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UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
L. B. Schwellenbach, Secretary
B U R E A U OF L A B O R STATISTICS
E w an Clague, Commissioner

+

Injuries and Accident Causes in the
Pulpwood-Logging Industry,
1943 and 1944

Bulletin No. 924

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents, U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington 25, D. C.




Price 10 cents




Letter o f Transmittal

U nited States D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor Statistics,

Washington, Z>. (7., December 4, 1947.
T he Secretary of L abor :

I have the honor to transmit herewith a report on the occurrence and
causes of work injuries for 1943 and 1944 in the pulpwood-logging industry.
This report, a portion of which appeared in the August 1947 Monthly
Labor Review, was prepared in the Industrial Hazards Division by Frank S.
McElroy and George R. McCormack as a part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics
regular program of compiling work-injury information for use in accidentprevention work.
E wan C lague, Commissioner.
Hon. L. B. SCHWELLENBACH,
Secretary of Labor.

Contents
Summary------------------------Injury record----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Frequency of injuries_____________________________________________________________________________________
Severity of inj uries________________________________________ - _____________________________________________
The industry__________________________________________________________________________________________________
Hazards of the industry_______________________________________________________________________________________
Principal operations and their hazards_____________________________________________________________________
Engineering__________________________________________________________________________________________
Felling and limbing___________________________________________________________________________________
Skidding or yarding__________________________________________________________________________________
Bucking, peeling, splitting_________________________________________________________________
Loading and unloading_______________________________________________________________________________
Transportation________________________________ 1_____________________________________________________
Injury analysis------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Kinds of injuries experienced---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Injuries and the age of workers___________________________
Accident analysis______________________________________________________________________________________________
Where accidents occurred_________________________________________________________________________________
Agencies involved in accidents____________________________________________________________________________
Accident causes____________
Unsafe working conditions________________________________________________________________________________
Unsafe conditions management can control____________________________________________________________
Unsafe conditions workers can control_________________________________________________________________
Unsafe acts_______________________________________________________________________________________________
Unsafe equipment used or equipment used unsafely___________________________________________________
Unsafe position or posture____________________________________________________________________________
Unsafe loading, placing, or planning____________
Appendix.— Statistical tables:
Table 1. Industrial injury frequency rates in logging operations in 1944, classified by geographic area and kind
of logging------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Table 2. Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by part of body injured and extent
of disability__________________________________________________________________________________________
Table 3. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by part of body injured and region--------------------------Table 4. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by nature of injury and extent of disability--------------Table 5. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by nature of injury and region______________________
Table 6. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by part of body injured and nature of injury------------Table 7. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by age of injured and extent of disability-----------------Table 8. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by operation and extent of disability________________
Table 9. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by operation and region------------------------------------------Table 10. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by occupation of injured and extent of disability___
Table 11. Disabling injuries in 1943 and 1944, classified by part of body injured and by operation__________
Table 12. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by agency and extent of disability--------------------------Table 13. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by agency and region---------------------------------------------Table 14. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by accident type and region-----------------------------------Table 15. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by accident type and by operation-------------------------Table 16. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by unsafe working condition and region____________
Table 17. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by unsafe working condition and operation_________
Table 18. Disabling injuries in 1943 and 1944, classified by agency and unsafe working condition___________
Table 19. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by unsafe act and region___________________________
Table 20. Disabling injuries in1943 and 1944, classified by unsafe act and operation________________________

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Charts

Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart
Chart

1. Part of
2. Major
3. Major
4. Major
5. Major

body affected by disabling injuries in pulp wood-logging operations_____________________________
agencies involved in pulp wood-logging accidents-------------------------------------------------------------------types of accidents in pulpwood logging---------------------------------------------------------------------------------types of unsafe working conditions in pulpwood-logging operations----------------------------------------types of unsafe acts in pulpwood-logging operations---------------------------------------------------------------




III

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CHART

PART OF BODY AFFECTED BY D IS A B LIN G IN J U R IE S
IN PULPWOOD LOGGING OPERATIONS
1943-1944

U N IT E O STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




W ork Injuries and Accident Causes
in the Pulpwood-Logging Industry, 1943 and 1944
Summary

to establish a representative cause pattern, the
study of their experience was broadened to cover
both 1943 and 1944. On this basis the analysis
included 1,933 accident cases, each of which
resulted in a disabling injury.
A representative of the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics visited each of these 43 operations and, insofar
as the data were available, transcribed from their
records the following items regarding each acci­
dent: Place where the accident occurred; the occu­
pation, age, experience, and sex of the injured
worker; the nature of the injury and the part of
the body injured; the type of accident; the object
or substance (agency) which caused the injury;
and the unsafe condition and the unsafe act which
led to the accident. These data were then ana­
lyzed according to the American Recommended
Practice for Compiling Industrial Accident Causes,
as approved by the American Standards Associa­
tion. Because some of the case records were in­
complete in respect to particular details, all of
the cases could not be used in every phase of the
analysis. Each step of the analysis, however, was
based upon the records of at least 34 logging opera­
tions.
In compiling these averages, it was necessary to
exclude all operations in the Pacific Coast States.
In that area, the usual practice is to combine the
cutting of pulp and sawlogs into a single operation
and to cut pulpwood in regular sawmill lengths of
40 or more feet. Pulpwood logging, therefore, is
no different from general logging in that region.
As a result, this survey is based upon the so-called
“ short stick” pulpwood logging of the North­
eastern, Great Lakes, and Southern areas. These
data indicated that nearly half of all the disabling
injuries were experienced by fellers and buckers,
about 16 percent of the total were experienced by
employees engaged in loading and unloading logs,
and another 16 percent by workers engaged in
transporting logs and equipment. Injuries to the
legs, feet, and toes were most common with trunk
injuries next in numerical importance. Cuts,

L ogging operations are commonly recognized as

being among the most hazardous of industrial
activities. The general impression has been,
however, that pulpwood logging is considerably
less hazardous than general logging because of the
smaller and lighter logs produced. In large
measure the results of this survey directly con­
tradict that impression by indicating that injuries
are no less common in pulpwood logging than in
the production of sawlogs.
In response to a written request from the Bureau
of Labor Statistics, 266 pulpwood-logging opera­
tors and 137 timber-logging operators submitted
summary reports on the injury experience of their
employees during 1944. Injury-frequency rates
based upon these reports indicated no significant
difference in the degree of hazard associated with
the two types of logging. In the pulpwoodlogging group there were 75.5 disabling injuries
for every million employee-hours worked, and in
the timber-logging group the corresponding aver­
age was 76.6. Both of these rates, however, were
substantially higher than the 1944 all-manufactur­
ing average of 18.4, and exceeded that of every
other manufacturing industry.
In addition to supplying the summary reports
used in the evaluation of the magnitude and
general aspects of the injury problem in pulpwoodlogging operations, 43 of the cooperating employers
also made their original accident records available
for detailed examination. This analysis was
designed to determine how and why most pulpwood-logging accidents occurred. The 43 estab­
lishments were distributed among 14 States and,
as a group, employed about 5,500 workers in 1944.
Their combined injury-frequency rate for 1944
was 85.0, which was somewhat higher than the
industry average, but did not indicate that their
accident experiences were other than typical of
the industry. Because of the fact that their
records for the single year of 1944 contained data
on fewer accidents than were considered necessary




1

lacerations, punctures, bruises, and contusions pre­
dominated, but strains, sprains, and fractures were
also numerous.
Logs, trees, hand tools, working surfaces, and
vehicles were the leading injury-producing agen­
cies and the most common type of accident was
that in which the injured worker was struck by a
moving object. Outstanding among the unsafe
working conditions which led to accidents were
rough, slippery, or obstructed working surfaces
and decayed or dead limbs and trees. Among the
more common unsafe acts resulting in injuries were
the unsafe use of equipment, particularly hand
tools, inattention to footing, and unsafe planning
of felling operations.

logging in the Northeastern area was impossible
because of a lack of sufficient reports from general
logging operators in that region.
The full significance of these injury-frequency
rates as indicators of the high degree of hazard
in pulpwood logging is somewhat obscured unless
they are compared with similar rates for other
types of industrial activity. For example, in the
same period (1944) the average injury-frequency
rate for all manufacturing activities was only
18.4.8 In other words, in an equivalent amount of
working time, the workers in pulpwood logging
experienced 4 times as many injuries as an average
group of workers selected from manufacturing as
a whole. More specifically, for every million hours
worked, pulpwood loggers had 1.6 times as many
disabling injuries as workers in the brewing
industry; 1.8 times as many as foundry workers;
2.1 times as many as workers in slaughtering and
meat packing; 5.2 times as many as workers in the
automobile-manufacturing industry; and 14.2
times as many as workers in the explosives indus­
try. Perhaps even more illuminating is the fact
that approximately 1 in every 7 pulpwood loggers
experienced a disabling work injury in 1944.
This compares with ratios of approximately 1 in
24 in manufacturing as a whole; 1 in 10 in the
foundry and brewing industries; 1 in 12 in slaugh­
tering and meat packing; 1 in 28 in automobile
manufacturing; and 1 in 81 in the explosives
industry.

Injury Record, 1944
Frequency' of Injuries: Comparison between the
combined injury records of 266 pulpwood-logging
operations and of 137 general logging operations,
for the year 1944, showed very little difference in
the frequency of injury in the two segments of the
logging industry. The pulpwood-logging group
averaged 75.5 disabling work injuries for every
million employee-hours worked, which differed
only slightly from the average of 76.6 for the
general logging group.1
Reflecting substantial differences in operating
methods and in the conditions under which opera­
tions must be conducted, the injury-frequency
rates2 for pulpwood logging varied considerably
*
in the three areas included in the study. The
Northeastern region had the best record with an
average frequency rate of 70.3. The rate for the
Southern area was 76.8, and that for the Great
Lakes area was 83.1. Lending further emphasis
to the high incidence of injuries in pulpwood
logging is the fact that in the Great Lakes area
the average injury-frequency rate tor these opera­
tions was nearly 6 points higher than the average
of 77.2 for general logging operations. In the
Southern area this relationship was reversed, the
rates being 76.8 for pulpwood logging and 81.8
for general logging. Similar comparison between
the over-all injury records for the two types of

The Severity of Injuries: Although comparison be­
tween pulpwood logging and general logging on the
basis of injury frequencies showed only minor
differences, the reports did indicate that the
injuries which occurred in pulpwood operations
were generally less serious than those which
occurred in general logging. Approximately 3
percent of the disabling injuries to pulpwood
loggers in 1944 resulted in death or permanent
physical impairment as compared with nearly 6
percent in general logging. Similarly, the aver­
age recovery time for temporary disabilities ex­
perienced by pulpwood workers was 22 days, as
against 24 days required by general loggers.
The standard severity rate, which takes into
account the economic time loss resulting from
death and permanent impairment cases, was

1See appendix, table 1.
2 The injury-frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries for
each million employee-hours worked. A disabling injury is one which results
in death or permanent impairment, or causes an inability to work extending
beyond the day of injury.




