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Industry
Wage Survey

Women's and Misses’
Coats and Suits,
August 1970
Bulletin 1728

u S DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1972




Dayton & M ontgom ery Co.
Public Library

M 301972
AR
DOCUM ENTCOLLECTION




Industry
Wage Survey

Women’s and Misses’
Coats and Suits,
August 1970
Bulletin 1728
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
J. D. Hodgson, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Geoffrey H. Moore, Commissioner
1972

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 35 cents






P r e fa c e
This bulletin summarizes the results of an August 1970 Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey of occupational wages and supplementary practices in the women’s and misses’
coat and suit industry in eight selected areas. A similar survey was conducted in
August 1965.
Separate releases for each of the areas surveyed were issued earlier. Copies are available
from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212, or from any of its regional
offices.
The study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations.
The analysis in this bulletin was prepared by Homer W. Jack in the Division of Occupational
Wage Structures. Field work for the survey was directed by the Bureau’s Assistant Regional
Directors for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies, as well
as the addresses of the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this bulletin.




iii




C o n te n ts
Page
Summary.............................................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics.....................................................................................................................................................
P ro d u cts..............................................................................
Type of shop.....................
Occupation and sex.......................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage p ay m en t............................................................................................................................................
Unionization....................................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings.....................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings.......................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions........................................................................................
Scheduled weekly h o u rs ..............................................................................................................................................
Paid holidays..................................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and vacation benefits....................................................................................................................
Retirement plans...........................................................................................................................................................
Length-of-service benefits............................................................................................................................................
National health services p la n ........................................................................................................................................
Supplemental unemployment b e n e fits......................................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4

Table:
1. Earnings distribution: All production w orkers..............................................................................................
2. Average hourly earnings: Selected occupations .............................................................

5
6

Occupational earnings—
3. Chicago, 111.........................................................................................................................................................
4. Kansas City, Mo.— ans......................................................................................................................................
K
5. Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif............. ...........................................................................................................
6. New York, N.Y.— All sh o p s.............................................................................................................................
7. New York, N.Y.— Regular and jobbing shops................................................................................................
8. New York, N.Y.— Contract shops ..................................................................................................................
9. Newark and Jersey City, N.J ..........................................................................................................................
10. Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, N . J .........................................................................................................................
11. Philadelphia, P a .- N .J ........................................................................................................................................
12. San Francisco—
Oakland, C alif............................

7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions—
13. Method of wage p a y m e n t..................................................................................................................................
14. Scheduled weekly h o u r s ........................................................................
15. Paid holidays.......................................................................................................................................................
16. Health, welfare, and vacation benefits..............................................................................................................
17. Retirement p la n s ................................................................................................................................................

17
17
18
19
20

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey .......................................................................
21
B. Occupational descriptions...................................................................................................................................... 23




v




W o m e n ’s a n d M is s e s ’ C o a ts an d S u its , A u g u s t 1 9 7 0
Employment in the women’s and misses’ coats and
suits manufacturing industry was near its seasonal high
for the year at the time of the survey— about 6 percent
above the year’s average.2 Employment in the eight areas
studied was down 28 percent since a similar survey in
August 1965.3 Substantial employment declines occurred
in 6 of the 8 areas during this 5-year period. In Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, however, the decline amounted to only
2 percent and in Los Angeles-Long Beach employment
remained virtually the same. Nationally, employment in
the industry dropped 15 percent during this period.
Products. Approximately four-fifths of the workers
covered by the survey were in shops primarily making
coats. San Francisco—
Oakland was the only area in
which a majority of the workers were employed in plants
primarily manufacturing suits. Pantsuits, a relatively
new item in the industry, was the principal product of
establishments employing about 2 percent of the workers.
All of these establishments were in Los Angeles—
Long
Beach, Newark and Jersey City, and New York.
Type o f shop. Three types of shops were included in
the survey: (1) Regular or “inside” shops, which own
the materials and perform all or most of the manufac­
turing operations; (2) contract shops, which process
materials owned (and frequently cut) by others; and
(3) jobbing shops, which contract out most manufacturing
operations, but may perform such operations as cutting,
finishing, or packing and shipping. Contract shops
accounted for more than nine-tenths of the workers in
Newark and Jersey City and Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic,
three-fourths of the workers in New York, and nearly
three-fifths in Los Angeles—
Long Beach. Regular shops
employed a large majority of the workers in the other
areas. Jobbing shops were found in five areas— Los
Angeles—
Long Beach, Newark and Jersey City, New
York, Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, and Philadelphia— but
their employment was relatively small. They accounted
for 16 percent of the personnel in New York and for
7 percent or less in the remaining four areas.

Summary

Average straight-time hourly earnings of production
workers in women’s and misses’ coats and suits manufac­
turing varied widely among the eight areas surveyed in
August 1970.1 The highest average ($3.75) was recorded
in the New York metropolitan area; the lowest average
($2.89) was in Kansas City. (See table 1.) Since a similar
survey in August 1965, wage levels had increased an
average of 27 percent in the eight areas, ranging from 11
percent in Los Angeles—
Long Beach to 45 percent in
Kansas City.
Individual earnings in each area were widely dispersed
at the time of the 1970 survey, reflecting such character­
istics of the industry as the extensive use of incentive
wage systems in most areas and the variety of skill levels
required.
Sewing-machine operators were numerically the most
important group studied separately, accounting for
slightly over two-fifths of all production workers in the
survey. Among the occupations selected for separate
study, machine pressers usually had the highest average
earnings, ranging from $4.50 an hour in Kansas City to
$6.47 an hour in Chicago. Thread trimmers averaged the
least in most areas, ranging from $1.90 an hour in Los
Angeles to $2.84 in Kansas City.
Virtually all of the workers covered by the survey
were in shops having agreements with the International
Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union. These agreements
included provisions for paid holidays, paid vacations,
and various health, insurance, and retirement benefits.

Industry characteristics

The eight areas surveyed in August 1970 employed
33,600 of the industry’s 76,000 production workers, as
reported in the Bureau’s employment and earnings series.
New York, which had 19,000 production workers, and
the nearby areas of Newark and Jersey City (5,000) and
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic (3,500) were the leading em­
ployment centers for the industry. Together, they ac­
counted for over four-fifths of the production workers
covered by the survey. Los Angeles—
Long Beach, which
had 2,200 workers, was the next largest employment
center studied.




1 See appendix A for scope and method of survey. Earnings
data in this report exclude premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 According to estimates from the Bureau of Labor Statistics
monthly employment and earnings series.
3 For an account of the earlier survey, see Industry Wage
Survey: Women’ and Misses’ Coats and Suits, August 1965
s
(BLS Bulletin 1508L

1

New York; 31 percent in Philadelphia; and 41 percent in
Paterson-Clifton-Passaic. Much of the rise in average
hourly earnings was attributable to general wage adjust­
ments negotiated during the 1965-70 period.5
Differences in manufacturing methods and processes
are partly responsible for variations in the average
earnings of the production workers. Shops in New York
employed slightly over four-fifths of all sewing-machine
operators in the survey using the singlehand (tailor)
system and their earnings averaged $4.21 per hour, while
in these same shops sewing-machine operators using the
section system averaged $3.67. Similarly, in the other
two areas providing comparisons, singlehand sewers
averaged $3.96 in Chicago and $3.58 in Los AngelesLong Beach, while their counterparts using the section
system earned $3.67 and $3.09.
Men, as a group, averaged more than women in each
area; the average wage advantage for men ranged from 16
percent in Kansas City and 18 percent in San FranciscoOakland to 38 and 40 percent in Los Angeles—
Long
Beach and Chicago, respectively. Since the Bureau’s
survey in August 1965, the average pay difference be­
tween men and women declined substantially in all
areas except New York, where it remained about the
same. Differences in average pay levels for men and
women may be the result of several factors, including
variations in the distribution of the sexes among estab­
lishments. Differences noted in averages for men and
women in the same job and area may also reflect minor
differences in duties. Job descriptions used in classifying
workers in wage surveys are usually more generalized
than those used in individual establishments because
allowance must be made for possible minor differences
among establishments in specific duties performed. Also,
earnings for some jobs in the industry are determined
largely by production at piece rates. Variations in incentive
earnings for individuals or sex groupings may be traceable
to differences in work experience, or work flow and
other factors which the worker may not control.
Individual earnings ranged from less than $1.90 to
$5.40 or more an hour in all areas. (See table 1.) Only
in Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia were at least

