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W o r k Injuries in the
United States During 1946

Bulletin No. 921

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
L . B. S ch w ellen b a ch ,

Secretary

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w an C lag u e, Commissioner

For sale by th e Superintendent o f D ocum ents, U. S. Governm ent Printing Office, W ashington 25, D. C.




-

P rice 10 cents




Letter of Transmittal
United States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics,
Washington , D. C., October 20, 1947,
T he Secretary of L abor :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on work injuries in the United States
during 1946. Over 53,000 establishments participated in the survey on which the report
is based.
This bulletin, a portion of which appeared in the October 1947 Monthly Labor Review,
was prepared by Max D. Kossoris, Chief of the Bureau’s Division of Industrial Hazards.
E wan C lague, Commissioner.
Hon. L. B. SCHWELLENBACH,
Secretary of Labor,

Contents
Injury estimates and rates in 1946----------------------------------------------------------------------Estimates of disabling work injuries_________________________________________
Injury-frequency rates:
Manufacturing_________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing_____________________________________________________
Injury severity______________________________________________________________
Appendix tables:
Table A.— Injury rates and inj uries by extent of disability, 1946_______________
Table B.— Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 32,241
identical establishments, 1945 to 1946______________________________________
Table C.— Estimates of disabilities, by extent, for manufacturing industries
1946_____________________________________________________________________
Table D.— Distribution of all reported injuries resulting in permanent partia,
disability, according to part of body affected, by industry, 1946_____________
Table E.— Indexes of injury-frequency rates in manufacturing, 1926-46 t
extent of disability----------------------------------------------------------------------------------




am

Page
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3
3
4
6
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Work Injuries in the United States
Injury Estimates and Rates in 1946
Estimates of Disabling Work Injuries
F o r t h e s ix t h c o n s e c u t iv e y e a r , disabling
work injuries in the United States exceeded 2
million in 1946. The estimated total of 2,056,000
disabling injuries constituted an increase of slight­
ly more than 1 percent above the revised 1945
figures (2,020,300). Although the rise was slight,
it marked a reversal of the downward trend from
the peak in 1943. The 1946 total, nevertheless,
was lower than that for any of the war years,
1941-44.
Actual time lost from work because of disabling
injuries during 1946 was estimated at about
42% million days— a sufficient amount of time
taken out of production or services to have pro­
vided full-time employment over an entire year for
about 142,000 workers. In other words, the effect
of disabling work injuries was to subtract that
many workers from the country’s labor force for
all of 1946. Taking into consideration standard
time charges for future economic losses occasioned
by deaths and permanent impairments, the total
time loss caused by the year’s disabling work in­
juries was estimated to reach a total of nearly 230
million days, or enough to supply full-time annual
employment for about 765,000 workers.
Estimated fatalities resulting from work injuries
numbered 16,500— the same as the revised 1945
figure. Permanent total disabilities, which usually
incapacitate workers entirely from future indus­
trial employment, and which normally amount to
10 percent of fatalities, remained unchanged at
1,800. Permanent partial impairments, however,
increased to 92,400—nearly 5,000 above the esti­
mate for the preceding year. As in earlier years,
about three-fourths of these impairments were of
the hand or fingers. Most of these impairments




will not prevent the workers involved from con­
tinuing in industrial employment, but many may
require retraining or changes in jobs. The great­
est volume of the injuries— 1,945,300—were tem­
porary in nature and resulted in a time loss of
1 or more days for each disability. In manu­
facturing, the duration of temporary injuries
averaged 17 days.

The major industry group with the largest
number of disabling work injuries, in 1945, was
manufacturing. Although the 541,500 injuries
estimated for this group fell about 50,000 below
the 1945 level, 2,500 injuries resulted in death
and more than 28,000, in permanent impairments
(table 1).
The major industrial group with the largest
number of fatalities—4,500— was agriculture. The
data for this industry were extremely meager and
have not improved during the last 10 years
(1937-46), although more attention has been
centered on farm safety in recent years. Work
injuries were estimated at about 323,600.

2
The injury experience for mining and quarrying
during 1946 was only slightly worse than for 1945.
The injury total for construction, contrary to the
preliminary estimates, increased by only about
2,0,000 over the preceding year’s level. The earlier
estimates had indicated a much sharper increase.
Fatalities, nevertheless, reached 2,200 in 1946,
against 1,700 in 1945.

The services, government, and miscellaneous
industries group was estimated to have had the
second largest injury total—407,900— and 2,500 of
these resulted in deaths. In sharp contrast with
manufacturing, however, the number of permanent
partial impairments was below 20,000 even
though both groups were estimated to have had
the same number of fatalities. An important

MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES EXPERIENCING MORE THAN 20,000
INDUSTRIAL INJURIES IN 1946
MAN-DAYS LOST

DISABLING INJURIES

89,100

F000 PRODUCTS

JL

W TTTTm T * \
/f

71,800

— —

IRON AND STEEL
ANO THEIR PROOUCTS

61,200

6,963,000

LUMBER ANO TIMBER

53,900

41,200

iK s ia r
»Y<S~
MACHINERY, EXCEPT ELECTRIC

TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT

*& '-yfr. 7
.■*
m
4 0 ,2 0 0

m (S m m
BSk.
31 ,400

FINISHED LUMBER PR0DUC1

ma
*

2 4 ,9 0 0

CHEMICALS ANO ALLIED PRODUCTS

22 ,4 0 0

STONE, CLAY AND GLASS

reason for this difference is the more prevalent use
of power machinery in manufacturing. The
injury total for this large miscellaneous group was
somewhat higher than the 1945 estimate.
The 1946 estimates also indicated higher levels
for the remaining major industry groups. For
public utilities, the 1946 total of 25,500 was almost
25 percent higher than for 1945. The trade
group, including both wholesale and retail, had a




1,595,000

12-percent greater injury volume in 1946 than in
the previous year, with a total of 333,100. Only
1,400 of these, however, were fatal.
Two groups, in addition to manufacturing, ex­
perienced decreases. For railroads, the 1946
injury total of 76,000 was about 18,000 below the
1945 figure. For miscellaneous transportation,
with a 1946 total of 132,800, the estimated de­
crease was about 5 percent below the 1945 level.

3
T able

1.— Estimated number o f disabling injuries during 1946, by industry group

[Difference between total number of injuries and injuries to employees represents injuries to self-employed workers]
All disabilities

Permanent total
disabilities

Fatalities

Permanent partial
disabilities

Temporary total
disabilities

Industry group
Total

To em­
ployees

All groups...................................................

2,066,000

1,614,700

16,500

11,700

Agriculture *...............................................
Mining and quarrying 3.............................
Construction 3............................................
Manufacturing4.........................................
Public utilities...........................................
Trade3........................................................
Railroads •
..................................................
Miscellaneous transportation3.................
Services, government, and miscellaneous
industries3...............................................

323,600
83,800
131,800
541,600
25,500
333,100
76,000
132,800

75,100
79,400
88,300
532,400
25,500
266,600
76,000
114,000

4,500
1,300
2,200
2,500
400
1,400
800
900

1,100
1,200
1,600
2,400
* 400
1,200
800
700

407,900

357,400

2,500

2,300

Total

i Based on fragmentary data.
* Based largely on Bureau of Mines data.
* Based on small sample studies.

Injury-Frequency Rates
Manufacturing: For the entire group of manu­
facturing industries, the weighted frequency rate
for 1946 was 19.9, or about 7 percent above the
1945 rate (18.6). This increase was the result of
frequency-rate increases in most of the individual
manufacturing industries.
Of the major groups (each composed of a num­
ber of related industries), 5 had rates in 1946
which differed by less than a full frequency-rate
point from their 1945 level; 9 had group rates
which were from 1 to 5 points higher than in 1945.
On the downward side, only 1 group was 5 points
or more below its 1945 figure, and only 2 had rates
from 1 to 5 frequency points lower.
Individual manufacturing industries had much
the same experience. Of the 148 industries in­
cluded in the survey, 36 showed changes of less
than 1 frequency-rate point, up or down. But 76
had larger increases, 22 of these experiencing a rise
of 5 full frequency-rate points or more. Only 36
industries showed decreases, 7 of which dropped
5 or more points. In general, the frequency rates
in manufacturing industries went up.
Among the manufacturing industries for which
frequiency rates in 1946 were 5 points or more
higher than in the previous year, were sawmills
(with an increase from 56.6 to 64.1), combined
saw and planing mills (52.6 to 60.3), boatbuilding
(26.1 to 47.7), cut-stone and stone products (27.6
to 42.7), leather (28.4 to 34.9), and concrete,
gypsum, and plaster products (27.0 to 32.7).
Industries in which frequency rates were 40 or
more, that is, at least 40 disabling injuries per
500 workers per year, were cut-stone and stone




To em­
ployees

Total
1,800

To em­
ployees

100
300
100
200

To em­
ployees

Total

To em­
ployees

1,400

92,400

72,900

1,945,300

1,528,700

100
200
200
200
100
300
100

16,200
3,700
3,400
28,200
600
8,000
5,300
7,600

3,700
3,500
2,300
27,700
600
6,400
6,300
6,500

302,500
78,600
125,900
510,600
24,500
323,600
69,600
124,200

70,200
74,500
84,200
502,100
24,500
258,900
69,600
106,700

200

19,400

16,900

385,800

338,000

400~
200
300
200
(«)

Total

(4
)

4 Based on comprehensive survey.
5 Less than 60.
6 Based on Interstate Commerce Commission data.

products (42.7), veneer mills (43.6), plywood
mills (43.9), structural clay products (44.9), brew­
eries (45.3), wooden containers (45.7), iron foun­
dries (47.3), boatbuilding (47.7), combined saw
and planing mills (60.3), sawmills (64.1), and
logging (80.4). Although the logging rate was
the highest in all manufacturing, it was about 12
points below the 1945 rate (92.0).
An important industry with a drop of more
than 5 frequency-rate points was dairy products,
the rate for which declined from 33.1 to 23.8.
At the other end of the scale were 4 industries
which experienced less than 5 disabling work in­
juries for each million employee-hours worked:
Synthetic rubbei* (1.9), millinery (2.6), electric
lamps—bulbs (3.9), and women’s and children’s
clothing (4.2). The explosives industry, in which
injuries in recent years have been greatly reduced,
had a frequency rate of 5.7. It is a significant
tribute to accident prevention that injuries in an
industry such as explosives, popularly regarded as
extremely hazardous, occurred about half as fre­
quently per million hours of exposure as in the
tobacco industry, usually regarded as very safe.
It also speaks eloquently for the needless toll of
over 2 million disabling injuries in the country’s
industries, and the tremendous cost to both labor
and management in terms of suffering, lost income,
and output.
Nonmanufacturing: Because of the interest fo­
cused on mining accidents, the Bureau’s data this
year include frequency rates for mining. The
rates were preliminary and were obtained from the
United States Bureau of Mines. They indicated

4
that both anthracite and bituminous-coal mining
were among the most hazardous of industries,
exceeded by only a few others. The frequency
rate for anthracite mining for 1946 was 84.2, and
for bituminous-coal mining, 61.4. The size of the
bituminous rate placed it in the same category as
sawmills— one of the most hazardous in the
manufacturing group.
As in past years, the nonmanufacturing industry
in the Bureau’s own survey with the highest fre­
quency rate was stevedoring. The 1946 rate of
77.2 was substantially below that for 1945 (87.6).

engineering construction, the frequency rate
jumped from 28.1 to 46.7, and the rate for highway
construction advanced nearly as sharply— but to
an even higher level—from 3,5.8 to 50.5.
For 2 other industries in which frequency rates
customarily are high, the 1946 rates showed very
little change from those for 1945. In trucking and
hauling, the rate decreased slightly, (37.5 to 35.6),
and in warehousing and storage it increased frac­
tionally (34.3 to 34.8).
The contrast between industries with very high
and very low rates was as marked in nonmanu­
facturing as in manufacturing. Contrasted with
rates in the 60’s, 70’s, and 80’s in the mining and
stevedoring industries are rates as low as 2.4 in
radio broadcasting, 2.9 in the telephone industry,
3.1 in insurance, and 3.8 in retailing of apparel and
accessories.

