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Injuries Resulting
TISTICS
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Bureau of. Labor Statistics
August 1984

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Injuries Resulting
From Falls on Stairs
U.S. Department of Labor
Raymond J. Donovan, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood, Commissioner
August 1984
Bulletin 2214

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402

Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of a survey of
workers who were injured by slips or falls on stairs.
The findings of this survey, which was conducted dur­
ing the period from December 1981 through April 1982,
will assist the Occupational Safety and Health Admin­
istration (OSHA) in developing safety standards, com­
pliance strategy, and training programs for reducing
work-related injuries.
The survey was conducted by the Bureau’s Office of
Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, in coopera­
tion with the following States: Arizona, Arkansas, Cali­
fornia, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa,
Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, Mon­
tana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ohio, Tennessee, Utah,
Vermont, Virginia, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyo­
ming. BLS regional offices coordinated State opera­
tions. The OSHA Offices of Compliance, Standards
Development, Statistical Studies and Analysis, Regula­
tory Analysis, and Training as well as the Office of
Safety Research of the National Institute for Occupa­
tional Safety and Health contributed to the planning
and development of the survey. The analysis of the sur­
vey findings was prepared by Larry Jones and Helen
McDonald. Lyn Pearson developed computer tabula­

tions. The survey was directed by Helen McDonald
under the supervision of Herbert Schaffer.
The data collected in the survey indicate how and
why injuries occurred among the workers studied in
the cooperating States. However, the user should ex­
ercise caution in extrapolating the data to population
estimates because of limitations of the survey. States
participating in data collection may not represent the
country as a whole; government and mining industries
are not included; reporting requirements for workers’
compensation reports, the source documents for select­
ing injuries for study, vary among States; and the data
collection period is not intended to represent the entire
year.
Incidence rates of the injuries studied were not gen­
erated, nor can they be inferred from the data because
information on hours of work for the survey period is
not available. See appendix A for scope and methodol­
ogy of the survey.
A list of other Work Injury Reports published since
1978 appears at the end of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced with­
out permission.

Contents

Page

Survey results...................................................................................................................................

1

Chart 1: Percent distribution of all workers and workers who fell on stairs by occupation........

2

Tables:
Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected States, December 1981 -April 1982:
1. Nature of injury...........................................................................................................
2. Part of body affected....................................................................................................
3. Estimated days away from w o rk ..................................................................................
4. Length of hospitalization required...............................................................................
5. Activity at time of accident...........................................................................................
6. Description of accident................................................................................................
7. Description of stairs......................................................................................................
8. Hazardous conditions andother factors contributing to accident..............................
9. Industry classification..................................................................................................
10. Size of company............................................................................................................
11. Age of worker................................................................................................................
12. Sex of w orker................................................................................................................
13. Occupation....................................................................................................................
14. Source of injury............................................................................................................

4
5
6
6
7
8
9
12
13
13
13
14
14
14

Appendixes:
A. Survey explanatory n o te................................................................................................... 15
B. Participating State agencies............................................................................................... 16
C. Survey questionnaire ........................................................................................................ 17

IV

Survey Results

Most of the incidents occurred while going down the
stairs. Loss of traction caused the largest number of the
accidents and, except for exterior stairs, was usually
due to water or other liquids on the steps. On outdoor
stairways, ice and snow were the major hazards. Over­
all, about three-fifths of the accidents were attributed,
totally or in part, to hazardous conditions on the stairs.
The fact that nearly two-thirds of the workers were
not using handrails implies that some, though not all,
of the accidents could have been prevented by using
this safety feature. Over one-fifth of the stairs on which
accidents occurred were not equipped with railings.
Finally, four-fifths of the workers surveyed lost an
average of 18 days away from work as a result of their
accidents, indicating that falls on stairs are usually se­
rious and require a long recuperative period.

Falls to lower levels on stairs result in nearly 33,000
disabling work injuries a year and account for 1.3 per­
cent of all lost-time injuries and illnesses, according to
a BLS estimate.1 To obtain additional information on
the causes and consequencs of these accidents, the Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics conducted a special study in
which workers were asked to describe their activity at
the time of the fall, how the accident occurred, the
number of stairs they fell down, and the location of the
stairs. As a measure of the severity of workers’ injuries,
information was obtained on the number of days lost
from work, the amount of hospitalization required, the
nature of the injury, and the part of the body affected.
Injured workers also provided descriptions of the stairs,
including slip-resistant features, and any hazardous con­
ditions or other factors which may have contributed to
their falls. In addition to stair accidents classified as falls
to lower levels, the scope of the survey included slips
and falls to the same level on stairs. The survey find­
ings reflect the responses of 1,007 workers injured dur­
ing a 5-month period from December 1981 through
April 1982.1
2

Industry, age, sex, and occupation

The industry, age, and sex of workers who fell on
stairs nearly matched that of all workers in the States
which participated in this survey. Furthermore, this re­
lationship prevailed in most of the occupational
groupings.
The distribution of stair accidents by industry was
similar to the States’ overall employment distribution.
As shown below, the two exceptions were the services
industry, which had proportionately more injuries, and
manufacturing firms, which showed proportionately
fewer injuries:

Summary of survey findings

Unlike many types of work-related accidents, falls on
stairs occurred with about the same frequency among
different groups of workers. Comparisons of workers
who slipped or fell on stairs with the general working
population indicated that age was not a factor in these
accidents. The industry distribution and male/female
ratios of the injured workers showed that the service
industries and women workers were somewhat over­
represented. However, the major difference appeared
in the occupational distributions. Service workers,
waiters and waitresses included, have a higher risk of
accidents on stairs, probably reflecting their frequent
use of stairs in serving customers.

______ Percent_________

A ll
workers3

Workers who
fell on stairs

T o ta l........................................................

