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INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY




Women’s and Misses’ Dresses

I

MARCH 1966

Bulletin No. 1538
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY

Women’s and Misses’ Dresses
M ARCH 1966

Bulletin No. 1538
December 1966

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U .S. Government Printing Office, W ashington, D .C . 2 0 4 0 2 - Price 30 cents







Preface
This b u lletin su m m a rize s the re su lts o f a B ureau
o f L a b or S ta tistics su rv ey o f w ages and supplem en tary
p r a c tic e s in the w o m e n ’ s and m i s s e s ' d re s s m anufacturing
industry in 11 a rea s in M a rch 1966.
Separate r e le a s e s
for each area* usually issu ed w ithin a few m onths after the
p a y ro ll p e rio d studied, m ay be obtained fro m the B ureau
o f L a bor S ta tistics, W ashington, D. C. , 20212, or fro m
any o f its re g io n a l o f fic e s .
The study was conducted in the B u rea u 's D iv isio n
o f O ccu pation al P ay, T oiv o P. Kanninen, C h ief, under the
gen eral d ir e ctio n o f L . R. L in se n m a y e r, A ssista n t C o m ­
m is s io n e r fo r W ages and In du strial R e la tion s.
The a naly­
sis w as p rep a red by F r e d e r ic k L. B au er, under the im ­
m ediate su p e rv is io n o f L . E a rl L e w is. F ie ld w o rk fo r the
su rvey w as d ir e cte d by the A ssista n t R egion a l D ir e c to r s
fo r W ages and In du strial R ela tion s.
Other re p o rts available fro m the B u rea u 's p r o ­
gram o f industry w age stu d ies, as w e ll as the a d d re s s e s o f
the B u rea u 's six re g io n a l o f f i c e s , are liste d at the end o f
this bulletin .




m

Contents
P age
S u m m a r y ___________________________________________________________________________________
In d u stry c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s _________________________________________________________________
E m p lo y m e n t ____________________________________________________________________________
S ize o f s h o p ____________________________________________________________________________
T y p e o f s h o p ___________________________________________________________________________
M e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t _____________________________________________________________
U n io n iz a t io n ___________________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s _________________________________________________________________
O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v i s i o n s _____________________
S ch e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ______________________________________________________________
P a id h o lid a y s ___________________________________________________________________________
H ea lth , w e l f a r e , and v a c a tio n b e n e f i t s ____________________________________________
S u p p le m e n ta r y u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e f it s _____________________________________________
T e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y b e n e f it s _______________________________________________________
R e t ir e m e n t p la n s ______________________________________________________________________

1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6

T a b le s :
E a r n in g s d is tr ib u t io n :
1. A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s _____________________________________________________
2. W o m e n p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s _______________________________________________
3. M e n p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ___________________________________________________

7
8
9

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s :
4. S e le c te d o c c u p a t i o n s _______________________________________________________

10

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s :
5. B o s t o n ________________________________________________________________________
6. C h i c a g o _______________________________________________________________________
7. D a l l a s ________________________________________________________________________
8. F a ll R iv e r and N ew B e d f o r d ______________________________________________
9- L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A n a G a rd e n G r o v e ______________________________________________________________
10. N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity ------------------------------------------------------------------------------11. New Y o r k C ity — a ll s h o p s --------------------------------------------------------------------------12. New Y o r k C ity — r e g u la r s h o p s -----------------------------------------------------------------13. New Y o r k C ity — c o n t r a c t s h o p s ----------------14. P a t e r s o n — lifto n —P a s s a i c _________________________________________________
C
15. P h ila d e lp h ia _________________________________________________________________
16. St. L o u i s _____________________________________________________________________
17. W i l k e s - B a r r e —H a z le t o n ____________________________________________________

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

E s t a b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s and s u p p le m e n ta r y w a g e p r o v is io n s :
18. M eth od o f w a g e p a y m e n t ----------------------------------------------------------------------------19. S c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s ___________________________________________________
20. P a id h o lid a y s ___________________________________
21. H ea lth , w e l f a r e , and v a c a tio n b e n e f i t s __________________________________
22. R e t ir e m e n t p la n s -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

24
24
25
26
28

A p p e n d ix e s :
A . S co p e and m e th o d o f s u r v e y -------------------------------------------------------B . O c c u p a tio n a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------




iv

11
12
13
14

33

Industry W age Survey---W om en’s and Misses’ Dresses, March 1966
S u m m a ry

A v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts m a n u fa c tu r in g w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s e s ra n g e d f r o m $ 2 .7 3 in
New Y o r k C ity to $ 1 .6 3 in D a lla s , a m o n g the 11 a r e a s s u r v e y e d b y the B u re a u
o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s in M a r c h 1966. 1 S in ce a s im i la r s u r v e y , c o n d u cte d in M a r c h —
A p r il 1963, a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s had i n c r e a s e d b y a p p r o x im a t e ly 5 p e r c e n t
in C h ic a g o and P a t e r s o n — lifto n —P a s s a i c , b e tw e e n 7 and 10 p e r c e n t in s ix a r e a s ,
C
and b e tw e e n 10 and 15 p e r c e n t in F a ll R iv e r and New B e d fo r d , N e w a rk and J e r s e y
C ity , and P h i la d e l p h i a .2

In d iv id u a l e a rn in g s in e a c h a r e a w e r e w id e ly d is p e r s e d , r e f l e c t i n g s u ch
in d u s try c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as the e x te n s iv e u s e o f in c e n tiv e w a g e s y s t e m s and
d if f e r e n c e s in ty p e s o f w o r k .

S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s a c c o u n te d f o r s lig h tly m o r e than h a lf o f the
p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in the 11 a r e a s c o m b in e d .
S in g le h a n d -s y s t e m o p e r a t o r s
t y p ic a lly had h ig h e r a v e r a g e e a rn in g s than s e c t i o n - s y s t e m o p e r a t o r s .
C u tte rs
and m a r k e r s , and p r e s s e r s w e r e u s u a lly a m o n g the h ig h e s t p aid o c c u p a t io n a l
g r o u p s stu d ie d ; th re a d t r im m e r s w e r e u s u a lly the lo w e s t p a id .

A p p r o x im a t e ly n in e -te n th s o f the w o r k e r s in the 11 a r e a s c o m b in e d w e r e
e m p lo y e d in e s ta b lis h m e n ts w h ic h had a g r e e m e n ts w ith the In te r n a tio n a l L a d ie s '
G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n ion . T h e s e a g r e e m e n ts in c lu d e d p r o v is io n s f o r p aid h o lid a y s ,
p aid v a c a t io n s , v a r io u s ty p e s o f h ea lth and w e lfa r e b e n e f it s , and r e t ir e m e n t
p e n s io n s .

In d u stry C h a r a c t e r i s t ic s

E m p lo y m e n t .
T h e 11 a r e a s e m p lo y e d an e s tim a te d 8 8 ,8 0 0 p r o d u c tio n
w o r k e r s w ith in s c o p e o f the s u r v e y .
A p p r o x im a te ly t h r e e - f if t h s o f th e s e w e r e
in New Y o r k C ity .
W i l k e s - B a r r e — a z le to n , the s e c o n d l a r g e s t a r e a in t e r m s o f
H
e m p lo y m e n t, a c c o u n te d f o r a b ou t o n e -t e n t h o f the w o r k e r s ; F a ll R iv e r and New
B e d fo r d and L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A na— a rd e n G r o v e w e r e
G
the o n ly o th e r a r e a s h a v in g as m u c h as 5 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k f o r c e .
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , n u m e r ic a lly the m o s t im p o r ta n t o f the s e ­
le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s , a c c o u n te d f o r m o r e than o n e -h a lf o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
in the 11 a r e a s c o m b in e d , a bou t 64 p e r c e n t in P a te r s o n —C lifto n —P a s s a ic and
b e tw e e n 50 and 60 p e r c e n t in a ll o t h e r s e x c e p t B o s t o n and New Y o r k C ity w h e r e

See appendix A for scope and method o f survey and for definition of production workers, as used in this
study. ^ For definition o f areas used in this study, see footnote 1, tables 5 through 17,
See Industry Wage Survey? Women's and Misses1 Dresses, March-April 1963 (BLS Bulletin 1391, 1964),




2

the p r o p o r t io n s w e r e 43 and 47 p e r c e n t , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
N e a r ly t h r e e - f if t h s o f the
s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s in the 11 a r e a s w e r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r the sin g le h a n d
s y s te m o f s e w in g in w h ich an o p e r a t o r p e r f o r m s a ll o r m o s t o f the s e w in g
o p e r a tio n s r e q u ir e d to c o m p le t e the g a rm e n t.
The r e m a in d e r o f th e s e w o r k e r s
w e r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r the s e c t io n s y s te m in w h ic h an o p e r a t o r 's s e w in g is lim it e d
to a s p e c i f i c p a r t o r p a r ts o f the g a rm e n t.
A m o n g the a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n s
o f w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d u n d er the tw o s e w in g s y s t e m s v a r ie d s u b s ta n tia lly .
For
e x a m p le , v ir t u a lly a ll o f the o p e r a t o r s in F a ll R iv e r and N ew B e d fo r d , and
W i l k e s - B a r r e —H a z le to n w e r e e m p lo y e d u n d e r the s e c t io n s y s t e m , c o m p a r e d w ith
a bou t a s ix th in New Y o r k C ity , a fo u r th in L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and
A n a h e im —
Santa A na— a rd e n G r o v e , and a th ird in B o s t o n .
G
In P a te r son — lifto n —
C
P a s s a i c , the p r o p o r t io n s o f s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s e m p lo y e d u n d e r e a c h
s y s te m w e r e n e a r ly e q u a l.
L e s s than a tenth (7 p e r c e n t) o f the w o r k e r s w e r e
e m p lo y e d as hand p r e s s e r s and a s im ila r p r o p o r t io n as hand s e w e r s .
C u tte r
and m a r k e r w a s the o n ly o th e r jo b a cc o u n tin g f o r as m u ch as 5 p e r c e n t o f the
w ork fo rc e .
M o r e than n in e -te n th s o f the s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s in e a c h a r e a w e r e
w om en.
W o m e n w e r e a ls o p r e d o m in a n t in a ll o f the o th e r o c c u p a tio n s e x c e p t
c u t t e r s and m a r k e r s in e a c h a r e a , and p r e s s e r s in a few a r e a s .
A lth o u g h w o m e n
d o m in a te d the w o r k f o r c e in e a c h a r e a , the r a tio o f w o m e n to m e n v a r ie d s u b ­
s ta n tia lly a m o n g the a r e a s .
F o r e x a m p le , w o m e n o u tn u m b e r e d m e n b y at le a s t
10 to 1 in F a ll R iv e r and New B e d fo r d , N e w a rk and J e r s e y C ity , and St. L o u is ,
w h e r e a s the r a tio in New Y o r k C ity w a s le s s than 3 to 1, and in B o s t o n abou t
5 to 1.

S ize o f S h op . E s t a b lis h m e n ts w ith fe w e r than 50 w o r k e r s a c c o u n te d f o r
a lm o s t h a lf o f the e m p lo y m e n t in the 11 a r e a s c o m b in e d ; s lig h tly m o r e than h a lf
o f the w o r k e r s in L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A na—G a rd e n G r o v e
and N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity , a bou t t h r e e - f if t h s in New Y o r k C ity and s e v e n -t e n t h s
o f th o s e in P a t e r s o n —C lifto n —P a s s a ic w e r e in th is e s t a b li s h m e n t -s i z e g ro u p .
O n e -fift h o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in sh o p s e m p lo y in g 100 w o r k e r s o r m o r e ; s u ch
sh o p s a c c o u n te d f o r a m a jo r i t y o f the w o r k e r s in D a lla s , F a ll R iv e r and New
B e d f o r d , and St. L o u is .

T y p e o f S h op .
T h e e s tim a te d 2 ,5 0 0 sh o p s w ith in s c o p e o f the stu dy
w e r e o f th r e e d iffe r e n t ty p e s : R e g u la r o r " i n s i d e " sh o p s w h ic h ow n the m a t e r ia ls
and p e r f o r m a ll o r m o s t o f the m a n u fa c tu r in g o p e r a t io n s ; c o n t r a c t s h o p s , w h ic h
p r o c e s s m a t e r ia ls ow n ed (and fr e q u e n tly cut) b y o t h e r s ; and jo b b in g s h o p s ,
w h ic h c o n t r a c t ou t m o s t o f the m a n u fa c tu r in g o p e r a t io n s but m a y p e r f o r m s u ch
fu n c tio n s as cu ttin g , fin is h in g , p a c k in g , and s h ip p in g .
F o r p u r p o s e s o f th is
s u r v e y , jo b b in g s h o p s and r e g u la r sh o p s w e r e c o m b in e d and to g e t h e r a c c o u n te d
f o r s lig h tly m o r e than a th ird o f the w o r k f o r c e .
A m o n g the in d iv id u a l a r e a s ,
the p r o p o r t io n s in r e g u la r sh o p s v a r ie d , a m ou n tin g to le s s than a tenth in N ew a rk
and J e r s e y C ity , P a te r son — lift o n ^ P a s s a ic , and W i l k e s - B a r r e — a z le to n , a bou t an
C
H
eigh th in F a ll R iv e r and New B e d f o r d , b e tw e e n a th ird and o n e - h a lf in B o s t o n ,
L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa Ana— a rd e n G r o v e , and New Y o r k
G
C ity , and t h r e e - f if t h s o r m o r e in the r e m a in in g a r e a s .

M eth od o f W age P a y m e n t . In ce n tiv e m e th o d s o f w a g e p a y m e n t, u s u a lly
in d iv id u a l p ie c e w o r k , a p p lie d to t h r e e - f if t h s o f the p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in the
11 a r e a s c o m b in e d .
A m o n g the a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n s p aid o n th is b a s is r a n g e d
f r o m o n e - h a lf in B o s t o n and D a lla s to s e v e n -t e n t h s in L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h
L
and A n a h e im —
Santa Ana— a rd e n G r o v e , P a te r son — lifto n —P a s s a ic , and W ilk e s G
C
B a r r e — a z le to n (ta b le 18).
H
In c e n tiv e m e th o d s o f w a g e p a y m e n t w e r e p r e d o m in a n t




3

f o r b oth ty p e s o f s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s in a ll a r e a s e x c e p t D a lla s w h e r e
t im e - r a t e d s in g le hand o p e r a t o r s o u tn u m b e r e d th o s e p aid in c e n tiv e r a t e s .
Hand
s e w e r s and hand p r e s s e r s a ls o w e r e p aid p re d o m in a n tly o n an in c e n tiv e b a s is in
m o s t o f the a r e a s .
U n io n iz a tio n . E s t a b lis h m e n ts h a v in g u n ion c o n t r a c t s c o v e r i n g a m a jo r i t y
o f th e ir p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s a c c o u n te d f o r abou t s e v e n -e ig h t h s o f the w o r k f o r c e
o r m o r e in a ll a r e a s e x c e p t D a lla s , and L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa Ana— a rd e n G r o v e w h e r e the p r o p o r t io n s w e r e l e s s than a ten th .
G
V ir t u a lly
a ll o f the u n ion e s ta b lis h m e n ts had c o n t r a c t s w ith the In te r n a tio n a l L a d i e s ’
G a rm e n t W o r k e r s ’ U nion .

A v e r a g e H o u r ly E a r n in g s

S tr a ig h t-tim e a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f p r o d u c t io n and r e la t e d w o r k e r s
ra n g e d f r o m $ 2 .7 3 in N ew Y o r k C ity to $ 1 .6 3 in D a lla s (ta b le 1).
I d e n tic a l
a v e r a g e s ($ 2 . 15) w e r e r e c o r d e d f o r L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa
A na— a rd e n G r o v e , and P h ila d e lp h ia .
G
E a r n in g s in W i l k e s - B a r r e — a z le to n , the
H
s e c o n d l a r g e s t a r e a , a v e r a g e d $ 1 .8 9 an h o u r.
F a ll R iv e r and New B e d fo r d w a s
the o n ly o th e r a r e a in a d d itio n to th o s e m e n tio n e d p r e v io u s ly f o r w h ic h ah a v e r a g e
o f l e s s than $2 w a s r e c o r d e d ( $ 1 .9 9 ) .
A v e r a g e s in the r e m a in in g a r e a s ra n g e d
f r o m $2. 50 in P a te r son — li ft o n - P a s s a ic to $2. 05 in C h ic a g o .
C

V a r ia t io n s in a r e a w a g e le v e ls w e r e due p a r t ly to d if f e r e n c e s in m a n u ­
fa c tu r in g m e th o d s and p r o c e s s e s .
F o r e x a m p le , in 3 o f the 4 a r e a s w h e r e
a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s w e r e o v e r $2. 25, a m a jo r i t y o f the w o r k e r s w e r e in
sh o p s u s in g the s in g le h a n d s y s t e m o f se w in g ; in e a c h o f the fiv e lo w e s t p a y in g
a r e a s the s e c t io n s y s t e m o f s e w in g w a s p r e d o m in a n t.

T h e r e w a s no c o n s is t e n t r e la t io n s h ip b e tw e e n the l e v e l o f e a rn in g s and
the typ e o f sh op that d o m in a te d the in d iv id u a l a r e a s .
F o r e x a m p le , in F a ll R iv e r
and New B e d fo r d and in W i l k e s - B a r r e —H a z le to n , 2 o f the 3 a r e a s f o r w h ic h lo w e s t
a v e r a g e s w e r e r e c o r d e d , s e v e n -e ig h t h s o f the w o r k e r s o r m o r e w e r e in c o n t r a c t
shops.
In D a lla s , h o w e v e r , th is r e la t io n s h ip w a s r e v e r s e d — o n ly a tenth o f the
w o r k e r s w e r e in c o n t r a c t s h o p s .
In the th re e a r e a s f o r w h ic h h ig h e s t a v e r a g e s
w e re r e c o r d e d (N ew ark and J e r s e y C ity , New Y o r k C ity , and P a te r s o n ^ C lifto n —
P a s s a i c ) , tw o -t h ir d s o f the w o r k e r s o r m o r e w e r e in c o n t r a c t s h o p s .
In New
Y o r k C ity , the o n ly a r e a f o r w h ich d ata w e r e ta b u la ted s e p a r a t e ly b y typ e o f s h o p ,
w o r k e r s in r e g u la r s h o p s e a r n e d 12 c e n ts an h ou r m o r e o n the a v e r a g e than th o s e
in c o n t r a c t s h op s ($ 2 .8 1 c o m p a r e d w ith $ 2 .6 9 an h o u r ).