Injury Severity

The nature of the reporting sample, however,
suggests that both of these rates probably under­
stated the situation considerably. If a more
comprehensive study made a few years ago is any
indication of the actual injury experience in this
hazardous industry, the actual frequency rate may
well have been twice as high as that based on the
reporting sample of 73 stevedoring contractors.
All 3 industries in the construction group had
sizable increases in the frequency of disabling in­
juries in 1946 as compared with 1945. The least
hazardous of these— building construction—had
an increase in its rate from 30.9 to 35.4. In heavy




Little emphasis has been placed on the severity
rate in the Bureau’s analysis of work-injury
experiences of the last few years. The reason for
this was the conviction that the severity rate does
not actually measure injury severity, but is in
effect a weighted frequency rate.1 Although the
rate serves a useful purpose, it is obviously mis­
named. As pointed out in earlier years, the disa­
bility distribution is a more accurate indicator of
changes in the severity of injuries than the sever­
ity rate. If a single measure of injury severity is
wanted, perhaps the simplest measure of all is
the average time charge per disabling injury.
For the injuries reported to the Bureau of Labor
Statistics for 1946, this average time charge was
nearly 82 days per injury. This, of course, in­
cludes, in addition to the actual time lost in
temporary total disabilities, the standard time
charges for deaths and permanent impairments.
The so-called severity rate, being a composite
of injury frequency, time charges, and hours of
exposure, may be more aptly designated as a
“ hazard rate,” reflecting the days lost because of
injuries per 1,000 hours of exposure. For the
entire manufacturing group, this measure was 1.6
for 1946. The rate indicates that for every person
employed a full year (i. e.‘, 2,000 hours), 3.2 days
were lost because of work injuries. This, of
course, includes all workers, regardless of whether*
* The severity rate is the average number of days lost, because of disabling
work injuries, per 1,000 employee-hours worked.

5
or not they were injured, and includes standard
time charges for deaths and permanent impair­
ments. For those who were injured, the story is
quite different: Those who were only temporarily
disabled, lost on an average of 17 days each.
(In some industries this average was appreciably
higher; in shipbuilding, for instance, it was 47
days.) As already indicated, if standard time
charges are included, the average comes to 82
days.
Manufacturing industries with high severity
rates (5 or over) were plastics (9.9), logging (9.5),
plywood mills (7.7), breweries and cut stone, each
(5.5), and steel barrels (5.1). Among nonmanu­
facturing industries were heavy engineering (5.7),
highway construction (5.1), and, topping them all,
stevedoring, with an unusually high rate (25.9).
The disability distribution, as already indicated,
permits a better analysis of actual injury severity
than does the severity rate. Of the injuries that
actually occurred, 2.0 percent in petroleum refin­
ing were fatal. The same percentage applied to
waterworks, and nearly the same percentage
(1.8 percent) to construction not elsewhere classi­
fied, consisting largely of demolition work. In
logging, the fatality percentage was 1.2, putting
that industry on about the same level as iron and
steel, copper smelting, heavy engineering con­
struction, and police departments. For all man­

ufacturing industries, deaths usually average
about one-half of 1 percent of all disabilities.
Industries in which permanent partial impair­
ments constituted 10 percent or more of the
injuries incurred included— plastics (36.8), steve­
doring (14.8), hardware and electrical appliances,
each (14.4), stamped and pressed metal products
(12.0), cold-finished steel (10.4), and communica­
tion equipment (10.1).
In the manufacturing group, 77 percent of per­
manent partial disabilities involved the hand or
fingers. The percentages of such injuries to these
members were particularly high in the following
industries: 96 percent in metal furniture, in
stamped metal products, and in commercial
machinery; 92 percent in wooden containers and
in leather; 90 percent in wood furniture and in
hardware; 87 percent in electrical equipment; 88
percent in book and job printing; and 82 percent
in paper and pulp.
Outstanding for high percentages of permanent
impairments to an arm were highway construction,
17 percent; carpets, 11 percent; bakeries, 10
percent; and news and periodical printing, 10
percent.
Permanent injuries to eyes loomed large in the
manufacture of tools and shipbuilding— 10 per­
cent in each industry.

Appendix Tables
Injury-frequency rates for a large number of
individual industries are shown in table A. The
group frequency rates shown in this table were
computed by weighting the rates for the individual
industries by the total employment in the respec­
tive industry classifications.
For the first time frequency rates for mining
have been included among those listed in table A.
These rates were secured from the United States

766600— 48-

2




Bureau of Mines and are included in this report
to make it more comprehensive.
The other tables continue for 1946 the same
types of data shown in the reports for previous
years: changes in employment, exposure, and
injuries; total injury estimates for individual
industries; the distribution of permanent impair­
ments according to the body parts affected; and
the injury trend data in manufacturing industries.

6
T a b l e A .— In ju ry rates and injuries by extent o f disability, 1946
[All reporting establishments]

Industry

All industries4........... .

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Average
number
of em­
ployees

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in 1
—
Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
worked
Death Perma­ Tempo­
abling
(thou­
nent
injuries and per­ partial
rary
sands)
manent
total dis­
total dis­ disabil­ ability
ity
ability 3

63,133

9,731,092 19,301,191
_ ----------__
7,894,471 15,246,509

Injury rates 2
—

Perma­ Tempo­
nent
rary
Fre­
partial
disabil­ total dis­ quency
ability
ity

Sever­
ity 1

354,844

33,781

Average days lost
per disability 1
—

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing.

295,576

0.3

4.9

94.8

938

Apparel and other finished textile products___
Clothing, men's and boys'—
Clothing, women's and children's
Millinery............... .
Apparel and accessories, not elsewhere
classified............. .
Trimmings and fabricated textile products, not elsewhere classified

2,029
734
812
67

218,297
111,232
65', 184
2; 288

406,648
206,892
118,113
4,282

3,023
1,571
497
11

.1

1.4
.8

98.5
99.2
99.7

1,020
1,900

83

7,988

15,129

121

333

31,605

62,230

823

Chemicals and allied products__
Compressed and liquefied gases
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides.............
Explosives............... .
Fertilizers.............. .
Industrial chemicals.
Paints, varnishes, and colors...
Paving and roofing materials.. .
Petroleum refining _
Plastic materials, except rubber
Soap and glycerin___
Synthetic rubber___
Synthetic textile fibers... _
Vegetable and animal oils__
Not elsewhere classified . . .

2,153
66
302
71
444
399
377
41
(8
)
43
134
7
28
36
205

539,128
4,533
60,360
10,858
21,633
127,254
38,901
7,799
137,000
17,159
20,471
1,016
64,713
5,291
22,140

1,115,154
9,116
120,359
23,270
44,258
266,853
81,304
17,672
288,000
36,360
40,765
2,098
127,285
9,918
47,889

15,340
109
1,707
133
1,462
4,152
1,515
320
3,060
361
437
4
870
244
966

1,152
28
53

645,930
15,157
15,574

1,251,236
30,587
30,775

12,374
564
592

51
82
573
26
43
261
35

79,448
31,345
300,743
13,221
16,005
163,989
10,448

166,945
58,459
564,796
35,094
30,324
320,764
23,489

1,162
978
5,917
99
508
2,359
195

Electrical machinery, equipment, and sup­
plies......................
Automotive electrical equipment..............
Batteries.............. .
Communication and signaling equipment,
except radio......... .
Electrical appliances
Electrical eq uipment for industrial use
Electrical lamps (bulbs')
Insulated wire and cable............
Radios and phonographs___
Not elsewhere classified___
Food products............ .
Baking....... .............
Beverages, not elsewhere classified.
Breweries.................
Canning and preserving___
Confectionery.........
Dairy products....... .
Distilleries............. .
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products..
Slaughtering and meat-packing
Sugar refining.....................
Not elsewhere classified..............................

4,065
673
284
299
402
247
292
119
523
847
106
273

504,491 1,021,007
53,723
118,890
9,011
18,338
56,243
120,634
69,034.
119,115
37,091
71,290
19,706
44,811
23,997
49,435
45,682
102,649
133,281
261,364
26,659
55,120
30,064
60,356

30,087
2,151
505
5,465
3,655
1,239
1,065
615
2,726
9,343
1,854
1,469

Furniture and finished lumber products.
Furniture, metal.......
Furniture, except metal...............
Mattresses and bedsprings...
Morticians' supplies..........
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures.. . .
Wooden containers................
Not elsewhere classified-

2,252
86
825
212
107
116
536
370

213,075
22,929
86,027
15,366
7,046
9,144
42,865
29,698

434,498
44,932
175,582
30,041
13,671
19,002
87,831
63,436

14,254
949
5,087
1,040
337
531
4,017
2,293

Iron and steel and their products___
.. .
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets
Cold-finished steel.............
Cutlery and edge tools.............................
Fabricated structural steel.........................
Forgings, iron and steel..............................
Foundries, iron.......
Foundries, steel............................
Hardware................
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classi­
fie d -.........................................................
Iron and steel............................
Metal coating and engraving. ............ ......
Ornamental m etalw ork................ ..........
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products.

4,902
83
48
133
425
184
823
134
172

1,414,879
18,076
12,906
24,990
48,808
54,205
136,495
56,468
59,817

2,729,916
33,929
23,839
55,479
95,860
101,200
273,673
100,175
115,327

60,860
638
547
1,278
2,810
3,157
12,947
3,468
1,594

53,820
493, 744
10,844
13,672
43.015

104,195
915,402
21,959
27,836
80,783

3,755
8,689
633
642
2,864

See footnotes at end of table.




