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Work Injuries
in the United States
During 1949
A Collection of Basic Work-Injury Data
for Each of the Major Industries
in the United States

Estimates of Disabling Work Injuries
Injury-Frequency Rates
Injury-Severity Measures
Changes in Injuries and Injury Rates




Bulletin No. 1025
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner




Work Injuries
in the United States
During 1949

Bulletin No. 1025
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Maurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Ewan Clague, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C. - Price 20 cents







Letter of Transmittal

U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor S tatistics,

W ashington , D . C .} A u gu st 81, 1951 .

The S ecretary of L abor:
I have the honor to transmit a report on the occurrence of work injuries in the
United States during 1949. Over 56,000 establishments with a total employment
of about 10 million workers participated in the survey on which the report is based.
This bulletin, parts of which have appeared in the March and October 1950
issues of the M onthly Labor Review, was prepared by Frank S. M cElroy and
Robert S. Barker, of the Bureau’s Branch of Industrial Hazards.
Hon. M aurice J. T obin,

E wan C lague, Com m issioner .

Secretary of L abor .

Contents
Estimates of disabling work injuries_________________________________________________
Injury-frequency rates:
Manufacturing________________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing____________________________________________________________
Injury severity:
Manufacturing________________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing____________________________________________________________

Page
1

2
4
5
7

Appendix
Table A.—Injury rates and injuries by extent of disability, 1949______________________ 9
Table B.—Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 41,408 identical
establishments, 1948-49_______________________________________________________ 14
Table C.—Distribution of all reported injuries resulting in permanent-partial disability,
according to part of body affected, by industry, 1949____________________________ 18
Table D.—Distribution of temporary-total disabilities, by duration of disability, 1949__ 20
Table E.—Indexes of injury-frequency rates in manufacturing, 1926-49, by extent of
disability______________________________________________________________________ 23




tn




Work Injuries in the United States
During 1949
A bstract
The annual toll of disabling work injuries declined to the
lowest estimate since 1939, owing mainly to improved
safety conditions. Greatest reductions in the number of
injuries occurred in the railroad, mining, and manufactur­
ing industries. Manufacturing as a whole averaged 15
injuries per million employee-hours worked, registering
the greatest improvement in any single year since 1938.
There was an increase, however, in the general severity of
injury cases reported. The total economic time loss owing
to disabling work injuries in 1949 is equivalent to a year's
employment of about 680,000 workers.

The annual toll of disabling work injuries 1 de­
clined to a new postwar low in 1949. A 7-percent
improvement from the 1948 total brought the
1949 injury volume down to about 1,870,000— the
lowest estimate since 1939. A slightly lower level
of employment and decreased hours of work ac­
counted for part of this reduction, but the major
portion of the gain resulted from improved safety
conditions in many industries.
Further evidences of the improvement in work
safety during 1949 appeared in the injury-fre­
quency rates 2 for manufacturing and for most
nonmanufacturing industries. For the first time,
the average rate for all manufacturing returned
to the low level of prewar years. The substantial
decrease in the frequency of work injuries was
offset, in part, by an increase in the general
severity of the cases reported, as measured by the
average days of disability per case. As a result,
1A disabling work injury is an injury arising out of and experienced in the
course of employment, which results in death or in any degree of permanent
physical impairment, or renders the injured person unable to work at a
regularly established job, which is open and available to him, throughout
the hours corresponding to his regular shift on any day after the day of injury.
The term “injury” includes occupational diseases.
* The injury-frequency rate is the average number of disabling work
injuries for each million employee-hours worked.




severity rates,* which reflect both frequency and
3
*
severity of injuries, declined only moderately in
many industries.

Estimates of Disabling Work Injuries
The total volume of disabling work injuries in
1949 was estimated by the Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics 4 at 1,870,000— a reduction of about 150,000
from the estimate for 1948.
The number of fatalities resulting from work
injuries during 1949 was estimated at 15,000— a
reduction of over 6 percent from the final revised
figure of 16,000 for 1948. Permanent-total disa­
bilities, which usually incapacitate the injured
workers for any future employment, dropped from
3 The severity rate is the average number of days lost, because of disabling
work injuries, per 1,000 employee-hours worked. The computation of days
lost includes the use of standard time charges for fatalities and permanent
disabilities as given in Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Hates, ap­
proved by the American Standards Association, 1945.
4 These estimates of injury volume were prepared cooperatively by the
Bureau of Labor Statistics and the National Safety Council. The basic
estimates of the two organizations, therefore, are identical. Differences in
the published figures represent variations in the rounding applied to the
basic figures by the two organizations. These variations reflect primarily
the National Safety Council’s need for integrating the occupational estimates
into totals for all types of accidental injuries, including injuries resulting from
home, traffic, and public accidents, for which the Bureau of Labor Statistics
does not prepare estimates.
1

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949

2

1,800 to 1,600. Permanent-partial disabilities, facturing industries. In each of these industry
involving the loss or permanent impairment of groups there was some decline in employment and
some body part or function, were down 8 percent in hours worked, but the drop in injuries was
from the revised figure of 86,700 for 1948 to a level greater than could be accounted for by these
of 79,400 in 1949. M ost of these latter impair­ factors alone.
ments do not prevent the workers from continu­
Employment in the railroad industry decreased
ing in industrial employment, but many may about 18 percent in 1949, but work injuries were
necessitate retraining or changes in jobs. Tem­ reduced nearly 27 percent. Employment in min­
porary-total disabilities are those resulting in an ing declined slightly and reduced operations re­
inability to work for at least a full day after sulted in a sharp drop in total hours worked.
the day of injury but leaving no permanent ill The 20-percent drop in mining injuries, however,
effects. This type of disability constituted the exceeded the decline in hours. Injury rates in
largest group of injuries and dropped to a level of manufacturing fell sharply during 1949, and
1.774.000. This represents a 7-percent reduction coupled with a slight decline in employment, re­
from the revised final estimate of 1,915,000 for sulted in a 19-percent drop in the volume of
injuries.
1948.
Actual time lost during the year because of work
The trend toward fewer injuries was also ap­
injuries occurring in 1949 was estimated at about parent in construction, trade, and in the miscel­
39.000. 000 man-days, the equivalent of a year’slaneous transportation industries. Injuries were
full-time employment for approximately 130,000 down about 1 percent in the public utilities group.
The industry group comprising the services,
workers. This, however, represents only a part
of the total production loss accruing from these government, and miscellaneous industries was
injuries. If additional allowance were made for the only one showing an increase in injuries during
the future effects of the deaths and permanent 1949. There were in this group about 2 percent
physical impairments included in the 1949 total, more injuries than in 1948.
the economic time loss chargeable to these injuries
would amount to about 204,000,000 man-days. Injury-Frequency Bates
This is equivalent to a year’s employment for
Manufacturing.— For manufacturing as a whole
about 680,000 workers.
there were on the average 15 injuries for each
The greatest reductions in the number of in­ million employee-hours worked— a decrease of
juries occurred in the railroad, mioing, and manu­ 12.8 percent from the 1948 average of 17.2 (see
,

Estimated number of disabling work injuries during 1949 by industry group

Fatalities

All disabilities
Industry group

Total i

To em­
ployees

All groups2........................................................... 1,870,000 1,409,000
Agriculture *___..................................................... 340,000
60,000
Mining and quarrying4....................................... 70,000
65,000
Construction 4.......................... *.......................... 183,000 142,000
Manufacturing 6.................................................... 381,000 374,000
27,000
Public utilities...................................................... 27,000
Trade 4_................................................................ 329,000 263,000
Railroads 8............................................................ 46,000
46,000
Miscellaneous transportation 5—.......................... 126,000 105,000
Services, government, and miscellaneous indus­
tries 24................................................................ 368,000 327,000
Revised data for 1948:
All groups2..................................................... 2,019,900 1,552,100
Agriculture3................................................... 340,000
60,000
Construction 4................................................ 193,000 150,000

Total i

To em­
To em­
ployees Total4 ployees Total1

To em­
ployees

Temporary-total
disabilities
Total i

To em­
ployees

15,000
4,300
1,000
2,100
2,300
400
1,500
500
800
2,100

10,700 1,600 1,200
400
100
1,100
100
900
100
1,700
300 200
2,200
200 200
400
1,200 (7) . <7)
100 100
500 200 200
700
100
100
2,000
200 200

79,400
15,200
3,000
7,300
19,200
600
7,900
3,200
6,000
17,000

61,100 1,774,000 1,336,000
3,600 320,100
55,200
2,800
65,900
61,200
5,700 173,300
134,400
19,000 359,300
352,600
600
26,000
26,000
6,300 319,500
255,400
3,200
42,100
42,100
5,000 119,100
99,200
14,900 348,700
309,900

16,000
4,400
2,100

11,700 1,800 1,400
1,100
400
100
200
1,700
300

86,700
15,200
7,800

68,100 1,915,400 1,470,900
3,600 320,000
55,200
6,000 182,800
142,100

1Differences between total number of injuries and injuries to employees
represent injuries to self-employed and unpaid family workers.
3 Does not include domestic servants.
8 The total number of injuries in agriculture is based on cross section surveys
made by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1947 and 1948. These are
considered to be minimum figures. Injuries experienced in performing chores
are excluded. There are some indications of under-reporting. The break­



Permanent-total Permanent-partial
disabilities
disabilities

down of agricultural injuries by extent of disability is based on other sources.
4 Based largely on data of the U. S. Bureau of Mines.
4 Based on small sample studies.
• Based on comprehensive survey.
7 Less than 50.
• Based largely on data of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

INJURY-FREQUENCY RATES
table A, col. 12). This decrease is somewhat less
than had been indicated by preliminary reports.
Nevertheless, it represents the greatest improve­
ment achieved in any single year since 1938,
when the all-manufacturing rate dropped 15.2
percent from the level of the preceding year.
The 1949 average compares favorably with pre­
war rates of 15.1 for 1938; 14.9 for 1939 (the
lowest recorded for any year in the Bureau’s
24-year injury-rate series); and 15.3 for 1940.
This return to prewar levels presents a sharp
contrast with the substantially higher injury rates
prevailing during the war period.
Only 1 of the 18 major manufacturing groups,
ordnance and accessories, recorded a significant
increase in injury-frequency rates from 1948 to
1949, rising from 5.1 to 6.6. One industry group
showed a decrease of less than 1 full frequencyrate point; the 16 others recorded decreases of
from 1.0 to 3.9 points.
Only 8 of the 149 individual manufacturing
classifications where comparable data were avail­
able showed significant increases, 28 recorded little
change, and 113 reported decreases of 1 or more
frequency-rate points. In this latter group, the
rates of 22 decreased by 5 or more points.
The iron and steel products group showed the
greatest improvement— a drop of 3.9 frequencyrate points from 1948 to 1949. Of the 26 separate
industry classifications in this group, 10 dropped
5 points or more, 13 declined 1 to 5 points, and
3 showed less than 1-point change from the
preceding year. The rate for iron foundries
decreased from 39.7 injuries per million man­
hours to 29.0; vitreous-enameled products, from
25.1 to 16.6; plate fabrication and boiler-shop
products, from 33.4 to 25.1; stamped and pressed
metal products, from 21.6 to 14.0; steel foundries,
from 30.5 to 23.1; and steel springs, from 20.8
to 13.6.
Marked decreases in injury-frequency rates also
occurred in boatbuilding and repairing (from
48.2 to 40.0), textile machinery (from 20.9 to
13.6), breweries (from 35.5 to 28.4), and wooden
containers (from 42.6 to 35.6).
Based on percent of change in contrast with
change in frequency-rate points, the explosives
industry made the best record. Its injuryfrequency rate dropped 58 percent (from 4.3 in
1948 to 1.8 in 1949). The millinery industry’s
rate decreased 49 percent (from 7.5 to 3.8); and



3

Chart 1.— Injury-Frequency Rates in Manufacturing,
1938-49

the automotive electrical equipment rate dropped
41 percent (from 16.2 to 9.5).
Average injury rates for individual industries
reflect changes in composition of the industries as
well as in the level of safety prevailing at different
times. Hence, achievements in the advancement
of safety may best be measured by comparing the
records of identical establishments where the
same type of operations were continued during
successive periods (see table B, col. 7). Con­
sidering only those establishments where com­
parable reports were available for the 2 years,
the explosives industry still recorded the greatest
percentage decrease in injury-frequency rates
(49 percent). In bookbinding, however, reports
from identical establishments in the 2 years showed
a 43-percent decrease, compared with only a 17percent drop in the industry averages. The rate
for identical establishments in the textile machin­
ery industry dropped 42 percent, compared with
35 percent in the industry averages. In the
manufacture of plastic materials, the rate in

4

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949

identical establishments declined 37 percent,
compared with a decrease of 25 percent for all
reporting establishm ents. These comparisons,
based upon reports from the same establishments
in each period, give a better indication of the trend
of safety in continuing operations; whereas, the
injury-frequency rates based upon all reports
received in each year give the truest picture avail­
able of the current incidence of work injuries in
the industry as a whole.
In some industries, although the injury-fre­
quency rates based upon all reports received
increased from 1948 to 1949, a comparison of rates
based upon reports from identical establishments
each year showed a decrease. Listed below are
the more important instances:

Industry:
Compressed and liquefied gases.
Paving and roofing materials.
Hats, except cloth and milli­
nery____________________

Percent change in injury
frequency rates, 1948-49
All estab­
Identical
establish­
lishments
surveyed
ments

+52
+29

-4
-2 6

+32

-1

A comparison of injury-frequency rates over the
past 4 years gives a better indication of the pro­
gress individual industries have made in safety
work since the 1946 postwar peak. During this
period, the explosives industry recorded a de­
crease of 68 percent (from 5.7 in 1946 to 1.8 in
1949); rubber tires and tubes, 54 percent (from
12.9 to 5.9); plastic materials, except rubber, 52
percent (from 9.9 to 4.8); and aluminum and
magnesium products, 50 percent (from 24.8 to
12.5). Iron foundries showed the greatest de­
crease in terms of frequency-rate points, dropping
18.3 points, or 39 percent (from 47.3 in 1946 to
29.0 in 1949). Breweries reduced their average
injury-frequency rate by 16.9 points (from 45.3 to
28.4, or 37 percent); mattresses and bed springs,
by 16.1 points (from 34.6 to 18.5, or 47 percent).
*A number of manufacturing industries had
relatively high injury-frequency rates, despite a
general improvement in the record of most of them.
Logging had a rate of 92.2 injuries per million
man-hours— the highest in manufacturing. The
only other comparable rates were found in min­
ing, and only one of the mining rates— that for
gold-silver (93.8)— was higher than the logging
rate. Other manufacturing industries with high



injury-frequency rates in 1949 were sawmills, 55.6;
integrated saw and planing mills, 47.6; planing
mills operated separately from sawmills, 38.1;
structural clay products, 36.8; cut stone and cutstone products, 36.6; and wooden containers, 35.6.
Manufacturing industries with the best safety
records in 1949 were explosives, with an injuryfrequency rate of 1.8; synthetic rubber, 2.3; syn­
thetic textile fibers, 3.6; electric lamps (bulbs),
3.7; millinery, 3.8; women’s and children’s cloth­
ing, 4.1; radios and phonographs, 4.4; communi­
cation equipment other than radio, 4.7; and plastic
materials other than rubber, 4.8.