In e a c h a r e a , m e n , as a g r o u p , a v e r a g e d m o r e than w o m e n b y a m ou n ts
ra n g in g f r o m $1. 89 an h ou r in P a te r son — lifto n —P a s s a ic to 13 c e n ts in W ilk e s C
B a r r e — a z le to n .
H
D iff e r e n c e s in a v e r a g e p a y l e v e ls f o r m e n and w o m e n m a y b e
the r e s u lt o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s , in c lu d in g v a r ia t io n s in the d is t r ib u t io n o f m e n and
w o m e n a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts and a m o n g jo b s w ith d is p a r a te p a y l e v e ls .
M en
w e r e c o n c e n t r a t e d m o r e h e a v ily in jo b s r e q u ir in g the g r e a t e s t e x p e r ie n c e and
s k i l l, s u ch as cu ttin g and m a r k in g (the h ig h e s t p aid jo b in s e v e n a r e a s ) .
Th e p r o p o r t io n s o f w o r k e r s at d iffe r e n t e a rn in g s le v e ls v a r ie d s u b s ta n ­
tia lly a m on g the a r e a s (ta b le 1).
F o r e x a m p le , 36 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c tio n
w o r k e r s in D a lla s e a r n e d b e tw e e n $ 1 .2 5 and $ 1 .4 0 an h o u r; in the r e m a in in g
a r e a s , the p r o p o r t io n s in th is e a rn in g s c l a s s in t e r v a l ra n g e d f r o m abou t 3 p e r c e n t




in New Y o r k C ity , P a te r s o n — l i f t o n ^ P a s s a i c , and St. L o u is , to a bou t 11 p e r c e n t
C
in L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A na— a r d e n G r o v e . A p p r o x im a t e ly
G
o n e -f ift h o f the w o r k e r s in N ew Y o r k C ity e a r n e d $3. 50 o r m o r e ; in e a c h o f the
o th e r a r e a s the p r o p o r t io n w a s o n e -e ig h t h o r l e s s .
New Y o r k C ity w a s the o n ly a r e a f o r w h ic h w a g e data w e r e ta b u la te d
a c c o r d in g to the p r e d o m in a n t w h o le s a le p r i c e o f the g a rm e n ts m a n u fa c tu r e d . 3 A s
illu s t r a t e d in the fo llo w in g ta b u la tio n , sin g le h a n d s y s t e m s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a ­
t o r s in s h o p s m a k in g d r e s s e s to s e l l p r e d o m in a n tly f o r $22. 50 o r m o r e a v e r a g e d
79 c e n ts an h ou r m o r e than th e ir c o u n te r p a r t s in s h o p s w ith w h o le s a le p r i c e lin e s
u n d er $6. 75:

Predominant wholesale
price of dress
Under $ 6 .75 ----------- --------------------$6. 75 and under $12. 7 5 --------------$12. 75 and under $22. 5 0 ------------$22. 50 and over---------------------------

Number of
workers

Average hourly
earnings

6,234
3,640

$2. 24
2.6 4
2.6 7
3.03

O c c u p a tio n a l E a r n in g s

T h e o c c u p a t io n a l g r o u p s s tu d ie d s e p a r a t e ly a c c o u n te d f o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s
o f the w o r k e r s o r m o r e in a ll a r e a s e x c e p t B o s t o n w h e r e the p r o p o r t io n w a s
s lig h tly s m a l le r (ta b le 4 ).
C u tte rs and m a r k e r s , p r e d o m in a n tly m e n p aid o n a
t i m e - r a t e b a s i s , had the h ig h e s t a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a rn in g s in s e v e n a r e a s w ith
a v e r a g e s ra n g in g f r o m $3. 55 an h ou r in New Y o r k C ity to $2. 18 in D a lla s . T h r e a d
t r i m m e r s , v ir t u a lly a ll o f w h o m w e r e w o m e n and p aid tim e r a t e s , w e r e the lo w e s t
p aid in e ig h t a r e a s w ith a v e r a g e s ra n g in g f r o m $1. 65 an h ou r in New Y o r k C ity
to $ 1 .4 0 in L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A na— a rd e n G r o v e .
G
S in g leh a n d (t a ilo r s y s te m ) s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s a v e r a g e d a p p r o x i­
m a t e ly 40 c e n ts an h ou r m o r e than s e c t i o n s y s t e m o p e r a t o r s in C h ic a g o , D a lla s ,
N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity , and New Y o r k C ity .
In a ll but o n e o f the r e m a in in g
a r e a s f o r w h ic h d ata c o u ld be sh ow n f o r b o th ty p e s o f o p e r a t o r s , a v e r a g e e a r n in g s
o f s in g le h a n d o p e r a t o r s w e r e 19 to 34 c e n ts an h o u r h ig h e r than th o s e o f s e c t i o n
s y s t e m o p e r a t o r s ; n e a r ly id e n tic a l a v e r a g e s w e r e r e c o r d e d f o r the tw o jo b s in
P a t e r s o n — lift o n r -P a s s a ic .
C
A r e a a v e r a g e s f o r sin g le h a n d o p e r a t o r s ra n g e d f r o m
$2. 81 an h ou r in New Y o r k C ity to $ 1 .9 7 in D a lla s ; th o s e o f s e c t io n s y s t e m o p e r a ­
t o r s ra n g e d f r o m $2. 50 an h ou r in P a te r so n — lifto n —P a s s a ic to $1. 58 in D a lla s .
C
In N ew Y o r k C ity , the o n ly a r e a f o r w h ich d ata w e r e ta b u la te d b y typ e
o f s h o p , s in g le h a n d s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s in r e g u la r sh o p s a v e r a g e d $3. 23
an h ou r c o m p a r e d w ith $2. 7 3 f o r th o s e in c o n t r a c t s h o p s .
T h is w a g e r e la t io n s h ip
w a s r e v e r s e d , h o w e v e r , f o r s e c t io n s y s te m o p e r a t o r s ; th ey a v e r a g e d 16 ce n ts
an h o u r m o r e in c o n t r a c t sh o p s than in r e g u la r sh o p s ( $ 2 .4 4 c o m p a r e d w ith $2. 2 8).
3 A majority of the workers in Chicago, Los Angeles-Long Beach and Anaheim—
Santa Ana—
Garden Grove,
New York City, and St. Louis were in establishments primarily producing dresses to sell wholesale at $12.75 or more;
the proportions ranged from slightly more than half in St. Louis to nearly three-fourths in Los Angeles-Long Beach
and Anaheim—
Santa Ana-Garden Grove. Shops primarily manufacturing dresses to sell wholesale at $22. 50 or more
accounted for slightly more than two-fifths of the workers in New York City, about three-tenths in Boston and Chicago,
about one-fourth in Los Angeles—
Long Beach and Anaheim—Santa Ana—Garden Grove, a fifth in Dallas, Philadelphia,
and St. Louis, and smaller proportions in a few other areas.




5

O c c u p a tio n a l e a r n in g s le v e ls d if fe r e d a m o n g the e s ta b lis h m e n ts s tu d ie d .
F o r e x a m p le , s o m e e s ta b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e s f o r w o m e n s in g le h a n d s e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s in New Y o r k C ity w e r e b e tw e e n $1. 50 and $2 an h o u r w h e r e a s o t h e r s
w e r e o v e r $4.
S lig h tly m o r e than t w o -t h ir d s o f the e s ta b lis h m e n t a v e r a g e s f o r
th is o c c u p a t io n in New Y o r k C ity w e r e $2. 50 an h o u r o r m o r e as illu s t r a t e d in
the fo llo w in g ta b u la tion :

Number o f establishments employing women sewing-machine operators,
singlehand system, in New York City, March 1966
Establishment average hourly earnings

Regular shops

Contract shops

under $2.00
under $2. 50
under $3. 00
under $3. 50
under $4. 00
over------------

1
2
12
6
7
1

4
34
39
15
5
3

T ota l-------------------

29

100

$1. 50
$2.00
$2. 50
$3.00
$3. 50
$4.00

and
and
and
and
and
and

E a r n in g s o f in d iv id u a l w o r k e r s v a r ie d s u b s ta n tia lly w ith in the s a m e jo b
and a r e a , e s p e c i a l l y f o r in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s (s e e ta b le s 5—17).
T h u s , h o u r ly
e a r n in g s o f the h ig h e s t p a id w o r k e r fr e q u e n tly e x c e e d e d th o s e o f the lo w e s t p aid
w o r k e r in the s a m e jo b and a r e a b y m o r e than $2 an h o u r .
In New Y o r k C ity ,
f o r e x a m p le , fu lly an eig h th o f the sin g le h a n d s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s e a r n e d
b e tw e e n $ 1 .2 5 and $2 an h o u r , w h ile n e a r ly a tenth e a r n e d $4 o r m o r e .

W h e re c o m p a r is o n s w e r e p o s s i b l e b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, a v e r a g e
s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f w o r k e r s in the s a m e jo b and a r e a and p a id on
an in c e n tiv e b a s is w e r e n e a r ly a lw a y s h ig h e r than th o s e p a id tim e r a t e s .
F or
e x a m p le , in the s e v e n a r e a s f o r w h ic h c o m p a r is o n s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t
c o u ld b e m a d e f o r s e c t io n s y s t e m s e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , the d if f e r e n c e s in
a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s r a n g e d f r o m 1 1 to 9 8 c e n t s .

E s t a b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s

and S u p p le m e n ta r y W age P r o v i s i o n s

S c h e d u le d W e e k ly H o u r s . W o r k s c h e d u le s o f 35 h o u r s (5 d a y s ) a w e e k
w e r e in e f f e c t , in M a r c h 1966, in sh o p s e m p lo y in g m o r e than n in e -te n th s o f the
p r o d u c tio n and r e la t e d w o r k e r s in s ix a r e a s and a bou t s e v e n -e ig h t h s in a ll o t h e r s
e x c e p t D a lla s and L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa A na— a rd e n G r o v e
G
(ta b le 19).
M o r e than n in e -te n th s o f the w o r k e r s in the la tte r tw o a r e a s w e r e
s c h e d u le d to w o r k 40 h o u r s a w e e k at the tim e o f the stu d y .

P a id H o lid a y s . P a id h o lid a y s w e r e p r o v id e d b y v ir t u a lly a ll s h o p s v is it e d
in the 11 a r e a s e x c e p t L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa A na— a rd e n
G
G r o v e , w h e r e a bou t h a lf o f the s h o p s r e p o r t e d s u ch p r o v i s io n s (ta b le 2 0).
P ro­
v is io n s v a r ie d a m o n g the a r e a s , a m o n g e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ith in s o m e a r e a s , and
f o r tim e and in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s in at le a s t on e a r e a ; h o w e v e r , the m o s t c o m m o n
p r o v i s io n w a s 6*72 d a y s a n n u a lly .




6

H ea lth , W e lf a r e , and V a c a tio n B e n e fit s . H ealth and w e lfa r e b e n e fits in
a ll a r e a s and v a c a tio n p a y m en ts in a ll a r e a s , e x c e p t C h ic a g o , D a lla s , and
St. L o u i s , 4 w e r e p r o v id e d f r o m h e a lth and w e lfa r e funds to w h ic h e m p lo y e r s
c o n tr ib u te d a s tip u la te d p e r c e n t a g e o f th e ir p a y r o lls f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the
u n ion a g r e e m e n t s .
T h e a m ou n ts o f the e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n s and the b e n e fit s
a v a ila b le to w o r k e r s v a r ie d a m o n g the a r e a s ( s e e ta b le 2 1).
F o r e x a m p le ,
v a c a tio n b e n e fits in N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity , N ew Y o r k C ity , and P a te r son — lifto n —
C
P a s s a ic c o n s is t e d o f tw o annual p a y m e n ts , on e e q u a l to 2 p e r c e n t o f annual
e a rn in g s and the o th e r ra n g in g f r o m $60 to $78 a c c o r d in g to c r a f t .
In C h ic a g o ,
D a lla s , and St. L o u i s , w o r k e r s t y p ic a lly r e c e i v e d 1 w e e k 's p ay a fte r 1 y e a r o f
s e r v i c e and lo n g e r v a c a tio n s a fte r g r e a te r len g th s o f s e r v i c e .
The m o s t co m m o n
p r o v is io n s in the o th e r a r e a s c o n s is t e d o f v a c a tio n p a y m e n ts w h ic h w e r e b a s e d
on the w o r k e r s e a r n in g s in the p r e v io u s c a le n d a r y e a r o r p a r t o f a y e a r .
H ealth
and w e l f a r e b e n e fits u s u a lly p r o v id e d b y the fund in c lu d e d h o s p it a liz a t io n , s u r g e r y ,
s e r v i c e s at the u n io n h ea lth c e n t e r , m a te r n ity b e n e f i t s , e y e g l a s s e s , and d is a b ilit y
and d eath b e n e fit s .

O f the n on u n ion sh o p s s tu d ie d a m a jo r i t y in a few a r e a s p r o v id e d p a id
v a c a t io n s , and h o s p it a liz a t io n and s u r g i c a l in s u r a n c e b e n e fit s .

S u p p le m e n ta r y U n e m p lo y m e n t B e n e f i t s .
S u p p le m e n ta ry u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e fits in s h o p s h a v in g c o n t r a c t s w ith the ILG W U a r e p r o v id e d to q u a lifie d
w o r k e r s w h o s e e m p lo y e r g o e s ou t o f b u s in e s s .
P a y m e n ts a r e m a d e to q u a lifie d
w o r k e r s f r o m an u n e m p lo y m e n t fund to w h ich the e m p lo y e r s c o n tr ib u te 0. 5 p e r c e n t
o f th e ir c o v e r e d p a y r o ll s .
T h is fu n d , w h ich is a d m in is t e r e d jo in t ly b y the u n ion
and e m p lo y e r s p r o v id e s b oth a lu m p -s u m s e v e r a n c e b e n e fit up to $400 and s u p p le ­
m e n ta r y u n e m p lo y m e n t in s u r a n c e b e n e fits up to 48 w e e k s .
T h e m a x im u m b e n e fit
is $25 f o r the f i r s t 26 w e e k s and $37. 50 f o r the 27th th ro u g h 48th w e e k s .
If
u n e m p lo y e d c o n tin u o u s ly f o r 52 w e e k s , the w o r k e r r e c e i v e s a s e c o n d lu m p -s u m
s e v e r a n c e b e n e fit o f up to $400.

T e m p o r a r y D is a b ilit y B e n e fit s . In N e w a rk and J e r s e y C ity , N ew Y o r k
C ity , and P a te r son —C lifto n —P a s s a i c , the u n io n a g r e e m e n ts a ls o s p e c if ie d that the
e m p lo y e r s w o u ld p ay the fu ll c o s t , in c lu d in g the w o r k e r s ' c o n t r ib u t io n s , o f
t e m p o r a r y d is a b ilit y b e n e fits s tip u la te d u n d e r th e ir r e s p e c t i v e State d is a b ilit y
b e n e fits la w s .

R e t ir e m e n t P la n s . In e s ta b lis h m e n ts h a v in g u n ion a g r e e m e n t s , r e t i r e ­
m e n t p e n s io n b e n e f it s , o th e r than s o c i a l s e c u r i t y , w e r e p r o v id e d th ro u g h e m p lo y e r
c o n tr ib u tio n s to a r e t ir e m e n t fund (ta b le 2 2).
T h e a m ou n t o f the e m p l o y e r 's
c o n tr ib u tio n to the fund w a s m o s t c o m m o n ly 4 l/z p e r c e n t o f the p a y r o lls f o r
q u a lifie d w o r k e r s .
In n e a r ly a ll a r e a s , q u a lifie d w o r k e r s w e r e e lig ib le , at age 6 5,
to r e c e i v e p a y m e n ts o f $60 a m o n th f r o m the fund.
In n e a r ly a ll a r e a s , c o n t r a c t s
c o n ta in e d o p tio n a l p r o v is io n s f o r e a r ly r e t ir e m e n t f o r w o m e n b e tw e e n a g e s
62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r tio n a te b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to age 65.
In m o s t a r e a s , the c o n t r a c t s a ls o had p r o v is io n s f o r a $500 lu m p -s u m d e a th
b e n e fit p a y a b le to the w o r k e r 's b e n e f i c i a r i e s .
F o r m a l p r o v i s io n s fo r r e t ir e m e n t
p e n s io n s in n on u n ion e s ta b lis h m e n ts w e r e n ot c o m m o n .

4 In these areas, workers received vacation benefits directly from their employer (table 21).




Table 1.

Earnings Distribution:

All Production W orkers

( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y a v e r a g e
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s , 1 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 2 M a r c h 1966)

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1

B o s to n

C h ica g o

D a lla s

and
N ew B e d fo r d

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a ch
and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G ard en G r o v e

N ew a rk
and
J ersey
C ity

N ew Y o r k C ity
A ll
sh o p s

R e g u la r
sh o p s 3

_

.

_

_

(4 )

0. 1

_

_

$ 1 .2 5
$ 1 .3 0
$ 1 .3 5
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .4 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1. 30___________ ____ ____________
1. 35____________________________
1 .4 0 ____________________________
1 .4 5 ____________________________
1. 50____________________________

3. 2
1. 3
3 .4
3. 5
4. 0

3. 3
1 .7
2. 2
1 .7
3 .4

21. 1
3. 5
1 1 .7
4. 8
6. 1

2. 7
.8
1 .0
1. 8
2. 2

.6
7. 0
2. 8
3. 1
2. 1

1 .4
2. 7
2. 1
2. 2
1 .4

1 .4
. 5
.7
.9
1. 2

$
$
$
$
$

1. 50
1 .6 0
1 .7 0
1 .8 0
1 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1 .6 0 ____________________________
1. 70____________________________
1 .8 0 ____________________________
1 .9 0 ____________________________
2. 00____________________________

7. 8
5 .6
7. 2
7. 0
3 .9

1 5 .9
10. 2
9. 5
6 .7
5. 3

1 1 .8
8. 3
5. 0
6. 8
4. 5

$ 2. 00
$ 2 .1 0
$ 2. 20
$ 2. 30
$ 2 . 40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

10____________________________
20____________________________
30____________________________
4 0 ____________________________
50____________________________

7 .0
5. 7
4 .4
3 .6
2 .8

$2.
$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 2.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$2.
$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 3.

6 0 ____________________________
70____________________________
80____________________________
9 0 ______ __________ ___________
00____________________________

$ 3. 00
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3. 20
$ 3. 30
$ 3. 40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

$ 3. 50
$ 3 .6 0
$ 3. 70
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3. 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

U n d er $ 1 .2 5 ______________________ ____________ ______

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

St. L o u is

W ilk e s B a rre—
H a zleton

.

.

(4 )

0. 2

.

0. 8
. 1
.3
1 .0
1 .0

1. 8
.7
.9
.9
1. 2

1. 1
.4
1 .0
1 .7
.7

2. 5
.5
1. 3
1. 1
.9

2. 3
_
.9
.5
.4

5 .4
.4
.8
.6
1. 5

6. 3
4. 3
4. 3
4 .9
4. 0

5 .9
5. 1
4. 8
4 .6
2. 6

6 .6
3. 8
4. 0
5. 0
4. 8

6. 2
5. 1
5. 2
5. 9
5 .4

16. 5
9 .6
7. 8
6 .4
5 .4

5 .9
1 5 .9
17. 6
7. 8
6. 1

26. 5
1 1 .7
10. 7
5. 8
4 .9

5 .4
4 .6
4. 4
3. 7
3. 1

4. 7
3. 1
4 .6
1 .9
2. 5

5. 8
5 .4
4. 4
4. 7
3 .4

6 .6
4. 8
5. 8
6 .7
5. 1

5 .6
5. 2
4. 5
4. 1
3 .9

6. 1
5. 5
5. 1
4 .4
3 .0

5. 8
4. 0
3. 8
2 .8
2. 8

3.
2.
1.
1.
1.

2
5
8
8
8

2. 8
1 .8
1 .7
1 .2
1 .5

2. 1
1 .9
1. 3
1 .4
1. 1

20. 0
9 .6
10. 6
5. 5
5. 0

5. 7
3. 4
4 .4
3. 6
3. 5

4. 2
2. 3
2 .4
2 .4
1 .6

4. 8
8. 3
4 .9
3. 1
3. 1

7 .9
5 .4
5. 4
3 .6
3. 6

4.
5.
3.
3.
2.

4. 5
2 .7
1 .7
2 .5
.9

2 .7
2. 5
2. 0
1 .9
.7

1. 2
.6
.5
.4
.3

3. 0
2. 2
1 .9
2. 2
1. 4

4. 2
3. 3
2. 5
1 .4
1 .7

1 .9
2. 0
2. 6
2. 1
2. 1

3.
2.
3.
4.
3.

1
8
2
2
1

2 .7
1 .4
2 .7
5. 1
3. 1

3. 3
3 .6
3. 4
3. 7
3. 1

4.
3.
3.
3.
2.

10____________________________
20____________________________
30____________________________
4 0 _________ _____ _____________
50____________________________

2. 3
1. 5
2. 3
1. 1
.6

1. 0
.8
1. 3
.4
1. 1

. 1
. 1
. 1
(*)
. 1

1.
1.
.
.
.

0
0
8
8
3

2 .4
2. 0
2. 0
1. 0
.6

3.
3.
2.
1.
1.

1
5
0
5
3

3 .4
2 .6
3. 0
2. 3
3 .6

3. 8
2. 7
4 .4
3 .4
6. 5

3. 2
2. 5
2. 3
1 .6
2. 1

2. 5
1. 5
1. 8
2 .4
1. 5

1 .4
2. 7
1. 2
2 .0
1. 2

.8
4. 6
1 .3
.5
.9

.9
.9
.7
.3
.3

$ 3. 60___......... .....................................
$ 3. 7 0 ____________________________
$ 3. 80____________________________
$ 3 . 9 0 ____________________________
$ 4 . 0 0 ____________________________

1 .0
.4
.6
.5
.8

.7
.5
.9
.4
. 1

. 1

.4
.3
.4
. 1
. 1

1 .8
.7
.8
.6
. 1

1. 5
1 .3
.6
.9
1 .4

2. 5
1. 8
1. 8
1. 5
.9

3. 2
2 .4
3. 0
1 .6
1. 1

2. 2
1. 5
1. 2
1 .4
.8

.5
.6
.5
1 .9
1 .2

1 .4
.6
.6
.3
.2

.
.
.
.
.