256
236.
140
122
246

3

(«)*

(6
)
(6
)

519.9

5 1.6

12"
11
9
21

(6)

(6
)

17

«9.5
7.6
4.2
2.6

5oTi
.2
.1
.4

00

750

14

8.0

.2

2.9

96.9

778

14

13.2

.6

.5

5.0

1,110
1,800
1,174
2,100
907
955
842
1,356
(8
)
1,170
600

16
19
15
36
16
16
13
16

2,050
1,227
1,242

13
17
7
18
14
15

315.7
12.0
14.2
5.7
33.0
15.6
18.6
18.1
10.6
9.9
10.7
1.9
6.8
24.6
20.2

51.9
1.2
1.2
3.0
3.1
1.9
.8
1.3
(8
)
9.9
1.1

2.2
6.1
5.0

94.5
00
95.9
00
95.5
94.7
96.9
97.0
(8
)
63.2
• 95.5
00
97.8
93.1
94.5

.2

8.4
4.5
3.5

91.4
95.5
96.5

743
660
576

19
11
10

« 10.1
18.4
19.2

5 1.0
.7
.6

.5
.2
.2

10.1
14.4
8.0

89.4
85.4
91.8

(6)

(6)

00

(6)

00

24
13
21
13
18
17
10

7.0
16.7
10.5
3.9
16.8
74
8.3

.9
2.6
.9
1.1
.5

(«)

548
667
711
1,200
350
1,008
300

4.0
4.6
1.6
8.1
2.5
2.3
1.6
5.8
2.3
2.6
2.8
1.2

95.7
95.2
98.4
91.7
97.0
97.5
97.9
94.2
97.4
97.3
96.3
98.5

1,194
1,129
988
1,246
1,340
1,538
672
1 593
1,288
816
943
1,388

13
14
10
12
15
15
13
19
14
12
15
13

«24.6
18.1
29.1
45.3
30.7
17.4
23.8
12.4
26! 6
35.7
33.6
24.3

« 1.9

6.0
7.8
7.1
2.9
3.9
7.9
4.4
5.0

93.8
92.2
92.7
97.1
96.1
91.7
95.3
94.5

802
849
811
571
1,104
688
702
878

14
13
13
10
14
11
16
15

«32.7
21.1
29.0
34.6
24.7
27.9
45.7
36.1

« 2.7
17
2.3
1.0
1.4
2.6
3.0
3.5

5.4
5.6
10.4
4.1
4.4
4.5
2.4
4.6
14.4

94.2
94.4
89.6
95.9
95.1
95.4
97.2
93.5
85.5

871
540
534
1,462
568
805
968
752
649

18
21
20
14
25
14
14
24
14

523.0
18.8
22.9
23.0
29.3
31.2
47.3
34.6
13.8

51.9
.8
1.6
2.0
1.6
2.4
2.8
4.3
1.3

3.5
9.4
3.1
6.5
2.6

96.3
89.3
96.9
93.5
97.0

1,080
1,011
600
1,031
1,154

12
40
12
12
13

36.0
9.5
28.8
23.1
35.5

2.6
1.8
1.2
1.3
2.3

(6)
(#)

(6)

3.5

.6
.8
.6

.3
1 2.0
2
.5
(«)

(6
)

3.7
4.7
3.1
2.7
(8
)
36.8
4.0
(6)

.8
.5

4.5
9.0

.3
.2
.2
.5
.2
.5
.3
.1
.9
.3
.2
.2
.4
.3
.5
.4

.5
.1
.4
1.9
.1
.2
1.3
.4

95.5
91.0

(8
)

( 13)

1.0
3.4
2.1

is

.6
1.4
.7
5.5
2.5
1.1
1.3
1.9
L8
1.8
3.1
1.5

7
T able A .— In ju ry rates and injuries by extent o f disability, 1946— Continued
i
Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in
Industry

Average days lost
per disability

Injury rates2
—

Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
Death Perma­ Tempo­ Perma­ Tempo­
worked
abling
nent
nent
(thou­
Fre­
rary
rary
injuries and per­ partial
manent
sands)
total dis­ partial total dis­ quency
total dis­ disabil­ ability disabil­ ability
ity
ability 3
ity

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Average
number
of em­
ployees

105
185
134

34,869
24,906
12,442

75,283
53, 749
24, 786

1,524
1,105
721

0.2

2.7
5.5
5.1

97.1
94.5
94.9

950
729
670

13
19
22

20.2
20.6
29.1

1.3
1.4
1.7

452
191
44
34
112
205

94,428
39,638
8,487
12,872
39,516
29,649
5,002
53,316
6,528
26,366

194,145
78,404
16,092
23,942
77,027
61,166
9,223
103,221
12,214
50,993

4,409
2,239
290
544
1,321
1,515
196
2,447
248
1,279

.2
.2
2.7

12.0
2.9
5.4
5.5
6.6
7.8
(6
)
4.6
(8
)
5.1

87.8
96.9
91.9
94.5
93.2
91.9
00
95.4
00 „
94.7

703
1,087
550
908
523
784
525
1,029
300
706

16
12
20
15
12
14
13
16
22
14

22.7
28.6
18.0
22.7
17.1
24.8
21.3
23.7
20.3
25.1

2.0
1.9
5.1
1.2
•8
2.2
.4
1.4
.4
1.8

.1
.1
.1

3.1
3.4
2.2
6.8

96.8
96.5
97.7
93.2

845
541
1,303
543

13
13
14
10

515.2
10.8
34.9
15.9

5.6
.3
1.7
.7

Sever­
ity 1

Manufacturing—Continued
Iron and steel and their products—Con.
Plumbers* supplies.....................................
Screw-machine products.............................
Sheet-metal work........................................
Stamped and pressed metal products, not
elsewhere classified................ - ................
Steam fittings and apparatus....................
Steel barrels, kegs, drums, and packages..
Steel springs................................................
Tin cans and other tinware........................
Tools except edge tools. . ...........................
Vitreous-enameled products......................
Wire and wire products..............................
Wrought pipes, welded and heavy-riveted.
Not elsewhere classified..............................

21

233
17
167

.2
.3
(6
)
(6
)

.2

744
446
179
119

171,592
128,947
33,016
9,629

336,461
251,577
65.570
19,314

5,316
2,718
2.291
307

Lumber and timber basic products.........
Logging..............................................Sawmills............................................
Sawmills and planing mills combined.
Planing mills........................................
Plywood mills.....................................
Veneer mills........................................ .
Millwork (structural).........................

1,793
252
539
114
316
71
69
432

137,184
17,492
45,467
14,851
15,127
14,004
5,964
24,279

259,251
33,700
72.461
30,550
31,297
28.974
13,634
48,632

13.852
2,708
4,646
1,841
1,100
1,273
595
1,689

.6
1.2
.4
.2
.2
.9
.2
.8

3.3
2.0
2.7
3.2
6.3
5.0
6.4
8.7

96.1
96.8
96.9
96.6
93.5
94.1
93.4
90.5

1,099
1,435
1,070
1,270
717
1,791
1,089
669

17
19
16
17
17
15
16
14

560.2
80.4
64.1
60.3
35.1
43.9
43.6
34.7

5 5.6
9.5
4.6
4.3
2.3
7.7
4.8
3.3

Machinery, except electric................................
Agricultural machinery and tractors.........
Bearings, ball and roller.............................
Commercial and household machinery—
Construction and mining machinery........
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors.........
Engines and turbines............ ....................
Fabricated pipe and fittings.......................
Food-products machinery. ..................- General industrial machinery, not else­
where classified.......................................
General machine shops (jobbing and

3,674
216
55
237
295
58
80
8
148

993,719
116,462
39,457
160,781
86,211
13,958
70,507
810
24,573

1,965,434
215,455
75,955
312,397
174,319
29,033
133,965
1,629
51,874

39,337
5,500
1,310
4,151
4,789
825
2,007
44
1,299

.2
.3

4.8
4.4
3.8
7.5
2.8
1.3
4.4
(«)
6.1

95.0
95.3
96.2
92.4
96.9
98.7
94.7
00
93.9

775
764
513
715
1,053
675
651

15
11
22
18
13
11
23
11
13

521.1
25.5
17.2
13.3
27.5
28.4
15.0
27.0
25.0

5 1.4
2.7
.7
1.0
2.0
.6
1.1
4.0
1.5

522

106,528

208,901

4,830

6.2

93.6

834

14

23.1

1.7

11

26.6

1.1

Leather and leather products—
Boots and shoes, not rubber.
Leather................................. .
Not elsewhere classified........

Mechanical measuring and controlling
instruments................................. - .........
Mechanical power transmission equip­
ment, except ball and roller bearings—
Metalworking machinery...........................
Pumps and compressors.............................
Special industry machinery, not elsewhere
classified-....................................... .........
Textile machinery.......................................
Nonferrous metals and their products.............
Aluminum and magnesium products.......
Foundries, nonferrous................................
Primary smelting and refining7
................
Copper..................................................
Lead-silver............................................
Zinc.......................................................
Miscellaneous.......................................
Nonferrous basic shapes and forms...........
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware..
Not elsewhere classified.............................

.1
.3
.9
(«)
.2

898

317

18,384

37,155

990

6.3

93.7

457

94

30,870

56,634

762

8.8

91.2

989

15

13.5

1.3

24.2
15.8
25.9

1.4
.8
1.1

4.3
4.6
3.2

95.4
95.4
96.4

418
701
356

14
14
14

.1

4.7
2.8

95.2
97.2

923
914

13
16

22.7
18.0

1.3
.8

.1

5.2
7.1
4.8

94.7
92.9
95.1

843
954
1,019

16
30
15

«20.5
24.8
30.0

«1.3
2.2
2.2

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
2.9
8.2
4.0

00
00
00
00
97.1
91.8
96.0

(8
)
00
00
00
400
350
929

13
13
13

22.0
22.7
35.1
27.1
16.9
9.3
18.1

96
907
129

27/304
170,456
35,049

53,543
347, 731
72.552

1,298
5,511
1.878

.3

379
133

67,146
25,223

137,986
56,298

3,131
1,012

829
43

174, 578
12,172
32,392

366,921
23,820
67,019

7,657
591
2,011

10,200
3,600
9,900
5,600
31,090
30,672
38,952

23.230
7,270
26,200
12,190
68,149
60,824
78,216

511
165
919
330
1,155
563
1,412

1 1.2
2

8
(8
)
(8
)

39
128

221

.4

.1

12.4

00
©
(8
)
00

(8
)
(8
)
©
(8
)

1.1
.4
.9

61

43,732

89,519

612

1.6

16.7

81.7

905

50

6.8

1.4

Paper and allied products.........
Envelopes.................... .......
Paper boxes and containers.
Paper and pulp 1 ................
0
Not elsewhere classified..__

1,414
71
606
521
216

302,916
7,674
61,866
193,377
39,999

646,461
16,264
130,353
418,856
80,986

16,280
225
3,037
11,267
1,751

.3
.4
.1
.5

4.4
2.7
7.9
3.0
3.6

95.3
96.9
92.0
96.5
96.4

980
450
899
1,256
784

17
15
15
19
13

5 24.2
13.8
23.3
26.9
21.6

5 1.9
.7
2.2
2.4
.9

Printing and publishing...
Book and job printing.
Bookbinding................
News and periodical...

2,498
1,625
55
818

199,158
98,360
4,019
96,779

412,019
206,951
8,523
196,545

3,673
1,841
88
1,744

.2

5.5
6.7
00
4.2

94.3
93.3
00
95.3

992
780
425
1,360

16
16
16
15

«9.0
8.9
10.3
8.9

5.7
.6
.5
.9

287
33
43

227,230
24,898
118,831
83,501

474,515
68,619
238,225
167,670

7,212
783
3,074
3,355

6.9
5.9
4.1
8.6

92.8
94.1
95.3
91.1

1,235
1,392
798
1,333

20
24
25
16

5 16.0
11.4
12.9
20.0

52.0
1.2
1.1
3.1

Ordnance and accessories9
.

