r y s u p p l i e s e x a m p l e s o(a)b o tnhd ( & ) .
f a
P r i c i n g c o m m i t t e e s a r e f o u n d in m o s t s e c t i o n s o f t h e t r a d e , a n d t h e r e
m a y b e s e v e r a l c o m m it t e e s in a s in g le f a c t o r y . I n th e s a n it a r y t r a d e
a s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e i s u s u a l.
I n m a n y fa c to r ie s , h o w e v e r , th e
m e t h o d e m p l o y e d is f o r t h e o p e r a t i v e c o n c e r n e d t o c a l l i n t w o o r
t h r e e m a t e s t o a s s is t h i m i n a r r a n g i n g t h e p r i c e o f a n e w j o b . T h e
m e n c a lle d in n e e d n o t b e t h e sa m e o n e a c h o c c a s io n . T h e e x is te n c e
o f s e v e r a l c o m m itte e s in o n e f a c t o r y m a y b e e x e m p lifie d b y a n e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t in th e J e t a n d R o c k in g h a m b r a n c h o f th e in d u s t r y , in
w h ic h th e re h a v e b ee n f o r m a n y y e a r s p r ic in g c o m m itte e s f o r jig g e r s
( m a k e r s ), tu r n e r s , a n d h a n d le r s .
I n t h is ca s e n o n e b u t t r a d e u n i o n i s t s c a n s i t o n t h e c o m m i t t e e ; b u t t h i s is b y n o m e a n s a u n i v e r s a l
r u le . I n w o r k s , h o w e v e r , in w h ic h t h e r e a r e t r a d e - u n io n is t s t h e p r a c ­
t i c e is t o e l e c t t o t h e c o m m i t t e e o n e ( o r m o r e ) o f t h e m , w h o i s e x ­
p e c te d t o s e r v e as a c o n n e c tin g lin k b e tw e e n th e c o m m itte e a n d th e
d is t r ic t c o m m itte e o f th e tr a d e -u n io n .
T h e p o s it io n o f th e “ c h a p e l ” in r e la tio n t o th e L o n d o n c o m p o s i­
t o r s ’ s c a le is a n o l d a n d w e ll-e s t a b lis h e d c a s e o f a w o r k s o r g a n iz a t io n
t a k in g p a r t , a m o n g o t h e r fu n c t io n s , in th e r e g u la t io n o f p ie c e w o r k .
I n o t h e r t r a d e s in w h ic h p ie c e w o r k is in o p e r a t io n , a n d w h e r e
c o m p le t e s t a n d a r d iz a t io n o f lis t s h a s b e e n f o u n d im p r a c t ic a b le ,
m e t h o d s m o r e o r le s s s i m i l a r t o t h o s e m e n t i o n e d a b o v e a r e f o u n d .
I n th is c o n n e c t io n th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s in e n g in e e r ­
i n g e s t a b li s h m e n t s d u r i n g t h e w a r i s s i g n i f i c a n t .
T h e e n g in e e r in g
t r a d e s h a v e a lw a y s r e s is te d p ie c e w o r k , b u t a t t h e sa m e t im e t h e y
h a v e g e n e r a lly b a r g a in e d o n a n in d iv id u a l b a s is f o r a n y w o r k d o n e
o n t h is s y s te m . T h e e x t e n s io n o f p ie c e w o r k a n d th e g r o w t h o f th e
m e th o d o f c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g in th e s h o p b y w o r k s c o m m itte e s o r
s te w a r d s h a v e g o n e o n s id e b y s id e , a n d it w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t t o a
c o n s id e r a b le d e g r e e t h e o n e is t h e im m e d ia t e c a u s e o f t h e o th e r .
E v e n in in d u s t r ie s in w h ic h p r i c e lis t s f o r p ie c e w o r k a re u s e d th e r e
a r e c o m m o n ly o c c a s io n s o n w h ic h a p a r t ic u la r j o b is n o t c o v e r e d b y
t h e l i s t , a n d i n c e r t a i n c a s e s j o b s c a n n o t b e l i s t e d a t a l l. I n t h i s c o n ­




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n e c t i o n i t m a y b e n o t e d t h a t i n m i n i n method o f j o i n t p i t c o m ­
g th e
m itte e s , as w e ll as t h e jo i n t d is t r ic t b o a r d , h a s b e e n in o p e r a t io n in
c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s f o r a l o n g t i m e , a n d t h e m e t h o d is e m b o d i e d i n t h e
r u le s o f v a r io u s d is t r ic t s u n d e r th e C o a l M in e s ( M in im u m W a g e ) A c t
o f 1 9 1 2 . I n s e v e r a l d is t r ic t s d is p u t e s as t o w h e t h e r a w o r k m a n h a s
f o r f e i t e d h i s r i g h t t o t h e m i n i m u m m u s t b e d i s c u s s e d b y t w o o f f ic ia ls
o f th e m in e a n d t w o r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e lo c a l lo d g e o f th e u n io n
b e f o r e th e y a re ta k e n t o th e d is t r ic t jo i n t b o a r d c o m m itte e , a n d in
o n e d is t r ic t th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s f r o m e a c h s id e a re f o u r in n u m b e r .
T h e f a c t th a t in m a n y m in in g d is tr ic ts th e tr a d e -u n io n b r a n c h
o r l o d g e is c o m p o s e d o n l y o f th e m e n w o r k in g in o n e p it m a k e s th e
l o d g e c o m m i t t e e i n e f f e c t a p i t c o m m i t t e e . 1 I t is n o t a c o m p l e t e
w o r k s c o m m it t e e in th e s t r ic t e r sen se o f th e te r m , e x c e p t in th o s e
p la c e s in w h ic h th e e n g in e m e n a n d c e r t a in o t h e r w o r k e r s , w h o c o m ­
m o n ly b e lo n g t o o th e r u n io n s , a re m e m b e r s o f th e lo c a l m in e r s ’
a s s o c i a t i o n . T h e t e n d e n c y o f c e r t a i n o t h e r u n i o n s — e. g . , t h o s e i n t h e
i r o n a n d s t e e l i n d u s t r y — t o o r g a n i z e o n t h e b a s i s o f t h e w o r k is
in t e r e s tin g f r o m th e sa m e s t a n d p o in t .2
I t m a y b e n o te d th a t in m a n y cases c o n c ilia t io n b o a r d s a re r e a lly
w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s . T h i s is s o w h e n t h e j o i n t b o a r d is c o m p o s e d o f
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f th e w o r k p e o p le in o n e e s t a b lis h m e n t a n d o f m e m ­
b e r s o f th e fir m . S u c h b o a r d s , w it h v a r y i n g d e g r e e s o f c o n n e c t io n
b e tw e e n th e w o r k m e n ’s s id e a n d th e tr a d e -u n io n s , h a v e b e e n fo r m e d
in in d i v i d u a l e s ta b lis h m e n ts b e l o n g i n g t o a v a r ie t y o f in d u s t r ie s .
NOMENCLATURE.

A d is t in c t io n m u st b e d r a w n b e tw e e n “ w o r k s c o m m itte e s ” a n d
“ s h o p c o m m it t e e s .”
T h e fo r m e r c o v e r th e w h o le o f a w o r k s , o r
e v e n in s o m e ca ses, th e w h o le o f t w o o r th r e e c o n tig u o u s w o r k s ;
th e la t t e r c o v e r a p a r t ic u la r d e p a r t m e n t o r s h o p in a w o r k s . A m o n g
w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s i t is p o s s i b l e t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h r e e v a r i e t i e s .
The
fir s t a n d m a in v a r ie t y m a y b e c a lle d th e a in d u s t r ia l c o m m it t e e .”
S 'u c li a c o m m i t t e e , g e n e r a l l y c o n s t i t u t e d o n a t r a d e - u n i o n b a s i s , d e a l s
w it h p a r t ic u la r q u e s tio n s a ffe c t in g th e c o n d it io n s a n d r e m u n e r a t io n
o f la b o r in a g iv e n w o r k s , q u e s tio n s o f p r i n c i p l e b e in g r e s e r v e d f o r
th e d is t r ic t o r n a t io n a l o r g a n iz a t io n s c o n c e r n e d . I t is t h is v a r ie t y
w h i c h , b e i n g t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t , is o f t e n c a l l e d b y t h e g e n e r a l n a m e
o f w o r k s c o m m itte e . A s e c o n d v a r ie t y m a y b e c a lle d th e “ w e lfa r e
c o m m itte e .”
S u c h a c o m m itte e , r e p r e s e n tin g , as a r u le , a ll th e
w o r k e r s in a g i v e n w o r k s , d e a ls w it h w h a t m a y b e t e r m e d “ w o r k s
a m e n i t i e s ” — v e n t i l a t i o n , s a n i t a t i o n , a n d t h e l ik e .
A t h ir d v a r ie ty ,
1 Even where the basis of the miners’ branch is not the pit but, say, the village, each of
the several pits in the village commonly has its committee.
3
It may be noted that the circumstances of industry in general in the eighteenth and
early nineteenth century made for a greater correspondence between organization by local­
ity and organization by establishment than exists to-day.




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w h i c h m a y b e m e r g e d w i t h t h e s e c o n d o r m a y b e d i s t i n c t , is t h e
“ s o c ia l u n io n ,” o r m o r e e x a c t ly th e c o m m itte e g o v e r n in g th e s o c ia l
u n io n , w h e r e o n e e x is ts , o f t h e w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in t h e sa m e e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t.
S u c h a c o m m i t t e e is c o n c e r n e d w i t h g a m e s , r e c r e a t i o n s ,
s t u d y c i r c l e s , p i c n i c s , a n d t h e l ik e .
A p a r t fr o m th ese m a in t y p e s th e re a re, o f c o u r s e , lo c a l v a r ie tie s
o f a ll s o r ts . T h e r e m a y b e , f o r in s ta n c e , a s e p a r a te “ m e s s -r o o m c o m ­
m it t e e ,” o r a g a in th e r e m a y b e a s e p a r a te “ w o m e n ’s c o m m it t e e .”
T h e r e m a y b e a c o m m itte e p e c u lia r t o a s m a ll s e c tio n o f w o r k e r s — e. g . , t o o l m a k e r s — w h i c h h a n d l e s a l a r g e a n d i m p o r t a n t a r e a o f
fu n c tio n s in r e g a r d to th o se w o rk e rs.
F in a lly , ev en th o u g h th e re
a re n o r e g u la r o r s t a n d in g w o r k s c o m m itte e s , it m a y b e th e ca s e t h a t
c o m m i t t e e s a r e c r e a t e d hoc w h e n e v e r a n i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n a r is e s
ad
in a w o r k s , a n d th a t th e se c o m m itte e s a r e c o n s u lt e d b y th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t w i t h a v i e w t o s e t t l i n g -s u ch q u e s t i o n s . T h i s , i n d e e d , is t h e p r o ­
c e d u r e f o l l o w e d in s o m e o f th e w o r k s w h e r e th e r e la tio n s o f m a n a g e ­
m e n t a n d m e n a r e m o s t a m i c a b le . I n s o m e c a s e s t h e c o m m i t t e e s o
f o r m e d c o n s is ts o f th e s h o p s t e w a r d s o f t h e s e p a r a t e tr a d e s .
I t m a y b e a d d e d t h a t s o m e c o m m itte e s a re “ j o i n t ” a n d e m b r a c e
r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f b o t h m e n a n d m a n a g e m e n t , m e e t i n g t o g e t h e r in
r e g u l a r s e s s i o n ; w h i l e o t h e r s ( a n d t h i s is t h e g e n e r a l r u l e ) a r e c o m ­
m itte e s o f w o r k m e n o n ly , b u t m e e t th e m a n a g e m e n t fr o m tim e t o
t im e (s o m e tim e s r e g u la r ly a n d s o m e tim e s o c c a s io n a l ly ; s o m e tim e s
d ir e c t ly a n d so m e tim e s t h r o u g h t h e ir c h a ir m a n o r s e c r e t a r y ) t o
s e ttle g r ie v a n c e s a n d g iv e o r r e c e iv e in f o r m a t io n .
V a r io u s n a m es h a v e b e e n a p p lie d to c o m m itte e s fo r m e d d u r in g
th e w a r , p a r t ic u la r ly t o th o s e fo r m e d t o d e a l w it h su ch q u e s tio n s
as tim e k e e p in g .
A m o n g th e n a m es a re “ w o r k e r s ’ a d v is o r y b o a r d ,”
“ w o r k s ’ t r i b u n a l , ” “ v i g i l a n t c o m m i t t e e , “ wa o rdk s ’ c o u n c i l . ” 1
” n
I I . ORIGINS

AND IN F L U E N C E

OF W A R

DEVELOPM ENTS.

T h e ca u s e s w h ic h h a v e b r o u g h t w o r k s c o m m it t e e s in t o e x is te n c e
d u r in g t h e w a r , a n d th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s a t t e n d in g t h e ir o r ig i n , a re
n a t u r a lly v e r y d iffe r e n t .
A c la s s ific a t io n o f o r ig in s m a y , h o w e v e r ,
b e a tte m p te d u n d e r th e f o llo w in g h e a d s :
(1 ) S h o p stew a rd s.
( 2 ) D ilu tio n .
( 3 ) M e th o d s o f r e m u n e r a tio n .
( 4 ) T im e k e e p in g .
(5 ) W e lfa r e .
( 6 ) W a r c h a r ity .
(7 ) O th e r causes.
1 “ Works committee,” it may be noted, is sometimes taken to mean only a joint com­
mittee of management and employees. The name is not used in this narrow sense in this
report. “ Shop committee ” is sometimes used in the sense in which “ works committee ”
is defined above, i. e., for a committee covering not merely a department but the whole of
& works.




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
SHOP STEWARDS.

T o a v e r y c o n s id e r a b le e x t e n t th e fir s t t h r e e h e a d in g s m u s t b e
tre a te d tog e th e r.
T h i s is p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e o f e n g i n e e r i n g w o r k s .
I t h a s a lr e a d y b ee n p o in t e d o u t th a t s h o p ste w a rd s w it h a c o n s id e r ­
a b le r a n g e o f d u tie s w e r e a n o r m a l fe a tu r e o f t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n i z a ­
tio n b e fo r e th e w a r.
I t h a s a ls o b e e n seen th a t, t h o u g h f o r th e m o s t
p a r t th ese s te w a r d s a c te d o n ly f o r th e ir o w n s e p a r a te o r g a n iz a tio n s ,
t h is w a s n o t t h e ir o n l y m e th o d o f o p e r a t io n .
O n e e ffe c t o f th e w a r
h a s b ee n to e n h a n ce th e p o s itio n a n d p r e s tig e o f s h o p ste w a rd s.
T h e lo s s o f t h e r i g h t t o s t r ik e h a s d e p r e s s e d t h e p o s i t io n o f t r a d e u n i o n o ff ic ia ls , w h o w e r e t h u s d e p r i v e d o f t h e c h i e f w e a p o n t h e y c o n ­
t r o l l e d , a n d i f t h e y h a d o r g a n i z e d s t r ik e s , w o u l d h a v e b e e n l i a b l e
t o p r o s e c u tio n .
U n d e r th ese c o n d itio n s th e s h o p s te w a r d s , m o r e
u n k n o w n a n d t h e r e f o r e le s s e x p o s e d , b e g a n t o e x e r c i s e m o r e p o w e r .
N o r w a s t h i s a l l.
I n a n in d u s t r y s u ch as e n g in e e r in g , q u e s tio n s o f
d i l u t i o n a n d , a g a i n , o f p a y m e n t b y r e s u l t s r a i s e d m a t t e r s ,o f d e t a i l
w h ic h n e e d e d s o m e s h o p m a c h in e r y f o r t h e ir s o lu t io n .
S u ch qu es­
t io n s o ft e n c o n c e r n e d th e m e m b e r s o f se v e r a l u n io n s in th e sa m e
e s t a b lis h m e n t ; a n d th e c o m m o n in te r e s t o f m e n w o r k in g s id e b y s id e
o f t e n le d t o c o n c e r t e d a c t io n .
T h o u g h m a n y w o r k s c o m m itte e s
in s titu t e d d u r in g th e w a r c a n b e tr a c e d t o o n e o r o t h e r o f th e se
so u r ce s , a n d t h o u g h m o s t o f th e c o m m itte e s th u s c a lle d in to e x is t­
en ce m a y b e s a id t o h a v e w o r k e d to th e s a tis fa c t io n o f a ll g r a d e s o f
w o r k p e o p l e , i t is t r u e t h a t i n c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f d i l u t i o n
h a s p r o d u c e d c o m m it t e e s o f s h o p s t e w a r d s w it h c o n f li c t i n g in te r e s ts .
I n c e r t a in p la c e s t w o c o m m it t e e s h a v e b e e n fo r m e d , o n e c o m p o s e d
o f th e s h o p s te w a r d s o f th e s k ille d t r a d e s a n d th e o t h e r c o n fin e d t o
th e s te w a r d s o f th e u n io n s r e p r e s e n t in g th e u n s k ille d a n d s e m is k ille d
m en.
I t m a y b e a d d e d t h a t t h is t e n d e n c y a m o n g w o r k p e o p le t o b r in g
th e ir o r g a n iz a t io n m o r e c lo s e ly t o b e a r u p o n w o r k s h o p c o n d it io n s
is t o b e see n in in d u s t r ie s w h ic h h a v e b e e n m u c h le s s a ffe c t e d b y t h e
w a r th a n e n g in e e r in g .
T h e ten d e n cy p re ce d e d , b u t h as been
stren g th en ed b y , th e w a r.
DILUTION.

T o g a in th e c o n s e n t o f n a tio n a l u n io n s w a s n o t in it s e lf e n o u g h
t o s e ttle th e q u e s t io n o f d ilu t io n , f o r it is o b v io u s t h a t in a c o m p l i ­
c a t e d t r a d e , s u c h as e n g in e e r in g , w it h its m a n y v a r ie t ie s , q u e s tio n s
o f d e t a i l m i g h t a r is e i n a l m o s t e v e r y w o r k s w h i c h n e e d e d s o m e m a ­
c h in e r y f o r t h e ir s o lu t io n .
T h is h a s le d to th e in tr o d u c tio n o f
d i l u t i o n c o m m i t t e e s i n m a n y e s t a b li s h m e n t s .
T h e s e c o m m itte e s ,
c o n s is t in g o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e w o r k e r s (m a in ly , o f c o u r s e , th e
s k ille d w o r k e r s ) , d is c u s s w it h t h e m a n a g e m e n t o n w h a t m a c h in e s




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o r p ro c e s s e s , t o w h a t e x te n t, a n d u n d e r w h a t c o n d it io n s d ilu tio n
s h a ll b e in t r o d u c e d .
C o m m itt e e s o f t h is c h a r a c t e r , d e a lin g w it h a n
i m p o r t a n t r a n g e o f e c o n o m i c q u e s t i o n s , h a v e o f t e n b e e n l e d t o r a is e
o t h e r q u e s tio n s t h a n t h a t o f d ilu t io n , a n d t o b r in g f o r w a r d f o r d is ­
c u s s io n w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t, w ith w h ic h th e y w e r e b e in g b r o u g h t
in to c o n s ta n t c o n ta c t b y th e p r o b le m s o f d ilu tio n , q u e s tio n s a n d
g r ie v a n c e s o f a g e n e r a l c h a r a c te r .
S o m e tim e s th e c o m m itte e h a s
r e m a in e d in n a m e a d ilu t io n c o m m it t e e , w h ile it w a s in r e a lit y a
w o r k s c o m m itte e .
S o m e tim e s a d e fin ite c h a n g e h a s b e e n m a d e a n d
t h e d i l u t i o n c o m m i t t e e , w i t h m o r e o r le s s c h a n g e i n i t s c o m p o s i t i o n ,
h a s b e e n tu r n e d in to a w o r k s c o m m itte e .
I n a n y case, th e p r o b le m
o f d ilu tio n h a s b ee n o n e o f th e m o st p o te n t fo r c e s in fo r w a r d in g
th e m o v e m e n t t o w a r d w o r k s c o m m itte e s .
T h o u g h th ere has been
a m a r k e d te n d e n c y f o r d ilu tio n c o m m itte e s to d e v e lo p in t o w o r k s
c o m m itte e s , it m a y b e n o t e d t h a t in o n e o r t w o ca ses t h e d ilu t io n
c o m m itte e w a s fo r m e d a ft e r a n d as a s u b c o m m itte e o f th e w o r k s
c o m m itte e .
T h e im p o r t a n c e o f th e c o n n e c tio n b e tw e e n a w o r k s c o m m itte e a n d
th e t r a d e -u n io n s is in d ic a t e d b y c o m p la in t s th a t d ilu t io n c o m m it te e s ’
n e g o tia tio n s h a v e v io la te d tr a d e -u n io n a g re e m e n ts.
METHODS OF REMUNERATION.

O n e o f t h e n e c e s s i t ie s o f t h e w a r h a s b e e n t o i n c r e a s e o u t p u t ; a n d
o n e m e th o d w h ic h s u g g e s te d i t s e l f f o r t h is p u r p o s e w a s t h a t o f p a y ­
m e n t b y r e s u lt s in tr a d e s w h e r e t im e w o r k w a s t h e n o r m a l p r a c t ic e .
I n m a n y t r a d e s a n y s y s te m o f p ie c e w o r k is v e r y u n p o p u la r , a n d in
th e p a s t h a s b een s t r o n g ly o p p o s e d .
T h i s is tr u e o f e n g in e e r in g ,
w h e r e th e u n io n s h a d l e f t a n y p ie c e w o r k w h ic h w a s in t r o d u c e d to th e
c o n t r o l o f in d i v i d u a l b a r g a in in g . T h e r a p id e x t e n s io n o f p ie c e w o r k
in s u ch t r a d e s h a s le d t o a v a r ie t y o f fo r m s o f c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g , i
I n s o m e e s ta b lis h m e n ts a n e w p ie c e p r i c e is s u b m it t e d t o t h e w o r k s
c o m m it t e e b e f o r e i t is d is c u s s e d w it h th e in d i v i d u a l w o r k m a n .
In
o t h e r s a n a p p e a ls c o m m it t e e h a s b e e n in s t it u t e d t o c o n s id e r a n d b r in g
f o r w a r d c o m p la in t s a g a in s t p ie c e p r ic e s o r p r e m iu m b o n u s t im e s
fix e d b y t h e m a n a g e m e n t . I n o th e r s , a g a in , s o m e t h in g o n t h e lin e s
p r e v io u s ly m e n tio n e d as e x is tin g in p a r ts o f th e p o t t e r y in d u s tr y
h a s b e e n d e v e lo p e d ; a n d p r ic e s h a v e b e e n d is c u s s e d , n o t w it h t h e
in d i v i d u a l w o r k m a n , b u t w it h t h e w o r k m a n a n d t w o o r t h r e e o f h is
m a te s o n s im ila r w o r k .
I n o t h e r e s t a b lis h m e n t s v a r io u s f o r m s o f
c o lle c t iv e o r g r o u p b o n u s o n o u t p u t ( o r o u tp u t v a lu e ) h a v e b e e n
a d o p t e d ; a n d in s o m e o f th ese ca ses c o m m itte e s h a v e b e e n fo r m e d
e i t h e r t e m p o r a r i l y , i n o r d e r t o d is c u s s t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e n e w
m e t h o d , o r p e r m a n e n t ly , in o r d e r t o s u p e r v is e it s w o r k in g . I n o t h e r




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ca s e s c o m m it t e e s h a v e b e e n fo r m e d t o d e a l w it h t im e k e e p in g b o n u s e s
o r p r o f i t - s h a r i n g s c h e m e s .1
C o m m itte e s c o n n e c te d w it h m e th o d s o f r e m u n e r a tio n a re n o t in
t h e m s e lv e s w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s p r o p e r . T h e y m a y b e c o m m i t t e e s r e p ­
r e s e n t in g o n l y a s m a ll s e c t io n o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t (e . g ., t h e t o o l ­
m a k e r s ) , w h ile th e r e s t o f t h e w o r k m e n in th e e s t a b lis h m e n t a r e n o t
c o n c e r n e d a n d a re r e p r e s e n te d b y n o c o m m itte e . T h e y m a y , a g a in ,
b e p a r t ia l in s c o p e as w e ll as in m e m b e r s h ip , a n d d e a l w it h n o o th e r
m a t t e r s t h a n t h a t o f a b o n u s . T h i s , h o w e v e r , is u n l i k e l y a n d s e e m s
u n u s u a l. A c o m m it t e e c o n n e c t e d w it h a b o n u s s y s te m o f t e n c o m e s
t o e m b ra c e a w id e r s c o p e , a n d w ill b r in g fo r w a r d o r b e c o n s u lte d
b y th e m a n a g e m e n t a b o u t o th e r m a tters.
TIMEKEEPING.

C o m m itte e s w h o s e s o le fu n c t io n , o r o n e o f w h o s e m a in fu n c tio n s ,
is th e im p r o v e m e n t o f tim e k e e p in g h a v e b e e n in s titu te d in th e c o a l
m in in g in d u s tr y , a t th e ir o n w o r k s in C le v e la n d a n d D u r h a m , a n d in
a n u m b e r o f e n g in e e r in g a n d m u n it io n s fa c t o r ie s . T h e p it h e a d , o r
o u t p u t , o r a b se n te e , c o m m itte e s , as t h e y a re v a r io u s ly c a lle d , c o m ­
m o n l y d e a l w i t h t h e n e g l i g e n c e o f m i n e o f f ic ia ls a s w e l l a s w i t h c a s e s
o f a b s e n t e e is m . T h e c o m m i t t e e s a t t h e C l e v e l a n d a n d D u r h a m b l a s t
fu r n a c e s a re c o n fin e d t o th e o n e fu n c t io n o f im p r o v e m e n t o f t im e ­
k e e p in g .
WELFARE.

T h e s t r a in o f th e w a r h a s in t r o d u c e d c o n d it io n s w h ic h h a v e m a d e
it n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s id e r w a y s o f p r o m o t in g th e p h y s ic a l w e lfa r e o f
th e w o r k e r s . L o n g h o u r s h a v e b e e n w o r k e d ; n ig h t s h ifts h a v e b e e n
a d d e d t o d a y s h if t s ; w o r k s h o p s h a v e s o m e tim e s b e e n c r o w d e d ; th e
in t r o d u c t io n o f w o m e n w o r k e r s b y th e s id e o f m e n , in o c c u p a tio n s
w h e r e w o m e n h a d n o t p r e v io u s ly b e e n e m p lo y e d , h a s r a is e d a n u m b e r
o f q u e s tio n s . M a t t e r s s u ch as th e b e s t d is t r ib u t io n o f w o r k i n g h o u r s ,
th e p r o v is io n o f ca n te e n s a n d m ess r o o m s , a n d th e im p r o v e m e n t o f
v e n t ila t io n a n d s a n ita tio n , h a v e a ll d e m a n d e d a tte n tio n .
O n su ch
m a tte r s , w h e r e t h e in te r e s t o f th e w o r k e r s is p a r a m o u n t , th e s im p le s t
c o u r s e is o b v io u s ly t o c o n s u lt th e m , a n d t o r e c e iv e t h e ir c o m p la in t s
a n d s u g g e s t io n s t h r o u g h t h e ir o w n a c c r e d it e d r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s . T h is
c o u r s e h a s b e e n a d o p t e d in a n u m b e r o f e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; a n d th e r e s u lt
h a s b e e n th e in s t it u t io n o f a w e lfa r e c o m m itte e , w h ic h h a s e a s e d th e
s i t u a t i o n b y r e m o v i n g , o r p r e v e n t i n g t h e r is e o f , a n u m b e r o f g r i e v ­
1 A great variety of bonus schemes is in operation in munitions factories, many of
which are not understood by the workpeople concerned. It would appear to be necessary
that not only should there be a committee to supervise such schemes, but that a “ par­
ticulars clause ” should be made obligatory on the employer. Arbitration awards have
in individual cases made one 01* both of these methods of control part of their findings.




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an ces. T h e w o r k m e n h a v e th u s b e e n a llo w e d a v o ic e in r e g a r d to th e
c o n d it io n s u n d e r w h ic h th e y la b o r , a n d th e s e w e lfa r e c o m m itte e s ,
t h o u g h th e y ca n h a r d ly b e c a lle d w o r k s c o m m itte e s , m a y b e s a id to
p r e p a r e th e g r o u n d . T h e y s e r v e t o e n g e n d e r s o m e t h in g o f a s p ir it o f
c o m m u n ity in th e w o r k s , a n d to h e lp th e w o r k m e n t o fe e l th a t th e y
h a v e a c o m m o n i n t e r e s t a s w o r k e r s i n t h e s a m e e s t a b li s h m e n t .
W AR CHARITY.

I n s e v e r a l ca ses ( f o r in s ta n c e , in th e G la s g o w d is t r ic t ) c o m m it t e e s
h a v e b e e n f o r m e d t o a d m in is t e r f u n d s r a is e d in th e w o r k s f o r t h e
p u r p o s e o f h e lp in g d e p e n d e n ts o f w o r k m e n w h o h a v e jo in e d th e
c o lo r s . T h e s e c o m m itte e s f o r m a g e r m w h ic h m a y d e v e lo p , a n d h e r e
a n d t h e r e h a s d e v e lo p e d , in t o w o r k s c o m m itte e s c a p a b le o f e n t e r ­
t a in in g g r ie v a n c e s o r r a is in g g e n e r a l q u e s tio n s a n d b r in g i n g th e m
t o th e n o tic e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t. W h e r e th e fir m h a s s u b s c r ib e d t o
th e w o r k s ’ fu n d a n d h a s b e e n r e p r e s e n te d o n th e c o m m itte e o f m a n ­
a g e m e n t , t h e n u c l e u s o f a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e is o b v i o u s l y p r e s e n t .
OTHER CAUSES.1

I n m u c h t h e sa m e w a y c o m m it t e e s f o r m e d in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t f o r
s o c ia l p u r p o s e s p r e p a r e th e g r o u n d , i f th e y d o n o t h in g m o re , f o r th e
in s t it u t io n o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s . T h e y h e lp t o c r e a te th e h a b it o f
c o m m o n a c t io n t h r o u g h r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s ; a n d , a c c u s t o m in g th e m e n
o f d iffe r e n t c r a ft s a n d d iffe r e n t u n io n s to a c t to g e th e r f o r p u r p o s e s
o f a s o c ia l n a tu r e , t h e y g r a d u a lly le a d t o th e a d o p t io n o f th e id e a
t h a t a c e r t a in r a n g e o f in d u s t r ia l q u e s tio n s m a y b e tr e a te d in th e
sa m e w a y . I n s o m e o f th e b e s t e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h h a v e r e c e n t ly
i n s t i t u t e d w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s is l a r g e l y
a ttr ib u te d t o th e w o r k w h ic h c o m m itte e s o f a s o c ia l c h a r a c te r h a v e
d o n e in p r e p a r in g th e g r o u n d .
I t is b e lie v e d th a t th e w a y s in d ic a t e d a re th o s e in w h ic h w o r k s
c o m m i t t e e s h a v e m a i n l y t e n d e d t o a r is e . I n a s u b j e c t o f s u c h v a r i e t y ,
h o w e v e r , i t is i m p o s s i b l e t o m a k e a n y e x h a u s t i v e e n u m e r a t i o n . O f t e n
t h e i n s t i t u t i o n o f a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e is d u e t o t h e i n i t i a t i v e o f a n
e m p lo y e r o r m a n a g e r w h o d e s ire s t o g i v e t h e w o r k p e o p le a la r g e r
c o n t r o l o v e r w o r k in g c o n d it io n s o r w h o fin d s th a t h is ta s k is g r e a t ly
ea sed i f h e c a n d e a l w it h a n a c c r e d it e d r e p r e s e n ta t iv e o f th e w o r k ­
m e n . S o m e t i m e s a c o m m i t t e e m a y h a v e a r is e n i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h a
p a r t ic u la r d is p u t e a n d f o r n e g o t ia t in g a s e ttle m e n t, a n d m a y th e n ,
i n t h e is s u e , b e a d o p t e d a s a p e r m a n e n t m o d e o f w o r k i n g . I n c e r t a i n
ca ses d u r in g th e w a r , as b e f o r e it, th e c r e a t io n o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e
h a s b e e n o n e o f t h e te r m s o f s e ttle m e n t o f a d is p u t e .
1 The effect of the Whitley report may also be noted. This influence has led to the for­
mation of committees in several individual establishments. See also the scheme for the
Lancashire coal mines in Appendix V II, pp. 169, 170.




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
III. CONSTITUTION.

T h e c o n s t it u t io n o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e n a t u r a lly v a r ie s w it h its
fu n c tio n s .
A w e lfa r e c o m m itte e , h a n d lin g q u e s tio n s in w h ic h th e
d iffe r e n c e b e tw e e n u n io n is t a n d n o n u n io n is t w o r k m e n , o r a g a in , th e
d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n d i f f e r e n t u n i o n s o f w o r k m e n , h a r d l y a r is e s , w i l l
te n d t o b e c o m p o s e d o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f a ll th e w o r k e r s , e le c te d
w it h o u t r e g a r d t o d iffe r e n c e s o f c r a f t o r g r a d e o r o c c u p a t io n . A n
in d u s t r ia l c o m m it t e e , h a n d lin g , as i t d o e s , q u e s tio n s in w h ic h d iff e r ­
e n ce o f s k ill o r o f c r a ft a re c o n c e r n e d , w ill in v o lv e a n e w r a n g e o f
c o n s id e r a t io n s . I t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s id e r th e r e la t io n o f su ch
a c o m m i t t e e , i f o n e is i n s t i t u t e d , t o t h e e x i s t i n g i n d u s t r i a l o r g a n i z a ­
t io n o f th e w o r k m e n in th e w o r k s in th e s h a p e o f s h o p s te w a r d s o r
d e le g a t e s ; a n d , a g a in , it m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o c o n s id e r w h e t h e r m a n ­
a g e m e n t a n d la b o r s h o u ld s it t o g e t h e r as a jo i n t c o m m it t e e (a n d , i f
so , in w h a t p r o p o r t io n s ) , o r w h e t h e r th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e s h o u ld
b e o n e o f w o r k e r s o n ly , w it h o p p o r t u n it ie s \ f r e a d y a ccess to th e
o
m a n a g e m e n t— a n d u lt im a t e ly , it m a y b e , t o th e d ir e c t o r s — w h e n s u ch
a c c e s s is d e s i r e d .
T h e l a s t p o i n t m a y b e t a k e n fir s t .
J o i n t c o m m itte e s a r e r a r e .1
T h e r e a re s o m e c o m m it t e e s o f t h is n a tu r e , c o n t a in in g t w o o r th r e e
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d a b o u t a d o z e n r e p r e s e n t a ­
t iv e s o f th e w o r k m e n , w h ic h m e e t a t r e g u la r in t e r v a ls — in o n e ca se
f r o m w e e k t o w e e k , b u t m o r e o f t e n a t lo n g e r in t e r v a ls . E v e n w h e n
th e c o m m it t e e is a jo i n t c o m m itt e e , h o w e v e r , so m e p r o v is io n h a s
g e n e r a lly t o b e m a d e f o r s e p a r a t e m e e t in g s o f th e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f
th e w o r k e r s ; a n d , as a r u le , w o r k s c o m m it t e e s a p p e a r t o b e c o m ­
m itte e s o f w o r k e r s o n ly , w ith r e g u la r fa c ilit ie s f o r c o n s u lta tio n w ith
t h e m a n a g e m e n t , e i t h e r a t f i x e d i n t e r v a l s o r w h e n e v e r o c c a s i o n a r is e s .
J o in t c o m m itte e s m a y u ltim a te ly c o m e to b e th e n o r m a l fo r m , b u t
in th e p r e lim in a r y s ta g e o f d e v e lo p m e n t it seem s lik e ly t h a t c o m ­
m itte e s o f w o r k e r s o n ly , w it h r e g u la r fa c ilit ie s f o r a c ce s s t o th e
m a n a g e m e n t, w ill g e n e r a lly b e th e fo r m a d o p te d .
W h e r e th e c o m m it t e e is a j o i n t c o m m it t e e , th e id e a o f th e j o i n t
m e e t i n g is p r o b a b l y f i r s t m o o t e d b y t h e m a n a g e m e n t ; a n d , u n l e s s
t h e w o r k e r s ’ s id e is a lr e a d y in e x is te n c e , t h e m a n a g e m e n t m a y s u g ­
g e s t th e b a s is o f c o m p o s it io n a n d th e m e th o d s o f e le c t io n o f th e c o m ­
m itte e . W h e r e , h o w e v e r , t h e c o m m it t e e is a c o m m it t e e o f w o r k m e n
o n l y , i t i s a d v i s a b l e , w h e t h e r t h e i d e a o f s u c h a c o m m i t t e e is s u g ­
g e s te d b y th e m a n a g e m e n t o r d e v e lo p s s p o n t a n e o u s ly a m o n g th e
w o r k m e n , t h a t th e w o r k m e n s h o u ld b e l e f t t o d e te r m in e th e b a s is o f
i t s c o m p o s i t i o n a n d t h e m e t h o d o f i t s e l e c t i o n f o r t h e m s e lv e s .
1 This statement applies to committees whose work is not strictly limited to one or two
functions. The actual number of joint committees is large if we include the “ absentee ”
committees at local mines and the timekeeping committees at iron works.




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T w o m a in m e th o d s a p p e a r t o p r e v a il in re g a r d , t o t h e c o m p o s it io n
o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e o f th e s e c o n d t y p e m e n tio n e d a b o v e .
(a) T h e c o m m i t t e e m a y b e e l e c t e d b y a l l t h e w o r k m e n e m p l o y e d ,
e a ch d e p a r tm e n t o r s h o p b e in g tr e a te d a s a c o n s titu e n c y , a n d r e t u r n ­
i n g a n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s , p e r h a p s i n p r o p o r t i o n t o it s s iz e . T h i s
a p p e a r s t o b e th e s im p le s t m e t h o d a n d i s f o u n d e v e n in w o r k s in
w h ic h th e w o r k e r s h a v e a lr e a d y an in d u s tr ia l o r g a n iz a tio n in th e
s h a p e o f s h o p s t e w a r d s o r d e le g a t e s .1
T h is is t h e ca se in m o s t
w o r k s , a n d in s u c h ca ses it m a y b e a d v is a b le to b u ild o n th e e x is tin g
o r g a n iz a t io n . T h is b r in g s u s t o th e s e c o n d m a in p o s s ib ilit y .
( b ) T l i e c o m m i t t e e m a y b e a c o m m i t t e e o f t h e s h o p sotfe w a r d s
th e d iffe r e n t u n io n s r e p r e s e n te d in t h e w o r k s , o r , in a l a r g e w o r k s
w h e re s h o p s te w a r d s a r e n u m e ro u s , a c o m m itte e e le c te d b y th e s h o p
s t e w a r d s . I n o n e w o r k s , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h i c h e m p l o y s a b o u t 3 ,0 0 0
w o r k m e n , th e w o r k s c o m m itte e (in t h is ca se a jo in t c o m m it t e e ) c o n ­
t a in s 12 r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e w o r k m e n e le c te d b y th e s h o p s t e w a r d s
(s o m e 4 0 in n u m b e r ) o f th e v a r io u s u n io n s r e p r e se n te d in t h e w o r k s .
I n a n o t h e r w o r k s a c o m m i to f e e v e n s h o p s t e w a r d s m e e t s t h e m a n ­
te s
a g e m e n t m o n t h l y a n d d is c u s s e s q u e s t i o n s w h i c h i t s m e m b e r s a n d t h e
m a n a g e m e n t h a v e a s k e d t o h a v e p l a c e tdl i e a g e n d a .
Qn
T h e t w o m e th o d s w h ic h h a v e ju s t b e e n d e s c r ib e d r e p r e s e n t th e
t w o p o s s ib ilitie s at e ith e r e n d o f th e s c a le ; b u t v a r io u s m e th o d s m a y
b e e m p lo y e d w h ic h c o m b in e , o r c o m e as it w e re b e tw e e n , th ese t w o
p o s s ib ilit ie s * E v e n w h e r e th e c o m m it t e e i s e le c t e d b y a ll t h e w o r k ­
m e n , u n io n is t o r n o n u n io n is t , v o t in g b y d e p a r tm e n ts , th e t e n d e n c y ,
i f th e w o r k s is s t r o n g ly u n io n is t , is t o w a r d t h e e le c t io n o f r e p r e s e n ta ­
t iv e s w h o a re a ll u n io n is t s a n d a r e a ls o , e ith e r a lt o g e t h e r o r i n p a r t ,
s h o p s t e w a r d s o f t h e i r u n i o n s . I n o n e w o r k s w i t h 4 ,0 0 0 w o r k m e n t h e
w o r k s c o m m it t e e o f 21 m e m b e r s , e le c te d b y a g e n e r a l v o t e o f th e m e n
w o r k e r s , is e n t i r e l y c o m p o s e d o f s h o p s t e w a r d s . I n a n o t h e r w o r k s ,
w i t h 3 ,5 0 0 w o r k m e n , i n w h i c h a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e h a s e x i s t e d f o r
a b o u t 10 y e a r s , a ll t h e w o r k m e n in a n y d e p a r t m e n t m a y v o t e , b u t
o n ly u n io n is t w o r k m e n c a n b e e le c te d , a n d h a l f o f th e m e m b e r s o i
th e w o r k s c o m m itte e a re s h o p s te w a r d s .
A n o t h e r m e th o d w h ic h d e s e r v e s s p e c ia l n o t ic e is t h a t o f e le c tio n
o n th e b a s is o f u n io n s , a ll th e m e m b e r s o f a u n io n in t h e w o r k s e le c t ­
i n g a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s . T h e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s t o
w h ic h a u n io n is e n t it le d m a y v a r y i n d ir e c t p r o p o r t io n ( o r in s o m e
o th e r w a y ) w it h it s m e m b e r s h ip in th e w o r k s . T h u s , in a sch e m e
u n d e r c o n s id e r a t io n f o r a n e n g in e e r in g w o r k s , r e p r e s e n t a t io n o n t h is
This, method of departmental election commonly results in a committee, all the mem­
bers of which are shop stewards. But e-ven when this is so, a majority of the shop stew­
ards may not be on the com mittee; and the member# may be drawn from a minority of
the unions*




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

b a s is g iv e s se v e n m e m b e r s t o th r e e g e n e r a l la b o r u n io n s , e ig h t m e m ­
b e r s t o th e la r g e s t u n io n o f s k ille d m e n , t w o m e m b e r s t o e a c h o f t w o
o t h e r u n io n s o f s k ille d m e n , a n d o n e m e m b e r t o e a c h o f s e v e n o t h e r
s k ille d u n io n s . T h i s m e t h o d — s in c e in a n e n g in e e r in g e s t a b lis h m e n t
th e m e m b e r s o f a u n io n m a y b e d is t r ib u t e d t h r o u g h s e v e r a l d e p a r t ­
m e n t s , i n e a c h o f w h i c h t h e r e m a y b e a s h o p s t e w a r d o r s t e w a r d s oJ:
th e u n io n — is n o t n e c e s s a r ily id e n t ic a l w it h t h a t in w h ic h t h e s h o p
s te w a r d s o f th e d iffe r e n t u n io n s in e a ch d e p a r tm e n t f o r m th e c o m m it ­
te e . I n s e v e r a l i r o n a n d s t e e l w o r k s t h e m e t h o d o f e l e c t i o n a p p e a r s
to b e b y th e m e m b e rs o f ea ch
branch o f a u n i o n w h o a r e w o r k i n g i n
t h e e s t a b li s h m e n t .
I n o n e s u c h c a s e t h e r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t a t i o n is s t a t e d t o b e l o n g t o
th e b r a n c h b e ca u se it h a s m e m b e r s in th e w o r k s . T h e s ta te m e n t, h o w ­
e v e r , is q u a lifie d in o r d e r t o c o v e r th e c a s e o f a t r a d e - u n io n b r a n c h —
e. g . , o f t h e A m a l g a m a t e d S o c i e t y o f E n g i n e e r s o r t h e B r i c k l a y e r s ’
U n io n — o n ly som e o f w h o se m e m b e rs m a y b e e m p lo y e d in th e p a r t ic u ­
la r w o rk s. I n th e ir ca se o n ly th e m e m b e rs o f th e b r a n c h e m p lo y e d in
th e w o r k s m a k e th e a p p o in t m e n t ; a n d fr o m th e n a tu r e o f th e ca se th e
r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o a p p o in t e d is a lm o s t b o u n d t o b e t h e p e r s o n a c t in g
as s h o p s t e w a r d f o r th e u n io n * in th e w o r k s . T h is , c o m b in e d w it h th e
fa c t th a t th e b r a n c h e s o f th e ir o n a n d steel t r a d e -u n io n s c o r r e s p o n d t o
s e c tio n s o r d e p a r t m e n t s o f w o r k e r s in a s in g le w o r k s , m a k e s s u c h
b r a n c h r e p r e s e n ta tio n s im ila r t o d e p a r tm e n ta l r e p r e s e n ta tio n . A n ­
o t h e r f e a t u r e o f t h i s s y s t e m is t h a t t h e s e c r e t a r y o f a n y b r a n c h w h o
is w o r k in g in t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t — t h is is a lm o s t b o u n d t o b e th e c a s e
w i t h b r a n c h e s t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f w h i c h is c o n f i n e d t o t h e w o r k s — is ,
e x o f f ic io , a m e m b e r o f t h e c o m m i t t e e . T h e d r a f t p r o p o s a l s f o r r e p ­
r e s e n t a t io n n o w b e i n g d is c u s s e d b y t h e s h ip b u il d in g t r a d e s in o n e
d is t r ic t a re t o th e e ffe c t th a t e a c h w o r k s c o m m it t e e s h o u ld b e c o m ­
p o s e d o f a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s f r o m th e m e n o f e a c h
t r a d e o r u n io n e m p lo y e d in th e y a r d , a n d th a t a m o n g th e re p re se n ta -t iv e s o f e a c h t r a d e o r u n io n o n e a t le a s t s h o u ld b e a n o ffic ia l s h o p
s te w a r d . S o m e o f th e u n io n s in th e s h ip b u ild in g in d u s t r y in c lu d e ,
i t m a y b e n o t e d , s e v e r a l t r a d e s , a n d t h e o f f ic ia l y a r d d e l e g a t e s ( o r
s h o p s te w a r d s ) o f th e s e v e r a l tra d e s in o n e u n io n o ft e n f o r m a y a r d
c o m m itte e f o r s u ch fu n c t io n s as th e in s p e c tio n o f u n io n c a rd s .
O t h e r m e th o d s f o u n d in p r a c t ic e a re e le c t io n o f a ll th e m e m b e r s
b y th e w h o le o f t h e e m p lo y e e s in a n e s t a b lis h m e n t v o t i n g a s o n e
c o n s t it u e n c y , a n d e le c t io n b y o c c u p a t io n s o r tra d e s .
I n s o m e w o r k s th e r e is o n e c o m m it t e e f o r s k ille d m e n a n d a n o t h e r
f o r u n s k ille d o r s e m is k ille d . I n s e v e r a l la r g e e n g in e e r in g e s t a b lis h ­
m e n ts, f o r in s ta n c e , th e r e a r e t w o c o m m itte e s o f s h o p s t e w a r d s — o n e
f o r c r a ft s m e n a n d a n o t h e r f o r s e m is k ille d m e n a n d la b o r e r s .
G en­
e r a lly , h o w e v e r , th e r e is o n ly o n e c o m m it t e e f o r b o t h sets o f w o r k ­




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65

m e n .1 T h e p e r s o n s e le c te d t o s u ch a c o m m it t e e a r e in c e r t a in ca ses
d r a w n s o le ly fr o m th e r a n k s o f th e s k ille d c r a fts m e n , t h o u g h th e r e
m a y b e u n s k ille d m e n (a n d s te w a r d s o f u n s k ille d u n io n s ) in th e
w o r k s . T h e e x c l u s i o n o f direct r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f t h e u n s k i l l e d
any
m e n in s u ch c ir c u m s t a n c e s is g e n e r a lly d u e t o th e s a m e c a u s e a s
th e a b s e n ce o f a n y d ir e c t r e p r e s e n t a t io n o f th e s m a lle r c r a f t u n io n s ,
v i z , t h e f a c t t h a t a d e p a r t m e n t ’s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t e n d s t o b e l o n g t o
th e u n io n w h ic h h a s m o s t m e m b e r s in th e d e p a r tm e n t.
T h e re are
c e r t a in ly ca se s in w h ic h t h is a p p a r e n t e x c lu s io n o f r e p r e s e n t a t io n
o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e u n s k i l l e d is a s o u r c e o f f r i c t i o n b e t w e e n t h e
d i f f e r e n t c la s s e s o f w o r k e r s ; a n d t h e p r e s e n c e i n s o m e w o r k s o f s e p a ­
r a t e c o m m it t e e s is th e e x t r e m e e x p r e s s io n o f s u c h d iffe r e n c e in in t e r ­
e s t . I t is a r g u e d t h a t t h e u n s k i l l e d m e n — t h o u g h t h e y m a y b e e x ­
c lu d e d b y e x a c t ly s im ila r c ir c u m s t a n c e s — a r e in a d iff e r e n t p o s it io n
f r o m a m in o r it y o f s k ille d m e n w h o m a y b e e x c lu d e d f r o m d ir e c t
r e p r e s e n t a t io n , in t h a t t h e in te r e s ts o f th e la t t e r , b e i n g a k in t o t h e ir
o w n , a r e b e t t e r u n d e r s t o o d b y a n d r e c e iv e m o r e s y m p a t h e t ic c o n s id e r ­
a t io n f r o m th e s k ille d m e n o n th e c o m m itte e . I t w o u ld n e v e r th e le s s
a p p e a r t h a t m o s t c o m m itte e s a p p o in t e d o n a d e p a r t m e n ta l b a s is d o
s u c c e e d in r e p r e s e n t in g f a i r l y th e in te r e s ts o f a ll t h e ir c o n s t it u e n t s ;
a n d i t is c l a i m e d t h a t t h e c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r t e n d s t o l o o k u p o n h i m ­
s e lf n o t as th e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f a p a r t ic u la r c r a ft o r s e c tio n in th e
d e p a r t m e n t b u t as th e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f th e d e p a r t m e n t as a w h o le .
T h e p o s it io n o f w o m e n w o r k e r s is in s o m e r e s p e c t s a n a lo g o u s t o
t h a t o f u n s k ille d w o r k m e n . I n s o m e ca ses th e y h a v e a v o t e f o r th e
w o r k s c o m m itte e e le c te d b y th e v a r io u s d e p a r tm e n ts , a n d th e y m a y
h a v e a r e p r e s e n ta t iv e o f t h e ir o w n o n th a t c o m m it t e e ; in o t h e r ca ses
r e p r e s e n t a t io n is s e c u r e d t o w o m e n ’s d e p a r t m e n t s as su ch .
Som e­
tim e s , e v e n w h e r e w o m e n a re e x c lu d e d f r o m v o t in g , th e w o r k s c o m ­
m it t e e m a y r e p r e s e n t t h e ir in t e r e s t s ; a n d it m a y e n t e r t a in a n d b r in g
b e f o r e th e n o tic e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t g r ie v a n c e s o f w o m e n w o r k e r s
a n d q u e s tio n s a ff e c t in g t h e ir in te r e s ts a n d th e c o n d it io n s o f t h e ir
la b o r .
O c c a s i o n a l l y , t h o u g h t h i s is r a r e , t h e r e i s a s e p a r a t e c o m ­
m it t e e t o r e p r e s e n t t h e in te r e s ts o f w o m e n w o r k e r s .
F r o m w h a t h a s b e e n s a id it is o b v io u s th a t th e c o n s t it u t io n o f a
w o r k s c o m m i t t e e r a is e s a n u m b e r o f q u e s t i o n s : ( 1 ) I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e ,
1 A works committee in a Midlands mrftiitions factory has just been reconstituted. Pre­
viously departmental election had produced a committee all the members of which were
skilled trade-unionists. The new method gives separate representation to (i) skilled men,
(ii) semiskilled and unskilled men, and (iii) women employees. This scheme, advocated
and carried through by the secretary, who is an official of his own union, is designed to
give all grades in the works an active interest in the committee. It is hoped that later
the separate representation of the different grades in each department may not be neces­
sary ; previously the grades not directlj represented have not opposed the committee,
which has been very successful, but they have not shown as much interest in it as is
desired.
106328°— Bull. 255— 19------- 5




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

th e r e is th e q u e s tio n w h e th e r th e c o m m itte e s h o u ld b e b a se d o n th e
in d u s tr ia l o r g a n iz a t io n o f s h o p s te w a rd s , w h e r e s u ch o r g a n iz a tio n
is in e x is te n c e , o r s h o u ld b e b a s e d o n a g e n e r a l v o t e ; ( 2 ) in th e n e x t
p la c e , a s s u m in g th e la tte r a lte r n a tiv e t o b e a d o p te d , th e r e is th e q u e s­
t io n w h e th e r a ll th e w o r k e r s s h o u ld v o t e , a n d , i f s o , h o w t h e c o n ­
s t it u e n c ie s s h o u ld b e a r r a n g e d , o r w h e t h e r o n l y u n io n is t w o r k e r s
s h o u ld v o te , a n d , i f so , h o w a n d in w h a t p r o p o r t io n t h e d iffe r e n t
u n io n s s h o u ld b e r e p r e s e n t e d ; ( 3 ) fu r t h e r , t h e r e is t h e q u e s t io n
w h e th e r th e r e s h o u ld b e a s in g le c o m m itte e o r o n e c o m m itte e f o r
s k ille d a n d a n o t h e r f o r u n s k ille d w o r k e r s ; a n d ( 4 ) fin a lly t h e r e is
th e q u e s tio n w h e t h e r w o m e n w o r k e r s s h o u ld h a v e a s e p a r a te c o m ­
m itte e o r b e r e p r e s e n te d t h r o u g h th e g e n e r a l c o m m itte e o f th e w o r k s .
No general answer can be given to any or all of these questions.
The circumstances of different works vary, and each type has to find
its own solution.
W h e r e v e r i t is p o s s ib le a c o m m it t e e o f s h o p s t e w a r d s o r t r a d e u n io n r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e th e b e s t s o lu t io n .1 A t t h e
s a m e t i m e i t is i m p o r t a n t t o s e c u r e t h a t t h e s i z e o f t h e c o m m i t t e e ,
w h ile la r g e e n o u g h t o b e r e p r e s e n ta tiv e , s h o u ld n o t b e s o la r g e a s
t o m a k e it u n w ie ld y , a n d th a t, a s f a r as p o s s ib le , th e re s h o u ld b e
d ir e c t r e p r e s e n t a t io n o f e a c h d e p a r tm e n t. T h e s iz e o f th e c o m m itte e s
a c t u a lly in e x is te n c e v a r i e s ; s o m e c o m m itte e s h a v e 12 m e m b e r s , s o m e
h a v e u p w a r d o f 30.
T h e s m a lle r n u m b e r seem s m o r e lik e ly t o b e
e ffe c tiv e . I t m a y b e n e ce s s a r y , t h e r e fo r e , th a t a w o r k s c o m m itte e , i f
it c o n t a in s a la r g e n u m b e r o f m e m b e r s , s h o u ld a p p o in t a s m a lle r
c o m m it t e e o f i t s e l f ; a n d t h a t , w h ile th e m a n a g e m e n t s h o u ld b e in
r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e s m a l l e r c o m m it t e e ^ q u e s t i o n s o f d i f f i c u l t y
s h o u ld b e r e fe r r e d b y th e s m a lle r c o m m it t e e t o th e la r g e r , th e m a n ­
a g e m e n t m e e t i n g t h e l a r g e r c o m m i t t e e i n c a s e o f nee<L I n i t s c h o i c e
o f th e s m a lle r c o m m it t e e th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e c o u ld a llo c a t e a p la c e ,
o r a n u m b e r o f p la c e s , t o e a c h d e p a r t m e n t o r g r o u p o f d e p a r tm e n ts .
A n o t h e r m e th o d o f e le c t in g a c o m m itte e o f m a n a g e a b le s iz e w o u ld
b e th a t f r o m th e s te w a r d s in e a ch d e p a r tm e n t (o r , in c e r t a in ca ses,
g r o u p s o f d e p a r tm e n ts ) o n e s h o u ld b e a p p o in t e d b y a g e n e r a l e le c ­
1 As will be seen from the appendixes, individual committees formed on very different
lines have been in every way successful. Since, however, the problem from the point of
view of the well-organized industries is complicated by the existence of poorly organized
areas, a proposal under consideration by a firm ii^ which considerably less tlian half of the
employees are trade-unionists may be noted. Tlie proposal is that the works committee
should be composed of departmental representatives, who will include the shop stewards,
and that from this committee as a whole, or from the shop steward and the nonshop
steward sections of it separately, there should be elected a small number of representa­
tives of the workers to sit on a joint committee. The proposal was made as a means of
combining (a) the recognition of shop stewards, and (6) the representation o f all the
workpeople on the joint committee, without duplication of committees for different func­
tions. The firm, which recognizes the unions and whose conditions are above the district
standards, intends that the joint committee should deal with a very wide range of sub­
jects, only some of which are shop steward questions.