.3
.4
. 1
. 1
. 1

$ 4 . 00 and o v e r _____________________________________

6. 0

2. 0

_

.5

1 .7

6. 7

1 0 .4

9 .8

10. 7

6 .7

1. 8

.4

.5

T o t a l — ----------------------------------------------- - ........... -

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s _________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1— _____________________

1, 877
$ 2 . 27

2, 007
$ 2 .0 5

2, 792
$ 1.63

6, 498
$ 1 .9 9

5, 864
$ 2 .1 5

3, 933
$ 2 .3 7

49, 771
$ 2 .7 3

1 7 ,3 3 0
$ 2 .8 1

32,441
$ 2 .6 9

1, 786
$ 2 .5 0

4, 322
$ 2 .1 5

1, 927
$ 2 .0 6

8, 009
$ 1.89

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

-

.3
_
-

5
3
8
0
2

P a terson —
C l if t o n P a s s a ic

9
8
1
1
3

10.
8.
8.
5.
3.

7.
6.
6.
6.
5.

C on tra ct
sh op s

7
5
1
2
8

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 F o r d e f in it io n o f a r e a s s e e fo o t n o t e 1, t a b le s 5 th rou g h 17.
3 In c lu d e s jo b b in g s h o p s p e r f o r m i n g s o m e m a n u fa ctu rin g o p e r a t io n s , s u c h a s cu ttin g and p a ck in g and sh ip p in g ,
4 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,




s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n ot eq u a l 100 p e r c e n t .

8
1
3
8
3

in a d d itio n to r e g u la r (in s id e ) s h o p s .

3
2
3
2
1

Table 2.

Earnings Distribution:

W om en Production Workers

00

( P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f w o m e n p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s by a v e r a g e
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s , 1 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s ,
M a r c h 1966)

B o s to n

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1

C h ica g o

D a lla s

and
New B e d fo r d

L os A n g e le s N ew a rk
L o n g B e a ch
and
and A n a h eim —
J ersey
Santa A n a C ity
G arden G rov e

N ew Y o r k C ity
A ll
sh o p s

R e g u la r
shops 2

C on tra ct
sh op s

P aterson —
C lifto n —
P a s s a ic

P h il a ­
d e lp h ia

St. L o u is

W i lk e s B a rre—
H a z le to n

_

_

(3 )

0. 2

_

-

-

-

-

0. 1

0. 2

-

$ 1. 25
$ 1. 30
$ 1. 35
$ 1 .4 0
$ 1 .4 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 1. 30........................ ................... ........
$ 1. 35____________________________
$ 1 .4 0 .....................................................
$ 1 . 4 5 ........... .........................................
$ 1. 50........... .........................................

3.
1.
3.
3.
4.

4
3
4
7
7

3 .6
1 .8
2. 2
1 .7
3 .6

22. 1
3 .9
12. 0
4. 9
5. 9

2. 2
.6
.8
1. 9
2. 3

.7
7. 6
3. 0
3 .4
2. 4

1 .3
2 .9
2. 2
2. 3
1 .5

1 .6
.6
.8
1 .0
1. 5

0. 6
. 1
.3
1. 1
1 .8

1 .9
.8
.9
1 .0
1 .4

1. 1
.5
1 .0
1 .9
.8

2. 7
.4
1. 3
1 .0
1 .0

2. 2
.9
.5
.4

3. 7
.4
.5
.3
1 .6

$
$
$
$
$

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

8. 8
6 .4
8. 1
8. 3
4. 6

17. 5
1 1 .3
9 .9
7. 1
5 .5

5. 8
15. 9
19. 1
8. 5
6 .6

28. 3
12. 3
1 1 .3
6. 0
5. 0

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2.
$ 2.
$2.
$ 2.
$ 2.

1 0 ,___________________________
20------------------------------------------30------------------------------------------40____-------------------------------------50-------------------------------------------

8. 2
6. 2
4 .6
4. 0
3. 3

$ 2. 50
$ 2. 60
$ 2 .7 0
$ 2. 80
$ 2 . 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2.
2.
2.
2.
3.

60------------------------------------------70------------------------------------------80------------------------------------------9 0 ------------------------------------------00-------------------------------------------

$
$
$
$
$

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

$ 3. 50
$ 3. 60
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3. 80
$ 3. 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3.
$ 3.
$ 3.
$ 3.
$4.

U n d er $ 1 .2 5 ........................................................................

1. 50
1 .6 0
1 .7 0
1 .8 0
1 .9 0

$ 2.
$ 2.
$2.
$ 2.
$ 2.

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

_

5
5
3
3
3

21.
10.
10.
5.
5.

0
1
8
8
3

7. 3
6. 5
7. 5
6 .4
5. 6

10. 7
8. 8
4 .6
7 .2
4 .9

6. 8
4. 6
4 .4
5. 1
5. 0

5. 2
5 .8
4. 3
3. 8
3. 3

7. 3
4. 3
4 .4
5. 5
5. 5

6 .9
5. 6
5. 8
6. 5
6 .0

17.
9.
8.
6.
5.

6
2
1
8
5

6. 3
3 .7
4 .8
3 .9
3. 7

4. 1
1 .9
1 .7
1. 5
1. 1

4.
8.
4.
3.
3.

6
3
8
3
0

8. 3
5. 7
5 .9
3 .9
3 .9

5 .0
6 .0
3. 3
3 .4
3. 1

6. 3
5 .7
5 .4
4. 7
3 .7

5 .7
4. 8
7. 1
2. 5
3. 3

6. 5
6. 0
4. 8
5. 4
3 .9

7. 1
5. 3
6 .4
7. 1
5 .7

5.
5.
4.
4.
4.

8
6
9
5
2

6. 5
5 .9
5 .6
4 .6
3. 2

5 .9
3 .7
4. 0
2. 8
2. 8

4. 7
2 .9
1 .8
2 .6
.9

2 .4
2 .0
1 .7
2. 1
.6

.6
.4
. 5
.4
.4

2 .9
2. 2
1. 8
1. 7
1 .4

4. 3
3. 5
2. 4
1 .4
1 .7

2. 0
2. 2
2. 8
2 .2
2. 2

3. 7
3 .6
3. 9
5. 2
3 .9

3. 3
2 .4
4. 8
8 .4
5. 5

3.
4.
3.
4.
3.

8
0
7
1
4

5. 2
3 .4
3. 7
3. 8
2. 6

3. 5
2. 7
1 .9
1 .9
2. 0

3. 0
1 .8
1. 8
1. 3
1 .3

2. 0
1 .8
1 .4
1 .0
1 .2

10------------------------------------------20------------------------------------------30------------------------------------------4 0 ------------------------------------------50------------------------ ------------- -----

2.
1.
1.
.
.

3
0
5
8
3

1 .0
.5
1 .0
.3
.3

. 1
(3 )
. 1
(3 )
. 1

.8
1. 0
.9
.9
.3

1. 7
1 .4
1. 2
.6
.6

3 .3
2 .6
2. 1
1 .5
1 .3

4. 0
2 .9
2. 2
2. 0
1 .6

6. 1
3 .9
1 .6
2 .7
1 .5

3. 4
2. 5
2. 4
1. 8
1 .6

2. 1
1 .4
2. 1
1 .8
1 .6

1 .6
1 .5
1. 0
1 .0
.9

.7
1. 1
.9
.2
.9

.8
.7
.6
.3
.4

6 0 ------------------------------------------7 0 .....................................................
80.......................... ........ ..................
90------------------------------------------00-------------------------------------------

.
.
.
.
.

8
2
5
2
2

.
.
.
.
.

. 1
.3
-

.
.
.
.
.

.6
.6
.4
.3
. 1

1 .6
1 .4
.6
.9
1. 3

1 .6
1 .2
1 .2
.9
.6

1. 7
1 .7
1 .0
.8
.6

1 .6
1. 1
1. 3
.9
. 6

.4
.6
.5
.9
. 3

.7
.6
.5
.2
.2

.
.
.
.
.

.3
.4
(3 )
. 1
. 1

1 .6 0 ____________________________
1 /7 0 ____________________________
1. 80____________________________
1. 90____________________________
2. 00____________________________

3
3
3
1
1

11.
9.
8.
5.
3.

-

3
3
3
1
1

;

1
2
3
2
1

$ 4 . 00 and o v e r ---------------------------------------------------------

.7

.3

_

.4

.9

4 .6

4. 3

4. 4

4. 3

1 .8

1. 1

.3

.3

T o t a l .......................................... ....................................

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s .......................................................... .
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 —...........................................

1, 582
$2. 05

1.7 6 1
$1. 94

2, 509
$ 1.60

5, 951
$ 1.97

5, 208
$ 2 .0 7

3, 575
$ 2 .3 0

3 6 ,8 1 7
$ 2 .4 6

9, 109
$ 2 .5 5

27, 708
$ 2 .4 4

1, 600
$ 2 .3 0

3, 878
$ 2 .0 8

1, 757
$ 2 .0 0

7, 139
$ 1.88

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,
2 S ee fo o t n o t e 3, t a b le 1.
3 L e s s than 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

h o lid a y s ,

and la te s h ift s .

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u a l 100 p e r c e n t .

Table 3,

Earnings Distribution:

Men Production W orkers

(P e r c e n t d is t r ib u t io n o f m en p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y a v e r a g e
s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s , 1 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , M a r c h 1966)

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1

B o s to n

C h ica g o

D a lla s

$1. 25
$1. 30
$1. 35
$ 1 .4 0
$1. 45

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
under
under
under
under

$1. 30_____________________________
$ 1. 35__
_ _ __ ________.T
$1. 40__ __
- _____ ____
$ 1 .4 5 __ _ _ _ _ _
__
.
$1. 50_____________________________

2. 7
1 .4
3. 7
2. 4
.7

1.
1.
2.
2.
1.

2
2
4
0
6

12. 0
.4
8. 8
3. 9
8. 1

$1. 50
$1. 60
$1. 70
$1. 80
$ 1 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
u n d er
under

$1. 60________ ____________________
$1. 70_____________________________
$1. 80_____________________________
$1. 9 0 _____________________________
$ 2 .0 0 _____________________________

2.
1.
2.
.
.

7
0
4
3
3

4. 5
2 .4
6. 1
4. 1
4. 5

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
u n d er
under

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$ 2.

10_____________________________
20_____________________________
30_____________________________
4 0 _____________________________
50_____________________________

.
3.
3.
1.
.

7
1
4
7
3

1.
1.
1.
1.
2.

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under
under

$2.
$2.
$2.
$2.
$3.

60__ __ _
_________ _
7 0 __________________________ _
80_____________________________
9 0 ______________ _______________
00--------------------------------------------

$3.
$3.
$3.
$3.
$3.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
under
under

$3.
$3.
$3.
$3.
$3.

$3.
$3.
$3.
$ 3.
$3.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
u n d er
u n d er
under

$4.
$ 4.
$4.
$4.
$4.

00
20
40
60
80

and
and
and
and
and

under
u n d er
u n d er
under
u n d er

F a l l R iv e r
and
New B e d fo r d

L os A n g e le s L ong B ea ch
and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G arden G rove

N ew a rk
and
Jersey
C ity

7. 3
3. 3
2 .9
1. 3
1. 5

2. 3
1. 1
.5
-

4 .9
2. 5
6 .4
3. 5
3. 2

9.
4.
92.
2.

1
4
3
2
0

9.
4.
1.
3.
1.

6
6
2
2
0

4. 6
5. 3
9. 2
9 .9
5. 7

6.
9.
5.
1.
4.

6
3
7
8
2

4. 3
2. 7
1. 7
1. 1
.9

2.
.
1.
.
-

3 .4
1 .4
1. 4
1. 7
1. 0

4 .9
6. 5
4. 1
.8
1. 2

6. 7
2. 5
.7
.4
-

4. 0
2. 0
3. 1
6 .9
2. 2

3.
1.
3.
1.
1.

7
5
0
1
4

10_____________________________
20_
30_____________________________
4 0 _____________________________
50_____________________________

2.
4.
7.
2.
2.

4
4
1
7
4

1.
2.
3.
1.
6.

2
8
7
2
5

3.
1.
.
.
.

1
6
4
5
4

8.
6.
8.
4.

2
3
7
1

$3.
$3.
$3.
$3.
$4.

60_____________________________
70_____________________________
80_____________________________
9 0 _____________________________
00__ __
_ _____

2.
1.
1.
2.
4.

0
7
0
4
1

4.
2.
5.
2.
.

1
0
7
8
8

1.
.
.
.
.

3
2
9
2
5

$ 4.
$4.
$4.
$4.
$5.

20_
_
__
4 0 _____________________________
6 0 _________________________
80_____________________________
00_______ ____________________

1 2 .9
6. 8

. 2
.4

1. 4
.7

3.7
2. 0
2. 0
1 .6
1. 2

_

_

_

.4
.7
.4

_
-

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_

-

.9
-

_
_

.
_2

-

-

A ll
sh op s

R e g u la r
shops 2

C on tra ct
sh op s

P a terson —
C lifto n P a s s a ic

1. 1
. 1
.4
.7
.2

1. 1
( 3)
. 2
.9
. 1

1.
.
.
.
.

23. 2
2. 8
8 .9
2. 0
.6

5. 0
3. 2
3 .9
4. 2
1. 3

6. 6
4. 4
5. 4
5 .4
1. 8

2. 1
1. 2
1. 4
2. 0
. 3

0
6
1
8

2.
1.
1.
1.
1.

8
7
8
0
1

3.
1.
1.
1.
1.

1.
2.
1.
.
.

1. 4

1.
.
1.
1.
.

5
5
0
5
7

2. 0
. 3
.4
1. 5
.4

8
0
8
1
1

1.
1.
5.
2.
9.

6
8
4
9
6

1.
1.
7.
4.
12.

2
5
6
2
0

2.
2.
1.
.
5.

4
4
6
7
4

11. 3
1. 4
4. 1
2 .9
.2

.6
. 3
1. 4
1. 1
2. 5

5.
3.
3.
3.
1.

1
5
7
1
8

4.
3.
5.
2.
1.

8
3
1
6
6

5.
3.
1.
3.
2.

7
9
2
9
0

2 .4
2. 0
1. 4
. 2
-

1 .4
5. 0
7. 5
.6
1. 1

4.
3.
2.
1.
1.

0
2
5
4
6

4. 4
3. 0
1. 8
1. 1
.9

3. 5
3. 5
3. 9
1 .9
2 .9

2. 1

11. 5

3. 8
1. 4
9. 7

4. 7

2. 4
3. 7
426. 5

18. 3

_
_

. 3
.8
.6
.
12.
.
1.
1.

4
4
6
7
5

.8
.9
1 .9
1. 6
1. 2

0. 5

_

1. 1
. 5

.5
.5
.5

1. 6
. 5
3. 2
1. 1

_
4. 3

5 .9
2. 2

_

8. 1
.5
1. 1
_

. 5
10. 2
8. 6
2.
3.
4.
14.
6.

2
2
3
0
5

3. 7
8. 8

1. 2
2 .0

T o t a l___________________________________________

1.00. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

1 0 0 .0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

295
$3. 44

246
$2. 86

283
$1. 88

547
$2. 16

656
$2. 84

358
$3. 01

1 2 ,9 5 4
$3. 50

8, 221
$3. 10

4 ,7 3 3
$4. 20

186
$4. 19

_
_ ______ _ _

_
-

_

_
■

_

_

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 S ee fo o t n o t e 3, ta b le 1.3 L e s s than 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo llo w s : 7 .9 p e r c e n t at $ 5 .4 0 to $ 5 .6 0 ; 4 .7 p e r c e n t at $ 5 .6 0 to $6; 2 .9 p e r c e n t at $6 to $ 6 .4 0 ;
to $7. 20; 2. 1 p e r c e n t at $7. 20 to $7. 60; 0. 7 p e r c e n t at $7. 60 to $8; and 1. 3 p e r c e n t at $8 and o v e r .
NOTE:




B ecause

o f ro u n d in g ,

su m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n ot e q u a l 100 p e r c e n t .

St. L o u is

_

-

_

7
4
8
2
5

0
3
7
3
4

$ 5 .0 0 and u n d er $5. 20__ ___
_
_ __
$ 5. 20 and u n d e r $5. 4 0 _____________________________
$5. 40 and o v e r ______________________________________

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s
_
A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 __

P h ila ­
d e lp h ia

8
3
4
1
6

6
4
1
2
4

2.
.
1.
1.
.

New Y o r k C ity

0.
.
2.
1.
.

7
7
0
8
5

2. 9
1. 2
-

W ilke s Bar r e H a zleton

18. 9
1. 0
3. 6
2. 9
.9

6. 5
1 2 .4
5. 2
2. 7
4. 3

6.
16.
1.
.
.

5
5
8
6
6

11.
6.
5.
3.
3.

6
8
4
7
8

3. 8
1 .4
1. 1
.5
.9

1.
1.
.
1.
.

8
2
6
8
6

4.
6.
2.
2.
2.

9
4
0
3
5

.
.
.
1.
.

7
7
9
1
2

.6
1. 2

2.
3.
.
4.
1.

5
0
7
8
0

13.
3.
11.
3.

1
2
0
8

2
0
5
5
2

1.
2.
1.
.
.

5
4
5
5
2

7 .9
1. 4
2. 3
1. 8

2. 9

.
.
1.
.
.

5
5
0
5
6

.
3.
.
1.
.

1. 2

.6
4. 1
1.
40.
6.
3.
1.

.6
.6

7
6
7
4
5

.9
.7

_
_

-

.9
_

.6

_

_

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

444
$2. 70

170
$2. 64

870
$2. 01

2 .7 p e r c e n t at $ 6 .4 0 to $ 6 .8 0 ;

4 .1

p e r c e n t at $6. 80

Table 4.

Average Hourly Earnings:

Selected Occupations

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t io n s 2 in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g
e s t a b lis h m e n t s , 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , M a r c h 1966)

C h ica g o

B o s to n
O c c u p a t io n and s e x
N u m b er
of
w ork ers

C u tte r s and m a r k e r s _______________________________
I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l ( e x a m i n e r s ) ____________________
P r e s s e r s , hand______________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
M e n . _-________ ___ ___ ___ ___ _______ _________ _
P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e _________________________________
S e w e r s , hand________________________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n s y s t e m ____
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m _____________________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________________
M e n ________________________________________________
T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c l e a n e r s ) __________________ __
W o r k d i s t r ib u t o r s ___________________________________

A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

$3.
1.
3.
2.
4.
5.
1.
2.

99
22
115
49
66
21
131
270

52
63
59
56
35
32
72
17

2. 36
2. 35
3. 14
1 . 62
1. 64

542
535
7
37
17

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A v era ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

$3.
1.
2.
2.
4.

109
34
161
119
42
-

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

25
71
69
21
03

$2. 18
1 .4 3
1 .4 6
1 .4 6
_
1 . 66
1. 47
1. 58

90
176
600
468
132
65
169
3, 645

165
165

1 .9 7
1 .9 7

_

-

2. 26

_

_

40
36

-

43
67

1. 53
1. 65

_
1.

1. 42
61

New Y o r k C ity
R e g u la r sh op s 1
3
2

A ll sh op s
N u m b er
of
w ork ers
C u tte r s and m a r k e r s _______ ______________________
I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l ( e x a m i n e r s ) ____________________
P r e s s e r s , h and______________________________________
W o m e n ___________ _______________________ _________
M e n -------------------------------- --------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e _________________________________
S e w e r s , ha n d------------------------------------------------------------S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n s y s t e m ____
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
(t a ilo r ) s y s t e m _____________________________________
W o m e n _______________ ______ _____________ __ ______
M e n ________________________________________________
T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c le a n e r s ) ______________________
W o r k d i s t r ib u t o r s ___________________________________

3 ,4 4 4
1 ,0 5 5
3, 362
216
3, 146
80
5 ,0 8 8
3 ,4 6 1
2 0 ,0 2 0
1 8 ,5 0 6
1 ,5 1 4
1 ,4 9 7
30

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s
$3. 55
1. 85
4. 94
2. 91
5. 08
4. 87
2. 12
2 .4 1
2.
2.
3.
1.
1.

81
74
69
65
81

N u m ber
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

548
138
P a terson ^
C lifto n —
P a s s a ic

C o n t r a c t sh op s
N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

$3.
1.
5.
3.
5.
3.
2.
2.

20
139
_
_
_
126
545

$1. 81
4. 57
_
_
_
1 .9 6
2. 50

59 3
59 3

2. 49
2 .4 9
1. 55

3, 194
614
488
58
430
29
1, 146
484

$3.
1.
4.
2.
4.
7.
2.
2.

55
88
60
41
89
69
07
28

250
441
2, 874
158
2 ,7 1 6
51
3 ,9 4 2
2 ,9 7 7

3. 007
2 ,4 9 0
517
231

3.
3.
4.
1.