Bubber products................. .
Rubber boots and shoes.
Rubber tires and tubes
Not elsewhere classified.

See footnotes at end of table.




211

(6
)

.5
.3
.6
.3

8
T a b l e A .— In ju ry rates and injuries by extent of disability, 1946— Continued

Industry

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in
Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
worked
Death Perma­ Tempo­
abling
(thou­
nent
rary
injuries and per­ partial
sands)
manent
total dis­ disabil­ total dis­
ability
ability 3
ity

Average days lost
per disability >
—

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Average
number
of em­
ployees

1,233
425
208
108
219
141
132

223^82
23,500
38,037
9,911
3,450
91,453
32, 751
24,480

465,423
57,949
77,063
21,527
7,172
187,388
64,945
49,376

10,835
638
3,458
703
306
3,278
1,460
992

0.5
12.9
.5
.6
.7
.3
1.0
.6

2.4
(8
)
2.0
4.1
4.6
2.0
2.1
4.2

97.1
(8
)
97.5
95.3
94.7
97.7
96.9
95.2

1,109
00
1,172
1,305
1,771
1,058
708
781

2,459
103
55
594
305
27
703
215
399
58

744,758
39,363
9,656
305,158
53,232
8,950
119,372
60,778
140,082
8,167

1,488,128
77,193
19,868
609,097
112,053
17,194
228,120
123,014
285,767
15,819

23,231
1,375
496
8,557
2,432
298
1,870
1,474
6,363
366

.2
.3
.4
.1
.3
.7

3.9
8.3
5.8
4.2
4.8
.7
2.3
2.4
2.5
00

95.9
91.4
93.8
95.7
94.9
98.6
97.7
97.6
97.3
00

1,152
1,248
757
1,150
1,378
450
1,129
688
1,122
1,533

950
34
95
85
197
203
82
234

836,767
117,104
65,225
4,397
240,164
162,159
72,452
169,638
5,628

1,631,313
223,094
130,580
8,808
464,718
318,156
139,905
335,374
10,674

23,970
1,165
1,792
420
5,040
5,695
2,654
6,927
277

.5
.7
1.0

7.0
7.4
4.0
3.6
8.0
9.9
4.6
5.7
11.9

92.5
91.9
95.0
96.4
91.6
89.9
95.1
93.4
87.7

798
725
823
300
713
701
535
1,267
623

1,286
74
(8
)

625,334
•17,327
4,550
53,350
49,556
45,438
94,716

7,963
267
170
693
835
433
612

.2

145
44
47

303,455
8,301
2,800
18,700
24,044
22,649
46,982

1 1.2
2
.4

5.5
3.4
00
00
6.7
1.3
3.9

94.3
96.6
00
00
92.9
98.7
96.1

716
489
(8
)
00
614
400
690

137
206
633

28,024
50,324
101,631

54,844
99,646
205,905

587
930
3,436

1.6
.1
.2

7.1
5.1
6.0

91.3
94.8
93.8

989
802
692

16
12
14

253,910
158,855
44,801
42,476
7,619

10,204
5,616
2,092
2,147
327

.8
.6
1.1
.7
1.8

2.5
2.4
2.7
2.5
2.8

96.7
97.0
96.2
96.8
95.4

1,303
1,149
1,139
1,838
1,422

493,790
479,615
14,175

943,884
916,009
27,874

2,766
2,699
67

.4
.2
00

98.9
99.1
00

1,205
73
23
263
53
501
247
44

176,248
11,346
38,861
88,770
13,585
17,230
1,150

463,345
49,043
26,766
94,417
213,004
30,758
34,819
2,485

13,701
3,784
679
1,851
4,809
1,094
1,213
37

.4
.4
.1
.3
.5
.4
.2
00

5.4
14.8
1.6
2.6
1.5
.6
1.8
00

622
388
221
13

305,900
227,881
77,642
377

640,210
476,744
162,628
836

11,072
7,066
3,981
25

1.2
1.6
.4
00

1.7
1.9
1.5
00

Injury rates2
—

Perma­ Tempo­
nent
rary
Frepartial
disabil­ total dis­ quency
ability
ity

Severity 1

Manufacturing—Continued
Stone, clay, and glass products.........................
Cement mills (excluding quarries) 7
..........
Clay products (structural)______________
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products __
Cut stone and cut-stone products..............
Glass...................... ......................................
Pottery and related products.....................
Not elsewhere classified............................
Textile and textile-mill products____________
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings___
Cordage and twine.....................................
Cotton yarn and textiles........... ................
Dyeing and finishing textiles.....................
Hats, except cloth and millinery...............
Knit goods.............. ....................................
Rayon, other synthetic, and silk textiles..
Woolen and worsted textiles.................... .
Not elsewhere classified............. ...............
Transportation equipment..
Aircraft______ ________
Aircraft parts.................
Boatbuilding-------------Motor vehicles________
Motor-vehicle parts___
Railroad equipment___
Shipbuilding............ .
Not elsewhere classified.

20

(8
)

. .2
00

.4
.2
.3
.9
.4

524.4
11.0
44.9
32.7
42.7
17.5

«

18
23
18
17
20
18
12
16
18
16

s 16.0
17.8
25.0
14.0
21.7
17.3

« 1.1
2.5
2.1
1.2
2.4
1.1

12.0
22.3
23.1

.4
1.5
1.0

30
20
28
7
28
21
26
47
21

15.3
5.2
13.7
47.7

1.5
.8
2.1
1.2

10.8

1.0

17.9
19.0
20.7
25.9

1.1
1.1
2.8
3.0

14
11

«14.4
15.4
37.4
13.0
16.8

15
00

00
(8
)

14
16
9
18
12
16

20
4
14

2.0
3.0
3.2
5.5
1.0

5 1.0
(8
)
(8
)

1.7

00 “5

Miscellaneous manufacturing________ ______
Brooms and brushes............... ...................
Beehive coke ovens7
........ .................... . . .
Byproduct coke ovens 7
__......................... .
Fabricated plastic products......................
Optical and ophthalmic goods...................
Photographic apparatus and materials___
Professional and scientific instruments
and supplies............................................
Tobacco products.......................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing....................

(8
)

10.7
9.3

1.

16
16
23
12
16

50.5
42.9

5.1
7.1

1,000
1,467
300

14
14
8

2.9
2.9
2.4

.2
.2
.1

94.2
84.8
98.3
97.1
98.0
99.0
98.0
00

1,818
1,930
1,527
1,328
1,499
1,486
1,011
1,900

19
28
13
13
16
16
19
20

19.6

1.3

22.6

1.5

35.6
34.8
14.9

1.7
1.8
2.6

97.1
96.5
98.1
00

1,343
1,285
1,473

17
19
14
9

17.3
14.8
24.5
29.9

1.9
2.0
1.5
.3

Nonmanufacturing
Construction 1 ............ ........
1
Building construction..
Heavy engineering........
Highway construction..
Not elsewhere classified.
Communication 1
1................................
Telephone (wire and radio)..........
Radio broadcasting and television.
Transportation 1 ...................
1
Stevedoring. ....................
Streetcar-........................ .
Bus___________________ _
Streetcar and bus.............
Trucking and hauling_
_
Warehousing and storage.
Not elsewhere classified..
Heat, light, and power11___
Electric light and power.
Gas_______ _____ ______
Steam, heat, and power.
Waterworks11.
Personal services...............................................
Dry cleaning................................................
Laundries......... ........................... ..............
Laundry and dry cleaning....... .................
Amusements and related services..............
Hotels__________________ _____________
Eating and drinking places.......................
Medical and other professional services.. .
Miscellaneous personal services...............

See footnotes at end of table.




2,346
1,633
226
362

122

543
112

431

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)

.7
.7
00

166

10,546

21,968

396

2.0

.3

97.7

00

15

18.0

2.6

3,318
619
628
452
181
410
710
174
144

175,161
20,130
34,385
38,442
10,194
46,580
13,637
8,870
2,923

385,591
43,179
74,881
87,211
18,613
107,705
29,055
18,862
6,082

3,737
227
664
726
154
1,552
287
85
42

.2

2.5
2.2
4.2
3.2
00
1.4
2.1
00
00

97.3
97.8
95.3
96.8
00
98.4
97.9
00
00

1,507
1,180
1,748
1,459
1,727
1,029
2,267
600

14
16
15
14
25
13
13
11
24

9.7
5.3
8.9
8.3
8.3
14.4
9.9
4.5
6.9

.6
.2
1.0
.5
1.5
.6
.6
.1
.2

.5
(«)
00
00

.2

9
T a b l e A. — Injury rates and injuries by extent of disability, 1946— Continued

Industry

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Percent of disabling in­
juries resulting in 1
—
Employee- i Number
Average
hours
number
of dis­
Death Perma­ Tempo­
worked
abling
of em­
(thou­
nent
rary
ployees
injuries and per­ partial
manent
sands)
total dis­ disabil­ tota l dis­
ability
ability 3
ity

Average days lost
per disability 1
—

Injury rates2
—

Perma­ Tempo­
nent
rary
Fre­
partial
quency
disabil­ total dis­
ability
ity

Sever­
ity 1
*

Nonmanufactu ring—Continued
B usiness services ...........................................
Banks and other financial agencies..........
Insurance______ ____ ________ _____ ____
Real estate______________ _____________
Miscellaneous business services.................
Automobile repair shops and garages____
Miscellaneous repair services.... ......... ......

2,637
902
447
285
355
391
257

174,041
51,587
86' 543
A 886
20,778
5,037
4,210

352,482
106,818
172,403
12,166
40,807
11,412
8,873

Educational services______ _____ ____ ______

1,980
312
537
65
447
296
323

0.2
(«)

.9

2.5
2.9
.7
(«)
3.1
2.4
4.0

97.3
97.1
99.3
(6
)
96.0
97.6
96.0

1,473
2,067
2,425
1,650
1,286
1,714
815

12
11
8
22
16
12
13

5.6
2.9
3.1
5.3
11.0
25.9
36.4

0.3
.2
.1
.4
1.2
1.3
1.6

197

95,104

161,847

1,269

.2

2.0

97.8

1,131

12

7.8

.4

Fire departments....... ................ ......................