Occupation and sex. Sewing-machine operators ac­
counted for at least three-tenths of all production
workers in each area. In Newark and Jersey City and
Paterson-Clifton-Passaic, the proportion was as large
as one-half. Sewing-machine operators worked under one
of two systems: The singlehand (tailor) system, in
which an individual performs all or most of the sewingmachine operations involved in making a complete gar­
ment; or the section system, where an operator’s sewing
is limited to a specified part, or parts, of a garment.
Most of the sewing-machine operators in the San
Francisco area were employed on the singlehand system;
in Kansas City, Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, and Philadel­
phia virtually all operators worked on the section system.
In each of the remaining areas, a large majority were
employed on the section system. (See table 2.)
Women accounted for seven-tenths of the 33,600
production workers within the scope of the survey. Only
in New York were fewer than three-fourths (about 60
percent) of the workers female. Occupations primarily
staffed by women included sewing-machine operators,
hand sewers, thread trimmers, and final inspectors:
Combined, they accounted for nearly 20,000 workers.
Men represented a majority of the workers in such jobs
as cutters and markers, packers, hand pressers, machine
pressers, and hand and machine pressers.
Method o f wage payment. Incentive workers, al­
most always paid individual piece rates, accounted for
a majority of the workers in five areas. (See table 13.)
Machine pressers, hand pressers, hand sewers, and
sewing-machine operators on the section system were
commonly among the workers on incentive systems.
Time-rated employees made up three-fifths to fourfifths of the workers in New York, Newark and Jersey
City, and Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic. They almost always
were paid according to their individual qualifications.
Unionization. Collective bargaining agreements with
the International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union (AFLCIO) were in effect in shops employing 96 percent of
the production workers covered by the study. The
proportion ranged from about 85 percent in San
Francisco—
Oakland and Los Angeles—
Long Beach to
virtually all of the employees in Chicago, Kansas City,
New York, and Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic.

4 Op. cit., BLS Bulletin 1508.
5 A collective bargaining agreement between the ILGWU
and three coat and suit manufacturing associations, covering
about 42,000 workers in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
and Connecticut became effective June 5, 1967. See Current
Wage Developments, Nos. 234, 247, and 255. This 3-year agree­
ment provided the following wage increases: Effective June 5,
1967, 10 percent, not to exceed $13 a week; effective June 3,
1968, 5 percent, not to exceed $8 a week. A similar agreement
between the same parties became effective June 1, 1970, and
generally provided for a 10-percent increase. See Current Wage
Developments, No. 270. Both contracts provided for increases
in craft minimums and for the right of the union to demand
“cost-of-living” increases.

Average hourly earnings

Average hourly earnings of production workers in­
creased in each of the surveyed areas since the August
1965 study.4 The increases, ranging from 11 percent in
Los Angeles—
Long Beach to 45 percent in Kansas City,
amounted to 19 percent in San Francisco-Oakland; 26
to 28 percent in Newark and Jersey City, Chicago, and



2

Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions allowed for
6 days a year in Chicago,7 7 days in Kansas City, and
8 days in the remaining six areas. (See table 15.) In most
areas, time workers were paid their regular rates and
incentive workers were given flat amounts, varying by
craft.
Health, insurance, and vacation benefits. Health and
insurance benefits in all areas and vacation payments in
all areas except Chicago and Kansas City were provided
from a health and welfare fund to which employers
contributed specified percentages of their payrolls for
workers covered by the union agreement. (See table 16.)
The provisions included hospitalization, surgical, dis­
ability, maternity, and death benefits in all cities; eye­
glass benefits in all areas except Kansas City; and medical
or major medical benefits in several areas. Paternity
benefits8 were also provided in New York, Newark and
Jersey City, Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, and Philadelphia.
Union health centers were maintained through employer
contributions to a health center fund in five areas but
not in Los Angeles—
Long Beach, Philadelphia, and San
Francisco—
Oakland.
Vacation benefits varied significantly among the areas
by both the amount of vacation the employee received
and the method of computation. (See table 16.) In
Los Angeles—
Long Beach, for instance, employees re­
ceived a vacation payment based on 4 percent of the
previous year’s earnings. In New York, Newark and Jersey
City, Paterson-Clifton-Passaic, and Philadelphia em­
ployees received two annual payments. The first pay­
ment was 2 percent of the previous year’s earnings, not
to exceed $125; the second was a flat $70. In Chicago
and Kansas City the provisions were as follows: Chicago,
1 week’s pay after 1 year of service and 2 weeks after
2 years of service; Kansas City, 1 week’s pay after 1 year,
2 weeks after 3 years and 3 weeks after 5 years. San
Francisco—
Oakland provided 4 percent of the previous
year’s earnings for employees with less than 5 years of
service and 6 percent for those with 5 years or more.
Retirement plans. Retirement pension benefits (other
than Federal social security) were provided through
employer contributions to a retirement fund. (See
table 17.) The amounts contributed varied among the
areas from 2Vi to 6Vi percent of the payrolls for workers
covered by the union agreements. Benefits of $85 a
month were paid from the fund to qualified workers

one-tenth of the workers paid as much as $5. The fol­
lowing tabulation indicates the spread in earnings for the
middle half of the workers in each area:
C h ic a g o ................................................................................
Kansas C ity...........................................................................
Los Angeles—Long Beach .............................................
New Y o r k ...........................................................................
Newark and Jersey C i t y ..................................................
Paterson—C lifto n —P assaic.............................................
Philadelphia ......................................................................
San Francisco—O a k la n d ..................................................

$ 2 .2 9 -$ 4 .0 8
2.3 2- 3 .2 6
2.37- 3 .7 6
2.77- 4.5 7
2.3 9- 3 .5 8
2.5 3- 3 .5 6
2.2 7- 4.01
2.21- 3 .3 9

Occupational earnings

Ten occupational classifications, accounting for a
large majority of the production workers covered by the
survey, were selected to represent the types of skills
and manufacturing operations in the industry.
Cutters and markers, the job most dominated by men,
averaged from $3.99 in Kansas City and $4.05 in San
Francisco—
Oakland to $5.37 and $5.39, respectively, in
Paterson-Clifton-Passaic and New York.
Machine pressers, also predominantly men, had the
highest averages in four of the areas (Chicago $6.47,
Kansas City $4.50, Philadelphia$5.73, and San Francisco
$4.92). Cutters and markers had this distinction in Los
Angeles-Long Beach ($5.16) and Newark and Jersey
City ($5.23), while workers performing both hand and
machine pressing averaged top pay in New York ($5.72)
and Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic ($6.12). Thread trimmers,
nearly all women, had the lowest average in 5 of the 6
areas where data for the job were considered adequate
for publication. Their averages ranged from $1.88 in
Los Angeles—
Long Beach to $2.84 in Kansas City.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions

Data also were obtained on work schedules and
selected supplementary wage benefits for production
workers. Provisions for paid holidays, paid vacations,
health and insurance benefits, mail-order prescription
drugs, supplementary unemployment benefits, and retire­
ment pensions were stipulated in collective bargaining
agreements with the International Ladies’ Garment
Workers’ Union, which were in effect in shops employing
96 percent of the production workers.6
Scheduled weekly hours. Work schedules of 35 hours
a week were in effect in shops employing at least 85
percent of the workers in all areas and over 90 percent
of the workers in five areas. (See table 14.) Forty-hour
schedules applied to about 15 percent of the employees
only in the Los Angeles—
Long Beach and San FranciscoOakland areas.




6 Provisions differed slightly in a few shops. Among the
shops contacted which did not have a contract with ILGWU,
formal provisions for paid holidays and vacations were common,
but insurance and pension plans were not.
7 Workers in Chicago were guaranteed x day’s pay for each
h
holiday; those working 3 days in the holiday week received
three>fourths pay, and those working 4 days received full pay.
Maternity and paternity benefits are cash payments from
a union fund for each child born to an ILGWU member.

