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U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF L A B O R
L . B . Schw ellenbach, Secretary
B U R E A U O F L A B O R ST A T IST IC S
Isador Lubin, Commissioner (on leave)
A . F. H inrichs, A ctin g Commissioner

+

W o rk Injuries in the
United States During 1944

B ulletin 7^o. 849

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U . S. Government Printing Office
Washington 25, D . C. - Price 10 cents




Letter o f Transm ittal
U n it e d S t a t e s D e p a r t m e n t of L a b o r ,
B u r e a u of L a b o r S t a t is t ic s ,
Washington, D. C., October 19, 1945.
T h e S e c r e t a r y of L a b o r :
I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on work injuries in the
United States during 1944. This information is based on reports from over
56,000 establishments.
This bulletin, a portion of which appeared in the October 1945 Monthly Labor
Review, was prepared in the Bureau’s Division of Industrial Hazards by Max
D . Kossoris.
A. F. H in r ic h s , Acting Commissioner.
H o n . L. B. S c h w e l l e n b a c h ,
Secretary of Labor.

Contents
Page
__________________________________________________
Summary________.____________ *
Estimates of disabling work injuries__________________________________________
Injury-frequency rates-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Manufacturing____________________________________________________________
Nonmanufacturing________________________________________________________
Type and severity of injuries_________________________________________________
Appendix tables________________________________________________________________




(H )

1
3
5
5
6
6
9

B ulletin 7^o. 849 o f the
U nited States Bureau o f Labor Statistics
[Reprinted from the M onthly L abor R eview , October 1945, with additional dataj

Work Injuries in the United States During 1944
Sum m ary

MOKE than 2 % million workers were disabled during 1944 because of
work injuries which occurred during that year, according to estimates
of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The total of 2,230,400 injuries,
however, is 7.7 percent lower than the 1943 total, and marks the
reversal of the continuous upward trend in the injury total since 1938
when work injuries numbered 1,375,600. During 1941, the last pre­
war year, the injury total was 2,180,200. This figure increased to
2,267,700 in 1942, and reached a peak of 2,414,000 during 1943.
The 7.7-percent decrease in work injuries more than offset a 3-percent
decrease in employment from the 1943 level and thus reflects an actual
improvement in the work-injury situation.
During a year marked with acute manpower shortages and heavy
demands by the armed services, industrial injuries are estimated to
have caused an actual time loss of 43,614,400 employee-days. This
was equivalent to full annual employment for about 145,000 workers.
If standard economic time charges are added for deaths and perma­
nent impairments in order to reflect the ultimate losses occasioned by
these injuries, the total time loss caused by disabling injuries mounts
to 222,944,000 employee-days, or full-time annual employment for
743,000 persons.
Fatalities decreased more sharply than the other types of disabilities.
The estimated total of 15,900 is nearly 14 percent lower than the esti­
mate of 18,400 for 1943. M ost of the decrease is attributable to the
sharp curtailment of construction during 1944. Permanent total
disabilities remained at the 1943 figure of 1,700. Permanent partial
impairments, however, are estimated to have dropped from the 1943
level of 108,000 to 94,000. Similarly, temporary total disabilities are
estimated to have dropped from 2,285,900 in 1943 to 2,118,400 in
1944, a decrease of about 7 percent.
The injury-frequency rate in manufacturing, as a group, showed a
decided improvement. The rate was 18.4 disabling injuries per million
employee-hours worked, a decrease of 8 percent from the 1943 level
of 20.0. The distribution of injuries by extent of disability remained
about the same; 0.5 percent resulted in death or permanent total dis­
ability, 4.4 percent in permanent partial impairments, and 95.1 per­
cent m temporary total disabilities. No marked changes occurred in




( 1)




2

3
the average time charges— 952 days per permanent partial impair­
ment and 17 days per temporary total disability. By far the largest
group of permanent impairments (76 percent of all disabilities) af­
fected hands or fingers, 7 percent affected feet or toes, 5 percent the
eyes, and 3 percent legs and arms.
Estim ates o f Disabling W ork Injuries

The more comprehensive data available at this time for estimating
purposes indicate no need for revision in the preliminary estimates
made some months ago.2 In the one group in which later data were
very much more comprehensive than the data used for the prelim­
inary estimates, the revised injury total equaled the earlier estimate
exactly.
The estimate of 2,230,400 work injuries in all industrial activities
of the United States is nearly 8 percent below the estimate of 2,414,000
for 1943. Fatalities are estimated to have decreased to 15,900, which
is nearly 14 percent less than the estimate of 18,400 for 1943. More
than half of this decrease is traceable to the sharp curtailment of
construction activities during 1944. There was practically no heavy
or highway construction during 1944, and little building construction.
The total of all disabling injuries in this industry is estimated to have
dropped from 260,100 in 1943 to 99,600 in 1944.
Estim ated N um ber o f D isabling In ju ries D uring 1944 , by In du stry Groups
[Difference between number of total injuries and injuries to employees represents injuries to self-employed
workers]

All disabilities

Fatalities

Permanent Permanent
total dis­
partial dis­
abilities
abilities

Temporary total
disabilities

Industry group
Total

To
To
To
T o em­ Total em­ Total em­ Total em­
ployees
ploy­
ploy­
ploy­
ees
ees
ees

Total

To em­
ployees

All groups............................ 2,230,400 1,802,100 15,900 11,200 1,700 1,400 94,400 76,000 2,118,400 1,713,500
Agriculture 1...................... .
Mining and quarrying 3___
Construction 3.....................
Manufacturing 4..................
Public utilities....................
Trade 3...... ..........................
R a i l r o a d s ....................
Miscellaneous transporta­
tion 3............................... .
Services, government, and
miscellaneous industries3.

311,900
92,100
99,600
786,900
19,300
273,800
92,400

75,400 4,800 1 ,200
87,300 1,700 1,600
700
60,000 1 ,100
773,500 2,900 2,800
19,300
400
400
219,000
600
700
92,400 1,2 0 0 1,200

400
200
100

300
(«)
100

300

15,600 3,700
4,000 3,800
3,600 2,2 0 0
300 35,400 34,800
500
500
(«)
100 6,0 0 0 5,000
300 6,400 6,400
100
200
100

291,100
86,2 00

94,800
748,300
18,400
267,000
84,500

70,400
81,700
57,000
735,600
18,400
213,300
84,500

135,100

116,000

900

700

100

100

4,100 3,500

130,000

111, 700

419,300

359,200

2,2 0 0

2,0 0 0

200

200

18,800 16,100

398,100

340,900

» Based on fragmentary data.
3 Based largely on Bureau of Mines data.
a Based on small sample studies.

4 Based on comprehensive survey.
* Less than 50.
8 Based on Interstate Commerce Commission data.

Manufacturing heads the list of the individual industry groups,
with about 786,900 disabling work injuries, of which 773,500 occurred
to employed workers and the remainder to self-employed workers.
Of these injuries 2,900 resulted fatally, 300 were permanent total
disabilities, 35,400 were permanent partial impairments, and 748,300
were temporary total disabilities.
3

See Industrial Injuries in 1944; Preliminary Estimates, in Monthly Labor Review, March 1945.




CHART 8




MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES EXPERIENCING MORE THAN 20,000
INDUSTRIAL INJURIES IN 1944

5
The estimates for agriculture are identical with those for 1943.
The 4,800 fatalities exceed those of any other major industry group.
As the foregoing table indicates, however, the estimates for this indus­
try are based on fragmentary data. Little is known about the workinjury problems in farming, in which available data indicate that
nearly 312,000 persons were injured, 4,800 of them fatally, and an­
other 16,000 permanently impaired in a single year.
In mining and quarrying, the total of 92,100 is about 4 percent
below the 1943 estimate of 96,400. The total figure for public utilities
is slightly below that for 1943, whereas that for trade shows a slight
increase. The injury total for railroads, however, indicates an in­
crease from 85,400 disabling injuries in 1943 to 92,400 in 1944, a
rise of 8 percent. On the other hand, the injury level for miscella­
neous transportation, i. e., transportation other than that covered by
railroads, decreased from 146,000 in 1943 to 135,100 in 1944.
In the group with the second largest injury total— services, govern­
ment, and miscellaneous activities not included in any of the other
industry groups— the 1944 injury total remained at about the 1943
level. The 1944 injuries totaled 419,300, of which 2,200 were fatal­
ities, 19,000 permanent impairments (200 of these being permanent
total disabilities), and 398,100 temporary disabilities.
In jury-F requen cy Rates

The injury-frequency rates shown in this survey are for all estab­
lishments from which reports were received for the year 1944. The
same procedure was followed in 1943. The rates are considered to
be fairly representative of each industry’s experience during each
year. The plants covered, however, are not identical in successive
years. As the number of plants in an industry increases, the size of
the reporting group is also increased, in order to maintain a sample
group containing about 40 percent or more of the total number of
employees in each industry.
A comparison of 1944 rates with those for 1943, therefore, reflects
total changes in the injury experience in any one industry.
In 81 of the industries surveyed, rates for 1944 are lower than those
for 1943. In 69 industries they are higher, and in 5 there were either
no changes at all or changes of less than 0.1 percent.
The 1944 industry survey also includes five industries or services
not formerly shown: Synthetic rubber, distilleries, restaurants, and
municipal fire and police departments.
M ANUFACTURING

Occupying its customary first place in the list of industries with high
frequency rates is logging, with a rate of 85.4. The sawmill industry
is in its customary second place, with a rate of 55.6. Similarly high
is the wooden-container rate of 47.1.
In the food-industries group, the 1944 rate of 35.9 for slaughtering
and meat packing was considerably lower than that of 47.6 for 1943.
The 1944 rate, however, reflects the experience of a very much larger
group, as a result of a special accident-prevention drive conducted
during 1944. A group of 202 identical establishments showed prac­
tically no change in the frequency rate.