Nonmanujacturing. The injury-frequency record

for nonmanufacturing industries showed less im­
provement between 1948 and 1949 than that for
manufacturing. Of the 54 nonmanufacturing classi­
fications (exclusive of mining) for which comparable
data were available, 25 recorded significant de­
creases and 15 showed little change. Fourteen
reported significant increases (see table A, col.

12).

The principal construction industries—general
building contracting, highway and street con­
struction, and other heavy construction—recorded
moderate increases in injury-frequency rates from
1948 to 1949. Among the special contracting
trades, rates fluctuated widely. Four showed in­
creases of over 5 frequency-rate points, and four
recorded decreases of 5 points or more. Structuralsteel erection and ornamental ironwork had the
highest injury-frequency rate (48.6) among the
construction industries where data were available.
(Although wrecking and demolition work ranked
highest in 1948, it was not sufficiently represented
in the 1949 study to warrant presentation of the
rate.) Highway and street construction had a
rate of 45.5; plastering and lathing, 42.7; heavy
construction, other than highway and street, 41.8;
and general contracting, 40.8 injuries per million
man-hours. The lowest rate reported among the
construction industries was 17.8 for painting,
paperhanging, and decorating. The next lowest
rate was 27.1 for terrazzo, tile, marble, and mosaic
work. For electrical work the rate was 28.3; for
carpentering, 29.3; and for masonry, stone setting,
and other stone work, 29.4.
Of the other 39 nonmanufacturing classifica­
tions, 14 showed little change, 6 reported increases,
and 19 showed decreases from 1948 to 1949.

INJURY SEVERITY
Decreases of more than 5 frequency-rate points
were recorded for streetcar operations (from 20.7
to 14.3), miscellaneous repair services (from 31.1
to 25.7), and filling stations (from 10.0 to 4.8).
Other industries showing large percentage drops
in injury rates were transportation not elsewhere
classified (43 percent, from 9.1 to 5.2), eating and
drinking places (28 percent, from 14.9 to 10.7),
and medical and other professional services (25
percent, from 5.3 to 4.0). Stevedoring was the
only industry in which the increase amounted to
as much as 5 frequency-rate points. However,
amusements and related services had an increase
of 26 percent (from 8.4 to 10.6).
As in previous years, stevedoring had the
highest injury-frequency rate among the non­
manufacturing industries— 67.4. This was a
slight increase over the rate of 62.3 reported for
1948. Outstandingly low injury-frequency rates
were reported for radio broadcasting and television
(1.7), insurance (2.1), telephone (2.3), banks and
other financial agencies (2.4), medical and other
professional services (4.0), retail apparel and
accessories (4.4), filling stations (4.8), and dry
cleaning (4.9).
Preliminary reports of the United States Bureau
of Mines indicate continuation of the improvement
in safety records of most mining industries noted
in the 1948 report. The important coal-mining
group showed a drop of 1.6 frequency-rate points
from the revised 1948 to the preliminary 1949
figures.* The injury-frequency rate for bitu­
5
minous-coal mines decreased from 57.4 to 55.6,
but that for anthracite mines changed only slightly,
from 76.6 to 76.0. Other decreases were recorded
by gold-silver ore-dressing mills (from 51.8 to
30.4), copper mines (from 40.4 to 33.1), and granite
quarries (from 47.8 to 42.1). Major increases in
injury-frequency rates were confined for the most
part to the relatively small mining industries.
Miscellaneous ore-dressing mills showed an in­
crease from 39.7 in 1948 to 52.5 in 1949; miscel­
laneous metal mines, from 61.7 to 71.8; slate
quarries, from 42.3 to 51.1; and gold-silver mines,
from 88.2 to 93.8.

5

frequency rate was reduced from 26.0 in 1946 to
13.9 in 1949, or 47 percent. In the same period,
copper mines reduced their rate 36 percent (from
51.7 to 33.1); and gold-silver ore-dressing mills,
30 percent (from 43.3 to 30.4).
The injury-frequency rates of most mining in­
dustries were still relatively high compared with
those for manufacturing industries.6 Gold-silver
mining had the highest rate of any industry re­
corded for 1949— 93.8 injuries per million man­
hours—followed by lead-zinc mines with a rate
of 88.5.
Iron ore-dressing mills reported the lowest in­
jury-frequency rate (13.3) in the mining group.
Cement quarries had a rate of 13.6; copper oredressing mills, 13.9; and iron mines, 21.3.

Injury Severity
Manufacturing. The injury-severity rate for all

manufacturing decreased slightly, from 1.5 in 1948
to 1.4 in 1949 (see table A, col. 13). This was due
entirely to the relatively large decrease in the
injury-frequency rate, which counteracted a 12percent increase in the average days lost per case.
The proportion of deaths and permanent-total
disabilities7 (0.4 percent) remained about the
same as in 1948, but the proportion of permanentpartial disabilities7 increased from 4.7 percent in
1948 to 5.4 in 1949. The proportion of temporarytotal disabilities decreased conversely (see table
A, cols. 6, 7, and 8). The average number of days
lost for each temporary disability case increased
from 16 to 17. The average days charged for each
permanent-partial disability increased from 925
days per case to 943. These factors all combined
to increase the severity average 8 from 83 to 93
days per case (see table A, cols. 9, 10, and 11).
Although there was a steady decrease in the
injury-frequency rate during the past 3 years the

• In making comparisons of injury rates between mining and other in­
dustries, one should bear in mind that the rates for mining are based upon
the experience of only those employees engaged in the mining operations, and
exclude office workers, whereas the rates for other industries include the man­
hours and injury experience of office workers and others not exposed to actual
operating hazards of the industry concerned.
7A permanent-total disability is an injury, other than death, which per­
manently
an employee from
An outstanding 3-year record was established occupation.andAtotally incapacitatesdisability consists offollowing any gainful
the complete loss in
by copper ore-dressing mills. Their injury- one accident of permanent-partial of a member of the body, or any per­
any member or part
manent impairment of functions of the body or part thereof to any degree
* See IT. S. Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Health and Safety
less than permanent-total disability.
Statistics, No. HSS392, Employment and Injuries in the Mineral Industries,
8 The severity average is the average number of days lost per case, includ­
1949, Washington, August 29,1960, for revised injury statistics for 1945 to 1948 ing the actual time lost because of temporary-total disabilities and the stand­
and preliminary data for 1949.
ard time charges for deaths and permanent impairments.
945572—51-----2




6

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949
Chart 2.— Injury-Frequency Rates and Severity Averages,
Major Manufacturing Groups, 1949

I40

r

Average Days Lost per Disabling Injury
I20 I00 80 60 40 20
0

o

r

i

to

Injury-Frequency Rates?
20
30
40
50

60

Lumber
Furniture
Stone, Clay and Glass
Food Products
Paper Products
Iron and Steel
A ll Manufacturing
Machinery, except
Electric
Nonferrous Metals
Miscellaneous
Manufacturing
Leather
Transportation
Equipment
Te xtiles
Rubber
Chemicals
Printing and
Publishing
Electrical Machinery
Apparel

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

average days lost or charged per case increased.
The average number of days lost per case rose
from 82 in 1946 to 93 in 1949, with a low of 73
in 1947. It is evident from comparison of the
trends in injury frequency and in average days
lost per case that the injuries which occurred
during 1949 were of slightly more serious nature
and caused somewhat longer periods of disability.
Much of the decrease in the frequency of injuries
occurred among the less serious cases.
Of the 105 industries for which severity data
were available, 71 showed decreases in the pro­
portion of temporary disabilities and a correspond­
ing increase in the proportion of deaths and/or



permanent disabilities. An increase between 1948
and 1949 in average days lost or charged per case
was noted in 62 separate industry classifications.
Fatalities and permanent-partial disabilities ac­
counted for only 0.4 percent of the reported inju­
ries in all manufacturing. Certain individual
industries, however, reported relatively large pro­
portions of such cases. In the iron and steel
industry 2.0 percent of the reported cases resulted
in death or permanent-total disability; in logging,
1.5; in ordnance and accessories, 1.5; in engines
and turbines, 1.4. In cement mills, excluding
quarries, 2.5 percent of the cases were fatalities;
in copper smelting, 1.5; petroleum refining, 1.4.

INJURY SEVERITY
The number of permanent-total disabilities was
not reported for these latter industries. The pro­
portion of permanent-partial disabilities was high
in electrical appliances (14.0 percent), motorvehicle parts (13.9), stamped and pressed metal
products (13.2), carpets, rugs, and other floor
coverings (11.9), and aircraft manufacturing
(H .3).

The iron and steel industry recorded the highest
injury-severity average of any manufacturing in­
dustry (269 days per case). In this industry 10.0
percent of the injuries reported were permanentpartial disabilities, and 2.0 percent were fatalities
or permanent-total disabilities. The temporary
cases averaged 53 days disability per case. Other
manufacturing industries with high severity aver­
ages were ordnance and accessories (215 days lost
or charged per case); aircraft manufacturing (205);
breweries (190); logging (190); morticians’ sup­
plies (181); stone, clay, and glass products not
elsewhere classified (179); batteries (169); carpets,
rugs, and other floor coverings (163); and electrical
appliances (161).
The highest severity rate among the manufac­
turing industries (18.0) was found in logging. In
this industry there was not only a high frequency
of injuries but also a tendency toward more seri­
ous cases than in most other industries. Of all
injuries reported in logging, 1.5 percent resulted in
death or permanent-total disability. This may
be compared with the rate of 0.4 percent for all
manufacturing. An average of 2,346 days was
charged for each permanent-partial disability case
in the logging industry, whereas the average for
all manufacturing was 943 days. Temporary
cases in logging were disabled for an average of
23 days, compared with 17 days for all manufac­
turing combined. The resulting average of days
lost or charged for all disabling injury cases in
logging was 190, more than twice as great as the
average of 93 for manufacturing industries in
general.
M ost high severity rates in other industries can
be accounted for by either a high frequency rate,
or high severity average, or both. Integrated saw
and planing mills had a severity rate of 6.3, a fre­
quency rate of 47.6, and an average of 126 days
lost per case. Breweries had a severity rate of
5.5, a frequency rate of 28.4, and an average of
190 days per case. Sawmills operated separately
from planing mills had a severity rate of 3.7 and



7

a frequency rate of 55.6, with an average of 69
days per case. Other manufacturing industries
with high severity rates were veneer mills (6.4)
and cut stone and cut-stone products (4.0).

Nonmanufacturing. For all construction, the aver­

age severity rate was 3.9, in comparison with 1.4
for all manufacturing (see table A, col. 13). This,
however, represents a substantial improvement
over the rate of 5.0 recorded in 1948. M ost of
this improvement was due to a decrease in the
proportion of fatalities and permanent-total dis­
abilities from 1.2 percent to 0.8, and of permanentpartial disabilities from 4.0 to 3.2 percent of the
cases reported (see table A, cols. 6 and 7). Aver­
age days lost or charged per case dropped from
135 in 1948 to 100 in 1949 (see table A, col. 9).
Structural-steel erection had the highest injuryseverity rate in the construction group (13.6), as
well as the highest injury-frequency rate (48.6).
In this industry 1.5 percent of the reported cases
were fatalities or permanent-total disabilities and
8.5 percent were permanent-partial disabilities.
An average of 279 days were lost or charged per
case. Other construction industries with high
severity rates were terrazzo, tile, marble, and
mosaic work (8.3); painting, paperhanging, and
decorating (7.6); heavy construction other than
highway and street construction (5.5); and high­
way and street construction (4.7).
Stevedoring was the only other nonmanufactur­
ing industry with a high injury-severity rate
(13.5). In this industry 10.1 percent of the cases
reported were permanent-partial disabilities, with
an average time charge of 1,360 days per case.
Temporary cases averaged 32 days disability per
case. The severity average was 201 days per
case, which, coupled with a high frequency rate,
resulted in the high severity rate. The electriclight and power industry had a severity average
of 189 days per case, but a low frequency rate
brought the severity rate down to 2.6.
The proportion of fatalities in mining was
relatively high. In coal mining, 1.5 percent of
the cases reported were fatalities; in metal mining,
1.1 percent; in nonmetal mining, 0.9; in quarry­
ing, 1.3; and in ore-dressing mills, 0.9. Some
individual industries within these groups indicated
even higher percentages of fatalities. Of all cases
reported, 3.9 percent in cement quarries and 3.6
percent in iron ore-dressing mills resulted in death.