100

100

C onstruction..................................................
Manufacturing................................................
Transportation and public u tilitie s...........
Wholesale trade.............................................
Retail trade......................................................
Finance, insurance, and reale sta te ..........
Services............................................................
Other.................................................................

5
27
6
7
21
7
24
3

6
21
8
7
19
9
29
1

Industry division

1Estimates o f the total number o f disabling injuries resulting from
falls on stairs were derived from 1980 BLS Supplementary Data Sys­
tem disability files and the 1980 Annual Survey of Occupational In­
juries and Illnesses, and limited to private sector data. The propor­
tion o f disabling cases involving falls on stairs (SD S data) was mul­
tiplied by the number o f lost workday injuries and illnesses (annual
survey data) to produce an estimate o f the total number o f disabling
injuries for falls on stairs.
2See appendix A for scope o f survey.

3 “All Workers” is an annual average and is derived either from the
BLS-State Employment and Earnings Survey data or from State un­
employment insurance program data.

1

Nearly two-thirds of the workers were not using
handrails when they fell. The most frequent explana­
tions for this were lack of railings on the entire stair­
case or at the particular spot where the accident oc­
curred. One-sixth of the workers indicated that, due
to objects being carried, they were unable to hold the
railing, and about one-tenth of the workers felt, at least
prior to their accident, that using the handrail was
unnecessary.

Age distributions of the injured workers and of all
workers were nearly identical in these States, as shown
below using unpublished BLS data from the Current
Population Survey, 1982:

Age
19 or le s s........................
2 0 -24..............................
2 5 -34..............................
35-44..............................
4 5 -5 4 ..............................
55-64 ..............................
65 or m o r e ...................

Percent
Workers who
All
workers fell on stairs
8
13
29
21
16
11
3

6
15
30
19
15
12
2

Description of the accident

Over three-fifths of the accidents occurred when the
worker’s foot slipped on the step or off the edge of the
step (table 6). About 1 out of 10 workers caught their
shoe heels, and a similar proportion either tripped on
the step or slipped or tripped on objects (as opposed to
the step surface). Other falls were initiated by actions
solely related to bodily motion such as turning or twist­
ing a foot or missing a step.
Three-fifths of the workers fell to the landing or bot­
tom of the stairs. About 1 out of 4 workers stopped

Falls on stairs were almost evenly divided between
men and women, 51 and 49 percent, respectively, al­
though men represented a larger proportion of all
workers employed in these States, 56 percent.4
The largest differences between the injured workers
and all workers were reflected in two occupational
groups. As indicated in chart 1, service workers, in­
cluding waiters, waitresses, and other food service em­
ployees, accounted for the largest proportion of workers
injured, 22 percent, while representing only 14 percent
of all workers. Conversely, professional and technical
workers constituted a higher proportion of all workers
but experienced relatively fewer accidents.

Chart 1. Percent distribution of all workers and
workers who fell on stairs by occupation

P ro fe ssio na l,
te ch n ica l, and
kindred w orkers

Injuries, hospitalization, and lost workdays

Muscle sprains or strains, the most common injuries,
were sustained by 64 percent of the workers who fell
(table 1). Next in frequency were bruises or contusions,
38 percent, and fractures, 20 percent.
Thirty-three percent of the injuries were to the lower
extremities, most commonly the ankle or knee (table 2).
Thirty percent of the workers received injuries to the
trunk, particularly the back, while 23 percent of the
accidents resulted in injuries involving multiple body
parts.
Eighty percent of the workers surveyed lost days
away from work as a result of their injuries (table 3).
The average lost-time case resulted in 18 days away
from work. Twelve percent of the workers indicated
that they were hospitalized overnight after the accident,
with an average hospital stay of 7 nights (table 4).

M anagers and
a d m in is tra to rs
Sales w orkers
C le rica l and
kindred w orkers
C ra ft and
kindred w orkers
O peratives, ex­
clu d in g transport
T ra n sp o rt e q u ip ­
m ent o p e ra tive s
Laborers, in c lu d ­
ing farm

Activity at the time of the accident
Service w orkers

Over four-fifths of the workers were going down the
stairs when the accident occurred (table 5). Relatively
few workers, 5 percent, indicated they were running at
the time of their fall. About three-fifths of the workers
were carrying objects while using the stairs. Most
workers were familiar with the stairs since 9 out of 10
had used the stairs before the accident.

0

5

10

15

20

25

Percent

C 2 A ll w orkers
W orkers who fe ll on s ta irs

4Current Population Survey, 1982, unpublished BLS data.

2

cent were wood. Fifteen percent were covered with
carpeting or runners.
Nearly one-third of the workers indicated that the
stairs had slip-resistant features, such as a rough sur­
face, nonskid strips, or slip-resistant paint. However,
workers who fell on these stairs slipped almost as fre­
quently as workers on stairs without these safety fea­
tures. A cross-tabulation indicated that slips were the
initial event in 66 percent of the falls on stairs without
slip-resistant features. However, slips also caused 59
percent of the falls on stairs with slip-resistant devices.
Some workers explained that the slip-resistant strips or
paint had worn over time and offered little traction. In
other instances, the steps, including the slip-resistant
features, were covered with ice or snow.

falling prior to reaching the landing. Most of the re­
maining workers either fell upward or to the same level
or managed to stop their fall but were still injured in
the process. Falls over the side of the stairs accounted
for 1 percent of the injuries.
Because of the varying lengths of staircases, workers
were asked to indicate the number of steps they fell
down, rather than whether they fell from the top or
middle of the staircase. The largest proportion of falls,
38 percent, were two to four steps in distance, followed
by falls involving five to eight steps, 22 percent. Thir­
teen percent of the workers fell down nine or more
steps. The remaining workers fell down one step, fell
upwards or, as noted above, did not actually fall.
Location and description of the stairs