205

25,040

90,019

2,119

.9

.8

98.3

1,278

18

23.5

1.9

Police departments_______________ _____ ___

153

18,473

44,720

1,311

1.4

.4

98.2

2,240

18

29.3

3.1

7,960
2,443
473
755
350
664
207
696
1,496
509

362,318
84, 544
112,049
33, 751
24,491
14,994
2,425
29,062
34,120
14,987

716, 702
179,150
190,623
71,032
58, 502
33,900
5,691
57, 539
72,291
32,441

10,713
3,307
1,077
1,315
1, 554
610
50
220
784
1,341

.2
.2
.4
.2
.1

.4
.1

1.8
1.8
.4
1.1
2.0
1.8
(6
)
1.8
1.9
3.5

98.0
98.0
99.2
98.7
97.9
98.2
(6
)
98.2
97.7
96.4

1,292
1,172
2,225
2,400
1,645
1,564
(•)
425
1,390
666

13
11
14
14
14
13
14
14
14
12

814.2
18.5
5.6
18.5
26.6
18.0
8.8
3.8
10.8
41.3

5.8
.9
.3
.9
1.3
.7
.8
.1
.7
1.6

367

11,895

25, 529

455

.4

1.3

98.3

1,775

14

17.8

1.1

Trade 1 -------------------- ------------------- ------ ----1
Wholesale distributors...____ ___________
Retail, general merchandise______ ______
Retail food.............. ....................................
Wholesale and retail dairy products ____
Retail automobiles____________ ________
Filling stations________________________
Retail apparel and accessories........ ...........
Miscellaneous retail stores____ __________
Wholesale and retail building supplies___
Wholesale and retail trade combined, not
elsewhere classified____ ______________

(6
)

Mining and quarrying: 7
Coal mines:
Bituminous_______________________
Anthracite________________________

(8
)
(8
)

380,000
77,500

730,000
154,000

44,800
12,974

1 1.8
2
1 1.3
*

(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)

61.4
84.2

(8
)
(8
)

Metal mines:
Iron______________________ ________
Copper............................ ...................
Lead-zinc_________________________
Gold-silver____ ____________ _______
Gold placer..........................................
Miscellaneous metal__ ____ _________

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

24,500
13,600
16,200
4,500
3,700
3,000

44,390
29,910
33,780
9,250
7,260
6,420

1,225
1,588
2,859
773
226
610

1 2.0
2
121.4
1 1; 0
2
121.0
12.4

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

27.6
53.1
84.6
83.6
31.1
95.0

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

Nonmetal mines............................- ...........

(8
)

12,000

27,480

1,414

121.7

(8
)

(8
)

(8
)

(8
)

51.5

(8
)

Quarries:
Cement (excluding mills)....................
Limestone........ ........................ ..........
Lime___________ ____ _____________
Marble___________ ________________
Granite______ ____ ________________
Traprock________________________
Slate._____________ ____ __________
Sandstone_________________________

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

2,300
22,600
9,000
2,700
5,700
2,900
1,300
3,500

5,581
43,270
21,600
5,940
11,970
5,590
3,320
7,110

218
2,041
1,058
180
513
258
182
337

1 2.3
2
721.3
12.3

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

39.1
47.2
49.0
30.3
42.9
46.2
54.8
47.4

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(?)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

Ore dressing (mills and auxiliaries):
Copper...................... ..........................
Ir o n .......... ..................... ...... ........... .
Gold-silver.. ___________ __________
Lead-zinc............ ...... ................ ...........
Miscellaneous m etals_________ _____

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

5,700
3,100
1,000
4,200
1,400

12,600
5,060
2,190
9,290
2,960

386
66
75
291
86

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

30.6
13.0
34.2
31.3
29.1

(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)
(8
)

1 Based on reports which furnished details regarding the resulting disabil­
ities, constituting approximately 60 percent of the total sample.
2 The frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries for each
million employee-hours worked. The severity rate is the average number of
days lost for each thousand employee-hours worked. The standard timeloss ratings for fatalities and permanent disabilities are given in Method of
Compiling Industrial Injury Rates, approved by the American Standards
Association, 1945.
3 Each death or permanent total disability is charged with a time loss of
6,000 days in the computation of severity rates.
* Except Mining and Quarrying data compiled by the Bureau of Mines,
U. 8. Department of the Interior.
s Weighted according to estimates of total current employment in each
industry.




12.6
121.2
121.1
12.6
12.3
121.5
1 2.1
2
121.2

6 Disability distribution and average time charges not given because of
small number of injuries for which details were reported.
7 Preliminary data compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of
the Interior.
8 Not available.
8 Includes all ordnance classifications formerly shown separately.
1 Includes Pulp, and Paper and Pulp integrated, formerly shown
0
separately.
" Primarily reported by company instead of by establishment.
1 Fatalities only.
2
1 Less than 0.05.
3

10
T a b l e B .— Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 82,241 identical establishments, 1945 to 1946
Percent of change in—

Number of
establish­
ments

Employees

Total, manufacturing........................................................

20,706

-5

-1 3

-9

-7

Apparel and other finished textile products...................
Clothing, men’s and boys’ ..........................................
Clothing, women’s and children’s.............................
M illin ery...................................................................
Apparel and accessories, not elsewhere classified___
Trimmings and fabricated textile products, not
elsewhere classified..................................................

1,129
427
451
39
30

+1
+1
+6
-2
+3

-2
-3
+5
-2

-1 2
-1 8
-7
-5 7
+58

-4 8
-7 1
-3 8
-3 1
+432

182

-1 0

-1 1

-7

-3 5

+5

-3 1

Chemicals and allied products..........................................
Compressed and liquefied gases................................
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides..............................
Explosives-..................................................................
Fertilizers.................................................................. .
Industrial chemicals....................................................
Paints, varnishes, and colors......................................
Paving and roofing materials.....................................
Plastic materials, except rubber.................................
Soap and glycerin...................... ...............................
Synthetic rubber........................................................
Synthetic textile fibers..............................................
Vegetable and animal oils..........................................
Not elsewhere classified-.................................... ........

1,401
18
232
38
242
263
319
13
16
93
3
20
24
120

+1
-3 9
+5
-7 6
+2
+11
+13
+22
+17
+6
-6
+11
+32
+19

-7
-4 8
-2
-7 7
-3
+1
+3
+13
+5
-4
-1 9
+3
-4
+13

-1
-3 6
+3
-7 2
-2
+4
+3
+33
-1 2
-8
+33
-2 4
+25
+24

-2 0

l _5

00
+106
-7 7
-1 6
-1 0
+22
-2 6
-4 4
+43
-9 3
-4 0
+50
+2

1+ 5
+22
+4
+21
+1
+3
0
+17
-1 7
-4
+70
-2 6
+30
+10

Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies..............
Automotive electrical equipment..............................
Batteries................... ...................................................
Communication and signaling equipment, except
radio........................................................................
Electrical appliances..................................................
Electrical equipment for industrial use.....................
Electrical lamps (bulbs)............ ................................
Insulated wire and cable...........................................
Radios and phonographs.............................. .............
Not elsewhere classified.............................................

616
10
28

-8
+4
-21

-1 7
-1 2
-3 3

-1 6
+3
-4 7

-1 6
-1 1
-7 3

10
+17
-2 2

10
+50
-6 7

27
26
332
22
30
122
19

-1 1
+53
-4
+10
-4
-1 6
-1 4

-1 5
+54
-1 6
-1
-1 3
-2 3
-2 6

-1 2
+71
-1 5
-2 6
-1 2
-2 2
-2 8

+27
-4 2
-2 2
+154
-4 6
+121
+558

+3
+11
0
-2 5
+2
+2
-3

+75
-6 4
-9
+180
-4 4
+300
+600

Food products. ......................................................... ........
Baking..........................................................................
Beverages, not elsewhere classified............................
Breweries....... ..................... ........................................
Canning and preserving..... .......................................
Confectionery................................................. .............
Dairy products...........................................................
Distilleries.................................. ................................
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products.........................
Slaughtering and meat packing....................... ..........
Sugar refining........................................................... .
Not elsewhere classified..................................... ........

2,902
487
218
261
271
185
136
86
446
575
92
145

+2
+20
+1
+6
-3
+9
+1
+4
+1
+1
+5

-4
-4
+4
-3
-2
-8
+7
-3
-5
-7
+1
-2

-4
-4
+14
+10
-1 5
-6
-3 3
-1 1
-8
+8
+15

-1 1
+9
-3 7
-2 3
+69
+81
+22
-4 6
+1
-3 2
-7
-1 0

1_ ( 2
)
+1
.
+10
+4
+12
-8
-1 2
-3 1
-6
-1
+7
+18

i -1 1
+15
-4 5
-2 2
+75
+117
+15
-4 2
+7
-2 5
-9
—7

Furniture and finished lumber products........................
Furniture, metal................. .......... .................... ......
Furniture, except metal............ .......................... ......
Mattresses and bedsprings............................... .........
Morticians’ supplies__________ ________ __________
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures............... .........
W ooden containers.................................................. .
Not elsewhere classified............................................

1,273
45
605
46
29
77
236
235

+13
+17
+16
+3
+13
+14
+6
+15

+8
+8
+12
-1 0
+2
+9
+2
+10

+16
+11
+15
+39
+32
+29
+5
+30

+13
+8
+13
-7 5
+85
+125
-2
+22

1+14
+2
+2
+54
+30
+18
+3
+19

1+4
0
+5
-7 0
+82
+100
-8
+7

Iron and steel and their products........................... .........
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets......... ...................
Cold finished steel......................................................
Cutlery and edge tools......................... ....................
Fabricated structural steel.........................................
Forgings, iron and steel................ .............................
Foundries, iron...................................... ....................
Foundries, steel.................................. ....................
Hardware......... ...........................................................
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified............
Iron and steel......... ___•
................................................
Metal coating and engraving................... ............ .
Ornamental metal workl............................. ..............
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products...............
Plumbers’ supplies....................................................
Screw-machine products.............................................
Sheet-metal work......... .............................................
Stamped and pressed metal products, n. e. c............
Steam fittings and apparatus....................................
Steel barrels, kegs, drums, and packages..................
Steel springs............................... ...............................
Tin cans and other tinware........................................
Tools, except edge tools........................... .................
Vitreous-enameled products......................................
Wire and wire products______ ________ ___________
Wrought pipes, welded and heavy-riveted________
Not elsewhere classified-...........................................

2,828
48
22
95
167
126
583
83
106
136
145
76
35
105
53
97
60
266
130
16
14
84
134
8
134
10
95

-1 2
-1 4
-6
+10
-5
-2 0
-1
-2 7
+12
+5
-1 8
-1
+3
_9

-9
-2 1
-4
+8
-1 1
-2 9
+4
-3 3
-1 1
+19
-1 5
+1
-1 0
-1 4
+24
-7
-4
-5
+2
-5 4
+2
-1 5
+3
+35
-1 1
-1 1
-3 4

-8
-3 2
-6 0
+109
-1 9
-1 6
-4
+22
+160
+2
-1 9
+27
+212
+164
-4 8
-5 8
+13
+13
+40
00
-4 5
-3 7
+100
-5 3
-4 4
00
-2

Industry

Employeehours worked

Disabling
injuries

Total time
lost

Frequency
rate

Severity
rate

Manufacturing

See footnotes at end of table.