23
04
15
94

1 7 ,0 1 3
1 6 ,0 1 6
997
1 ,2 6 6
22

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

$2.
1.
2.
2.
2.
2.

-

1. 85
1 . 88

375

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

24
140
1 ,2 9 8

-

123
641

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

165
79
228
228

L o s A n g e le s — o n g
L
B e a c h and A n a h e im —
Santa Ana— a r d e n
G
G rove

F a ll R iv e r
and
New B e d fo r d

D a lla s

55
81
00
09
11
27
13
44

2. 73
2 .6 9
3 .4 5
1. 59
1 .8 5

-

72

88
54
14
10
29
41
1 . 60
2. 13

A v era ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

257
99
562
475
87

$3.
1.
2.
2.
2.

86
1. 93

178
147
378
336
42
7
152
1 ,8 9 2
511
-

175
42

261
1, 369

1 . 88
2. 34

873
873

2. 77
2. 77

-

2, 373
2, 316
57
191
21

2.
2.
3.
1.

-

1.

1.

P h ila d e lp h ia
N u m b er
of
w ork ers

27
25
18
40
61

92
51
124
117
7
19
94
799

$3. 16
1. 69
2. 57
2. 52
3 .4 5
2. 07
1. 83
2. 03

2. 39
-

194
-

2. 35
1 .9 6
1. 59

1. 54
1. 64

32
52

-

"

St. L o u is

-

_

1. 54

196

36
62
51
35
75
39
80
18

-

_

_

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

$3.
1.
2.
2.
3.
2.
1.
2.

-

$3. 68
3. 04
5. 11

-

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

A vera g e
h o u r ly
e a r n in g s

A vera ge
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

324
224
100

-

1. 58
1 . 61

N u m b er
of
w ork ers

28
65
33
22
94

401
816

_

N ew a rk and
J e r s e y C ity

W ilk e s -B a r r e H a zle to n
N u m b er
of
w ork ers
81
64
540
470
70
-

146
4 , 684

A v era g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s
$2.
1.
2.
2.
3.

79
51
68
61
17

-

1. 67
1 .9 2

-

-

525
188

-

1. 57
1. 61

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
2 C u tte r s and m a r k e r s in a ll a r e a s f o r w h ic h da ta a re sh ow n and p r e s s e r s in a few a r e a s w e r e p r e d o m in a n tly m e n ; w o m e n w e r e p r e d o m in a n t in a ll o f the r e m a in in g o c c u p a t io n s
th is ta b le .
T he n u m b e r s o f m e n and w o m e n in the s e le c t e d o c c u p a t io n s f o r w h ic h da ta a r e sh ow n in the r e s p e c t i v e a r e a s a r e in d ic a te d in t a b le s 5—17.
3 See fo o t n o t e 3, ta b le 1.
NOTE:




D a s h e s in d ic a t e no d a ta r e p o r t e d o r data that do n ot m e e t p u b lic a t io n c r i t e r i a .

in

Table 5.

Occupational Earnings:

B oston1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s (a ll m e n )
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _________________________
I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l (e x a m in e r s )
(a ll w o m e n ) ________________________________
T im e ------- ----- --------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d_____________________________
W o m e n ____________________________________
T im e --------------------------- ------------------------I n c e n t iv e ______________________________
M e n -----------------------------------------------------------T im e ----------------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e ---------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e (1 9 m e n and
2 w o m e n ) 4 _________________________________
P r e s s e r s , hand and m a c h in e
(1 7 m e n and 3 w o m e n )
(a ll t im e w o r k e r s )
S e w e r s , hand (a ll w o m e n ) *
_ _
T im e __________________ __________________
I n c e n t iv e __________________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m ( a ll w o m e n )
T im e
I n c e n t iv e __________________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m __________________________ .
W o m e n ----------------- ------------------------------------T im e ----------------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e ____ ________
M e n 4______________________________________
T h r e a d t r i m m e r s (a ll w o m e n )____________
T im e ______________________________________
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s (1 2 w o m e n and
5 m e n ) (a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) _______ ________

Num ­ A v e rber
a ge
$ 1 .2 5 $1.30
of
h o u r ly
and
w ork ­ ea rn ­
u n d er
ers
in gs 2
$ 1 .3 0 $ 1.40

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f —
$ 1 .4 0

$ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0

$1.70

$ 1.8 0

$ 1.9 0

$ 2 .0 0

$2.1 0

$2.2 0

$ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $3.6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4.00 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4.40

$ 1 .5 0

$ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0

$ 1.8 0

$ 1 .9 0

$ 2 .0 0

$ 2 .1 0

$ 2.2 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $4.2 0 $ 4.40 o v e r

and

99

$ 3. 52

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

_

1

_

1

6

4

6

14

22
20
115
49
23
26
66
8
58

1.63
1.63
3.59
2 .56
2.59
2.53
4 .3 5
3.42
4 .4 8

_
-

_
_

_
_
1
1
_
1
_
_
_

2
2
2
2
1
1
_
_
_

14
14
7
7
_
_
_

4
3
_
3
1
1
_

3
2
2

3
3
1
2

2
_
_
_

-

_
_
2
2
1
1
_
_

_
_

-

1
1
6
6
2
4
_

_
_

-

2
2
2
2
1
1
_
-

_
_

-

5
4
1
1
1
_
-

_
_

-

9
8
2
2
2

_
_

-

3
3
1
1
1
-

1
1
_

_
_

2
1
1

21

5 .32

-

-

_

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

_

1

2

_

20
131
89
42

4 .6 7
1.72
1.64
1.91

2
2
-

8
7
1

9
8
1

37
30
7

14
9
5

17
10
7

15
12
3

4
2
2

11
9
2

8

4

_

6

4

4

_
_

_
_

_
_

_

270
71
199

2.17
1.86
2 .28

5

8
1
7

13
4
9

21
14
7

17
10
7

28
10
18

23
7
16

26
10
16

21

16

13

12

7

3

17

12

29
K
24

21

5

5
2
3

21

13

12

7

3

1

542
535
48
487
7
37
29

2.36
2 .35
2.22
2.36
3 .1 4
1.62
1.51

5
5
5
_
_

6
6

10
10

20
20

18
18

-

-

-

-

20
_
11
11

18
_
_
_

26
26
1
25
_
3

33
33
1
32
_
4
2

43
43
10
33
_

79
78
5
73
1

63
63
10
53
_

48
46
3
43
2

33
32
2
30
1

35
35
3
32
_

7
7
_

10
_
11
11

33
33
_
33
_
2
1

21
21
_

6
_
4
4

41
41
13
28
_
_
_

21
_

7

17

1.64

2

2

3

1

2

2

3

-

-

27

10

7

_

_

_
_

4
3
_
3
1
1

2
2

2
1

2

1
1
1

.

7

2

11

22

18

_

_

13
4
4

11
1
10

22
2
20

18

39

18

9

_

_

_

5 16

2

_
_

9

_

_

_

_

1

_

_

_

1

8
8
_

7
4

1
1

5
5

8

4
3

1

_
_
_
_

_

2

4

4

4

3
_
11
_

60
L

1

5

2

2

^
The B o s t o n S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f S u ffolk C ounty, and 74 c i t ie s
and tow n s in E s s e x , M id d le s e x , N o r fo lk , and P ly m o u th C o u n tie s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 51 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e p a id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as fo l lo w s : 5 at $ 6 .2 0 to $ 6 .4 0 ; and
4 at $ 6 .4 0 to $ 6 .6 0 .
*
I n s u ffic ie n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m e th o d o f w ag e p a y m e n t; p r e d o m in a n t ly in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s .
5 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s : 10 at $5.2 0 to $ 5 .4 0 ; 3 at $ 7 .2 0 to $ 7 .4 0 ; and 3 at $ 7 .4 0 to $ 7 .6 0 .
6 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 at $ 6.6 0 to $ 6 .8 0 ; 2 at $ 6.8 0 to $ 7; and 2 at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 7 .8 0 .




Table 6.
(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s
NumO c c u p a t io n and s e x

h o u r ly
in g s 2

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s
(1 0 8 m e n and 1 w om a n )
(a ll t im e w o r k e r s )
. _
I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l (e x a m in e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) .............. - ............................
T im e .............. .........................................
I n c e n t iv e __________________________
P r e s s e r s , hand_____________________
W o m e n ______________________ ___
I n c e n t iv e —---------- ----------------M en ( a ll in c e n t iv e
w o r k e r s ) ________________________
S e w e r s , hand ( a ll w o m e n ) ________
I n c e n t iv e — ...........................................
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t io n s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n ) _____
I n c e n t iv e __________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s in g le h a n d ( t a il o r ) s y s t e m
(a ll w o m e n ) ________________________
I n c e n t iv e -------------- -----------------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s (c le a n e r s )
Tnr anfprn
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s (3 4 w o m e n
and 2 m e n ) _______________________
T im e ----------------------------------------------

10

Chicago

o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f—

A ver-

of
w ork-

Occupational Earnings:

$ 1 .2 5 $1.3 0 $1.3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0
and
u n d er
$1.3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1.4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $1.5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 o v e r

1

1

-

3

4

24

3

8

10

25

18

6

5

1

14
14
14

1
1
5
4
4

1
1
9
8
8

1
1
9
8
8

2
2
1
1
1

-

11
5
5

1
1
7
7
7

5
5
5

3
2
2

-

-

10
10
10

2
2
6
5
5

5
4
4

3
3
3

4
1
1

_
6
2
2

_
_
3 23
1
1

-

-

10
3
7

11
1
10

1
10
1
9

1
7

1
6
1
5

4

1
-

6
1

2

6

1
-

-

1
-

-

3
-

4
-

22
-

10

4

-

1

2

6

_

_

_

.

-

_

_

41
1
40

44
2
42

46
1
45

21

29

6

-

3

-

-

-

13

20
2
18

5

29

25
2
23

14

21

17
2
15

13

84

72
5
67

14

5

6

.

3

_

_

.

15
12

31
23

31
18

34
30

23
23

24
22

16
16

27
25

27
27

29
29

16
16

26
26

16
16

19
19

13
13

7
7

5
5

1
1

3
3

-

11
6
5

2
1
1

1

1

4

17
16
1

1

1

1
1

2
2

16
5

6
6

109

$ 3 .2 5

34
28
6
161
119
116

1.71
1.67
1.89
2 .6 9
2.21
2 .2 3

_
-

_
_
_
_

42
123
q

2

-

-

-

-

3

6

114

4 .0 3
1.85
1 .78
1.86

2

.

3

6

641
32
6 09

1 .88
1 .78
1.89

3

16
3
3 • 13

10
2
8

12

375
342

2 .2 6
2.31

-

3
3

40
23
17

1.53
1.49
1 .58

36
25

1 .65
1.69

1
1
1

-

-

4
2
2
13
13
12

-

-

9
9

19
2
17

1
17
1
16

12

18
l
17

142
11
131

1
1

2
1

6
6

4

1
-

3
3
13
12
11

1
2

14
12
2
13
13
12

-

5
5
_
_
_

-

-

84

7

1
1
4
4

3
3

1
1

-

10

-

-

_

3
3

1 T h e C h ic a g o a r e a c o n s is t s o f C o o k C ou n ty .
‘ E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 67 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stud y w e r e paid on an
in c e n t iv e b a s is .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s fo l lo w s :
3 at $ 4. 20 to $ 4. 40; 6 at $ 4. 40 to $ 4. 60; 3 at $ 4. 60 to $ 4. 80; 3 at $ 4. 80 to $ 5; 3 at $ 5. 20 to $ 5. 40; 1 at $ 5. 40 to $ 5. 60; 2 at $ 5. 60 to $ 5. 80;
and 2 at $ 5 . 8 0 to $ 6 .




Table 7.

Occupational Earnings:

Dallas1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—
O c c u p a t io n and s e x

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s 3 .......................... ...........
M e n ---------------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l (e x a m in e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) —.............. ............. ..........................
T im e ______________________________________
I n c e n t iv e ........... ................................. - ..............
P r e s s e r s , hand ( a ll w o m e n ) ........................
T im e ------------------------------- -------------------------I n c e n t iv e ..................... ...................... ................
P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e (1 9 w o m e n and
5 m e n )................ ........................ ...........................
—
T im e .......................... • ......................................
I n c e n t iv e ......... ....................................................
P r e s s e r s , hand and m a c h in e (33 w o m e n
and 4 m e n ) 3..........................................................
S e w e r s , hand (1 3 3 w o m e n and 7
m e n ) ......................... ........................................—
T im e ______________________ ____ __________
I n c e n t i v e ________________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n )---------- - --------- -----------T im e _____________________________________
I n c e n t iv e _________________________________
S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n ) .......................
T im e _______________________ ____ _________
I n c e n t iv e -------------------------------------------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c le a n e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) ................... — .................................
T im e ------------- -------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e _________________________________
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s (6 6 w o m e n and
1 m a n )-------------------------------- - --------- ------------T im e .......................................... .........................

of
w ork ers

$ 1.25 $ 1 .3 0
h o u r ly
and
e a rn in g s 2
1
und er
$ 1.30 $ 1 .3 5

$ 1 .3 5

$ 1 .4 0

$ 1 .4 5

$ 1 .5 0

$1.6 0

$ 1.7 0

$ 1 .8 0

$ 1 .9 0

$2.0 0

$ 2 .1 0

$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0

$2.4 0

$2.5 0

$ 2 .6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2.8 0

$ 2.90

$ 1 .4 0

$ 1 .4 5

$ 1 .5 0

$ 1 .6 0

$ 1 .7 0

$ 1 .8 0

$ 1 .9 0

$ 2 .0 0

$2.1 0

$ 2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0

$ 2 .4 0

$ 2.5 0

$2.6 0

$ 2 .7 0

$ 2.8 0

$2.9 0

over

and

165
123
42

$ 2 .1 8
2 .2 4
1.98

-

-

-

-

-

1
1

8
1
7

6
2
4

15
6
9

9
9
-

18
108

79
61
18
228
126
102

1.43
1.42
1.47
1.46
1.33
1.62

21
19
2
78
62
16

4
4
10
7
3

21
16
5
40
33
7

4
3
1
13
6
7

2
2
20
2
18

15
12
3
15
6
9

5
5
18
8
10

4
2
2
7
7

9
2
7

6
6

24
15
9

1.66
1.54
1.85

-

4
3
1

9
6
3

1
1
_

-

2
2
-

-

1
1

-

13
11
2

28
25
3

26
26
-

13
10
3

20
17
3

5
4
1

2
1
1

1
1
-

-

2
2
2
2

3
3

1
1
1
1

1
1

-

-

2
2

_
.
-

.
,
1
1

-

1
1
-

>
-

2
2

2
2
-

2
2
1
1

-

1
1

-

_

-

37

1.37

14

5

8

3

-

1

4

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

140
71
69

1.47
1.42
1.53

31
16
15

6
6

28
24
4

2
2

11
5
6

26
15
11

18
4
14

11
7
4

2
2

3
3

1
1

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

.
-

,

1, 298
224
1, 074

1.58
1.32
1.63

306
154
152

32
1
31

158
39
119

72
5
67

71
2
69

145
11
134

126
2
124

119
2
117

67
4
63

48
48

59
2
57

27
2
25

26
26

18
18

5
5

6
6

5
5

5
5

2
2

1
1

165
90
75

1.97
1.87
2.09

3
3

1

3
2
1

1

1
1

20
10
10

19
17
2

13
12
1

17
3
14

5
3
2

3
1
2

11
2
9

14
7
7

4
4

2
2

6

-

-

-

18
10
8

-

1

18
16
2

6

-

-

-

-

6

6

43
26
17

1.42
1.34
1.55

8
7
1

9
9

5
2
3

5
3
2

4
4

2

1

1

-

5
1
4

3

-

3

2

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

67
49

1.61
1 .6 4

6
2

1
1

6
4

4
4

11
9

7
4

9
6

8
5

3
2

4
4

4
4

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1 T he D a lla s S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f C o llin , D a lla s , D en ton , and E llis C o u n tie s ,
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 51 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e pa id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 I n s u ffic ie n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t; p r e d o m in a n tly t im e w o r k e r s .




Table 8.

Occupational Earnings:

Fall River and New Bedford 1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 1s and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a rc h 1966)
NumO c c u p a t io n and s e x

A v er-

of

h o u r ly

and
under
$ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $1.80 $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2.5 0 $ 2.6 0 $2.7 0 $2.8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $3.6 0 $3.8 0 $ 4 .0 0 o v e r

ei a

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s
(88 m e n arid 2 w o m e n )_____
T im e --------- ------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l
(e x a m in e r s ) ( a l l w om en )
(a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ___ ______
P r e s s e r s , hand_____ _________
W o m e n ___ ______ ___________
T im e - — . — ......... .............
I n c e n t iv e ____ ___ _______
M en — ____ ______________
T im e .— — _____________
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e
(3 9 m e n and 26 w o m e n )___
T i m e - . — - —— — __________
I n c e n t iv e -— — — __ ______
S e w e r s , hand ( a ll
w o m e n )________ _____________
T i m e . ------— _ ___________
I n c e n t i v e .—. ___ ___________
S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m ( a l l w o m e n )—______
I n c e n t iv e ___ ______ _________
T h rea d tr im m e r s
( c l e a n e r s ) (5 4 5 w o m e n
and 3 m e n ) —— —— ------------T im e ------------- ---------------------I n c e n t iv e —---------- .-------------W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s (1 3 0
w o m e n and 8 m e n )
^cUi w in '6 W o rK 6 'r s j . . . —. . . . —
..

1 T h e S 'all
and W e s t p o r t , in
i E x c lu d e s
in c e n t iv e b a i l s .
3 W ork ers




N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of$ 1 .2 5 $ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1.60 $ 1.70 $ 1.80 $ 1.9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2.20 $2.30 $2.4 0 $ 2.5 0 $ 2.6 0 $ 2.7 0 $ 2.8 0 $ 2.9 0 $ 3.0 0 $ 3.2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $3.6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $4.0 0

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

-

2

8

37

9
3
3
-

8
8

97
17
15
14

13
50
43
40
3
7
4
3

3
27

22

17

3
19
5

8

-

-

-

_

_

1

1

-

-

2
2

1

1

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

91

59
43
16

7

3

2 .1 3
2 .1 3

12
12

14
14

19
19

70
70

36
36

417
410

1 .58
1.53

13
13
-

2
2
-

4
4
-

15
15
-

23

2 .0 1
1.61

6

5

3

90
89

$ 2.88
2 .8 5

-

-

176
600
468
318
150
132
61
71

1 .5 4
2 .1 4

5

2.10
2 .0 3
2 .2 4
2 .2 9
2 .0 4
2.51

_
_

-

3
3
3
-

65
41
24

2.41
2 .0 6
3 .00

_
_

169
136
33

1.60
1.57
1.73

3, 645
3, 626

548
490
58

138

1

1
1

6
6

-

8
-

22
1

1
2
2

-

-

5

1

21

30
23
5
18
7

24
18

9
4
4

11
7

6

1

4
42
28
25
3
14

245
216
197
19
29
27

-

4
4

1
1

3
3

9
9

31
31

6
6

13
13

1
1

5
5

2
2

3
3

18
14
3

27
13

14
5

5

14

1

-

-

11
6
2

4
9
9

2

10
4
4

4
5

1
2

5
3
3

3
3

7
4
4
3
3

1

10

15
14

3

2

1
12

2

1

3
3
3

2

1

33

11
4

1

14
3

2

4

3

11

3

2
1

-

3
3

_

1

-

26
26
-

4
3

1

-

1

-

249
249

228
228

228
228

235
235

174
174

159
159

21

9

9

8
1

4
4

8
1

3
3

1
1

7

3
3

1

3

2

-

3

2

-

-

-

2

1

4
4

2

_

98
98

95
95

36
36

31
31

7
7

25
25

3
3

-

-

-

-

1
-

_
-

2

1

-

-

3

267
267

2
12
1

1
-

3

1

4

3
3

2
2

8
8

1
1

-

_

5

4
4

362
361

351
340

404
390
14

27
24
3

51

22

36

88

5
5

10

1
6

-

4
4

1
4

2

12

-

-

1

-

-

1

2

5
5

163
163

118
118

90
90

85
85

76
76

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

_

1

1

3
3

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

3
-

R iv e r and N ew B e d fo r d S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a s c o n s is t o f A c u s h n e t, D a rtm ou th , F a irh a v e n , F a ll R iv e r , M a rio n , M a tta p o is e tt, N ew B e d fo r d , S o m e r s e t , Sw an sea,
M a s s a c h u s e t t s , and T iv e r t o n in R hod e Islan d .
prem iU rh p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 64 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e pa id on an
"were at $ 4 . 6 0

to $ 4 . 8 0 .