More than one-fourth of the falls occurred on exte­
rior stairs, reflecting, in part, the adverse weather con­
ditions during the winter months of the survey period
(table 7). Among the accidents which occurred on in­
terior stairs, the most frequent locations were: Office
or public buildings, 25 percent; industrial buildings such
as factories or warehouses, 21 percent; and stores, res­
taurants, or hotels, 17 percent (table 7).
Slightly more than one-fifth of the staircases were
not equipped with handrails, most frequently exterior
stairs or those located in stores, restaurants, or hotels.
About one-third of the stairs were enclosed by walls
on both sides and a similar proportion were open on
one side.
A typical step has a height (rise) of 7 to 8 inches and
depth of 10 to 12 inches. Workers who provided meas­
urements of the stairs indicated that 15 percent of the
step risers were higher than normal and 22 percent were
less than 10 inches deep. About one-fifth of the stairs
had open backs.
The staircases on which the accidents occurred were
divided into four size groups. Staircases with 2 to 4
steps accounted for 19 percent of the accident sites; 5
to 8 steps, 26 percent; 9 to 12 steps, 27 percent; and
more than 12 steps, 22 percent.
Thirty-eight percent of the stairs had a surface com­
posed of concrete, stone, brick, or marble, and 20 per­

Conditions or factors contributing to the
accident

Over three-fifths of the workers noted hazardous con­
ditions on the stairs and, with few exceptions, indicated
that these conditions contributed to their accident (ta­
ble 8). Slippery surfaces were by far the most common
hazard, cited in 42 percent of the accidents. As shown
below, two-fifths of the slippery surfaces were the re­
sult of winter weather. Less than one-fifth were attrib­
uted to the step surface itself:
Condition

Percent

Total with slippery su rfaces...............

100

Ice or sn o w ......................................................
Grease or o il....................................................
Water or other liquids...................................
Step surface or covering..............................
Other.................................................................

40
6
35
17
2

Inadequate lighting, worn or uneven steps, and bro
ken steps were each cited as causal factors by 5 to
7 percent of the workers. Other contributing factors
cited frequently by workers were the shoes they were
wearing, 14 percent; not paying attention to where they
were going, 12 percent; not being able to see where
they stepped, 10 percent; and moving too fast, 9 percent.

3

Table 1. Nature of injury: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected
States, December 1981-April 1982
Nature of injury

Number

Percent

Total 1.............................................................................................

1,007

0

Fracture.................................................................................................
Cut, laceration, or puncture.................................................................
Bruise or contusion..............................................................................
Muscle sprain, strain, or torn ligaments.............................................
Concussion...........................................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

206
96
378
643
25
73

1
Because more than 1 response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.

4

20
10
38
64
2
7

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey. Because incomplete ques­
tionnaires were used, the total number of
responses may vary by question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

Table 2. Part of body affected: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

Head.....................................................................................................
Head, uns.......................................................................................

21
4
1
2
8
1
1
2
2
1
1
3
3

0
o
0
o
o
0
0
0

4

(’)

Upper extremities ................................................................................
Arm(s)............................................................................................
Arm, uns.......................................................................................
Upper a rm ...................................................................................
Elbow..........................................................................................
Forearm.......................................................................................
Arm, multiple ..............................................................................
Wrist ..............................................................................................
Hand..............................................................................................
Finger(s).........................................................................................
Upper extremities, multiple...........................................................

99
41
8
3
22
7
1
21
12
14
11

10
4
1
(')
2
1
o
2
1
1
1

Trunk....................................................................................................
Abdomen .......................................................................................
Back ..............................................................................................
Chest.............................................................................................
Hips ...............................................................................................
Shoulder(s) ....................................................................................
Trunk, multiple ..............................................................................
Trunk, n.e.c.....................................................................................

305
4
186
28
32
26
28
1

30
(1
)
18
3
3
3
3
o

Lower extremities ................................................................................
Leg(s) ............................................................................................
Leg, uns.......................................................................................
Thigh...........................................................................................
Knee ...........................................................................................
Lower leg ....................................................................................
Leg, multiple...............................................................................
Ankle .............................................................................................
F o o t...............................................................................................
Toe(s)............................................................................................
Lower extremities, multiple...........................................................

335
121
13
3
93
8
4
136
52
3
23

33
12
1
o
9
1
0
14
5
O
2

Multiple parts.......................................................................................

231

23

Body parts, n.e.c...................................................................................

3

Nonclassifiable....................................................................................

9

Part of body

Eye(s)............................................................................................
Face ..............................................................................................
Face, uns.....................................................................................
Mouth ..........................................................................................
N o se ...........................................................................................
Face, multiple parts....................................................................
Head, multiple...............................................................................
Head, n.e.c.....................................................................................

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
uns. = unspecified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

2
(')
o
(')
1

O
1

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

5

Table 3. Estimated days away from work: Injuries resulting from falls on
stairs, selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Days away from work

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

977

100

No days away from work ....................................................................
1 to 5 d a ys...........................................................................................
6 to 10 da ys.........................................................................................
11 to 15 days.......................................................................................
16 to 20 days.......................................................................................
21 to 25 days.......................................................................................
26 to 30 days.......................................................................................
31 to 40 days.......................................................................................
41 to 60 days.......................................................................................
More than 60 days..............................................................................

195
285
134
61
42
32
35
35
60
37

20
29
14
6
4
3
4
4
6
4

Lost time cases for which days away from work were not
estimated...........................................................................................

61

6

Mean days away from work per lost-workday c a s e ..........................

18

Median days away from work per lost-workday c a s e .......................

9

number of responses may vary
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total

by

Table 4. Length of hospitalization required: Injuries resulting from falls
on stairs, selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Percent

Total ......................................................................................

1,000

100

No hospitalization required.........................................................
1 n ig h t..........................................................................................
2 nights........................................................................................
3 nights........................................................................................
4 nights........................................................................................
5 nights........................................................................................
6 nights........................................................................... ,...........
7 nights........................................................................................
8 nights........................................................................................
9 nights........................................................................................
10 nights......................................................................................
11 to 20 nights ............................................................................
21 to 30 nights ............................................................................