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87

t io n h e ld in th e d e p a rtm e n t o r b y th e d e p a rtm e n ta l s te w a r d s th e m ­
s e lv e s * I n c e r t a i n c a s e s i n l a r g e w o r k s i t m a y b e d e s i r a b l e t h a t t h e
s te w a r d s in e a c h d e p a r tm e n t s h o u ld f o r m s h o p c o m m itte e s , w ith
w h i c h th e , g e n e r a l c o m m i t t e e c o u l d k e e p i n t o u c h a n d f r o m w h i c h i t s
m e m b e r s c o u ld le a r n th e n e e d s a n d th e c o m p la in ts o f e a c h d e p a r t ­
m e n t. A n o t h e r v a r ia n t is th a t s u b c o m m itte e s in s te a d o f b e in g d e ­
p a r t m e n t a l s h o u l d b e f u n c t i o n a l , i . e ., s h o u l d e a c h d e a l w i t h a p a r ­
t ic u la r m a tte r o r set o f m a tte r s , s u ch as d ilu tio n , p ie c e w o r k , s u g ­
g e s t io n s o f im p r o v e m e n ts , e tc . (S e e p . 74 , f o o t n o t e 3 .)
T h e e x i s t i n g w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s h a v e g e n e r a l l y t w o o ff ic e r s , a c h a i r ­
m a n a n d a s e c r e t a r y . T h e t e n u r e o f o ff ic e o f t h e c o m m i t t e e is o f t e n
u n f i x e d . W h e r e i t i s f i x e d , i t m a y b e f o r s i x m o n t h s o r f o r a y e a r ,.1
A f i x e d t e n u r e , p r o v i d e d t h a t i t is n o t t o o s h o r t , s e e m s d e s i r a b l e ; a
n e w e le c t io n w il l r e in v ig o r a t e th e c o m m it t e e , a n d , i f th e w o r k m e n
in g e n e r a l h a v e a n y fe e lin g w h ic h th e c o m m itte e h a s fa ile d t o e x ­
p r e s s , it w il l g i v e a c h a n c e f o r its e x p r e s s io n .
T h e d e s ir a b ilit y o f e le c t io n b y s e c re t b a llo t h a s b e e n e m p h a s iz e d
b y m a n y e m p lo y e r s a n d b y s o m e tr a d e -u n io n is t s .

IV. PROCEDURE.
S o m e w o r k s c o m m it t e e s h a v e r e g u la r m e e t in g s w it h t h e m a n a g e ­
m e n t a t in te r v a ls o f a w e e k , a fo r t n ig h t , o r a m o n th .
A lis t o f
a g e n d a is c ir c u la t e d a n d r e g u la r m in u t e s a re k e p t. I n o n e e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t w h e r e t h i s i s d o n e t h e m e n ’s c h a i r m a n p r e s i d e s a t o n e f o r t ­
n ig h t ly m e e tin g a n d a r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t a t th e n e x t.
I n o t h e r ca ses th e m e e tin g s a re n o t r e g u la r b u t a re h e ld w h e n e v e r
o c c a s i o n a r is e s .
A r g u m e n t s m a y b e u s e d b o t h f o r a n d a g a in s t a
s y s t e m o f r e g u la r m e e tin g s .
I t m a y b e u r g e d in th e ir fa v o r th a t
th e y p r o v id e a k n o w n a n d r e g u la r tim e f o r r a is in g a q u e s tio n ; th a t
t h e y e n a b le q u e s t io n s t o b e r a is e d in t h e ir in it ia l s ta g e s , w h e r e a s i f
m e e t i n g s a r e n o t h e l d u n t i l o c c a s i o n a r is e s , a q u e s t i o n m a y h a v e
g r o w n a c u t e b e f o r e a m e e t i n g is h e l d ; a n d , f i n a l l y , t h a t b y b r i n g i n g
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t a n d th e m e n in t o c o n s ta n t c o n ­
t a c t , t h e y a c c u s t o m e it h e r s i d e t o s e e in g a n d u n d e r s t a n d in g th e p o i n t
o f v ie w o f th e o th e r . I t m a y b e u rg e d , o n th e o th e r h a n d , t h a t i f
m e e t in g s a r e r e g u la r a n d a t f r e q u e n t in t e r v a ls , t h e r e m a y o f t e n b e
n o b u s in e s s t o b e d o n e , a n d t h a t th e e ff e c t m a y b e e it h e r t o m a k e th e
c o m m i t t e e s l a c k o r t o i n d u c e t h e m o r e r e s t le s s m e m b e r s t o m a n u ­
f a c t u r e b u s i n e s s b y f i n d i n g g r i e v a n c e s a n d d i s c o v e r i n g d if f ic u l t i e s .
I n a n y c a s e i t m a y b e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e m a i n t h i n g is n o t s o m u c h
r e g u l a r i t y o f m e e t i n g s a s w h a t m a y b e thel lprinciple o f the
ca ed
open door.
I f th e m e n k n o w t h a t t h e ir r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s h a v e a cce ss
1 In certain exceptional cases committee members are elected monthly and the secretary
quarterly.




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t o th e m a n a g e m e n t, a n d i f th e y k n o w th a t th e m a n a g e m e n t, o n its
s id e , is r e a d y t o c o n s u lt t h e ir r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s , th e s u cc e s s o f th e m a in
f u n c t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e is s e c u r e d . T h e n u m b e r o f t i m e s a t w h i c h
a g e n e r a l w o r k s c o m m itte e n e e d s t o m e e t th e m a n a g e m e n t w ill v a r y
w ith th e t y p e o f w o r k s a n d w ith th e d e g r e e t o w h ic h s e c tio n a l q u e s­
t io n s c a n b e h a n d le d b y s u ch a c o m m itte e . O n e c o m m itte e , in a n e s ­
ta b lis h m e n t in w h ic h r e la tio n s h a v e a lw a y s b e e n g o o d , h a s m e t th e
m a n a g e m e n t o n a n a v e r a g e th r e e t im e s a y e a r in th e la s t 2 4 y e a r s ,
t h o u g h i n t h e l a s t t h r e e y e a r s , o w i n g t o t h e n u m b e r o f q u e s t i o n s r a is e d
b y th e w a r , th e a v e r a g e n u m b e r o f m e e t in g s in e a c h y e a r h a s b e e n
s e v e n . D u r i n g th e w h o le e x is te n c e o f th e c o m m it t e e , h o w e v e r , th e
r ig h t o f th e s e p a r a te t r a d e d e le g a te s t o m e e t th e m a n a g e m e n t h a s
b ee n fr e e ly u sed . E m p lo y e r s c o m p la in th a t w o r k p e o p le te n d t o w a n t
a ll q u e s tio n s s e ttle d o ff h a n d , a n d f a i l t o r e a liz e t h a t i n v e s t ig a t io n
m a y b e n e c e s s a r y ; a n d o n e a r g u m e n t i n f a v o r o f r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s is
t h a t t h e y f o r m a p e r m a n e n t a n d b u s in e s s lik e s u b s titu te f o r f r e q u e n t
s e c tio n a l d e p u ta tio n s .
T h e r e w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e m a n y q u e s tio n s
w h ic h c a n b e s e t t le d in a m o r e s a t is f a c t o r y w a y i f t h e y a r e d is c u s s e d
a n d in v e s t ig a t e d a t r e g u la r j o i n t m e e tin g s . T h i s m e t h o d , h o w e v e r ,
c a n n o t b e a p p lie d in d is c r im in a t e ly ; th e r e w ill a lw a y s b e m a tte r s o f
u r g e n c y w h ic h m u s t b e ta k e n u p as t h e y a r is e ; a n d s e c t io n a l qu es*
t io n s m a y , in c e r ta in ca ses, b e b e tte r tr e a te d a p a r t f r o m th e r e g u la r
m e e t in g s o f a g e n e r a l w o r k s c o m m itte e .
One other caution may be suggested in this connection. Works
committees instituted in engineering establishments during the
course of the war have naturally found abundant work. The same
will probably be true of the period of reconstruction after the end
of the war. It is possible, however, that under normal conditions a
system of weekly or fortnightly meetings might prove unnecessary.
It may be suggested, therefore, that a distinction may be drawn, on
the point of frequency of meetings, between what may be called “ the
emergency period ” and the period of normal conditions.
A n o t h e r q u e s tio n o f p r o c e d u r e , w h ic h a ls o b e a r s o n th e m a t t e r o f
f r e q u e n c y o f m e e t in g s , is c o n n e c t e d w it h th e p o s it io n o f t h e s e c r e ta r y
o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e . I n m a n y e s t a b lis h m e n t s w h ic h h a v e w o r k s
c o m m it t e e s a la r g e p a r t o f th e a c t iv e w o r k w h ic h t h e y e n t a il is d o n e
b y th e s e c r e ta r y . D iffic u lt ie s a r e r e p o r t e d t o h im b y th e w o r k m e n
c o n c e r n e d e ith e r d ir e c t ly o r t h r o u g h a m e m b e r o f th e c o m m itte e ,
a n d h e , a ft e r c o n s u lta tio n w it h th e c o m m itte e (o r , i t m a y b e , in
le s s e r m a tte r s , i m m e d i a t e l y ) , b r in g s t h e d iffic u ltie s b e f o r e t h e m a n ­
a g em en t.
S u c h d iffic u lt ie s m a y o f t e n b e s e t t le d a t o n c e , a n d t h e ir
s e ttle m e n t s im p ly r e p o r t e d t o th e w o r k s c o m m itte e . A g r e a t d e a l o f
w o r k m a y th u s b e th r o w n u p o n th e s e c r e ta r y in c o n s u lt in g th e w o r k ­
m e n c o n c e r n e d a n d i n i n t e r v i e w i n g .h e m a n a g e m e n t , a n d t h e p o s i ­
t io n is t h u s o n # w h ic h o ffe r s a g r e a t d e a l o f s c o p e t o a m a n o f c a ­




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69

p a c it y . S u c h a m a n m a y la r g e l y c a r r y o n h is s h o u ld e r s th e c u r r e n t
w o r k , a n d th e c o m m itte e m a y o n ly n e e d t o d e a l w it h la r g e r q u e s­
t i o n s . B u t t h e p o s i t i o n h a s i t s d if f ic u l t i e s , a n d t h e r e a r e t w o m a t t e r s
w h i c h d e s e r v e p a r t i c u l a r n o t i c e . O n e o f t h e s e is t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e
se c re ta ry o r c h a ir m a n ’s m o v in g a b o u t th e w o r k s d u r in g w o r k in g
h o u r s , a n d e n t e r in g d e p a r tm e n ts o t h e r t h a n h is o w n , f o r t h e p u r ­
p o s e o f in t e r v ie w in g a n y w o r k m a n w h o h a s p r e fe r r e d a c o m p la in t.
I f th e s e c r e t a r y is b o u n d t o a sk th e c o n s e n t o f a fo r e m a n o r o v e r ­
lo o k e r b e fo r e h e en ters a d e p a rtm e n t, a n d i f th a t co n s e n t m a y b o
r e fu s e d , th e w o r k w h ic h th e se cre ta ry ca n d o in in v e s tig a tin g a n d r e ­
m o v in g g r ie v a n c e s is lia b le t o b e h in d e r e d . I f , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
h e c a n e n te r a n y d e p a r t m e n t (w it h o u t a n y f o r m a lit y , o r o n s im p le
n o t ific a t io n o f h is w is h ) a n d e n g a g e in d is c u s s io n w it h a w o r k m a n ,
t h e w o r k o f th e d e p a r t m e n t m a y b e h e ld t o b e l ik e ly t o s u ffe r . F r o m
t h e e x p e r ie n c e o f s e v e r a l w o r k s , h o w e v e r , it w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t t h is
f r e e d o m o f m o v e m e n t i s f o u n d t o b e a n e s s e n t ia l c o n d i t i o n o f t h e s u c ­
cess o f a c o m m itte e . T h e e x te n t o f fr e e d o m n e ce s s a r y , a n d th e m e m ­
b e r s o f th e c o m m itte e t o w h o m it s h o u ld b e a llo w e d , w ill v a r y w it h
th e s iz e a n d th e o t h e r c ir c u m s t a n c e s o f a w o r k s .
T h e o t h e r m a t t e r w h i c h a r is e s i n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n o f
t h e s e c r e t a r y is c o n c e r n e d w it h h is r e m u n e r a t io n .
H is s e c r e ta r ia l
d u t ie s m a y in t e r f e r e w it h h is o w n w o r k . H e is b o u n d t o lo s e t im e ,
a n d , c o n s e q u e n t ly , u n le s s s o m e a r r a n g e m e n t is m a d e t o i n d e m n i f y
h i m , h e i s b o u n d t o l o s e w a g e s . I n o n e c a s e , i n w h i c h , i t is t r u e , t h e
w o r k is s p e c ia lly c o m p lic a t e d a n d o n e r o u s , th e a m o u n t o f t im o
s p e n t o n s e c r e t a r i a l w o r k is s a i d t o a m o u n t t o a t o t a l o f 3 0 h o u r s i n
a w e e k ; in a n o th e r ca se th e lo s s o f w a g e s in v o lv e d h a s, o v e r a p e r io d
o f s e v e r a l w e e k s , a m o u n t e d t o £ 2 [$ 9 .7 3 ] a w e e k . I n o n e la r g e w o r k s ,
w h e r e t h e c o m m it te e is e n g a g e d t o a g r e a t e x te n t w it h q u e s tio n s
a r is in g f r o m c h a r it a b le w o r k , th e s e c r e t a r y n o w g iv e s h is w h o le t im e
t o t h e d u t i e s o f h i s p o s i t i o n , a n d is p a i d b y t h e f i r m . I n s o m e c a s e s
it w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t th e s e c r e t a r y is p a id o r d in a r y tim e w a g e s f o r
t h e t im e h e s p e n d s o n s e c r e t a r ia l b u s in e s s in w o r k in g h o u r s ; in o t h e r
ca ses, w h e r e th e w o r k is p r e m iu m b o n u s o r p ie c e w o r k , h e m a y r e ­
c e iv e th e a v e r a g e e a r n in g s , o r , a g a in , h is c o m p a n io n s m a y k e e p h is
m a c h in e r u n n in g in h is a b se n ce. I t see m s, h o w e v e r , th a t s o m e a r ­
r a n g e m e n t is n e c e s s a r y t o m e e t w h a t is o f t e n a r e a l d i f f i c u l t y .
It
m a y b e a r g u e d t h a t th e m a n a g e m e n t s h o u ld p a y th e s e c r e t a r y 1
1 In certain cases the secretary’s (or chief shop steward’s) guaranty of average earn­
ings appears to depend upon the will of a foreman or rate fixer. Thus, in one large estab­
lishment, where the premium bonus systenfis in operation, a chief shop steward is paid
his time for periods during which he is engaged on negotiations with the management;
it is usual, however, for the rate fixer to see that sufficient “ extras” are added to the
man’s bonus earnings to neutralize the difference between the time wages and what
might have been earned on bonus for the periods in question. This more or less casual
arrangement does not appear to be a very satisfactory solution of the difficulty.




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUEEAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

t h e f u l l w a g e s w h ic h h e w o u ld o t h e r w is e h a v e m a d e , s in c e th e w o r k
h e d o e s c o n d u c e s t o t h e b e t t e r r u n n in g o f t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t . O n t h e
oth e r h a n d , th e m e n m ig h t o b je c t t o su ch a cou rse , o n th e g r o u n d
th a t it te n d e d t o m a k e th e s e c re ta ry m o r e d e p e n d e n t o n th e m a n ­
a g e m e n t a n d le s s o f a f e l l o w w o r k m a n . A n o t h e r m e t h o d , w h ic h is
e m p lo y e d in s o m e ca se s, is t h a t t h e s e c r e t a r y s h o u ld b e r e im b u r s e d
f o r lo s t tim e b y t h e w o r k m e n . I n c e r t a in ca se s i t m a y b e n o t e d th a t
w e e k ly c o n t r ib u t io n s a re p a id b y t h e w o r k p e o p le t o m e e t th e e x ­
p e n s e s o f m e e t in g s , e tc .
A n o t h e r q u e s t io n , w h ic h is s o m e w h a t a n a lo g o u s , c o n c e r n s t h e
t im e o f th e m e e t in g s o f th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e .
U n d e r o n e p la n th e
m e e t i n g s m a y b e h e l d i n t h e e m p l o y e r ’s t i m e , a n d t h e m e m b e r s m a y
b e p a id f u ll ra te s d u r in g th e tim e th e y s p e n d in a tte n d a n ce .
T h is
is a p la n w h ic h is o f t e n a d o p t e d w h e n th e r e a r e r e g u la r m e e t in g s
w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t. M a n y c o m m itte e s w h ic h h a v e n o r e g u la r
m e e t in g s w it h t h e m a n a g e m e n t m e e t a f t e r w o r k in g h o u r s .
A n oth er
p la n , w h ic h h a s b e e n s u g g e s t e d , is t h a t th e m e e t in g s s h o u ld b e h e ld
p a r t l y i n t h e e m p l o y e r ’s t i m e ( t h e m e m b e r s b e i n g p a i d f u l l r a t e s
d u r in g th a t t im e ) a n d p a r t ly in th e tim e o f th e m e n , o r , in o t h e r
w o r d s , a ft e r w o r k in g h ou rs.
T h i s m a y p r e s e n t s o m e d iffic u ltie s ,
a s s o m e o f th e m e m b e r s m a y fin d i t in c o n v e n ie n t t o s t a y a f t e r w o r k ­
in g h ou rs.
O n th e o t h e r h a n d , i t is a r g u e d t h a t t h is c o u r s e b e s t
c o r r e s p o n d s to th e lo g ic o f th e s it u a t io n ; m a n a g e m e n t a n d m e n b o th
g a in fr o m th e w o r k o f a c o m m itte e , a n d i t seem s l o g ic a l th a t e ith e r
s id e s h o u ld s u r r e n d e r a p a r t o f its tim e . T h e s o lu t io n o f th e p r o b ­
le m d e p e n d s to so m e e x te n t o n th e le n g th o f th e w o r k in g d a y .
M em ­
b e r s o f c o m m i t t e e s h a v e c o m p l a i n e d t h a t t o m e e t a t 8 o r 8 .3 0 p . m .,
a ft e r th re e h o u rs o f o v e r tim e , w a s “ a b it h a r d .”
U n d e r n orm al
h o u r s th e a t t it u d e w o u ld h a v e b e e n d iffe r e n t .
I n th e m a t t e r o f p r o c e d u r e in th e s t r ic t e r sen se o f th e te r m th e r e
is a t p re s e n t a g o o d d e a l o f v a rie ty .
G e n e r a l l y t h e p r o c e d u r e is
s o m e w h a t i n f o r m a l, a n d th is , in th e e a r lie r s t a g e s o f a w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e , is p e r h a p s t o th e g o o d .
T h e n o rm a l p ro ce d u re , so fa r as on e
c a n s p e a k o f a n o r m a l p r o c e d u r e , is s o m e w h a t a s f o l l o w s :
( 1 ) A w o r k m a n w h o h a s a g r ie v a n c e w ill r e p o r t it, d ir e c t ly o r
t h r o u g h th e c o m m itte e m a n in h is d e p a r tm e n t, t o th e s e c r e ta r y .
L e s s e r g r ie v a n c e s , w h ic h d o n o t a ffe c t a n u m b e r o f m e n o r r a is e a
g e n e r a l q u e s tio n , m a y b e s e ttle d a t o n c e b y th e s e c r e ta r y w it h t h e
fo r e m a n o r d e p a rtm e n ta l m a n a g e r c o n c e r n e d .
(2) Grievances which are not thus settled are taken up by the
committee, and brought by the coiflmittee before the management.
( 3 ) I f g r ie v a n c e s o r d is p u t e s a re n o t s e ttle d w it h t h e m a n a g e ­
m e n t, th e y a re c a r r ie d t o th e b r a n c h o r th e d is t r ic t o r g a n iz a t io n o f
th e tr a d e -u n io n o r tra d e -u n io n s c o n c e r n e d , a n d th e y g o h e n c e fo r t h
a lo n g th e o r d in a r y c h a n n e ls o f t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n .




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The effect of this procedure can best be seen by comparing it with
the procedure which is followed in the absence of a works committee
or of recognized shop stewards for the separate trades. Where there
is no works committee the individual workman, or a delegation of
workmen, will bring their case to the management, if they can get
admission; and failing any agreement, the matter will go straight
to the trade-union. Where there is a works committee the difference
is this: First, that there is a certainty of admission to the manage­
ment; secondly, that instead of the onus of stating their case being
thrown on the individuals concerned, there is a regular machinery
(the officers and the committee) to sift the case and to state it
formally; thirdly, that, instead of the.action taken being individual
Or sectional, it is the general action of a body representative of all the
works; and, finally, that there are two chances of a settlement being
attained in the works (first between the secretary and the foreman or
departmental manager, and, failing that, between the committee and
the management) before the question goes outside for settlement.
The main difference between this procedure and that adopted when
the trade shop stewards are recognized is much less, and only
arises on the third of the points just mentioned. This difference,
however, is important, because it involves the problem of the de­
limitation of a works committee’s functions. It may also be noted
that, in certain cases at least, the machinery of the works com­
mittee is brought into operation not as a preliminary to the question
going before a trade-union branch, but in support of a decision pre­
viously come to by a branch. This is so in certain iron and steel
works. The difference, it may be said, is more apparent than real,
because many of the branches (and these the strongest in numbers)
are in such cases works branches—that is to say, the membership
of the branch is confined to men employed in the works. On the
other hand, certain branches extend their membership beyond the
works; and, in so far as the works committee takes up a case already
entertained by such a branch as union business, there is another form
of procedure. This procedure appears to have been adopted in cer­
tain cases with the acquiescence of the trade-union branch concerned.
It seems important that the place of the works committee in re­
lation to trade questions should be properly defined; otherwise there
may be dangers of overlapping and confusion through (a) the
diversion of a purely trade question to the works committee, when
it ought to go through the ordinary trade-union channels, or (b)
the use by a trade-union branch of the works committee in support
of a case which it should properly call upon the officials of its union
to handle.
Three other matters of procedure call for notice. One of these is
the use of what may be called u the referendum.” A works commit­




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

te e , w h e n it s m e m b e r s fe e l t h a t a m a t t e r is im p o r t a n t , a n d th a t it is
n e c e s s a r y t h a t t h e y s h o u ld a s c e r t a in a n d c a r r y w it h th e m th e o p i n i o n
o f th e w o r k e r s e ith e r in a d e p a r tm e n t o r in a ll th e w o r k s , m a y s u m ­
m o n a g e n e r a l m e e t in g a n d b r in g th e m a t t e r f o r w a r d f o r d is c u s s io n
in t h a t m e e t in g .
T h e r e m a y b e n o r u le s t o d e c id e w h e n t h is s h o u ld
b e d o n e , a n d it m a y b e d o n e a t d iffe r e n t s ta g e s , e ith e r b e f o r e a m a t t e r
h a s b e e n d is c u s s e d w it h t h e m a n a g e m e n t o r s u b s e q u e n t ly t o s u c h d is ­
c u s s io n ; b u t th e p o s s ib ilit y o f s u c h a g e n e r a l m e e t in g e n a b le s th e
c o m m itte e t o m a k e su re th a t its p o lic y w ill b e a d o p te d b y th e w o r k ­
m e n c o n c e r n e d , a n d it p u ts it in a p o s itio n to a ssu re th e m a n a g e m e n t
th a t a p o l ic y th u s c o n fir m e d c a n r e a lly b e c a r r ie d in t o e ffe ct.
In
c e r t a in in d u s t r ie s th e r e g u la r , s h o p m e e t in g is a fe a t u r e o f s h o p o r ­
g a n iz a tio n .
T h i s is s o , f o r e x a m p le , in f u r n i s h i n g a n d in th e w o o d ­
w o r k in g s id e o f th e a i r c r a f t in d u s t r y in L o n d o n .
T h e s h o p m e e tin g
is r e a l l y a f a c t o r y m e e t i n g a n d i s h e l d o n c e a m o n t h .
A n o t h e r m a t t e r o f p r o c e d u r e is o n e w h ic h t o u c h e s th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t a n d d ir e c t o r s o f a fir m .
I t is im p o r t a n t t h a t th e r e p r e s e n t a ­
tiv e s o f th e fir m w h o m e e t th e c o m m itte e o r ( i f it is a jo i n t b o d y )
s it o n th e c o m m it t e e s h o u ld b e lo n g t o th e h ig h e s t r a n k , a n d s h o u ld i n ­
c lu d e th e g e n e r a l w o r k s m a n a g e r ( o r , i f t h e r e is o n e , th e la b o r
s u p e r in t e n d e n t )1 a n d o n e o r m o r e o f th e d ir e c t o r s .
A great p a rt
o f th e v a lu e o f th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e , f r o m th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e
m e n , is th a t it b r in g s th e m in to c o n ta c t a n d g iv e s th e m a n o p p o r ­
t u n it y o f d is c u s s io n w it h t h e a u t h o r it ie s , w it h w h o m i n it s a b s e n c e
t h e y s e ld o m g e t in t o c lo s e t o u c h , a n d th e n o n ly o n p o in t s o f d iff e r ­
en ce.
N o r is it o n ly th e w o r k m e n w h o s ta n d t o g a in i f th e h ig h e s t
r a n k o f m a n a g e m e n t is r e p r e s e n t e d . M e m b e r s o f t h e f i r m w h o a r e
p r i m a r il y o c c u p ie d w it h fin a n c e o r te c h n iq u e w il l b e b r o u g h t i n t o
c o n t a c t w it h th o s e q u e s tio n s o f la b o r w h ic h a r e th e fu n d a m e n t a l
p r o b le m s o f in d u s t r y , a n d in d is c u s s in g th e se q u e s tio n s w it h t h e r e p ­
r e s e n ta tiv e s o f t h e w o r k m e n t h e y a r e lik e ly t o g a in a d e e p e r in s ig h t
in t o th e b e s t m e th o d s o f c o n d u c t in g th e in d u s t r y .
L a s t ly , th e r e a r e q u e s tio n s c o n n e c t e d w it h th e k e e p in g o f m in u te s ,
th e d r a w in g u p o f a g e n d a , th e p r e s e n ta tio n o f c o m p la in ts , a n d th e
lik e . W h e r e r e g u la r j o i n t m e e t in g s a r e h e ld it is c o m m o n f o r a c o m ­
p le te r e c o r d o f e a c h m e e t in g t o b e m a d e in s h o r th a n d b y a m e m b e r
o f t h e s t a ff a n d f o r t h e w o r k p e o p le ’s s e c r e t a r y t o m a k e n o t e s o f th e
p r o c e e d in g s ; m in u te s b a s e d o n th e c o m p le te r e c o r d m a y b e c ir c u la te d
a m o n g t h e m e m b e r s o f th e c o m m it t e e a f t e r t h e m e e t in g .
E ven
w h e re th e c o m m itte e o f w o r k p e o p le as a w h o le d o e s n o t m e e t th e
m a n a g e m e n t, i t m a y s u p p ly th e la tte r w it h c o p ie s o f th e m in u te s
w h i c h c o n c e r n t h e m a n a g e m e n t . I t is c o m m o n f o r t h e m a n a g e m e n t
1 A particularly interesting development during the war has been the appointment to
the management staffs of several establishments of persons whose chief function is to deal
with labor questions. The success of a works committee may to a considerable extent
depend upon the status and qualifications of such an official.




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73

t o s u p p ly t y p i n g fa c ilit ie s f o r th e d u p lic a t io n o f m in u te s a n d o f
agenda.
I n s o m e w o r k s c o m p la in t s m a d e t o th e c o m m itte e m u st b e
in w r itin g .
T h is r u le h a s s o m e tim e s b e e n in t r o d u c e d in o r d e r to
c h e c k th $ m a k in g o f fr iv o lo u s c o m p la in ts o r in a c c u r a te s ta te m e n ts ;
i t m a y b e c o m p a r e d w it h a m e th o d o f th e “ c h a p e l,” w h e r e a m e m b e r
m a y c a ll a s p e c ia l m e e t in g b y p la c in g a s h illin g ( o r o t h e r s u m ) a o n
th e s t o n e ” o n p a in o f f o r f e i t i n g h is s h illin g i f th e c h a p e l d e c id e s
t h a t h i s c o m p l a i n t is g r o u n d l e s s .

V. FUNCTIONS.
S in c e w o r k s c o m m it t e e s a r e o f d iff e r e n t t y p e s it is o b v io u s t h a t
t h e ir fu n c t io n s v a r y c o n s id e r a b ly .
I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e r e is t h e
d is t in c t io n a lr e a d y m e n t io n e d u n d e r th e h e a d o f n o m e n c la t u r e .
A
w e lfa r e c o m m it t e e is c o n c e r n e d w it h a ll q u e s tio n s t h a t a ffe c t th e c o m ­
f o r t a n d p h y s ic a l w e ll- b e in g o f t h e w o r k m a n w h ile h e is e n g a g e d
o n h i s o c c u p a t i o n ; a n i n d u s t r i a l c o m m i t t e e is c o n c e r n e d w i t h i n d u s ­
t r ia l c o n d it io n s in g e n e r a l.
O ft e n a w o r k s c o m m itte e w ill u n d e r ­
ta k e b o t h sets o f fu n c t io n s , b u t s o m e c o m m itte e s m a y b e c o n fin e d ,
p r im a r ily a t a n y ra te , to th e w o r k in g o f a sy ste m o f b o n u s o n o u tp u t
o r p r e m iu m b o n u s o r p ie c e r a t e s ; o t h e r s m a y b e c o n fin e d t o q u e s ­
t io n s o f d il u t i o n ; o th e r s m a y h a v e a g e n e r a l a n d u n d e fin e d s c o p e
w h ic h d e p e n d s o n an u n w r it t e n u n d e r s t a n d in g b e tw e e n m a n a g e m e n t
an d m en.
T h e r e a re s e v e r a l q u e s tio n s o f a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r w h ic h d e s e r v e
s o m e a t t e n t io n b e f o r e w e tu r n t o th e d e t a ile d fu n c t io n s a c t u a lly
d is c h a r g e d b y v a r io u s w o r k s c o m m itte e s . A r e th e se fu n c t io n s a lw a y s
c o n s u lt a t iv e , o r a re t h e y s o m e tim e s e x e c u t iv e ?
T h i s r a is e s a n o t h e r
q u e s tio n , I s it p o s s ib le , in th e s t r ic t sen se o f th e w o r d , t o s p e a k o f
a jo in t w o r k s c o m m itte e ?
W h a t , a g a in , a re th e fu n c t io n s o f th e
m a n a g e m e n t, a n d h o w f a r m a y a w o r k s c o m m itte e tr e n c h o n th ese
fu n c tio n s ?
F i n a l l y , w h a t is m e a n t b y “ r e c o g n i t i o n , ” a n d w h a t i s
t h e e ff e c t , o f r e c o g n i t i o n o n t h e f u n c t i o n s a n d p o w e r s o f a w o r k s
c o m m itte e ?
A s f a r a-s t h e f i r s t q u e s t i o n is c o n c e r n e d , i t w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e
fu n c t io n s o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e a re p r a c t ic a lly a lw a y s c o n s u lta tiv e .
U s u a lly a w o r k s c o m m itte e c a n b r in g m a tte r s b e f o r e th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t a n d d is c u s s th e m w it h t h e m a n a g e m e n t ; i t c a n p r e s s it s v ie w s
a b o u t th e se m a tte r s o n th e m a n a g e m e n t; in th e la s t r e s o r t it c a n
i n d u c e t h e t r a d e - u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c a l l a s t r ik e . B u t t h e w o r k s
c o m m it t e e c a n n o t u s u a lly , as s u ch , c a r r y its v ie w s i n t o a c t io n , o r
in s u r e t h a t t h e y s h a ll b e c a r r ie d in t o a c t io n , b y a n y d ir e c t m a c h in e r y .
T h e m a n a g e m e n t h a s th e e x e c u t iv e p o w e r , a n d u n le s s t h e m a n a g e ­
m e n t is im p r e s s e d b y th e r e p r e s e n t a t io n s o f th e m e m b e r s o f th e
c o m m it t e e , o r b y t h e s a n c t io n w h ic h lie s b e h in d th e m , th o s e r e p r e ­




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

sentations will not lead to executive action.1 This would appear to
be usual even where the works committee is a joint committee. There
are, indeed, certain cases in which the decision of a majority of the
members of such a joint committee is carried into effect. This is so
in the pit-head and certain other committees2 which have the power
to fine bad timekeepers; and in certain engineering establishments
the question of prosecuting bad timekeepers before the munitions
tribunal is decided by joint works committees. But, so far as can be
discovered, the general custom is to the contrary. Unanimity must
be attained; the management must be convinced, and both sides must
freely agree together, before executive action is taken. The opera­
tion of a joint committee is really in the nature of consultation be­
tween two parties—consultation which, if it results in unanimity,
results in action, but not otherwise. It would be a mistake to think
in terms of voting, or to think that even if there is voting, its result
is a formal decision by a majority vote. What happens is rather
discussion by which misunderstanding is often removed, and upon
which, if unanimity is attained between the two sides, action will
ensue. It follows, therefore, that generally we can not speak of
joint committees, if by joint committees we understand joint execu­
tive councils acting by the vote of the majority. On the other hand,
there are joint committees, if by joint committees we understand
deliberative meetings of both sides, always attended by both sides,
though often accompanied by separate meetings of the two sides.3
A question of importance, when we are considering the functions
of a works committee, is the definition of the term “ management.”
1 In one establishment, however, decisions upon disciplinary and timekeeping cases made
by a committee wholly composed of workpeople are accepted by the firm. See reference to
works tribunal on p. 77. In some cases such functions as the day to day administration
of a messroom are discharged by committees wholly composed of workpeople. Even in
such cases, however, an important decision— for example, one involving capital expendi­
ture— would usually have to meet with the approval of the management before it could
be put into force.
2 See Appendix IV, pp. 158-163.
8 The division between executive and advisory powers in a scheme now under consid­
eration for an engineering works may be noted. It is proposed that the former should
include (1) tlfose powers conferred by the trade-unions and in accordance with the con­
stitution or resolutions o f the local allied engineering trades and (2) those conferred by
the firm. The suggested first list of executive powers contains the following t Determina­
tion of hours o f work (with minimum of 50 per week) ; mess room ; heating, lighting, sani­
tary matters, e tc .; ambulance; collections, supervision of notice boards, entertainments,
e t c . ; proposed technical lending library and works magazine; and organization of the
s p o r t s association. The advisory functions include the regulation of piecework; the en­
gagement, discharge, dilution, and transfer of labor (excluding disciplinary discharges) ;
training and education o f apprentices; suggestion of improvements in methods; timekeep­
in g , e tc.
It is proposed that seven subcommittees be formed, each subcommittee to deal
w it h one or more of the above-mentioned functions, e. g., a subcommittee for hours of
w o r k , engagements and discharges, and timekeeping; a subcommittee for mess room ; and a
subcommittee, advisory and negotiatory, for piecework. There is this reservation in regard
to executive functions that if capital expenditure is involved authority should be obtained
from the firm before such expenditure is incurred.




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75

I t may be urged, on the one side, that the functions of a works

committee should not be such as to interfere with management; it
may be urged, on the other, that if a works committee is to be de­
barred from questions o f management it loses reality and becomes a
mere form. Much, therefore, depends on the sense in which die
term “ management ” is used. Is the work of the foreman part of
management % Or does the word denote the higher organization o f
industry ? It would appear that a works committee, if it is to be o f
any value in ventilating and removing grievances, must be in a posi­
tion to ventilate grievances arising from the conduct o f foremen or
overlookers. Such grievances touch the worker most closely in his
daily work, and if they can not be discussed the committee loses a
sphere of action in which it might be of the greatest service. It is
true that if a committee has the right of criticizing the action of
foremen, difficulties may arise. Foramen may feel that their au­
thority is undermined; they may feel that they are being made
responsible not only, as heretofore, to the management (a responsi­
bility they know and understand), but also to the committee* they
may feel that, with a dual responsibility, their position becomes
exceedingly difficult. These are real problems. In many instances,
however, they seem to have been surmounted; and if they prove
serious, they may perhaps be met, to some extent, if the general
manager arranges to meet the foremen in advance, and to discuss
with them criticisms and grievances which have come from the
works committee.1
The last of the general questions raised by a consideration o f the
functions and position of a works committee is that of recognition.”
This, again, is a term which seems to be understood in difeiient
senses, and which it is difficult to define. A. committee may be held,
from the point of view of th© management, not to be recognized,
even when the management is in constant touch with its secretary,
and even when it consents to meet those members of the committee
who represent a department which has a grievance. Here the point
would appear to be that the management does not, as such, formally
meet the whole committee. In another case a system almost exactly
parallel—a system under which the management interviews four or
five members of the committee—is described as one of u recogni­
tion.” The term u recognition ” thus appears to have no fixed mean*
ing; and it may be concluded that what matters is the fact o f con- ■
1 In some establishments there are management committees, and in others regnlar con
fereaaces between directors, managers, and foremen are held. The (piestioa of meetings
the HMuaageiaent and works committees together is tioder discussion in tme or two
firms. The relation o f works committees to problems o f managpeiaeat is discussed further
o . p. 78 et m%.
m




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

s u lt a t io n b e tw e e n a c o m m itt e e a n d th e m a n a g e m e n t r a t h e r th a n a n y
fo r m a l p r o n o u n c e m e n t a b o u t th e fa c t .
I n th e p r e c e d in g p a r a g r a p h s th e fu n c t io n s o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e
h a v e b e e n d is c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o t h e m a n a g e m e n t . I t i s o b v i o u s
t h a t t h e y m u s t a ls o b e d is c u s s e d w it h r e fe r e n c e t o t r a d e - u n io n o r g a n i ­
z a t io n . A w o r k s c o m m it t e e m u s t s ta n d in s o m e s o r t o f r e la tio n t o
th e d is t r ic t c o m m itte e s o f th e u n io n s t o w h ic h th e w o r k m e n in th e
w o rk s, b e lo n g , a n d som e d e m a r ca tio n o f fu n c tio n s , w h e th e r e x p lic it
o r i m p l i c i t , has* t o b e m a d e . T h e r e l a t i o n s v a r y , a n d t h e d e m a r c a ­
t io n is n o t a lw a y s e a s y t o m a k e . G e n e r a lly t h e d iv is io n is s a id t o b e
th a t q u e s tio n s o f g e n e r a l a p p lic a t io n — d is t r ic t r a te s o f w a g e s , h o u r s
o f w o r k , a n d o th e r d is t r ic t o r n a tio n a l c o n d it io n s o f w o r k — a re
r e g a r d e d b y w o r k s c o m m itte e s as o u ts id e th e ir sp h e re , a n d s u ch
q u e s tio n s a r e l e f t t o b e s e ttle d b y th e e m p lo y e r s o r a s s o c ia t io n s o f
e m p lo y e r s w it h th e t r a d e -u n io n s .1 O n th e o t h e r h a n d , q u e s tio n s o f a
p a r t ic u la r a p p lic a t io n r e la t in g t o a w o r k s — f o r e x a m p le , a p ie c e
r a t e f o r a p a r t ic u la r jo b f o r w h ic h it is im p o s s ib le t o la y d o w n a n y
g e n e r a l p ie c e r a te f o r th e d is t r ic t — a r e r e g a r d e d a s b e lo n g in g t o th e
fu n c t io n s o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e . S u c h a c o m m itte e m a y th u s d e a l ( 1 )
w it h th e p a r t ic u la r a p p lic a t io n in th e w o r k s o f a p r in c ip le g e n e r a l t o
t h e d is tr ic t , a n d ( 2 ) w it h q u e s tio n s w h ic h a r e e n t ir e ly p e c u lia r t o t h e
w ork s.
B u t th e g e n e r a l p r o b le m o f th e r e la tio n s o f w o r k s c o m ­
m i t t e e s a n d t r a d e - u n i o n s o r g a n i z a t i o n is o n e t h a t d e m a n d s s e p a r a t e
tre a tm e n t, a n d it w ill a c c o r d in g ly b e tr e a te d in a su b se q u e n t s e c tio n .
T h e p o w e r s o f th e m a n a g em en t a n d th e p o w e rs o f th e lo c a l tra d e u n i o n o r g a n i z a t i o n m a y b e s a i d t o c o n s t i t u t e t w o p o i n t s m o r e o r le s s
fix e d , a n d th e p o w e r s o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e a re n a tu r a lly d e te r m in e d
w it h r e fe r e n c e to th ese t w o p o in ts in w a y s th a t v a r y a c c o r d in g as
th o s e p o in ts v a r y . T u r n in g t o th e w o r k s c o m m itte e in it s e lf, w e m a y
d is t in g u is h t w o m a in t y p e s o f fu n c t io n . I n th e fir s t t y p e a c o m m it t e e
is p r im a r ily c o n c e r n e d w ith s o m e o n e p a r t ic u la r t h in g — a sch e m e o f
d ilu tio n , a sy s te m o f b o n u s , o r a m e th o d o f p r o fit s h a r in g .
T h is
d o e s n o t p r e v e n t s u ch a c o m m itte e fr o m d e a lin g in c id e n t a lly w it h
o t h e r th in g s . O n th e c o n t r a r y , a c o m m it t e e o n d ilu t io n w il l b e le d
t o d is c u s s t h e w a g e s o f d i l u t e e s a n d o t h e r q u e s t i o n s ; a c o m m i t t e e o n
a b o n u s s y s te m w ill b e le d t o d e a l w ith t im e k e e p in g a n d o th e r m a tte r s
w h ic h a ffe c t th e b o n u s . A c o m m itte e , t h e r e fo r e , w h ic h is p r im a r ily
a n d fo r m a lly c o n c e r n e d w it h a p a r t ic u la r t h in g m a y a c tu a lly b e
s o m e t h in g o f th e n a tu r e o f a g e n e r a l w o r k s c o m m itte e . W h e n o n c e
a n o r g a n i z a t i o n is c r e a t e d , i f o n l y f o r a s i n g l e a c t i v i t y , i t w i l l n a t u ­
r a lly b e c o m e a ce n te r f o r o th e r a c tiv itie s ; th e m a n a g e m e n t, fin d in g
1 This does not mean that the works committee may not consider an alleged infringe­
ment of such conditions. This, as we saw previously, is one of the usual duties of shop
stewards.




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77

a representative organization which it can consult, may consult it on
broader issues; and vice versa the representative organization, meet­
ing the management to discuss one issue, may readily tend to bring
forward other issues. The tendency for this to come about is greater
if the committee is one of shop stewards who are charged by their
unions with a general supervision of conditions.

I n t h e s e c o n d t y p e a c o m m i t t e e is f r o m t h e f i r s t g e n e r a l i n i t s
r a n g ^ , a n d is f o r m e d t o d e a l w i t h t h e g e n e r a l i n d u s t r i a l c o n d i t i o n s
o f a w orks.
O n e s u ch c o m m it t e e h a s f o r its p r o v in c e ( 1 ) t o in q u ir e
in t o g r ie v a n c e s r e p o r t e d b y w o r k m e n ; ( 2 ) t o b r in g b e f o r e a n d d is ­
cu ss w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t g r ie v a n c e s th a t it c o n s id e r s g e n u in e ; ( 3 )
t o c o n s id e r c o m p la in ts a b o u t w a g e s a n d p ie c e ra te s w h ic h c o n c e r n
i n d i v i d u a l s ; ( 4 ) t o c o n s id e r q u e s tio n s r e la t in g t o th e h e a lt h a n d
s a fe t y o f th e w o r k m e n ; ( 5 ) t o c o n s u lt w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t o n th e
in t e r p r e t a t io n o f a w a rd s , o r d e r s , a n d c ir c u la r s ; a n d ( 6 ) t o c o n s id e r
g e n e r a l l y t h e c o n d i t i o n s o f w o r k i n t h e e s t a b li s h m e n t .
T h is m a y be
c o n s id e r e d to b e f a i r l y t y p ic a l.
A n o t h e r c o m m itte e , p r im a r ily c o n ­
c e r n e d w it h p ie c e r a te s, h a s a ls o d e a lt w it h q u e s tio n s o f v e n t ila t io n
a n d s a n ita t io n , c o m p la in t s a b o u t th e d e c is io n s o f fo r e m e n , a r r a n g e ­
m e n t o f s h ifts a n d o f h o u r s o f a d m is s io n t o th e w o r k s , th e a llo c a ­
t i o n o f p ie c e w o r k a n d t im e w o r k , a n d t h e in t e r p r e t a t io n o f o ffic ia l
o r d e r s a n d c ir c u la r s .
O th e r m a tte r s h a n d le d b y w o r k s c o m m itte e s
in c lu d e w o r k s d is c ip lin e , e s p e c ia lly t im e k e e p in g , m e th o d s o f p a y in g
w a g e s , h o u r s o f o v e r t im e , a n d th e lik e .
T h e q u e s t io n n a ir e w h ic h is
p r in t e d in th e fir s t a p p e n d i x 1 c o n t a in s a lis t o f p o s s ib le f u n c t i o n s ;
a n d it m a y b e s a id a t o n c e th a t d iffe r e n t w o r k s c o m m itte e s e x e m p l if y
a ll th ese fu n c t io n s a n d th a t s o m e e x e r c is e fu n c t io n s w h ic h a re n o t
in c lu d e d in t h e lis t.
In s ta n c e s m a y b e c ite d o f c o m m itte e s w h ic h a re t e n d in g t o e x e r ­
c is e , o r a c t u a lly e x e r c is e , p e c u lia r a n d in t e r e s t in g fu n c t io n s .
In
s e v e r a l ca ses w o r k s c o m m itte e s h a v e m a d e s u g g e s tio n s f o r e c o n o m ie s
i n th e r u n n in g o f m a c h in e r y , a n d it is a g r e e d o n b o t h s id e s t h a t th e
c o m m itte e s h a v e b r o u g h t t o lig h t w e a k s p o ts in o r g a n iz a t io n .2 A
s t r ik in g fe a t u r e is th e k e e n n e s s o f c e r t a in c o m m itte e s , o r o f th e m o r e
a c t i v e m e m b e r s o f t h e s e c o m m i t t e e s , t o d is c u s s t h e a f t e r - w a r s i t u a t i o n ,
a n d t h is in r e la t io n n o t o n ly t o w o r k in g c o n d it io n s , b u t a ls o t o s u ch
p r o b le m s a s th e p r o p e r e m p lo y m e n t o f p la n t .
A n o t h e r c a s e is
e q u a lly in t e r e s tin g .
T h is is th e ca se o f a w o r k s in w h ic h a w o r k s
t r ib u n a l h a s b e e n in s t itu te d in lie u o f th e lo c a l m u n it io n s tr ib u n a l.
T h e m e n e le c t a j u r y o f 12 a n d a c h a ir m a n , a n d t h is t r ib u n a l h a s
b e e n s u c c e s s fu l in b r in g in g a b o u t a g r e a t im p r o v e m e n t in d is c ip lin e
i See pp. 92-94.— [Ed.]
a The same is said of pit-head committees— a form of colliery committee to insure in­
creased output— as may be seen from the report on these committees in Appendix II,
p. 153.