3
See Work Injuries in the United States During 1944. Bureau of Labor
Statistics Bulletin No. 849.

2

nearly twice as high in 1944 for general logging
operations as for those of pulpwood logging—
15.4 days lost for each 1,000 employee-hours
worked in general logging as against 8.2 in pulpwood logging.
The contrast between the severity of injuries in
pulpwood logging and other industries, however,
presents a different picture. In manufacturing
as a whole, 0.4 percent of all reported disabilities
resulted in death and 4.5 percent in permanent im­
pairments, compared with 0.7 percent and 2.1 per­
cent, respectively, in pulpwood logging. In general,
therefore, nearly twice as many injuries to pulp­
wood loggers resulted in death as was the case in
manufacturing as a whole, but only half as many
injuries developed into permanent impairments.
In terms of the standard severity rate, the pulpwood-logging rate (8.2 days lost per 1,000 em­
ployee-hours worked) was nearly 6 times as high as
the average for all manufacturing (1.4 days).

farmer and his family commonly perform all of
the work. As a rule, these operations are con­
ducted with a minimum of equipment and with
relatively little provision for the safe and efficient
handling of the felled trees and logs. Under these
conditions the inherent hazards of logging are
bound to be intensified. The casual nature of the
operations and the fact that they are generally
conducted by family workers, however, makes it
impossible to collect accurate information con­
cerning the injuries which occur in these subsidiary
activities of the industry. The probabilities are
that, if the data were available, this segment of
pulpwood logging would be found to be sub­
stantially more hazardous than the regular
industrial type of operation.
In the commercial operations, which account
for the bulk of the country’s pulpwood production
and which are commonly thought of as consti­
tuting the industry, variations in operating pro­
cedures are the rule rather than the exception.
Much of the standing timber available for cutting
as pulpwood is owned by paper companies which
have acquired the timber lands to insure them­
selves against a shortage of raw materials for
their mill operations. Other large tracts are
owned by lumber companies, which consider
pulpwood production as subsidiary to their
lumbering activities, or by individuals who hold
tracts of varying sizes as investment properties.
In the regions east of the Rockies most of the
pulpwood stands are second growth timber on
lands which have already been logged for saw
timber. In these areas, therefore, the production
of pulpwood is usually an independent operation
rather than a part of general logging operations.
Largely as a result of the practice of reserving the
larger trees for saw timber, the pulp mills of the
three Eastern regions are not generally equipped
to handle large logs and the pulpwood must be
delivered to them in relatively short lengths.
Customary procedure in the Northeastern region
is to cut pulpwood into lengths of about 50
inches. In the Southern region the standard
length of a pulpwood stick is about 63 inches,
while operators in the Great Lakes region cut to
a length of about 100 inches.
On the West Coast, on the other hand, stands
of second-growth timber are inadequate to meet
the needs of the pulp mills and the mills have been
equipped to take large logs of saw-timber size,

The Industry
Although some pulpwood is cut in practically
every rural area of the United States, most of the
production comes from four general regions. The
Northeastern region production centers are in
Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachu­
setts, New York, and Pennsylvania. In the
Great Lakes region production is heavy in Michi­
gan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota, while Washington
and Oregon lead in production on the West Coast.
In the Southern region, the most extensive pulp­
wood operations are found in Virginia, West Vir­
ginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia,
Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkan­
sas, Louisiana, and Texas.
Pulpwood logging is an industry characterized
by extreme variations in operating methods and
procedures. A substantial volume of pulpwood
is produced by farmers who cut only on their own
property. In many instances this production
is merely incidental to clearing operations de­
signed to make additional land available for
cultivation with no intention on the part of the
farm operator to continue or to repeat his venture
into the pulpwood industry. On the other hand,
many farmers regularly set aside a portion of
their land as forest and from time to time cut
some of the trees into pulpwood which they sell
directly to the local pulpmills or to agents of the
mills. In small farm operations of this type the




3

actual logging over to contract operators who em­
ploy the workers and provide the necessary equip­
ment. Employment on the large company-owned
projects is somewhat more regular than with the
contract operators, and as a rule the large com­
pany operations are better organized. Safety
programs are practically nonexistent except on
the paper company tracts where some effort is
made to extend the plant safety programs into
the woods activities.
Estimates as to the number of persons employed
in pulpwood logging are highly conjectural. Much
of the work is seasonal and many of the workers
have regular occupations in other industries,
working in pulpwood logging only when their
other work is slack. Generally, pulpwood cutters
are paid by the cord and other personnel are paid
by the hour.
Variations in climate and in the nature of the
terrain largely account for the pronounced differ­
ences in the operating methods in the various re­
gions. As a rule, the woods areas are thinly popu­
lated and are frequently far removed from public
highways and railroads. Transportation problems,
therefore, play an important part in determining
the pattern of operations. In the Northeastern
region and in parts of the Great Lakes region
where the timber lands are rough and irregular,
the cost of constructing all-weather roads through
the forests for the removal of the pulpwood is fre­
quently prohibitive. In the winter, however, the
construction of snow roads over which the pulp­
wood can be removed on sleds is relatively simple.
As a result the forest roads in those areas are fre­
quently almost impassable during the summer
months when most of the cutting must be done.
Travel between the operating areas and locations
outside the forest is exceedingly difficult and time
consuming. Under these conditions it is generally
necessary for the employers to provide and oper­
ate camps where the woods workers can live near
the area of operations. General operating pro­
cedure under these circumstances is to fell and
buck the trees into pulpwood lengths, and to pile
the pulpwood in clearings adjacent to the roads
during the summer and to haul it out during the
winter. Where streams are available, the logs
may be floated to the mills. This method of
moving pulpwood from the forest, however, is not
common.
In contrast, most of the logging operations in

approximating 40 feet in length. In that area,
therefore, pulpwood and saw logs are commonly
produced under identical operating conditions—
in some instances the actual use to which the logs
will be put may not be determined until they have
been removed from the forest. Because of this
similarity in the two types of logging and the
rather common practice of combining both into
a single operation it was impossible to obtain
specific information relating only to pulpwood
logging on the West Coast. For this reason all
of the operations in that area were omitted from
this survey.
Two distinct operating policies were found to
prevail among the owners of pulpwood tracts in
the three Eastern regions. In the Southern region
the general practice is to treat pulpwood as a
continuing crop. Under this method each area
is logged every 5 or 6 years and the only trees cut
are those which have reached the most desirable
size for pulpwood. This results in a substantial
uniformity in the size of the logs cut for pulp­
wood, which reduces the difficulties of handling
the material and thereby contributes to the safety
of the operations. The practice of reworking
each area at relatively short intervals also helps
to reduce the amount of auxiliary work necessary
in these operations. Roads through the forest
which were built and used for the removal of the
pulpwood during one cutting period, frequently
are found to need only minor repairs to be usable
in a later period. Similarly, the clearing of under­
brush to facilitate operations is frequently mini­
mized because the same area had been cleared
only a few years before in the course of an earlier
operation.
General practice in the Northeastern and Great
Lakes regions is to cut over a tract only once in
20 or 30 years and to take all timber of usable
size. As a result the size of the timber cut varies
widely, the roads built during one cutting period
are seldom usable at the time of the next cutting
period, and the underbrush is usually very heavy.
On the large tracts owned by the paper com­
panies, and to some extent on other large holdings,
it is not uncommon for the owners to employ the
woodsmen directly and to make pulpwood logging
one of their regular activities. On the smaller
tracts, however, it is seldom economical for the
owners to undertake the management of logging
operations and the general practice is to turn the




4

project, and in the larger companies it is commonly
organized into an engineering department or
division. The construction and maintenance of
roads into the forest, the construction of camps,
and the placement of heavy equipment, such as
slasher saws, are generally the functions of these
departments.
Road construction involves surveying and lay­
ing out the routes, clearing the selected road
area, and smoothing and compacting the surface.
In some instances it is necessary to build bridges
or to dig drainage ditches. Much of the work
must be performed by hand labor although the
use of bulldozers, tractors, scrapers, and even
power shovels is not uncommon. In the course
of clearing the route, trees must be felled under
much the same conditions as prevail in the regular
cutting operations. In addition, all stumps and
underbrush must be removed from the roadway.
The construction workers, therefore, face all of
the hazards of felling operations plus the hazards
peculiar to the use of earth-moving equipment
and explosives.
Camp construction usually consists primarily
of rough carpenter work in which the chief hazards
arise from the use of sharp tools or from over­
exertion. This work is frequently assigned to
employees who have had little training or ex­
perience as carpenters and who may not be
familiar with the safe methods of performing
these operations.

the Southern region are on comparatively level
ground and road building is not such a problem.
Frequently only minor clearing and filling is
necessary to open a road over which ordinary
trucks and passenger cars can drive to the cutting
area. As transportation can readily be provided,
the workers in this region generally live outside
the forest. Similarly, the ease of transportation
makes it possible for the Southern operators to
remove the pulpwood in trucks as soon as it has
been cut into the proper lengths. In fact, the
prompt removal of the pulpwood from the forest
is essential in these areas as the wood quickly
decays if it is piled and held in the woods.

Hazards of the Industry
Many of the hazards encountered in pulpwood
logging are directly associated with particular
activities. There are, however, a wide variety of
hazards to which all woods workers are exposed
regardless of their specific assignments. Rough
and slippery ground causes many falls. Rocks,
shrubbery, and tree roots present tripping hazards
for everyone who must move around in the woods.
The injury possibilities in the case of falls result­
ing from these conditions are frequently intensified
by the fact that the workers are likely to be carry­
ing sharp tools, such as axes, saws, pulphooks, or
peavies. Cuts and punctures from contact with
these tools are common in all woods occupations.
Low hanging branches and shrubbery frequently
present eye hazards to all workers as they move
about, but their most serious threat is that of
deflecting a swung ax or other sharp tool against
the body of the person using the tool. Falling
trees and falling limbs are primarily hazardous
to the fellers, but also constitute a danger to all
persons who may be near the felling operations.
Similarly, rolling and sliding logs are a source of
injury to many workers. The possibility of
injury from overexertion is also present in practi­
cally all woods occupations.

Felling and Limbing: In felling operations the most
common procedure is to make the undercut with
an ax and to complete the cut with a cross-cut
saw or bucksaw, although the saw may also be
used in making the undercut, particularly on trees
of larger diameter. The undercut is simply a
wedge-shaped cut an the side of the tree toward
which it is desired to fall. The felling cut with
the saw is horizontal and is started on the side
opposite the undercut at a point slightly above
the point of the undercut wedge.
The use of power saws in the felling operation
has become very common in some areas, par­
ticularly in the South where level ground and the
absence of heavy underbrush make it possible to
move this type of equipment around without
much difficulty. The saws may be either chain
saws or circular saws, the latter being the type
most generally used. Power is furnished by a

THE PRINCIPAL OPERATIONS AND THEIR HAZARDS

Engineering: The nature and extent of the pre­
liminary work necessary in any woods operation
varies widely with the size of the operation and
the nature of the terrain in which the operation
is to be located. In rugged country this work
has all the characteristics of a major engineering
769794— 48------2