6
Breweries showed a sharp rise during 1944, with a rate of 46.2 as
against a rate of 35.3 in 1943. Deterioration of equipment and
packaging materials appear to be largely responsible for this increase.
N o marked changes occurred in the industries in the iron and steel
products group. In the iron and steel industry itself, the 1944 rate
was 9.9, compared with a rate of 10.0 in 1943. Similarly, a small de­
crease occurred in the much higher rate for iron and steel foundries,
which dropped from 43.4 in 1943 to 43.0 in 1944. The rate for plate
fabrication and boiler-shop products increased fractionally, from 44.3
to 44.7.
A marked reduction was recorded for the transportation-equipment
group, in which the rate dropped from 20.2 to 16.3. M ost of this rate
decrease was attributable to the better injury record in the shipbuilding
industry and was due largely to the accident-prevention activities of
the Maritime Commission. The reduction in shipbuilding was from
31.5 to 23.6. In 1942, the rate was 33.1.
Repeating the demonstration that the most hazardous activities
can be made safe by proper precautions, the explosives industry
duplicated its 1943 frequency rate of 5.3.
NONMANUFACTURING

The data for 2,132 construction firms included in the 1944 survey
yielded a frequency rate of 27.7 for the entire group. A slightly larger
number of firms had a rate of 26.1 in 1943.
B y far the highest frequency rate of any of the nonmanufacturing
industries— even exceeding that for logging—was that for stevedoring,
88.1, a slight reduction from the 1943 rate of 91.3. As in 1943, there
is reason to believe that even this high rate is an understatement of the
actual experience of the industry.
Trucking and hauling, with a rate of 38.3, had the second highest
frequency rate in 1944, but showed a slight improvement from the rate
of 41.4 for the preceding year. A rather sharp rate increase was ex­
perienced in the warehousing and storage industry, with a rise from
32.2 in 1943 to 37.5 in 1944.
T yp e and Severity o f Injuries

The severity of injuries is not indicated adequately by the severity
rate, which shows the average days lost or charged per 1,000 employeehours worked. Because time charges are geared to exposure hours,
industries with large exposure hours may have lower severity rates,
even though they experienced a high proportion of very serious in­
juries, than industries with smaller exposure hours and proportion­
ately less severe injuries. The severity of injuries is reflected more
adequately by a percentage distribution of injuries by extent of dis­
ability and the measure of the average time charge for each of these.
The explosives industry, for example, had a 1944 severity rate of
1.6, whereas that for the fertilizer industry was 4.7, and for soap and
glycerin 2.6. However, in the explosives industry 2.7 percent of the
injuries resulted in death or permanent total disability as against 1.1
percent for the fertilizer and 0.6 percent for the soap and glycerin
industry. Similarly, 6.2 percent of the explosives industry’s injuries
resulted in permanent impairments, as against percentages of 3.3 and




7
5.3 for the other two industries, respectively. The severity rate does
not reflect the severity of injuries, but rather an average time charge
per 1,000 hours of exposure.
For the entire manufacturing group, deaths and permanent total
disabilities (the latter accounting for about 10 percent of the combined
figures) were 0.5 percent of all reported injuries. For individual inCHART 3

D IST R IB U T IO N OF A L L R E P O R T E D IN J U R IE S
R E S U L T IN G IN P E R M A N E N T
P A R T IA L D IS A B IL IT Y
IN MANUFACTURING

ACCORDING TO THE PART OF THE BODY AFFECTED
1944

% - OTHER PARTS OF THE BODY
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

dustries, however, this percentage varied considerably. In manu­
facturing, it was highest in the explosives industry— 2.7 percent. In
the nonmanufactunng group, it was highest for highway construction
-— percent.
2.3
Permanent partial impairments showed still greater variations for
industry comparisons. Industries with 7 percent or more of such
871576----- 45—2




semes

INDUSTRIAL INJURY FREQUENCY RATES IN MANUFACTURING




BY TYPES OF DISABILITY
1926*100

INDEX

140

120

oo
100

80

60

INJURIES FOR EACH MILLION EMPLOYEE-HOURS WORKED.

9
injuries included wood furniture, 7.0 percent and an average time
charge per injury of 793 days; heavy ammunition, 7.4 percent and an
average charge of 1,059 days; general machine shops, 10.0 percent and
925 days; radios and phonographs, 10.9 percent and 896 days; engines
and turbines, 11.2 percent but only 573 days; and, highest in the list,
carpets and rugs, with 12.0 percent and 985 days per injury.
Among industries with lower percentages of permanent impairments
but with high average time charges per injury were fertilizers, 1,715
days; flour, feed, and grain mills, 1,641 days; sugar refining, 1,904
days; dairy products, 2,133 days; logging, 1,794 days; men’s dothing,
1,840 days (but only 0.9 percent of permanent impairments); highway
construction, 1,695 days; stevedoring, 1,810 days; streetcar transpor­
tation, 1,783 days (but only 0.8 percent of such injuries); gas utilities,
1,966 days; and laundries, 1,771 days.
On the average, temporary total injuries averaged 17 days per dis­
ability in manufacturing industries. Some individual industries, how­
ever, had much higher averages: Iron and steel, 41 days; explosives
industry, 29 days; and production of military tanks, 59 days. Among
nonmanufacturing industries, the amusement industry had the highest
average, 25 days, followed closely by stevedoring, with 23 days per
injury.
Appendix Tables
The injury rates—frequency, severity, and disability distribution—
are shown in table A. Rates are shown for individual industries as
well as for industry groups. The group rates were arrived at by
weighting the individual industry rates according to the total employ­
ment in each.
Table B shows, for individual industries, changes in employment,
employee-hours worked, disabling injuries, and days lost. All time
charges for deaths and permanent impairments are those specified in
the American Standard.
Over-all injury estimates for individual industries are shown in
table C. As in the past, only such industries are shown jas had a
reporting group sufficiently large to warrant the extension of the
reported data to the industry as a whole. Because of the conservative
methods of estimating, the list of industries shown falls considerably
short of the list in table A.
The percentage distribution of permanent impairments of specified
body parts is shown, by industry detail, in table D .
The last table, E, contains the data used for the trend chart on
page 8.




T

able

A . — In ju ry Rates and Injuries by Extent o f D isability, 1944
[All reporting establishments]

Industry

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Number
of em­
ployees

Percent of disabling injuries result­ Average days lost per
ing in i—
disabilityi—
Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
abling Death and
worked
Permanent
Tempo­
Tempo­
(thousands) injuries permanent Permanent rary total
rary total
partial
partial
total dis­ disability disability disability disability
ability 3

Injury rates3
—

Fre­
quency

Sever­
ity i

56,809

11,515,169

26,468,258

472,875

Total, manufacturing................ ............

36,809

9,933,342

23,025,022

421,737

0.5

4.4

95.1

952

17

4 18.4

4 1.4

Chemical products-------- -------------------Drugs, toiletries, and Insecticides.
Explosives--------------------- ------------Fertilizers------- ---------------------------Paints and varnishes........................
Petroleum refining ®
......... ................
Rayon and allied products................
Soap and glycerin. .............................
Industrial chemicals--- -----------------Paving and roof materials.................
Vegetable and animal oils-------------Synthetic rubber...............................
Not elsewhere classified.....................

2,198
317
109
288
413
(•)
30

543,268
54,136
76,908
17,066
30,498
125,799
56,203
14,573
130,289
2,218
2,116
4,172
29,290

1,250,928
114,868
176,619
37,718
70,421
304,401
117,339
33,098
306,608
4,986
5,444
10,323
66,672

17,301
2,132
944
1, 273
1,286
3,495
1,055
497
5.273
85
163
50
1,048

1 .2

4.0
2.9

17
14
29
16
14

14.3
18.6
5.3
33. 7
18.3
11 .5
9.0
15.0
17.2
17.0
29.9
4.8
15.7

4 1.7

2.7

1,281
808
1,180
1, 715
1,670
(#
)
1,500
1,161
1,282
950
1,150
300
525

4

6 .2

94.8
97.1
91.1
95.6
98.0
94.2 .
99.5
94.1
93.1
(7
)
(7
)
(7
)
99.0

Food products................. ........................
Baking......... .............—- ....................
Canning and preserving...................
Confectionery____ _______________
Flour, feed, and grain mill products.
Slaughtering and meat packing........
Sugar refining............................ ........
Beverages........ ............................. —
Dairy products..................................
Breweries.......... ................................
Distilleries___________ ____________
Not elsewhere classified.....................