(2
)

(2
)
(2
)

(2
)

+13
+15
+30
-9
+9
-1 7
+17
+17
-5
+6
+11
+3
+11
-9
+22
+10
-6
+3
-4
+8
+8
-4
-3
-6

(2
)

(2
)

-1 7
+2
-4
-9
-1 7
-7
-1 3
-4
+3
-1 2
-1 4
-1 8

(2
)

i+ 3

i0

-2
-1 5
-1 2
-5 5
+57

i -3 7
-8 0
-4 3
-3 3
+300

i

i

(2
)
—9
+2
-2
-6
-1 1
+5
-9
-2 1
+13
+6
+2
-1 3
-5
+24
+12
-5
-1
+12
-4 4
+10
-2
+7
+31
+1
+4
-2 0

(0

+114
+50
-1 3
-9
+29
-3 5
-3 8
+43
-9 1
-4 4
+55
-1 2

i +6
-1 4
-5 5
+71
-1 7
+6
-4
+82
+100
-4
0
+20
+193
+213
-5 5
-5 2
+6
+11
/x + 42
(3
)
-3 8
-2 0
+100
-5 8
-4 5
+33
0

11
T a b l e B .— Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 32,241 identical establishments, 1945 to 1946— Con.
Percent of change in—
Industry

Number of
establish­
ments

Employees

Employeehours worked

Disabling
injuries

Total time
lost

Frequency
rate

Severity
rate

Manufacturing—Continued

+1

+4
-9
+24
+13

-2 9
-4 3
-1 6
-5 0

i+ 9
0
+23
+11

i -3 0
-2 5
-1 8
-5 0

+5
+9
-2
+5
+3
+14
+16
+6

+8
-9
+17
+19
+8
+22
+18
+1

+8
+20
-5
-1 2
-2 3
+146
+24
-1 1

1+5
-1 7
+19
+14
+5
+7
+1
-4

i +2
+10
-7
-1 9
-2 7
+96
+5
-2 2

-9
+6
-2 6
+18
-3
-71
-3 9
+1
+17

-1 9
-1 2
-1 0
+6
-1 3
-6 6
-4 9
-7
+12

-8
+9
-1 5
+8
-1 5
-8
-2 7
+40
+27

-6
+51
+99
-4 4
-1 6
-7 9
-5 5
-1 0
+32

>+11
+25
-5
+1
-2
+170
+44
+51
+13

i+ 7
+33
+125
-4 6
-1 0
+300
+33
-5
+25

270
166
50

-21
-3
-11

-2 8
-1 2
-2 2

-1 4
+4
-1 1

+15
+92
+156

+21
+18
+15

+69
+113
+225

43
519
56
197
93

-2 0
-9
+2
+14
+23

-2 8
-2 0
-9
+6
+17

-2 7
-2 0
+8
+6
+17

-81
-2 2
+132
-4 1
-7

+2
0
+19
0
0

-8 1
-1 2
+180
—50
-2 0

400
249
21
24
101

-2
-3
-11
+5
+11

-1 3
-1 4
-2 3
-3
+2

-1 5
-1 3
-2 7
+13
-4

-2 2
+17
-6 9
+2
-4 8

i -6
+1
-6
+17
—5

i —22
+27
-7 1
0
-4 5

Leather and leather products.......... ................... ......... .
Boots and shoes, not rubber.................... .................
Leather.............. ........... ...... ........................ ..............
Not elsewhere classified-...................................... .

532
319
135
78

Lumber and timber basic products------------------------Logging.............. ...... ..................................................
Sawmills..................................... ......... .....................
Sawmills and planing mills combined......................
Planing mills................................. ...........................
Plywood mills........................ ..................................
Veneer mills................ .............................................
Millwork (structural)...................... .................... __.

892
185
328
50
107
29
34
159

+21
+13
+37
+14
+5
+16
+14
+9

Machinery, except electric..................... ........... .............
Agricultural machinery and tractors_______ _____ _
Bearings, ball and roller............................................
Commercial and household machinery....................
Construction and mining machinery......................
Elevators, escalators, and conveyors______________
Engines and turbines...... ............................ .......... .
Fabricated pipe and fittings............ .......................
Food-products machinery....... ............................. .
General industrial machinery and equipment, not
elsewhere classified ------------- --------------------- -----General machine shops (jobbing and repair)______
Mechanical measuring and controlling instruments.
Mechanical power transmission equipment except
ball and roller bearings...........................................
Metalworking machinery............................. .............
Pumps and compressors------------------ ------------ -----Special industry machinery, not elsewhere ClassifiedTextile machinery....................................................

1,958
139
25
78
179
19
41
7
76

Nonferrous metals and their products4_________ _____
Foundries, nonferrous................................................
Nonferrous basic shapes and forms................ ..........
Watches, clocks, jewelry, and silverware......... ........
Not elsewhere classified.............................................

-6
-9

+2
(2
)

+11
+4

(-)

Ordnance and accessories *................................................

17

-2 8

-4 1

-4 8

-2 7

-1 2

+33

Paper and allied products................................... ...........
Envelopes............. ................... ........... ........... ...........
Paper boxes and containers................ ......................
P a p e r _.......... ................... .....................................
Not elsewhere classified......... ......... ........... ............ .

854
67
420
211
156

+11
+8
+9
+14
+12

+8

+8
+9
+6

+10
+19
+10
+10
+10

+42
+131
+44
-1 9
+40

>+2
+13
+2

()
2
+4

i +20
+100
+30
-1 4
+38

Printing and publishing...................................................
Book and job printing-------------------- ------------------Bookbinding. - ................. ................. ............... ........
News and periodical-................................... .............

2,060
1,334
30
696

+10
+14
-2
+7

+10
+13
+3
+8

+23

+106
+28

+38
+7
+16
+79

1+17
+6
+100
+19

1+17
0
+20
+75

Rubber products............................................ ...... ......... .
Rubber boots and shoes....... ................................... Rubber tires and tubes------- ----------------------- -------Not elsewhere classified------ ------ ------------------------

189
22
27
149

+15
+ 18
+20
+9

+8
+10
+10
+6

+9
+19
+5
+10

-3 0
-1 0
-4 9
-2 8

i+ l
+8
-4
+4

i -3 8
-2 1
—54
-3 2

Stone, clay, and glass products--------- ----- ------------------Clay products (structural).....................................—
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products........ .........
Cut stone and cut-stone products...... .......................
Glass________________ ___________ ______ _______
Pottery and related products--------------------- --------Not elsewhere classified................................... .........

888
350
89
88
174
104
83

+18
+33
+35
+42
+15
+17
+4

+14
+30
+30
+39
+12
+13
-9

+24
+40
+36
+126
+11
+29
-7

+10
+64
-4 0
+1540
-1 8
-2 4
-21

1+8
+8
+5
+63
-1
+14
+2

1-5
+24
—53
+1,075
-2 3
-3 3
-1 8

Textile and textile-mill products________ _____ _______
Catpets, rugs, and other floor coverings..............
Cordage and twine...............................................
Cotton yarn and textiles............................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles.............. .......................
Hats, except cloth and millinery_________________
Knit goods............ .............. .......................................
Rayon, other synthetic, and silk textiles..................
Woolen and worsted textiles.....................................
Not elsewhere classified................................ ............

1,711
45
22
464
199
1
1
508
125
307
30

+9
-9
-5
+8
+13
+14
+10
+9
+1
1
+4

+5
-1 4
-1 3
+3
+10
+8
+8
+5
+9
-3

+6
+13
0
-4
+15
+32
+14
-1 5
+22
+33

+14
+36
+20
+14
+31
+266
+61
-5 6
+14
-1 9

i +6
+31
+15
-7
+5
+22
+5
-1 9
+12
+36

i0
+57
+40
+9
+15
+300
+50
-6 2
+7
-1 7

Transportation equipment....... .......................................
Aircraft............................................... ........................
Aircraft parts............................................ .................
Boatbuilding...............................................................
Motor vehicles...........................................................
Motor-vehicle parts.............. ............... ....................
Railroad equipment..................................................
Shipbuilding...................... ................................... .
Not elsewhere classified...................................... ......

398
20
48
11
87
62
48
114
8

-4 2
-51
-5 9
-1 5
-9
-4
+4
-61
+48

-4 9
-5 7
-6 3
-2 5
-1 7
-1 6
-1 4
-6 5
+44

-5 3
-7 5
-4 8
-7
-11
-1 2
-2 3
-7 0
+34

-3 0
-1 3
+51
+181
+9
+3
-3 1
-5 2
+381

i -2
-4 1
+38
+23
+7
+5
-1 0
-1 3
-7

i +55
+125
+300
+200
+25
+10
-1 4
+25
+236

See footnotes at end of table.




+6

+ rs

12
T a b l e B .— Changes in exposure, disabling injuries, and injury rates for 32,241 identical establishments, 1943 to 1943— Con.

Industry

Number of
establish­
ments

Percent of change in—
Employees

Employeehours worked

Disabling
injuries

Total time
lost

Frequency
rate

Severity
rate

Ma nufacturi ng—Continued
M iscellaneous manufacturing........ .................................
Brooms and brushes........ ..........................................
Fabricated plastic products................... ................
Optical and ophthalmic goods______ _______ _____
Photographic apparatus and materials___________
Professional and scientific instruments and supplies
Tobacco products______________________________
Miscellaneous manufacturing............................ .......

-1
+16
-5
+3
+7
-4 6
+6
+17

658
64
66
19
29
62
140
278

—/
+11
-1 0
-6
-3
-4 7

+15
+75
+273
+57
_2

i -7
-4 5
-3
+3
—6
+56
-5
0

i0
—64
0
+100
+100
+675
+75
-11

+12

-7
-3 9
-1 3
-4
-1 0
-1 8
-5
+12

+11
+30
-2 7
+22
+16

+33
+45
-3
+59
+48

-2 2
+17
-5 1
+9
+26

+20
+11
+34
+30
+28

-3 1
-1 0
-3 2
-11
. +8

+28
+29
+6

+24
+24
+4

+22
+21
+42

+175
+176
+65

0
-3
+33

+125
+100
+50

+12
+1
+4
+10
+7
+8

-3
-2 6
+1
-2
-1
+8
+5
+2

-8
-8
—7
-1 0
-1 4
+8
+8
+4

+9
+34
-4 0
-3 9
-1 1
-2 2
-3 3
-4 8

-5
+24
-7
-9
-1 3
-1
+3
+2

+10
+80
-41
-3 5
-1 2
-2 9
-3 5
-4 9

+33
+30
+41

+11
+14
-1

+15
+13
+21

-5
0
-11

(2
)

+29
-6 0
(1
2
)

Nonmanufacturing
Construction47______ _____ ______ _______
Building construction________ _____
Heavy engineering____________ ______
Highway construction________ ____ _
Not elsewhere classified.........................

1,131
817
96
166
51

Communication7 ........ ................................
.
Telephone (wire and radio)...................
Radio broadcasting and television........

488
96
392

Transportation47........................ .................
Stevedoring....... ................... .................
Streetcar.................................................
B u s................... ...... ............. .................
Streetcar and bu s..................................
Trucking and hauling............................
Warehousing and storage.......................
Not elsewhere classified................ .........

836
59
20
216
47
275
198
20

Heat, light, and power 47.............................
Electric light and power.......................
G a s ................................................ .......

544
356
176

+18
+18
+18

+16
+15
+16

(3
)
4
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)
(3
)

(3
)
(3
)

Waterworks 7___________________________

106

+14

+12

-9

+241

-1 9

+222

Personal services................. .........................
Dry cleaning..........................................
Laundries.. .............................................
Laundry and dry cleaning................ .
Amusements and related services_____
Hotels............. ............................. ...........
Eating and drinking places___________
Medical and other professional services.
Miscellaneous personal services_______

2,191
468
475
332
130
207
370
132
77

+5
+9
+5
-2
+25
+2
+6
+13
+11

+4
+6
+2
+19
+3
+6
+11
+11

+22
-2
+7
+32
-3 2
+53
+32
+25
-2 7

+13
+98
+64
-2 5
+66
+24
+308
+254
-9 5

+17
-8
+5
+32
-4 3
+47
+24
+13
-3 4

+17
+200
+50
-2 9
+40
-1 4
+200
+221
-9 6

Business services-----------------------------------Banks and other financial services........
Insurance___________________________
Real estate..............................................
Miscellaneous business services_______
Automobile repair shops and garages...
Miscellaneous repair services....... .........