5

small gasoline motor and is transmitted to the
blade by means of a belt, the entire mechanism
being mounted on a two-wheeled, hand-drawn
cart. The blade is usually mounted on a project­
ing arm and arranged so that it can be tilted to
cut at different angles. As cutters usually are
paid according to the amount of timber cut, many
of the individual workers provide their own power
saws in an effort to increase their production.
Maintenance, therefore, is not a duty of the
employer and may be very haphazard, with the
result that the inherent hazards involved in using
these power tools may be greatly increased by
their not being kept in good condition. None of
the power saws observed in operation during the
survey had guards either at the blade or over
the belts or power take-offs.
After the tree has been felled the limbs and top
are removed with an ax, usually by the same
person who did the felling. The log is then ready
for yarding or bucking which is commonly per­
formed by another worker.
The felling operation involves a wide variety of
hazards which the feller must overcome through
his own knowledge and skill. Little supervision is
provided and as each tree presents a different prob­
lem there can be little advance planning for the
safety of specific operations. It is essential, there­
fore, that the fellers know how to recognize the
hazards and how to take the necessary precautions
to insure the greatest degree of safety in their work.
It is probable that much could be accomplished in
this respect if the employers were to furnish general
training in safe felling procedures. The survey
indicated, however, that it is not common in this
industry for employers to provide such training.
The most outstanding hazards faced by fellers
include the possibility of cuts from the keen edges
of axes or saws, and the possibility of being struck
by falling trees or limbs. An effective swing of an
ax by an experienced woodsman may seem simple
and casual to an observer. Actually it is the cul­
mination of a series of closely coordinated actions
each of which has some bearing on the safety of the
feller. If the ax edge is dull or the angle of the
stroke is incorrect, the ax may glance from the tree
instead of cutting as intended, and be thrown
against the feller. If low hanging branches inter­
fere with the swing of the ax, it may be deflected
against his person. And if his footing is insecure
or his stance incorrect, he may be thrown off bal­




ance and find the swinging ax completely out of
control. In addition to the hazards inherent in
the use of his sharp tools, the feller must also face
the possibility that the ax blows may dislodge dead
limbs overhead, which may fall upon him, or that
the tree may break off unexpectedly and kick back
against him, or that it may not fall freely as he
anticipated. Accidents in which falling trees
strike other trees and are deflected are common as
are accidents in which workers are struck by sap­
lings which snap back when freed after having
been bent down by falling trees. Similarly, many
fellers are injured in trying to release felled trees
which have lodged in other trees in falling.
In limbing operations much of the danger arises
from the necessity of using the ax in awkward
positions and of swinging it among branches
which may deflect the swing. Limbs on the under
side of the trunk are often bent and under tension
so that they will spring out when cut or will allow
the log to drop or roll.
Skidding or Yarding: After the tree has been felled
and limbed, the common practice is to drag the
stripped log to a cleared area, called a yard, where
it is cut, or bucked, into pulpwood lengths. In
some instances, however, the bucking may be done
without moving the log.
In the three regions east of the Rockies, the
skidding or yarding of pulpwood logs is usually
accomplished by using a horse or a tractor to pull
the logs along the ground. In some instances a
small two-wheeled cart, called an arch, is used to
support the front end of logs which are to be
pulled by a tractor.
The major hazards of yarding operations con­
sist of the danger of being struck or crushed by
the logs as they are dragged through the woods.
This danger is greatest, of course, when the ground
is rough or hilly, which may cause the logs to roll
or swing unexpectedly. Getting the logs into
position to be dragged away and placing the
chains by which they are to be dragged sometimes
involves strenuous physical effort and presents
the possibility of injuries from overexertion.
Bucking, Peeling, Splitting: Bucking, or cutting
the logs into pulpwood lengths, is usually done
with a hand saw, although portable power saws are
extensively used for this purpose in the South.
Slasher saws, which are large-powered saws with

6

faces of the logs and the more serious hazard of
having insecurely placed logs roll from the load
carrying him to the ground with them.
Because of the generally larger size of the pulp­
wood sticks in the Great Lakes region, the use of
mechanical loading equipment is more common in
that area than in either the Northeastern or South­
ern regions. Portable conveyors and machines
resembling warehouse stackers are sometimes used
in these operations, but the more usual method is
to utilize some type of crane or derrick to lift the
logs onto the vehicle. In using some of this equip­
ment, the practice is to assemble a number of logs
into a sling load and to hoist the bundle into place.
Operators in the Great Lakes region, however,
more commonly employ clamshell buckets to
eliminate the handling necessary in building sling
loads. These clamshell buckets, which are very
similar to those used in moving earth, are lowered
onto the piled pulpwood and in each bite pick up
a number of sticks.
Mechanical loading speeds the work and elimi­
nates the strenuous exertion involved in lifting
the logs onto the vehicle by hand. It does, how­
ever, introduce other hazards. Workers on the
ground are exposed to the danger of being struck
by logs which may fall from unbalanced loads,
and there is always the possibility of being struck
by a swinging load which may crush the unwary
worker if he happens to be caught between it
and a fixed object. The top loaders, who must
guide the loads into place, may easily be knocked
to the ground by a swinging load or may be
caught under the load as it is lowered into place.
In addition there is the possibility that the logs
may roll when the sling is relaxed or the clam­
shell opened.
Pulpwood workers seldom have occasion to
unload railroad cars, but the unloading of trucks
and sleds is frequently a part of their work. As a
rule unloading is a hand operation and may
involve moving the logs into a railroad car or
placing them on a conveyor at the mill.

a rolling carriage on which the logs are moved up
to the blade, are occasionally used in large-scale
operations.
When the logs are yarded, the bucking is
generally done with the log resting on a sawhorse
or sawladder. A sawladder is constructed by
laying two logs, 18 to 30 feet long, side by side and
nailing short pieces of lumber across them at 4- or
5-foot intervals. The crosspieces are notched in
the center and the log to be bucked is moved into
the notches so that it will not roll during the buck­
ing. In moving the log onto the sawhorse or
sawladder, the bucker generally uses a cantdog
or canthook.
Most pulpwood is sent to the mill without being
peeled or split. In some areas, however, the
bark may be removed before the logs are taken
from the forest. This is particularly true in
respect to hardwood logs. Splitting is necessary
only when the logs are of large diameter. Peeling
is usually done after the felled tree has been
limbed, but before it has been bucked into pulpwood lengths. Ordinary procedure in this opera­
tion is to loosen a short strip of bark with the ax
and then to force a spud or drawknife under the
bark which pulls it away from the wood.
The chief hazards associated with bucking,
peeling, and splitting lie in the handling of the
heavy logs. Strains and sprains from overexertion
and crushed hands and feet caused by rolling or
dropped logs are common in these operations, par­
ticularly in the piling of the pulpwood after buck­
ing.
Loading and Unloading: Loading the pulpwood
onto trucks or sleds for removal from the forest
and loading into railroad cars for delivery to the
mill are commonly manual operations, although
the use of mechanical loading equipment is on the
increase in the larger operations. In hand loading
the men work in groups, usually with two or three
doing the lifting and one on top of the load doing
the placing. Pulphooks and pickaroons are com­
monly used to handle the logs in this operation.
Lifting and moving the logs into place is very
strenuous work and often results in severe strains.
In addition there is always the possibility of being
struck by a dropped log, or that logs may roll
from the load onto the workers on the ground.
The top loader moves about on the load where he
faces the possibility of falls on the irregular sur­




Transportation: In the Southern region motor­
trucks are commonly used to transport the pulp­
wood from the woods to the mill or railroad siding.
In the Northeastern and Great Lakes regions horse
or tractor drawn sleds are used for winter trans­
portation and trucks or trailers are used in the
summer. Water transportation was found to be

7

unusual in the South and of only minor importance
in the two northern areas.
The chief hazards associated with hauling the
pulpwood are that the loads may upset or spill
due to rough and hilly terrain or unsafe driving
methods. In many instances no seats are pro­
vided for the teamsters on sleds or wagons and
they are forced either to ride the load or walk
at the side. In either case the possibility of injury
is great if the load should spill. Walking at the
side also involves the danger of being struck by
the sled if it skids, which frequently happens when
it strikes an obstruction.

Injuries and the Age of Workers: As pulpwood
logging involves a considerable amount of stren­
uous physical activity, employment in the industry
during normal times is predominately made up of
comparatively young men. During the war
years, however, many of the younger men left the
industry to enter the military services, or to work
in other industries, and the proportion of older
men in the pulpwood industry rose substantially.
However, none of the operators visited in the
course of the survey maintained any records
showing the ages of their employees. For this
reason, the preparation of an age distribution
covering all employees was impossible and no
conclusion could be drawn as to whether or not
there was any relationship between the age of
workers and the frequency of injuries. However,
practically all of the injury reports included both
the age of the injured persons and the extent of the
disability resulting from the injury. It was
possible, therefore, to compare the patterns of the
disabilities experienced by workers of different
ages.5 It should be noted, however, that this com­
parison involves the assumption that the hazards
faced by workers in the different age groups were
similar. This could not be proved factually, but,
on the other hand, there was no evidence that the
age of the worker was considered in making work
assignments.
These data corroborate the findings of previous
studies in other industries, that injuries to older
persons are likely to result in more serious dis­
abilities than those experienced by younger per­
sons, the differences being due primarily to the
greater recuperative ability of the younger per­
sons. The break-down of the reported injuries
according to the age of the injured persons indi­
cated that these differences first become apparent
at about the 40-year age level and are intensified
at the 50-year level. Only 2.6 percent of the dis­
abling injuries experienced by pulpwood workers
under 41 years of age resulted in death or perma­
nent impairment. In the age range of 41 to 50,
however, 4.1 percent of the injuries resulted in
death or permanent impairment and in the range
of 51 to 60 years of agQ the proportion was 5.9
percent. Similarly, in respect to temporary dis­
abilities, the average recovery time for workers in
the under 41 years of age group was 20 days.

Injury Analysis
Kinds of Injuries Experienced: Cuts, lacerations,
and punctures were the most common injuries ex­
perienced by pulpwood workers. Approximately
one in every three disabling injuries reported were
of this general nature. Over half of these in­
juries affected the lower extremities and about
one-third affected the upper extremities. Cuts
on the leg were more common than cuts on the
foot. Cuts on hands and fingers, however, out­
numbered arm cuts by about 4 to l.4
Bruises and contusions were the second most
common variety of injury, comprising approxi­
mately 29 percent of the total volume. The
lower extremities were most commonly injured
but a substantial volume of the bruises and con­
tusions were reported as affecting the trunk, the
upper extremities, and the head. The closely re­
lated group of injuries, designated as strains or
sprains, which included about 20 percent of the
disabling cases, were primarily injuries to the
trunk although the lower extremities were in­
volved in a considerable number of cases. Back
sprains predominated among the cases affecting
the trunk.
Fractures were found to be more common and
of a more serious nature in pulpwood logging than
in most other industries. Nearly 14 percent of
all the reported disabilities were fractures. About
one-third of these were cases of fractured ribs
and somewhat more than one-third were fractured
legs, feet, or toes. The more serious cases in­
cluded fractures of the skull, back, and pelvis.
This group of injuries was responsible for 9 of
the 12 fatalities reported in the survey.
*See appendix, tables 2 to 6, and table 11.




• See appendix, table 7.

8

For those in the 41 to 50 years of age group the
average was 22 days and for those in the 51- to
60-year group it was nearly 29 days.

stress the development of safe practices in felling
and bucking.
In a broad sense the transportation operations
of the industry include all of the activities con­
nected with the movement of the logs from the
point of felling to the point of delivery to the
consumer. On this basis more than 40 percent of
the injuries in the industry occurred in the course
of transportation. For more detailed consider­
ation, however, the general group of transportation
activities was broken down into several specific
operations.
Among these, the most prolific
source of injuries— accounting for about 17
percent—was the operation of loading logs onto
or unloading them from vehicles. Another 16
percent of the injuries occurred in the operation
of the transport vehicles. In the Southern area
this latter activity was a particularly important
source of injuries which accounted for over 25
percent of the reported cases.
Because pulpwood logging in the Southern area
involves relatively little skidding and yarding, the
injuries attributable to this operation in that
region amounted to only 3 percent of the total.
In the Great Lakes region, on the other hand,
about 8 percent of the injuries occurred in skidding
and yarding operations, and about 5 percent in
the Northeastern region. Similarly, river driving
operations, which are uncommon in the South,
were charged with no injuries in the Southern
region, but were responsible for nearly 4 percent
of the injuries in the Northeastern area and about
1 percent in the Great Lakes area. Injuries to
engineering and equipment maintenance workers
also were relatively more important in the North­
eastern and Great Lakes regions than in the South.