877
12
9
14
11
11
6
7
2
4
11
24
3

88
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
1
2
0

Hospitalized cases for which length of hospitalization was not
estimated..................................................................................

9

1

Length of hospitalization*
0
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

Mean length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized case ..

7

Median length (nights) of hospitalization per hospitalized case

6

plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­

6

Table 5. Activity at time of accident: Injuries resulting from falls on
stairs, selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Percent

Total ...............................................................................................

1,006

100

Walking ..........................................................................................
Running..........................................................................................
Going up stairs ....................................................................................
Walking ..........................................................................................
Running..........................................................................................
Working on stairs (for example: cleaning stairs)................................
O th e r.....................................................................................................

837
783
34
946
143
20
17
9

83
78
3
94
14
2
2
1

Total ...............................................................................................

981

100

Moving forw ard....................................................................................
Moving backward..................................................................................

961
20

98
2

Total ...............................................................................................

1,004

100

Not holding object(s)............................................................................
Holding object(s) with both hands ......................................................
Holding object(s) with one hand .........................................................

431
221
352

43
22
35

Total ...............................................................................................

989

100

Holding handrail...................................................................................
Not holding handrail.............................................................................
No handrail on stairs.........................................................................
Hands were not free to hold on to handrail ...................................
Let go of rail for a moment..............................................................
There was no rail at that s p o t.........................................................
Rail was out of reach........................................................................
Did not think it was necessary ........................................................
Other reason .....................................................................................
Don’t remember...................................................................................

306
620
204
155
53
20
45
110
33
63

31
63
21
16
5
2
5
11
3
6

Total ...............................................................................................

987

100

First time worker used these stairs.....................................................
Less than once a d a y ..........................................................................
1 to 4 times a d a y ...............................................................................
5 to 10 times a d a y..............................................................................
More than 10 time a d a y.....................................................................

92
163
371
193
168

9
17
38
20
17

Activity
General activity at time of accident

Direction of worker movement on stairs

Holding object(s) at time of accident

Use of handrails at time of fall

How often worker normally uses stairs involved in accident

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the total

number of responses may vary
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire,

7

by

Table 6. Description of accident: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Description of accident

Percent

How accident occurred
Initial event
Total ..........................................................

994

100

Tripped or slipped on object(s) lying on stairs
Tripped on s te p ...............................................
Caught h e e l.....................................................
Slipped on step or slipped off edge of step ...
Foot turned or twisted ....................................
Lost balance....................................................
Pushed or knocked down steps.....................
Missed a step ..................................................
O th e r................................................................

32
72
88
621
43
50
4
60
24

3
7
9
62
4
5
(’)
6
2

306

(2
)

1
30
18
45
103
172

(’)
10
6
15
34
56

36
3

12
1

Total .................................................................................

,007

100

Fell down to landing or bottom of stairs...............................
Fell part way down sta irs.......................................................
Fell up the stairs or to the same le ve l..................................
Fell over side of stairs or railing to surface b e low ..............
Did not fall to surface (caught railing and stopped fall, etc.)
O th e r.......................................................................................

603
238
78
9
77
2

60
24
8
1
8
(’)

,001

100

165
104
379
216
86
39
12

16
10
38
22
9
4
1

Intermediate event(s)
T otal2........................................................
Tripped or slipped on object(s) lying on stairs
Tripped on s te p ...............................................
Caught h e e l.....................................................
Slipped on step or slipped off edge of step ....
Foot turned or twisted ....................................
Lost balance....................................................
Pushed or knocked down steps.....................
Missed a step ..................................................
O th e r................................................................

Final event

Number of steps worker fell down
Total ............................................
None (fell up stairs, over side, etc.) ..
One s te p ............................................
2 to 4 steps........................................
5 to 8 steps........................................
9 to 12 steps......................................
More than 12 steps...........................
Don’t know .........................................

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

' Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Because more than 1 response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.

8

Table 7. Description of stairs: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,004

100

In an office or public building .............................................................
In a store, restaurant, or hotel............................................................
In an industrial building (factory, warehouse, plant, etc.) .................
In a house or other residential building..............................................
Outside.................................................................................................
In a building under construction.........................................................
Other location ......................................................................................

247
173
206
61
275
17
25

25
17
21
6
27
2
2

Total ..............................................................................................

989

100

Enclosed by walls on both sides .......................................................
Enclosed by wall on one side ............................................................
Open on both sides ............................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................

339
357
270
23

34
36
27
2

Total ..............................................................................................

961

100

Less than 2 fe e t..................................................................................
2 to 4 feet ............................................................................................
5 to 8 feet ............................................................................................
More than 8 fe e t..................................................................................

62
680
197
22

6
71
20
2

Total ........................................................................................

974

100

Less than 7 inches........................................................................
7 to 8 inches.................................................................................
More than 8 inches.......................................................................
Don’t know ....................................................................................

131
542
82
219

13
56
8
22

Total ........................................................................................

102

100

Less than 7 inches........................................................................
7 to 8 inches.................................................................................
More than 8 inches.......................................................................

28
59
15

27
58
15

Description of stairs
Location of stairs

Wall enclosures

Width of stairs

Height of step (rise)
Estimated or measured height

Measured height only

See footnotes at end of table.

9

Table 7. Description of stairs: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982—Continued
Number

Description of stairs

Percent

Depth of tread
Estimated or measured depth
Total ........................................................................................

967

100

Less than 10 inches......................................................................
10 to 12 inches.............................................................................
More than 12 inches.....................................................................
Spiral stairs (depth varies) ...........................................................
Don’t kn o w ....................................................................................

221
471
50
8
217

23
49
5
1
22

Total ........................................................................................

102

100

Less than 10 inches......................................................................
10 to 12 inches.............................................................................
More than 12 inches.....................................................................