APPENDIX
Injury-frequency and severity rates, severity
averages, and the disability distribution for indi­
vidual industries and for industrial groups are
shown in table A. The group rates were com­
puted by weighting the individual industry rates
according to the total employment in each
industry.

Table B shows changes in employment, em­
ploy ee-hours worked, disabling injuries, and days
lost for establishments which reported for both
1948 and 1949.

The percentage distribution of permanent im­
pairments according to the part of the body
affected is shown in industry detail in table C.

Table D shows the proportion of temporarytotal disabilities which involved less than 4 days
of lost time per case. Because many reporting
establishments did not supply this detail, the
coverage for some industries was insufficient for
inclusion in this breakdown.

Table E shows the general trend of industrial
safety in terms of indexes of injury-frequency

Chart 3.— Industrial Injury-Frequency Rates in Manufacturing/
by Types of Disability

8



APPENDIX

9

rates. These yearly indexes are based upon the plants, they should not be considered as indicating
percent change in the rates of establishments the general frequency rate level at any given time.
which reported in both the current and preceding They do indicate the safety trend in the plants
years. As they do not reflect the effect of ex­ having continuing operations.
pansion or contraction in the number of operating
Table A.— Injury rates and injuries by extent of disability, 1949
[All reporting establishments]

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in *—
Industry

(1)

Number Average Employee- Number Death
of
of estab­ number of hours
and
lishments employees 1 worked disabling perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ All dis­
nent(thousands) injuries nent- partial rary- abili­
reporting
total
total disa­ disa­ ties *
disa­ bility bility
bility
(7)
(9)
(8)
(6)
(4)
(3)
(5)
(2)

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing.................................. 34,026 7,945,193 15,570,505 205,001
Apparel and other finished textile products. 2,135 233,507 419,936 2,702
1,256
117,559
Clothing, men’s and boys’...................
209,458
742
543
73,202
131,277
Clothing, women’s and children’s.......
872
14
Millinery................................................
2,081
3,700
55
Apparel and accessories, not elsewhere
12,569
87
classified..............................................
7,336
90
Trimmings and fabricated textile pro802
33,329
62,930
ducts, not elsewhere classified...........
376
540,457 1,102,706 10,034
Chemicals and allied products.................... 2,055
7,934
111
3,783
Compressed and liquefied gases...........
72
1,077
56,905 112,263
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides____
285
38
20,575
Explosives..............................................
10,532
56
1,082
Fertilizers...............................................
25,101
50,190
406 121,412
2,147
246,964
Industrial chemicals.............................
375
958
Paints, varnishes, and colors................
41,551
84,620
382
5,622
Paving and roofing materials___ ____
2,862
110
2,952
Petroleum refining *........ ..................... (8) 30
148,600 309,722
231
Plastic materials, except rubber.........
20,084
48,104
43
Soap and glycerin..................................
310
21,874
43,955
125
25
5,416
Synthetic rubber............. -....................
10,817
14
397
56,887
110,413
Synthetic textile fibers..........................
25
157
Vegetable and animal oils....................
4,288
8,920
37
Chemical products, not elsewhere
439
classified..*.........................................
21,162
42,600
205
Electrical machinery, equipment, and
supplies...................................................... 1,054
7,327
570,695 1,121,511
461
25,551
48,386
Automotive electrical equipment........
42
420
Batteries................................................
14,299
28,034
50
Communication and signaling equip­
597
128,239
67,930
ment, except radio____ __________
40
61,202
547
31,983
Electrical appliances______________
75
3,719
Electrical equipment for industrial use.
529 269,910 539,707
134
36,457
Electric lamps (bulbs)..........................
18,766
33
25,651
295
13,011
Insulated wire and cable......................
46
227, 530 1,005
Radios and phonographs......................
208 115,331
Electrical equipment, not elsewhere
149
26,301
13,914
classified.............................................
31
569,102 1,164,451 23,719
Food products.............................................. 4,358
Baking...................................................
73,826 156,282 2,307
747
670
10,593
23,317
Bottling, soft drinks......... ....................
309
3,961
139,693
69,185
Breweries...............................................
282
2,451
117,565
67,394
Canning and preserving.......................
443
1,042
41, 722
81,384
Confectionery____ _______________
252
954
52,446
22,909
Dairv products_____ ______ _ _
332
43,339
371
21,832
Distilleries............................................
118
112,307
2,030
52,988
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products.._
616
6,845
295,009
140,211
Slaughtering and meat packing...........
760
685
9,542
20,371
Sugar, beet.............................................
67
39,591
926
Sugar, cane. _
_______ ___
18, 511
35
178
6,843
3,582
Wineries.................................................
96
1,299
76,297
36,807
Food products, not elsewhere Classified301
217,401 428,176 9,891
Furniture and finished lumber products. . 2,212
57,983
881
28,865
96
Furniture, metal..................................
167,368 3,777
85,436
802
Furniture, except metal............... ........
765
Mattresses and bed springs__
41,297
21,312
240
211
12,620
6,458
95
Morticians’ supplies..............................
484
28,346
14,280
153
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures...
63,797
2,272
32,322
435
Wooden containers................................
Miscellaneous wood products, not else­
56,763
1,501
391
28,728
where classified-------------------------See footnotes a t end of table.



Average days lost or
charged per case2

Injury rates4

Perma­ Tempo­
nent- rary- Fre­
partial total quency Sever­
ity*
disa­ disa­
bility bility
(10)

(ID

(12)

(13)

0.4
.3
.2
.3
00
00
.5
.5
00
00
1.1
.4
.1
00
•1.4
00
00
00
00
00

5.4
L7~
1.3
1.2
00
00
2.5
3.9
00
4.4
00
2.8
4.7
4.6
00
(10)
00
00
00
00
(«)
1.6

94.2
98.0
98.5
98.5
00
00
97.0
95.6
00
95.6
00
96.1
94.9
95.3
00
(10)
00
00
00
00
00
98.4

93 943
45 898
35 1,156
40 900
00
00
00
00
800
61
80 942
0046 00
753
00 1,144
114 00
92 1,074
57 817
00
00
(10)
(10)
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
00
21 375

17 *15.0
11 56.5
10 6.0
11 4.1
3.8
00
6.9
00
13 12.7
16 «9.4
0014 14.0
9.6
1.8
0015 21.6
20 8.7
12 11.3
19.6
(fl)
(10)
9.5
4.8
(<0
7.1
00
2.3
00
3.6
00
17.6
00
15 10.3

81.4
8.3
.2
.1
(0
.1
.8
8.9
1.3
.4
.9
2.4
1.0
.9
(i°)1.9
.9
.6
.4
.5
1.3
.2

.3
00
.7
00
.3
00
CO.9

8.2
00
9.3
00
14.0
8.1
00
00
7.7

91.5
00
90.0
(®)
86.0
91.6
0s)
00
91.4

103 843
00
(6)
169 1,248
00 1,063
161 00
92 723
00
00
00
946
137 00
00
00
85 1,214
83 936
35 300
190 1,523
39 766
48 873
30 1,825
00
00
119 1,431
40 1,013
556
98
49
700
00
$; 34 900
836
81
755
/ i 86 834
61
/
51
837
181 1,311
727
84
80 810
821
71

16
0012
(6)14
18
00
0012

*6.5
9.5
15.0
4.7
8.9
6.9
3.7
11.5
4.4
5.7
818.9
14.8
28.7
28.4
20.8
12.8
18.2
8.6
18.1
23.2
33.6
23.4
26.0
17.0
822.8
15.2
22.6
18.5
16.7
17.1
35.6
26.4

8.7
.3
2.9
.3
1.3
(i°) .6
.3
.5
.3
81.4
1.2
1.0
5.5
.9
.7
.5
1.0
2.3
1.6
3.2
1.2
1.4
.8
81.9
.9
1.9
1.1
3.0
1.3
2.7
2.1

00
.4
.4
.4
1.0
.1

00.5
.2
1.2
00.3
.2
.2
.2
.9
.3
.3

00
3.8
4.6
.4
7.4
2.6
4.1
.9
00
5.1
1.6
2.7
4.4
00.5
6.8
5.2
7.8
4.8
8.5
9.8
6.3
4.8

00
95.8
95.0
99.2
91.6
97.3
95.9
99.1
00
94.4
98.2
96.1
95.6
00
99.2

93.0
94.6
92.0
95.2
90.6
90.2
93.4
94.9

00
14
15
10
16
14
13
14
0014
11
12
19
0014
13
13
12
11
14
14
13
14

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 19J.9

10

Table A.— Injury rates and injuries by extent of disability, 1949— Continued
[All reporting establishments]

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in *—
Industry

(1)
Manufacturing—Continued
Iron andlsteel and their products...............
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets...........
Cold-finished steel.................................
Cutlery and edge tools_____ _______
Fabricated structural steel_________
Forgings, iron and steel........................
Foundries, iron......................................
Foundries, steel...................................
Hardware.............................................
Heating equipment, not elsewhere
classified..................................... ........
Iron and steel.........................................
Metal coating and engraving________
Ornamental metal work____~________
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop
products..............................................
Plumbers’ supplies..............................
Screw-machine* products __
Sheet-metal work..................................
Stamped and pressed metal products.
Steam fittings and apparatus...............
Steel barrels, kegs, drums, and packages......................................................
Steel springs...........................................
Tin cans and other tinware................ .
Tools, except edge tools........................
Vitreous-enameled products.................
Wire and wire products.........................
Wrought pipes, welded and heavyriveted.................................................
Iron and steel products, not elsewhere
classified..............................................
Leather and leather products.....................
Boots and shoes, not rubber.............
Leather...................................................
Leather products, not elsewhere class­
ified.....................................................
Lumber and timber basic products............
Logging..................................................
Millwork (structural)............................
Planing mills.........................................
Plywood mills.......................................
Sawmills.................................................
Saw and planing mills, integrated___
Veneer mills...........................................
Machinery, except electric...........................
Agricultural machinery and tractors..
Bearings, ball and roller........ ...............
Commercial and household machin­
ery.......................................................
Construction and mining machinery..
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors. .
Engines and turbines...........................
Fabricated pipe and fittings.................
Food-products machinery....................
General industrial machinery and
equipment, not elsewhere classified.
General machine shops (jobbing and
repair).................................................
Mechanical measuring and controlling
instruments.......................................
Mechanical power-transmission equip­
ment, exceptmachinery bearings.
Metalworking ball and roller
Pumps and compressors.......................
Special-industry machinery, not else­
where classified..................................
Textile machinery.................................
NTonferrous metals and their products___
Aluminum and magnesium products..
Foundries, nonferrous......................
Nonferrous basic shapes and forms___

See footnotes at end of table.




Number Average Employee- Number Death
of estab­ number of hours
of
and
lishments employees1 worked disabling perma­ Perma­ Tempo­
nentreporting
(thousands) injuries nent- partial rarytotal
total disa­ disa­
disa­ bility bility
bility
(2)
(3)
(5)
(4)
(7)
(6)
(8)
4,647 1,355,424 2,604,673
86
21,339
41,089
45
Hi 718
22', 578
123
20,184
39,327
410
55,063
111, 729
48,559
168
94,806
777 126,526 232,849
132
45,337
84,496
164
53,372
103,631
260
47,673
91,609
211
5071585 970,218
126
10,227
19,937
124
12)947
26,874
223
36,162
71,818
109
38,650
72,565
36,060
173
18,177
140
11,632
23,606
419
94', 050 180,247
172
31,184
60,298
32
6,558
13,158
35
13,534
26,407
87* 966
117
43,348
179
22,822
43,011
22
4,152
7,423
221
49,223
93,295
21
8,463
16,702
158
16,939
33,061
757 167,198 310,552
435, 127,904 234,745
170
28,704
56,241
152
10,590
19,564
1,916
155,042 310,141
305
23,264
43,703
466
30,627
63,419
237
12,726
25,527
84
16,187
33,382
555
32,890
64) 306
196
34,986
71,198
73
4,362
8,602
3,567 950,283 1,861,865
227 139,139 271,956
53
36,071
71,482
253 169,004
329,271
301
77,331
152,873
62
15,654
31,590
65
49,074
97,650
9
1,225
2,450
148
22,461
44,144
459
102,676 200,088
339
18,297
34,595
99
34,380
66,838
88
24,860
47,841
831
130,388 252,835
125
34,954
71,164
382
62,903
124,006
126
31,866
63,074
809 182,935
372,285
50
10,962
21,798
362
25,023
47,748
40
28,232
54,248

37,793
571
323
551
2,481
1,733
6,742
1,955
1,176
1,966
6,587
478
571
1,803
1,172
561
517
2,525
1,150
177
359
1,071
727
123
1,603
266
605
3,367
1,840
1,338
189
14,978
4,030
1,663
972
1,063
3) 576
3,387
287
25,495
4,654
780
2,521
2,998
632
1,109
46
660
3,052
587
645
809
2,881
1,079
2,185
857
5,314
272
1,075
640

0.6
(«)
.3
.7
.2
.5
1.1
.3
2.0
.7
.8
.4
.2
(®)
.3
(«)
(«)
.2
.1
.2
(®)
.6
1.5
.1
.1
.4
.4
(«)
.2
.1
.5
.1
.3
1.4
(«)
.1
.3