Accident Analysis
Where Accidents Occurred: In setting up a safety
program the customary procedure is to concentrate
upon the particular operations or activities in
which the hazards are known to be the greatest, or
which are known to be the source of the greatest
volume of injuries. In the pulpwood-logging
industry, however, few employers maintain separ­
ate employment records for the various types of
activities. As a result it was impossible to obtain
accurate information regarding the number of
persons engaged in specific activities. This de­
ficiency in the available information prevented the
computation of comparative injury-frequency
rates on a departmental or activity basis. It was
possible, however, to determine for nearly all
injury cases what the injured persons were doing
at the time they were injured. Classification of
the injury cases on the basis of this information
indicates the activities which were most productive
of injuries, but because it takes no account of the
number of workers in each activity, it cannot be
taken as indicating the relative degree of hazard
prevailing in the various types of activities. As a
basis on which to plan a safety program, however,
it does indicate specifically the operating divisions
in which safety work should be stressed in order to
reduce the over-all injury record of the industry.6
Felling and bucking operations, including limb­
ing and peeling, were the source of nearly half (47
percent) of all the recorded injuries. In the
separate regions the proportions were: 54 percent
for the Great Lakes area; 46 percent for the'
Southern region; and 42 percent for the North­
eastern region. About 3 percent of these cases
resulted in death or permanent disability. For
temporary disabilities in this group the average
time loss was 22 days. In large measure this high
concentration of injuries in felling and bucking
operations merely reflects the relatively large pro­
portion of the workers in the industry who are
engaged in these activities. Nevertheless, it is
apparent that any successful accident prevention
program in the pulpwood-logging industry must

The Agencies Involved in Accidents: The determina­
tion of the particular physical objects which are
most commonly involved in injuries constitutes a
fundamental step in the development of a suc­
cessful safety program. When these objects are
known, it becomes possible to determine how and
why they contributed to the occurrence of injuries
and then to take measures to overcome their
accident-producing possibilities. To permit the
precise determination of these items, which are
commonly called “ agencies,” the American Rec­
ommended Practice for Compiling Industrial
Accident Causes defines an agency as “ the object
or substance which is most closely associated with

• See appendix, tables 8 to 11.




9

MAJOR AGENCIES INVOLVED IN PULPWOOD
LOGGING ACCIDENTS
1943-44
0

5

PERCENT OF ALL DISABLING INJURIES

10

15

20

25

HAND TOOLS

LOGS
WORKING
SURFACES
TREES

VEHICLES

OTHER
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

the injury, and which in general could have been
properly guarded or corrected.”
Analysis based upon this definition points di­
rectly to logs or trees, hand tools, working sur­
faces, and vehicles as the outstanding injury-pro­
ducing agencies in the pulpwood logging industry.
Logs were the indicated agencies in 25 percent of
the cases analyzed and trees were the agencies in
another 11 percent.7 Accidents involving these
agencies deserve particular attention because of
the relatively large proportion which resulted in
death or permanent disabilities.
Hand tools, as a group, were involved in about
one-fourth of the accidents. Among these the
cases involving axes were most important both in
numbers and in the proportion of injuries resulting
in permanent impairments. Pulp-hook injuries
were numerous, but none of those which were re­

ported were known to have resulted in either death
or permanent impairment.
Working surfaces were the designated agencies
involved in about 14 percent of the accidents and
vehicles were involved in over 7 percent. In the
latter group the cases involving motor vehicles
were most numerous and also most productive of
serious injuries.
In general, the patterns presented by the agency
analyses for the three regions were very similar.
In each area logs and trees, as a group, ranked
first as injury producers and hand tools ranked
second. Among the hand tools, axes were of first
importance in all regions and pulp hooks ranked
second. On a relative basis, however, pulp-hook
accidents were more common in the Northeastern
region than in either of the other areas. On the
other hand, accidents involving canthooks or
peavies were uncommon in the Northeastern and
Southern regions, but were rather numerous in
the Great Lakes area.

7See appendix, tables 12 and 13.




10

The most pronounced differences between the
regions were in respect to accidents involving work­
ing surfaces and vehicles. In the Northeastern
and Great Lakes regions the hazards connected
with operations in rough and irregular country
were emphasized by the considerable number of
accidents associated with unsafe working surfaces,
as compared with a much smaller number of
motor-vehicle accidents. In the Southern region,
on the other hand, the number of accidents in­

volving unsafe working surfaces was relatively
small and was greatly exceeded by the volume of
vehicle accidents. Also reflecting differences in
operating methods, the vehicles which were indi­
cated as agencies in the Southern region were
nearly all motortrucks while animal and tractordrawn vehicles were involved in about half of the
vehicular accidents in the Great Lakes region and
in about a third of those in the Northeastern
region.

CHART 3

MAJOR T Y P E S OF ACCIDENTS IN PULPWOOD
LOGGING
1943-44
PERCENT OP ALL DISABLING INJURIES

0

10

20

30

i--------------- 1
--------------- r

40

50

60

STRUCK BY
OBJECTS
FALLS
O VEREXERTION
CAUGHT IN, ON, OR
BETWEEN OBJECTS
STRIKING AGAINST
OBJECTS
SLIPS (NOT FALLS)
OTHER
U N IT E D S T A T E S D E P A R T M E N T OF LABO R
BUREAU OF LABO R S T A T IS T IC S

Accident Causes

commission of an unsafe act, or to a combination
of these accident-producing factors.
In most instances the correction of unsafe
working conditions is entirely within the powers
of management. The avoidance of unsafe acts,
on the other hand, requires cooperation and
understanding by both management and workers.
Management must take the lead, however, by
providing safety-minded supervision and by mak­

Modern accident prevention is based upon two
premises—first, that there is an identifiable cause
for every accident; and second, that when the
cause is determined, it is generally possible to
eliminate or to counteract that particular cause
as the probable source of future accidents. As a
general rule, every accident may be traced to the
existence of an unsafe working condition, to the




II

ing sure that all workers are acquainted with the
hazards of their operations and are familiar with
the means of overcoming them.

the workplace, by the installation of guards, or
by rearranging the work processes or procedures.
In factory-type operations, in which the em­
ployer controls the materials and provides special
premises, tools, and facilities for the work, and
in which the work is performed under close super­
vision, this method of accident prevention is both
practical and successful.
In logging operations, however, the situation is

UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS

In most industries it is feasible for management
to take direct action to eliminate practically all
unsafe working conditions. Commonly this is
accomplished by improving physical conditions at
CHART 4

MAJOR TYPES OF UNSAFE WORKING CONDITIONS
IN PULPWOOD LOGGING OPERATIO NS
1943-44
P E R C E N T O F A L L D IS A B L IN G

C

IN J U R IE S

5

10

15

20

1

1

1

1

SLIPPERY

D E F E C T IV E
ROUGH

A G E N C IE S
AGED, WORN, CRACKED

OTHER

H A ZA R D O U S
A R R A NG EM EN T
OR
PROCEDURE

LACK OF CLEAR WORKING SURFACES

CONGESTION OF WORKING SPACES

OTHER

LACK OF PROPER
L n v i>
v r rn vrfcn
S A FE TY EQUIPM ENT
IM PROPERLY
GUARDED A G ENCIES
U N IT E D STATES DEPARTM ENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR S T A T IS T IC S




12

25

radically different. Here management can exer­
cise only limited control over the work areas and
materials. Many of the tools used in the woods
are provided by the workers themselves, and much
of the work is performed by small crews (in some
cases by individuals working alone) in widely
scattered and rapidly changing locations. Under
these circumstances close supervision is impracti­
cable. Furthermore, many of the most serious
unsafe conditions encountered in the woods are
due to weather, rough terrain, or other factors
which management is powerless to control. As
a result, the emphasis usually placed upon
management’s obligation to eliminate unsafe
working conditions must be modified in respect
to this industry. This does not mean, however,
that all unsafe conditions should be accepted as
unavoidable in logging operations.
On the
contrary, many unsafe conditions which were
found in pulpwood logging are entirely within the
control of management. Furthermore, many such
conditions which management cannot control
directly could be minimized if greater attention
were given to training the workers in safe prac­
tices and procedures.
Unsaje Conditions Management Can Control:
Among the more common accidents arising from
unsafe conditions over which management can
exercise direct control are those which involve
defective roadways, defective tools and equipment
supplied by management, improperly loaded
vehicles, and the lack of proper lifting equipment.8
The inadequacy of many forest roadways over
which the pulpwood must be transported was
strikingly indicated by the number and variety
of the accidents ascribed to road defects. In
many instances loaded vehicles overturned or
spilled their loads because they struck obstruc­
tions in the roadway. Drivers riding on seatless
vehicles were thrown to the ground by bumps in
the roads and were frequently struck by over­
hanging branches. Many vehicles skidded on
slippery roads and crashed into trees or rocks,
or overturned.
Most of the accidents resulting from the use of
defective tools or equipment can be ascribed to
the lack of an adequate inspection, repair, and
replacement program. Commonly reported de­
• See appendix, tables 16 to 18.




13

fects included tools with dull points or cutting
edges, cracked or splintered handles, unguarded
power tools, worn or stretched chains, and defec­
tive vehicles. In this last group, the more com­
monly reported defects were the lack of seats for
drivers on horse-drawn vehicles, the absence of
steps and handholds for use in getting on or off
drays and trucks, and defects in motor trucks,
such as defective brakes or steering mechanisms.
All of these unsafe conditions are entirely within
management’s control and could be eliminated.
Similarly, the loading of vehicles is an operation
for which management can provide supervision
without difficulty. The responsibility for acci­
dents resulting from tipping or spilling the load
because of improper loading of a vehicle must
accordingly be placed upon management. Proper
control of loading procedures through safetyminded supervision also could have prevented
many accidents which resulted from lifting heavy
materials without adequate assistance or from the
hazardous use of mechanical loading equipment.
In the latter category the reports indicated that
it was not uncommon for clamshell buckets and
sling loads to be swung over the heads of the
workers— a procedure which is recognized as
unsafe in the operation of hoisting equipment.
Although the provision of adequate first-aid
facilities is not an accident-prevention measure,
the absence of such facilities definitely constitutes
an unsafe condition when an accident occurs, par­
ticularly when medical attention is not readily
available. In this respect pulpwood-logging
operations were generally found to be very poorly
equipped. On some of the smaller operations
there was no first-aid equipment at all. Even on
the large operations it was not uncommon to find
serious shortages in the first-aid supplies because
of failure to provide prompt replacements.
Equally serious was the general lack of per­
sonnel trained in the emergency treatment of
injuries or in the handling of injured persons.
The severity of many woods injuries could ob­
viously be minimized through the provision of
better first-aid facilities and by providing every
operation with at least one person who has been
given first-aid training. A further step in this
direction would be for management to arrange the
work assignments so as to avoid, insofar as pos­
sible, the necessity of individuals working so far
apart as to be out of contact with each other.

clear through the dead limb and either struck the
worker or threw him off his feet.

