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Job
Horizons
for
College Women

flftjOteST Mi99ffi>U^

2 9

Bulletin 288 (Revised)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN’S BUREAU
1967

/

ms

Job Horizons
for
College Women

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Willard Wirtz, Secretary
WOMEN’S BUREAU
Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director

Bulletin 288 (Revised)
1967

Photographic credits:
National Education Association
U.S. Department of Agriculture
Maryland State Employment Service
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health
Service
UNIVAC Division, Sperry Rand Corp.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics

United States Government Printing Office, Washington : 1967

For gale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 35 cents
ii

FOREWORD
With the widening of job horizons, there is an important and grow­
ing need for the talent, imagination, and dedication of educated
women. The possibilities, extending beyond the traditional profes­
sions for college women, have improved their opportunities for em­
ployment in a far wider range of challenging careers than was true
for any previous generation.
We seek in this publication to alert today’s college women to the
wide range of opportunities now open to them. In planning for the
future, they think generally of employment as well as marriage.
Too often, however, their decisions regarding occupational choices
may be based on obsolete ideas or unreliable hearsay and made in a
haphazard fashion. Much helpful information is available, how­
ever, to those who seek it.
This publication highlights the salient facts about a variety of pro­
fessions—to encourage thoughtful consideration of many job fields
before selecting the one most appropriate to individual talents and
interests. Information was obtained from several sources, including
the 1966-67 edition of the “Occupational Outlook Handbook,” that
point up items of particular interest to college women. The hand­
book, a publication of the Bureau of Labor Statistics, is available in
most college libraries and counseling offices, and may be consulted
for additional details about more than 700 occupations. Other
sources of information are cited throughout this publication, espe­
cially under “Sources.” It should be noted that in the Federal service,
entrance salaries may be higher in occupations where persons of re­
quired professional skills are scarce.
This publication was prepared in 1964 by Rose Terlin, then Chief
of Employment Opportunities Branch, under the direction of Jean
Wells, then Chief of the Division of Research and Manpower Program
Development. The current revision was prepared by Lillian Barsky,
of the Division of Information and Publications, under the general
direction of Rose Terlin, Chief of the Division of Economic Status
and Opportunities.
Mary Dublin Keyserling,

Director, Women’s Bureau.
iii

CONTENTS
Chapter

1
2

INTRODUCTION......................................................................
CAREER SUGGESTIONS.....................................................
Accountant................................................................................
Bank Officer...............................................................................
Biological Scientist..................................................................
Counselor...................................................................................
Dietitian.....................................................................................
Engineer.....................................................................................
Home Economist......................................................................
Insurance Agent and Broker.................................................
Interior Designer and Decorator..........................................
Lawyer........................................................................................
Librarian....................................................................................
M athematician..........................................................................
Medical Technologist..............................................................
Musician and Music Teacher...............................................
Nurse...........................................................................................
Occupational Therapist........................................................ .
Personnel Worker....................................................................
Pharmacist.................................................................................
Physical Scientist.....................................................................
Physical Therapist...................................................................
Physician....................................................................................
Programer and Systems Analyst..........................................
Real Estate Agent and Broker.............................................
Recreation Worker..................................................................
Religious Worker......................................................................
Retail Store Buyer...................................................................
Secretary....................................................................................
Social Scientist..........................................................................
Social Worker............................................................................
Statistician.................................................................................
Teacher.......................................................................................
Writer and Editor....................................................................
3 PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS.....................................
The Job Market.......................................................................
Work Activity...........................................................................
Earnings and Fringe Benefits...............................................
Sources of Employment.........................................................

Page

1
3
3
5
6
8
11
12
13
15
17
18
19
21
22
23
24
26
28
29
31
33
34
36
38
40
41
43
44
45
47
48
49
51
54
54
54
56
57

v

Contents
Chapter

4

5

6

Page

CONTINUING EDUCATION..............................................
62
Graduate Study........................................................................
62
Fellowships and Loans...........................................................
62
Degrees Earned..................................................................................66
Marriage and Career...............................................................
67
COLLEGE WOMEN ON THE JOB.'................................
69
Professional Employment Increases....................................
69
Women’s Representation in Specific Professions.............
71
Influence of Education on Employment............................
72
Women’s Gains........................................................................
74
SOURCES.....................................................................................
76
Government Publications.......................................................
76
Selected Readings on Employment and Training Op­
portunities in the Professions...........................................
78
Professional and Business Organizations............................
79

TABLES
Tables

1
2

Degrees Earned by Women, by Field of Study and Level,
1964 65.......................................................................................
Women in Professional, Technical, and Kindred Occupa­
tions, 1960 and 1950................................................................

66
70

CHARTS
Charts

A
B
C

vi

Proportion of Women and Men Employedin Selected
Professional Occupations, 1960...........................................
Major Occupational Groups of EmployedWomen, by
Educational Level, March 1966..........................................
Percent Increase in the Number of Women Employed in
Selected Professional Occupations, 1950-60.....................

71
73
75

THIS PUBLICATION IS INTENDED

To describe briefly the nature of some of the
multitude of careers open to college women.
To indicate the educational and training re­
quirements for entry into the various pro­
fessions described.
To point to the resources for more detailed
study of occupational fields of major
interest.

1
INTRODUCTION
Some girls decide early in life that they want to concentrate on
a specific field of study and work. For most, however, plans about
future activities are not clearly defined and eventually may be
decided much more by chance than by personal choice. Since the
time spent at study and work may require a goodly portion of a
woman’s lifetime, it is to her advantage to be as realistic and far­
sighted as possible in choosing college courses and setting future
goals.
The college woman will want to begin with a plan. She will need
to discover her own abilities, aptitudes, and temperament, and to
identify the fields which arouse her curiosity and challenge her
thinking. Whether or not a woman ever works, her education is
important to her own satisfaction and sense of achievement, as well
as to the Nation and to humanity. Moreover, her education is
important for everyday living. A sharpened intellect and a wider
knowledge of the world open possibilities for a richer, more satis­
fying personal life. A good education can increase her contribu­
tion to family life by extending and deepening her understanding,
her sense of values, and her family goals. It also can make her
more aware of her responsibilities to her fellow men and to the
need for using her talents in a meaningful way. A well-educated
woman may make a contribution to society in one or more of several
roles—as wife, mother, worker, volunteer helper, and citizen.
Today many young women work a few years after college, and
then leave the labor force when they marry and have children.
When their home responsibilities lessen, they again seek paid em­
ployment. This period of paid employment is usually for a longer
time than women worked in the past.
With the strong likelihood, therefore, that a college woman will
find it necessary or desirable to have a paid job sometime during her
lifetime, it is important for her to prepare for work she will enjoy
257-826 0—67——2

1

Introduction

doing. A well-chosen professional job may be highly rewarding,
for it can bring numerous satisfactions: participating with others in
a creative task, advancing to positions of greater responsibility, and
providing a vital service to society.
It is important also to consider the wide choice of career possi­
bilities, not just those traditional for women. Never have job hori­
zons for college-trained women been wider than they are today.
Continued shortages of professional workers are projected not only
in the traditional fields of nursing and teaching but also in science,
engineering, mathematics, and medicine—among others. In many
of these last-named professions, longstanding prejudices against
women workers are diminishing, largely because of the great demand
for qualified workers and the competence which women have shown
in these fields.
In these days of great technological and social change, it is wise
to acquire skills that can be used by a variety of employers. No
one can predict accurately all of the specific occupations that will
be most in demand in the future. The content and responsibilities
of many jobs are changing; during the worklife of individuals some
occupations will become obsolete and new ones will appear. Voca­
tional versatility and adaptability—based on preparation for several
alternative possibilities relating to a primary skill—will be indis­
pensable in the job market of tomorrow.
Young women who hope to participate in satisfying and rewarding
employment opportunities of the future must obtain skills in demand
by employers. In every occupation described in the next chapter,
additional rewards—in the form of more interesting and creative
work, advancement, and higher earnings—may be realized from
postgraduate study. Career planning, therefore, should encompass
continuing education and, if possible, study toward advanced
degrees.

2

2
CAREER SUGGESTIONS
Since the full range of professional occupations open to college
women is very extensive, this report covers only some of the largest
and most promising. The 32 professions selected for description
include such traditional fields as nursing and teaching; some rapidly
expanding fields, such as engineering and science; and some rela­
tively new fields, such as computer programing. Other professional
fields not described that offer challenges to interested and quali­
fied women include:
architecture
photography
commercial art
psychology
dentistry
public relations
optometry
veterinary medicine
A recent college graduate can expect to start as an assistant or
junior professional. Advancement to positions of greater responsi­
bility, satisfaction, and financial reward requires considerable ex­
perience and, frequently, advanced study.
ACCOUNTANT
Accounting, a profession with a history that extends at least
as far back as the ancient Babylonians, has attractions for many
college women today. As the financial operations of business, in­
dustry, and government have grown in complexity and importance,
the demand for accountants has increased. Between 1940 and 1960
the number of women employed as accountants and auditors more
than quadrupled. In early 1967 about 10 percent of all accountants
were women.
Geographically, the opportunities in this profession are wide­
spread. Accountants may be found in every city and town in the
country—in nearly every kind of private and public establishment.
3

4

Career Suggestions

This factor can be of particular interest to married women who have
aptitude for this type of work.
Accountants have responsibility for devising, installing, and super­
vising general accounting budgets and cost systems. They period­
ically balance the books of an individual or a firm, and prepare
statements showing such items as receipts, disbursements, and profit
and loss. When requested, they must be able to give analytical
descriptions of their financial reports and statistical records to
administrative officers or others in authority. They also prepare
tax returns.
Some accountants specialize in a particular area of accounting,
such as auditing, cost accounting, tax work, or budgeting. Others
concentrate on a specific type of business, such as public utilities,
banking, manufacturing, or nonprofit agencies.
Nearly three-fourths of the women accountants work for private
business or industrial firms. About one-fifth work for government
agencies—Federal, State, or local. The remaining women account­
ants are engaged in public accounting, either as employees of inde­
pendent accounting firms or as accountants working for themselves.
Women and girls who are interested in accounting as a career
are advised to complete 4 years of study in a college or university
that offers a major in accounting. A number of these institutions
assist students in starting their careers by conducting internship
programs in cooperation with public accounting or business firms.
The highest level of professional skill in accountancy is that of
certified public accountant (CPA). Candidates for the CPA cer­
tificate must meet various qualifications, including several years of
employment in accountancy and successful completion of a State
certifying examination. In recent years, approximately 90 percent
of successful CPA candidates have been college graduates.
Starting salaries of accountants with college degrees and majors
in accounting averaged about $7,300 a year in 1966, according to
a private survey of over 100 large business organizations. Smaller
firms generally pay somewhat less. The entry salary for junior
accountants and auditors in the Federal service was $6,211 a year
in mid-1966. Those with superior academic records started at $7,090.

Career Suggestions

5

For those with a master’s degree, entry salaries ranged from $7,090*
to $7,957 a year.
BANK OFFICER
Women bank officers include presidents, vice presidents, treas­
urers, comptrollers, and cashiers. In 1967 banks employed about
140,000 officers, of whom about 10 percent were women.
The National Association of Bank-Women, Inc., reported that in
January 1967 the larger banks had more women officers than the
smaller ones, and banks in the East had a greater number of women
officers in all positions. During the past 10 years there has been a
definite trend toward increasing the number of women promoted to
officer positions. Women officers employed in large banks were
more likely to specialize in one type of work, such as trusts, credit
investment, real estate, personnel, or public relations. However, most
women assistant cashiers performed work that involved numerous
functions of the bank.
The number of women holding top positions in banking is expected
to increase through the mid-1970’s as banking activities expand. The
opening of new branches in suburban areas and the expansion in
banking services are contributing to this growth.
Most women who become bank officials first have proved their
worth in such staff jobs as credit analyst, investment analyst, or note
teller. Some have advanced from supervisory positions.
In recent years, banks have turned to college graduates as their
principal source of officer trainees. Many send representatives to
college campuses to recruit members of the graduating class for their
executive training program. They frequently indicate that they prefer
graduates of a liberal arts curriculum who have had courses in eco­
nomics, political science, and commercial law, rather than graduates
of a more highly concentrated business administration curriculum.
Most large banks have well-organized officer training programs,
usually ranging from 6 months to 2 years in length. Specialized train­
*This was the starting salary for graduates with a 1-year 30-semester-hour master’s
degree; the starting salary for those with a 2-year 60-semester-hour master’s degree was
$7,957 a year.

6

Career Suggestions

ing needed for bank work is obtainable from courses offered by the
American Institute of Banking, graduate schools of banking, and
State and regional instruction programs. Many banks pay the tuition
of their employees who enroll in these courses.
BIOLOGICAL SCIENTIST
Biological scientists, sometimes called “life scientists,” study the
structure and life cycle of living organisms. Specialization is inevi­
table, given the enormous variety of plants and animals and the
complexity of their life processes. The many specialists may be
grouped into three broad classifications: botanists (plant scientists),
microbiologists (who work with micro-organisms), and zoologists
(animal scientists). The main fields of employment of biological
scientists are teaching and research. In 1966 the National Science
Foundation (NSF) reported that an estimated 11 percent of bio­
logical scientists were women. The largest number specialized in
microbiology, biochemistry, botany, zoology, and physiology.

'Of *-—■

Biologists engaged in research develop disinfectants to kill bacteria on fabrics.