6.3
5.2
(«)
3.9
4.4
4.7
3.2
2.6
9.0
5.7
10.0
4.0
2.7
3.8
4.8
8.8
3.4
13.2
5.6
(®)
4.1
96
7.1
(«)
5.5
(«)
5.7
4.5
4.2
4.4
(«)
4.1
3.4
6.8
4.4
5.4
3!o
5.9
(®)
5.9
6.8
4.5
7.9
4.8
4.5
6.5
(6)
4.5
6.8

7.8
2.6

.2

.7

.2

.3
(«)
.5
(•)

4.9
6.3

2.0

7.5
3.2

6.8

(B
)
7.0
l6)

93.1
94.8
(*)
95.8
94.9
95.1
96.3
96.3
90.7
94.3
88.0
96.0
96.6
95.4
94.8
91.2
96.6
86.6
94.4
(•)
95.9

90)4

92! 6
(«)
94.5
(®
)
94.3
95.3
95.7
95.4
(®)
95.3
95.1
93.1
95.5
94.6
96! 6
93.7
(®
)
93.9
93.1
95.5
91.6
95.1
95.2
93.1
(®)
95.5

93.1
91.9
97.4
95.1
93.5
97.3
92.3
96.8
92.9
(®)
92.5
(®)

Average days lost or
charged per case *

Injury rates *

Perma­ Tempo­
All dis­ nent- rary- Fre­ Sever­
abili­ partial total quency ity*
ties* disa­ disa­
bility bility
(9)

GO)

111 849
43
532
(®)54 (®)
577
97
962
61
661
72
826
108 863
96 689
66 929
269 1,036
30 483
72 638
95 895
71
563
78 771
35 633
118 720
67 912
(«)60 1(®)
006
55 *418
80
738
(*)56 (®)
726
(«)
(®
)
72 1 025
62 885
512
41
77 1,191
(«)
(®)
113 1,368
190 2,346
62 591
61 906
88 1 332
69 *926
126 1,494
(®)
(®
)
80 889
973
88
52 796
106 735
58 764
72 957
134 666
)
(®)42 (®
669
1,157
560
375
600
778
750
112 1,094
37 708
91
853
(*)95 (®)
719
(«)
(®
)
102

77
24
44
76
71

(11)

(12)

22 *15.6
17 13.9
(®)14 14.3
14.0
16 22.2
19 18.3
16 29.0
21 23.1
16 11.3
14 21.5
53 6! 8
11 24.0
15 2l! 2
13 25.1
22 16.2
11
15.6
14 2l! 9
15 14!0
17 19.1
13.5
(«)20 13.6
16 12.2
14 16.9
16.6
(®17 17.2
)
(«)
15.9
14 18.3
13 *10.2
11
7.8
14 23.8
9.7
(«)
19 *55.5
23 92.2
16 26.2
13 38.1
16 31.8
18 55.6
16 47.6
33.4
(®
)
17 »14.2
14 17.1
17 10.9
21
7.7
18 19.6
10 20.0
17 11.4
(®)13 18.8
15.0
16 15.3
16 17.0
15 9.7
15 16.9
15 11.4
16 15.2
21
17.6
15 13.6
15 *13.3
12.5
(®)14 22.5
11.8
(®)

(13)
*1.6
.5
.9
.9
2.1
1.3
2.1
2.1
1.0
1.6
1.8
.9
l! 5
2.9
1.4
1.6
!o
l! 5
1.7
3.0
.8
!s
1.5
1.0
.9
.6
1.4
*.6
.3
1.9
.6
*7.0
18.0
1.8
2.3
3.0
3.7
6.3
6.4
*1.2
2.0
.5
.8

1.4
2.1
1.4

.8
.8

1.7
1.2
.2
.6

.9

1.1

2.0
#7

*.9

1.1
2.0

.4

11

APPENDIX
Table A.— Injury rates and inju i s by extent of d s b l t , 1949- -Continued
re
iaiiy
[All reporting establishments]

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in 2—
Industry

(1)

Manufacturing—Continued
Nonferrous metals and their products—
Continued
Primary smelting and refining 8.........
Copper...........................................
Lead-silver.....................................
Zinc................................................
Miscellaneous.................................
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silver­
ware...................................................
Nonferrous metal products, not else♦ where classified.................................
Ordnance and accessories..........................
Paper and allied products........................
Envelopes............................................
Paper boxes and containers................
Paper products, not elsewhere classi­
fied.................................................... .
Printing and publishing.............................
Book and job printing..........................
Bookbinding.........................................
News and periodical.............................
Rubber products.........................................
Rubber boots and shoes.......................
Rubber tires and tubes.......................
Rubber products, not elsewhere classi­
fied......................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products..................
Cement mills (excluding quarries) 8...
Clay products (structural)...................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster prod­
ucts.....................................................
Cut stone and cut-stone products.......
G lass....................................................
Pottery and related products..............
Stone, clay, and glass products, not
elsewhere classified...........................
Textiles and textile-mill products..............
Carpets, rugs, and other floor cover­
ings.....................................................
Cordageyarn and textiles......................
Cotton and twine...............................
Dyeing and finishing textiles...............
Hats, except cloth and millinery.........
Knit goods.............................................
Rayon, other synthetic, and silk tex­
tiles.....................................................
Woolen and worsted textiles.................
Miscellaneous textile goods, not else­
where classified................................
Transportation equipment.........................
Aircraft..................................................
Aircraft parts_____ ______________
Boatbuilding and repairing................ .
Motor vehicles.......................................
Motor-vehicle parts...............................
Railroad equipment.
Transportation equipment, not else­
where classified..................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing......................
Brooms and brushes.............................
Coke ovens: 8
Beehive..........................................
Byproduct—..................................
Fabricated plastic products.................
Optical and ophthalmic goods______
Photographic apparatus and materials.
Professional and scientific instru­
ments and supplies............................
Tobacco products.................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing, not else­
where classified..................................
See footnotes at end of table.




Average days lost or
charged per case 2

Injury rates 4

Number Average Employee- Number Death
of
of estab­ number of hours
and
lishments employees 1 worked disabling perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ All dis­ Perma­ Tempo­ Fre­ Sever­
nentnent(thousands) injuries nent- partial rary- abili­ partial rary- quency ity 2
reporting
total
total
total disa­ disa­ ties * disa­ disa­
disa­ bility bility
bility bility
bility
(10) (ID (12) (13)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(5)
(6)
(4)
(3)
(2)
76,750
31,100
(8)
28,630
11,900
(8)
10,100
4,100
(8)
24,120
9,600
(8)
5,500
13,900
(8)
81,224
41,772
138
45,846
90,515
219
31,148
61,683
24
624,380
1,379 299,881
16,784
8,560
81
98,626
49,160
576
496 202,998 429,540
79,428
39,163
226
2,714
246, 683 484,972
119, 706 234,569
1,728
13, 288
6,718
84
902 120,259 237,114
341,531
280 184,132
25, 408
48, 952
30
89, 754 157, 580
42
68,970 134,998
208
1,555 243,457 490, Oil
24,939
65,113
(8)573
53,823 106,163
13,357
28,857
338
2,435
4,782
76
92, 617 178, 694
252
31,486
56,938
132
24,800
49,460
184
688,372 1,292,903
2,437
44,207
86,099
84
14,714
7,917
50
577 263,112 486,094
62,935 124,307
338
5, 778
10, 345
28
698 113, 683 206, 344
67, 739 129, 623
223
370 112, 553 215,967
10,448
19,407
69
900 1,023,149 2, Oil, 914
27 163, 920 328, 643
76
83, 633 167,119
2,980
5,850
91
244 438, 274 858,957
189 183, 412 355,079
78,462 157,904
95
65,975 125,836
157
21
12,523
6,493
1,227 286,198 566,774
14,883
7,613
75
3,623
3,330
(8)
21,141
58,822
(8)144
21,670
42,730
49
17,169
33,054
44,796
84,337
49
62,436
31,236
149
47,414
87,794
176
585
91,829 179,090

1,766
518
172
795
281
482
1,079
4,061
10,048
222
1,632
7,035
1,159
4,004
1,763
148
2,093
3,255
350
924
1,981
9,354
521
3,911
737
175
2,301
900
809
13,471
1,270
219
4,753
1,834
166
1,150
893
2,867
319
18,293
1,444
1,449
234
5,767
3,835
2,112
3,286
166
5,573
214
132
588
569
186
444
812
655
1,973

®9
.
•1.5
• 1.2
».6
*.4

(10)
(10)
0°,
(10)
(10)
6.0

.4
1.5
.4
.5
.1
.5
.4
.1
00
.2

.5
(8)
(8)
.6

7.5
8.9
5.4
3.6
4.5
7.1
4.0
3.2
3.8
00
2.5
7.5
00

TO

8.2

(8).2

3.4
(10)
2.3
6.3
00
3.6

1.1

10.8

.5
•2.5
.5

.6

.8

.2
.2

1.0

5.2
11.9
7.8
4.9
5.4

.4
(*).1

00
1.8

.2

3.0

(»)
.6
.8

.5
(8).5

.2
1.0
1.0

(#)

2.1

00
8.0

11.3
3.6
00
8.9
13.9
6.6
3.0

00

.1

.5
• 1.2
.2
(8)
<e)
.2
.1

5.3
4.7
(10)
(10)

6.2
00
00

2.3
5.5
7.3

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
94.0
92.1
89.6
94.2
95.9
95.4
92.4
95.6
96.7
96.2
00
97.3
92.0
(•)
00

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
60 757
103 868
215 1,192
78 732
60 506
58 856
105 782
59 488
45
799
47 841
CO42 00
774
125 1,069

00
00

00
00

143 1,159
91.2
96.1
(10)
(10) M 0°)84 1,077
74 1,187
97.2
134 1,306
93.1
00
975
96.2 0063 00
73 917
98.2
179 925
88.1
94.6
87 1,164
163 1,234
88.1
92.2
63 635
94.9
79 1,000
94.2
125 1,592
00
00
00
38 1,113
98.1
97.9
33 888
60 921
96.8
00
(8)
0s)
91.4
120
796
87.9 205 1,238
95.9
77 726
00
115 00
755
90.6 00
113 604
85.9
92.4
150 879
124 1,321
96.0
00
00
(•)
59 759
94.6
85 945
94.8
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
93.6
77 831
00
00
(8)
00

97.5
94.5
92.6

00

38
46
73

00

983
615
744

(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
16
15
22

23.0
18.1
17.0
33.0

20.2

5.9
11.9

6.6

16 *16.0
16 13.2
13 16.5
19 16.4
13 14.6
14 *8.2
15 7.5
11.1
00
14 8.8
16 *9.7
7.1
00
5.9
00
14 14.7
16 *19.6
(10)
8.0
15 36.8
15 25.5
36.6
00
18 12.9
15 15.8
17 16.4
17 * 10.1
18 14.8
15 14.9
9.8
18 14.8
18
(*)12 16.0
5.6
15
19

00

6.9
13.3
16.4

23 *10.1
4.4
22
23 8.7
40.0
00
21
6.7
17 10.8
35 13.4
27 26.1
13.3
00
12 *10.3
13 14.4
(10)
36.4
(10)
10.0
12
13.3
5.6
00
5.3
0s)
7 13.0
13 7.5
14 11.0

(10)
(iO)
(10)
(10)
(10)
.3
1.1
1.8

*1.4

.8
1.0
1.8

.9
*.4
.3
.7
.4
*1.3

.8
.6

2.3
*)2.2
(10

2.8

3.3
4.0

.8
1.1

3.6
*.8

2.4
.9
.9

2.1
.6
.2

.2
1.0

.7
*1.1

1.0
1.0

3.5
.7
.9
1.5
3.4
.9

*.8
1.2

(“)
0°)
1.3
.1
.2

.7
.3
.9

12

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949
Table A.— Injury rates and injuries by extent of d s b l t , 1949— Continued
iaiiy
[All reporting establishments]

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in
Industry

(1)
Non manufacturing
Construction 11..................................... ......
General contractors:
General building contractors____
Heavy construction, except high­
way and street............................
Highway and street construction..
Special-trade contractors:
Plumbing, heating, and air condi­
tioning........................................
Painting, paperhanging, and deco­
rating...........................................
Electrical work...............................
Masonry, stone setting, and other
stone work...................................
Plastering and lathing...................
Terrazzo, tile, marble, and mosaic
work.................. .........................
Carpentering..................................
Roofing and sheet-metal work___
Concrete work................................
Structural-steel erection and orna­
mental iron work........................
Excavating and foundation work.
Installation or erection of building
equipment, not elsewhere classi­
fied..............................................
Special-trade contractors, other 13.
Communication: 11
Telephone (wire and radio).................
Radio broadcasting and television___
Transportation 1113.....................................
Stevedoring...........................................
Streetcar................................................
Bus (local).............................................
Local transportation systems, inte­
grated 14.............................................
Trucking and hauling (local)...............
Warehousing and storage.................... .
Transportation, not elsewhere classi­
fied...............................................

Heat, light, and power n »___
Electric light and power.
Gas...................................
Waterworks
Personal services................................... .....
Dry cleaning.............................. ..........
Laundries.................................... .........
Laundry with dry cleaning________
Amusements and related services. ".T!
Hotels....................................................
Eating and drinking places................ .
Medical and other professional services.
Miscellaneous personal services______
Business services..........................................
Banks and other financial agencies___
Insurance...............................................
Real estate............................................
Miscellaneous business services........
Automobile repair shops and garages..
Miscellaneous repair services.............. .
Educational services_________________
Fire departments...................................... .
Police departments.....................................