22
67
13

22
66
13

Total ..............................................................................................

989

100

Closed..................................................................................................
Open ....................................................................................................

768
221

78
22

Total ..............................................................................................

976

100

Stairs with nosing ................................................................................
Stairs without nosing...........................................................................
Don’t kn o w ...........................................................................................

255
471
250

26
48
26

Total ..............................................................................................

251

100

About 1 in ch .........................................................................................
More than 1 in c h .................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ...........................................................................................

167
36
48

67
14
19

Total ..............................................................................................

997

100

Carpet ..................................................................................................
Runner .................................................................................................
Concrete, stone, brick, or marble.......................................................
Metal or metal grate ...........................................................................
W ood....................................................................................................
T ile ........................................................................................................
Other ....................................................................................................
Don’t kn o w ..........................................................................................

128
20
380
132
198
73
37
29

13
2
38
13
20
7
4
3

Measured depth only

Back of steps

Nosing on stairs

Depth of nosing

Surface of the steps

See footnotes at end of table.

10

Table 7. Description of stairs: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982—Continued
Number

Description of stairs

Percent

Slip-resistant features
Total 1.............................................................................................

978

Nonslip-mats ........................................................................................
Nonskid-strips ......................................................................................
Slip-resistant paint...............................................................................
Roughened surface.............................................................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
None.....................................................................................................
Don’t k n o w ...........................................................................................

32
81
18
154
31
520
144

3
8
2
16
3
53
15

Total ...............................................................................................

991

100

No handrails.........................................................................................
Handrails on one sid e ..........................................................................
Handrails on both sides.......................................................................
Handrails on both sides and down the center..................................

204
432
343
12

21
44
35
1

Total ...............................................................................................

992

100

2 to 4 steps..........................................................................................
5 to 8 steps..........................................................................................
9 to 12 steps........................................................................................
More than 12 steps.............................................................................
Don’t kn o w ...........................................................................................

188
255
265
216
68

19
26
27
22

0

Handrails on stairs

Number of steps in the staircase

1 Because more than 1 response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Per­
centages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

7

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

11

Table 8. Hazardous conditions and other factors contributing to accident:
injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected States,
December 1981-April 1982
Number

Conditions or factors

Percent

Hazardous conditions on stairs
Total 1.............................................................................................

986

No hazardous conditions.....................................................................
Steps broken or in bad condition........................................................
Slippery surface...................................................................................
Torn or loose covering ........................................................................
Objects on stairway..............................................................................
Inadequate lighting...............................................................................
Steps uneven or worn dow n...............................................................
Loose or broken handrail....................................................................
Steps unevenly spaced .......................................................................
O th e r.....................................................................................................

378
46
417
22
37
70
59
9
15
72

38
5
42
2
4
7
6
1
2
7

Total ...............................................................................................

588

100

Hazardous condition(s) did not contribute to accident......................
Hazardous condition(s) did contribute to accident............................

27
561

5
95

Total ...............................................................................................

995

100

Shoes did not contribute to accident .................................................
Shoes did contribute to accident ........................................................
Don’t k n o w ...........................................................................................

716
138
141

72
14
14

(')

Hazardous conditions as factors contributing to accident
(stairs with hazardous conditions only)

Shoes as factors contributing to accident

Other factors contributing to accident
Total 1.............................................................................................

962

Walking too fast, running, or taking 2 steps at a tim e ......................
Thought stairs were steeper than norm al..........................................
Carrying object that was too big, too heavy, or which shifted
position...............................................................................................
Felt landing too small ..........................................................................
Unable to see where you were stepping ...........................................
Unable to hold handrail .......................................................................
Not paying close attention to where you were going........................
Was tired or fatigued ...........................................................................
Had physical condition which contributed to the accident...............
Distracted by person on the stairs, noise, etc....................................
O th e r....................................................................................................
Nothing else contributed to accident..................................................

85
36

9
4

78
6
94
74
116
65
18
37
31
503

8
1
10
8
12
7
2
4
3
52

1 Because more than 1 response is
possible, the sum of the responses and
percentages may not equal the total. Percentages are calculated by dividing each
response by the total number of persons
who answered the question.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

(’)

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incomplete questionnaires were used, the total
number of responses may vary by
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

12

Table 9. Industry classification: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982

Total ..............................................................................................

Wholesale trade...................................................................................
Services...............................................................................................
Other industries, n.e.c..........................................................................

Number

Percent

1,007

100

5
4
60
210
84

Standard Industrial Classification (SIC)

(')
(’)
6
21
8

69
196
87
291
1

7
19
9
29
0

may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
2 Limited to oil and gas extraction,
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages

Table 10. Size of company: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs,
selected States, December 1981-April 1982
Size of company

Number

Percent

Number of people employed in worker’s company
Total ..............................................................................................

956

100

1 to 10 .................................................................................................
11 to 49 ...............................................................................................

159
228
120
218
231

17
24
13
23
24

50 to 99 ...............................................................................................
100 to 499 ...........................................................................................
500 or m ore.........................................................................................

number of responses may vary
question.
SOURCE: Survey questionnaire.

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey. Because incom­
plete questionnaires were used, the total

by

Table 11. Age of worker: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected
States, Decem ber 1981-April 1982
Age

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

15-19 years .........................................................................................
20-24 years .........................................................................................
25-34 years .........................................................................................
35-44 years .........................................................................................
45-54 years .........................................................................................
55-64 years .........................................................................................
65 years or m ore.................................................................................
Not available.......................................................................................

64
150
293
190
153
117
24
16

6
15
29
19
15
12
2
2

NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for
the scope of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports,

13

Table 12. Sex of worker: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected
States, December 1981-April 1982
Sex

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

Men ......................................................................................................
Women.................................................................................................

517
490

51
49

NOTE: See appendix A for the scope
of the survey.

SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

Table 13. Occupation: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected
States, December 1981-April 1982
Occupation

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

Professional, technical, and kindred workers....................................
Managers and administrators, excluding farm ...................................
Salesworkers........................................................................................
Clerical and kindred w orkers..............................................................
Craft and kindred workers...................................................................
Operatives, excluding transport..........................................................

70
93
63
184
129
117

7
g
6
18
13
12

Transport equipment operatives.........................................................
Laborers, excluding fa rm .....................................................................
Farm laborers and farm laborer supervisors.....................................
Service workers, excluding private household..................................
Private household workers..................................................................
Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................

65
59
5
218
1
3

6
6

1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

o
22
(’)
O

the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers’ compensation
reports.

Table 14. Source of injury: Injuries resulting from falls on stairs, selected
States, December 1981-April 1982
Source of injury

Number

Percent

Total ..............................................................................................

1,007

100

Bodily motion .......................................................................................
Boilers, pressure vessels.....................................................................
Boxes, barrels, containers...................................................................
Buildings and structures......................................................................
Furniture, fixtures, etc...........................................................................

53
1
3
5
2

5
o
(’)
(')
(’)

Handtools, not powered ......................................................................
Handtools, powered............................................................................
Hoisting apparatus...............................................................................
Liquids, n.e.c.........................................................................................
Metal item s..........................................................................................

1
1
1

Vehicles ...............................................................................................
Working surfaces.................................................................................
F lo o r..............................................................................................
Ground ..........................................................................................
Sidewalks, paths, etc.....................................................................
Stairs, steps...................................................................................
Working surfaces, n.e.c..................................................................
Person..................................................................................................
Nonclassifiable.....................................................................................
1 Less than 0.5 percent.
n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified.
NOTE: Due to rounding, percentages
may not add to 100. See appendix A for

1

3

(')
0
(')
(’)
(')

1
933
25
13

(')
93
2

1

(’)
89
O
0
0

893
1

1
1

1

the scope of the survey.
SOURCE: State workers' compensation
reports.

14

Appendix A. Survey
Explanatory Note

others limit reporting to cases involving lost time rang­
ing from 1 to 8 days.
No attempt was made to weight the data collected
so that they would be representative of all falls on stairs.
Although participating States provided a broad geo­
graphical and industrial mix, they were not selected
statistically to represent the country as a whole. Moreo­
ver, collection for the survey was terminated when re­
sponses exceeded 750 cases.
Questionnaires returned by the injured workers were
reviewed for completeness and response errors. Re­
sponses to question J.l (type of surface) were classified
by BLS.
Estimates of mean and median lost workdays and
nights of hospitalization do not include cases in which
workers indicated lost time or hospitalization but failed
to provide numerical estimates of the amount of time.
All usable responses on incomplete questionnaires
were used in the tabulations. Consequently, response
rates vary among questions. No attempt was made to
adjust the data for nonresponse.
Information on the employer’s industry classification
and the worker’s age, sex, part of body injured, and
source of injury were classified and tabulated for all
respondents based on information furnished by the em­
ployer in the workers’ compensation report.
Numerical values shown in tables were actual counts
while percentages were rounded to the nearest whole
number.

The survey was designed to develop information on
injuries resulting from slips and falls to workers on
stairs. The scope of the survey extended to all indus­
tries except coal, metallic and nonmetallic mining, and
government. All occupations were included in the scope
of the survey. Falls from curbs or similar structures
having only one step, escalators, portable or folding
stairs, and stairs on vehicles were excluded. In addition,
falls resulting from the structural collapse of the stair­
way, explosions, or assualts were not included. Cases
were also excluded from the survey if the injury re­
sulted in a fatality or if more than 120 days had elapsed
between the time of injury and the beginning of the
survey.
The survey covered the 24 States which are listed in
appendix B. To identify cases within the scope of the
survey, staff of participating State agencies reviewed
employers’ reports of injuries required by State workers’
compensation laws and mailed questionnaires to injured
workers selected for study. Cooperation was requested
on a voluntary basis. During the survey period, De­
cember 1981-April 1982, 1,007 survey questionnaires
were returned and found to be within the scope of the
survey, resulting in a 64-percent response rate.
Although the data were aggregated for all partici­
pating States, it should be noted that the workers’ com­
pensation cases selected for study reflect differences in
reporting requirements. For example, some States re­
quire reporting of workers’ compensation cases involv­
ing medical treatment regardless of lost time, while

15

Appendix B. Participating
State Agencies

Relations
Montana Department of Labor and Industry
Nebraska Workmen’s Compensation Court
North Carolina Industrial Commission
Ohio Industrial Commission
Tennessee Department of Labor
Utah Industrial Commission
Vermont Department of Labor and Industry
Virginia Department of Labor and Industry
Washington Department of Labor and Industries
Wisconsin Department of Industry, Labor, and
Human Relations
Wyoming Department of Labor and Statistics

Arizona Industrial Commission
Arkansas Department of Labor
California Department of Industrial Relations
Colorado Department of Labor and Employment
Delaware Department of Labor
Hawaii Department of Labor and Industrial Relations
Indiana Division of Labor
Iowa Bureau of Labor
Kentucky Department of Labor
Maine Department of Labor
Maryland Department of Licensing and Regulation
Michigan Department of Labor
Missouri Department of Labor and Industrial

16

Appendix C. Survey Questionnaire
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Work Injury Report—Falls On Stairs
The inform a tio n collected on th is form by the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics and the State Agencies cooperating in its
statistical program w ill be held in confidence and w ill be
used fo r statistical purposes o nly.

1.
2.

This report is authorized by law 2 9 U.S.C. 2.
Your voluntary cooperation is needed to make
the results o f this survey comprehensive,
accurate, and timely.

H.

What were you doing at the time of your accident? (Check one.)
0 W a lk in g up stairs

Were you carrying or holding anything at the time of your
accident? (Check one.)