3

vious year. Such length-of-service benefits were not found
in the other areas surveyed.

over age 65 in New York, Newark and Jersey City, and
Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic and $75 a month in the other
areas. In all areas, qualified workers who became totally
disabled were permitted to retire with full benefits at
any age and other qualified workers could retire early
with reduced benefits. The fund also provided a $500
death benefit.
Length-of-service benefits. In New York, Newark and
Jersey City, Paterson—
Clifton—
Passaic, and in most shops
in Philadelphia workers employed in a shop for at least 3
consecutive years were paid, in addition to their regular
earnings, 2 percent of their total earnings for the pre­




National health services plan. In all areas, employers
contributed three-eighths percent of their weekly payrolls
to provide mail-order prescription drugs to workers
covered by the union contract and their families.
Supplemental unemployment benefits. In the eight
areas studied, employers contributed one-eighth percent
of weekly payrolls to a supplemental unemployment
benefit fund set up under union contract, administered
on a nationwide basis.

4




T a b l e 1. E a r n in g s d is trib u tio n : A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n o f a l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y
e a r n in g s , 1 8 s e le c te d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1 9 7 0 )

A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

— rz z —
A n g e le sL ong
B each

K ansas
C i ty

C h ic a g o

U nder
$ 1. 60
$ 1. 65
$ 1. 70

$ 1 .6 0 ----------------------------------a n d u n d e r $ 1. 65 ----------------a n d u n d e r $ 1. 70 ----------------a n d u n d e r $ 1 . 7 5 -----------------

1.8
.8
1.7

1. 3
.4

$ 1. 75
$ 1. 80
$ 1. 85
$ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

1 1. 80
$ 1 .8 5
$ 1 .9 0
$ 1 .9 5
$ 2. 0 0

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

1 .7
1. 1
3 .9
. 8
. 6

1. 1

$
$
$
$
$

2 . 00 and
2 . 1 0 and
2. 20 a n d
2. 30 a n d
2 . 40 a n d

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2.10
$ 2. 20
$ 2. 30
$ 2. 4 0
$ 2 .5 0

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

3.
5.
4.
2.
4.

$
$
$
$
$

2 . 50 a n d u n d e r $ 2 . 60

N ew Y o rk
A ll
sho p s

R e g u la r
sh o p s 2

C o n tra c t
shops

,

N e w a rk
and
J e rse y
C ity

P a te rs o n —
C lif to n —
P a s s a ic

0. 5

.
.
.
.

3
8

4
4

3. 0

-

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

1 .5
.8
1. 6
.9
1 .5

_
1. 7
.4
.2

_
2. 5
. 7
. 1

1 .5

1.0

0

1.8

3. 2

1 .4

8

1 .8
1. 1
1.8

-

1. 9
.4
. 7

0. 7
_
.2

2. 1
.2
.8

.
_
1. 5
.4
. 2

1. 1

.
.
.
.
.

2. 0
.6
1. 2
1 .6
.8

1.6
6. 0

3. 6
1. 8
8. 0

1 .5
6. 4

3. 1
3. 3

4. 2
4. 3

4. 9
4. 5

5.
4.
8.
6.
3.

3. 1
2. 3

4. 6
2 .9
5. 9
4. 2
2. 4

6. 2
4. 6
5 .9
4. 1
3. 4

7. 8
6. 0
7 .9
5. 4
3. 9

3.
2.
2.
2.
2.

3.
3.
2.
3.
4.

5.
2.
4.
4.
2.

5.
3.
3.
4.
3.

3. 0
2. 5

8

4.
1.
2.
1.
2.
3.
1.
3.
1.
1.

8

4. 8
10. 2
11. 8

2

5. 4

3.
3.
3.
3.
4.

8

5. 0
2. 6
2. 9

5.
3.
3.
2.
2.

2
7
1

5 .4
5. 2
5. 2
5. 6
4. 3

5. 6
3. 2
2. 9
5. 1
1 .9

4. 1
2. 7
2. 9
3 .9
2. 4

2

3.
4.
3.
2.
4.

3.
3.
2.
2.
3.

9
1
2

0. 4

4. 1
1 .3

8

2

1 .4
1. 2
. 6

. 7

60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$

00

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

$ 3 . 00
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 .2 0
$ 3 .3 0
$ 3. 40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 .1 0
$ 3. 20
$ 3. 30
$ 3. 4 0
$ 3. 50

-------------------------------------------- —
---------------------------------

3.
2.
2.
2.
3.

8

4. 1
3. 1
3 .3
3. 3
1. 7

$ 3.
$3.
$3.
$ 3.
$3.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 .6 0
$ 3 . 70
$ 3 . 80
$ 3 .9 0
$ 4 . 00

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

2. 5
3. 1
1 .5
. 6
2. 1

2 .4
1. 1
.9
1. 7
1. 2

4. 0
3. 0
2 .4
1 .9

3. 1
3. 0
3. 1
3. 0
2 .4

$4.
$4.
$4.
$4.
$4.

00
20
40
60
80

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$4.
$4.
$ 4.
$4.
$5.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.
3.
2.
1.
2.

2.
3.
2.
1.

1 .0

3. 0
1 .9
3. 3
1. 5
2. 5

4 .4
4. 3
3. 8
3. 3
3. 6

3.
4.
4.
3.
4.

1 .4
1. 7
9 .0

.8
.5
.8

. 7
3. 1
4. 6

4. 8
2. 9
9 .9

3 15. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

712

1 ,5 8 5

2 , 162

1 8 ,9 4 0

4 , 596

1 4 ,3 4 4

$ 3 . 35

$ 2 . 89

$ 3 . 19

$ 3 . 75

$ 4 . 12

$ 3 . 63

$ 3 . 14

2.
2.
2.
2.

2.
2.
2.
3.

70
80
90

20
40
60
80
00

$ 5 . 0 0 a n d u n d e r $ 5 . 2 0 ----------------$ 5. 20 a n d u n d e r $ 5. 40 ----------------$ 5 . 4 0 a n d o v e r ------------------------------T o ta l

--------------------------------------

N u m b er of w o rk e rs

-----------------------

A v e ra g e h o u rly e a rn in g s

--------------

San
F ra n c is c o —
O a k la n d

P h ila ­
d e lp h i a

1
2

1
8

4

8
8
1

7
4

1

0
0

3

0
0
2

5
0

1 .6

7
3
5
7

2. 3
2. 0
2. 2

4
7
1
8

3
4
6

4
9
8

7
1
8

4
8

9. 7
5 .9

5
8

7
0
3

3. 0
3 .4
3. 0
3. 3
2. 6
4.
4.
3.
3.
3.

3
4
1
4
4

2. 9
1 .5
2, 0
2. 1
1. 8

1

5
7
1
2

2. 9

6. 1

2. 5
.6
1. 6

_

1 .0

7
4
5

6. 5

8
6

4. 5
4. 1

5

7.
3.
3.
4.
6.

8

5
2
2

6. 7
5. 3

2
9
3
9
1

8

1.8

1
5

2. 9
1 .9

3. 1
2. 9
2. 7
1 .4
2. 2

1. 6
3. 3
1 .4
2. 2
1. 1

1 .5
2. 3
2. 4
2. 4
2. 6

1.
2.
2.
.
.

4 .9
4. 5
1. 6
.4
1. 2

8

5

8

5
2
6
6

6

3. 1

4
5
2
2

2. 0
2. 2

1. 7
1. 7

3.
2.
2.
1.
1.

1
8

3 .9
3. 1
2. 4
3. 0
2. 5

3. 2

.9
1. 1
4. 2

1. 2
.5
3. 5

8. 5

.2
2. 2

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

5 ,0 0 4

3, 538

1 ,200

4 89

$ 3 . 17

$ 3 . 29

$ 2 . 90

2. 0
8. 2

8
0

5

1 .3
.5

_

E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d l a te s h if t s .
I n c l u d e s jo b b in g s h o p s p e r f o r m i n g s o m e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , i n a d d i t i o n to r e g u l a r ( in s i d e ) s h o p s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 6 . 2 p e r c e n t a t $ 5. 40 to $ 5. 8 0 ; 2 . 2 p e r c e n t a t $ 5 . 80 to $ 6 . 20 ; 2. 4 p e r c e n t a t $ 6 . 20 to $ 6 . 60; 1 . 7 p e r c e n t
a t $ 6 . 60 to $ 7; a n d 2. 6 p e r c e n t a t $ 7. a n d o v e r .
1
2
3

NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g , s u m s o f i n d iv i d u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 1 0 0 .