Unsafe Conditions Workers Can Control: In the
group of unsafe conditions recognized as being less
susceptible to direct management control, hazards
found to be most productive of injuries were those
associated with rough or slippery surfaces, dead
trees or limbs, and the lack of clear work spaces.
There appears to be little that either management
or the workers can do to eliminate the possibility
of accidents from some of these causes. It is
equally apparent, however, that the workers them­
selves can and should eliminate many such unsafe
conditions for themselves as a normal part of their
work. Nevertheless, it is obvious from the record
that such precautions are frequently not taken.
The problem of management, therefore, is to
increase the safety consciousness of the workers
and to make sure that they know how to protect
themselves.
Ice, snow, mud, wet grass, loose stones, under­
brush, stumps, etc., were responsible for many
slipping and tripping accidents in all divisions of
the industry. For the person who is moving about
in the forest, constant alertness and close atten­
tion to where he is walking constitute the only
practicable defense against such hazards. How­
ever, when the workers are performing felling,
limbing, peeling, splitting, piling, or other opera­
tions in which a firm footing is essential, it should
be their first concern to make sure that there are
no such hazards underfoot. Similarly, although
it is impracticable to attempt to remove low-hang­
ing branches, vines, and the like in the vicinity of
all operations, it is essential that this be done
wherever it is necessary to swing an ax which
might be caught and deflected.
Various types of accidents involving dead limbs
or trees were reported. In some instances these
were blown down by the wind onto persons who
were working or merely walking nearby. In other
instances, workers were hit by dead trees which
were accidentally knocked over by the felled trees.
Other reports indicated that dead limbs from the
trees which fellers were cutting became dislodged
by the jarring from ax blows, and injured the
workers. Dead limbs also were the cause of a
number of accidents in limbing operations. In
these cases the limber’s ax unexpectedly passed




UNSAFE ACTS

In the field of accident prevention an unsafe act
is defined as “ a violation of a commonly accepted
safe procedure.” 9 Literally this means that no
personal action shall be designated as unsafe unless
there is a less hazardous alternative method or
procedure. In many instances it was apparent
from the reports that the individual knew the safe
procedure but consciously decided not to follow
it; for example, a worker deliberately removed the
guard from a saw and used it without the pro­
vided protection. In other cases, the available
data indicate that the person who acted unsafely
did so simply because he did not know the safe
method.
The first step toward the elimination of unsafe
acts, therefore, requires that all workers are
thoroughly instructed in the safe methods of per­
forming their duties and that they are familiar
with the hazards connected with deviations from
such safe procedures. Generally, the second es­
sential step is to exercise strict supervision to see
that only safe methods are used. In pulpwood
logging, however, direct supervision of all opera­
tions is impracticable. Proper instruction, there­
fore, becomes doubly important. Unfortunately,
it became quite evident in the course of the survey
that relatively few pulpwood operators made any
provision for the proper training of their em­
ployees. In most instances, only perfunctory
inquiries were made about the previous training
and experience of new employees before assigning
them to work in the woods.
In most of the accident cases analyzed, the
available facts indicated that the occurrence of
the accident was directly related to the commission
of an unsafe act in one of the following broad
categories: Using unsafe equipment or using
equipment unsafely; unsafe loading, placing,, or
planning; and taking an unsafe position or
posture.1
0
9 American Kecommended Practice for Compiling Industrial Accident
Causes, approved by the American Standards Association, August 1, 1941,
(New York, 1941).
1 See Appendix, Tables 19 and 20.
0

14

Unsafe Equipment Used or Equipment Used Un­
safely: The great majority of the unsafe acts in this
group consisted of either the misuse of hand tools
or the failure to grip objects securely in lifting.
The tool most commonly misused was the ax,
and the fault generally was a failure to control its
swing. In many instances the ax was swung at
an improper angle, so that it glanced off the tree
or log and struck the axman. In other cases

axes were used in spaces that were insufficient for
a free swing and, when meeting with obstructions,
were deflected against the workmen. Attempting
a cut while holding the ax with only one hand
resulted in a number of injuries, and standing in
the line of the cut resulted in many more. The
latter type of accident was most common in limb­
ing and splitting operations.
A number of other accidents involving limbers

CHART 5

MAJOR TYPES OF UNSAFE ACTS
IN PULPWOOD LOGGING OPERATIONS
1943-44
PERCENT OF ALL DISABLING INJURIES

10

------------------------------------------------------------------- 1
-------------------------- — —

USING UNSAFE

USING HAND TOOLS IN AN UNSAFE MANNER

EQUIPMENT OR
EQUIPMENT UNSAFELY

TAKING AN UNSAFE

GRIPPING OBJECTS INSECURELY

INATTENTION TO FOOTING

POSITION
OR POSTURE

UNSAFE PLACING
OR PLANNING

OTHER
U N IT E D STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS




15

20
30
i------------------------------------------------------------ --—

- ■"»-------------—

resulted from the practice of standing on the
trunk of the tree while using an ax to trim off
limbs. In this position it is frequently impossible
to avoid a severe fall if the ax catches on an
obstruction or if it unexpectedly passes through
the limb being cut. Some of these accidents
resulted in particularly severe injuries because
the workers fell on the ax. Another group of
limbing accidents resulted from applying the ax
to the wrong side of limbs which were under
tension. When trees fall they often bend sap­
lings or limbs to the ground and place them
under tension. Safe practice dictates that these
limbs or saplings should be cut with the ax from
the under side of the curve. When they are
struck on the top side the tension frequently will
throw the ax back out of control.
Although cases involving the misuse of axes
were the most numerous, and generally resulted
in the most severe injuries, many accidents were
attributable to the misuse of other hand tools
such as saws, pulphooks, and canthooks. Pulphook accidents were particularly common. Fre­
quently the pulphook glanced from the log, or
even missed the log entirely, and struck either
the worker using the hook or a nearby co­
worker. Generally the failure to properly control
the tool in cases of this kind resulted from in­
attention or from improper grasp of the tool.
In addition to the accidents resulting from
misuse of tools in processes for which they were
designed, many accidents were chargeable to the
use of hand tools for purposes other than those for
which they were intended. An outstanding ex­
ample of such misuse occurred when a feller used
his ax to push over a tree which had been partly
cut through. The ax slipped from the trunk and
the worker fell on the blade.
In lifting, piling, or moving heavy, rough, and
awkward objects like pulp wood logs, accidents
are inevitable unless the handling procedures are
properly coordinated and executed. The most
common fault in these operations was that of tak­
ing an insecure grip on the object being handled
or in releasing the object before it was solidly
placed in position. As a result many feet or toes
were crushed by objects which slipped from the
hands of workers, or their fingers were pinched
by the materials which they were piling or placing.

unsafe act in this general category was inattention
to footing. Natural irregularities in the surface
of the ground were involved in some of the acci­
dents in this group, but the majority were cases of
tripping over logs, stumps, rocks, or other objects
lying on the ground. Sometimes the workers
tripped while stepping backwards to get out of
the way of falling trees. In other instances,
workers were injured when their feet slipped from
the hub caps, tires, wheel spokes, fenders, or
frames of vehicles on which they were climbing,
or when they stepped from vehicles onto loose
stones or into holes in the ground. Teamsters
were frequently injured when they attempted to
stand on the load and were thrown off by unex­
pected jolts.
Lifting with a bent back or from an awkward
position was a particularly common cause of
injury, and numerous workers were injured be­
cause they unnecessarily placed themselves in the
path of moving or falling objects. Accidents of
the latter type frequently occurred in skidding
and yarding operations when workers walked or
stood close to or on the downhill side of logs
which were being dragged. In some of these
accidents the workers were caught between the
moving logs and fixed objects such as trees,
stumps, or boulders, resulting usually in serious
injuries.
Unsafe Loading, Placing, or Planning: Because
woodsmen often work alone without supervision,
they must assume a great deal of responsibility
for their own safety and for the safety of others
who may approach their operations. This is
particularly true in felling operations. The felling
of each tree presents a different combination of
problems. The feller first must decide the direc­
tion in which he wishes the tree to fall. The line
of its fall should be as clear as possible so that it
will not strike other trees; and when it comes to
rest it should be so located as to facilitate limbing
and handling of the stripped trunk. Before the
actual felling is started, safe practice dictates that
the area at the base of the tree be checked to be
sure that there is sufficient clear space for the
work and for the feller to move away when the
tree starts to fall. It is also essential for safety
that the feller check the ground around the tree
to make certain that he will have secure footing;
and finally, that he inspect the tree for any dead

Unsafe Position or Posture: The most common




16

lodged in other trees. Equally common were
cases in which the butt of a falling tree kicked back
and injured the feller when the top of the tree
struck another tree.
The accidents classified as arising from unsafe
loading or placing of materials commonly occurred
in the course of loading or piling pulpwood.
Generally these were cases of failure to interlock
or block the piles to prevent the logs from rolling
down or becoming dislodged when the pile was
walked upon. There were, however, a consider­
able number of accidents caused by the unsafe
placing of tools and other equipment. In a
typical case, a worker was injured when after
cutting a bush, he laid his ax on the ground and
then stepped on it as he pulled the bush aside.
Another worker laid his ax on a pile of branches
and, when he picked up the branches, the ax fell
on his foot.
Accidents of these types constitute strong
evidence of the general lack of safety consciousness
among pulpwood workers, and emphasize the
need for a program based upon the “ Three E's of
Safety” —Engineering, Education, and Enforce­
ment.

limbs which might be dislodged by the blows of
his ax and fall on him.
The experienced feller makes these observations
automatically and quickly formulates a plan for
the operation. This may include the removal of
some of the hazards revealed by his inspection or
the adoption of special procedures which will offset
the hazards. However, the tendency on the part
of some experienced fellers to take chances to save
time, or the inability of inexperienced workers to
recognize existing hazards or to plan successfully
for their elimination, frequently result in serious
accidents in this operation.
A case, typical of many reported in this cate­
gory, involved a felled tree which had lodged in a
second tree. The feller then decided to cut down
the latter in order to release the first tree. In the
course of this operation the first tree became dis­
lodged and dropped onto the feller, who was
working under it. In another instance the feller
climbed up the trunk of the lodged tree to reach
a point where he could cut it loose. His weight
caused it to come free, throwing him to the
ground. In other instances workers were injured
when they tried to push trees loose after they had




17

Appendix: Statistical Tables

T able 1.— Industrial injury frequency rates in logging operations in 1944, classified by geographic area and kind of logging1
Number of disabling injuries

Geographic area and kind
of logging

Number
of opera­
tions

Number
of em­
ployees

Employeehours
worked
(thou­
sands)

Injury rates2
Resulting inTotal

Perma­
Tempo­
nentrary-total
partial
disability
disability

Death

Total pulpwood logging..........
Total other logging3...............

266
137

9,772
4,372

19,327
8,044

1,459
616

Northeastern area:
Pulpwood logging_______
Great Lakes area:
Pulpwood logging.............
Other logging....................
Southern area:
Pulpwood logging.............
Other logging....................

40

4,189

9,870

142
85

3,636
2,352

6,136
4,459

84
39

1,947
1,623

3,321
3,154

Total days
lost
Frequency Severity

11
10

30
25

1,418
581

159,148
123,490

75.5
76.6

694

5

13

676

73,269

510
344

2
4

16
11

492
329

55,470
55,195

255
258

4
5

1
14

250
239

30,409
62,118

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing
separate data for pulpwood logging.
2 The frequency rate is the average number of disabling injuries for each

Average
days lost
per tempo­
rary-total
disability

8.2
15.4

22
24

70.3

7.4

22

83.1
77.2

9.0
12.4

21
30

76.8
81.8

9.2
19.7

24
16

million employee-hours worked. The severity rate is the average number
of days lost for each thousand employee-hours worked.
* Includes figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.

T able 2.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by part of body injured and extent of disability1
Total

Number of injuries resulting in—

Part of body injured
Number

Percent 2

Permanentpartial dis­
ability

Death

Average days
lost per
Temporary- temporarytotal dis­
total dis­
ability
ability

Total............ .............................................................................................

1,933

100.0

12

55

1,866

22

Eye(s)______________________________________________________
Brain or fit-nil_______________________________________________
Other....................................................................................................

162
76
19
67

8.4
3.9
1.0
3.5

7

4
3

6
1

1

151
73
13
65

14
15
33
10

T r u n k .._______________________________________________________
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc_______________________________________
Back____ ____ ______________ ________________________ __ ____
Abdomen___________________________________________________
Hip(s) or pelvis______________________________________________
Shoulder
________________________________________________
Other_______________________________________________________

559
232
192
38
24
55
18

29.1
12.1
10.0
2.0
1.2
2.9
.9

3
2
1

556
230
191
38
24
55
18

26
23
25
34
41
23
26

Upper extremities. . . . _________ _________________________________
Arm(s)
.
_________ _________________ - _______________
Hand(s) (including wrist)____________________________________
Finger (s) or thumb (s)______ __________________________________

412
89
139
184

21.4
4.6
7.2
9.6

34
2
6
26

378
87
133
158

19
21
18
19

Lower extremities......................................................................................
Leg(s)............................. .....................................................................
Foot or feet (including ankle)_________________________________
Toe(s)__ _ ________________________________________________

769
396
285
88

40.0
20.6
14.8
4.6

1
1

17
13
2
2

751
382
283
86

22
23
21
19

22
9

1.1

1

Unclassified; insufficient data_____________________________________

21
9

28
20

i Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing
separate data for pulpwood logging.