4,244
387
239
514
1,197
96
265
182
321
118
257

453,793
48,325
63,739
41,423
39,214
126,113
22,941
6,856
9,339
54,759
17,843
23,241

1,013,692
111, 742
118,538
88,237
92,001
304,654
49,613
15,106
22,267
124,305
36,676
50,546

31,599
2,259
3,426
1,674
2,865
10,928
1,569
361
660
5,745
785
1,327

95.5
97.3
97.9
95.3
96.8
97.2
96.2
96.9
98.5
91.7
95.6
98.0

1,189
809
1,357
838
1,641
554
1,904
900
2,133
1,259
1,282
1,316

Iron and steel and their products...........
Iron and steel------------------------------Cutlery and edge tools....... ...............
Enameling and galvanizing----------Fabricated structural steel-------------

4,829
300
125
72
388

1,269,857
497,688
17,936
7,412
55,539

2,940,320
1,131,813
41,636
15,781
128,951

70,440
11,195
1,171
659
4,600

95.1
92.4
93.2
97.1
95.9

843
896
751
555
899

All industries.
Manufacturing




86

654
25
25
17
234
668

3.3
1.5
3.8
.5
5.3
6.5

1 .1

.5
2 .0
.6

.4
0)
(7
)
0)

(7
)
7
)

w

1.0

.3
.3
.3
.3
.9
.2
.2

.3
.4
.2
.6
.2
.6
1 .6

.5
.5

4.2
2.4
1 .8

4.4
2.3
2 .6

3.6
2 .8
1 .1
8 .1

3.8
1 .8

4.3
6 .0

6.3
2.9
3.6

(«)

19
18
16
24
10

9
16

.5

1 .6

4.7
1 .2

(6
)

.4
2 .6
2 .0
1.1
8 .4
.6

.5

4 27.1
2 0 .2

4 1 .8
1 .1

1.7
1.3
3.4

16
15
16
14

28.9
19.0
31.1
35.9
31.6
23.9
29.6
46.2
21.4
26.3

21

4 24.3

14
16
13
13
15
11

14
12

41
13
18
16

9.9
28.1
41.8
35.7

1 .6

2.9
1.3
1 .2

5.9
2.4
1.1
4 1.8

1.7
2.4
1.3
2.3

Forgings, iron and steel....... ...............................
Foundries, iron and steel....................................
Hardware........... .................................................
Ornamental metalwork.......................................
Plumbers’ supplies.............................................
Stamped and pressed metal products................
Steam fittings and apparatus________________
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified—
Tin cans and other tinware__________________
Tools, except edge tools___________ ____ _____
Wire and wire products..._____ _____________
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products.......
Screws and screw-machine products_____ ____
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets________ _____
Sheet-metal work________________ __________
N ot elsewhere classified__________ ____ ______

1,069
154
67
78
388
207
216
75
195
232
185
132
56
91
588

58,806
187,417
23,748
5,202
18,314
61,689
35,769
24,742
16,211
27,632
47,977
31,399
16,073
11,081
7,959
117,263

139,383
441,509
53,592
12,268
42,772
141,101
84,335
53,297
37,037
66,100
111, 249
76,039
39,498
25,852
18,796
279,302

Leather and its products___________________ ____
Leather______- _____________________ ________
Boots and shoes (other than rubber)..............
Not elsewhere classified________________ _____

748
168
452
128

148,428
29,130
107,115
12,183

320,149
65,779
227,885
26,483

Lumber, lumber products, and furniture..............
Logging____________________________________
Planing mills___________________ _____ ______
Sawm ills..___________________ _____ ________
Furniture, except metal_____ ______ ___ _____
Furniture, metal........................ .......................
Office, store, and restaurant fixtures.................
Morticians’ supplies................ ........ ..................
Wooden containers______________ __________
Not elsewhere classified_____________________
Machinery (not transportation)--------------- --------- Agricultural machinery and tractors............... .
Construction and mining machinery.................
Electrical equipment and supplies................... .
Food-products machinery.......... .....................
Metalworking machinery............ ..................... .
Textile machinery......... .............................. .....
Special industry machinery, not elsewhere
classified_________________________________
General industrial machinery.............................
Commercial and household machines..............
General machine shops...................................... .
Engines and turbines.......................................
Paper and allied products....................................... .
P u lp .....................................................................
P a p e r.................. ................................................
Paper and pulp (integrated)..............................
Paper boxes and containers____ ____ ________
Envelopes........................................................... .
Not elsewhere classified________ _____________

4,026*
442
660
884
974
65
93
43
536
329
4,896
192
296
929
103
1,105
113

290,711
19,744
42,008
68,205
78,993
6,389
4,377
2,484
42,347
26,164
1,413, 759
70,290
75,831
558,063
9,243
205,063
15,859

636,047
93,930
144,724
171,328
15,191
9,798
5,513
96,630
58,936
3,632,440
165, 326
180,624
1,321,445
22,428
508,014
40,031

318
1,163

46,522
233,927
35,913
50,392
112,656
245,348
6,740
68,930
72,401
59,475
6,449
31,353

111, 136
794,282
90,102
129,584
269,463
688,950
14,958
162, 031
176, 270
123,673
14,119
70,896

See footnotes at end of table.




211

120

459
98
1,765
36
394
147
889
68

231

5,253
18,982
1,073
397
889
3,870
1,972
2,283
729

.3
.4
(7
)

(7
)

2 .8

5,196
1,922
2,813
461
26,811
3,414
3,629
8,040
4,490
459
206
98
4,552
1,923
59,091
3,964
5,121
13,908
613
8,573
692
2,509
16,724
1,628
2,628
2,731
14,901
586
5,024
4,692
2,879
199
1,521

6.9
5.8
2.9

.2

.4
.4
(7
)

(7
)

1,686

2,582
3,401
743
593
736
7,626

5.4
1.5
8 .6

6 .8

.5
.5

5.4
1 .8
6 .8

3.5
(7
)
.1

(7
)

5.0
2.5
2.7

.2
.2

2 .0

(7
)

(7
)
4.5

.6

1.5
.3

2 .6

4.6
3.4
7.0

.6
.1

6 .0

(7
)
(7
)

.4

(7
)
(7
)

.3

5.4
4.8
4.9
5.8

.2
.2

2 .6
6 .8

.6
.2

(7
)

.4

(7
)

.6

3.7
4.4

.1
.2

4.4

2 .2
2 .0
1 0 .0
1 1 .2

.5
.5
(7
)

.9

3.1
(7
)
2 .1
1 .2

.8
.6

0)

5.1
<)
7

4.4




94.3
98.1
91.4
(7
)
97.2
92.9
93.8
96.7
(7
)
93.2
94.1
97.7
93.2
96.5
C)
7
94.9

702
1 ,200

497
1,200

300
472
793
1,135
510
819
854
923
800
300
461
901

97.3
97.1
98.0
(7
)

979
1,169
387
1,014

94.9
95.9
95.1
96.0
92.9
94.0
(7
)
(7
)
94.2
94.6
94.9
93.9
97.2
93.0
(7
)
95.9
95.0

1,031
1,794
1,199
1,157
793
1,283
600
300
819
784
787
655
1,105
723
1,091
1,015
439

97.7
95.4
98.0
90.0
88.3
96.4
(7
)
97.0
98.0
94.4
(7
)
95.6

875
770
500
925
573
930
(7
)
1,420
1,534
767
600
802

21

15
18
17
14
13
18
14
11
11

14
14
12

17
10

14
14
16
10
10.

17
22

15
19
15
13
15
12

15
16
17
11
12

19
13
19
15
14
18
16
10

32
16
13
19
18
14
12

15

37.7
43.0
2 0 .0

32.4
2 0 .8

27.4
23.4
42.8
19.7
25.5
23.2
44.7
18.8
22.9
39.2
27.3
4 15.8

29.2
12.3
17.4

4 40.4

85.4
38.6
55.6
26.2
30.2
2 1 .0

17.8
47.1
32.6
416.7
24.0
28.4
10.5
27.3
16.9
17.3

2.7
2.3
1.4
2.4
.6
1 .1
2 .1

3.1
1 .2
1 .6

1.9
1 .8
.8

.5

1 .6
1 .8

4.5
1.7
.1

.7
4 3.9

13.6
3.4
5.0
2 .0

2.4
1 .0

1.4
3.7
2.7
* 1 .0
2 .0
1 .8
.8
1 .1
1 .1
1.1

2 2 .6
2 1.1

.8
1.1

18.1
20.3

1 .8

.4

1 0.1

.5

4 25.3

4 1 .8
.8

39.2
31.0
26.6
23.3
14.1
21.5

2.5
2.5
1.4
.5
1 .0

T able A.— In ju ry Rates and Injuries by Extent o f D isability, 1944— Continued
Industry

Number
of estab­
lish
ments

Number
of em­
ployees

Percent of disabling injuries result­ Average days lost per
disability i—
•
ing ini—
Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
Death and Permanent Tempo­ Permanent
abling
worked
Tempo­
(thousands) injuries permanent
rary total
rary total
partial
partial
total dis­ disability disability disability disability
ability 3

Printing and publishing.............................................
Book and job........................................................
News and periodical............................................
Bookbinding.................................................... .