W a lk in g d o w n stairs

1. □

R u n n in g up stairs

□

0
4. 0
5. 0
3.

2.

No

□

Y e s —h o ld in g object(s) w ith

O

W o rk in g o n stairs (fo r exam ple: clean in g stairs)

Y e s —h o ld in g object(s) w it h one
han d o n ly :

Other: (Describe)

1.1
B. Were you moving backwards as you were going up or down the stairs?
1.

□

No

2.

□

0
0
3. 0
4. 0

□
G

1.2

Less th an o n ce a day

3.

No

Yes—on one side

2.

Yes

Y e s —o n b o th sides

Y es—on both sides and down the center

If there were handrails on the staircase, were you holding on to the
rail when you started to fall? (Check one.)

1 t o 4 tim es a day

4.

0

5 to 10 tim e s a day

1. 0

5.

0

M o re than 10 tim e s a day

2.
3.

D. How did your accident occur? (Check all that apply.)
1.

□

2_ 0

4.
5.

T rip p e d or slip p e d o n object(s)
ly in g on stairs: (D escribe) _______________________________

6.

T rip p e d on step

7.
8.

3.

□

C a u g h t heel

4.

0

(Describe object) _

Were there handrails on the stairs? (Check one.)
1.

C. How often do you normally use these stairs? (Check one.)
1. 0 F ir s t tim e you used these stairs
2.

(Describe object) --------------------------

b o th hands:

R u n n in g d o w n stairs

6. □

Form Approved
O.M.B. No. 1220-0047
A pproval Expires 6 /3 0 /8 2

Date o f
A ccide n t

Case Number

State
A.

U.S. Department of Labor

Yes

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

N o —hands w ere n o t free to h o ld o n to rail
N o —le t go o f rail fo r a m o m e n t
N o —th ere w as n o rail at th a t sp o t
N o —rail was o u t o f reach

N o —did not think It was necessary
N o —o th e r reason: (Describe) _____________________________
D o n 't rem em ber

S lip p e d on step o r slip p e d o f f edge o f step

J.1

Did the stairs have any hazardous conditions? (Check all that apply.)

5.

0

F o o t turned or twisted

6.

0

L o s t balance

7.

CD Pushed o r k n o c k e d d o w n steps

2.

0
0

S lip p e ry surface:

8.

0

M issed a step

3.

O

T o r n o r lo o se co ve rin g

9.

□

O ther:

4.

0
0
0
0
0
0

O bje cts on stairw ay

1.

(Describe) __________________________________________

5.

E. If you checked more than one response in question D , which event
occurred first? (Check one.)
1. 0
0
3. 0
4. 0
5. 0
2.

6.
7.

Tripped or slipped on object(s) lying on stairs
T rip p e d on step
Caught heel

8.
9.

Steps b ro k e n o r in bad c o n d itio n

Inadequate lig h tin g
Steps uneven

er w o rn d o w n

L o o se or b ro k e n ha n d ra il
Steps un evenly spaced
O ther:

0

10.

(Describe) ______________________________

(Describe) _______________________________________

N o hazardo us c o n d itio n s

S lip p e d on step or slip p e d o f f edge o f step

J.

F o o t turned or twisted

6.

□

L o s t balance

7.

0

Pushed or k n o c k e d d o w n steps

8.

□

M issed a step

9.

□

2 If the stairs had any hazardous conditions, did they contribute to
your accident?
0 No
2. 0 Y es: (Explain) ---------------------------------------

1.

O th e r

K. Did the shoes you were wearing contribute to your accident?
1.

1. 0
2.

No

O

Yes:

3.

D o w n to lan d in g o r b o tto m o f stairs

o

2.

F. Where did you fall to? (Check one.)

0

D o n 't k n o w

(E x p la in ) __________________________________________

Pa rt w a y d o w n th e stairs

Q

0
0
5. 0
6. 0
3.
4.

L. Did anything else contribute to your accident? (Check all that apply.)

U p th e stairs or to th e same level
O ver side o f stairs o r ra ilin g to surface b e lo w

1.

other:

(Describe)

0

W a lk in g to o fast, ru n n in g o r ta k in g 2 steps at a tim e

2.
3.

D id n o t fa ll to surface (caught railin g and sto p p ed fa ll, etc.)

0

Thought stairs were steeper than normal

0

C a rry in g o b je ct th a t w as to o big, to o heavy o r w h ic h sh ifte d

position
4.

G.1 About how many steps did you fall down? (Check one.)
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.

0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0

F e lt la n d in g to o sm all:

(Describe) ----------------------------------

5.

0

U n a b le to see w he re you w ere stepp ing

None

6.

0

U n a b le t o h o ld ha n d ra il

One step
2 to 4 steps

7. 0
8. 0

5 to 8 steps

9.

0

10.

O

D istracte d by person o n th e stairs, noise, etc.

11.

1.

0

O ther:

12.

0

N o th in g else c o n tr ib u t e d to a c c id e n t

N o t paying closa attention to where you were going
Was tired or fatigued
H a d p h y sica l c o n d itio n w h ic h c o n tr ib u te d to th e a ccid e n t:

9 to 12 steps
M o r e th an 12 steps

(indicate approximate number _
_

)

(Describe) .............................................. ................................

D o n't know

(Describe)

G.2 How many steps were there in the staircase? (Check one.)
0
0
3. 0
4. 0
1.

2.