See footnotes at end of table.




Average days lost or
charged per case 2

Number Average Employee- Number Death
of estab­ number of hours
of
and
lishments employees1 worked disabling perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ All dis­
nentreporting
(thousands) injuries nent- partial rary- abili­
total disa­ total ties*
disa­
disa­ bility bility
bility
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
4,443
1,675
334
516
432
257
282
126
81
63
81
204
56
44
46
18
228
123
407
1,300
57
17
282
42
574
255
73
604
376
213
159
2,981
634
565
470
117
391
538
140
126
2,667
917
425
232
382
432
279
195
209
151

430,375
160,803
87,848
63,455

17,116
6,565
3,671
2,889

23,494
7,256
16,936
5,671
6,048
3,508
3,343
9,934
2,876
9,727
2,447

730
129
479
167
258
95
98
324
98
473

11,429
15,591

431
620

558,707 1,027,654
31,490
15,873
505,736
214,236
( 10)
31,232
9,702
21,405
36,265
82,721
139,885 310,116
30,081
13,780
13,279
27,111
1,325
3,067
758,351
366,979
273,089
565,998
191,308
93,406
8,442
17,565
151,969 322,485
18,516
37,480
27,118
55,829
75,468
35,699
5,983
11,245
98,625
43,554
21,766
10,539
8,266
17,577
2,294
4,492
182,433
356,089
54,400
105,909
99,732
192,175
8,785
4,369
28,841
14,445
5,129
11,550
4,358
8,827
134,096
226,358
30,872
101,071
20,145
48,307

2,320
52
10,634
2,106
307
1,143
5,379
838
845
16
12,007
7,771
4,228
479
2,893
184
376
558
119
1.329
233
71
23
1,452
249
396
52
371
157
227
1,725
3,249
1.330

( 10)

(i°)

(10)
( 10)

(iO)

(i-i)
o;
(10)
( io:

(i°)

s
a
a
(10 )

(i°)
( )
10

3.2

1.0

0

.8

2.8
2.6

96.0
96.7
95.9
96.4

2.3

.8

.5
1.3

97.7

2.8

0

.6

98.6

0

99.6

0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0

0

0

0

0

22.0

76.6
97.4

1.4

1.1
0

.7
.4

.6

.3
.4
.5
0

1.5
2.1
.5
.2

.3
0
.5
.4
0
.3
0
0

0
0

.5
.8

.4
.3
.9
.8

8.5

1.5

0

.3

3.1
.3
1.9

10.1
1.1
.1

3.6
0
2.8

3.1

2.2

1.3
1.4

0
1.6

3.4

0

.6

0
0
1.8
1.6

1.5
0
1.3

0
2.6

1.7
.4
.7

97.2

90.0

99.0

0

96.5
89.3
99.7
97.8
98.5
99.4
96.4

0

95.7
94.8
97.3
98.5
98.3
0
97.9
96.2
0
99.1

100.0
0
0

97.7
98.4
97.7
0
98.7
0
97.0
98.0
98.7
98.5

14
12

18
13
11

0

0

0

0

0
0

0
0

0

0

0

66

0

0

2.5

(ID

38 1,176
0

0

.3
(6)
1.5

GO)

1,386
77 1,210
132 1,445
104 1,200

(6)

.4

Perma­ Tempo­
nent- rary- Fre­
partial total quency Sever­
ity 3
disa­ disa­
bility bility

100

0

0

500

26 4,000
77 1,819

279 2,065
65 1,350
1,383
68

2,283

85
26
53
58
42
73

1,445
1,360
2,400
1,227
1,692
500
1,717

147
189
69
41
51
0
59
97
0
39
13

1,427
1,525
1,169
1,192
1,508
0
800
1,795
0
1,625

201

0

0
0

0

0

0
0

66 1,288
48 1,975
85 1,633
0
0
34 1,640
0
0
66 1,017
58 1,624
76 1,800
86 2,911

13
10

14
17

(12)

0

0

31.1
17.8
28.3
29.4
42.7
27.1
29.3
32.6
34.1
48.6
36.4

18

2.3
1.7

19
32
18
14
16
13
13
15
17
12

0
0

0
0

3.9
3.1
5.5
4.7
1.2

7.6
1.9
.5
1.1

8.3
.7
2.5
.4
13.6
1.2

37.7
39.8

14
13
0
14
15

0

(13)

39.8
40.8
41.8
45.5

17
13

101
0

Injury rates 4

12

13

14
16
15
12

13
13
15
16

21.0

67.4
14.3
13.8
17.3
27.9
31.2
5.2
15.8
13.7
22.1

27.3
9.0
4.9
6.7
7.4
10.6
13.5
10 7
4.0
5.1
4.1
2.4
2.1
5.9
12.9
13.6
25.7
7.6
32.1
27.5

2.5
4.0
0

.2
1.8

13.5
.4
.7
1.0
1.2

2.3
.1

2.3
2.6
1.5
1.1

.5
.2
.4
.7
.5
.5
.1

.1
.1

.3

.1
.2
.1

.4
1.7
.4
2.5
2.4

1.8

APPENDIX

13

Table A.— Injury rates and injuries by extent of d s b l t , 1949— Continued
iaiiy
[All reporting establishments]

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in 2—
Industry

(1)
N o n m a n u fa ctu rin g —Continued
Trade.....................................................
Wholesale distributors_______ _____
Retail, general merchandise.................
Retail, food........................................
Wholesale and retail dairy products.
Retail automobiles and accessories___
Filling stations......................................
Retail apparel and accessories..............
Miscellaneous retail stores.....................
Wholesale and retail building supplies.
Wholesale and retail trade, not else­
where classified. _

Mining and quarrying: 8
Coal mines.............................................
Bituminous.....................................
Anthracite......................................
Metal mines.............................
Iron........................................................
Copper... .........................................
Lead-zinc...................... .................
Gold-silver............................................
Gold placer..........................................
Miscellaneous metal..............................
Nonmetal mines....................................
Quarries.................................................
Cement (excluding mills)..............
Limestone.......................................
Lime.........................................
Marble.............................................
Granite...........................................
Traprock......... ...............................
Slate.................................................
Sandstone........................................
Ore dressing (mills and auxiliaries)__
Copper............................................
Iron..................................................
Gold-silver......................................
Lead-zinc........................................
Miscellaneous metals......................

Number Average Employee- Number Death
of estab­ number of hours
of
and
lishments employees1 worked disabling perma­ Perma­ Tempo­ All dis­
nentreporting
(thousands) injuries nent- partial rary- abili­
total
total disa­ disa­ ties 8*
disa­ bility bility
bility
(4)
(3)
(2)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)

Perma­
nentpartial
disa­
bility

Injury rates 4*

Tempo­
rary- Fre­ Sever­
total
disa­ quency ity 8
bility

GO)

CD

(12)

8,930
2,580
457
810
389
941
269
769
1,669
677
369

358,530
91,459
87,285
33,474
28; 052
21,172
3,235
26,902
35; 423
21,418
10,110

740,419
190,545
160,432
74,083
65,196
48,026
7,351
52,769
74; 502
46,002
21,509

9,036
2,544
821
876
1,497
685
35
233
726
1,265
354

.3
.4
.2
.2
.1
(6*
)
.3
.4
.6

1.8
1.8
.5
.9
1.8
1.0
(6)
2.1
1.4
3.9
.8

97.9
97.8
99.3
99 1
98.0
98.9
(6)
97.9
98.3
95.7
98.6

49
54
32
22
61
25
(6)39
51
68
52

1,110
1,057
638
1,063
1,883
543
(6)
1,170
1,450
847
300

13 812.9
11 13.4
5.1
15
12 11.8
23.0
15
10 14.3
(6)14 4.8
4.4
15 9.7
12 27.5
16 16.5

(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
00
(8)
00
00
(8)
(8)
(8)
00
(8)
00
(8)
(8)
(8)
(8)
00
00

482,800
404,800
78,000
68,300
27, 500
13,800
15,900
4,800
3,500
2,800
12,300
54,961
4,161
23,800
9,300
3,300
6,000
2,500
1,800
4,100
16,600
6,400
3,600
900
4,100
1,600

650,030
541,230
108,800
143,770
54,380
34,490
31,950
10,400
6, 670
5,880
27,380
111, 686
9,336
44,200
22,070
6,810
12,770
4,780
3,970
7,750
35,290
15,290
6,220
2,140
8,210
3,430

38,358
30,085
8,273
6,714
1,157
1,142
2,828
975
190
422
1,150
4,134
127
1,650
825
220
538
234
203
337
777
213
83
65
236
180

•1.5
®1.7
• 1.1
•1.1
•1.9
• 1.1
91.0
9 1.0
9.5
9.9
91.3
93.9
•1.5
91.2
9.6
91.7
91.5
9.6
9.9
91.4

(10)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
0°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(i°)
(!°)
(i°)
0°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

(10)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(i°)
(i°)
(i°)
(i°)
(i°)
0°)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
0°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

(1°)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(!0)
(!0)
(10)
(10)

(i°)
(10)
(i0)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(i°)
(10)
0°)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(i°)
0°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)

1 Reports in this survey secured by the Bureau of Labor Statistics include
all employees—production and related workers; force-account construction
workers; administrative, supervisory, sales, technical, service, and office
personnel. Reports compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department
of the Interior (see footnote 8) include men engaged in production, develop­
ment, maintenance, and repair work, and supervisory and technical personnel
at the operation; but exclude office personnel and employees in stores or
affiliated operations not directly connected with mining or refining.
W2 Based on reports which furnished details regarding the resulting disabili­
ties, constituting approximately 60 percent of the total sample.
3 Each death or permanent-total disability is charged with a time loss of
6,000 days.
4 The frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries for each
million employee-hours worked. The severity rate is the average number
of days lost or charged for each thousand employee-hours worked. The
standard time-loss ratings for fatalities and permanent disabilities are given
in Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, approved by the American
Standards Association, 1945.




Average days lost or
charged per case 13
2

93.6

9.4

59.0
55.6
76.0
46.7
21.3
33.1
88.5
93.8
28.5
71.8
42.0
37.0
13.6
37.3
37.4
32.3
42.1
49.0
51.1
43.5
22.0
13.9
13.3
30.4
28.8
52.5

(13)
«.6
.7
.2
.3
1.4
.3
.2
.2
.5
1.9
.9
(i°)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
0°)
0°)
(10)
(JJ)
(10)
(10)
(10$
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
(10)
0°)
0°)
(10)
(10)

• Weighted according to estimates of total employment in each industry.
• Disability distribution and average time charges not given because of
small numbei of injuries for which details were reported.
7 Less than 0.05.
s Compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior;
data represent preliminary estimated industry totals, based on an average
of 80 percent coverage of all mining industries.
9 Fatalities only.
10Not available.
11 Primarily reported by company instead of by establishment.
78Includes “Wrecking and demolition work,” shown separately for 1948.
is Does not include railroads and other interstate transportation.
14 Includes integrated local transportation systems operating streetcars,
busses, and/or elevated and subway lines.
Totals include figures for industries not shown separately because of
insufficient coverage.

WORK INJURIES IN TEE UNITED STATES DURINQ 1949

14

Table B.— Changes in exposure, disabling i j r e , and injury rates for 41,408 identical establishments,
nuis
1948-49

Industry
( 1)

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing............................................................................ .
Apparel and other finished textile products______________ ______
Clothing, men’s and boys’................................................................
Clothing, women’s and children’s....................................................
Millinery.............................................................................................
Apparel and accessories, not elsewhere classified............................
Trimmings and fabricated textile products, not elsewhere classi­
fied_________________________________________________
Chemicals and allied products4________________ ____ _________
Compressed and liquefied gases.......................................................
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides.................... ................................
Explosives..........................................................................................
Fertilizers...........................................................................................
Industrial chemicals...........................................................................
Paints, varnishes, and colors.............................................................
Paving and roofing materials............................................................
Plastic materials, except rubber........................................................
Soap and glycerin...............................................................................
Synthetic textile fibers.................................................. ...................
Vegetable and animal oils..................................................................
Chemical products, not elsewhere classified....................................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies.....................................
Automotive electrical equipment.....................................................
Batteries..............................................................................................
Communication and signaling equipment, except radio................
Electrical appliances..........................................................................
Electrical equipment for industrial use______________________
Electrical lamps (bulbs)__________________________ _______
Insulated wire and cable._________________________________
Radios and phonographs______________________________ I___
Electrical equipment, not elsewhere classified.................................
Food products............................... ...................... ...................................
Baking.................................................................................................
Bottling, soft drinks...........................................................................
Breweries............................................................................................
Canning and preserving.....................................................................
Confectionery.....................................................................................
Dairy products...................................................................................
Distilleries...........................................................................................
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products.................................................
Slaughtering and meat packing................................ .......................
Sugar, beet.........................................................................................
Food products, not elsewhere classified...........................................
Furniture and finished lumber products........ ......................................
Furniture, metal......................................................... ......................
Furniture, except metal.....................................................................
Mattresses and bedsprings.................................................................
Morticians’ supplies...........................................................................
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures.................................................
Wooden containers.............................................................................
Miscellaneous wood products, not elsewhere classified...................
Iron and steel and their products............................................................
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets........................................................
Cold-finished steel.............................................................................
Cutlery and edge tools.......................................................................
Fabricated structural steel................................................................
Forgings, iron and steel.....................................................................
Foundries, iron................ *................................................................
Foundries, steel..................................................................................
Hardware............................................................................................
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified...................................
Iron and steel.....................................................................................
Metal coating and engraving.............................................................
Ornamental metal work....................................................................
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products.....................................
Plumbers’ supplies.......•....................................................................
Screw-machine products....................................................................
Sheet-metal work...............................................................................
Stamped and pressed metal products...............................................
Steam fittings and apparatus............................................................
Steel barrels, kegs, drums, and packages.........................................
Steel springs........................................................................................
Tin cans and other tinware...............................................................
Tools, except edge tools.....................................................................
Vitreous-enameled products..............................................................
Wire and wire products......................................................................
Wrought pipes, welded and heavy-riveted______ _____________
Iron and steel products, not elsewhere classified.............................