2,687
1,748
893
46

175,893
82,358
91,071
2,464

367,912
176,227
186,422
5,262

3,144
1,590
1,487
67

Rubber and its products............................................
Rubber tires.........................................................
Rubber boots and shoes.......................................
Not elsewhere classified ____________________

296
54
32

188,345
87,947
23.954
76,444

427,310
207,207
54,402
165,700

7,012
3,214
677
3,121

Stone, clay, and glass products............................... Brick, tile, and terra cotta......... ........................
Cement 5..................................................... .........
Glass....................................................................Pottery __
__
_
__
. . .
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products...........
Cut stone and cut-stone products.......................
Not elsewhere classified_____________________

1,288
415
(•)
223
138

210,998
27,838
17,057
89,621
27,959
7,836
2,656
38,031

457,758
57,675
38,434
190,049
57,687
18,448
5,190
, 90,273

9,846
2,532
519
3,415
1,030
530
171
1,649

Textile and textile-mill products...............................
Carpets and rugs __ __ ____ _______ ___
Clothing, men's. _
_____ ________ ____
Clothing, women’s . .............................................
Cotton goods. ................................................ ......
Dyeing and finishing...........................................
TCnit goods
__
__ _____
____
Silk and rayon products, not elsewhere
elassified.
__ _ __
__
__ . . .
Woolen goods........................................................
Not elsewhere classified.......................................

4,373
61
842
800
611

837,176
14,164

664

59,813
238,906
37, 514
108,431

1,854,107
30,081
243,098
116,270
612,603
83,904
217, 552

197
424
563

50,321
128,156
78,659

109,531
273,885
167,179

1,461
5,515
2,728

Transportation equipment....................................... .
Motor vehicles. ....................................................
Shipbuilding. .......................................................
Railroad equipment.............................................
Aircraft..................................................................
Motor-vehicle parts
__
. .
Boat building........................................................
Aircraft parts.......................................................
Not elsewhere classified.......................................

1,648
207
440

2,699,833
154, 362
992,848
84,360
642,221
71,612
3,627
746,252
4.551

6,563,997
379,952
2,437,292
207,408
1,540,712
172,875
8,018
1,801,578
10,374

104,362
5,483
57, 596
4.409
13,564
4.458
395
18,258
199




212
110

190

211

86

113
126
34
616
26

121,212

Fre­
quency

Sever­
ity 1

95.0
92.8
96.9
(7
)

1,231
1,302
1,140
862

15
17
14
15

*9.0
9.0

*0.9

8 .0

12.7

.5
1.5

89.6
96.3
(7
)
83.8

1,023
900
1,371
1,026

15
14

*16.6
15.5
12.4
18.8

*2.7
1.9
1.7
3.7

1,083
972
(#)1,208
o

16
16

3.4

96.7
97.1
92.9
96.8
98.0
97.2
CO
96.0

3.1

96.8

1 2 .0

26,807
330
2,248
554
10,113
2,057
1,771

210

Injury rates 2
—

8 8 .0

4.7
6.9

0.3
.3
.3
C
O

2 .8
0
1 0 .2

.2

3.3

.4
(7
)

(7
)

16.2

.7
.9
2.3
.3

2 .6
2 .0

4.8
2.9
2 .0
1 .6

1 .2

(7
)
.6

CO

1,020

1,525
750
935

.9
.9
3.2
1.7
1.3

.4
.1
.2

.4
.1

.5
.5
.2

CO

.2

98.2
95.5
96.4

646
1,032
1,105

95.4
95.7
96.0
95.5
96.2
95.7
(7
)
94.3
(?)

796
700
1,126
632
991

4.2
3.5

.3
.1

CO

99.1
98.7
96.7
98.1
98.7

1,056
985
1,840
500
1,052
1.663
890

1 .8

.1

0

(7
)

4.2
4.2
3.5
4.0
3.6
4.3
.
5.5

(7
)

18

(6) 17
13
17
13
20

*22.4
43.9
13.5
18.0
17.9
28.7
32.9
18.3

656

*2.4
3.9
(«)

1.3
.6

3.4
3.6
2 .1

16
19

*13.4

12
12

16
15

9.2
4.8
16.5
24.5

.2
.1
1 .1

12

8 .1

.2

15

13.3

20

2 0 .2

16

16.3

.3
1.7

18
18
15
28
16
9

*16.3
14.4
23.6
21.3

1 1 .0

8 .8

12

666

(7
)

12

1 .1

25.8
49.3

19
24

19.2

10.1

*.7
1.5

1.7

.8

4^. 7
2.3
1.3
.6
1 .0
.6
.6

.3

Miscellaneous manufacturing......................
Tobacco products............ .......................
Radios and phonographs........................
Smelting and refining (nonferrous) *___
Nonferrous metal products....................
Brushes....................................................
Brooms..___________ _______________
Coke ovens: 5
Bee hive............................................
Byproducts.......................................
Miscellaneous manufacturing................
Ordnance and accessories...........................
Guns and related equipment.................
Ammunition, except for small arms___
Tanks, military.......................................
Sighting and fire-control equipment___
Small arms______ ______ __ _____ ____
Ammunition, small arms.......................
Tank parts, m ilitary............... : ...........
Not elsewhere classified..........................
Nonmanufacturing
Construction 9...... ........................................
Building construction....... ....................
Heavy engineering................................
Highway..................................................
Not elsewhere classified..........................
Communication 9................. .........................
Telephone (wire and radio)...................
Radio broadcasting and television____
Transportation 9.............................................
Stevedoring............................................
Streetcar...................................................
Bus...........................................................
Both streetcar and bus...........................
Trucking and hauling............................
Warehousing and storage.......................
Not elsewhere classified..........................
Heat, light, and power 9................................
Electric light and power.........................
Gas...........................................................
Waterworks9..................................................
Personal services............................................
Dry cleaning............................................
Laundries.... ...........................................
Laundry and dry cleaning combined__
Amusements and related services.........
Hotels.....................................................
Eating and drinking places...... .............
Medical and other professional services.
Miscellaneous personal services.............
See footnotes at end o f table.




2,585
201

344
109
955
49
34
(•)
(«)
893
1,249
220

599
33
61
99
44
102

91
2,132
1,592
165
258
117
515
120

395
1,290
111

33
292
46
557
197
52
646
430
199
173
4,440
663
724
451
432
430
1,026
303
411

659,237
42, 575
163,807
41, 205
158,130
5,809
1,763

1,594,399
91,609
393,274
113,610
392,927
13,097
3,845

3,180
21,586
221,182
796,696
125,393
390,125
43,019
45,446
81,670
24,260
49,082
37,701

6,742
62,848
516,445
1,853,530
293,875
885,337
103,837
113,483
187,385
60,943
115,891
92,775

94,913
46,070
32,975
12,321
3,547
372,035
360,027
12,008
244,660
40,431
15,752
39,213
82,163
15,020
14,732
1,487
247,348
198,229
48,702
10,335
173,180
20,147
36,486
35,572
11,614
38,603
17,328
8,312
5,118

197,510
89,030
79,180
23,114
6,185
734,699
710,701
23,997
568,952
* 62,936
41,034
98,434
210,467
32,919
33,162
3,922
534,004
427,933
105,100
21,291
385,849
47,138
81,729
81,165
20,816
89,916
36,858
18,343
9,881

24,992
1,124
3,630
2,692
9, 619
233
166
239
764
6,526
27,078
4,422
14,278
1,270
901
2,231
441
1,790
lj 746
5,469
2,726
1,704
832
207
2,451
2,423
28
18,894
5,545
1,095

.3
CO

88

37

0)
1 .8
1 .6
.1

(•)
1,158
435
(7
)

6 .8

97.4
94.2
96.5
92.8
95.4
91.9

4.6
7.4

.7
( 7)

(7
)

( 7)

( 7)

C
7)
( 7)

(0
89.5

( 7)

10.5
9.3
3.3

1.3
2.3
1 .0
m

( 7)
( 7)
( 7)

3.9
3.9

.6

.5
.4

1.4
.5

.7

.4
( 7)

2 .2
C7)

1 .8
1 .2

2 .1

1.4
2.4

.3
.4

2 .2

1 .1
.1

4.1
4.8

.7
.4

1,383
1,352
1,294
1,695
875
( 7)
CO
( 7)

( 7)

3.3
3.7

1.7

C7)

1 .1

( 7)

90.7
96.7

95.5
95.6
98.8
97.3
97.8
98.8
97.4

.8
2 .6

.1
.8

764
959
650
1,059
750

443
1,786
952
778

( 7)
( 7)
( 7)

( 7)

95.0
94.5
96.7
98.3
97.2
96.7
95.8
94.5
0)
98.5

1,367
1,810
1,783
1,339
1,980
925
998
1,771
1,735
1,966
( 7)

1,457
1,566
1,771
1,536

100 .0
( 7)
( 7)




CO

16
21

16
21

59
7
36
13
13
14
18
17

21

17
19
15
15
18
18
23
14
13
15
13
16

623

h

(•)

CO

1 2 .2
1 2 .6

CO

<8

.5
1.3
2.3
.6
.6

.4
49
.
.4

<13.3
15.0
16.1

1 .2

1 2.2

.9

7.9
11.9
7.2
15 4
18! 8

.2
.6

1.5
1 0

.7
4.2
4.0
3.6
7.7
3.1

27.7
30.6
21.5
36.0
33.5
3.3
3.4
1 .2

.1
.1
00

33.2

3.5

8 8 .1

1 0.6

26.7
20.4
22.3
38.3
37.5

1 .1
2 .1

2 1 .2

1.4
2.3
2.3
3.0
2.3
2.3

19
19
18
15
13
14
14
14
25

16.1
21.3
9.4
5.8
8.3

11
10

1 2.6

.5

14.3
4.8
3.7

.1
.2
.2

( 7)

C7)
( 7)

15
13
7

20

( 7)

( 7)

00

<14.1
12.3
9.2
23.7
24.5
17.8
42.9
35.4

14
9
12

00

00
00

95.4
96.0
94.9
94.1
97.1

( 7)

3.0
2.7
3.3
3.6
1.9

1 .6
1 .8

( 7)

93.3
95.7
(7
)

1.3
4.2
3.4

.4

1 ,688

453
3,623
273
680
714
174
1,131
526

6 .6

4.3

2,0 1 1

4,692
1,260
1,245
83
6,867
5,156

914
532
896

00

CO

.1

(7
)

94.1
95.6
88.9

5.6
4.2
10.9

.2
.2

18

( 7)

22

12.9
1 2.0

8 .8

8.4

2 .1

.7
.7
.7
.8
1.1
1 .2

T

able

A .— In ju ry Rates and Injuries by Extent o f D isability, 1944— Continued
Percent of disabling injuries result­ Average days lost per
ing ini—
disability i—

Industry

Business services__________________ ___________
Banks and other financial agencies.....................
Insurance______ ________
Real estate—...................... ........... .......................
Miscellaneous business services_____ _________
Automobile-repair services and garages.............
Miscellaneous repair services............... ...... ........
Airplane modification................................ .........