T a b le 2 .

A v e r a g e h o u rly e a r n in g s :

S e l e c t e d o c c u p a tio n s

( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , 8 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)

K ansas
C ity

C h ic a g o
O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v er­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

Los
A n g e le s —
Long
B each
A v er­
N um ­
ber
age
h o u r ly
of
w o rk ­ e a r n ­
e rs
in g s

N ew Y o rk
A ll
shops
A v e r­
N um ­
ber
age
h o u r ly
of
e a rn ­
wo r k in g s
e rs

1
2
3
4

47

$ 4 . 47

71
30
_
26
30
63
_
63

$ 5 . 16
2. 42

-

-

28
58
85
43
42
35
213
207

2. 42
2 . 28
3. 17
3. 80
2. 52
4 . 77
4 . 75
2 . 69
2 . 68

1 ,0 9 7
179
128
51
741
641
595
46
663
359
2 ,9 9 5
238
2, 751

2 .9 3
_
2. 93

631
17
614

3. 09
3. 95
3 . 06

4 , 761
471
4 , 290

_
2. 84

231
44
187
58

3 . 58
4 . 27
3 . 41
1 .9 0

2 ,4 6 6
1, 123
1 ,3 4 3
439

173
173

$ 3 .9 9
2 . 60
_
2. 41
2 . 11
3. 34
_
3. 34
4 . 50
2 . 79
2 . 79

_
151

3 . 67
_
3 . 50

622
_
620

55
28
_
15

3. 96
4 . 24
_
2. 35

-

-

-

_
_

>
_
80
87
07
19
47
19
97
97

168

6

2.

36
13
23
17

3.
5.
3.
6.
4.
2.

6

119
_
119

2.

60

_
13

112

$5.
4.
4.
3.
2.
4.
4.
2.
5.
5.
3.
3.
3.

39
19
58
21
70
61
75
83
48
72
35

918

$ 5 .4 7
4 . 28
4 . 36

C o n tra c t
shops
A v er­
N um ­
age
ber
h o u r ly
of
w o rk ­ e a rn ­
in g s
e rs
$5.
4.
4.
2.

01
11
82
84
4 . 53
4 . 67
2. 83
5 .4 9
5. 72
3. 22
3 . 83
3. 20

31

31
114
75 6
176
580

5.
5.
3.
3.
3.

25
73
76
90
72

179
96
62
34
611
565
46
632
245
2 , 239
62
2 , 177

3. 67
4 . 43
3 . 58

137
98
-

4 . 87
5 .0 1
-

4 , 624
373
4 , 251

3. 63
4 . 28
3. 58

4.
4.
3.
2.

490
427
63

5 . 02
5 . 02
5 . 02

1 ,9 7 6

4.
4.
3.
2.

'

C u t t e r s a n d m a r k e r s 3 ----------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l ( e x a m in e r s )
-------------M en
W om en
-----------------------------------------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g 3 --------------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ---------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------W om en
-----------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e 3 -----------------------------P r e s s e r s , hand and m a c h in e
------------S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) ----------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------S e w i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c t i o n
s y s te m
--------------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------------S e w i n g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s i n g l e h a n d ( ta ilo r ) s y s te m
-------------- ------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c l e a n e r s ) 4 ---------------

107
28

R e g u la r
sho p s 2
N um ­
A v e r­
ber
age
h o u r ly
of
w o rk ­ e a rn ­
e rs
in g s

'

88

21
89
64
44

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s .
I n c l u d e s j o b b in g s h o p s p e r f o r m i n g s o m e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , in a d d i t i o n to r e g u l a r ( in s i d e )
A l l ( o r v i r t u a l l y a ll ) w o r k e r s in n e a r l y a l l a r e a s w e r e m e n .
A l l ( o r v i r t u a l l y a ll ) w o r k e r s in n e a r l y a l l a r e a s w e r e w o m e n .

NOTE:

D a s h e s i n d i c a t e n o d a t a r e p o r t e d o r d a t a t h a t do n o t m e e t p u b l ic a ti o n c r i t e r i a .




83
66
-

-

737

2 . 70
-

-

shops.

-

696

1 ,2 8 0
43 9

01
81
57
44

N e w a rk
and
J e rse y
C ity
A v er­
N um ­
age
ber
of
h o u r ly
w o rk ­ e a rn ­
in g s
e rs

593

$ 5 . 23
3. 28
3 .4 1
3. 40
3 .4 9
4 . 70
4 .4 2
2 . 89
3 .9 9
2 . 86

2 , 515
177
2 , 338

3 . 24
3. 75
3. 20

127

2. 25

60
20

188
160

28
186
•92
609
16

P a te rs o n —
C lif to n P a s s a ic
N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

San
F ra n c is c o —
O a k la n d

P h ila ­
d e lp h i a

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

N um ­
ber
of
w o rk ­
e rs

A v e r­
age
h o u r ly
e a rn ­
in g s

30
17
14
30
27
14
"

$ 4 . 05
2. 43
2. 40
3. 13
3. 16
4. 92
-

-

-

173
173

2. 64
2. 64

351
351

$ 5 . 37
3. 43
4 . 12
2 99
3. 54
3. 83
2. 85
4 . 51
6 . 12
2 . 86
2 . 86

13
50
26
114
113

$ 4 .4 1
2. 63
2 . 26
2. 47
5. 73
4 . 87
2. 97
2. 94

1 ,7 6 6
35
1 ,7 3 1

3. 24
4 . 07
3. 23

453
444

3. 31
3 . 26

-

-

62
18
7
11

119
84
35
155
21

57
18
12

17

2 . 21

*

T a b le 3. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: C hicago , III.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of
O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

of
h o u r l y 2 $ 1 . 60 $1. 65 $1. 70 $ 1 . 75 $ 1 . 80 $ 1. 8 5 $ 1 . 90 $ 1 . 95 $ 2 . 00 $ 2 . 10 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 . 30 $ 2 .4 0 $2. 50 $ 2 . 60 $ 2 . 80 $3. 00 $ 3 . 20 $3. 40 $3. 60 $3. 80 $4. 00 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $5. 20 $ 5 .6 0
w o rk e rs e a rn in g s
and
under
$ 1 .6 5 $ 1 ,7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 . 80 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 . 90 $ 1 , 9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 10 $ 2 . 20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 . 50 $ 2 . 60 $ 2 . 80 $ 3 .0 0 $3. 20 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $4. 00 $ 4 .4 0 $4. 80 $5. 20 $5. 60 o v e r

A l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s ______
W o m e n _____________________
M e n --------------------------------------

13

6

11
2

5

47
30

4 .4 7
4 ™

-

12

12
10
2

1

4
3

"

26
2

1

36
36
-

28
24
4

30

20

26

19

30
29

4

1

1

-

6
6

28

8
6
2

9
3

-

37
33
4

48
47

31
23

1

8

38
29
9

27
19

27

21

55

10

8

17

14
7

329

19
13

4

10

5

2

2

7

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

2
2

1
1
1

1

-

1
1
1

2

2
2

3

$ 3 . 35
3. 07
4 . 30

61
29
32

3

712
552
160

37
35

45
39

33
27

2

6

6

3
3

-

2

1

19
11
8

26

S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u tte r s a n d m a r k e r s (a ll
m e n ) _________________________
I i m e ——---------— ——— —
P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ( a l l
m e n )4 _______________________
P r e s s e r s , h a n d —............... ............
W o m e n ______________________________
I n c e n t i v e ______________________
M e n ( a ll in c e n tiv e
w^nrlf iar
P roceore

m

a

M e n ( a ll in c e n tiv e
mnrlfAr ft)
P r e s s e r s , h a n d an d m a c h in e
( a ll m e n ) ( a ll in c e n tiv e
w o r k e r s ) _________________________
_
__
_
S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s)
( a l l w o m e n ) ___
_________________ _
_ _
_
T i m e ___________________________
I n c e n t i v e _____________-—_ _
__
S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m ---------------------W o m e n ___________________ „_
I n c e n t i v e ____ ____________
S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s in g le h a n d ( ta ilo r )
s y s t e m _______________________
M e n __________________________________
I n c e n t i v e ________ _ _
_ _ _ ______
_
T h re a d trim m e rs (c le a n e rs )
( a l l w o m e n ) _________________________
T i m e -----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ______________________

1
2
3
4
*
4
7

36
23
19

2.
3.
3.
3.

13
17
14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

-

1

-

-

-

1
1
1

1
1

-

-

4
4
4

-

6

2 .9 7
2 . 37
3. 33

168
151
141

3. 67
3. 50
3. 58

55
28
20
15
9
6

_

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1
1
1

2

2

-

1
1
1

4

3
3

4
3
3

1
1

1

-

2
2
2

1

3

-

1
1

-

56
-

6
69
8

3
_

3
3

_

_

-

-

-

1
1

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

2. 35
2 .0 4
2 .8 1

_

2
2
2

_

-

3 .9 6
4 . 24
4 . 19

2

2

1
1

-

-

3

2

4

12
6
6

3
3
3

7
7
7

6
6
6

2
2
2

1

-

3

-

1

2
2
2

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

-

4

1

-

_

-

-

_

4
4

-

-

-

2

2

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

2

-

-

1

-

-

3

2

1

3

2

7

8
8

15
14
14

5
3
3

10
8
8

16

-

8
6

3
3
-

2
2
1

1

3

-

77
5
5

-

-

10

8

3

2

7

5

2

1

4

-

4
4
4

6
6
6

5
5
5

15
13

12
12
12

16
16
15

9

8
8
8

11
11
11

2

10

-

-

8
2
1

2

7
7

1
1
1

2

-

-

-

1
1

-

2

-

-

-

“

”

2

“

'

'

3

-

1

-

-

“

2

“

"

-

1

9

2

-

1
-

1

10

-

5

-

3

-

1
-

12
1

7

4

15
7

3

13

14
4

2
2

_

17
15

2

1

4 . 19

119
44
75

-

-

_

3
2

6 . 67

_

T h e C h ic a g o S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f C o o k , D u P a g e , K a n e , L a k e , M c H e n r y , a n d W ill C o u n tie s .
E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , a n d la t e s h i f t s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
6 a t $ 5 . 60 to $6; 2 a t $6 to $ 6 . 4 0; 7 a t $ 6 . 40 to $ 6 . 80; 6a t $ 6 . 80 to $ 7 . 20; a n d 8 a t $ 7 . 20 a n d o v e r .
I n s u f f i c ie n t d a ta t o w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s b y m e t h o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, p r e d o m in a n tly t im e w o r k e r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
1 a t $6 to $ 6 .4 0 ; 3 a t $ 6 . 40 t o $ 6 . 8 0; a n d 2 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7 . 2 0 .
W orkers
w ere
d is tr ib u te d a s
f o ll o w s : 1a t $ 6 .8 0 to $ 7 .2 0 ; 2 a t $ 7 . 20 to $ 7 .6 0 ; 2 a t $ 7 .6 0 to $8; 2 a t $ 9 .6 0 t o $ 10; a n d 2a t
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s : 4 a t $ 6 .4 0 to $ 6 .8 0 a n d 3 a t $ 6 .8 0 to $ 7 . 2 0 .




-

-

5 07
6 47

6

80
87
19
31

-

-

-

2

-

$10 t o $ 1 0 .4 0 .

-

8

7

5
-

-

-

-

-

-

‘

-

-

-

-

8
8

-

'

T a b le 4. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: K an sas City, M o .—K ans.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

A l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s _____
W o m e n _____________________
M e n _________________________

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f—
iN um D er A v e r a g e
$ 1 . 60 $1. 65 $1. 70 $1. 75 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 . 85 $ 1 . 9 0 $ T 7 9 ^ $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 10 $ 2 . 2 0 $2. 30 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 . 50 $ 2 . 60 $2. 70 $ 2 . 80 $3. 00 $ 3 7 2 0 $3. 40 $3. 60 $3. 80 $4. 00 $4. 40 $4. 80 $5. 20
of
h o u r ly 2
and
and
w o rk e rs e a rn in g s
under
$1. 65 $1. 70 $ 1. 75 $ 1 . 80 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 . 90 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 10 $ 2 . 20 $ 2 . 30 $ 2 .4 0 $2. 50 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 . 70 $ 2 . 80 $ 3 . 00 $3. 20 $ 3 .4 0 $3. 60 $3. 80 $4. 00 $4. 40 $4. 80 $5. 20 o v e r

-

-

-

-

5

4

-

4

8

4
-

-

3

6

-

3
2
2

2
2
1

4
4
-

2

1

-

2

1

8

_

2

1

8

-

2 . 60

2

9

5

9

5

30

2 . 41
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161
147
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82
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76
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1 ,4 0 3
182

8

S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u t t e r s a n d m a r k e r s _________
W om en (a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) __________________
M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) -----I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l
( e x a m i n e r s ) __________________
W om en (a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) __________________
P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ___________
W om en (a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) __________________
P r e s s e r s , h a n d (a ll
w o m e n ) _______________________
I n c e n t i v e ________________
P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e _________
W om en (a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) __________________
M e n _________________________
I n c e n t i v e ________________
S e w e rs , h a n d (fin is h e rs )
( a l l w n m fin )
I n c e n t i v e ________________
S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m ---------------------W o m e n _____________________
T i m e ______ ________ _
I n c e n t i v e ________________
T h re a d trim m e rs (c le a n e rs )

26

63

1
2
3

-

-

60

3. 34
3. 36
4 . 50

42
18
17
173
161

2 . 79
2 . 82

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622
620

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2.
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1

4 . 26
5 . 09
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62

18
602
13

I n c e n t i v e ________________

1

12

93
93
01
93

2. 84
2 . 89

-

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1

1

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_

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_
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1
1

1
1

8
8

22

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18

15
15

15
9

5
5

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6

11
11

7
7

14
14

19
19

18
18

8
8

3
3

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3

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26
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79
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T h e K a n s a s C i ty S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s of C a s s , C l a y , J a c k s o n , a n d P l a t t e C o u n t i e s , M o . ; a n d J o h n s o n a n d W y a n d o tte C o u n t i e s , K a n s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e a n d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 10 a t $ 5 . 20 t o $5. 60; 4 a t $5. 60 to $ 6 ; 3 a t $6 t o $ 6 . 4 0 ; a n d 1 a t $ 6 . 40 t o $ 6 . 8 0 .




-

-

1
1

1

-

T a b le 5. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: Los A n g e le s —Long B each , C a lif.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f—
N u m b er A v e ra g e
$ 1 .6 5 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 . 9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0
h o u r ly
of
and
w o rk e rs e a rn in g s 2
and
$ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 . 9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 o v e r

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s W o m e n -----------------------M e n ------------------------------

2 , 162

1, 7 0 2
460

$ 3 . 19
2. 96
4. 07

97
81
16

29
27

33
18

83
62

65
63

2

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2

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65
18

65

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35
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80
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122
110
12

5. 16
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S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n o c c u p a tio n s
C u tte rs an d m a r k e r s M e n --------------------------

107
105
101

I n s p e c to r s , f in a l ( e x a m in e r s )
(a ll w om en) 4a / P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ( a l l m e n )
( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ---------------------- 1
------I n c e n t i v e ------------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------T im e I n c e n tiv e P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e W o m e n ----------------In c e n tiv e M e n ( a l l i n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s ) -----P r e s s e r s , h a n d a n d m a c h i n e ---------W o m e n 4 b / ----------------------------------M e n 4 b / — ------------------------------------S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) ----------------W o m e n -----------------------------------------T i m e -----------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m --------------------W o m e n ------------------------------In c e n tiv e M e n --------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s
s i n g l e h a n d ( t a i l o r ) s y s t e m -----------W o m e n ( a l l in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s ) M e n ------------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----T h re a d trim m e rs (c le a n e rs )
( a l l w o m e n ) ----------------------------

1
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39
39

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15
15
15
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10
10

8
8

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1
1

T h e L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f L o s A n g e l e s C o u n ty .
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 2 4 a t $ 5 . 60 to $ 6 ; 12 a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 4 0 ; 15 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7. 20; a n d 6 a t $ 7. 20 a n d o v e r .
I n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a t o w a r r a n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e a v e r a g e s b y m e t h o d of w a g e p a y m e n t ; (a ) p r e d o m i n a n t l y t i m e w o r k e r s , o r (b ) p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 14 a t $ 5 . 60 to $ 6 ; 13 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7 . 20; a n d 6 a t $ 7 . 20 a n d o v e r .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s : 4 a t $ 5 . 60 to $ 6 , a n d 2 a t $ 6 t o $ 6 . 4 0 .




_
_

15
15

18
18
14
4

2
2
6
6

4
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T a b le 6. O c c u p a tio n a l earn in g s: N e w Y ork, N .Y .1----- A ll shops
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s i n s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

M e n --------------------------------------------------

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s o f—
N um be r A v e ra g e
$ 1 .8 0 $ 1 . 9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 . 8 0 $ 3 . 0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 . 6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 . 0 0 $ 4 . 2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 . 8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 . 4 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 . 2 0 $ 6 .6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0
h o u r ly
of
and
and
w o rk e rs e a rn in g ^
under
$ 1 .9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 . 0 0 $ 3 . 2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 . 6 0 $ 3 . 8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 . 2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 . 6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 . 0 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 . 8 0 $ 6 . 2 0 $ 6 . 6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0 o v e r
1 8, 940
1 1 , 65 9
7, 2 8 1

$ 3 . 75
3 . 34
4 . 40

1, 0 9 7
33
1, 06 4
1, 0 5 6
179
51
12 8
741
54
68 7
641
46
17
29
595
244
551
663
654
182
472

5 . 39
3 .4 9
5 .4 5
5 .4 6
4 . 19
3. 21
4 . 58
2. 70
2 . 36
2 . 72
4 . 61
2 . 83
2 . 38
3 . 09
4 . 75
3. 8 8
5 . 35
5 .4 8
5 .4 9
4 . 83
5 . 72

329

121

222

107

85
36

282
178
104

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3 4 8 1,438
190

1,202

158

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1,337 1,065 1 , 2 0 0 1,337
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32 0
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991
783
208

6

12

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S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u t t e r s a n d m a r k e r s -----------------------W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------IvICH.
I n s p e c t o r s , f i n a l ( e x a m i n e r s ) --------W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------------P a c k e r s , s h i p p i n g ----------------------------W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d --------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------P re sse rs
m a c h i n e -------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d a n d m a c h in e
( a l l m e n ) ------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) ----------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s e c tio n
s y s t e m ----------------------------------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s , s in g le h a n d ( t a i l o r ) s y s t e m ---------------------W o m e n -------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c l e a n e r s ) ---------W o m e n ------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------

359
126

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3
3
42
42
28

3
3
-

2

6

-

-

-

2

8
8

35
14

6
22

1
66

_
9
9
7
3

21

9
13

42
24
15
15
7

33
33
17
17
9

8

8

-

-

221

45 8
426
279
147
32
32

3
3
276
236

8
8

_
7
7
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

_
_
_
44
32
32

_
_
18
18

_
_
-

_

_

3
3
_
_
2
2

104

12

3
3
_
3
3
_
3
_
178
178
59
119

9
9
_
_
15
9
6

93

2
2
2
-

_
-

6
6
2
2

125

3
3
3
-

-

-

347
344
207
137
3

12

_

_

35
31
23
37

22
22

6
6

4
18

_

95

6

_

18

121

88

_

_

_

_

-

-

85

-

-

12
12

208
205
124
81
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

67
58
38
71
43
16
79

35
35
16
19

14
14

28
28

47
47

168
1 62

2
26

8

39

58
104

276
264
13 0
134

_

_

6

331
318
164
154
13

_

_

_

367
364
182
182
3
3

-

-

-

-

3
3

303
288
117
171
15
9

4 . 21
3 . 64
4 . 30
3. 4 0
4 . 89
4 . 85
4 . 93
2 .4 4
2. 43
2 . 39
2. 64

3
3

_
_

17
17

17
17

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_
3
_

_

_

_
14
_

_

_

_

17

17

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_

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216
216

69
60
6

54
9

22 1
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67
154

6

12
6
6

130
105

95
89

6

.

6

12

99
25

89

107
18

91

6

2
11

131
113

-

115
103

12

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6

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

9

6

18

12

18
18
18
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16
16

17
17
15

13
13

216
216

26
26

18

15

2

181
35

23
17
15

1

12
1

19
54
48
48
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21

5

18
9
9

2

12
12
10
2

217
99
118
4
4

67

3
3
7
7
7
5
5
39

1

6

6
6

22

22

101

135
40
14

3
9
18
18
20

-

15
26
1

-

1

18

16

20

2

9
17
14

3
3
3

8
6

2
1

5
5
-

9
3
6

198
161

128
95
74
33

16

63
98
37
34

50 6
459
195
264
47
41

287
25 2
10 8
144
35
24

18
18
5
13
3
3
25 0
213
99
114
37

6

11

156

115
85
26
59
30

Ill
94
18
76
17

65
51
18
33
14

12 2

20
20
12
8

1

23

-

113
35
18
17

3
17
18
18
24

1

6

121
8

16

13

25

9

6
6

-

20

-

94
174

423
408
165
23 4
15

6

12

15
15

508
484
23 2
252
24
24

274
268

1 T h e N e w Y o r k S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s of N e w Y o r k C i ty ( B r o n x , K i n g s , N e w Y o r k ,
2 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r tim e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts ,
3 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 30 a t - $ 7 . 4 0 to $ 7 . 8 0 ; 3 a t $ 9 to $ 9 . 4 0 ; a n d 12 a t $ 1 0 . 2 0 $ 1 0 . 6 0 .




_
-

21

6

43
43
31
12

32
32
23
9
19
19
75
54
9
45
21

109
31
78

40

15
15
32
30
30

12
6

2
2

2
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

176
139
9
130
37
13
24

71
52

45
26

54
37

21
21

3
3

3

12

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-

-

-

-

40
19
3

26
19

37
17

21

3

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16

19

17

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158
27
19

24

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27

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12
6
6

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21
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-

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39
-

64
52
12

138
94

12
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12

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82
44

26
6

49

63
42

12

21

34

198

163
70
34
36
93
51
42

167
75
52
23
92
44
48

-

-

16

17

14

33

12
12
12

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“

"

-

Q u e e n s , a n d R i c h m o n d C o u n tie s ) ,

9
9
9
31
31
3
28

27
27
27
28
28
3
25

20
8
12

197
134

6

1

-

6

11
11

10

194
133
38
95

24
3
3
-

1

-

6

27
27
27
34
34
34
39
39

48
41
41
17
24

292
260
66

79
60
19
119
74
45
3
3
3

3
3
64
64
64
174
174
23
151

-

3
47
47
24
23

15

194
32

162

11

6

20

178
81
42
39
97
64
33

73
31
42
49

6

3
165

10

68

27
41

26

24
24

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-

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-

303
59
19
40
244
173
71
-

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76
37
39
-

131
89
42

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59
59
3
56
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7
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12

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12

45

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6

22

22

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6

33
345
45
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39

N a s s a u , R o c k l a n d , S u ffo lk , a n d W e s t c h e s t e r C o u n t ie s .
'< '■ >
.. * "
‘
V

T a b le 7. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: N e w Y o rk , N .Y .1----- R e g u la r and jo b b in g shops
(N u m b er and a v e ra g e

s tra ig h t-tim e

h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s

in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s '

N u m b e r of - o r k e r s
w
O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

A ll p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s ----------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------

of
h o u r ly
w o r k e r s e a r n in g s *

4, 596
99 6
3, 60 0

$ 4 . 12
3 . 67
4 . 24

918
912
906

5. 47
5. 47
5 . 47
4. 28
4 . 36
2 . 70
2. 36
2 . 73
5. 25
4 .8 3

r e c e iv in g

c o a t an d s u it m a n u f a c tu r in g

s tr a ig h t- tim e

e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

h o u rly e a r n in g s

A u g u a ij$ 1 9 7 0 )
—

of-

w

$ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 . 2 0 $ 6 .6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0
and
under
$ 1 .9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 : $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 . 2 0 $ 6 . 6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0 o v e r
115
33
82

33
9
24

47
4
43

148
15
133

188

131
26
105

250
58
192

197
25
172

283
90
193

262
129
133

177
54
123

228
125
103

173
82
91

171
92
79

187
45
142

221
61
1 60

157
31
126

13
13
13

20

168

8

21
21
21

26

qn

26
3
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97
5
5

_

6

221

2 84

106

11 0

6

12

278

94

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no

60

63

37
184

719
39
680

97

413

136

410
15
15

130
3
3

_

_
3
3

3
3

31
31

2
2

72
_
72

39
3
36

77
_
77

_

27
27
27
_

_
_

34

S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u tte r s

a n d m a r k e r s ----------------------

T i m e ---------------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , f i n a l ( e x a m i n e r s ) -----M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ------------P a c k e r s , s h ip p i n g ----------------------- —
W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ------M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e ( a l l m e n ) -----T i m e -------------------------------------------------------P r e s s e r s , h an d an d m a c h in e
( a l l m e n ) ------------------------------------------------------T i m e -------------------------------------------------------

83
66

737
54
68 3
31
27
1 14
46

360
176
109

5.
5.
5.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

137
98
69

S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) -------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------T i m e ---------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e --------------------------------M e n ----------------------------------------------------------------T i m e -------------------------------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m -----------------------------------------

S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s i n g l e h a n d ( t a i l o r ) s y s t e m ---------

49 0
63
427
223
204

5 . 02
5 . 02
5 . 02
4 .8 3
5 . 22

M e n ----------------------------------------------T i m e -------------------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------------------

1
2
3
4

-

24

20

59

6

18
-

20

-

69
-

6

53
-

69

104

6

-

98
-

6
6

2

93

_
80

6

93
-

119
-

_

3
_
42

-

125

12
68

22

42
-

-

756
580
220

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

5
3
3

-

-

-

7
7
5

3
3

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22

4 . 87
5 . 01
4 . 56

68

73
37
98
76
72
64
76
90
94

-

52
18
34
-

6

12

6

5
18
15
18

6

18
18
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6

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3

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6

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3

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3
3

8
8

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8

12
12
6
6

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-

-

-

27
24
5
19
3

58
55
35

39
35
14

155
123
62

133
93

20

21

61

3

4

32

81
40
14

4

32

12

3

38
17
9

91

100

62
20

42
29

75
48
27
25

10

22

8
21
8

9

-

18

3
3

5
5

6

6

21
-

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-

-

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-

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-

-

-

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~

-

18

9

3

15
2

10

21

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18

9

18
3

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3

12

9

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13
4
9

43
16
27

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53

60

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46

8

L 'i

AL
45

8

63
_

LA
D
U

46
_

_

8

_

_

_

6

2
2

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26

15
13

6

35
11

24
14

48
33
3
30
15
15

15
15

31
19
19

21
21
21

19

73
14
59
32
27

44

33

92

33

80

12
21

68

6

_

9

13

_

2
2

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10

34
31
3

12
2
2
10
10

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_

_

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_
_
_
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_
_

_

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22

6

_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
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L
o

_

14
14

_

24

30

15

6

15

12
12

30

15

3

15

2

10
10

39
39
24
15

4

_

_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_

_

12

12

_

_
_

_
_

_
_

12
_

_

-

_

6

_

6

_

6

30

9

3

_

15

T h e N e w Y o r k S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f N e w Y o r k C i ty ( B r o n x , K i n g s , N e w Y o r k , Q u e e n s , a n d R i c h m o n d C o u n t i e s ) , N a s s a u , R o c k l a n d , S u f fo lk , a n d W e s t c h e s t e r C o u n t ie s ,
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e rtim e a n d fo r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 2 a t $ 7 .8 0 to $ 8 .2 0 , a n d 2 a t $ 8 . 20 t o $ 8 . 6 0 .
I n s u f f ic ie n t d a ta to w a r r a n t p u b lic a tio n o f s e p a r a te a v e r a g e s by m e th o d of w a g e p a y m e n t, p r e d o m in a n tly in c e n tiv e w o r k e r s .




T a b le 8. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: N e w Y o rk , N .Y .1 ----- C o n tra c t shops
(N u m b er and a v e ra g e

s tr a ig h t - ti m e h o u r ly

e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,
N u m b e r of w o r k e r s

O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

r e c e iv in g

s tr a ig h t- tim e

A u g u s t 1970)

h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of----

N u m b er A v e ra g e
$ 3 .0 0 J T J J 5J J A 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 J O U
$ 4 .4 0 f 4 ^ 0 T o u $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .4 0 J ^ 8 0 $ O o $ 6 .6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0
J T M
$ 1 . 8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 fZ T T J f Z 7ZTT p r w
of
h o u r ly
and
and
w o r k e r s e a r n in g s 2
under
$ 1 . 9 0 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .0 0 $ 5 .4 0 $ 5 .8 0 $ 6 . 2C $ 6 .6 0 $ 7 .0 0 $ 7 .4 0 o v e r

A l l p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s -----------------W o m e n ------------------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------

14, 3 4 4
10, 6 6 3
3, 681

$ 3 . 63
3 . 31
4 . 55

214
189
25

88

235
174
61

200

12

_
_
-

76

814
729
85

1, 0 43
891
152

923
788
135

858
744
11 4

9
3
3
3
3
37

3
3
3
28

_
-

3
3
39

3
3
-

3

2

6

1

6

-

2

35
14

1
66

6

8
8

6
22

21

42
24

2
2
2

9
9
7

9
13

2

12
12
10
2

12
12

-

3
3
3
289
289
172
117
-

182
182
85
97
-

303
30 3
217

274
268
94
17 4

423
4 08
165
243
15

2
11

367
364
182
182
3
3
-

131
113

115
103

6

12

107
18
18
18
18
9
9

91

L, 307 1, 142 8 6 8
9 9 0 749
L, 176
152 119
131

175
25

950
833
117

1, 0 5 4
954

6

12

-

100

661
.501
160

629
45 5
174

507
257
250

463
263
200

455
213
242

7 52
251
501

545
116

132
44

429

88

183
45
138

113
32
81

79
9
70

129
9

34
34
34

9
-

24
-

3
3
3
27
-

18
-

9
9
31
31
3
28

24
24
39
39
39

27
27
28
28
3
25

18
18
35
35

12

9
9
-

-

3 39

21
21

3
3
3
-

3
3
3

12

24
24
24
-

12 0

S e le c te d p ro d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u t t e r s a n d m a r k e r s ---------------------W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n s p e c t o r s , f i n a l ( e x a m i n e r s ) -------W o m e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------M e n ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) ---------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d --------------------------------W o m e n --------------------------------------------

179
27
15 2
150
96
34
62
611
46

5.
3.
5.
5.
4.
2.
4.
4.
2.

01
06
36
36
11
84
82
53
83

_
_
_
-

_
_
• -

_
_
5
3

I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e -----------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e --------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d an d m a c h in e
( a l l m e n ) -----------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) ---------------W om en —
—------------------ —------—-------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------T i m e ------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m -------------------------------q m e n —————------- ———— —
————
— —— ----- —
T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------iit"ie — ———_____—————— —
———
— —————
I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s i n g l e h a n d ( t a i l o r ) s y s t e m ---------W o m e n ------------------------------------------T i m e ------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------M e n -------------------------------------------------T i m e ----------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ----------------------------------T h r e a d t r i m m e r s ( c l e a n e r s ) ---------W o m e n ------------------------------------------T i m e ------------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e ------------------------------------

29
56 5
232
33 3
632
623
155
468

3. 09
4 . 67
3 .8 4
5 . 25
5. 49
5 . 50
4 .8 3
5. 72

_
_
_
_
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-

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245
80
165
239
177
051
126
62
48
14

5. 72
4 . 76
6 . 19
3 . 21
3. 20
3. 15
3 . 24
3 .8 3
3-. 64
4 . 51

_
_
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-

22
22

6
6

624
251
59 6
655
37 3
198
175

3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.

63
58
37
70
28
02
58

1 ,9 7 6
1 , 280
32 7
953

4.
3.
4.
3.
4.
4.
4.
2.
2.
2.
2.