* Percent based on classified cases only,

18

T able 3.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classijied by part of body injured and region
Northeastern region

Total injuries

Great Lakes region

1

Southern region

Part of body injured
Number

Number

Percent2

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Total..................................................... .................

1,933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

100.0

Head....... ...................... ............ ...........................
Eye(s).........................................................—Brain or skull..................................................
Other................................................................

162
76
19
67

8.4
3.9
1.0
3.5

68
36
9
23

7.6
4.0
1.0
2.6

60
30
4
26

8.6
4.3
.6
3.7

34
10
6
18

10.3
3.0
1.8
5.5

Trunk'.......................... .................... ....................
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc__...............................
Back...................... ................. ........................
Abdomen................... ........................ ..........
Hip(s) or pelvis........... ..................................
Shoulder. ......................... ..............................
Other...............................................................

569
232
192
38
24
55
18

29.1
12.1
10.0
2.0
1.2
2.9
.9

223
111
67
11
9
18
7

24.9
12.4
7.5
1.2
1.0
2.0
.8

247
97
87
20
12
23
8

35.3
13.9
12.4
2.9
1.7
3.3
1.1

89
24
38
7
3
14
3

27.1
7.3
11.6
2.1
.9
4.3
.9

Upper extremities.......................................... ........
Arm(s).............................................................
Hand(s) (including wrist)...........................
Finger (s) or thumb (s)............ ........................

412
89
139
184

21.4
4.6
7.2
9.6

195
46
68
81

21.8
5.1
7.6
9.1

148
27
52
69

21.1
3.9
7.4
9.8

69
16
19
34

21.0
4.9
5.8
10.3

Lower extremities......... .......................................
Leg(s).......................................................... —
Foot or feet (including ankle).........................
T oe(s)._..................... ............... ....................

769
396
285
88

40.0
20.6
14.8
4.6

402
199
159
44

44.9
22.2
17.8
4.9

237
121
84
32

33.9
17.3
12.0
4.6

130
76
42
12

39.5
23.1
12.8
3.6

Body general_________________ ____ _______ _
Unclassified; insufficient data_________________

22
9

1.1

7
1

.8

8
5

1.1

7
3

2.1

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

* Percent based on classified cases only,

T able 4.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classified by nature of injury and extent of disability 1
Total

Number of injuries resulting in —

Nature of injury
Number

Percent 2

Death

Temporarytotal dis­
ability

55
48
7

1,744
122

17

1

42
15
14
17
30
32

Total........................... ........................ . . . ........... .....................................
Without infection________________ ___________________________
With infection. ________ _____ _______ ____ ______ ____________

1,933
1,804
129

1C0.0
93.3
6.7

Amputations __ _______________________________________________
Bruises and contusions. — _______________________________________
Without infection____________________________________________
With infection_______________________________________________
Burns and scalds____ ___________________________________________
Without infection____________________________________________
W ith infection _______________________________ _____________
Cuts, lacerations, punctures................................................... ............ .
Without infection.......................................................... .....................
With infection..____ _______________ ______________ _______ ___
Foreign bodies in eyes, n. e. c_______________ ______________________
Without infection____ _________ _____ _ ______ ______________
_
With infection...................................................................................

19
550
512
38
13

1.0

18

2.0

9
5
4
1
1

541
507
34

11
8
3

620
538
82
17

.6
.1

33.0
28.6
4.4
.9

12

.6

5

.3

264

13.7

11

1.0
.8

15
13

12
11
1

22
22

9

14
14
16
14
g
29

14

241

57

2

9

377

20
21

11

20
2

2 Percent based on classified cases only,

19

1,866

12
5

19.7

20

1
1

.6

379

i Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




.7

632
547
85
17

Fractures....... .................... ......................................... ...........................
Industrial diseases____________ __________________________________
Strains and sprains____ ___________ ____ _________________________
Hernias_________ _____ ____ ________ _____________________ _______
Other........ ........................... ................. ...................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data........................... ........... .............. ......... .

12
12

28.6
26.6

12
1

Average days
lost per tem­
porary-total
disability

Permanentpartial dis­
ability

13
13

53
12

28

T able 5.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944, classified by nature o f injury and region
Northeastern region

Total injuries

Great Lakes region

Southern region

Nature of injury
Number

Percent2

Number

Number

Percent2

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Total....... ...................................................... ........

1.933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

100.0

Amputations..______________________________
Bruises and contusions_______________________
Burns and scalds_____________________________
Cuts, lacerations, punctures.. ________________
Foreign bodies in eyes, not elsewhere classified__
Fractures____________________________________
Industrial diseases____________________________
Strains and sprains_____________________ _____
Hernias.-------------------------------------------------------Other_______________________________________
Unclassified; insufficient data_______

19
550
13
632
17
264
11
379
20
15
13

1.0
28.6
.7
33.0
.9
13.7
.6
19.7
1.0
.8

4
241
4
331
10
145
5
144
5
6
1

.4
26.9
.4
37.0
1.1
16.2
.6
16.1
.6
.7

8
212
7
178
7
91
5
171
12
5
9

1.1
30.5
1.0
25.6
1.0
13.1
.7
24.6
1.7
.7

7
97
2
123

2.1
29.5
.6
37.4

28
1
64
3
4
3

8.5
.3
19.5
.9
1.2

i Figures not shown for Pacific area because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

2 Percent based on classified cases only,

T a b l e 6.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 a,nd 1944, classified by part of body injured and nature of

injury 1
Nature of injury
Part of body injured

Total
number Amputa­ Bruises Bums
and
tions and con­ scalds
tusions

19

Cuts,
lacera­
tions,
punc­
tures

Foreign
bodies
in eyes,
n. e. c.

Frac­
tures

Indus­
trial
diseases

Strains
and
Hernias
sprains

Total......... ..............—.............................. .

1,933

550

13

632

17

264

11

379

Head______ ____________ ______ ________
Eye(s)__.................................................
Brain or skull.....................................
Other...................... ............ ..................

162
76
19
67

73
45
4
24

1

55
12
7
36

17
17

11

1

1

8
3

1

T ru n k ..____ __________________________
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc______________
Back________ ________ ____ _______
Abdomen__________________________
Hip(s) or pelvis__ _______ ___________
Shoulder__________ _______ _______
Other......................................................

559
232
192
38
24
55
18

152
86
25
6
10
16
10

1
1

Upper extremities....................... ................
Arm(s)_____ _______ _______________
Hand(s) (including wrist).....................
Finger (s) or thumb (s)...........................

412
89
139
184

17

115
31
29
55

Lower extremities____ ________ _________
Leg(s).....................................................
Foot or feet (including ankle)________
Toe(s)....................................................

769
396
285
88

2
1

Body general__________________________
Unclassified; insufficient data— ................

22
9

17

1

1

15

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data
13

3
2

1

1

12
2
2

109
85
7

2
1
5

7
8
2

261
55
158
13
4
30
1

7
2
3
2

201
40
77
84

44
8
16
20

26
8
14
4

1

1

1

1

204
88
89
27

3
2
1

362
215
121
26

98
40
28
30

1
1

91
46
44
1

4

4
3
1

6

1

2

8
1

2

* Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




20

Other

20

20

2
2

20

2
1
1

1
3
5

6

T able 7.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classified by age o f injured and extent o f disability
Total

Number of injuries resulting in—

Age of injured
Number

Permanentpartial dis­
ability

Death

Percent2

Total.................... .......... ....................... .......................................

1,931

100.0

12

Under 18 y ears____________________________________________
18-20 years ..................................................................... ..............
21-25 years _______________________________________________
26-30 years
____________________________________________
31-35 years....................... .................... .............. ............... ..........
36-40 years_________________________________________________

64
147
179
183
193
192

3.6
8.3
10.1
10.3
10.9
10.8

41-45 years________________________________________________
46-50 years________________________________________________
51-55 years. ______________________________________________
56-60 years_____ ____ __________ ___________________________
_______________________________________
61 years and over
Unclassified; insufficient d a ta ______________________________

171
169
178
160
140
155

9.6
9.5
10.0
9.0
7.9

Temporary-total
disability

1
1
1
2

3
1
2

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing
separate data for pulpwood logging.

1

Average days lost
per temporarytotal disability

1,864

22

5
3
5

63
144
174
176
190
186

14
21
18
20
20
24

4
6
9
9
3
5

164
162
167
151
137
150

23
21
29
28
23
19

55
2
4

1

2 Percent based on classified cases only,

T able 8.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classified by operation and extent o f disability 1
Total

Number of injuries resulting in—

Operation
Number

Percent2

Total...................................... .

1,933
96
903
109
318
302
45
107
26
11
16

2.3
5.6
1.4
.6

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

Temporarytotal disability

55

1,866

22

4
23
3
9
7

92
875
106
307
292

20
22
29
20
22

2
6
1

41
101
25
11
16

12
23
19
25
19

12

5.0
47.0
5.7
16.6
15.8

River driving--------------- -----Equipment maintenance........
Camp maintenance.......... ...
Other......................................
Unclassified; insufficient data

Death

100.0

Engineering. ...........................
Felling and bucking________
Skidding and yarding_______
Loading and unloading-------Transportation................. —

Average days lost
per temporarytotal disability

Permanentpartial disability

5
2
3
2

2 Percent based on classified cases only,

T able 9.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944t classified by operation and region 1
Total injuries

Northeastern region

Great Lakes region

Southern region

Operation
Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Total.....................................................................................

1,933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

100.0

Engineering....... .................................................................
Felling and bucking............................................................
Skidding and yarding..........................................................
Loading and unloading......................................................
Transportation. ........................... - ..................- ..................

96
903
109
318
302

5.0
47.0
5.7
16.6
15.8

54
374
46
162
130

6.1
41.8
5.2
18.2
14.6

32
377
52
87
87

4.6
54.4
7.5
12.6
12.6

10
152
11
69
85

3.0
45.8
3.3
20.8
25.6

Riyer driving
_ _ _____ __ ____ ___
Equipment maintenance....................................................
Camp maintenance
..
_______- __
Other
______________________________
Unclassified; insufficient d a ta -___ __________________

45
107
26
11
16

2.3
5.6
1.4
.6

35
68
14
9

3.9
7.6
1.6
1.0

10
34
12
2
12

1.4
4.9
1.7
.3

5

1.5

4

1 Figures not shown for Pacific area because of difficulty in securing
separate data for pulpwood logging.




2 Percent based on classified cases only,

21

T able 10.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by occupation of injured and extent of
disability

1

Total

Number of injuries resulting in—

Occupation
Number
1,933
17
41
23
66
307
25
45

.9
2.1
1.2
3.4
15.9
1.3
2.3

Skidders...........................................................................................
Swampers_________________________________________________
Teamsters _ _____________________________________________
Tractor operators
________________________________________
Truck drivers and helpers................................................ ..............
Woodcutters....... ...................................................... ......................
Others____________________________________________________
Unclassified; insufficient data___________________________ ____

111
68
75

5.8
3.5
3.9
1.2
10.2
46.6
1.8

22

197
894
35
7

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing
separate data for pulpwood logging.

Temporary-total
disability

55

1,866

22

17
40
21
65
298
21
41

16
24
29
22
20
18
12

4

100.0

Blacksmiths . . ................................................................................
Camp personnel__ ____ ____________________________________
Foremen____ _____________________________________ ________
Laborers._______________ __________________________________
Loaders------------------ ------------ — ................................................
Machinists and helpers______________ ____ __________________
River drivers...................... - ................... .................................... .