Table 9.

Occupational Earnings:

Los Angeles—Long Beach and Anaheim—Santa Ana—Garden G rov e1

(N u m b e r ttnd a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966 )

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

C u tte r s and m a r k e r s --._____________
W o m e n (a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) —........
M en —
-----—
, ----------------T im e — --------*-------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l ( e x a m in e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) — — — ,
— ------------T im e — , , ------- -----------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ,-— — .............. .........
W om en .— -------------------------------------T i m e , — — -----, -----------------------I n c e n t iv e ,— , — .......................
M e n -----— ---------------------------------I n c e n t i v e - ,— ------------------------P r e s s e r s , hand and m a c h in e ____
W o m e n (a ll in c e n t iv e
w o r k e r s ) — , -----------------------------I n c e n t iv e --------------------------------S e w e r s , hand (387 w o m e n
and 14 m e n )-----------------------------------T im e — — , ------ ----------------------------I n c e n t iv e — ---------------------------------S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t io n s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n )--------I n c e n t iv e --------------------------------------S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
sin g le h a n d (b a ilo r )
s y s t e m ------ ------------- — —-------------—
W om en — , — ------------------------------T im e ----------------------------------------Incentive^.-------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------T im e — ----------------------------------I n c e n t iv e ------------------------- -------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s (c le a n e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) -----------------------------------T im e —------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e __________________________
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s ( a ll w o m e n )
(a ll
pu/nrlrp * s)
•

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A ver­
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e siving s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f—
age
$ 1 .2 5 $ 1 .3 0 $1.35 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0
h o u r ly
and
ea rn ­
and
u n d er
in gs 2
$1.3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $1.40 H -.1 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0
$ 1 .8 0 i l *20
$ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 3.2.30. $ 2.40 $ 2 .6 0 $ g .8 0 $ 3 ,0 0 $ ? , £ 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 ,6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 o v e r

257 $ 3.2 8
13 2.87
244
3.29
234
3.29

-

-

-

2
2

-

-

4
4

-

-

11

8
8

6
6

22
22

1
1

14
14

-

28
24
3

27
25
3

21
21
9

2

21

12

1

1

22
2
2
2

1

32
4
4
-

4
4
27
27
4
23
_

10
10

9
9
9
-

4
4
38
34

-

1

1

2

1

-

2
-

2
2
-

2 .7 2
3.96
4 .0 8

-

-

-

401
129
272

1.86

6

1.91
1.84

-

816
787

1.93
1.95

2 ,373
2,3 1 6
117
2 ,1 9 9
57
45

68
34
27
7

6

2
2

7
19
17
3
14

■

7

11

_

10
1

61

4
-

2.23
2 .9 4
2 .76
2 .98

2.22
2 .1 6

2

4

-

9
9
19
15
15
4
4
-

99
95
562
475
52
423
87

1.65
1.67
2.33

2
-

6

2

2
2

7
7

-

2
2

11
11

9
9

55
55

54
50

49
43

_
35
35
4
31
_

2
2

_
_
53
51
4
47

_
_

_
_
34

_
_
17
4
_
4
13

_
_

2

17
14
14
3
3
_

3
3
62
56
5
51

2

_

1

6
6
2

5
5
42
39
39
3
3
_

1

2

_

50
44
9
35

6

11
11

56

49

20
11

17
_
17
17
_
_
7
7

12

8

8

_

4

12
12

8
8

8
8

4
4

_
_

,
.
4
_
_
_
4
4
4

_

_

_
_

_
_

3
3
_
3
_
_
3

8

4
4

-

47
24
23

20
2

54
54

148
146
146

13

16

2
11

2

1

38
17

6

26
26

14

15

21

29

31

11

19
4
15

16
16

140
126

34
34

31
30

26
26

47
39

41
39

41
41

48
48

7
7
7
-

49
49
49
-

41
41
41
-

39
39
39
-

40
40
40
-

125
124
124

137
137

149
149

137
137

8

16

12

129
-

133
-

125
-

12

2.27
2 .25
2.13
2.26
3.18
3 .24
2.95

191
143
48

1.40
1.36
1.51

4
4

21

1.61

-

-

16

39

51

10

20

41
30

16

12

6
3
3
3

15
9

_

11

3

_
4

3

4

2
2

7
7

9
_
9

22

_

22
12
10

_

_

7
7
-

6
3

2
1

1

_
_
_

9
9
_

_
_
_

_

,

2

1

1

1

-

9
4
_
4
5
5
3

3

2

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

2
2

_

11

3
_
3

6
1

_
_
_

_

_
_

8
1
1

_
_

1

-

18

15

12

6

57
53

38
38

38
38

44
44

60
60

49
49

13
13

11
11

16
16

7
7

1
1

1
1

1
1

_

204
204

155
155
28
127
-

171
171

104
104
4

22 1

120
12 0
1

122

213

74
62
_
62

-

17
15
_
15

2
2

34
30
30
4
4
_

9
9

100

194
185
3
182
9
7

2
2

5
5
_
5
_
_
_

16
16
_
16
_
_
_

_

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

_

2

-

9
9
-

_

55
39
39
16
9
7

_

9
_
_
_

99
74
25

22

31
26
5

10
10

6

5
5

5
4

-

5

-

-

_

3

1

_

-

-

_

-

-

_

_

_

_

-

1

_

5

-

_

-

3

1

-

_

-

_ ■

_

_

_

_

_

_

13

1

1

1

1

17
5

1

-

3
3

1

3

2

22
182
_

6
165
-

219

6

119
-

113

11
10 2

12
12

T he L o s A n g e le s —L o n g B e a c h and A n a h eim —
Santa Ana— a r d e n G ro v e S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a s c o n s is t o f L o s A n g e le s and O ra n g e C o u n tie s .
G
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 69 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e pa id
an in c e n t iv e b a s is .




_

Table 10.

Occupational Earnings:

0)

Newark and Jersey City1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

oer
of
w ork ­
ers

P r e s s e r s , hand_______________
324
W o m e n _____________________
224
T im e ____________________
60
I n c e n t iv e ________________
164
M e n ____ _____________________
100
I n c e n t iv e ________________
96
S e w e r s , hand (a ll
w o m e n )_______________________
261
T im e -----------------------------------117
144
I n c e n t iv e -----------------------------S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
sy stem
(a ll w o m e n ) _______ 1 .369
T im e ________________________
263
I n c e n t iv e ------------------------------ 1,106
S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m
( a ll w o m e n ) (a ll
873
in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s ) -------------T h rea d t rim m e rs
(c le a n e r s ) ( a ll w o m e n )-------196
T im e ________________________
194

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of—
a ge
$ 1 .2 5 $ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $1.7 0 $1.8 0 $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0
h o u r ly
and
ea rn and
u n d er
in g s 23
1
$ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $1.8 0 $ 1.9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 o v e r

$ 3 .6 8
3 .0 4

1. 88
3 .47
5.11
5 .1 8

1.8 8

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

4
4
4

4
4
4
-

5
5
3

2

_
-

-

-

3
3
3

41
41
28
13

4
4

1
3

3
3
3

2
2

26
25

-

6

2

19

1
4
4

3
3
-

2 .3 4
1.55
2 .5 3

22
22
-

2 .77
1 .5 4
1.53

1.59

2.12

18
18
18
_

16
-

13

16

9
9

62
62

-

53
47

-

-

6

-

-

8

8

4

-

6
6

3
3

5
5

12
12

11
2
9
9

35
24

4
4

-

2

65

3 67
22

10
11
11

18
4
4
14
14

21
21

45
45

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

22

-

5
5

62
5
57

59
59

74
74

60
60

1

2

86

78

63

43
43

33
33

33
33

18
18

23
23

36
36

-

19
19

28

48

39

49

76

86

65

94

69

58

27

50

20

15

3

6

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*
•

103
3

90
4

100

22

16

46

24

49
49

-

-

-

12

16
16

21

16
16
4
4

2

117
14
103

119
119

8
2

20

-

140
34
106

34
32

-

11

59
9
50

66

44
26
18

21
10

-

11

9
9

-

10
8

10
2

15
15
15
-

-

1
8

11

6
11

12
10

9

11

2

17

25
25
25
-

-

5
3

69
69
-

11

5
5
5
-

21
21

2

79

-

1 T he N e w a rk and J e r s e y C ity S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis t ic a l A r e a s c o n s is t o f E s s e x , H ud son, M o r r i s , and U n ion C o u n tie s .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 62 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e p a id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 2 at $ 4.6 0 to $ 4 .8 0 ; 8 at $4.80 to $ 5 ; 4 at $5 to $ 5 .2 0 ; 6 at $ 5 .4 0 to $ 5 .6 0 ; 8 at $ 5 .6 0 to $ 5 .8 0 ; 16 at $5.8 0 to $ 6 ; and 23 at $6 and o v e r .




Table 11.

Occupational Earnings:

New Y ork C ity1 All Shops
—

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s o f—

Num O c c u p a t io n and s e x

A ver-

of
w orke is

$1.25 $1.3 0 $ 1.4 0 $1.50 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0
h o u r ly
ea rn “
and
"
"
"
"
~
_
■
“
■
“
“
*
“
under
in gs 2
15
4
3
$1.30 $1.4 0 $ 1 .5 0 $1.6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2.60 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0 o v e r

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s
(3 , 436 m e n and
8 w o m e n ) (a ll
3, 4 44 $ 3 .5 5
t im e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l
( e x a m in e r s ) ( a ll w o m e n )
1, 055
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _________
1.85
3, 362
4 .9 4
P r e s s e r s , hand--------------------216
W o m e n ____________________
2.91
2.22
115
T im e ___________________
10 1
3 .68
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------M e n ________________________
3, 146
5.08
T im e
----------------------134
3 .84
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------3, 012
5 .14
P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e
( a ll m e n ) (a ll
80
in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s ) ------------4 .87
P r e s s e r s , hand and
m a c h in e (5 2 m e n and
4 w o m e n ) (a ll in c e n t iv e
wn t*kp t g^
56
4 .8 9
S e w e r s , hand (5 , 056 w o m e n
and 32 m e n )------------------------5, 088
2.12
T im e _______________________
1.90
957
2.17
I n c e n t iv e ___________________
4, 131
S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m (3 , 395 w o m e n
and 66 m e n )------------------------3, 461
2.41
T
635
1.85
I n c e n t iv e ------ -------- ------------2 , 826
2 .5 4
S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , sin g le h a n d
( t a il o r ) s y s t e m -------------------- 20 , 020
2.81
2 .7 4
W o m e n ____________________ 1 8 ,5 0 6
632
2 .64
T im e ---------- -----------------2 .74
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------- 17, 874
M e n -----------------------------------1, 514
3.69
72
3.22
T im e ___________________
1, 4 42
3.71
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------T h re a d t r i m m e r s
( c le a n e r s ) ( 1 , 4 8 8
1.65
w o m e n and 9 m e n ) ________
1, 497
Ti m
1.62
1, 443
54
2.37
I n c e n t iv e __________________
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s
(22 w o m e n and 8 m e n )
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) _________
30
1.81

52

6
20
4
4
16
16

16
16

48

8
8
8
_

206
4
-

4
4

104
16
16
16
_

173

173

1
1
1

1
1
1

-

_

204
49
39

20
19

10
2
8

42

72

783

1291

608

264

159

116

13

20

8

_

4

4

8

56
31
25
25
-

53
26

28

8
22

82

334

72

138

166

-

-

8

-

8

176
4

128
-

371
_

3 997

-

81
16

142

4

159
_

202

-

-

15
72
36
16

8

20

334

159

.
138

8

16

130

158
_
158

65
_
65

_
128
128

371
371

12
981
12

8

6
12

4
172
_
172

2

36
28

82
26
56

8

18

4
18

-

6
6

28
4
24

32

9
36

20
20

-

-

-

-

8

_

-

..

_

4 32

_

_

8

6
12

202

6

4

312

153

198

64
4
60

8

-

-

_

22

8

4

20

92

8

_

140
•
140

lk
1D
_

2

969

5^
_

_

_

*
_
_

165
51
114

168
33
135

286
9
277

258
94
164

500
192
308

319
42
277

722
90
632

669
164
505

774
258
516

339
16
323

197
197

206
206

191

114

92

20

8

44

8

-

116

62
50

441
136
305

331
74
257

339

89
g
81

56

44

28

16

14

22

8

4

_

4

323

156
g
148

96

222

243
q
234

159

62

107
9
98

240
18

12

253
38
215

4 13

28

90
3
87

130

88

96

56

44

28

16

14

22

8

4

.

4

58
58

223
223
223
-

315
311

333
329

486
486

805
7 04
.
704

10 1

538
382
4
378
156

353
313
313
40

100

174
92
_
92
82

96

56

541
459
_
459
82

32
24
_
24

12

8

39
56

-

-

-

-

-

-

20

8

87
25
_
25
62

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

4

-

12

36

64

48

62

100

974
834
44
790
140
16
124

140
104

466
-

1360
1225
36
1189
135

95
39
_

321
4

1685
1527
72
1455
158
4
154

104
96

311
4

1919
1857
108
1749
62

271
171

20

2018 1731
1954 1683
52
48
1906 1631
64
48

2017
1917

8

1438
1426
36
1390

2206
2150

-

58
-

117
117
117
-

24
77

74

156

40

100

82

8

8

56

62

36

27
27

52
52

48
48

910

91
89

128
126

78
78

105
105

32
32

-

-

_

8
8

-

.

_

18

2

2

-

2

68

878
32

8

8

110
303

88
2062

16

-

116
1801

100

199

114

20

16
4

8

44

8

159

-

135

171

_

_

104
36

8

18

12

1 N ew Y o r k C ity (th e 5 b o r o u g h s ).
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pay f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 60 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e pa id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 245 at $5.6 0 to $ 6 ; 136 at $6 to $ 6 .4 0 ; 148 at $ 6 .4 0 to $ 6 .8 0 ; 212 at $ 6 .8 0 to $ 7 .2 0 ; 116 at $ 7 .2 0 to $ 7 .6 0 ; 32 at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 8 ; and 108 at $8 and o v e r .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as f o l l o w s : 3 at $ 5.6 0 to $ 6 ; 12 at $ 6 .6 0 to $ 7 ; 4 at $7 to $ 7 .4 0 ; 5 at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 8 ; and 8 at $8 and o v e r .
5 W o r k e r s w e r e at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 8 .




Table 12.

Occupational Earnings:

00

New York City1----- Regular Shops

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
NumO c c u p a tio n and s e x

of
w ork ei s

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s ofA v erage
$ 1.2 5 $ 1.30 $1.40 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $1.70 $ 1 .8 0 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 f s T o o $ 5.20 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0
h o u r ly
and
ea rn u n d er
__
m g s 2 $ 1 .3 0
$ 1.40 $1.5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1.7 0 $ 1.80 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0 o v e r

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s
(3 , 186 m e n and
8 w o m e n ) (a ll
3, 194

S e w e r s , hand (1 , 130
w o m e n and 16 m e n )—, -----T im e ------- ---------------- „-------I n c e n t iv e ,—
. ...................
S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m (a ll w om en ) s ------S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a to r s , s in g le hand (t a il o r ) s y s t e m --------W o m e n ---------- ------------------T i m e , , , .............................
I n c e n t iv e --------------------M e n ----------------------------------xuc e n tiv
— ---— —
T h read trim m e rs
( c le a n e r s ) ( a ll w o m e n ) ,,,.
T im e ------- ----------------- ------

614
488
58
56
430
62
368

4 .6 0
2.41
2 .3 0
4 .8 9
3 .46
5 .1 3

32

783 1183

564

228

155

100

13

20

4

8

4

g

3 124

7 .6 9

1. 8 8

4
_
-

4
_
,
,
,
-

44
-

6

8

111

28
24
24
24
-

41

15

-

8

8

20
16
16

16
-

4
-

74
-

56

4
-

4
-

4
-

14
-

26
-

9
-

36
-

24
-

2
2

23

-

-

-

4
4
-

16
16

4
4
-

74
26
48

56

4
4
-

4
,
4

14
4

26
26

9
9

36
36

24

-

23

-

-

-

40

4
4
-

24

-

23

124
124

295
258
37

61
16
45

20

4

9

16

8

20

4

66

232
160
72

20

4

9

16

8

20

4

84
,
,
_
,
-

51

93
- ;
,
-

42

75
16
59

146
80

26

115
56
59

_
-

8
8
8
-

131

8
8
8
-

-

8
-

8

16

10

4 29

2.07
2 .0 9
2 .0 5

-

,

540

6

8

85
4
81

484

2 .2 8

-

-

4

8

100

8

68

104

76

16

8

14

18

16

8

8

8

6

4

4

4

2

-

-

-

3, 007
2, 490
360
2, 130
517
465

3 .23
3 .0 4
2.91
3 .06
4 .1 5
4 .2 1

8
8

2
2

18
18

8
8

33
33

161
161

161
157

8

8

8

2

18
,

8

33
-

73
-

153
-

149
4
4

80
56
56
24
24

36
36
64
64

54
4
4
50
50

4
4
4
-

8

12

190
118
4
114
72
72

36
16
16

10
10

118
81
81
37
29

-

-

208
150
150
58
34

44
36
36

-

178
150
36
114
28

8

8

346
312
36
276
34
34

42

-

317
293
108
185
24
24

20

-

267
253
64
189
14
14

100

-

225
215
24
191

292

_

14
14
14
-

81
81

,

20
20

34
34

20
20

231
189

1 .9 4
1.79

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

18

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1, 146

606

1 N ew Y o r k C ity (th e 5 b o r o u g h s ).
2 E x c lu d e s prem iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and
a t im e b a s is .
^ W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d &s f o l l o w s : 36
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s ; 12
5 I n s u ffic ie n t da ta to w a r r a n t p r e s e n t a t io n




40

52

$ 3 .5 5

29

I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l
( e x a m in e r s ) (a ll w o m e n )
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ________
P r e s s e r s , ha n d_____________
W o m e n ___ „ _____________
T im e _____________ _____
M en — , , , „ ___________*-----T im e _________ __________
I n c e n t iv e ______________
P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e
(a ll m e n ) (a ll

-

4
4

16

,

104
84

6

24

4

22

f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,

18
18

h o lid a y s ,

45
45

4
4

and la te s h ift s .