Number
of estab­
lish­
ments

Number
of em­
ployees

Employee- Number
hours
of dis­
abling Death and
worked
Tempor­
Tempo­
(thousands) injuries permanent Permanent rary total Permanent a r y total
partial
partial
total dis­ disability disability disability disability
ability 3*

2,734
912
302
370
382
476
284
7

122,524
44,303
20.813
6,306
19,055
4,628
3,776
20,064

273,401
88,449
40,932
13,702
46,063
11,052
. 8,669
54,787

Educational services...................................................

194

66,835

127,755

Fire departments........................................................

234

26,084

100,852

2,429
316
65
92
615
145
236
827

1.4

0.4
CQ
( 7)
£ )

v )
(71

Q
C7)

98.2

(? )

"

1,001

( 7)
( 7)

( 7)
(7 )
(7 )

C7)
(m

( 7)

.4
.4

5.1
1.2

1,333

.5
1.1

v )

( 7)

11

Fre­
quency

Sever­
ity !

8.9
3.6
1 .6

6.7
13.4
13.1
27.2
15.1

0.5
.2
( 8)

.6
.8

.5

1,482

14

10.4

.8

98.4

.5

775
1,255

17
15
15

97.3

2.2

2,319

( 7)
( 7)

17
15
17
17

Injury ratesi—
2

2,209

15

23.0

2.1

94.5
98.4

2 .1
.8

Police departments....................................................

177

25,649

63,222

1,326

.7

1.1

98.2

1,539

21

21.0

1.6

Trade....................................................... ....................
Wholesale distributors............................ ...........
Retail, general merchandise............................. .
Retail, food....... .............. ....................................
Wholesale and retail dairy products...................
Retail, automobiles........................... .................
Filling stations----------------------- . .......................
Retail, apparel and accessories......... ..................
Miscellaneous retail stores________ _______ ___
Wholesale and retail trade combined------- ------

7,458
2,264
295
750
323
539
230
707

197,705
49,860
45,255
22,035
14,023
7,228
1,948
17,624
30,968
8,764

435,106
110, 368
95,790
51,343
33,142
17,363
4,709
35,648
68,304
18, 435

5,967
1,930
766
760
730
303
34
89
1,042
313

.2
.2

1.8
2.3

98.0
97.5

1,552
1,214

15
15
13
14
14
14
13
13
16
14

413.7
17.5

1.0

2 ,0 0 0

350

i Based on reports which furnished details regarding the resulting disabilities, consti­
tuting approximately 50 percent of the total sample.
« The frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries for each million
employee-hours worked. The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each
thousand employee-hours worked. The standard time-loss ratings for fatalities and
permanent disabilities are given in Method of Compiling Industrial Injury Rates,
approved by the American Standard Association 1937.
3 Each death or permanent total disability is charged with a time loss of 6,000 days in
the computation of severity rates.




CO
CO
Q
W
( 7>

(7
)

A

.5

CO
CO

4.1

CO
CO
(7
)

95.5

<0
<0
(0

2 .1

(7
)

CO

CO
(0

C
7)

(7
)
2,770
( )

97.4

CO
(7
)
( 7)

877

4. 8

8 .0

.1

14.8

.4
3.3
.5

2 2 .0

17.5
7.2
2.5
15.3
17.0

1 .0
.2

1 .0
.6

4 Weighted according to estimates of total current employment in each industry.
« Preliminary data compiled by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of Interior.
•Not available.
7 Disability distribution and average time charges not given because of small number
of injuries for which details were reported.
3 Less than 0.05.
* Primarily reported by company instead of by establishment.

15
T

able

B .— Changes in Exposure, Disabling Injuries, and In ju ry Rates, fo r 29,311
Identical Establishments, 1943 to 1944

Industry

Percent of change in—
Num­
ber of
Em­
Dis­
estab­ Em­
Fre­
lish­
ployee- abling Total quen­ Severi­
time
in­
ments ploy­ hours
cy ty rate
ees worked juries lost
rate

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing......... ...............
Chemical products 2_____ ________
Drugs, toiletries, and insecticides.
Explosives_______ _____________
Fertilizers............ ......... ........... .
Paints and varnishes___________
Rayon and allied products______
Soap and glycerin------------- -------Industrial chemicals____________
Not elsewhere classified_________
Food products.................................. ......
Baking.............................................
Canning and preserving..... .........
Confectionery______________ _____
Flour, feed and grain mill products.
Slaughtering and meat packing___
Sugar refining.................... ..............
Beverages............................. ...........
Dairy products...______ _________
Breweries.............................. ...........
Distilleries___ _____ _____________
Not elsewhere classified__________
Iron and steel and their products______________
Iron and steel__________ ____ _____________
Cutlery and edge tools_____________ ______
Enameling and galvanizing_______________
Fabricated structural steel______ _____ ____
Forgings, iron and steel................................
Foundries, iron and steel__________________
Hardware___________________ _____ ______
Ornamental metalwork______________ _____
Plumbers’ supplies_____________________ _
Stamped and pressed metal products_______
Steam fittings and apparatus........... .......... .
Heating equipment, not elsewhere classified.
Tin cans and other tinware_______________
Tools, except edge tools............................ .....
Wire and wire products__________ ________
Plate fabrication and boiler-shop products___
Screws and screw-machine products________
Bolts, nuts, washers, and rivets.....................
Sheet-metal work______________ _______ ___
Not elsewhere classified............ ................ .....
Leather and leather products__________
Leather--------------------------------------Boots and shoes (other than rubber)
Not elsewhere classified___________
Lumber, lumber products, and furniture.
Logging------------------ --------------------Planing mills...... ......... ......................
Sawmills.................................... ........
Furniture, except metal____________
Furniture, metal---------------------------Office, store, and restaurant fixtures..
Morticians’ supplies_______________
Wooden containers........ ....................
Not elsewhere classified.............. .......
Machinery (not transportation).................... ..........
Agricultural machinery and tractors..................
Construction and mining machinery_________
Electrical equipment and supplies___________
Food-products machinery....... ......... .................
Metalworking machinery.______ ____________
Textile machinery....................................... .......
Special industry machinery, not elsewhere
classified.............................. .............................
General industrial machinery________________
Commercial and household machinery..............
General machine shops.......... ................. . .........
Engines and turbines.-.....................................

See footnotes at end of table.




17,121
1,139
199
56
241
301
4
61
158
99
2,455
567
271
196
452
202

85
214
125
168
36
139
1,857
98
73
38
206
59
533
84
40
39
118
111

98
33
85
67
29
29
8

19
90
425
119
241
65
2,471
109
507
547
750
33
76
37
226
186
1,313
103
131
173
61
188
87
160
280
31
95
4

-3

-2

+1
+6

+2
+8
+1
+2

+3
-2
+1
+2
+8
-2
-2

+5
-2

b4
hi
hi
-4
h4

+2

(3
)
+11

-3
-3

+8
+6
-2
+1

-1 5
+42
-1

-4
-4
+11
-1
+2
-6
-8

(3
)
+2

-7
-5
-8
-2
+10

-1 6
-3

+22
-2

-4

-6

-3
-5
-5
-4
+5
-4
-5

—9
-1

+31
-3
+7

+50
-1

-1 3
+4
+1

+16
-1 3
+2

+9
+11
-1 2

+13
(3
)

-2 6

+5
+159
-1 5

-2

-8

<>
*
+9

+2

+1

+4
-8
-6
-2
+12
-2
-6
— 11

G)
+10
— 12
-1
—
—

-4
13
56
-4
-4
-3

-7

-3 1
-6

+61
-1 4
-5
-1 3
+2

-4 6
+14
-5
-1 2

-9
-1 1

15

-2
— 10
+11

(3j

-3

3
-4
+7
-5
-4

—

+6
21

+3
_

-1 2

-9
-2 4
-2

-1 6
.+ 2
-2 2

-7

(3

11
-1

+54
-3
+1

-4

+6
-1 1

+5
-1
+1

-4
-5 7

-4 6

20

-2

+8

-7
—

-1 2

-7
+13
-4 0
-2

+1

+26
-3 1
+53
+61
+25
-2 7
+79

-8

-7

1 -2

+52
-3 7
-7 6
+13

-1 9

+11

i- 6
+24
-7
-4
+13
+45
-3
-1 4
i-l

+16
-4 1
-1 5
-1 6

-1
-2
—11

+1

-1 8
-7

-1

-1
+6
— 11

-1 8

+3

+10

-8

+5

-6
-8
+1
-8

+3
(3
)