Permanent-par­
tial disability

107
67
71

3
23
3

Death

Percent2

Total............................................... - .................................... ..........

Average days
lost per tempo­
rary-total
disability

191
866
32

29
21
34
13
19

12

1
2
1
7

2

4

2

2
4

1

3
5

22

22

15
23

7

2 percent based on classified cases only,

T able 11.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by part o f body injured and by operation 1
Operation
Part of body injured

Total
num­
ber of
Felling Skidding Loading
injuries Engineer­
and
and
and
ing
bucking yarding unloading

Trans­
porta­
tion

River
driving

Equip­
ment
mainte­
nance

Camp
mainte­
nance

Total............ .............................................

1,933

96

903

109

318

302

45

107

26

Head____________ ____ _______________
Eye(s).................. ..............................
Brain or s k u ll...... ......... ...... ........—Other...................................................

162
76
19
67

13

98
50
13
35

2
1

13
5

21

2

10
8

1

1

2

1

7

16

2

2

Trunk................................................ - ___
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc____________
Back......... .............. ..........................
Abdomen......................... .................
Hip(s) or pelvis____ ____ __________
Shoulder_________________________
Other...................................................

559
232
192
38
24
55
18

20
6

227
92
83
14
5
24
9

33
16
9

109
41
45
9
3

119
55
31

9
5
3

31
14

Upper extremities.....................................
Arm(s)................. ................... ...........
Hand(s) (including wrist)..................
Finger (s) or thumb (s)........................

412
89
139
184

26
3

184
48
58
78

16
3
7

Lower extremities.....................................
Leg(s)............ .....................................
Foot or feet (including ankle)............
Toe(s)______ _____ _____ __________

769
396
285

37
17
16
4

383

56
35
19

Body general.............................. ..............
Unclassified; insufficient data__________

22

Other

88

9

8
2

3

9
2
1
1
1

12
11

211

132
40

1

3
4

8

3
70

3

60

1

5
3

1

8
1
2
6

6

34

13

4
1
1

2

1

1

2
1
1

6

8

3

6

1

37

1
2

9
19

5
7

91
48
29
14

26

32
14
17

2

5

3

1

2

123
50
50
23

1
1

7
4

2
1

8

2

3

22

11

14
1

1

2
2

1
1

12

12
21

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




2
1

25
23

6

16

1

10

9
9
5

11

Unclassi­
fied; in­
sufficient
data

7
2

3
4
1

2

T able 12.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944, classified by agency and extent o f disability
Total

Number of injuries resulting in—

Average days
lost per tempo­
rary-total disa­
bility

Agency
Number

Percent1
2

Total________________ ___________________________ — .......... .

1,933
62
144
82
43
19
43
472
244
19
121
36
63
16
■ 274
214
44
16
482
209
216
16

55

1,866

22

3
3

3
8
5
3

59
133
74
40
19

27
31
36
27
23

43
463
236
19
121
35
52

18
18
19
22
16
21
14

8
7
1

16
266
207
43
16

19
24
21
38
25

10
8
9

471
198
201
16

21
25
22
20

.8
14.3
11.2
2.3
.8

Logs8 (chips, limbs, etc.)___________________________________
Trees8 (chips, limbs, etc.)_____________ _____________________
Other. ____ _ __ ________________________________________

12

2.2
24.7
12.8
1.0
6.3
1.8
2.8

Chemicals and poisonous vegetation_________________________
Working surfaces
_______ __________________________
Ground_______________________________________________
"Roads
__ _
______________________
Other
_
_ __
_
_ _______________

Temporary-total
disability

3.2
7.5
4.3
2.2
1.0

Animals and insects
_____________________________________
Hand tools _ _ _ ___________ ___________________________
Ax or hatchet
. __________ _ _______________________
Cant hook or peavey _ _________________•
______________
Pulp hook _ ________________________________________
Saw
„
. ___________ _ ____________________
Other______ ____ ______________________________________

Permanent-par­
tial disability

Death

100.0

Yarding equipment_______ ______ ______ ______________ _____
Vehicles_______ ____ _______ ______ ______ ___________________
Motor_______________ _______ __________________________
Animal or tractor drawn________________________________
Other
______________________________________

25.2
10.9
11.2

Unclassified j insufficient data

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.
2 Percent based on classified cases only.

1

9
8

1

1
3
5

8 Pulpwood is classified as a tree until it is felled; after felling, pulpwood is
classified as a log.

T able 13.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944, classified by agency and region 1
Agency

Total injuries
Number

Northeastern region

Great Lakes region

Southern region

Percent2 Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2
100.0

Total.......... ...................... ............................... ..............................

1,933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

Yarding equipment__________________________ ____ __________
Vehicles.................................................................. ........................
Motor------- ------------------------------------------------------------ -----Animal or tractor drawn---------------------- ------ -------------------Other. ........................... ........... .............. .................................

62
144
82
43
19

3.2
7.5
4.3
2.2
1.0

24
65
28
18
9

2.7
6.2
3.2
2.0
1.0

26
47
17
24
« 6

3.7
6.8
2.4
3.5
.9

12
42
37
1
4

3.6
12.7
11.2
.3
1.2

Animals and insects.------ ----------------------- ------------ --------- -------Hand tools................................ ............................................ ...........
Ax or hatchet...________ ____ _____________________ _____
Canthook or peavey................. ................................. ..............
Pulp hook— ------- -------------------------------------------- --------- Saw................................................................... ........... ............ .
Other..................... ........... ................................................... .

43
472
244
19
121
35
£3

2.2
24.7
12.8
1.0
6.3
1.8
2.8

18
234
119
4
82
11
18

2.0
26.3
13.5
.4
9.2
1.2
2.0

21
145
69
14
25
12
25

3.0
20.9
10.0
2.0
3.6
1.7
3.6

4
93
56
1
14
12
10

1.2
28.1
17.0
.3
4.2
3.6
3.0

Chemicals and poisonous vegetation....... .................................. .
Working surfaces......... ...................................................................
Ground-............. ........................................................................
Roads_________ ____ ____ ______ ___________ ________ ____
Other
_______ ______________ _______________________

16
274
214
44
16

.8
14.3
11.2
2.3
.8

7
118
93
18
7

.8
13.2
10.4
2.0
.8

8
141
107
25
9

1.2
20.3
15.4
3.6
1.3

1
15
14
1

.3
4.5
4.2
.3

L ogs8 (chips, limbs, etc.).......................... — .................................
Trees8 (chips, limbs, etc.)............ ........................................ ........
Other.................... ............................. .............. .............................
Unclassified; insufficient data________________________________

482
209
215
16

25.2
10.9
11.2

213
102
120
5

23.9
11.4
13.5

168
69
70
10

24.1
9.9
10.1

101
38
25
1

30.5
11.5
7.6

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.
2 Percent based on classified cases only.




8 Pulpwood is classified as a tree until it is felled; after felling, pulpwood is
classified as a log.

23

T able 14.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by accident type and region
Total injuries

Northeastern region

Southern region

Great Lakes region

Accident type
Number
Total..................................................................................................

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

1,933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

100.0
10.0
56.6
6.7
6.7
3.4
3.3
3.0
.6
1. 5
13.7
1.2

Striking against........................................... ..................................
Struck b y ............................................................................. .........
Caught in, on, or between................. ................. ............ ..............
Falls. ........................................................................................ ........
On same level..............................................................................
To different level....... —............................ .................................
Slips (not falls)....................................... ..........................................

144
972
162
308
216
92
82

7.5
50.6
8.4
16.1
11.3
4.8
4.3

76
474
83
137
101
36
21

8.5
53.1
9.3
15.4
11.4
4.0
2.4

35
312
57
149
104
45
51

5.0
44.7
8.2
21.3
14.9
6.4
7.3

33
186
22
22
11
11
10

Contact with extreme temperature. ...............................................
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion.......................... ........................
Overexertion__________________ _____ ____ _____ _____ ________
O th er.......................... .................................... .................... ..........
Unclassified; insufficient data ______________________ ________

13
21
198
19
14

.7
1.1
10.3
1.0

7
7
77
10
4

.8
.8
8.6
1.1

4
9
76
5
7

.6
1.3
10.9
.7

2
5
45
4
3

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.
2 Percent based on classified cases only.

T able 15.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by accident type and by operation 1
Operation
Accident type

Total
number of
injuries

Engi­
neering

Felling Skidding Loading Transpor­ River
and
and
and
driving
bucking yarding unloading tation

Equip­
ment
mainte­
nance

Camp
mainte­
nance

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data

Other

TotaL................................ ........................

1,933

96

903

109

318

302

45

107

26

11

Striking against_______________________
Struck b y ........................................- .........
Caught in, on, or betw een____________
Falls..........................................................
On same level_____ _______ ________
To different level_________________

144
972
162
308
216
92

7
63
2
15
13
2

64
518
48
130
111
19

7
50
23
13
11
2

19
147
41
39
24
15

19
120
27
70
32
38

6
10
7
9
8
1

14
46
13
17
6
11

5
11

4

6
4
2

5
3
2

Slips (not falls)....... ..................................
Contact with extreme temperature_____
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion_______
Overexertion_________________________
Other
_____________________________
Unclassified; insufficient data__________

82
13
21
198
19
14

1

4

15
1
51
5

6
2
4
44
7
3

2
1
4
3
2
1

6
2
1
5
3

1
2

1

1
9

1

1

1
7

45
5
7
77
2
7•

2

16
3
3
1
4
4
1
1
2
1

* Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

T able 16.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1943 and 1944, classified by unsafe working condition and region 1
Northeastern region

Total injuries

Great Lakes region

Southern region

Unsafe working conditions
Number

Percent2 Number

Percent2 Number

Percent2

Number

Percent2

1,845

100.0

888

100.0

646

100.0

311

100.0

Improperly guarded agencies--------- ----------------------- -----------Defects of agencies___________ ______ — ------ -----------------------Rough........................................... ........................................
Slippery..---------- ------------------------------------------ ----- --------- Aged, worn, cracked, etc______________________ ______ ____
Other........... ..................... ........................................................

14
424
92
192
76
64

1.6
49.4
10.7
22.4
8.8
7.5

5
180
46
72
36
26

1.3
47.3
12.1
19.0
9.4
6.8

8
191
34
112
27
18

2.4
56.6
10.1
33.2
8.0
5.3

1
53
12
8
13
20

.7
37.6
8.5
5.7
9.2
14.2

Hazardous arrangement or procedure....... ..................................
Unsafely stored or piled---------------- -------- - ........................... Congestion of working spaces........ ......................................... Working under adverse weather conditions------- ---------------Unsafe planning or layout, etc________________« __________
Lack of proper lifting equipment......... ...................................
Lack of clear working surfaces____________________________
Exposure to poisonous vegetation.-----------------------------------Other_____________ _____________ ____ ____ _____________

375
14
49
16
21
46
160
12
57

43.6
1.6
5.7
1.9
2.4
5.4
18.6
1.4
6.6

168
8
25
7
12
12
79
5
20

44.1
2.1
6.6
1.8
3.1
3.1
20.9
1.3
5.2

126
3
14
5
9
5
56
6
28

37.4
.9
4.2
1.5
2.7
1.5
16.5
1.8
8.3

81
3
10
4

57.4
2.1
7.1
2.8

29
25
1
9

20.6
17.7
.7
6.4

Lack of proper safety equipment______________________ ______
Unclassified; insufficient data __________________- ___________

46
986

5.4

28
507

7.3

12
309

3.6

6
170

4.3

1 Figures not shown for Pacific area because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




2 Percent based on classified cases only,

24

T

able

1 7 .—

Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classified by unsafe working condition and operation

1

Operation
Total
number
Felling Skidding
of injuries Engineer­ and buck­ and yard­ Loading
and un­
ing
loading
ing
ing

Unsafe working conditions

Trans­
porta­
tion

91

859

102

304

21
6
6
7
2

21
5
11

4
52
14
30
4
4
68

2

27
2
1

1
12
1
1

5
6
7
94
6
9

3
3
16

46
986

6
47

37
473

54

45

105

25

11

16

8
2
6

7
26
3
10
6
7

5
1
2
1
1

5
1
3
1

3
1

25
2
4

2

2

8

1
1
3
10

1

63
4
11

16
21
46
160
12
57

Camp
mainte­
nance

1
75
10
27
9
29

140
3
10

Equip­
ment
mainte­
nance

287

2
207
50
94
47
16

Biver
driving

Total...........................................................