5. 0

2 to 4 steps
5 to 8 steps
9 t o 12 steps

(indicate
approximate number o f steps between landings _____
M o r e than 12 steps

)

D on't know

CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE
B L S 9 8 D (March 1982)

17

M.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

S. Were the backs of the steps open (see picture)?

Where were the stairs located? (Check one.)
0 In an o ffic e o r p u b lic b u ild in g
0 In a store, restaurant or hotel
0 In an industrial building (factory, warehouse, plant, etc.)
0 In a h o u se o r o th e r residen tial building
□ Outside
[ ] In a building under construction
0 Other lo c a tio n : (D escribe)___________________________

1. 0
2. 0

T. Did the stairs have nosing (see picture)? (Check one.)
1. 0

2. 0
3. 0

N.
1.
2.
3.
4.

N o — closed
Yes— open

Y e s— h o w deep was the nosing:
1. 0 A b o u t 1 inch
2. 0 M ore than 1 inch
3. 0 D o n 't kn o w
No
D o n 't kn o w

|

Were the stairs enclosed by walls? (Check one.)
Q Yes— on both sides
0 Yes— on one side
0 N o — open on both sides
0 Other: (D escrib e )____________________

U. What was the surface of the steps? (Check one.)

-----

1. 0
2. 0
3. 0
4. 0
5. 0
6. O
7. 0
8. 0

\

Open
----

Nosing
*
i___________ YZ2)

Closed

Carpet
Runner
Concrete, stone, brick or m arble
Metal or metal grate
W oo d
T ile
O th e r: (Describe) ______________________________________
D o n 't kn ow

V . Did the steps have any slip-resistant features? (Check ell that apply.)
1. 0
2. 0
3. 0
4. 0
5. 0
6. 0
7. 0

Nosing
D ep th

I

Nonslip mats
N o nskid strips
S lip -re sista n t p a in t

Roughened surface
(Describe) ________________________________________________
N o ne
D o n 't kn ow

O th e r:

W. What were your injuries? (Check all that apply.)
1.

2.
3.

0
0
0
5. 0
6. 0

O. How wide were the stairs (see picture)? (Check one.)
1. 0 Less than 2 feet
2. 0 2 to 4 feet
3. 0 5 to 8 feet
4. 0 More than 8 feet
P. How high was each step (see picture)? (Check one.)
1. 0 Less than 7 inches
2. 0 7 to 8 inches
3. 0 M ore than 8 inches
4. 0 D o n 't know

0

4.

Fractu re(s) — In d ica te bone(s) b ro k e n
(leg, rib, ankle, e t c .)______________________________________________
Cuts, lacerations or punctures
Bruises, contusions
M u scle sprain/stra in, to rn ligam ents

Brain concussion
O th e r:

(Describe) ______________________________________

X . How many workdays did you (or do you expect to) lose due’to your
injury? (N O TE : Do not count the day of injury, days on light duty
work, normal days o ff or holidays.)
_______________ W o rk d a y s

I
_____I
____ l____ I
____ I

C h e c k h e r e _____If y o u d id n o t lose tim e b e y o n d th e day o f

Q. How deep were the treads (see picture)? (Check one.)
1. 0 Less th a n 10 in ch es
2. 0 10 to 12 inches
3. 0 More than 12 inches
4. 0 S piral s ta irs — e p th varies
d
5. 0 D o n 't kn o w

in jury.

Y . Did your injury require you to be hospitalized overnight?
1. 0
2. 0

No

Yes
If yes, h o w lo n g w ere y o u (or d o y o u e x p e c t to be) In the
h o s p ita l?

R. Are your responses to O , P and Q estimates or did you measure the
steps? (Check one.)
1. O E stim ates
2. 0 Measurements

|
________________ N ig h ts

I
_____I
____ I
------1

Z. How many people are currently employed in your company?
(Check one.)
1.

0
0
3. 0

Briefly describe how your accident occurred and how it could have been prevented.

1 to 10

4.

2.

11 to 49

5.

O
0

100 to 4 9 9
5 0 0 o r m o re

50 to 99

(For example, indicate if elevators or escalators were available.)

Work Injury Reports

Reports which may be purchased from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Services
(NTIS), 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield, Virginia 22161:
• Survey of Ladder Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207985 (1978)
• Survey of Welding and Cutting Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208017 (1978)
• Survey of Scaffold Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 208009 (1978)
• Survey of Power Saw Accidents Resulting in Injuries
NTIS Accession No. PB83 207993 (1978)
Reports available from the Office of Occupational Safety and Health Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Room
4014, 601 D Street, N.W., Washington, D.C., 20212 or regional offices:
• Accidents Involving Eye Injuries
Report 597 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Face Injuries
Report 604 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Head Injuries
Report 605 (1980)
• Accidents Involving Foot Injuries
Report 626(1981)
Reports which may be purchased from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402:
• Injuries Related to Servicing Equipment
Bulletin 2115 (1981)
• Back Injuries Associated with Lifting
Bulletin 2144 (1982)
• Work-Related Hand Injuries and Upper Extremity Amputations
Bulletin 2160 (1982)
• Injuries in Oil and Gas Drilling and Services
Bulletin 2179 (1983)
• Injuries Resulting From Falls From Elevations
Bulletin 2195 (1984)
• Injuries in the Logging Industry
Bulletin 2203 (1984)

19

BLS Handbook of Methods

Volume I

1982 Edition
BLS statistics are used for many
purposes, and sometimes data
well suited to one purpose may
have limitations for another. This
Handbook aims to provide users
of BLS data with the information
necessary to evaluate the
suitability of the statistics for their
needs. Included are program
descriptions for:

• Labor force, employment, and
unemployment

• Negotiated wage and benefit
changes

• Occupational employment
statistics

• Employment Cost Index

• Consumer expenditures and
income

• Occupational safety and health
statistics
• Economic growth studies

• Producer Price Indexes
• International Price Indexes
•

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Occupational pay and benefits

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Please send_________ copies of BLS Handbook of Methods. Volume I, B u lle tin 2134-1.
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rJ-U.S. Government Printing Office : 1984 - 421-608/16339

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
Suite 1603
John F. Kennedy Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 944-3121
Region III
3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, N.E.
Atlanta, Ga. 30367
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Regions VII and VIII
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions IX and X
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Phone: (214) 767-6971