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of change in—
Number
of estab­
lishments
Employeereporting Employees hours Disabling Total time Frequency Severity
rate
lost1
rate 1
worked injuries
(2)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(3)
26,321
1,410
611
629
61
69
260
1,708
64
264
44
306
324
366
17
37
104
22
31
146
864
34
40
36
63
447
27
36
160
21
3,194
661
147
236
338
204
265
87
456
646
57
207
1,783
67
698
189
88
85
352
304
3,835
75
41
107
344
141
657
111
144
213
174
95
92
178
97
151
83
337
153
24
27
97
151
21
187
14
121

-9
-1
-3
+2
-4
—9
+1
-7
-4
+1
+6
-2
-9
-8
+54
-7
(*)-14
-4
-3
-13
-10
-16
-21
-22
-14
-15
-16
-1
(3)
-1
(8) -4
-1
-6
-7
-1
-9
-1
+4
-3
-3
-8
-7
-7
-7
-4
-11
-11
-12
-11
-17
-9
-8
-3
-14
-19
-22
-3
-19
-9
-18
-13
-11
-16
-16
-13
-6
-15
-8
-8
-3
-14
-20
-11
-11
-10

-11
-3
-6
(8)+13
-14
+3
-7
-7
<8) +3
-3
-12
-9
+44
+10
-1
-14
-5
-7
-15
-12
-21
-25
-24
-15
-16
-18
(8)
(8)
-2
(8) -5
-6
-4
-7
-3
-12
-2
+3
-2
-3
-12
-8
-13
-9
-10
-14
-1«
-15
-15
-22
-14
-13
-7
-17
-26
-28
-7
-21
-13
-18
-12
-14
-20
-20
-15
-8
-19
-10
-8
-4
-18
-23
-14
-14
-14

-26
-10
-19
-14
+8
-15
+18
-24
-10
-11
-47
-20
-30
-29
+6
-31
-7
-30
-1
-24
-30
-28
-41
-32
-40
-31
-5
-40
-19
+36
-14
-11
-20
-23
-11
-21
-14
-14
-14
-9
-19
-6
-23
-9
-23
-24
-25
+4
-24
-33
-32
-29
-32
-41
-15
-34
-39
-44
-22
-39
-24
-15
-16
-38
-34
-26
-30
-34
-28
-30
-27
-19
-29
-48
-27
-17
-36

-15
+11
+56
+89
-20
+122
-27
-40
+325
-50
-27
-9
-57
+3
+35
-42
-28
-44
-56
-91
-18
-42
+113
-54
-51
-22
(8)-70
+118
<*>
(8) +4
+194
-16
-34
+5
-33
+386
+82
+46
+95
-62
-13
-39
-12
-69
+370
+19
-18
-16
-27
-36
-72
-49
-21
-45
-14
-20
-11
-44
-21
-62
-12
-16
-48
+118
-71
-34
-58
+509
+12
-33
-21
-50
-59
+6
+27

a-12
2-4
-14
-14
-2
-2
+15
2-19
-4
-10
-49
-18
-21
-22
-26
-37
-7
-17
+4
-18
2-18
-18
-25
-8
-21
-19
+13
-26
-20
+36
*-11
-11
-16
-18
-7
-15
-12
-2
-12
-11
-17
-3
3-14
-2
-11
-17
-17
+21
-11
-21
3-18
-9
-21
-33
-9
-21
-18
-22
-16
-22
-12
+2
-5
-28
-17
-8
-18
-28
-11
-22
-20
-16
-13
-32
-16
-3
-25

2-6

3+12
+64
+90
-40
+140
-30
2-43
+370
-48
-43
-7
-48
+13
-6
-29
-26
-38
-54
-90
*-8
-39
+166
-49
-35
-7
(#) -64
+105
(#)
(38) +5
+206
-11
-32
+15
-31
+479
+86
+39
+98
-61
2-1
-34
+1
-66
+425
+37
-4
+2
3-15
-20
-66
-43
-17
-31
+13
+6
-15
-31
-7
-53
+1
-1
-39
+152
-65
-36
-49
+493
+25
-26
-8
-35
-53
+31
+49

APPENDIX

15

Table B.— Changes in exposure, disabling i j r e , and injury rates for 41,408 identical establishments,
nuis
1948-49— Continued

Industry

(1)
Manufacturing—Continued
Leather and leather products—..............................................................
Boots and shoes, not rubber.............................................................
Leather....... .......................................................................................
Leather products, not elsewhere classified.......................................
Lumber and timber basic products.........................................................
Logging.........................................................................................— Millwork (structural)—...................................................................
Planing mills________ _________________________ _____ ___
Plywood mills— ................................................................... ..........
Sawmills....................... .....................................................................
Saw and planing mills, integrated........................... ........... ............
Veneer mills—...................................................................................
Machinery, except electrical.....................................................................
Agricultural machinery and tractors— .....................................
Bearings, ball and roller....................................................................
Commercial and household machinery............................................
Construction and mining machinery........................................... .
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors.......................... ............... .
Engines and turbines.....................................................................
Fabricated pipe and fittings..............................................................
Food-products machinery.................................................................
General industrial machinery and equipment, not elsewhere
classified......................................................................................... .
General machine shops (jobbing and repair)...................................
Mechanical measuring and controlling instruments........................
Mechanical power-transmission equipment, except ball and
roller bearings—
..............................................................................
Metalworking machinery..................................................................
Pumps and compressors..................................................................
Special-industry machinery, not elsewhere classified—...................
Textile machinery............................................................................ .
Non ferrous metals and their products....................................................
Aluminum and magnesium products................................... ..........
Foundries, nonferrous..............................................-........................
Nonferrous basic shapes and forms..................................................
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware.........................................
Nonferrous metal products, not elsewhere classified.......................
Ordnance and accessories...................................*......... .........................
Paper and allied products........................................................................
Envelopes...........................................................................................
Paper boxes and containers...............................................................
Paper and pulp................................................................................ .
Paper products, not elsewhere classified..........................................
Printing and publishing...........................................................................
Book and job printing.......................................................................
Bookbinding......................................................................................
News and periodical—................. *................................................. .
Rubber products........................................-............................................
Rubber boots and shoes....................................................................
Rubber tires and tubes....................................................................
Rubber products, not elsewhere classified.......................................
Stone, clay, and glass products...............................................................
Clay products (structural)................................................................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products........................................ .
Cut stone and cut-stone products.....................................................
Glass....................-.................................. -....................................... .
Pottery and related products............................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products, not elsewhere classified-...............
Textiles and textile-mill products—.......................................................
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings......................................... .
Cordage and twine.............................................................................
Cotton yarn and textiles...................................................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles............................................................
Hats, except cloth and millinery......................................................
Knit goods..........................................................................................
Rayon, other synthetic, and silk textiles.........................................
Woolen and worsted textiles..............................................................
Miscellaneous textile goods, not elsewhere classified............... .......
See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of change in—
Number
of estab­
Employeelishments
reporting Employees hours Disabling Total time Frequency Severity
rate
rate 1
lost1
worked injuries
(7)
(8)
(5)
(6)
(4)
(2)
(3)
611
367
154
90
1,187
155
332
167
56
350
86
41
2,974
198
49
207
256
51
51
6
129
376
265
77
76
692
90
338
114
662
38
301
34
117
172
15
875
76
480
130
189
2,230
1,423
49
758
240
27
34
179
1,021
330
208
55
206
120
102
2,055
72
50
515
298
23
547
185
312
53

-5
-4
-7
-5
-9
-17
-6
-8
-11
-6
-6
-23
-14
-8
-20
-18
-18
-11
-14
-1
-16
-12
-14
-3
-20
-15
-10
-17
-17
-15
-25
-16
-16
-14
-13
-15
-4
-3
-5
(3) -6
(3) -2
-4
+2
-10
-12
-11
-10
-7
-2
-1
-5
-6
-10
-15
-10
-12
-15
-9
-3
-4
-8
-9
-19
-4

-6
-6
-8
-11
-12
-23
-10
-6
-16
-11
-6
-30
-17
-10
-19
-20
-22
-15
-15
-5
-20
-15
-19
-7
-23
-19
-13
-19
-22
-18
-25
-20
-21
-16
-14
-19
-6
-6
-5
-5
-7
-1
-4
(3) +2
-14
-15
-17
-10
-10
-4
-5
-6
-9
-17
-15
-15
-15
-18
-17
-5
-5
-11
-14
-21
-10

-14
-10
-20
+1
-16
-14
-17
-16
-23
-12
-16
-48
-34
-30
-36
-37
-39
-19
-30
-5
-39
-34
-39
-26
-32
-31
-22
-31
-55
-28
-42
-28
-28
-27
-25
-4
-20
+12
-20
-24
-21
-8
-16
-43
+2
-27
-11
-43
-20
-18
-11
-8
-17
-20
-27
-27
-25
-19
-36
-25
-12
-6
-29
-35
-28
-35

-8
-5
-11
+30
-21
-4
-14
-14
-55
-39
-11
-34
-16
-4
-12
-12
-43
-5
+6
+104
-2
-2
-47
-83
-60
-37
-1
+36
-33
-7
-56
+61
-60
-37
+1
+18
-23
-37
-52
-17
+35
-34
-48
-60
-13
+7
-38
-31
+24
-5
-4
+8
-16
-36
-30
+175
-15
-15
-30
-21
+48
+3
-29
-51
-37
-54

2 -4
-5
-13
+14
2 —2
+11
-8
-11
-8
-1
-10
-26
3 -20
-22
-21
-22
-21
-5
-18
(3)-23
-22
-25
-21
-12
-14
-11
-14
-42
a -13
-23
-9
-9
-13
-13
+19
2-17
+19
-16
-20
-14
* -12
-11
-43
(3)
2 -17
+4
-32
-11
2-10
-7
-3
-12
-12
-13
-14
3 -14
-6
-22
-10
-8
-1
-21
-24
-10
-28

2 +4
0) -4
+49
2 -7
+24
-4
-10
-45
-30
—5
-5
2+5
+14
+13
+11
-28
+9
+29
+122
+15
+16
-34
-79
-53
-23
+20
+62
-17
3 -5
-42
+98
-53
-25
+10
+52
2 -19
-32
-50
-13
+46
2 -42
-46
-61
-14
2+14
-31
-14
+33
2+29
<3) +13
-11
-28
-14
+213
* -7
(3) -15
-3
+56
+9
-24
-43
-26
-48

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949

16

Table B.— Changes in exposure, disabling i j r e , and injury rates for 41,408 identical establishments,
nuis
1948-49— Continued

Industry
1

( )

Manufacturing—Gontinued
Transportation equipment...................................................
Aircraft............................................................................
Aircraft parts..................................................................
Boatbuilding and repairing...........................................
Motor vehicles-...............................................................
Motor-vehicle parts...................................... ............... .
Railroad equipment.......................................................
Shipbuilding and repairing. ..........................................
Transportation equipment, not elsewhere ClassifiedMiscellaneous manufacturing..............................................
Brooms and brushes............. . .......................................
Fabricated plastic products....................-.....................
Optical and ophthalmic goods.......................................
Photographic apparatus and materials.........................
Professional and scientific instruments and supplies..
Tobacco products...........................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing, not elsewhere classified.
Nonmanufaduring
Construction46.....................................................................
General building contractors.........................................
Heavy construction, except highway and street.........
Highway and street construction..................................
Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning......................
Painting, paperhanging, and decorating....................
Electrical work...............................................................
Masonry, stone setting, and other stonework...............
Plastering and lathing....................................................
Carpentering...................................................................
Roofing and sheet-metal work......................................
Structural-steel erection and ornamental iron work...
Special trade contractors, other.....................................
Communication:6
Telephone (wire and radio)...........................................
Radio broadcasting and television................................
Transportation4•................................................-..............
Stevedoring............................................-«.......................
Streetcar..........................................................................
Bus (local).......................................................................
Local transportation systems, integrated.....................
Trucking and hauling (local).........................................
Warehousing and storage...............................................
Heat, light, and power4«....................................................
Electric light and power........ ........................................
Gas........................... ..................................................—
Waterworks •..........................................................................
Personal services...................................................................
Dry cleaning...................................................................
Laundries..................................-....................................
Laundry with dry cleaning...........................................
Amusements and related services................................
Hotels.............................................. -..................... .—
Eating and drinking places...........................................
Medical and other professional services........................
Miscellaneous personal services.....................................
Business services...................................................................
Banks and other financial agencies...............................
Insurance.......................................................................
Real estate......................................................................
Miscellaneous business services.....................................
Automobile repair shops and garages...........................
Miscellaneous repair services........................................
Educational services................................................... .........
Fire departments..................................................................
Police departments...............................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of change inistabments
Employeejrting Employees hours Disabling Total time Frequency Severity
lost i
rate
rate 1
worked injuries
(2)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(3)
(8)
697
20
66
70
188
148
71
129
16
960
68
106
42
36
106
163
449