1,829
670
317
197
210
235
200

+20
+9
+32
+5
+1
+16
+7

+17
+8
+28
+3
-6
+11
+2

+33
+26
+40
-1 7
+16
+72
+46

+34
+34
-2 4
-2
+272
+230
-6

+15
+17
+7
-1 9
+23
+54
+43

+50
0
-5 0
0
+350
+200
-1 0

Educational services....................................

173

+15

+17

+22

+18

+4

0

Fire departments........ ........... ........«._______

192

+9

+12

+5

-8

-6

-1 7

133

+10

+11

+21

+87

+9

+69

3,912
1,220
243
469
233
304
138
328
808
169

+10
+10
+8
+18
+7
+17
-2
+1
+7
+7

+6
+6
+1
+11
+8
+17
-3

+22
+36
+11
+4
+30
+33
+100
+14
+9
-1 8

-1 1
+48
+37
+16
-1 6
-9 2
+8
+4
-1

1 +8
+28
+10
-6
+21
+14
+107
+12
+3
+19

i0
-18
+100
+17
0
-2 7
-8 9
0
0
-6

Police departments.......... ........... ...............
Trade7
.......... .................................................
Wholesale distributors____ __________
Retail, general merchandise............ ......
Retail food_________ ________ ________
Wholesale and retail dairy products___
Retail automobiles............ ....................
Filling stations..____________________
Retail apparel and accessories............ .
Miscellaneous retail stores....... ..............
Wholesale and retail trade combined...

1 Weighted according to estimates of total current employment in each in­
dustry.
2 Change was less than half of 1 percent.
3 Not available.
4 Totals include figures for industries not shown separately.




(2
)

(2
)

+6
+2

(2
)

8 Includes all Ordnance classifications formerly shown separately.
6 Includes Pulp, and Paper and Pulp, integrated; formerly shown” separately.
7 Primarily reported by company instead of establishments.

13
T able

C .— Estimates of disabilities, by extent, for manufacturing industries, 191+6
[Excluding self-employed]
Estimates for entire industry

All reporting establishments
Industry

Number
of estab­
lishments

Number Employee- Number
hours
of em­
of dis­
worked
ployees
abling
(thou­
(thou­
injuries
sands)
sands)

All dis­
abling
injuries

Total
Death and Perma­
Tempo­
nent par­ rary total days lost
perma­
(thounent total tial dis­ disability
. sands)
ability
disability

Apparel and other finished textile products................

2,029

218

406,648

3,023

16,000

15

220

15,765

513

Chemicals and allied products 1
------------------ ---------Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides.. --------- --------Fertilizers____________________________________
Industrial chemicals, not elsewhere classified-----Paints, varnishes, and colors---------- ------ ----------Paving and roofing materials__________________
Synthetic textile fibers------------------------------------

2,153
302
444
449
377
41
28

539
60
21
145
39
8
65

1,115,154
120,359
44,258
305,311
81,304
17,672
127,285

15,340
1,707
1,462
4,517
1,515
320
870

24,900
2,500
2,200
5,000
1,900
800
1,100

125
15
20
25

1,240
90
80
390
60
20
20

23,535
2,395
2,100
4,585
1,840
780
1,080

2,499
227
216
635
72
52
68

Electrical machinery, equipment and supplies 1
------Communication and signaling equipment, ex­
cept radio__________________________________
Electrical equipment for industrial use-------------Electrical equipment, not elsewhere classified-----

1,152

646

1,251,236

12,374

12,900

25

1,080

11,795

1,182

51
573
267

79
300
102

166,945
564,796
198,728

1,162
5,917
2,936

1,600
7,000
3,000

10
15
5

160
560
270

1,430
6,425
2,725

170
616
226

Food products 1
_____________________ _______ _____
Breweries____________________________________
Confectionery_________________ ______________
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products------- ----------Slaughtering and meat packing----------------- -----Sugar refining----- ---------------------------- -------------

4,065
299
247
523
847
106

504
56
37
46
133
27

1,021,007
120,634
71,290
102,649
261,364
55,120

30,087
5,465
1,239
2,726
9,343
1,854

89,100
7,000
2,400
5,000
12,600
2,100

265
15
5
15
15
20

3,560
570
50
120
330
60

85,275
6,415
2,345
4,865
12,255
2,020

6,963
867
147
308
492
199

Furniture and finished lumber products 1---------------Furniture, metal and wood-----------------------------Mattresses and bedsprings---------------------- -------Morticians’ supplies---------------------------------------

2,252
1,027
212
107

213
118
15
7

434,498
239,516
30,041
13,671

14,254
6,567
1,040
337

31,400
10,600
1,700
800

65
10

1,880
780
50
30

29,455
9,810
1,650
770

2,299
820
43
43

Iron and steel and their products 1------------------------Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets-----------------------Cutlery and edge tools-----------------------------------Fabricated structural s t e e l . ------ ----- ------ -------Foundries, iron---------- ------ ----------------------------Heating equipment__________________________Iron and steel------------------------------------------------Screw-machine products---------------------------------Sheet-metal work____________________________
Steam fittings and apparatus----------- ---------------Tin cans and other tinware----- ---------- ------------Wire and wire products....... ........... ......... .........
Wrought pipes, welded and heavy-riveted...........

4,902
83
133
425
823
256
284
185
134
191
112
233
17

1,415
18
25
49
136
54
507
25
12
39
39
53
6

2,729,916
33,929
55,479
95,860
273,673
104,195
939,241
53,749
24,786
78,404
77,027
103,221
12,214

60,860
638
1,278
2,810
12,947
3,755
9,236
1,105
721
2,239
1,321
2,447
248

71,800
800
1,500
3,500
13,500
4,500
9,500
1,400
1,700
3,100
1,600
3,500
600

285

3,880
50
60
150
320
160
900
80
90
90
100
160
20

67,635
750
1,440
3,335
13,125
4,330
8,485
1,320
1,610
3,005
1,495
3,340
580

6,317
40
110
270
819
274
1,903
84
92
168
89
219
17

Leather and leather products 1------------------------------Boots and shoes---------------- - ......... - ----------------Leather--------------------------------- ------ - .............. .

744
446
179

171
129
33

336,461
251,577
65,570

5,316
2,718
2,291

12,200
4,900
3,300

10
5
5

380
170
70

11,810
4,725
3,225

546
181
158

Lumber and timber basic products 1------ ------ --------Planing and plywood mills------------ ------ -----------

1,793
888

137
59

259,251
122,539

13,852
4,657

61,200
11,500

365
45

2,020
770

58,815
10,685

5,422
1,145

Machinery, except electric i.......... ..............................
Commercial and household machinery-------------General industrial machinery, not elsewhere
classified___________________________________
Pumps and compressors______________________
Textile machinery______________ ____ _________

3,674
237

994
161

1,965,434
312,397

39,337
4,151

53,900
4,300

110
5

2,590
320

51,200
3,975

3,420
324

1,972
129
133

415
35
25

827,029
72,552
56,298

19,278
1,878
1,012

36,100
3,800
1,600

70
15

1,440
120
50

34,590
3,665
1,550

2,095
184
67

Nonferrous metals and their products 1
......................
Nonferrous basic shapes and forms------------------Nonferrous metal products, not elsewhere clas­
sified____________________________ ____ _____

829
39

175
31

366,921
68,149

7,657
1,155

18,000
2,400

20

940
70

17,040
2,330

1,169
58

747

102

206,059

3,986

9,900

10

490

9,400

604

Paper and allied products 1
-----------------------------------Envelopes___________ ____ - ...............................
Paper boxes and containers----------------------------Paper and pulp------ ---------------------------------------

1,414
71
606
521

303
7
62
193

646,461
16,264
130,353
418,856

16,280
225
3,037
11,267

23,800
400
5,10fi
11,600

70
5
60

1,050
10
410
350

22,680
390
4,685
11,190

1,836
15
465
997

Printing and publishing »----------------------------- -------News and periodical----------- ---------------------------

2,498
818

199
97

412,019
196,545

3,673
1,744

12,000
4,400

25
20

660
190

11,315
4,190

983
446

Rubber products1------ ----------------------------------------Rubber tires and tubes----------------------------------Rubber products, not elsewhere classified----------

287
43
211

227
119
83

474,515
238,225
167,670

7,212
3,074
3,355

8,700
3,400
4,900

25
20
15

600
140
420

8,075
3,240
4,465

1,061
309
727

Stone, clay, and glass products 1
-------- -------------------Glass_____________________ ______ ___ ______
Pottery and related products.------------------------Structural clay products----------------------------------

1,233
219
141
425

223
91
33
38

465,423
187,388
64,945
77,063

10,835
3,278
1,460
3,458

22,400
4,700
2,400
6,300

110
15
25
30

540
90
50
130

21,750
4,595
2,325
6,140

1,595
266
207
417

See footnotes at end of table.




15
55
10
115
5
5

14
T a b l e C .— Estimates of disabilities, by extent, for manufacturing industries, 1946— Continued
All reporting establishments
Industry

Number Employeehours
of em­
ployees
worked
(thou­
(thou­
sands)
sands)

Number
of estab­
lishments

Estimates for entire industry

Number
of dis­
abling
injuries

Death and Perma­
Tempo­
perma­
nent par­ rary total
nent total tial dis­ disability
disability
ability

All dis­
abling
injuries

Textile and textile-mill products1
...............................
Cordage and twine............... . ................ ............ .
Cotton yarn and textiles....... .................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles..... .......................... .
Hats, except cloth and millinery...........................
Knit goods............................ ........... . .....................
Rayon, other synthetic and silk textiles...............
Woolen and worsted textiles..................................

2,459
55
594
305
27
703
215
399

745
10
305
53
9
119
61
140

1,488,128
19,868
609,097
112,053
17,194
228,120
123,014
285,767

23,231
496
8,557
2,432
298
1,870
1,474
6,363

40,200
800
14,100
3,200
400
3,200
2,400
7,800

80
5
15
10
5

.........................................
Transportation equipment1
Aircraft and parts........ .......................................
Motor vehicles and parts........................................
Railroad equipment................. .............................
Shipbuilding and boatbuilding2...........................

950
129
400
82
319

837
182
402
72
174

1,631,313
353,674
782,874
139,905
344,182

23,970
2,957
10,735
2,654
7,347

41,200
3,200
22,300
3,200
9,600

Miscellaneous manufacturing1
.....................................
Optical and opthalmic goods.. _.............................
Tobacco products......................................... ........

1,286
44
206

303
22
50

625,334
45,438
99,646

7,963
433
930

17,700
500
2,000

1Includes data for industries not shown separately because of insufficient
coverage upon which to base industry estimates.
T able

Total
days lost
(thou­
sands)

15

1,570
50
590
150
5
70
60
200

38,550
745
13,495
3,040
390
3,130
2,340
7,585

2,978
68
995
323
26
121
77
452

205
30
65
10
85

2,890
150
1,920
150
540

38,105
3,020
20,315
3,040
8,975

4,683
392
2,290
217
1,588

35

970
10
100

16,695
490
1,900

1,139
4
115

2 Does not include United States navy yards,

D .— Distribution o f all reported injuries resulting in permanent partial disability, according to part of body affected,
by industry, 1946
Percent of permanent partial disability cases involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry

Total

A hand or
fingers

An arm

A foot or
toes

A leg

One or
both ears
(hearing)

An eye

Other

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing...........................................................

100

3

77

3

7

4

Apparel and other finished textile products___________

100

4

79

0

4

4

Chemicals and allied products........................................
Fertilizers.......................................................................
Industrial chemicals.....................................................
Plastic materials, except rubber...................................

100
100
100
100

5
0
3
8

60
41
58
55

4
6
4
3

10
9
15
11

6
9
8
0

Electrical machinery, equipment, and supplies_________
Electrical appliances............. .......................................
Electrical equipment for industrial use.......................
Radios and phonographs.............................................

100
100
100
100

2
3
2
1

82
64
87
79

1
0
0
5

10
25
7
9

2
3
1
3

Food products..... ..............................................................
Baking.............. .............................................................
Breweries...............- ........... ..........................................
Canning and preserving...............................................
Flour, feed, and grain-mill products..........................
Slaughtering and meat packing............ .....................
Sugar refining........................................... ...................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

7
10
8
8
4
0
2

56
70
44
68
64
82
61

6
3
5
5
9
5
2

13
11
14
12
11
8
33

3
0
3
3
5
1
0

Furniture and finished lumber products...........................
Furniture, metal...........................................................
Furniture, except metal. ..............................................
Wooden containers.....................— ...........................
.........
Not elsewhere classified-.......................... .

100
100
100
100
100

1
0
1
1
0

91
96
90
92
90

1
1
1
2
1

1
1
1
2
0

3
1
2
2
8

Iron and steel and their products......................................
Forgings, iron and steel................................................
Foundries, iron..............................................................
Hardware.......................................................................
Heating equipment.................................................. .
Iron and steel.................. ...... ..........- ............................
Stamped and pressed metal products..........................
Tools, except edge tools................................................
Not elsewhere classified................................................

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

2
3
2
2
3
3
1
0
0

82
79
69
90
84
75
96
78
98

3
0
3
0
5
5
1
4
0

6
16
10
1
5
11
0
2
0

4
2
9
3
3
4
1
10
2

♦

0
0
0
0

15
35
12
23
3
5
3
3

(0

(»)

100

2

92

1

3

0

100
100
100

4
7
2

76
58
77

4

6
6

7
17
7

5

6
6

0)

Machinery, except electric.................................................
Agricultural machinery and tractors...........................
Commercial and household machinery.......................
Construction and mining machinery......................
General industrial machinery, not elsewhere classi­
fied...............................................................................

100
100
100
100

1
0
0
2

82
88
96
72

2
0
2
5

8
4
1
14

4
7
0
5

(*)

100

2

72

4

18

2

0
0
0
0

15
6
26
4
7
4
2

0
0
0
0
0

0)

Leather and leather products..............................................




9

0
0
0
0

0)

Lumber and timber basic products......... .........................
Logging.............. ..........................................................
Sawmills........................................................................

1Less than half of 1 percent.

6

(l)

3
1
5
1
1

0
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

3
0
6
4
0
1
1
6
0

0

0

2

2
0

4
4
2

0
0
0

3
1
1
2

0

2

15
T able

D .— Distribution of all reported injuries resulting in permanent partial disability, according to part o f body affected,
by industry , 1946— Continued
Percent of permanent partial disability cases involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry

Total

A hand or
fingers

An arm

A foot or
toes

A leg

One or
both ears
(hearing)

An eye

Other

Nonmanufacturing— Continued
Machinery, except electric—Continued
Metalworking m a c h in e r y ........................................
Special industry machinery, not elsewhere classi­
fied— _________ ___________________ ___________

100

1

85

3

4

4

0

3

100

1

72

0

13

4

1

9

Nonferrous metals and their products........ ......................

100

3

85

0

1

5

0

6

Paper and allied products.............. ....................................
Paper boxes and containers...................... ..................
Paper and pulp............................................................
Not elsewhere classified................................. .............

100
100
100
100

3
3
4
0

82
79
82
89

3
3
3
2

4
5
4
2

4
4
6
2

0
0
0
0

4
6
1
5

Printing and publishing...................... ..............................
Book and job printing..................................................
News and periodical.....................................................

100
100
100

5
3
10

80
86
69

2
1
4

8
6
11

1
1
1

0
0
0

4
3
5

Rubber products...............................................................

100

9

75

4

8

2

0

2

Stone, clay, and glass products.........................................
Glass................. ........... ................... ............................
Structural clay products......................... ....................

100
100
100

5
9
3

67
64
73

5
2
8

6
7
5

9
9
5

0
0
0

8
9
6

Textile and textile-mill products................. ....................
Carpets, rugs, and other floor coverings.....................
Cotton yarn and textiles— ........................................
Dyeing and finishing textiles....................... .............
Woolen and worsted textiles............. .........................

100
100
100
100
100

7
11
6
7
6

77
64
84
61
87

4
3
3
9
4

6
15
2
9
1

3
5
3
1
1

0
0
0
0
0

3
2
2
13
1

Transportation equipment...... ............................... ..........
Aircraft parts.................. ............................................ .
Motor vehicles.... ....................................................... .
Motor-vehicle parts.......................... ......................... .
Railroad equipment.................................................... .
Shipbuilding.................................................................

100
100
100
100
100
100

1
2
1
1
0
4

80
90
•4
8
84
69
59

2
2
1
2
0
6

6
0
5
1
21
12

5
2
4
3
5
10

1
0
0
1
0
5

5
4
5
8
5
4

Miscellaneous manufacturing.............................................
Tobacco products........................................................ .

100
100

2
2

89
88

1
2

3
6

2
2

0
0

3
0

Nonmanufacturin g
Construction................. .................................................... .
Building construction................ ................................ .
Heavy engineering...... ..................... ...........................
Highway construction.......................................... .......

100
100
100
100

8
6
4
17

56
59
67
35

7
5
7
11

12
11
11
17

8
8
7
9

0
0
0

9
11
4
11

Transportation............................................... ....................
Stevedoring...................................................................
Bus............................... .................................................
Streetcar and bus..........................................................

100
100
100
100

5
5
0
7

37
32
62
51

16
18
10
14

27
31
10
11

4
6

1
1
0
0

13
13
14
11

Heat, light, and power.......................................................
Electric light and power..................... .......................
G a s ............... ..............................................................

100
100
100

6
8
3

55
54
49

9
8
14

10
10
12

6
5
8

1
2
0

13
13
14

0)

1
0)

Personal services.................................................................

100

9

69

6

5

3

0

8

Business services................... .................. ..................... .

100

6

62

8

14

8

0

2

Trade...................... .............................................................
Wholesale distributors.................................................
Wholesale and retail building supplies.......................

100
100
100

4
5
0

65
57
90

9
8
0

9
15
2

7
7
4

0
0
0

6
8
4

1 Less than half of 1 percent.
T able

E .— Indexes of injury-frequency rates in manufacturing , 1926-46, by extent o f disability 1
[1926=100]

Year

Death and
Temporary
All injuries permanent Permanent
total
partial
total

1926-.................................
1927.....................................
1928.....................................
1929.....................................
1930.
.................
1931.....................................
1932.
........................
1933........................... .........
1934.
......................
1935.....................................
1936.....................................

100.0
93.6
93.2
99.2
95.5
78.0
80.9
91.8
93.6
88.1
85.7

100.0
107.1
107.1
92.9
107.1
92.9
107.1
85.7
107.1
92.9
85.7

100.0
96.3
104.6
109.2
111.0
102.8
113.8
110.1
128.4
121.1
114.7

100.0
93.3
92.5
98.7
94.6
76.5
78.9
90.8
91.6
86.2
84.1

Year

1937................................ .
1938.....................................
1939.....................................
1940.....................................
1941.....................................
1942.....................................
1943.....................................
1944.....................................
1945.....................................
1946.....................................

Death and
All injuries permanent Permanent Temporary
partial
total
total
85.8
71.7
73.4
75.3
85.8
93.5
94.4
88.3
81.9
84.3

85.7
71.4
71.4
71.4
80.3
70.7
70.7
62.8
62.8
60.1

122.0
78.9
80.7
84.8
93.7
83.4
83.4
75.4
72.3
77.9

83.7
68.1
73.9
75.6
86.2
94! 1
95.0
89! 7
83.0
85.3

1 Beginning with 1937, the indexes are based on the percent of change of the frequency rates of identical establishments in each pair of successive years.




16

Recent Bureau of Labor Statistics Reports on Industrial Hazards
and Working Conditions *
Injuries and accident causes in the longshore industry, 1942.
Bulletin No. 764. (Out of print.)
A detailed analysis of the hazards involved in loading and unloading ships. Includes
sample safety codes and accident prevention suggestions.
Injuries and accident causes in the foundry industry, 1942.
Bulletin No. 805. Price 15 cents.
An analysis of foundry accidents and their causes, including accident prevention sugges­
tions. Presents comparisons based upon plant size, geographic location, first-aid facilities,
type of product, and departmental operations.
Injuries and accident causes in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 1943.
Bulletin No. 855. Price 15 cents.
A detailed analysis of the hazards and of the prevailing causes of accidents in the meat
industry, including comparisons based upon departmental, regional, and plant-size factors.
Also includes descriptions of typical accidents, accompanied by suggestions for the prevention
of similar occurrences.
Injuries and accident causes in the brewing industry, 1944Bulletin No. 884. Price 15 cents.
Presents a detailed account of the accident record of brewery workers dining 1944, with
frequency rate comparisons based upon the operating divisions of the plants, the size of the
plants, and the geographic location of the plants. Also includes an analysis of the causes of
brewery accidents and suggestions for the prevention of’ typical brewery accidents.
Accident-record manual for industrial plants.
Bulletin No. 772. Price 10 cents.
This manual contains an outline of simple and useful methods of accident recording and
of the use of such data for accident prevention. It also explains how to compute and use
injury-frequency and severity rates and how to determine the important causes of accidents.
Work injuries in the United States during 1945.
Bulletin No. 889. Price 10 cents.
A collection of basic industrial injury data for each of the major industries in the United
States. Presents national average injury-frequency and severity rates for each industry.
Individual establishments may evaluate their own injury records by comparison with these data.
Impaired workers in industry.
Bulletin No. 857. Price 5 cents.
Graphic comparisons of the performance of impaired workers and of their unimpaired fellow
workers in terms of output, efficiency, injury record, absenteeism, and stability on the job.
Workmen’s compensation and the protection of seamen.
Bulletin No. 869. Price 20 cents.
A report on the financial protection afforded merchant seamen who are disabled because
of injury or disease while in the service of their vessels. Presents the status of such seamen
under both foreign and domestic legislation and examines the probable results of applying to
seamen the recommendations of an Interdepartmental Committee for a workmen’s compensa­
tion act fitted to the existing rights of merchant seamen.
♦For sale by Superintendent of Documents at prices indicated. How to order publications: Address your order to the Superintendent of
Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C., with remittance in check or money order. Currency is sent at sender’s risk.
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U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1947