B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUKEAU O F LABOB STATISTICS,

a n d t im e k e e p in g .1 A n in c id e n t in t h is w o r k s , t h o u g h i t d o e s n o t
b e a r d ir e c t ly o n th e m a t t e r o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s , is in d ir e c t ly o f
v a lu e a s s h o w in g th a t c o n s u lt a t io n w it h t h e w o r k m e n m a y b e o f
g r e a t s e r v ic e t o th e m a n a g e m e n t.
A q u e s tio n a r o s e o f t h e i n t r o ­
d u c t io n o f d ilu tio n in t o th e w o r k s , a n d th e m e n in th e p a tte r n -m a k in g
s h o p s o b je c t e d t o its in t r o d u c t io n .
T h e y w e r e in te r v ie w e d b y th e
m a n a g in g d ir e c to r , w h o a sk e d w h a t a lte rn a tiv e s u g g e s tio n th e y
c o u ld m a k e f o r in c r e a s in g ou tp u t.
T h e y a n sw ered th a t th ey b e­
lie v e d th e y c o u ld e a s ily in c re a s e t h e ir o u t p u t i f t h e y h a d a d d it io n a l
e q u ip m e n t. A t o o l c a t a lo g w a s p u t b e f o r e th e m .
T h e y su g g ested
t h e p u r c h a s e o f a n u m b e r o f t o o l s c o s t i n g i n a l l n e a r l y £ 2 ,0 0 0 [ $ 9 , 7 3 3 ] .
T h e t o o ls w e r e b o u g h t a n d th e o u tp u t w a s in cre a s e d b y 50 p e r c e n t
w ith o u t d ilu tio n .
The range of functions which a works committee can efficiently
undertake is necessarily indefinite, and a subject of contention not only
between employers and workpeople, but also between different groups
both of employers and of workpeople. Some of the questions on
which there is considerable difference of opinion may be noted. They
include questions affecting promotion, dismissal, the suggestion of im­
proved processes, lectures and education in trade technique, and
works discipline.
T h e q u e s t i o n o f a l l e g e d w r o n g f u l d i s m i s s a l is a l r e a d y h a n d l e d b y
t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s , a n d t h e r e is a c o n s i d e r a b l e b o d y o f o p i n i o n a m o n g
b o t h w o r k p e o p le a n d e m p lo y e r s th a t, a t le a s t in t h e fir s t in s ta n c e ,
it is a s u it a b le fu n c t io n f o r a w o r k s c o m m it t e e .
D is m is s a l f o r s u ch
a r e a s o n a s a lle g e d d is o b e d ie n c e , it is a r g u e d , m a y b e o n l y a c lo a k
f o r v ic t im iz a t io n ; re a so n s m a y b e in v e n te d b y a fo r e m a n in o r d e r
to g e t r id o f p a r tic u la r m e n .
T h e c l a i m is m a d e t h a t t h e o t h e r
w o r k p e o p le a r e l ik e ly t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e p s y c h o lo g i c a l in flu e n c e s
u n d e r ly in g s u c h a c t io n , a n d t h a t n o s u e h d is m is s a l s h o u ld b e m a d s
u n t il th e c ir c u m s t a n c e s h a v e b e e n d is c u s s e d w it h th e w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e .
T h e s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h s la c k n e s s o f w o r k c o m p e l s a c o n ­
s id e r a b le r e d u c t io n in th e n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e e s is m o r e c o m p li c a t e d ;
o n th e o n e h a n d , w o r k p e o p le c o m p la in th a t th e o p p o r t u n it y is u se d
b y c e r t a i n e m p l o y e r s t o g e t r i d n o t o n l y o f t h e le s s e f f ic ie n t e m p l o y e e s
b u t a l s o o f t h o s e w h o h a v e s h o w n t h e m s e lv e s a c t i v e i n s u p p o r t o f
t h e i r f e l l o w s — t h a t is , t o c o v e r u p v i c t i m i z a t i o n ; o n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
e m p lo y e r s c o m p la in th a t w o r k p e o p le a r e e x c lu s iv e ly b ia s e d in f a v o r
^This is a very interesting matter, especially in view of the argument in the report of
the N. W. commission on industrial unrest, that joint committees of employers and em­
ployed wonld administer “ industrial law ” better than legal tribunals. The existence of
a number of joint committees wbich exercise such functions has been mentioned (see p.
73). The particular interest of the above-mentioned works tribunal is that it is not a
joint committee but is wholly composed of workpeople. The firm has no status in the
court, merely appearing by its representative as it would in the local munitions trltmnal.
Procedure is quite formal, and the firm’s representative is expected to address the chair­
man as “ Sir.”




REPOET OF A N IN Q U IE Y IN TO W O RK S CO M M ITTEES.

79

o f th e c la im s o f s e n io r it y , a n d m a k e lit t le , i f a n y , a llo w a n c e f o r d i f ­
f e r e n c e s i n e f f ic ie n c y .
T h e r e w o u ld a p p e a r to b e so m e tr u th in
b o th c o n te n tio n s .
A
f r a n k d is c u s s io n w o u ld p r o b a b ly te n d to
r e m o v e th e ca u ses o f th e w o r k p e o p le ’s c o m p la in ts a n d a t th e sa m e
tim e t o p r o d u c e a b a la n c e b e tw e e n th e c la im s o f s e n io r it y a n d o f
e f f ic ie n c y s a t i s f a c t o r y t o b o t h e m p l o y e r s a n d e m p l o y e e s .
W h a t is
p e r h a p s e v e n m o r e i m p o r t a n t is a f u r t h e r a r g u m e n t ; s u c h f r a n k d i s ­
c u s s io n w o u ld le a d t o p la n s f o r th e a lle v ia t io n in th e p a r t ic u la r
w o r k s o f t h e e f f e c t s o f a g e n e r a l s la c k n e s s . I t is n o t c o n t e n d e d t h a t
a n y g e n e r a l r e m e d y f o r u n e m p lo y m e n t ca n b e fo u n d o n th ese l in e s ;
a l l t h a t i s s u g g e s t e d is t h a t l o c a l a n d i n d i v i d u a l e f f o r t m a y h e l p t o
s o lv e th e p r o b le m .
D is m is s a ls d u e t o th e in t r o d u c t io n o f n e w m a ­
c h in e r y o r n e w m e th o d s a re p e r h a p s o f a k in d w it h w h ic h a w o r k s
c o m m it t e e m ig h t p r o p e r ly d e a l.
W o r k p e o p le a re r e a d y to a c k n o w l­
e d g e t h e b e n e f it s d u e t o i m p r o v e m e n t s a n d y e t n a t u r a l l y r e s e n t s u c h
im p r o v e m e n t s w h e r e t h e y in v o lv e th e d e s t r u c t io n o f t h e ir c r a f t
o r s u d d e n lo s s o f e m p lo y m e n t .
I t m a y b e su g g ested th a t w h a t in d i­
v id u a l e m p lo y e r s h a v e d o n e in th e p a s t— n a m e ly , t o m a k e a r r a n g e ­
m e n ts b y w h ic h th e d is lo c a t io n o f liv e lih o o d is r e d u c e d — c a n b e
c a r r ie d o u t m o r e g e n e r a lly , a n d th a t in i n d iv id u a l e s t a b lis h m e n t s
a d ju s tm e n ts f o r s u ch a p u r p o s e a re a s u it a b le s u b je c t f o r d is c u s s io n
b y a w o r k s c o m m itte e .
I t is , o f c o u r s e , a s u b j e c t o f v i t a l i m p o r t a n c e
t o t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s ; i t is , i n d e e d , a n a s p e c t o f t h e p r o c e s s o f d i l u t i o n
a s seen a t w o r k in th e n o r m a l in d u s t r ia l c o n d it io n s o f p e a c e tim e .
T h o u g h th e tr a d e -u n io n s c o u ld n o t b e e x p e c te d to h a n d th e m a tte r
o v e r t o a w o r k s c o m m itte e , th e re a p p e a r s t o b e r o o m f o r th e la tte r
t o d e a l w it h th e q u e s tio n w it h in c e r ta in lim it s .
T h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f f o r e m e n is a q u e s t i o n o n w h i c h t h e r e m a y b e
s a i d t o b e t h r e e g r o u p s o f o p i n i o n s . M a n y e m p l o y e r s h o l d t h a t i t is
p u r e ly a m a n a g e m e n t q u e s tio n . T h e o p p o s it e e x tr e m e t o t h is is th e
c la im m a d e b y a c o n s id e r a b le s e c t io n o f t r a d e -u n io n is t s t h a t th e
w o r k m e n s h o u ld c h o o s e th e ir o w n fo r e m e n . A p o s it io n in te r m e d ia te
t o th e se t w o e x tr e m e s is ta k e n u p b y a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f e m p lo y e r s
a n d b y a s e c tio n o f w o r k p e o p le ; th e a p p o in tm e n t (t h e y fe e l) s h o u ld
b e m a d e b y th e m a n a g e m e n t, b u t it s h o u ld b e s u b m itte d t o th e w o r k s
c o m m it t e e b e f o r e it b e c o m e s e ffe c t iv e . E v e n t h is in t e r m e d ia t e p o s i ­
t io n , h o w e v e r , is n o t r e a lly a c o m m o n p o s i t i o n ; t h e r e a r e d iffe r e n c e s
o f o p in io n as t o th e c o n d it io n s u n d e r w h ic h th e a p p o in tm e n t s h o u ld
c o m e b e f o r e t h e w o r k s c o m m i t t e e — t h a t is t o s a y , w h e t h e r o r n o t h e
w o r k s c o m m it t e e s h o u ld h a v e p o w e r t o v e t o th e a p p o in t m e n t . T h o s e
e m p lo y e r s w h o a re p r e p a r e d t o s u b m it s u c h a p p o in t m e n t s t o a w o r k s
c o m m it t e e a r e f o r t h e m o s t p a r t o f th e o p in io n t h a t t h is s h o u ld o n ly
b e d o n e in o r d e r t o e x p la in th e re a s o n s f o r t h e ir c h o ic e . T h is , t h e y
h o ld , w il l te n d t o r e m o v e o b s ta c le s w h ic h m ig h t o t h e r w is e b e p u t in
t h e w a y o f th e a p p o in t m e n t . A c o n s id e r a b le b o d y o f w o r k p e o p le ,




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o n th e o th e r h a n d , h o ld a n in te r m e d ia te p o s it io n w h ic h c o m e s n e a r e r
t o e le c tio n o f fo r e m e n b y th e w o r k p e o p le ; th e y th in k th a t th e w o r k s
c o m m itte e s h o u ld h a v e th e r ig h t t o v e to th e c h o ic e m a d e b y th e m a n ­
a g e m e n t. A f e w e m p lo y e r s c o n s id e r t h a t t h is — o r e v e n d ir e c t e le c ­
tio n — m a y b e p o s s ib le w h e n a w o r k s c o m m itte e , t h r o u g h th e e x p e r i­
e n ce g a in e d in c o n s u lt a t io n s a b o u t s u c h a p p o in t m e n t s , h a s le a r n e d
t o e s tim a te a ll t h e q u a lit ie s n e c e s s a r y in a fo r e m a n . I t h a s a lr e a d y
b e e n m e n t io n e d t h a t w o r k s c o m m it t e e s v e r y o f t e n d is c u s s th e c o n d u c t
o f fo r e m e n . T h e c o n c lu s io n th e n r e a c h e d , t h a t s u c h d is c u s s io n w a s
a d e s ir a b le f u n c t io n f o r a c o m m itte e , w o u ld a p p e a r t o in v o lv e as a
c o r o lla r y t h a t o f c o n s u lt a t io n a b o u t a p p o in t m e n t s .
T h is la tte r
fu n c t io n w o u ld t e n d t o r e m o v e th e n e c e s s ity f o r th e fo r m e r .1
A m o n g t h e r e s u lt s e x p e c t e d f r o m t h e g i v i n g o f a l a r g e r m e a s u r e
o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y f o r in d u s t r ia l c o n d it io n s t o th e w o r k p e o p le is a
c o n s i d e r a b l e i n c r e a s e i n e f f ic ie n c y . T h i s is s a i d t o b e p o s s i b l e i f t h e
a b ilit y o f th e w o r k p e o p le t o s u g g e s t im p r o v e d p ro ce ss e s a n d m e th o d s
is p r o p e r l y u s e d . T h e e x p e r i e n c e o f i n d i v i d u a l f i r m s w o u l d a p p e a r
t o c o n fir m t h is c o n t e n t io n .
M a n y fir m s h a v e f o r y e a r s p a s t h a d
a w a r d s s c h e jn e s i n o p e r a t i o n , a n d i n c e r t a i n c a s e s t h e s e h a v e s t i m u ­
la te d im p o r t a n t s u g g e s tio n s f o r im p r o v e m e n ts .
T h e fa c t th a t th e
“ s u g g e s t io n b o x ” is o f t e n s ta te d t o h a v e p r o v e d a f a i l u r e is n o t
n e c e s s a r ily a c o n d e m n a t io n o f th e id e a ; it m a y o n l y m e a n t h a t t h e
s o m e w h a t m e c h a n ic a l a n d u n in s p ir in g d e v ic e is in i t s e l f a n in a d e ­
q u a t e s t i m u l u s . A c o m p a r i s o n o f t h e r e s u lt s s e c u r e d i n e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t s m o r e o r le s s s i m i l a r ( s o f a r a s w o r k is c o n c e r n e d ) w o u l d s u g ­
g e st th a t th e su ccess o f an a w a rd s sch em e d ep e n d s to a g re a t ex ten t
u p o n th e a c tio n o f th e m a n a g e m e n t. W h e r e th e m a n a g e m e n t g a in s
th e c o n fid e n c e o f th e w o r k p e o p le , a n d h a s d e v is e d m e th o d s o f c o n ­
s i d e r i n g s u g g e s t i o n s w h i c h a p p e a l t o t h e w o r k p e o p l e , t h e r e is a m u c h
m o r e p o w e r fu l r e s p o n s e th a n in w o r k s w h e re , t h o u g h th e re m a y b e
a s u g g e s tio n b o x , th e se c o n d it io n s a re a b se n t. M a n y e m p lo y e r s a n d
w o r k p e o p le a g r e e th a t a w o r k s c o m m itte e m a y n o t o n ly p r o d u c e th e
a tm o s p h e r e n e c e s s a r y t o th e s t im u la t io n o f s u g g e s t io n s , b u t m a y a ls o
h e lp t o a r r a n g e f o r th e p r o p e r in v e s tig a tio n o f p r o p o s a ls m a d e b y
A v o r k p e o p le .
I n t h is c o n n e c t io n , as in t h e q u it e d iff e r e n t fie ld o f
1 This question of promotion has been discussed in one aspect only, viz, in relation to
the appointment of foremen. It is, of course, much more general, and is in many of its
aspects a matter of agreement between employers’ associations and trade-unious. Such
agreements may regulate progress within a trade or a group of connected trades, and
necessarily involve, among other questions, that of standard rates of wages. The discus­
sion of promotion in this wider sense of the term could come within a works committee’ s
functions only where the trade-unions make no conditions except the payment of standard
rates— and then only within the limits of this condition. The promotion to foremanship
may be said to be distinct, in that a foreman is a member of the management staff, and
directly concerned with such employer’s interests as the maintenance of discipline. The
dividing line, however, is not well defined in certain cases, and the fact that certain
unions which largely control promotions among the men paid by wages have also organ­
ized the lower grades o f the staff, paid by salary or standing wage, complicates the issue.
In some of these cases certain unions claim the right to intervene.




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81

g r ie v a n c e s , i t w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e im p o r t a n t th a t s u g g e s tio n s w h ic h
l o o k t o b e w o r t h le s s s h o u ld , n e v e r th e le s s , b e c o n s id e r e d . T o p u t th e
m a t t e r o n th e lo w e s t g r o u n d , t h is w ill p r o b a b ly p a y in th e l o n g ru n .
T h e fu n d a m e n t a l m a t t e r is t h a t e v e r y o n e s h o u ld b e e n c o u r a g e d t o
t h in k a b o u t th e p ro c e s s e s a n d th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f th e w o r k s .
It
s h o u ld b e n o t e d th a t w o r k p e o p le v e r y c o m m o n ly c o m p la in o f th e
s t a f f ’s a t t i t u d e o n s u c h m a t t e r s ; a n y s u g g e s t i o n , t h e y s a y , i s a p t t o
b e b r u s h e d a s id e w it h th e r e m a r k th a t th e y a re n o t p a id t o th in k b u t
to w o r k . T h e o b s tr u c tio n in su ch cases m a y b e a fo r e m a n o r m a n ­
a g e r, a n d e v e n th o u g h th e h ig h e r m a n a g e m e n t m a y b e s y m p a th e tic
i t m a y n e v e r h e a r o f a s u g g e s t io n . H i s m a te s a ls o a r e s o m e tim e s n o t
v e r y e n c o u r a g i n g t o a w o r k m a n w i t h id e a s . F o r l a c k , t h e r e f o r e , o f
e n c o u r a g e m e n t , o r b e c a u s e o f a c tu a l d is c o u r a g e m e n t , id e a s o f v a lu e
a r e h e ld b a c k a n d th e c a p a c it y f o r id e a s d e s t r o y e d .
H o w best to
a r r a n g e th a t s u g g e s tio n s w il l b e g u a r a n te e d a n a d e q u a te c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n is n o t a d i r e c t c o n c e r n o f t h i s r e p o r t , e x c e p t i n s o f a r a s a w o r k s
c o m m it t e e m a y b e e m p lo y e d f o r th e p u r p o s e . I t is d o u b t fu l w h e t h e r
a g e n e r a l w o r k s c o m m it t e e is a s u it a b le b o d y w it h w h ic h t o d is c u s s
t h e v a lu e o f a c h a n g e in a p a r t ic u la r p r o c e s s o r m a c h in e , a n d th e u se
o f a s m a ll s u b c o m m itte e f o r t h is p u r p o s e m a y b e s u g g e s te d .
The
a r g u m e n t h a s b e e n u s e d t h a t a m a n w ill p la c e h is id e a s b e f o r e t w o
o r t h r e e r e s p o n s ib le w o r k m a t e s f o r t h e ir c r it ic is m , b u t n o t b e f o r e a
b i g c o m m itte e . I f th e s m a ll c o m m itte e t h o u g h t th e p r o p o s a l s o u n d ,
it w o u ld th e n g o s tr a ig h t to th e h ig h e r m a n a g e m e n t. F o r m o r e g e n ­
e r a l q u e s tio n s o f o r g a n iz a t io n , as d is t in c t f r o m q u e s tio n s o f i n ­
d iv id u a l m e th o d s o r m a c h in e s , th e g e n e r a l w o r k s c o m m it t e e , o r in
la r g e w o r k s a d e p a r t m e n t a l c o m m it t e e , w o u ld p r o b a b ly b e a s u it a b le
b o d y . T e s t im o n y t o th e v a lu e o f s u g g e s t io n s m a d e b y b o t h o f th ese
h a s b e e n r e c e iv e d f r o m e m p lo y e r s .
A fu r t h e r s u g g e s tio n w ith a
d ir e c t b e a r in g o n t h is s u b je c t h a s b e e n m a d e ; t h a t th e e d u c a tio n
w h ic h c e r t a in fir m s p r o v id e f o r s e c tio n s o f t h e ir s ta ff, s u c h as f o r e ­
m e n a n d u n d e r fo r e m e n , m ig h t b e e x te n d e d to r e p r e s e n ta tiv e w o r k ­
p e o p le .
T h is m a y ta k e th e f o r m o f e d u c a t io n a l le c tu r e s , w h ic h w ill
w i d e n t h e o u t l o o k o f t h e s p e c i a l i z e d w o r k e r b y s h o w i n g h i m h o w h is
o w n a c t iv it ie s fit in t o th o s e o f o th e r s a n d in t o th e g e n e r a l p la n o f th e
e s t a b lis h m e n t ’s a c t iv it ie s .1
T h e a t t it u d e t o a w o r k s c o m m it t e e ’s a s s u m p t io n o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y
f o r d is c ip lin e v a r ie s v e r y c o n s id e r a b ly , b o t h a m o n g e m p lo y e r s a n d
a m o n g w o r k p e o p le . T h e r e is a c o n s id e r a b le b o d y o f e x p e r ie n c e , a n d
it w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t , t h o u g h t h e r e a r e e x a m p le s t o th e c o n t r a iy ,
w o r k s c o m m it t e e s w h ic h u n d e r t a k e d is c i p l in a r y f u n c t io n s u s u a lly
d o s o w i t h s u c c e s s . T h e r e is , a t t h e s a m e t i m e , a v e r y g e n e r a l d e m a n d
‘ Another interesting feature in this connection is the development of works magazines.
106328°— Bull. 255— 19-------6




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

a m o n g w o r k p e o p le t h a t , i f j o i n t c o m m it t e e s a r e t o d is c u s s th e b a d
t im e k e e p in g a n d o t h e r m is ta k e s o f th e e m p lo y e e s , t h e y s h o u ld h a v e
s im ila r p o w e r s o f d e a lin g w it h fa u lts o n th e s id e o f th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t . I n a n u m b e r o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t s c o m m i t t e e s r e g u l a t e fin e s o r
d e d u c tio n s m a d e f r o m b o n u s b e c a u se o f lo s t tim e , n e g lig e n c e , d a m ­
a g e , o r o t h e r c a u s e .1
A n o t e o f c a u t io n m a y b e a d d e d . T h e r e is s o m e e v id e n c e t h a t a
s m a ll m in o r it y o f e m p lo y e r s m a y e n d e a v o r t o u se a w o r k s c o m m itte e
in o r d e r m o r e e a s i l y t o i m p o s e p e n a l c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h a r e o b j e c t e d
t o b y th e m a in b o d y o f w o r k p e o p le . T h i s is o p p o s e d t o th e w h o le
s p i r i t w h i c h m a k e s a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e a s u c c e s s , a n d is b o u n d t o
p r o d u c e fr ic t io n .
A s o m e w h a t s im ila r a t t it u d e is t a k e n u p b y a
s m a ll m in o r it y o f w o r k p e o p le w h o a p p e a r t o d e s ir e th a t n o jo i n t
m e e t in g s s h o u ld b e h e ld in a n o r d e r l y o r b u s in e s s lik e m a n n e r .
I t m a y b e a d d e d , in c o n c lu s io n o f th is s e c tio n , th a t th e o p in io n ,
a n d in d e e d th e p r a c t ic e , o f a n u m b e r o f fir m s in c lin e s in th e d ir e c ­
t i o n o f ad hoc c o m m i t t e e s .
I t is h e ld t h a t t h is e n a b le s th e fir m t o
c o n s u lt th e m e n w h o a re d ir e c t ly c o n c e r n e d , a n d th a t it h a s th e a d d i­
t io n a l a d v a n t a g e o f g i v in g g r e a te r r e a lity to th e c o n s u lta tio n . W h e n
c o n s u l t a t i o n t a k e s p l a c e o n a n i m m e d i a t e a n d d e f i n i t e is s u e , i t i s
s a i d t o r e s u l t i n p r a c t i c a l a n d u s e f u l d i s c u s s i o th& af n a r i s e x ­
n; ed
p r e s s e d t h a t c o n s u l t a t i o n , i n t h e a b s e n c e of* s u c h a n i s s u e , m a y o n l y
be an e m p ty fo r m .
T h e in c lu s io n in s u ch c o m m itte e s o f th e s h o p
s t e w a r d s w h o r e p r e s e n t t h e c la s s e s o f m e n c o n c e r n e d , a s i s o f t e n t h e
ca se, g iv e s a d ir e c t c o n n e c tio n w it h th e tr a d e u n io n o r u n io n s w h o s e
s t a n d a r d m a y b e a ffe cte d .
V I. RELATIONS W ITH TRADE-UNIONS.

S o m e t h in g h a s a lr e a d y b e e n s a id in th e s e c tio n s d e a lin g w it h th e
c o n s t it u tio n , p r o c e d u r e , a n d fu n c t io n s o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s c o n ­
c e r n in g t h e r e la tio n s b e t w e e n su ch c o m m itte e s a n d t r a d e -u n io n
o r g a n iz a tio n .
T h e p o s it io n is in c e r t a in r e s p e c ts s o m e w h a t p a r a ­
d o x i c a l ; th e p r o b le m as see n b y m o s t t r a d e -u n io n is t s is t h a t o f
s tr e n g th e n in g th e tr a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n in th e w o r k s h o p , b u t, o n
th e o n e h a n d , m a n y e m p lo y e r s p r e fe r n o t to d e a l w it h th e s h o p
s te w a r d s in th e w o r k s b u t w it h th e o u ts id e t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n ,
a n d , o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s o m e e le m e n ts in t r a d e - u n io n is m p r e f e r t h a t
it s h o u ld s ta n d o u t s id e th e w o r k s h o p a n d h a n d le q u e s tio n s in e a c h
w o r k s f r o m th e o u ts id e , w h ile s o m e u n io n is t s h o p s te w a r d s c o n s id e r
th a t t h e ir w o r k s c o m m itte e s s h o u ld n o t b e s u b je c t t o a n y c o n t r o l o f
th e t r a d e -u n io n s . T h e g e n e r a l q u e s tio n o f t h e r e la t io n a n d t h e r e la ­
1 The settlement of deductions for damages, defects, etc., by works tribunals representa­
tive of employers and employed was recommended in the Report of the Truck Committee,
1908, p. 37 and p. 81. Cd. 4442.




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t iv e w e ig h t a n d p o w e r o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s a n d d is t r ic t o r g a n iz a ­
t io n s is o n e w h ic h is l ik e ly t o b e s e t t le d g r a d u a l l y i n e x p e r ie n c e a n d
a c tu a l w o r k in g .
H e r e it m a y b e c o n v e n ie n t t o d r a w a tte n tio n to
s o m e c o n s id e r a t io n s w h ic h a p p e a r t o a ffe c t t h is g e n e r a l q u e s tio n ,
p a r t ic u la r ly a s seen in th e e n g in e e r in g in d u s t r y .
T h e fir s t c o n s id e r a t io n is th a t th e c h a n g e in th e c o n d it io n s o f
w o r k in g h a v e m a d e n e ce s s a r y th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f n e w m a c h in e r y
f o r c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g .
S in c e th e q u e s tio n s f a r w h ic h t h is m a ­
c h in e r y is r e q u ir e d a re , t o a g r e a t e x te n t, p e c u lia r t o in d iv id u a l e s ­
t a b lis h m e n t s , t h e c o lle c t iv e b a r g a in in g , i f it is t o b e d o n e a t a ll, m u s t
b e c a r r i e d t h r o u g h i n e a c h e s t a b li s h m e n t . A t t h e s a m e t i m e , u n l e s s
t h e r e s u l t s a r e t o i m p a i r t h e s t a n d a r d c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h i t is t h e
b u s in e s s o f t h e u n io n s t o u p h o ld , th e w o r k m u s t b e in t r u s t e d t o
r e p r e s e n t a tiv e s o f th e u n io n s . T h u s t h e r e h a s c o m e a b o u t a n a t u r a l
d e v e lo p m e n t in th e fu n c t io n s o f th e s h o p ste w a r d s .
P r e v io u s ly
t h e y h a d to see th a t n o * e n c ro a ch m e n ts w e r e m a d e o n s ta n d a r d c o n ­
d itio n s ; n o w th e y m a y h a v e th e m o re p o s itiv e d u ty o f p a r t ic ip a t in g
in th e s e ttle m e n t o f p ie c e w o r k p r ic e s in te r m s o f th ese s ta n d a r d
c o n d it io n s .1
I n r e g a r d t o t h e c h a n g e s ju s t m e n t io n e d , a n d in r e g a r d a ls o t o
d ilu t io n , t h e in te r e s ts o f t h e w o r k p e o p le b e l o n g i n g t o d iff e r e n t
s k i l l e d u n i o n s a r e m o r e o r le s s t h e s a m e . T h i s , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e
n a tu r a l c o m m u n ity in th e w o r k s , p r o b a b ly a c c o u n ts f o r th e f a c t th a t
c e r t a i n a p p a r e n t d if f ic u l t i e s o f r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a r e , a s a r u l e , e a s i l y
ov ercom e.
T h e im p o s s ib ilit y o f so r e p r e s e n t in g d iffe r e n t u n io n s
o n a w o r k s c o m m it t e e t h a t s a t is fa c t io n is s e c u r e d t o a l l is a lle g e d t o
b e s u c h a d iffic u lt y .
S o f a r as th e s k ille d t r a d e s a re c o n c e r n e d , a t
le a s t in e n g in e e r in g , t h e d iffic u lt y w o u ld n o t a p p e a r t o b e s e r io u s . I n
m a n y ca se s w h e r e e v e n a s m a ll m in o r it y o n ly o f th e s k ille d u n io n s
h a v e direct r e p r e s e n t a t i o n t h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r t o b e n o d i s s a t i s f a c ­
tio n .
A s b e tw e e n th e m e m b e r s o f s k ille d a n d u n s k ille d u n io n s th e p o s i­
t io n is m o r e d iffic u lt . T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l c a s e s o f t w o s e p a r a t e c o m ­
m itte e s o f s h o p s te w a r d s — o n e r e p r e s e n tin g th e s k ille d a n d th e o th e r
u n s k ille d a n d s e m is k ille d m e n — in th e sa m e w o r k s . I n o t h e r e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts , h o w e v e r , s k ille d a n d u n s k ille d m e n v o t e f o r th e s a m e
c o m m itte e a n d a c t to g e th e r as m e m b e rs. T h is w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e
th e m o s t d e s ir a b le a r r a n g e m e n t.
T h e ca se, h o w e v e r , in w h ic h a
m in o r it y o f u n s k ille d m e n in e a c h d e p a r t m e n t is r e p r e s e n te d o n a
w o r k s c o m m it t e e b y a s k ille d u n io n is t is n o t e x a c t ly o n a p a r w it h
t h a t i n w h i c h a m i n o r i t y b e l o n g i n g t o a n u n s k i l l e d u n i o n is s o r e p r e ­
1 The appointment by the men of a separate rate fixer, whose business it would be to
arrange piece priees with the firm’s rate fixer, is a suggested development towards which
a. movement is being made in one or two firms. In one large 'establishment such a dupli­
cation is suggested by one of the firm’s rate fixers as a very desirable arrangement.




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BU REA U OF LABOR STATISTICS.

s e n te d . A p a r t f r o m th e f a c t th a t u n s k ille d m e n a re m o r e lik e ly t o b e
d is tr ib u te d t h r o u g h a ll th e d e p a rtm e n ts , so t h a t t h o u g h in a m i­
n o r i t y t h e y f o r m a c o n s id e r a b le p r o p o r t io n o f t h e t o t a l n u m b e r o f
e m p l o y e e s , t h e r e is t h e f u r t h e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h a t t h e s i m i l a r i t y o f
in t e r e s t a n d t h e c o m m u n i t y o f f e e l i n g a r e n o t s o p r o n o u n c e d .
In
m a n y e s t a b li s h m e n t s t h e d i f f i c u l t y h a s a p p a r e n t l y b e e n s u r m o u n t e d ;
b u t in a n u m b e r o f o th e r s it is s t ill a s e r io u s p r o b le m . T h e p r o b le m
w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e o n e w h ic h c a n n o t b e s e ttle d b y th e m e n in e a c h
e s ta b lis h m e n t— t h o u g h t h e y m a y p r o v i d e v a lu a b le s u g g e s t io n s — a n d
it m u st p r o b a b ly b e le f t f o r th e tra d e -u n io n s c o n c e r n e d to c o m e t o
s o m e a g r e e m e n t o n th e m a tte r . F o r t h is r e a s o n a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f
w o r k p e o p le , b o t h s k ille d a n d u n s k ille d , c o n s id e r t h a t in ca ses w h e r e
t h e d iffic u lt y is a c u te t h e p o l i c y o f t w o c o m m it t e e s is t h e b e s t p r e s e n t
w o r k in g a rra n g e m e n t. T h e d e fe c ts o f su ch a sy stem are p e rh a p s t o o
o b v io u s t o r e q u ir e p a r t ic u la r m e n tio n .
I t m a y, h ow ev er, b e n oted
th a t th e sy ste m o b s tr u c ts v e r y c o n s id e r a b ly th a t jo i n t c o n s id e r a tio n
o f c o m m o n in t e r e s ts a n d d e s ir e s , t o fin d e x p r e s s io n f o r w h ic h is o n e
o f th e m a in p u r p o s e s o f a w o r k s c o m m itte e .
I t te n d s in s te a d t o
c o n c e n tr a te th e a tte n tio n o f e a c h c o m m itte e u p o n p o in ts o f d i
v e r g e n c e o f in te r e s t.
T h e c o m in g t o g e t h e r in to o n e c o m m itte e o f s h o p s te w a r d s r e s p o n ­
s i b l e t o d i f f e r e n t t r a d e - u n i o n s r a is e s a n u m b e r o f q u e s t i o n s .
I t is
t r u e t h a t t h e r u le s b y w h ic h u n io n s d e fin e t h e f u n c t io n s o f t h e ir
s h o p ste w a r d s a re f a i r l y u n ifo r m , a n d so lo n g as a w o r k s c o m m itte e
r e s p e c ts th e r u le s o f th e d iffe r e n t u n io n s t h e r e is lit t le f e a r o f o v e r ­
la p p in g o r c o n fu s io n in fu n c tio n s .
T h e g e n e r a l r u le w h ic h d e te r ­
m in e s th e fu n c t io n s o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e in r e la t io n t o t r a d e
u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n h a s a lr e a d y b e e n m e n t io n e d . A s is s a id in th e
ca se o f o n e c o m m itt e e , “ T h e c o m m it t e e r e g a r d q u e s tio n s o f g e n e r a l
a p p lic a t io n , r e la t in g t o r a te s o f w a g e s , h o u r s o f w o r k o r o t h e r w is e ,
w h i c h a f f e c ti d i s t r i c t c o n d i t i o n s , ’ a s b e y o n d t h e i r j u r i s d i c t i o n .
T h e r e is n o f o r m a l r u le t o t h is e ffe c t, b u t t h is l im it a t i o n o f t h e c o m ­
m it t e e ’s p o w e r is w e ll u n d e r s t o o d a n d n o d iffic u ltie s h a v e a r is e n .”
I t is th u s th e r u le t h a t g e n e r a l q u e s tio n s o f d is t r ic t o r n a t io n a l
c o n d itio n s a re l e f t t o th e tr a d e -u n io n s , w h ile th e w o r k s c o m m itte e
d e a ls w it h e ith e r t h e d e t a ile d a p p lic a t io n o f th e s e g e n e r a l r u le s
w it h in t h e w o r k s o r w it h q u e s tio n s e n t ir e ly p e c u lia r t o th e w o r k s .
O n th e w h o le , th e in fo r m a t io n w h ic h is a v a ila b le w o u ld s u g g e s t
th a t th e d iv is io n o f ju r is d ic t io n is w e ll u n d e r s t o o d a n d c lo s e ly f o l ­
lo w e d .
T h e r e a r e , h o w e v e r , c e r t a i n d if f ic u l t i e s .
I n th e fir s t p la c e , t h e r e is e v id e n c e o f u n c e r t a in t y as t o w h e t h e r o r
n o t a w o r k s c o m m itte e s h o u ld u n d e r ta k e c e r ta in fu n c t io n s ; m a tte r s
m a y s o m e tim e s see m f r o m o n e p o i n t o f v ie w t o b e “ b r a n c h ” o r “ d is ­
t r i c t ” b u s in e s s a n d f r o m a n o t h e r t o b e “ w o r k s ” b u s in e s s .
A to o l­
r o o m b o n u s , f o r in s ta n c e , m a y b e a r r a n g e d in a w o r k s b e tw e e n a c o m -




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m itte e a n d th e w o r k s m a n a g e r , a n d th e y m a y a g r e e in r e g a r d in g it
a s a w o r k s a ffa ir , w h ile th e lo c a l b r a n c h ( o r d is t r ic t c o m m itte e )
o f t h e u n io n c o n c e r n e d m a y c o n s id e r th a t it is a q u e s t io n o f w a g e s
w h ic h d e m a n d s t h e ir s a n c tio n .
I n v ie w o f th e v a r ie ty a n d c o m ­
p le x i t y o f b o n u s s c h e m e s w h ic h h a v e b e e n in s t it u t e d in m u n it io n s
fa c t o r ie s , a n d o f th e p o s s ib le r e a c tio n s o f th e se u p o n s ta n d a r d
ra tes, th e r e w o u ld a p p e a r to b e so m e n e e d f o r c a r e fu l d e fin itio n
o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e ’ s f u n c t io n s in t h is fie ld .
T h e r e is s o m e e v id e n c e a ls o o f a c t u a l c o n f lic t o f a u t h o r it y .
S u ch
cases, h o w e v e r , w o u ld a p p e a r to h a v e b ee n g iv e n a n a lto g e th e r d is ­
p r o p o r t io n a t e p r o m in e n c e in p u b lic d is c u s s io n to th e d e tr im e n t o f
t h o s e w h o s e m a i n d e s i r e is t o c r e a t e a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l m a c h i n e r y s u i t e d
t o n e w a n d r a p id ly c h a n g in g c o n d itio n s .
I n a f e w in s ta n c e s , h o w ­
e v e r , a w o r k s c o m m itte e w o u ld a p p e a r to h a v e b e e n in d o u b t a s t o
w h e t h e r i t w a s a n in d e p e n d e n t o r g a n iz a t io n o r o n e s u b je c t t o t r a d e u n io n c o n tr o l.
T h u s , a w o r k s c o m m itte e w h o lly c o m p o s e d o f tr a d e u n io n s te w a r d s h a s m a d e a d e m a n d f o r a n a d v a n c e in w a g e s to
w h ic h , u n d e r a n a lte r n a tiv e a g r e e m e n t m a d e b y th e tr a d e -u n io n s ,
th e w o r k m e n r e p r e s e n te d b y it h a d n o c la im .
I n on e o r tw o cases
r e p r e s e n ta tio n s h a v e b e e n m a d e to G o v e r n m e n t d e p a r tm e n ts f o r a d ­
v a n c e s in w a g e s a n d im p r o v e m e n ts in o th e r w o r k in g c o n d it io n s in
in d iv id u a l w o r k s , in d e p e n d e n tly o f d is t r ic t o r n a tio n a l m a c h in e r y ,
t h o u g h th e w o r k s in q u e s tio n w e r e k n o w n t o r e c o g n iz e d is t r ic t
sta n d a rd s.
I t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t th e u n c e r t a in t y as t o th e r e a l p o s it io n a n d
p o w e r s o f a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s is , a t
le a s t in th e e n g in e e r in g in d u s t r y , t o s o m e e x t e n t d u e t o th e f a c t th a t
th e v a r io u s m e m b e r s o f a c o m m it t e e m a y b e r e s p o n s ib le t o m a n y
d iffe r e n t u n io n s .
T h o u g h , t h e r e fo r e , th e w o r k s c o m m itte e m a y
a s p ir e t o b e a u n it o f g o v e r n m e n t , t h is is r e n d e r e d d iffic u lt in v ie w
o f th e d iffe r e n t a n d p o s s ib ly c o n flic t in g a u t h o r it ie s f r o m w h ic h th e
m e m b e r s o b t a in t h e ir sta tu s.
O n e su g g ested sch em e p ro p o se s to
o v e r c o m e t h is p a r t ic u la r d iffic u lt y s o f a r a t le a s t as t h e u n io n s o f
s k ille d m e n a re c o n c e r n e d .
I t w o u ld b r in g th e c o m m itte e s in th e
v a r io u s e s ta b lis h m e n ts u n d e r t h e d is t r ic t e n g in e e r in g t r a d e s jo i n t
c o m m it t e e a n d c o n fin e m e m b e r s h ip o f a n y c o m m it t e e t o t h o s e o r ­
g a n i z e d i n t h e t r a d e - u n i o n s a f f i l ia t e d t o t h e d i s t r i c t c o m m i t t e e . 1
T h i s q u e s t io n o f t h e r e la t io n s h ip o f w o r k s t o d is t r ic t c o m m it t e e s is
in t e r e s tin g a ls o in v ie w o f th e p r o p o s a ls c o n t a in e d in th e W h it l e y
rep o rt.
T h a t r e p o r t a d v o c a t e s j o i n t n a t i o n a l a n d d i s t r i c t c o u n c il s .
1 See p. 167. In another case where the firm’s proposals for a joint committee are being
considered it is suggested that “ the representatives of the trade societies shall be elected
and retire in accordance with the rules for the time being of the joint committee of allied
engineering trades, and shall be subject to its constitution.” In this instance the works
in question is the only considerable establishment in the town, and the trade-uniong
affiliated to the allied engineering trades include the general labor union.




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a n d w o r k s c o m m itte e s , a n d th e p r o b le m o f th e r e la tio n s o f th e d is ­
t r ic t c o u n c il a n d th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e a n d t h e ir r e la t iv e fu n c t io n s is
o n e w h ic h w ill n e e d t o b e in v e s tig a te d w h e n m e a su r e s a re b e in g
a d o p t e d t o in s titu te s u ch c o u n c ils .
T h e n e e d f o r t h is c o n s id e r a t io n o f r e la t io n s h ip s b e t w e e n w o r k s
c o m m itte e s a n d th e d is t r ic t tr a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a tio n w o u ld a p p e a r
t o b e m o r e n e ce s s a r y in c e r ta in in d u s tr ie s th a n in o th e rs. I t w o u ld
a p p e a r , f o r in s ta n c e , th a t in th e ir o n a n d ste e l in d u s t r y th e fa c t th a t
m e m b e rs in o n e w o r k s c o m m o n ly fo r m a b r a n c h o f th e ir u n io n , a n d
th a t th e s e c r e ta r ie s o f b r a n c h e s a re u s u a lly — it m a y b e in v ir t u e o f th e
o ff ic e t h e y h o l d — m e m b e r s o f t h e w o r k s c o m m i t t e e , m a k e s t h e p r o b l e m
o f i n t e r r e l a t i o n s le s s d i f f i c u l t , a t l e a s t f o r t h o s e u n i o n s w h i c h a r e
o r g a n iz e d o n th e b a s is o f w o r k s .
A p o in t o f p r o c e d u r e m a y b e n o t ic e d . I t is s o m e tim e s th e ca se t h a t
a t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia l a c c o m p a n i e s t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e w o r k s
c o m m it t e e in a n in t e r v ie w w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t ; o r , a g a in , a t r a d e u n i o n o f f ic ia l m a y a t t e n d t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e i f t h e
m e n so d e s ir e .1 B u t t h is a p p a r e n t ly is e x c e p t i o n a l ; a n d , as a r u le , a
w o r k s c o m m i t t e e a c t s b y i t s e l f a n d r e f e r s t o t r a d e - u n i o n o ff ic ia ls q u e s ­
t io n s w h ic h a r e t o o la r g e o r t o o d iffic u lt t o b e s e t t le d in th e w o r k s .
I t s h o u ld , h o w e v e r , b e n o t e d th a t m a n y t r a d e -u n io n is t s a re o f t h e
o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r i g h t o f t h e t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia ls t o a t t e n d c o m m i t t e e
m e e t in g s ( o r t o in s p e c t th e m in u te s o f a c o m m it t e e ) is a n e c e s s a r y
c o n d it io n o f t h e s a t is fa c t o r y s o lu t io n o f th e q u e s t io n o f in t e r r e la t io n s .
T w o o t h e r q u e s tio n s w h ic h a r e in v o lv e d in t h is p r o b le m o f th e
in te r r e la tio n s o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s a n d tr a d e -u n io n s c a ll f o r n o tic e .
T h e fir s t r e la te s t o th e v ic t im iz a t io n o f m e n w h o s h o w t h e m s e lv e s
a c t iv e as s h o p s t e w a r d s o r as m e m b e r s o f a w o r k s c o m m it t e e . I t is
im p o s s ib le t o e s tim a te t o w h a t e x te n t s u ch v ic t im iz a t io n a c t u a lly o c ­
c u r s , a n d t h is is p a r t l y d u e t o th e d iffic u lt y o f d e fin in g w h a t v i c t im i ­
z a t i o n is . W o r k m e n c o m p l a i n n o t o n l y o f v i c t i m i z a t i o n , b u t a l s o o f
th e d iffic u lt y o f b r in g i n g th e c h a r g e h o m e e v e n w h e n ( t h e y s t a t e )
t h e y h a v e n o d o u b t a b o u t th e fa c t s . F o r t h is r e a s o n m a n y o f th e m
h o ld th e v ie w th a t, u n le s s th e w o r k s c o m m it t e e is p r o p e r ly r e la te d t o
a n d p r o t e c t e d b y t r a d e -u n io n s , i t c a n n o t h o p e — in c e r t a in e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t s a t l e a s t — t o d is c u s s q u e s t i o n s b e f o r e t h e m a n a g e m e n t w i t h t h a t
s e n s e o f f r e e d o m w h i c h i s e s s e n t ia l t o t h e s u c c e s s o f j o i n t d e l i b e r a ­
tio n s . I n t h is c o n n e c t io n i t m a y b e n o t e d t h a t o n e o f t w o r e a s o n s g iv e n
f o r t h e s h o r t t e r m s o f o ff ic e o f t h e s h o p s t e w a r d s a n d s e c r e t a r i e s o f
c o m m itte e s in o n e in d u s t r y (o n e a n d t h r e e m o n th s , r e s p e c t iv e ly ) w a s
th e fe a r o f v ic t im iz a t io n . T h e o t h e r r e a s o n — in t h is th e w o r k s c o m ­
m it t e e a p p e a r s t o r e v e r t t o th e e a r ly f o r m s o f c o n d u c t i n g t h e b u s in e s s
1 It may also be noted that officials of the various unions were members of the work­
men’s side of the joint committee farmed in connection with a profit-sharing scheme insti­
tuted before the war b y a well-known shipbuilding firm in a northern town.




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o f tr a d e -u n io n b r a n c h e s — w a s sta te d t o b e th e d e s ir e th a t e v e r y o n e
s h o u l d t a k e h i s s h a r e o f o ffic e .
T h e o t h e r q u e s t i o n r e la t e s t o t h e a l l e g a t i o n s m a d e b y c e r t a i n t r a d e u n io n is ts th a t c e r ta in e m p lo y e r s , m o r e p a r t ic u la r ly in o n e o r tw o
in d u s tr ie s , a re f o s t e r in g th e g r o w t h o f w o r k s c o m m itt e e s in o r d e r t o
d e s t r o y t r a d e -u n io n in flu e n c e in t h e ir w o r k s . T h e d a n g e r , i t is s a id ,
f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t r a d e - u n i o n i s m is e x a c t l y t h e s a m e a s t h a t
w h i c h is b e l i e v e d t o r e s u l t f r o m p r o f i t s h a r i n g , v i z , t h a t t h e w o r k m a n
is d e t a c h e d f r o m h is f e l l o w s a n d h is p o w e r t o o b t a in c e r t a in s t a n d a r d
c o n d it io n s is c o n s e q u e n t ly w e a k e n e d . T h e fu r t h e r c h a r g e h a s b e e n
m a d e in r e g a r d t o o n e o r t w o in d u s tr ie s t h a t th e e m p lo y e r s w e r e
p r o p o s in g , in th e n a m e o f th e W h it le y r e p o r t, t o fo r m w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s w it h o u t c o n n e c t io n w it h th e u n io n s , a n d f r o m th ese c o m ­
m itte e s t o b u ild u p d is t r ic t a n d n a t io n a l c o u n c ils r e p r e s e n t a t iv e o f
e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d . I t m u s t, h o w e v e r , b e e m p h a s iz e d t h a t a n y
s u c h a c t io n is d ir e c t ly o p p o s e d t o th e p r o p o s a ls o f th e W h it l e y r e p o r t .
T h e s e p r o p o s a ls l o o k t o th e c o n t r o l o f th e w o r k s c o m m itte e b y n a ­
t i o n a l o r d i s t r i c t c o u n c i l s , w h i c h , o n t h e w o r k p e o p l e ’s s i d e , w o u l d b e
r e p r e s e n ta tiv e o f tr a d e -u n io n s o n l y ; a n d , in o r d e r th a t w o r k s c o m ­
m it t e e s s h o u ld b e f o r m e d o n lin e s s a t is f a c t o r y t o th e n a t io n a l o r ­
g a n iz a tio n s , th e r e p o r t p r o p o s e s th a t th e fo r m a t io n o f w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s s h o u ld , as f a r as p o s s ib le , f o l l o w , a n d n o t p r e c e d e , t h a t o f
t h e n a t io n a l a n d d is t r ic t c o u n c ils . A l o g i c a l a p p lic a t io n o f t h is o r d e r
o f p r o c e d u r e m a y b e im p o s s ib le , b u t w h e r e v e r in d iv id u a l e m p lo y e r s
fin d i t d e s ir a b le t o f o r m w o r k s c o m m itte e s b e f o r e n a t io n a l o r d is ­
t r i c t c o u n c ils a re in s t it u t e d , th e id e a o f th e W h it l e y r e p o r t m a y b e
s o f a r f o l l o w e d th a t s u ch p r o p o s a ls s h o u ld b e b r o u g h t b e f o r e th e
t r a d e s -u n io n s c o n c e r n e d , a n d t h e y s h o u ld b e a sk e d t o s h a re in th e
fo r m a t i o n o f th e w o r k s c o m m itte e .
V II. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS.

T h e a p p lic a b ilit y o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s t o d iffe r e n t in d u s t r ie s is a
m a t t e r o f im p o r t a n c e . D u r i n g th e w a r th e d is c u s s io n o f t h e m h a s
b e e n a s s o c ia te d m o s t g e n e r a lly w it h th e e n g in e e r in g in d u s t r y , a n d it
is p r o b a b ly in t h a t in d u s t r y t h a t , f o r r e a s o n s a lr e a d y s ta te d , t h e ir
d e v e lo p m e n t d u r in g th e w a r h a s b e e n m o s t r a p id .
T h is d e v e lo p ­
m e n t, h o w e v e r , h a s b y n o m e a n s b e e n c o n fin e d t o e n g in e e r in g ; a n d in
c e r t a in o t h e r in d u s t r ie s , f o r e x a m p le , ir o n a n d ste e l w o r k s , th e r e
h a s b e e n a m a r k e d in c re a s e . I f w e c o n s id e r p r e w a r e x p e r ie n c e s , a n d
in c lu d e n o t o n ly g e n e r a l c o m m itte e s fo r m e d f o r s p e c ia l p u r p o s e s , b u t
a ls o s e c t io n a l c o m m itte e s , i t w o u ld a p p e a r t h a t a n in d u s t r y in w h ic h
c o m m it t e e s h a d n o t b e e n in e x is te n c e a t s o m e t im e o r o t h e r w o u ld
p r o v e th e e x c e p t io n r a t h e r t h a n th e r u le . I n t h is c o n n e c t io n o n e m a y
n o t e t h a t in e s t a b lis h m e n t s in t h e d is t r ib u t iv e t r a d e s s e v e r a l c o m ­




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m itte e s h a v e b e e n 'f o r m e d t o h e lp in t h e r u n n in g o f p r o f it -s h a r in g
s c h e m e s . I t m a y a ls o b e n o t e d th a t d u r in g t h e w a r o n e v e r y la r g e
e s t a b lis h m e n t h a s see n th e d e v e lo p m e n t n o t o n l y o f s e p a r a te c o m ­
m itte e s o f s h o p s te w a r d s , r e p r e s e n t in g t h e s k ille d a n d u n s k ille d s e c ­
t io n s o f e n g in e e r in g r e s p e c t iv e ly , b u t o f a t le a s t t w o o t h e r c o m m itte e s
c o n s t i t u t e d o n m o r e o r le s s s i m i l a r l in e s . O n e o f t h e s e i s c o m p o s e d o f
s h o p s te w a r d s f r o m th e b u il d in g t r a d e s a n d t h e o t h e r o f d e le g a te s
f r o m th e c le r k s e n g a g e d in th e v a r io u s d e p a r tm e n ts . T h e w o r k s in
q u e s t i o n is e x c e p t i o n a l , n o t o n l y i n s i z e b u t i n c e r t a i n o t h e r r e s p e c t s ,
s o t h a t it c a n n o t v e r y w e ll b e ta k e n as a n e x a m p le . T h e s p e c ific
r e p r e s e n ta tio n o f th e b u ild in g tr a d e s m a y , h o w e v e r , b e p u t a lo n g s id e
th e p r e v io u s ly m e n t io n e d e x a m p le s o f i n f o r m a l c o m m itte e s c o n s t i­
tu t e d o n b i g w o r k s o f b u il d in g c o n s t r u c t io n . I t m a y a ls o b e a r g u e d
t h a t i f a c o m m it t e e is d e s ir a b le in a d is t r ib u t iv e t r a d i n g e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t f o r th e a d m in is tr a tio n o f a b o n u s sch e m e, th e sa m e fo r m o f o r ­
g a n iz a t io n m a y b e u s e fu l f o r o th e r g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s . I t m a y fu r t h e r
b e a r g u e d , a n d i t i s s o a r g u e d b y s o m e , t h a t a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e is d e ­
s ir a b le in a n y e s t a b lis h m e n t in w h ic h m o r e t h a n a c e r t a in n u m b e r o f
p e o p l e a r e e m p l o y e d . W h e t h e r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n is e i t h e r n e c e s s a r y
o r d e s i r a b l e i n e v e r y o r n e a r l y e v e r y k i n d o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t is a q u e s ­
t io n w h ic h th e fu t u r e m u s t s o lv e . H e r e it m a y b e n o t e d th a t a t p r e s ­
e n t c o n s id e r a t io n s a lm o s t d ia m e t r ic a lly o p p o s it e t o o n e a n o t h e r a p ­
p e a r to d e te r m in e th e g e n e r a l a b se n ce o f c o m m itte e s f r o m d iffe r e n t
g r o u p s o f in d u s t r ie s ; in s o m e t h is w o u ld a p p e a r t o b e d u e t o th e a b ­
sen ce o r th e w e a k n e ss o f tr a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a tio n , w h ile in o th e r s
th e s tr e n g th o f tr a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n m a k e s w o r k s c o m m itte e s u n ­
n e c e s s a r y f o r th e p u r p o s e s w h ic h c a ll th e m i n t o e x is te n c e in a n u m ­
b e r o f in d u s tr ie s .
T h e c o t t o n in d u s t r y is a ca se in p o in t .
H e r e th e c o n tig u ity o f
th e m ills , a n d th e f a c t th a t c o n d it io n s a re so u n ifo r m th a t d is t r ic t
p ie c e lis t s a re p r a c t ic a b le , in s u r e t h a t th e s t r o n g d is t r ic t o r g a n i z a ­
t io n ( w i t h its p e r m a n e n t s e c r e t a r y o n b o t h s id e s a n d it s d is t r i c t c o m ­
m i t t e e o n b o t h s i d e s ) is a d e q u a t e t o t h o s e n e e d s w h i c h i n e n g i n e e r i n g ,
f o r in s ta n c e , h a v e p r o d u c e d th e d e m a n d f o r a w o r k s o r g a n iz a t io n .
T h e s a m e p r o b l e m o f w a g e s h a s n e c e s s i t a t e d i n o t h e r i n d u s t r i e s , e. g .,
c e r ta in o f th o s e c o m in g u n d e r th e T r a d e B o a r d s A c t s , d ir e c t S ta te
e n fo r c e m e n t o f p ie c e r a te s . T h o u g h f o r t h is p u r p o s e a w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e m a y b e u n n e c e s s a r y o r u n d e s ir a b le in b o t h g r o u p s o f in d u s ­
t r ie s , i t m a y b e t h a t o t h e r p u r p o s e s w i l l p r o d u c e a s i m i l a r f o r m o f
o r g a n iz a tio n .
I t w o u ld a p p e a r th a t m o s t o f th e n e e d s t o w h ic h
r e fe r e n c e h a s b e e n m a d e in t h is r e p o r t a r e n o t q u it e p e c u lia r t o a n y
o n e t y p e o f in d u s t r ia l e s ta b lis h m e n t, b u t m o r e o r le s s c o m m o n t o
a l l. Q u e s t i o n s o f f o r e m a n s h i p m a y b e g i v e n a s o n e i n s t a n c e . W e l ­
f a r e is a n o t h e r ; v e r y m a n y m a t t e r s c a n b e b r o u g h t u n d e r i t s s c o p e ,




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a n d it seem s lik e ly th a t in fu tu r e w o r k s c o m m itte e s w ill c o m e t o p la y
a g r e a t e r p a r t in t h e ir a d m in is t r a t io n .1
I t m a y b e s u g g e s t e d t h a t th e s iz e o f t h e w o r k s c o n c e r n e d is a
fa c t o r p f, im p o r ta n c e in a n y d is c u s s io n o f th e r a n g e o f a p p lic a t io n
o f a s y s te m o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s . I t is s o m e tim e s u r g e d t h a t w o r k s
c o m m itte e s a r e o n ly v a lu a b le in la r g e w o r k s in w h ic h th e w o r k m e n
n u m b e r 3 ,0 0 0 o r u p w a r d .
I t is c e r t a in ly t r u e t h a t th e l a r g e r th e
w o r k s, th e g r e a te r th e h e lp w h ic h a w o r k s c o m m itte e c a n g iv e in
p u ttin g th e h ig h e r ra n k s o f th e m a n a g e m e n t in to u ch w ith th e fe e l­
in g s a n d n e e d s o f th e m e n . I n a s m a ll w o r k s th e m a n a g e r w il l p r o b ­
a b ly b e a b le t o fa m ilia r iz e h im s e lf w it h e v e r y d e t a il o f th e w o r k , a n d
h e w ill be b r o u g h t in t o c o n ta c t w it h n e a r ly e v e r y w o r k m a n . H e m a y
f e e l t h a t h e is a l r e a d y i n c l o s e t o u c h w i t h t h e m e n a n d t h a t a w o r k s
c o m m it t e e c a n n o t m a k e t h e t o u c h c lo s e r .
E v e n h ere, h o w e v e r, a
w o r k s c o m m it t e e is lik e ly t o h e lp . I t w il l e n a b le th e m a n a g e m e n t
t o d is c u s s m a t t e r s n o t w i t h i s o l a t e d . i n d i v i d u a l s , b u t w i t h t h e a c ­
c r e d it e d r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s o f th e w h o le b o d y o f th e m e n , a n d it m a y
h e l p t o b r i n g t o l i g h t d if f ic u l t i e s , n e e d s , f e e l i n g s , a n d d e f e c t s w h i c h
m ig h t o t h e r w is e h a v e r e m a in e d c o n c e a le d . A w o r k s c o m m itt e e m a y
th u s s e r v e n o t t o s u p p la n t, b u t to s u p p le m e n t, th e a d v a n ta g e s o f p e r ­
s o n a l t o u c h , e v e n in s m a ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; w h ile in la r g e e s t a b lis h ­
m e n t s , w h e r e p e r s o n a l c o n t a c t is n o t s o e a s y , t h e h e l p w h i c h i t m a y
g i v e is o b v i o u s . I n a n y c a s e i t s h o u l d b e r e m a r k e d t h a t c o m m i t t e e s
a r e t o b e f o u n d i n w o r k s o f v e r y d i f f e r e n t s iz e s . O n e c o m m i t t e e i s
c o n c e r n e d w it h w o r k e r s in a s in g le e s ta b lis h m e n t t o th e n u m b e r o f
1 0 ,0 0 0 m e n ; m a n y a r e t o b e f o u n d i n w o r k s i n w h i c h t h e w o r k m e n
n u m b e r a b o u t 3 ,0 0 0 ; a n u m b e r e x is t in w o r k s e m p l o y in g a b o u t 1 0 0
w orkm en .
T o t h is m a y b e a d d e d th e e x p r e s s io n o f o p in io n o f th e o w n e r a n d
m a n a g e r o f a s m a l l p r i n t i n g o ff ic e w h e r e t h e c o m p o s i t o r s ’ c h a p e l
( t h e r e i s o n l y t h e o n e c h a p e l i n t h e o f f ic e ) h a s a t p r e s e n t o n l y 1 0
m e m b e rs. H e is in d ir e c t c o n ta c t w it h e a ch o f th e m e n , b u t h e h a s
fo u n d it a d v a n ta g e o u s in th e p a s t to h a v e th e fa t h e r o f th e c h a p e l
a n d o n e o r t w o o f th e o th e r c o m p o s ito r s to g e th e r “ f o r a ta lk o v e r
t e a .”
T h i s , i t m a y b e s a i d , i s d o n e i n m a n y s m a l l b u s in e s s e s .
It
m a y , h o w e v e r , b e w o r t h w h ile t o c o n s id e r th e a d v is a b ilit y o f p u t t in g
s u c h d i s c u s s i o n o n a r e g u l a r f o o t i n g , e v e n i n s m a l l b u s in e s s e s .
In
th e in s ta n c e m e n tio n e d th e e m p lo y e r p r o p o s e s to m a k e a t r ia l o f
r e g u la r d is c u s s io n s . P r o b a b ly th e o n ly g e n e r a liz a t io n o n e c a n s a f e ly
m a k e a b o u t t h e n e e d f o r w o r k s c o m m itte e s in r e la t io n t o th e s iz e o f
e s t a b li s h m e n t s i s t h a t t h e n e e d i n c r e a s e s w i t h t h e s iz e .
1 Since the above paragraph was written a movement to bring the union organization
more closely into relationship with the conditions in individual cotton mills has produced
a scheme in the Oldham district. The proposal is to make shop (or mill) clubs an integral
part of the district union, to deal with shop grievances, etc.




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T h e r e r e m a in t w o p o in t s o f im p o r t a n c e . O n e is t h e q u e s tio n o f th e
p r a c t ic a l su ccess o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s ; th e o th e r th e im p o r ta n c e fr o m
th a t p o in t o f v ie w o f th e h u m a n fa c to r .
A s r e g a r d s t h e fir s t q u e s t io n , e v id e n c e is f o r t h c o m i n g f r o m a ll
p a r t s o f th e c o u n tr y — th e C ly d e , th e T y n e , th e M id la n d s , th e B r is t o l,
M a n c h e s t e r , Y o r k s h ir e , a n d L o n d o n d is t r ic t s . A s r e g a r d s t h e s e c o n d ,
t h is m u c h is c le a r — s u c c e s s d e p e n d s t o a g r e a t e x t e n t o n t h e e x is te n c e
o f a s p i r i t o f c o u n s e l a n d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o n b o t h s id e s . I f “ t h e m a n ­
a g e m e n t d o o r s ta n d s o p e n ” t o a ll le g it im a t e g r ie v a n c e s , a n d i f th e
m e n a re r e a d y t o p r e s e n t t h e ir g r ie v a n c e s a n d to ta k e in t o c o n s id e r a ­
t i o n t h e d iffic u lt ie s o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t, th e f u n d a m e n t a l c o n d it io n s
a r e p re s e n t. M u c h w il l a lw a y s d e p e n d o n th e p e r s o n a litie s c o n c e r n e d .
E v e r y h u m a n in s t it u t io n r e q u ir e s f o r it s s u cc e s s t h e g u id a n c e o f p e r ­
s o n a l i t i e s . A w o r k s c o m m i t t e e r e q u ir e s f o r i t s c h a i r m a n o r s e c r e ­
t a r y — o r , a t a n y r a te , o n e m a y s a y , id e a lly r e q u ir e s f o r it s c h a ir m a n
o r s e c r e t a r y — a m a n o f p e r s o n a lit y , tr u s te d b y h is f e l l o w w o r k m e n ,
r e s p e c te d b y th e m a n a g e m e n t, w it h th e s p ir it o f s e r v ic e , a n d r e a d y ,
in th a t s p ir it , t o g iv e h is s e r v ic e s fr e e ly in th e ca u se o f h is c o m m itte e .
I t r e q u i r e s n o le s s a s y m p a t h e t i c a n d c a p a b l e m a n a g e m e n t , r e a d y t o
lis t e n , r e a d y t o w e ig h c a r e f u l l y , r e a d y t o t a k e p a in s in d is c u s s io n ,
a n d p r e p a r e d t o p e r s u a d e a n d t o b e p e r s u a d e d . I t is o n e o f th e m o s t
e n c o u r a g in g s ig n s o f th e t im e s th a t o n b o t h s id e s s u ch m e n h a v e b e e n
fo u n d , a n d th a t, b o th a m o n g th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d th e m e n , p e rs o n ­
a lit ie s h a v e e m e r g e d t o m e e t t h e n e e d s o f t h e in s t it u t io n .
W o r k s c o m m it t e e s m e a n d is c u s s io n ; d is c u s s io n t a k e s t i m e ; a n d
f r o m t h is p o i n t o f v ie w i t is s o m e t im e s a r g u e d t h a t a w o r k s c o m m i t ­
t e e m a y t e n d t o s lo w d o w n th e p a c e o f i n d u s t r y ; a n d , a g a in , t h a t i t
m a y b e d iffic u lt t o c o n v in c e a c o m m it t e e o f t h e v a lu e a n d th e fe a s i­
b ilit y o f a n e w id e a o r p rocess* s o th a t th e w a y o f in n o v a t io n m a y b e
s o m e w h a t im p e d e d . T h e s e , h o w e v e r , a re t h e o r e t ic a l o b je c t io n s . I n
p r a c t ic e w o r k s c o m m itte e s , th e e v id e n c e w o u ld s u g g e s t, h a v e i m ­
p r o v e d tim e k e e p in g a n d in c r e a s e d o u tp u t, a n d in th a t w a y th e y h a v e
a c c e le r a te d r a th e r th a n im p e d e d th e p a c e o f in d u s t r y . I n p r a c t ic e ,
a g a in , t h e y h a v e b e e n th e o p p o s it e o f c o n s e r v a t iv e , a n d in s te a d o f
c h e c k i n g c h a n g e t h e y h a v e t h e m s e lv e s s u g g e s t e d c h a n g e . A n d e v e n
i f t h e y m a d e t h e p a c e s lo w e r o r c h a n g e m o r e d iffic u lt, t h e y h a v e a d ­
v a n ta g e s th a t w o u ld co m p e n sa te , a n d m o re th a n co m p e n sa te , f o r
th e se d e fe c ts . T h e y m a k e f o r b e tte r r e la tio n s a n d g r e a te r h a r m o n y ,
a n d th e se a r e t h e t h in g s t h a t m a tte r m o s t t o in d u s t r y . M o r e t im e is
g a i n e d b y t h e a b s e n c e o f d i s p u t e s t h a n is l o s t b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f d i s ­
c u s s io n ; m o re im p r o v e m e n ts c a n b e in tr o d u c e d in a n a tm o s p h e r e o f
h a r m o n y th a n ca n p o s s ib ly b e in tr o d u c e d in a n a tm o s p h e r e o f su s­
p ic io n .
T h a t w o r k s c o m m itte e s h a v e in th e g r e a t m a jo r it y o f ca ses te n d e d
t o i n t r o d u c e g r e a t e r h a r m o n y , a n d , t h r o u g h it , g r e a t e r e ffic ie n c y , is




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p r o v e d b y th e e v id e n c e o f th o s e c o n c e r n e d in t h e ir w o r k in g .
I t is
n o t d e n ie d t h a t in s o m e ca ses, t h o u g h th e se a r e v e r y fe w , w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s h a v e fa ile d . A f e w ca ses o f su ch fa ilu r e h a v e b e e n n o t e d in
c o m m itte e s in s titu te d d u r in g th e w a r f o r g e n e r a l p u r p o s e s . I n o n e
o f th e se th e fa ilu r e w a s p e r h a p s d u e m a in ly t o d e fe c t s o f m a c h in e r y ,
a n d it is s ta te d t h a t t h e w o r k s c o m m it t e e m a y b e r e s u s c it a t e d ; in
a n o th e r th e fa ilu r e w a s d u e to d e e p -s e a te d ca u se s, w h ic h m a d e s u c ­
c e ss im p o s s ib le , a n d th e fa i l u r e r e fle c ts n o d is c r e d it o n t h e in s t it u t io n .
I n a lm o s t e v e r y ca s e , h o w e v e r , th e t e s t im o n y is t o t h e o p p o s it e e ffe c t.
S o m e t im e s in t r o d u c e d w it h d iffic u lt y a n d a m id s u s p ic io n , c o m m it te e s
h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d t h e m s e lv e s a n d d o n e s e r v i c e w h i c h i s a c k n o w l e d g e d
e v e n b y th e ir o r ig in a l o p p o n e n ts . B y p r o v id in g a ch a n n e l f o r th e
v e n t ila t io n o f g r ie v a n c e s a t a n e a r ly sta g e , a n d b e fo r e t h e y b e c o m e
a c u t e , t h e y h a v e p r e v e n t e d d i s p u t e s a n d s t r ik e s , a n d t h e y h a v e i m ­
p r o v e d t im e k e e p in g a n d in c r e a s e d o u t p u t .
N o r is t h is a ll.
The
f u n c t io n s o f w o r k s c o m m itte e s a re n o t m e r e ly c o n c e r n e d w it h b r in g i n g
g r ie v a n c e s b e f o r e th e m a n a g e m e n t, b u t a ls o w ith a p r e lim in a r y
in q u ir y in to g r ie v a n c e s , in o r d e r t o d e c id e w h e th e r th e y a re w e llg r o u n d e d a n d s e r io u s e n o u g h t o b e b r o u g h t b e f o r e th e m a n a g e m e n t.
T h e w o r k w h i c h t h e y d o i n t h i s p r e l i m i n a r y s t a g e is n o t t h e l e a s t
v a lu a b le p a r t o f th e ir w o r k , a n d , f a r f r o m h a m p e r in g th e m a n a g e ­
m e n t, it o b v io u s ly d o e s th e r e v e r s e a n d r e lie v e s th e m a n a g e m e n t o f
d iffic u lt ie s a n d g r ie v a n c e s it w o u ld o t h e r w is e h a v e t o fa c e .
G r ie v ­
a n ce s a re e ith e r n ip p e d in th e b u d b y b e in g s h o w n , u p o n d is c u s s io n
in c o m m it t e e , t o b e u n f o u n d e d , o r t h e y a r e s e t t le d in d is c u s s io n b e ­
tw e e n th e s e c r e ta r y o f th e c o m m itte e a n d th e fo r e m a n o r h e a d o f
th e d e p a r tm e n t, a n d in e ith e r ca se th e y n e v e r c o m e t o th e m a in
m a n a g em en t.
W h e n g r ie v a n c e s c a n n o t b e s e ttle d in t h is w a y —
s in c e , f o r e x a m p le , t h e y m a y in v o lv e th e h e a d o f a d e p a r t m e n t d i ­
r e c t ly — th e r e r e m a in s th e p o s s ib ilit y o f a ccess t o th e m a in m a n a g e ­
m e n t. T h e n e c e s s ity f o r t h is h a s b e e n e m p h a s iz e d b y b o t h r e p r e s e n t a ­
tiv e e m p lo y e r s a n d r e p r e s e n ta tiv e w o r k m e n ; a n d u p o n it, so f a r as
c a n b e ju d g e d , d e p e n d s n o t o n ly th e r e m o v a l o f g r ie v a n c e s , b u t (w h a t
is s t ill m o r e im p o r t a n t ) t h a t r e a lly s u g g e s t iv e a n d c o n s t r u c t iv e w o r k
w h ic h th e s ig n a t o r ie s t o th e W h it l e y r e p o r t h a d in m in d in r e c o m ­
m e n d in g t h a t w o r k p e o p le s h o u ld b e g iv e n a la r g e r v o ic e in d e t e r m in ­
i n g in d u s tr ia l c o n d itio n s .
I n m o r e th a n o n e w o r k s th e s u m m a r y o f o p in io n o n a w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e — a n d th a t n o t o n o n e s id e o n ly , b u t o n b o t h — h a s b e e n e x ­
p r e s s e d in th e p h r a s e , “ T h is is th e b e s t t h in g th a t h a s e v e r h a p p e n e d
i n th e s h o p .” S u c h a s u m m a r y c o u ld n o t b e g iv e n i f e x p e r ie n c e h a d
n o t p r o v e d th a t a w o r k s c o m m itte e w a s m o r e th a n a p ie c e o f m a ­
c h in e r y a n d s o m e th in g d iffe r e n t f r o m th e o l d m e th o d s o f in d u s t r ia l
c o n c i l i a t i o n . I t m e a n s t h a t a w o r k s c o m m i t t e e is f e l t t o b e s o m e ­
t h in g v it a l a n d s o m e t h in g n e w — s o m e t h in g th a t e n lis t s t h e w o r k e r s




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in r e a l p a r t ic ip a t io n , a n d s o m e t h in g t h a t o ffe r s fr e s h p r o m is e f o r
th e fu tu r e .
APPENDIX I.— WORKS COMMITTEES: QUESTIONNAIRE.

1. Origin.
(a) W h e n d i d t h e c o m m i t t e e c o m e i n t o e x i s t e n c e ?
(b) U n d e r w h a t c i r c u m s t a n c e s d i d i t a r i s e ?
( c) W h a t p r o c e d u r e w a s a d o p t e d t o p u t t h e p r o p o s a l o f a c o m ­
m itte e b e f o r e th e e m p lo y e e s ( o r m a n a g e m e n t w h e r e th e
in itia tiv e ca m e fr o m th e e m p lo y e e s ), a n d d r a ft a c o n s ti­
tu tio n ?
2 . Constitution .
(a) I s t h e r e o n e c o m m i t t e e o n l y , o r m o r e t h a n o n e ?
I f m o r e th a n o n e w h a t a re t h e ir r e la tio n s , i f a n y ?
I n th e case o f e a c h :
( b) I s i t a j o i n t c o m m i t t e e , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f m a n a g e m e n t a n d
e m p lo y e e s , o r a c o m m itte e o f e m p lo y e e s a lo n e ?
(0) I n t h e l a t t e r c a s e w h a t a r r a n g e m e n t s e x i s t f o r m e e t i n g t h e
m anagem ent ?
.(d) I n t h e f o r m e r c a s e d o e s t h e w o r k e r s ’ s i d e c o n s t i t u t e a s e p ­
a r a te c o m m itte e , m e e tin g a p a r t f r o m th e jo i n t c o m m itte e ?
(e) H o w a r e th e w o r k e r s ’ r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s c h o s e n ?
W h a t c la s s e s , g r a d e s o f w o r k e r s , o r d e p a r t m e n t s a r e r e p r e ­
s e n te d a n d in w h a t p r o p o r t io n ?
A r e a n y c la s s e s o f w o r k e r s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d ?
( / ) . W h a t r e p r e s e n ta tio n , i f a n y , h a v e tr a d e -u n io n s , as su ch , o n
th e c o m m itte e ?
i. I s t h e w h o l e o r a n y p a r t o f t h e m e m b e r s h i p o f
th e c o m m it t e e c o n fin e d t o t r a d e -u n io n is t s ?
ii. H a s a n y u n io n a n y p a r t in th e a p p o in tm e n t o f
m em bers?
i i i . I s a n y f u l l - t i m e t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia l a d m i t t e d t o
s it w it h th e c o m m itte e , a n d i f so , in w h a t
c a p a c ity ?
iv . W h a t is th e r e la tio n ( i f a n y ) o f th e c o m m itte e
t o th e tr a d e -u n io n s te w a r d s o r d e le g a te s in
th e w o r k s ?
( g) H o w a r e t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t a p p o i n t e d ?
( h ) W h a t o f f ic e r s h a s t h e c o m m i t t e e , a n d h o w a r e t h e y a p ­
p o in te d ?
(1) W h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e c o m m i t t e e h a v e
b e e n m a d e s in c e t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e c o m m it t e e , a n d
fo r w h a t reason s?
(j) W h a t c h a n g e s i n t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n a r e d e s i r e d b y e i t h e r s i d e ,
a n d fo r w h a t reason s ?




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3 . W hat are the functions o f the com m ittee?
(a)
i. W a g e s q u e s t i o n s :
P i e c e p r ic e s . B o n u s tim e s .
A llo c a t io n o f c o lle c tiv e b o n u s.
A p p lic a t io n o f w a g e o r d e r s , etc.
ii. W o r k i n g h o u r s :
“ C lo c k in g .”
B re a k s. S h ifts .
iii. A llo c a t io n o f w o r k :
P ie c e a n d tim e . D e m a r c a t io n .
D ilu tio n .
O v e r t im e . S h o r t tim e .
iv . W o r k s o r g a n iz a t io n :
S u g g e s tio n o f im p r o v e m e n ts .
D is c u s s io n o f p r o p o s e d in n o v a t io n s .
P la c e o f a p p r e n t ic e s .
v . D is c ip lin e :
T im e k e e p in g . L a n g u a g e .
M e th o d s o f fo r e m e n .
v i. D is p u t e s :
D is c u s s io n o f c o m p la in t s .
S e t tle m e n t o f d iffe r e n c e s .
v ii. W e lfa r e :
C a n te e n m a n a g e m e n t. R e s t p e r io d s .
S a n it a t io n . W o r k s a m e n itie s .
v iii. A n y o th e r fu n c t io n s :
( I t is d e s ir a b le t o m a k e th e lis t o f fu n c t io n s a s
c o m p re h e n s iv e as p o s s ib le f o r th e p u r p o s e o f c o m ­
p a r is o n .)
(b ) A r e t h e p o w e r s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e s p e c i f i e d i n t h e c o n s t i t u ­
t io n ? o r d e t e r m in e d b y t h e c h a ir m a n ? o r u n s p e c ifie d ?
(c)
H a v e th e re b e e n a n y c h a n g e s in th e fu n c tio n s o f th e c o m ­
m it t e e s in c e it w a s e s t a b lis h e d ?
I f so, w h a t w ere th e
reason s ?
4 . Procedure .
(a)
i. H o w , a n d b y w h o m , a r e m a t t e r s b r o u g h t b e f o r e t h e
c o m m itte e ?
ii. D o e s th e c o m m itte e m e e t a t sta te d p e r io d s , o r o n ly
w h e n s p e c ia lly s u m m o n e d ? H o w is a m e e t in g s u m ­
m oned ?
iii. I f t h e fir m is r e p r e s e n t e d o n th e c o m m itte e , d o th e
w o r k e r m e m b e r s m e e t s e p a r a te ly b e f o r e th e jo i n t
m e e tin g ?




$4

B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

4 . Procedure.— C o n c l u d e d .
i v . I f t h e t i m e s o f m e e t i n g a r e i r r e g u l a r , p l e a s e s t a t e th e.
n u m b e r o f m e e t in g s h e ld d u r i n g e a c h o f th e la s t
th re e m o n th s.
v . D o th e m e e t in g s ta k e p la c e in e m p lo y e r s ’ o r in w o r k e r s ’
tim e ?
v i. H o w l o n g d o e s a m e e t in g u s u a lly la s t ?
v ii. I s th e r e a n y p a y m e n t f o r a tte n d a n c e ? I f so , b y w h o m ?
( 5 ) I n ca se o f f a ilu r e o n th e p a r t o f th e c o m m it t e e t o s e ttle a n y
q u e s tio n , t o w h a t a u t h o r it y is th e q u e s tio n t a k e n ?
G iv e
a n e x a m p le o f th e s ta g e s t h r o u g h w h ic h a c o m p la in t
c o u ld g o .
5 . Relations with trade-unions.
(a) W h a t p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e e m p l o y e e s o f t h e f i r m a r e m e m b e r s
o f u n io n s ? O f w h a t u n io n s a r e t h e y m e m b e r s ?
(b) D o e s t h e f i r m r e c o g n i z e a l l , o r a n y , o f t h e s e u n i o n s ?
( c ) H a v e t h e u n i o n o f f ic ia ls a s s i s t e d o r o b s i r u c t e d t h e e s t a b l i s h ­
m e n t a n d w o r k in g o f th e c o m m itte e ?
(d ) I s a n y p r o v i s i o n m a d e f o r t h e s a f e g u a r d i n g o f s m a l l s e c ­
t io n a l in te re s ts (s u c h as th e s c ie n t ific in s tr u m e n t m a k e r s
in a n e n g in e e r in g w o r k s ) ?
6. General.
(a) T h e a t t i t u d e o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t t o c o m m i t t e e s .
On what
o c c a s io n s , i f a n y , h a s th e m a n a g e m e n t r e fu s e d t o c a r r y o u t
a c o m m it t e e ’s d e c is io n s ?
(b ) H a v e t h e m e n i n t h e w o r k s a c c e p t e d o r r e j e c t e d a c o m m i t ­
t e e ’s d e c i s i o n s ?
(c ) T h e p o s s i b i l i t y a n d d i f f ic u l t i e s o f d o v e t a i l i n g w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s in t o th e e x is t in g t r a d e -u n io n o r g a n iz a t io n s .
(d ) E f f e c t i v e n e s s a n d r e s u l t s o f t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f w o r k s c o m ­
m itte e s o n t h e r e la t io n s b e tw e e n e m p lo y e r s a n d e m p lo y e d .
(e) T h e d e s i r a b i l i t y o f s e p a r a t e c o m m i t t e e s t o d e a l w i t h d i f f e r ­
e n t t y p e s o f fu n c t io n s (e . g ., w a g e s q u e s tio n s , w e lfa r e ,
e t c .).
( / ) P o s s ib le d ir e c tio n s in w h ic h th e fu n c t io n s o f c o m m itte e s
c o u ld b e e x te n d e d .
(g ) T h e r e l a t i o n o f w o r k s c o m m i t t e e s t o u n o f f i c i a l s h o p s t e w a r d s .
( N . B . — I t is t h e s u g g e s t i o n s a n d f e e l i n g s o f e m p l o y e r s , m a n a g e r s ,
t r a d e - u n i o n o f f ic ia ls , a n d w o r k p e o p l e i t i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i m p o r t a n t t o
c o l l e c t . T h e i n v e s t i g a t o r ’s o w n c r i t i c i s m s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s s h o u l d b a
e m b o d ie d in a se p a r a te r e p o r t .)




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APPENDIX II.— REPORTS ON INDIVIDUAL WORKS COMMITTEES, ETC.*

(A) to (P)—Engineering, shipbuilding, and iron and steel industries.
(Q) to (W )—Boot and shoe, woolen, and other industries.
Page.
(A ) Messrs. Hans Renold (L td .), Manchester______________________ _______95-99
(B ) Messrs. Rolls-Royce (L td .), Derby___________________________________ 99-102
(C ) Messrs. The Phoenix Dynamo Co. (L td .), Bradford. Wages com­
mittees_____________________________________________________________________ 102-107
(D ) Messrs. Barr & Stroud (L td .), Glasgow____________________________ 107-110
(E ) A large engineering establishment. Dilution committee__________ 110-112
(F ) An establishment making motor cars and airplanes_______________ 113-115
(G ) Messrs. The Horstmann Gear Co. (L td .), Bath____________________115-117
(H ) Messrs. H. O. Strong & Sons (L td .), Bristol_______________________ 117-120
(I ) Messrs. Guest, Keen & Nettlefold (L td .), Birmingham____________ 120-123
(J ) A firm of electrical engineers________________________________________ 123-125
(K ) Messrs. Hotchkiss et Cie., Coventry__________________________________
126
(L ) A large engineering establishment__________________________________ 126-128
(M ) A munitions factory__________________________________________________128,129
(N ) Messrs. Whitehead Torpedo Works (Weymouth) (L td .). Memoran­
dum on proposals________________________________________________________129-131
(O ) A shipbuilding y a rd ----------------------------------------------------------------------------131-135
(P ) Parkgate works joint trades committee_____________________________ 135-137
(Q ) A firm of boot manufacturers________________________________________ 137,138
(R ) Messrs. Reuben Gaunt & Sons (L td .), Farsley_____________________ 138-143
(S ) Messrs. Fox Brothers & Co. (L td .), Wellington_____________________ 143-145
(T ) Messrs, Rowntree & Co. (L td .), Wellington__________________________145-149
(U ) A printing office----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 149-151
(V ) A soap works. Welfare committee_________________________________ 151-153
<W ) A coal miner’s statement on output committees____________________153-157
f A.) MESSRS. HAN'S RENOLD (LTD.), BURN AGE WORKS, DIDSBURY, MANCHESTER.

I n d u s t r y : E n g i n e e r i n g . N u m b e r o f e m p l o y e e s , 2 ,6 0 0 . N u m b e r o f
d e p a rtm e n ts a n d (in r o u n d n u m b e rs ) a v e ra g e o f w o r k e r s in e a ch — •
1 7 d e p a r t m e n t s , 1 6 0 i n e a c h . M a l e s , 1 ,0 0 0 . W o m e n , 1 ,6 0 0 .
A t t h i s e s t a b li s h m e n t t h e r e a r e t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o m m i t t e e s :
(1 )
T h e f i r s t o f t h e s e i s t h e Mc o u n c i l ” o f t h e s o c i a l u n i o n o f t h
w o r k s , w h ic h in c lu d e s a b o u t t w o -t h ir d s o f th e w h o le b o d y o f th e
w o r k e r s . T h e s o c ia l u n io n is m a n a g e d e n t ir e ly b y its m e m b e r s , a n d
h a s b e e n i n e x is t e n c e f o r t h e l a s t e i g h t y e a r s ; i t is c o n c e r n e d w i t h
g a m e s , r e c r e a t io n s , a n d e d u c a t io n a l a c t iv it ie s , s u ch as th e fo r m a t io n
o f s t u d y c i r c l e s ; i t is s a i d t o h a v e d o n e a v a l u a b l e w o r k i n h e l p i n g
to c re a te a fe e lin g o f c o m m u n ity a n d to h a v e p r e p a r e d th e g r o u n d
f o r l a t e r d e v e lo p m e n t s .
1 The statements given below are in some cases supplied by the firms, but in most
cases have been compiled by the investigator on statements made to him by the manage­
ment and representatives of the workers <m the committee. Wherever possible, pains have
been taken to insure that the statement accords with the views of all parties concerned
with the committee.




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

( 2 ) T h e s e c o n d is a w e lfa r e c o m m itte e , c o n c e r n e d w it h s h o p a m e n i­
tie s , w h ic h c a m e in t o e x is te n c e a b o u t a y e a r a g o .
T h i s c o m m itte e
is a jo i n t c o m m itte e . O n t h e w o r k e r s ’ s id e th e r e a r e 17 r e p r e s e n ta ­
t i v e s f o r a s m a n y c o n s t i t u e n c i e s ; e a c h c o n s t i t u e n c y is , r o u g h l y s p e a k ­
in g , c o m p r is e d o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d o n th e sa m e s o r t o f o p e r a t io n
a n d in th e sa m e b u ild in g , b u t m e n a n d w o m e n v o t e a n d a r e r e p r e ­
s e n te d s e p a r a t e ly ; th e e le c t io n is b y b a llo t , a n d e v e r y w o r k e r ( u n i o n ­
i s t o r n o n u n i o n i s t ) is e n t i t l e d t o v o t e .
T r a d e -u n io n is m is o ffic ia lly
r e p r e s e n te d b y a d e le g a te f r o m th e s h o p s te w a r d s ’ c o m m itte e . T h e
s e c r e t a r y o f th e s o c ia l u n io n is a ls o a m e m b e r o f th e w e lfa r e c o m ­
m itte e . O n th e s id e o f th e m a n a g e m e n t t h e c o m m it t e e is c o m p o s e d
o f o n e o f th e p a r t n e r s in t h e b u s in e s s , th e e m p lo y m e n t m a n a g e r , t h e
w o m e n ’s e m p l o y m e n t m a n a g e r , a n d s u c h o f t h e a s s i s t a n t w o r k s m a n ­
a g e r s as w is h t o a t t e n d ; g e n e r a lly t h e n u m b e r is a b o u t s ix .
The
c h a i r is t a k e n b y t h e c h i e f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t , a n d h e
p r o v id e s th e s e c r e t a r y ; t h e m e e t in g s a r e m o n t h ly .
T h e fu n c tio n s
o f th e w e lfa r e c o m m itte e a re t o a d v is e th e m a n a g e m e n t o n m a tte r s
w h i c h i t w is h e s t o h e a r d i s c u s s e d , t o b r i n g t o t h e n o t i c e o f t h e m a n ­
a g e m e n t q u e s tio n s (o t h e r t h a n th o s e o f w a g e s a n d t r a d e -u n io n m a t ­
t e r s ) w h i c h t h e w o r k e r s w i s h t o h a v e d is c u s s e d , a n d t o c o n s i d e r s u g ­
g e s t io n s f o r im p r o v e m e n t s .
T h e q u e s tio n s t h a t h a v e a c t u a lly b e e n
d is c u s s e d in c lu d e t h e t r e a t m e n t o f e y e ca ses, th e p r o v is io n o f fir s t
a id a n d th e p r e v e n t io n o f a c c id e n ts , th e p r o v is io n o f o v e r a lls , a n d
th e a r r a n g e m e n t o f th e s e a ts a n d th e m a in t e n a n c e o f o r d e r a n d c o m ­
f o r t in th e m e n ’s a n d w o m e n ’s d in i n g r o o m s . T h e m e m b e r s a t t e n d
w e l l ; th e y m e e t in o v e r tim e h o u rs a t p re s e n t, a n d a re p a id o v e r tim e
w a g e s f o r t h e t i m e t h e y s p e n d a t m e e t i n g s , b u t i t is h o p e d t h a t i n
n o r m a l tim e s th e m e e t in g s w il l b e h e ld o u t s id e w o r k in g h o u r s a n d
t h a t a tte n d a n c e w il l b e r e g a r d e d as a f o r m o f v o lu n t a r y s e r v ic e . I t
is p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t h e f u t u r e a s e p a r a t e p r e l i m i n a r y m e e t i n g m a y b e
a r r a n g e d f o r th e w o m e n r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s f r o m tim e t o t i m e ; i t is p o s ­
s ib le , t o o , t h a t in th e f u t u r e th e m a n a g e m e n t w il l a b s e n t t h e m s e lv e s
a t e v e r y a lt e r n a t e m e e t in g , in o r d e r t h a t th e r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s o f th e
w o r k e r s m a y d is c u s s m a t t e r s b y t h e m s e lv e s .
( 3 ) T h e t h ir d c o m m it t e e is t h a t o f th e s h o p s te w a r d s . T h is w a s
fo r m e d b y a s p o n ta n e o u s m o v e m e n t a m o n g th e tr a d e -u n io n is t s in th e
e s t a b lis h m e n t a t t h e t im e w h e n th e w e l f a r e c o m m it t e e w a s u n d e r
c o n s id e r a t io n . R o o m h a s b e e n f o u n d in p r a c t ic e f o r b o t h , a n d th e
fir m h a s f r o m th e fir s t r e c o g n iz e d th e s h o p s te w a r d s ’ c o m m itte e .
T h e s h o p s te w a r d s a re e le c te d b y th e tr a d e -u n io n is ts in th e e s ta b ­
lis h m e n t ; t h e y a re s e v e n in n u m b e r , b u t t h e n u m b e r is l ik e ly t o g r o w .
A t th e in v it a t io n o f th e fir m , t h e y s e n d o n e o f t h e ir m e m b e r s t o s it
o n th e w e l f a r e c o m m it t e e , b u t i t is w o r t h n o t i c i n g t h a t o t h e r w is e th e
c o m p o s it io n o f th e t w o b o d ie s is d is t in c t , a n d t h e sa m e p e r s o n h a s
n o t b e e n e le c te d a m e m b e r o f b o th .
T h e s h o p s te w a r d s e le c t th e ir




REPORT OF A N IN Q U IR Y IN TO W O RK S COM M ITTEES.

97

o w n c h a i r m a n a n d s e c r e t a r y . W h i l e t h e w e l f a r e c o m m i t t e e is c o n ­
c e r n e d w it h s h o p a m e n itie s , t h e s h o p s t e w a r d s ’ c o m m it t e e d e a ls w it h
q u e s tio n s o f w a g e s a n d t r a d e -u n io n m a tte r s in g e n e r a l. A s s o o n as
it w a s fo r m e d th e s h o p s te w a r d s ’ c o m m itte e a sk e d a n d o b ta in e d th e
a p p r o v a l o f th e d is t r ic t c o m m itte e o f th e p a r t ic u la r u n io n t o w h ic h
its m e m b e r s a lm o s t e n t ir e ly b e lo n g . T h e s e c r e t a r y o f th e c o m m itte e
se n d s th e n a m e s o f its m e m b e r s t o th e d is t r ic t c o m m itte e , w h ic h
i s s u e s a c a r d t o e a c h e n t i t l i n g h i m t o a c t a s a n o f f ic ia l s h o p s t e w a r d .
T h e c o m m itte e m e e ts ( in th e fir m ’s t im e ) a t th e b e g in n in g o f e a ch
m o n t h , a n d a ft e r d is c u s s io n se n d s t o th e m a n a g e m e n t a lis t o f th e
q u e s t i o n s i t w is h e s t o h a v e d i s c u s s e d ; t h e m a n a g e m e n t a d d s q u e s t i o n s
w h i c h i t w is h e s t o b r i n g f o r w a r d , a n d t h e h e a d o f t h e m a n a g e m e n t
a n d v a r io u s m a n a g e rs th e n m e e t th e c o m m itte e f o r d is c u s s io n ; b u t
a m e e t in g is h e ld b e tw e e n th e m a n a g e m e n t a n d th e c o m m it t e e
m o n t h ly , w h e t h e r t h e r e is d e fin it e b u s in e s s o r n o . S o m e t im e s f o r e ­
m e n a r e p r e s e n t w h e n a s u b j e c t v i t a l l y c o n c e r n i n g t h e m is u n d e r
d is c u s s io n . F r o m th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f th e m e n th e a d v a n t a g e o f th e
c o m m i t t e e is t h a t t h e y c a n g o d i r e c t t o t h e m a n a g e m e n t , w h i l e b e f o r e
th e y c o u ld o n ly g o d ir e c t to th e fo r e m e n . F r o m th e p o in t o f v ie w
o f th e m a n a g e m e n t th e c o m m it t e e h a s, o n th e w h o le , c o n d u c e d t o
s m o o t h e r w o r k in g o f th e e s t a b lis h m e n t ; a n d q u e s tio n s o f th e m e th o d
o f p a y i n g w a g e s , o f in c r e a s e d b o n u s , a n d o f a lle g e d v ic t im iz a t io n o f
w o r k e r s b y fo r e m e n h a v e b ee n th ra sh e d o u t fr e e ly b etw ee n th e tw o
s i d e s . I n c o n n e c t i o n w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e f o r e m e n , i t is t h o u g h t
t h a t it m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o d e v is e s o m e sch e m e , s u ch as r e g u la r m e e t­
in g s b e tw e e n th e fo r e m e n a n d th e m a n a g e m e n t o n a n y q u e s tio n s
r a is e d in th e c o m m it t e e w h ic h a ffe c t t h e ir p o s it io n , in o r d e r t o a v o id
a n y c la s h in g b e tw e e n th e fo r e m e n a n d th e c o m m itte e .
I t is a l s o
t h o u g h t t h a t i t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o d r a w u p r u le s t o d e t e r m in e th e
r ig h t o f th e s e c r e ta r y o f th e c o m m itte e to e n te r d e p a r tm e n ts o f th e
w o r k s t o c o n s u lt w it h in d iv id u a l w o r k m e n a b o u t c o m p la in t s .
(T h e s e
r u le s h a v e s in c e b e e n d r a w n u p a n d a r e c o n t a in e d in th e f o l l o w i n g
n o t e .)
B o t h th e w e lfa r e c o m m itte e a n d th e s h o p s te w a r d s ’ c o m m itte e are
ttsed i n t h i s e s t a b l i s h m e n t a s m e a n s f o r t h e a n n o u n c e m e n t a n d e x ­
p la n a t io n o f in t e n d e d a c t io n b y th e m a n a g e m e n t.
A n n o u n cem en ts
h a v e b e e n m a d e , f o r in s ta n c e , o f n e w m e th o d s o f g r o u p in g th e w o r k , ,
a n d a g a in o f th e a p p o in t m e n t s o f fo r e m e n a n d th e g e n e r a l g r o u n d s
o n w h ic h th e y a re b a se d .
N ote .
RE G U LA TIO N S GOVERNING A C T IV IT IE S OF SH O P STEW AR DS.

Meetings.

1.
T h e d ir e c to r s w ill g iv e th e s h o p s te w a r d s ’ c o m m itte e fa c ilit ie s
f o r h o l d i n g c o m m it t e e m e e t in g s , in c lu d in g t h e u s e o f a r o o m , t w ic e
106328°— Bull. 255— 19------- 7




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B U L L E T IN OF T H E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

p e r m o n t h , o n e s u ch m e e t in g t o ta k e p la c e , u n le s s o t h e r w is e a r r a n g e d ,
o n t h e f i r s t W e d n e s d a y o f e a c h m o n t h a t 6 .1 5 p . m .
2. T h e m a n a g e m e n t w i l l m e e t th e c o m m it t e e , in g e n e r a l, o n c e p e r
m o n t h , s u c h m e e t i n g t o t a k e p l a c e o n t h e s e c o n d W e d n e s d a y a t 6 .1 5
p . m . u n le s s o t h e r w i s e a r r a n g e d .
3. T h e d i r e c t o r s w i l l a l l o w t h e s h o p s t e w a r d s ’ c o m m i t t e e t h e u s e o f
o n e o f th e w o r k s d in in g r o o m s tw ic e a y e a r, f o r g e n e ra l w o r k s
m e e t in g s .
4. I f e x t r a m e e t in g s a re d e s ir e d , e it h e r w it h th e m a n a g e m e n t f o r
c o m m it t e e m e e t in g s o r f o r g e n e r a l s h o p m e e t in g s , a p p l i c a t i o n s h o u ld
b e m a d e to th e e m p lo y m e n t m a n a g e r.
5. I n t h e c a s e o f t h e r e g u l a r m e e t i n g s o f t h e c o m m i t t e e o r t h e
m o n t h ly j o i n t m e e t in g s w it h t h e m a n a g e m e n t , i f o v e r t im e is b e in g
w o r k e d , a n d a s te w a r d w o u ld h a v e b e e n w o r k in g d u r in g a m e e t in g ,
tim e sp e n t, a t s u ch a m e e t in g w ill b e p a id f o r as t h o u g h s p e n t a t w o r k .
Procedure.

6 . T h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t is t h e e x e c u t i v e a u t h o r i t y i n e a c h d e p a r t ­
m e n t, a n d h is in s tr u c tio n s m u st b e o b e y e d , e v e n t h o u g h a s h o p
s t e w a r d c o n s id e r s a n o r d e r u n r e a s o n a b le .
I n su ch a ca se th e c o n ­
s t it u t io n a l p r o c e d u r e is t o o b e y th e o r d e r , a n d t o la y a c o m p la i n t o r
c a ll f o r in v e s t ig a t io n a fte r w a r d s .
7. S t e w a r d s h a v e t h e r i g h t t o m a k e a n y c o m p l a i n t o r s u g g e s t i o n
t o a s u p e r in te n d e n t w it h r e g a r d t o th e r u le s h e m a k e s , h is t r e a t ­
m e n t o f a n y in d i v i d u a l o r in d iv id u a ls , h is a p p lic a t io n o f g e n e r a l
s h o p r u le s o r p o lic y , etc.
8. I n n o c a s e w i l l a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t r e f u s e t o l i s t e n t o a n d i n v e s t i ­
g a t e a n ybona -fide c a s e b r o u g h t f o r w a r d b y a s h o p s t e w a r d , a n d t o
g iv e h im a n a n sw e r.
9. I f a s t e w a r d is n o t s a tis fie d w it h a s u p e r in t e n d e n t ’s h a n d l in g
o f a q u e s tio n , h e m a y r e fe r th e m a tte r t o th e s h o p s t e w a r d s ’ c o m ­
m it t e e f o r d is c u s s io n , i f t h e c o m m it t e e s o d e s ir e s , w it h th e m a n a g e -,
m e n t a t th e n e x t m o n t h ly j o i n t m e e tin g .
10. I t is c o n s id e r e d h ig h l y d e s ir a b le t h a t t h e s t e w a r d s s h o u ld g e t
as m a n y q u e s tio n s as p o s s ib le s e ttle d d ir e c t w it h t h e ir o w n s u p e r in ­
ten d e n ts.
T h is d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t m a t t e r s u n d e r d is c u s s io n c a n
b e a llo w e d t o d r a g o u t u n n e c e s s a r ily , a n d w h e n f e e li n g is r u n n in g
h ig h th e s h o p s te w a r d s s h o u ld ta k e u p a q u e s tio n im m e d ia t e ly w it h
th e e m p lo y m e n t m a n a g e r o r th e w o r k s d ir e c t o r , b u t a lw a y s w it h th e
c o g n iz a n c e o f th e s u p e r in te n d e n t.
1 1. W h e n a c o m p l a i n t is m a d e b y a s t e w a r d t o a s u p e r i n t e n d e n t
o n b e h a lf o f a n o th e r in d iv id u a l, it m u st b e u n d e r s to o d th a t th e
s u p e r i n t e n d e n t h a s e v e r y r i g h t t o d is c u s s t h e m a t t e r d i r e c t w i t h t h e
in d iv id u a l co n ce rn e d .
T h is is n o t in t e n d e d as a m e a n s o f p u t t in g
o f f th e s t e w a r d , b u t is a s ta te m e n t o f th e s u p e r in t e n d e n t ’s r i g h t a n d




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

99

duty to maintain the most intimate and friendly relations possible
with each and all of his men. In such a case no decision will be come
to between the superintendent and the individual except jointly with
the steward.
Similarly, every man has a right to approach his superintendent
direct, without asking the help of the steward of his department, if
he so desires.
General arrangements and discipline.

12. The management desires that shop stewards shall have such
reasonable facilities as are necessary for carrying out their functions> and expects that in return these will be exercised in such a
way as to involve a minimum of interference with their work.
13. Meetings* formal or informal, can not be held in working
hours, except by special permission, and men should not bring griev­
ances or questions to their shop stewards during working hours, but
should wait for the next break.
14. Shop stewards may visit the secretary of the shop stewards’
committee during working hours on notifying their superintendent.
Similarly, the secretary may visit any of the stewards on notifying
his superintendent. Each steward is expected to make arrangements
mutually satisfactory to his superintendent and himself for the noti­
fication of visits when the superintendent is temporarily absent from
the department. The time spent in visiting should be restricted as
much as possible, and must not be made an excuse for inefficiency of
work.
This arrangement is subject to reconsideration> should the num­
ber of stewards in the works exceed 10.
15. .When decisions are taken at a joint meeting with the manage­
ment, shop stewards shall not announce same to their men until the
dinner time of the following day, so as to give time for the superin­
tendents to be made cognizant of what transpired.
These regulations are subject to revision at any time by arrange­
ment between the management and the shop stewards’ committee.
H ans R enold (L td.),
Manchester.
20th O ctober, 1917.
( B ) M E SSR S. R O L L S -R O Y C E (L T D .), B E B B Y .

Works: Engineering; motor cars. Employees, 6,000. Depart­
ments : Thirty-five to 40 have shop stewards of their own, but from
the point of oriew of the management the departments may be enu­
merated as about 80, with about 300 men in the largest (the test
department) down to about 20 in the smallest. General laborers (in­




100

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

eluding women), about 500. Women, about 1,500 (of whom about
100 are general laborers).
1. This establishment is very strongly unionist, and before the war
98 per cent of the employees were unionist, a figure which lias sunk
a little during the war owing to dilution. The relations between
the management and the men are described by both sides as “ of
the best.” The works would appear to be regarded by the labor
opinion of the district generally with distinct favor.
The committee at the works is one of shop stewards (just as the
committees at two other establishments here described—those of
Messrs. Hans Renold and Messrs. Barr & Stroud—are also com­
mittees of shop stewards). The interesting feature of this committee
of shop stewards is that it goes back to a period previous to the war.
It originated as follows: Originally individual workmen laid their
grievances before the management, bringing (according to the gen­
eral habit) a companion to help them to state their case. As time
went on, men who were recognized as good companions to bring were
sorted out, and they became semiofficial advocates. About 1912 or
1913 this informal system developed into a recognized committee of
shop stewards. This committee is what exists to-day. There is little
difference in the present system from what was usual before the war.
2. Each department elects its own shop steward, the total number
of whom is nearly 40. There are about nine different unions with
shop stewards, but more than half of the shop stewards belong to
the A. S. E. [Amalgamated Society of Engineers]. The fact that
there is a majority of A. S. E. stewards has apparently produced
no difficulty. The various shop stewards form a committee, with a
chairman who bears the name of convenor. On questions affecting a
particular department or departments, the convenor interviews the
management, by appointment, along with the shop steward or shop
stewards concerned; while on questions affecting all the works, he
interviews the management, by appointment, along with all the rest
of the shop stewards. There are no fixed or regular meetings with
the management, but there are frequent meetings none the less.1
The motto of the management is: “ The door of the management is
always open,” and this motto is acted upon. There are no women
among the shop stewards (though it should be noticed that the shop
stewards bring a woman representative with them to see the man­
agement when they are discussing a question that affects women);
but the women employees have direct access of their own to the man­
agement. They can come one by one, or in twos and threes (to raise
1 T h ere w as a system o f fixed and regu lar m eetings a t one t i m e ; but th is fe ll th rou gh ,
p a rtly because there w as not a lw a y s busin ess, but largely because the convenor o f the
shop stew ards an d the w orks m a n a ger w ere both busy m en, a n d w ere often unable to
atten d .
— :----------------




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

101

questions of ventilation and heating, for instance), and they always
receive a hearing.
3. The functions of the committee are large and undefined. They
bring forward anything which they think a fit matter to be brought
before the management. A question may sometimes arise with the
management whether such and such a question really is a fit qu?s~
tion; there is then a discussion, and it is generally settled by the
application of common sense whether the question shall or shall not
be entertained, but there seems to be no rule regulating the matter.
The management discusses with the committee, or those of it con­
cerned, changes of process; while the men, according to the view of
the management, u have helped the management in many cases on
knotty problems of output, and have made suggestions which were
acted upon,” besides bringing up complaints of the men and cases
of hardship. Among specific matters handled may be mentioned the
following:
(a) The base times for premium bonus work .—This system pre­
vails throughout the works; and if the base time can not be settled be­
tween the foreman of the department and the workmen, the matter
is brought by the convenor and shop steward of the department be­
fore the management.
(b) Dilution .—The shop stewards have protested against the prin­
ciple but they have made an amicable arrangement with the man­
agement in every case, it being understood that a record of changes
was duly kept. The wages of dilutees have also been discussed in
conferences of the management and committee.
Much is settled with the foreman in the department concerned and
never comes before the management. Relations with the foremen
have not been particularly difficult. Some of the foremen resented
the action of the committee of shop stewards until it was pointed
out to them that the shop stewards “ did not wish to press too far.”
There have only been one or twT isolated instances of conflict; and in
o
one case (which appeared to be the main one) the foreman left the
works. The convenor of shop stewards has the right to go anywhere
in the establishment without notifying the foremen.
4. The procedure of the system has already been incidentally de­
scribed in large measure. When any point arises in a department,
it is reported to the convenor (who is elected by the shop stewards
from their number), and if it can not be settled in the department,
it is brought before the management in the way described above.
Complaints or requests from the management go to the convenor,
and are discussed by the shop stewards when he brings them before
a meeting. Meetings with the management are in the employer’s
time, generally in the afternoon, and may last from half an hour to




BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

102

two and one-half hours. The management has always carried out
the decisions arrived at in a meeting with the committee; and the
general body of men in the works have accepted these decisions.
5. The relations of the committee with local trade-unionism seem
to present no difficulties. The various societies represented in the
works—A. S. E., Pattern Makers, Coppersmiths, and the rest—have
worked together; and the shop-steward system is part and parcel of
the official trade-union organization of the district. The district
committee of the A. S. E. does not issue cards to the shop stewards
as it does in other areas. Extremists are sometimes elected as shop
stewards, but they generally mix with the rest; they are a live ele­
ment and responsibility steadies them. A man who proves a poor
shop steward does not carry weight, and will generally be dropped
by his constituents. There is thus no need for the issue of a card
by the district committee concerned or for the threat of withdrawal
of such a card. The relations of the shop stewards at the establish­
ment with the trade-union authorities are generally good, and every
question unsettled in the establishment goes to the local district com­
mittee or joint committee of allied engineering trades.
It may be added that there is a mess-room committee at the works,
some four or five years old, appointed by the vote of all who use the
mess room; but it has no particular importance.
(C ) T H E P H O E N IX D Y N A M O

CO. (L T D .), T H O R N B U R Y , B R A D F O R D .

The Phoenix Dynamo Co. is a firm employing about 4,000 em­
ployees. In addition to its ordinary product, the firm is now pro­
ducing miscellaneous munitions supplies. The following statement,
which the firm has sent to a number of employers, has been supplied
to the ministry for publication:
28tii D ecember, 1917.
A . S hort

D e s c r ip t io n o f t h e
by

P h o e n ix

System

for

F ix in g

P ie c e w o r k

P r ic e s

C o n t in u o u s A r b it r a t io n .
pream ble.

There is surely no question so vital to engineering and kindred
industries as that of the fixing of piecework prices. It would prob­
ably be accurate to say that in the period immediately preceding the
war most of the prejudices, both on the employer’s part and that of
the men, to some system of payment by results were in a fair way
to be removed. The increasing competition in business, with the
resultant necessity for selling on fine margins, together with the fact
that experience was proving that because a man was working piece­
work the quality of his work was not necessarily suffering, had
already converted most of the employers.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

103

The chief outstanding difficulties were those of organization, and
much of the remaining prejudice on the part of labor toward schemes
of payment by result was the result of unscientific and amateurish
systems of estimation of the time necessary to carry out any par­
ticular job by the employer. Consequently one got side by side in the
same shop astounding inequalities of earnings which caused great
discontent. It was the double-time man who caused the time-and-aquarter man to throw down tools, and the employers, prevented by
agreements from reducing prices, are obviously unable to increase
all the prices to double time in order to remove the discontent. The
employer, therefore, urged often more by despair than a desire to
break his agreements about price reduction, adopted subterfuges to
reduce the times which were too high. This often took the form of
splitting the job into sections and altering methods of production
in a minor way in order to reduce the time allowed, and thus the
confidence of the workers was lost by this evasion of the real spirit
of the agreement.
Even to-day the predicament still exists, and the problem of the
price, which is unreasonably high, and the discontent caused amongst
the remainder of the men, is extraordinarily difficult for the em­
ployer who wishes to observe not only the letter but the spirit of
his undertakings not to reduce prices.
On the other hand, labor, with its greater facilities for discussion
between individuals and the absence of any motive to prevent com­
plete interchange of information, such as unfortunately exists among
employers, has been enabled to bring great pressure to bear upon the
employer for the rectification of a price which can be proved to be
unremunerative. The same cohesion among labor, coupled with the
fear among employers that workmen are only accepting payment by
results under sufferance and might some day refuse to continue such
a system, has made the employer very fearful of pushing forward
with any system to deal with the straight problem of the reduction
of an excessive time.
Since the war, and without, possibly, a full appreciation of the
precedents which are being created, employers, weary of the respon­
sibility for so much price fixing and the dangers of labor unrest
in their works, have compromised the most difficult jobs either by a
group bonus on the whole of the wages paid, or by saying to indi­
viduals or groups of individuals, “ We will pay you time and so-andso while you are on this work.” Some airplane factories working
on a group bonus on total output are paying their men as much as
time and three-quarters, while their output per man is well below
that of other airplane factories on ordinary day rates.
It is fatally easy to act in this amateurish way while prices are
high and excess profits can be used, but any experienced organizer or




104

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

worker, either employer or employed, knows that this condition can
not last after the war. It is this prodigal use of “ time and a some­
thing,” without any definite guaranty that that amount of work had
been carried out, which has destroyed the whole of the principle of
the minimum wage. Competition on day rates being eliminated, a
competition between employers as to who can give the most foolish
piecework price or the highest bonus per hour on some theoretically
imperfect group bonus scheme has taken its place. The best type of
labor realizes that the badly organized piecework or bonus system is in
the end as inimical to his interests as it is to those of the employer.
So much for the money side of the question.
There is, however, another point which should be given its true
value. One of the greatest objections to present piecework systems is
that the employer works out the price in secret, writes down the time
on a card, and this settles the price. Now, the men feel that payment
by results is a bargain, and that it is not within the province of the
employer or the employed to state arbitrarily what the price is to be.
The fact that most employers are quite prepared to explain politely
and sensibly to any workman how the price is made up does not meet
the theoretical objection to the system, and the end of what should be
a perfectly logical and simple business transaction is often an alter­
cation with a “ take it or leave it ” as the employer’s last word.
Another position which is often created as a result of a failure to
agree about price is a steady opposition more or less furtive to the
whole system. Assuming, however, that the system of piecework
fixing is so accurate that every workman secures a fair return for his
labor, the theoretical objection of organized trades-unionism to any
arbitrary settlement of the price by the employer still remains.
A TABULATION OF THE M A IN DIFFICULTIES.

(1) Unscientific price fixing.
(2) The absence of proper machinery for appeal which is quick
in action and not cumbersome in operation for the rectification of
(a) a price which is too low; (b) a price which is too high.
Of these (b) is essential if the employer is to be able to preserve
toward men absolute straightforward dealing. The employer must
have means which will enable him, without even a suspicion of stealth,
to reduce a price without necessarily changing the method of manu­
facture.
The following is a system which has been working for some time,
the terms of which were drawn up by the aid and cooperation of
the principal union of metal workers and the firm concerned. It is
capable of considerable extension and improvement, and is a sincere
attempt to solve an exceedingly complicated but absolutely vital
problem.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

/ 4. .

•

105

Financial basis of prices.

The men had pressed for a guaranteed time and a half. To this
we could not agree. Eventually it was agreed that times should be
fixed so that an average man could earn time and a quarter, and a
really good man should have no difficulty in making time and a half.
The following is the agreement reached between the principal union
of metal workers and ourselves concerning the scheme:
On getting out a new job we would calculate the feeds and speeds
which were suitable for the tool on which the job was to be per­
formed, and then put forward the time to the man who had to do
the job, saying: “ This is the time we offer; you are not bound to ac­
cept it and can appeal if you like. In this event you go to the timQstudy office, where the man who has dealt with the job will go through
the detail of his calculations, and if he has made a slip will at once
put it right.”
Our time fixing is not infallible, and the men can help us by point­
ing out errors. If, however, we are unconvinced that the price is un­
reasonable, and the man is equally unconvinced that it is reasonable,
he can then say, “ I want this job to go to committee.” The time of­
fered by us would then be put on the card as a temporary time, and
the decision of the committee would be added on or taken off the time
agreed by the committee when their decision has been given. In any
case, however, the man has no object in hanging back, because no evi­
dence as to the time taken on the job between the price being fixed
and the committee being held is available for the committee.
The committee consists of three of the firm’s representatives and
three workmen’s representatives consisting of the man concerned and
two workmen selected by him who are operating the same type of
machine or whose work is closely allied to the work in question. In
a dispute of a milling machine price, the man and two other millers
would attend.
The committee is to be held within two days of the complaint. In
the event of the committee failing to agree it is then up to the firm
to demonstrate in their own works that the time is fair and that time
and a quarter can be made on it. The question of outside demon­
strators being employed was raised, and it was agreed that only in
the case of new tools bought from the makers on guaranteed times
should outside experts be brought in. The firm have the option to de­
cide whether, in the event of the committee failing to agree, the
demonstration of the time shall be done in the shop itself or alter­
natively in a demonstration department. It is further agreed that, in
addition to the committee being a means by which workmen can se­
cure awards as to prices which are too low, the firm have the same
privilege with regard to prices which are too high. In the event,
7




106

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

however, of the firm petitioning for the reduction of a price and
bringing the matter to a committee, it is understood that any reduc­
tion which is made in the time shall be put on to another job on which
the workers can not do as well. This is accepted without demur, as
it shows a desire, at any rate, to try to equalize the position as be­
tween man and man and also from the firm’s point o f view.
The above are the terms of the understanding arrived at and the
following observations may be interesting.
The whole point about this system is that the rate fixers shall get
into their heads the fact that they are not telling the men how much
they, as representatives of the Almighty, agree to allow for each job,
but are in the position of buyers who, having worked out what they
think is a fair price for a commodity, make the man an offer for it on
those terms.
A great deal can be done in making a time study department a
really nice office and insisting that the man is treated really courte­
ously. One of the great difficulties is to get personalities definitely
removed from the transaction. A discussion that starts about the
price of a job often finishes by two men staking their reputation as
craftsmen and their experience as workmen that they are absolutely
right.
The rate fixer must be made to feel that it is not a disgraceful
thing to alter his price. The friendly spirit is extremely important,
and unduly conceited rate fixers with the manner of a general man­
ager have not proved invariably successful. The surprising part of
the scheme over the period in which it has now been operating is the
very small number of committees which are held. It would appear
that a very stupid workman who goes to the time study office to argue
with the rate fixer, or a very thick-headed rate fixer, are either of
them rather afraid of what a committee would decide about their
particular case, and so whichever party feels himself to be technically
weakest in the argument appears to give way. At any rate, the num­
ber of committees is incredibly small. It may be argued that this
is because the prices are fixed on so generous a basis.
The average in the whole of the shops concerned ranges from
27.5 per cent in the worst case to 52.25 per cent in the highest aver­
age case.
The provision by which an employer is allowed to reduce a price
(provided that he adds the time so reduced onto some job which is a
lean one) has the advantage that after a time you get a certain num­
ber of hours on the men’s side of the ledger, and this is a sort of!
accumulation of time in the bank. By this means cases of special
hardship can be dealt with by adding some of the time on to the lean
jobs.
v




REPOET OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

107

The composition of the committee from the employers’ point of
view should vary from time to time, and the superintendents of the
shop will be well advised to keep their eye on the cases coming up
for committee. It sometimes happens that a very good workman
indeed has become pig-headed about his particular job, and while
the rate fixer may be exactly right, it may be advisable to humor
the man in question. The very fact of the man’s all-round excellence
and his status of a workman makes it advisable to keep him friendly
to the scheme. In cases of this sort, where a certain amount of feel­
ing is present, it is advisable for some fairly high official to sit as
one of the employer’s representatives and tactfully (while saving the
rate fixer’s face as much as possible) leave the committee to humor
the man somewhat. These cases have proved to be very rare, but the
employer has so much to gain from the system generally that he
must be prepared to stretch a point, without saying he is doing so,
to meet very difficult cases which come up to committee. One case
in point:
An extraordinarily skilled airplane metal worker brought a case
up to committee, where the rate fixer was an equally skilled metal
worker and a member of the same union. The matter had obviously
become more a question of which of the two men was a fool than
the question of the price, and it is in cases of this sort that a tactful
official can be so valuable on the committee.
I f any employer will put himself in the position of a workman
who, on being offered a price, thinks it unfair, and who has either to
take it or else put himself in opposition to his foreman and others, he
will appreciate the value of some such scheme as the above to the
workmen. Under the present scheme a man so placed is either satis­
fied by the time-study office or not, and if he is still dissatisfied he can
ask for a committee and go back working on the job without quarrel­
ing either with his foreman or anybody else.
(D ) M ESSRS. B A R B & ST R O U D

(L T D .), A N N IE S L A N D , G L A S G O W .

Industry: Engineering. Number of employees, 2,350, of whom
275 are women.
This firm has and has long had an admirable system for the edu­
cation of its apprentices, and it is noteworthy that several of them,
during their apprenticeship, have taken the bachelor of science de­
gree in the University of Glasgow.
The firm has also, like the shipbuilding firm of whose organization
an account is given under (O) below,1 a system of awards for sug­
gestions made by their workmen, which has been at work for many
years.




*See pp. 131-135.— [Ed.]

108

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

There are two workers’ committees in the establishment:
(1) The first, which is called the shop committed, might also be
designated a welfare committee, and has been in existence since about1
1900.
*
Its constitution and rules are set forth in the published book of
rules of the firm. Briefly, it may be said to deal with shop amenities.
It controls the sick benefit society, the fund for distress, and all other
funds of a like nature. It controls the management of the canteen
and the rifle club and handles all social arrangements for entertain­
ments, picnics, and the like. The chairman is one of the directors.
He can vote the discussion of any matter, but he has never once had
to exercise this veto. No trade-union questions—no questions of
wages or application of trade-union rules—come before this commit­
tee. The committee meets regularly once a month and oftener if
necessary. There are various subcommittees appointed by the shop
committee to deal with the various activities.
(2) In March, 1916, when dilution was started, a second committee
was formed, called the industrial committee. As it is professedly
in existence for the war period only, nothing is said about this com­
mittee in the book of rules of the firm, but the following description
may illustrate its chief features.
The formation of the industrial committee was helped by the good
relations and the community of feeling engendered by the working
of the existing shop committee. The industrial committee is based
essentially on trade-unionism and the shop-steward system. The 12
representatives of the men are elected entirely by the shop stewards,
some 40 in number, of the different unions. There is thus no system
of election by all the workers and the committee is not representative
of all the workers, but, on the other hand, there is a definite nexus
established with trade-union sentiment and organization. Two di­
rectors of the firm and the head foreman sit with the 12 representa­
tives of the men. When there is business to transact, meetings of the
industrial committee are held on Tuesdays at 11 a. m. and the men’s
representatives are paid as usual during the time occupied at the
meetings. The members of the committee hold office for one year.
There are two chairmen, one from the men’s representatives and one
from the firm’s, and they preside at alternate meetings. The only
other officer is a secretary elected by the committee.
The following list contains some of the questions treated by the
industrial committee during the past 18 months:
(1)
The question of the convenor of shop stewards going into
other departments for discussion of grievances. This was discussed
and the result was the formulation of regulations. (See note ( i ) ;
similar rules are also contained in note (ii) in respect of the “ shop ”
committee.)




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

109

(2) Wages of women and girl employees.
(3) The record of changes in practice.
(4) Questions arising from the premium bonus system.
(5) Appeals against dismissal.1
(6) The question of men forgetting to clock on and of whether
they should receive wages for the period for which they had for­
gotten to clock on.
(7) The question of working overtime on Saturdays. The com­
mittee agreed to refer this to a general plebiscite .
(8) The question of wages of apprentices.
(9) The question of rules for night-shift work—e. g., whether
men could leave a little before the closing time to catch a train.
It is obvious that the functions of the industrial committee are
important; it is one of the most advanced works committees in ex­
istence. Questions of wages come within its scope (under 2, 4, 6, and
.8 above), and a question recently under discussion was a proposal
that there should be a guaranteed premium bonus.
A question which has recently arisen is that of the relation of the
industrial committee to the local trade-union organization.
This industrial committee is deserving of attention; first, in its con­
stitution—based as it is on the shop steward system—and secondly,
in its influence on the works, which has been large and far-reaching.
It is interesting to notice that the system of Messrs. Barr &
Stroud (Ltd.) is very like that of Messrs. Hans Renold (Ltd.).
Both have two committees; both assign to one committee the con­
sideration of shop amenities, and to the other questions of work and
wages; both base the second committee on the shop-steward system.
An immediate and important result of having such an industrial
committee is that grievances that might otherwise generate bad feel­
ing are brought at once to the attention of the directors. The trivial
surroundings of grievances are brushed off, and the real principles
underlying the questions under discussion are arrived at.
So far the industrial committee and the shop stewards have quite
naturally declined to deal themselves with matters of discipline; but
in cases where they have declined, they have actively upheld, or at all
events not hindered, the regulations imposed by the firm.
N ote
r e g u l a t io n s

for

leave

granted

to

shop

( t).
stew ards

to

deal

w it h

c o m p l a in t s .

(1)
I f any employee has a relevant complaint to make about his
work, sufficiently important to bring before a shop steward, he must
communicate only with the shop steward of his own department.
1 O nly one case has arisen . H ere the firm refused to go back on its decision, but w as
ready to exp lain Its action . T h is w as done. T h e m en’ s rep resen tatives then asked if the
m an in question m ig h t receive a clean ch aracter. T h is w as given .




110

■

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(2) If the department shop steward thinks the complaint requires
attention, he will send for, or fetch, the convenor of shop stewards,
who, when possible, will tell the foreman of the department to which
he is called that he has been summoned on shop-steward business.
(3) If the convenor of shop stewards, after consultation with the
department shop steward and the complainer, thinks the complaint
requires further attention, he will call a meeting of shop stewards
to consider the matter.
(4) If the meeting of shop stewards thinks the complaint requires
still further consideration, the convenor will bring it before a meet­
ing of the industrial committee or convene an emergency meeting
of the industrial committee in order to lay the complaint before
the firm.
(5) The foremen are instructed by the firm that they are to grant
the facilities referred to above; but if they think that these facilities
are being taken advantage of, they are instructed to inform the firm *
so that the representatives of the firm may draw the attention of tho
industrial committee to it.
Barr & Stroud, (L td .).
H arold D. J ackson , Director.

(Signed)
N ote

(i i ).

NOTICE.---- TO MEMBERS OF TH E STAFF AND TO FOREMEN AND MEMBERS OF TH E SHOP
COMMITTEE.

In connection with their duties as members of the shop committee,
it is sometimes necessary for the members of the shop committee to
go into different departments of the shop to inquire into matters con­
nected with the well-being of the emploj^ees.
In such circumstances the members of the shop committee should
always inform the chief of the department or the foreman into whose
department they go that they are on shop-committee duty, and in
such circumstances the foreman will not unreasonably withhold
permission.
The firm rely that members of the shop committee will be careful
never to abuse this privilege.
Each member of the shop committee is provided with a ticket
of identification.
(Signed)

Barr & Stroud, (L td .).
H arold D. J ackson , Director.

(E ) A L A R G E E N G IN E E R IN G E S T A B L IS H M E N T .

D IL U T IO N C O M M IT T E E .

Seven departments, employing over 10,000 workpeople.

1.
The committee at this establishment should properly be de-.
scribed as a dilution committee. It came into existence in February,




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

I ll

1916, and though matters other than dilution are occasionally
brought before it, its primary function is the regulation of dilution.
2. The election of the dilution committee consists of two stages:
(1) Jn the first place, dilution delegates were elected on the basis
of two delegates for each shop by all workers, unionist or nonunion­
ist (including women1), in every department or shop.
(2) In the second place, the delegates select five representatives to
represent them on a joint dilution committee, on which also sit an
equal number of the management. At first there was an agreed ex­
ternal chairman but, subsequently, the senior manager present acted
in this capacity. There was found to be the objection that if an ex­
ternal chairman is appointed whose decisions are accepted, arbitra­
tion within the works is set up for dealing with matters which should
be entirely within the jurisdiction of the management. A member
of the management presides and another member of the management
is official secretary and is responsible for the official minutes and the
notification of all dilution questions. He is also responsible for all
communications with the men’s secretary. On the men’s side there
is official secretary and is responsible for the official minutes and the
secretary, but has no vote.
3. There are no regular meetings of the joint dilution committee;
it meets when either side asks for a meeting. ( Some questions raised
by the men’s secretary may be settled at once by executive action
and without a meeting, if the case is a clear one and the action will
be simply reported at the next meeting.) The minutes are kept by
the official secretary appointed by the management. The men’s secre­
tary takes informal notes. The minutes are generally circulated a
week before a meeting to enable the men to consider them prior to
the meeting and raise at the meeting any points arising therefrom or
to which they do not agree. Sometimes there are meetings once a
week, sometimes once a month, or even at longer intervals.
4. The functions of the dilution delegates are to supervise the in­
troduction of dilution and the wages paid to dilutees. The delegates
may complain, for instance, about a foreman introducing dilution
without proper notice, or as to the rates paid to a dilutee or to the
manning of a lathe by a dilutee. I f any question arises about the
rates paid to a dilutee, they refer to the dilution certificates sent to
them, on which this rate is stated. In no instance are they allowed
to ascertain the rates paid to men or women other than dilutees. On
the whole no insuperable difficulty has arisen between the dilution
delegates and the foremen. This is chiefly due to the tact displayed
by the management and the men’s chairman, but many times there
1
T h e w om en in one departm ent did not vote, but th a t is due to difficulties o f tim e and
place.
I f their hours had been different and the departm ent had n ot been a t a distance
from the rest they w ould have voted.




112

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

there have been grave difficulties owing to the action of certain of
the younger delegates and foremen.
The joint dilution committee deals with all important matters aris­
ing out of dilution which come up to it (as a rule through
men’s
secretary) from the delegates.
5. To what has been said above, it should be added that the whole
procedure of the committee is necessarily elastic, and dependent on
personal tact and contact rather than on formal constitution. There
is, for instance, no fixed tenure of office for men’s representatives;
if their action or constitution were challenged, as it was in a case
when the members of the United Machine Workers’ Association
claimed representation, they could, and did, resign, and a new elec­
tion was held. The same committee as before was elected. The men’s
representatives on the joint committee, if they consider any proposal
involves an important question of principle, ask to have a matter re­
ferred back to the dilution delegates for instructions, or, if the ques­
tion is comparatively unimportant, may agree to settle it offhand.
The dilution committee here described is obviously of a special
character, and under the peculiar conditions the joint dilution com­
mittee has been fairly successful. It works easily and informally.
Confined in form to questions of dilution, it finds it easy to discuss
other questions and to deal with works conditions in general on
occasion; for instance, in a case where the firm had submitted a pro­
posal for a bonus on output to a large number of setters-up, the men
asked their dilution committee representatives to take the question up
and discuss the matter with the management.
7
The men’s representatives on the dilution committee have pre­
vented many threatened strikes developing in various parts of the
w^orks, either by their direct intervention or by calling the attention
of the management to trouble that was brewing.
In the firm’s opinion, the value of the work to be done by such a
committee depends on the men’s representatives being educated and
fair-minded men.
It must be remembered at this committee is essentially a dilution
committee and not a works committee. The representatives may,
de facto, be shop stewards, but they are chosen by all the employees,
including skilled, semiskilled, and unskilled workpeople.
The dilution committee does not represent the steel smelters, steel,
iron, and brass founders, smiths, and strikers, and one or two other
trades. If it were to become a shop committee, it would probably
have to be increased and represent all trades and the foremen. In
the firm’s opinion, the constitution of such a committee, so as to secure
the best results, would require very careful consideration.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

113

(F ) AN E S T A B L IS H M E N T M A K IN G M O TOR C AR S A N D A IR P L A N E S .

The firm make motor cars, airplanes, and airplane engines. The
present number of employees is about 3,500, of whom some 600 are
women and some 150 general laborers. The others are skilled or
semiskilled.
The committee dates back to 1908. It arose from a dispute which
resulted in a strike. The directors had had no idea of the trouble,
and in order that in the future such a position should be made im­
possible, the works committee was formed. District trade-union
officials took an active part in the formation of the committee.
The committee consists of 22 members, one from each department.1
Each member must be a trade-unionist, but voting is open to all men,
whether or not trade-unionists. The women do not have votes.
There are members of 26 trade-unions in the works. Only 10 of these
have members on the committee. The 10 are the A. S. E., the Tool
Makers, the United Kingdom Society of Smiths, the United Kingdom
Society of Coachmakers, the Amalgamated Society of Carpenters and
Joiners, the United Machine Workers, the Wood Cutting Machinists,
the Pattern Makers, the Steam Engine Makers, and the Sheet Metal
Workers.2 The members are elected annually, each department elect­
ing its representatives. The committee choose their own chairman
and secretary. The same people tend to be reelected from term to
term; the present chairman has been in that position from the first,
and the secretary in his for 4^ years.
The only formal rules are contained in a poster, a copy of which
is posted up in each department. This gives a short statement of
why the committee was formed and outlines the procedure to be
adopted with complaints. This procedure consists of three courts of
appeal—the works manager, the managing director, and the board
of directors. Thus, a man not satisfied with the response of a fore­
man goes to his departmental representative on the committee (or
direct to the secretary or chairman, who have freedom of movement
from department to department). The chairman and secretary of
the committee and the representative of the complainant’giiepartment then approach the works manager, and thereafter, if necessary,
first the managing director, and then the board of directors. In fact,
nothing needs to go beyond the works manager; nothing has gone so
far as the managing director since there was some trouble connected
with the introduction of the Insurance Act; and during the present
1 See note on p. 115.
2 A t one time there was a member of the workers’ union on the committee, but when he
left the works the next appointed belonged to a skilled union. The departments repre­
sented and the unions to which the members belong are given at the end of this report.
1 0 6 3 2 8 ° — B u ll. 2 5 5 — 1 9 -------- 8




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOE STATISTICS.

director’s tenure of the position no case at all has reached the board
of directors.
The committee acts for almost all purposes by the methods de­
scribed in the preceding paragraph. The works manager has met
the whole 22 as a body on one occasion only. The occasion was a
visit from an officer of the Ministry of Munitions on the question of
timekeeping. The works manager meets the small number who act
for the committee (perhaps with the employee or employees con­
cerned) whenever there is occasion. The number of interviews rises
and falls. Sometimes he will have an interview every day for a
week, and then a fortnight without one will pass. These interviews
are in employers’ time. The 22 members meet by themselves about
once a month for general business; these meetings are partly in their
own time and partly in the employers’ time.
The committee has been largely responsible for making the appeal
for better timekeeping effective, and this is the more remarkable be­
cause even before the appeal was made the timekeeping record was con­
sidered very good. As an illustration the following figures were given:
For the week ending March 10,1917, the total number of hours lost by
3,300 employees was 8,050; the corresponding number for 3,500 em­
ployees in the week ending September 22, 1917, was 5,700; that is a
reduction from 2.4 to 1.6 per head. The other questions discussed
with the officials of the committee and the representatives on it of
particular departments have included dilution, which was carried
through without trouble, and grievances in regard to premium bonus
times including the fixing of new times when methods of production
are altered. Usually the arrangement of times is discussed when the
question affects a number of men. A toolroom bonus, payment of
time and an eighth, was arranged between the committees’ repre­
sentatives and the works manager. This bonus, which was condi­
tional on good timekeeping and increased activity, has since been
given up in favor of individual premium bonus.
The chairman of the committee, who is an official in his own union,
emphasized three points:
(1) The division of functions between union and works commit­
tee, wage questions in particular being union matters.
(2) The established procedure as posted up in th© departments.
(3) The officials’ right of movement from shop to shop.
He had no doubts about the benefits produced by the committee.
The representatives of the management agree as to the success of the
present arrangements.




.REPORT OX AM INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES;

115

N ote.

DIVISION INTO DEPARTMENTS.

Number
of em-

Name of department.

Number
of
represen­
in depart­
tatives
ment
on com­
(in round
mittee.1
figures).

Seaplane department.............
Seaplane erecting....................
Paint shop.................................
New machine shop.................

160
770

Old machine shop...................
Body shop.................................
Stripping and exam ining.. .
Repair shop...............................
Smiths shop..............................
Detail shop................................

340
60
70
240
30
180

Finishing shop.........................
Trimming shop........ 1.............
Aviation engine department
Fitting shop..............................
Erecting shop...........................
Experimental department..
View room.................................
Molders and pattern makers

10
1
60
20
0
180
10
1
30
10
2
50

Trade-union of which representatives arc
members.

Amalgamated Carpenters and Joiners; Uniled
Kingdom Society of Smiths.
Tool Makers.
United Kingdom Society of Coachmakers.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers; United
Machine Workers.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
W ood Cutting Machinists.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.

Do.

Do.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers;
Metal Workers.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
United Kingdom Society of Smiths.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
Steam Engine Makers.
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
Do.
Do.
Pattern Makers.

Sheet

1 The rule is one representative for each department whatever its size. The exceptions are due to such
causes as: (a) In the new machine shop— one is allowed for each turn, day and night; ( b) in the detail shop
—a body of workpeople who have recently been removed from another department into this shop have
been allowed to retain their representation.
(G ) T H E H O R S T M A N N G E A R CO. ( L T D .) , 93 N E W B R I D G E R O A D , L O W E R W E S T O N ,
BATH.

These works are a small engineering establishment employing 70
to 80 men and apprentices and 14 women. There are no laborers.
The men are all skilled mechanics. There are 16 apprentices.
The works committee was formed in the autumn of 1916. It was
set up at the suggestion of the management in order to administer
the bonus scheme proposed by the management, in response to a de­
mand by the employees for a 10 per cent advance in wages in the
autumn of 1916.
The essentials of the scheme are as follows:
Each month a sum equal to 5 per cent on the wholesale value ap­
pearing in the stock book of the viewed and passed manufacturing
output for the previous month, and the works’ value of other work
done during the previous month, is set aside as a bonus fund.
Five per cent was adopted, as that was the percentage on the out­
put of the previous month represented by a 10 per cent advance on
the existing current wages at the date when the first bonus was paid.
Every employee in the works, except the two managers and the
secretary, participate in the bonus according to the number of
“ profit-sharing units” to which he or she is entitled under the




116

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

scheme. Each employee, except apprentices for whom special
provision is made, is entitled to one “ profit-sharing unit ” for each
halfpenny per hour of th§ employees’ time rate, up to, but not ex­
ceeding, 9d. [18.3 cents] per hour, and two units for each completed
year of service up to five years. Examples: An employee receiving
9d. [18.3 cents] per hour and having been three years with the firm
would be entitled to 24 units; another, receiving Is. 3d. [30.4 cents]
per hour and with three years’ service, would also receive 24 units;
m d another, with two years’ service and receiving 8d. [16.2 cents}
per hour, would be entitled to 20 units.
The committee meets regularly each month (i) To settle the
amount to be set aside for payment of bonus (for this purpose the
books of the company are opened to the committee); (ii) to assess
the value of the profit-sharing unit; (iii) to assess the fines in­
curred by employees under the scheme;1 (iv) to determine the
amount of bonus to which each employee is entitled.
2.
Constitution.—The committee is a joint committee, represent­
ing— (i) the management; (ii) the employees.
The two works managers and the secretary are ex officio members..
These gentlemen are also the managing directors of the company.
The rest of the committee consist of six representatives of the
employees, elected by ballot by all the employees. The six members
represent the works as a whole. Representation is not based on de­
partments or on grades of workers. All employees, apprentices, and
women as well as men, are voters.
The officers consist of a chairman and a secretary. The officers
are elected by the committee. The present chairman is the chair­
man of the directors. The chief clerk has been elected secretary.
The committee meets as a whole. There are no separate meetings
of the management members and employee members.
The present elected members have been elected for an indefinite
term. The period of office will probably, in future, be six months.
The constitution has not been reduced to writing, and must be re­
garded as tentative. More women will shortly be employed, and it
is intended then to consider the separate representation of women
on the committee.
1 A fine of a certain percentage of the units for any one month, with a maximum of 25
per cent, may be inflicted for each of the following offenses, and these units will then be
temporarily forfeited for the month in question:
( a) Insubordination, or use of improper language.
Cb) Undue carelessness and willful damage.
(c) Neglect to enter goods, advices, time cards, dockets, or time sheets.
( d) W aste of tools and materials.
(e) W aste of time by failing to work full weeks, or by slackness, also including undue
use of lavatory.
.
( /) Refusal to work a reasonable amount of overtime when requested without sufficient
reason.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

117

Only one of the employees is a union member. The question of re­
lationship to the trade-unions has, therefore, not arisen.
The committee has recently formed a works musical society, which
is progressing excellently. A canteen will shortly be established, and
it is intended to associate the committee with its management.
3. Functions o f the committee.—The committee, in addition to
the above-mentioned special duties, is charged with the considera­
tion generally of any grievances arising in the shop. Its functions
in this respect are not specified or limited. The committee has dealt
with shop conditions, wages, holidays, and bad timekeeping. It
discusses any questions arising in the works which are considered
suitable for discussion.
4. Procedure.—The committee meets regularly each month. It
meets some 15 minutes or so before the end of the working-day, and
the employee members are paid for the time so spent up to the end
of the working-day. Any time occupied after the end of the workingday is not paid for.
A special meeting can be called at any time on application to the
management. Time spent at special meetings is not paid for.
Meetings take place on the works.
Meetings are summoned informally by verbal notice to the mem­
bers.
The length of meeting varies according to the amount of business
to be transacted.
Minutes are regularly kept of the proceedings.
5. General.—No arrangements have as yet been worked out for
keeping the committee in touch with the general body of employees.
The necessity for such arrangements has not been felt. The decisions
of the committee appear to have given complete satisfaction. Em­
ployees are not bound to report grievances to the committee; if they
wish they can approach the management direct. Every- facility for
this is afforded to all employees.
The value of the unit has already advanced some 30 per cent, and
is expected to rise rapidly in the near future owing to improved
methods and efficiency. The committee is regarded as a great suc­
cess and has acted as a great incentive to efficiency in the works and
in furthering increased production.
(H) H, 0. STRONG & SONS (LTD.), NORFOLK WORKS, ST. PAUL’S, BRISTOL.

This establishment is a small engineering works employing about
120 men, women, and boys. The managing director personally super­
vises the whole of the works, and very close personal contact is main­
tained between the management and the employees.
1.
Origin.—For several years prior to the latter part of 1915 the
company adopted the practice of meeting the whole of the men




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

employed in the works once a month, to discuss any matters con­
nected with the establishment that seemed to require examination.
At the end of 1915 this practice was abandoned because it was felt
by the management— (i) That much time was wasted discussing ir­
relevant and unimportant matters; (ii) that real grievances did
not freely come out in the presence of the whole body of employee -.
The last meeting of this character took place toward the end of
1915, and at this meeting the managing director pointed out these
objections to the existing practice, and suggested that a works com­
mittee should be constituted. The management then retired, and
the proposal was discussed by the employees alone.
The employees agreed to the proposal, and proceeded to elect seven
representatives to form an employees’ committee, which would meet
as a joint works committee with the management.
2. Constitution.—The committee is composed of (a) three repre­
sentatives of the management nominated by the managing director,
namely, the managing director, manager of the repair department,
works manager of the manufacturing departments; (6) seven rep­
resentatives of the employees.
Representation is based on occupation, not on the department in
which the men work.
The representatives are divided as follows: Laborers (1), machin­
ists (1), turners (1), millwrights (1), pattern makers (1 )? fitters (1),
apprentices (1).
Some 20 women are employed, but are not represented.
Of the seven representatives, four are members of the Amalga­
mated Society of Engineersythree are nonunionists.
The employees’ representatives are appointed at an annual meet­
ing of all the employees (other than women) held in September.
They are appointed for 12 months.
The managing director has been elected chairman of the joint com­
mittee.
The men’s representatives meet separately as an employees’ com­
mittee for the purposes mentioned below in paragraph 4. The em­
ployees’ committee elects one of its members as chairman. The
chairman acts as convenor.
There is no relation between the committee and the trade-unions
concerned. A trade-union official, as such, does not, therefore, at­
tend the meetings, but one of the committee is the shop steward ap­
pointed by the Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
No constitution of the committee has been definitely formulated.
It is at present experimental, and is developing in accordance with
experience.
3. Functions of the committee.— Since the appointment o f the com­
mittee, no complaints or suggestions come direct to the management;




REPOET OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

119

they are first taken to the employees’ committee as explained here­
after.
The committee has dealt with the following classes of business:
Stoppage of bonus; general discipline; interpretation of official
orders and circulars; interpretation of trade-union rules and regu­
lations; shop conditions, lavatories, ventilation, etc.; decisions of
foremen; timekeeping; output and costs; overtime; grant and with­
holding of leaving certificates.
The committee has proved specially useful as a means of arriving
at the proper interpretation of official orders and circulars. The op­
eration of the recent order granting a bonus of 12.5 per cent to cer­
tain skilled time workers—the Skilled Time Workers (Engineers and
Molders) Wages Order, 1917—was discussed at the last meeting and
its operation in these works determined.
4.
Procedure.—Complaints or suggestions are brought, in the first
instance, to the attention of one of the men’s representatives. Nor­
mally, the complaint or suggestion is made to the representative of
the grade to which the person making the complaint or suggestion
belongs. This representative then notifies the chairman of the em­
ployees’ committee, who asks the foreman’s consent to a meeting of
the employees’ committee being held, and arranges with him a con­
venient time. The members are then notified verbally of the time
and place of meeting.
A meeting is held as soon as possible after receipt of the complaint
or suggestion.
The meeting takes place in the employers’ time.
All work in the establishment is paid on a day-work basis. The
men are paid for time occupied on committee business.
The men’s meetings are of short duration and are held in the
works.
I f the employees’ committee can deal finally with the question
raised, they do so. I f not, the chairman of the employees’ committee
approaches the managing director as chairman of the joint com­
mittee and asks for a meeting of the joint committee. These meet­
ings are held in the firm’s time, and the committee meets in the office
of the managing director.
Joint meetings occupy from half an hour to two hours, according
to the amount of business to be transacted.
A shorthand typewriter is present to take notes, from which regular
minutes are entered up in a minute book.
No voting takes place.
All decisions are arrived at by agreement.
There is no regular time for holding meetings of the joint com­
mittee. Meetings are held as and when required, and are held as




120

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

soon as possible after a request for a meeting is preferred by either
the management or the employees’ committee.
5. Relations with trade-unions.—There is no direct relation be­
tween the committee and the trade-unions.
The Unions are recognized by the company, and all union matters
are arranged direct between the management and the union officials.
The joint committee is only concerned with union rules so far as
affects their interpretation in relation to the circumstances of the
works.
The Amalgamated Society of Engineers have a shop steward in
the shop. The latter is a member of the committee, but not in his
official capacity as shop steward.
No difficulties have arisen with the unions.
6. General.—The management have found the committee of the
greatest service in conducting the business of the works. It has ob­
viated the necessity of posting notices, always liable to be misunder­
stood, in many instances. A good output has been maintained, and
no trouble has arisen in the works. The management believes that the
essential point in preserving good relations with their employees is
to ioisure an open and full understanding, and that this can only be
secured by frequent contact with every section of opinion in the
7
works.
The employees find the committee of advantage to them because^
instead of complaints being subject to the whim of a foreman or
the ipse dixit of a manager, the matter is finally decided by a com­
mittee of their own mates, or, if this is not found possible, by a joint
meeting of their own representatives with the management. More­
over, there is no delay. Rapidity of action is regarded as essential if
a scheme of control of this sort is to work satisfactorily.
There is general agreement that, in a small meeting of 9 or 10 per­
sons meeting informally, men have no hesitation in saying what they
think, and it is thus possible to gauge the u temperature ” of the shop
with some accuracy.
(I) MESSRS. GUEST, KEEN & NETTLEFOLD (LTD.), BIRMINGHAM.

Works: Engineering: Screw, nut, bolt, and rivet. Employees
(affected by the scheme, in three works), 2,500. Departments, some
50. General labor, about one-third of the whole. Women employees,
1,850.
1.
There are five separate works of the firm, all engaged in the
same business, in the Birmingham district. Three of these, con­
tiguous to one another (Heath Street, Imperial Mills, and St.
George’s ), are fully included in the scheme here described. The two
others follow the same lines, but, being more distant, are not in­




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

121

eluded in the actual operation of the scheme. The origin of the
scheme was as follows: Early in 1914 there was a series of strikes of
the women employees, and these strikes affected the men employees,
as machines stood idle, work was not ready, and wages were lost.
T
The result was that the men also struck. When matters had thus
reached a deadlock, a mass meeting of the men was held on May 9,
1914, which was attended by the management, and at this meeting
the outlines of the scheme now in force was suggested. Subse­
quently a mass meeting of the women was also held, and the manage­
ment and representatives of the men attended; The scheme was
again propounded and was accepted by the meeting. Finally a mass
meeting of men and women, with the management attending, was
held, and here the scheme (on the lines of No. X II and No. IV of the
present rules—that there should be no strike without consultation of
the firm, and meanwhile the machines should be kept funning, and
that there should be an appeals committee in each of the three con­
tiguous works) was accepted.
2. The works were conducted on this basis for over two years, down
to August, 1910, without any difficulty. At that time the ques­
tion arose of an advance in wages to meet the rise of prices. The
matter went to arbitration, and during the arbitration the full
scheme, as it is now in operation, was presented to the arbitrator for
his opinion. He approved it, and not only so, but gave legal advice
free of cost. Negotiations with the directors took place, and in De­
cember they accepted the scheme, and a formal agreement was con­
cluded by which the men, as a society, agreed to a signed contract
that they would not strike without consultation of the firm, and re­
ceived in return a system of appeals committee in each of the three
works and a central control board for all the three.
3. The scheme, which came into full working in December, 1916,
embraces, as has been said, three works,1 including the greater part
of the manufacturing section; but the engineering section (wT
hich
contains about 300 employees) is not at all under or connected with
the scheme, its members belonging to various other societies. The
2,500 employees of the manufacturing section of the three works form
a definite trade society or union. Few of them before the scheme
came into operation were members of a union; all of them are now
members of the new union. This new union does not belong to any
trades council or allied trades committee; its strike rules forbid such
1 Two other works of the firm in the district (Broad Street and K ing’ s Norton) are not
included in the scheme, and have no appeal committee, but the wages and conditions at
these works are affected and largely controlled by the system in force at the three con­
tiguous works. One of these works is likely to come fully into the scheme, as its site is
to be in the future nearer to those of the oth ers; the other is out in the country, and so
outside the scheme.




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

membership. The union is thus peculiar; it is a small union con­
sisting of the employees of a single firm.
4. The union, as has been said, has entered into a definite contract
with the firm, by which it covenants not to strike without consulta­
tion, and to keep the machines running meanwhile* in return for
certain concessions. The first of these is:
(a) The Appeals Committee.—There is an appeals committee in
each of the three works. Each committee contains men and women
representatives elected, one for each section, by a ballot among the
employees of the section; and each has its chairman, but the chair­
man of the central control board often presides at meetings of the
different appeals committees. The appeals committees deal with
questions other than those of wages. Their province includes lava­
tories, canteen, general health and welfare; but they deal mostly with
shop conditions and grievances. Any employee with a grievance
states it to the chairman of the committee or to one of its members
who reports it to the chairman. The chairman then sends a note on
a regular form to invite the foreman to meet him in order to discuss
the matter. The matter may be settled at such a meeting; if it is not,
it goes to the appeals committee; and if, in the opinion of that com­
mittee, it raises questions outside their province, it is referred to—
(&) The Central Control Board.—This contains, at the present
time, from 25 to 30 members, including men and women. The mem­
bers are nominated by the different appeals committees, subject to
ratification by a general meeting of the works concerned. (Meetings
of 800 are not at all uncommon; the employees attend well, as there
is a rule that unless two-thirds are present there is no quorum and
nothing can be done.) The president of the central control board is
elected by the whole society. The present president has been in in­
dustry for the last 37 years and has had a long practical experience
in the works of all the wage questions which form the staple of the
functions of the control board. In the handling of these questions
the usual method is as follows: A wage question is reported to the
president, and he then communicates with the management in writing.
I f it is a question of local detail, he writes to the works manager
of the particular works; if it is a question of a general kind, he writes
to the general works manager. The manager addressed replies to
the president in writing (but, as a rule, there has teen a personal
interview between the two before the reply comes) and the reply is
reported by the president to the central control board. I f the reply
of the management is satisfactory to the central control board, the
matter, of course, ends; if it is not, the central control board makes
further representations to the management. The control board does
not meet the management; the relations are entirely by correspond­




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

123

ence, supplemented by personal interviews between the president and
management.
( c ) The last resort, if a question is not settled between the control
board and the management, is the conciliation board, consisting of
two representatives of the management and two of the control board.
This board has never acted hitherto, since, under the working of the
Munitions Act, questions which would have gone to the conciliation
board under normal conditions now go to London for settlement. In
this event the president writes to the Ministry of Munitions to state
the men’s case, giving a copy of his letter to the firm; and a general
meeting of all the employers affected may be held before the letter
is sent, just as would be the case if the normal procedure contem­
plated in the rules were being followed.
5.
In regard to the general working of the system the following
points may be made:
The firm permits anybody to see the president in the works (an­
other workman sees to his machine while he is absent); it allows his
letters to go^by the works mail; it has supplied him with a desk
beside the bench at which he works and facilities for keeping his
books and papers. A room is set aside in which he can have inter­
views, and the firm provides a room for meetings of the appeals
committee and control board. The management is always ready to
see the president when he asks for an interview, and he has full
liberty to go anywhere in the three works, without asking for permis­
sion, in order to interview employees or committeemen and to discuss
grievances.
As has been mentioned, any grievance between an employee and
an overlooker is discussed between the chairman of one of the appeals
committees and the overlooker concerned; but if it is not settled the
complainant and the overlooker appear before the appeals committee
and both state their case. The committee decides which of the parties
is, in their view, in the right, and they send the matter for adjustment
to the management.
The work of the president under the scheme is unpaid.
(J) A FIRM OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS.

This establishment is an engineering works employing 400 women,
150 men, and 150 boys.
About 40 of the men are skilled. These are all members of the
Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
The establishment is almost entirely engaged in making 18-pounder
shells. A small amount of private work is done, principally heads
of trolley arms for electrically propelled tramcars.
1.
Origin .—The works committee was established in the autumn
of 1915.




124

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

It was brought into existence to assist in fixing and adjusting
piecework prices.
The committee was suggested by the men employed at the works,
and the local delegate of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers
also recommended the establishment of the committee to the manag­
ing director.
2. Constitution.—The committee is a men’s committee only. It
consists of five men. The women and boys are not represented. The
five members are elected by the shop as a whole, and do not represent
separate departments or grades.
The constitution of the committee has not been reduced to writ­
ing. It is at present experimental, and is developing in accordance
with experience.
3. Functions of the committee.—The principal business of the
committee is to assist in fixing and adjusting piecework prices. The
questions which arise on this score are, however, not complicated or
difficult, as the establishment has, since the committee was formed,
been engaged almost entirely on repetition work. The management,
in the first instance, settle what they consider fair prices, and sub­
mit them to the committee with the data on which they have been
fixed. The men’s committee then meets separately to consider the
suggested prices. Ample time is allowed them to consider and dis­
cuss the matter, both among themselves and with the workers affected.
A joint meeting is then held between the committee and the manage­
ment, at which the several prices under consideration are reviewed,
and any suggestions as to amendment are considered. I f a good case
is made out to the satisfaction of the management, the price is raised
or reduced. If it becomes necessary to reconsider the price already
fixed, any suggestions on this score are brought by the committee to
the attention of the management, and are jointly considered. No
friction of any sort has so far arisen. Prices have been frequently
reduced or increased by mutual agreement. Under ordinary condi­
tions of work, problems arising as to fixing and adjusting piecework
rates will be more difficult, but the managing director considers that
they can be best dealt with on the lines above indicated.
No limits have been put to the matters with which the committee
may deal, and it is open to the committee to bring forward any sug­
gestions or complaints relating to the management of the shop.
The committee has dealt with the following matters: Ventilating
and sanitary questions, complaints as to the decisions of foremen,
arrangement of shifts, allocation of piecework and daywork, holi­
days, alteration of hours of admission to the works, interpretation of
official orders and circulars.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

125

At the last meeting the application to this establishment of the
Skilled Time Workers (Engineers and Molders) Wages Order, 1917,
was discussed.
The managing director is of the opinion that the committee
should also be charged with the supervision of dismissals and reduc­
tion of staff, and it is likely that steps will be taken to utilize the serv­
ices of the committee in this respect.
The committee deals solely with domestic questions arising in the
shop.
4. Procedure.—The men’s committee meets separately on the em­
ployers’ premises and in the employers’ time. Time spent on com­
mittee work is paid by the employers. On request, the committee
meets the managing director and the works manager.
Requests for meetings are made by the committee to the works
manager.
Meetings with the management take place in the firm’s time, and
time is paid.
There are no fixed times for meetings. Meetings either of the em­
ployees’ committee or joint meetings with the management are held
at such times as may be found necessary.
On any business arising, a convenient time for a men’s committee
or a meeting with the management is arranged as soon as possible,
and generally upon the same day.
Meetings are called informally by verbal notice.
Meetings with the management are of an informal character, and
the men’s representatives are, if necessary, accompanied by the local
delegate of the Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
5. Relations 'with the trade-unions.—There is no official relation
between the committee and the Amalgamated Society of Engineers.
The union is recognized by the company, and very cordial relations
exist between the management and the Amalgamated Society of En­
gineers’ officials in the district. All trade-union matters are dealt
with direct by the management and the union officials. No difficulties
of any sort have arisen with the union.
6. General.—The committee is regarded by the management, the
men, and the union officials of the Amalgamated Society of Engi­
neers as a great success. The management have found the committee
of the greatest service in conducting the business of the works. The
managing director considers the existence of such a committee as
essential and strongly supports any scheme by which the workers
may be given a great share in the control of industry. In his opinion,
the success of any such scheme pivots on the establishment of satis­
factory joint works committees.




126

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS.
(K) HOTCHKISS ET CIE., ABTILLESY WOEKS, COTENTRY.

F b o m O f f ic ia l , C o n s t i t u t i o n

of

W

M i n is t r y

orks

of

C o m m it t e e

as

A ppr o ved

by

the

M u n it io n s .

The recognition o f a shop committee, such committee to be com ­
posed of stewards elected by their representative departments by
secret ballot and indorsed by their respective union district com­
mittees.
In deciding on representation the principle will be one representa­
tive for each department having not less than approximately 100 em­
ployees. In cases of smaller departments, these may be grouped to­
gether and representation of the departments so grouped will be on
the same basis. No employee of less than 18 years may vote.
Functions of the committee:
(a)
To provide a recognized channel of communication between
the employees and the management;
(&) To present to the management, through the chairman of the
committee, any grievance or suggestion which, after full considera­
tion, they think worthy of the firm’s attention.
Procedwre.—I f the management and the committee fail to agree,
and on all questions of principle, negotiations will proceed between
the management and the union as hitherto. The chairman of the
committee will have facilities to consult the union local officials.
Failing settlement with the union, Part 1 of the Munitions of War
Act, 1915, will apply.
No stoppage of work will occur during negotiations.
Meetings of the committee will be held after working hours unless
called in case of emergency at the request of the management.
N o t e f r o m f i e m . —The committee came into existence at Easter, 1917. It was
instituted in the first place on a two months’ trial and, as it momentarily
achieved its object, was continued until about the end of the year. The con­
stitution of the committee then became unacceptable to the shop stewards and
the committee lapsed.

(L) A LARGE ENGINEERING ESTABLISHMENT,

1.
From the point of view of the management.—A dilution com­
mittee arose in 1916 when dilution was introduced. There were no
particular rules about its constitution. At the end of 1916, after the
question of dilution had been worked out, and as the committee com­
menced to take up other questions, the firm began to consider the for­
mal institution of a works committee in place o f this informal dilu­
tion committee. The note printed below gives particulars.
A joint shop committee was set up, but only lasted a few months.
It would appear that the really crucial question, which led to the dis­
solution of the joint committee, was the position of the shop stewards,




REPORT OF

AJNT

INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

127

which was perhaps not properly coordinated with the institution of
the joint committee. The men stood out against the committee be­
cause, in their view, its effect would be to weaken the authority of the
shop stewards. As a matter of fact, the firm has always in practice
recognized the shop stewards, though in the institution of the shop
committee it did not take their position specifically into account.
The management sees them whenever they wish it. Generally, they
come in twos—a convenor attending with the shop steward of the de­
partment from which the complaint is brought. This still goes on;
and, therefore, though the committee is dead, the principle of such a
committee still lives. Generally, it is true, the shop steward goes to
the foreman first with a complaint; but he can come straight to the
management if he is dissatisfied with the foreman’s answer.
2. From the point of view of the men.—The same people were shop
stewards and members of the shop committee, but they preferred to
act in the former capacity. One reason for this preference was curi­
ous but natural. There were 24 shop stewards in the establishment;
there were only nine representatives of the men on the joint commit­
tee, as the management held the view that the committee must not be
so large as to be unwieldy. The 15 shop stewards who were ex­
cluded from the committee were discontented.
3. The last straw which broke down the joint committee was a curi­
ous thing. It was the question of the washing of women’s overalls.
The women had agitated (or been agitated) about the matter; it was
brought before the committee; the men took umbrage at a long dis­
cussion of such a matter, and the end came.
In spite of this failure, both management aad men appear to be in
favor of the idea of the joint committee.
N ote .

JOINT SHOP COMMITTEE.

It is proposed to form a joint shop committee for the purpose of
mutual discussion of shop questions, with a view to securing harmoni­
ous relations and efficiency in the working conditions of the estab­
lishment.
The committee will consist of representatives elected by ballot by
the workmen and women of the various departments, arranged in
nine divisions as shown below, one representative to each division.
The firm will be represented by the directors and departmental man­
agers. The committee will have power to coopt any employee or
works official for attendance at any meeting where such attendance
may be necessary.
A first ballot will be taken in each department, each employee
being at liberty to nominate a candidate for his department. The




128

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

two candidates receiving the largest number of nomination papers
will be selected for the final ballot, and the nominee receiving the
larger number of votes in the final ballot will be the elected repre­
sentative of the department.
It is suggested that the representatives should hold office for six
months. A payment of 2s. 6d. [60.8 cents] per meeting attended will
be paid to each representative by the firm.
The committee will meet on the first Thursday of each month at
5 p. m., or as may be required.
The scheme is a purely domestic one, and is an attempt by the firm
to provide a more direct means of communication with their em­
ployees in all matters affecting their, conditions and the development
of the establishment generally. The directors invite the cooperation
and interest of the employees in the scheme, and trust that each
individual will register his vote according to his judgment, in order
to make the joint committee thoroughly representative.
The ballot will be secret, so that no parties will be in a position to
ascertain how any worker has voted. Intimation will be made to
each department when the first ballot will take place. The arrange­
ments in connection with the election and voting will be carried out
by the existing joint shop committee.
(M ) A M U N ITIO N S F A C T O R Y .

The company owns two factories and manages two others, and alto­
gether employs about 10,000 workers. Its products are ammunition
of various kinds for naval and military purposes.
This note only refers to one of their factories, in which there are
4,000 employees, of whom 1,500 are women. One hundred of the
males are general laborers, the rest being skilled or semiskilled.
The works committee was formed in May, 1917, and consists of 21
members. It is composed of and is elected by the men, the election
taking place at shop meetings. At present the women have no rep­
resentative and no vote in the elections. Nevertheless, the women
have laid certain matters affecting them before the committee for
consideration, and the secretary of the committee is in touch with
the organizer of the National Federation of Women Workers, and
’ should need arise would deal with the women’s section of the workers*
union, or, indeed, any organization of female labor.
There is no rule excluding nonunionists, but, in fact, all the mem*
bers of the committee are trade-unionists.
The committee meets weekly on Tuesdays at supper time (i. e., in
the men’s own time). In cases of real urgency the general manager
gives permission for meetings in the company’s time.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

129

The committee has a secretary, who is largely responsible for the
work transacted. He communicates the recommendations of the com­
mittee to the general manager through the company’s labor officer.
The committee, though perhaps not formally recognized by the
company, is, in practice, treated as a body with which negotiations
can be concluded.
The general procedure is as follows:
Matters for the consideration of the committee are reduced to writ­
ing and brought up at a meeting. They are then discussed. In
many cases the committee are able to give advice or instructions on
the matter without any reference to the management. Should it be
decided that in the opinion of the committee some alteration should
be made, the labor officer is requested to lay the matter before the
general manager, who frequently discusses the subject with the
secretary before coming to a decision.
Should the matter be deemed to be very important or of a funda­
mental character the committee request the general manager to re­
ceive a deputation.
Up to the time of writing the working of this committee, as guided
by its present secretary, is considered by the company as most help­
ful. It has settled many alleged grievances without any trouble, has
prevented several threatened strikes, and generally tended to smooth
'and harmonious working in the factory.
The success of the whole scheme is largely due to the tact and good
sense of both the company’s labor officer and the works committee’s
secretary.
In conclusion it should be stated that before the formation of the
works committee many consultations had to take place between em­
ployees and their respective unions to settle minor points. This pro­
cedure has now been found unnecessary, as the operation of the
committee so far has made it easy for both small and great matters
to be ventilated and promptly dealt with with the least possible
friction and delay.
(N ) W H IT E H E A D TO R PE D O W O R K S (W E Y M O U T H )

(L T D .), W E Y M O U T H .

The following summary contains part of a memorandum sent to
the representatives of 13 trade-unions. A letter, which accompanied
the memorandum, suggested that a general meeting of delegates of
each organized society in the works should be called to discuss with
the firm the formation and constitution of the proposed council. The
proposals are now under discussion by the trade-unionists.
In the memorandum the firm suggests—
That the existing trade-union organizations may be made the basis of a gen­
eral council of reasonable size, representing every union in the works, and given
106328°—Bull. 255—19------9




130

BULLETIN OP THE BUREAU OV LABOR STATISTICS.

the fullest possible powers to take decisions, subject, of course, to reference to
the constituent branches on any issue of sufficient importance^

Then they state that—
The firm’s aim is to associate (through a council appointed in such a way
as to recognize and strengthen the position of the existing trade organizations)
the whole body of workers in everything that concerns their well-being, disci­
pline, and control, and by stirring in each individual the sense of his responsi­
bility toward the State, the industry, and the works to enable such a council
to secure loyal compliance with any decision arrived at conjointly with the firm.

A program of subjects is thereafter given as a basis for discussion.
1. Hours o f worh *
—The proposal of a 50-hour week on the onebreak day system was defeated when voted upon in May. Some men
appear to have thought the adoption of a 50-hour week would preju­
dice the introduction of a 48-hour week after the war. The firm is
strongly in favor of a 48-hour week, but in regard to that can not act
without reference to the agreements between the Engineering Em­
ployers’ Federation and the trade-unions.
A full explanation of the one-break day is given and arguments in.
its favor added. This section ends:
The firm has not had any other or better proposal put before it for this pur­
pose, and therefore raises the question again for reconsideration. It is further
proposed that, six months after the adoption of the one-break, a referendum by
ballot should be taken as to whether the old system of hours should be gone
back to or not.
2. Timekeeping.—“ The question of timekeeping is the one that
has gone nearest to impairing the excellent relations with its em­
ployees that the firm values so highly; but it is felt that here again
the facts have not been rightly understood by everyone.”
There follows a discussion of causes. The management have now
come to the conclusion that the greatest effect has been produced by
the institution of an “ open gate ” and the relaxation of the official
works’ rules.
“ The exact form that the gate rules will finally take is subject to
consideration and is much influenced by the concurrent question of
the one-break day; but, in its old form, the 4open gate ’ has been
tried and found wanting, and one way or another something else
must take its place.”
3. Release o f dUuted labor.— u The firm is prepared to invite col­
laboration from the proposed council, or sectional committees repre­
senting the individual trades concerned, both as regards the selection
of suitable operations onto which to put unskilled labor, and as
regards the individuals to be released for skilled work elsewhere.”
4. Fixing of piecework prices.—In order to facilitate the fixing of
prices satisfactorily to employer and employee it is proposed:




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES#

131

It would be one of the functions of such a council, as is suggested in this
memorandum, to set up an organization whereby reliable times for piecework
operations would be ascertained, checked, and counterchecked by both parties.
This organization would prevent such occurrences as a recent suggestion of 50
minutes for a particular new operation. A trial made by the management
showed that six minutes was an ample allowance. If such trials were made
by a joint committee (or in their presence) prices could be settled more rapidly,
and with less danger of unfairness, or discontent on either side afterwards.
The same organization could be used for the purpose of making clear to whnt
extent a job becomes a new one by some alternation in design, material, or
method of manufacture.

5.
General rules and regulations.—“ There is a class of rules,
offenses against which are punishable by a fine of 2s. 6d. (60.8 cents),
dismissal, or a prosecution under the Munitions Acts.
“ None of these penalties is a convenient one. Fines are as much
disliked by the firm as by the men; dismissal entails the loss of serv­
ices which may be badly needed; and prosecutions entail great waste
of time and may produce more evils than the original ones they are
meant to cure.
“ Many of these offenses and some others could probably be dealt
with more satisfactorily by such a council as outlined above. In­
stances of them are:
wClocking in too soon, fraudulent clocking, and registering an­
other man’s time.
“ Not keeping at work till knocking-off time.
“ Leaving work without permission of foreman.
“ Idling in the works.
“ Entering or leaving the works otherwise than by the main en­
trance.
“ Bringing in liquor.
“ Gambling in the works.
4 Taking part in disturbances, using abusive language, and refus­
6
ing to obey lawful orders.
“ All the above are offenses under the works’ rules, permission to
post which has been given by the ministry to the firm as a controlled
establishment. They have hung in the main entrance since 1915, and
are still in force, but every one of them is broken from time to time.”
( 0 ) A S H IP B U IL D IN G Y A R D .

The present number of employees is about 2>400, of whom some
200 are women.
The system in operation at this yard (and the same methods
apply at the firm’s engine works) is particularly interesting in view
of the comparatively long time during which it has been working,
and in view also o f its success in fostering good relations between




132

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

the firm and the men. More than 30 years ago an elaborate system
of rules for the yard were drawn up by the firm in consultation with
delegates from the trades, conferences between members of the firm,
officials of the firm, and delegates from the various trades in the
yard, being held for this purpose on five dates in 1885 and on two
in 1886. These “ Rules” form a printed booklet of 36 pages, and
each employee on joining the yard for the first time can be furnished
with a copy. In an address, delivered by one of the late senior mem­
bers of the firm, at the close of one of the conferences (on 21st
January, 1885), there is contained the following statement:
I think I am right in saying that the step taken by this firm in asking their
workmen to join with them in the preparation of the rules of this yard is a
new step in the history of labor. I can not find, from anything I have heard
or read, that any firm previous to my own firm has asked the men in their
employ to join with them iii the preparation of the rules by which these men
were to be governed.

The revision of these yard rules has been a subject of conference
at various dates since 1886. The present edition of the rules is di­
vided into five sections: Section I is subdivided into (i) General,
(ii) Decauville Railway, (iii) Timekeeping and piecework, (iv)
Regarding apprentices, (v) Against accidents, (vi) Against dishon­
esty, and (vii) Final. Section I I deals with the admission of (i)
Apprentices to drawing office, (ii) Boys as apprentice clerks, (iii)
Girls as apprentices in tracing departments, (iv) Girls as appren­
tices in the decorative department, and (v) Girls as apprentices in
upholstery and polishing departments. Section I I I gives the rules
for the guidance of the committee of awards. Section I V gives the
rules referring to subscriptions. Section V gives the fire brigade
rules. There is a separate book of rules for the accident fund.
Conferences similar to those of 1885-86 have been held from time
to time since, and have developed into a workers’ committee. The
members of the conference at first represented trades, and may still
do so, but not necessarily. Each department chooses one or two
representatives and these representatives may or may not be tradeunionists or shop stewards.1
The composition of the committee to-day is as follows:
Trade.

Number o f

delegates.

Painters_____________________________________ ______
Engineers, cranemen, etc_____________________________
Blacksmiths--------------------------------------------------------------Joiners (upholsterers)______________________________
Plumbers___________________________________________
Tinsmiths------------------------------------------------------------------

1
2
2
2
1
2 •

1 The majority of the delegates are trade-unionists and official yard delegates for
their unions, though not elected to the committee as such.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.
Trade.

Riveters _
_
Laborers__
Electricians
Iron carpenters Wood carpenters
Calkers—
Drillers-.
Fitters—
Foremen.
Drawing office.
Countinghouse.

133

Number of
delegates.

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
1
1
23

The above is the composition of the committee when it meets the
management in what may be called formal meetings. There are, how­
ever, no set meetings, and in addition to the formal meetings much
business is done between the firm and the chairman of the delegates;
and, in matters affecting a particular trade, between the firm and the
delegates from that trade. In the last 24 years the formal meetings
have averaged three a year, but in the last three years there have been
20 meetings, or an average of seven a year.
The delegates hold shop meetings to report results of meetings
with the management, and meet the management again, and so on
until agreement is reached.
One of the delegates acts as convenor or chairman and as the link
between the delegates and the management. For the formal meet­
ings with the firm, one of the firm’s shorthand clerks, at the request
of the delegates, acts as secretary.
The subjects dealt with, in what have been called “ formal meet­
ings,” cov3r a wide range. They have included the revision of yard
rules originally made in conference; unemployment questions, e. g.,
the purchase by the firm of an old vessel so as to employ idle men, and
subscriptions to an unemployed fund; timekeeping—men leaving
their work before the horn blows; arrangements for paying the men,
e. g., earlier payment for big squads where division has afterwards
to be made among the members of the squad; arrangement of holi­
days; subscriptions to various funds and charities, including joint
funds for augmenting Government’s allowances to soldiers’ depend­
ents; provision of canteens and of supply of carried food warming
appliances, and of ambulance transport for injured men; distribution
of coal supplied from firm’s yard during 1912 coal strike to inhabi­
tants of town (this was worked by delegates themselves under chair­
manship of one of the partners) ; subscriptions to war loan; and
dilution of labor.




134

b u l l e t in

of

the

bureau

of

labor

s t a t is t ic s .

When the firm joined the employers’ association, about 1906, the
fact was formally put before the men’s delegates.
It will be seen that the list covers not only general industrial ques­
tions, shop grievances, etc., but also questions of welfare. (There
is a welfare supervisor for the some 200 women employees, and a
boy’s welfare supervisor for all the apprentices and young lads. H e
has formed a cadet corps mostly from among them.)
All the questions discussed are general questions, since, as has al­
ready been remarked, the questions of a particular trade are ar­
ranged between the firm and the representatives o f that trade. In
these latter questions the failure to agree would mean that the matter
became one between the firm and the particular trade-union con­
cerned.
T

he

A wajrds S c h e m e .

The firm have hud in operation since 1880 an awards scheme, under
which any worker (exclusive of head foremen, officials of the com­
mittee of awards, and heads of department) may claim an award
for improvements and inventions. The scheme was introduced by
one of the late senior members of the firm. The rules for the guidance
of the committee of awards form Section III o f the yard rules. The
committee consists o f an outside and independent person as president,
the manager of the yard, and the manager or chief draftsman of the
engine works, with a clerk from the counting house as secretary.
The rules are elaborate, and designed, among other things, to do jus­
tice as between different claimants. The average number of claims
is stated to fluctuate very much from year to year. In certain cases
where patents have been secured the amounts received by individuals
have run into hundreds of pounds. In the case o f patents, the in­
ventors usually ask that one of the firm should be joined with them,
and share partly in the gains. The reply of one inventor, when
he was asked why this was so, is compounded o f Scotch caution and
good feeling and trust. It was: u Naebody kens my name, but a’body
kens yours.n
T

he

A c c id e n t

Fxm
i>

S o c ie t y .

This society, established 43 years ago by mutual agreement between
the firm and their workmen, was, in 1897, used as a basis for con­
tracting out of the employers’ liability act of 1880, and the workmen’s
compensation act of 1897, and has since been amended to conform to
the act of 1906. It is governed by a joint committee o f 22 managers,
with an independent chairman. Eleven are chosen by the workmen
and 11 chosen by the firm; the latter comprise four partners, one
manager, and six foremen or members of office stafL Four of the
works delegates are also managers of the accident fund, two of these




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

135

being trade delegates and the other two being the foremen delegates.
The funds are provided in two ways. Fund No. 1, to meet the legal
provisions of compensation imposed by the acts, is provided entirely
by the firm. Fund No. 2, which provides extra benefits, such as so­
latium for loss of minor portions of the body, for which no lump
sum compensation could be demanded under the acts, is provided
from the contributions of the members and the payments of the
firm, and, in addition, from the fines imposed in accordance with
the yard rules. The particular interest of these fines, which like the
other features of the rules are carefully detailed, is, that not only;
are they paid into the accident fund, and so, though taken from
the individual, returned to the workpeople as a whole, but, in ad­
dition, in each case of a fine the firm pays an equivalent amount into
the fund. The firm in fining an individual fines itself to the same
extent, and the double fine goes to the accident fund.
The firm lay great stress upon the fact that this system of yard
delegates has gradually developed on voluntary lines as the need for
it was felt. In all cases the delegates simply ask to see the manage­
ment when they so desire, and may meet several or only one of the
managers, as the case may be. (There is no question of equality of
numbers of firm’s representatives and men’s, except in the accident
fund.)
(P) PARKGATE WORKS JOINT TRADES COMMITTEE.
I .— R u l e s

fo e

W

okks

C o m m it t e e .

1. That this organization be called “ The Parkgate Works Joint
Trades Committee.”
2. That the objects of the committee are (a) to strengthen tradeunion organization in the works; (h) to deal with general questions
affecting the welfare of all sections in the works; {c) to give assist­
ance to branches in sectional disputes where the branches fail to
arrive at a settlement with the firm; (d) to keep a watchful eye on
representation on local bodies, and to see that the workmen employed
by the firm are not overlooked; (e) to do whatsoever it can to pro­
mote a closer union of the different trades represented in the works.
3. That branches be allowed representation as follows:1 Member­
ship of 50, one delegate; membership over 50, two delegates.
4. That the branches be asked to appoint alternative delegates, and
forward their names to the secretary together with the names of
the delegates appointed.
5. Any body of trade-unionists working in any department, but
whose branch is out of the works, may have representation on the
same basis as branches.
1 With, la addition, the secretary of each branch, if employed in the works* ex officio.




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

6. The president and secretary shall be empowered to call a meet­
ing of the committee to deal with any matter which arises, or may
arise, affecting the welfare of the branches.
7. Any delegate or branch may have a meeting called by giving
notice to the secretary, stating th§ business they wish to bring before
the committee.
8. That a delegation fee of Is. [24.3 cents] per delegate per year
be paid to the committee.
9. That where sectional disputes are dealt with by committee,
deputations to the management shall consist of two representatives
of the committee and one from the section affected.
10. That the secretary be ex officio member of the committee.
11. No person allowed to sit on the committee unless authorized
to do so by his branch and certified by the branch secretary.
12.1 That in the event of any claim being made or dispute which
affects the interests of more than one section of the works, such cases
shall be dealt with by the trade-unions concerned and the joint
trades committee.

II.
Fourteen trade-union branches are represented on the committee.
Seven of the 14 have no members employed outside the Parkgate
Works. The seven are: Four branches of the Iron and Steel Trades
Confederation, and a branch each of the Blast Furnace Men, the Enginemen and Cranemen, and the General Laborers. Together these
seven branches represent about 1,600 persons in the works. Six of
them have three representatives on the committee; in each case the
secretary of the branch is one of the representatives. The seven
trade-union branches having only part of their membership within
the works are: The Bricklayers, the Amalgamated Society of En­
gineers, the Blacksmiths, the Molders, the Boiler Makers, the Roll
Turners, and the Carpenters and Joiners; together these seven
branches represent about 200 persons in the works. Four of them
have two representatives, including the secretary in each case, and
three one representative on the committee. Altogether, therefore,
the committee consists of 31 persons, including the secretaries of
11 of the 24 branches.
Rule 4, relating to alternative delegates, is stated to be necessary
because some men, for example the first hand at a smelting furnace,
can not leave their work at certain times.
The committee was formed in January, 1916. An attempt to form
a committee had been made in 1913, but owing to the slight support
given to it this committee lasted for a few months only. The influ­
ences which produced the present committee were the recognition of




1 Included recently.

REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

137

common needs and the desire for harmony. (See rule 2.) The par­
ticular incident from which its inception took place was a meeting
called to nominate a representative from the workpeople to the local
military tribunal.
Among the subjects which the committee has discussed are in­
cluded the following: Dilution, gambling in the works, the recent
12.5 per cent increase to time workers, extension of this to part-time
and part-bonus workers, the provision of canteens, works discipline,
participation in local affairs such as elections, promotion of work­
people, etc. In regard to gambling, the committee decided that the
practice should be abolished absolutely; this meant that a “ raffle ”
which had been held for the past seven years was abolished along
with the other forms of gambling.
Dilution committee.—This is a subcommittee of the works com­
mittee chosen so as to give representation to all the departments most
vitally affected by dilution. Its membership is made up of three
from the confederation (one each from the smelters, the millmen, and
the stock takers and chemists) and one from the general laborers,
with a blast-furnace man as president and the secretary of the works
committee as secretary. The secretary has no vote and the president
a casting vote only.
( a ) BOOT M A N U FA C TU R E R S.

The company employs about 1,000 workpeople, of whom two-thirds
are men and boys and one-third women and girls.
1. Origin.—The works committee was established about 15 months
ago, on the initiative of the management. The object in view was to
afford more convenient machinery by which the employees could con­
fer with the management, and vice versa.
2. Constitution,—The committee is an employees’ committee and
.
consists of 10 representatives, based on several departments into
which the establishment is divided. The representatives are dis­
tributed as follows:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Clicking department________________________________ __ 2
Machine-room department___________________________ __ 2
Rough-stuff department_____________________________ __ 1
Making department________________________________ __ 2
Finishing department_______________________________ __ 2
Boxing department_________________________________ __ 1

The two representatives from the machine-room department are
women. The representative from the boxing department is a woman.
The other representatives are men.
The members of the committee are elected for 12 months. They
are elected by the employees at a meeting of the employees convened
by the union for the transaction of union business.
The constitution of the committee has not been reduced to writing.




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OE LABOR STATISTICS.

3. Functions o f the committee.—No limits have been set to the
matters with which the committee may deal. It is competent for the
committee to make representation to the management on any ques­
tion relating to the internal organization of the establishment.
A special function performed by the committee is the preliminary
discussion of piecework rates with the management prior to such
rates being presented to the conciliation board for the board’s sanc­
tion. The committee has been found especially useful for the trans­
action of this business. In many cases it has resulted in agreed rates
being submitted for the formal sanction of the board. This has been
particularly the case in reference to fixing rates for new machines.
4. Procedure.—No regular times are fixed for the committee to
meet. Meetings with the management are arranged on request by
either the committee to the management or the management to the
committee. The management usually give one day’s notice to the
committee when they desire a meeting. Meetings are held in the
firm’s time, and any loss of wages is made up. Meetings do not
usually last beyond an hour.
5. Relations with trade-unions.—It is the policy of the union that
all disputes or complaints shall be settled, as far as possible, in the
shop, without reference to the union officials.
The union cordially approves of the committee, and the representa­
tives on the committee are appointed at a meeting for the transaction
of union business, as already stated.

Several of the shop stewards are members of the committee, but
are elected as ordinary representatives, and do not sit by virtue of
their office as stewards.
When matters of importance are under discussion a representa­
tive of the union attends the meetings of the management and the
committee.
6. General.—In view of the high degree of organization both
among the employers and operatives in the boot and shoe industry,
and the efficient working of the conciliation board machinery, it is
considered essential for the successful working of a committee such
as that above described that great care should be taken to see that
the committee does not usurp functions proper to the conciliation
board. Special stress is laid upon the useful work done by the com­
mittee in arriving informally at agreed piecework rates prior to
their being submitted to the conciliation board for formal approval.
(R ) M E SSR S. R E U B E N G A U N T & SONS (L T D .), S P IN N E R S A N D M A N U F A C T U R E R S ,
F A R S L E Y , Y O R K S H IR E .

The firm has adopted works committees at their worsted spinning
mill.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

139

The firm are pioneers in the application of welfare schemes in
iheir industry.
The following details, which the firm has kindly supplied, refer
to the spinning section at Springfield, where combing as well as
spinning is carried on.
The number of workers engaged is 400, in the proportion of twothirds women and girls and one-third men and boys.
The first committee to be formed was the factory council.
This council was appointed by the board of directors, and is com­
posed of two directors and the heads of the respective departments
in the works. All the nine members are specialists in their various
spheres. The factory council acts in an advisory capacity in regard
to general questions of finance, ways and means, and expenditure,
but in regard to interdepartmental questions it is competent to act
both in an advisory and in an executive capacity.
The function of the factory council is to consider, unify, and con­
solidate the rules and principles of management.
The factory council makes use of the collective experience of its
members and, in consequence, the business is more efficiently man­
aged.
Meetings are held weekly, on the same day and at the same hour.
The chairman is one of the managing directors, and is responsible
for explaining the business policy to the council; he is also the me­
dium through which the recommendations of the council reach the
board of directors.
When factory council meetings were first inaugurated it was not
easy for either directors or heads of departments to table their in­
formation freely; neither did either party always appreciate a frank
review on matters relating to their department, but in course of time
(the factory council has been established eight years) confidence and
a broader outlook have obtained, and members now pool their ex­
periences quite freely. In this way members are kept in touch with
all activities and, instead of having a knowledge limited to their
own department, they gain an insight into the whole concern. This
reticence on the part of both directors and representatives may be
a real stumbling block—it should be frankly recognized as a diffi­
culty and means should be found by the management of overcoming
it. The manager or director, who is used to handling big proposi­
tions and acting independently, may be fretted by the narrower view
of the man who can see no further than his own department, but re­
straint must be exercised.
I f the conferences are ter be of any use, those attending them must
be able to speak freely and be assured of a sympathetic hearing. Ex­




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

perience proves that time and patience will overcome this difficulty.
The time, both of the manager and the representative, is well spent;
they are coming into closer contact with each other than heretofore,
and both are gaining knowledge which will eventually lead to in­
creased confidence and efficiency.
The establishing of such a committee as the factory council does
not fundamentally alter the general scheme and management of in­
dustry. The function of the management is still controlled by the
managing staff, but experience has proved that a council with con­
sultative and advisory powers makes for efficiency and has a distinct
value in the business organization.
The concept of leadership is “ Support by the staff rather than
control of the staff”
C onference

of

W orks’

R e p r e s e n t a t iv e s .

General remarks.—In January, 1917, arrangements were made to
hold a series of meetings with the various departments for the pur­
pose of showing the value of cooperation and of suggesting that all
matters relating to wages and working conditions should in future
be dealt with by conference.
At these little meetings it was pointed out that the old way had
been for changes to be made by the management without any active
cooperation from the workers.
Changes were made and had to be accepted, but under the new
arrangement the cooperation of the workers would be asked for in
the belief that they would respond, and the result would be increased
confidence.
As a result of these meetings it was unanimously decided to es­
tablish works committees.
The election of representatives was left entirely in the hands of
the workers. The importance, however, of electing representatives
who had their confidence was pointed out. It was suggested that
workers who had been at the mill some time and believed in our
ideals would be valuable, but the greatest stress was laid upon con­
fidence.
Representatives must have the confidence and loyalty of their
fellow workers.
Machinery o f conference.—Each department elects three repre­
sentatives by ballot. The firm nominates the managing director, the
departmental manager, and the foreman to represent the manage­
ment. Whenever conferences are called to adjust differences, two
persons from outside the department are*coopted to act as neutral
representatives. The duties of the departmental committees are




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

141

clearly defined and meetings are only called when questions with
which they have to deal are involved.
The coopted members are appointed for one piece of business
only.
Committee members are elected for 18 months, one retiring ever}^
C months. The retiring member is eligible for reelection.
While the constitution has been kept as simple as possible, it was
felt that the adoption of certain principles by all the works commit­
tees would secure uniformity and be a guide to conference members,
and with this in view the following rules were drawn up and ac­
cepted in turn by the different committees:
1. There shall be a list of minimum wages established by confer­
ence for all machine minders.
2. Promotion and pay shall be as nearly as possible in proportion
to merit.
3. A worker shall receive extra pay for extra work.
4. No important change in methods, rates, or service, shall ba
made by either party without a full explanation of its reason and
purpose.
5. The Springfield Mills ideals were adopted as follows, the major
ideal being to produce better yarns than have ever been produced in
the past by anyone. The minor ideals are: To produce “ Emperor 9
9
yarns under healthy and happy conditions, honestly, efficiently, and
profitably; to educate our workers and ourselves to become highly
skilled in order that we may earn a reputation for the highest grade
of work, and as a result be able to pay the highest rate of wages; to
secure continuity of employment by supplying high-grade yarns and
by giving good service; to treat customers with absolute fairness in
order that we may gain and keep their confidence.
6. So far as possible conferences shall be held during ordinary
working hours, and attendance at such conferences shall be paid for
at the appropriate rates.
7. Applications for conferences shall be made to the board of di­
rectors by the representatives of the workers through the foreman
and through the manager of the department.
8. Differences shall be adjusted by a committee of eight—three
-from the workers, three from the company, and two chosen by these
two parties, one of the latter to be appointed chairman of the meeting.
9. The conference shall decide the date from which any alteration
in pay shall become operative. It shall also decide the minimum
length of time any agreement arrived at shall be binding upon the
parties thereto, subject to the proviso that whenever working condi­




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BUIXETIN OF THE BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

tions are changed either the employees or the company shall have
the right to obtain a revision of the rates of pay.
10. It was resolved that the present representatives should all
three serve for the whole of thQ present year; at the end of the
present year the one having received the least number of votes should
retire, but should be eligible for reelection; at the md of 18 months
the representative having received the second lowest number of votes
should retire and be eligible for reelection; at the end of two years
the representative having received the greatest number of votes
should retire but be eligible for reelection.
11. It is understood and agreed that it is the business of the man­
agement, and is not the business of the conference, to deal with—
(a) The allocation of work to particular sets of drawing.
(b) The allocation of minders to particular machines.
Our works committees have only been in existence a year, but so
far they have worked quite satisfactorily. We realize that time will
be needed for representatives, who are unaccustomed to business
meetings, to express their opinions and to voice the wishes of their
coworkers, but we look upon the scheme as an educational venture and
we are prepared to wait patiently and overcome the difficulties that
beset us.
Democratic control of industry can only come when democracy
has knowledge and wisdom to assume control. Rightly used, con­
ferences will provide the necessary experience and education for
greater responsibility, which will be equally beneficial to all con­
cerned.
In conclusion, it should be remembered that the two principal fac­
tors in the organization of human beings are T he S pirit and T ub
M achinery . In successful cooperation the spirit is more potent
than the machinery. M ental A ttitude is of G reater Consequence
t h a n M ental C apacity . Notwithstanding this the machinery is
usually the only factor which is accepted consciously and considered
in a scientific way. This is unfortunate, for the thing that really
counts is atmosphere i the right spirit must prevail before the ma­
chinery of organization can work properly. The most valuable asset
of the employee is Ms spirit—that intangible part of his personality
which can not be bought with so cheap a thing as money. It must
be won.
The royal road and the only road to capture a man’s spirit is to
win his confidence and nothing but integrity of purpose and sincerity
of heart can do this. There is no field of action in which insincerity
is so futile as in the handling of workmen. The employer who be­
lieves in the principle that “ Confidence is the basis of all permanent




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

143

relationships ” and works accordingly, is the man who will make his
works committees a helpful force in his organization.
G

2d

F eb ru a ry,

erald

R . G

a u n t

.

1918.

(N ote.—Mr. Gaunt will be glad to supply fuller detailed information to any­
one who is interested in the matter.)
(S ) F O X B R O T H E R S & CO. (L T D .), W E L L IN G T O N , SOM ERSET (A N D C H IP P IN G
N O R T O N ).

The Wellington establishment is one of the oldest woolen and
worsted manufacturing business in the country, going back to the
seventeenth century. For nearly 150 years it has been controlled by
members of the one family, up to 1896 as partners, and since then
as directors. Several generations of the families of many of the
present employees have worked in the mills. The conditions there­
fore are somewhat exceptional.1 The present number of employees is
about 1,400.
The works committee was instituted in February, 1917, on the
suggestion of the directors as a means to more harmonious working
of the business. Each department elects its representatives, roughly
in proportion to the numbers of men and women employed; no one is
eligible for membership of the committee unless he (or she) has been
at least five years in the employment of the firm; the right to vote
is confined to employees of 18 years of age and over. The compo­
sition of the committee is as follows:
D ep a rtm en t.

N um ber o f
em p loyees,

N um ber
o f reprosen tatives.

Wool sorters, etc_____________________________ 60
Worsted spinning____________________________ 212
Woolen spinning-------------------------------------------- 145
Weaving______ __- _________________________ 591
Finishing____________________________________ 119
Dyeing---------------------------------------------------------- 39
Washhouse__________________________________ 131
Mechanics__________________________________ _ 64

2
4
3
10
2
2
3
2
28

The committee meets the directors and the general manager once a
month. Loss of time is paid for.' Any question affecting the gen­
eral welfare of the workers or the business can be discussed. Ques­
tions of discipline or wage questions affecting individuals or depart­
ments must in the first place come before the foreman of the depart­
ment concerned and then, if unsettled, before the manager or manag­
ing director; if the question is still not satisfactorily settled it can
1
A profit-sharing scheme has been in existence ^ince 1886.
ployees have £50,000 £$243,325] invested in the company.




Under

it

some 690 em­

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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be referred to the committee and the directors as the final court of
appeal. The object of this procedure is to prevent the undermining
of the authority of the management and waste of time upon the
discussion of details.
Much of the discussion between the committee and the directors
has been of an educational character. The directors have explained
some of the principles underlying the administration of a large busi­
ness—the effect of output upon standing charges and wages, and the
like; suggestions for the more economical running of the business
are encouraged. In the firm’s opinion it is essential to the success of
a works committee that the directors take the workpeople into their
confidence; the workpeople must be made to realize that they can
help the administration and must be asked and given the opportunity
to help.
The great advantage secured by the existence of the committee is
claimed to be this: that by a thorough explanation to the members
of any new departure in the internal administration of the business
misunderstandings are avoided and the workpeople realize the real
object of such departures. Another advantage is that the committee
provides a safety valve; machinery is set up by which any grievance
may reach the directors, and this removes the suspicion that com­
plaints are suppressed by the management.
The committee also are encouraged to make suggestions as to
works amenities such as improvement in ventilation. Questions of
holidays and war savings schemes have been discussed and subcom­
mittees have been appointed to deal with such matters as allotments
and war charities.
Th/e committee express their appreciation of the spirit in which
the directors have met them. Both sides are pleased with the work­
ing of the system in its experimental stage and expect it to develop
its activities.
The great majority of the workpeople are not members of any
union; a small minority are organized in a general laborers’ union.
The difficulties of connecting the works committee with tradeunionism as seen by the management are two—the small minority
in any union, and the fact that the particular union has nothing
in common with the industry; if works committees are to be linked
up with industrial councils, which on the workpeople’s side are
formed from the trade-unions, some way must be found for isolated
establishments to be joined up to the proper unions. Here it may
be noted that at the end of November a works committee was formed,
on the same lines as that at Wellington, at another woolen mill be­
longing to the same firm, at Chipping Norton. In this case the work­
people are organized and the official of the union took part in the




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

145

formation of the committee. There are some 250 workpeople in the
establishment and 12 members on the committee.
In addition to the works committee at the Wellington establish­
ment there is also a management committee. The two are kept
separate for the reason that the workpeople speak with greater free­
dom in the absence of their foremen.
( T ) R O W N T R E E & CO. (L T D .), T H E C O COA W O R K S , Y O R K .
M

emorandum

to t h e

E

m ployees

in

th e

A

lm ond

P aste D epartm ent.

T he C ocoa W orks, Y ork,
1st September, 1916.

(Revised 1st February, 1917.)

WORKS COUNCILS.

For some time past the directors have felt that it might be of
great service to the manager and overlookers of a department, as well
as to the employees, if a council representing the management and the
workers were formed in each department for the full and free dis­
cussion of all matters affecting the work of the department, such as
(a) the comfort and well-being of the employees, so far as these
depend upon wages, hours, and conditions of work, etc., and (b) the
general efficiency of the department which depends upon such things
as timekeeping, discipline, cleanliness* economy in the use of ma­
terials, and upon method and output.
The directors believe that through a departmental council, worked
in the right spirit, the employees would feel themselves to have a
real share in the administration of the department, while their co­
operation would be heartily welcomed by the management.
As showing what is in the minds of the directors, the following
matters are set down as among those which might, very properly,
be discussed at departmental councils meetings:
(1) The criticism of any piece wages not thought to be fair or
adequate, and the consideration of suggestions for adjustment.
(2) The consideration of conditions and hours of work in the de­
partment.
(3) The consideration of departmental organization and produc­
tion.
(4) Rules and discipline.
Owing to the special difficulties of the time, with so many regular
workers away, it is not thought advisable just now to institute these
departmental councils over the works generally, but, as an experi­
ment, it has been decided by the directors, with the full concurrence
of Mr. G. T. Lee, to form a council in the almond-paste department.
It is hoped, however, that although started as an experiment, it may
prove to be of permanent value to workers and management alike,
106328°— Bull. 255—19—— 10
*




146

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

and that when its value has been shown, and the time is opportune, it
may be possible to extendi the scheme to other departments. I f this
should come about, the institution of a general works’ council, linking
all departments, would naturally follow.
The work both of the men and women in most of the departments
of the factory is divisible into certain well-defined sections. In order
that each section may have the fullest opportunity of freely discuss­
ing with the management matters affecting its particular work, it is
thought that in addition to a departmental council, sub, or sectional,
councils will be necessary.
The constitution of such sectional councils, as well as of the de­
partmental council, is given below.
Sectional couneila.

The number of delegates of each sectional council will be fixed on
the basis of 1 delegate for every 12 workers (of whatever age) or
part of 12 exceeding 6, employed in the section. Sitting with these
at the meetings of each sectional council, and having equal powers
with them, will be the manager of the department with the head and
suboverlookers, monitors, or chargemen of the particular section.
Should these, however (including the manager), exceed in number
the workers’ delegates, the members of the council representing the
administration will consist of the manager, the’ head overlookers, to­
gether with as many of the suboverlookers, chargemen, and monitors
(elected by ballot among themselves) as are required to make up a
number equal to that of the workers’ delegates. The manager of
the department will be ex officio chairman of the sectional councils.
He will not have a casting vote. In the case of a drawn vote the mat­
ter would be submitted to me as director controlling the department.
But a decision adverse to the employees’ delegates will not prevent
the trade-union concerned from raising the matter subsequently with
the company. (See fourth paragraph, p. 147.)
In addition, there will be one delegate appointed by each union
concerned (for the men’s sectional councils from the men’s union,
and for the women’s sectional councils from the women’s union), who
shall be allowed to speak, but shall have no vote. Such delegates
shall be deemed to hold a watching brief for the union, but shall be
in the employment of the firm and working in the department, and
preferably, though not necessarily, in the section.
It is intended that the meeting of the sectional councils shall be
held on a fixed day once a week, or once a fortnight, as may, in prac­
tice, be found necessary. Full minutes of the proceedings will be
kept by the secretary (who will be Miss Ruth Slate for the women’s




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO ^ORKS COMMITTEES.

147

sections and Mr. T. W. Brownless for the men’s). Matters arising in
the meetings affecting the department as a whole and not merely the
separate sections will be referable to the departmental council.
Departmental council.

The departmental council will be a distinct body from the sectional
councils and will consist of one member for every 50 workers (or
part of 50 exceeding 25), with an equal number of the administrative
staff, namely, manager, head overlookers, suboverlookers, monitors,
and charge men. Where these exceed the workers, the members rep­
resenting the administration will consist of the manager and head
overlookers, together with as many of the suboverlookers, charge
men, and monitors (elected by ballot among themselves) as are re­
quired to make up a number equal to that of the workers’ delegates.
At the meetings of the departmental councils there will also be
one delegate appointed by the union representing the men, and
one by the union representing the women, who shall be allowed to
speak, but shall have no votes. Such delegates shall be deemed to
hold a watching brief for the union, but shall be in the employment
of the firm and working in the department.
Further, the workers will be entitled to have the attendance of a
permanent official of their union, not necessarily in the employment
of the firm, during the discussion of any matter on which they con­
sider it essential that they should have skilled assistance and advice.
Any such official attending a departmental council meeting shall
withdraw as soon as the matter is disposed of upon which his or her
advice has been required.
Nothing that takes place at a sectional or departmental council
shall prejudice the trade-union in raising any question in the ordi­
nary way. Questions of general principle, such as the working week,
wage standards, and general wage rules, shall not be within the juris­
diction of the councils.
The meetings of the departmental council will be held once a
month during working hours with myself as chairman and Mr. Linney as secretary.
No decisions of the councils, either sectional or departmental, will
take effect until confirmed by myself or another director.
Qualifications for voting for both sectional and departmental councils.

All male employees over 21 years of age and all female employees
over 16 who have been employed by the firm for six months (whether
on the regular staff or not) will be eligible to vote for delegates to
both the sectional or departmental councils and to become members of




148

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

such councils. Delegates w ill be elected to serve fo r one year. T h ey
w ill be eligible fo r reelection so lon g as they rem ain in the em ploy­
ment o f the com pany. N o deduction w ill be m ade fro m the wages
o f day workers fo r the tim e occupied as delegates in attending the
council meetings, and pieceworkers w ill receive an average w age fo r
the time so occupied.
Application to the almond paste department.

Based upon the aforem entioned constitution, the sectional and de­
partm ental councils in the alm ond paste departm ent w ill w ork out
as fo llo w s :
S ection a l .— There w ill be six sectional councils as under—
W o m e n __(1 )

B ottom s and centers.
P ip ers and coverers.
Makers.
Packers and labelers.
Slab, m achine, and b oilin g (fo u rth flo o r ).
C rystallizin g and p ip in g (fifth flo o r ), cage and
cartin g (th ird flo o r ).
T h e number o f delegates fo r each o f these councils w ill w ork out
thus:
_ ,,
,
,
Number of
(1) Bottoms and centers—
delegates.
Bottoms—Room 1_____________________________________ ____ 2
Bottoms—Room 2_____________________________________ ____ 2
Centers—Room 1_____________________________________ ____ 3
Centers—Room 2_____________________________________ ____ 1
(2 )
(3 )
(4 )
M e n _____ (5 )
(6 )

Total__________________________________________

8

(2) Pipers and covers—
Room 1________________________________ ______________
Room 2______________________________________________

11
5

Total__________________________________________

16

(3) Makers-------------------------------------------------------------------------

6

(4) Packers and labelers—
Packers______________________________________________
Labelers_____________________________________________

9
1

Total__________________________________________

10

(5) Slab, machine, and boiling (fourth floor)_________________

5

(6) Crystallizing and piping (fifth floor)_____________________
Cage and carting (third floor)__________________________

6
1

Total__________________________ ________________

7

M ethod and D ates of E lections .— I n order to facilitate the elec­
tion o f delegates, a list o f employees eligible to vote and to become




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

149

delegates (men of 21 years of age and over, and girls of 16 years and
over, who have been employed by the company for six months) is
now hung up in each section, and these are asked to nominate suffi­
cient delegates for their particular section.
Nomination papers will be hung up in the department and em­
ployees eligible to vote and wishing to nominate delegates for their
section should make out and sign one of these papers and place it in
the locked box fixed in the department for this purpose. A voter
is at liberty to nominate as delegate any other voter in his or her
section, provided the person nominated is willing to stand as a dele­
gate. The nomination papers will be collected on Thursday, March
1, at 5.30, and the names of those nominated will then be printed
upon the voting papers which will be given out on Wednesday,
March 7. The election of delegates will take place on Thursday,
March 8.
Departmental.—The same method will be followed in the election
to the departmental council, which, however, to avoid confusion, will
not take place until after the completion of the sectional council elec­
tion. Nomination papers will be issued on Wednesday, March 14,
and collected March 15. The election will take place on Thursday,
March 22.
The number of delegates to the departmental council is shown
below:
Bottoms and centers:
Bottoms—Rooms 1 and 2.
Centers—Rooms 1 and 2_
Pipers and eoverers:
Room 1 __________
Room 2___________
Makers.
Packers and labelers.
Slab, machine, and boiling (fourth floor)-------------------------------Crystallizing and piping (fifth floor) and cage and carting (third
floor)

N um ber o f
delegates.

1
1
3
1
2
3
1
2
14

Total

(XT) A P R I N T I N G O F F IC E .

In this office there is only the one chapel, composed at present of
about a dozen compositors. In larger offices there are usually several




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

chapels.1 The chapel meets quarterly. Any member may call a
special meeting by “ placing a shilling [24.3 cents] on the stone ” ;
such member will say to the father “ I call special chapel at 6 o’clock
to-night.” I f his complaint is found by the chapel to be a frivolous
one the shilling is forfeited. The meetings are held in the office at
closing time. In the case of large offices there may not be a room
big enough for a chapel meeting, and in such cases meetings are held
outside. It is the duty of the father to interview the head of the
firm when anything is wrong; to report to the general committee of
the union from the chapel and to the chapel from the general com­
mittee; to see that subscriptions are paid; to interview newcomers
regarding membership of the union, etc.
Piecework is not now in operation in this shop, so that the chapel
is not called upon in this connection as it may be in other offices.
The employer is strongly inclined toward regular joint meetings
between management and representatives of the chapel. This is
rather striking because, as is easy in so small an establishment, he
is in direct touch with each of his men. The present father (he has
been in the office for only a few months) did not seem to have enter­
tained the idea of the need for such meetings in this office; he referred
to the good conditions and relations prevailing in the office. He said,
however, that in bigger offices there was a need for such meetings,
and he was prepared to consider the applicability of them to this
office. The employer has, in an informal way, for a long time held
meetings with the present father’s predecessor and one or two others
of the chapel. He would have them to tea, during which they would
have a discussion on shop questions. As examples of the kind of
things which joint meetings could discuss, the employer mentioned
the following points:
(1) The adjustment of work, when new circumstances arise; there
had been such joint discussions when recently the previous father,
who had been a long time in the firm, was forced to leave.
(2) A break for lunch in the morning; this he means to bring for­
ward, as the five hours’ stretch, though in accordance with the union
agreements and the general practice, is too long.
(3) As an example of how, even in a small establishment (where
the relations obviously are friendly), there may be unnecessary dis­
tance between employer and workmen, he mentioned that some time
ago he gave facilities to the men to acquire review copies of books.
1
F o r exam ple, in one office, there are chapels o f com p ositors, stereotyp ers, m ach in e
m inders, m ach in e a s s is ta n ts , w areh ousem en , an d certain w om en em ployees.
T h e com ­
po sitors in th is office are divided am on g several d epartm en ts each o f w hich h a s its lo c a l
fa th e r w h ile t h e fa th e r o f the com p osito rs’ chapel is colloqu ially kn ow n as “ im perial ”
fa th er.
T h e com p osito rs’ chapel, as is u su al, a p p o in ts also a clerk o f th e chapel.
The
fa th e r o f th e ch ap el a m o n g th e w om en em ployees is, a p p rop ria te ly , kn ow n a s the m oth er
o f the chapel.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

151

This was greatly appreciated and one man happened to remark that
he had often hoped some such arrangement could be made. When
challenged by the employer for not suggesting the arrangement, the
man could only plead that it was not his place. The incident was
quoted as probably typical of many situations in which, for want of
proper arrangements, the atmosphere common to the worse indus­
trial establishments clings even to the very best firms much more
closely than might otherwise be the case.
(4)
The employer further said that he had known of a very seri­
ous grievance existing in a large office of which the head of the firm
was kept ignorant. He had informed the head of the firm and the
grievance, which had been causing great irritation right through the
shop, was instantly remedied; it should not have been left to an out­
sider—obtaining the information only by chance and, again, only by
chance knowing the head of the firm concerned—to be the avenue of
information.
In regard to the last point (4), the employer was emphatic as to
the necessity for the heads of establishments meeting the men’s rep­
resentatives. The need was greater the larger the office.1
(V ) W E L F A R E COM M ITTEE (OR SOCIAL U N IO N ).

1. The works council, as it is called (perhaps it may rather be
termed a welfare committee), has for its purpose the collection, direct
from the workers, of any suggestions for the improvement of their
surroundings, and the putting of such suggestions, in the form o f
mature proposals, before the directors for their approval. It is not
intended that these suggestions should in any way be connected with
labor conditions. It is the function of the council to deal solely with
suggestions relating to the amelioration of the surroundings of the
men’s work.
2. The council is a joint council, and its composition is as follows:
There are two representatives of the management and from 19 to 21
of the workmen. The two former are the technical director of the
works, who acts as chairman, and a representative manager2 nomi­
nated by the firm from the sectional managers. The honorary secre­
tary and the honorary treasurer of the council may be either persons
coopted by the council or representatives of the workers on the coun­
cil who have been elected by the council to these offices. The repre­
iT h e

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152

b u l l e t in

or

the

bureau

of labor

s t a t is t ic s .

sentatives of th&men are elected (by ballot, and for a period of three
years) by the different wards into which the works is divided for
electoral purposes (19 in number), and all the workers in the estab­
lishment have a vote. Some of the wards represent working depart­
ments (e. g., the offices, or again the boiler makers and their laborers);
others are artificial creations. These artificial creations are necessary
in order that representation may be divided equally among all the
departments, without any neglect of small sections and oddments of
work. Some of the wards in which women are in a majority are rep­
resented by a woman; on the whole council there are 16 men repre­
sentatives and 3 women.
3. The committee has been in existence for some 15 years. As has
been said, its function is to deal with shop amenities or works better­
ment. This includes (a) conditions of work during working hours
and (b) social activities outside working hours. Of these two the
latter is apparently the more considerable, and thus—if one distin­
guishes between works committee, welfare committee, and social
union—the works council really belongs to the third category rather
than the second. The council, under this head, maintains a recreation
ground, for the purchase and equipment of which money was ad­
vanced by the firm. The weekly subscriptions paid by the men form
at once a sinking fund to extinguish this loan and a working fund to
meet current expenses. The origin of the works council some 15 years
ago was connected with these facts. A number of requests had come
from the men to the management, asking for assistance in the promo­
tion of sports, and the advance made by the firm and the institution
of the works council both sprang from these requests.
4. The works council thus deals in large measure with questions
that lie outside the works. Inside the works its scope is less con­
siderable. The canteen, for instance, is under the control of the firm,
which provides meals at less than cost price; the works council only
deals with the amenities of the canteen. The main concern of the
works council within the works is with matters such as ventilation,
sanitation, and the general comfort of the workers. About half a
dozen times, but not more, questions have been brought up at the
works council which have had to be ruled out. Generally, the men’s
representatives draw a careful distinction between matter belonging
to the works council and matters belonging to the sphere of tradeunionism. There has been no difficulty with trade-unions; on the con­
trary, the good feeling engendered by the works council has led to
easy relations between the firm and trade-unions. The firm, it should
be said, recognizes trade-unions and deals with them regularly.
5. It may be added that while the works council has nothing to
do with suggestions for improvements in the works there is a depart­
mental arrangement under which employees can make suggestions.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

153

In each department there is a suggestion box, into which any work­
man can drop a memorandum of his suggestion; the memoranda
of suggestions are regularly collected, and awards of prizes are
made for good suggestions.
6.
In the matter of meetings and procedure, the works council
meets once a month, sometimes in the employer’s time (in which case
the men are paid during the time of their attendance) but generally
in the evening, when work is over for the day. There is a regular
agenda, prepared by the secretary, containing matters brought up
on the reports of subcommittees or raised by individual representa­
tives.
( W ) A M I N E R ’ S S T A T E M E N T ON O U T P U T C O M M IT T E E S .1

The following statements form part of the answer by a miner work­
ing in the area of the Midland Federation to the questionnaire
printed in Appendix I.2 The references are to the output (or absen­
tee) committees in his district. The functions of these committees,
as in other districts, are concerned with two matters—cases of ab­
sence from work and facilities for increasing ouptiit (improvements,
negligence on the part of officials, etc.
1. Origin.— ( b ) The joint committee8 found out that output was
not only affected by absenteeism, but by faulty management, and they
began to frame rules which would embrace the faults of the manage­
ment, as well as the workers’ negligence in absenteeism, and would
call the committees, instead of absentee committees, output commit­
tees, which gives wider facilities and administration in working.
(c)
The meeting of representatives of employers and employed
soon became lively and it showed the intense interest that was taken
in the Government suggestions, and the men soon pointed out to the
coal owners that there were other causes which caused a reduced
output of coal besides absenteeism—the faults of the management in
allowitig the miners to wait for timber, no facilities in taking men to
their work and bringing them back, the waiting for tubs through
scarcity and uneven distribution of the same. If they were going
to work this scheme and draw up rules, they must bring the manage­
ment in as well as the men.
The coal owners, after consultation, decided to accede to the re­
quest of the men and asked them to withdraw from this meeting,
take it back to their delegate board and appoint a small committee to
draw up rules which would give them a voice in the management of
the collieries concerned.
2. Constitution.— ( d ) The worker’s side constitutes a separate
committee only so far. Just to illustrate what I mean: I f there is a
1 F o r rules o f these com m ittees in an other d istrict see pp. 1 5 9 , 1 6 0 .
2 See pp. 9 2 - 9 4 .
• Section al jo in t com m ittees o f the m iners.




154

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

serious case which has to be brought to the joint committee the work­
er’s side will meet together separately before going to meet the man­
agement’s side, so that they can as far as they are concerned get
agreement.
(e) They are duly elected, not for 12 months but for any time.
This seems to me a great mistake. They ought to be elected every 12
months, as some of them have lost the confidence of the men, and it
causes discontent and friction; annual elections would make for con­
fidence and efficiency. The classes represented by these committees
are miners, datal, haulage, surface workers, who are manipulators of
coal. I might say it would have been better when the rules were
drawn up if it had been stated that all classes must be represented.
You have on most of the committees datal, haulage, and surface
workers without representation. These committees are only set up
as far as the Miners’ Federation of Great Britain are concerned.
Shop men, shunters, laborers, and locomen are outside, as the idea
among the coal owners is that these classes of workers do not affect
the output of coal.
(/) i. The trade-unions have all the representation as far as the
workers are concerned. Of course, it is possible for the men at the
colliery to appoint a nonunionist, but he would be a rare species.
ii. No, it has none; it can suggest, but not appoint; this is left
entirely to the men. In one colliery they refused to set up a pit com­
mittee, though the miners’ union wanted to set one up and the leaders
held meetings; but they failed to persuade the men. The coal con­
troller was pressing the directors, and the directors the management,
but they could not persuade the men; the men were afraid of vic­
timization and I think they had a good case. Where men stood by
their comrades, they were soon out of work, not knowing what for,
only the management saying “ inefficient.”
iii. The trade-union official can pay a visit to any of the com­
mittees when sitting and listen to all the business and see whether it
is being conducted in the interests of the men, or to see fair play
all around, or to see that the management are not abusing the pow­
ers set by rule.
iv. The relationship is good in many of them, but there are doubts
in the men; if some of the stewards are put in contracting places and
coal is pretty easy to get, the representatives are open to attack by
the men as they say “ you would not have such a soft job only you
have been acting in the master’s interests ” ; and some of them play
more than the usual time allowed, and nothing is said. I am sorry
to say that if a strong man is on the committee and he goes in for
pulling the management up the harmony is broken a good deal; you
can fine the men and forgive them, but when you come to the man­
agement it is another thing.




KEPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

155

(g) They are chosen by the managing director; he asks the under­
ground manager, and the underlookers, or deputies, as they call them
who are responsible for different coal seams. By this method you get
an all around representation as far as the underground workers are
concerned, but datal and surface management is left out.
(j) I will be most frank in what I have got to say in this im­
portant question. The employing side want no change, as it only
applies to absenteeism as far as they are concerned. The rules give
the men a voice in the management, but I am sorry to say there is
no committee strong enough to administer the rules as it relates to
management. They go so far but stop as they see an invisible
pressure being brought upon them which is going to affect the se­
curity of their living, a kind of victimization which you can not
prove. Your contracting place is finished and you want another
place, but the management sends you “ odding ”—you are middleaged and you can not keep pace with the younger element; and you
look after a fresh place, but everywhere is full up; and when you
come out of the office you can see other men set on. This is what is
going on all around the district, and you want to strengthen these
men by having the rules enacted by act of Parliament to make them
binding; and if cases like this happen, there wants to be a tribunal
appointed by Government, representative of all classes so that a man
shall have a fair hearing and equality of justice; this will give him
a security and it will reduce this insecurity of work.
3. Functions.— (a) iv. The suggestion of improvements is within
the scope of committee and some good work has been done, which has
affected the output of coal and increased the wages of the men.
v.
None of these points are dealt with by our committee or only in­
directly ; it would be a splendid thing if these points were dealt with.
There is more friction caused under these heads between the man­
agement and the men than under any other points.
T i m e k e e p i n g .— The management promises the men they will put
so many turns to their credit for doing certain dead work in the mine,
and when the time arrives for them to receive the wage at the week
end, the money has not been put in to their credit; so the men often
have to go to the office to make complaints, with a promise from the
management it will be in for next week. I f this was brought before
a committee- of this standing, a more harmonious spirit would be
brought to bear on the industry.
L a n g u a g e .— The language by some of the management to the
workers is disgraceful and is not fit for any child in the pit to hear.
This point can come before the committee but I have not known of
any case yet, though reports have been made to the leaders of the
men and they have taken up the cases. In one case I know the men




156

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

i

refused to go to work until the management were removed, but wise
Gounsels prevailed and the bitterness was removed.
M ethods
of
F o r e m e n .—The mining industry requires great
changes as the methods of the foremen are at fault in not paying for
dead work, such as emptying dirt or packing it; they should pay
for so many tubs, but if one or two tubs are over the stated number
that they pay for, they reckon them nothing; in measuring ripping,
instead of going to the widest part of the level they go to the narrow­
est, which may mean to the man a difference of 5s. [$1.22] on that
piece of work; in not seeing to a good distribution of wagons going
in and about the mine, etc. There is a splendid scope for a commit­
tee, but ours have only limited powers as far as the methods of the
foremen are concerned.
vii. C a n t e e n .—This question does not come within scope of our
committee, but one large colliery has a canteen, and suggestions have
been made from the committee there in the management of the can­
teen. It would be a good thing for a colliery to have a canteen, as
many men are called upon to work overtime and can not get food,
and they work on many hours without, which only means inefficiency.
In the colliery which has a canteen the men can get a good meal and
hot drinks at cost price. I know when the wintertime comes on and
the output of coal depends on the surface workers sticking to their
work the management have rest periods for individuals, and the
management gives them hot drinks to keep them at it. But at col­
lieries where there are no canteens they have to knock off on account
of the weather.
S a n i t a t i o n .— Not within the scope of our committee, but condi­
tions are awfully bad.
W o r k s A m e n i t i e s .—Manners: There are hardly any about the
collieries; the management have an idea that nothing can be done
' without swearing and shouting, and it is a disgrace to hear it. Some
managers are extremely nice, but they are very rare.
4. Procedure.— (a) ii. The committee meets once a week where a
large colliery .is concerned (say, 1,000 to 2,000 employees), but where
there are less employees they are specifically summoned by notice
from the secretary of the committee.
iii.
Yes; the worker members meet separately, but only when the
questions are vital and contentious.
v. They take place in the workers’ time and the employers’ time.
The meeting is called for 1 o’clock. The management allow the
worker members to come out of the pit before the time, but at their
own (the workers’) expense, and the committee sits till it comes into
the workers’ time after 2 o’clock.
vi. It generally lasts two or three hours. It all depends on how
many defendants and who are the defendants.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

157

vii.
The worker members are paid out of the trade-union funds at
the rate of 2s. 6d. [60.8 cents] per meeting. This causes friction, as
it is costing the union a great amount of money, and they feel that
the Government ought to pay or part pay for this work, as it is being
carried on in the national interests to secure a greater output of coal.
Some suggest that the management ought to pay half.
5. Relations with trade-unions.— (b) They only recognize the
miners’ union as far as the jurisdiction of this committee is con­
cerned. They (the owners) did try to bring offenders in from other
unions, but the miners would have nothing to do with them.1
6. General.— (a) The attitude of the management to committees is
fairly good—just according to what the business is. If it applies to
men, they are good; but when it applies to the management the feel­
ing changes a little; but, on the whole, it is good. I don’t know of
any decisions they have not carried out, but it takes them a long
time to do it. When they promise your tenacity has to be great.
(e) As far as colliery workers are concerned separate committees
are not needed, as they would deal with all questions that could arise.
What would be essential would be to see that all grades are repre­
sented on the committee.
APPENDIX i n .— SUMMARY OF A DISTRICT INVESTIGATION IN THE
ENGINEERING AND SHIPBUILDING INDUSTRIES.

Of 32 firms in the engineering and shipbuilding industries in one
district in which another inquiry was made as to the existence of
works committees, 8 were found to have works committees. In addi­
tion, one had a dilution committee, one a welfare committee, one a
women’s committee, and in one there was a shop committee. In one
other there was a works committee until recently. Expressions of
opinion as to the value of works committees were obtained from 18
of the 32 employers. Ten expressed themselves in favor and eight
as opposed to works committees. Of the 10 in favor, 7 now have a
works committee. Of the eight opposed, one has a dilution commit­
tee and one a gun-shop committee, while six have no form of com­
mittee.
The following are notes of opinions of these employers:
F avobable.

1. “ Useful work is the outcome.”
2. “ Committee should be encouraged
on class of men chosen from both sides.”

* *

* much depended

1 In th is respect the practice differs from th a t o f the tim ekeep in g com m ittees a t the
C levelan d an d D u rh a m b la st furn aces.
See pp. 1 6 1 - 1 6 3 .




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3. “ Applied to large establishments very commendable.”
4. “ I f established generally would do an infinite amount of good.”
5. “ Nothing but good would accrue if such committees were
general.”
6. “ In entire sympathy.”
7. “ Experience is a very happy one and not by any means one-sided,
as the members of the committee do everything possible to render
assistance to the firm.”
8. “ Very harmonious relations although * * * grievances
much too one-sided.”
9. “ Perfectly satisfied.”
U nfavorable.

1. “ Encourages men to leave work to engage in business which
management should attend to.”
2. “ Power is taken from management and exercised by the man.”
3. “ Simply looking for trouble.”
4. “ Advantage would be taken to look for trouble.”
5. “ Any amount of friction would ensue.”
6. “ Afraid grievances would only come from one side and little
endeavor would be made to assist the management in conduct of
works.”
7. “ Dealing with accredited shop stewards entirely satisfactory.”
Of the opinions coming under “ favorable” all except (3) and (4)
are from establishments which have works committees; of those com­
ing under “ unfavorable” (1) is from an establishment in which one
shop has a committee, (2) to (7) from establishments without com­
mittees.
The opinions of 16 active trade-unionists employed in the same
industries in this district also show differences. Of the 16, seven are
employed in establishments which have, or in one which had, a works
committee, and nine in establishments which have no experience of a
works committee. Of the seven, five are favorable and two unfavor­
able ; of the nine, four favorable and five opposed.
This investigation would appear to support the results arrived at
in the report that the majority both of employers and of workpeople
with experience are persuaded of the benefits of works committee.
APPENDIX IV.—JOINT TIMEKEEPING COMMITTEES.

(A ) i. Joint committee at collieries in Northumberland. Rules,
ii. Note on committees at collieries in other districts.
(B) i. Joint committee at ironworks in Cleveland and Durham.
Agreement.
ii. Note on working of these committees.




REPORT OF AN ENQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.
( A ) I. J O IN T C O M M IT T E E S A X C O L L IE R IE S IH N O R T H U M B E R L A N D .
N orthum berland

Goal

O w ners’

M utual
rules

r e s p e c t in g

the

A s s o c ia t io n

and

N orthum berland

159
RULES.
M in e r s ’

C o n f id e n t A s s o c ia t io n .

f o r m a t io n

and

procedure

of

j o in t

c o m m it t e e s

for

the

PURPOSE OF SECURING GREATER REGULARITY OF W ORK AT TH E COLLIERIES.

In order to increase the output of coal the following rules are
adopted by the above-named associations :
1. Where workmen are unable to work in their own working
places such persons shall work in other places where there are
vacancies in accordance with the custom of the colliery. I f no such
places are available and the man in consequence has to go home, he
shall not be returned to the authorities as an absentee on that day.
2. Men prevented from getting to their work at the proper time,
due to the workmen’s train or car being late, shall on its arrival be
allowed to go to work.
3. All deputations shall be held at such hours, whenever possible,
as will cause no loss of time to the members of such deputations 01 ;
the men who appear with them.
4. All persons shall attend every day on which the pit is working
unless prevented by illness or other reasonable cause.
5. That a district committee be set up consisting of an equal num­
ber of coal owners’ and workmen’s representatives.
If all members are not present, only an equal number shall vote on
each side.
6. That the district committee shall meet as agreed upon for the
purpose of dealing with disputes which have arisen under any of
the local committees and any other business, except in the event of
urgent business, in which case a meeting may be called on the rep­
resentation of either side to specially deal with the matter.
7. That a local committee shall be established at each colliery,
consisting of an equal number (not exceeding three each) of coal
owners’ and workmen’s representatives to carry out these rules. If
all members are not present, only an equal number shall vote on each
side.
8. The local committee shall meet at least once a fortnight, and the
management shall supply a “ time lost sheet,” showing the names of
the men against whom there is a complaint, and the local committee
shall decide upon whom they shall summon to the next meeting.
9. The men who are called upon to appear before the committee
shall have at least two days’ notice given to appear. Failing to
attend, they will be dealt with in their absence, and the method of
giving notice to attend shall be left to the committee at each colliery.
Meetings are to take place so that men may attend without losing
time.




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BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

10. The local committee shall be empowered to impose fines, and
the person so fined shall have the option of signing a book for such
fines to be deducted or to be dealt with by the management.
(a) If the first method is selected by the workman and he at­
tends and works full time, as defined by rule 4, for one month
after the fine is inflicted, the fine to be returned to him.
(b) All fines not so redeemed to be paid over to some charitable
institution to be selected by the local committee.
(c) The amount of fines shall be: For a first offense for which
a fine is inflicted, 2s. 6d. [60.8 cents] per day of avoidable absence;
a second offense, 5s. [$1.22] per day. In the event of a third
offense, the case to be dealt with at the discretion of the manage­
ment.
11. The local committee shall report to the district committee all
cases in which they fail to agree.
12. Excuses for absence must be bona fide, and where an absentee
claims he was away owing to illness, a doctor’s note must be pro­
duced if demanded.
13. Any official responsible for the workmen losing work or fail­
ing to do his best to get work for them shall be reported to the local
committee, who shall investigate the circumstances, and if the charge
appears to be justified, the case shall be reported to the central com­
mittee to deal with.
14. These rules to continue for the duration of the war.
R

e g in a l d

W

il l ia m

G
S

u t h r ie

ta k e r

,

,

Secretaries.
12th

F eb ru a ry,

1917.

(A ) II. N OTE ON COM M ITTE E S A T C O LLIE R IE S IN .O TH ER D IS T R IC T S .

Committees formed on very similar lines have been set up in other,
but not in all, mining districts. The statements as to functions and
procedure may differ in certain particulars. (1) Provision is some­
times made for the attendance of officials of the miners’ and owners’
associations at pit committee meetings. (2) The scope of a pit com­
mittee’s functions is sometimes stated so as to include more than
appears to be covered by rule 13 above3 which deals with officials
“ responsible for the workmen losing work or failing to do his best
to get work for them.” The functions may include the consideration
of facilities for output and the suggestion of improvements, apart
from cases arising under the circumstances referred to in rule 13
above. This is commented upon in the report printed in Appendix
II (W ).1 (3) The rules vary also in such details as number of rep­
resentatives, time of meetings, and amount of fines.




*See pp. 1 5 3 -1 5 7 .— [E d.]

REPORT OP AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

161

The results achieved differ greatly from district to district. In
some districts no committees have been set up, while in some others,
after being set up, the committees have either failed to work at all
or, after a period of successful operation, have weakened and been
abandoned. In other districts, however, the committees have con­
tinued to work satisfactorily, improving timekeeping and organiza­
tion and increasing output. The application of short time has in
certain districts made the need for the committees less urgent and an
estimate of their value difficult. Among the reasons given for failure
to institute the committees are (1) failure of employers to talte the
matter up, and (2) the younger men’s dislike for the scheme; and
for failure to work satisfactorily (1) the failure of employers to
carry out agreements about Sunday work, etc., and (2) simple in­
ability of the two sides to agree.
(B ) I. JO IN T COM M ITTEES A T IR O N W O R K S IN C L E V E L A N D AND D U R H A M .

A greem en t

S e ttin g

up

W ork s

C o m m itte e s

to

D eal

W ith

C ases

or

T im e

L osers.

This scheme has been suggested by the Ministry of Munitions and
accepted by the Cleveland Ironmasters’ Association and the Cleve­
land Blast Furnacemen’s Association, in order to avoid the necessity
of taking men before the munitions’ tribunals. The agreement will
come into operation on Sunday, the 12th day of August, 1917, at
----------------- ironworks.
1. A t each works in the ironmasters’ association there shall be set
up a committee consisting in the first instance of three workmen em­
ployed at the works.
2. The appointment of the three workmen (one of whom must be
the delegate) shall rest with the Cleveland and Durham Blast Fur­
nacemen’s and Cokemen’s Association.
3. The Cleveland Ironmasters’ Association, or any individual mem­
ber thereof, may, at any future time, and at the request of the Cleve­
land Blast Furnacemen’s Association must, also appoint to the com­
mittee three employer representatives for each works or for such of
the works as are affected, and such representatives shall have equal
powers and duties with the workmen’s representatives.
4. So long as the committee consists of three representatives, two
shall form a quorum; if the committee consists of six representatives,
four shall form a quorum.
5. There shall also be created a central committee consisting of six
persons, three of whom shall be appointed by the Cleveland Iron­
masters’ Association, and three by the Cleveland Blast Furnacemen’s
Association; four to form a quorum.
106328°—Bull. 255—19------11




162

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS*

6. The duties and the powers of the works committee shall be:
(a) To inquire fully into every case brought by the manager of the
works of alleged bad timekeeping on the part of any workman em­
ployed at the works under his charge; ( b ) to give warning and ad­
vice to any workman who may appear to need it; (<?) to inflict, sub­
ject to the provisions of the truck acts, such penalty or fine as in the
judgment of the committee the case shall merit, such fine not to ex­
ceed 20s* in any one instance; ( d) in the case of repeated offenses, to
transmit the facts and evidence to the judgment of the central com­
mittee ; ( e ) in the event of the works committee being equally divided
in their judgment on any case, the same shall be submitted to the cen­
tral committee for decision; ( /) each works committee shall have
power to reduce or remit altogether any fine imposed by the commit­
tee, if the offender’s conduct during the four weeks succeeding the
hearing of his case justifies any variation in the original penalty.
7. The duties and the powers of the central committee shall be:
(a) To review all the facts and evidence in connection with any case
which may be submitted to it by works committees, and, if it so de­
cides, to impose upon the offender, subject to the provisions of the
truck acts, a fine not exceeding 40s., or to submit the case to the judg­
ment of the Ministry of Munitions; ( b ) to make regulations for the
guidance of the works committees.
8. Fines shall be deducted, subject to the provisions o f the truck
acts, from the wages due to the workmen penalized, and unless re­
mitted by the end of four weeks from date of deduction, shall be
handed over to some fund at the works where the offender is em­
ployed to be used for the benefit of the workmen or their dependents,
or be handed over to some agreed-upon local charity,
9. The regulations herein shall apply by agreement to all workmen
members of the Cleveland Blast Fumacemen’s Association. Any
workman outside the Cleveland Blast Furnacemen’s Association and
employed at the ironmasters’ works, may submit his case for judg­
ment to the committees if he so desires and be bound by the decision
given.
10. Each employer party to this arrangement shall authorize one
of his clerical staff to act as secretary to the works committee, and
such person shall keep a record of the decisions given by the com­
mittee for the particular works and shall transmit at the end of each
calendar month a record of such decisions to the secretary o f the
central committee and to the secretary of the Cleveland Blast Fur­
nacemen’s Association.
11. The committees under this scheme shall exist so long as
munition tribunals under the Munitions o f W ar Act continue to oper­
ate, but the regulations may be varied at the end of six months on
the application of either party hereto.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

163

12. The requisite agreements to be made immediately by the two
associations concerned for enabling the committees to exercise the
powers and perform the duties specified above.
13. The Arbitration Act, 1889, shall not apply to any proceedings
under this agreement.
Signed on.behalf of the Cleveland Ironmasters’ Association.
J. T. A tkinson ,
Secretary.
Signed on behalf of the Cleveland and Durham Blast Furnacemen and Coke Men’s Association.
T hos. M cK en n a ,
Middlesbrough,

J ly &$, 1 1 .
u
97

Secretary.

(B ) I I . N O T E ON W O R K IN G O F T H E S E C O M M IT T E E S .

I t is agreed on both sides that these committees have worked very
satisfactorily; both employers and employees regard the works com­
mittees as a far better means of investigating and settling questions
of this character than that of taking the men before the munitions
tribunals. Some 28 committees, all of them joint in membership,
have been set up, but it has not been necessary for all of them to
meet. The central committee had not met up to the end of January,
1918, though two or three cases had been recently filed for that com­
mittee. A works committee is generally unanimous about its deci­
sion— whether or not a fine should be imposed or the amount of the
fine. In a large proportion of cases, more than half, a reduction or
remission of fines has been allowed in accordance with section 6 ( / ) .
Those workmen who are not members of the union usually avail
themselves of section 9 of the agreement to submit their cases to the
works committee.

APPENDIX V.— NATIONAL ANB DISTRICT SCHEMES. SHOP STEWARDS.
(A ) Memorandum of conference between the engineering em­
ployers’ federation and 13 trade-unions.
(B ) Clyde Shipyards joint trades’ vigilant committee.
(C) Coventry engineering joint committee. Shop rules.
The following schemes are printed as further illustrations of the
problem discussed in Section V I of the report, “ Relations with
trade-unions.”
(A ) is the agreement come to in December, 1917,
between representatives of the engineering employers’ federation
and of 13 trade-unions. (B ) is a trade-union district scheme of
organization of shop stewards and works committees instituted before




164

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOB STATISTICS.

the war.
(C) gives the proposals put forward by the Coventry
engineering trades’ joint committee for their dist|ict before the
negotiations which resulted in (A ) were initiated.
(A ) M E M O RAN DU M OF CON FEREN CE B E T W E E N TH E E N G IN E E R IN G EM PLO Y ER S*
F E D E R A T IO N A N D 13 T R A D E -U N IO N S .1

It is mutually agreed to recommend as follows:
R e g u l a t io n s R e g a r d in g t h e A p p o in t m e n t a n d F u n c t i o n s of S h o p S t e w a r d s .

W ith a view to amplifying the provisions for avoiding disputes it
is agreed:
1. The workmen who are members of the above trade-unions em­
ployed in a federated establishment may appoint representatives
from their own number to act on their behalf in accordance with
the terms of this agreement.
2. The representatives shall be known as shop stewards.
3. The method of election of shop stewards shall be determined by
the trade-unions concerned, and each trade-union parties to this
agreement may appoint shop stewards.
4. The names of the shop stewards and the shop or portion of a
shop in which they are employed and the trade-union to which they
belong shall be intimated officially by the trade-union concerned in
the management on election.
5. Shop stewards shall be subject to the control of the trade-unions,
and shall act in accordance with the rules and regulations of the tradeunions and agreements with employers so far as these affect the
relation between employers and workpeople.
6. In connection with this agreement, shop stewards shall be af­
forded facilities to deal with questions raised in the shop or portion
of a shop in which they are employed. In the course of dealing with
these questions they may, with the previous consent of the manage­
ment (such consent not to be unreasonably withheld), visit any other
shop or portion of a shop in the establishment. In all other respects
they shall conform to the same working conditions as their fellow
workmen.
7. Employers and shop stewards shall not be entitled to enter into
any agreement inconsistent with agreements between the engineering
employers’ federation or local association and the trade-unions.
1 Steam Engine Makers’ Society, Society of Amalgamated Toolmakers, etc., United
Kingdom Society of Amalgamated Smiths and Strikers, National Society of Amalgamated
Brass Founders and Metal Mechanics, Associated Blacksmiths and Iron Workers* Society,
Workers’ Union, National Amalgamated Union of Labor, United Machine Workers*
Association, Electrical Trades Union, United Journeymen Brass Founders, etc., Amalga­
mated Society of Core Makers, National Union of General Workers, and National Amalga­
mated Union of Enginemen, etc.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

165

8. The functions of shop stewards, so far as they are concerned
with the avoidance of disputes, shall be exercised in accordance with
the following procedure:
(a) A workman or workmen desiring to raise any question in
which he or they are directly concerned, shall in the first instance
discuss the same with his or their foreman.
( b) Failing settlement, the question shall, if desired, be taken up
with the management by the appropriate shop steward and one of
the workmen directly concerned.
(c ) I f no settlement is arrived at, the question may, at the request
of either party, be further considered at a meeting to be arranged
between the management and the appropriate shop steward, together
with a deputation of the workmen directly concerned. A t this meet­
ing the organizing district delegate may be present, in which event
a representative of the employers’ association shall also be present.
( d) The question may thereafter be referred for further consider­
ation in terms of the provisions for avoiding disputes.
( e) No stoppage of work shall take place until the question has
been fully dealt with in accordance with this agreement and with the
provisions for avoiding disputes.
9. In the event of a question arising which affects more than one
branch of trade, or more than one department of the works, the
negotiations thereon shall be conducted by the management with the
shop stewards concerned. Should the number of shop stewards con­
cerned exceed seven, a deputation shall be appointed by them, not
exceeding seven, for the purpose of the particular negotiation.
10. Negotiations under this agreement may be instituted either by
the management or by the workmen concerned.
11. The recognition of shop stewards is accorded in order that a
further safeguard may be provided against disputes arising between
employers and their workpeople.
12. Any questions which may arise out of the operation of this
agreement shall be brought before the executive of the trade-union
concerned, or the federation, as the case may be.
(B) CLYDE SHIPYARDS JOINT TRADES’ VIGILANT COMMITTEE.1
R ules.

1. This committee shall consist of trade-unions representative of
the workmen employed in the Clyde Shipyards.
2. Its object shall be to endeavor to adjust all complaints of a
general character, endeavor to secure uniformity in the conditions of
1 The first meeting was held on the 14th February, 1911. A similar organization in
engineering— the west of Scotland locomotive and general engineering joint trades’ vigilant
committee— was instituted in September, 1914. It had been under consideration for some
months.




166

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

employment of the members, and strengthen and perfect the organiza­
tions of the affiliated unions.
( a) By representatives of the society affected at once reporting
the matter to the secretary of the yard vigilance committee
(b) By insisting that all nonunion members of the respective
trades shall become members of their trade-union. „
( c ) By dealing with any member of an affiliated union who fails
to keep himself in compliance with the rules of his union.
Y A K D V IG IL A N C E C O M M IT T E E .

3. A vigilance committee shall be appointed in each yard or
dock composed of one representative from each society affiliated.
Societies having more than one section of workmen shall be entitled
to one representative from each section.
4. The committee shall appoint a secretary to whom all complaints
shall be lodged by members of the committee.,
5. Each shop steward must examine the contribution cards of the
members of their own societies on the first Wednesday of each month,
and interview new starts immediately after starting.
6. The committee will meet at least monthly.
7. Representatives of each society must attend and report to the
committee as to the condition of the members under his supervision.
8. On receipt of a complaint the committee shall endeavor to
effect a settlement by interviewing the foreman or management.
Failing adjustment the matter must then be reported to the secretary
of the central board.
9. The machinery of each society for dealing with such questions
must first be exhausted before reporting to the yard vigilant com­
mittee.
10. The secretary must send in his official report to the secretary
of the central board on the second last Thursday of March, June,
September, and December.
11. Should any member of the yard vigilant committee be penal­
ized for taking part in the work of the committee such cases must be
immediately reported to the secretary and taken up jointly.
12. Where the secretary of the committee has been changed, tlie
name and address of his successor must be forwarded to the secre­
tary of the central board.
13. Expenses incurred by the committee for room rent, stationery,
and postage will be met by the central board. A ll such accounts
must be sent quarterly to the secretary and submitted to the central
board for approval.
14. Under no circumstances can the yard vigilant committee au­
thorize a stoppage of work, either of a partial or general nature.




REPORT OF AH INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

167

A rrea rs.— Members over 10s. [$2.43] in arrears must reduce same
at the rate of 2s. 6d. [60.8 cents] per week; 15s, [$3.65], 5s. [$1.22]
per week; and 20s. [$4.87], 10s. [$2,43] for the first week and 5s.
[$1.22] per week thereafter.
CENTRAL BOARD.

15. A central board shall be appointed'and shall consist o f a re­
sponsible representative of each union affiliated. Societies having
separate sections administered separately shall be entitled to one
representative from each section.
16. Their duties shall be to see that a vigilant committee is ap­
pointed in each yard or dock, and deal with all complaints remitted
to them by the yard committees.
17. They shall annually elect a chairman and secretary from
among their number, the latter to act as treasurer.
18. The secretary on receiving a complaint from a yard committee
may, after consultation with the chairman o f the central board and
the representative of the trade directly concerned, endeavor to get
the matter adjusted, failing which the central board will be convened.
19. Before any stoppage of work takes place the consent of the
central board of this committee must be obtained.
20. To meet expenses the central board shall make a call upon
each society affiliated for such sum as may from time to time be
agreed upon.
21. Meetings of the central board will be held on the last Friday
of each quarter, or oftener if, in the opinion of the chairman and
secretary, such is necessary.
(C ) C O V E N T R Y E N G IN E E R IN G J O IN T C O M M ITTE E .1
S hop R ules

and

I n s t r u c t io n s

for

Stew ards.

1. That the Coventry engineering joint committee shall be the
executive committee over all shop stewards and works committees
affiliated. Any change of practice in any shop or works must receive
the consent of the joint engineering committee before being accepted
by the men concerned.
2. That all nominees for shop stewards must be members o f soci­
eties affiliated to the Coventry engineering joint committee.
1 The 21 societies affiliated are: Friendly Society of Iron Founders, Steam Engine
Makers, United Machine Workers, Amalgamated Society of Engineers, Amalgamated Tool­
makers, Smiths and Strikers, Brass Workers and Metal Mechanics, Coppersmiths, United
Brass Finishers, Electrical Trades Union, Boiler Makers, Core Makers, Pattern Makers,
United Coach Makers, Progressive Tin Plate Workers, National Federation of Women
Workers, National Union of Clerks, Amalgamated Carpenters and Joiners, General
Union of Carpenters and Joiners, London and Provincial Coach Makers, and Amalga­
mated Wood Cutting Machinists.




168

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

3. Stewards shall be elected by ballot for a term not exceeding six
months, all retiring stewards to be eligible for reelection.
4. Each section shall be able to elect a steward, irrespective of
society.
5. The stewards of each department shall elect a chief steward.
6. The chief stewards of departments shall constitute the works
committee, who, if exceeding 12 in number, can appoint an executive
committee of 7, including chairman and secretary.
7. A ll stewards shall have an official steward’s card issued by joint
committee.
8. Each steward on being elected, and the same indorsed by his
society, the joint committee secretary shall send him an official card.
9. The steward must examine any man’s membership card who
starts in the shop in his section. He should then advise the man to
report to his respective secretary and give him any information re­
quired on rates and conditions, etc. There shall be a show of cards
every month to ascertain if every member is a sound member, and if
any member is in arrears (eight weeks) he must report same to the
chief steward.
10. I f there is any doubt of any man not receiving the district rate
of wages, the steward can demand to examine pay ticket.
11. Any member accepting a price or time basis for a job must
hand record of same to his section steward, who shall keep a record
of times and prices on his section of any work and hand the same to
chief shop steward.
12. The chief steward shall keep a record of all times and prices
recorded to him by sections of his department. On a section being not
represented he shall see to the election of steward for such section.
13. Any grievance arising on any section must be reported to chief
shop steward, who shall, with steward on section and man concerned,
interview foreman or manager. Failing redress, the chief steward
then to report to the works committee.
14. The works committee shall be empowered to take any case of
dispute before the management, not less than three to act as deputa­
tion.
^
15. On the works committee failing to come to any agreement with
the management, they must immediately report to the engineering
joint committe, who shall take up the matter with the firm concerned,
a representative of the works committee to be one of the deputation.
I t is essential, pending negotiations, that no stoppage of work shall
take place without the senction of the engineering joint committee.
16. A full list of all shop stewards must be kept by the joint com­
mittee. Any change of stewards must be reported to the joint com­
mittee’s secretary.




REPORT OF AN INQUIRY INTO WORKS COMMITTEES.

169

17. Tlie joint committee shall be empowered to call meetings of
stewards at any works, also meetings of all chief stewards in the dis­
trict when the joint committee so decides, if necessary.
18. I f at any time of dispute the engineering joint committee de­
cides upon the withdrawal of its members from any firm or firms, the
stewards shall be issued a special official badge from this committee
with the idea of assisting to keep order, if necessary, in the interests
of the members concerned.

APPENDIX VI.— SUPPLEMENTARY REPORT ON WORKS COMMITTEES.
[ N o t e . — This report is printed in full on pages 32 to 35 and is therefore not
repeated here.]

APPENDIX VII.— SCHEME OF LOCAL JOINT PITS COMMITTEES.
The following scheme has recently been introduced. It is particu­
larly interesting as an attempt to apply the ideas of the Whitley
report to part of the coal mining industry.
J O IN T C OM M ITTEE OF R E P R E S E N T A T IV E S OF T H E L A N C A S H IR E A N D C H E S H IR E
COAL A SSO C IATIO N , A N D T H E L A N C A S H IR E A N D C H E S H IR E M IN E R S ’ F E D E R A ­
TIO N .

R esolved , That the joint committee recommend the establishment,
with the least possible delay, of local joint pit committees at the
various collieries in the two counties, and that the functions of the
committees shall be those set out below, and that tlie rules of proce­
dure also set out below should be adopted.
The functions exercisable by the local joint pits committees and the
rules of procedure for the conduct of the business.
1. The title of the committee shall be “ The Local Joint Pits Com­
mittee.”
2. The committee shall exercise the following functions:
(a ) To investigate and report to manager cases of shortage of
tubs.
(b ) To investigate and report anything interfering with the pos­
sibilities of output, such as poor haulage, blocked or congested road­
ways.
(c ) To investigate and report to manager complaints of minimum
wage and abnormal places allowances.
(d ) To stimulate regular attendance and report to manager per­
sistent absentees.
(e ) Generally to investigate and report to the manager anything
else which in their opinion is interfering with the satisfactory work­
ing of the mine.




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BULLETIN OF TH E BUEEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(f)
Any other functions which may from time to time be dele­
gated to them by the joint committee.
3. The committee shall consist o f not less than three nor more than
five representatives of the employers, and an equal number of repre­
sentatives of the workmen employed at the mine. The manager of
the mine shall be the chairman.
4. Two members of each class of representative present shall form
a quorum.
5. The respective representatives on the committee shall each ap­
point one of their number to act as secretary.
6. Meetings of the committee shall be held once a month, provided
that a special meeting may be held at any time at the request of the
whole of the members of either side given to the secretary of the
other side. Five days’ notice to be given of any meeting, ordinary
or special, and the agenda of the business to be considered at the
meeting to be submitted by the secretaries to each member of the
board with the notice calling the meeting. No business to be trans­
acted at any meeting other than that on the agenda. No matter shall
be placed on the agenda without an opportunity having been pre­
viously given to the officials of the mine of dealing with it.
7. The proceedings of each committee shall be taken and tran­
scribed in duplicate books, and each book shall be signed by the two
secretaries at the meeting at which such minutes are read and con­
firmed. One copy of such minutes shall be kept by each of the secre­
taries. The secretaries shall also conduct the correspondence for the
respective parties, and conjointly for the committee.
8. In the event of any matter arising which the committee can not
agree upon, and failing agreement between the manager and the
local federation agent, the difference shall be submitted to the joint
district committee, whose decision shall be final.
9. Each party shall pay and defray the expenses of its own repre­
sentatives and secretary.
Dated this 11th day of February, 1918.
L ionel E . P ilkington ,
President of the Lancashire und Cheshire Coed Association,
and of the Joint Committee.
T homas G keenall,

President of the Lancashire <m Cheshire M
d
iners'* Federation,
and Vice President of the Joint Committee.
T hos. R. R atcliffe-E llis,

Secretary of the Lancashire and Cheshire Coal Association,
and of the Joint Committee.
T homas A shton ,

Secretary of the Lancashire and Cheshire Miners’ Federation,
and of the Joint Committee.




IN D U S T R IA L

C O U N C IL S : T H E R E C O M M E N D A T IO N S
W H I T L E Y R E P O R T .1

OF

TH E

THE WHITLEY COMMITTEE.
Joint industrial councils were unanimously recommended by a com­
mittee appointed by Mr. Asquith to advise the cabinet on the future
relations of employers and employed.
[ N o t e . — The personnel o f the committee as given at this point is the same
as given on pages 5 and 6 o f this bulletin.]

OBJECTS OP THE WHITLEY REPORT.
The committee were asked to advise the Government on two points:
(1) To make and consider suggestions for securing a permanent
improvement in the relations between employers and workmen.
(2) To recommend means for securing that industrial conditions
affecting the relations between employers and workmen shall be sys­
tematically reviewed by those concerned, with a view to improving
conditions in the future.
The committee found that the best way to deal with the first point
was to settle the second. They therefore recommended “ means for
securing that industrial conditions affecting the relations between em­
ployers and workmen shall be systematically reviewed by those con­
cerned” as the best way of “ securing a permanent improvement in
the relations between employers and workmen.”

THE RECOMMENDATIONS.
The means they recommended were the establishment of joint
standing industrial councils. As joint councils these would bring em­
ployers and workpeople together; as standing councils they would in­
sure regular meetings for discussion of matters of common interest;
as industrial councils they would throw into relief the questions that
concerned each industry as a whole, foster a common feeling for the
industry, and help both sides to realize the social importance of the
industry as distinct from their private interest. These regular meet­
ings to discuss matters of common interest would, it was thought,
produce an atmosphere in which disputes when they arose could be
settled by an appeal to reason. The subjects from which disputes
arise would come up for discussion before feeling had been excited.
* [Ministry of Labor] Industrial Councils. The recommendations of the Whitley report.
H. Q. 7B. April, 1917. 4 pp. Portions of this leaflet were published in the M o n t h l y
L a b o r R e v i e w for July, 1918 (pp. 27, 28).— [Ed.]




172

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

Mutual misunderstanding and unnecessary suspicion would be re­
duced to a minimum.

INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS AND THE GOVERNMENT,
The primary object of industrial councils then is to regularize the
relations between employers and employed. But they will serve an­
other urgent need, and, in so doing, will give to workpeople a status
in their respective industries that they have not had hitherto. There
is a large body of problems which belong both to industry and to
politics. They belong to politics, because the community is respon­
sible for their solution and the State must act if no other provision is
made; they belong to industry, because they can be solved only by the
knowledge and experience of the people actually engaged in industry.
Such problems are the regularization of employment, industrial
training, utilization of inventions, industrial research, the improve­
ment of design and quality, legislation affecting workshop condi­
tions— all of them questions which have hitherto been left in the
main to employers, but which in reality constitute an important com­
mon interest on the basis of which all engaged in an industry can
meet. The termination of the war will bring with it a mass of new
problems of this nature; for example, demobilization, the training of
apprentices whose apprenticeship was interrupted by military serv­
ice, the settlement in industry of partially disabled men, and, in gen­
eral, the reconversion of industry to the purposes of peace. It is
urgently necessary that the Government should be able to obtain
without delay the experience and views of the people actually in in­
dustry on all these questions. It proposes, therefore, to treat indus­
trial councils as standing consultative committees to the Government
and the normal channel through which it will seek the experience and
advice of industries. Further, many of these problems can be handled
by each industry for itself, provided that it has an organization rep­
resentative of all sections and interests within it. The establishment
of industrial councils will therefore make unnecessary a large amount
of “ Government intereference ” which is at present unavoidable, and
substitute for it a real measure of “ self-government ” in industry.

CONSTITUTION OF INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.
The Whitley committee recognized as a condition of fundamental
and governing importance that the circumstances of different indus­
tries vary and that the organization of each industry should be
adapted to its special circumstances. They left, therefore, the initia­
tive in establishing industrial councils and the settlement of all de­
tails as to representation and distribution of functions to the people
in industry to settle for themselves.




RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE W H IT L E Y REPORT.

173

Two conditions, however, they lay down as essential to any satis­
factory arrangement:
(1) That industrial councils shall consist exclusively of representa­
tives o f organizations, i. e., trade-unions and employers’ associations;
where organization is insufficient on either side, the scheme is inappli­
cable. Joint industrial councils must not displace, but be built on
the existing organization; those individuals who will not be repre­
sented under this provision have their remedy in joining their appro­
priate employers’ association or trade-union.
(2) Industrial councils must work through decentralized machin­
ery. Where an industry is distributed over the country district joint
councils will be found necessary, which would work within lines laid
down by the national joint council and undertake all district busi­
ness. Further, where the circumstances of an industry permit,
further decentralization is provided for in the recommendation that
works committees be established. Similarly, provision can be made
for sectional questions, such as the wages of a small craft or of a
grade of workers not confined to one industry, to be dealt with by
sectional joint committees, or even excluded from the purview of
the council.

WORKS COMMITTEES.

In large firms satisfactory relations between employers and em­
ployed and an extension to workpeople of any real control over the
conditions of their work are possible only through works committees,
or some equivalent organization based on the workshop. But works
committees in many industries would be an innovation, and the
existing trade-union organization does not always contain provision
for them.
The Whitley committee, therefore, recommend that
where works committees are made a part of the scheme they should
be established only on lines agreed upon by the em ployers' organiza­
tions and trade-unions represented on the national councils. The
question of establishing works committees will naturally form one
of the first subjects for consideration by a national council in an
industry where they are not already the rule.

THE NEED FOR INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS.
While there is no doubt that every industry has problems which
can be solved only if the experience of every grade and section of
the industry is brought to bear on them, hitherto the tendency has
been for every grade and section to go its own way. Whenever the
Government wishes to ascertain the needs and opinions of an indus­
try, instead of one organization speaking with a single voice, a dozen
organizations speak with a dozen voices. The different sections and
interests are organized and can put their point of view; the industry
as a whole has* no representative organization, so that the general




174

BULLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

interest of the industry may be overlooked. Sectional interests often
conflict; there is no need for example to disguise the conflict of
interests between employers and employed; and the Whitley report
proposes nothing of the nature of compulsory arbitration, nothing
that will limit or interfere with the right to lockout or strike. But
no one in industry wants an unnesessary stoppage; these can be pre­
vented only by the representatives of conflicting interests meeting
to thrash out their differences; and all the problems that will face
industry after the war call for continuous consultation and coopera­
tion of all sections, grades, and interests. For every reason, there­
fore, industrial councils fully representative of all sections and
interests in each industry are an urgent necessity.
In some industries there exist already joint conciliation boards
performing some of the functions of industrial councils. These are,
however, as a rule, limited either in the work they undertake or in
the sections of the industry which they represent. Although, there­
fore, existing joint boards will in many cases prpvide the basis for
industrial councils, they can not handle the problems, referred to
above, with which the industries of the country will be faced after
the war. W hat is needed is an organization representing the whole
industry and capable of speaking for all the firms and all the work­
people employed in it. The Government’s adoption of the Whitley
report is simply an invitation to the industries o f the cou n try to
organize them selves in this way, for their own benefit and for the
benefit of the community.

PROCEDURE.
The Government has adopted the Whitley report and instructed
the Ministry of Labor to put it before the trade-unions and employ­
ers’ associations of the country. Its principle has been approved by
the parliamentary committee of the trade-union congress and by a
large number of representative employers’ associations and tradeunions. The establishment of industrial councils is quite voluntary;
but the Ministry of Labor is prepared to give any assistance in its
power. A ll inquiries on the subject should be addressed to the
Ministry of Labor, Montague House, Whitehall, S W . 1.
The Whitley report itself, with the letter of the Minister of Labor,
explaining the Government’s policy in regard to it, has been published
as a pamphlet (Industrial Reports, No. I ) ,1 which can be obtained
through any bookseller, or directly from H . M. Stationery Office,
Imperial House, Kingsway, London, W C . 2, or from the chief book­
stall, price Id., post free ljd . [3 cents]. A report on works com­
mittees containing the results of an inquiry by the Ministry of
Labor (Industrial reports, No. 2) will be published shortly.2
1 See pp. 45-49.— [Ed.]
•This report was subsequently published.




See pp. 50-170.— [Ed.]

C O N S T IT U T IO N

AND

F U N C T IO N S

OF A

J O IN T

IN D U S T R IA L

C O U N C I L .1

PREFACE.

The Whitley report on joint standing industrial councils, in dis­
cussing the constitution and functions of such councils, recommended
that it should be left to the trades themselves to constitute schemes
suitable to their special circumstances. The object of the following
memorandum is not to lay down any hard and fast rules as to the
constitution and functions of an industrial council, but to put for­
ward certain suggestions which may serve as a basis for discussion
and help in concentrating attention upon some outstanding points
in the relations of employers and workpeople which must be taken
into consideration in the actual formation of a council. Many of
the clauses which follow are drawn from constitutions already
drafted.
In a letter sent out by the Minister of Labor to the chief associa­
tions of employers and workpeople on October 20, 1917, the minister
announced that “ the Government desires it to be understood that
the councils will be recognized as the official standing consultative
committees to the Government on all future questions affecting the
industries which they represent, and that they will be the normal
channel through which the opinion and experience of an industry
will be sought on all questions with which the industry is concerned.”
In order to secure such official recognition the Minister of Labor will
require to be satisfied that the composition of the joint industrial
council is such that it will be regarded by the industry as being
truly representative of the industry. The associations of employers
and workpeople in any given industry should therefore, either di­
rectly or through a joint committee, if such a body has been estab­
lished by them to carry out the necessary preliminary negotiations,
send in to the Ministry of Labor an application for official recogni­
tion at some time during the negotiations and before the council is
actually formed.

(A) FUNCTIONS OF A JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL.
1.
To secure the largest possible measure of joint action between
employers and workpeople for the development of the industry as
a part of national life and for the improvement of the conditions
of all engaged in that industry.
1Ministry of Labor. Suggestions as to the constitution and functions of a joint indus­
trial council. H. Q. 7A. May, 1918. 4 pp. This leaflet was published in full in the
Monthly Labor R eview for August, 1918 (pp. 76-79).— [Ed.]
175




176

BULLETIN OE TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

It will be open to the council to take any action that falls within
the scope of this general definition. Among its more specific objects
will be the following:
N. B.— It is not possible and it is not the intention of the min­
ister to suggest any hard and fast policy as to what should con­
stitute the functions of an industrial council. This is a question
which the employers and workpeople in each industry must settle
for themselves in their preliminary conferences in the light of
their special needs and conditions.
2. Regular consideration of wages, hours, and working conditions
in the industry as a whole.
N. B.— In some cases a joint industrial council will contain repre­
sentatives of a number of trades which have been accustomed in the
past to deal with such questions as wages, hours, etc., through their
already existing organizations. To meet such cases the following
clause has been inserted in one of the draft constitutions: “ P r o ­
vided, That where any such matters have in the past been dealt
with separately by any organization, such matters shall not be
dealt with by the council as far as that organization is concerned
without the consent of the representatives of that organization.”
3. The consideration of measures for regularizing production and
employment.
4. The consideration of the existing machinery for the settlement
of differences between different parties and sections in the industry,
and the establishment of machinery for this purpose where it does
not already exist, with the object of securing the speedy settlement
of difficulties.
5. The collection of statistics and information on matters apper­
taining to the industry.
6. The encouragement of the study of processes and design and of
research, with a view to perfecting the products of the industry.
7. The provision of facilities for the full consideration and utiliza­
tion of inventions and any improvement in machinery or method,
and for the adequate safeguarding of the rights of the designers of
such improvements, and to secure that such improvement in method
or invention shall give to each party an equitable share of the benefits
financially or otherwise arising therefrom.
8. Inquiries into special problems of the industry, including the
comparative study of the organization and methods of the industry
in this and other countries, and, where desirable, the publication of
reports.
9. The improvement of the health conditions obtaining in the in­
dustry, and the provision of special treatment where necessary for
workers in .the industry.




FUNCTION'S OF A JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL.

177

r "

10. The supervision of entry into, and training for, the industry,
and coperation with the educational authorities in arranging educa­
tion in all its branches for the industry.
11. The issue to the press of authoritative statements upon matters
affecting the industry of general interest to the community.
12. Eepresentation of the needs and opinions of the industry to the
Government, Government departments, *and other authorities.
13. The consideration of any other matters that may be referred to
it by the Government or any Government department.
14. The consideration of the proposals for district councils and
works committees put forward in the Whitley report, having regard
in each case to any such organizations as may already be in existence.
N ote.— The following have also been included among the func­
tions in some of the provisional constitutions which have been
brought to the notice of the Ministry of Labor:
(i) The consideration of measures for securing the inclusion of
all employers and workpeople in their respective associations.
(ii) The arrangement of lectures and the holding of confer­
ences on subjects of general interest to the industry.
(iii) Cooperation with the joint industrial councils for other
industries to deal with problems of common interest.

(B) THE CONSTITUTION OF A JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL.
1. M E M B E R S H IP .

The council shall consist o f ---------- members, appointed as to one
half by associations of employers and as to the other half by tradeunions.
Associations of employers:

Number of

' representatives.

( 1 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- ------------------( 2 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ --- ------------------

( 3 ) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------etc.
---------------Total______________________________________ ____________
Trade-unions:
( 1 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ---------------------( 2 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ ----------------------

( 3 ) ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ---------------etc.
---------------Total______________________________________ ____________
2. R E A P P O IN T M E N T .

The representatives of the said associations and unions shall retire
annually, and shall be eligible for reappointment by their respective
associations and unions. Casual vacancies shall be filled by the asso106328°—Bull. 255— 19------12




178

BULLETIN OF T H E BUBEAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

ciation concerned, which shall appoint a member to sit until the end
of the current year.
3. C OM M ITTEES.

The council may delegate special powers to any cominittee it
appoints.
The council shall appoint an executive committee and may ap­
point such other standing or sectional committee as may be neces­
sary. It shall also have the power to appoint other committees for
special purposes. The reports of all committees shall be submitted
to the council for confirmation except where special powers have been
delegated to a committee.
4, COOPTED MEMBERS.

The council shall have the power of appointing on committees or
allowing committees to coopt such persons of special knowledge not
being members of the council as may serve the special purposes of the
council, provided that so far as the executive committee is concerned:
(a ) The two sides of the council shall be equally represented and ( b )
any appointed or coopted members shall serve only in a consultative
capacity.
N. B.— It is desirable to take power to appoint representatives of
scientific, technical, and commercial associations upon committees
and subcommittees of the council, and the above clause would give
this power.
5. O FFIC E RS.

The officers shall consist o f a chairman or chairmen, a vice chair­
man, a treasurer, and a secretary or secretaries.
(1) The chairman.
1 T B.— The Whitley report suggests that the appointment of a
S.
chairman or chairmen should be left to the council, who may decide
* that there should be (i)a chairman for each side of the council,
(ii) a chairman and vice chairman selected from the members of
the council (one from each side of the council), (iii) a chairman
chosen by the council from independent persons outside the indus­
try, or (iv) a chairman nominated by such persons or authority as
the council may determine, or, failing agreement, by the Govern. ment.
(2) Secretary.
The council shall be empowered to maintain a secretary or secre­
taries and such clerical staff as it may think fit.
A ll honorary officers shall be elected by the council for a term of
one year.
6. M E E TIN G S OF T H E COUNCIL.

The ordinary meetings of the council shall be held as often as neces­
sary and not less than once a quarter. The meeting in the month




FUNCTIONS OF A JOINT INDUSTRIAL COUNCIL.

179

of ---------- shall be the annual meeting. A special meeting of the
council shall be called w ithin---------- days of the receipt of a requisi­
tion from any of the constituent associations or from the executive
committee. The matters to be discussed at such meetings shall be
stated upon the notice summoning the meeting.
7. TOTING*.

The voting both in council and in committees shall be by show of
hands or otherwise as the council may determine. No resolution
shall be regarded as carried unless it has been approved by the ma­
jority of the members present on each side of the council.
8* QUORUM.

The quorum shall b e ---------- members of each side o f the council.
9. F IN A N C E .

The expenses o f the council shall be met by the associations and
trade-unions represented.
10. R E L A T IO N S OF A JO IN T IN D U S T R IA L COUNCIL TO T H E G O V E R N M EN T.

It is desirable that there should be intimate and continuous touch
between the industrial councils and the various Government depart­
ments interested, not only to secure prompt attention from the right
officials, but also to obtain information as to what other councils are
doing. To meet this need, the Ministry of Labor has, at the request
of the Government, set up a special section dealing with industrial
councils.
Where any industrial council so desires, a civil servant with the
necessary experience will be assigned the duties of liaison officer by
the Ministry o f Labor. He will act only as and when required and
in a purely advisory and consultative capacity, and will be available
when desired for any meetings of the council.
By this means similarity of method and continuity of policy in the
various industrial councils will be assured, and the experience and
proposals of one council will be available for all the others.
11. D IS T R IC T COUNCILS A N D W O R K S C OM M ITTEES.

It will be necessary for the council when formed to consider the
necessary arrangements for district councils and works committees
if the conditions of the industry are such as to require them. Ob­
viously existing local conditions and existing organizations will have
to be taken into account and the variety of such conditions make it
difficult to suggest any draft constitution which would be of value.
The Ministry of Labor will, however, be glad to supply examples of
existing schemes and other information at their disposal.1
1 See pp. 50 to 170 for report of an inquiry into works committees made by the
Ministry of Labor and published as “ Industrial Reports No. 2.”




INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS AND TRADE BOARDS.1
J

O

I

N

T

M
M

E
I

N

M
I

O
S

R
T

A
E

N
R

1. The proposals contained in the first report on joint standing
industrial councils of the committee on relations between employers
and employed have been adopted by the Government. The steps
which have been taken to establish industrial councils have enabled
the Government to consider the proposals of the second report on
joint standing industrial councils in the light of experience. This
report, which deals with industries other than those which are highly
organized, follows naturally upon the first report of the committee
and develops the line of policy therein proposed. It has not been
found possible from the administrative point of view to adopt the
whole of the recommendations contained in the second report, but
such modifications as it seems desirable to make do not affect the
principles underlying the committee’s proposal for the establish­
ment of joint industrial councils. They are designed to take advan­
tage of the administrative experience of the Ministry of Labor with
regard to both industrial councils and trade boards. In view of
the growing interest which is being taken in the establishment of
industrial councils and o f the proposed extension of trade boards,
it appears desirable to set forth the modifications which the Gov­
ernment regard as necessary in putting into operation the recom­
mendations of the second report, and also to make clear the relations
between trade boards and industrial councils.
2. The first report on joint standing industrial councils referred
only to the well-organized industries. The second report deals with
the less-organized and unorganized trades and suggests the classi­
fication of the industries of the country into three groups:
Group A.— Consisting of industries in which organization on the part of em­
ployers and employed is sufficiently developed to render their respective associa­
tions representative of the great majority of those engaged in the industry.
These are the industries which we had in mind in our first interim report.
Group B.— Comprising those industries in which, either as regards employers
and employed, or both, the degree of organization, though considerable, is less
marked than in group A.
1 Ministry of Labor. Industrial councils and trade boards. Joint memorandum of
the Minister of Reconstruction and the Minister of Labor, explaining the Government’s
view of the proposals of the second Whitley report, together with text of the report.
June 7, 1918. Industrial Reports, No. 3. Cd. 9085. 4 pp. Price, Id. This pamphlet
was printed in full in the Monthly Labor R eview for September, 1918 (pp. 58-64). The
text of the second report which is included in this pamphlet appears on pages 24 to 31
and is therefore not repeated in this connection,— [Ed.]
180




D
O

U
F

INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS AND TRADE BOARDS.

181

Group C.— Consisting of industries in which organization is so imperfect,
either as regards employers or employed, or both, that no associations can be
said adequately to represent those engaged in the industry.

The proposals of the committee on relations between employers and
employed are summarized in paragraph 20 of their second report, as
follows:
( a)
In the more highly organized industries (group A) we propose a triple
organization of national, district, and workshop bodies as outlined in our first
report.
(&) In industries where there are representative associations of employers
and employed which, however, do not possess the authority of those in group A
industries, we propose that the triple organization should be modified by
attaching to each national industrial council one or at most two representatives
of the Ministry of Labor to act in an advisory capacity.
(c) In industries in both groups A and B we propose that unorganized areas
or branches of an industry should be provided, on the application of the national
industrial council, and with the approval of the Ministry of Labor, with trade
boards for such areas or branches, the trade boards being linked with the indus­
trial council.
( d) In industries having no adequate organization of employers or employed,
we recommend that trade boards should be continued or established; and that
these should, with the approval of the Ministry of Labor, be enabled to formu­
late a scheme for an industrial council, which might include, in an advisory
capacity, the “ appointed members ” of the trade board.

It may be convenient to set out briefly the modifications of the
above proposals which it has been found necessary to make:
(1) A s regards (&), it has been decided to recognize one type of
industrial council only, and not to attach official representatives to the
council except on the application of the industrial council itself.
(2) As regards (c ) and (d ), the relations between trade boards
and industrial councils raise a number of serious administrative diffi­
culties due to the wide differences in the purpose and structure of the
two types of bodies. It is not regarded as advisable that a trade
board should formulate a scheme for an industrial council, nor is it
probable that trade boards for unorganized areas will be set up in
conjunction with a joint industrial council.
3.
It is necessary at the outset to emphasize the fundamental dif­
ferences between industrial councils and trade boards. A joint in­
dustrial council is voluntary in its character and can only be brought
into existence with the agreement of the organizations of employers
and workpeople in the particular industry, and the council itself is
composed exclusively of persons nominated by the employers’ asso­
ciations and trade unions concerned. The industrial council, is more­
over, within very wide limits, able to determine its own functions,
machinery, and methods of working. Its functions in almost all
cases will probably cover a wide range and will be concerned with
many matters other than wages. Its machinery and methods will




182

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

be based upon past experience of the industry and the existing or­
ganization of both employers and employed. Industrial councils
will, therefore, vary in structure and functions as can be seen from
the provisional constitutions already submitted to the ministry of
labor. Financially they will be self-supporting and will receive no
monetary aid from the Government. The Government proposes to
recognize the industrial council in an industry as the representative
organization to which it can refer. This was made clear in the min­
ister of labor’s circular letter of October 20, 1917,1 in which it is
said that—
The Government desires it to be understood that the councils wiH be recog­
nized as the official standing consultative committees to the Government on
all future questions affecting the industries which they represent, and that
they will be the normal channel through which the opinion and experience of
an industry will be sought on all questions in which the industry is concerned.

A trade board, on the other hand, is a statutory body established
by the minister o f labor and constituted in accordance with regula­
tions ma^e by him in pursuance of the Trade Boards Act^ and its
expenses^ in so far as authorized by the Minister o f Labor and sanc­
tioned by the Treasury, are defrayed out of public money. The reg­
ulations may provide for the election of the representatives of em­
ployers and workers or for their nomination by the minister of
laborTbut in either case provision must be made for the due repre­
sentation of heme workers in trades in which a considerable propor­
tion of home workers are engaged. On account o f the comparative
lack of organization in the trades to which the act at present applies,
the method of nomination by the minister has proved in practice to
be preferable to that of election, and in nearly all cases the repre­
sentative members of trade boards are now nominated by the min­
ister. The employers’ associations and trade-unions in the several
trades are invited to submit the names of candidates for the min­
ister’s consideration, and full weight is attached to their recom­
mendation, but where the trade organizations do not fully represent
all sections of the trade, it is necessary to look outside them to find
representatives of the different processes and districts affected.
A further distinction between trade boards and industrial councils
is, that while industrial councils are composed entirely o f representa­
tives of the employers’ associations and trade-unions in the industry,
every trade board includes, in addition to the representative members,
a small number (usually three) of 4 appointed members,” one of
6
whom is appointed by the minister to act as chairman and one as
deputy chairman of the board. The appointed members are uncon­
nected with the trade and are appointed by the minister as impartial




1 See pp. 45—
49.

INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS AND TRADE BOARDS.

183

persons* The primary function of a trade board is the determina­
tion of minimum rates of wages, and when the minimum rates of
wages fixed by a trade board have been confirmed by the minister
of labor, they are enforceable by criminal proceedings, and officers
are appointed to secure their observance. The minimum rates thus
become part of the law of the land, and are enforced in the same
manner as, for example, the provisions of the factory acts. The
purpose, structure, and functions of industrial councils and trade
boards are therefore fundamentally different. Their respective areas
of operation are also determined by different considerations. A n in­
dustrial council will exercise direct influence only over the organiza­
tions represented upon it. It will comprise those employers’ asso­
ciations with common interests and common problems; similarly its
trade-union side will be composed of representatives of organizations
whose interests are directly interdependent. A n industrial council
therefore is representative of organizations whose objects and inter­
ests, while not identical, are sufficiently interlocked to render com­
mon action desirable. The various organizations represent the inter­
ests of employers and workers engaged in the production of a par­
ticular commodity or service (or an allied group of commodities or
services).
A trade board, on the other haiid, is not based on existing organi­
zations of* employers and employed, but qovers the whole of the
trade for which it is established. A s the minimum rates are enforce­
able by law, it is necessary that the boundaries of the trade should
be precisely defined; this is done, within the limits prescribed by
statute, by the regulations made by the minister of labor. Natural
divisions of industry are, of course, followed as far as possible, but
in many cases the line of demarcation must necessarily be somewhat
arbitrary. In the case o f industrial councils difficult demarcation
problems also arise, but the considerations involved are somewhat
different, as the object is to determine whether the interests repre­
sented by given organizations are sufficiently allied to justify the
cooperation of these organizations in one industrial council.
4.
The reports received from those who are engaged in assisting
the formation of joint industrial councils show that certain para­
graphs in the second report of the committee on relations between
employers and employed have caused some confusion as to the char­
acter and scope of joint industrial councils and trade boards, respec­
tively. It is essential to the future development of joint industrial
councils that their distinctive aim and character should be main­
tained. It is necessary, therefore, to keep clearly in mind the respec­
tive functions o f the joint industrial council and the trade board in




184

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS,

considering the recommendations contained in the following para­
graphs of the second report:
(a )
Paragraphs 3, 4, and 5, dealing with the division of joint in­
dustrial councils into those that cover group A industries, and thoso
that cover group B industries.
(&) Paragraph 7, dealing with district industrial councils ii* in­
dustries where no national council exists.
(c ) Paragraphs 10, 13, 15, and 16, dealing with trade boards in
relation to joint industrial councils.
(d ) Paragraphs 11 and 12, dealing with trade boards in industries
which are not suitably organized for the establishment of a joint in­
dustrial council.
5.
D istin ction drawn betw een jo in t industrial councils in grou p
A industries and grou p B industries.— In paragraph 9 of the sec­
ond report it is implied that the ministry of labor would determine
whether the standard of organization in any given industry has
reached such a stage as to justify the official recognition of a joint
industrial council in that industry. It is clear, however, that it
would be impossible for the ministry to discover any satisfactory
basis for distinguishing between an industry which falls into group
A , and one which falls into group B. It is admitted in paragraph 9
of the second report that no arbitrary standard of organization
could be adopted, and it would be both invidious and impracticable
for the ministry of labor, upon whom the responsibility would fall,
to draw a distinction between A and B industries. The only clear
distinction is between industries which are sufficiently organized
to justify the formation of a joint industrial council and those which
are not sufficiently organized. Individual cases must be judged on
their merits after a consideration of the scope and effectiveness of
the organization, the complexity of the industry, and the wishes of
those concerned.
The experience already gained in connection with joint industrial
councils indicates that it would be inadvisable in the case of indus­
tries in group B to adopt the proposal that “ there should be ap­
pointed one or at most two official representatives to assist in the
initiation of the council and continue after its establishment to act in
an advisory capacity and serve as a link with the Government.” It
is fundamental to the idea of a joint industrial council that it is a
voluntary body set up by the industry itself, acting as an independ­
ent body and entirely free from all State control. W hile the minis­
ter of labor would be willing to give every assistance to industrial
councils, he would prefer that any suggestion of this kind should
come from the industry, rather than from the ministry.
The main idea of the joint industrial council as a joint body rep­
resentative of an industry and independent of State control has now




INDUSTRIAL COUNCILS AND TKADE BOARDS.

185

/'

become familiar, and the introduction of a second type of joint in­
dustrial council for B industries would be likely to cause confu­
sion and possibly to prejudice the future growth of joint industrial
councils.
In view of these circumstances, therefore, it has been decided to
adopt a single type of industrial council.
6. D istrict industrial councils.— Paragraph 7 of the second report
suggests that in certain industries in which a national industrial
council is not likely to be formed, in the immediate future, it might
none the less be possible to form one or more “ district ” industrial
councils.
In certain cases the formation of joint bodies covering a limited
area is probable. It would, however, avoid confusion if the term
“ district ” were not part of the title of such councils, and if the use
of it were confined to district councils in an industry where a na­
tional council exists. Independent local councils might well have a
territorial designation instead.
7. Trade boards in relation to join t industrial councils.— The dis­
tinction between trade boards and joint industrial councils has been
set forth in paragraph 3 above. The question whether an industrial
council should be formed for a given industry depends on the degree
of organization achieved by the employers and workers in the indus­
try, whereas the question whether a trade board should be estab­
lished depends primarily on the rates of wages prevailing in the
industry or in any part of the industry. This distinction makes it
clear that the question whether a trade board should or should not
be set up by the minister of labor for a given industry must be de­
cided apart from the question whether a joint industrial council
should or should not be recognized in that industry by the minister
o f labor.
It follows from this that it is possible that both a joint industrial
council and a trade board may be necessary within the same industry.
In highly organized industries the rates of wages prevailing will
not, as a rule, be so low as to necessitate the establishment of a trade
board. In some cases, however, a well-defined section of an other­
wise well-organized industry or group of industries may be unor­
ganized and ill paid; in such a case it would clearly be desirable
for a trade board to be established for the ill-paid section, while there
should at the same time be an industrial council for the remaining
sections, or even for the whole, of the industry or industrial group.
In the case of other industries sufficiently organized to justify the
establishment of an industrial council the organizations represented
on the council may nevertheless not be comprehensive enough to regu­
late wages effectively throughout the industry. In such cases a trade
board for the whole industry may possibly be needed.




186

b u l l e t in : gf

the

bureau

of

LABOR STATISTICS,

Where a trade board covers either the whole or part of am industry
covered by a joint industrial council, the relations between them may,
in order to avoid any confusion or misunderstanding,, be defined as
follows:
(1) Where Government departments wish to consult the industry
the joint industrial council, and not the trade board* will be recognized
as the body to be consulted.
(2) In order to make use of the experience of the trade board* the
constitution of the industrial council should be so drawn as to make
fu ll provision for consultation between the council and the trade
board on matters referred to the former by a Government department
and to allow of the representation of the trade board on any sub­
committee o f the council dealing with questions with which the trade
board is concerned.
(3) The joint industrial council clearly can not under any circum­
stances override the statutory powers conferred upon the trade board,
and if the Government at any future time adopted the suggestion
contained in section 21 of the first report that the sanction of law
should be given on the application of an industrial council to agree­
ments made by the council, such agreements could not be made bind­
ing on any part o f a trade governed by a trade board, so far as the
statutory powers of the trade board are concerned.
The minister of labor will not ordinarily set up a trade board to
deal with an industry or branch of an industry in which the majority
of employers and workpeople are covered by wage agreements* but
in which a minority, possible in certain areas* are outside the agree­
ment. I t would appear that the proposal in section 21 of the first
report was specially designed to meet such cases. Experience has
shown that there are great difficulties in the way o f establishing a
trade board for one area only in which an industry is carried on,
without covering the whole of a trade, though the trade boards act
allows of this procedure.
8.
Trade boards, in industries w7dch are n ot sufficiently orgam zed
f o r the establishm ent o f a jo in t industrial council* Section 3 of the
—
trade boards act* 1909, provides that “ a trade board for any trade
shall consider, as occasion requires, any matter referred to them by a
secretary of state, the board o f trade,, or any other Government de­
partment, with reference to the industrial conditions of the trade,
and shall make a report upon the matter to the department by whom
the question has been referred,”
In the case of an. industry in which a trade board has been estab­
lished but an industrial council has not been farmed the trade board
is the only body that ©an claim to be representative of the industry
as a whole*




INDUSTRIAL, COUNCILS AND TRADE BOARDS.

187

It is already under a statutory obligation to consider questions re­
ferred to i£ by a Government department, and where there is a trade
board but no industrial council in an industry it will be suggested to
Government departments that they should consult the trade board as
occasion requires in the same manner as they would consult industrial
councils.
On the other hand, for the reasons which have been fully set out
above, industrial councils must be kept distinct from trade boards,
and the latter, owing to their constitution, can not be converted into
the former. I f an industry in which a trade board is established
becomes sufficiently organized for the formation of an industrial
council, the council would have to be formed on quite different lines
from the trade board, and the initiative should come, not from the
trade board, which is a body mainly nominated by the minister of
labor, but from organizations in the industry. Hence it would not
be desirable that trade boards should undertake the formation of
schemes for industrial councils,
7t h J

une,

1918.




CONSTITUTION AND FUNCTIONS OF DISTRICT COUNCILS.1
P

R

E

F

A

C

E

.

The Whitley report states that—
The National Joint Industrial Council should not be regarded as complete
in itself; what is needed is a triple organization— in the workshops, the dis­
tricts, and nationally. Moreover, it is essential that the organization at each
of these stages should proceed on a common principle and that the greatest
measure of common action between them should be secured. With this end in
view, we are of opinion that the following proposal should be laid before the
national joint industrial councils: That district councils representative of the
trade-unions and of employers’ associations in the industry should be created
or developed out of the existing machinery for negotiation in the various trades.

It is clear that the Whitley report contemplates wherever possible
that the joint industrial council should be established in the first
instance and that this national council should as soon as possible con­
sider the question of the formation of district councils. In almost
all the constitutions of joint industrial councils hitherto submitted
to the minister of labor, the following appears among the more spe­
cific objects of the joint industrial council:
The consideration of the proposal for district councils as put forward in the
Whitley report, having regard in each case to any such organization as may
already be in existence.

A t the request of several of the joint industrial councils already
formed, the ministry of labor has drawn up the following memo­
randum on the constitution and functions of district councils, which
is to be regarded as putting forward not hard and fast rules but
suggestions which may serve as a basis for discussion when the ques­
tion of district councils is being considered by joint industrial coun­
cils. The underlying principle of the Whitley report is that the
constitution and functions not only of the joint industrial council
but also of the district councils should be left to be determined by
the industries themselves in accordance with their special conditions
and circumstances.
(

A

)

F

U

N

C

T

I

O

N

The main functions of district councils would be as follows:
1.
To consider any matters that may be referred to them by the
National Joint Industrial Council and to take executive action within
1 Ministry of Labor. Suggestions as to the constitution and functions of district
councils of national joint industrial councils. H. Q. 7L. September, 1918. ’ 4 pp.
Printed in full in the Monthly L abor R eview for May, 19.19 (pp. 116-119).— [Ed.]
188




S

FUNCTIONS OF DISTRICT COUNCILS.

189

their district in connection with decisions arrived at and matters
deputed to them by it.
2. To make recommendations to the National Joint Industrial
Council.
3. To consider any matters of interest to their district, including
matters referred to them by works committees and to take executive
action with regard to matters that affect only their particular dis­
trict, subject to the right of the national council to veto any such
action if it be found to involve the interests of other districts.
The following may be regarded as among the more specific func­
tions falling under this head (No. 3 ) :
(а ) The regular consideration of hours, wages, and working con­
ditions, including the codification, unification, and amendment of
working rules relating to holidays, juvenile labor, overtime, the shift
system, etc.
(N. B.— Special attention is called to the fact that no executive
action should be taken upon these matters if such action is likely
to involve the interests of other districts. In any cases of doubt,
the district council should consult the national council before taking
action.)
(б) The coordination of local workshop practice.
(<?) General district matters relating to welfare work.
( d ) The provision of facilities for the full consideration and utili­
zation of inventions and any improvement in machinery or method,
and for the adequate safeguarding of the rights of the designers of
such improvements, and to secure that such improvement or inven­
tion shall give to each party an equitable share of the benefits (finan­
cially or otherwise) arising therefrom.
(e) The improvement of health conditions obtaining in the in­
dustry and the provision of special treatment, where necessary, for
workers in the industry.
( /) T t e supervision of entry into, and training for, the industry
h
and cooperation with the educational authorities in arranging edu­
cation in all its branches for the industry.
(g )
The arrangement of lectures and the holding of conferences
in the district on subjects of general interest to the industry.
4. Cooperation with the district councils for other industries to
deal with problems of common interest.
5. Where no adequate machinery exists for the settlement of differ­
ences between different parties and sections of the industry, to con­
sider any such differences as can not be settled within an individual
factory or workshop, and to refer to the national council any such
matters upon which the district council fails to come to a decision.




190

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
(

B

)

C

O

N

S

T

I

T

U

1. AREAS OF DISTRICT COUNCILS.

It would clearly be the work of the National Joint Industrial
Council, in consultation with the existing local associations, to de­
fine the suitable areas to be covered by district councils. It is sug­
gested that a district council should not cover a larger area than is
compatible with decentralized action.
2. MEMBERSHIP.

The council shall consist o f -------members, appointed as to onehalf by associations of employers, and as to the other half by tradeunions, Members of the national council shall be ex-officio members
o f the district council in their area.
Number of
representatives.
( 1 ) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------( 2 ) ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------(B )-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------etc.

Association of employers.

Total _______________ __________________________
Trade-unions.

___________

( 1 ) ----------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------<2>------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -----------------e

t

c

.

T o ta l_________________________________________ _____________

(N. B.— When the question of membership is under consider­
ation the national council will have to consider carefully the ques­
tion of linking up district councils with works committees, if, and
when, ‘such exisist. Provision might be made in the constitution
for a certain proportion o f members of the district council to be
representatives elected from a conference of works committees if
and when a sufficient number of works committees are set up within
the area of the district council. The national council should also
consider the advisability o f linking up the district councils with
the local advisory committees appointed by the Ministry of Labor
to advise the local employment exchanges, especially on matters
connected with demobilization.)
S. REAPPOINTMENT.

The representatives o f the said associations and trade-unions shall
retire annually and shall be eligible for reappointment by their
respective associations and unions. Casual vacancies shall be filled




T

I

FUNCTIONS OF DISTRICT COUNCILS.

191

by the association concerned, which shall appoint a member to sit
until the end of the current year.
4. COMMITTEES,

The district council may delegate special powers to any committee
it appoints. The reports of all committees shall be submitted to
the district council for confirmation, except where special powers
have been delegated to the committee, and the district council shall
have power to appoint on committees or to allow committees to
coopt such persons of special knowledge, not being members of the
council, as may serve the special purposes of the district council,
5. OFFIC E RS,

It might be advisable under this head to follow the method adopted
in the constitution of the corresponding national joint industrial
council.
6.

M E E TIN G S OF TH E D IS T R IC T COUNCIL.

The ordinary meetings of the district council shall be held as often
as necessary, and not less than once a quarter. The annual meeting
shall be held at least 14 days before the annual meeting of the
national joint industrial council. A special meeting of the council
shall be called w ith in-------days of the receipt of a requisition from
one-third of the members of the council. The matters to be dis­
cussed at such meetings shall be stated upon the notice summoning
the meeting.
7. VO TIN G .

The voting, both in council and in the committees, shall be by
show of hands or otherwise, as the district council may determine.
No resolution shall be regarded as carried unless it has been ap­
proved by a majority of members present on each side of the district
council.
8. QUORUM.
The quorum shall b e -------members on each side of the council.
9. FIN A N C E .

It might be advisable to adopt the method laid down in the con­
stitution of the corresponding national joint industrial council.
10. M IN U TES.

Copies of the minutes of all meetings of district councils shall be
forwarded to the joint secretaries of the national council within
one week of the meeting.




192
T h e

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.
R e l a t io n

o f

D is t r ic t
C o u n c il

C o u n c il s
a n d

t o

t o
t h e

t h e

N a t io n a l

J o in t

I n d u s t r ia l

G o v e r n m e n t .

The functions and constitution of district councils shall be sub­
mitted to the national council for their approval, and copies of such
constitutions and the membership of the various district councils
should be sent by the national joint industrial council to the ministry
of labor.
Any communications addressed to Government departments by
district councils must not be sent direct, but through the national
industrial council.




C O N S T IT U T IO N A N D F U N C T IO N S O F W O R K S C O M M IT T E E S.1

The differing circumstances of different industries make it impos­
sible to devise any scheme suitable to every industry. Again the
type of works committee suitable will vary with the size of the firm
and the form taken by organization among the employees. In pre­
paring a scheme, therefore, the machinery outlined in the following
suggestions may require to be adapted in greater or less degree if
the general objects for which works committees are recommended
are to be attained. These general objects are:
1. That the workpeople should be given a wider interest in and
greater responsibility for the conditions under which their work is
performed.
2. That the regulations contained in collective agreements drawn
up by district and national authorities be enforced in the works.
3. That friction and misunderstanding be prevented so far as pos­
sible.
The attainment of these objects demands the establishment of
recognized means of consultation between management and work­
people. A t the same time, anything that is done, whether or not it
is embodied in the works rules drawn up by the works committee,
must be consistent with the principles of the collective agreements
accepted by the district and national authorities. For this reason
steps should be taken to secure the closest possible connection be­
tween the works committee and the district and national councils.

CONSTITUTION.
(1)
The works joint committee shall be composed of (a) repre­
sentatives of the workpeople, and (b ) representatives of the manage­
ment.
In considering questions of membership, it will be found more
convenient to treat (a ) and (&) separately:
(a ) W O R K E R S* SID E OF JO IN T COM M ITTE E .

(i)
The number of representatives will vary with the size and the
complexity of the particular works. Some number from 5 to 12 is
suggested as likely to suit most circumstances.
1 Ministry of Labor. Suggestions prepared by the Ministry of Labor as to the consti­
tution and functions of works committees in industries in which national joint industrial
councils are established. September, 1918. H. Q. 7K. Printed in full in the Monthly
L abor R eview for May, 1919 (pp. 119-122).— [Ed.]

106328°—Bull. 255—19------13




193

194

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(ii) The members of the workers’ side should be trade-union rep­
resentatives.
The national and district councils are based solely upon the repre­
sentation of organizations. In the case of the works, in order to
secure cohesion of policy as between the works committee and the
district and national councils, it is advisable that the works com­
mittee should normally be based on a recognition of the workpeople’s
organizations.
But in particular factories where the workmen are not strongly
organized, or where the functions of the works committee are such
as to require the presence of workers who are not organized, it may
be found necessary to depart from the principle laid down above.
In these circumstances, however, the shop stewards, or other tradeunion representatives in the works, should be consulted on all ques­
tions affecting district or national agreements. A ny deviation from
the general scheme should be adopted only after approval by the
industrial council on a consideration of the merits of the case.
(iii) The representation should normally be on the basis of depart­
ments, due allowance being made for the various sections of workers
engaged in any department.
In order that this may not sometimes necessitate a committee of
unwieldy size, it is suggested that for large or complex works the
workers’ side of the joint committee should be appointed by and
from a larger body of workers’ representatives elected from the
various departments.1
(iv) The representatives should be appointed for a definite term
of office— 6 or, at most, 12 months— and should be eligible for reelec­
tion.
(v) The election should be by ballot, or by departmental (or sec­
tional) meetings especially convened for the purpose.
(v.) The workers’ side should appoint a chairman and a secretary.
(vii) On any representative leaving the employment o f the firm
or resigning his position as member, a successor shall be appointed
in the ordinary way by the department or section concerned, to hold
office for the remainder of the term.
(1>) M A N A G E M E N T SID E OF J O IN T C OM M IT TE E .

(i) Certain members of the managerial staff should form a con­
stant nucleus of the management side. (See (4) below.)
(ii) The number required for (i) will vary, but % 3, or 4 is sug­
gested as a suitable number.




‘ See also notes Cl) and (2), p. 195.

CHOTSTITOTIOK OF WORKS COMMITTEES.

195

To have an equal number of members on the two sides would in
most works be impracticable and, in view of the suggested pro­
cedure, is unnecessary. (See, in particular, par (11) under Pro­
cedure, below.)
(iii)
This number should be made up of such individuals as a
managing director, the works manager, and, where there is such
an official, the labor or welfare superintendent.
(2) The joint committee will be composed of the individuals in
(a ) (i) and (b ) (i) coming together in joint meeting.
(3) The joint committee should appoint a chairman and a vice
chairman (one from each side). Each side should appoint its own
secretary.
(4) Either side shall have the right to add to its number repre­
sentatives of the particular departments or sections of departments
affected by a question under discussion and not directly represented
on the committee. The addition shall be made only for the period
during which the question affecting the particular departments or
sections of departments is before the committee.
(5) The recognized district official of any trade union or em­
ployers’ association concerned may attend any meeting in an advisory
capacity.
N o te (1 ).— It may be found necessary to leave certain questions
to be settled not by the whole works committee, but by a subcom­
mittee of it, on which the workers’ representatives are drawn only
from the particular department or section directly concerned; for
example, a piecework question in one department of a works which
is mainly on time-work. The size of the works, also, is a factor
which must be taken into account in considering the need for sub­
committees. In some instances departmental subcommittees and in
others functional subcommittees (e. g., a “ safety” committee or a
welfare committee) may best suit the circumstances. Even where
definite subcommittees are not arranged for, work of the same kind
as these would perform may often be carried out by consultation
between the representatives of the management and the secretary of
the workers’ side, along with the representatives of a department.
N o te (2 ).— In large works it will probably be found desirable to
establish departmental committees, with a works committee repre­
sentative of all the departments cliosen from the departmental com­
mittees. In such cases the functions of the departmental committees
will be confined to matters affecting the department only, while the
works committee will consider questions affecting more than one
deepartment or the whole works. The workers’ side of a depart­
mental committee should be so elected as to give representation to
each of the various sections of workers engaged in the department.




196

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

PROCEDURE.
(1) Meetings of the joint committee shall be held at regular inter­
vals of two or four weeks. The meetings shall be held during work­
ing hours.
(2) Special meetings of the joint committee shall be called a t ------hours’ notice on a request on behalf of one side by its secretary to
the secretary of the other side.
(3) The agenda of business shall be submitted by the secretaries
to each member of the committee at lea st-------hours before a meet­
ing, except in the case of special meetings.
(4) No business other than that appearing on the agenda shall be
transacted at any meeting unless both sides agree to its introduction.
(5) When an individual workman desires to bring any question
before the committee he should report to his departmental or sec­
tional representative, who, in the case of grievance, shall endeavor to
reach a settlement. Failing a settlement, the representative shall
inform the workers’ secretary. The latter shall endeavor to arrange
a settlement. Failing a settlement, the question shall come before the
joint committee.
(6) In the course of his duties the secretary of the workers’ side
should have the right to enter any department in the works, and the
representative of any department or section the right to enter the
department in which the secretary is at work.
(7) Facilities should be provided for meetings of the workers*
side of the committee in the works, normally after working hours
or during meal hours.
(8) The workers’ representatives should be paid at their ordinary
rate for time spent at meetings of the joint committee.
(9) Duplicate books of minutes should be kept, one by the secre­
tary of each side.
(10) Copies of the minutes of all meetings of the joint committee
must be sent to the secretaries of the district council within seven
days of the date of meeting.
(11) Decisions shall be arrived at only by agreement between the
two sides.
(12) In the event of any matter arising which the committee can
not agree upon, the officials of the trade-union or imions concerned
shall negotiate with the firm or, if desired, with the officials of the
employers’ association. The question may thereafter be referred by
either side to the district council.
(13) The works committee shall not have any power to come to an
agreement inconsistent with the powers or decisions of the district
or national councils or with any agreement between a trade-union
and the employers’ association. Further, any agreement come to by




CONSTITUTION OF WORKS COMMITTEES.

197

a works committee may at any time be superseded by the district or
national council or by agreement between a trade-union and the
employers’ association.

FUNCTIONS.
The list of functions outlined below is not meant to be exhaustive.
Almost every industry has rules or customs which arise from the
particular conditions under which the work of the industry is car­
ried on (e. g., the payment of “ dirty money,” provision of tools,
allowances for working away from the works or from home, allow­
ances on standard district piece prices for deficiencies in material
or machinery, etc.). In a well-regulated industry many such mat­
ters will be subject to district or national agreements, and the powers
of a works committee will be limited in the same manner as they
will be in regard to the more general questions of district or national
agreement (standard rates, piece prices, normal hours, overtime,
etc.). No attempt has been made to include such questions as arise
only in some industries, for which each national council concerned
will have to decide upon a method of regulation, including the
powers to be vested in works committees.
In regard to any function, the powers of a works committee will
bo controlled in accordance with paragraph 13 under “ Procedure.”
(1) The issue and revision of works rules.
(2) The distribution of working hours; breaks; time record­
ing, etc.
(3) The payment of wages (time, form of pay ticket, e tc .);
explanation of methods of payment; the adjustment of piece prices,
subject to district or national agreements; records of piece prices;
deductions, etc.
(4) The settlement of grievances.
(5) Holiday arrangements.
(6) Questions of physical welfare (provision of meals, drinking
water, lavatories and washing accommodations, cloakrooms, venti­
lation, heating and sanitation; accidents, safety appliances, flfrst aid,
ambulance, etc.).
(7) Questions of discipline and conduct as between management
and workpeople (malingering; bullying; timekeeping; publicity in
regard to rules; supervision of notice boards, etc.).
(8) Terms of engagement o f workpeople.
(9) The training of apprentices and young persons.
(10) Technical library; lectures on the technical and social aspects
of the industry.
(11) Suggestions of improvements in method and organization of
work; the testing of suggestions.




198

BULLETIN OF THE BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(12) Investigation of circumstances tending to reduce efficiency
or in any way to interfere with the satisfactory working of the
factory.
(13) Collections (for clubs, charities, etc.).
(14) Entertainments and sportfe.
(15) The provision of facilities for the workers* side o f the joint
committee (or of a departmental committee, i f any) to conduct its
own work.




APPENDIX A.

N A T IO N A L C O U N C IL O F T H E P O T T E R Y IN D U S T R Y .

The first industry to give effect to the recommendations of the
Whitley report is the pottery industry. The first meeting of the
national council o f the pottery industry was held on January 11,
1918, and was attended by the minister o f reconstruction {D r. Addi­
son) and the minister of labor (M r. G. H . Roberts), both o f whom
addressed the council.
A s this is the first of these councils to be formed, the statement of
its objects and constitution is given in full, as published in the
Labor Gazette (London) for February, 1.918 (p. 49) :
O bjects.

The advancement o f the pottery industry aad o f all connected with It by the
association in its government o f all engaged in the industry.
It will be open to the council to take any action that falls within the scope
o f its general object. Its chief work will, however, fall under the follow ing
h ea d s:
( « ) The consideration o f ajeans w hereby aU m anufacturers and operatives
shall be brought within their respective associations.
( b)
Regular consideration o f wages, piecework prices, and conditions, with a
view to establishing and maintaining equitable conditions throughout the in­
dustry.
(< ) To assist the respective associations in the maintenance o f such selling
?•
prices as will afford a reasonable remuneration to both employers and employed.
(< D The consideration and settlement o f all disputes between different parties
&
in the industry w hich it may not have been possible to settle by the existing
ma'Chmery, anti the establishment o f machinery for dealing with disputes where
adequate machinery does not exist.
<e ) Tlte regularization o f production and employment as a means o f insuring
to the workpeople the greatest possible security o f earnings.
( / ) Improvement in conditions with a view to removing aU danger to health
In the industry.
( g ) The study o f processes, the encouragement o f research, and the full
utilization o f their results.
( h) The provision o f facilities for the full consideration and utilization of
inventions and improvements designed by workpeople a
fo r the adequate
n
d
safeguarding o f the rights o f the designers o f «*ich improvements.
(i) Education tn a ll its branches fo r the industry.
( j ) The coUection o f fu ll statistics on wages* making and selling prices, and
average percentages o f profits on turnover, and on materials, markets, «osts,
etc., and the study and promotion o f scientific and practical systems o f costing
to this end.
A ll statistics shall, where necessary, be verified by chartered accountants,
who shaU make a statutory declaration as to secrecy prior to any investigation,
and no particulars o f individual firms or operatives shall he disclosed to anyoue.




199

200

BULLETIN OP TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

(fc) Inquiries into problems o f the industry, and where desirable, the publi­
cation o f reports.
(I) Representation o f the needs and opinions o f the industry to Government
authorities, central and local, and to the community generally.
C o n s t it u t io n .
l.

m e m b e r s h ip .

The council shall consist o f an equal number o f representatives o f the
manufacturers and the operatives; the m anufacturers' representatives to be
appointed by the manufacturers* associations in proportions to be agreed on
between th em ; the operatives’ representatives by the trade-unions in proportion
to be agreed on beween them. The number o f representatives on each side
shall not exceed 30. Among the manufacturers’ representatives may be in­
cluded salaried managers, and among the operatives’ representatives some
women operatives.
2. h o n o r a r y

m em bers.

The council to have the power to cooperate honorary members with the right
to attend meetings or serve on committees o f the council, and to speak but not
to vote.
8 . r e a p p o in t m e n t .

One-third o f the representatives o f the said association and unions shall
retire annually, and shall be eligible for reappointment.
4 . o f f f ic e r s .

The officers o f the council shall be— (a ) A chairman and vice chairman.
When the chairman is a member o f the operatives, the vice chairman shall be
a member o f the manufacturers, and vice versa. The chairman (or in his
absence, the vice chairm an) shall preside at all meetings, and shall have a
vote, but not a casting vote. It shall always be open to the council to appoint
an independent chairman, temporary or otherwise. (&) Such secretaries and
treasurers as the council may require.
All honorary officers shall be elected by the council at its annual meeting for
a term o f one year, and, subject to the conditions that a chairman or vice
chairman from the said associations shall be succeeded by a member o f the
said unions, shall be eligible for reelection. The council may from time to time
fix the remuneration to be paid to its officers.
5 . COMMITTEES.

The council shall appoint an executive committee and standing committee
representative o f the different needs o f the industry. It shall have power to
appoint other committees for special purposes and to cooperate such persons
o f special knowledge, not being members o f the council, as may serve the
special purposes o f these committees. On all committees both manufacturers
and operatives shall be equally represented. The minutes o f all committees
shall be submitted to the national council for confirmation.
Each committee shall appoint its own chairman and vice chairman, except
in the case o f the finance committee, over which committee the chairman o f
the national council shall preside.




APPENDIX A— TH E POTTERY INDUSTRY.

201

6. FINANCE.

The ordinary expenses o f the council shall be met by a levy upon the manu­
facturers’ associations and the trade-unions represented. Special expenditure
shall be provided for by the finance committee.
7. MEETINGS.

The ordinary meetings o f the council shall be held quarterly. The annual
meeting shall be held in January. A special meeting o f the council shall be
held on the requisition o f 10 members o f the council. Seven days’ notice o f
any meeting shall be given. Twenty members shall form a quorum. Com­
mittees shall meet as often as may be required.
8. v o t i n g .

The voting upon all questions shall be by show o f hands, and two-thirds
m ajority o f those present and voting shall be required to carry a resolution:
Provided, That when at any meeting the representatives o f the unions and
the associations respectively, are unequal in numbers, all members present shall
have the right to enter fully into discussion o f any matters, but only an
equal number o f each o f such representatives (to be decided among them) shall
vote.

The membership of the council consists of 30 manufacturers’ rep­
resentatives and 30 operatives’ representatives * * *#




APPENDIX B.
C O N S T IT U T IO N O F J O IN T IN D U S T R IA L C O U N C IL O F T H E R U B B E R
M A N U F A C T U R IN G IN D U S T R Y .

The following is the text of the constitution adopted at the first
meeting of the joint industrial council of the rubber manufacturing
industry on July 16, 1918:
O bjects.

To secure the largest possible measure o f join t action between employers
and workpeople for the safeguarding and development o f the rubber manu­
facturing industry as a part o f national life and for the improvement o f the
conditions o f all engaged in that industry.
It w ill be open to the council to take any action that falls within the scope o f
its general objects. Among its more specific objects will be the follow in g :
1. The consideration and adoption o f the proposals fo r district councils and
works committees a put forw ard in the W hitley report, having regard in each
s
case to any such organizations a
may already be in existence.
s
2. The consideration o f measures fo r securing the inclusion o f all employers
and operatives in their respective organizations and for securing the loyal
observance by them o f collective agreements.
3. Regular consideration o f wages, hours, and working conditions in the in­
dustry as a whole.
4. The consideration o f the existing machinery for the settlement o f differ­
ences between different parties and sections in the industry, and the establish. ment of machinery for this purpose where it does not already exist.
5. The consideration o f measures for securing maximum production and
regular employment.
6. The encouragement o f research and inventions with a view to perfecting
the products o f industry.
7. The adequate safeguarding o f the rights o f operatives inventing or de­
signing improvements.
8. Inquiries into special problems o f the industry, including the comparative
study o f the statistics, organization, and methods o f the industry in this and
other countries, and, where desirable, the publication o f reports.
9. The improvement in conditions with a view to removing danger to health
in the industry, and the provision o f special treatment where necessary for
workers in the industry.
30. The supervision o f entry into and training for the industry * and co­
operation with the educational authorities in arranging education in all branches
for the industry.
11. Cooperation with the industrial councils o f other industries to deal with
problems common to them and the rubber m anufacturing industry.
12. Representation o f the needs and opinions o f the industry to Government
departments and other authorities.
13. The consideration o f any other matters that may be referred to it by
Government departments or other authorities.
202




APPENDIX B— TH E RUBBER MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY.

203

C o n s t it u t io n .

1. MEMBERSHIP.

The council shall consist o f 12 representatives o f the employers and 12 rep­
resentatives o f the operatives, appointed by the follow ing organizations:
Associations o f em ployers.
N um ber o f

representatives.

India Rubber Manufacturers* Association (L t d .) ______
British Rubber T ire M anufacturers’ Association (L td .)
Rubber Shoe M anufacturers’ Association______________

12

Trade-unions.
Amalgamated Society o f India Rubber, Cable, and Asbestos W orkers________ 4
W aterproof Garment W orkers’ Trade-Union______________________________ _____ 1
National Amalgamated Union o f Labor___________________________________ _____ 2
National Union o f General W orkers_______________________________________ _____ 2
W orkers’ Union____________________________________________________________ _____2
Amalgamated Society o f Gas, Municipal, and General W orkers________________ 1
T otal_________________________________________________________________

12

2 . REAPPOINTMENT.

One-third o f the representatives o f the said associations and unions shall
retire annually and shall be eligible fo r reappointment. Members o f the council
shall retire at the end o f the first and second year, in an order to be determined
by lot, and thereafter on the expiration o f three years’ membership.
8 . COMMITTEES,

The council may appoint such committees for special purposes as it may
consider necessary, and define their powers.
4 . COOPTED MEMBERS.

The council shall have the power o f appointing on committees or allowing
committees to coopt such persons o f special knowledge, not being members o f
the council, as may serve the special purposes o f the council, provided that on
such committees (a ) the two sides o f the council shall be equally represented,
and ( b ) any appointed or coopted members shall serve only in a consultative
capacity.
5. OFFICERS.

The officers shall consist o f a chairman, a vice chairman, a secretary or sec­
retaries, and a treasurer or treasurers.
When the chairman is a representative o f the operatives, the vice chairman
shall be a representative o f the employers, and vice versa. The chairman (or,
in his absence, the vice chairm an) shall preside at all meetings and shall have
a vote, but not a casting vote.
The council shall be empowered to appoint and maintain a secretary or secre­
taries and such clerical staff as it may think fit. It shall be empowered to pay
them such remuneration as it may think fit.




204

BULLETIN OF TH E BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS.

All honorary officers shall be elected by the council at its annual meeting fo r
a term o f one year and, subject to the condition that a chairman or vice chair­
man from the employers’ side shall be succeeded by a representative from the
operatives’ side, shall' be eligible fo r reelection.
6. MEETINGS OF THE COUNCIL.

The ordinary meeting o f the council shall be held as often as necessary and
not less than once a quarter. The meeting i n ---------- shall be the annual meet­
ing. A special meeting shall be called on the requisition o f eight members o f
the council. Seven days’ notice o f such meeting shall be given and the business
o f the meeting stated in the notice.
7. VOTING.

The voting shall be by a show o f hands or otherwise,, as the council may
determine. No resolution shall be regarded as carried unless it has been approved by a m ajority o f the members present on each side o f the council.
8. QUORUM.

Seven members from each side shall constitute a quorum o f the council.
9. FINANCE.

The expenses o f the council shall be met by the two sides o f the council in
equal proportions.
10. ALTERATION OF CONSTITUTION.

The council shall have power from time to time to amend or add to the above
constitution in such way as it may think fit, provided that notice o f such
amendment or addition be submitted to all the members o f the council at least
one month before the next meeting o f the council.




IN D E X .
A.

Page.
Absenteeism________________________________________________________________ 60, 153-155
Accident fund society---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 134, 135
Airplanes and motor cars, establishment making, works committees in--------------- 113-115
Appeals committees_____________________________________________________________59,122
Arbitration___________________________________________ ;_________________________102-107
(See also Conciliation and arbitration.)
Arbitration Act, 1889____________________________________________________________
163
38
Arbitration council______________________________________________________________
Awards schemes, relation of works committees to------------------------------------------------80,134
B.

Barr & Stroud (Ltd.), Anniesland, Glasgow-----------------------------------------------------107-110
Bonuses, timekeeping, committees to deal with question o f___________________ 60, 76, 115
(See also Timekeeping; Timekeeping committees.)
Boot and shoe, woolen, and other industries, works committees in___________137-157
53
Building trade, committees of shop stewards in__________________________________
C.
Canadian Industrial Disputes Investigation Act--------------------------------------------------37
Central control board______________________________________________________ 122, 123, 167
Chapel, The_________________________________ T__________________________ 52, 55, 149, 150
Chart showing progress of organization of industrial councils____________________
11
Coal Mines (Minimum Wage) Act of 1912------------------------------------------------------------56
Cocoa works, works committee in_____________________________________________145-149
Collective bargaining--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 55, 59, 83
Collectors. (See Shop stewards.)
Collieries, joint committees at--------------------------------------------------------------------------- 159-161
Composition of works committees_______________________________________ 62-67,193-198
Conciliation Act, 1896------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 37, 38
Conciliation and arbitration, report on, Whitley committee----------------------- 6, 8, 36-40, 43
Constitution and functions of a joint industrial council___._______ :______ 6, 9, 175-179
Constitution and functions of district councils____________________________6, 9, 188-192
Constitution and functions of works committees___________________________6, 9,193-198
Constitution of industrial council in pottery industry_________________________ 199-201
Constitution of industrial council in rubber manufacturing industry___________ 202-204
Copartnership______________________________________________________ ______________ _____ 43
D.

Decisions of industrial councils_____________:______________________ :______________
23
Departmental joint council, Government establishments___________________________
13
Department committee, Government establishments---------------------------------------------13
Dilution and dilution committees______________________ 58, 59, 76, 101, 110^112, 126, 137
Disciplinary functions of works committees_______________________________________ 81, 82
Dismissal, questions of, handled by works committees____________________________78, 79
Disputes. (See Conciliation and arbitration, report on, Whitley Committee.)
District councils________________________________________ 18, 19, 26, 85, 179, 185, 188-192
District councils, constitution and functions o f____________________________6, 9, 188-192
E.
Electrical engineers, firm of, works committees in______________________________ 123-125
Employers and employed, relations between, committee on. (See Whitley Com­
mittee, reports of.)
Employers, commission of, United State Department of Labor, report on industrial
councils-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14, 15
Engineering joint committee, Coventry_________ :________ _____________________ 167-169
Engineering, shipbuilding, and iron and steel industries, works committees
in____________________________________________________________<
_______ 95-137, 157,158
Engineering trades, attitude toward piecework___________________________________
55
P.
Final report, Whitley committee ,____________________________________________6 ,8 ,4 1 -4 4
Foremen, appointment of____________ ____________________________________________ 79, 80
Fox Brothers & Co. (Ltd.), Wellington, Somerset (and Chipping Norton)_____ 143-145
Furnishing industry, pricing committees in_______________________________________
54
G.
Government, British, Industrial councils and the_______ 6, 8,12— 45-49, 172, 174, 17914,
Grievances, method of handling---------------------------------------------------------- 70, 75, 89, 109, 110
Guest, Keen & Nettlefold (Ltd.), Birmingham_________________________________ 120-123




205

206

INDEX.
H.
Page.

Horstmann Gear Co. (Ltd.), 93 Newbridge Boad, Lower Weston, Bath__________ 115-117
Hotchkiss et Cie., Artillery works, Coventry-------------------------------------------------------------126
Hours of work----------------------------- --------------- ----------------------------------------------------- ---------130

Industrial councils and the Government------------------------- 6, 8 ,1 2 -1 4 , 4 5 -4 9 ,1 7 2 ,1 7 4 , 179
Industrial council* * » d trade boards-------------------------------------------------------------- 6, 9 ,1 8 0 -1 8 7
Industrial councils* canstifcutien and functions of------------------------------------------ 6, 9 ,1 7 5 -1 7 9
Industrial councils, constitution aad functions of district councils___ i_____ 6, 9, 188-192
Industrial councils, decisions of_____________________________________________________
23
Industrial councils, membership of-------- ----------------------------------------- --------- 23, 4®, 1*72,173
Industrial councils, recommendations of the Whitley report_________________8 ,1 7 1 -1 7 4
Industrial councils, report -of Whitley committee on_____________________________$, 1 6-44
Industrial councils, report on, fey TJaited states Department of Labor commission
of employers________________________ i ______________________________________________ 14,15
Industrial councils, suggestions as to questions to be considered by____________18,19, 47
Industries, applicability of works committees to_____________________________* ______87-89
Industries, classification of, for establishment of industrial councils_________ 2 2 ,2 4 -3 0
Interim industrial reconstruction committees____________,_____ ______________________
9
Interim report on Joint standing Industrial councils, Whitley committee__________ 6 ,1 6 —
23
Iron and steel, engineering, and shipbuilding industries, w o r k s committees In____ $5-137
Ironworks, joint committees At_______________________ _____________________________ 161-163
J.
Joint industrial councils.
( S e e District councils; Works committees; Whitley
report; Whitley committee, etc.)

J*
L
Labor, United States Department of, commission of employers, report on WMtley ^

^

Ttt.
Management, definition of------------------------------------------------------ -— ____ ____________ ____ 74, 75
Management, function of works committee with reference to_______ , ______________73—
_
76
Membership of industrial councils-------------------------------------- --------------------------23, 4 6 ,1 7 2 ,1 7 3
Miner’s statement on output committees-------------------------------------------------------------- - 153-157
Mining industry, joint pit committees in-------------------------------------- ----------------------------56
Mining industry, timekeeping committees in--------------------------------------------------------------60
Ministry of Labor, reports issued by, on Industrial councils and works com­
mittees-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 -9 , 45-198
Motor cars, airplanes and, establishment making, works committees in___ __ ___ 113-115
Munitions factory, works committees in____________________________________________128, 129
Munitions of War Act, 1915---------------------------------------------------------------------- -------------38, 126

O.
Output committees, miner’s statement on---------- ------------------------------------ ---------------- 153-157

P.
Parkgate works joint trades committee----------------------------------------------------------------135-137
Payment fey results. W e e Piecework prices ; Pricing committees* etc.)
Phoenix Dynamo Co. (Ltd.), Thornbury, Bradford----------------------------------------------- 102-107
Piecework_____________________________________________________________________ 54, 55, 59,104
Piecework prices_________________________________________ 54, 55, 59, 102-107, 124, 130, 131
Pit committees_________________________________________________________________ 56,169, 170
Pottery industry, national council of, constitution________________________________ 199-201
Munition factory works committees in--------------------------------------------------------------------128, 129
Pricing committees------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 4 ,5 5 , 5 9,1 0 5 -1 0 7 ,1 2 4
Printing office, works committee in------------------------------------------------------------------------149-151
Profit sharing_______________________________________________________________ 4 3 ,6 0 ,1 1 5 , 143

Q.
Questionnaire, wot** committees_____________________________________________________ 92-94

Reconstruction committee subcommittee. (S ee Whitley committee.)
Reconstruction, Minister of, joint memorandum of Minister of Labor and__6 ,9 ,1 8 0 -1 3 7
Referendum, submission of questions to, by works committee_______________________71, 72
Remuneration, methods of______________________________________ _______________ ____ 59, 60
( See also Pricing committees : Piecework; Plecewoi^k prices.)
Renold, Hans (Ltd.), Burnage works, Didsbury, Manchester________________________ 9 5-99
Representation on industrial councils--------------------------------------------------------- 23, 46, 172, 173
( S ee also Whitley committee, report o f ; Works committees.)
Reuben Gaunt & Sons (Ltd .), spinners and manufacturers, Farsley, Yorkshire__138-143
Rolls-Royce (M d .), Derby----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----- 99-102
Rowntree & Co. {Ltd .), The cocoa works; York-------------- -------------------------------------145-149
Rubber manufacturing industry, joint industrial council of, constitution_______ 202-204




INDEX.
s

207

.

Page.
Sanitary trade, pricing committees in--------------------------- -------------- — -----------------55
Second report on joint standing Industrial councils, Whitley committee__6, 7, 24-31, 41
Shipbuilding industry, works committees in----------------------------------------- 131-135,157,158
Shipbuilding, iron and steel, and engineering industries, works committees
i n ___________________________________________________________________ 95-137,157, 158
Shop committees_____ ______________________________________________ 52-57, 108, 126-128
(See also Works committees.)
Shop committees and works committees, distinction between-------------------------------56
Shop delegates. (See Shop stewards and shop committees.)
Shop stewards and shop committees-------------------------------------------------------------------- 52-56,
58, 64, 65, 83, 84, 96-100,108-110, 140-143, 163-169
Skilled Time Workers (Engineers and molders) Wages Order, 1917_____________ 119,125
Strikes and lockouts. (See Conciliation and arbitration.)
Strong, H. O. & Sons (Ltd.), Norfolk Works, St. Pauls, Bristol________________ 117-120
“ Suggestion box,” relation of works committees to_____________________________ 80, 81
Supplementary report on works committees, Whitley committee_____________ 6, 8, 32-35
T.

“ Ticket ” stewards______________________________________________________________
53
Timekeeping-------------------------------------------------------------------------------»
___________114, 130, 155
(See also Bonuses, etc.)
Timekeeping, committees for improvement of-----------------------------------------------------60
Timekeeping committees, joint------------------------------------------------------------------------- 158-163
(See also Bonuses, etc.)
Trade boards_______________________________ '______________________ 6,9 ,2 7 -3 0 ,1 8 0 -1 8 7
Trade Boards Act----------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------ 27-29, 88
Trade committee, Government establishments___________________________________
13
Trade joint council, Government establishments— ____ ________ „ ________________
13
Trades committees, joint, Parkgate Works_____________________________________ 135-137
Trades vigilant committee, joint, Clyde Shipyards______________________________ 165-167
Trade-unions, relations of works committees to________ 76, 82-87, 102, 120,125, 138, 157
(See also Vigilant committee.)
U.
Upholsterers, pricing committees--------------------------------------------------------------------------

54

V.
Victim ization_____ *
___________________________________________________ 1______ ____
86
Vigilant committee__________________________________ ______________________ 52,165-167
W.
War Cabinet, adoption of Whitley report by____________________________________
45
War charity committees-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61
Welfare committees_____________________________________________ 60-62,96,108,151-153
131
Whitehead Torpedo Works (Weymouth) (Ltd.), Weymouth------------------------------ 129—
Whitley committee, personnel of--------------------------------------------------------------------------5, 6
Whitley committee, reports o f--------------------------------------------------------------------------- - 6. 16-44
Whitley report, British Government's view of proposals o f____________ « _____ 6, 8, 45-49
Whitley report, Interim report on joint standing industrial councils____________ 6, 16-23
"Whitley report, recommendations of---------------------------------------------------------- 6, 8,171-174
Women workers, relation of, to works committees----------------------------------------------65
Woolen, boot and shoe, and other industries, works committees in_____________ 137-157
Works committees----------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18, 19, 42, 173, 179
Works committees, constitution and functions____________________________6, 9,193-198
Works committees, opinions of employers----------------------------------- . . . __*_________157, 158
Works committees, report of inquiry made by Ministry of Labor____ . ______ 6, 8, 50-170
(See also Shop committees.)
Works committees, supplementary report on—_ ________- ______ ___ _______ 6, 8, 32-35
_
Works councils_______________________________________________________ 145-149, 151-153
Works directors. (See Shop stewards.)
Works representatives. (See Shop stewards.)
Worsted spinning mills, works committees in____ - _____________________________138-145

Y a rd com m ittee, G ov ern m en t e s t abl i s hment s —
Y a rd com m itteem en .
(See S h op s te w a r d s .)




13




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