-2
+9
+6
-25
+7
-10
-22
-21
-39
-7
-12
-11
-6
-9
-2
-4
-8

2,258
834
207
342
189
99
177
45
53
35
91
34
35

(8)
(8)
h
h
(8)
(8)
(*)
(8)
(8)
(8)
<•)
(8)
(8)

105
383
924
53
15
233
37
, 338
212
567
358
195
135
2,356
511
481
427
104
317
319
121
76
1,939
686
377
160
242
258
216
180
205
135

-1
-2
-1
(8) -4
-6
+2
(3) -7
+3
+3
+3
+2
-6
-6
-8
-5
-1
-7
-4
+1
-2
+1
+1
+2
-2
-6
-2
-7
+5
+3
+4

-3
+6
+5
-26
+6
-10
-24
-25
-41
-10
-15
-13
-7
-13
-4
-6
-11

-26
-8
-3
-29
-25
-32
-37
-24
-62
-20
-25
-7
-14
-24
-16
-14
-14

+7
-10
+26
-13
+16
+13
-11
+1
-45
-4
-1
-10
-24
-40
+64
-27
-1

2 -21
-14
-8
-4
-30
-24
-17
+2
-35
2 _ ii
-11
+8
-7
-14
-12
-10
-15

2+13
-7
+26
+21
+7
+17
+16
+23
-6
2+7
+18
(3) -18
-29
+89
-22
+10

-1
-1
-10
+6
+8
-4
-5
-11
+9
+15
+3
+40
+1

+8
+8
+9
+4
+8
-22
+36
-20
+40
-24
+8
-2
+34

-6
-2
-21
-10
-32
+114
-50
-87
+153
+17
+145
+10
-31

+9
+9
+20
-1
(3)-19
+44
-9
+29
-34
+5
-30
+33

-5
-1
-13
-15
-37
+123
-47
-86
+133
+2
+137
-21
-32

-3

-17
-5
-16
(3)-37
-9
-20
-13
-23
-7
-11
(3)
+7
-18
-37
-25
-16
+46
-10
-42
-28
-34
-5
+11
-2
-11
-5
-4
-25
-2
+6
-3

-25
-87
-18
-8
-77
-60
-3
+20
-45
+12
+21
-19
-22
-19
-63
+25
-22
+87
+4
-77
-78
-42
-34
+166
-16
-82
-85
-9
-48
-9
+58
-7

-15
-6
-12
+4
-31
-2
-17
-14
-14
-8
-12
-2
+5
-12
-31
-17
-10
+54
-3
-40
-28
-33
-5
+9
-5
-9
+2
-2
-17
-3
+1
-7

-25
-88
-14
-5
-75
-57
+1
+17
-40
+10
+20
-20
-23
-14
-60
+39
-17
+92
+11
-77
-78
-38
-35
+140
-18
-82
-83
-6
-42
-10
+50
-11

(3)

-5
-4
-8
-7
-4
+2
-10
+1
+1
+2
+2
-7
-9
-10
-7
-5
-8
-3
-1
-2
+1
+2
+2
-3
-7
-2
-10
(8)
+5
+4

APPENDIX

17

Table B.—Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 41,408 identical establishments,
1948-49—Continued
Industry
(1 )

Percent of change in—
Number
of estab­
lishments
Employeereporting Employees hours Disabling Total time Frequency Severity
lost1
rate
rate 1
worked injuries
(2 )

Nonmanufacturing—Continued

Trade.........................................................................................................
Wholesale distributors........................................................................
Retail, general merchandise..............................................................
Retail food..........................................................................................
Wholesale and retail dairy products..................................................
Retail automobiles and accessories...................................................
Filling stations...................................................................................
Retail apparel and accessories...........................................................
Miscellaneous retail stores..................................................................
Wholesale and retail building supplies.............................................
Wholesale and retail trade, not elsewhere classified.........................
1 Based on reports which furnished details on the resulting disabilities,
constituting approximately 60 percent of the total sample. The standard
time-loss ratings for fatalities and permanent disabilities are given in Method
of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, approved by the American Standards
Association, 1945.
8Weighted according to estimates of total employment in each industry.




5 ,9 0 0
1 ,8 5 3
348
462
286
560
127
473
1 ,0 2 5
473
293

(3 )

-1

(3) — 2
00

(5 )

(4 )

+ 2
+ 4
+ 1
-2
-1
-2
-4

-1
-1
-2
+ 3
-1
+ 6
-1

(3) - 3

-2
—3

(6 )

-1 4
-1 9
-6
-2 2
-7
-3
-3 8
+ 3
-7
-1 4
-2 4

-2 2
+ 7
+29
-1 7
-2 1
-7 6
+118
+350
-1 8
-3 7
-6 2

(7 )

(8 )

8- 1 6
-1 8

-4

-2 4
-6
-8
-3 7
+ 4
-4
-1 2
-2 1

8—3 3
+9

+31
-1 8
-2 0
-7 7
+111
+400
-1 6
-3 6
-6 1

3 Change was less than 0.5 percent.
4 Totals include figures for industries not shown separately, because of in­
sufficient coverage.
* Not available.
• Primarily reported by company instead of by establishments.

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 191,9

18

Table C.—Distribution of all reported injuries resulting in permanent-partial disability, according to
part of body affected, by industry, 1949
Percent of permanent-partial disability cases involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry

Total

(1)
Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing1......................................................
Chemicals and allied products1..........................................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies1..............
Food products 1....................................................................
Baking............................................................................
Breweries........................................................................
Canning and preserving...............................................
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products............................
Slaughtering and meat packing...................................
Furniture and finished lumber products 1.........................
Furniture, except metal...............................................
Wooden containers........................................................
Miscellaneous wood products, not elsewhere classifiedIron and steel and their products L....... ...........................
Fabricated structural steel-........................................
Forgings, iron and steel............. ..................................
Foundries, iron.............................................................
Hardware........................................ ...........................
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified.......... .
Iron and steel................................................................
Stamped and pressed metal products.........................
Leather and leather products1............................................
Leather..........................................................................
Lumber and timber basic products1..................................
Logging...................................................................
Sawmills.........................................................................
Saw and planing mills, integrated...............................
Millwork (structural).....................................................
Machinery, except electrical1..............................................
Agricultural machinery and tractors...........................
Commercial and household machinery.......................
Construction and mining machinery...........................
General industrial machinery and equipment, not
elsewhere classified.............. .....................................
Metalworking machinery............................................
Special-industry machinery, not elsewhere classified. .
Nonferrous metals and their products 1.............................
Paper and allied products 1.................................................
Paper boxes and containers...................... ...................
Paper and pulp.............................................................
Printing and publishing 1...................................................
Book and job printing............................................. .
News and periodical......................................................
Rubber products 1...............................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products 1.........................................
Clay products (structural)—.........................................
Glass..... ........................................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products, not elsewhere
classified......................................................................
Textiles and textile-mill products *....................................
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings.....................
Cotton yam and textiles.............................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles.......................................
Woolen and worsted textiles.........................................
Transportation equipment 1.__..........................................
Aircraft......................................................................... .
Motor vehicles...............................................................
Motor-vehicle parts.......................................................
Railroad equipment......................................................
Shipbuilding and repairing..................*.......................
Miscellaneous manufacturing1.......................................... .
See footnotes at end of table.

(2)




A hand or
fingers
(4)

An arm
(3)

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

3
2
3
6
1
10
2
7
7
1
2
0
0
2
2
0
2
0
1
3
1
2
4

A foot or
toes
(6)

A leg
(5)

3
7
2
1
1
9

77
75
79
68
84
55
79
65
81
87
87
84
87
78
63
84
72
94
78
69
93
92
90
61
23
69
60
94
77
77
90
70
69
79
75
92
87
76
86
82
77
85
76
71
66
71
80
77
63
92
65
86
77
60
82
85
72
42

3
1
1
5
3
5
2
7
5
2
2
0
7
3
5
0
2
2
3
5
0
1
0
14
35
6
10
0
3
4
3
1
2
3
4
1
2
5
1
3
4
2
1
3
6
0
2
3
5
1
7
0
2
7
1
0

1

88

2

7
4
11
0
2
2
0
4
5

5
0

3

1
2
5
2

1
0
2
7
6
7
7

2

6
10
3
4
5

4
8

9
8
12
15
10
21
9
13
5
3
3
5
0
10
22
10
17
0
3
14
3
1
2
6
11
11
2
0
11
7
6
19
21
6
14
4

5
12
5
10
17
4

9
13
13
10
12
11
21
2
18
2
5
8

3
5
13
12
2

One or both Other and
ears
(hearing) unclassified
(8)
(9)

An eye
(7)
4
6
2
3
1
5
6
4
2
4
3
8
4
4
5
6
3
0
6
7
1
2
4
6
8
2
11
2
4
4
1
1
2
6
3
2
2
0

(2)
(2)

4
4

1
5

2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

(2) 0
0
0
0
0
(2) 0
0
0
( 2)

2
1
0
0

( 2)

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

4

0
0
0
3
4
4
7
4
2
0
1
6
2
4
3

1

( 2)

0
0
0
0
3
0

4
7
3
3
1
4
2
4
0
3
3
3
2
3
3
0
4
4
9
2
2
2
0
14
7
6
4
3
6
0
8

5

1
6
0
0
1
2
1
2
7
4

4

3
4
5

0
1
1
1
0
5

9
15
8
5

9
21
5

APPENDIX

19

Table C.—Distribution of all reported injuries resulting in permanent-partial disability, according to
part of body affected, by industry, 1949—Continued*
Percent of permanent-partial disability cases involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry
(1)
Non manufacturing
Construction1___________________________________
General building contractors____________________
Heavy construction, except highway and street____
Highway and street construction________________
Structural-steel erection and ornamental iron work..
Transportation1_________________________________
Stevedoring _______________________________
Local transportation systems, integrated__________
Heat, light, and power1 _________________________
Electric light and power_______________________
Gas_______________ ___________ _____________
Personal services1________ _______________________
Trade 1__________ _____________________ _________
Wholesalei adistributors_________________________
W h n lf is a lf
n r e t a i l b u ild in g s u p p lie s
1 Totals include data for industries not shown separately.
* Less than 0.5 percent.




Total

An arm
(3)

(2)
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

7
5
8
7
10
6
7
11
7
9
3
5
6
2
0

A hand or
fingers
(4)
53
55
54
65
31
43
38
47
56
55
55
61
66
67
80

A foot or
toes
(6)

A leg
(5)
9
7
9
4
25
10
7
13
8
8
9
8
6
4
4

14
13
17
9
18
26
32
11
18
16
22
18
9
11
12

One or both Other and
ears
(hearing) unclassified
(S)
(9)

An eye
(7)
7
7
8
7
3
2
1
7
3
6
3
4
9
0

4

2
2
0
3
3

(2)
(2) 0
(2) 0
1
0
0
0
0

8
11
4
5
10
13
15
11
7
9
4

5
9
7
4

20

WORK IN JU RIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949

Table D.—Distribution of temporary-total disabilities, by duration of disability, 1949 1
Industry

Number of
cases2

(1)

(2)

Total, manufacturing Manufacturing
*........................................................
Apparel and other finished textile products:
Clothing, men’s and boys’............................................
Clothing, women’s and children’s................................
Trimmings and fabricated textile products, not else­
where classified........................ ..................................
Chemicals and allied products:
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides.................................
Fertilizers.......................................................................
Industrial chemicals......................................................
Paints, varnishes, and colors........................................
Chemical products, not elsewhere classified................
Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies:
Batteries.........................................................................
Electrical appliances......................................................
Electrical equipment for industrial use........................
Radios and phonographs...............................................
Food products:
Baking............................... ...........................................
Bottling, soft drinks......................................................
Breweries.......................................................................
Canning and preserving................................................
Confectionery.................................................................
Dairy products.............. ...... .......................................
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products.............................
Slaughtering and meat packing....................................
Sugar, beet.................................... .................................
Sugar, cane.....................................................................
Food products, not elsewhere classified.......................
Furniture and finished lumber products:
Furniture, metal...........................................................
Furniture, except metal................................................
Mattresses and nedsprings.............................................
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures............................
Wooden containers.........................................................
Miscellaneous wood products, not elsewhere classi­
fied...................... ......................................................
Iron and steel and their products:
Cutlery and edge tools...................................................
Fabricated structural steel............................................
Forgings, iron and steel___________ _____________
Foundries, iron..............................................................
Foundries, steel-............................................................
Hardware___________________________________
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified...............
Iron and steel.................................................................
Ornamental metal work................................................
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products..................
Plumbers’ supplies........................................................
Sheet-metal work...........................................................
Stamped and pressed metal products..........................
Steam fittings and apparatus........................................
Tin cans and other tinware...........................................
Tools, except edge tools................................................
Wire and wire products.................................................
Iron and steel products, not elsewhere classified.........
Leather and leather products:
Boots and shoes, not rubber.........................................
Leather..........................................................................
Lumber and timber basic products:
Logging...........................................................................
Sawmills.........................................................................
Saw and planing mills, integrated................................
Planing mills..................................................................
Plywood mills................................................................
Millwork (structural).....................................................