-7
-2 4
-1 4
-3 6
+41
-6 3

+12

-6

-7
-5 7
-3
-3
-5
-7
-5
-9

-1 3
+3
+34

-2 0

-4 8
-3 2
+113
-1 1
+8
+21

+15
-8 9
-8 1
+39
-3 9
-9
+16
-4 4
-8 3
-2
+6

-9
+4
-1 5
+30
-4 7
-2 7

-1 1
+8
-2

+7
-2 5
-1 6
+18
+93
-1 5
i-l
-7
-6
-8

+7
-1 2
-2

i-7
i-2 8
-1 4
-3 8
+36
-6 3
0

+44
-3 7
-7 6
1+6

-1 5
+6

-2 6
+59
+46
+20

-3 0
+100
+20

-3 3
+9
0
0
+8

-4 2
-1 8

0
+8
0

-5
+18
-3 8
+5
-2 3

-6 2
-2 5
-4 4
-2 7

-6

+112

-2

+21
+100

+46
-4
-1 0

+17
+21

+49
-1

1-17
-8

-9
-3 8
1-5
+18
-1 1

(3
)
-7
-8
-2 0
-6

-1 5
+16
-8 9
-5 7
+43
-4 0
1-50
+19
-3 3
-8 2
i+ 8
+33
+7
+6

-5
+18
-4 7
-2 7

-6

-1

-1 4
-1 3
+9
-5
-7
-2 9
-3 0
+29

-5

+7

-1 1

0
+8

-1 2

1-9

1 -1 0

+15

+25

-1 3
-1 8
+42
-3 8
-3 6

-4 6
+3
-5 8
-2 6
-1 6

-3
-1 7

-3 6

-8

-71

-1 6
-2 8

+2
+1

-1 9
-2 6

-7 5

-4
-3 3

+11

-1 2

-7 9
+14

+6

-3 7
-3 6

0

+22

0
-2 2
-2 0

16
T

able

B . — Changes in Exposure, Disabling Injuries, and In ju ry Rates, fo r 29,311

Identical Establishments, 1943 to 1944— Continued

Industry

Percent of change in—
Number of
Em­
Dis­
estab­ Em­
Fre­
lish­
ployee- abling Total quen­ Severi­
time
in­
ments ploy­ hours
cy ty rate
ees worked juries lost
rate

Manufacturing—C ontinued
Paper and allied products....................... .................
Paper............................................................... .
Paper and pulp (integrated)—
....................... .
Paper boxes and containers. . . ......................... .
Envelopes..................................................... ......
Not elsewhere classified................................ ......

580
111

46
230
58
135

+1
-1

-3
+22

-5
-5

+2
+2

09

+20

-4
-5

Printing and publishing *.......................................... 2,241
Book and jo b .............. .................................. ...... 1,487
News and periodical-........................ .................
725

00

Rubber and its products............................................
Rubber tires.............. ...........................................
Rubber boots and shoes......................................
Not elsewhere classified......................................

94
14

+14
+37
+4
+7

+19
+43

Stone, clay, and glass products.................................
Brick, tile, and terra cotta. .............................. .
Glass. ...................... ......... ........... .................... .
Pottery................................... .............................
Concrete, gypsum, and plaster products........ . .
Cut stone and cut-stone products. ....................
Not elsewhere classified............ ..........................

823
361
153
73
85
94
57

-3
-1 3

-1
-1 2
+6
-1
-8

12
68

Textile and textile mill products......... ................... . 2,410
Carpets and rugs........................... .....................
38
Clothing, men’s_________ ___ ____ _________ _
410
Clothing, women’s............ ..................................
460
Cotton goods___________________ __________ _
304
Dyeing and finishing_________ _____ _________
117
Knit goods______ _______ ____ ______ _______
476
Silk and rayon products, not elsewhere classified.
128
Woolen goods___________________ ____ ______
217
Not elsewhere classified..... .............................. .
260
Transportation equipment 2_.....................................
Motor vehicles................................................ .
Shipbuilding........................................................
Railroad equipment. ..........................................
Aircraft............................................................... .
Motor vehicle parts.............................................
Aircraft parts............ ..................................... .

464
45
172
28
36
24
151

Miscellaneous manufacturing.................................. .
Tobacco products............ ................................
Radios and phonographs.................................
Nonferrous metal products..................................
Brushes............................................................. .
Brooms......................... .......................................
Not elsewhere classified.......................................

697
157
40
151
35
30
284

Ordnance and accessories........ ..................................
Guns and related equipm ent......................... .
Ammunition, except for small arms...................
Tanks, military............... ............. ...................
Sighting and fire-control equipment__________
Small arms---------------------------------------- ------ Ammunition, small arms_______________ ____
Tank parts, military___________________ ____
Not elsewhere classified.......................................

152
16
78
4
4
13

6
10
21

-1

-3

+2

-3
-1 3

+2
+2
+2

+8
+10

-2
+2
+8
-1
-8
-2 1

-1 5
+129
-61
+48
-4 6
-3 7

-3

-5
+5

-1 2

-4

*+2

-3
+25
+3

-9
-1 5

+17

-2

-9

-7
-7
-3
-1 8
-7

-4

-1 0

+25

-8
-2

-6

-1 0

-8

+3

-7

-7
-7
-2

+3
-3

+ 10
-1

+18

09
-1

-9
+9

09
+5
+1

-6

-1 9
-1

+3

+1

+77

+11

-1

-1 2

09

-6 1
-5 6
+28

-1
+11

-2 2
-1 0

-1 4
-3 0

-2 9
-2

+2

-4

+17
+4

-8
+2

+1

-6
+5
+ 20
-1 1
-1 3
+10

+8

-4 7
-2 8
+24

-1

0

0
10

-1 8
+30

-4 0
-31
+33
-77

+13

-5 8

-4 7
-4 3
-5 5
-4 0

-3 9
-4 0
-4 0
-3 6
-31

-3 5
-31
-4 3
-2 6
-4 2

-2 5
-2 4
-2 8
-1 8
-6 9

+2
+2

+8
+8

-3 8
-3 5
-9 2

-2

-6

-2 2

10

-4 2
+18
-5 5
-3 3

1-7

-2 6

+1

i-1 8
-1 9
-2 5
-1 5

-3 2
-4 6
-3 8

-2 3

+2

+6
0

-5 0
-81

-7 9
-2 6
+162

-8

-1 2

-1 8

-2 3
+19
-1 6
-3 1
-4 7

-2 3
-4 7

-5 7
-3 3
+33

+1
-6

+ 11

-7
-9
-9
-31
-4 3

-1

-1 0

i+33
+25
+129

-1 6

09

10
-2 0
0
+100
+10

1 -1 0
+ 11
+2

-1 3

-4

i+5
+33
-7
-7 2
+36
-6 7
+17

+55
+15
+193
+79
-4 6
-8 1
-3

-1 2
-8

i-2 3
-3 2
-5 5
+31

-1 4

-3

-2 1

+26
+7
+34

0

-3

-2

+1

-6

-2 5

-1
-8

-1

-1 0
-1 2
+11

-2 0
+8

-1 4

-4
+18
-3
+3

i-5
-3
-4

i+ l
-1 4

-2

-5
+15

-2 5

-51
+19

-4

-8

i+ ll

+12

+2

0

-4 0
-31

1 -4

+24
+39
+35
+13

+1
-1 1

1-7
+109
-5 9

-1 4
+7

-2 1

-5
-4
-4
-5
-4

-4

-1 1

-1

+7
-1 7
-4
-1 7

+9

-7 1
+26
-7 0
+17

-8

i- 6

+201

-2 0

-8

-1 6

-1

-8

0
-8
-2

+100

+20

+400
-2 0

+52

-4 4

+8

+26
+29
+23
+28
-5 6

Nonmanufacturing
Construction a*.......................................................... 1,529
Building..................................... .......................... 1,105
Heavy engineering__________ _______________
121
Highway.................. ......................................... .
220
Not elsewhere classified_________ ___________
80
Communication *___________ ___________________
Telephone (wire and radio)------ ------ ------------Radio broadcasting and television......................

See footnotes at end of table.




455
94
361

-2 1
+2

+1
+11

+8

+13

+16

-6

+17
-1 6

+6
+6

+9

-5 0
-5 0
-9 3

17
T

able

B .— Changes in Exposure, Disabling Injuries, and In ju ry Rates, fo r 29,311
Identical Establishments, 1943 to 1944— Continued

Industry

Percent of change in—
Num­
ber of
Em­
estab­ Em­
Dis­
Fre­
lish­
ployee- abling Total quen­ Severi­
time
ments ploy­ hours
in­
cy ty rate
ees worked juries lost
rate

Nonmanufacturing—C ontinued
Transportation 2 4______________________________
Stevedoring— ....................................................
Streetcar............ ............................. —.................
Bus......................... ..............................................
Both streetcar and bus................ .................... .
Trucking and hauling,......................................
Warehousing and storage................................. ...

760
62
30
233
41
299
61

(i)
3
*
-4

Heat, light, and power 2 4....... ..................................
Electric light and power. ...................................
Gas............ ..........................................................

394
261
119

+1
+1
-2

+3 • +4
+5
+4
+1
(3
)

Waterworks4......... — .................................— ........