Career Suggestions

7

Whether biological scientists engage in basic or applied research,
they perform many similar duties and utilize the same fundamental
techniques. These include making and staining tissue sections, class­
ifying and identifying specimens, and using microscopes and other
laboratory equipment. Knowledge of some mathematical and statis­
tical procedures also is needed to organize and analyze the data
gathered.
Most jobs in basic research, which seeks to add to the world’s fund
of scientific knowledge, are in the Federal service, universities,
nonprofit institutions, foundations, and increasingly in private con­
cerns. Jobs in applied research, which applies known facts to imme­
diate problems, are found in hospitals, public health laboratories,
government agencies, commercial research firms, and such industrial
firms as drug manufacturers and food processors.
The majority of women biologists are teachers in high schools and
universities. Generally, a bachelor’s degree is required for teaching
high school biology, but a master’s degree is necessary for advance­
ment. Increasingly, a doctorate is needed in the field of biology.
Biology professors in universities, most of whom have their doctor­
ates or are preparing for them, usually engage in research work
as well as teaching.
A small number of biologists are employed in quality control
testing to maintain legal standards for purity and potency. Writers
and editors who have training in biology sometimes work for science
magazines. Others report scientific developments for newspapers,
or prepare television and radio scripts or company catalogs and
brochures, or write for professional journals. Women with both
library and biology training are employed by the Federal
Government, medical schools, large public libraries, and large
pharmaceutical firms.
New fields for biologists are the depths of the sea to study the
effects of radiation on marine life, and the expanse of space to
observe the micro-organisms and various life forms found on other
planets. The potential benefits and dangers that these new fields can
bring mankind will heighten the challenge and excitement of this
work.
The median annual salary of women employed full time in the
biological sciences in 1966 was $9,200, according to the NSF.

o

Career Suggestions

In the Federal service in mid-1966, biologists with a bachelor’s
degree and no work experience started at $5,331 or $6,451 a year,
depending on their qualifications. Those with 1 year of graduate
work started at $6,451, and those with 2 years of graduate work,
$7,696.
COUNSELOR
Most professional counselors are specialists. The largest number
are employed as school counselors, vocational counselors, and voca­
tional rehabilitation counselors. There are also some marriage coun­
selors, life-adjustment counselors, and other specialists who need
particular skill and training to qualify for their field.
School counselor
School counselors are concerned with students’ educational and
vocational goals as well as their adjustments to school environment.
The number engaged in this work and the scope of their activities have
been increasing recently. In the school year 1965-66, more than
25,000 full-time counselors were employed in public secondary
schools. In addition, many teachers provided counseling services dur­
ing part of their worktime. About one-third of all high school coun­
selors are women.
During a typical day, a high school counselor engages in a variety
of activities. She may, for example, analyze the results of aptitude
and psychological tests she has given previously and relate them to
the academic and medical records of students to be interviewed that
day. The students who plan to go to college may desire assistance in
selecting a school and applying for admission. One who has returned
to school after a period as a dropout needs help to arrange his cur­
riculum so that he can get a job after graduation. Before meeting with
the students, the counselor often speaks with their teachers and some­
times with their parents. After all the day’s interviews are over, she
may start planning for a career-day program, intended to inform
students about the kinds of jobs available in their community.
In addition, school counselors may give students leads to jobs—
either part-time or permanent. In this effort, as in all their work,

Career Suggestions

9

counselors deal with all types of young people—the talented as well
as the dropouts.
College students who plan a career in school counseling usually
take a regular program of teacher education, with additional courses
in psychology and sociology. All school counselors are required to
have a State teaching certificate and, in most States, a special counsel­
ing certificate as well. Many States issue a special certificate only
to those with master’s degrees or the equivalent in counselor educa­
tion, and with several years of teaching experience. In many States
at least 1 year of work experience outside the teaching field also is
required.
In the 1965—66 school year, the estimated annual average salary
of school counselors was $8,000.
Vocational counselor
Vocational counselors are concerned primarily with an individ­
ual’s vocational goals, job placement, and work adjustment—in light
of his aptitudes, education, and experience.
By far the majority of vocational counselors work in State em­
ployment service offices. In 1966 those employed full time numbered
approximately 2,780, and those employed part time, 1,480. In addi-

Woraen fill an increasing number of positions as vocational guidance
counselors.
257-826 0—67—3

10

Career Suggestions

tion, about 1,500 vocational counselors worked for private or com­
mercial placement agencies.
The minimum education required for most vocational counseling
positions is a bachelor’s degree. A major in one of the social sciences
is preferred—plus courses in psychology, personnel administration,
education, or public administration. Some State employment services
require at least 15 semester hours in counseling courses.
The annual average salaries for vocational counselors in State
employment service offices ranged between $6,400 and $11,000 in
mid-1966. Some voluntary agencies in large cities indicated trainees
were hired at about $5,500 a year; annual salaries reported for
experienced counselors ranged up to $15,000 or more in 1966.
Vocational rehabilitation counselor
Rehabilitation counselors work with the physically and mentally
disabled. Although they spend most of their time advising disabled
persons about employment, they also engage in some personal
counseling, particularly concerning the workers’ disabilities.
Every State provides a rehabilitation program, financed coopera­
tively by Federal and State funds. In 1967 about three-fourths of
the 6,700 full-time rehabilitation counselors worked in State and
local rehabilitation agencies. The U.S. Veterans’ Administration also
employs a significant number of counselors, most of whom are psy­
chologists. Other employers are hospitals, labor unions, insurance
companies, special schools, and sheltered workshops. An estimated
20 percent of all rehabilitation counselors are women.
According to the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and
Welfare, the beginning average salary of rehabilitation counselors
employed in State agencies in mid-1966 ranged between $6,500 and
$8,200 a year. Counselors with a doctorate in psychology working
with the disabled in the Veterans’ Administration were hired in
early 1967 at annual salaries ranging generally from $9,200 to
$17,100.
In mid-1966 the Federal Government hired rehabilitation counsel­
ing trainees at $6,451 and experienced counselors at $7,696 or
$9,221 a year, depending upon their qualifications and experience.

Career Suggestions

11

DIETITIAN
The main responsibilities of a dietitian are planning and super­
vising the preparation and serving of appetizing and nutritious meals,
and thus helping people to maintain or recover good health. Day-to­
day job duties include planning menus or special diets, supervising
food personnel who prepare and serve meals, managing purchases
and accounts, and promoting good eating habits. A specialist among
dietitians is the nutritionist, who is concerned mainly with investigat­
ing the processes through which human beings utilize food, ascertain­
ing the food elements essential to maintaining the best health and
how these elements are transformed into body substances.
Of the approximately 30,000 dietitians employed in 1967, more
than 90 percent were women and about half worked in hospitals.
Others were employed by colleges and universities; school foodservice programs; company-operated cafeterias; commercial restau­
rants, tearooms, and cafeterias; camps; homes for children or the
aged; airlines, steamships, and railroads; government agencies; and
private research firms.
There is considerable demand for well-trained dietitians. Not
only do hospitals, industrial and business firms, and commercial
eating establishments require more dietitians to supervise their food
programs, but also many more dietitians are needed to teach dietetics
and to conduct research programs in various aspects of the subject.
A young woman who is especially interested in food and homemak­
ing may select dietetics as her career goal. She may begin her instruc­
tion by taking courses in food preparation in high school. For pro­
fessional employment as a dietitian, however, she needs a college
degree, including courses in food and nutrition, institution manage­
ment, chemistry, bacteriology, and physiology—plus 1 year as a
dietetic intern in one of the 64 internship programs approved by
the American Dietetic Association. Internships are conducted in hos­
pitals, business firms, colleges and universities, and nutrition clinics.
Three years of experience, 2 years of which are under the supervision
of a dietitian who is a member of the association, may be substituted
for the internship.
New graduates of approved internship programs were employed
by hospitals at salaries ranging from $6,000 to $6,500 a year in

12

Career Suggestions

1967. Staff dietitians in college and school food-service programs
earned from $6,000 to $8,000 a year. In the Federal service the
beginning rate for dietitians who had completed 1 year’s internship
was $6,451 a year in mid-1966.
ENGINEER
The steady demand for engineers has stimulated the interest of
many employers to hire qualified women in this field. Although
women still make up a small proportion of the profession, they are
increasing in numbers and are represented in all engineering fields.
The specialties in which the largest numbers of women are employed
are industrial, electrical, civil, and aeronautical engineering.
Engineers provide technical leadership in developing new prod­
ucts and processes, designing machines and structures, and contrib­
uting in many other ways to technological progress and national de­
fense. In addition to the large groups of engineers doing production
or research work, others are engaged in drafting, analysis, or the test­
ing of various products and processes. Those with considerable expe­
rience may work as independent consultants or for consulting firms.
With many new phases of engineering being developed, there are
expanding job opportunities for constructive and creative work.
They may relate to urban redevelopment and reconstruction; cre­
ation of new textiles and products from wood and synthetic materials;
redirection or adaptation of water resources (with consequent impli­
cations for industrial power, agricultural production, and recreation
facilities); new methods and resources of mineral extraction; and
development of nuclear and solar energy for power and heating
purposes.
A bachelor’s degree in engineering usually is accepted as the mini­
mum requirement for beginning jobs in the field. Certain jobs are
available only to those with advanced degrees. In mid-1966 the num­
ber of universities and engineering schools offering degrees in engi­
neering totaled about 265. Engineering courses in coeducational in­
stitutions generally are open to women.
Recent developments in science and engineering have made it
especially important for a prospective engineer to have a good back­

Career Suggestions

13

ground in mathematics and the physical sciences. Therefore young
women considering a career in engineering should obtain intensive
training in these subjects, as well as in engineering.
The average (median) entrance salary for inexperienced engi­
neers with a bachelor’s degree was about $8,300 a year in mid-1966.
Those with a master’s degree generally earned from $1,000 to $2,000
more a year. Those with a bachelor’s degree in engineering entered
the Federal service in mid-1966 at $6,387 or $7,729 a year, depend­
ing upon their college records. For those entering with a master’s
degree, salaries ranged from $7,729* to $8,479 a year.
HOME ECONOMIST
A degree in home economics can lead to a wide variety of career
opportunities in such broad areas as food, clothing, child develop­
ment, family relationships, home equipment, housing, interior de­
sign, home management, institutional management, and nutrition—
depending upon the particular interests and abilities of the graduate.
The largest single group of home economists are teachers—mostly
in secondary schools. Others teach in adult education programs or
in colleges or universities; and a few, specializing in child develop­
ment or family relations, teach in nursery schools, kindergartens,
recreation centers, or other institutions.
For the young woman who likes to work directly with people, a
career as an extension service worker will provide the opportunity
to help an entire community—men, women, and children—work
toward a better life. Her background and abilities must be varied,
for she must be competent not only in nutrition, clothing construc­
tion, and food preparation, but also in such fields as money man­
agement and community organization.
Job possibilities in private business firms also are open to quali­
fied home economists. Department stores and specialty shops hire
home economists to work as fashion consultants, bridal consultants,
fashion coordinators, and buyers, as well as for advertising and
public relations work. Women who specialize in design, textiles,
‘This was the starting salary for graduates with a 1-year 30-semester-hour master’s
degree; the starting salary for those with a 2-year 60-semester-hour master’s degree was
$8,479 a year.

14

Career Suggestions

or clothing may be employed by dress-pattern companies. Food
manufacturers need home economists to prepare educational ma­
terial on the nutritional value of a particular food product or on
the methods of preparation. Home demonstration agents are em­
ployed by equipment manufacturers as well as by utility companies
to teach customers the best and most efficient ways to use their
equipment.
Other job fields for home economists include writing and editing
homemaking sections of women’s magazines and newspapers; plan­
ning and supervising shows for homemakers on radio or TV; engag­
ing in research and testing of consumer products such as stoves,
refrigerators, prepared food mixes, and dress fabrics; and acting
as homemaking counselors and consultants for handicapped home­
makers and their families.
Generally a bachelor’s degree in home economics is the minimum
requirement for professional work in the field. However, an ad­
vanced degree may be required in nutrition, college teaching, and
certain kinds of research and supervisory work. Approximately 450

Nutritionists perform research to determine the amount of fat in raw foods.

Career Suggestions

15

colleges and universities in the country offer home economics train­
ing and grant a degree in home economics.
Girls planning a career in home economics will find that active
membership in the College Chapters Section of the American Home
Economics Association offers an excellent extracurricular supple­
ment to their academic work.
In 1966 graduates with a bachelor’s degree in home economics
were hired by private industry at more than $5,500 a year, accord­
ing to a limited sample. Inexperienced home economists with a
bachelor’s degree entered the Federal service at an annual salary of
$5,331 in mid-1966; those with 1 year of qualifying experience or
a 1-year master’s degree entered at annual salaries ranging from
$6,451 to $7,696; and those with 2 years of qualifying experience, 2
years of graduate study, or 2 years of an acceptable combination
entered at annual salaries ranging from $7,696 to $9,221. In the co­
operative extension service, annual salaries of county extension home
economists averaged about $7,900 in late 1966; those of State spe­
cialists averaged about $10,350. Salaries of home economics teach­
ers were on a par with other teachers’ salaries.
INSURANCE AGENT AND BROKER
Women have been exceedingly successful as insurance agents and
brokers, although the percentage of women in these positions is
rather small. The field is particularly appealing to some married
women, because of the opportunities for part-time work and for
visiting clients during evening hours and weekends. In 1967 there
were approximately 400,000 insurance agents and brokers, 13 per­
cent of whom were women.
Since insurance firms are in business to sell policies, the sales
workers (agents and brokers) are the key group of employees.
Agents sell insurance for a particular company or companies.
Brokers, on the other hand, are independent operators who buy in­
surance for their clients from the company that best meets the indi­
vidual client’s needs. Although some brokers concentrate their busi­
ness with a few companies, others distribute their sales among many
companies. Aside from this distinction, agents and brokers do much
the same kind of work.

16

Career Suggestions

Insurance agents and brokers are usually responsible for finding
their own clients and for planning each sale so that the policy pro­
vides the special kind of protection needed by the policyholder.
They must be able to describe in clear, nontechnical language the
variety of policies available.
General duties, in addition to visiting clients and selling insurance,
include preparing office reports, keeping records, developing lists
of prospective clients, making appointments, and sending out infor­
mation and promotional literature. Agents also assist in the prep­
aration of application forms, collect initial premiums, and deliver
policies to clients. Subsequently, agents provide services for clients,
such as assisting with settlement of claims, conversion of policies,
and similar matters.
A college education covering such subjects as accounting, eco­
nomics, and business law is becoming increasingly important for
those entering the insurance field. However, it is not a requirement of
all firms. Most companies conduct on-the-job training and educa­
tional programs for their inexperienced agents, and often a new
agent learns by working with an experienced agent for a brief
period.
In order to sell insurance, salespersons must have a license for each
State in which they operate. And in some States it is necessary to pass
a written examination in each type of insurance sold. For this reason,
most beginners prefer to specialize in only one type of insurance. A
number of agents specialize in selling life insurance exclusively.
Those doing business in more than one type of insurance usually
combine life insurance and health insurance. Others sell various com­
binations of life, health, casualty, and property insurance.
A beginning insurance agent usually is guaranteed a minimum
salary for the first year or two, while “building” a clientele. There­
after, earnings are based on a percentage of the premiums paid by
clients. Since renewal premiums on all policies sold by an agent
are included in the calculations for a specified period, her earnings
increase each year, even though she may sell only the same amount
of new insurance.

Career Suggestions

17

INTERIOR DESIGNER AND DECORATOR
An interior designer and decorator, as defined by the American
Institute of Interior Designers, is a person qualified by training and
experience to plan and supervise the design and execution of in­
teriors and their furnishings, and to organize the various arts and
crafts essential to their completion. In 1967 more than 15,000
people—about half of them women—were engaged full time in this
growing profession. Formerly an interior decorator was concerned
only with the furnishings of the interiors of homes or buildings after
they were constructed. Today the designer must be skilled also in
structural design, to integrate interiors with the total architecture and
landscaping and to utilize new materials efficiently. A combination of
artistic, technical, managerial, and merchandising skills is required.
The main specializations in the profession are commercial,
residential, and institutional decorating. Employment opportunities
are best in commercial decorating for such establishments as hotels,
apartment house lobbies, restaurants, offices, stores, and even fac­
tories. Department and furniture stores also are employing an
increasing number of decorators.
With the increasing complexity of the profession has come a
greater emphasis on formal training, especially for those entering
the field. A 4-year college course leading to a bachelor of fine arts
degree, with a major in interior design and decoration, is usual.
Courses in home economics, especially in fabrics, as well as training
in business arithmetic also are valuable. The minimum educational
requirement is completion of a 2- or 3-year course at a recognized
art school or institute specializing in interior design. New gradu­
ates with art training usually serve a training period in the field,
either with a decorating firm or a department store, or with an estab­
lished designer.
Beginning salaries for art school or college graduates with formal
training in the interior design field averaged from $70 to $90 a
week in 1967. Some graduates of 4-year design schools received as
high as $100 a week, according to limited data available. Earnings of
experienced decorators are quite varied, since few are paid a straight
salary. Some are paid salary plus commissions, usually 5 to 10
257-826 O—67—i—4

18

Career Suggestions

percent of the value of their sales; others, who receive commissions
only, may be paid as much as one-third of the value of their sales.
The American Institute of Interior Designers has student affiliate
organizations that conduct forums and competitions, and offer schol­
arships to interested and qualified students.
LAWYER
Despite the fact that law is a long-established profession, there are
relatively few women in the field. However, women have demon­
strated that they have the necessary abilities, and have achieved suc­
cess in practically every phase of the legal field. Their experiences
indicate that women with good legal preparation will find numerous
employment opportunities and considerable financial reward.
About 7,000 women were working as lawyers in 1966. They repre­
sented about 3 percent of the total profession. More than half of the
women lawyers were employed in salaried positions. Some were
employed by government agencies; others worked as law clerks or
as law associates for another lawyer or a law firm. A few were
self-employed.
The practice of law involves counseling clients about their rights
and liabilities under law and representing them in court if necessary;
negotiating settlements out of court; representing clients before
quasi-judicial bodies or administrative agencies of the government;
acting as trustees, guardians, or executors; and preparing legal docu­
ments and papers. Government attorneys play an important role in
the development and administration of Federal and State laws. Law­
yers also may be elected or appointed as judges, hearing and deciding
cases brought to court.
In order to practice law in a specific State, it is necessary to be a
member of the bar of that State. For admission to the bar, prospective
lawyers generally complete 3 years of college and 3 years of law
school, as well as pass a State bar examination. There is, however, a
wide range in the amount of general and legal education required by
each of the 50 States and by some of the 137 law schools approved
by the American Bar Association in 1967.

Career Suggestions

19

Entrance salaries for lawyers in the Federal service were $6,451
or $7,696 a year in mid-1966, depending upon previous work experi­
ence. Beginning lawyers in salaried positions with manufacturing and
other business firms had an average annual salary of approximately
$7,668 in 1966. Those working for small law firms or doing legal
aid work usually receive the lowest starting salaries.
LIBRARIAN
For the young woman with intellectual curiosity, intelligence,
interest in people, and love of books, a career as librarian offers
excellent employment opportunities, for there is a nationwide short­
age of trained librarians. About 80 percent of all librarians are
women. Job openings exist in all types of libraries—public school,
college, and university libraries; public libraries; and such special
libraries as those in trade and service establishments, industrial
organizations, museums, government agencies, and hospitals.
General duties of librarians may include selecting and purchas­
ing books, magazines, manuscripts, maps, phonograph records, movie
films and microforms; classifying and cataloging the items; pub­
licizing library services; studying the reading interests of people
served by the library; providing research and reference services;
and preparing bibliographies and book reviews. In a small library,
a librarian may perform a variety of tasks. In a large library, how­
ever, usually there is specialization in a particular phase of the work,
such as reference work, children’s services, cataloging, ordering,
adult services, or the bookmobile.
To qualify for a professional library position, it is almost always
necessary to have a master’s degree. Usually this is earned after
completing a course of study, generally 1 year, in an accredited
library school. The entrance requirements of most library schools
are graduation from an approved 4-year college or university with
a good undergraduate record and a reading knowledge of a foreign
language. Many library schools emphasize the importance of a
liberal arts background with a major in either the social sciences,
physical or biological sciences, fine arts, or comparative literature.

20

Career Suggestions

A chemist begins an experiment to determine the nutritional qualities of
packaged string beans.

Career Suggestions

21

Some librarians have been very successful in utilizing an under­
graduate specialty in combination with library training. For exam­
ple, chemistry majors or minors with master’s degrees in library
science have found employment in the libraries of chemical
companies.
Young women considering a career as librarian are wise to seek
employment as library assistants or clerks during summer vacations
or after school. Even though such work may be limited to clerical
tasks, it provides a valuable opportunity to test one’s real interest
in and aptitude for the profession.
The average annual starting salary of inexperienced library
school graduates was $6,700 in 1966. Public libraries serving large
cities and urban-centered county library systems paid new library
school graduates between $6,000 and $6,300 in 1965. In the Federal
service the entrance salary for librarians with a bachelor’s degree,
including 24 semester hours in library science, was $5,331 in mid1966; for those with a master’s degree it was $6,451.
MATHEMATICIAN
Shortages of professional mathematicians are reported by many
types of employers—especially universities, industrial manufac­
turers, insurance firms, and government agencies. The expectation
of increasingly greater demand for mathematicians has expanded
opportunities for both men and women who are qualified. About
5,700 women mathematicians were employed in the United States in
early 1967.
Most mathematicians are engaged in research to increase the
knowledge of basic mathematics or to solve practical problems.
This research involves the utilization of formulas of higher mathe­
matics for investigative, developmental, and research work in the
physical, biological, or social sciences. This work, involving ex­
tensive computations, requires skill in the use of a variety of com­
puting equipment, ranging from desk calculators to electronic
computers.
Fundamental qualities needed by a mathematician are a logical
mind, ability to work with numbers, imagination, interest in ac­
curacy, and power to develop conclusions from arithmetical data.

22

Career Suggestions

A bachelor’s degree in mathematics is considered adequate prep­
aration for many positions in private industry and the Federal Gov­
ernment. However, the trend is toward requiring more graduate
education—essential for those doing advanced research or college
teaching.
A sound background in mathematics provides entry into many
related jobs. The field of statistics offers increasing opportunities
for persons trained in mathematics. The development of high-speed
electronic computers has opened up many jobs for mathematicians
and systems analysts. Insurance companies often hire those with
mathematics training as actuaries to calculate premiums and to de­
termine policy benefits. In addition to these job possibilities, per­
sons with a good education in this field are in great demand as
teachers of mathematics in secondary schools and colleges.
Starting salaries for mathematicians with bachelor’s degrees were
about $7,300 a year in private industry in 1966, according to limited
available information. For those with master’s degrees, salaries were
about $1,700 a year higher. In mid-1966 inexperienced mathemati­
cians with a bachelor’s degree entered Federal service at $6,387 or
$7,729 a year, depending upon their academic records.
MEDICAL TECHNOLOGIST
With increasing reliance upon laboratory tests to reveal disease
in early stages, the role of the medical technologist in providing
accurate lifesaving information grows increasingly important.
Medical technologists are laboratory workers who perform a wide
variety of chemical, microscopic, and bacteriological tests to aid
physicians in the detection and treatment of disease. These medi­
cal tests involve minute and accurate examination and analysis of
body tissues, fluids, and byproducts.
Medical technologists who work in small laboratories often
perform many different types of tests, whereas those in large labora­
tories usually specialize. Areas of specialization include micro­
biology, parasitology, biochemistry, blood banking, hematology,
histology, virology, and the newer fields of cytology (analysis of
castoff body cells for evidence of cancer) and nuclear medicine.

Career Suggestions

23

The largest number of medical technologists work in hospitals.
Most of the others are employed by private laboratories, public health
facilities, research institutions, and pharmaceutical companies.
Some hospitals and clinics hire only medical technologists with
degrees. Many employers require prospective staff members to be
registered or eligible for registration with the Board of Registry
of Medical Technologists of the American Society of Clinical Pathol­
ogists (ASCP). To qualify for examination by this board and for
use of the professional designation “MT(ASCP),” a student must
have completed at least 3 years of college, including 16 semester
hours each of approved chemistry and biology courses and one
course in mathematics, plus a minimum of 12 months in a school of
medical technology accredited by the American Medical Association
(AMA). Of the more than 46,000 technologists on the ASCP registry
in August 1967, approximately 90 percent were women.
As of August 1967 there were nearly 800 schools of medical tech­
nology accredited by the AMA, 80 percent of which were affiliated
with a college or university in a program preparing students to re­
ceive a bachelor’s degree. Care should be taken in the selection of a
school, to be sure it offers the training recognized by the AMA.
Women with the most and best training will find a greater number of
positions leading to advancement open to them. In late 1967 the Na­
tional Committee for Careers in Medical Technology (NCCMT)
reported that at least 16 universities offered master’s degree pro­
grams in medical technology.
A survey issued by the NCCMT indicates that the median annual
salary of a full-time MT(ASCP) was $6,144 in 1966. Nearly 60
percent of the medical technologists earned more than $6,000 a year,
and more than 25 percent earned $7,200 or more. The Federal Gov­
ernment employed newly graduated technologists at an annual salary
of $5,331 in mid-1966, with many experienced technologists earning
between $6,500 and $9,000 a year.
MUSICIAN AND MUSIC TEACHER
The broad field of music offers a variety of employment oppor­
tunities both in the performing arts and in teaching, with most job

24

Career Suggestions

opportunities for musically talented young people in teaching. A pro­
fessional career in music calls for intensive training, great technical
skill, and a thorough knowledge of music as well as talent. Proficiency
in more than one instrument often is necessary.
A music teacher may give lessons at home, at a pupil’s home, or
in a studio. Trained teachers are also in great demand to lead choral
groups, maintain instrumental groups, or conduct classes in music
and music appreciation.

The positions of church organist, choir director, or vocalist offer
excellent opportunities for women who are trained musicians. These
positions often are filled on a part-time basis—an advantage to the
musically trained homemaker unable to devote full time to a music
career. Other career opportunities for music graduates include music
librarian in radio and television stations, musical therapist in medical
rehabilitation programs, and recreation leader in a variety of com­
munity agencies.
For teaching in elementary or secondary schools, a college degree
in music or music education is satisfactory. For teaching the more
theoretical aspects of music in a college or university, however, an
advanced degree is required. Those who wish to obtain an advanced
degree in church music may take courses in the music department of a
number of theological seminaries. The American Guild of Organists
awards a title of Associate or Fellow of the Guild of Organists (AAGO
or FAGO) to those who pass their examination.
It is important to warn young people who aspire to be top musical
performers, soloists, or members of “name” bands and orchestras
that the road to success is extremely rough and the competition very
keen. Except for very few, the chances of becoming a top performer
are exceedingly small. However, those with outstanding talent, a deep
love for music, intensive training, and a capacity for hard work may
be able to attain their goal.
NURSE
The girl who chooses a nursing career can expect to be doing
satisfying and rewarding work as well as responding to an urgent
need of society. Today the shortage of registered nurses continues
to be acute despite the fact that the number of nurses rose from about

Career Suggestions •

25

400,000 in 1950 to 621,000 in 1966, according to a report of the
Interagency Conference on Nursing Statistics. The need for all types
of registered nurses is expected to remain high. However, those with
college training in education, administration, or one of the nursing
specialties will find their services in particular demand. An estimated
one-fourth of all nurses employed in 1966 worked on a part-time
basis.
Professional nurses may be grouped into six categories, depend­
ing on the particular type of patient care and treatment they render.
By far the largest number are general duty nurses, who usually work
in hospitals. Private duty nurses are hired directly by patients or
their families when constant attention is needed. They may work in
a hospital or in the home of the patient. Physicians and dentists in
private practice often hire office nurses to assist in the care of their
patients.
Opportunities are growing for public health nurses, who are
• employed by public and private health agencies to care for patients
in public health clinics or homes. In addition, some nurses work
in schools. A smaller number, known as occupational health
(industrial) nurses, provide nursing care to company employees in
business and industry. Nurse educators teach student nurses as well
as professional nurses enrolled in refresher and inservice courses.
Although these are the main classifications of the profession, a few
nurses perform research, and others write and edit nursing journals
or textbooks. Some serve on the staffs of nursing organizations. For
young women who are interested in nursing, volunteer service in
hospitals during the summer months or after school provides an
excellent opportunity to gain a better understanding of the nurse’s
role.
A bachelor of science degree with a major in nursing usually
requires 4 academic years and two summer terms of study in a col­
lege that offers a nursing program. This is an integrated program
combining nursing theory and practice with college-level courses in
the basic sciences and the humanities. Upon graduation, a collegetrained nurse may seek further study to develop a clinical specialty,
such as pediatric or psychiatric nursing, or to prepare for public
health nursing. On the other hand, she may prefer to change from
patient-centered work to a position of greater executive responsi257-826 O—67----- 5

26

Career Suggestions

bility as a supervisor or administrator, a program planner, or a
consultant.
Other education programs offering preparation for a professional
nursing career are the 3-year diploma program conducted by a hos­
pital school of nursing and the associate degree program covering 2
years of study in an approved junior college or community college.
Possibilities for advancement are limited, however, without a bache­
lor’s degree.
Under the Nurse Training Act of 1964, a needy student may obtain
a loan, a portion of which does not have to be repaid if the student
obtains full-time employment in nursing after graduation.
To become a registered nurse (R.N.), a nurse not only must com­
plete a course in an accredited school or college but also must secure
a license by passing the examination given by a State board of
nursing.
How much a registered nurse earns depends on the level of her
job, education, experience, and the pay scales in the community. •
Latest data available on salaries of registered nurses in hospitals
from the mid-1965 survey made by the Bureau of Labor Statistics
indicates a range of $4,732 to $6,162 a year for general duty nurses.
Public health nurses employed by local government agencies
averaged $5,811 a year in 1966, as indicated by a National League
for Nursing study. In the Federal service the annual salaries of nurses
ranged from $5,331 to $12,873 in mid-1966.
OCCUPATIONAL THERAPIST
Occupational therapists use creative, craft, and recreational ac­
tivities to help sick, injured, or disabled persons advance toward
physical and mental recovery and often to acquire a job skill. It is the
job of the occupational therapist, working in a team under the direc­
tion of a doctor, to select and direct those functional, recreational,
educational, and vocational activities that best will meet the specific
needs of each patient.
An arthritic patient has the occupational therapist to thank for
helping her regain the use of her hands through creating an interest
in weaving. An amputee is taught by the occupational therapist how

Career Suggestions

27

to use artificial limbs for the main activities of daily living. A men­
tally retarded child can learn to dress alone because of the efforts of
the occupational therapist. A polio victim is employed successfully
as a result of business skills acquired under the direction of the occu­
pational therapist.

Young victims of cerebral palsy gain muscular coordination with the help
of an occupational therapist.

These are just a few of the many types of patients that the occu­
pational therapist assists. The work usually is varied, depending
upon the patients’ needs and desires and the rehabilitation goals set
for them. The therapist works not only with patients but also with
other medical personnel—doctors, nurses, physical therapists, and
medical social workers.
Most occupational therapists are employed in hospitals, school
clinics, nursing homes, sanitariums, homes for the aged, rehabilita­
tion centers, camps for handicapped children, or State health de­
partments. Home-visiting programs may be arranged for patients
unable to attend clinics or workshops.

28

Career Suggestions

The demand for occupational therapists has been increasing so
rapidly that a serious shortage exists. The pace has been rapid be­
cause of increased public interest in the rehabilitation of disabled
persons and the demonstrated success of occupational therapy pro­
grams in restoring people to health.
Registered occupational therapists are those who have passed the
national registration examination given by the American Occupa­
tional Therapy Association and thus have earned the right to use the
initials O.T.R. This examination is open to students who have com­
pleted a 4-year undergraduate course in occupational therapy, as
well as to graduates with a bachelor’s degree in another field and
some occupational therapy study, plus 9 to 10 months of supervised
practice. Thirty-one colleges and universities offer full programs of
study in occupational therapy. Five universities offer programs that
lead to a master’s degree.
High school students, college students, and other persons who have
a definite interest in the field of occupational therapy may gain first­
hand experience by serving as volunteer workers. If they have addi­
tional skills and talents in such fields as art, music, or sewing, they
can help the occupational therapist to teach these skills to the patients.
In 1966 average annual salaries of staff occupational therapists
ranged between $5,500 and $10,000, according to limited data avail­
able. Directors of services, coordinators, consultants, and others in
top administrative positions earned annual salaries up to $14,000.
The beginning salary for occupational therapists employed by the
Federal Government in mid-1966 was $5,867 a year; for those with
a master’s degree it was $6,451.
PERSONNEL WORKER
Personnel work is a fast-growing field, especially for women.
Women personnel workers are employed in all types of companies,
but the majority are in department stores, utility companies, very
large industrial corporations, and government agencies.
The operations of a personnel department include interviewing,
hiring, transferring, psychological testing, and training. They also

Career Suggestions

29

cover such matters as wage determination, job classification, fringe
benefits, employee counseling, personnel records, safety and health
protection, and union-management relations.
As a college education is becoming increasingly important for en­
try into personnel work, many colleges and universities now offer
coordinated programs in personnel administration. For some of the
operations indicated, specific educational preparation may be re­
quired. For example, jobs involving psychological testing or em­
ployee counseling may require an undergraduate major in psychol­
ogy, or even a graduate degree in that field.
Personal qualities important to success in personnel work include
exceptional skill in working with all kinds of people, ability to com­
municate effectively, and capacity to understand another’s point of
view in order to take into consideration the interests of both employee
and employer. A liking for detail and a high degree of persuasiveness
also are helpful assets.
The International Association of Personnel Women reported in
1966 that beginning salaries in the field of personnel management
ranged from $4,000 to $6,000 a year, and that it would be reasonable
to progress from $8,000 to $10,000, with up to $15,000 a possibility.
In mid-1966 inexperienced persons with a bachelor’s degree were
hired for professional positions in personnel work in the Fed­
eral service at $5,331 or $6,451 a year, depending upon their
qualifications.
PHARMACIST
A career in pharmacy offers numerous opportunities for qualified
young women. More pharmacists will be in demand each year to meet
the needs of our growing population—especially the needs of in­
creased numbers of elderly people and of children—and to accom­
modate our rising standards of medical care. Continued expansion
in the production of pharmaceuticals and in allied research is ex­
pected to provide more employment opportunities for pharmacists.
Employment opportunities will increase with the growth and further

30

Career Suggestions

use of hospitals and extended-care facilities under medicare and
with the demands for medication advisers and experts.
Most pharmacists practice in community pharmacies, where they
have varied duties, including the buying and selling of related items
requested by the public. In addition to expert knowledge of drugs,
medicines, and sickroom supplies, the pharmacist in certain situa­
tions must have managerial ability. These various duties make phar­
macy one of the most diversified of the health professions and help to
explain why it appeals strongly to so many people.
According to a report of the American Pharmaceutical Associa­
tion, women constitute about 8 percent of the total number of phar­
macists. They make up 12 percent of the enrollment in colleges of
pharmacy, and they are nearly 5 percent of all practicing phar­
macists and 33 percent of hospital pharmacists. Many women phar­
macists with children arrange for part-time work and later work on
a full-time basis.
It takes at least 5 years of study beyond high school to graduate
from a pharmacy college with a bachelor’s degree. One or two years
of additional study are required for a master’s degree in hospital
pharmacy or pharmacy administration. All of the 74 accredited
pharmacy colleges admit women. Some accept qualified students
directly from high school; others admit students only after they have
completed a 2- or 3-year prepharmacy course in an accredited college
or university.
Because pharmacists have such important responsibilities, all
States have strict laws about licensing and practice. Since the laws
vary, the pharmacy student should inquire into regulations applying
in areas where she may wish to work. Besides graduating from an ac­
credited school of pharmacy and passing a State board of pharmacy
examination, the pharmacist must complete a specified period of
practical experience known as internship or apprenticeship. In some
States this requirement can be met fully during summer vacations,
but other States require a portion or all of the practical experience to
be obtained after graduation.

Career Suggestions

31

The woman who chooses to work in a community pharmacy starts
with regular hours and a good salary. She can expect increases in
compensation commensurate with ability and initiative. Managers
or owners of pharmacies have incomes that compare very favorably
with those of other professionals or businesswomen in the same
community.
Salaries and opportunities for pharmacists in fields outside the
community vary widely. Pharmacists with outstanding executive
ability have the same opportunities and receive equivalent compensa­
tion as executives in other fields.
Reports from cities in various parts of the country in 1967 indi­
cated salary rates that varied from $6,600 to $7,800 a year for begin­
ning pharmacists employed in drug manufacturing firms. Annual
salaries of experienced pharmacists working for retail pharmacies
were generally between $8,000 and $11,500.
In the Armed Forces, pay and allowances for commissioned of­
ficers without dependents range from approximately $5,250 to
$17,000 a year, and in the U.S. Public Health Service they range
from approximately $5,800 to $16,000 a year. Newly graduated
pharmacists entered other branches of the Federal service in mid1966 at $6,451 a year; pharmacists with a master’s degree or a year
of experience entered at $7,696.
PHYSICAL SCIENTIST
Qualified physical scientists are needed in much greater numbers
to meet the expected demand for workers in research and develop­
ment, analysis and testing, teaching, and technical writing (see
Writer and Editor section). Unparalleled opportunities await today’s
college science major who, in addition to solid preparation in her
specialization, acquires a knowledge of mathematics, a foreign lan­
guage, English, and a social science. Although there are many em­
ployment opportunities for those with only a bachelor’s degree,
the greatest demand is for employees with advanced degrees.
Of the several branches of physical science, only chemistry and
physics are considered here.

32

Career Suggestions

Chemist
Most physical scientists are employed as chemists. In early 1967
more than 5 percent of the 122,000 professional chemists were
women.
Chemists usually specialize in one of five main branches of chem­
istry; namely, organic, inorganic, physical, analytical, or biochem­
istry. The majority are employed by private industry, where they
are engaged in research to discover new products, or in analyzing,
inspecting, or testing products already developed. Some specialize
in a particular industry or product.
Women are found in all branches of chemistry, with the largest
number employed by the chemical industry, especially by manufac­
turers of drugs, medicines, and cosmetics. Significant numbers of
women chemists are employed by hospitals and medical services,
educational services, and government agencies.
Inexperienced chemistry graduates with a bachelor’s degree had
an average (median) starting salary of about $7,500 a year in
private industry in 1966, according to a survey conducted by the
American Chemical Society. Beginning salaries in the Federal serv­
ice for chemists with a bachelor’s degree were $6,387 or $7,729 a
year in mid-1966, depending upon their college records.
Physicist
Young women who enjoy participating in and contributing to
major technological advances of our modem world are welcome in
this expanding field. So many of the new developments—electronic
computers, long-distance telephone dialing, television by Telstar,
nuclear reactors, supersonic jet planes, and lasers and masers—are
based upon theories formulated by physicists. Many advances are
possible only because of careful study and experimentation concerned
with energy in all its forms, the interrelations of matter and energy,
and the structure of matter.
The majority of physicists are engaged in research or college teach­
ing. Research may be basic, or it may be applied. Some physicists
add to basic knowledge through careful and systematic observations
and experiments in identifying and measuring matter and energy
and their interaction. Others integrate these findings into a theory or
system of equations that describe their interrelationships. Many

Career Suggestions

33

physicists engaged in applied research use their ideas and theoretical
knowledge to create final products. They plan and conduct experi­
ments and often supervise the preparation and testing of laboratory
models and, later, the design and testing of working models.
The demand for physicists by schools, colleges, universities, re­
search laboratories, the Federal Government, and private industry
continues to be high. There were approximately 44,000 physicists
employed in 1967. Only about 3 percent were women. Far more
are needed, not only in the new fields of physics but also in the older
fields of optics and acoustics.
For a career in physics, a bachelor’s degree with a major in
physics is needed, as well as a strong foundation in mathematics.
However, further professional advancement in the field generally
requires graduate study as well. In 1966 earnings ranged from
$7,500 to $8,000 a year for beginning physicists in private industry
with a bachelor’s degree; those with a master’s degree earned from
$1,000 to $2,000 more.
PHYSICAL THERAPIST
Seeing a crippled child walk, an accident victim return to his job,
or a disabled veteran return to active life are some of the rewards
that a physical therapist receives to compensate for her patience
and hard work. Such rewards probably account for the fact that from
1955—56 to 1964-65 the number of graduates from approved schools
of physical therapy almost doubled. Nevertheless, there is still unmet
demand for trained workers. It is estimated that many additional
physical therapists will be needed each year through the 1970’s.
Meanwhile, the use of part-time workers is helping to alleviate the
shortage.
The physical disorders treated by physical therapists include de­
formities, injuries, and disabilities resulting from such diverse
causes as poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, arthritis, and accidents. In
carrying out treatments, therapists use physical exercise, mechanical
apparatus, or applications of massage, heat, light, water, or elec­
tricity. In all their work, they follow the directions of doctors. They
often perform muscle and nerve tests to obtain the information
needed for developing the treatment program. Another aspect of
their job is teaching patients how to use and care for braces, crutches,
257-826 0—67------ 6

34

Career Suggestions

and artificial limbs. In addition, they show patients and their fami­
lies how to continue treatments at home. About 75 percent of all
physical therapists are women.
Although qualified physical therapists may treat all types of
patients, some specialize in working with children, veterans, ampu­
tees, paraplegics, or victims of poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy,
arthritis, or muscular dystrophy.
Professional education in physical therapy is available at about
43 schools approved by the American Medical Association (AMA)
and the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA). About
half of these offer a 4-year program leading to a bachelor’s degree
with a major in physical therapy. The program includes supervised
clinical experience in a hospital or treatment center. Some of the
schools also offer a 12- to 24-month course in physical therapy to
persons who already have a bachelor’s degree that includes the re­
quired courses.
The curriculum of approved schools covers the sciences and skills
basic to physical therapy, including anatomy, physiology, pathology,
clinical medicine, and psychology, as well as techniques of electro­
therapy, radiation therapy, hydrotherapy, massage, and exercise.
At least 48 States and the District of Columbia require a license to
practice physical therapy.
The APTA reports that in 1966 inexperienced physical therapists
received average earnings of $6,000. Salaries of experienced therap­
ists ranged from $7,500 to $12,000. The annual entry salary in the
Federal service in mid-1966 for inexperienced physical therapists
was $5,867 or $6,451, depending upon their college records.
PHYSICIAN
Medicine is a profession that often requires personal sacrifice.
However, the opportunity to devote one’s life to a career of such
great social service has, for many, more than offset the long, rigorous
academic preparation. Prejudices against women are decreasing
with the great need for more doctors and the achievements of promi­
nent women physicians. All medical colleges now admit women.

Career Suggestions

35

The number of women physicians more than doubled in the last
two decades, rising by mid-1967 to about 20,000, or 7 percent of all
professionally active physicians. A career in medicine does not pre­
clude marriage and family, as indicated by the fact that many women
doctors who are married have remained in active practice.
The majority of women physicians work on a salaried basis—
employed mostly by hospitals; governmental agencies; private
schools, colleges, and institutions; social agencies; research organi­
zations; or industrial or other miscellaneous groups.
Many physicians working in hospitals and in research are special­
ists, as are more than half of those in private practice. Even many
general practitioners engage in specialized work part of the time.
For this reason, it is wise in planning for a medical career to include
the years of extra training and study necessary to become certificated
as a diplomate, that is, a specialist in one of the 35 fields recognized
by the medical profession.
Minimum requirements for a license to be a general practitioner
of medicine include 3 years of premedical undergraduate study, 4
years in an approved medical school (leading to the M.D. degree), a
1-year hospital internship, and passing a State licensing examination.
To become a specialist, an additional 2 to 4 years of residency train­
ing are required, with the length of the period depending upon the
area of specialization. Physicians are required to practice their spe­
cialty 2 years to meet certification standards of the specialty boards.
Although their undergraduate courses should include science elec­
tives, it is wise for premedical students to focus on acquiring a broad
liberal arts education, especially in English and the social sciences.
In the second or third year of college, students should plan to take
the Medical College Admission Test. This is not an examination
which one either “passes” or “fails,” but rather, a measure of
potential for a medical career.
The successful practice of medicine requires more than long and
disciplined academic preparation. Personal qualities are vitally im­
portant, since a doctor heals people, not diseases. A liking for people,
an interest in science, good judgment, ability to make decisions in
emergencies, physical stamina, and emotional stability are essential
personal traits.

36

Career Suggestions

The Health Professions Educational Assistance Act of 1963 pro­
vides Federal funds for loans of up to $2,000 a year to help needy
students pursue full-time study leading to a degree of doctor of
medicine.
New graduates serving as interns in 1966 had an average annual
salary of $3,578 in hospitals affiliated with medical schools and
$4,071 in other hospitals. Residents earned an average annual salary
of $3,818 in hospitals affiliated with medical schools and $4,059 in
nonaffiliated hospitals. Many hospitals also provided full or par­
tial room, board, and other maintenance allowances to their interns
and residents.
Graduates employed by the Federal Government in mid-1966
received $11,111 a year upon completion of internship and $13,201
upon completion of 1 year of residency.
The net income of physicians in private practice in 1966 averaged
between $20,000 and $27,000 a year.
PROGRAMER AND SYSTEMS ANALYST
The new field of electronic data processing (EDP) is an important
field of employment for women as well as men. As recently as 1945
the first electronic computer was put into operation. The expansion
of our economy and the growing complexity of government and
business operations have made for rapid development in the use
of computers.
Many thousands of new jobs for programers will become avail­
able each year during the 1965—75 decade. Women as well as men
will find excellent opportunities in this field.
The various occupations connected with EDP still are in a fluid
state, and the educational requirements and qualifications for em­
ployment have not yet been standardized.
Programers prepare step-by-step instructions for computers. Al­
though popularly called “mechanical brains,” computers cannot
cerebrate without the assistance of programers. The programer re­
searches and defines the problem to be solved, analyzes the data ob­
tained in research, decides on the best method for processing by the

Career Suggestions

37

This programing manager holds a computer tape reel containing excerpts
from the classics to be stored in the library of the future.

computer, plans the details of each step to be performed, translates
these plans into machine operations through a coding system, and
checks and corrects (debugs) the program to be sure it can operate
in the computer.
In addition to programers, systems analysts—sometimes called
project planners or method analysts—also are employed by manu­
facturers of EDP equipment as well as by government agencies and
private firms with EDP equipment. They are specialists who define

38

Career Suggestions

a complex “problem” and devise the method by which it is “solved”
by the computer. They do the preliminary analysis and plan the
best utilization of the electronic data equipment to achieve the desired
solution. From this analysis the programer prepares flow charts and
computer instruction sheets for console operators to follow when the
program is run on the computer.
A college degree in engineering, physics, or mathematics is the
best preparation for becoming a systems analyst or a programer
working for an organization that uses its EDP equipment for sci­
entific or engineering work or the solution of other complex research
problems. Systems analysts usually are required to have several
years’ experience in programing and in the operation of computers.
An increasing number of colleges and universities are offering
courses in electronic data processing. Where the analysis is done by
accountants and other subject matter experts, there is some evidence
that 2 years of intensive training at the post-high school level may
provide a sufficient background for beginners.
Personal abilities and characteristics are also of great importance
in achieving success. Important factors include capacity for exact­
ing analysis; ability to reason logically; qualities of patience, per­
sistence, and extreme accuracy; capacity to follow instructions care­
fully ; and ability to express oneself clearly both orally and in writing.
Ingenuity and imagination are also desirable traits, since often new
ways of arriving at solutions to problems must be worked out.
In mid-1966 salaries ranged from an average of about $7,300 a
year for beginners to between $9,600 and $11,000 for experienced
programers, according to a private survey. The minimum entrance
salary for inexperienced programers and systems analysts in the
Federal service was $5,331 a year in mid-1966.
REAL ESTATE AGENT AND BROKER
Real estate selling offers an expanding field of employment for
women. In fact, the number of women employed as agents or bro­
kers more than doubled from 20,339 in 1950 to 46,108 in 1960.
It is estimated that selling real estate was the main occupation of
about 75,000 women in early 1967. Women have become more ap­

Career Suggestions

39

preciated in this field because of their intimate knowledge and under­
standing of the needs of homeowners. They are particularly helpful
from the point of view of housewives, who play a major role in home
purchasing. Many women real estate agents are themselves house­
wives who find that part-time work can be combined successfully with
home responsibilities, since prospective buyers often look at property
in the evening or during the weekend.
A typical real estate office consists of a broker who manages the
office and several salespersons called agents. In addition to adver­
tising properties, developing new building projects, arranging for
loans to finance purchases, and renting properties, a broker also sells
property. It is the agents, however, who do most of the showing and
selling of property. Each real estate office generally specializes in a
particular kind of property—either houses, hotels, office buildings,
farm properties, or land.
Persons considering a career in real estate selling should have
sales ability, perseverance, integrity, maturity, and a sincere interest
in people. They also must have a detailed knowledge of specific
neighborhoods as well as of the physical, legal, and financial circum­
stances or regulations affecting properties. Although a college edu­
cation is not required for entering the field, most real estate agents
have some college training and many are college graduates.
Training opportunities are available for both beginners and ex­
perienced agents. More than 200 colleges and universities offer one
or more courses in real estate. At many, students may earn a bache­
lor’s degree with a major in real estate; some offer advanced degrees.
Local real estate boards, which are members of the National Asso­
ciation of Real Estate Boards, frequently offer courses in such sub­
jects as real estate law and real estate financing. In addition to formal
courses, beginners obtain much of their knowledge from actual job
experience in a real estate office and from observing an experienced
agent at work.
All States and the District of Columbia require prospective agents
to pass a written examination covering pertinent State laws and real
estate transactions. The licenses granted usually are renewable an­
nually. Agents who move from one State to another must obtain a new
license in the State where they plan to practice.

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Career Suggestions

A more comprehensive examination is given to brokers than to
agents. In more than one-fourth of the States, brokers must have a
certain amount of experience as an agent before they can qualify for
a broker’s license; in some States, college credits in real estate
courses may be substituted for experience.
RECREATION WORKER
Recreation leadership is one of America’s newest and fastest grow­
ing professions. With the shorter workweek, the increase in municipal
and State recreation programs, and the growing use of therapeutic
recreation in hospitals and institutions, the demand for well-trained
recreation leaders is expected to continue to grow.
A recreation worker is concerned primarily with leisure-time ac­
tivities such as parties, dances, games, sports, handicrafts, and
dramatic or musical presentations. She may serve as a leader of
such programs, working directly with the particpants, or as an
organizer and supervisor. This work frequently involves selecting,
training, and supervising volunteers. The worker must be able also
to demonstrate techniques and instruct the participants. Even when
she works with a committee on the planning of a program, she is
usually responsible for following through on the plans by securing
necessary equipment and facilities, and preparing and distributing
publicity.
Recreation workers are employed by a wide range of organiza­
tions—municipal, county, and district recreation and park depart­
ments; State and Federal Government agencies; camps; institutions
such as schools, hospitals, and children’s homes—as well as industrial
and business organizations with an employe recreation program. A
large number of professionally trained recreation workers are em­
ployed by settlement houses and community centers, as well as by
youth-serving agencies such as the Girl Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, and
YWCA. However, some of these agencies prefer graduates with a
degree in social group work rather than in recreation.
More than one-third of all recreation workers are women. Oppor­
tunities in this field are expected to increase rapidly, at least through
the mid-1970’s. In recent years the number of persons graduating
with a major in the field of recreation has fallen far short of the

Career Suggestions

41

demand, and this pattern is expected to continue. Therefore, many
new recreation workers will come from the related academic fields
of physical education and health education. Persons having less than
full professional training also will find employment opportunities.
A college degree with a major in recreation or physical education
is considered desirable for most recreation leadership positions
today, although fewer than half of the recreation workers currently
employed have this educational background.
There are now more than 100 colleges and universities conducting
major recreation and park curriculums, according to a study by the
National Recreation and Parks Association (NRPA). Of these, about
half grant master’s and doctor’s degrees. The college recreation cur­
riculum combines the opportunity to learn specific recreation skills—
music, drama, social recreation, sports, and games—with the study
of such theoretical subjects as principles and methods of leadership
and recreation administration.
Since the major role of a recreation leader is to help people have
a good time and grow in the process, the personal qualities of a rec­
reation worker are highly important. Those who enjoy working with
people; have emotional maturity, initiative, imagination, and en­
thusiasm ; and can organize, plan, and follow through on a program
have the best chance for success in this work. To test whether these
characteristics are present, it is helpful to participate in extracur­
ricular activities—drama, music, sports, or school publications—or
to hold a paid or volunteer job at a playground, camp, recreation
center, or community agency.
Beginning recreation leaders earned between $6,500 and $7,000
in early 1967, according to the NRPA; salaries of recreation super­
visors ranged from $7,500 to $10,000. In mid-1966 the annual start­
ing salary for most inexperienced recreation workers in the Federal
service was $5,331; those with a superior academic record or with
specialized training received an annual salary of $6,451.
RELIGIOUS WORKER
Young people who decide to carry on their lifework in the field
of religion usually are impelled by considerations that are not the
same as those which influence the selection of most other careers.

42

Career Suggestions

Their decisions usually stem from a strong commitment to a religious
faith and a deep desire to serve the spiritual needs of others. Such
considerations as geographic location, earnings, and promotions can
be assumed to be secondary.
The opportunities for rewarding work in church and religious
institutions cover several positions of interest to college women.
According to the 1960 census, there were almost 5,000 women mem­
bers of the clergy, and more than 35,000 other women were religious
education directors, youth workers, Bible teachers, deaconesses,
home and foreign missionaries, nuns, or Christian Science practi­
tioners. The number of women in the nonclergy group had increased
21 percent since 1950.
In the academic year 1964-65, women earned 1,031 undergradu­
ate degrees and 118 graduate degrees in religious education. This
sizable number of women with college education reflects the in­
creased effort of various religious organizations to set higher stand­
ards of training for those who serve their congregations. Many
churches now require the professional workers in their religious
education department to have a bachelor’s degree including liberal
arts, plus at least 1 year of graduate work in religious education,
theology, or philosophy of religion at a theological seminary.
The challenging and demanding task of the religious education
director is to provide central leadership to project, coordinate, and
supervise a balanced program of religious education for all age
groups. She recruits and trains Sunday school teachers, plans the
curriculum with them, and is a resource for new teaching materials
and methods. She may function also as director of program activities
for the subteen and youth fellowships, the young adult group, and
various women’s organizations of the church, as well as other adult
groups. Her duties usually include setting up leadership training con­
ferences, leading worship services, assisting committee chairmen in
planning meetings, and visiting church families. In addition, she
participates in denominational and interdenominational activities in
the area.
Those considering a career in religious work would be wise to dis­
cuss their interest with a member of the clergy or other religious
leader. Such persons can give a confidential and objective evalu­
ation of the personal qualifications needed and of probable chances

Career Suggestions

43

for success. Active participation in religious fellowship groups while
in high school or college and attendance at church-related conferences
and meetings give a clue to the kinds of activities and dedication that
are usual in this field.
RETAIL STORE BUYER
Those who enjoy the excitement of trade and competition should
consider the opportunities of a buyer in a department or other retail
store. The almost 55,000 women employed as buyers and depart-

I

i

A silver buyer for a retail store examines new merchandise.

44

Career Suggestions

ment managers in 1960 constituted about 25 percent of all persons
in this category. The number may be reduced in the future,
however, if more use is made of buying committees in mass
retailing enterprises and of computers in compiling data needed for
decisionmaking.
Within the budget set by a merchandise manager, a buyer has
responsibility for determining what, where, and when to buy for a
specific department. This often involves traveling some distance to
the “market.” It is also her duty to train the salesclerks concerning
the assets of new merchandise and to supervise its display and
advertising. Each day she analyzes sales and decides on reorders
and markdowns. Increasingly, she is responsible also for her depart­
ment in suburban or branch stores.
To be successful in such a multifaceted job, a buyer must be a
good judge of customer likes and dislikes and able to sense style
trends. She also must know reliable sources of supply and be a
good judge of merchandise quality.
A college education is extremely helpful but not essential to
becoming a buyer. Courses in merchandising and business manage­
ment as well as in textiles and clothing are especially useful. Three
to six years of experience as a salesperson, department manager, and
assistant buyer usually are required to become a buyer. Executive
trainees usually take less time, depending upon the complexity of
and their responsibilities in their departments. It should be noted that
the work hours of buyers are often long and the 6-day week is usual
in some stores. However, the financial reward and challenge of busi­
ness responsibility are compensating features for those who enjoy
this type of work.
SECRETARY
Many cities report a chronic shortage of first-class secretaries.
A college-trained woman who has mastered typing and shorthand
can become a secretary par excellence, especially if she majored
in English.
The college-trained secretary may perform such usual duties as
taking dictation and typing; she often drafts correspondence, per­
forms some editing or research work, makes arrangements for trips,

Career Suggestions

45

or organizes conferences and meetings. Top secretaries may advance
to such responsible and better paying positions as executive secretary
or administrative assistant to a high-ranking executive.
For college women, a secretarial job has been regarded tradition­
ally as a springboard to many kinds of professional and executive
jobs. This is frequently true, for example, in magazine publishing,
banking, editorial work, and personnel work. However, in many
other fields the value of secretarial experience as an entering wedge
to professional work is less significant today than it used to be.
Some young women enjoy combining their secretarial skills with
specialized training in a particular field. In this group are medical
secretaries, who take dictation involving medical terminology and
sometimes perform routine laboratory and other semitechnical medi­
cal duties along with their regular secretarial assignment. Legal
secretaries must have knowledge of many legal terms when preparing
such papers as summonses, complaints, and subpenas. Engineering
and scientific secretaries must be familiar with scientific terms. Such
specialized secretaries as these have many excellent opportunities
for employment and usually earn higher salaries than regular
secretaries.
SOCIAL SCIENTIST
Women are attracted to the social science field, with its special
concern for human society and activities, ranging from man’s first
social development to his latest electoral decisions. The field is so
broad that most social scientists specialize in just one branch—eco­
nomics, political science, history, sociology, or anthropology. It is
estimated that in 1966 there were more than 50,000 social scientists.
About 10 percent were women.
Professional employment in the social sciences has been increasing
steadily and is expected to grow even more rapidly, mainly because
of the greater demand for college teachers and moderate increases
in government employment—local, State, and Federal. In most of
the social sciences, graduate work is necessary for advancement be­
yond the entry positions; for some, it is required even for entry.
The Vocational Education Act of 1963, the Economic Opportunity
Act of 1964, and the Appalachian Regional Development Act of

46

Career Suggestions

1965 are recent programs that will increase the demand for social
science personnel.
Economist
Economists are the largest single group of professional workers in
the social sciences. In 1966 about 40 percent of all economists were
employed in industry, while the remainder were about equally di­
vided between colleges and universities and some were in government
service. A few were self-employed.
Economists conduct research, prepare reports, make studies, and
formulate plans designed to aid in the solution of economic problems
arising from the production and distribution of goods and services.
They compile, organize, and interpret economic and statistical data,
as well as devise methods for the collection and processing of such
data.
Women were 14 percent of all economists in 1966. The average
annual salary for women economists was $10,300.
The beginning salary in the Federal service in mid-1966 for econ­
omists with a bachelor’s degree was $5,331 a year; it wasi $6,451
for graduates with superior academic records as well as those with
master’s degrees.
Sociologist
Professional sociologists may specialize in any of the numerous
branches of sociology: social organization, social psychology, rural
sociology, intergroup relations, family problems, urban and regional
development, penology—to mention some of the major ones. At least
a master’s degree usually is required for the task of investigating in
depth the social relationships that have arisen out of group life in
society. A sociologist with only a bachelor’s degree generally is not
considered qualified for professional employment in this field.
Sociologists are employed by colleges and universities, govern­
ment agencies, and research bureaus connected with universities,
welfare agencies, other nonprofit organizations, and large companies.
The beginning salary in Federal service in mid-1966 for sociolo­
gists with a bachelor’s degree was $5,331 a year; it was $6,451 for
inexperienced sociologists with superior academic records as well
as those with a master’s degree.

Career Suggestions

47

SOCIAL WORKER
Social work offers an opportunity to serve others in a very direct
way. There were more than 150,000 social workers in early 1967.
About 60 percent were women. The majority of all social workers are
caseworkers, who help people solve the individual or family diffi­
culties that interfere with healthful and useful living. Others are
social group workers, who conduct leisure-time activities and infor­
mal education programs to help youth in the process of growing up
and help people of all ages to develop in their social relations. A
third group are community organization workers, who plan, develop,
and coordinate health and social welfare programs and develop vol­
unteer leaders. In each of these areas of social work practice there
are jobs in administration and research.
Social workers of all types are employed both by government
(local, State, and Federal) agencies and by voluntary (privately
operated) agencies. A small number of social workers are serving
overseas as consultants, as teachers who train local leaders, and as
technicians.
Preparation for a career in social work is virtually the same for
the three types of work. A good preparation is a broad liberal arts
education with emphasis on such subjects as economics, sociology,
psychology, political science, anthropology, and history. Under­
graduate courses that provide an orientation to social work are
especially valuable.
Full professional status requires the completion of a 2-year pro­
gram of graduate study in one of the 66 accredited schools of social
work and a master’s degree. Over the long run, the demand for social
workers with graduate education is expected to exceed the supply.
More workers will be needed to maintain existing social welfare
programs for our increasing population, especially for children and
youth, and to develop new services dealing with emerging problems.
Such youth-serving organizations as the Camp Fire Girls, Girl Scouts,
and YWCA report marked shortages of trained workers and stress
the rising number of job opportunities in their agencies in the
coming years.
Although young women with a bachelor’s degree, usually in the
social sciences, may be hired by social work agencies, opportunities
for advancement are limited without graduate study. Some agencies

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Career Suggestions

assist staff aides to complete their graduate training through a workstudy or scholarship plan. Many scholarships and fellowships are
available for graduate education.
Personal qualities essential for social workers include a basic
interest in people, ability to work harmoniously with others, emo­
tional maturity, objectivity, capacity for realistic planning, and
ability to help others develop their own capabilities.
Those who are thinking about a career in social work should
obtain as much experience as possible during college so that they can
test their interest in and capacity for professional social work.
Volunteer, part-time, or summer workers frequently are needed in
camps, settlement houses, community centers, and social welfare
agencies. In addition, workshops and seminars for undergraduates
contemplating careers in professional social work are held in some
cities every summer.
The average (median) starting salary paid social caseworkers by
various State agencies was approximately $5,100 a year in early
1967. Casework supervisors had average annual salaries ranging
from $6,700 for those with little experience to $8,600 for those with
considerable experience.
In the Federal Government in mid-1966, graduates of accredited
schools of social work received starting salaries of $6,451 or $7,696
a year, depending upon qualifications.
STATISTICIAN
Statisticians use scientific methods to collect, analyze, and inter­
pret numerical data. Their many calculations examine, for example,
the probability that consumers will accept a specific new product;
characteristics of young people seeking jobs for the first time; effec­
tiveness of a polio vaccine; and thousands of other determinations
vital to individual well-being and sound government and business
policies. With the increased demand for factual data in decision­
making, the number and importance of statisticians in government,
education, business, and industry have grown steadily.
The employment outlook is good for statisticians through the mid1970’s. Well-qualified women statisticians should find favorable
opportunities in all phases of statistical work. Opportunities for

Career Suggestions

49

advancement for women statisticians probably will be best in teach­
ing and in research positions in the social sciences.
The personal qualities important for a statistician are a logical
mind, a liking for numbers, interest in mathematical accuracy, abil­
ity to draw general conclusions from a mass of data, and imagination.
The minimum educational requirement for many of the beginning
positions in this field is a major in statistics or mathematics. Stu­
dents interested in obtaining jobs as applied statisticians usually take
courses in the field in which they intend to work, such as economics,
business administration, psychology, or sociology. Basically essential
are courses in algebra, plane trigonometry, analytical geometry,
differential and integral calculus—plus at least one course in sta­
tistical methods and techniques.
Approximately 7,000 women were employed as statisticians in
1967—almost one-third of the total. The average annual salary for
women statisticians was $10,500.
In mid-1966 beginning survey statisticians with a bachelor’s de­
gree received $5,531 a year and mathematical statisticians, $6,387 a
year in the Federal service. Those with a master’s degree started at
approximately $1,500 more a year.
TEACHER
More women are engaged in teaching in various types of schools—
colleges and nursery, kindergarten, elementary, secondary, and
adult—than are employed in any other professional occupation. The
young woman contemplating a career in teaching will want to con­
sider the wide range of specialties in the broad field of education.
She may teach several subjects as an elementary school teacher, or
she may concentrate on just one or two. She may teach in one school
or may divide her time among several schools, as many music teach­
ers do. She may teach one age group—only 6-year-olds—or she may
conduct classes for a variety of persons, adults as well as children.
Although most teachers work with normal persons, others teach only
physically handicapped, mentally and emotionally disturbed, or
gifted children.
All public school teachers and some private school teachers must
be certified. Certification requirements, which vary by State, gen­
erally include graduation from college, completion of certain pro­

Career Suggestions

50

fessional courses, and practice teaching. A bachelor’s degree is a
minimum requirement for certification in almost all States. On the
other hand, some States issue a certificate for secondary school
teaching only after the candidate has completed a year of graduate
study.
The undergraduate student who hopes to become a college teacher
should major in a subject-matter field such as English, history, or
music, and then plan to do graduate work after she receives her
bachelor’s degree. Advancement on a college faculty usually re­
quires a doctoral degree and a number of years of teaching experi­
ence. Many colleges and universities offer a limited number of
teaching fellowships and part-time assistantships for graduate
students.
Over the 10-year period 1965-75, continued population growth
and increased high school and college attendance are expected to
produce a rise in high school enrollments and an impressive rate
of increase in college enrollments. A sizable increase in the number
of children enrolled in elementary school is expected. Total enroll­
ments in all schools and colleges combined, according to U.S. Office
of Education estimates, may increase to more than 60 million by
1975.
The added opportunities for teachers in the field of adult edu­
cation result in part from the expansion of adult classes in public
schools and in part from the growth of community and youth-serving
organizations that sponsor adult training programs. Usually a college

f
I

^wsaaai

.m.i

Teaching adults is an expanding field of employment for women.

Career Suggestions

51

degree and sometimes a graduate degree are required for adult edu­
cation teachers.
The demand for well-qualified teachers is expected to remain
strong in most teaching fields. The Bureau of Labor Statistics esti­
mates that, to cover increased enrollments and to replace those who
leave teaching, the Nation’s teaching staff will need to be almost a
third, or about 650,000, larger by 1975.
Public school teachers averaged $6,609 a year in elementary
schools and $7,095 in secondary schools in 1966-67, according to
estimates by the National Education Association. For the academic
year 1966-67, the American Association of University Professors
reported an average annual salary of $10,387 for full-time instruc­
tional staff in colleges and universities.
In the Federal service in mid-1966, starting salaries for teachers
with a bachelor’s degree in education were $5,331 or $6,451 a year,
depending upon qualifications. For those with a master’s degree the
salaries were $6,451 or $7,696, depending upon their academic
records.
WRITER AND EDITOR
The vital importance of communication in our modem society
has raised markedly the status and need for writers, editors, and
reporters. The career outlook in this professional field is excep­
tionally good for the trained and talented, whether they are men
or women. In 1960 almost 38,000 women were professional editors
and reporters; an additional 7,000 women were listed as authors.
At one time most writers, editors, and reporters were employed by
newspaper publishers. Now larger numbers are employed by indus­
trial publications, of which there are approximately 10,000 in the
United States; agricultural and scientific journals; trade association
and labor publications; as well as by religious publishing houses,
book and magazine publishers, broadcasters, advertisers, public
relations firms, and government agencies. Women are approximately
5 percent of editorial staffs. There were 12,000 women newspaper
reporters in early 1967.
Technical writers prepare manuals, bulletins, and other literature
in which they present scientific and technical information in a clear,
logical manner that can be understood by the general public. These

52

Career Suggestions

specialists are employed by a wide variety of firms, particularly in
the electronics and aerospace industries, and by research and devel­
opment firms as well as by the Federal Government.
A college major in journalism usually is required for beginning
writers hired by newspapers, news magazines, trade publications,
and broadcasters. More than 175 colleges and universities now
offer professional training leading to a degree in journalism. A num­
ber of schools award a master’s degree in journalism, and a few
award a doctorate.
For a post on the editorial staff of a publisher of books or popular
magazines or for freelance creative writing, a major in English may
be preferable.
Courses in such subjects as sociology, political science, economics,
history, and psychology are valuable in most writing assignments.
For work on a woman’s magazine or with an advertising firm, a major
in journalism should be supplemented with appropriate courses in
home economics, including both fashions and foods. Various
courses in economics are needed by an editor of a trade association
or labor publication. Technical writers usually have a combination
of courses in writing and scientific or technical subjects.
Extracurricular activities such as working on a school paper, year­
book, or literary magazine offer good opportunity for a student to
develop writing ability. Cub reporting on a hometown or suburban
newspaper during the summer is another way to obtain experience.
Opportunities are increasing for college students to learn the rudi­
ments of reporting through summer internships with newspapers.
These internships—more than 1,000 in 1964—usually lead to regu­
lar employment upon graduation.
Certain personal characteristics are strategic in achieving success
as a writer. Writing ability is, of course, fundamental. Equally
important is the ability to discipline oneself to meet deadlines. Other
necessities are a well-developed curiosity, a “nose for news,” per­
sistence, initiative, resourcefulness, and an accurate memory.
Earnings of writers and editors vary widely. Minimum salaries
for reporters without previous experience, who were members of
the American Newspaper Guild, ranged from $80 to $120 a week
in early 1967.

Career Suggestions

53

In 1967 inexperienced technical writers with a bachelor’s degree
were hired in private industry at starting annual salaries ranging
from $5,000 to $7,000. In the Federal service in mid-1966, inexpe­
rienced technical writers started at $5,331 or $6,451 a year.

3
PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS
THE JOB MARKET
It is estimated that by 1980 the number of workers 14 years of
age and over in the United States will increase to more than 100 mil­
lion. What is the place of women in this picture? During 1966 there
were on the average nearly 28 million women in the labor force
throughout our Nation, exceeding—by 7.4 million—the record
number of women workers during World War II. Their number
continues to grow, and it is anticipated that by 1980 there will be
more than 36 million women in the labor force. In fact, the increase
is expected to amount to 31 percent for women compared with 24
percent for men.
There are many reasons for this sharp increase in the number of
women, especially married women, who are seeking and finding
employment. Economic necessity, including the higher standard of
living desired by most people and the increasing cost of educating
children, is the principal reason why women seek employment.
Laborsaving equipment in the home and the vast array of prepared
foods available make it possible for many women to combine home­
making with paid employment. And last but not least, many women
find paid employment creative and satisfying.
WORK ACTIVITY
When various career possibilities are being considered, it is im­
portant to think about the variety of related opportunities they offer
and the possible avenues of advancement. Some fields may be some­
what limited, while others provide many opportunities for teaching,
research work, or administrative work. For example, those who study
home economics with a specialty in clothing may have a choice of
54

Practical Considerations

55

teaching sewing to a group of teenage girls, researching fabric dura­
bility, writing or editing women’s magazines, being a fashion con­
sultant to a large department store, or doing administrative work in
a dress-pattern company. Some of these positions are attainable upon
graduation, whereas others require more training and experience in
the field.
Teaching
This activity is common to many disciplines, not just the specific
field of education. Some nurses teach nursing; some economists teach
students of economics; and so on. As the number of evening adult
education programs increases, many practicing professionals—ac­
countants, for example—are teaching night courses.
Research work
Research jobs are available in almost every specialization for col­
lege women who are properly trained in their profession and in re­
search techniques. This type of work requires a high degree of ac­
curacy, patience, and objectivity. Some executives consider women
excellent research workers, as evidenced by the significant number of
women who have reached the top rank on research staffs.
Women are performing scientific research in the laboratories of
big food and chemical companies and statistical and economic re­
search in nearly all large business organizations. They also fill many
research positions with magazines, advertising firms, national politi­
cal organizations, and large foundations. The Federal Government
employs many research workers, as do colleges and universities.
A girl who plans to become a research worker will need a sound
background in methodology and statistics, combined with specializa­
tion in a subject-matter field such as one of the social or natural sci­
ences or engineering.
Administrative work
Opportunities for women to reach executive positions are increas­
ing. More than a million women were employed as officials and
managers in administrative posts in 1966. At the time of the 1960
census, the largest group of women executives were employed in
retail trade, followed by finance, insurance, and real estate. Women

56

Practical Considerations

also were found in appreciable numbers as administrators in public
administration, manufacturing, education, medical and health serv­
ices, and social welfare agencies. The proportion of women in execu­
tive posts usually is much smaller than the proportion of women in
the occupation as a whole. The greatest opportunities for women to
reach top-level positions are still in women’s colleges, women’s or­
ganizations, and community and youth-serving organizations.
The expanding activities of such organizations as the Girl Scouts,
Camp Fire Girls, and YWCA emphasize the growing opportunities
for women administrators in community and youth-serving organiza­
tions. Many of their executive positions are for “administrative
generalists,” whose varied responsibilities may include formulating
policies and procedures, employing and supervising staff, planning
and developing programs and supporting services, directing finan­
cial and business operations, maintaining effective public and com­
munity relations, and working with volunteer boards and committees.
In addition, there are numerous “administrative specialists,” who
concentrate on a particular area of work, such as personnel, public
relations, finance and fundraising, adult education, or program
development.
EARNINGS AND FRINGE BENEFITS
Although it is only one of several factors to be considered in choos­
ing an occupation, the subject of earnings is of much interest. For
detailed earnings information, it is desirable to consult advisers,
experienced persons in the profession, and available literature not
only on starting pay but also on salaries of experienced workers and
prospects for advancement.
In general, of course, a well-qualified woman with a sound edu­
cational background will command a higher entrance salary and
will advance more rapidly than one with less adequate preparation.
The median wage or salary income of women employed full time
the year round in professional occupations in 1965 was $5,574. The
highest income generally is received by women employed as doctors,
lawyers, and scientists—occupational groups requiring above-aver­
age educational preparation. Lower salaries frequently are found

Practical Considerations

57

in the professions with large numbers of women; for example,
nurses, dietitians, and librarians.
About 6 percent of all women professional workers, excluding
teachers, were employed by Federal, State, and local governments
in 1960. Nearly half of the women in government work were in the
Federal service. Salaries of Federal Government workers are de­
termined by the Classification Act of 1949, as amended, and are
related to job grades, which are determined by the difficulty, com­
plexity, and responsibility of the work. In mid-1966, most new
college graduates without previous experience started at $5,331 or
$6,451 a year, depending upon their qualifications. Somewhat higher
starting rates are paid for entry positions in engineering, mathe­
matics, and the physical sciences, however, to make Federal salaries
conform more closely to those paid in private industry.
Other considerations that may influence the choice of employ­
ment with one establishment rather than another are retirement pro­
grams, job security provisions, vacations, sick leave, and any special
benefits—health and insurance plans, profit-sharing plans, and so
forth—which the company or organization offers.
SOURCES OF EMPLOYMENT
Most professional workers are employed by one of four major
groups of employers; namely, educational institutions, government
agencies (Federal, State, and local), private industry, and nonprofit
organizations. The remainder are self-employed. Many jobs, of
course, can be performed for any type of employer. For ex­
ample, librarians are needed to staff school libraries (educational
institutions), public libraries (government agencies), corporation
libraries (private industry), and foundation libraries (nonprofit
organizations).
Educational institutions
Although most college graduates employed by educational in­
stitutions are teachers, numerous other professional workers also
are needed by educational institutions. These include counselors,
librarians, dietitians, nurses, doctors, social workers, psychologists,
personnel workers, and recreation workers.

58

Practical Considerations

Government*
Employment in government jobs—local, State, and Federal—
offers stimulating and challenging careers to qualified young women.
Almost 55,000 women professional, workers, excluding teachers,
were employed by State and local governments in 1960. Almost 60
percent were social welfare workers. Personnel and labor relations
workers, accountants, nurses, recreation and group workers, social
scientists, and lawyers and judges were the other major categories
of women professional workers. Since qualifications for employ­
ment with State and local governments vary widely, information
should be obtained from the specific agency of interest.
Opportunities for employment in the Federal Government include
civil service positions at home and abroad, the Foreign Service, the
Peace Corps, and the Armed Forces.
Every year hundreds of college seniors and recent college gradu­
ates qualify for civil service positions in agencies of the Federal
Government. The Federal Service Entrance Examination (FSEE)
is given for a wide variety of professional positions at the entrance
level. Completion of a 4-year college course leading to a bachelor’s
degree, or equivalent experience, is required. College juniors and
seniors also may apply for the examination. When an under­
graduate successfully completes the examination, she may accept a
job but may not report for duty until she has completed the degree
requirements. Application blanks for Federal examinations may be
obtained from the U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C.
20415.
Those who pass the FSEE may qualify for positions throughout
the country in such fields as general administration, economics, social
sciences, social security administration, communications, electronic
data processing, personnel, statistics, and others. In such fields
as library science, mathematics, engineering, and in the natural
sciences, a special examination is given in lieu of the FSEE
examination.
College graduates interested in special training for positions of
high responsibility in the Federal service are admitted to the Man­
agement Intern Program if they pass three tests: the general FSEE,
*ExcIudes the teaching profession.

Practical Considerations

59

a special written test on either administrative problems or public
affairs, and an oral examination.
About 45,000 women were performing professional work in the
Federal service in the United States during 1964. They were working
in almost every type of professional activity. In all Federal civil serv­
ice positions, women receive the same pay as men for the same level
of work. In 1964 about 10,517 women held positions in the Federal
service that paid $10,000 or more a year.
A number of U.S. citizens hold Federal civil service jobs abroad
in numerous fields. They are doctors, nurses, teachers, librarians,
technical experts, clerks, stenographers, social workers, and econo­
mists. The requirements for overseas work, in addition to the usual
specialized requirements, include a rigid physical examination,
security clearance, and an assurance on the part of the employee that
she will remain in the post for a definite period of service.
Positions in the Foreign Service of the U.S. Department of State
are not covered by the regular civil service system. Special exami­
nations are given annually. The tasks vary widely, depending upon
the particular assignment. In general, the work of Foreign Service
officers falls into two broad categories: diplomatic and consular.
The diplomatic staff is concerned with negotiating agreements, re­
porting political developments, and representing the United States.
They also may be cultural, information, or labor attaches. The most
important consular functions are visa work concerned with passports
and permits, and protecting the interests of Americans abroad.
Foreign Service officers are supported by the Foreign Service
staff. Since the staff is larger and the majority are clerical work­
ers, this service offers additional opportunities for young women to
serve their country overseas.
Many young people such as teachers, agricultural and community
development workers, nurses and medical aides, public health work­
ers, home economists, engineers, physical education instructors, and
recreation leaders have obtained challenging overseas assignments
in the Peace Corps. Peace Corps volunteers have been assigned to
serve in more than 52 nations of Latin America, Africa, the Near
East, East Asia, and the Pacific region.
Peace Corps volunteers receive allowances for food, clothing,
housing, and miscellaneous expenses. In addition, transportation and

60

Practical Considerations

medical expenses are provided. Upon completion of 2 years’ service,
a termination payment of $1,800 is given to each volunteer with a
satisfactory service record. And the volunteer has the option of ex­
tending her service up to 2 years. Although the Peace Corps is not a
lifetime career, it offers unusually good preparation for subsequent
work at home or abroad.
Women college graduates who are interested in a career in the
Armed Forces may apply for a commission in one of four branches
of the service. The highest rank that can be held by a woman is that of
captain in the Navy or colonel in the Army, Air Force, or Marines.
An officer is expected to handle a great variety of tasks commen­
surate with her rank, experience, and age. An educational back­
ground that includes a variety of subjects is, therefore, essential.
A college woman who receives a commission may be placed in any
one of a number of fields, such as administration, communications,
public relations, intelligence, logistics, finance, and engineering, or
she may be moved from one field to another.
College graduates with professional or technical training in a
medical specialty are especially needed. Nurses, dietitians, and oc­
cupational and physical therapists who receive staff commissions in
military hospitals of the Army, Navy, or Air Force or in the U.S.
Public Health Service begin with the rank of second lieutenant or
ensign.
The welfare of our country requires women’s participation in
political affairs as voters and volunteer workers. It is equally im­
portant for well-qualified women to serve in elective and appointive
offices, where local, State, national, and international policies are
formulated. Public office often is achieved after a person has be­
come known in a certain field, such as law, newspaper writing, busi­
ness management, political science, and teaching. Sometimes such
specialized background leads to an appointive position on the local,
State, or Federal level. Service in a local or State position is excel­
lent preparation for work on the national level, and experience gained
in appointive posts can be a valuable asset to a person seeking elective
office.
A college woman whose goal is in the political field will want to
stress courses such as public administration, government, history,

Practical Considerations

61

economics, and finance. English and public speaking, as well as train­
ing in law, provide an excellent background for a career in politics.
Private industry
Increasing numbers of college-trained women are being employed
by private industry for a wide variety of jobs. Salaries, fringe bene­
fits, entry jobs, and advancement opportunities vary widely among
industries, geographic areas, and individual companies. Specific in­
formation on these subjects should be requested from individual
firms.
Many firms staff their overseas branches with experienced em­
ployees who have a high degree of technical competence as well as
extensive knowledge of company methods. However, some highly
qualified young people, usually with secretarial and language skills,
also may obtain immediate overseas employment with private firms.
Nonprofit organizations
A variety of nonprofit organizations, such as hospitals, religious
organizations, foundations, community and youth-serving organiza­
tions, health and welfare associations, and other philanthropic
groups, employ qualified college graduates in a broad spectrum of
professional occupations, depending upon the specific function of the
organization.
The number of employment opportunities also is expanding in
community and youth-serving organizations such as the Girl Scouts,
Camp Fire Girls, YWCA, community chests and welfare councils,'
and volunteer service bureaus. Most of these organizations have more
than doubled their activities in the past decade, with a resultant
increase in professionally trained staffs.

4
CONTINUING EDUCATION
GRADUATE STUDY
A graduate degree is becoming increasingly important for pro­
fessional advancement in many fields. Many new college graduates
who hope eventually to continue their education, however, prefer to
gain some work experience first, and in some instances this is en­
couraged. The important point is to realize the value of continuing
education and to consider a plan that will include further education
and professional growth.
Those strongly motivated to seek graduate education usually can
find ways to finance advanced study. Possibilities include research
or study fellowships, teaching fellowships, special loan funds, and
part-time jobs. A little more than two-fifths of the graduate stu­
dents in the United States received some sort of financial assistance
during 1965. Probably the largest numbers of graduate students
receiving such assistance were in science and engineering fields.
Many others were aided by welfare and health agencies, which often
help staff members undertake part-time study or provide for educa­
tional leave. Some were career employees of business firms and gov­
ernment agencies that encourage special training and sometimes help
finance it.
FELLOWSHIPS AND LOANS
Since all scholarship and fellowship programs are forwarded to
the deans of colleges and universities, they are a good point at which
to start investigation.
Nongovernment
Most colleges and universities that grant advanced degrees have
some fellowships and teaching or research assistantships that en­
62

Continuing Education

63

able graduate students to be fully or partially self-supporting while
studying for a master’s or doctor’s degree. Some institutions also have
a long-term loan program.
Grants for academic study also may be obtained from other
sources, such as private foundations, professional associations, serv­
ice clubs, national sororities, labor unions, and religious and social
groups. Among women’s organizations that offer scholarships and
fellowships are:
Altrusa International, Inc.
332 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago, 111. 60604
American Association of University Women
2401 Virginia Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20037
Camp Fire Girls, Inc.
65 Worth Street
New York, N.Y. 10013
General Federation of Women’s Clubs
1734 N Street NW.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Girl Scouts of the United States of America
830 Third Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10022
National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s
Clubs, Inc.
2012 Massachusetts Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Young Women’s Christian Association, National Board
600 Lexington Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10022
A number of organizations in this country have graduate fellow­
ship programs for study or research in foreign countries. Often
these programs are very specialized and are only for students who
want to do graduate work in a specific field that is of interest to the
sponsoring organization.

64

Continuing Education

Government fellowships and loans
Government programs of financial aid for college students make
funds available in the form of fellowships or loans for graduate
study and research in certain fields.
The National Defense Education Act of 1958 was designed to give
graduate students financial assistance through two programs—the
graduate fellowship program and the loan program. Graduate
fellowships for full-time study are limited to predoctoral students
who intend to become college professors. The loan program is much
broader in scope, providing a maximum of $2,500 annually to grad­
uate and professional students and $1,000 in any one academic year
to undergraduate students. Total individual loans may not exceed
$5,000 for undergraduate work nor $10,000 for combined under­
graduate and graduate study. The recipient of the loan does not
start repaying until 1 year after leaving college. More than 193,000
such loans, amounting to more than $166 million, were made in
1964-65.
Under the Health Professions Educational Assistance Amend­
ments of 1965, a loan program to prevent a shortage of doctors,
dentists, and other medical personnel was expanded. Students may
borrow $10,000 for a 4-year course in medical or dental schools.
The National Institutes of Health award fellowships for graduate
work at predoctoral and postdoctoral levels. These fellowships are
for research in public health, medicine, dentistry, nursing, and such
related health fields as mental health, cancer, and heart disease.
The National Science Foundation awards fellowships at all levels
of graduate study—including the postdoctoral level—in the mathe­
matical, physical, medical, biological, and engineering sciences,
anthropology, economics, geography, the history and/or philosophy
of science, linguistics, political science, psychology, and sociology.
Also included are interdisciplinary areas where two or more sciences
overlap, such as geochemistry, meteorology, and oceanography.
The U.S. Government supports one of the largest international
scholarship programs in the world as a part of the International
Exchange Program of the Department of State. The majority of the

Continuing Education

65

grants come under the Fulbright-Hayes Act. Each year about 900
American graduate students receive these grants—covering travel
expenses, living costs, tuition, and books—to engage in study or re­
search in 73 countries. To be eligible for one of these grants, a student
must be a college graduate with a high academic record and must
be fluent in the language of the country where he or she will be
studying.
Sources of information on financial help
Information on fellowships, loans, and assistantships for gradu­
ate study as well as for undergraduate work is listed in catalogs
issued by the U.S. Office of Education (see chapter 6, Sources).
Financial help for graduate students is available also at one or more
institutions of higher education in every State and the District of
Columbia.
A listing of fellowships in the field of social work can be found
in “Social Work Fellowships and Scholarships in Canada and the
United States.” The latest report, covering the academic years
1965—66 and 1966-67, was compiled by the National Commission
for Social Work Careers, 345 East 46th Street, New York, N.Y.
10017.
Information on sources of research and training fellowships in
the social sciences can be obtained from the Social Science Research
Council, 1755 Massachusetts Avenue NW., Washington, D.C. 20036.
“A Selected List of Major Fellowship Opportunities and Aids to
Advanced Education for United States Citizens” and a similar pub­
lication for foreign nationals are issued by the National Academy
of Sciences, National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue
NW., Washington, D.C. 20418.
Those interested in doing graduate work at a specific college or
university should write directly to the school of their choice to find
out about programs of financial assistance. Professional associations
generally have information on fellowships offered in a particular
field and how to apply for them. College libraries, as well as deans’
offices, usually have information on graduate fellowships at other
colleges and universities.

Continuing Education

66

DEGREES EARNED
In the academic year 1964-65, a total of 219,260 bachelor’s
degrees (or first professional degrees, including M.D. and D.D.S.),
35,984 master’s degrees, and 1,775 doctor’s degrees were conferred
on women.
The largest number of bachelor’s degrees granted to women was
in the field of education, 91,019; the next largest numbers were in
the social sciences, 30,641, and in English and journalism, 24,974
(table 1). Women received more than three-fourths of the bachelor’s
degrees in education, less than half of the master’s degrees, and a fifth
of the doctor’s degrees.
Table

1.—Degrees Earned by Women, by Field of Study and Level,

1964-65
Doctor’s
degrees

Master’s
degrees

Bachelor’s
degrees 1
Field of study

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Per­
cent

Num­
ber

Total...................................... 219, 260

100

35, 984

100

1,775

100

Education 2....................................... 91, 019
30, 641
English and journalism.................. 24,974
Health professions........................... 12,080
Fine and applied arts...................... 10,222
Foreign languages and literature. . 9,947
7, 402
Biological sciences...........................
Mathematical subjects.................... 6,449
6,033
Psychology........................................
5, 108
Business and commerce..................
5, 099
Home economics..............................
2, 532
Physical sciences..............................
2,285
Library science................................
1,540
Religion.............................................
3,929
Other fields.......................................

42
14
11
6
5
5
3
3
3
2
2
1
1
1
2

20, 765
2,464
2,908
1,112
1, 771
1, 539
975
806
732
241
659
513
713
242
544

58
7
8
3
5
4
3
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
2

529
190
151
16
68
121
230
59
159
6
46
127
1
19
53

30
11
9
1
4
7
13
3
9
(s)
3
7
(3)
1
3

1 Includes also first professional degrees requiring 5 years or more of study.
2 Includes those who earned degrees in art education, business and commercial education, elementary
education, home economics education, music education, physical education, secondary education, speech
and hearing, and others.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
Source: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Office of Education: Summary Report on
Bachelor’s and Higher Degrees Conferred During the Year 1964-65.

Continuing Education

67

MARRIAGE AND CAREER
No longer is it customary in our society for a girl to have to choose
between marriage and a career. In fact, in 1966 nearly three-fifths
of all women workers were married (husband present). More than
one married woman (husband present) in every three was in the
labor force in 1966, as compared with one in seven in 1940.
According to a survey of women college graduates of the class of
1957, four out of five were employed shortly after graduation—and
these chiefly on a full-time basis.* Nearly half of those who were
not working were attending school and presumably intended to seek
employment later. Seven years after graduation, the percentage of
workers in the survey group had dropped considerably, with slightly
more than half of the women graduates in the labor force.* And in
**
another survey 15 years after graduation of college alumnae of the
class of 1945, it was found that one-fourth of the married graduates
were employed, and 80 percent of those not working indicated an in­
terest in future employment.***
It appears to be the pattern today for most college women to be
employed for a few years after completing college and then to become
full-time homemakers. When their children become teenagers,
mothers often wish or need to return to paid employment—either
full time or part time.
It is important, therefore, for a woman with a profession or spe­
cialized skill to keep in touch with her academic field during the
years when homemaking and motherhood take most of her time. It is
realized, of course, that frequently it is not easy to do this if home
responsibilities are demanding. However, there are various ways
a woman can try to maintain her professional skills during the years
♦First Jobs of College Women—Report on Women Graduates, Class of 1957.
Women’s Bureau Bull. 268. 1959. This publication covers a survey made by the
Women’s Bureau in cooperation with the National Vocational Guidance Association.
The report was based on information from June 1957 graduates 6 months after graduation.
** College Women Seven Years After Graduation—Resurvey of Women Graduates
Class of 1957. Women’s Bureau Bull. 292. 1966.
“♦Fifteen Years After College—A Study of the Alumnae of the Class of 1945.
Women’s Bureau Bull. 283. 1962.

68

Continuing Education

when her primary responsibilities are to family and home. For
example:
She can retain her membership in professional associations,
subscribe to technical journals, and perhaps occasionally attend
annual conferences of her professional association.
She can take occasional courses. The increase in the num­
ber of localities served by university extension departments and
the development of more community colleges make this pos­
sibility more feasible than ever before.
She can attend lectures or institutes. Her attendance will not
only help refresh her memory about certain subject matter but
will also put her in touch with others in her profession.
She can find some way to practice her skills. A recreation
worker may do volunteer work for the local Scout troop, and a
teacher may tutor or serve as a substitute teacher.

5
COLLEGE WOMEN ON THE JOB
About 33.8 million women worked at some time during 1965. In
fact, nearly half of all women of working age (14 years and over)
in the United States had some work experience in that year. Some
worked only part of the year or were employed on a part-time basis,
but almost two-fifths held full-time jobs for the entire year.
Women employed in professional occupations represented the
fourth largest group of women workers in 1966. Roughly one out of
every seven women workers was in a professional job. Numerically,
professional workers were exceeded by clerical workers, operatives,
and service workers (except private household).
PROFESSIONAL EMPLOYMENT INCREASES
Almost 2.8 million women had a professional, technical, or kin­
dred position in 1960—a 41-percent increase in 10 years (table 2).
The longtime trend toward broadening women’s occupational op­
portunities has been particularly noticeable in the professions. In
1940 about three-fourths of the women professional workers were
engaged in teaching and nursing. Twenty years later women in these
two professions accounted for only about two-thirds of all women
professional workers, although their actual numbers in these profes­
sions had increased considerably. On the other hand, women’s repre­
sentation increased among accountants, public relations workers,
engineers, recreation and group workers, chemists, and personnel
and labor relations workers as well as in several other professional
and technical occupations.
Today women are entering a much greater variety of professional
positions than ever before. There are significant numbers of women
in numerous fields of professional work. In addition to teachers and
69

College Women on the Job

70

nurses, the 1960 census recorded over 30,000 women in each of the
following occupational groups: musicians and music teachers; ac­
countants and auditors; librarians; social and welfare workers
(except group); college presidents, professors, and instructors;
editors and reporters; religious workers; and personnel and labor
relations workers.
Table 2.—Women in Professional, Technical, and Kindred Occupations, 1960 and 1950

1950

1960
Occupation
Number

Per­
cent

Number

Per­
cent

Total employed............................ 2, 753,052 100.0 1,951,072 100.0
Teachers 1................................................... 1,196, 526
Nurses (professional)...............................
567,884
Musicians, music teachers......................
109,638
Accountants, auditors..............................
79,045
Librarians...................................................
71,836
Social and welfare workers (except group)
60,667
College presidents, professors, instruc­
38,850
tors ..........................................................
Editors, reporters.....................................
37,438
Religious workers.....................................
35,099
Personnel, labor relations workers........
30,215
Sports instructors, officials......................
24,931
24,237
Dietitians, nutritionists...........................
Therapists, healers...................................
19,752
Physicians, surgeons................................
15,513
15,497
Recreation, group workers......................
Natural scientists.....................................
14,738
Social scientists...............-........................
14,177
7,434
Lawyers, judges........................................
Engineers (technical)...............................
7,211
Pharmacists...............................................
7,129
Public relations workers, publicity
writers.....................................................
7,005
Other occupations....................................
368,230

Per­
cent
in­
crease
1950
to
1960
41

43.5
20.6
4.0
2.9
2.6
2.2

839,229
390,594
78, 111
56,011
49,267
52,527

43.0
20.0
4.0
2.9
2.5
2.7

43
45
40
41
46
15

1.4
1.4
1.3
1.1
.9
.9
.7
.6
.6
.5
.5
.3
.3
.3

28,991
26, 758
29,037
15,093
11,183
21,132
12,176
11, 752
6,763
13,354
11,412
6,271
6,499
7,295

1.5
1.4
1.5
.8
.6
1.1
.6
.6
.3
.7
.6
.3
.3
.4

34
40
21
100
123
15
62
32
129
10
24
19
11
22

.3
13.4

1,958
275,659

.1
14.1

258
37

1 Category does not include art, music, dancing, or physical education teachers who are classified else­
where.
3 A decrease instead of an increase.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: 1960 Census of Population.