See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of cases resulting in—
1, 2, or 3 days 4 or more days
of disability of disability
(3)
(4)

Total days
lost2
(5)

Percent of total days lost
accruing from—
1-, 2-, or 3-day 4-or-more-day
cases
cases
(6)
(7)

88,472

34.0

66.0

1,436,194

4.0

533
311
539

42.6
47.9
28.6

57.4
52.1
71.4

5,096
3,147
7,112

8.1
7.9
4.0

91.9
92.1
96.0

416
782
709
628
236

42.5
30.3
26.7
44.1
28.4

57.5
69.7
73.3
55.9
71.6

5,602
11,633
14,060
7,346
3,255

5.5
4.1
2.4
7.1
3.8

94.5
95.9
97.6
92.9
96.2

233
261
1,452
299

41.6
33.3
32.3
42.5

58.4
66.7
67.7
57.5

2,457
3,621
23,527
3,560

8.3
5.2
3.7
7.2

91.7
94.8
96.3
92.8

1,674
255
2,585
1,837
778
428
1,396
3,329
496
444
741

34.5
50.6
30.0
33.4
36.8
34.6
32.7
40.4
35.7
20.5
32.9

65.5
49.4
70.0
66.6
63.2
65.4
67.3
59.6
64.3
79.5
67.1

24,509
2,574
42,353
25,152
9,709
5,937
19,961
35,952
5,362
7,985
10,401

4.7
3.5
4.9
5.9
5.3
4.6
7.9
6.0
2.3
4.3

95.3
89.8
96.5
95.1
94.1
94.7
95.4
92.1
94.0
97.7
95.7

579
2,537
373
253
855
840

36.4
38.3
43.4
37.2
37.0
33.1

63.6
61.7
56.6
62.8
63.0
66.9

7,571
31,763
4,719
3,569
11,348
12,040

5.3
5.9
6.4
5.0
5.8
4.2

94.7
94.1
93.6
95.0
94.2
95.8

312
1,188
663
2,918
367
523
1,074
2,474
280
600
416
251
736
621
263
353
567
468

35.9
44.4
28.1
34.2
22.9
33.5
35.5
21.2
39.3
37.0
27.6
47.4
28.9
32.5
33.5
34.8
28.0
36.1

64.1
55.6
71.9
65.8
77.1
66.5
64.5
78.8
60.7
63.0
72.4
52.6
71.1
67.5
66.5
65.2
72.0
63.9

4,380
15,430
12.917
43,147
7,164
7,227
15,479
117, 695
4,268
7,949
9,745
3,540
11, 630
10. 506
3j 794
4,916
9,516
6,806

6.4
5.7
2.7
4.4
2.2
4.1
4.6
09
4.9
5.7
1.9
6.8
3.8
3.5
4.7
4.3
3.2
5.1

93.6
94.3
97.3
95.6
97.8
95.9
95.4
99.1
95.1
94.3
98.1
93.2
96.2
96.5
95.3
95.7
96.8
94.9

611
949

32.9
29.3

67.1
70.7

7,107
13,443

5.2
4.1

94.8
95.9

2,105
2,396
896
557
240
716

23.9
27.3
30.7
41.8
36.3
34.1

76.1
72.7
69.3
58.2
63.7
65.9

47,460
43,762
14,821
7,620
3,341
11,262

2.1
3.0
3.7
5.8
5.8
4.0

97.9
97.0
96.3
94.2
94.2
96.0

10.2

6.0

'

APPENDIX

21

Table D.—Distribution of temporary-total disabilities, by duration of disability, 1949 1—Continued
Industry

Number of
cases3

(1)

(2)

Manufacturing—Continued
Machinery, except electric:
Agricultural machinery and tractors.............................
Bearings, ball and roller..................................................
Commercial and household machinery..........................
Construction and mining machinery.............................
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors..............................
Engines and turbines......................................................
Food-products machinery...............................................
General industrial machinery and equipment, not
elsewhere classified................................................ ......
General machine shops (jobbing and repair)................
Mechanical measuring and controlling instruments__
Metalworking machinery................................................
Pumps and compressors.................................................
Special-industry machinery, not elsewhere classified. Textile machinery...........................................................
Nonferrous metals and their products:
Foundries, nonferrous.....................................................
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware.......................
Nonferrous metal products, not elsewhere classified,..
Paper and allied products:
Paper boxes and containers............................................
Paper and pulp................................................................
Paper products, not elsewhere classified.......................
Printing and publishing:
Book and job printing....................................................
News and periodical........................................................
Rubber products3..................................................................
Stone, clay, and glass products:
Clay products (structural)..............................................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products.......................
Glass.................................................................................
Pottery and related products.........................................
Stone, clay, and glass products, not elsewhere ClassifiedTextiles and textile-mill products:
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings.................
Cotton yarn and textiles................................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles..........................................
Knit goods........................................................................
Rayon, other synthetic, and silk textiles......................
Woolen and worsted textiles...........................................
Transportation equipment:
Aircraft............................................................................
Aircraft parts...................................................................
Motor vehicles..................................................................
Motor-vehicle parts..........................................................
Railroad equipment............................................. ..........
Shipbuilding and repairing...........................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing:
Fabricated plastics products.........................................
Professional and scientific instruments and supplies.
Tobacco products..........................................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing, not elsewhere classified.
Non manufacturing
Construction:
General building contractors............... ..........................
Heavy construction, except highway and street_____
Highway and street construction..................................
Plumbing, heating, and air conditioning.......................
Electrical work................................................................
Plastering and lathing.....................................................
Roofing and sheet-metal work.......................................
Structural-steel erection and ornamental iron work___
Special-trade contractors, other......................................
See footnotes at end of table.




Percent of cases resulting in—
1, 2, or 3 days 4 or more days
of disability of disability
(3)
(4)

Total days
lost3
(6)

Percent of total days lost
accruing from—
1-, 2-, or 3-day 4-or-more-day
cases
cases
(6)
(7)

1,228
434
548
1,384
277
251
253
1,291
252
217
852
286
932
523

42.2
32.0
31.8
38.4
46.6
30.3
34.4
31.4
34.9
29.5
36.2
24.5
43.5
39.2

57.8
68.0
68.2
61.6
53.4
69.7
65.6
68.6
65.1
70.5
63.8
75.5
56.5
60.8

13,809
6,141
10,260
24,399
2,778
3,513
3,373
20,484
3,874
3,044
12, 700
4,633
13,175
7,546

7.1
4.8
3.5
4.0
7.6
3.8
4.4
3.9
4.2
4.0
4.6
2.5
5.8
4.9

92.9
95.2
96.5
96.0
92.4
96.2
95.6
96.1
95.8
96.0
95.4
97.5
94.2
95.1

324
211
428

37.0
40.3
37.4

63.0
59.7
62.6

4,219
3,459
6,175

5.7
4.4
5.7

94.3
95.6
94.3

806
1,171
804

38.3
26.8
38.2

61.7
73.2
61.8

10,593
21.828
10,463

5.5
2.8
5.6

94.5
97.2
94.4

1,079
1,578
942

36.4
35.9
35.4

63.6
64.1
64.6

15,819
21,086
14,900

4.6
5.0
4.1

95.4
95.0
95.9

2,542
445
1,428
534
396

34.9
36.6
33.2
37.5
34.3

65.1
63.4
66.8
62.5
65.7

36.119
6,459
23,307
7,457
6,542

4.9
4.6
3.8
5.4
3.9

95.1
95.4
96.2
94.6
96.1

1,106
2,355
1,141
807
546
1,224

27.7
27.3
28.4
34.7
30.2
25.2

72.3
72.7
71.6
65.3
69.8
74.8

20,364
42,395
19, 691
9.526
8,043
23,983

2.9
2.9
3.2
5.3
4.0
2.4

97.1
97.1
96.8
94.7
96.0
97.6

341
767
277
733
896
1,017

20.5
36.8
34.3
32.5
35.2
49.0

79.5
63.2
65.7
67.5
64.8
51.0

8,652
16,937
3,827
14,334
29,912
12,895

1.5
3.2
4.7
3.0
1.9
8.6

98.5
96.8
95.3
97.0
98.1
91.4

370
603
596
920

43.0
66.3
36.7
39.3

57.0
33.7
63.3
60.7

4,321
4.090
7,850
11, 623

7.1
21.7
4.9
5.6

92.9
78.3
95.1
94.4

5,414
2,832
2,200
573
449
230
262
397
379

45.7
36.0
47.1
50.6
45.2
44.3
37.4
38.3
45.4

54.3
64.0
52.9
49.4
54 8
55.7
62.6
61.7
54.6

64,581
50,429
25,915
6,554
5,849
2,476
3.527
6, 739
4, 295

7.5
4.2
7.8
7.9
7.0
7.9
5.5
4.2
8.1

92.5
95.8
92.2
92.1
93.0
92.1
94.5
95.8
91.9

22

WORK INJURIES IN THE UNITED STATES DURING 1949

Table D.—Distribution of temporary-total disabilities, by duration of disability, 1949 1—Continued
Industry

Num ber of
cases*

(1)

(2)

Percent of cases resulting in—
1 ,2 , or 3 days 4 or more days
of disability
of disability
(3)
(4)

T otal days
lost*
(5)

Percent of total days lost
accruing from—
1-, 2-, or 3-day 4-or-more-day
cases
cases
(7)
(6)

Nonmanufacturing—Continued
Transportation:
Stevedoring..................................................................................
Streetcar........................................................................................
Bus (local)............................................. .....................................
Local transportation system s, integrated..........................
Trucking and hauling (local)................................................
W arehousing and storage........................................................
H eat, light, and power:
Electric light and power.........................................................
Gas.................................................................................................
W aterworks..........................................................................................
Personal services:
Laundries............................................. ......................................
Laundry w ith dry cleaning...................................................
H otels............................................................................................
E ating and drinking places....................................................
Business services:
Banks and other financial agencies.........................., .........
Insurance.............. ......... ....... .....................................................
M iscellaneous business services.......................................
M iscellaneous repair services.................................................
Educational services........................................................................
Fire departm ents..............................................................................
Police departm ents...........................................................................
Trade:
W holesale distributors..............................................................
R etail, general m erchandise..................................................
R etail food...................................................................................
W holesale and retail dairy products...................................
R etail autom obiles and accessories...................... ..............
R etail apparel and accessories----------------------------------M iscellaneous retail stores___ _______ _________ . . . ___
W holesale and retail building supplies...............................
W holesale and retail trade com bined, not elsewhere
classified...................................................................................

1,511
300
941
3,325
746
750

23.2
38.7
32.6
31.8
40.1
38.4

76.8
61.3
67.4
68.2
59.9
61.6

51,821
5,498
13.915
52,613
10,141
9,575

1.5
3.9
4.1
3.9
5.6
5.9

98.5
96.1
95.9
96.1
94.4
94.1

6,302
4,002
402

35.8
37.1
40.3

64.2
62.9
59.7

108,416
48,034
4,733

3.9
5.7
6.6

96.1
94.3
93.4

332
476
1,080
217

36.7
36.1
34.8
33.6

63.3
63.9
65.2
66.4

4,579
M 18
12,186

%m

5.2
5.1
6.1
5.4

94.8
94.9
93.9
94.6

204
352
355
213
1,488
1,690
996

37.3
36.1
41.7
40.4
41.1
38.2
30.0

62.7
63.9
58.3
59.6
58.9
61.8
70.0

3,408
4,929
3,957
2,767
20,382
24,400
16,994

4.4
4.5
6.0
5.9
5.6
5.8
3.4

95.6
95.5
94.0
94.1
94.4
94.2
96.6

2,365
722
816
1.368
639
208
669
1,060
295

49.2
39.2
41.4
23.8
51.0
43.8
38.0
40.8
34.6

50.8
60.8
58.6
76.2
49.0
56.2
62.0
59.2
65.4

25,404
10,271
9,691
19,715
$ 136
2,696
9,329
12,730
4,825

8.8
4.9
7.2
3.5
9.5
6.2
5.2
7.0
4.6

91.2
95.1
92.8
96.5
90.5
93.8
94.8
93.0
95.4

1A tem porary-total disability is defined as any injury which does not
result in death or perm anent im pairm ent but which renders the injured
person unable to perform a regularly established job throughout the hours
corresponding to his regular shut on any day after the day of injury.




* Based on reports from those establishm ents w hich were able to supply the
requested breakdown.
* T otal includes data for industries not shown separately.

APPENDIX

23

Table E.—Indexes of injury-frequency rates in manufacturing, 1926-49, by extent of disability 1
[1926=100]
Year
(1)
1926
1927
1928
1929
1930
1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937

Death and
perma­
All injuries nenttotal
(3)
(2)

___

.............................

100.0
93.6
93.2
99.2
95.5
78.0
80.9
91.8
93.6
88.1
85.7
85.8

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
107.1
92.9
107.1
85.7
107.1
92.9
85.7
85.7

Perma­ Temporarynenttotal
partial
(4)
(5)
100.0
96.3
104.6
109.2
111.0
102.8
113.8
110.1
128.4
121.1
114.7
122.0

100.0
93.3
92.5
98.7
94.6
76.5
78.9
90.8
91.6
86.2
84.1
83.7

Year
(1)
1938.....................................
1939...................................
1940....... .............................
1941............................ ........
1942__________________
1943__________ ________
1944— ..........................—
1945....... .............................
1946...................- ..............
1947....................................
1948.....................................
1949.....................................

All injuries
(2)

Death and
perma­
nenttotal
(3)

71.7
73.4
75.3
85.8
93.5
94.4
88.3
81.9
84.3
78.4
69.8
61.2

71.4
71.4
71.4
80.3
70.7
70.7
62.8
62.8
60.1
51.7
51.7
44.3

Perma­ Temporarynenttotal
partial
(4)
(5)
78.9
80.7
84.8
93.7
83.4
83.4
75.4
72.3
77.9
70.1
67.3
61.9

68.1
73.9
75.6
86.2
94.1
95.0
89.7
83.0
85.3
79.3
70.6
61.6

1 Beginning with 1937, the indexes are based on the percent of change of the frequency rates of identical establishments in each pair of successive years.




U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE*