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Injuries and Accident Causes
in the Manufacture of
Clay Construction Products
a

ueiaiieu Analysis oi nazarus

and of Injury Rates for 1948
by Region, Plant Size, and
Operating Departments




Bulletin No. 1023
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR

M aurice J. Tobin, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E wan Clague, Commissioner




Injuries and Accident Causes
in the Manufacture of
Clay Construction Products

Bulletin No. 1023
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
M a u r ic e J . T o b in , Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
E w an Clague,

For sale by the Superintendent o f Documents* U. S . Government Printing Office, W ashington 25, D . C.



Commissioner

Price 30 cents

Letter of Transmittal
U nited S tates D epartment of L abor,
B ureau of L abor S tatistics ,

Washington , D. C., A pril 1 , 1951.

T h e S ecretary of L abor :
I have the honor to transm it herew ith a report on the occurrence and causes
o f w ork injuries in the clay construction products industry.
T h is report, a portion o f w hich appeared in the M arch 1950, M onthly
Labor R eview , constitutes a part o f the B ureau’s regular program o f com ­
p ilin g w ork-injury inform ation for use in accident-prevention work. T he
statistical analysis and the preparation o f the report w ere perform ed in
th e B ureau’s B ranch o f Ind ustrial H azards by F rank S. M cE lroy and
G eorge R. M cCorm ack. T he specific accident-prevention suggestions were
prepared by the staff o f the S afety Standards D ivision o f the Bureau o f
Labor Standards.
E w an C lague , Commissioner.
H on. M aurice J. T obin ,

Secretary of Labor .

Contents

Page

The industry record_____________________________________________________________
An estimate of the injury costs__________________________________________________
Scope and method of the survey_________________________________________________
The industry and its hazards____________________________________________________
Clay pits and mines________________________________________________________
Preparation departments____________________________________________________
Molding departments_______________________________________________________
Drying departments________________________________________________________
Setting departments________________________________________________________
Burning departments_______________________________________________________
Drawing and wheeling departments__________________________________________
Miscellaneous departments__________________________________________________
Factors in the injury record_______________________________
Product comparisons_______________________________________________________
Regional and State comparisons_____________________________________________
Size of plant comparisons___________________________________________________
Safety programs and first-aid facilities_______________________________________
Departmental injury rates______________________________________________________
Kinds of injuries experienced________________________________________________
Fatalities and permanent-total disabilities___________________________________
Permanent-partial disabilities--_____________________________________________
Temporary-total disabilities_________________________________________________
Medical treatment cases____________________________________________________
Accident analysis______________________________________________________________
Agencies of injury and accident types_______________________________________
ii




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Contents—Continued
Accident causes______________________________________________________________
Unsafe working conditions________________________________________________
Unsafe working procedures---------------------------------------------------------------Defective agencies___________________________________________________
Improperly guarded agencies-------------------------------------------------------------Hazardous arrangement or placement------------------------------------------------Lack of personal safety equipment-----------------------------------------------------Unsafe acts_____ _______________________________________________________
Unsafe position or posture----------------------------------------------------------------Unsafe loading, placing, and mixing---------------------------------------------------Unsafe use of equipment------------------------------------------------------------------Suggestions for the prevention of typical accidents-------------------------------------------Clay pits and mines_____________________________________________________
Preparation departments_________________________________________________
Molding departments____________________________________________________
Drying departments_____________________________________________________
Setting departments_____________________________________________________
Burning departments____________________________________________________
Drawing and wheeling departments_______________________________________
Shipping departments____________________________________________________
Maintenance departments________________________________________________
Miscellaneous departments______________________________________________ Appendix—Statistical tables:
Injury-frequency and severity rates, classified by—
1. Product_________________________________________________________
2. Geographic area, State, and product______________________________
3. Size of plant____________________________________________________
4. Type of safety organization______________________________________
5. Department_____________________________________________________
6. Distribution of plant frequency rates, by size of establishment________
Injury detail:
7. Nature of injury and extent of disability__________________________
8. Nature of injury by product______________________________________
9. Nature of injury by department__________________________________
10. Part of body injured and extent of disability_____________________
11. Part of body injured by product_________________________________
12. Part of body injured by department_____________________________
13. Part of body injured by nature of injury_________________________
Accident detail:
14. Accident type by agency of injury________________________________
15. Accident type by product________________________________________
16. Accident type by department_____________________________________
17. Unsafe working condition by agency of accident___________________
18. Unsafe working condition by accident type________________________
19. Unsafe working condition by product_____________________________
20. Unsafe working condition by department__________________________
21. Unsafe act by accident type______________________________________
22. Unsafe act by product----------------------------------------------------------------23. Unsafe act by department________________________________________
Charts:
1. Injury-frequency rates by department--------------------------------------------------2. Injury-frequency rates by size of plant_________________________________
3. Major types of accidents______________________________________________
4. Major types of unsafe conditions_______________________________________
5. Major types of unsafe acts------------------------------------------------------------------




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Chart 1.— Injury-Frequency Rates in the Clay Construction Products Industry, 1948

BY DEPARTMENT
FREQUENCY
0

Clay

10

Mine

Drawing and

Storage

Wheeling

and Shipping

Maintenance

Drying

Preparation

Setting

Clay

Pit

S oft-m u d

Molding

S tiff- m u d

Molding

INDUSTRY

AVERAGE

Power

Burning

D ry -p r e s s

Molding

Glazing

Administration and Clerical

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS

IV


2f0

30

40

RATE
50

60

70

80

Injuries and Accident Causes in the Manufacture
of Clay Construction Products
The Industry Record
The injury rate for the clay construction prod­
ucts industry in 1949 was lower than in any year
since 1940. Nevertheless, the industry’s average
of 36.8 disabling1 injuries per m illion employeehours worked during 1949 was higher than for any
other industry in the stone, clay, and glass group,
and more than twice the all-manufacturing aver­
age of 15.0.1 Only 5 of the 145 listed manufactur­
2
ing industries had injury-frequency rates 3 higher
than that of the clay construction products
industry.
Foqr of the industries with higher injury rates
in 1949—logging, sawmill, planing mill, and in­
tegrated saw-and-planing mill—were in the
highly hazardous lumbering group. The fifth—
boatbuilding—was in the transportation equip­
ment group. In contrast, a number of manu­
facturing industries, commonly recognized as
potentially hazardous, achieved much lower in­
jury records. Among these were the explosives
industry, with an injury-frequency rate of 1.8;
aircraft manufacturing, 4.4; motor-vehicle man­
ufacturing, 6.7; iron and steel manufacturing,
6.8; and cement manufacturing, 8.0.
1A disabling work injury is any injury occurring in the course
of and arising out of employment, which (a) results in death or
any degree of permanent-physical impairment, or (b) makes the
injured person unable to perform the duties of any regularly estab­
lished job, which is open and available to him, throughout the
hours of his regular shift on any day after the day of injury,
including Sundays, holidays, and periods of plant shut-down.
2 Bureau of Labor Statistics press release, Work Injuries Decline
in 1949, September 21, 1950.
8 The injury-frequency rate is the average number of disabling
work injuries for each million employee-hours worked. See chap­
ter on Scope and Method for additional definitions.



In the years before W orld War II, the injuryfrequency rate for the clay construction products
industry generally fluctuated in the high 30’s,
whereas the all-manufacturing rate hovered at
about 15. In 1942, wartime influences—shortages
of trained workers, new equipment, repair parts,
etc.—drove the clay construction products indus­
try rate up to 47.1. In the following year it
dropped to 42.9 and held at about this level
through 1947. In 1948 it dropped to 38.6 and in
1949 fell again to 36.8. This represents a return
to approximately the same level which prevailed
in the prewar years. In all of these changes, the
movement of the clay construction products rate
closely paralleled that in the all-manufacturing
rate, which also rose sharply in the early years
of the war. A fter reaching a peak of 20.0 in 1943,
the all-manufacturing rate gradually dropped to
17.2 in 1948 and then to 15.0 in 1949, at which
point it was slightly below its 1939-40 level of
15.4 and 15.3.
Injury-frequency rate comparisons serve an
important purpose in showing the existence of
a safety problem and in indicating its relative
magnitude. The abstract qualities of frequency
rates, however, give injuries somewhat the status
of bookkeeping entries and tend to obscure the
fundamental human and economic factors of the
problem. The suffering, despair, and frustration
of injured workers and their families cannot be
measured. Nor can the full monetary cost of acci­
dents be determined from any available records.
It is possible, however, to approximate the eco­
nomic loss arising from injuries and thereby to
bring the problem into better perspective.

2

INJURIES AND ACCIDEiNT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

An Estimate of the Injury Costs
In 1948, the year on which this detailed study
was based, about 6,600 workers in the clay con­
struction products industry were disabled by onthe-job injuries. This represents about 1
disabling injury for every 13 employees in the
industry. About 35 of these injured workers died
as a result of their injuries and 175 others were
left with some degree of permanent-physical im­
pairment. The remaining 6,390 suffered no
permanent ill effects, but each was injured seri­
ously enough to require at least a full day for
recuperation.
Although no accurate records of the costs of
these injuries are available, it is apparent that
they represent a tremendous economic loss which
must be absorbed by the injured workers, their
employers, and ultim ately by the consumers of the
industry’s products. The actual time lost by the
injured workers during 1948 is estimated at about
132,000 man-days.
Time lost within the year, however, does not
measure adequately the real work-loss resulting
from injuries. Many of the seriously injured
workers w ill find their earning ability reduced for
the remainder of their lives. The loss for fatally
injured workers is equivalent to the total earnings
expected during the years in which they would
have worked if their careers had not been cut
short. I f additional allowance were made for
the future effects of the deaths and permanent
impairments included in the total, the economic
time-loss chargeable to the injuries experienced
in 1948 would amount to 495,000 man-days.

Evaluated on the basis of 1948 average earnings
for production workers in the industry ($49.57 a
week),4 this represents a loss of $ 3 ^ million in
present and future earnings. In part, this loss is
covered by workmen’s compensation payments
financed by the employers, but since compensation
payments are never equivalent to full wages, the
injured workers and their dependents must bear
a considerable portion of this loss.
In addition to wage losses, there are payments
for medical and hospital care, and many indirect
costs such as damage to materials and equipment,
interrupted production schedules, the cost of
training replacement workers, time lost by other
workers who stopped to offer assistance at the time
of the accident, and supervisory time spent caring
for the injured or reorganizing operations after
the accident. Unfortunately, the indirect costs
are seldom recorded and as a result cannot be
determined accurately. However, studies5 have
indicated that, for manufacturing generally, the
indirect costs of injury-producing accidents aver­
age about four times the direct costs of compensa­
tion payments plus medical and hospital expenses.
Assuming that this ratio is approximately correct
for the clay construction products industry, the
indirect costs of the injury-producing accidents
in 1948 would amount to at least $1C% million,
bringing the total loss to over $14 million. *
* Hours and Earnings Industry Report, Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, mimeographed release.
BIndustrial Accident Prevention, by H. W. Heinrich, New York,
McGraw-Hill Book Co., Third Edition, 1950.

Scope and Method of the Survey
The Bureau of Labor Statistics has compiled
annual injury rates for the clay construction prod­
ucts industry each year since 1926. In recent
years these surveys have included reports from
over 400 employers, representing a total exposure
of over 80 m illion man-hours of employment. A ll
of the data assembled in the annual surveys are
collected by mail. Reporting is entirely
voluntary.
In order to provide greater detail and to permit
more specific analysis than is usually possible on
the basis of the annual surveys, the survey was



greatly expanded in 1948. The report form was
enlarged and each cooperating employer was re­
quested to report separately for each department
or type of operation carried on in his plant. In
addition he was asked to describe his plant safety
program and the first-aid facilities available to
his employees. Usable reports were received from
675 plants, employing approximately 53,000 work­
ers with a total exposure of over 107 m illion man­
hours.
In addition to supplying summary reports for
use in evaluating the magnitude and general as-

SCOPE AND METHOD OF SURVEY

pects of the injury problem in the industry, 133
of the cooperating plants also made their original
accident records available for detailed analysis.
This group of plants employed about 23,000 work­
ers. Their combined injury-frequency rate was
43.0. This was about 10 percent above the indus­
try average, but there was no indication that their
hazards differed greatly from those of other plants
in the industry.
A Bureau of Labor Statistics representative
visited each of these 133 cooperating plants, and
insofar as the data were available, transcribed
from their records the following items regarding
each accident: Place where the accident occurred;
the occupation, age, and sex of the injured worker;
the nature of the injury and the part of the body
injured; the object or substance which produced
the injury; the type of accident; the unsafe con­
dition and/or the unsafe act which led to the
accident; and the object or substance with which
the unsafe condition was associated. In order to
broaden the analysis and permit a greater degree
of detail, this part of the survey was extended to
cover not only disabling injuries, but also all those
injuries requiring treatment by physicians. A
total of 2,114 disabling injury cases and 3,568
medical cases was recorded.
The injury rate comparisons presented in this
report are based primarily upon injury-frequency
and severity rates compiled under the definitions
and procedures specified in the American Stan­
dard Method of Compiling Industrial Injury
Rates, as approved by the American Standards
Association in 1945. These standard rates have
been supplemented by an additional measure of
injury severity designated as the average time
charge per disabling injury.
Injury-Frequency Rate .—The injury-frequency
rate represents the average number of disabling
work injuries occurring in each million employeehours worked. It is computed according to the
following form ula:
Number of disabling injuries
m ultiplied by 1,000,000
Frequency rate= Number of employee-hours
worked
Average Time Charge per Injury .—The rela­
tive severity of a temporary injury is measured
by the number of calendar days during which the



3

injured person is unable to work at any regularly
established job which is open and available to him,
excluding the day of injury and the day on which
he returns to work. The relative cost of death
and permanent impairment cases is determined
by reference to a table of economic time charges
included in the American Standard Method of
Compiling Industrial Injury Rates. These time
charges, based upon an average working-life ex­
pectancy of 20 years for the entire working popu­
lation, represent the average percentage of
working ability lost as the result of specified im­
pairments, expressed in unproductive days. The
average time charge per disabling injury is com­
puted by adding the days lost for each temporary
injury and the days charged according to the
standard table for each death and permanent im­
pairment and dividing the total by the number of
disabling injuries.
Injury-Severity Rate .—The injury-severity rate
weights each disabling injury with its correspond­
ing time-loss or time-charge and expresses the
aggregate in terms of the average number of days
lost or charged per 1,000 employee-hours worked.
It is computed according to the following
form ula:
Total days lost or charged
.
_______ multiplied by 1,000________
Severity rate— jfum]3er Gf employee-hours worked
The accident-cause analysis procedure used in
this study differs in some respects from the
procedures specified in the American Standard
Method of Compiling Industrial Accident Causes,
which are usually followed in the Bureau’s studies.
The deviations from the Standard include the
introduction of an additional analysis factor,
termed the “agency of injury” and the modifica­
tion of the standard definitions of some of the
other factors in order to permit more accurate
cross classifications.
Agency of Injury,—The standard classifica­
tion provides for the selection of only one
“agency” in the analysis of each accident. By
definition this agency may be either (a) the object
or substance which was unsafe and thereby con­
tributed to the occurrence of the accident, or (b)
in the absence of such an unsafe object or sub­
stance, the object or substance most closely related

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLATc CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

to the injury. Under this definition, therefore,
a tabulation of “agencies” for a group of accidents
will include objects or substances which may have
been inherently safe and unrelated to the oc­
currence of the accidents as well as those which
because of their condition, location, structure, or
method of use led to the occurrence of accidents.
The development of the classification “agency of
injury” represents an attempt to separate and clas­
sify separately these two agency concepts.
As used in this study the “agency of injury” is
the object, substance, or bodily reaction which
actually produced the injury, selected without re­
gard to its safety characteristics or its influence
upon the chain of events constituting the accident.
Accident Type .—As used in this study the ac­
cident type classification assigned to each accident
is purely descriptive of the occurrence which re­
sulted in an injury and is related specifically to
the agency of injury. It indicates how the in­
jured person came into contact with or was af­
fected by the previously selected agency of injury.
This represents a change from the standard pro­
cedure in two respects: First, in that the accident
type classification is specifically related to the
previously selected agency of injury; and second,
that the sequence of selecting this factor is
specified.
Unsafe Condition .—Under the standard defini­
tion the unsafe condition indicated in the analysis
is defined as the “unsafe mechanical or physical
condition of the selected agency which could have
been guarded or corrected.” This implies the
prior selection of the “agency” but does not pro­
vide for recognition of any relationship between
the unsafe condition and accident type classifi­
cations. Nor does the standard provide for any

definite relationship between the “agency” and
the “accident type” classifications.
To provide continuity and to establish direct re­
lationships among the various analysis factors so
as to permit cross classification, the standard defi­
nition was modified for this study to read: “The
unsafe mechanical or physical condition is the
hazardous condition which permitted or occa­
sioned the occurrence of the selected accident
type.” The unsafe condition classification, there­
fore, was selected after the determination of the
accident type classification and represents the
physical or mechanical reason for the occurrence
of that particular accident without regard to the
feasibility of guarding or correcting the unsafe
condition.
Elimination of the condition “which could have
been guarded or corrected” is based upon the prem­
ise that statistical analysis should indicate the ex­
istence of hazards, but should not attempt to
specify the feasibility of corrective measures.
Agency of Accident.—For the purpose of this
study, the agency of accident was defined as “the
object, substance, or premises in or about which
the unsafe condition existed.” Its selection,
therefore, is directly associated with the unsafe
condition which led to the occurrence of the acci­
dent and not with the occurrence of the injury.
In many instances, the agency of injury and the
agency of accident were found to be identical.
The double agency classification, however, avoids
any possibility of ambiguity in the interpretation
of the “agency” tabulations.
Unsafe A ct .—The unsafe act definition used in
this survey was identical with the standard defini­
tion, i. e., “that violation of a commonly accepted
safe procedure which resulted in the selected ac­
cident type.”

The Industry and Its Hazards
The clay construction products industry in­
cludes a wide variety of plants manufacturing
many different construction items. Their more
common products include structural brick, struc­
tural tile, floor and wall tile, sewer pipe, and re­
fractories. In general, the processes employed in
making these products are very similar—wet clay
is molded into the desired shape and then baked



so that it w ill retain that shape. A ll of the plants
in the industry, therefore, have certain similari­
ties.
Production methods, however, differ widely be­
tween plants. Each type of product requires some
specialized equipment. As a result, most plants
tend to concentrate on one or two particular kinds
of products. These product differences and wide

THE INDUSTRY AND ITS HAZARDS

5

differences in plant size result in very divergent
organizational patterns. A s a general rule, how­
ever, each plant has at least three basic depart­
mental units. Preparation departments process
the clay; molding departments shape it into the
desired forms, and burning departments fuse it
permanently into those forms. Other operations,
such as setting, drawing, wheeling, and sorting,
may be included in these basic departments or, in
the larger establishments, may be set up as sepa­
rate departments. Less common operations, such
as glazing and model making, are sometimes
organized as departments and most plants oper­
ate their service and maintenance activities as
separate departments.

down as in coal mining. Loading the brokendown materials into the mine cars is usually a
hand operation in clay mines. The hazards faced
by clay miners are much the same as those en­
countered by coal miners, except that clay mines
tend to be less “gassy” and less likely to have
explosive-dust concentrations than coal mines.
The possibility of serious explosions is, therefore,
minimized in clay mining, but the hazards of
blasting, or roof falls, of working on irregular
and slippery surfaces, of contact with the
mine cars, and of overexertion in handling heavy
materials are ever present.

Clay Pits and Mines

In preparation departments conveyors carry
the raw clay to hoppers from which it is fed into
grinders or granulators. A common form of
grinder consists of a large, heavy plate which
rotates under a pair of pressure rolls. The clay
is fed onto the plate in batches and is carried under
the rolls as the plate rotates. The crushed ma­
terial is scraped from the plate into a bucket con­
veyor which carries it to a series of screens which
pass the properly sized particles and return the
oversized particles for regrinding. In some in­
stances the revolving plate in the grinder is itself
a screen through which the particles drop as they
are ground to size.
Granulators resemble grinders but are supple­
mented by a series of revolving knives which break
up the larger lumps of clay before the material
reaches the crushing rolls.
In brick, sewer pipe, and structural tile plants
the ground clay is conveyed directly from the
screens to the molding department. In floor and
wall tile plants, however, the ground clay must
first be mixed with talc and other ingredients.
This is done in an agitator where the various ma­
terials are thoroughly mixed in water. The thick
liquid mixture is then pumped into the tank of
a drying machine. An endless wire blanket
moves through this tank, picking up a thin layer
of the material which it carries over a steamheated drum. As the blanket leaves the drum,
a blade scrapes off the dried material, which drops
onto a conveyor to be carried to another grinding

Nearly three-fourths of the cooperating plants
indicated that they operate their own clay pits or
mines adjacent to their plants. In most instances
these are open-pit operations, although a substan­
tial volume of production comes from under­
ground workings.
In pit operations where the clay is soft, power
shovels are used to dig the material and to load
it directly into trucks or narrow-gage railway
cars for delivery to the plants. These soft-clay
pits commonly have sloping sides, so that the
hazard of falling material is not great. The
workers are, however, exposed to mechanical haz­
ards in operating the equipment and to traffic
hazards associated with the haulage vehicles. The
pit surfaces, moreover, may be very irregular and
slippery when wet, presenting many possibilities
for falls.
Where the clay is hard and shalelike, pit opera­
tions present much the same hazards as are en­
countered in stone quarrying. These pits
frequently have a vertical working face where
the material is blasted down or cut down mechan­
ically. This work, therefore, involves blasting
hazards and the possibility of injury from falling
material as well as the hazards associated with
power-shovel and trucking operations.
Most clay mines are drift mines. Generally
their operations are very similar to those in coal
m ining; in fact, coal and clay are sometimes taken
from the same workings. Common practice at
the mine face is to undercut the clay and blast it
942570-51- 2



Preparation Departments

and screening process.

6

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

A fter grinding, the pulverized materials are
carried by conveyor to storage bins or directly to
the hoppers of m ixing or molding machines.
The atmosphere in the preparation departments
is generally quite dusty, particularly in the older
structural brick plants. W ithin the industry this
dust is a recognized source of discomfort and eye
irritation, but because of its low silica content, it
is not considered to be particularly hazardous.
J. J. Bloomfield, Sanitary Engineer Director, D i­
vision of Industrial Hygiene, Public Health
Service, however, has written, “Many dusts are
now recognized as dangerous, and, in the extreme,
it may even be doubted whether any dust can be
treated as harmless.” 6 Aside from its possible
physiological hazards, this dust creates a sub­
stantial housekeeping problem, particularly where
it settles and becomes caked on floors or stairways.
When even slightly moist, such areas may become
very slippery and lead to serious falls. Me­
chanical hazards are also very prevalent in these
departments. Unguarded belts, pulleys, and
gears on machines and conveyors appeared to be
the rule rather than the exception.

Molding Departments
M olding operations fall into three general clas­
sifications, soft-mud, stiff-mud, and dry-press,
depending upon the moisture content of the m ix­
ture. Structural brick is usually produced by
either the soft-mud or the stiff-mud process, sewer
pipe by the stiff-mud process, and refractories,
floor, and wall tile by the dry-press process.
In the soft-mud and stiff-mud processes the pre­
pared clays are mixed with water in a machine
called a pug mill. From the pug m ill the wet clay
usually passes into a de-airing machine which
compacts the mixture. Generally, the pug mill,
the de-airing machine, and the molding machine
are in tandem and are operated as a unit.
Bricks, molded by the soft-mud process, are
pressed by machine into molds containing forms
for 9 or 10 bricks. The filled mold is taken from
the machine, turned over on a pallet and removed,
6 Industrial Hygiene, A series of lectures on principles and
practices (p. 73), by J. J. Bloomfield, Sanitary Engineer Director,
Division of Industrial Hygiene, Public Health Service, Federal
Security Agency, Washington, D. C. (1950).



leaving the soft bricks on the pallet. The pallets
are then loaded onto dryer cars for transfer to
the drying department. Much of this work, par­
ticularly in the older plants, is done by hand.
Some plants, however, have an automatic molding
machine which performs all of these operations
mechanically, delivering the loaded pallets onto
dryer cars by conveyor.
In molding bricks or structural tile by the stiffmud process, the wet clay is forced through a die
on a machine called an auger. A s the ribbon of
clay leaves the machine, it moves slowly on a con­
veyor past a cutter which slices off the bricks or
tiles in predetermined sizes. The formed bricks
or tiles are then removed from the conveyor by
hand and are piled on dryer cars.
Sewer pipe is also extruded, but in a different
manner. The pipe-molding machine operates
vertically, pressing out one length of pipe on each
down stroke of its piston. A bell-shaped die, held
against the bottom of the cylinder by chained
counter weights, catches the first clay extruded and
shapes it into the bell end of the pipe section.
When the die becomes full, it is carried down,
away from the cylinder on the end of the extruded
section of pipe. A t the end of the stroke, the
extruded pipe is cut free from the cylinder and
lifted out of the die by hand. The operating
crew on a pipe press usually consists of five men.
The operator controls the piston. The leverman
lubricates the die before each stroke and locks it
to the bottom of the cylinder. The transfer man
removes the extruded section of pipe from the
machine and places it in a trimming box where
the trimmer cuts it to exact size and evens up any
rough edges. The fifth member of the crew is
clean-up man, who gathers up the loose pieces of
clay and removes them from the working area.
Hand truckers move the pipe sections to the dry­
ing room.
Befractories and floor and wall tile are usually
molded by the dry-press method. Except for the
consistency of the material, this process is very
similar to the soft-mud process. The raw ma­
terials are dropped into a mold and pressed into
shape by the descending ram of the press.
W ith the exception of some irregular refractory
shapes, practically all molding is now done by

THE INDUSTRY AND ITS HAZARDS

machine. There are, therefore, many machine
hazards in these departments. Unguarded gears,
belts, and pulleys are rather common. The vari­
ous presses also present serious point-of-operation
hazards which are seldom adequately guarded.
Industrial type hand trucks or push cars oper­
ating on rails are used to move the “green” prod­
ucts from the molding department to the drying
department. A ll of these trucking operations
present some hazards. The trucks sometimes
bump into workers; workers bump into the trucks;
materials fall from the trucks; and the operators
may be injured from over exertion in moving the
loaded equipment. Rough floors and slippery
spots resulting from spilled clay frequently con­
tribute to accidents in these operations.
In some of the larger brick plants, mechanical
transfer cars are used to move the dryer and kiln
cars. Electrically powered cars operate on a track
running past the molding, drying, and burning
departments. This track is laid in a pit so that
the beds of the transfer cars come flush with the
working surface of the plant. Tracks set in or
on the plant floor at right angles to the transfer
track carry the dryer or kiln cars from the work­
ing areas to the transfer cars, and matching tracks
on the transfer cars permit them to be pushed onto
or off the transfer cars without lifting. This
procedure facilitates handling the materials and
eliminates many of the hazards associated with
strictly hand trucking. It does, however, intro­
duce additional hazards. The pit in which the
transfer cars operate is relatively shallow. Never­
theless, it creates the possibility of serious falls.
The tracks on which the dryer and kiln cars move
through the working area frequently constitute
tripping hazards, and because those tracks are
frequently uneven and out of level, unblocked
cars may drift unexpectedly and bump into nearby
workers. These track irregularities also lead to
many pinched fingers when workers are coupling
or uncoupling the cars.
Hazards associated with poor housekeeping are
less common in the molding departments than in
some of the other plant areas. The chief problem
of this nature is created by the small bits of wet
clay which fall on the floor near the molding
operations, particularly around the sewer-pipe
presses.



7

Drying Departments
Green products molded by the soft-mud or stiffmud process are usually too wet and soft to with­
stand piling or extensive handling. They must,
therefore, be partially dried and hardened before
they are put through the final burning. This is
accomplished in drying ovens or drying rooms
where hot air is passed over them to extract the
moisture. Products molded by the dry-press
process, such as refractories or floor and wall tiles,
seldom require drying before being burned.
In structural brick plants the dryer cars, on
which the palletized bricks were placed after
molding, are pushed into drying ovens, where they
remain for several hours. The dryer cars are then
moved to the kilns, where they are unloaded. In
sewer-pipe plants the green sections of pipe are
usually placed upright on the drying-room floor.
This floor is usually made of planks laid over
steam pipes, with narrow openings between each
row of planks. H eat from the steam pipes rises
through the sewer pipe sections to dry them.
The most prominent hazards in the drying
departments are associated with the trucking op­
erations. In most instances, the trucks or dryer
cars are moved entirely by hand. The possibility
of overexertion injuries in this work is increased
by frequently uneven and sometimes slippery
floors. Where the dryer cars operate on rails, the
rails present additional tripping hazards. The
possibility of burns or heat exhaustion is also a
hazard factor in this work, particularly when
it is necessary to enter the drying tunnels to remove
the dryer cars. In some plants the latter hazard
has been largely overcome by providing pulleys
and cables for pulling the cars from the tunnels.
Power for this operation is sometimes supplied
by the transfer cars. These cables, which are
located just above the floor, constitute another
tripping hazard.

Setting Departments
W hen the dried products reach the kilns, the
first operation is to remove them from the hand
trucks or dryer cars and to pile them in the kilns
or on kiln cars for the final burning. This is called
setting. When periodic kilns are used, the mate­

8

INJURIES AND ACCIDE NT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

rials are piled directly on the kiln floor. Where
tunnel kilns are used, the products are piled on
cars which move through the kilns on rails.
The objective in piling the materials for burning
is to expose as much as possible of their surface
to the heat. Bricks, therefore, are piled on edge
with open spaces around each unit. Floor and
wall tiles are placed in containers called saggers,
which hold them apart. Sewer-pipe sections usu­
ally are placed on end, and generally are piled
three high.
Setting bricks in periodic kilns usually is a
two-man operation. One worker, the tosser, re­
moves the bricks from the dryer car and tosses
them to the setter, who places them in the pile.
In loading kiln cars, the setter commonly works
alone because the piles are low enough to permit
him to work from the floor. In setting heavy
sewer pipe, two men usually are necessary—oc­
casionally portable motor driven hoists are used
because of the weight involved.
The outstanding hazards encountered in setting
operations are those associated with manual han­
dling of material. Sewer pipes, structural tiles,
and refractory shapes frequently are quite heavy
and may be very awkward to hold. There are,
therefore, many possibilities for the occurrence of
strains, sprains, and crushed fingers and toes.
Most of the products, regardless of their weight,
are rough and may have sharp edges to inflict
cuts or scratches. Great physical effort is some­
times necessary in moving the loaded cars and
hand trucks, particularly inside the periodic kilns
where the floor may be very irregular because of
its exposure to the intense heat. Loose sand used
in piling bricks presents an eye hazard and fre­
quently makes the working surfaces slippery.
Steel runways, often used for access to the kilns,
also tend to become worn and slippery. In addi­
tion, kilns in which glazed materials have been
burned may have sharp projecting pieces of fused
glaze attached to their floors, walls, and roofs.
Contact with these projections can produce severe
abrasions.
Setters, piling bricks in the periodic kilns, cus­
tomarily stand on the piles to set the upper layers.
A s the piles are loose, they constitute a very un­



stable working surface and present many possi­
bilities of falls. The setter also faces the pos­
sibility of being struck by the bricks thrown
to him by the tosser. The tosser, in turn, is ex­
posed to being struck by material falling from the
pile or by a brick which the setter failed to catch.

Burning Departments
There are two basic types of kilns w ith many
variations within each type. Periodic kilns are
loaded and sealed while cool—then the fires are
started and the required heat maintained, usually
for a period of 6 or 7 days—after which they are
cooled down and the burned products removed.
Periodic kilns may be either round or rectangular.
W hen less than a full load of materials is to be
burned in a rectangular kiln, a temporary wall
is customarily built inside the kiln to avoid having
to heat the entire area. Many of the periodic kilns
are heated by coal which is hand-fired through
openings located at intervals around the outside
wall. Fire boxes inside the openings are so
located that the draft pulls the flames and heat
over and through the piled materials. Oil- or
gas-fired periodic kilns are common in some areas.
Continuous kilns are held constantly at burning
temperature and the materials are moved in and
out of the heat on rail cars. In the tunnel kiln,
the most common type of continuous operation,
the heat is applied at the center and the temper­
ature diminishes toward each end. Most of these
kilns are gas- or oil-fired. The loaded kiln cars
are pushed into the entrance of the tunnel and
progress through the heat by being pushed for­
ward as new cars are added to the line. A t the
exit, workmen must enter part way into the kiln
in order to uncouple and pull out the cars. This
involves exposure to relatively high temperatures
even though the cars at this point are well away
from the intense heat generated at the center of
the tunnel. Occasionally in these operations the
pile of brick on a car may collapse inside the
tunnel. When this happens, it may be necessary
for the workers to put on asbestos clothing and
enter the hot kiln to clear the obstructions.
The greatest hazards in the burning department

FACTORS IN INJURY RECORD

are the possibility of burns from contacting hot
objects and of heat exhaustion from entering hot
atmospheres.

Drawing and Wheeling Departments
A fter the products have been burned, they are
transported to storage piles, usually by wheel­
barrow or hand truck. Transferring the materials
from the kiln cars or from the piles in the periodic
kilns to the hand trucks and piling in the storage
yards are hand operations. The products are still
hot at this stage and the air around them may be
very warm from their radiant heat. The chief
hazards, therefore, consist of exposure to heat and
hot objects, falls from the piled materials, slips
on loose sand or broken pieces of burnt clay, cuts
from the sharp edges of broken products, and
overexertion in handling the materials.

9

Miscellaneous Departments
Many clay products are given a glaze finish.
In most instances the liquid glaze is applied to
the unburned products mechanically. However,
it may be applied manually with a spray gun.
In the latter operation, the workers must wear
face shields and respirators and must contend with
wet and slippery floors.
The final operation in floor and wall-tile plants
is to sort the tile by color and by quality. In this
work it is often necessary to break apart tiles
which became fused in the burning. W hen the
tiles part, small chips may fly, thereby creating
a considerable eye hazard.
Kef ractories, generally, are finished to fine toler­
ances by grinding on an emery wheel. In these
operations flying particles create an extreme eye
hazard.

Factors in the Injury Record
The injury record of any plant or of any group
of plants is a composite of a great many factors.
The kinds of material processed; the types of
processing performed; the safety regulations of
the States in which the plants are located, and
the extent to which those regulations are enforced;
the kind of personnel employed; the size of the
plants; and the extent of the safety programs car­
ried on in the plants all have a direct bearing upon
the volume of injuries experienced. In particu­
lar instances, the influence of these factors may
offset each other, but in comparisons based upon
large groups of operations their effects frequently
can be demonstrated, as in the following break­
downs covering 1948 experience in the clay con­
struction products industry.

Product Comparisons
Although some plants in the industry manu­
facture a variety of clay products, the majority
are highly specialized, concentrating their activi­
ties upon a single type of product. Therefore, the
reports received in the survey were classified into
eight specific product groups, each representing



plants engaged in substantially similar operations.
The wide variations in the injury-frequency
rates of these groups indicate significant differ­
ences in the degree of hazard associated with the
different types of production. Three groups had
rates of over 50; one had a rate of 46; two had
rates between 30 and 40; and two had rates be­
tween 20 and 30. The most hazardous group,
plants manufacturing sewer pipe, had a rate of
53.7, closely followed by the drain-tile group with
a rate of 51.6, and by the unglazed-structural-tile
plants with a rate of 50.8. In each of these three
groups of plants, one in every nine employees ex­
perienced a disabling injury during 1948.
Structural-brick plants, comprising the largest
segment of the industry, had an average injuryfrequency rate of 46. In these plants, 1 in every
11 employees suffered a disabling injury during
the year.
The relatively small group of plants manufac­
turing terra-cotta products had an average fre­
quency rate of 38.1, and the larger group of
clay-refractory plants had an average rate of 32.6.
Two groups—glazed-structural-tile plants, and
roofing, floor, and wall-tile plants—had the lowest

10

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

injury rates, averaging 25.4 and 24.0, respectively.
Even the safest group of clay construction prod­
ucts plants showed a substantially higher inci­
dence of injuries than prevailed in manufacturing
generally.
The severity of the injuries in the various
groups of plants followed a somewhat different
pattern. The terra-cotta plants, with 1 death and
2 permanent impairments among the 51 reported
injuries, had the highest ratio of serious injuries.
A s a result, this group had the highest frequency
rate for deaths and permanent impairments, 2.2;
the highest severity rate, 5.6; and the highest
average time charge per case, 146 days, among all
of the plant groups.
Structural-brick plants also had a high propor­
tion of serious injuries, giving them a frequency
rate of 1.6 for fatalities and permanent impair­
ments, a severity rate of 4.3, and an average time
charge of 93 days per disabling injury. Eleven
of the 19 fatalities reported in the entire survey
occurred in structural-brick plants.
In contrast to the relatively high injury severity
prevailing in the other types of plants, the roofing,
floor, and wall-tile plants and the glazed-structural-tile plants reported no fatalities and very
few permanent impairments. The glazed-struc­
tural-tile plants had a serious-injury frequency
rate of only 0.4, a severity rate of only 0.5, and
a low average time charge of 22 days per case.
Complimenting their low over-all injury-fre­
quency rate, the roofing, floor, and wall-tile plants
had a frequency rate for serious injuries of 0.2,
a severity rate of 0.4, and a very low average
time charge of only 16 days per case.

Regional and State Comparisons
Variations in injury rates between geographic
areas may reflect any one or a combination of sev­
eral factors. State safety laws and the degree to
which they are enforced, the age and maintenance
o f plants and their equipment, and employment
factors, such as the experience of available
workers, all tend to influence the average level of
injury rates in any area.
Because of the wide variations in injury ex­
perience by type of product, the composition of
the industry within the various areas may exercise
an important influence upon the industry-wide




frequency-rate averages for particular areas.
For this reason, regional and State comparisons
in the clay construction products industry are
more significant when based on a specific type of
plant rather than on industry totals.
Average frequency rates for structural-brick
plants were computed for each of the 9 regions and
for 16 States. Four of the regional averages were
above 50—Middle Atlantic, 61.6; W est North
Central, 58.7; New England, 54.5; and W est South
Central, 51.7. Four others were above 30—East
North Central, 44.2; Rocky Mountain, 38.6; East
South Central, 35.7; and Pacific, 33.9. The lowest
was 29.7 for the South A tlantic region. In ­
dividual State averages ranged from a high of
69.0 for the New Jersey brick plants to a low of
15.6 for the plants reporting from North Carolina.
New York, Texas, Pennsylvania, and Illinois all
had rates above 50, whereas W est Virginia, A la­
bama, and South Carolina had rates below 30.
Five regional and four State average frequency
rates were computed for clay refractories. The
highest regional rate was 40.8, for the Middle
Atlantic region—the lowest, 21.7, for the W est
North Central region. Pennsylvania had the high­
est of the State averages, 42.2, followed by A la­
bama, 36.3, New Jersey, 33.9, and Ohio, 25.3.
For the other groups of plants, the distribution
was very thin and relatively few regional or State
rates could be computed. Because of their limited
number, comparisons based upon these averages
do not appear to be significant.

Size of Plant Comparisons
Previous studies in other industries have indi­
cated that a direct correlation often exists between
injury-frequency rates and plant size, as measured
by employment. The very small plants and the
large plants commonly have lower average fre­
quency rates than those prevailing in the mediumsize plants. Presumably this is due to close
supervision by the owners in the small plants and
to the existence of organized safety programs in
the large plants. The higher rates for mediumsize plants apparently reflect the fact that these
shops are too large for intimate supervision by top
management and too small to have regularly es­
tablished safety departments.
Small and medium-size plants predominate in

FACTORS IN INJURY RECORD

the clay construction products industry. Of the
675 plants reporting in the survey, 160 employed
fewer than 25 workers apiece and 486 others em­
ployed fewer than 250 workers. Only 1 of the
participating plants reported as many as 1,000
employees. Nevertheless, the frequency rates in
this industry closely followed the general pattern
observed in other industries.
In the entire reporting group, the lowest average
frequency rate was 26.3 for the plants employing
250 or more workers. The very small plants,
employing fewer than 25 workers apiece, had an
average rate of 33.6. A ll of the size groups rang­
ing from 25 to 250 employees had rates of over
40. It was significant that the 29 largest plants,
representing over 33 million man-hours of expo­
sure, did not report a single death or permanenttotal disability. As a result, this group had a
relatively low severity rate, 1.1, and a low average
time charge per case, 43 days. Some deaths were
reported in each of the other plant-size groups,
giving them all substantially less favorable injuryseverity records. The least favorable record in
this respect was that of the very small plants,
which reported three deaths and one permanenttotal disability, with a total exposure of only 3.6
million man-hours. The severity rate for the
small-plant group was 9.0 and the average time
charge per disabling injury was 267 days.
W ithin the different product groups, the plantsize frequency-rate pattern was not consistent,
probably because the number of plants in some
of the groups was insufficient to average out the
outstanding records of particular plants. The
clay refractories and the structural-tile groups,
however, conformed to the general pattern. In
the structural-brick group, the very small plants
had the lowest average frequency rate, but the
large plants had a rate considerably higher than
those of some of the medium-size plants.
Although these averages suggest that plant size
exercises a significant influence upon the develop­
ment of safety programs and thereby upon the
general level of injury-frequency rates, it is im­
portant to recognize that plant size is far from
being the controlling factor in safety. This is
emphasized by the distribution of individual
plant frequency rates within the different plantsize groups. For example, over 30 percent of
the reporting plants operated throughout the year




11

without a single disabling injury. Most of these
were small plants, but this select group included
some plants from every size classification except
the 250 employees and over group. In addition,
there were some plants in every size group which
had injury-frequency rates of less than 20. A t
the other extreme, at least one plant in every size
group had a rate of over 90, and in all groups,
except 250 employees and over, one or more
rates were over 125.
C h a r t 2.— I n j u r y - F r e q u e n c y R a t e s in t h e C l a y

Construction Products Industry, 1948
BY SIZE OF PLANT
FREQUENCY

RATE

Safety Programs and First-Aid Facilities
Relatively few plants in this industry have
organized safety programs. Of the 650 plants
which furnished details on their safety activities,
only 21 employed full-time safety engineers and
less than a third had organized safety committees.
The influence of plant size upon the develop­
ment of formal safety programs was strikingly
apparent in the analysis of these plant records.
The 21 plants which employed full-tim e safety
engineers had an average employment of over 300
workers per establishment. Those which had
organized safety committees but no full-time
safety engineer averaged about 100 employees
per plant, whereas those which had neither
averaged only about 50 workers per plant. Plant
size obviously is a major factor in determining
how a plant can organize its safety program.

12

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

The experience of these plants constitutes
strong evidence of the value of organized in-plant
safety activities. The 442 plants which had
neither safety engineers nor safety committees
had an average frequency rate of 45.3. The group
of 187 plants, which had safety committees but
no safety engineers, had an average rate of 36.7.
In contrast, the 21 plants employing safety
engineers had an average frequency rate of 18.5,
whereas the 17 which had both safety engineers
and safety committees had a rate of 17.0.
Most of these differences in injury-frequency
rates were accounted for by differences in the
relative volume of temporary-total disabilities.
This circumstance tends to support the possible
conclusion that “disability control” entirely apart
from “accident control” is important in deter­

mining the general level of injury-frequency rates
in particular plants or groups of plants. This
theory, in brief, is that the larger establishments,
which can maintain treatment facilities on their
premises and can offer a wider choice of tempo­
rary job assignments to partially disabled
workers, will, as a result, be able to keep many in­
juries from becoming “lost-time” cases. In a
plant without such facilities, similar injuries may
result in lost time because the treatments must be
given outside the plant or because there are no
available jobs which partially disabled workers
can perform. As the standard frequency rate is
based upon lost-time cases, the latter type of plant
may have a higher rate even though its actual
injuries are comparable in number and nature
with those of its larger competitor.

Departmental Injury Rates
The extent to which details were available con­
cerning the injury experience of workers in par­
ticular operations varied greatly among the
reporting plants. In many small plants, and also
in some large plants, there was very little depart­
mentalization. Workers commonly moved from
one job to another as the need arose, and no records
were kept of the tim e spent on particular opera­
tions. For these plants only plant-wide figures
were available. In others, it was found that vary­
ing combinations of operations had been included
in single departmental units, which limited the
possibilities for detailed comparison. Practically
all of the plants, however, were able to provide
specific information for some of the standard op­
erations. The departmental comparisons, there­
fore, are based upon the experience of those plants
which could supply comparable details for sepa­
rate operations and exclude the experience of
plants from which these details could not be
obtained.
Clay-mining operations had the highest of the
departmental injury-frequency rates, 74.5. Next in
line were the drawing and wheeling departments,
with a rate of 60.3 and the storage and shipping
departments, with a rate of 55.3. The high-fre­
quency rates in these departments, however, were
offset by their relatively small numbers of serious
injuries. In clay mining, the average time charge




per disabling injury was 36 days, just about half
the industry average of 75 days. In storage and
shipping, the average time charge was 29 days and
in the drawing and wheeling departments it was
only 12 days.
The plant maintenance departments had a highfrequency rate of 53.5 as well as a relatively high
incidence of serious injuries. As a result, the
severity rate for these departments was 5.0 and
the average time charge was 93 days per case.
Four departmental groups had frequency rates
ranging between 40 and 50. These included the
drying rooms, 47.7; the preparation departments,
47.3; the setting departments, 42.8; and the clay
pits, 42.1. The setting departments had a some­
what better than average severity record, but the
other three groups had very unfavorable severity
records. In the clay pits there were 3 fatalities,
1 permanent-total disability, and 6 permanentpartial disabilities among 121 reported injuries.
As a result, the clay pits had the highest severity
rate, 11.4, and the second highest average time
charge, 271 days, recorded for any of the depart­
mental classifications. In the preparation depart­
ments, 2 deaths, 1 permanent-total disability,
and 11 permanent-partial disabilities in a total o f
229 reported injuries gave the department a
severity rate of 8.0 and an average time charge

KINDS OF INJURIES

€>l 169 days. The drying rooms* with 1 death and
3 permanent-partial disabilities in 80 cases, had
a severity rate of 5.1 and an average time charge
of 107 days per case.
Of the three general types of molding—dry
press, stiff-mud, and soft-mud—the dry-press op­
erations were the least hazardous. For this opera­
tion the frequency rate was 22.1 in contrast to rates
of 38.7 for stiff-mud molding and 40.8 for soft-mud
molding. The stiff-mud departments also had an
adverse severity record. W ith 3 fatalities and 9

13

permanent-partial disabilities in 315 injuries, they
had a severity rate of 4.0 and an average time
charge of 104 days per case.
In the lower frequency rate range the power
departments had a rate of 28.6; the burning de­
partments, 27.1; the glazing departments, 14.2;
and the clerical and administrative departments
a rate of 3.0. In this group the burning and power
departments had very poor severity records,
whereas the glazing departments had an excellent
severity record.

Kinds of Injuries Experienced
The 5,682 injury cases, which were examined in
detail, included 6 deaths, 6 permanent-total dis­
abilities, 55 permanent-partial disabilities, 2,047
temporary-total disabilities, and 3,568 injuries
which required medical attention but did not re­
sult in loss of time after the day of injury. These
cases represented all of the injuries for which
records were available in the 133 plants cooperat­
ing in this phase of the survey. No information
could be obtained regarding the presumably much
larger group of minor injuries which either re­
ceived no treatment at all or were given only onthe-spot first aid.
Definitions of the various classifications of dis­
abilities are as follows:
(1) D eath . —A fatality resulting from an industrial
injury is classified as an industrial death regardless
of the time intervening between injury and death.
(2) P erm a n en t-to ta l d isa b ility. —An injury other
than death which permanently and totally incapa­
citates an employee from following any gainful occu­
pation shall be classified as a permanent-total
disability. The loss, or the complete loss of use, of
any of the following in one accident shall be consid­
ered permanent-total disability:
(a) Both eyes;
(b) One eye and one hand, or arm, or leg, or foot;
(c) Any two of the following not on the same limb:
Hand, arm, foot, or leg.
(3) P erm an en t-partial d isa b ility. —The complete
loss in one accident of any member or part of a mem­
ber of the body, or any permanent impairment of
functions of the body or part thereof to any degree
less than permanent-total disability shall be classified
as permanent-partial disability, regardless of any pre­
existing disability of the injured member or impaired
body function.
The following injuries shall not be classified as
permanent-partial disabilities, but shall be classified

http://fraser.stlouisfed.org/51------ 3
942570—
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

as temporary-total, temporary-partial disabilities, or
medical treatment cases, depending upon the degree
of disability during the healing period:
(a ) Hernia, if it can be repaired;
(b ) Loss of fingernails or toenails;
(c) Loss of teeth;
(d ) Disfigurement;
(e ) Strains or sprains which do not cause perma­
nent limitation of motion;
(/) Fractures which heal completely without de­
formities or displacements.
(4) T em p o ra ry-to ta l d isa b ility .—An injury which
does not result in death or permanent impairment
shall be classified as a temporary-total disability if
the injured person, because of his injury, is unable to
perform a regularly established job, which is open and
available to him, during the entire time interval cor­
responding to the hours of his regular shift on any one
or more days (including Sundays, days off, or plant
shut-downs) subsequent to the date of injury.
(5) M edical trea tm en t case.—For the purpose of
this survey, any injury which did not result in death,
permanent impairment, or temporary-total disability,
but which required treatment by a physician was clas­
sified as a medical-treatment case.
Definitions (1), (2), (3), and (4) are from the
American Standard Method of Compiling Industrial
Injury Rates as approved by the American Standards
Association, October 11, 1945. Definition (5) repre­
sents a combination of the American Standard defi­
nitions of temporary-partial disability and medical
treatment cases.

Fatalities and Permanent-Total Disabilities
Three of the six reported fatalities resulted from
head injuries; one was an electrocution; one was
a case of suffocation under a clay slide; and one
was a case of multiple injuries experienced in a
boiler explosion. One of the three fatal head
injuries occurred when a clay pit tractor over-

14

INJURIES AND ACCIDEINT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

turned and fell on its driver. In a second pit
accident a planer operator was struck by falling
shale and thrown against the planer. H is skull
was fractured by contact with the planer, not
by the impact of the shale. The third head-injury
fatality was a member of a sewer-pipe press crew.
H e was cleaning the die when the clay in the
cylinder dropped out, striking him and throwing
him head first against the die. The electrocuted
worker was a car puller in the drying department.
H e received his fatal shock while using an un­
grounded portable electric hoist. The suffocation
case occurred when a molder entered a clay bin
to loosen the clay. The pile slid over and he was
caught under the material.
A ll of the six permanent-total disabilities were
silicosis cases of which four were reported in one
plant. Four of the disabled workers were press­
room employees, one was a kiln man, and one was
a dryer man. Each of these workers had compara­
tively long service in the industry. The youngest
of the group was 41 years old; all of the others
were over 50. The insidious nature of silicosis is
emphasized by the fact that these six permanenttotal disabilities were the only silicosis cases
reported.

Permanent-Partial Disabilities
The 55 permanent-partial impairment cases in­
cluded 23 finger amputations, 8 toe amputations,
1 enucleation of 1 eye, and 28 cases of contusions,
cuts, fractures, and strains involving some residual
loss of use of a body part or function.
O f the 28 finger amputations, only 1 involved
more than 1 finger. In this case a pipe-press
tripper lost four fingers when the key worked out
of the brake wheel, allowing the die to move
while he was closing the knife. Thirteen of the
single finger amputations occurred in the opera­
tion or repair of powered machinery. Four of
these cases were press accidents and three were
conveyor accidents; the others involved a dryer,
a grinder, a gasoline engine, a compressor, an
elevator, and a fan. Eight of these machine acci­
dents occurred while the machines were being
cleaned, adjusted, or repaired.
The nine finger amputations which did not oc­
cur on machines included two experienced in mov­
ing or coupling plant cars and two cases in which
the workers’ fingers were caught in freight-car



doors. The others occurred in the use of a chain
hoist, repairing a truck, clearing a mud chute by
hand, wheeling brick, and closing a window.
Two of the toe amputations occurred when
plant cars ran over the workers’ feet. The other
occurred when the jack supporting a trailer
slipped and dropped the unit on the worker’s foot
as he was coupling the trailer to a tractor.
The 28 loss-of-use cases included 10 finger in­
juries, 7 arm and wrist injuries, 2 toe injuries,
5 foot and leg injuries, 2 hip injuries, 1 back injury,
and 1 eye injury. Four of the permanent arm
injuries, four of the finger injuries, one of the
leg injuries, and one of the toe injuries occurred
when the workers were caught in moving ma­
chinery. The permanent back injury, both of the
hip injuries, one leg injury, and two wrist injuries
resulted from falls. Falling materials produced
five of the permanent finger injuries and three of
the foot injuries. The loss-of-vision case occurred
when a nail flew into the worker’s eye as he struck
it with a hammer. In another case a seemingly
minor injury developed into a permanent arm
impairment. The employee struck his elbow on
a part of a machine when the wrench he was using
slipped. Another worker slipped as he was climb­
ing down from a power shovel and grabbed a latch
to avoid falling. H is ring caught on the latch and
he lost the entire use of the ring finger. A broken
ankle, which developed into a permanent impair­
ment, occurred when a lift truck moved unex­
pectedly and caught the foot of a worker who
was adjusting the truck load.

Temporary-Total Disabilities
Nearly 80 percent of the temporary-total dis­
abilities were strains or sprains. Another 80 per­
cent were bruises or contusions; 16 percent were
cuts or lacerations; and 11 percent were fractures.
Hernia cases accounted for over 3 percent of the
total, and burns accounted for more than 2 per­
cent. In general, the hernia cases and the frac­
tures were the most serious of the temporary-total
disabilities.
About half of the strains and sprains were back
cases. Most of the remainder were ankle, leg,
wrist, and shoulder sprains. The high incidence
of these injuries reflects the large volume of man­
ual material-handling prevailing in the industry

15

ACCIDENT ANALYSIS

and the irregular working surfaces so common in
structural-clay products plants.
More than half of the disabling bruises and
contusions were injuries to the lower extremities.
The majority of these cases were foot and toe
injuries produced by dropped or falling mate­
rials. More general use of safety shoes m ight well
have avoided the occurrence of many of these in­
juries. Disabling bruises to hands and fingers
were also very common in all branches of the
industry. Most of these occurred in material­
handling operations.
Over half of the disabling cuts and lacerations
were hand or finger injuries, most of which
occurred while handling sharp-edged or rough
materials. Foot and leg cuts were relatively
common and there were also a considerable num­
ber of lacerations to the head and to the eyes. As
a group, these cases suggest that more general
use of protective gloves, safety shoes, and goggles
m ight materially reduce the volume of injuries in
the industry.
Nearly a third of the fracture cases consisted
of broken toes, most of which might have been
avoided if the workers had been wearing safety
shoes. Foot fractures, finger fractures, and rib
fractures also were very common.

Medical Treatment Cases

and 18 percent were treatments for strains or
sprains.
In the aggregate, eye and finger injuries each
constituted 22 percent of the medical treatment
cases. The great majority of the eye injuries
were produced by dust or flying particles of sand,
shale, or burned clay. Many of these particles
were wind-borne. Others were thrown off by the
grinders, mixers, and material-handling equip­
ment. There were, however, a considerable num­
ber of cuts and contusions to the eyes, which were
produced by heavier flying materials, and a num­
ber of eye burns produced by contact with hot
substances or chemicals. The finger injuries re­
quiring medical treatment were primarily cuts
and bruises.
Chart 3.— Major Types of Accidents in the Clay
Construction Products Industry, 1948
PERCENT Of

ALL OlBABLtNB ANO HEOfCAL WJURlCB

V

STRUCK BY F LY IN G P A R T IC LE S

O V E R E X E R T IO N

STRIKING A GAIN ST O B JE C T S

Nearly 30 percent of the injuries, which required
medical treatment but did not result in the loss
of time other than for treatment, were bruises or
contusions. Most of these affected hands, fingers,
feet, legs, or toes. Cuts and lacerations, two-thirds
of which were hand or finger injuries, accounted
for 26 percent of the medical treatment cases.
Nineteen percent of the medical treatments were
for the removal of foreign bodies from the eye,

FA LLS

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT Of LABOR
BUREAU OP LABOR STATISTICS

Accident Analysis
Accident reports frequently are very deficient
in indicating specifically the reason for the oc­
currence of the particular events which culmi­
nated in an injury. In most instances, the only
available information comes from the injured
person himself, or from witnesses who merely
happened to be present at the time and who lack




either the skill or the opportunity to fully investi­
gate the event in order to determine the actual
accident cause. In the analysis of a large number
of accident reports, therefore, it is common to
find a high proportion which are deficient in the
one respect most important to the safety engineer.
Despite these limitations, however, the analyst

16

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

can draw a great deal of useful information from
even the most sketchy accident description.
Almost invariably an accident description tends
to follow the normal line of thinking on the
part of an interested person who hears that a
friend or acquaintance has been injured. The
first thought is of the injury itself. W as it a
burn, a cut, a bruise, a strain, or something else ?
Then, what produced the injury and how did
it happen? These are all descriptive facts which
are usually readily apparent to the witnesses.
They, therefore, loom large in the accounts of the
events. The more analytical question—why did
it happen—normally arises only after the desire
for descriptive information has been satisfied. It
frequently goes unanswered, either because of
preoccupation: w ith the descriptive factors, or
because the answer may not be readily apparent.
The direct approach in accident analysis, there­
fore, is to draw from the records the various ele­
ments of information in the order in which they
are usually recorded. Standing alone, these
elements may have lim ited value, but when related
to each other they can do much to indicate the
accident prevention activities which may be
needed. The determination of the objects or sub­
stances which most commonly produce injuries,
coupled with information as to how they produced
the injuries, constitutes the first step toward an
understanding of the accident problem.

Agencies of Injury and Accident Types
The most common variety of injuries encoun­
tered in the clay construction products industry
arises not from physical contact with some partic­
ular object or substance, but from bodily motions
or misuse of the body. Approximately one in
every five of the recorded injuries was in this
category. Four-fifths of the accidents in this
group were simple cases of overexertion, primarily
in lifting, carrying, or pushing objects. Manual
material handling, therefore, is indicated as the
industry’s chief source of injuries. Most of the
other accidents in the bodily motion group were
cases in which the injured persons slipped or
stumbled and wrenched or strained themselves in
attempting to regain their balance. Most acci­
dents of this nature reflect poor housekeeping



conditions and poorly maintained working
surfaces.
Plant products, the bricks, tiles, and sewer pipes
made in the industry, were the second most com­
mon agencies of injury. One in every seven of
the reported injuries arose from contact with
these product items. A large majority of these
accidents were cases in which the products fell on
workers, from their own hands, from piles, or
from loaded vehicles. Again the record points
to manual material handling and to poor house­
keeping as the leading source of injuries in the
industry.
Vehicles were the third most common injury
producers, accounting for about 1 in every 9
injuries. The most frequent accidents of this kind
were those in which the injured person or some
part of his body was caught and pinched between
two vehicles or between a vehicle and some other
object. There was also a large number of accidents
in which the injured persons were simply struck
by moving vehicles, and a considerable number in
which the injured persons bumped into vehicles.
Crowded work spaces and poor traffic lay-out
generally are the primary reasons for accidents of
these types.
F lying particles, dusts, bits of clay, and chips
from broken products ranked fourth among the
agencies of injury. A ll of the injuries in this
group were eye cases and most of them were rela­
tively minor. Their substantial numbers and the
fact that many did produce severe disabilities em­
phasize the need for an expanded eye-protection
program in the industry.
Ranking fifth among the agencies of injury,
machines produced about 1 in every 13 of the re­
ported injuries. About a third of the accidents
in this group were cases in which the workers were
struck by objects thrown off by machines, particu­
larly chips and flying particles emanating from
grinders. A fourth of the group consisted of
cases in which the injured workers bumped into
the machines. The prevalence of these accidents
again points to the need for better plant lay-out
to provide more clear working space. Another
fourth of the machine-inflicted injuries arose from
the workers becoming caught in, on, or between
moving machine parts. This group of accidents
generally produced the most severe injuries.

17

ACCIDENT CAUSES

Point-of-operation cases were common, but were
considerably outnumbered by injuries arising
from contact with gears, belts, pulleys, and other
moving machine parts. This record strongly
points to a need for an improved program of ma­
chine guarding.
Other items ranking high as injury producers
include hand tools, working surfaces, lumber,
chemicals, pallets or skids, containers, and con­
veyors. The hand tool accidents were mostly cases
in which the workers were struck by the tools or
by chips of material thrown off by the tools.
Those in which the injuries were inflicted by lum­
ber, containers, pallets, and skids were generally
cases in which the objects fell or were dropped
on the workers, or pinched their fingers in piling
operations. The chemical injuries were mostly
burns or dermatoses resulting from the splashing
of chemicals on the workers. Injuries inflicted
by conveyors resulted primarily from workers be­
coming caught in moving parts and generally
tended to be quite serious. The injuries experi­
enced through contact with working surfaces
generally resulted from falls.
Falls produced about 1 in every 13 of the re­
corded injuries. Falls on the same level were

most common, but falls from one level to another
produced the more severe injuries. Slips and
stumbles which just missed being actual falls were
nearly as common as falls in producing injuries.
Chart 4.— Major Types of Unsafe Working Condi­
tions in the Clay Construction Products Industry,
1948
PERCENT OP ALL DISABLING AND MEDICAL INJURIES

O

5

r

n

/jg J C fc LACK

t= =

T

10

T

15

T

20

T

25

1

of suffic ient help in l iftin g operations

LA C K O F P E R S O N A L S A F E T Y EQ U IP M EN T

OTHER
U ITED STATES DEPARTM
N
ENT O LABOR
P
B
UREAU O LABOR STATISTICS
P

Accident Causes
Modern accident prevention is based upon two
premises—first, that there is an identifiable cause
for every accident; and second, that when an ac­
cident cause is known, it is generally possible to
eliminate or to counteract that particular cause
as the probable source of future accidents of the
same character. In many instances, it is true
that a variety of circumstances contribute to the
occurrence of an accident, and the line which
accident prevention should take may seem con­
fused because of the m ultiplicity of the possible
courses of action. It is generally recognized,
however, that every accident may be traced to
some unsafe working condition, to the commis­
sion of an unsafe act by some individual, or to a
combination of these accident-producing factors.
In the analysis of individual accidents for the pur­



pose of establishing an effective safety program,
therefore, it is essential to give particular atten­
tion to the identification of these elements in the
chain of circumstances leading to the accidents.
Concentration upon the elimination of the unsafe
conditions and practices identified by such analy­
sis, with emphasis upon the elimination of the
elements which are found to have contributed to
many accidents, w ill almost invariably result in
improved safety records.
The correction of unsafe working conditions
generally is entirely within management’s powers.
The avoidance of unsafe acts, on the other hand,
requires cooperation and understanding by both
management and workers. Management must
take the lead, however, by providing safetyminded supervision and by making sure that all

18

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

workers are acquainted with the hazards of their
operations and are fam iliar with the means of
overcoming them.

Unsafe Working Conditions
A great majority of the unsafe working con­
ditions revealed by the analysis fell into four
general groups: Unsafe working procedures (re­
sponsible for 37 percent of the accidents);
defective agencies (25 percent); improperly
guarded agencies (12 percent); and hazardous
arrangement or placement (11 percent).
Unsafe Working Procedures.—More than half
of the accidents caused by unsafe procedures were
directly due to the lack of sufficient help in lifting
or moving heavy objects. These were primarily
cases of overexertion in lifting or turning heavy
product items, such as sewer pipes, or in pushing
and pulling loaded vehicles, particularly dryer
and kiln cars. O verlifting was also responsible
for many of the accidents in which workers drop­
ped heavy objects on their feet or crushed their
fingers as they attempted to set the objects down.
These unsafe procedures were particularly im­
portant sources of injury in the sewer pipe plants
where they were responsible for one in every four
accidents. In general, the practice of overlifting
was most common in the drying, setting, finishing,
and yards departments.
The necessity of manually handling sharp-edged
and rough objects was also a prime source of acci­
dents. Many clay products develop sharp edges
or rough surfaces in the normal course of manu­
facturing. The injuries attributable to these haz­
ards commonly consist of cuts or lacerations on the
hands, and most commonly occur in piling and
unpiling operations. Greater use of gloves or
hand leathers probably would reduce the volume
of these accidents, but these protective devices may
themselves create additional and more serious haz­
ards when used around moving machinery. Acci­
dents resulting from handling sharp-edged mate­
rials were particularly common in the sewer pipe
plants. Departm ental^, they tended to be con­
centrated in the drawing and wheeling depart­
ments.
The practice of tossing bricks to setters resulted
in a considerable volume of accidents in the setting



departments of the brick plants. In this opera­
tion, the setter usually stands upon the partially
completed pile of bricks and catches the bricks
which are thrown to him by the tosser standing
below. The setters were most commonly injured
by being struck by the thrown bricks. Tossers
were frequently struck by bricks which fell back
when the setter failed to catch them. The tossers,
however, also experienced a number of strains
from overexertion in throwing the materials.
Defective Agencies.—Poorly designed, poorly
constructed, and poorly maintained equipment
constituted the outstanding hazards involved in
defective agencies. Because of defective track­
ways, dryer and kiln cars frequently jumped the
tracks and struck nearby workers, or drifted to­
gether to pinch or crush workmen who were try­
ing to move them. In other instances, the workers
strained themselves while attempting to move the
cars over uneven tracks. Poor design in the
vehicles themselves was also a frequent accident
cause—particularly in respect to the coupling
equipment on the dryer and kiln cars.
Low material strength of objects led to a large
number of accidents in which workers were struck
by falling objects as well as to a considerable num­
ber of falls. The defective objects most frequently
were finished products, machines, pallets or skids,
hand tools, and vehicles. Frequently internal
weaknesses in bricks and sewer pipes caused these
products to break as they were being handled.
Sewer-pipe press dies and hand tools, which had
become hardened or crystallized through extended
use, often chipped and workers were injured by
the flying particles. Pallets, skids, and ladders,
weakened through prolonged use, frequently
broke under the load. Revised material handling
procedures and greater attention to the mainte­
nance of equipment appear to be essential for
the prevention of this class of accidents.
Slippery working surfaces were responsible for
a large number of slips and falls. In large meas­
ure these slippery conditions resulted from clay
or sand spilled or dropped in the working areas.
There were, however, a number of accidents which
resulted from the use of smooth steel plates as
gangways for access to boxcars and kilns. These
dockboards normally have diamond-shaped corru­

19

ACCIDENT CAUSES

gations on their surfaces, but after long use be­
come very smooth. The elimination of these
accident-producing conditions lies in improved
housekeeping and better maintenance procedures.
The large number of accidents involving contact
with projecting splinters, slivers, nails, and bolts
also points strongly to the need for better house­
keeping and more adequate maintenance of equip­
ment. The defective agencies involved in these
accidents were primarily pallets, skids, vehicles,
and hand tools which had been damaged in use
and should have been removed from service for
repair. Projecting nails in dunnage and scrap
lumber, and projecting bolts on vehicles and other
equipment also led to a number of accidents.
Improperly Guarded Agencies.—Accidents re­
sulting from inadequate guarding of hazardous
operations and conditions were very common
throughout the industry. Point-of-operation
guards were often found to be entirely lacking on
presses, grinders, and cutting tools. Pulleys,
gears, and drive belts on conveyors and other ma­
chines were often unprotected. Workers were
often injured because there were no baffle boards
on belt conveyors or no toe boards on elevated
working surfaces to prevent materials from fall­
ing. Vehicles frequently moved unexpectedly to
strike or pinch workers because no facilities were
provided for braking or locking them in position.
The absence of guard rails around elevated work­
ing surfaces led to many falls, and inadequate
bracing or shoring permitted a number of roof
falls and cave-ins in the clay mines and pits. In
the wheeling and drawing departments, the simple
provision of handle guards would have prevented
many finger and hand injuries.
Hazardous Arrangement or Placement.—Im ­
properly piled materials, which fell onto the
workers, and improperly placed materials or
equipment, which obstructed aisles or passage­
ways or created tripping hazards, were very com­
mon accident causes. Much of the improper piling
occurred in the loading of vehicles and culminated
in spilling all or part of the loads when the ve­
hicles turned or passed over rough surfaces. The
general practice of laying the tracks for dryer and
kiln cars directly upon the surface of the working



area instead of sinking the rails flush with the
surface had much to do with the high volume of
tripping accidents.
Lack of Personal Safety Equipment.—The ac­
cident records of the clay construction products
industry are replete with cases in which it is
obvious that the use of personal protective devices,
such as safety shoes, impact goggles, hand leathers,
gloves, or safety helmets, would have prevented or
minimized the injuries which occurred. W ider use
of these devices in the industry unquestionably
is desirable. In the great majority of cases, how­
ever, the use or non-use of these devices has no
bearing upon the occurrence of the accident itself.
As accident analysis is primarily concerned with
determining the factors which led to the accident
as contrasted to the injury resulting from the
accident, the absence of personal protective de­
vices is seldom indicated as a hazardous working
condition. However, certain types of operations
involve hazards that can be overcome only through
the use of proper protective equipment. Typical
of these operations is the use of grinding wheels
in which the wearing of impact goggles is essential
if eye injuries are to be avoided. The failure to
Chart 5.— Major Types of Unsafe Acts in the Clay
Construction Products Industry, 1948

O THER
UHITCO STATE* DEPARTMENT OP LABOR
BUREAU O LABOR STATISTICS
P

20

INJURIES AND ACCIDEiNT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

provide goggles for this operation was quite com­
mon throughout the industry. A s a result, a rela­
tively large number of eye injuries was directly
attributable to this unsafe condition.
Other instances were found in which the lack
of personal protective equipment contributed to
the occurrence of accidents. They included cases
in which workers were not provided with respira­
tors or safety belts and lines when they entered
tanks or other closed areas, or were required to
enter hot areas or to handle acids without being
provided w ith proper protective clothing. These
accidents tended to produce severe injuries, but
were not particularly common.

Unsafe Acts
For the purpose of this analysis an unsafe act
was defined as that violation of a commonly ac­
cepted safe procedure which occasioned or per­
mitted the occurrence of the injury-producing
accident. Literally, this definition means that no
personal action should be designated as unsafe
unless there was a reasonable and less hazardous
alternative procedure. For example, the use of
an unguarded machine for which no guard was
provided was classified as an unsafe condition,
but not as an unsafe act. On the other hand, the
operation of a grinder without the use of goggles
which were provided was classified as an unsafe
act because in this instance there was a less haz­
ardous alternative procedure. The analysis, how­
ever, does not im ply that the alternative safe
procedure must have been known to the person
who acted in an unsafe manner, nor that his un­
safe act was the result of a considered choice
between two possible procedures. In many of
the accidents studied in this survey it was apparent
that the individual knew the safe procedure, but
consciously decided not to follow it. In other
cases, circumstances indicated that the person
acted unsafely simply because he did not know
the alternative safe method. The first step toward
the elimination of unsafe acts, therefore, is to
make sure that all workers are thoroughly in­
structed in the safe methods of performing their
duties and that they are fam iliar with the hazards
connected with deviations from those methods.
The second essential step is to exercise strict super­
vision to see that safe procedures are followed.



O f the accidents attributed to unsafe acts, 39
percent resulted from employees assuming unsafe
positions; 32 percent were due to unsafe loading,
placing, or m ixing; and 17 percent resulted from
the unsafe use of equipment.
Unsafe Position or Posture .—Inattention to
footing or surroundings accounted for nearly
three-fourths of the accidents caused by unsafe
position or posture. Failure to observe normal
caution in getting on or off equipment, ascending
or descending ladders, or in merely walking across
floors or yards was the most common fault. Poor
housekeeping which permitted the working areas
to be cluttered with loose materials and debris
was a contributing factor in a large proportion of
these cases. Most commonly, the accidents con­
sisted of slipping, stumbling, or falling over com­
paratively small objects on the floor. There was,
however, a considerable number of instances in
which workers simply walked into or bumped
against large piles of materials, machines, and
other objects which should have been quite visible
and avoidable.
L ifting with bent back or from an awkward
position was next in importance in this group of
unsafe acts. Most of the injuries resulting from
these unsafe acts were strains, sprains, or hernias.
The most common cases in the group were those in
which the worker attempted to lift a heavy object
while standing on an irregular or unsecure sur­
face or while stretching or reaching to such an ex­
tent as to throw him self off balance. Cases in
which the accident could be ascribed definitely to
liftin g with the back bent were relatively few.
This was probably due to the fact that the records
on liftin g accidents are seldom explicit in describ­
ing how the lifting was done. Actual observance
in the plants, however, disclosed that many of the
workers regularly bend from the hips and keep
their knees straight in lifting. It is reasonable
to assume, therefore that this unsafe practice con­
tributed to the occurrence of many more lifting
accidents than is shown by the records.
Unsafe Loading , Placing , and Mixing .—Three
specific types of unsafe acts were responsible for
nearly all of the accidents resulting from unsafe
loading, placing, and m ixing—taking the wrong
hold on objects, arranging or placing objects un­
safely, and gripping objects insecurely.

ACCIDENT PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

Taking the wrong hold on objects was respon­
sible for many crushed fingers and hands. In
most of these accidents, the workers’ fingers or
hands were crushed or pinched under or between
the objects which they were placing or piling.
However, in a considerable number of cases, work­
ers experienced hand injuries because they were
pushing vehicles while holding on to the corner
posts or side frames instead of keeping their hands
behind the vehicle.
Unsafe arranging or placing of objects was a
very common cause of injury. In most instances
the specific fault was that of placing materials in
insecure piles, or placing them close to the edge
of benches or platforms, from which they fell onto
the worker. A high percentage of these accidents
occurred in loading vehicles. In many instances,
also, workers parked vehicles or placed materials
in such a manner as to create obstructions and
tripping hazards in the workplaces.
The accidents which resulted from gripping ob­
jects insecurely most commonly were cases in

21

which the workers dropped objects on their own
feet. In many of these the fault lay in attempting
to lift too many objects at one time or in using
only one hand instead of two. In others workers
attempted to lift irregular, rough, slippery, or hot
objects by grasping only a small section and found
it impossible to hold them because they were off
balance.
Unsafe Use of Equipment.—The use of hand
tools and other equipment for purposes other than
those for which they were designed was a very
frequent accident cause, particularly in the re­
fractory plants. Among the more common un­
safe acts of this category were the practices of
separating clay products which had become fused
by striking them with a hammer and of using
screwdrivers or the handles of other tools as prys.
Additional examples of the misuse of equipment
included operating vehicles at excessive speeds,
backing trucks without making sure of clearances,
and carelessness in handling vehicles at blind cor­
ners. Basically, all of these unsafe acts indicate
inadequate supervision.

Suggestions for the Prevention of Typical Accidents
To illustrate the general types of accident prob­
lems in the clay construction products industry,
some typical accidents were selected for detailed
study. These accidents were analyzed by a mem­
ber of the safety-engineering staff of the United
States Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor
Standards and suggestions were made to indicate
how these accidents could have been prevented.
The aim of this section is not to make allinclusive recommendations nor to attempt to pro­
pound authoritative safety rules for the industry.
It is to point out, rather, that there is a simple
approach to the prevention of nearly every type of
accident. Many safety engineers would, no
doubt, attack the problems involved in these ac­
cidents in different ways and would achieve
equally good results. The method of prevention,
however, is secondary as long as it achieves its
purpose. Nevertheless, it is significant that these
recommendations repeatedly stress the need for
greater attention in training workers in safe pro­
cedures and in closer supervision to insure that
the safe procedures are followed.


942570— 51------ 4


Brief descriptions of these accidents are given
on the following pages, accompanied by recom­
mendations of the Bureau of Labor Standards’
Safety Specialist for the prevention of the
accidents.

Clay Pits and Mines
1. An employee was operating a steam shovel
in the clay pit. As he stepped down from the
shovel, he lost his balance and fell. A ring, which
he was wearing, caught on the door latch and
tore the flesh from his finger.
Investigation disclosed that there were no steps
or hand grips on the steam shovel.
(a) Adequate steps and hand grips should he

provided on steam shovels and similar equipment
to facilitate safe access to , and exit from , the
cabs of such equipment.
(b) Employees should not wear rings while
they are at work .
2. An employee, who was operating a steam
shovel, in the clay pit, stepped from the shovel

22

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAT CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

to oil the tripping mechanism. As he did, a large
rock fell from the face of the pit and struck him,
pinning him against the shovel.
Investigation disclosed that no schedule was
maintained for oiling the shovel.
(a) B est 'practice requires that steam shovels

and sim ilar equipment he oiled either at the heginning or at the end of each working day .
(b) I f it becomes necessary to oil or repair
the shovel during the day's operations , the shovel
should he hacked a safe distance from the face
of the clay p it before starting such work . D e­
pending on existing conditions , the minimum
distance should he from 20 to 50 feet .

3. An employee who was operating a cater­
pillar tractor in the clay pit misunderstood signals
given by men who were setting off a charge of
dynamite, and drove his tractor into the area.
In the explosion the employee was struck by flying
stones and particles of rock and clay.
Investigation disclosed that only oral signals
had been given and that the operator could not
hear the signals clearly owing to the noise of his
tractor.
(a ) A sim ple signal system should he adopted

and the signals given hy a horn or sim ilar device
which could he heard under all circumstances .
The signals should he given at least S minutes
before the actual blasting operations .
(b) 'Watchmen should he posted to prevent
workmen from entering the blasting area .
(c) W hen it is practical , blasting should he con­
ducted before or after the day's normal operations .

4. An employee who was setting off a charge of
dynamite was struck by a large piece of clay dur­
ing the explosion.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
using short fuses to explode the dynamite. The
fuse, which he was using, was approximately 16
inches in length and did not permit him sufficient
time to move a safe distance from the charge.

Safe procedures should he developed and rigidly
followed in all blasting operations . The minimum
length of fuse to he used for different types of
blasting should he established hy management and
the blasters should he thoroughly trained to rec­
ognize the conditions under which a fuse longer
than the specified m inim um should he used . ATI
blasting should he under the direct supervision
of experienced personnel .




6. W hile an employee was tending a conveyor
belt, a rock fell from the belt and struck his foot.
Where rocks or large pieces of clay are carried
hy conveyor belts , baffle-boards at least 8 inches
in w idth should he placed along the belt to p re ­
vent the rocks or pieces of clay from rolling or
falling from the belt.

6. An employee was coupling two clay cars.
H is finger was mashed between the coupling and
the pin.
Investigation disclosed that a common 8-inch
bolt was being used for a coupling pin.
O nly devices designed for use as coupling pins
should he used in coupling clay cars . The coupling
pins should he at least 18 inches in length and
constructed so that the head of the pin is ringshaped , perm itting it to he used as a handle during
the coupling operation .

Preparation Departments
7. An employee working in a clay bin was struck
by clay which was being dumped into the bin
from an overhead bucket.
(a) W here workers are required to enter bins ,

they should personally inform crane or scraper
operators who should he instructed not to pu t
materials into the bin until notified hy the same
person. A “watcher" should he posted at the top
of the bin to prevent other persons from putting
m aterials into the bin .
(b) Precautions should also he taken to prevent
anyone from dum ping bin while worker is inside .
(c) W orkers in bins should he provided w ith
safety belts and life lines .

8. An employee was using a pick to break pieces
of clay in the crusher. When the handle of the
pick struck the frame of the machine, it was
deflected and struck the workman.
Investigation disclosed that an iron bar had
been provided for this work but the employee was
not using it at the time of the accident.

Em ployees should he carefully instructed in the
proper use of hand tools and supervisors should
make sure that the safe procedures are follow ed .

9. An employee was cleaning clay from the
pulley of a grinding machine by striking it with
an iron bar while the machine was in operation.
The belt caught the bar and the employee’s hand
was drawn into the pulley.

ACCIDENT PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

(a) Employees should never be permitted to oil
or clean machinery while it is in motion .
(b) All pulleys and belts should be adequately
guarded.
10. W hile feeding a conveyor belt for the
grinder an employee was injured when a large

piece of clay rolled from the pile and struck his
foot.
Investigation disclosed that the employee had
undercut the pile.

Close supervision and adequate job training are
necessary to prevent accidents of this type. Safe
practice in breaking down la pile of clay requires
that the working surface of the pile be maintained
at an angle less than 46°.
Molding Departments
11. A granulator operator was cleaning his
machine. W hen he jumped down into the granu­
lator, his foot slipped and he struck his knee on
the granulator knife.

A ladder designed for this work should be pro­
vided and supervisors should enforce its use.

12. Clay had become packed in the hopper of a
mixer. An employee entered the hopper to loosen
the clay and, as he was working, the clay slid and
smothered him.
Investigation disclosed that it was common
practice for employees to work in these hoppers
without safety belts and lines and without other
employees being present.
(a) Safety belts and lines which will not permit

employees to work below the top level of the clay
in the hoppers should be provided and supervisors
should make sure that such equipment is used in
this work.
(b) "When an employee is working in a bin , a
“watcher” should be stationed at the top of the
bin {!) to prevent material being dropped into it ,
and (0) to assure the safety of the worker in the
bin.
13. W hile an employee was pushing a rack car
to the drier, one of the racks loosened and fell on
his thumb.
Investigation disclosed that the racks had not
been placed properly in the car when it was loaded.

Employees should be carefully instructed in the
proper methods of loading rack cars and close




23

supervision should be provided to '(assure that safe
procedures are followed .

14. W hile an employee was loading a 9 by 13inch flue lining on a truck, the flue lining broke
and fell on his foot.
Investigation disclosed that the flue lining broke
when it struck the truck which the employee was
loading.
(a) Safe procedures should be developed for

piling “green” products. Employees should be
thoroughly trained in these procedures and super­
visors should make sure that they are rigidly
followed .
(b) Workers handling heavy objects should
wear steel-toed safety shoes.

15. A s an employee was moving a rack car to
the drier, the car behind him rolled forward and
pinned him between the cars.
Investigation disclosed that the tracks were con­
structed on a slight incline and that the cars were
seldom blocked to prevent them from drifting.
(a) W herever possible , the tracks should be con­

structed on the level to prevent cars from rolling.
(b) Safe procedures should be developed for the
blocking of cars.—Employees should be carefully
instructed in these safe procedures and supervisors
should make sure that they are rigidly followed.

16. A n employee was using a pinch bar to
change the die on a press. W hen he struck the
bar with a hammer, a small piece of steel chipped
off and punctured his arm.
Investigation disclosed that the head of the bar
was mushroomed owing to extended use and that
a common claw hammer was used to strike the
bar.

A ll tools should be inspected frequently and
maintained in safe condition.

17. W hile a transfer operator was pulling the
cable on the transfer to hook it to a drier car, a
sliver of steel penetrated his finger.
Investigation disclosed that the operator was
not wearing gloves.
(a) Cables should be inspected frequently and ,

if worn, should be replaced.
(b) Workers engaged in this work should be
required to wear leather gloves.
18. W hile crossing the transfer tracks, an em­
ployee stumbled over one of the rails and fell.
Investigation disclosed that the employee ac­

24

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

tually stepped on the rail while crossing the
tracks.

Safe procedures should be developed to elimi­
nate, so far as possible, the need for crossing the
transfer tracks. In addition, all employees
should be carefully instructed as to the hazards of
crossing the tracks and warned specifically not to
step on the rails because of the danger of slipping.
19. An employee was cleaning the die on a dry
press with a steel brush. W hile engaged in this
work, some fine particles became embedded in his
eye.

Employees engaged in this work should be re­
quired to wear safety goggles or face shields.
20. An employee was cleaning mud from a con­
veyor while it was in motion. H is finger was
fractured when it was caught between the rollers.
Investigation disclosed that the employee vio­
lated a plant rule that machinery should not be
oiled or cleaned while it is in motion.

Close supervision is necessary to prevent acci­
dents of this type.
21. An employee was changing the die on a
sewer pipe press. A s he stooped to pick up a nut
from the floor the clay in the die came loose and
fell, striking the employee on the head.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
attempting to change the die without properly
cleaning the die and bell.

Careful instruction in the safe method of chang­
ing the die should be given to all employees en­
gaged in this work. Close supervision should be
provided to make sure that the safe procedures
are strictly followed.
22. An employee was using a wrench to adjust
the feeder belt on a press. The belt caught the
wrench and pulled the employee’s hand into it.

No adjustments or repairs should be made on
equipment while it is in operation. Supervisors
should be required to enforce this rule strictly.

23. A n employee was removing blocks from a
conveyor belt. W hen his foot slipped on some
sand lying on the floor, the employee strained
him self.
Investigation disclosed that the sand had been
spilled on the floor several hours before the
accident.

Good housekeeping is essential to accident pre­
vention. Floors should be cleaned frequently and




employees instructed to remove immediately amfy
materials dropped on the floor. Foremen should
be responsible for the housekeeping within their
respective departments.
Drying Departments
24. As an employee was helping to move a drier
car into the drier, the car caught on the door of
the drier. The employee pulled on the car to
release it, and when it came free, the car moved
forward rapidly, pinning the employee between
it and a car on the adjoining track.
Investigation disclosed that the door of the
drier had not been opened completely. A s a re­
sult there was insufficient clearance between the
side of the car and the door.

AU employees should be carefully instructed
in the safe performance of their jobs and super­
visors should see that workers follow these in­
structions. In this case, (a) the door should hme
been opened sufficiently to permit the entrance of
the car into the drier and (b) the car should have
been pushed instead of pulled.
25. W hile an employee was pushing a rack car
into the drier, his finger was caught between the
car and the frame of the drier.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
pushing the rack car with his fingers bent around
the side frames of the car.

Employees should be trained to place their
hands on the end frame of the cars instead of the
side frames.
26. A transfer operator was standing on the
transfer pulling a car of bricks toward him while
his co-workers were pushing the car. W hen his
foot slipped, the transfer operator fell under
the car.

Employees should be carefully instructed in the
safe performance of their duties. Cars should be
pushed instead of pulled.

27. W hile an employee was pushing a car of
bricks at the drier shed, the end row of bricks fell
from the car and struck his foot.
Investigation disclosed that broken brickbats
lying on the tracks had jarred the bricks loose
as the car passed over them.
(a) A regular cleaning schedule should be de­

veloped and rigidly followed. In addition, em­

ACCIDENT PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

ployees should be trained to remove promptly any
material dropped from cars while it is being
transferred.
(b) Employees handling bricks should wear
steel-toed safety shoes.
Setting Departments
28. An employee was setting bricks in a kiln.
W hile catching bricks, one slipped from his hand
and struck his wrist.
Investigation disclosed that the setter had been
standing in an awkward position while attempting
to catch the bricks.
(a) 'Workers should be carefully trained in safe
procedures. In this work , the setter should have

a secure footing so that he can handle the bricks
efficiently.
(b) Employees handling bricks should be fur­
nished, and required to wear, hand leathers.

29. An employee, who was setting bricks on the
floor of the kiln, was struck by a brick dropped by
an employee working above him.

Safe procedures should be developed for all
operations. In this case the foreman should have
plcmned the work to eliminate the necessity of
having one employee working immediately under
another workman.
30. An employee lost his footing and fell from
the bench on which he was working.
Investigation disclosed that several loose bricks
were lying on the narrow bench on which the
employee was standing.
(a) Employees should be instructed in the safe

performance of their duties and supervisors should
make sure that workmen strictly follow the safe
work methods. Benches should be kept free of
loose bricks and should be at least SO inches in
width. Employees should not work near the edge
of these benches.
(b) For better footing while working on piles
of bricks, the employees should work from plat­
forms.

31. An employee, who was catching tile,
momentarily lost his balance and owing to the
weight of the tile, strained his back.
Investigation disclosed that the tile had been
thrown away from the employee so that in reach­
ing for it he lost his balance.



In this work coordination is essential to the safe
and efficient handling of tiles. Setters should
make sure that their footing is secure; tossers
should carefully throw the tiles so that the setters
can reach them easily.

32. A tosser threw some bricks when the setter
was not looking. The bricks struck the setter’s
arm.

Coordinated teamwork is essential to the safety
of these operations. Before throwing bricks, the
tosser should make sure that the setter is ready
to receive them.

33. A setter was working directly above the
tosser. When he failed to catch the bricks thrown
to him, they fell on the tosser’s head.
Investigation disclosed that the setter could not
reach the bricks thrown to him.

Careful instruction and close supervision are
necessary to prevent accidents of this type. To
avoid being struck by falling bricks, tossers should
not work directly wider the setters. In addition^
they should be thoroughly trained in the safe
method of tossing bricks.
Burning Departments
34. W hile pulling a loaded kiln car, an employee
strained his back.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
attempting to move the loaded kiln car without
assistance.
(a) Loaded kiln cars should be moved mechan­

ically instead of manually.
(b) Where it is necessary to move loaded kiln
cars by hand, at least two men should be em­
ployed owing to the weight involved. The cars
should be pushed instead of pulled.

35. A loaded kiln car had been derailed. W hile
attempting to lift the car onto the tracks, an
employee strained his back.
Investigation disclosed that he had attempted
to lift the car onto the tracks without assistance.

Careful instruction and close supervision should
be provided for all lifting operations. Super­
visors should provide sufficient help for the lift­
ing of heavy or bulky objects. In this case several
men should have been used in lifting the kiln car.
36. An employee was charging a tunnel kiln.
As he pulled a loaded drier car on the track beside

26

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

him, the car caught on an extension cord attached
to a floor fan. The fan toppled over and struck
the employee’s leg.
Investigation disclosed that the extension cord
could have been plugged in at another location
away from the working area.
(a) Em ployees should be instructed to watch
for possible hazards when placing portable equip­
ment. In this instance the extension cord should
have been plugged into the other available outlet.
(b) E lectric outlets should be placed so that
electric cords attached to these outlets w ill not
present tripping hazards.
37. W hile firing a kiln, an employee turned his
ankle on a piece of coal lying near the kiln.
Investigation disclosed that housekeeping in
the area was generally poor.
Good housekeeping is essential to safety in any
operation. Coal should be kept neatly piled near
the kilns and workers should im m ediately remove
any pieces of coal which are dropped during the
firing operation.
38. A s an employee opened the kiln door, the
heat from the kiln burned his face and arms.
Investigation disclosed that the kiln was being
opened before it had cooled sufficiently.
Before the door of a kiln is rem oved , the Min
should be tested by a responsible employee to make
sure that it has cooled sufficiently .
39. An employee was removing the door of a
kiln. A s he reached for a brick his leather glove
caught on another brick and turned back. A s a
result, his hand was burned when it touched a hot
brick.
Investigation disclosed that the gloves which the
employee was using were badly worn and did not
afford the protection they normally provided.
A ll personal safety equipment should be in ­
spected frequently and , if defective, should be
replaced.
40. A transfer operator was m oving kiln cars
onto a storage track by means of a winch. The
cable broke, snapped, and struck the employee’s
foot.
Investigation revealed that (a) there were no
regular inspections of equipment in the plant and
(b) the cable was badly worn.
A ll cables should be inspected regularly amd
if worn or frayed should be replaced im m ediately.



Drawing and Wheeling Departments
41. W hile placing bricks in a wheelbarrow, an
employee cut his hand on the sharp edge of a
broken brick.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
not using the hand leathers which had been
provided.
Em ployees should be instructed in safe work
methods. Supervisors should see that employees
use the protective equipment provided for them.
42. An employee burned his arm while pushing
a hot kiln car from a tunnel kiln.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
wearing a short-sleeved shirt.
(a) K iln cars should be rem oved from the kilns
mechanically instead of manually.
(b) Em ployees who are required to handle hot
kiln cars should be required to wear adequate
personal safety equipment .
43. An employee was drawing a kiln. A s he
was rolling a 36-inch sewer pipe his hand was
squeezed between the pipe and the kiln door.
Investigation disclosed that several broken bats
were scattered on the floor at the entrance to the
kiln. W hen the pipe struck one of these pieces it
turned and pinched the employee’s hand between
the pipe and the kiln door.
Good housekeeping is essential to safety.
Broken pieces of pipe and other loose objects
should be rem oved to a safe place as soon as they
are discovered .
44. A n employee was pushing a wheelbarrow
loaded with sewer pipes. The wheelbarrow
tipped and the employee’s hand was caught be­
tween the handle of the wheelbarrow and a pile
of pipe.
Investigation disclosed that the wheelbarrow
had been improperly loaded.
(a) Em ployees engaged in this work should be
carefully instructed in the safe m ethod of loading
amd handling wheelbarrows.
(b) Knuckle guards should be provided on all
wheelbarrows.
45. As an employee was wheeling a load of
bricks through a narrow door he bumped his
knuckles on the door frame.
Investigation disclosed that the doorway was
too narrow for the safe passage of wheelbarrows.

ACCIDENT PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

(a) Supervisors should plan and lay out each
operation for efficiency and safety. Employees
should then be instructed in these procedures and
supervisors should make sure that the instructions
are obeyed. In this instance an alternative truck­
ing route should have been established to elimi­
nate the necessity for using the narrow doorway.
(b) Knuckle guards should be provided on all
wheelbarrows.

46. W hile drawing bricks from a kiln an em­
ployee was overcome by the heat remaining in the
kiln.
Investigation disclosed that because the plant
was under pressure to fill a rush order, the draw­
ing operations had been started before the kiln
had cooled sufficiently to permit the safe entry of
workers.

Kilns should never be drawn until they have
cooled. Supervisors should be responsible for de­
termining when kilns may be entered safely.

47. An employee was unloading 6-inch sewer
pipes from a kiln. W hile attempting to catch a
pipe thrown to him by another worker, the em­
ployee lacerated his hand on a sharp edge of the
pipe.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
not wearing hand leathers at the time of the ac­
cident.
(a) In drawing kilns , pipes should be passed ,

not thrown.
(b) Employees engaged in this work should be
required to wear adequate hand protection. This
equipment should be inspected frequently and , if
defective , should be replaced.
48. An employee was drawing bricks from a
kiln. A brick from the unit he was lifting fell and
struck his toe.
Investigation disclosed that (a) the employee
was handling five bricks as a unit and (b) he was
not wearing safety shoes.
(a) The number of bricks that can be handled

safely under varying conditions should be de­
termined and that standard should be maintained.
Under ordinary circumstances, employees should
not "attempt to handle more than three bricks at a
time.
(b) Employees engaged in this work should be
required to wear steel-toed safety shoes.

49. A n employee was loading flue liners on a
wheelbarrow. The jagged edge of one of the



27

liners penetrated his gloves and lacerated his
fingers.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
wearing light canvas gloves.

Employees engaged in this work should be re­
quired to wear proper hand leathers or gloves with
leather palms.

50. A s an employee picked up a brick a splinter
from the brick punctured his hand.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
not wearing gloves or hand leathers.

Employees engaged in this work should be re­
quired to wear proper hand leathers or gloves with
leather palms.

51. An employee stood on a wheelbarrow to re­
move a 12-inch sewer pipe from the top of a kiln.
W hen his foot slipped he fell and strained his
back.
Investigation disclosed that (a) no assistance
had been provided for lifting the pipe and (b) no
equipment had been provided for reaching the top
of the kiln.

Sewer pipe of this size should be handled me­
chanically instead of mcmually. I f mechanical
equipment is not available , several men trained to
work as a team should be assigned to this work.

52. A n employee, who was drawing bricks from
a kiln, found two that had become fused. In at­
tempting to separate them he struck them against
another brick. As he did so a chip flew from one
of the bricks and struck his eye.
Investigation disclosed that no provision had
been made for separating bricks which were fused
during the burning operation.

Bricks should never be separated by striking
them against other objects. Instead , a hammer
and chisel should be provided for this purpose.
Employees engaged in this work should also be
required to wear proper goggles.

53. An employee was pulling a fan into position
by grasping the blades. When a coworker
turned the control switch the employee’s fingers
were caught in the fan.
Investigation disclosed that the fan blades were
not guarded and the control switch was located
so that the fan and the injured employee could
not have been seen.
(a) The fan blades should be properly guarded.
(b) Employees should be carefully instructed

as to the hazards of their jobs. In this ease the

28

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

(a) Employees should be thoroughly trained
employee should not have moved the fan before
in the correct method of loading wheelbarrows.
disconnecting it.
(c) Switches should be installed on electrical (b) Mirrors should be installed at all blind
equipment or should be located so that the comers to provide a view of approaching traffic.
(c) Employees should be trained to enter blind
equipment is in full view at all times.
54. An employee was wheeling brick through intersections cautiously to avoid collisions.

a shed. When the wheelbarrow struck a brick on
the floor the handle of the wheelbarrow turned
and struck him.
Investigation disclosed that (a) on cloudy days
the natural lighting was limited in this area, (b)
artificial lights were inadequate, and (c) house­
keeping was generally poor throughout the area.
(a ) A thorough study should be made to de­

termine the adequacy of existing lighting facili­
ties. Where the lighting is inadequate additional
fixtures should be provided.
(b) A regular cleaning schedule should be de­
veloped to maintain good housekeeping. In addi­
tion, employees should be instructed to remove
immediately, any bricks which have fallen during
wheeling operations. The necessary supervision
should also be provided to assure the enforcement
of these safe procedures.

55. An employee pushed several trailers
through an open door in front of a second work­
man who was walking along a shipping dock.
To escape being struck by the trailers, the second
employee jumped off the dock and strained his
back.
Investigation disclosed that the employee who
was pushing the trailers gave no signals before
entering the dock area nor did he enter the area
at a reduced speed.
(a) Mirrors should be installed at blind comers

to provide a view of approaching traffic.
(b) Employees engaged in trucking operations
should be carefully trained regarding the hazards
of their work. Before entering any blind inter­
section truckers should slow down, sound a warn­
ing and enter the intersection cautiously. Super­
visors should enforce these instructions rigidly.

56. W hile trying to prevent a loaded wheel­
barrow from overturning, an employee strained
his side.
Investigation disclosed that the wheelbarrow
had been improperly loaded and that the employee
was attempting to avoid a collision with another
worker at a blind corner at the time of the
accident.



57. A n employee was wheeling bricks in an
aisle running between two piles of bricks. To
permit another wheeler to pass, he pushed his
wheelbarrow to the side of the aisle. As he did,
his wheelbarrow tipped and, to avoid spilling his
load, he jerked the wheelbarrow upright and
struck his hand against the corner of a pile of
bricks.
Investigation disclosed that the aisle was not
wide enough for wheelbarrows to pass safely.
(a) Supervisors should plan and lay out each

operation for efficiency and safety. In this case,
the aisle should have been restricted to one-way
traffic since it was not wide enough for wheelers
to pass safely.
(b) Knuckle guards should be installed on the
handles of all wheelbarrows.
Shipping Departments

58. W hile wheeling bricks into a box car, an
employee slipped on the metal runway and
sprained his knee.
Investigation disclosed that the metal runway
had become very slippery owing to prolonged use.

Metal runways should have diamond tread or
other rough surfaces. They should be inspected
regularly and if worn should be replaced.

59. A splinter from a wire-bound box punctured
the finger of an employee who was crating bricks.
Investigation disclosed that (a) the crate had
been damaged and (b) the employee was not wear­
ing gloves.
(a) A ll crates should be carefully inspected

and damaged ones should be removed.
(b) Employees engaged in this work should be
required to wear hand leathers or gloves.

60. An employee was wheeling a load of bricks
into a boxcar. The wheelbarrow broke through
the floor of the car, throwing the employee against
the side of the car.
Investigation disclosed that the floor of the car
was badly worn.

Before loading any boxcar it should be inspected

ACCIDENT PREVENTION SUGGESTIONS

for defects. If the defects are likely to cause an
accident or to damage the products en route, they
should be repaired before loading operations
begin.

29

caused the tank to explode, burning the employee.
Investigation disclosed that the tank had not
been steamed before the soldering operations
began.

61. As an employee was placing a steel runway
into position at a boxcar, he pinched his finger
between the runway and the car-door facing.
Investigation disclosed that the runway was too
heavy for one person to place into position safely.

Before soldering or welding operations are be­
gun on any tank which has contained combustible
material, the tank should be purged with steam.
This fact should be definitely established by the
supervisor.

62. W hile an employee was sorting tile a jagged
piece cut his hand.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
not wearing the hand leathers which had been
provided.

For this work welders should be required to wear
impact goggles under their welding shields.

Sufficient help, trained to work as a team, should
be provided for lifting or moving all heavy or
bulky objects.

67. A welder raised his shield to chip a weld.
W hile chipping, a piece of slag entered his eye.
Investigation disclosed that the welder was
not wearing impact goggles at the time of the
accident.

Careful instruction and close supervision are
necessary to prevent accidents of this type.

Miscellaneous Departments

A ll hand tools should be returned to their desig­
nated storage places as soon as possible. They
should never be permitted to lie on floors or in
aisles.

A knife specifically designed for opening paperboard boxes should be used in this work.

63. An employee stepped on a hoe lying on the
floor of a boxcar. The handle of the hoe flew
up and struck his elbow.
Investigation disclosed that the hoe had been
used for cleaning the boxcar.

64. An employee was riding on top of a load of
6-inch pipe. The load of pipe toppled from the
truck and fell on him.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
riding on the load to steady it.
(a) The load should be secured so as to make

it unnecessary for employees to ride in this
position.
(b) Employees should never be permitted to
ride on loads of pipe, brick, tile, etc. Supervisors
should rigidly enforce this rule.
Maintenance Departments
65. A n employee was repairing the speed re­
ducer of a spraying machine. A second employee
started the machine and the maintenance worker’s
hand was caught in the belt.

Before repair work is started on any machine
or mechanical equipment, the starting switch
should be locked in an open position and tagged.

66. A maintenance worker was soldering a gaso­
line tank. The heat from the soldering iron




68. An employee was opening a paperboard box
with a knife. The knife slipped from the box
and struck the employee’s leg.
Investigation disclosed that the employee was
using a pocket knife.
69. An employee stepped into a hole in a
concrete floor and sprained his ankle.
Investigation disclosed that there were several
holes in the floor as a result of extended use
without proper maintenance.

A ll floors should be inspected periodically and,
if necessary, repaired. If the defective areas can­
not be repaired immediately, they should be
barricaded until the repairs are made.
70. W hile an employee was walking along the
dock, he fell into the transfer pit.
Investigation disclosed that the employee
stumbled over several broken brickbats that were
lying on the dock in this area.

Good housekeeping is essential to safety in any
operation. A regular cleaning schedule should
be developed and followed strictly. In addition ,
employees should be trained to remove promptly
any material dropped from cars or wheelbarrows
while it is being transferred. Supervisors should
be required to rigidly enforce these procedures.

71. Employees, who were removing the brac­
ing from the crown of a kiln, dropped the boards
to the ground. Another employee, who was draw­

30

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

ing bricks from a nearby kiln, stepped on a nail
projecting from one of the boards.
(a) The area in which the boards were being
dropped should have been roped off or barricaded .
(b) Nails projecting from scrap lumber or

Investigation disclosed that the employee was
wearing light canvas gloves.

72. W hile an employee was mounting tile, a
splinter from the mounting board punctured his
finger.
Investigation disclosed that the mounting board
was worn and splintered owing to extended use.

Employees engaged in this work should be re­
quired to wear protective goggles or face shields.

other material should be removed or bent over
promptly and the material should be stacked
properly and neatly , as soon as possible .

A ll such equipment should be inspected regu­
larly and , if worn or defective , should be replaced
or repaired immediately .

73. W hile an employee was sorting tile, a piece
of glaze punctured his hand.




A ll employees engaged in this work should be
required to wear proper hand leathers or gloves
with heavy leather palms .
74. W hile an employee was using a grinder to
trim refractory bricks, some fine particles of clay
entered his eye.

75. As an employee was closing the gates on an
elevator the rope holding the counterweight broke
and the gate fell on his hand.
Investigation disclosed that the rope had become
frayed through extended use.

A ll such equipment should be inspected regu­
larly and , if fou/nd defective , should be repaired
immediately .

31

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

Appendix.—Statistical Tables
T

a b le

1.— Industrial Injury Rates for 675 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Kind of Product and by Extent of Disability, 1948
Number of disabling injuries
Product1

Num­
ber of
estab­
lish­
ments

Num­
ber of
em­
ployees

675
369
62
22
40
24
16
36
7
111

52,995
18,497
1,821
4,797
5,106
1,413
3,693
5,115
669
12,999

All products.......................................
Structural brick...... ..........................
Drain tile...........................................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile __
Structural tile : Total........................
Unglazed.......................................
Glazed. _ _ _____
Sewer pipe.........................................
Terra cotta..........................................
Clay refractories........ .........................

Resulting in—
Em­
ployeeDeath
hours
and per­ PerDeath Per­ Tem­ All dis­ manent- manentworked
abling total partial(thou­ Total or per­ manent- porarymanent- partial total injuries disabil­ disabilsands)
ity
total
ity
disabil­ disabil­ disabil­
ity
ity 8 ity
107,965 4,169 (2) 21
36,907 1,698 (2) 13
192
1
3,718
9,905
238
1
11,066
362
3,190
162
1
7,876
200
2
10,638
571
1
1,337
51
3
26,239
855

1Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
*Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total dis­
ability cases included.
T

a b le

Frequency rates of1

38.6
46.0
51.6
24.0
32.7
50.8
25.4
53.7
38.1
32.6

108 4,040
46 1,639
4
187
2 236
4
357
1 160
3
197
11
558
2
48
27 825

0.2
.4
.3
.1
.3
.2
.7
.1

1.0
1.2
1.1
.2
.4
.3
.4
1.0
1.5
1.0

Severity
Average number
of days lost or
charged per in­
Tem­
injury
porarySever­
total
ity
Tem­ rate4
disabil­
ity All dis­ poraryabling total
injuries disabil­
ity
37.4
44.4
50.2
23.8
32.2
60.2
25.0
52.5
35.9
31.5

75
93
51
16
44
72
22
66
146
66

14
14
14
13
14
11
17
15
9
16

2.9
4.3
2.6
.4
1.4
3.7
.5
3.6
5.6
2.2

8The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for
each million employee-hours worked.
4The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.

2.— Industrial Injury Rates for 675 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Area, State, Product, and by Extent of Disability, 1948
Number of disabling injuries

Severity

Frequency rates of*—

Average number of days
Resulting in—
Em­
lost or charged per
Num­ Num­ ployeeDeath Per­ Tem­ injury
ber of ber of hours
and per­ manent- poraryArea, State, and product8 estab­ em­ worked
Sever­
All dis­
Death
lish­
or per­ Per­ Tem­ abling manent- partial total
(thou­
Per­ Tem­ ity
ments ployees sands) Total manent- manent- porary- injuries total disabil­ disabil­ All dis­ manent- porary- rate4
disabil­ ity
total partial total
ity abling partial total
ity
disabil­ disabil­ disabil­
injuries disabil­ disabil­
ity
ity
ity*
ity
ity
United States : Total.
N ew England: Total.

Structural brick__

M iddle Atlantic: Total............

Structural brick.................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile.
Structural tile, glased____
Sewer pipe......................... .
Clay refractories.................
New Jersey : Total........ ........
Structural brick.................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile.
Clay refractories________
New York : Total_________
Structural brick.................
Pennsylvania : Total-...........
Structural brick.................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile.
Structural tile, glazed____
Sewer pipe...........................
Clay refractories.................
E ast N orth Central: T o ta l...

Structural brick....... .........
Drain tile............................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile.
Structural tile, glazed____
Sewer pipe.................. ........
Clay refractories.................

See footnotes at end of table.




675
27
23
139
63
8
3
5
43
22

8

3
8
15

12

102

43
4
3
5
34
183
69
41
5
10
18
30

52,995
1,010
817
11,487
3,843
1,381
765
706
4,022
2,069
546
657
1,292
953
8,126
2,232
506
765
706
3,364
16,189
4,360
1,337
2,269
2,692
2,728
2,061

107,965
1,505
1,119
23,719
8,180
2,983
1,662
1,412
7,920
4,291
1,206
1,356
2,850
2,068
16,578
4,823
1,015
1,662
1,412
6,562
32,983
8,507
2,705
4,709
5,715
5,652
4,012

4,169 (2) 21
80
61
1
1,153
504
1
73
69
93
323
192
89
29
46
139
1
126
1
822
289
31
69
93
277
1,262
7
376
2
131
94
112
335
2
146
2

108 4,040
80
61
26 1,126
13 490
73
1
68
3
90
5 318
7
185
2
87
29
3
43
11
127
11
114
8
814
289
31
1
68
3
90
2 275
17 1,238
6 368
1 130
2
92
1 111
4 329
141
3

38.6
53.1
54.5
48.6
61.6
24.5
41.5
65.9
40.8
44.7
69.0
24.1
33.9
48.8
60.9
49.6
59.9
30.5
41.5
65.9
42.2
38.3
44.2
48.4
20.0
19.6
59.3
36.4

0.2
.1

.4
.5

.2
.2
.4
.5

1.0
1.1
1.6
.6
2.1
.6
1.6
1.6
2.2
3.9
5.3
.5
.6
2.1
.3
.5
.7
.4
.4
.2
.7
.7

37.4
53.1
54.5
47.5
59.9
24.5
40.9
63.8
40.2
43.1
67.4
24.1
31.7
44.5
55.1
49.1
59.9
30.5
40.9
63.8
41.9
37.6
43.3
48.0
19.6
19.4
58.2
35.2

75
12
12
41
60
13
18
21
19
47
61
13
41
156
171
20
11
14
18
21
16
66
67
18
21
23
83
113

1,183
1,021
1,373
300
300
340
921
2,150
367
1,232
1,232
819
300
300
300
1,229
1,267
300
300
300
2,525
667

14 2.9
12 .6
12 .7
13 2.0
13 3.7
.3
13
14 .8
12 1.4
14 .8
14 2.1
13 4.2
13
.3
19 1.4
17 7.6
18 10.4
12 1.0
11
.7
14 .4
14
.8
12 1.4
14 .7
16 2.5
15 2.9
16 .9
15 .4
21
.5
17 4.9
18 4.1

32
T

a b le

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTS ON PRODUCTS

2.— Industrial Injury Rates for 675 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Area, State, Product, and by Extent of Disability, 1948— Continued
Number of disabling injuries

Frequency rates of*
*—

Severity

Resulting in—
Average number of days
Em­
Num­ Num­ ployeelost or charged per
ber of ber of hours
Death Per­ Tem­ injury
Area, State, and product1 estab­ em­ worked
All dis­ and per­ manent- poraryDeath
Sever­
lish­
(thou­
or per­ Per­ Tem­ abling manent- partial total
ity
ments ployees sands) Total manent- manent- porary- injuries total disabil­ disabil­
Per­ Tem­ rate4
partial total
disabil­ ity
total disabil­ disabil­
ity All dis­ manent- poraryabling partial total
ity
disabil­ ity
injuries disabil­ disabil­
ity
ity*
ity
ity
East North Central:
Illinois: Total __ Total—Con.
Structural brick, ___
Indiana; Total
Structural brick....... .................
Drain tile
__
Structural tile, glazed
Ohio: Total...................................
Structural brick___ _________
Drain tile....................................
Hoofing, floor, and wall tile___
Structural tile, glazed „
Sewer pipe__ 1.".........................
Clay refractories..........................
West North Central: Total...........
Structural brick..........................
Structural tile, unglazed............
Sewer pipe__ 1______________
Clay refractories.
Iowa:'Total.....................................
Structural tile, unglazed............
Kansas: Total.................................
Missouri: Total..............................
-South Atlantic: Total................. .
Structural brick_____________
Clav refractories
Georgia: Total...................... .........
Structural brick.
Maryland: Total.......... ..................
Structural brick........................
North Carolina: Total....................
Structural brick___ _________
South Carolina: Total____
Structural brick..........................
Virginia : Total
Structural brick....... ..................
West Virginia : Total __
Structural brick. _
East South Central: Total........
Structural brick. _ ___
Clay refractories. _
Alabama: Total..............................
Structural brick....... .................
Clay refractories________ ____
Kentucky : Total.
West South Central: Total...........
Structural brick..........................
Arkansas : Total__ .
Structural brick . _. .
Oklahoma: Total _ _
Texas : Total.............. .................
Structural brick..........................
Rockv Mountain: Total
Structural brick
Colorado : Total
Pacific: Total.................................
Structural brick..........................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile____
California: Total..........................
Structural brick.........................
Roofing, floor, and wall tile
Washington : Total

36 2,314
21 1,439
39 2,771
15
835
427
15
3
638
911 10,625
24 1,748
14
612
4 1,798
7 2,054
15 2,408
22 1,628
64 6,967
29 1,078
9 543
4 533
9 4,141
20 i;064
6 454
10 549
22 4,831
71 5,276
54 3,132
7 1,050
9 1,684
5 697
9 667
7 400
14 959
12 566
10 498
9 481
13 560
12 545
12 817
7 392
45 2,425
30 1,166
8 864
16 1,278
9 568
5 545
15
756
44 2,482
36 1,890
8 648
7 544
9 359
22 1,334
16 886
35 1,354
27 653
16 796
67 5,805
38 1,558
7 806
42 5,141
22 1,081
7 806
10 390

4,632
2,769
5|325
1,440
'828
1,274
22; 279
3,828
1,293
3,734
4,441
Si 007
3,121
14,876
2,368
1,277
1,188
8,509
2,476
1,059
1,172
10,046
11,472
6,711
2,382
3,872
1,557
1,374
883
1,987
1,151
1,096
1,058
1,221
1,191
1,737
761
4,588
2,132
1,692
2,643
1,187
1,101
1,264
5,199
3,946
1,393
1,179
786
2,827
1,891
2,563
1,140
1,576
11,060
2,804
1,525
9,782
1,880
1,525
812

285
160
176
69
24
55
777
128
56
88
57
316
79
517
139
72
53
185
140
65
47
265
343
199
57
103
59
56
30
54
18
24
21
51
49
45
22
157
76
59
72
27
40
58
256
204
53
53
37
162
115
101
44
78
300
95
54
256
80
54
42

6
1
2
2
3
2
1
2
(1)2
(1) 2

(1) 2
(1) 2
(1)5
(1)4
1
2
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
1
2
1

1Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
* Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability cases included.




2
2
2
i
13
4
2
1
3
3
15
3
10
2
1
11
14
7
3
3
1
1
2
2
4
3
4
1
6
2
3
5
1
3
8
8
2
2
1
5
5
2
1
1
20
6
15
6
4

283
158
174
69
23
55
758
123
56
86
56
311
74
499
134
72
53
175
137
65
46
252
327
190
54
100
58
56
30
53
18
20
17
47
46
41
21
146
70
55
65
25
36
57
247
195
51
51
36
156
109
99
43
77
278
88
54
239
73
54
38

61.5
57.8
33.1
47.9
29.0
43.2
34.9
33.4
43.3
23.6
12.8
63.1
25.3
34.8
58.7
56.4
44.6
21.7
56.5
61.4
40.1
26.4
29.9
29.7
23.9
26.6
37.9
40.8
34.0
27.2
15.6
21.9
19.9
41.8
41.2
25.9
28.9
34.2
35.7
34.9
27.2
22.7
36.3
45.9
49.2
51.7
38.0
45.0
47.1
57.3
60.8
39.4
38.6
49.5
27.1
33.9
35.4
26.2
42.6
35.4
51.7

0.4

.7
.4

0.3
.3
.4
.6
.2
.8
.4
.2
.2
.3

1.8
1.9
1.1
1.9
.6
.8
.8
.9
.8
.2
.3
.4
.5
.2
.4
.2
.5

1.2
.6
1.0
.5
.2
.6
1.0
1.0
1.3
1.2
.8
.9
1.1
1.2
1.0
1.3
.8
.6
.5
1.8
1.9
3.3
2.5
2.3
1.3
1.3
.9
1.8
1.9
.8
2.7
1.5
2.0
1.4
1.7
1.3
1.8
2.6
.8
.9
.6
1.8
2.1
1.5
3.2
4.9

61.1
57.1
32.7
47.9
27.8
43.2
34.0
32.1
43.3
23.1
12.6
62.1
23.7
33.6
56.6
56.4
44.6
20.5
55.3
61.4
39.2
25.1
28.5
28.4
22.6
25.8
37.3
40.8
34.0
26.7
15.6
18.3
16.1
38.5
38.7
23.6
27.6
31.8
32.9
32.5
24.5
21.1
32.7
45.1
47.5
49.4
36.6
43.3
45.8
55.1
57.7
38.6
37.7
48.9
25.1
31.4
35.4
24.5
38.9
35.4
46.8

16
20
27
13
26
18
87
115
22
22
28
82
199
66
106
12
14
53
58
11
21
87
131
122
228
72
18
12
12
18
7
651
743
61
57
377
198
223
343
145
211
245
204
123
91
112
66
66
73
105
144
25
38
16
138
137
13
137
161
13
145

300
300
1,050
300
1,400
1,750
300
300
2,767
667
657
300
745
300
300
705
2,018
1,407
4,000
2,033
300
300
1,650
1,650
638
750
4,000
4,000
425
450
450
390
300
450
1,675
1,675
900
900
2,400
1,840
1,840
525
750
300
1,260
967
1,320
967
1,275

14 1.0
16 1.1
15
.9
.6
13
.7
14
18
.8
17 3.0
14 3.9
.9
22
15
.5
.4
23
18 5.2
23 5.0
12 2.3
13 6.2
.7
12
14
.6
13 1.1
11
11 3.3
.7
.8
15
13 2.3
14 3.9
13 3.6
18 5.4
14 1.9
.7
13
12
.5
.4
12
12
.5
.1
7
17 14.3
18 14.8
12 2.6
12 2.4
23 9.8
17 5.7
17 7.6
17 12.2
21 5.0
19 5.7
12 5.6
23 7.4
20 5.6
16 4.5
17 5.8
33 2.5
33 2.9
9 3.5
11 6.0
13 8.8
15 1.0
21 1.4
12
.8
15 3.7
14 4.7
13
.5
13 3.6
15 6.9
13
.5
26 7.5

1The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked,
4The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.

33

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES
T

a b le

3.— Industrial Injury Rates for 675 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Product, Size of Plant and by Extent of Disability, 1948

Product and size of plant1

Total................................................
Less than 25 employees....... ......
25 to 49 employees.......................
50 to 74 employees.......................
75 to 99 employees.......................
100 to 249 employees...................
250 employees and over_______
Structural brick : Total________
Less than 25 employees_______
25 to 49 employees.............. ........
50 to 74 employees.......................
75 to 99 employees.......................
100 to 249 employees...................
250 e m p l o y e e s a n d o v e r

Structural tile : Total...................
Less than 50 employees_______
50 t,o 99 e m p l o y e e s
... .
100 to 249 employees_________
250 employees and over_______
Sewer pipe : Total...................... .
Less than 100 employees______
100 to 249 employees...................
250 employees and over_______
Clay refractories : Total.-............
L a s s t h a n 50 e m p l o y e e s
50 to 74 employees___________
75 to 99 employees.......................
100 to 249 employees_________
250 employees and over..............

Number of disabling injuries
Frequency rates of Severity
Em­
Resulting in—
Average number of days
Num­ Num­ ployeelost or charged per
hours
Death Per­ Tem­ injury
ber of ber of worked
and per­
estab­ em­ (thou­
Death Per­ Tem­ All dis­ manent- manent- porarySever­
lish­
abling
or perpartial total
ity
Per­ Tem­ rate 4
ments ployees sands) Total m<ment- manent- porary- injuries total disabil­ disabil­
disabil­ ity
partial total
ity All dis­ manent- porarytotal disabil­ disabil­
abling partial total
ity
disabil­ ity
ity
injuries disabil­ disabil­
ity >
ity
ity
675
160
206
102
71
107
29
369
85
144
73
39
24
4
40
16
11
10
3
36
10
23
3
111
41
10
20
33
7

52,995
2,154
7,250
6,021
6,034
15,279
16,257
18,497
1, 271
5,054
4,304
3,323
3,194
1,351
5,106
520
739
1,632
2,215
5,115
740
3,523
852
12,999
1,025
574
1,696
4,652
5,052

107,965
3,627
1,436
12,367
12,347
31,605
33.656
36,907
1,996
9.606
8,729
6,914
6,671
2,991
11,066
1,216
1, 518
3, 776
4,556
10,638
1, 531
7,340
1,767
26,239
2,045
1,164
3,324
9, 212
10, 494

4,169
122
611
596
589
1,367
884
1,698
65
429
433
336
293
142
362
47
74
176
65
571
87
366
118
855
56
49
135
391
224

(2) 21
(1) 4
4
(1) 5
4
4
(2) 13
(1) 3
3
(1) 3
2
2
1
1
2
2
3
3

*Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
>Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability cases included.




108 4,040
110
8
15 592
10 582
13 571
38 1,325
24 860
46 1,639
3
59
11 415
8 422
7 327
15 276
2
140
4 357
47
73
4
172
65
11 558
3
84
7 357
1 117
27 825
3
53
49
5 127
9 382
10 214

38.6
33.6
42.5
48.2
47.7
43.3
26.3
46.0
32.6
44.7
49.6
48.6
43.9
47.5
32.7
38.7
48.7
46.6
14.3
53.7
56.8
49.9
66.8
32.6
27.4
42.1
40.6
42.4
21.3

0.2
1.1
.3
.3
.4
.1
.4
1.5
.3
.3
.3
.3
.1
.7
.2
.3
.1
.9

1.0
2.2
1.0
.8
1.1
1.2
.7
1.2
1.5
1.1
.9
1.0
2.2
.7
.4
1.1
1.0
2.0
1.0
.6
1.0
1.5
1.5
1.0
1.0

37.4
30.3
41.2
47.1
46.2
42.0
25.6
44.4
29.6
43.3
48.4
47.3
41.4
46.8
32.2
38.7
48.0
45.5
14.3
52.5
54.8
48.6
66.2
31.5
25.9
42.1
38.2
41.4
20.3

75
267
77
83
91
67
43
93
354
80
87
76
114
33
44
9
92
42
22
66
107
72
17
66
40
10
165
54
45

1,183
869
1,033
1,825
1,192
1,263
981
1.240
1,450
964
1,744
1,371
1,137
750
1,225
1,225
1,582
2,767
1,257
300
948
367
380
1,717
715

14 2.9,
15 9.0
13 3.3
13 4.0
14 4.3
15 2.9
16 1.1
14 4.3
11 11.5
14 3.6
14 4.3
12 3.7
15 5.0
23 1.6
14 1.4
9
.4
11 4.5
15 2.0
22
.3
15 3.6
12 6.1
16 3.6
15 1.2
16
22 2.2
1.1
10
.4
19 6.7
15 2.3
14 1.0

* The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked,
4The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.

34
T

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INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

4.— Industrial Injury Rates for 650 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Kind of Safety Organization and by Extent of Disability, 1948
Number of disabling injuries

Frequency rates of

Severity

Resulting in—
Average number of days
Em­
Num­ Num­ ployeelost or charged per
Death Per­ Tem­ injury
ber of ber of hours
and per­ manent- poraryRind of safety organization1 estab­ em­ worked
All dis­
Death
Sever­
lish­
or per­ Per­ Tem­ abling manent- partial total
(thou­
ity
Per- Tem- rate4
ments ployees sands) Total manent- manent- porary- injuries total disabil­ disabil­
partial total
disabil­ ity
total disabil­ disabil­
ity All dis­ manent- poraryity
abling partial- totaldisabil­ ity
ity
injuries disabil- disability*
ity
ity
Total................................................
Establishments with safety engi­
neers. .......................................
And with safety committees___
Composed of supervisory
wnrkttrs
Composed of supervisory and
nonsupervisory workers.._
Establishments without safety
engineers...................................
But with safety committees___
Composed of nonsupervisory
workers
Composed of supervisory
workers....................................
Composed of supervisory and
nonsupervisory workers..........
And without safety committees...

650 52,002 106,019 4,073 (1)20
21
17
5
11

6,469
6,009
2,384
3,529

13,246 245
12,383 210
5,061 34
7,138 176

629
187
10
65
101
442

45,533
21,195
1,804
7,532
11,308
24,338

92,773
43,418
3,751
15,482
23,159
49,355

1

3,828 (1) 19
7
1,593
52
4
568
942
3
2,235 (1)12

*Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
3 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total disability cases included.
T

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105 3,948

38.4

0.2

19
19
4
15

225
191
30
161

18.5
17.0
6.7
24.7

86 3,723
41 1,545
2
50
23 541
16 923
45 2,178

41.3
36.7
13.9
36.7
40.7
45.3

1.0

37.2

73 1,143

15

2.8

.1

1.4
1.5
.8
2.1

17.0
15.5
5.9
22.6

140 1,276
131 1,276
67 413
143 1,507

18
17
21
16

2.6
2.2
.5
3.5

.2
.2

.9
.9
.5
1.5
.7
.9

40.2
35.6
13.4
34.9
39.9
44.2

69
65
103
100
43
72

14
15
21
14
16
14

2.8
2.4
1.4
3.7
1.7
3.2

.3
.1
.2

1,113
906
2,150
1,093
481
1,302

3The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked,
4 The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.

5.—Industrial Injury Rates for 675 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products
Classified by Department and Extent of Disability, 1948
Number of disabling injuries
Department1

Severity

Resulting in—
Average number of days
Em­
Num­ Num­ ployeelost or charged per
ber of ber of hours
Death Per­ Tern- injury
estab­ em­ worked
Death Per­ Tem­ All dis­ and per­ manent- porarySever­
lish­
or per­
abling manent- partial total
(thou­
ity
Per­ Tem­ rate4
ments ployees sands) Total manent- manent- porary- injuries total disabil­ disabil­
partial total
disabil­ ity
total disabil­ disabil­
ity All dis­ manent- poraryabling partial total
ity
disabil­ ity
ity
injuries disabil­ disabil­
ity 1
3
*
ity
ity

Total...............................-.............. 675*
Clay pit__....................................... 94
Clay mine..........................-........... 434
Preparation.....................................
Molding........................................... 611
Soft-mud process. ................. - 149
Stifl-mud process..................... 332
Dry-press................. ............. 100
D rying........... .......................... 257
Setting......... ....................—..........- 500
511
Burning......................................... 421
Drawing and wheeling................ .
Storage and shipping...................... 367
Glazing............................................ 62
Administration and service.......... 1,288
Administrative and clerical-.. 470
Plant maintenance................... 457
Power........................ -............. 126

52,995
1,436
1,147
2,323
8,991
1,918
4,083
2,289
849
4,365
3,958
4,421
3,851
905
7,700
3,351
3,093
403

107,965
2,873
2,375
4,843
17,992
3,778
8,141
4,615
1,678
8,712
8,399
9,077
7,978
1,829
16,356
7,061
6,673
839

2 21

( )

121
177
229
603
154
315
102
80
373
228
547
441
26
443
21
357
24

(1)4
(1)3
3
3
i
1
2
5
3
1

1Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
3 Figures in parentheses indicate the number of permanent-total dis­
ability cases included.
3 The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each
million employee-hours worked.




Frequency rates of *—

108 4,040
111
6
175
2
11 215
22 578
8
146
9 303
3
3
76
5 367
7 219
1 546
5 436
26
13 425
1
'20
11 343
1
22

38.6
42.1
74.5
47.3
33.5
40.8
38.7
22.1
47.7
42.8
27.1
60.3
55.3
14.2
27.1
3.0
53.5
28.6

0.2

1.4
.6
.2
.4
.6
.1
.2
.3
.4
1.2

2.1
.8
2.3
1.2
2.1
1.1
.7
1.8
.6
.8
.1
.6
.......
.8
.1
1.6
1.2

37.4
38.6
73.7
44.4
32.1
38.7
37.2
21.4
45.3
42.1
26.1
60.2
54.7
14.2
26.0
2.9
51.5
26.2

75
271
36
169
76
60
104
25
107
50
129
12
29
15
106
24
93
273

1,183
1,100
1,350
1,559
820
856
1,078
300
467
1,580
1,971
300
1,460
885
300
991
300

14 2.9
20 11.4
21 2.7
16 8.0
16 2.5
16 2.4
17 4.0
16
.5
16 5.1
13 2.1
16 3.5
12
.7
13 1.6
15
.2
12 2.9
.1
11
12 5.0
12 7.8

* The severity rate is the average number of days lost for each thousand
employee-hours worked.
3 Number of establishments reporting.

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES
T

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35

6.—Distribution of Industrial Injury-Frequency Rates of 675 Establishments Manufacturing
Clay Construction Products, Classified by Product and Size of Plant, 1948

Product and size of plant 1

Total
number of
estab­
lish­
ments

Total............................................
T.fiss t h a n 25 e m p l o y e e s .
50 to 74 employees..............
75 to 994employees________
10ft t.o 2 9 e m p l o y e e s
250 employees and over____
Structural brick..........................
Less than 25 employees___
25 t o 4 9 e m p l o y e e s
50 to 74 employees. ..............
75 to 99 employees. ..............
100 to 249 employees______
250 employees and over____
Structural tile............ ...............
Less than 50 employees___
50 to 99 employees________
100 to 249 employees______
250 employees and over____
Sewer pipe_________________
Less than 100 employees___
100 to 249 employees______
250 employees and over
Clay refractories..........................
Less than 50 employees___
60 to 74 employees________
75 to 99 employees________
100 to 249 employees.............
250 employees and over____
25 t o 4 9 e m p l o y e e s '

Number of establishments with frequency rates of *—
150
lto 9 10 to 19 20 to 29 30 to 39 40 to 49 50 to 59 60 to 69 70 to 79 80 to 89 90 to 99 100 to 125 to and
124
149 over

0

675 204
160 106
206 69
13
102
71 8
107 8
29
369 121
85 57
144 48
73 8
39 6
24 2
4
40 9
16 6
—

11
10

3
36
10
23
3
111

41

10
20

33
7

2
1

13

59

1
22
11
6

2
1

5
5
4

13

6

21
1
2
2

20
8

19
1

2

28
14
7
4
3

is”
2
14
12
3
4

1

4

1

1
2

5

15
5

2
2

i

3
3

2
2

4

16
2
4
4

6
6
6

2

23~
2
7
5
5

—

13
2
4
3
3
1

2
2

3

1
1
2

1
1

5

1
2
2

3

6

10

1

3

1

5

3
1

2
1

1

2

6
2

2
2
1

3
7

6

5
9

6

4

2

11
1

26
3
5

6
11

9
4
3

1
1

3
3

5

39

2
8

9
6
3

6
2
2
2

6
1

3

22
2

8
6
2
2
1

2
2
1

1
1
1
1

55
6
13
9
8
14
5
26~

47
5
16
8
7
6
5

48
4
12
7
7
14
4
23
4

5

2

1
1

26

71
5
18

6
2
1
2
1

1

4

4

2

36
3

11
6
8
8

14
3
4
4
1
1
1

20
2

10
2

6
1

1

7
4

4
3

7
5

4
3
1

—

—

—

21
2
11

5
3

20
6
8
2
1

15
g
4

3

2
1

15
5
7

8
3
3

1

2

2

1
1

2
1
1

2

28
4
13
7
4

1

2
1
1

2

2
1

1
1

1

1

2
1
1
1
1

*Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.
*The frequency rate is the average number of industrial injuries for each million employee-hours worked.
T

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7.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Nature of Injury and Extent of Disability, 1948
Average number of
Number of
days lost per— medical injuries

Number of disabling injuries
Nature of injury

Total.........................................................
Amputations, enucleations.....................
Bruises, contusions...............................
Without infection.............................
With infection..................................
Bums, scalds (except chemicals)...........
Chemical bums.......................................
Cuts, lacerations, punctures____ ____
Without infection.............................
With infection..................................
Foreign bodies, not elsewhere classified.
Without infection.............................
With infection.............................
Fractures...............................................
Hernias....................................................
Industrial diseases_____ ___________
Sprains, strains.......................................
Welder’s flash..........................................
Other.......................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data................
1 Percents are based on classified cases only.




Total

Resulting in—

Death or
perma­
Number Percent 1 nenttotal
dis­
ability 3
2,114
27
617
679
38
46
8
364
308
46
69
63
6
246
72
20
628
6

20

1

100.0

1.3
29.2
27.4
16.8
14.6
2.2
3.3
3.0
.3
11.6
3.4
.9
29.7
.3
.9

(6 )

12

Dis­
Perma­ Tempo­ abling
rary- injury
nentpartial total
dis­
dis­
ability ability
65
27
2
2

8
8

3
(6) 6

16

2,047
615
577
38
46
8
346
300
46
69
63
6
227
72
14
626
6
17

1

76
44T
17
17
12
11

9
43
47
14
6
4
26
214
50
1,813
19
2
913
1

Averag e
number
of medi­
cal in­
Tempo­
juries
raryper dis­
total Number Percent 1 abling
dis­
injury
ability
14
10
10
12
11

9

10
10

14
6
4
26
28
50
19
11
2

16
1

3,568 = = = = =
100.0
1,052
29.4
1,024
28.6
28
.8
96
2.7
22
.6
924
25.9
859
24.1
65
1.8
683
19.2
675
19.0
8
.2
86
2.4
13
.4
638
17.9
13
.4
38
1.1
3

1.7
1.7
.7

1.8

2.1
2.8
2.6
2.8

1.4
9.9
10.7
1.3
.3
.7
1.0
2.2

1.9
3.0

* Figures in parentheses show the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.

36
T

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INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

8.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Nature of Injury and Kind of Plant, 1948
Kind of product

Total number
and n ledical
injui•ies 1

Nature of injury

Structural
brick plants

Hoofing, floor, and
wall tile plants

Structural
tile plants

Sewer pipe
plants

Clay refractory
plants

Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­
ber * cent * ber cent * ber cent * ber cent * ber cent * ber cent 1
Total.............................................................. 5,682 100.0 1,593 100.0
683 100.0
687 100.0 1,163 100.0 1,485
100.0
—
Amputations, enucleations.......... __...........
<r
5
.4
7
K
3
.4
4
.6
Bruises, contusions..................................
1,669
29.5
550 34.6
193 28.3
181
26.4
274 23! 6
447
30.1
Burns, scalds (except chemicals)...............
142
2.5
50
3.1
15
2.2
12
1.7
35
3^0
30
2.0
Chemical burns...........................................
30
.5
8
.5
3
3
3
.4
3
.4
12
.8
Cuts, lacerations, punctures....... ........... __ 1,278
295 18.5
22.5
159 23.3
167 24.3
262 22.6
380
25.6
Foreign bodies, not elsewhere classified...
752
13.2
.189 11.9
99 14.5
94
13.7
179
15.4
187
12.6
Fractures_______________ ___________
332
5.8
91
6.7
26
3.8
44
6.4
87
7.5
74
5.0
Hernias.................. .....................................
72
1.3
21
1.3
11
1.6
9
1.3
16
1.4
15
1.0
Industrial diseases......................................
33
.6
10
.6
1
’1
8
1.2
2
.3
12
.8
Strains, sprains........................................... 1,266
22.3
348 21.9
155 22.7
160 23.3
286
24.7
302
20.3
Welder’s flash ..............................................
19
.3
7
.4
1
.1
6
[4
3
.4
2
.2
Other............................................................
58
18
1.0
1.1
9
10
1.5
8
1.2
.8
13
*.9
Unclassified; insufficient data....................
4
4
'A disabling injury is one that results in death, in permanent
1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficent data.
impairment, or in an inability to work for at least one full day after the
1 Percents are based on classified cases only.
day of injury. A medical injury is a nondisabling injury requiring treat­
ment by a physician or surgeon.
—

T

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—

9.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Nature of Injury and Department, 1948
Nature of injury
Department *

i

Total number of
disabling and Ampu­
medical injuries * tations, Bruises, Burns, Chem­
ical
enucle­ contu­ scalds burns
ations sions

Cuts,
lacera­
tions,
punc­
tures

Foreign
bodies,
Indus­
Un­
not else­ Frac­ Her­ trial Strains, Weld­ Other class­
er’s
where tures nias dis­ sprains flash
ified
classi­
eases
fied

27 1,669
142
30 1,278
Total................................................ Number. _ 5,682
752 332 72
33 1,266 19 58
4L
Percent— =====
100.0
.5 29.5
2.5
13.2
1.3
•
===== ===== ===== = =.5 22.5 ====== 5.8 —.~~ ■ ■— .6 = 22.3 .3 1.0
..... . . .=
=
0
1
38
4
Clay p it____ .-.-....t-,.__________ Number. _ 144
3
2
2
32
14 16
29
0
Percent... 100.0
.71 26.4 2.8
2.1
22.2
9.7 11,1 1.4
20.1
1.4 2.1 —
q
158
46
4
Clay mine___________________ N um ber-. 100.0
35
15 18 g
29
0
Percent..
.6
29.1
2.5
22.2
9.5 11.4 3.8
.6
18.4
1.9
pFppflTfyHnn. _. .,......................
00
1
5
1
Number_ 359
4
2
112
78
51 18
oO 1
Percent. 100.0
.3 31.2
1.1
21.7 14.2 5.0 1.4
.6
23.1 .3 1.1
9
Q . .r„-nt-ft.
8
256
_____________ Number.. 830
5 ......... 2
Molding.—
169
89 48 12
223
L
Percent— 100.0 1.0 30.8
.6
20.4 10.7 5.8 1.4
.2
1.1
26.9
1. 1
Soft-mud process..................... Number..
71
1
1
29
13
7 3
17
Percent— 100.0 1.4 40.8
18.3
9.9 4.2
1.4 23.9
9
4
ft j- i —
2
Stiff-mud process__________ Number. _ 360
2
105
68
39 21
107
a _1---r ■*“
Percent— 100.0
.6
29.2
.6
18.9 10.8 5.8 2.5
1.1
29.7
.8
Dry-press................................. Number.. 185
3
63
1 ......... 2’
1
3
41
24 14
33
—
Percent— 100.0 1.6 34.1
22.2
.5
1.1
13.0 7.6 .5
1.6
17.8
1
9
5
1
1
" 2
Hand—...................................... Number. _ 105
29
18
39
P ercen t- 100.0 1.0 27.6
17.1
8.6 4.8 1.0
1.0
1 .9* —
’ 1 37.0
2
Drying-—...................................... Number. _ 160
60
3
8
25
2
10
46
3
Percent-.. 100.0
1.3 37.4
1.9 .........i' 15.6
5.0 6.3 1.3
.6
28.7
1.9’
1
4
3
Setting............................................. Number. _ 404
121
66
25 25 14
142
1
Percent— 100.0
30.1
.2
.7
16.4
.2
6.2 6.2 3.5
.2
35.3 i
1. 0
6
Burning_____________________ Number.. 372
2
102
24
69
65 14
83
6
li
P ercen t- 100.0
27.5
6.5
18.6 17.5 3.8 1.6
.5 22.4
1.6
Drawing and wheeling.................... Number.. 639
2
186
1
5
188
85 34
135
3
Percent— 100.0
,3 29.1
29.4 13.3 5.3 .2
.8
21.1
.5
11
3
Storage and shipping..................... Number.. 850
2
278
4
198
102
51 9
188 :
3'
it
P ercen t- 100.0
.2
32.7
1.3
.5 23.3 12.0 6.0 1.11
.4 22.1
.4
1
4
4
KJladng______________________ Number. _ 88
19
20
13 4
22
Percent— 100.0
21.6
1.1
22.8
14.8 4.5 1.1
4.5 25.1
4.5
Surface grinding and finishing___ Number..
70 .........1
16
1
20
9 2
21
Percent— 100.0 i. 4 22.9
1.4 28.6 12.9 2.9
29.9
Administrative and service........... Number. . 1 1,341
7 340
73
16 324 238 75 8
i‘
8
222
16 13
Percent— ! 100.0
.5 25.3
5.4
1.2
24.2 17.8 5.6 .6
.6
16.6 1.2 1.0
Administrative and clerical— Number..
63
3
1
1 1
21
2
10
10
14
Percent— ; 100.0
33.2 3.2
15.9 15.9 4.8 1.6
22. 2 1.6 1.6
Plant maintenance................ Number.. 941 ........(f 229
58
15 239
185 54 5 .........7" 120 15
7
i>
Percent__ 100.0
24.4
.0
6.2
1.6
25.5 19.7 5.7 .5
.7 12.8 1.6 .7
1
Yard......................................... Number. . 261
72
7
2
62
34 18 2
63
Percent— 100.0 ............ 27.5
2.7
23.8 13.0 6.9 .8
.4
24.1 —
.8 ........
1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient
ment, or in an inability to work for at least one full day after the day of
data. Percents are based on classified cases only.
injury. A medical injury is a nondisablimg injury requiring treatments
A disabling
by a physician or surgeon.
Digitized for*FRASER injury is one that results in death, In permanent impair

37

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

T able 10.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Part of Body Injured and Extent of Disability, 1948
Average number of Number of medical
days lost per—
injuries

Number of disabling injuries

Average
number
of medical
injuries
Tempo­
per dis­
Death or Per­ Tempo­ Disabling rary-total Number Percent1 abling
injury disabil­
perma­
injury
Number Percent1 nent-total manent- rary-total
ity
partial
disability2 disability disability

Part of body injured

Total.................................................-.............-..........
Head........ ..................................................................
Eye (s) .............................................................
Brain or skull____________________________
Other__________________________________
Trunk_____________________________________
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc.......................................
Back___________________________________
Abdomen _ ___________________________
Hip (s) or pelvis.. ___ ___________________
Shoulder________________________________
Other
_ _________ ________________
Upper extremities........................... ........... ..............
Arm (s)_________________________________
Hand (s) __ ___ __ _________________
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s)__ ____________
Lower extremities___________________________
Leg(s)____________ ___________________
Foot or feet_ __ _____________ ________
Toe (s)_ __________ __________ ___________
Body, general____ __________________ _______
Unclassified; insufficient data _ _ _____
1 Percents

Resulting in

Total

2,114
195
108

21
66

655
119
332
90
26
76
12
551
107
162
282
659
197
282
180
53
1

100.0

9.2
5.1
1.0
3.1
31.0
5.6
15.7
4.3
1.2
3.6
.6
26.1
5.1
7.7
13.3
31.2
9.3
13.4
8.5
2.5

are based on classified cases only.

(6) 12
3
2
1
(6) 6
(6) 6

55
2
2

3
1

I
1

3

39
5
1
33
9
1
3
5

2

2,047
190
106
19
65
646
113
331
90
25
76
11
512
102
161
249
650
196
279
175
48
1

76
118
39
580
100
74
311
14
41
29
15
53
77
197
31
57
37
40
39
31
440
13

14
7

6
10
10

16
11
13
41
10
15
12
11
11

13
10
15
20
13
13
17
13

3,568
1,006
772
54
180
592
155
293
35
26
72
11
1,336
169
386
781
597
193
239
165
36
1

100.0

28.2
21.7
1.5
5.0
16.6
4.3
8.3
1.0
.7
2.0
.3
37.5
4.7

10.8
22.0

16.7
5.4
6.7
4.6
1.0

1.7
5.2
7.1
2.6
2. 7
.9
1.3
.9
.4
1.0
.9
.9
2.4
1.6
2.4
2.8
.9
1.0
.8

.9
.7

2
Figures in parentheses show the number of permanent-total disability
cases included.

T able 11.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Kind of Plant, 1948
Part of body injured

Total number of
disabling and
Roofing,
medical injuries1 Structural brick and wall floor,
tile
plants
plants

Kind of product
Structural tile
plants

Sewer pipe
plants

Clay refractory
plants

Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­
ber 2 cent2 ber cent3 ber cent3 ber cent3 ber cent3 ber cent3
683 100.0
687 100.0 1,163 100.0 1,485
Total-------- ------------------------------------- 5,682 100.0 1, 593 100.0
100.0
21.1
349
21.9
139 20.4
152 22.1
Head--------------------------------------------- 1,201
266 22.9
289
19.5
14.6
880
15.5
233
16.3
107
Eye (s)------- -----------------------------111
14.4
15.5
210
213
18.1
Brain or skull_________ __________
41
2.6
4
75
1.3
7
1.0
.6
11
.9
12
.8
Other______ ________ ___________
246
75
4.7
21
41
4.3
3.1
45
3.9
64
6.0
4.3
Trunk_____________________________ 1,247
22.0
357 22.4
128
18.7
158 23.0
310 26.7
282
19.0
274
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc____________
4.9
34
34
4.8
78
5.0
4.9
60
5.2
67
4.5
Back.....................................................
53
7.7
625
169 10.6
11.1
87
12.7
177 15.1
130
8.8
Abdomen___ ______ _____________
2.4
125
2.2
15
2.2
38
13
24
1.9
2.1
33
2.2
Hip(s) or pelvis__________________
52
.6
.9
9
1.5
10
10
10
1.5
.9
13
9
Shoulder________________________
148
56
3.5
2.2
2.6
15
12
32
1.7
33
2.2
2.8
Other............. ........................................
.4
.4
23
7
1
.1
2
.3
7
.6
6
.4
33.2
263 38.5
U pper extremities................................ ... 1,887
468 29.4
216 31.5
356 30.7
555
37.3
276
Arm (s)_........................... ....................
4.9
77
4.8
35
5.1
25
3.6
61
5.3
75
5.1
548
9.6
9.0
Hand (s)....... ..................................... .
143
81
11.9
66
9.6
101
8.7
150
10.1
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s)____ ____ 1,063
15.6
18.7
248
147 21.5
194
125
18.3
22.1
16.7
330
Lower extremities............................ .......... 1,256
22.1
389 24.4
143 20.9
149 21.7
213
18.3
340
22.9
8.2
390
6.9
130
Leg(s)...................................................
43
6.3
44
6.4
67
5.8
6.8
101
Foot or feet...........................................
521
9.1
163
10.2
49
7.2
84
67
9.8
7.2
146
9.8
345
Toe(s)....................................................
6.1
96
6.0
51
7.4
38
5.5
62
5.3
93
6.3
Body, general......................... .....................
89
1.6
1.9
30
10
1.5
12
16
1.4
1.7
19
1.3
2
Unclassified; insufficient data__________
2
1A disabling injury is one that results in death, in permanent
impairment, or In an inability to work for at least one full day after the
day of injury. A medical injury is a nondisabling injury requiring
treatment by a physician or surgeon.




2Totals include figures not shown separately
2Percents are based on classified cases only,

because of insufficient data

T able

12.— Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products, Classified by Part of
Body Injured and Department, 1948
Part of body injured

Total number of
disabling and med­
ical injuries2

Total................................................. Number. _ 5,682
Percent... 100.0
144
inn n
Clay m in e .__ __________ ___ Number. _ 158
Percent... 100.0
Preparation _ _ __________ Number. _ 359
Percent... 100.0
Molding______ _ _ __ __ Number. _ 830
Percent... 100.0
Soft-mud process.................. Number. _
71
Percent. _.
Stiff-mud process___________ Number . 100.0
360
Percent... 100.0
Dry-press_________________ Number. _ 185
Percent... 100.0
Hand__________ __________ Number.. 105
Percent... 100.0
Drying_______________________ Number. _ 160
Percent__ 100.0
Setting............................... ........... Number.. 404
Percent... 100.0
Burning________________ _____ Number. _ 372
Per cent... 100.0
Drawing and wheeling__________ Number. _ 639
Percent... 100.0
Storage and shipping...................... Number. _ 850
Percent... 100.0
Glazing_____________________ Number. _ 88
Percent__ 100.0
Surface grinding and finishing........ Number. _ 70
Percent... 100.0
Administrative and service______ Number. _ 1,341
Percent... 100.0
Administrative and clerical___ Number..
63
Percent... 100.0
Plant maintenance.................... Number. _ 941
Percent... 100.0
Yard________________ _____ Number. _ 261
Percent... 100.0

Lower extremities

Body
gen­
Brain
Abdo­ Hip Shoul­ Other Total Arm Hand Fin­ Total Leg Foot Toe eral
Total Eye or Other Total Chest Back men or der
ger
pelvis
skull
880 75 246
15.5 1.3 4.3
4 8
2537 1725 2 8 5.6
7 3
7
30 22 1
19.0 14J) .6 4.4
7 23
85 55
23.7 15.4 1.9 6.4
6
141 101
34
17.0 12.2 .7 4.1
9 7 2
12.7 9.9 2.8
71 47 2 22
19.7 13.0 .6 6.1
7
33 26
17.8 14.0
3.8
11
9
2
10.5 8.6 2 1.9
8
18 g
11.3 5.0 1.3 5.0
51 28 5 8
12.7 7.0 1.2 4.5
99 75 8 16
26.6 20.1 2.2 4.3
123 92 5 26
19.2 14.3 .8 4.1
160 115 17 28
18.8 13.5 2.0 3.3
1
15 13 1
17.0 14.8 1.1 1.11
11
10
15.7 14.3 ...... 1.4
368 293
64
27.4 21.8 .8 4.8
15 12
3
23.8 19.0
4.8
288 237 6" 43
30.6 25.1 .9 4.6
46 34 1 H
17.6 13.0 .4 4.2

1,201
21.1

1,247 274
22.0 4.8
24 4
16.7 2.8
47 14
29.7 8.9
83 16
23.1 4.5
199 46
24.0 5.5
18 3
25.4 4.2
99 23
27.5 6.4
27 13
13.0 5.5
30 2
28.6 1.9
42 4
26.3 2.5
135 27
33.4 6.7
92 14
24.7 3.8
139 38
21.8 5.9
196 42
23.1 4.9
19 2
21.6 2.3
13 2
18.6 2.9
205 49
15.3 3.7
7 2
11.1
3.1
117 35
12.4 3.7
62 12
23.8 4.6

625

11.1

14
9.7
18
11.3
42

11.6
102

12.3
11
15.6
52
14.4
8
4.3
18
17.1
27
16.9
67
16.5
43
11.4
70

11.1
102
12.1

13
14.8
8
11.4
104
7.8
2
3.2
53
5.6
37
14.3

1Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space. Percents are based on
classified cases only.




Upper extremities

Trunk

Head

125

2.2

52
.9

2

1.4
8
2
5.1 1.3
9
6
2.5 1.7
19 5
2.3 .6

......II'
3.1

3
3 .8
1.6
-4
3.8 1.0
6
3.8
19 4
4.7 1.0
11
7
3.0 1.9
7 6
.9
1.1
13 12
1.5 1.4
1
1.1
1

1.4
16

1.2
1
1.6

9
4
1.5

1.0

-.6
1
1.6

7
.7

148

2.6

3
4
2.5

2.1

8
2.2

24
2.9
3
4.2
9
2.5

2
1.1
6

4.8
4
2.5
18
4.5
14
3.8
15
2.3
23
2.7
1
1.1
2

2.9
26
1.9
1
1.6
11
1.2

9
3.4

23 1,887 276
.4 33.2 4.9
1
4
48
. 7 33.3 2.8
1
3
42
.6 26.6 1.9
16
2 113
.6 31.5 4.5
3 305 48
.4 36.8 5.8
1
24
5
1.4 33.7 7.0
1 115
21
.3 32.0 5.8
1
83 11
.5 44.9 5.9
41
6
.. 38.9 5.7
7
43
.6 26.9 4.4
116 16
28.8 4.0
3’ 89 21
.8 23.9 5.6
3 226 36
.5 35.4 5.6
4 271 48
.5 32.0 5.7
2
6
39
2.3 44.4 6.8
2
30
42.8 2.9
2" 485
62
.1 36.2 4.6
21
3
33.3 4.8
2" 361
43
2 38.4
4.6
80 13
30.7 5.0

548 1,063
9.6 18.7
11
33
7.6 22.9
31
8
5.1 19.6
26 71
7.2 19.8
78 179
9.4 21.6
6
13
8.5 18.2
25 69
6.9 19.3
24 48
13.0 26.0
14 21
13.3 19.9
17 19
10.6 11.9
33 67
8.2 16.6
28 40
7.5 10.8
72 118
11.3 18.5
80 143
9.4 16.9
14 19
159 21.7
11
17
15.7 24.2
144 279
10.7 20.9
7 11
11.1 17.4
101
217
10.7 23.1
27 40
10.3 15.4

1,256 390
22.1
6.9
31 8
21.5 5.6
37 8
23.4 5.1
73 26
20.3 7.2
173 54
20.8 6.5
20
3
28.2 4.2
71 23
19.7 6.4
37 8
20.0 4.3
22
9
21.0 8.6
56 15
34.9 9.4
93 28
23.1 6.9
81 32
21.8 8.6
147 41
23.0 6.4
210
63
24.7 7.4
14 3
15.9 3.4
16 5
22.9 7.1
258 89
19.2 6.6
18 5
28.6 7.9
158 59
16.8 6.3
70 18
26.8 6.9

521 345
9.1 6.1
12

8.3

20
12.6

32
8.9
83

10.0
12

17.0
36
10.0
18
9.8
9
8.6
31
19.2
39
9.7
32
8.6
42
6.6
78
9.2

6
6.8

7
108

10.1

8.1
12

19.1
67
7.1
25
9.6

11

7.6
9
5.7
15
4.2
36
4.3
5
7.0
12
3.3
11
5.9
4
3.8
10
6.3
26
6.5
17
4.6
64
10.0
69
8.1
5
5.7
4
5.7
61
4.5

89

1.6

Unclas­
sified;
insuffi­
cient
data
2

4

2.8
2

1.3
5
1.4
12
1.4
4"

1.1

5
4.3 ................
1
1.0 ...............

1
.6
8
2.0
11

1

.6
12

1

3.0
4
1.4
1
1.1

.......... ________
25
1.9
1
2
1.6 3.2 ________
32 17
3.4 1.8
27 3
10.3 1.1

3A disabling injury is one that results in death, in permanent impairment, or in an inability
to work for at least one full day after the day of injury. A medical injury is a nondisabling injury
requiring treatment by a physician or surgeon.

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

Department1

39

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

T able 13.—Disabling and Medical Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction
Products, Classified by Nature of Injury and Part of Body Injured, 1948
Part of body injured

Total................................................
Head______ _________ _______
Eye(s)__..................................
Brain or skull. .......................
Other...................... ............
Trunk______________________
Chest (lungs), ribs, etc____
Back.......................................
Abdomen................................
Hip (s) or pelvis__________
Shoulder (s)______________
Other..................................
Upper extremities........................
Arm(s)_____________ ____
Hand(s) (incl. wrist)______
Finger (s) and/or thumb (s) ..
Lower extremities____________
Leg(s)___ _______ _______
Foot (incl. ankle) or feet___
Toe(s)......................................
Body, general...............................
Unclassified; insufficient data...

Nature of injury
xuiai
number of
disabling
Cuts, Foreign
bodies
and medi­ Amputa­ Bruises, Burns, Chem­ lacera­ not else­ Frac­ Her­ Indus­ Strains, Weld­
Un­
tions,
cal in­ enuclea­ contu­ scalds ical
tions, where tures nia trial sprains er's Other class­
dis­
burns punc­ classi­
juries 1 tions
sions
flash
ified
eases
tures fied
5,682
1,201
880
75
246
1, 247
274
625
125
52
148
23
1,887
276
548
1,063
1,256
390
521
345
89
2

27
1
1

23
23
3
3

1,669
104
26
21
57
248
126
40
9
21
38
14
603
97
144
362
676
208
256
212
38

142
42
25
17
7
1
4
1
1
68
21
31
16
18
8
10
7

1A disabling injury is one that results in death, in permanent impairment, or in an inability to work for at least one full day after the day of




30
20
14
6

5
2
3
4
2
2
1

1,278
219
36
51
132
18
. 3
4
2
5
2
2
872
89
240
543
160
78
59
23
9

752 332 72
752
7
752
3
4
58 72
47
3
. 72
3
3
2
104
12
22
70
162
18
41
103
1

33 1,266
6
15
1
2
4
14
6
835
6
89
574
42
22
103
5
12
180
5
44
4
97
3
39
1
230
1
73
153
4
8
5
1

19
19
19

58
15
3
12
3
2

4
1
1

1
19
6
6
7
1
1

1
1
1
1

20

1

injury. A medical injury is a nondisabling injury requiring treatment
by a physician or surgeon.

T able

14.— Types of Accidents and Agencies of Injury in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay
Construction Products, 1948

O

Agency of injury
Hand tools
Working surfaces
Machines
Foreign
Misbodies
celHand Pow­
not
lane- Other
Brick
PointPointDrier trucks ered Other else­
Wall
Other ous agen­
and
and
and and in­
Total struc­ Sewer floor Total kiln wheel­ dus­ ve­ where Total of-op- Other Total of-op- Other Total Floor sur­ metal cies
era- parts
era- parts
faces parts
clas­
tural pipe tile
tion
tion
cars bar­ trial hicles sified
tile
rows trucks

Total ....................................—............................ 5,682 1,079 873 621 212
181 101 59
788
31
101 52 39
158
53 36 14
57
Bumping against products or materials---314
45
Striking against projecting nails, screws,
0^
|
__ 119
26 12
6
1
1
64
Other
552 433 104
2,238
Struck by objects
TPollincr
460 372 80
918
145 114 26
256
From 'nilac ofc+nratrA nlnpAS
UV/vm bandsnr uwor^prs
3
129 126
202
riUiii piivd yjL IU1dgv plutvO
116 95 19
From vehicles and other equipment. __ 176
70 37 32
284
From -MpIaq
TPlxrinor iwiother positions
36 24
5
847
T?nllincr nhiAnt.s
79
T'hrAtm nhiApt.s
4
35 31
45
21
6 15
Other moving objects
349
14 96 59 35
751
Caught in on or bfit.^rp.p.nA.t.n
rtnorc piUtC/Oy U-*bO
53
VJCaX niilloirfi hftlt.Qj CbCC
93
Other moving parts of pquipTnpnt,
72
Two vehicles
1
15 14
A vehicle and ftpot.hp.r nhjpnt,
155
A hand tool and anot.hpr nhjpct,
39
78 44 32
200
Handled objects
1
3
2
14
139
Other objects
1 24 15
8
240
Falls on HlffArpnt. Ip.vpIs
1
1?q11o tn same level
5
4
176
i; alio nr UlllO*vllw *v »vio. - —------—--- ------------ 324
tO stnmhlftS
4
4
Slinc
8
231
4
SUpq
______________
4
304
8
217
.QtmnhloQ
14
20
OvprATArtinn
833
835
467
467
Lifting or carrying objects
__
"Pnchlnor nhiAct.S
114
112
"Pnllinor Ahiont.S
54
54
64
64
Throwing or swinging nbjpnts
54
54
Turning or roiiing nfiificts
82
82
other
5
4
126
1
Contact with extreme temperatures
112
1
Inhalation absorption, ingpst.ion
40
other accident types
1
1
52
Unclassified* insiiffipipnt. data




Vehicles

Products

203 404 , 226— 178 ■■■.. - 105 ■.......... ---- — 1,290
—..- . ■.
. = = : 294
■ 189 187 .....
6 22 31 12 19 36 272
71 28
4
23
1
6
2
2
24
11
2 11
2
10
4
64 11
5
4
4
77
6
9
3
42
3
4
64
5
5
2
2
8
1
3 11
1
1 14
9
38
2
2 113 435
139 37 314 204 110
1 11 28
28
88 265
34
' 7
7
66
2
6
2
65
3
6
3
45
1 11 16
16
42
89
3
125
5 128 125
78
10
2
1
1
9
13 21 157 79 78
15
81
2
2
33 73 42
2 40
4
4 26 177
23
28
1
2
31 30
3
11
1
1
11
1
37
37
2
1
1
1
1 25
81
1
2 18
1
1
2
2
45
2
1
1 144 63 81
4
39
1
2
109 30 79
51
1
1
4
1
2 10
4
39
2 10
1
1
1
3
3
36
1
1
3
2
2

121
40 —661 239 —173 ----21 124 43 32 10
1
1
1
8
10
5
3
105 36 30
8

128■ ■ — -- 426 —
■ 468 --- 223
39
116 45
1
1
1
2
31
108 44

8
9
2
1
15 181 47
8 65 15
5
4
2
6
6
1 55
9
7
77 31
39
1
2 286 126
2
18
72 47
128 56
1
2 12
3
53 20
5
1 25
1
8
28 12
26 11
1
2

1

8
1

5

1
76
44
3

1
41
3
1

5
1
17 465
3

5
176
12

41
21
11
49

2
21
17
63
2
16
9
27
1
8
1
3
3

3
465
4
10
48
2
8
11
1
6
20
7
6
10
10

12
130

2
1

1

8
34
2
5
12
1
3
2
1

3

34
106
23
61
2
20
2
2
12
12

6
5
1

3
1

3
4
1

18

14

4

6

80
111
34
50

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

Accident type

Total
num­
ber of
acci- Bodily
dents motion

41

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

T able

15.— Types of Accidents Resulting in Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay
Construction Products, Classified by Kind of Plant, 1948

Accident type

Total number
of accidents

Kind of plant
Structural
brick plants

Roofing, floor,
and wall tile
plants

Structural
tile plants

Sewer pipe
plants

Clay refractory
plants

Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num-, Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­
ber i cent2 ber cent2 ber cent 2 ber cent 2 ber cent2 ber cent2
Total____________ ____________________ _______ 5,682
Striking against objects_________________________
788
Stepping on objects____________ ____________
31
Rubbing against objects.......................................... 158
Bumping against products or materials_________
57
Bumping against equipment................. .................. 314
Bumping against walls, etc......................................
45
Striking against projecting nails, screws, etc......... 119
Other.........................................................................
64
Struck by objects___________________ __________ 2,238
Falling objects_____________________________ 918
From hands of workers............................. ........ 256
From piles or storage places............. ................ 202
From vehicles and other equipment............. . 176
From other positions_____________ ______
284
Flying particles______________________ ____
847
Rolling objects_______ ___________ _________
79
Thrown objects___ _____ ___________________
45
Other moving objects_______________________ 349
Caught in, on, or between.............................................. 751
Gears, pulleys, belts, e tc ......... ............................
53
Other moving parts of equipment.........................
93
Two vehicles..................................... ............... ......
72
A vehicle and another object.................................... 155
A hand tool and another object___ _______ _____
39
Handled objects. ..................................................... 200
Other objects........................................... ................ 139
Falls on same level........................................ ................ 240
Falls to different levels________________ _______
176
324
Slips or stumbles______________________________
Slips________ _____________________________ 304
Stumbles............. ........................................ ...........
20
Overexertion. ________________ _______________ 835
Lifting or carrying objects____________________ 467
Pushing objects___ _____ _____________ _____ 114
54
Pulling objects........ ................................ ................
Throwing or swinging objects_________________
64
Turning or rolling objects____________________
54
Other.........................................................................
82
Contact with extreme temperatures_________ _____ 126
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion....... ........... ................ 112
Other accident types.................................................. .
40
Unclassified; insufficient data...... ................................
52
1Totals

1,593
183
14.0
13
.6
40
2.8
14
1.0
70
5.6
7
.8
2.1
21
18
1.1
610
39.8
16.4
277
4.6
80
90
3.6
3.1
50
5.1
57
213
15.0
1.4
30
23
.8
67
6.2
220
13.3
22
.9
24
1.7
1.3
30
56
2.7
11
.7
41
3.5
36
2.5
4.3
70
3.1
71
101
5.8
5.4
93
8
.4
14.8
228
8.2
92
2.0
58
1.0
9
25
1.1
12
1.0
32
1.5
2.2
46
2.0
29
.7
15

100.0

include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.




20

100.0
11.6
' .8

2.5
.9
4.6
.4
1.3
1.1
38.8
17.6
5.1
5.7
3.2
3.6
13.5
1.9
1.5
4.3
14.0
1.4
1.5
1.9
3.6
.7
2.6
2.3
4.5
4.5
6.4
5.9
.5
14.5
5.8
3.7

.6
1.6
.8
2.0

2.9

1.8
1.0

683
123
4
14
3
59
5
30
8
245
93
40
9
12
32
108
10
2

32

86
6

18
5
24
1
24
8
27
11
47
44
3
101
65
7
15
3
4
7

10
21
6
6

100.0

18.2

.6
2.1

.4
.7
4.4
1.2
36.2
13.7
5.9
1.3
1.8
4.7
16.0
1.5
.3
4.7
12.7
.9
2.7
.7
3.5
.1
3.6
1.2
4.0
1.6
6.9
6.5
.4
14.9
9.7

8.8

1.0
2.2

.4

.6
1.0

1.5
3.1
.9

687
85
3
22
3
30

8
12

7
284
127
29
25
24
49
104
4
3
46
87
4
15
12
16
4
21
15
29
28
34
34
105
63
8
9
9

6
10

7
14
9
5

100.0

12.5
.4
3.2
.4
4.5
1.2
1.8
1.0

1,163
166
6
56
17
45

41.5
18.6
4.3
3.7
3.5
7.1
15.2
.6
.4
6.7

12.8
.6
2.2
1.8

2.3
.6
3.1
2.2
4.3
4.1
5.0
5.0
15.4
9.2
1.2
1.3
1.3
.9
1.5
1.0
2.1

1.3

2 Percents are based on classified cases only.

10
22
10

463
161
26
21
36
78
206

8
6

82
132
7
12
10

18
7
46
32
48
30
53
52
1

212

134
18
7
21
19
13
33
10
5
11

100.0

14.4
.5
4.8
1.5
3.9
.9
1.9
.9
40.1
14.0
2.3
1.8
3.1
6.8
17.8
.7
.5
7.1
11.5
.6
1.0

.9

1.6
.6

4.0
2.8
4.2
2.6
4.6
4.5
.1
18.4
11.7
1.6
.6
1.8
1.6
1.1

2.9
.9
.4

1,485
216
4
24
20
103
14
32
19
614
249
74
56
52
67
211
26
11
117
214
13
23
14
40
14
65
45
61
36
82
74
g
181
111
23
13
5
10
19
30
37
5
9

100.0

14.6
.3
1.6
1.4
6.9
.9
2.2
1.3
41.7
17.0
5.1
3.8
3.5
4.6
14.3
1.8
.7
7.9
14.5
.9
1.6
.9
2.7
.9
4.5
3.0
4.1
2.4
5.6
5.1
.5
12.3
7.5
1.6
.9
.3
.7
1.3
2.0
2.5
.3

T able

16.— Types of Accidents Resulting in Injuries in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products, Classified by
Department, 1948

j§

Accident type

1

Total number of
accidents

Falling Flying
Total objects par­ Total
ticles

Total........................... ........ Number. _ 5,682 2,238
Percent... 100.0 39.8
i
144
57
Clay pit..............................40 2
100 0
72
158
Clay mine............................ Number. _ 100.0 45.9
Percent...
142
359
Preparation......................... Number. _ 100.0 39.8
Percent__
830 259
Molding.............................. Number _ 100.0 31.4
Percent.._
71 Q 4(
Soft-mud process......... Number._._ 100.0 OO.07
QO
A
P ercent.
116
360
Stiff-mud process......... Number. _ 100.0 32.7
Percent__
185
61
Dry-press..................... Number. _ 100.0 32.9
Percent__
Number. _ 105
29
Hand............................. Percent__ 100.0 27.9
44
160
Drying................................ Num ber.. 100.0 27.8
Percent__
123
Number. . 404
Setting................................. Percent__ 100.0 30.7
372
155
Burning............................... Number. . 100.0 42.3
Percent__
Number. _ 639 301
Drawing and wheeling------ Percent__ 100.0 47.1
850 361
Storage and shipping------- Number. _ 100.0 43.0
Percent__
Number. _ 88
23
Glazing.............................. P ercen t- 100.0 26.2
oo
46
Number..
70 OO. 4
Surface grinding and fin­
Q
Percent— 100.0 Q A
ishing.
570
Administrative and service. Number. _ 1,341 42.9
Percent__ 100.0
Num ber..
15
63
Administrative and
clerical.
Percent__ 100.0 24.3
424
941
Plant maintenance___ Number_ 100.0 45.4
Percent...
112
261
Yard.............................. Number. _ 100.0 43.4
Percent...
T lT

_.,

Overexertion

918
16.4
21

847
15.0
1725
7

14 8
35
22.3
50
14.0
85
10.3
A
lO V
14. Q
v
32
9.0
27
14.5
13
12.4
19
12.0
70
17.6
60
16.3
170
26.6
193
23.0
9
10.2
Q
O
11 A
11. O
156
11.7

13.4
57
15.9
102
12.3
Q
o
1 1*4
11 1
46
13.0
26
14.1
9
8.7
8
5.1
25
6.2
72
19.7
94
14.8
106
12.7
13
14.9
Q
IQ. 1
10 1
272

3.2
97
10.4
54
20.9

17.9
215
23.1
37
14.3

2

21

20.6
11

835
14.8
14
9.9
19
12.1
47
13.2
145
17.6
13
18.6
65
18.3
19
10.3
31
29.7
32
20.3
111
27.7
57
15.5
99
15.6
131
15.6
13
14.8
14
20.3
125
9.4
3
4.8
65
7.0
41
15.9

Striking against objects

Contact Inhala­
Falls Falls with tion,
Slip or on same to dif­ extreme absorp­
A ve­ stumble
Bump­
Striking
tion,
level ferent temper­ inges­
hicle
ing Rubbing against
level atures
Total against against project­ Total Handled other
Lift­
tion
objects and
equip­ objects ing nails,
ing or Push­
object
etc.
ment
carry­ ing
ing
112
176 126
240
751 200 155 324
119
158
114 788 314
467
2.0
2.2
3.1
5.8
4.3
2.7
13.3
3.5
2.1
5.6
2.8
14.0
8.2
2.0
4~
4~
6
3~
5
6
10
g
32
9
9
2
4.2
3.5
4.2
2.1
7.0
2.8
1.4 22.6 6.4
2.8
6.3
5.7
2
1
3
14
6
4
10
22
2
3
3
13
2
15
1.3
.6
1.9
8.9
3.8
6.6
2.5
1.9
1.3 14.0
2.0
1.3 8.3
9.6
8
4
11
19
29
6
4
45
2
32
7
52
8
22
2.2
1.1
3.1
5.3
8.1
1.7
1.1
12.6
.6
2.0
8.9
14.6
2.2
6.3
13
6
12
39
33
59
36
174
21
64
15
117
22
79
1.6
.7
1.5
7.2
4.7
4.0
4.4
2.5 21.1
1.8
7.9
9.6
1
3 2.7 14.2
3
4
3
4
4
6
5
17
1.4
5.7
5.7
24.3
7.1
8.6
4.3
5.7
4.3
43
4
3
5
19
30
12
66
11
7
30
7
48
*8
38
1.1
.8
1 .4
8.4
5.3
3.4
3.1
18.5
2.0
8.3
2.0
13.5
2.2
10.8
5
4
12
7
9
5
46
8
1
31
18
5
9
2.7
2.2
3.8
6.5
4.9
2.7
4.4 24.8
.5
9.8
2.7 16.8
5.0
1
4
1
6
2
10
19
4
2
2
13
21
3
1.0
1.0
5.8
3.8
9.7
1.9
1.9
1.9 18.3
3.9
2.9 12.5
20.1
1
3
5
10
6
18
43
3
3
11
7
9
17
.6
1.9
3.2
6.3
3.8
27.2
1.9 11.3
4.5
1.9
7.0
5.7
10.8
3
3
17
21
28
12
14
52
8
42
22
6
15
69
.7
.7
4.2
5.2
7.0
3.0
3.5
12.9
1.5
2.0
5.6
3.7 10.4
17.3
22
7
15
26
12
20
3
29
5
10
31
9
12
11
1.9
4.1
6.0
5.4
7.1
3.3
.8
7.9
1.4
2.6
8.4
2.4
3.0
3.3
1
5
19
17
22
19
60
28
12
14
45
51
17 111
.2
.8
3.0
2.7
3.5
3.0
9.4
4.4
1.9
2.2
7.1
2.7 17.5
8.0
6
13
44
36
40
21
36
89
21
34
35
119
93
11
.7
1. 5
4.8
4.3
5.2
2.5
4.2
2.5 10.6 4.3
14.1
4.0
1.3
11.0
9
1
1
1
11
2
1
4
8
5
21
8
9
10.2
1.1
1.1
1.1
12.5
1.1
9.1
5.7
4.5
9.1
10.3
1
7
1
9 2.3
5
1
4
9 23.9
14
17
1.4
1.4
5.8
7,3
1 4 13.0
2.9 24.7 20 5
10 2
48
60
45
56
47
13
46
146
33
212
91
31
10
70
3.6
3.4
4.5
3.5
4.2
1.0
3.5
2.3
2.5 11.0
6.8
16.0
.8
5.2
1
4
3
8
7
2
1
8
1
1
11
5
1.6
4.8
6.5
3.2 11.3 12.9
1.6
12.9
1.6
1.6
17.7
8.1
42
44
30
29
29
6
28
102
24
72
17
....... 37* .........7* 154
4.5
3.2
4.7
3.1
3.1
.6
3.0
10.9
1.8
2.6
7.8
.7 16.5
4.2
2
8
8
14
9
16
5
9
7
29
34
8
2
28
.8
3.1
3.1
3.5
5.4
1.9
6.1
3.4
2.7 11.2
13.2 3.1
.8
10.7
Due to

i Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space. Percents are based on classified cases only.




Caught in, on, or be­
tween objects

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

Department

Struck by moving
objects

T able 17.—

Unsafe Working Conditions and Agencies of Accident in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing
Clay Construction Products, 1948




i

ft

03

§
1

§

681 373 269 478 194 139 419
459 219 217 238 132 46 15
193 41 152 186 116 44 3
183 97 65
65 65
4
6
52 16 2 12
12
12
38 10 26 166 38 61 205
86
27 51 28
1
1
8
102
9 2
5
6
21
29
1
1
1
1
7
4
1
1
2
44
6
1
1
14 5 3
1
2
2
8
2
7
1
4 15
3
2
28
47 19 21 38
31
2
1
6
18
20
1
1
20
25
164 137 25 17 5 10 39
39
3
45 42
52 40 40
67 55 12 17 5 10
1
1
1
7
20
16 5
1
1
1
4
2
4
115
5
7

X)
M
03
£
03

§

5

122
1

1

74
34

1
2

28
4
5

ft

11

1

48
38

23
76
9
1

9

65
5

13
5

4

33
148
102
3
23
2
18
4

10

2

2

9

03

118 364 205
35

2

43

3
4-3
§

5

1
12
2

102
102

212

17

8

9
37
12
6
1
1

17
19
7
2
10

9

4
94
94

9
94 129
94 120

6
1

1

9

jo
125
28
28
31
10
3
3
3
4

8
11

79
36
25

62
24

58
28

54
3

10
1

9
4
4
3
35
3

S
3

o

20
1

22

23

21
1

15
3

2
6
1
6

7
1
7
1
4

2

12
8

1

1
1

19

8

32

51 475 2,536
1
39 173
1
83
17
36 15
3 58
141
2
6
7
37
2
22
5
12
23
29
72

1

22

19

16
1
14
3

88

54
48
1
4

11

1

3
1

2

22
1
1

2
1

7

2

9
3
6

3
3

2

19
1
1

17

15
1
1

13

2
1

2

8

3

u
rg

Unclassified

l

M
o
g
'd

Chemicals

03

3
•O
§
js
'C

Conveyors

ft
ft
1
0
G)
Q
03

Raw materials

s
Containers

fl

Metal parts not else­
where classified

Working surfaces Machines

03

Pallets, skids

5,682
1,150
' 582
212
70
67
219
777
143
122
123
72
60
58
52
147
388
109
65
57
36
121
358
72
62
55
169
278
259
19
122
57
16
2,536

Vehicles

6

3
3
4
3
1

1

2
1
1

]
1
10
8
2
1

16
3
31
62
31

8
1
22
12
10
2

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

Total........................................................... ....................
Unsafe working procedures...................... .....................
Lack of sufficient help_____________________
Working with sharp-edged bricks, etc_________
Throwing objects or materials. ____ ____ ___
Working with dangerous materials................ .........
Other...............................................................................
Defective agencies_____________________________
Poorly designed or constructed ________________
Slippery....... ............ ....................................... ..........
Low material strength______________________
Projecting splinters, slivers, etc______________
Rough, burred, etc.._____ _______ _______ ___
Sharp-edged____ __________________________
Projecting nails, bolts, etc______ ___ ___ ___
Other.........................................................................
Improperly guarded agencies. ......................... ............
Lack of point-of-operation guards....... ...................
Lack of guard rails.......................................... ......
Lack of guards for gears, pulleys, etc...................
Lack of bolts, locks, etc...........................................
O ther......................................................................
Hazardous arrangement or placement..........................
Fixed obstructions in passageways____________
Materials unsafely piled on vehicles.....................
Materials unsafely piled in kilns............................
Other........................................................................
Lack of personal safety equipment..............................
Goggles.....................................................................
Other. ........................................... .........................
Poor housekeeping.............................. .........................
Lack of equipment........................................................
Other unsafe conditions................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data.......................................

Products

Hand tools

Unsafe working condition

Total number of aeciden

Agency of accident

9
3
3 2,533

CO

T able

18.— Types of Accidents and Unsafe Working Conditions in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing
Clay Construction Products, 1948

rf*

5,682 1,150 582 212
Total.
5 180
Striking against........................................................ ........ 788 201
31
Stepping on objects............. ................ ...................... 158 111
1 106
Rubbing against objects__________ _____ ______
1 3
57
Bumping into or against products or materials---- 314 40 3 37
15
Bumping into or against equipment--------- ---------1
45 2
Bumping into or against walls, etc__------------------- 119 28
28
Striking against projecting nails, slivers, etc............
5
64 5
Other................................................. .......................... 2,238 242 58 19
Struck by objects.............................................................. 918 128 38 11
Falling objects............. ............ ..................-............... 256 42 22 4
From hands of workers____________________
1 1
From piles or storage places................................. 202 32 2 2
176 26
From vehicles or other equipment........ ............ 284 28 13 4
From other positions------------------- ---------1
847 22
Flying particles................... . - -...............-..............
79 24 9 4
Rolling objects............................................................
34
45
Thrown objects.......... ............................................
349 34 10 4
Other......................................................... ............
Caught, in, on, or between--------------- --------------------- 751 97 50 13
53
Gears, pulleys, belts, etc........................................
93 3 4
Other moving parts or equipment.............................
72 7
Two vehicles............................................................... 155 23 12
1
A vehicle and another object----------------------------39 6 3
A hand tool and another object..---------- ------------ 200 50 29 12
Handled objects-------------- ------------------------------ 139 8
2
Other. ........................... ..................... .........................
Falls on same level.------------------------------........... ...... 240 14 7
176 3
Falls to different levels--------------- ------------------------- 324 27 21
Slips or stumbles.....................................—----------------- 304 27 21
Slips...______ _________________
20
Stumbles.....................................................................
Overexertion--------------- ------------------------------------- 835 473 439
Lifting or carrying objects................
- 467 299 296
Pushing objects.......................................................... 114 91 88
54 24 23
Pulling objects................... .........................................
64 23 8
Throwing or swinging objects---------------------------54 15 15
Turning or rolling objects------ ------------------------9
82 21
Other. ------------------------------------------------------1
126 35
Contact with extreme temperatures.........................—
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion---------------- ------------ 112 53
40 2
Other accident types.........................................................
1
52 3
Unclassified; insufficient data_____________________
i Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space.



1
1
2

67 777 143
7
1 198
10
3
22
2
3
1 57

42

10

70
4

11
3
2

4
2

1

30

10

2

2

1

2
2

91

2

14

3

4
51
1

9
86
12
206
98
23
5
15
55
48
9
1
50
no
2
10
40
18
3
9
28
79
28
78
78
43
3
4
4
1
23
8
10
7
18

1

37
29
1
5

122
1
1

4
1

23

1

6
2

1

62

2
1

2

39
11

1
2

7
5
3
26
1

1

53
7
55
55
1

1

20

4

2
1

1

123
3
3
84

43
21

4
4
14
17
1

23

6
1

1
2
2
6
12

3
3
5

72 388
69 43~
4
1
42
2
61
1
1
96
1
1
47
14
14
19
1
25
1

109
38

23
142
48
51
6
14
1

16
30
30

1

1
1

65
1

38

1

39
1

2
2

1

1
1
1

2

4
1

3
6
46
5
5

22

9
55
7

6
1

1
1
1

2
1
2
1

1

51
48
3
1
1
1
1

2

19
14
3
223
205
2
95
54
54
2
5
11

50

222

221

221

220

1

1

2

10
1

1

3
3

3
I
1
14
5

2
1

4
1
1
1

9
5

Other

Lack of equipment
57
7

5

3
26
1
43
38
5

16 2,536
2~ 267
3
16
13
2
174
19
4
38
1 1,233
1
433
188
56
67
1
122
529
40

10
221

3

8

1

1

2

23
17

2

1
10
8

2
1

16
9

122
1

8

29

15
4
17
9
8
7

Poor housekeeping

Goggles

Total

57 358 278 259
39~ r
2

1
22

Hazardous arrangement

§

Lack of guards for gears,
pulleys, etc.

B

Lack of guard rails

tu)a

A

Lack of point-of-operation
guards

1

a

Total

II

Projecting sp lin ters,
slivers, etc.

a

§

Low material strength

I

Slippery

Poorly designed or con­
structed

Accident type

24
23

17

21

3
4
29
9
9
3

7

1

1
2

2

4

2
2

2

1

2

5

344
3
29
17
69
28
131
67
91
55
139
135
4
301
161
18
26
40
7
49
33
15
10
48

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

Lack of per­
Improperly guarded agencies sonal safety
equipment

Defective agencies

Unsafe working procedures

Unclassified; insufficient data

Unsafe working condition

45

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

T able

19 — Unsafe Working Conditions Involved in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments
.
Manufacturing Clay Construction Products, Classified by Kind of Plant, 1948
Kind of plant
Unsafe working condition

Total number
of accidents

Structural
brick plants

Roofing, floor,
and wall tile
plants

Structural
tile plants

Sewer pipe
plants

Clay refractory
plants

Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­
ber1 cent2 ber cent2 ber cent2 ber cent2 ber cent2 ber cent2
Total.____________________ ____________________ 5, 682
388
Improperly guarded agencies........................................
109
Lack of point-of-operation guards................... ..........
57
Lack of guards for gears, pulleys, etc___________
65
Lack of guard rails....................... ........ ......................
36
121
Other........................................ ....................................
Defective agencies................................... .......................... 777
143
Poorly designed or constructed________________
122
Slippery------------- --------------------------------------Low material strength____ ___________________ 123
72
Projecting splinters, slivers, etc__...........................
60
Rough, burred, etc------------------------- ------------58
Sharp-edged. -------------- ----------------------------52
Projecting nails, bolts, etc____________________
Other............................... ............................................. 147
358
Hazardous arrangement or placement............................
72
Fixed'obstructions in passageway s or working areas.
62
Materials unsafely piled or placed on vehicles........
55
Materials unsafely piled or placed in kilns............
169
Other_______________ ______________________
Poor housekeeping._____________________________ 122
57
Lack of equipment______________________________
Unsafe working procedures----------------------------------- 1,150
Lack of sufficient help in lifting heavy loads._ __ 582
Working with sharp-edged or rough bricks, tiles,
212
etc_____________________________ _________
T h r o w in g n h jp n ts
m a t e r ia l s
70
67
Working with or around dangerous materials-----Other____ ___ _______________________ ______ 219
Lack of personal safety equipment................................. 278
259
Goggles.......................................................... ........ ......
19
O ther................................................. ....................
16
Other
__ _______________
TTnnlpQtiifiprj•
fia ta
2, 536

100.0
12.3
3.5
1.8
2.1
1.1
3.8
24.7
4.5
3.9
3.9
2.3
1.9
1.8
1.7
4.7
11.4
2.3
2.0
1.7
5.4
3.9
1.8
36.6
18.6
6.7
2.2
2.1
7.0
8.8
8.2
.6
.5

1, 593
99
9
23
24
20
23
201
63
45
17
11
9
15
13
28
113
22
21
32
38
41
35
369
153
49
49
16
102
72
64
8
5
658

1 Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.




100.0
10.6
1.0
2.5
2.5
2.1
2.5
21.5
6.7
4.8
1.8
1.2
1.0
1.6
1.4
3.0
12.1
2.4
2.2
3.4
4.1
4.4
3.7
39.5
16.5
5.2
5.2
1.7
10.9
7.7
6.8
.9
.5

683
54
26
6
3
19
104
9
13
23
18
13
5
5
18
48
9
5
4
30
17
2
91
49
21
14
7
44
43
1
323

100.0
15.0
7.2
1.7
.8
5.3
28.9
2.5
3.6
6.4
5.0
3.6
1.4
1.4
5.0
13.3
2.5
1.4
1.1
8.3
4.7
.6
25.3
13.7
5.8
3.9
1.9
12.2
11.9
.3

687
42
13
5
11
2
11
93
15
15
19
10
2
5
5
22
51
10
10
4
27
6
3
111
54
23
9
8
17
38
36
2
1
342

100.0
12.2
3.8
1.4
3.2
.6
3.2
27.0
4.3
4.3
5.6
2.9
.6
1.4
1.4
6.5
14.8
2.9
2.9
1.2
7.8
1.7
.9
32.1
15.6
6.7
2.6
2.3
4.9
11.0
10.4
.6
.3

1,163
77
29
7
15
3
23
168
20
26
33
13
17
14
10
35
55
5
6
9
35
24
6
285
171
77
3
9
25
55
51
4
4
489

* Percents are based on classified cases only.

100.0
11.4
4.4
1.0
2.2
.4
3.4
24.9
3.0
3.9
4.9
1.9
2.5
2.1
1.5
5.1
8.2
.7
.9
1.3
5.3
3.6
.9
42.2
25.4
11.4
.4
1.3
3.7
8.2
7.6
.6
.6

1,485
111
30
15
12
11
43
198
34
21
29
19
17
18
16
44
86
25
20
4
37
34
10
283
149
39
9
18
68
69
65
4
6
688

100.0
13.9
3.8
1.9
1.5
1.4
5.3
24.8
4.3
2.6
3.6
2.4
2.1
2.3
2.0
5.5
10.8
3.1
2.5
.5
4.7
4.3
1.3
35.4
18.6
4.9
1.1
2.3
8.5
8.7
8.2
.5
.8

T able

05

20— Unsafe Working Conditions Involved in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay
Construction Products, Classified by Department, 1948

Unclassied; insuffi­
cient data

Other

Lack of equipment

Poor housekeeping

Goggles

Total

Low material
strength
Proj ecting
splinters,
slivers, etc.
! Total
l
Lack of pointof - operation
guards
Lack of guard
rails
Lack of guards
for gears,
pulleys, etc.
Hazardous ar­
rangement

Lack of per­
Improperly guarded agencies sonal safety
equipment

1

Lack of suffi­
cient help
Working with
sharp-edged
bricks, etc.
Throwing ob­
jects or ma­
terials
Working with
dangerous
materials
Total
P o o r l y de- !
signed or
constructed
Slippery

Total

Department1

Defective agencies

Unsafe working procedures

Total............................................
Clay pit.......................................
Clay mine....................................
Preparation.............................. .
Molding........... •_........................ .
Soft-mud process.................
Stiff-mud process.................
Dry press.............................
Hand.....................................
Drying.........................................
Setting....................................... .
Burning......................................
Drawing and wheeling................
Storage and shipping..................
Glazing........................................
Surface grinding and finishing...
Administrative and service----Administrative and clerical
Plant maintenance.............
Yard....................................

Number. _
Percent—
Number. _
Percent—
Number..
Percent—
Number. _
Percent...
Number. _
Percent—
Number __
Percent—
Number..
Percent—
Number..
Percent—
Number. _
Percent—
Number. _
Percent...
Number. _
Percent.
Num ber..
Percent—
Number. _
Percent—
Number __
Percent...
Number. _
Percent...
Number. .
Percent—
Num ber..
Percent—
Num ber..
Percent—
Number..
Percent—
Num ber..
Percent—

5,682 1,150
100.0 36.6
144~ 26
100.0 34.6
158 35
100.0 34.4
359 56
100.0 31.1
830 146
100.0 32.6
71 16
100.0 44.3
360 59
1000 31.2
185 21
100.0 20.4
105 34
100.0 65 4
160 48
100.0 45.7
404 132
100.0 52.2
372 67
100.0 32.7
639 188
100.0 47.5
850 192
100.0 45.1
88 16
100.0 32.0
70 13
100.0 32 5
1,341 187
100.0 25.2
63 g
100.0 28.1
941 111
100.0 20.7
261 59
100.0 43.8

— ■

582
=18.6
==
6
8.0
15
14.8
16
8.9
98
22.0
g
24.9
40
21.2
8
7.7
28
53 9
39
37.0
79
31.3
27
13.2
74
18.6
102
24.0
3
6.0
10
25.0
91
12.2
2
6.3
47
8.7
36
26.8

212 70 67 777
24.7
6.7 2.2 2.1 =====
4 24
5.3 32.0
4 23
—T
3.9 22.5
1.0
7 60
2
3.9 33.3
1.1
10 3 11 143
2.2 .7 2.4 31.8
1
1 10
2.8 27.8
2.8 —
4 66
5
2.6 1.1 2.1 35.0
1 4 37
3
2.9 1.0 3.9 36.0
1
1 12
1.9 23.1
19
1
1 28
1
1.0 1.0 1.0 26.7
51
32
9
20.2
3.6 12.6
39
1
8
3.9 .5 2.4 19.0
1 73
82 16
20.7 4.1 .3 18.5
54 12 3 92
12.7 2.8 .7 21.6
1 8 14
4
8.0 2.0 16.0 28.0
1
1 6
2.5 15.0
2.5
33 3 20 176
4.5 .4 2.7 23.8
8
3
25.0
9.4
15 2 17 123
2.8 .4 3.2 23.0
1 2 35
14
10.4 .7 1.5 25.9
—

-

-

________

—

' T

143
4.5
4
5.3
5
4.9
8
4.4
25
5.6
2
5.6
12
6.3
5
4.9
2
3.8
13
12.2
14
5.4
8
3.9
28
7.0
11
2.6
1
2.0
15
2.0
12
2.2
2
1.5

122
3.9
2
2.7
5
4.9
7
3.9
20
4.5
4
11.1
7
3.7
5
4.9
1
1.9
3
2.9
9
3.6
5
2.4
11
2.8
18
4.1
6
12.0
1
2.5
28
3.8
4
12.5
12
2.2
11
8.1

----

—

123
3.9
5
6.6
5
4.9
5
2.8
22
4.9
3
8.3
14
7.4
5
4.9
3
2.9
10
4.0
9
4.4
16
4.1
16
3.8
2
4.0
1
2.5
24
3.2
1
3.1
19
3.6
3
2.2

i Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data. Percents are based on classified cases only




72 388
2.3 ==12.3
==
8
2
2.7 10.7
2 18
2.0 17.6
7 33
3.9 18.3
14 85
3.1 18.9
a
__ 16.7
4 36
2.1 19.0
5 22
4.9 21.3
1 3
1.9 5.8
11
10.5
4 11
1.6 4.3
4 24
2.0 11.7
3 20
.8 5 1
9 39
2.1 9.2
3 ‘4
6.0 8.0
1 10
2.5 25.0
22 114
3.0 15.4
6
18 8
20 94
3.8 17.6
2 8
1.5 5.9

259 122
109 65 57 358 278 8.2 3.9
3.5 ■
—
■■■======
===== 2.1 1.8 =11.4 8.8 =: ■ :
2
8
8
1
2
1
1.3 1.3 2.7 2.7 10.7 10.7 ___
2
1
9 14 13
8.8 13.7 12.7 2.0
— ... 1.0
8
2
!§" 10 11 11 4.4
3.3 1.1 7.2 5.6 6.1 6.1 14
32 10 15 42 16 14
7.2 2.2 3.3 9.4 3.6 3.2 3.1
i
1
3
1
1
1
2
2.8 2.8 8.3 5.6 2.8 2.8 2.8
9
2
14 4
15 5 4 7.4 2.1 1.0 4.8
8.0 2. 6 2.1
5
2
6
6
2
15
10
9’ l 1.9 4.9 14.6 5.8 5.8 1.9
.6
1
1
2
3.8 1.9 1.9
1.9
1
3
2
2
16
...... 1.9
1.0 1.9 2.8 15.2
4
5 2 38
1.9 .8 15.0 .4 " " l 8" 1.6
16
7 2 35 18
2.4 3.4 1.0 17.1 8.8 8.8 7.8
8
7 21
73
3
5
18.5 2.0 1.7 5.3
.8 1.3
59 15 12 20
6
17
13.8 3.5 2.8 4.7
1.4 4.1
1
2
3 12 11
4.0 6.0 24.0 22.0 2.0
4
7 7
~""io"
10.0 17.5 17.5
25.0
40 15 16 56 160 150 32
5.4 2.0 2.2 7.6 21.6 20.3 4.3
1
1
4
2
2
3
9.4 3.1 3.1 12.5
63 63
144 137 18
33
9 14 35 26.9 25.6 3.4
6.2 1.7 2.6 6.5
15 7 5 8
1
2
3
1.5 2.3 .7 11.1 5.2 3.7 5.9
_ _ _ _ _

—

—

.. .

.. .

57 16 2,536
1.8
.5 ___
. •- ■" ■ 6
69
1
8.0 1.3 ___
56
1
1.0 ___ ___
1
179
1
.6
.6
1
2
381
.2
.4 ___
35
......
1 " ''I n
.5
82
53
55
__ ___
13 3 '""151
5.1 1.2 _
6
167
2.9 ___ ___
11
1
244
2.8
.3
7 2 424
1.6
.5
38
___ ___
"""16
600
6
16
1.3
.8
31
1
3.1
3 406
7
1.3
.6 ___
126
3
—

2.2

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

Total number of accidents

Unsafe working condition

T able 21.—

Unsafe Acts and Types of Accidents Involved in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay
Construction Products, 1948

Unsafe act

Accident type

1

1Totals

Inat­
tention
Total to foot­
ing

5,682 1,072
788 266
31
6
158
9
57
35
314 167
45
28
8
119
64
13
2,238 134
918
59
256
10
20 2
17
176
9
284
23
847
8
79
19
45
3
349
45
751 165
53
7
93
29
72
22
155
60
39
2
200
19
139
26
240 104
176 113
324 176
304 162
20
14
835
90
467
71
114
2
54
4
64
3
54
5
82
5
126
21
112
2
40
52
1

Inat­
tention
to sur­
round­
ings

436
20
6
11
1
2

69

35
150
26

3

8
10

30

4

1

1

2

7
37
4
4
15
1

13
94
84
172
158
14
8
5

20
1

12

3
8

1

2

11

3
13
48
4
14
6
9
1

3
4

8

45
3
2

28
11

1

5
1

2
1
1

4

2
1

2

69
3

8

19
10
5

include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space.




338
237~

Expo­
Lifting sure to
Taking Placing
with mov­ Total wrong objects
bent ing
hold of un­
back equip­
objects] safely
ment

3
I

12

69
64
3
1
1

885
68

14
4
36
1

7
6
471
369
182
47
65
75
54
2
9
37
272
11
17
6 20
24
5
148
47
2
3

1

4
5

20

9

2

8

Q
233 1 1
17
19
19
4
122
41
11

7

2
1
1
1

2

1

10
2

6

6

231
166
13
46
58
49
50
2
1

10

3
4
203
187
163
7
17
1
2

13

13
23

3

1
]
1

12

6

4

2
2

9

2

4
3
1
1

453
72
3
5

1

2

4
25

259
23

1

6

1
1

39
25
3
1

4

263

307
37~
22

Grip­
ping
objects
inse­
curely

18
2
1
8
6
1
1
1

Work­
ing on
mov­
ing or
dan­
gerous
equip­
ment

Oper­
Fail­ orating
work­
ure to ing at
secure an un­
Unsafe or warn safe
use of
Total equip­
speed
ment

46
5
7
Q
206
17
5
2

10

17
16
156
80
3
5
26
29
3
9
10
16
9
5

8
1

42
4
7
21
5
3
2
15
1
1
1

387
54

159
7

70
19

2

1

2

1

4

3
36
4
4
5
188
12
3

9
16
152
70
2
g

4
26
28
2
g

9

10
8
1

37
3
7
18
5
3
1
10
1

2
1

45
3

1

Un­
Fail­
ure to Other classi­
fied;
wear unsafe insuffi­
safe acts cient
attire
data
42
1

93
45
5
4
36
24
1
23
44
1
9
g
13

O.r

13

O

3
12
§
3

9Q
zy

2

12

o
Z
17

5

3

6

3
1
1

1
2
1

14
2
4

i
12

4

7

in
1U
3
3

4

44
4

l

2
7
6
l

2

4

2

2

1

4

g

2

4
4
4

4

1
2
1
4

4

4
1

3
6

oik
040
12

j

A

10

1
2

24
124

2

l

oa

2,938

1
A

5

1
2

18

*7
/

0

3

4
1

57
9
95
24
1 970
1, 4 /U
413
43
138
95
137
745
17
19
7fi
/o
140
140
9

16
17
30
3
21
50
119
40
130
126
4
653
363
101
26
53
42

68

kq
oy

94

32
50

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

Total....................................................................
Striking against..................................................
Stepping on objects.....................................
Rubbing against objects.. ..........................
Bumping into or against products or
materials-...............................................
Bumping into or against equipment_____
Bumping into or against walls, etc.............
Striking against projecting nails, slivers,
etc.................. ...................... ... _____
Other............................................................
Struck b y...........................................................
Falling objects..............................................
From hands of workers........... .............
From piles or storage places................
From vehicles or other equipment___
From other positions.-........................
Flying particles...........................................
Rolling objects.............................................
Thrown objects............................................
Other............................................................
Caught in, on, or between. ...............................
Gears, pulleys, belts, etc...........................
Other moving parts of equipment. ...........
Two vehicles.................................................
A vehicle and another object......................
A hand tool and another object..................
Handled objects........................................ .
Other............................................................
Falls on same level........................................ .
Falls to different levels. ....................................
Slips or stumbles................................................
Slips..............................................................
Stumbles......................................................
Overexertion......................................................
Lifting or carrying objects..........................
Pushing........................................................
Pulling objects.............................................
Throwing or swinging objects__________
Turning or rolling objects...........................
Other....................................................... .
Contact with extreme temperatures________
Inhalation, absorption, ingestion......................
Other accident types........................................
Unclassified; insufficient data.........................

Total
number
of acci­
dents

Using unsafe
equipment or
equipment
unsafely

Unsafe loading, placing,
mixing, etc.

Assuming unsafe positions or postures

48

INJURIES AND ACCIDENT CAUSES— MANUFACTURE OF CLAY CONSTRUCTION PRODUCTS

T able 22.—Unsafe Acts Involved in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing
Clay Construction Products, Classified by Kind of Plant, 1948
Unsafe act

Total number
of accidents

Kind of plant
Roofing, floor, and
wall tile plants

Structural
brick plants

Sewer
pipe plants

Structural
tile plants

Clay refractory
plants

Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­ Num­ Per­
ber 1 cent 2 ber cent 2 ber cent 2 ber cent 2 ber cent 2 ber cent 2
Total............................................................
Failure to secure or warn....................... .
Failure to warn__________________
Failure to lock or block.................. .
Operating or working at unsafe speeds___
Using unsafe equipment or equipment
unsafely. -------------------------------------Using defective equipment______ _
Unsafe use of equipment___________
Hand tools.............................. ...
Vehicles_____________________
Other________ ___________ ...
O ther................................. ................
Unsafe handling.___ ________________
Arranging or placing objects UnsafelyGripping objects insecurely-......... .
Taking wrong hold of objects________
Other............................. ........... ...........
Assuming unsafe positions or postures___
Inattention to footing______ _______
While getting on or off equipment.
On trackways.................................
Other_____ _________________
Lifting with bent back or from
awkward position....... .......................
Inattention to surroundings________
Exposure to moving equipment_____
Other...... ..............................................
Working on moving or dangerous equip­
ment-...................... .................................
Failure to wear safe attire or personal
protective equipment........ .....................
Other..........................................................
Unclassified; insufficient data__________
1 Totals

5,682
159
57
102
70
453
22
387
252
115
20
44
885
263
259
307
56
1,072
436
58
50
328
69
338
69
160
45
42
18
2,938

100.0

5.8
2.1
3.7

2.6

16.5
.8
14.1
9.2
4.2
.7
1.6
32.3
9.6
9.4
11.3
2.0
39.0
15.9
2.1
1.8
12.0

2.5
12.3
2.5
5.8

1.6

1.5
.7

1,593
46
23
23

20

109
1
98
58
33
7
10
236
90
65
68
13
304
133
20
17
96
11

82
29
49
16
9.
4
849

100.0
6.2

3.1
3.1
2.7
14.7
.1
13.3
7.9
4.5
.9
1.3
31.7
12.2
8.7
9.1
1.7
40.8
17.8
2.7
2.3
12.8

1.5
11.0
3.9

include figures not shown separately because of insufficient data.




6.6

683
13
7

6
11

61
1
49
30
19
11

99
28
32
32
7
165
61
3
10
48
25
62
9
8

2.2

2

1.2

11

.5

5
316

100.0

3.5
1.9
1.6
3.0
16.6
.3
13.3
8.1
5.2
3.0
27.0
7.6
8.7
8.8
1.9
45.0
16.6
.8
2.7
13.1
6.8

16.9
2.5

2.2

.5
3.0
1.4

687
17
2
15

6

40
38
30

8
2

104
41
27
34
2
137
63
6
7
50
6

44
7
17
5
4
3
371

100.0

5.4
.6
4.8
1.9
12.7
12.1

1,163
28
9
19
14
77

2
68

43.3
19.9
1.9
2.2
15.8
1.9
13.9
2.2
5.4

49
15
4
7
171
52
42
59
18
206
82
9
1
72
19
54
12
39

1.6

8

9.0
2.5
.6

32.9
13.0
8.5

10.8
.6

1.3
.9

7
1
651

2 Percents are based on classified cases only.

100.0

5.5
1.8
3.7
2.7
15.0
.4
13.2
9.5
2.9
.8
1.4
33.4

10.2
8.2

11.5
3.5
40.2
16.1
1.8
.2

14.1
3.7
10.5
2.3
7.6
1.6

1.4
.2

1,485
54
16
38
19
159
17
130
82
39
9
12

100.0

7.1
2.1
5.0
2.5
20.9
2.2
17.1
10.8
5.1
1.2
1.6

260
52
86
106
16
238
89
20
15
54

34.3
6.8
11.4
14.0
2.1
31.3
11.7

6
88
10

.8
11.6

45
14
11

5
725

2.6
2.0

7.1

1.3
5.9
1.8

1.4
.7

T able

23.— Unsafe Acts Involved in Injury-Producing Accidents in 133 Establishments Manufacturing Clay Construction Products,
Classified by Department, 1948

436
5,682 1,072 15.9 338 69
12.3 2.5
100.0 39.0
144
31 13 2 2
100.0 40.7 17.1 2.6 2.6
1
31 14 5
158
100.0 46.2 20.8 7.5 1.5
4
84 29 26
359
100.0 46.7 16.2 14.4 2.2
830 185 65 68 11
100.0 44.5 15.7 16.4 2.6
11 2 4
1
71
100.0 28.2 5.1 10.3 2.6
36
360
95 20.3 25 6
14.1 3.4
100.0 53.5
185
42 16 23
16.3 23.5
100.0 42.8
14 6 5 2
105
100.0 26.9 11.6 9.6 3.8
1
33 18 6
160
100.0 39.3 21.5 7.1 1.2
404
87 41 20 10
100. C 47.6 22.4 10.9 5.5
372
72 39 15 6
45.4 24.7 9.4 3.8
100.0
639 100 27 49
5
100.0 38.0 10.3 18.6 1.9
850 163 70 55 14
100.0 36.9 15.9 12.4 3.2
24 5 11
6
88
100.0 58.6 12.2 26.9 14.6
1
70
18 6 9
100.0 40.8 13.5 20.4 2.3
1,341
186 87 54 8
100.0 28.0 13.1 8.1 1.2
63
19 10 6
100.0 63.4 33.4 20.0
941
118 54 37 4
100.0 24.9 11.5 7.8 .8
261
35 17 7 2
100.0 28.7 14.0 5.7 1.6

69
2.5
3
3.9
2
3.0
4
22
20
4.8
2
5.1
15
8.4
1
1.0

GOVERNMENT PRINT ING O F F IC E : 1951

6~
7.1
8
4.4
4
2.5
3
1.1
7
1.6
2
4.9
1
2.3
6
.9
2
6.7
3
.6
1
.8

©
a

3
o

160
5.8
11
14.5
9
13.4
21
11.7
21
5.0
2
5.1
13
7.3
2
2.0
1
1.9
2
2.4
s
4.4
8
5.0
16
6.1
17
3.8

885
32.3
24
31.6
16
23.9
32
17.8
117
28.1
16
41.0
38
21.3
30
30.6
20
38.5
20
23.8
59
32.2
32
20.1
132
50.2
200
45.2
10
24.4
16
36.4
186
28.0
3
10.0
116
24.5
59
48.4

o

1
2.3
31
4.7
1
3.3
20
4.2
8
6.6

307
11.3
15
19.8
7
10.4
14
7.8
55
13.3
8
20.4
15
8.4
14
14.3
12
23.1
12
14.2
20
10.9
16
10.0
27
10.3
44
10.0
2
4.9
10
22.8
70
10.5
2
6.7
44
9.3
19
15.6

263
9.6
4
5.3
5
7.5
5
2.8
23
5.5
4
10.3
6
3.4
6
6.1
3
5.8
4
4.8
23

12.6
6
3.8.

62
23.5
73
16.4
3
7.3
2
4.5
45
6.8

27~
5.7
18
14.8

259
9.4
2
2.6
4
6.0
11
6.1
33
7.9
3
7.7
15
8.4
9
9.2
4
7.7
4
4.8
15
8.2
9
5.7
42
16.0
71
16.1
5
12.2
4
9.1
47
7.1
1
3.3
31
6.5
15
12.3

56
2.0
3
3.9
......
1.1
6
1.4
1
2.6
2
1.1
1
1.0
1
1.9
—
.5
i

.6

1
.4
12
2.7
’""24’
3.6
14~
3.0
7
5.7

453

16.5
7
9.2
17
25.4
42
23.3
65
15.6
4
10.3
25
14.0
13
13.3
11
21.2
21
25.0
18
9.8
37
23.3
17
6.5
44
10.0
4
9.8
8
18.2
161
24.2
3
10.0
133
28.0
14
11.5

387
14.1
5
6.6
15
22.4
32
17.7
52
12.5
4
10.3
21
11.8
11
11.3
7
13.5
20
23.8
17
9.3
32
20.2
14
5.4
38
8.6
4
9.8
6
13.6
141
21.2
1
3.3
116
24.4
14
11.5

22

.8
1
1.3
1
1.5
5
2.8
3
.7
2
1.1
—
1.9
—
.5
2~
.5
1
2.3
8
1.2
8
1.7

159
5.8
1
6
1.3
7.9
1
1.5 — —
5
2.8 4.4
10
25
2.4 6.0
4
10.3
2"
12
1.1
6.7
4
2
2.0 4.1
3
5
5.8 9.6
1
9
1.2 10.7
10
5.5
5
8
3.1
5.0
3
6
1.1
2.3
4
18
.9 4.1
44
1.6

1
2.3
12
1.8
2
6.7
9
1.9

......... .........

6l"
9.2
3
10.0
48
10.1
g
6.6

Unclassified; insufficient
data

0§
©0
S*
O bo
&J3

70 45 42
2.6 1.6 1.5
4

5.3
1
1.5
4
2.2
10
2.4
2
5.1
3
1.7
4
4.1
1
1.9
1
1.2
3
1.6
4

2.5
5
1.9
15
3.4
1
2.4
1
2.3
18
2.7
1
3.3
15
3.2
2
1.6

18 2,938
.7
4
68
j- 5.3
1
91
1.5 1.5
179
7 2
3.9 1.1 .6
3 414
9 2
2.2 .5 .7
2
32
5.1
5
182
2.8
1 1 3
87
1.0 1.0 3.1
1
53
1.9
76
4
2 221
2.2 1.1
5
1 "~213
3.1 .6
3
"§76
1.1
1 -- "408
.2 .2
1
1 47
2.4 2.4
1
26
2.3
27 ’’"is" -— 7’ ” "677
4.1 2.7 1.1
1
33
3.3
'" ’26’ 13 — "5“ ” ’467
5.5 2.7 1.1
2
2 139
......... 1.6 1.6

APPENDIX— STATISTICAL TABLES

1
$3 o-d £■ 8
bO
s
11 a
s
I
1

I
Total. ___ ______________________ _ Number. _
Percent. __
Clay pit.. _________ ______________ Number. _
Percent. __
Clay mine_____________ ___________ Number. _
Percent—
Preparation________________________ Number. _
Percent—
Molding.___ ______________________ Num ber..
Percent...
Soft-mud process________________ Number. _
Percent.
Stiff-mud process________________ Number..
Percent-..
Dry-press_____________ ________ Number. _
Percent—
Hand___ _____ _____ __________ Number. _
Percent.
Drying_____________________ ______ Number. _
Percent. __
Setting___ _____ ___________ _____ Number. _
P ercen tBurning....... ............................................. Number. .
Percent...
Drawing and wheeling_______________ Number. _
Percent-_.
Storage and shipping_________ _____ Number. _
Percent. __
Glazing___ _______ ______ __________ Number. _
PercentSurface grinding and finishing_________ Number..
PercentAdministrative and service___________ Number. _
Percent-..
Administrative and clerical............... Number. _
Percent—
Plant m aintenance____ ________ Number. _
Percent. __
Yard__________________________ Number. _
Percent...

1

SB

Other unsafe acts

A
§
a

Total number of
accidents

Failure to wear safe attire

Department 1

Using unsafe equipment
Unsafe handling
or equipment unsafely
to
©
0
'o «} £ o
r0 xn
©+3
0©
§ 1 Is*
a. * 1
0
=1 0 ®
bow ■ g-S
a
a
©
© 3
ft
r
a
a
a
P4 o
o § 0s * 0 0

Operating or working at
an unsafe speed
Working on moving or
dangerous equipment

Assuming unsafe positions or postures

Failure to secure or warn

Unsafe act

1Totals include figures not shown separately because of insufficient space. Percents are based on classified cases only.




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