276
64

212
16

12
8
8

8
8

-

-

A p p r o x im a t e ly 76 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e p a id

at $5.6 0 to $ 6 ; 16 at $ 6.40 to $ 6 .8 0 ; 16 at $ 6 ,8 0 to $ 7 .2 0 ; 16 at $ 7 .2 0 to $ 7 .6 0 ; and 40 at $8 and o v e r ,
at $ 6.40 to $ 6 .8 0 ; 4 at $ 6 .8 0 to $ 7 .2 0 ; 5 at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 8 ; and 8 at $8 and o v e r .
o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s by m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t; p r e d o m in a n t ly in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s .

on

Tabic 13. Occupational Earnings: New York City1— Contract Shops
(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

Num ­
ber
of
w ork ­
ers

A v erNunn b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e h o u r ly e a r n in g s ofage
$1.25 $1.30 $1.40 $1.50 $ 1.6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .2 0 J t t o
h o u r ly
and
earn ­
und er
in g s 23
$1.30 $1.40 $ 1.50 $1.60 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 2.00 $ 2.20 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .6 0

and
over

C u tte r * and m a r k e r s
( a ll m e n ) ( a ll
250

441
2, 874
158

1.81
5.00
3.09
2 14
3.65
5.11
4 .1 7
5 .1 4

2

$ 3 .5 5

40

12

18
4

108

44

36

278

155

198

16

I n s p e c t o r * , fin a l
(e x a m in e r * ) ( a l l w o m e n )
P r e i s e r * , h a n d --___ _________

59
T im e -....................
I n c e n t i v e .—-------------------99
M en
--------------------2, 716
72
T im e —___ - — ___ - _______
I n c e n t iv e —.......................... 2, 644
P r e i s e r * , m a c h in e
( a ll m e n ) (a ll
tkinvlfPT'Rj
51
S e w e r * , hand (3 , 926
w o m e n and 16 m en);________
3, 942
Tim *.
351
I n c e n t iv e ------- -— ---------------- 3, 591
S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
sy ste m ( 2 , 9 1 1 w om en
and 66 'nrw»n)
2, 977
Tiftifi,
411
I n c e n t iv e ................................ .
2, 566
S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s in g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m .......................... 1 7 ,0 1 3
W o m e n -------------------------------- 1 6 ,0 1 6
T im e
_ _ _
272
I n c e n t iv e ------------------------ 15, 744
M e n --------------------- ------------—
997
I n c e n t iv e -----------------------977
'T hread t r i m m e r s
(c le a n e r s ) (1 , 257
w o m e n and 9 m e n )__________
1 , 266
T im p
1, 254
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s
(1 4 w o m e n and 8 m en )
(a ll t im e w o r k e r s )__________

22

5
36

2
20

20
20

4
4

16

16

-

-

-

16

16

-

4

2.13
1.57
2 .18

159
51
108

160
33
127

201

216

2 .4 4
1.70
2.56

116

62
50

86

88
28

12

2 .73
2.69
2.28
2.70
3.45
3.47

50
50

115
115

1.59
1.60

4

122

53

62

80

8
8
8

4

8
8

1
1
1

1
1

g
.
4

-

-

_
-

_

385
136
249

244

576

26

10

218

566

54

153
38
115

99
9
90

373
80
293

307
303

300
296

-

12
18

52

1
1

8

20

1.85

8

8

_
278

_
155

_

6

2

8

272

190
8

98

202

182

331
16
315

229
9

220

1506 1652
1468 1604
44
28
1440 1560
38
48
38
48

1700
1624
»
1616
76
76

-

10
2
8

6
6

8
10
6

32
24

12

-

4

8

8

437
4
433

479

278

177

202

479

278

177

255
18
237

224

3.27

20

4

4
14

_

5
196

3
83

205
205

78
138

122
68

8
50

115

205
-

303
4
4

288
4
4

-

-

27
27

52
52

44
44

806
794

2

8

4 72 1357
472 1345
20
28
4 52 1317
-

309

22
287

2045 1857
1989 1797
80
40
1909 1757
60
56
60
36

-

12
12

85
85

104
104

60
60

60
60

~

“

“

2
222

_
198

68
8

124

8

_
124
4

140

8
8

72
16

140
4

16
56
_
56

4
136
_
136

104

_

140

_
_

348 3 87 3
16
_

12

140

348

857

140

348

845

153

_
198

60
4
56

84

_

4

44

8

_

_

_

_

_

_

98

84

_

4

44

8

_

_

_

_

_

_

138

143

81

88

48

38

24

12

10

20

8

4

4

138

143

73

88

48

38

24

12

10

20

8

4

4

1393
1251

1014
913

597
554

423
378

348
264

27 3
257

171
135

120
88

60
60

28

75
39

45
17

104

20

913

796
684
a
676

264
84
84

257
16
16

135
36
36

60

112
112

378
45
45

88

10 1
10 1

554
43
43

_
_

39
36
36

17
28
28

88

32
32

20
8
8

2
12

8

32

8

8
1243
142
142

12 0

132
_
132

104
_
104

_

12

8

_

88

12

1 N ew Y o r k C ity (th e 5 b o r o u g h s ).
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s,
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d as f o l lo w s : 213 at $ 5.6 0 to $ 6 ; 136 at $6 to $6.4 0




28
7

19
-

_
-

-

73
41
31

16
16

28
28

and la te s h ift s .

A p p r o x im a t e ly 80 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e re p a id

on

132 at $ 6 .4 0 to $ 6 .8 0 ; 196 at $ 6 .8 0 to $ 7 .2 0 ; 100 at $ 7 .2 0 to $ 7 .6 0 ; 32 at $ 7 .6 0 to $ 8 ; and 64 at $8 and o v e r .

Table 14.

Occupational Earnings:

Paterson—Clifton—Passaic1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
Num -

T im e

118
126
4Q
•*7
77

4 .5 7
3.61
4 .7 6
1 .96
1 .62
2 .1 8

545
496

2 .5 0
2 .5 4

2 .4 9

72

1.55

21

_ .

S e w e r s , hand (a ll w om en)_
T n r .e n tiv e

$ 1 .8 1

593

I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l ( e x a m in e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) (a ll
t im e w o r k e r a )
.......
P r e s s e r s , hand (1 3 6 m e n and

20
139

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

h o u r ly
ea rn -

___

. ....

S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t io n s y s t e m
(541 w o m e n a n d 4 m e n )
T n r .e n tiv e

......
.. ...

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—

A ver-

of
w ork -

$ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1.70 $ 1.80 $1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2.4 0 $2.5 0 $ 2.60 $2.7 0 $2.8 0 $ 2.90 $ 3.0 0 $ 3.10

$ 3 .3 0 $3.4 6

and
~
’
“
“
und er
$ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1.60 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1.80 $ 1.90 $ 2.00 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2.3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2.6 0 $ 2.7 0 $ 2.8 0 $ 2.90 $ 3.00 $3.1 0 $3.2 0 $3.30 $ 3 .4 0 $3.50 o v e r

3

2

4

6

2

3

8
6
2

3

2
2

6
6

6
5

13

4

6

3

12

_

3
3

2

7

12

4

6

3

12

_

2

3

4

2

27
27

32
30

40
34

31
26

50
44

34
33

28

20

38
35

26

20

22

15
15

27
25

12

13

30

49

40

39

42

76

43

39

26

34

21

4

4

14
g

16
13

21

24

17

3

44

2

4
4

_

3 113
6

15
9
g

8

31
27
4

9
7

2
2

7

3
3

6

6

107

'

2

.

.

2

20
20

8
8

12
12

8
8

13
13

11
11

52
52

19

20

11

21

15

15

22

4

2

"

_

_

S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s in g le h a n d (t a il o r )
s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n ) ( a ll
in r e n tiv e w o r k e r s )

3

T h r e a d t r i m m e r s (c le a n e r s )
(a ll w o m e n ) ( a ll
tim e w o rk e r a )

__ ____

..

4

6

2

1 T he P a te r s o n - C l i f t o n - P a s s a ic S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f B e r g e n and P a s s a ic C o u n tie s .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly 72 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e pa id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 20 at $ 3.7 0 to $ 3 .9 0 ; 17 at $ 3.90 to $ 4 .1 0 ; 6 at $ 4 .1 0 to $ 4 .3 0 ; 12 at $ 4 .5 0 to $ 4 .7 0 ; 20 at $ 4.7 0 to $ 4 .9 0 ; 4 at $ 4 .9 0 to $ 5 .1 0 ; 11 at $ 5.5 0 to
$ 5 .7 0 ; 4 at $ 5 .7 0 to $ 5 .9 0 ; 4 at $ 5 .9 0 to $ 6 .1 0 ; and 15 at $6.1 0 and o v e r .




Table 15.

Occupational Earnings:

Philadelphia1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

Num ­
ber
of
ers

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s
( a ll m e n ) ( a ll
tim e w o r k e r s ) ----------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l
(e x a m in e r s ) ( a ll w o m e n ) —
T im e ----- ---------- ------------------P r e s s e r s , ha n d---------- ---------W o m e n ------------------------------T im e ....................................
I n c e n t iv e ----------------------M en ( a ll in c e n t iv e
w o r k e r s ) _________________
P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e
(5 m e n and 2 w o m e n )
(a ll in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s ) ----S e w e r s , hand (1 4 9
w o m e n and 3 m e n ) ________
T im e - .......................-................
I n c e n t iv e — ................... —----S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m ( a ll w o m e n )------------ 1,
I n c e n t iv e — .............................
S e w in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s in g le h a n d
(t a il o r ) s y s t e m (4 9 8
w o m e n and 13 m e n )-----------I n c e n t iv e ---------------------------T h rea d t r im m e r s
(c le a n e r s ) ( a ll w o m e n )-----T im e ----------------------------------I n c e n t iv e __________________
'W ork d i s t r ib u t o r s
(4 0 w o m e n and 2 m e n )
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------------

Nurn b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - tim e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of-

A ver-

h o u r ly $1.25 $ 1 .3 0 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1.50 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0
and
and
in gs 23 und er
1
$1.30 $ 1 .3 5 $ 1 .4 0 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1.8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 o v e r

1

178

$ 3 .3 6

147
134
378
336
14
322

1.62
1.59
2.51
2.35
1.76
2 .38

2
2

42

3.75

7
152
65
87

1
1
2
2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 .39

_

.

1.80
1.52

2
2

11

2.00

-

-

2.18
1.80
2.19

10

1 , 866

10

511
501

2.39
2 .38

175
158
17

1.54
1.53

42

892
26

104
103

1

-

11

7
7
29
29
4
25

-

-

-

-

1
1
-

.

11
11
-

.

.

.

1

45
36
9

20

9

2
2

_

2

-

1

6

15

21

28

6

15

21

28

-

-

-

-

-

2
2

2
2

7
3
4

-

-

-

1.61

-

-

-

1.64

4

-

-

1

10

1

2

36

17
17
17

29
29
29

18
18
18

4

-

-

19
4
15

7
5
16
16
16

3
42
38

2

-

9

21

1

2

3

_

4
4
30
30

56

61

49

2

2

7

2
18
18

24
24

15
15

21

21
21

10
10

13

13

1

17

10

2

_

.
4
4

_
4
_

_
18
5

28

18

24

15

17

21

10

10

2

_

4

_

5

-

-

-

-

-

4

_

_

3

11

1

_

4

3 13

2

.

_

2

.

2

.

.

.

.

2

.

16

8

4

12

8

3

5

-

2

1

2

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

8

4

12

8

3

5

-

2

1

2

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

9
9

152

191

180

161

104

136

106

102

110

75

88

42

37

2

89

62

2

29

11

4

5

11

152

191

158

161

104

136

104

115

102

110

75

89

88

62

42

37

29

11

4

5

11

45
45

18
18

29
29

27
27

37
37

29
29

45
43

36
34

22
22

23
23

29
29

47
45

33
33

32
30

21

11
11

8
8

1
1

10
10

_

4
4

-

147
139

1

-

-

2

-

-

1

1

-

4
4
-

-

-

8

11
10
1

2
2

-

-

-

2

"

20

4

4

2

2

2

-

-

3

14

2
14

22

.

4

1

117

19

_

1 T h e P h ila d e lp h ia a r e a c o n s is t s o f P h ila d e lp h ia and D e la w a r e C o u n tie s , P a . , and C a m d e n C ounty, N .J .
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . A p p r o x im a t e ly 68 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study w e r e pa id
an in c e n t iv e b a s i s .
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r ib u t e d a s f o l lo w s : 3 at $ 4 .4 0 to $ 4 .6 0 ; 6 at $ 4.6 0 to $ 4 .8 0 ; 2 at $ 4 .8 0 to $ 5 ; and 2 at $ 5 .4 0 to $ 5 .6 0 .




on

Table 16.

Occupational Earnings:

St. Louis1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
A v erN u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s ofa ge
$ 1 .5 0 $ 1.60 $ 1.70 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0
h o u r ly
of
U nder
w o rk - ea rn $ 1 .5 0 u n d er
in gs
$ 1 .6 0 $ 1.70 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 2 .9 0 $ 3 .0 0
Num-

O c c u p a t io n and s e x

C u t t e r s and m a r k e r s (91 m e n and
1 w o m a n ) ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l (e x a m in e r s )
( a ll w o m e n ) -------------------------------------------------T i m e ---------- -------------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , ha n d------------------------ ---------------------W o m e n ______________________ ____________
I n c e n t iv e -----------------------------------------------M en ( a ll in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s ) ------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e (1 8 w o m e n
and 1 m a n ) — --------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e ----------------------------------------------------S e w e r s , hand ( a ll w o m e n ) --------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e ------------- ------------- -------------------S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m (a ll w o m e n )------------------------------------T i m e ..................................................... ....................
I n c e n t i v e ------------------------ -----------------------S e w in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s i n g l e h and ( t a il o r ) s y s t e m ( a ll
w o m e n ) ( a ll in c e n t iv e w o r k e r s ) --------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c le a n e r s )
( a l l w o m e n ) ------------ ----------------------------------T i m e -----------------------------------------------------------I n c e n t iv e -------------------------------------------------W o r k d i s t r ib u t o r s ( a ll w o m e n )
( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------------------------------------

$ 3 .0 0

$ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0
and

$ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .80

over

92

$ 3 . 16

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

66

16

3

-

-

51
47
124
117
107
7

1 .6 9
1 .6 4
2. 57
2. 52
2. 57
3 .4 5

-

3
3
-

37
37

2
2

1
1

-

2

1

1

-

5
5
5
-

8
8
8

21
21

14
14

3

-

-

4
4
4
-

-

1
1
1

4
4
14
14

2
2
2

2
2
2

14
14
14
-

5

2
2
1

4

5
5
5
-

4
3
3

-

7
7
7
-

3

-

7
7
7
-

19
15
94

21

1

-

1.90

1

25

13

8

5
5

-

1
1

-

-

_

14

1
1
8

1
1

1

3
3
46

72

-

-

22

2. 07
2 . 06
1 .8 3
1 .6 1

-

_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

_
_
-

799
29
770

2. 03
1 .7 7
2. 04

1

1
1

233

88

62
62

56
56

2

21

91
3

38

-

1

72
3
69

254

-

194

2. 35

-

-

-

20

8

19

32
7
25

1 .9 6
1. 56
2. 07

-

7
5

7

2

1

2

-

-

2

5

2

1

4
4

52

1. 59

3

35

7

3

2

-

2
2

8
-

-

19
-

12
-

5
5
5
-

8

3
3

_
_

2

6

2
2
1

-

-

2

6

_
5
5

52
52

33
33

26
26

27
27

17
17

20
1

12

-

-

-

19

7
7

8

37

8

12

11

7
7

16

16

16

23

17

15

9

7

5

5

6

4

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

2

1

1

1

1

1

1

1

-

1

-

-

4
5
5

1

_

1

-

1
1

1
-

1
-

1

11

-

1

1

2

-

-

2

2

4

1

3

-

-

-

2

1 T h e St. L o u is S ta n d a rd M e t r o p o lit a n S t a tis t ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f the c it y o f St. L o u is ; the co u n tie s o f F r a n k lin , J e f f e r s o n , St. C h a r le s , and St. L o u is , M o . ; and the c o u n tie s o f
M a d is o n and St. C l a i r , 111.
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s . A p p r o x im a t e ly 66 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the stu d y w e r e p a id on
an in c e n t iv e b a s is .




Table 17.

Occupational Earnings:

Wilkes-Barre—Hazleton1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d p r o d u c t io n o c c u p a t io n s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , M a r c h 1966)
NumO c c u p a t io n and s e x

h o u r ly
ea rn -

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a rn in g s of-

A ver-

of
w ork ei s

C u tte r s and m a r k e r s
( a ll m e n )--------------------- ------ —
T im e ------ ----------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , fin a l
(e x a m in e r s ) (a ll w om en )
T im e ________________________
P r e s s e r s , h and......... ................
W o m e n ---------- ---------------------T im e ____________________
I n c e n t iv e -----------------------M en (a ll in c e n t iv e
w o r k e r s ) __________________
S e w e r s , hand ( a ll
w o m e n )----------------------------------T im e ________________________
I n c e n t iv e .......................... ..........
S ew in g -m a c h in e
o p e r a t o r s , s e c t io n
s y s t e m _______________________ 4,
W o m e n _____________________ 4,
I n c e n t iv e ________________ 4,
M en ( a l l in c e n t iv e
w o r k e r s ) _________________
T h re a d t r i m m e r s
(c le a n e r s ) (a ll w o m e n )_____
T im e ________________________
I n c e n t iv e ____________ - ______
W o rk d i s t r ib u t o r s
(1 4 2 w o m e n and 46 m en )
( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) __________ 1
2

$1.25 $1.30 $1.3 5 $1.40 $ 1 .4 5 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $2.5 0 $ 2.60 $ 2.7 0 $ 2.80 $ 3.00 $ 3.20 $ 3.4 0 $ 3.6 0 $3.80 $ 4.00 $4.20
and
~
"
u n d er
$1.30 $1.3 5 $1.4 0 $1.45 $ 1 .5 0 $ 1 .6 0 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 .0 0 $ 2 .1 0 $ 2 .2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3.00 $ 3.20 $ 3.40 $ 3.6 0 $ 3.80 $4.00 $4.20 o v e r

81
76

$2.79
2.59

64
63
540
470
10
460

1.51
1.50
2 .68
2.61
1.68
2.63

70
146
39
107

1.67
1.55
1.72

1
1
-

“

6 84
660
535

1.92
1.92
1.93

70
70
70

11
11
11

9
9
9

24

1.76

-

-

525
449
76

1.57
1.52
1.89

14
14

188

1.61

6

2
2

7
7

33
33
5
5
2
3

11
11
30
30
6
24

3.17

-

-

-

4
4
1
1

5
5

4
4

-

-

.
-

2
2

4
4
18
18

-

_

1
1

_

1
1

_

2
2
1

2
1

3
3

_

_

_

25
25

_

2
2

_ _

27
26

4
4

_ _

-

_

-

_

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

-

_

-

18

13
13
1
12

28
28

20
20

14
14

60
52

64
50

31
20

20
15

27
22

_

.

-

-

-

-

24

23

39

22

28

28

20

14

52

50

20

15

22

5

3

14

3

3

2

-

4

-

-

-

8

14

11

5

5

5

7

1

_

_

5

8

2

_ _

5

8

2

3
3
3

26
23

10
5

10
3

15
14

25
1
24

15
5
10

5

5

5

75
32
43

5

5

15
15
15

60
60
60

973
963
898

590
583
573

648
648
643

377
375
375

302
300
300

361
361
321

213
213
213

238
238
233

162
162
162

145
144
144

103
103
103

99
99
99

81
81
81

93
91
91

47
47
47

40
40
40

31
31
31

5
5
5

8
8
8

_

-

-

-

10

7

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
"

13
13
“

403
380
23

46
37
9

13

7

1

3

2

3

_

6

3

_

-

3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

_

13

7

1

3

2

3

“

6

3

3

-

3

"

-

-

"

-

-

5

103

37

14

-

3

12

-

-

3

3

-

4
4

-

"

1

1

5
-

-

1 T h e W i lk e s - B a r r e —H a z le to n Standard M e t r o p o lit a n S ta tis tica l A r e a c o n s is t s o f L u z e r n e C ou n ty.
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m pa y f o r o v e r t im e and f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s, h o lid a y s , and la te s h ift s .
A p p r o x im a t e ly ?1 p e r c e n t o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y the study
an in c e n t iv e b a s is .




_

-

32
28

24
24
1
23

26
24

24
22

3
-

2

-

-

42
39

2
2

-

w e r e p a id

on

10
G)

Table 18.

Method o f W age Payment

(P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, 1
11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , M a r c h 1966)

B o s to n

M eth od o f w a g e p a y m en t

C h ica g o

D a lla s

A l l w o r k e r s _____________________________________

100

100

100

In c e n tiv e w o r k e r s ___________________________________
I n d iv id u a l p i e c e w o r k ____________________________
G r o u p p i e c e w o r k ________________________________
In d iv id u a l b o n u s _________________________________
G r o u p b o n u s ---------------------------- ------------------------ —

51
46
4

67
62

51
39

(1 )
3
2
5

12

T im e - r a t e d w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------F o r m a l p la n s -------------------------------------------------------S in g le ra te -----------------------------------------------------R a n g e o f r a t e s ----------------- -----------------------------In d iv id u a l r a t e s __________________________________

49
4
4
45

F a ll R iv e r
and
N ew B e d fo r d

1
2
3

1

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

64
63
(3 )

1

-

33
28
28
5

R e g u la r
sh o p s 2

C on tra ct
sh o p s

P a terson —
C lifto n —
P a s s a ic

P h il a ­
d elp h ia

St. L o u is

W ilk e s B arre—
H a zleton

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

62
57
4
-

24

80
72
7
-

72
67

68
68

66
66

6

-

-

1

-

71
71
-

-

60
55
5
-

-

-

-

-

38
30
30

40
36
36

76
70
70

20

28
25
25

32
32
32

34
34

29
28
27

-

-

-

-

-

-

34

8

4

6

3

3

(3 )

"

49

36

31

2
2

-

1
1

36

N ew Y o r k C it y
A ll
sh op s

69
69

■

47

N ew a rk
and
Jersey
C ity

100

1

-

F o r d e fin it io n o f m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, s e e a p p en d ix A .
In clu d e s jo b b in g s h o p s p e r fo r m i n g s o m e m a n u fa ctu rin g o p e r a t io n s ,
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

100

Los A n g e le s L on g B e a c h
and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G a rd en G r o v e

(3 )
29

22
2
-

17
17

-

1
1

s u c h a s cu ttin g and p a ck in g and sh ipp in g , in a d d itio n to r e g u la r (in s id e ) s h o p s .

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not equal t o t a ls .

Table 19. Scheduled Weekly Hours
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s b y s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s , 1
11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , M a r c h 1966)

W e e k ly h o u r s

B o s to n

C h ica g o

D a lla s

F a ll R iv e r
and
N ew B e d fo r d

L os A n g e le s L on g B e a c h
and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G arden G ro v e

N ew a rk
and
J ersey
C ity

N ew Y o r k C it y
A ll
sh o p s

R e g u la r
sh o p s 2

C on tra ct
sh o p s

P a terson —
C lifto n —
P a s s a ic

P h il a ­
d e lp h ia

St. L o u is

W ilk e s B a rre—
H a zle to n

100

T o t a l ____________________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

U n d er 35 h o u r s --------------------------------------------------------35 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 35 and u n d er 3 7 V2 h o u r s ------------------------------3 7 V2 h o u r s ___________________________________________
O v e r 37Vz and u n d er 40 h o u r s . --------------------------40 h o u r s ---------------------------------------------------------------------O v e r 4 0 h o u r s ------------------------------------------------------------

_

_

.

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

87
6
-

88

96

98

95

95

100

-

-

-

-

-

1

(3 )
1

1
4

5

-

100
-

-

-

100
-

1
2
3

8

-

12

100

7

4
85

-

-

-

-

94

-

93

6

-

-

8
3

(3 )
3

(3 )

D ata r e la t e to the p r e d o m in a n t w o r k s c h e d u le o f fu l l- t im e d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s in e a c h e s t a b lis h m e n t .
In clu d e s jo b b in g s h o p s p e r fo r m i n g s o m e m a n u fa ctu rin g o p e r a t io n s , su ch a s cu ttin g and p a ck in g and sh ip p in g , in a d d itio n to r e g u la r (in s id e ) s h o p s .
L e s s than 0. 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:




B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y not eq u al 100 p e r c e n t .

Table 20.

Paid Holidays

(P a id h o lid a y p r o v is io n s f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y In te rn a tio n a l L a d ie s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n ion a g r e e m e n t s 1 in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s '
d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 2 M a r c h 1966)

N u m b er o f h o lid a y s an n u ally

A ^ ea

M eth od o f co m p u tin g p a y f o r p i e c e w o r k e r s

________

_________________

5 da ys. 3

— -------------

D a lla s 4 ................................................................... ......
F a l l R i v e r and N ew B e d f o r d ______

_____

P a y m e n ts w e r e b a s e d on c r a f t m in im u m w a g e s .

6 d a y s in c o tto n d r e s s s h o p s ; 4 d a y s in s ilk d r e s s sh o p s.

B o s to n

P a y m e n ts in c o tto n d r e s s sh o p s w e r e b a s e d on e a r n in g s in the p r e v io u s ca le n d a r
q u a rter.
In s ilk d r e s s sh o p s p a y m e n ts w e r e p r o r a t e d a c c o r d i n g to the n u m b er o f
d a y s w o r k e d in the h o lid a y w e e k e x c e p t that e a c h w o r k e r r e c e iv e d V2 d a y 's pa y
w h e th e r o r not he w o r k e d in the h o lid a y w e e k . P a y m e n ts f o r p i e c e w o r k e r s in th ese
sh op s w e r e b a s e d on e a r n in g s in the p r e v io u s ca le n d a r y e a r .

5 d a y s.

L o s A n g e l e s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A na— a r d e n G r o v e 5----------------------------------G

D ata not a v a ila b le .

6 V2 d a y s.

__ _

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m

$ 10 to $ 14,

a c c o r d i n g to c r a ft .

6 d a y s to t im e w o r k e r s ; 5 d a y s to p i e c e w o r k e r s .

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m $ 9 .8 0 to $ 14,

6 V2 d a y s.

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m $ 12 to $ 17,

-

6 V2 d a y s.

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m $ 14 to $ 18,

a c c o r d i n g to c r a ft .

P a t e r so n —C lifto n — a s s a i c ____________________ ___
P

6 V2 d a y s.

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m $ 12 to $ 17,

a c c o r d i n g to c r a ft .

N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity
N ew Y o r k C ity

_ — -------- -------------

----------------------------------

-------------

5 V2 d a y s if the sh op w o r k s in the h o lid a y
w e e k b e fo r e o r a fte r the h o lid a y .

w e e k o r the

a c c o r d i n g to c r a ft .

a c c o r d i n g to c r a ft .

P a y m e n t s b a s e d on e a r n in g s in p r e v io u s

c a le n d a r q u a r t e r .

St. L o u is ____________________________________________ -

6 d a y s.

P a y m e n t s b a s e d on e a r n in g s in the p r e v io u s y e a r .

W i l k e s - B a r r e — a z l e t o n ______
H

6 V2 d a y s.

P a y m e n ts r a n g e d f r o m

—

----------------

$ 10 to $ 14,

a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

1 T h e s e a g r e e m e n t s w e r e in e f f e c t in sh op s e m p lo y in g n in e -te n th s o f the p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s o r m o r e in B o s to n , F a ll R iv e r and N ew B e d fo r d , P a t e r s o n —C lifto n —P a s s a i c , P h ila d e lp h ia ,
St. L o u is , and W i l k e s - B a r r e —H a z le to n ; a p p r o x im a te ly s e v e n -e ig h t h s in C h ic a g o , and N ew a rk and J e r s e y C ity ; and l e s s than o n e -t e n t h in D a lla s , and L o s A n g e le s — on g B e a ch and A n a h eim —
L
Santa A na— a r d e n G r o v e .
G
2 F o r d e f in it io n o f a r e a s s e e fo o tn o te 1, t a b le s 5 through 17.
3 6 d a y s a n n u a lly in 1 s h o p .
4 22 o f the 23 e s t a b lis h m e n t s v is it e d in th is a r e a w e r e n onunion:
15 o f the n on u n ion e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d 5 p a id h o lid a y s ; 4 p r o v id e d 4 d a y s ; and 1 p r o v id e d 3 d a y s.
5 52 o f the 56 e s t a b lis h m e n t s v is it e d in this a r e a w e r e nonunion; 25 o f the n onunion e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d p a id h o lid a y s :
6 d a y s an n u ally to a ll w o r k e r s in 14 sh o p s ; 6 d a y s to
t im e w o r k e r s o n ly in 8 s h o p s and 7 d a y s to t im e w o r k e r s on ly in 1 sh op ; 2 sh op s p r o v id e d 2 d a y s to a ll w o r k e r s .




10

01

Table 21. Health, Welfare, and Vacation Benefits

10
0)

(H e a lth , w e lf a r e , and v a c a t io n b e n e fit s p r o v is io n s f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y In te rn a tio n a l L a d ie s ' G a rm en t W o r k e r s ' U n ion a g r e e m e n t s
d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 2 M a r c h 1966)

A rea

E m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n 3

8 p e r c e n t ( 6 V2 p e r c e n t in
and 7 V2 in 2 s h o p s ).

in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s '

O th e r b e n e fit s

V a c a t io n b e n e fits

1 sh op

4 p e r c e n t o f a w o r k e r 's e a rn in g s in the p r e v io u s c a le n d a r y e a r .

S ic k , h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g i c a l, m a te r n it y , and e y e g l a s s e s b e n e ­
f i t s , s e r v i c e s at the un ion h ea lth c e n t e r , and dea th b e n e fit s .

1 p e r c e n t to a h e a lth c e n t e r fund;
in " c o t t o n d r e s s " s h o p s , 1 p e r ­
c e n t f o r h e a lth in s u r a n c e ; in " s i lk
d r e s s " s h o p s , 1 p e r c e n t to a
h e a lth fund .

1 w e e k 's p a y a ft e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e and 2 w e e k 's p a y a ft e r
5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e in " c o t t o n d r e s s " s h o p s ; 1 w e e k 's p a y a ft e r
1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e in " s i l k d r e s s " sh o p s w ith p a y m e n ts p r o r a t e d
a ft e r 6 m onths o f s e r v i c e ; v a c a t io n b e n e fit s w e r e p a id f o r
d i r e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r in b oth co t t o n and s ilk d r e s s s h o p s .

D ia g n o s t ic and m e d i c a l s e r v i c e s at the u n ion h ea lth c e n t e r ; in
" c o t t o n d r e s s " sh o p s in s u r a n c e c o v e r e d h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g i ­
c a l , and s i c k b e n e fit s .
In " s i l k d r e s s " s h o p s , h ea lth fund
p r o v id e d h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g i c a l, e y e g l a s s e s , and s i c k b e n e ­
fits .
O ne e s t a b lis h m e n t p a id the fu ll c o s t o f a s ic k n e s s and
a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e p r o g r a m .

3 p erce n t.

1 w e e k 's p a y a fte r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e and 2 w e e k s a ft e r 3 y e a r s
p a id fo r d ir e c t ly b y the e m p lo y e r .

L ife , h o s p it a liz a tio n ,
cid e n t in s u r a n c e .

9 p e r c e n t in 14 s h o p s ; l l/z p e r c e n t
in 9 s h o p s ; 5 p e r c e n t in 7 s h o p s .

2 annual w e lfa r e b e n e fit s o f 2 V2 p e r c e n t and 2 p e r c e n t o f
w o r k e r 's e a rn in g s in p r e v io u s y e a r in 23 s h o p s ; 1 annual w e l ­
fa r e v a c a t io n b e n e fit o f 2 V2 p e r c e n t o f w o r k e r 's e a rn in g s f r o m
the u n ion fund and 1 b e n e fit o f 2 p e r c e n t p a id d i r e c t ly b y the
e m p lo y e r in the re m a in in g s h o p s .

D is a b ilit y , h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g i c a l, e y e g l a s s e s , t u b e r c u l o s i s ,
b lo o d t r a n s f u s io n s , and a n e s t h e s ia and a u x ilia r y b e n e fit s , s e r ­
v ic e s at the un ion h ea lth c e n t e r , and dea th b e n e fit s .

L os A n g e le s — ong B ea ch
L
and A n a h e im —
Santa A n a G a r d e n G r o v e 6 ---------------

6 p erce n t.

4 p a y m en ts o f w e lf a r e b e n e fit s t o w a r d v a c a t io n s a y e a r e a ch
eq u a l to 4 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r 's e a rn in g s in the p r e v io u s
c a le n d a r q u a r te r.

H o s p ita liz a t io n , s u r g i c a l, m a te r n it y , and e y e g l a s s e s b e n e fit s ,
s e r v i c e s at th e u n ion h ea lth c e n t e r , and d ea th b e n e fit s .

N e w a rk and J e r s e y C it y ---------

5 p ercen t.

2 annual w e lfa r e b e n e fit s t o w a r d v a c a t io n s , 1 e q u a l to 2 p e r ­
ce n t o f annual e a r n in g s , the o th e r ra n g in g fr o m $ 6 0 to $ 7 8 a c ­
c o r d in g to c r a ft .

H o s p ita liz a t io n , d o c t o r 's c a r e , s u r g i c a l, m a te r n it y , e y e g l a s s e s ,
a n e s t h e s ia , s e r v i c e s at the u n ion h ea lth c e n t e r , and dea th b e n e ­
fi t s .
E m p lo y e r s p a y fu ll c o s t in clu d in g w o r k e r s ' c o n t r ib u t io n s
to p r o v id e d i s a b i li t y b e n e fit s u n d er N ew J e r s e y D is a b ilit y
B e n e fit s L aw .

2 annual w e lfa r e b e n e fit s t o w a r d v a c a t io n s , 1 eq u a l to 2 p e r ­
ce n t o f annual e a r n in g s , the o th e r ra n g in g fr o m $ 6 0 to $ 7 8 a c ­
c o r d in g to c r a ft .

H o s p ita liz a t io n , d o c t o r 's c a r e , s u r g i c a l, m a te r n it y , d ia g n o s t ic ,
la b o r a t o r y , s p e c i a l i s t s , s e r v i c e s , X - r a y s , a n e s t h e s ia , e y e ­
g l a s s e s , and d ea th b e n e fit s . E m p lo y e r s p a y fu ll c o s t in clu d in g
w ork ers'
co n t r ib u t io n s to p r o v id e d is a b ilit y b e n e fit s
u n d er
the N ew Y o r k State D is a b ilit y B e n e fit s L aw .

Tlallas5

........

s u r g i c a l, m e d i c a l, and s ic k n e s s and a c ­

F a l l R i v e r an d N ew

N ew Y o r k C i t y -------------------------- 7 V2 p e r c e n t .

P a te r s on — lift o n —
C
P a s s a i c _______________________

7 V2 p e r c e n t .

2 annual w e lfa r e b e n e fit s to w a r d v a c a t io n s , 1 eq u a l to 2 p e r ­
ce n t o f annual e a r n in g s , the o th e r ra n g in g fr o m $ 6 0 to $ 7 8 a c ­
c o r d in g to c r a ft .

H o s p ita liz a t io n , d o c t o r 's c a r e , s u r g i c a l, m a te r n it y , e y e g l a s s e s ,
a n e s t h e s ia , and d ea th b e n e fit s .
E m p lo y e r s p a y fu ll c o s t in ­
clu d in g w o r k e r 's c o n t r ib u t io n s to p r o v id e d is a b ilit y b e n e fit s
u n d er the N ew J e r s e y D is a b ilit y B e n e fit s L aw .

P h ila d e lp h ia

7 V2 p e r c e n t .

3 a nnual w e lfa r e b e n e fit s t o w a r d v a c a t io n s b a s e d on a w o r k e r 's
e a rn in g s in the p r e v io u s c a le n d a r y e a r .

D is a b ilit y , h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g i c a l, and m a te r n it y b e n e fit s ,
s e r v i c e s and l o w - p r i c e d d r u g s at the u n ion h ea lth c e n t e r , and
death b e n e fit s .

3 p ercen t.

1 w e e k 's p a y a ft e r 1 y e a r o f e m p lo y m e n t (p r o r a t e d a ft e r
6 m o n th s— 8 m onths in 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s — but le s s than 1 y e a r
o f e m p lo y m e n t), and 2 w e e k s a ft e r 3 y e a r s o f e m p lo y m e n t pa id
fo r d i r e c t ly by the e m p l o y e r .

D is a b ilit y , h o s p it a liz a t io n , s u r g i c a l, t u b e r c u l o s i s , and m e n ta l
il ln e s s b e n e fit s , s e r v i c e s at the u n ion h ea lth c e n t e r (w o r k e r s
in 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s w e r e r e f e r r e d to l o c a l d o c t o r s f o r m e d i c a l
t r e a tm e n t in s te a d o f h ea lth c e n t e r s e r v i c e s ) , and d ea th b e n e fit s .
T w o f i r m s p a id p a r t o f the c o s t o f li fe in s u r a n c e and a c c id e n t a l
d ea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t in s u r a n c e .

.

S t. T/Oivis _________

-

_

S ee fo o t n o t e s at en d o f t a b le .




Table 21.
(H e a lth , w e lf a r e ;

A rea

W ilk e s - B a r r e - H a z l e t o n ---------

Health, W elfare, and Vacation Benefits— Continued

and v a c a t io n b e n e fit s p r o v is io n s f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y In te rn a tio n a l L a d ie s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n ion a g r e e m e n t s
d r e s s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b lis h m e n t s , 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 2 M a r c h 1966)

E m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n 3

7 V2 p e r c e n t .

and m i s s e s '

V a c a t io n b e n e fit s

O th e r b e n e fit s

2 an n u al w e lf a r e b e n e fit s t o w a r d v a c a t io n s e q u a l to 2 V2 p e r c e n t
and 2 p e r c e n t o f a w o r k e r 's e a rn in g s in p r e v io u s y e a r .

D is a b ilit y , h o s p it a liz a t io n , s u r g i c a l, e y e g l a s s e s , and t u b e r c u ­
l o s i s b e n e fit s , b lo o d t r a n s f u s io n s , a n e s t h e s ia , s e r v i c e s at the
u n ion h e a lth c e n te r , and dea th b e n e fit s .

S ee fo o t n o t e 1, ta b le 20.
F o r d e fin it io n o f a r e a s s e e fo o tn o te 1, t a b le s 5 throu gh 17.
E m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s to the fund fr o m w h ic h b e n e fits w e r e p r o v id e d w e r e b a s e d on p a y r o l ls f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y u n ion a g r e e m e n t s .
B e n e fit s f o r w o r k e r s in 2 o f the u n ion e s ta b lis h m e n ts v a r ie d s o m e w h a t f r o m t h o s e in d ic a te d .
22 o f th e 23 e s t a b lis h m e n t s in D a lla s w e r e nonunion; 20 o f t h e s e p r o v id e d 1 w e e k 's v a c a t io n a ft e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e and 1 p r o v id e d 2 w e e k 's a ft e r 1 y e a r ; 2 w e e k 's pa id v a c a tio n
w ere
p r o v id e d a ft e r 3 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e in 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; 5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e in 7 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; and 6 y e a r s in 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; 1 g a v e 3 w e e k s o f v a c a t io n a ft e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e .
13 o f th e n o n u n ion e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d a d d itio n a l b e n e fit s , u s u a lly fin a n c e d jo in t l y b y the e m p lo y e r and e m p l o y e e s , in clu d in g life in s u r a n c e in 8 p la n ts; h o s p it a liz a tio n and s u r g ic a l
in s u r a n c e , in 11 p la n ts ; m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e , in 3 p la n ts; and ca t a s t r o p h e in s u r a n c e , in 1 p la n t.
6 52 o f th e 56 e s t a b lis h m e n t s v is it e d in the L o s A n g e le s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A n a — a r d e n G r o v e a r e a w e r e n on u n ion ; 23 o f t h e s e had p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id v a c a t io n s — 1 w eek
G
a ft e r
1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e f o r a ll w o r k e r s in 19 e s ta b lis h m e n ts and f o r t im e w o r k e r s o n ly in 3 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ; 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t had f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r 3 d a y s a ft e r 1 y e a r and 1 w eek a fte r
2 y e a r s ; 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d 2 w e e k s o f pa id v a c a t io n a fte r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e ( f o r t im e w o r k e r s o n ly in 1 o f t h e s e e s t a b lis h m e n t s ); 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d 2 w e e k s a fte r 5 y e a r s
and 1 p r o v id e d 2 w e e k s a ft e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e ; 23 e s ta b lis h m e n ts p a id at le a s t p a rt o f the c o s t f o r v a r io u s h ea lth and in s u r a n c e b e n e fit s — h o s p it a liz a t io n , s u r g i c a l and m e d ic a l in s u ra n ce
in 23 p la n t s , m a jo r m e d i c a l in 13, life in s u ra n ce in 5 and a c c id e n t a l dea th and d is m e m b e r m e n t in s u r a n c e in 4 .
1
2
3
4
5




10
■N
j

Tabic 22.

Retirement Plans

10

00

(R e t ir e m e n t p r o v is i o n s fo r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y In tern a tion a l L a d ie s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n ion a g r e e m e n t s
m a n u fa ctu rin g e s t a b l is h m e n t s , 11 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , 2 M a r c h 1966)

B e n e fit s to q u a lifie d w o r k e r s

E m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u tio n

A rea

in w o m e n 's and m i s s e s ' d r e s s

B o s to n .

3 p e r c e n t (2 p e r c e n t in 1 e s t a b lis h m e n t and 4 V2 p e r c e n t
in 2 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ).

$ 60 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m death b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a ge 65.

C h ic a g o —

2 V2 p e r c e n t in " c o t t o n d r e s s " s h o p s ; 4 p e r c e n t
d r e s s " sh op s.

$ 55 a m on th at
d r e s s " sh op s.

D a l l a s 4—

2 p ercen t.

D ata not a v a ila b le .

F a l l R i v e r an d N ew B e d fo r d

2 p e r c e n t ( 4 V2 p e r c e n t in 9 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ).

$ 60 a m on th at a ge 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m d ea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

L o s A n g e l e s — o n g B e a c h and A n a h e im —
L
Santa A n a — a r d e n G r o v e 5 ---------------------------------G

2 p ercen t.

$ 60 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m d ea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

N e w a r k and J e r s e y C it y -----------------------------------------

4 V2 p e r c e n t .

$ 6 0 a m on th at a ge 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m d ea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit re d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

4 V2 p e r c e n t .

$ 6 0 a m on th at a ge 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m d ea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

P a t e r s o n — lif t o n — a s s a i c ------------------------------------C
P

4 V2 p e r c e n t .

$ 6 0 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 5 0 0 lu m p -s u m dea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r t o a g e 65.

P h il a d e lp h ia -------------------------------------------------------------

4 V2 p e r c e n t .

$ 60 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 5 0 0 lu m p -s u m dea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

St. L o u i s -------------------------------------------------------------------

3 p e r c e n t (2 p e r c e n t in 3 e s t a b lis h m e n t s ).

$ 60 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 5 0 0 lu m p -s u m death b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

W ilk e s - B a r r e — a z le to n
H

4V 2 p e r c e n t .

$ 60 a m on th at a g e 65 and a $ 500 lu m p -s u m d ea th b e n e fit . W o m e n m a y r e t i r e b e tw e e n
a g e s 62 and 65 w ith a p r o p o r t io n a t e b e n e fit r e d u c t io n f o r e a c h y e a r p r i o r to a g e 65.

1
2
3
4
5

S ee fo o t n o t e 1, ta b le 2 0.
F o r d e fin it io n o f a r e a s s e e fo o t n o t e 1, t a b le s 5 th rou g h 17.
S ee fo o t n o t e 3, t a b le 2 1 .
2 o f the 22 n on u n ion e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d p e n s io n b e n e fit s .
N on e o f the 52 n on u n ion e s t a b lis h m e n t s p r o v id e d p e n s io n b e n e fit s .




age

65

in

"cotton d r e s s "

sh op s;

$ 60 a

m on th

at

a g e 65 in " s i lk

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of Survey
The survey included establishments engaged primarily in manufacturing women’ s ,
m is s e s ', and junior's d resses, other than housedresses (part of industry 2335 as defined in
the 1957 edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual and 1963 Supplement, prepared
by the U. S. Bureau of the Budget).
In addition to regular (inside) and contract shops,
jobbing shops, which performed some manufacturing operations such as cutting, finishing,
packing, and shipping, were also included.
The establishments studied were selected from those employing eight workers or
more at the time of reference of the data used in compiling the universe lists.
The number of establishments and workers actually studied by the Bureau, as well
as the number estimated to be in the industry during the payroll period studied, are shown
in the following table:

Estim ated N um ber o f Establishm ents and W orkers W ith in S co p e o f the W o m e n 's and Misses' Dress M anufacturing
Industry Survey and N um ber Studied, 11 S e le c t e d A reas, M arch 1966

N um ber o f establishm ents 2
A re a *

W ithin
s co p e o f
study

B o s t o n -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------C h ic a g o -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D a l l a s --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------F all R iv er and N ew B ed ford --------------------------------------------------------------------Los A n g e le s —Long B each and A n a h e im -S a n ta
A n a -G a r d e n G r o v e --------------------------------------------------------------------------------N ewark and Jersey C ity ----------------------------------------------------------------------------N ew Y ork C i t y ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R egu la r shops4 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------C on tract shops--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Paterson—C lifto n — a ss a ic ------------------------------------------------------------------------P
P h ila d e lp h ia ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------St. L o u is ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------W ilk e s -B a rr e -H a z le to n ----------------------------------------------------------------------------T o t a l --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

W orkers in establishm ents
W ith in scop e o f study

Studied
T o ta l3

Produ ction
workers

Studied
T o ta l

45
46
44
63

23
27
23
30

2 ,0 8 4
2 ,4 0 3
3 ,2 5 5
7 ,0 3 5

1 ,8 7 7
2 ,0 0 7
2 ,7 9 2
6 ,4 9 8

1 ,5 3 6
1 ,9 1 3
2 ,4 8 4
4, 272

185
107
1 ,7 0 2
789
913
60
82
25
150

56
35
215
98
117
27
32
17
54

6 ,6 6 6
4, 343
6 1 ,9 0 4
2 7 ,6 4 0
34, 264
1 ,9 3 0
4 ,6 8 1
2 ,2 6 3
8 ,6 0 6

5 ,8 6 4
3 ,9 3 3
4 9 ,7 7 1
1 7 ,3 3 0
3 2 ,4 4 1
1 ,7 8 6
4 ,3 2 2
1 ,9 2 7
8 ,0 0 9

2 ,7 6 2
2 ,0 0 5
1 0 ,4 7 9
5 ,1 4 7
5 ,3 3 2
1 ,061
2 ,6 2 2
1 ,941
3 ,7 1 7

2 ,5 0 9

539

1 0 5 ,1 7 0

8 8 ,7 8 6

34, 792

For d efin ition o f areas, see fo o tn o te 1 in tables 5 - 1 7 .
2 Includes o n ly establishm ents w ith 8 workers o r m ore at the tim e o f re fe re n ce o f the universe data.
3 Inclu des e x e c u tiv e , p rofession al, o f f i c e , and other workers e x c lu d e d fro m the produ ction workers cate g o ry shown.
4 Includes jobbers perform in g som e m anufacturin g operations, in add ition to regular (in sid e ) shops.

Method of Study
Data were obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists, under the direction
of the Bureau's Assistant Regional Directors for Wages and Industrial Relations. The survey
was conducted on a sample basis. To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater
proportion of large than of small establishments was studied. In combining the data, however,
all establishments were given their appropriate weight. All estimates are presented, there­
fore, as relating to all establishments in the industry in the areas, excluding only those
below the minimum size at the time of reference of the universe data.




29

30
Establishment Definition
An establishment, for purposes of this study, is defined as a single physical location
where industrial operations are performed.
An establishment is not necessarily identical
with the company, which may consist of one establishment or more.
The terms "establish­
ment” and "sh op" have been used interchangeably in this bulletin.
Employment

The estimates of the number of workers
as a general guide to the size and composition
The advance planning necessary to make a wage
lishments assembled considerably in advance of

within the scope of the study are intended
of the labor force included in the survey.
survey requires the use of lists of estab­
the payroll period studied.

Production Workers
The term "production w o r k e r s ," as used in this bulletin, includes working foremen
and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice functions.
Administrative, executive,
professional, and force-account construction employees, who were utilized as a separate
work force on the fir m ’ s own properties, were excluded.
Occupations Selected for Study
The occupational classification was based on a uniform set of job descriptions
designed to take account of inter establishment and interarea variations in duties within the
same job.
(See appendix B for these job descriptions.)
The occupations were chosen for
their numerical importance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or their representa­
tiveness of the entire job scale in the industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners,
beginners, trainees, handicapped, part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers were not
reported in the selected occupations but were included in the data for all production workers.
Wage Data
The wage information relates to average straight-time hourly earnings, excluding
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or production bonus systems and costof-living bonuses, were included as part of the workers' regular pay; but nonproduction
bonus payments, such as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean)
hourly rates or earnings for each occupation or other group of workers, such as men, women,
or production workers, were obtained by weighting each rate (or hourly earnings) by the
number of workers receiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of individuals.
The hourly earnings of salaried workers were obtained by dividing straight-time salary by
normal rather than actual hours.

Method of Wage Payment
Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to the number of workers paid under
the various time and incentive wage system s. Formal rate structures for time-rated workers
provide single rates or a range of rates for individual job categories.
In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily with reference to the qualifications
of the individual worker. A single rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to
all experienced workers in the same job classification.
Learners, apprentices, or pro­
bationary workers may be paid according to rate schedules which start below the single rate




31
and permit the workers to achieve the full job rate over a period of time.
Individual
experienced workers occasionally may be paid above or below the single rate, for special
reasons, but such payments are regarded as exceptions. Range of rate plans are those in
which the minimum and/or maximum rates paid experienced workers for the same job are
specified. Specific rates of individual workers within the range may be determined by m erit,
length of service, or a combination of various concepts of merit and length of service.
Incentive workers are classified under piecework or bonus plans.
Piecework is work for
which a predetermined rate is paid for each unit of output.
Production bonuses are based
on production in excess of a quota or for completion of a job in less than standard time.
Scheduled Weekly Hours
Data refer to the predominant work schedule
employed on the day shift.

for full-time

production workers

Supplementary Benefits
Supplementary benefits are presented in terms of the provisions of collective
bargaining agreements with the International Ladies' Garment W orkers' Union, which were
in effect in establishments employing about nine-tenths of the workers in the 11 areas.
Data for nonunion establishments are also summarized briefly.







Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for
the Bureau’ s wage surveys is to assist its field staff in
classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are
employed under a variety of payroll titles and different
work arrangements from establishment to establishment
and from area to area. This permits the grouping of oc­
cupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and inter­
area comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’ s
job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use
in individual establishments or those prepared for other
purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’ s
field economists are instructed to exclude working super­
visors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, handi­
capped, part-tim e, temporary, and probationary workers.

CUTTER AND MARKER
Marks the outlines of various garment parts on a ply of fabrics and cuts out parts
with shears, hand knife, or powered cutting machine. May spread or lay up cloth on cutting
table. Workers who specialize in cutting or in marking, and workers engaged in marking
and cutting linings and trimmings are included.
Specialized markers using perforated patterns, and marking by use of talcum, are
excluded as are all workers who specialize in spreading cloth.
INSPECTOR, FINAL (EXAMINER)
Examines and inspects completed garments prior to pressing or shipping. Work
involves determining whether the garments conform to shop standards of quality, and marking
defects such as dropped stitches, bad seams, etc. May make minor repairs. In many shops
manufacturing inexpensive garments there will be no inspectors falling within this classifi­
cation; in those shops whatever inspection is carried on is usually performed by thread
trim m ers, who may only casually inspect garments and are, therefore, excluded.
PRESSER
Performs pressing operations (finish or under) on garments or garment parts by
means of a hand-pressing iron and/or powered press or mangle.
For wage study purposes,
as follows:

pressers are classified by type of pressing

equipment,

P re sse r, hand
P re sse r, machine
P resser, hand and machine

Workers are classified as "p r e s s e r s , hand and machine" when sizable proportions
of their work are performed by each of the two methods. Otherwise, the predominant type
of pressing is the determining factor in classification.




33

34
SEWER, HAND (FINISHER)
(Bench worker)
Perform s sewing operations by hand including sewing on buttons, making button­
holes, stitching edges, and closing openings that have been left by various hand and machine
operations. Workers who specialize in sewing tickets or labels are excluded.
SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, SECTION SYSTEM
Uses a standard or special purpose sewing machine to perform the sewing operations
required in making parts of garments, joining parts made by others, joining various sections
together, or in attaching previously completed parts to partially completed garments, but
does not construct the entire garment. In shops that operate entirely on a section (or
bundle) system this classification would include all sewing-machine operators (except button­
hole makers and button sewers) without any differentiation of operators by type of machine
or operation performed. In shops that operate partly on a section system, this cla ssifi­
cation would include all operators who do not construct an entire garment.
SEWING-MACHINE OPERATOR, SINGLEHAND (TAILOR) SYSTEM
Perform s all the standard sewing-machine operations involved in the manufacture
of a complete garment. Work involves assembling and joining all parts of the garment
except those added by finishers. Is usually an experienced operator working on bettergrade apparel in which the variety of design is so great and style changes so frequent as
to prevent the economical use of a section system.
Workers, employed in singlehand system shops, who pair-up and work as a team
and divide work tickets equally are included. This arrangement is formal, in contrast to
the section system in which rates are established for individual operations.
THREAD TRIMMER (CLEANER)
(Clipper)
Trim s loose thread ends, basting threads, and seam edges of garments prior to
pressing or packing. This classification includes trimm ers using scissors or power equip­
ment. Workers who also carefully examine and inspect garments are classified as inspec­
tors, final.
WORK DISTRIBUTOR
Carries or trucks garments in various stages of completion to the worker who
is to perform the next operation on the garment. May exercise some discretion in d is­
tribution of work, but has no supervisory responsibilities.




Industry Wage Studies
Th e m o s t r e c e n t r e p o r t s f o r i n d u s t r i e s in c lu d e d in the B u r e a u ' s p r o g r a m
o f in d u s tr y w a g e s u r v e y s s i n c e J a n u a r y 1950 a r e l i s t e d b e l o w .
T h o se fo r w hich
a p r i c e is sh ow n a r e a v a i la b le f r o m the S u p e rin te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U. S.
G o v e r n m e n t P r in t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D. C. , 2 0402, o r any o f its r e g i o n a l
sales o ffic e s .
T h o s e f o r w h i c h a p r i c e is not sh ow n m a y b e o b ta in e d f r e e as
lo n g as a s u p p ly is a v a i l a b l e , f r o m the B u r e a u o f L a b o r S t a t i s t i c s , W a s h in g to n ,
D. C. , 2 0 2 1 2 , o r f r o m any o f the r e g i o n a l o f f i c e s sh ow n on the i n s id e b a c k c o v e r .

I. Occupational Wage Studies
M a n u fa c t u r in g
B a s i c I r o n and S te e l, 1962. B L S B u ll e t in 1358 (30 c e n t s ) .
C andy and O th e r C o n f e c t i o n e r y P r o d u c t s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1520 (30 c e n t s ) .
^C an n ing and F r e e z i n g , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
C i g a r M a n u fa c t u r in g , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1436 (30 c e n t s ) .
C ig a r e t t e M a n u f a c t u r in g , 1965. B L S B u ll e t in 1472 (20 c e n t s ) .
C o tto n T e x t i l e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1506 (40 c e n t s ) .
D i s t i l l e d L i q u o r s , 1952. S e r i e s 2, No. 88.
F a b r i c a t e d S t r u c t u r a l S t e e l , 1964. B L S B u lle t in 1463 (30 c e n t s ) .
F e r t i l i z e r M a n u f a c t u r in g , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1362 (40 c e n t s ) .
F l o u r and O th e r G r a i n M i l l P r o d u c t s , 1961. B L S B u lle tin 1337 (30 c e n t s ) .
F lu id M i l k I n d u s tr y , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1464 (30 c e n t s ) .
F o o t w e a r , 1965. B L S B u lle t in 1503 (50 c e n t s ) .
H o s i e r y , 1964. B L S B u ll e t in 1456 (45 c e n t s ) .
I n d u s t r ia l C h e m i c a l s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1529 (40 c e n t s ) .
I r o n and S te e l F o u n d r i e s , 1962. B L S B u lle t in 1386 (40 c e n t s ) .
L e a t h e r T a n n in g and F i n i s h i n g , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1378 (40 c e n t s ) .
M a c h i n e r y M a n u f a c t u r in g , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1476 (25 c e n t s ) .
M e a t P r o d u c t s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1415 (75 c e n t s ) .
M e n ' s and B o y s ' Sh irts ( E x c e p t W o r k S h irts) and N ig h tw e a r , 1964.
B L S B u ll e t in 1457 (40 c e n t s ) .
M e n ' s and B o y s ' Suits and C o a t s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1424 (65 c e n t s ) .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s P l a s t i c s P r o d u c t s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1439 (35 c e n t s ) .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s T e x t i l e s , 1953. B L S R e p o r t 56.
M o t o r V e h i c l e s and M o t o r V e h i c l e P a r t s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 139 3 (45 c e n t s ) .
N o n f e r r o u s F o u n d r i e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1498 (40 c e n t s ) .
P a in ts and V a r n i s h e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1524 (40 c e n t s ) .
P a p e r b o a r d C o n t a i n e r s and B o x e s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1478 (70 c e n t s ) .
P e t r o l e u m R e f i n i n g , 1965. B L S B u lle t in 1526 (30 c e n t s ) .
P r e s s e d o r B lo w n G l a s s and G l a s s w a r e , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1423 (30 c e n t s ) .
'^ P r o c e s s e d W a s t e , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 124.
P u lp , P a p e r , and P a p e r b o a r d M i l l s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1341 (40 c e n t s ) .
R a d i o , T e l e v i s i o n , and R e l a t e d P r o d u c t s , 1951. S e r i e s 2, No. 84.
R a i l r o a d C a r s , 1952. S e r i e s 2, No. 86.
*R aw S u g a r, 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
S ou th ern S a w m i ll s and P la n in g M i l l s , 1965. B L S B u ll e t in 1519 (30 c e n t s ) .
S t r u c t u r a l C la y P r o d u c t s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1459 (45 c e n t s ) .
Synthetic F i b e r s , 1958. B L S R e p o r t 143.
Synthetic T e x t i l e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1509 (40 c e n t s ) .
T e x t il e D y e in g and F i n i s h i n g , 1965—66. B L S B u lle tin 1527 (45 c e n t s ) .

* Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.




I. Occupational Wage Studies--- Continued
M a n u fa c t u r in g — C on tin u ed
^ T o b a c c o S t e m m in g and R e d r y i n g , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
W e s t C o a s t S a w m i ll in g , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1455 (30 c e n t s ) .
W o m e n 's and M i s s e s ' C o a ts and Su its, 1965. B L S B u ll e t in 1508 (25 c e n t s ) .
W o m e n 's and M i s s e s ' D r e s s e s , 1963. B L S B u ll e t in 1391 (30 c e n t s ) .
W o o d H o u s e h o l d F u r n i t u r e , E x c e p t U p h o l s t e r e d , 1965. B L S B u ll e t in 1496
(40 c e n t s ) .
* W o o d e n C o n t a i n e r s , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 126.
W o o l T e x t i l e s , 1962. B L S B u ll e t in 1372 (45 c e n t s ) .
W o r k C lo t h i n g , 1964. B L S B u ll e t in 1440 (35 c e n t s ) .
N o n m a n u fa c t u r in g
A u to D e a l e r R e p a i r S h o p s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1452 (30 c e n t s ) .
B a n k in g , 1964. B L S B u lle t in 1466 (30 c e n t s ) .
B itu m in o u s C o a l M i n in g , 1962. B L S B u lle t in 1383 (45 c e n t s ) .
C o m m u n i c a t i o n s , 1964. B L S B u ll e t in 1467 (20 c e n t s ) .
C o n t r a c t C le a n in g S e r v i c e s , 1965. B L S B u lle t in 1507 (30 c e n t s ) .
C r u d e P e t r o l e u m and N a tu r a l Gas P r o d u c t i o n , I9 6 0 . B L S R e p o r t 181.
D e p a r t m e n t and W o m e n 's R e a d y - t o - W e a r S t o r e s , 1950. S e r i e s 2, No. 78.
E a tin g and D r in k in g P l a c e s , 1963. B L S B u ll e t in 1400 (40 c e n t s ) .
E l e c t r i c and Gas U t i l i t i e s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1374 (50 c e n t s ) .
H o s p i t a l s , 1963. B L S B u lle t in 1409 (50 c e n t s ) .
H o te ls and M o t e l s , 1963. B L S B u ll e t in 1406 (40 c e n t s ) .
L a u n d r ie s and C le a n in g S e r v i c e s , 1963. B L S B u lle t in 1401 (50 c e n t s ) .
L i f e I n s u r a n c e , 1961. B L S B u ll e t in 1324 (30 c e n t s ) .
N u r s in g H o m e s and R e l a t e d F a c i l i t i e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1492 (45 c e n t s ) .

II.

Earnings Distributions Studies

F a c t o r y W o r k e r s ' E a r n i n g s — D i s t r i b u t i o n b y S t r a i g h t - T i m e H o u r ly
E a r n i n g s , 1958. B L S B u ll e t in 1252 (40 c e n t s ) .
F a c t o r y W o r k e r s ' E a r n i n g s — S e l e c t e d M a n u fa c t u r in g I n d u s t r i e s , 1959.
B L S B u lle t in 1275 (35 c e n t s ) .
R etail T rade:
E m p l o y e e E a r n in g s and H o u r s , June 1965—
B u ild in g M a t e r i a l s , H a r d w a r e , and F a r m E q u ip m e n t D e a l e r s .
B L S B u ll e t in 1 5 0 1-1 (25 c e n t s ) .
G e n e r a l M e r c h a n d i s e S t o r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1 5 0 1 -2 (40 c e n t s ) .
F o o d S t o r e s . B L S B u ll e t in 1 5 0 1 - 3 (30 c e n t s ) .
A u t o m o t i v e D e a l e r s and G a s o l i n e ,S e r v i c e Sta tion s.
B L S B u ll e t in 1 5 0 1 -4 (40 c e n t s ) .
A p p a r e l and A c c e s s o r y S t o r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1 5 0 1 -5 (45 c e n t s ) .
F u r n i t u r e , H o m e F u r n i s h i n g s , and H o u s e h o l d A p p l ia n c e
S t o r e s . B L S B u ll e t in 1 5 0 1 -6 (40 c e n t s ) .
M i s c e l l a n e o u s S t o r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1 5 0 1 -7 (30 c e n t s ) .
E m p l o y e e E a r n in g s in N o n m e t r o p o l i t a n A r e a s o f the South and N o r th
C e n t r a l R e g i o n s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1416 (40 c e n t s ) .

* Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.




* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1967 0 -2 4 2 -5 1 4