College Women on the Job

71

WOMEN’S REPRESENTATION IN SPECIFIC
PROFESSIONS
Women are recognized for their contributions in virtually all the
professions. As reported in the 1960 census, they constitute large
proportions of the workers in some professions, but only small pro­
portions in others (chart A).
Chart A.—Proportion

of

Women

and

Men Employed

Occupations,

in

Selected Professional

1960

Women

Men

Percent
100

80

|
60

40

20

Percent

0

20
i

40

60

Nurses (professional)
Dietitians, nutritionists ®
Librarians
Teachers (except college)
Musicians, music teachers
Editors, reporters
Personnel, labor relations workers
College presidents, professors, instructors
Accountants, auditors
Natural scientists
Pharmacists
Physicians, surgeons
Lawyers, judges
Engineers (technical)

Source:

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of

the

Census:

80

100

I i I i i i i 1 i i j i 11 r i i I i i ill

1960

Census

of

Population.

College Women on the Job

72

Women accounted for more than three-fourths of the persons
employed as:
nurses
dietitians
librarians
dancers and dancing teachers
Among other important professions for women, as indicated by
the fact that they represented one-half to three-fourths of all the
workers, were:
schoolteachers
religious workers
musicians and music teachers
social, welfare, and recreation workers
therapists and healers
Among the professional groups in which women were one-fourth
to one-half of the workers were:
recreation and group workers
editors and reporters
personnel and labor relations workers
social scientists
Included among those occupations in which women were less than
one-fourth of the total were:
college presidents,
professors, and in­
structors
public relations
workers
accountants and audi­
tors

natural scientists
pharmacists
physicians and surgeons
lawyers and judges
engineers (technical)

INFLUENCE OF EDUCATION ON EMPLOYMENT
College graduates are morely likely to work than women with less
education. In 1966, 56 percent of college-educated women 18 years
of age and over were in the labor force, in contrast to 46 percent of

College Women on the Job

73

those with high school diplomas, and 30 percent of those who did
not go beyond elementary school.
The amount of education obtained by a woman also influences
strongly the type of job she can obtain. In 1966, 81 percent of the
employed women with 4 years or more of college held professional
jobs. Ten percent held clerical jobs and 4 percent were managers and
officials. This is in contrast to the employed women who had 1 to 3
years of college: only 25 percent of them held professional jobs. Of
those with a high school diploma only, a mere 7 percent were in pro­
fessional occupations (chart B).
CHART B

Major Occupational Groups of Employed Women,
by Educational Level, March 1966
(WOMEN 18 YEARS OF AGE AND OVER)
Professional
80%

Professional

'-'Vi:

Other

Other
Clerical

Sales
Clerical
46%

With 4 years ormo re ofcolleget raining

With 1 to 3 years of college training

(2,503,000)

(2,716,000)

Professional
4%
Other

Service

Professional
Other

Clerical

Service
Clerical
Operatives

Operatives \ $a|

With no college training
(19,333,000)

Source: U S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics.

Atall educational levels
(24,552,000)

College Women on the Job

74

WOMEN’S GAINS
During the 1950’s, the professions in which women made their
most significant employment gains—in terms of either percentage
increases or numbers of workers—were those relating to service and
social needs of society (chart C). In contrast, during the 1940’s,
the greatest expansion in women’s employment occurred in such warrelated occupations as chemist, engineer, draftsman, and radio
operator.
Among the professions in which the number of women more than
doubled between 1950 and 1960 were:
mathematicians
personnel and labor relations workers
public relations workers and publicity writers
recreation and group workers
sports instructors and officials
The number of women in some other professional occupations in­
creased from 30 to 60 percent during this period. Among these were:
accountants and auditors
college presidents, profes­
sors, and instructors
editors and reporters
librarians
therapists

musicians and music
teachers
nurses
physicians and surgeons
teachers
healers

In other fields, women made numerically small, but none the less
noteworthy, gains. Among the professions in which the number of
women increased by 10 to 30 percent between 1950 and 1960 were:
dietitians and nutritionists
engineers
lawyers and judges
natural scientists

religious workers
social scientists
social welfare and recrea­
tion workers

It is apparent that job horizons will continue to widen for the col­
lege woman. Challenging careers for qualified college women have
never before existed in such variety—nor offered so many rewards.

in the

Number

Women Employed

of

in

Selected Professional Occupations

1950-60
Percent
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

I

|

Recreation, group workers
Personnel, labor relations workers

100
I

110
I

120
I

130
)

College Women on the Job

Chart C.—Percent Increase

Therapists, healers
Librarians
Nurses (professional)
Teachers
Accountants, auditors
Musicians, music teachers
Editors, reporters

Source:

U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census: 1960 Census of Population.

<1
Oi

6
SOURCES
GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS*
U.S. Civil Service Commission, Washington, D.C. 20415
Federal Career Directory: A Guide for College Students. 1966.
55 cents.
Federal Careers for Women. Pamphlet 35. 1964. 10 cents.
Salary Table No. 46. July 1966.
U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C. 20233
Bureau of the Census
U.S. Census of Population, 1960: United States Summary,
Detailed Characteristics. 1963. $2.50.
U.S. Department of Defense (in cooperation with U.S. Department
of Labor), Washington, D.C. 20310
Careers for Women in the Armed Forces.
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington,
D.C. 20201
Office of Education
Aids to Students in Vocational, College, and Graduate Pro­
grams. 1966.
Federal Aids for College Students. OE—55001-67.1966.
U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210
Manpower Report of the President and a Report on Manpower
Requirements, Resources, Utilization, and Training. April
1967. $1.50.
* Government publications may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, at prices listed, with a dis­
count of 25 percent on orders of 100 copies or more. Publications for which no price is
listed may be obtained free from the designated agency. Single copies of Women’s
Bureau publications may be obtained without charge from the Women’s Bureau.

76

Sources

77

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Employment and Earnings and Monthly Report on the Labor
Force. 65 cents, $7 a year.
Occupational Outlook Handbook: Career Information for Use
in Guidance, 1966-67 ed. Bull. No. 1450. $5.00.*
Manpower Administration
Health Careers Guidebook. 1966.
Occupations in the Care and Rehabilitation of the Mentally
Retarded. 1966.
Occupations in the Field of Library Science. 1966.
Women’s Bureau
Background Facts on Women Workers in the United States.
May 1967.
Bibliography on American Women Workers. Reprint from 1965
Handbook on Women Workers. 1966.
Clerical Occupations for Women—Today and Tomorrow. Bull.
289. 1964. 35 cents.
College Women Seven Years After Graduation—Resurvey of
Women Graduates Class of 1957. Bull. 292. 1966. 40 cents.
Continuing Education Programs for Women. Pamphlet 10.
1966. 20 cents.
Fact Sheet on—
The Changing Pattern of Women’s Lives. March 1967.
Educational Attainment of Nonwhite Women. May 1967.
Trends in Educational Attainment of Women. June 1967.
Fifteen Years After College—A Study of Alumnae of the Class
of 1945. Bull. 283. 1962. 15 cents.
First Jobs of College Women—Report of Women Graduates,
Class of 1957. Bull. 268. 1959. 35 cents.
Job Training Suggestions for Women and Girls. Leaflet 40.
1965. 10 cents.
*A limited number of reprints are available from the Women’s Bureau on the follow­
ing professions: Accountants; Architects; Biological Scientists; Dentists; Dietitians;
Engineers; Home Economists; Lawyers; Librarians; Mathematicians, Statisticians, and
Actuaries; Medical Record Librarians; Medical Technologists; Occupational Therapists;
Personnel Workers; Physical Scientists; Psychologists; Real Estate Salesmen and
Brokers; Recreation Workers; Registered Professional Nurses; Social Scientists; Social
Workers; Teachers; and Technical Writers.

78

Sources

1965 Handbook on Women Workers. Bull. 290. 1966. $1.00.
U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C., 20520
A Career in the Foreign Service of the United States. 79-24.
1966.
SELECTED READINGS ON EMPLOYMENT AND
TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PROFESSIONS
A Career in Psychology. Washington, D.C. American Psycholog­
ical Association. 1963.
Career Opportunities in Home Economics. Washington, D.C. Amer­
ican Home Economics Association. (By specific field; various
dates)
Careers Ahead in the Chemical Industry. Washington, D.C. Manu­
facturing Chemists’ Association. 1965.
Careers in Electronic Data Processing. Washington, D.C. National
Science Teachers Association (National Education Association).
1962.
Careers in Statistics. Washington, D.C. American Statistical Asso­
ciation. 1962.
Catalyst in Education. Teaching: A National Directory of Prepar­
atory Programs for Women College Graduates. Englewood Cliffs,
N.J. Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1964.
Do You Want To Be a Nurse? New York, N.Y. National League for
Nursing. 1963.
Feldman, Sidney. Increasing Role for Women in Electronic En­
gineering. In Electronic Industries, February 1964.
Ginzberg, Eli. Life Styles of Educated Women, New York and
London. Columbia University Press. 1966.
Girl Druggist. In The American Weekly, October 22,1961.
Keyserling, Mary Dublin. Women Journalists and Today’s World.
In The Matrix, April 1965.
Librarianship as a Career. Lake Bluff, 111. Tangley Oaks Educa­
tional Center. 1965.
New Careers for Women, 1970-80. Washington, D.C. American
Association of University Women Educational Foundation, Inc.
1966.

Sources

79

O’Neill, Barbara. Careers for Women After Marriage and Children.
New York, N.Y. Macmillan Co. 1965.
Rewarding Careers for Women in Physics. New York, N.Y. Amer­
ican Institute of Physics. 1962.
Rossi, Alice S. Women in Science: Why So Few? In Science, May 28,
1965.
Social Work as a Profession. New York, N.Y. Council on Social
Work Education. 1957.
So, You Want To Be a Doctor? New York, N.Y. American Medical
Women’s Association, Inc. 1958.
Speech Pathology and Audiology: Career Information. Washington,
D.C. American Speech and Hearing Association. 1963.
Technical Writing as a Career. In National Business Woman, May
1965.
The Big Story: The Booming Career Field of Journalism and Com­
munications. Chicago, 111. Sigma Delta Chi.
PROFESSIONAL AND BUSINESS ORGANIZATIONS
Additional information on specific occupational fields may be ob­
tained from the following professional and business organizations:
American Association of Industrial Nurses, Inc.
170 East 61st Street
New York, N.Y. 10021
American Association of Medical Record Librarians
840 North Lake Shore Drive
Chicago, 111. 60611
American Association of Nurse Anesthetists
Suite 3010
Prudential Plaza
Chicago, 111. 60601
American Dental Hygienists’ Association
100 East Ohio Street
Chicago, 111. 60611

American Dietetic Association
620 North Michigan Avenue
Chicago, 111. 60611
American Home Economics Association
1600 20th Street NW.
Washington, D.C. 20009
American Institute of Biological Sciences
3900 Wisconsin Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20016
American Institute of Interior Designers
673 Fifth Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10022
American Library Association
50 East Huron Street
Chicago, 111. 60611
American Medical Women’s Association, Inc.
1790 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10019
American NewspaperWomen’s Association, Inc.
1607 22d Street NW.
Washington, D.C. 20008
American Nurses’ Association, Inc.
10 Columbus Circle
New York, N.Y. 10019
American Occupational Therapy Association
250 West 57th Street
New York, N.Y. 10019
American Pharmaceutical Association
2215 Constitution Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20037
American Physical Therapy Association
1790 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10019

Sources

American Society of Medical Technologists
Suite 25
Herman Professional Building
Houston, Tex. 77025
American Society of Radiologic Technologists
537 South Main Street
Fond du Lac, Wis. 54935
American Society of Women Accountants
327 South LaSalle Street
Chicago, 111. 60604
American Women in Radio and Television, Inc.
75 East 55th Street
New York, N.Y. 10022
Association of American Women Dentists
6115 La Vista Drive
Dallas, Tex. 75214
Fashion Group, Inc., The
9 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, N.Y. 10020
International Association of Personnel Women
405 Lexington Avenue
New York, N.Y. 10017
National Association of Bank-Women, Inc.
60 East 42d Street
New York, N.Y. 10017
National Association of Insurance Women
Room 330-E
823 South Detroit Avenue
Tulsa, Okla. 74120
National Association of Legal Secretaries
6953 Columbia Place
University City, Mo. 63130

81

Sources

82

National Association of Women Lawyers
American Bar Center
1155 East 60th Street
Chicago, 111. 60637
National Commission for Social Work Careers
345 East 46th Street
New York, N.Y* 10017
National Committee for Careers in Medical Technology
1501 New Hampshire Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20036
National Council of Administrative Women in Education
1201 16th Street NW.
Washington, D.C. 20036
National Federation of Music Clubs
Suite 1215
600 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago, 111. 60605
National League for Nursing
10 Columbus Circle
New York, N.Y. 10019
National Recreation and Parks Association
1404 New York Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20005
National Secretaries Association (International)
1103 Grand Avenue
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Society of Woman Geographers
1216 Connecticut Avenue NW.
Washington, D.C. 20036
Society of Women Engineers
United Engineering Center
345 East 47th Street
New York, N.Y. 10017

Sources

Society of
Post Office
Beechwold
Columbus,

83

Technical Writers and Publishers, Inc.
Box 3706
Station
Ohio 43214

Special Libraries Association
31 East 10th Street
New York, N.Y. 10003
Women Leaders Round Table, The National Association of Life
Underwriters
c/o Union Central Life Insurance Co.
225 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10007
Women s Council of the National Association of Real Estate
Boards
155 East Superior Street
Chicago, 111. 60611

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1967

O—257-826

POSTAGE AND FEES PAID
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
WOMEN’S BUREAU
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20210

Official Business

DEAN Of WOMEN
$Cv"uW'$T M fSSO-JR i STATE

to

COLLEGE
Wingfield

mo

65so 2

360