110

-2

-3

Personal services........................................................ 2,674
Dry cleaning................. .......................................
520
Laundries------------------------------------------- ------ 618
Laundry and dry cleaning combined_________
378
262
Amusements and related services. .....................
159
Hotels i __________________________ __________
435
Eating and drinking places............. ...................
Medical and other professional services..............
180
Miscellaneous personal services. ........................
122

+2

+4

+15

+22

(3
)
+8

+1
+2
-1

+3

+5
-9

+7
-1 7

+1

-3
+7
+3
(3
)
+7
+3

Business services------------------------- ---------------------- 1,730
684
Banks and other financial agencies.....................
211
Insurance----------- --------- ---------------- ------------196
Real estate---------------------- ------ ------ ------------187
Miscellaneous business services........................ .
Automobile-repair services and garages..............
250
196
Miscellaneous repair services....... .......................
6
Airplane modification............ .............................

-4
+16

+2
—2

+3
-3
+9

+21

+30
+19
+16
+19
+19
-1 2

+26
+30
-2

+5
+29
+9
-1 5

+20
+20

+15
+14
+22
+12
+6

+25
+21
0

+9
+31
+3
0

+8
+2

+45

+1
+2
0

-5
-5
+50

+19

+391

+23

+350

+11

+11

+7

-2
-8

-2 2

-4
-4
+47
+3

+23

+31

+2
-1

+62

+24
+471
-7
-1 6

+5

+22

-6 6

+6

+27

+152

+8
-1
-2

-1 0

-3 5
-5 2

+60
+6

0

t s
+18
-1 6
+32
-4 3
-3 0
+30
+3

0

+25
-2 2
+20

+333
0
0

-6 7
+100

-3 7
-5 0
-9 6
-8 9
+43
+40
+56
-5 6

+21

+28
-4 4
-3 0
+58

-4
+16

(3
)
(3
)
+34

-2 7

+ 1

+43
+60
-4 2

45

-4

+3

-4 4

-9 8

-4 6

-9 8

Trade................................. - ......... - ..................- ........ 4,503
Wholesale distributors____________ __________ 1 , 4 2 2
161
Retail, general merchandise------------- ------------310
Retail, food..........................................................
211
Wholesale and retail dairy products...................
402
Retail, automobiles. ....................... ...................
140
Filling stations..---------------------------------------- 386
Retail, apparel and accessories ------------------ Miscellaneous retail stores--------------- ------ ------ 1,186
285
Wholesale and retail trade combined.................

-3

-3

+3
-3

-1 6
-3 1

1+3

i- 1 2
-3 1

+8

-2 1

+5

+9
-5
-2 5
+492
+320
-3
-4 7

Educational services...................................................

-1

-1

+ 1

-2

-1

—7

-7
-4
-3
+4

-1
+2
+2

+3
—8

(»)
+3

+2
-8
+2

+4

+2

+6

+32
-3 4
-2

+4
-7

i Weighted according to estimates of total current employment in each industry,
a Totals include figures for industries not shown separately.
3 Less than half of 1 percent.
4 Primarily reported by company instead of by establishment.




-8 6
-8 8
+66

+ 11

-4 5

-2

+16
+9
+10

+27
-3 6
+4
+2
-1 0

0

+25
-8

-2 9
+550
+100
0

-5 0

18
T able C .— Estim ates o f D isabilities, by Extent, fo r M anufacturing Industries9 1944
[Excluding self-employed]
All reporting establishments

Industry

Estimates for entire industry

Num­
Death
Em­
Num­ ber of ployee- Num­ All
and
ber of dis­ perma­
ber of em­
hours
dis­ abling nent
estab­ ploy­ worked
abling in­
lish­
ees
total
in­
ments (thou­ (thou­
sands) juries juries disa­
sands)
bility

Chemical products 1_____________
Drugs, toiletries, and insecti­
cides___________ _____ _____
Explosives.......... .............. ........
Fertilizers......... ................ ........
Paints and varnishes................
Petroleum refining *____ _____
Rayon and allied products____
Soap and glycerin.............. ......
Industrial chemicals.................

2,198

Food products 1.......................... .
Confectionery...... .................
Flour, feed, and grain mill
products....... ................... ......
Slaughtering and meat packing.
Sugar refining....................... .
Breweries..................................

4,244
239

453 1,013,692 31,599 98,900
88,237 1,674 3,100
41

614
1,197
96
321

39
126

Iron and steel and their products1. _
Iron and steel_______________
Fabricated structural steel____
Foundries___________________
Heating equipment, not else­
where classified__________ __
Tools, except edge tools______
Wire and wire products______
Screw and screw-machine prod­
ucts_______________________
Bolts, nuts, washers and rivets.

4,829
300
388
1,069

543 1,250,928 17,301 26,300

317
109
288
413
(J
)
30

64
76
17
30
125

86

14
166

930

2,132 3,000
944 1,600
1,273 2,0 0 0
1,286 1,500
3,495 3,500
1,055 1,200
497
600
6,534 12,900

315

Tem­
porary
total
disa­
bility

Total
days
lost
(thou­
sands)

1,050 24,935

3,660

2,910
1,455
1,910
1,475
3,300
1,140
565
12,095

62
1,345

10

4,150 94,455
140 2,950

8,037
207

92,001 2,865 5,700
304,654 10,928 18,300
49,613 1,569 2 ,1 0 0
124 5,745 8 ,1 0 0

50
35
5
15

130 5,520
470 17,795
70 2,025
660 7,425

601
673
190
1,032

1,269 2,940.320 70,440 85,200
497 1,131,813 11,195 12,700
55 128,951 4.600 7,200
187 441,509 18,982 22,400

510

3,660 81,030
760 11,740
260 6,905
340 21,970

7,856
2,371
552
1,265

3,285
1,870
4,050

233
128
378

1,400
1,160

95
33

25
5

310 11,865
80 2,915
110
5,490

608
168
97

66

22

64

90

45

100

20

70

5
70
5
65
295

200

35
90

20

130
60
30
740

111

426
268
101

(3
)

112

24
27
47

53,297
06,100
111,249

2,283
2,582

4,300

132

16
11

39,498
25,852

743
593

1,500

66

Leather and its products1......... ......
Leather_____________________
Boots and shoes.___ _________

748
168
462

148
29
107

320,149
65,779
227,885

5,196
1,922
2,813

12,200

Lumber, lumber products, and fur­
niture i_______________________
Furniture, metal and wood___
Planing mills________________

4,026
1,132
660

290
89
42

636,047 26,811 85,500
196,319 5,155 11,400
93,930 3,629 7,100

515
10
20

3,850 81,135
790 10,600
330 6,750

8,425
862
616

1,413 3,632,440 59,091 82,200

165

4,030 78,005

5,478

Machinery (not transportation)1. _.
Agricultural machinery and
tractors___________________
General and special industry
machinery 4_______________
Electrical equipment and sup­
plies______________________
Metalworking machinery_____
Textile machinery_____ ______
Commercial and household ma­
chines_____________________
Engines and turbines...............

216
196
232

117,295
176,619
37,718
70,421
304,401
117,339
33,098
389,048

Per­
ma­
nent
partial
disa­
bility

4,896
192

70

165,326

1 ,686

3,964

3,400

15

100

20

130
230

2,0 0 0

100

40

1 ,200

3,000
5,600 —

5,600

15

2,339

415 1,238,056 27,595 38,600

929
1,105
113

568 1,321,445 13,908 19,500
205 508,014 8,573 12,000
15
40,031
692 1 ,000

5,265

363

75

1,620 36,905

2,420

40
50
5

1,320 18,140
440 11,510
40
955

1,529
957
62

98

112

90,102
269,463

Paper and allied products 1.............
Pulp and paper..... ...................
Paper boxes and containers___

1,766
577
889

245
148
59

688,950 14,901 23,100
353,260 10,302 12,400
123,673 2,879 4,700

Printing and publishing 1................
News and periodical............ .

2,687
893

175
91

367,912
186,422

3,144
1,487

10,100

3,000

10

470
80

9,600 *
2,910

Rubber and its products 1............. .
Rubber tires______ _______

296
64

188
87

427,310
207,207

7 ,0 1 2

3,214

8,800
4,100

15
15

900
130

7,885
3,955

1,142
271

Stone, clay, and glass products1___
Brick, tile, and terra cotta____
Cement 2................................
Glass................. ..................... .
Pottery_____________________

1,288
415
(3
)
223
138

210

457,758
57,675
38,434
190,049
57,687

9,846 18,700
2,532 4,700
519
600
3,415 4,600
1,030 1,800

130
40
15
15

490 18,080
90 4,570
30
555
130 4,455
40 1,760

1,595
408
(#
)
312
59

See footnotes at end of table.




120

35

320

27
17
89
27

1,628
2,731

1,700
3,800

20

115
100

25
30

30
430

1,670
3,350

44
467

720 22,265
190 1 2,110
240 4,435

1,712
1,086
384
905
190

19
T a b l e C.— E stim ates'of D isabilities , by E xtent, fo r M anufacturing Industries , 1944 — Con.
[Excluding self-employed]
All reporting establishments

Estimates for entire industry

Death
Num­
Em­
Num­ ber of ployee- Num­ All
and
ber of dis­ perma­
ber of em­
hours
dis­
estab­ ploy­ worked abling abling nent
lish­
total
ees
in­
(thou­
in­
ments (thou­ sands) juries juries disa­
sands)
bility

Industry

Textile and textile-mill products1
...
Carpets and rugs _______ __
Cotton goods------ ----------------Dyeing and finishing_________
Knit goods
_______________
Silk and rayon products, not
elsewhere classified
___
Woolen goods________ _______

4,373
61
611
664
197
424

60
128

Transportation equipment 1..........Shipbuilding and boatbuild­
ing «..............— .....................
Aircraft and parts................... .

20

5

Tem­
porary
total
disa­
bility

Total
days
lost
(thou­
sands)

2,170 67,760
60
440
670 20,110
60 3,635
40 3,160

70

837 1,864,107 26,807 70,000
14
30,081
330
500
238 612,603 10,113 20,800
83,904 2,057 3,700
37
108 217,552 1,771 3,200

211

Permarnent
partial
disar
bility

3,787
69
1,142
198
74

2,800
7,100

20

1,648

2,699 6,563,997 104,362 139,700

495

5,895 133,310 10,062

474
729

996 2,445,311 57,991 75,000
1,388 3,342,291 31,882 36,900

375
75

2,625 7,200
1,810 35,015

6,288
2,413

Miscellaneous manufacturing1____
Tobacco products......................
Coke ovens 2..... ..................... —

2,6 8 6
201

669 1,594,399 24,992 31,000
42
91,609 1,124 2,500
24
69,590 1,003 1,300

95
5

1,740 29,165
110
2,385
50 1,230

2,552
108
(3
)

Ordnance and accessories1....... ......
Ammunition, except for small
arm s----------------- ------------

1,249

796 1,853,530 27,078 81,800

325

5,560 75,915

8,887

885,337 14,278 30,400

210

2,250 27,940

4,241

(3
)

599

390

109,531
273,885

1,461
5,545

50
300

20

2,750
6,780

74
569

1Includes data for industries not shown separately because of insufficient coverage upon which to base
industry estimates.
2 Based on preliminary data furnished by the Bureau of Mines, U. S. Department of the Interior.
3 Not available.
* This classification includes construction, mining, and food-products machinery,
s Does not include United States navy yards.
T a b l e D .— D istribution o f A ll R eported In ju ries R esulting in Perm anent P artial

D isability , A ccording to Part o f B ody A ffected , by Industry , 1944
Percent of permanent partial disability cases
involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry

Manufacturing
Total, manufacturing................................................. .
Chemical products........................ ...............................
Explosives..............................................................
Fertilizers................................................................
Industrial chemicals.:............................................
Food products......................................... ....................
Baking....................................................................
Canning and preserving...... ............... .................
Confectionery................... .....................................
Flour, feed, and grain mill products.....................
Slaughtering and meat packing...........................
Sugar refining............................................ ......... .
Breweries................................................................
Iron and steel and their products................................
Iron and steel.........................................................
Fabricated structural steel.....................................
Forgings, iron and steel.........................................
Foundries, iron and steel..................................... .
Hardware................................................................
Stamped and pressed metal products. .................
Steam fittings and apparatus................................
Not elsewhere classified.........................................
i Less than half of 1 percent.




Total

100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100

100

A
An hand
or
arm fin­
gers

3
6

4
14
4
7
0

4
5
9

2

17
6

2
2
1
0

3
0
0

2
1

76
' 69J
78
55
69
67
92
77
63
71
92
54
47
78
75
74
87
56
90
97
72

75

A
foot
or
toes

An
eye

3

7

5

6
6
10
6

11
6

A
leg

6
0

15
3

14
15
8

4
4
6

5

10
0
8
6

15
16

3
3
3

8
10
8

0

2

9

9

8

0
0
2

5

4

6

4
5
4
5
0
0
0

3
4

2

14
5

6
7
1

0

15
5
3

8

4

17

2

One or
both
ears Other
(hear­
ing)

6

(0
0
0
0
0

2
2
2
2

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

7
4

(l)
1
0
0
1
0
0
0

oi

0

23

2

0

4
11

4
3
7
3
8
0
0

5
8

20
T able D.~—D istribution o f A ll R eported In ju ries R esulting in Perm artent Partial
D isability , A ccording to P a rt o f B ody A ffected , by Industry , 1944 — Continued
Percent of permanent partial disability cases
involving the loss, or loss of use of—
Industry

Total

A
An hand
or
arm fin­
gers

A
leg

A
foot
or
toes

An
eye

Leather and its products...... .....................

100

2

94

2

0

2

Lumber, lumber products, and furniture.
Logging............................. ...................
Planing mills................................ ........
Sawmills.............- .................................
Furniture, except metal.......................
Wooden containers..............................
Not elsewhere classified................ ......

100
100
100
100
100
100
100

4

80
45
81
75
89
90
83

4
17
5
5
0)

4

5

8

12

2
2

2

Machinery (not transportation)..............
Construction and mining machinery.
Electrical equipment and supplies...
General industrial m achinery..........
General machine shops......................

100
100
100
100
100

2

76
77
77

2

7

5

8

1

9

68

8

2

76

3
3

Paper and allied products........................

100

0

86

2

Printing and publishing...........................
Book and jo b .....................................
News and periodical..........................

100
100
100

6

6

10

73
72
73

7
5

Rubber and its products..........................

100

4

78

Stone, clay, and glass products................
Brick, tile, and terra cotta....... .........
Glass...................................................

100
100
100

4

72
73
64

6

9
4

10

Textiles and textile-mill products.
Cotton goods......................... .
Woolen goods.........................

100
100
100

5
4

81

3

5

3

71

1

1

6

4

13

6
2

Transportation equipment______
Motor vehicles.......................
Shipbuilding...........................
Railroad equipment.............. .
Aircraft.................................. .
Aircraft parts ........................ .

100
100
100
100
100
100

2
0

75
75
62
92
78
74

2
2
6
0
2
1

5
4
16
3
3

Miscellaneous manufacturing___
Tobacco products...... ............
Radios and phonographs____
Nonferrous-metal products...
Not elsewhere classified........ .

100
100
100
100
100

2
2
1

70
94
56
62
87

Ordnance and accessories..................
Ammunition, except small arms.
Small arms...................................

100
100
100

8

5
3
3
2
2

5
0

3

4

0

7

4

2

5
1

3
3
4
5
0

86

76
75
87

3

One
or
both
ears Other
(hear­
ing)
0
0)

3

3

0

6

8

3

4
3
5

0)
0)
0
0

3

0

3
7
3
3
1
1

5

4
5
4
3

2

0
0
0
0
0

9
15
14

0

7

0

5

8

10
5

2
2
2

0
0

0

5
5
5

2

10

1

0

5

5
4

6

7
7

0

3

5
6

9
3
8

2

4

2
0

10
2

0

2

3

14
14
5

0

2
2

‘7
9

5
5

3

3

3
5

0
0
0
0
0

(9
0
1
0

0)

(9
0
0
0
0

0
1

9
0

6

7
9

3
2

4
11

13
2
0

4
18
13
2

23
14
2

5
3
9

0

2

1
2

7
5
7

13
15
16

1
1
0

10

23
33
19

2
2
2

29

9

19
3
13

6

0
0
0
0

9

16
16

5
4

0
0

15
18

0

Nonmanufacturing
Construction.........................
Building..........................
Heavy engineering.........

100
100
100

Transportation......................
Stevedoring.....................
Bus..................................
Both streetcar and bu s..

100
100
100
100

3

41
40
54
42

Heat, light, and power_____
Electric light and power.

100
100

12
10

43
44

8

Personal services...................

100

2

78

6

9

0

1

4

Trade.....................................
Retail................... ...........
Wholesale distributors...

100
100
100

4
3
4

73
82
63

4
3
4

10
6

5
3
9

0
0
0

4
4
4

>Less than half of l.pecrent.




5
4
2

5
7
2

55
51
61

9
10

9

10

15
10

16

14
5

11

21
T a ble E .— Indexes o f In jury-F requ en cy Rates in M anufacturing , 1926-44 , b y E xtent
o f D isa b ility 1
[1926=100]

All injuries

Death and
permanent
total

Permanent
partial

1926...................................................................... .
1927........................................................................
1928....................................................... ...............
1929.......................................................................
1930........................................................................
1931.......................................................................

100.0

1 00.0

93.6
93.2
99.2
95.5
78.0

107.1
107.1
92.9
107.1
92.9

1 0 0 .0

1932._....................................................................
1933...................- ......... - .......................................
1934.......................................................................
1935................................. - ....................................
1936.......... ............................................................
1937.......................................................................

80.9
91.8
93.6
85.7
85.8

107.1
85.7
107.1
92.9
85.7
85.7

1938......................................................................
1939............ ..........................................................
1940............ ...........................................................
1941.......................................................................
1942.......................................................................
1943.......................................................................
1944................................— ..............................

71.7
73.4
75.3
85.8
93.5
94.4
88.3

71.4
71.4
71.4
80.3
70.7
70.7
62.8

Year

8 8 .1

Temporary
total

96.3
104.6
109.2

1 1 1 .0
102 .8

113.8
110.1

128.4

100 .0

93.3
92.5
98.7
94.6
76.5
78.9
90.8
91.6

121.1

8 6 .2

114.7
122 .0

84.1
83.7

78.9
80.7
84.8
93.7
83.4
83.4
75.4

73.9
75.6
86.3
94.1
95.0
89.7

68.1

i Beginning with 1937, the indexes are based on the percent of change of the frequency rates of identical
establishments in each pair of successive years.




U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 19 45