1,845

Improperly guarded agencies__________
Defects of agencies....................................
Bough__________________ _____ ___
Slippery...............................................
Aged, worn, cracked, etc_________
Other____________________________

14
424
92
192
76
64

Hazardous arrangement or procedure___
Unsafely stored or piled.............. ......
Congestion of working spaces______
Working under adverse weather con­
ditions________ _________________
Unsafe planning or layout, etc______
Lack of proper lifting equipment___
Lack of clear working surfaces.........
Exposure to poisonous vegetation___
Other___ _______ _________________

375
14
49

Lack of proper safety equipment_______
Unclassified; insufficient data..................

17

5

3
19

2

3
4
13
15

2
3
22
4
1
14
1
179

2

23

3

13

3
2
13

148

14

Other

Unclassi­
fied; in­
sufficient
data

4

1

1

1

1

4
2
1

18

4

4

4
2
45

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

T able

18.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944) classified by agency and unsafe working condition1
Unsafe working conditions

Agency

Total...........................
Yarding equipment—.
Vehicles __________
Motor. ___ ____
Animal or tractor
drawn_________
Other. ...................
Animals and insects. _
Hand tools___ „ _ _
Ax or hatchet____
C a n th o o k or
peavey____ ;_
Pulp hook_______
Saw........................
Other.................
Chemicals and poison­
ous vegetation_____
Working surfaces____
Ground.................
Roads___________
Other___________
L ogs2 (chips, limbs,
etc.)- ....................
Trees2 (chips, limbs,
etc.)______________
Other,........................
Unclassified; insuffi­
cient data _

Defects of agencies
Total Im­
num­
ber of prop­
erly
Un­
in­
Aged,
juries guard­
safely
Slip­ worn,
ed
Total Bough pery cracked, Other Total stored
agen­
or
etc.
cies
piled

1,845

14

424

92

60
138
77

2

5
59
24

2
1

42
19
42
446
235

25
10

1

14
3

9
2

19
112
28
52

1
1

1
1

9

5

16
270
211
44
15

1
2

192

64

375

14

19
6

9
4

3
30
14

13
27
19

2
1
1

7
6

2
3

15
1
5
1

5
3
10
41
10

4

2
22
1
6
15
41
25
15
1

5

7

5

2
2

153
126
21
6

1
3

10
4
3
3

447

36

22

9

3

2

82

202
209

54
29

4
3

2
9

47
4

1
13

47
99

4

15

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




Work­
ing
under Unsafe
plan­
ad­
verse ning or
lay­
weath­ out,
er
condi­ etc.
tions

1

60
56
4

9

Con­
gestion
of
work­
ing
spaces

76

227
186
29
12

2

Hazardous arrangement or procedure

49
1
1

16
i
1

6
31
7

21

Lock
of
proper
lifting
equip­
ment

46

6

6
1

Lack
of
clear
work­
ing
sur­
faces
160

Lack
Expo­
of
sure
proper
safety
to
poison­ Other equip­
ous
ment
vege­
tation
12

46

5
3
3
1

1
2
2

40
52
34
12
6
32
391
222

2
22

i
2

2

16
89
27
37

1

1

1
40
25
15

986

2
21
13

3
3
3

1

57

Un­
clas­
sified;
insuf­
ficient
data

12

1
1
1

2

6

38

18

6

13

316

13

1
1

2
5

39
54

3
19

21
12

80
60
15

2 Pulpwood is classified as a tree until it is felled; after felling, pulpw ood is
classified as a log.

25

T able 19.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944, classified by unsafe act and region 1
Total injuries

N ortheastem region Great Lakes region

Southern region

Unsafe act
Number Percent2 Number Percent2 Number Percent2 Number Percent2
Total............................................................................................................ .

1,933

100.0

896

100.0

705

100.0

332

100.0

Operating without authority.......................................................................
Operating or working at unsafe speeds........................................................
Using unsafe equipment, etc.........................................................................
Unsafe use of equipment........................................................................
Gripping objects insecurely, etc..... ........................................................
Carrying tools in unsafe manner............................................................
Using hand tools in unsafe manner........................................................
O th er......................................................................................................

26
29
684
17
179
16
462
10

1.7
1.9
45.1
1.1
11.8
1.1
30.4
.7

14
14
322
9
87
7
215
4

2.0
2.0
45.2
1.3
12.2
1.0
30.1
.6

9
6
232
5
64
6
153
4

1.6
1.1
41.7
.9
11.5
1.1
27.5
.7

3
9
130
3
28
3
94
2

1.2
3.6
52.2
1.2
11.2
1.2
37.8
.8

Unsafe loading, placing, planning, etc..........................................................
Arranging objects unsafely......................................................................
Improper planning of felling operation..................................................
Unloading objects unsafely.....................................................................
Other........................................................................................................

229
69
99
64
7

15.1
4.5
6.5
3.6
.5

128
38
57
30
3

18.0
5.3
8.1
4.2
.4

56
16
24
14
2

10.1
2.9
4.3
2.5
.4

45
15
18
10
2

18.1
6.0
7.3
4.0
.8

Taking unsafe position or posture............................................................. .
Riding in unsafe position........................................................................
Exposure to falling or sliding objects......................................................
Inattention to footing..............................................................................
Lifting incorrectly...................................................................................
Other........................................................................................................
Other. .............................................................................................................

529
23
60
256
131
59
20
416

34.9
1.5
4.0
16.9
8.6
3.9
1.3

224
12
35
100
53
24
9
185

31.5
1.7
4.9
14.0
7.5
3.4
1.3

247
8
23
133
60
23
7
148

44.2
1.4
4.1
23.8
10.8
4.1
1.3

58
3
2
23
18
12
4
83

23.3
1.2
.8
9.3
7.2
4.8
1.6

Unclftssififtd; insufficient data___

...

___

1 Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.

2 Percent based on classified cases only,

T able 20.— Disabling injuries in pulpwood logging in 1948 and 1944, classified by unsafe act and operation 1
Operation
Unsafe act

Total
num­
ber of Engineer­ Felling Skidding Loading
injuries
and
and
and
ing
bucking yarding unloading

Trans­
porta­
tion

Total..................................... .....................

1,933

96

903

109

318

26
29

2
1

11
6

6
3

1
3

Using unsafe equipment, etc....................
Tlnsafft usa of equipment
Gripping objects insecurely, etc____
Carrying tnnls in unsafe manner
Using hand tools in unsafe manner. _
other
_
_ _

44
7
1
35
1

386
8
51
11
313
3

19
3
10
2
4

101
2
55
1
43

Unsafe loading, placing, planning, etc_
_
Arranging objects unsafely_________
Improper planning of felling opera­
tions
- - ...............
Unloading objects unsafely__ ______
other
- _____
___ -

229
69

4
3

120
19

7
6

99
54
7

1

97
2
2

Taking unsafe position or posture...........
Riding in unsafe position.............. .
Exposure to falling or sliding objects.
Inattention to footing.........................
Lifting incorrectly, etc _
____
Other____
__ ________________

529
23
60
256
131
59

18
1
1
10
3
3

Other..................................................... .
Unclassified; insufficient data...................

20
416

27

Camp
mainte­
nance

45

107

26

3
14

684
17
179
16
462
10

Equip­
ment
mainte­
nance

302

Operating without authority ________
Operating or working at unsafe speed___

River
driving

82
2
34

3
1
5
2

44
2

3

55
20

35
16

2

1

32
3

1
17
1

47
2
20
11
8
6

95
2
10
38
34
11

88
15

28

6
162

1
26

4
59

11

16

4

1

3
1

1

i
12
4

1
1

212
1
18
125
51
17

30
2
16
1
9
2

Unclassi­
fied; in­
sufficient
data

Other

8

2
1

4
4

i
4
1

3

31
29
13

26
1
2
15
1
7

8

9
15
3
1

7
1

2
1

2

2
78

3
7

3
40

1
4

i
3

* Figures for Pacific area not included because of difficulty in securing separate data for pulpwood logging.




26

U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1 9 4 8

10




Recent Bureau o f Labor Statistics Reports on Industrial
Hazards and W orking Conditions*
Injuries and accident causes in the longshore industry, 194$. Bulletin N o. 764. Price 10 cents. (Out o f
print.)
A detailed analysis o f the hazards involved in loading and unloading ships. Includes sample safety
codes and accident prevention suggestions.
Injuries and accident causes in the foundry industry, 194$* Bulletin N o. 805. Price 15 cents.
An analysis o f foundry accidents and their causes, including accident prevention suggestions. Presents
comparisons based upon plant size, geographic location, first-aid facilities, type o f product, and depart­
mental operations.
Injuries and accident causes in the slaughtering and meat-packing industry, 194$* Bulletin N o. 855. Price
15 cents.
A detailed analysis o f the hazards and o f the prevailing causes o f accidents in the meat industry, in­
cluding comparisons based upon departmental, regional, and plantnsize factors. Also includes descriptions
o f typical accidents, accompanied by suggestions for the prevention o f similar occurrences.
Injuries and accident causes in the brewing industry, 1944* Bulletin N o. 884. Price 15 cents.
Presents a detailed account o f the accident record o f brewery workers during 1944, with frequency rate
comparisons based upon the operating divisions o f the plants, the size o f the plants, and the geographic
location o f the plants. Also includes an analysis o f the causes o f brewery accidents and suggestions for the
prevention o f typical brewery accidents.
Accident-record manual fo r industrial plants. Bulletin N o. 772. Price 10 cents.
This manual contains an outline o f simple and useful methods o f accident recording and o f the use o f
such data for accident prevention. It also explains how to com pute and use injury-frequency mid severity
rates and how to determine the im portant causes o f accidents.
Work injuries in the United States during 1946* Bulletin N o. 921. Price 10 cents.
A collection of basic industrial injury data for each o f the m ajor industries in the United States. Presents
national average injury-frequency and severity rates for each industry. Individual establishments may
evaluate their own injury records b y comparison with these data.
Impaired workers in industry. Bulletin N o. 857. Price 5 cents.
Graphic comparisons of the performance o f impaired workers and o f their unimpaired fellow workers
in terms o f output, efficiency, injury record, absenteeism, and stability on the job .
Hours of Work and Output. Bulletin N o. 917. Price 35 cents.
A study o f the changes in efficiency, total output, absenteeism, and accidents resulting from changes
in the length o f the workday or workweek.
W orkm ens Compensation and the Protection o f Seamen. Bulletin N o. 869. Price 20 cents.
A report on the financial protection afforded merchant seamen who are disabled because o f injury or
disease while in the service o f their vessels. Presents the status o f such seamen under both foreign and
dom estic legislation and examines the probable results o f applying to seamen the recommendations o f an
Interdepartmental Committee for a workmen’s compensation act fitted to the existing rights o f merchant
seamen.
♦For sale b y Superintendent o f Documents at prices indicated. How to order publications: Address your
order to the Superintendent o f Docum ents, Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D . C ., with re­
m ittance in check or money order. Currency is sent at sender’s risk. Postage stamps not acceptable.