01
57
28
33
81
87
76
44
43
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696

330
366
43 9
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358
69

2
2

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44
32
32
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_
9
9
15

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2

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8

11

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213
213
95
118
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170 209
170 209
61
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111 148
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181
181
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168
162

30 3
288
117
171
15
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331
318
1 64
154
13

12
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35
35
16
19
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14
14
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28
28

47
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2
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3
3
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3
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18
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16
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17
17
17
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18
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18
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3
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58
10 4

39
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6

3
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17

69
-

60
6

54
9
9
216

17
_
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13
13

216

12
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181
35

12

3
3
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3
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6

130
105
6

99
25

7
7
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276
264
130
134
12
6
6

95
89
89
6

6

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19
54
48
48
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6
26

26
21

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62

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12

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12

23
17
15
2

6
6

67

4
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86

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33
33
14
14
6
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15
15
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58
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31
19

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41
41
18
23

48
38
38
14
24

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8

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9
18
26
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31
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20

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98

9
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32
32
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31

6

12
6
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15
15
17
17
17
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176
134

119
82

12
122

12

17
17
27

3
3
143
143
89
54
-

3
3
159
151
79
72
8
6
2

12
12

12
66
12
12

-

-

6

50 5
484
23 2
252

287
2 52
108
14 4
35
24

274
248
54
194

163

86

15
71

-

9

-

6

11

135

97
85
26
59

102

94
18
76

62
51
18
33

12

8

11

107
71
29
42
36

20
20
12
8

21

6
6

21
21

113
14
14

6

6
6

6

121
8

6

12
12
12

497
45 6
195
261
41
35

6
6

12

8
8
2

6

18
18
18
18
5
13

8

2
2

6

90
78

26
20
6

125
71
35
36
54
48

21
6

-

121
26

95
42
30
12

119
65
46
19
60

49
37
6

21
21

70
37
3
34

134

211

60

75
52
23
59
32
27
-

42

27
33
59

19
15
15
75
75
18
57

32
32
32
64
64
64
171
171

16

16
16
1

1

1

6

6

41

151

56
56
56

74

45

6

20

6

-

-

39
-

6

12

7
7
7
-

-

166
139
9
130
27

35
26
26
9
9

40
37
37
3
3

15
- .
-

12

68
68
21

54
12
12

12

-

6
21

119
47
19
28
1 64
105
-

20

69
52
12

40
17
14
27
19
8

92
65
27
-

15
15
-

21

12
6

6
6

-

-

-

12

12

8
12
12
12

11

24
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
3
-

3

-

6

-

42
18
3
3

20

39
-

-

6

29
39
-

12

-

-

6

12

-

-

-

-

"

T h e N e w Y o r k S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f N ew Y o r k C i t y ( B r o n x , K i n g s , N e w Y o r k , Q u e e n s , a n d R i c h m o n d C o u n t ie s ) , N a s s a u , R o c k l a n d , S u f fo lk , and W e s t c h e s t e r C o u n tie s .
E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la te s h if ts .
W o rk e r s w e r e d is t r ib u t e d a s f o llo w s :
24 a t $ 7 . 4 0 to $ 7 . 8 0 ; 3 a t $ 9 t o $ 9 . 4 0 ; a n d 12 a t $ 1 0 . 2 0 t o $ 1 0 . 6 0 .




T a b le 9. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: N e w a rk and Je rs e y City, N.J.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s i n w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)

O c c u p a ti o n a n d s e x

M l p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s W o m e n ------------------------M e n ----------------------------- -

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s of—
N um ber A v erag e
$ 1 .60 £1765 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $2.00
$ 2.20 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 6 . 0 0
of
h o u rly
and
w o rk e rs e a rn in g s
and
under
$ 1 .6 5 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2.00 $ 2 .1 0 $2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 4 .0 0
4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 6. 0 0 o v e r
5, 0 0 4
4, 013
991

$ 3 . 14
2 .9 7
3. 83

94
77
17

181
131
50

398
367
31

210

215

186
24

202

311
29 5
16

13

524
440
84

376
348
28

388
328
60

2
2
40
4
36
34

2

6

2
14

6
25

428
338
90

265

196
69

3 64
278
86

254
165

198
77

134
71
63

6

5

121

142
52
90

S e le c te d p r o d u c tio n
o c c u p a tio n s
C u tte rs an d m a r k e r s (a ll
m en ) (a ll tim e w o rk e rs )
I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l
( e x a m i n e r s ) -------------------------- -W o m e n 4 a / ---------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ------------------------W o m e n 4 b / ---------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------T i m e --------------------------------I n c e n t i v e -------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e -----------------M e n ---------------------------------------I n c e n t i v e - ”-----------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d a n d m a c h in e
( a l l m e n ) ----------------------------------

60

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
4.
5.

92
60
32
609
593
330
263
16

4.
3.
5.
2.
2.
2.
3.
3.

42
70
79
89

3.
3.
2.
3.
3.
3.
4.
2.
2.

24
20
91
65
75
58
15
25
18

6
7

7

28
11
41
49
40
21
09
70
78
21
60

I n c e n t i v e -------------------------S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) --------W o m e n ---------------------------------T i m e --------------------------------I n c e n t i v e -------------------------M e n % / --------------------------------S e w in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m ------------------------ 2, 51 5
W o m e n ---------------------------------- 2, 338
T i m e --------------------------------- 1, 4 0 7
I n c e n t i v e -------------------------931
M e n ---------------------------------------177
T i m e --------------------------------124
I n c e n t i v e -------------------------53
T h re a d tr im m e r s (c le a n e r^ —
127
W o m en ( a ll tim e w o r k e r s ) —
119

1
2
3

5. 23

20
16
188
28
160
125
35
186
179
106
73

7
2
5
5

2
-

3
3

2
2

2
1
1
1

-

4
2

14
10
4
2
2

2

6
2

2

86

4
4

58
21
99

4

10
10

-

4

8

6

2

15

8

6

2

10
10

11
11
10

6

4

1

21
21
21

4
4
4

7
7
3
4

4
4

8
8
7
1

22
22
19
3

13
13
3
10

55
55
41
14

17
17
16
1

35
35
20
15

34
34
27
7

32
32
26

6

6

66

78
73
53

28

20

6
6

8

4

5
5

100

94

59
57
48
9
2

64
64
52

76
74
57
17
2

190

2
13
13

2
2

-

2
2

-

10
10

3
3

6
6

43
43

20
20

12

10

12

183
146
37
7
5
2

6
6

2
2

83
83
53
30

60
60
38
22

299
282
216

66
17
13
4

246
246
157
89

3
1

2
36
36
10
26

13
10
3
35
35
35

19
2
11
11

9
2

3 20

56

11
11

6 25

12

7
5

11

6
6

5
5

25

4

7 12

53
53

26
26
13
13

4
-

12
3
1

10

43

-

1
32

258
245
193
52
13

264
226
165
61
38

11

22

2

16

164
157
83
74
7
3
4

5

6

5
5

2
4
25
25
19
6

20
18
2
40
32
3
29
8
231
212

84
128
19
14
5

27
27
13
14

6
12

4
4

12

6

6

20

10
10

13
13

5
5

10

13

5

16
4
12

•6

13
7

4
152
140
36
104
12
8

4

6
4

T h e N e w a r k a n d J e r s e y C ity S t a n d a r d M e t r o p o l i t a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s c o n s i s t o f E s s e x , H u d s o n , M o r r i s , a n d U n io n C o u n t ie s .
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , a n d l a t e s h i f t s .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 40.
I n s u f f i c i e n t d a t a to w a r r a n t p u b l i c a t i o n o f s e p a r a t e a v e r a g e s b y m e t h o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t ; (a ) p r e d o m i n a n t l y t i m e w o r k e r s , a n d (b ) p r e d o m i n a n t l y i n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
2 a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 40, a n d 4 a t $ 6 . 80 to $ 7 . 20.
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
7 a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 4 0 ; 10 a t $ 6 . 40 to $ 6 . 8 0 ; a n d 8 a t $ 7 . 20 a n d o v e r .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
2 a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 40; 2 a t $ 6 . 40 to $ 6 . 8 0 ; 2 a t $ 7 . 2 0 to $ 7 . 60 a n d 6 a t $ 7 . 60 a n d o v e r .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s :
2 at $ 6.
40
to $ 6 .
8 0 ; 4 a t $ 6 . 80 to $ 7 . 2 0 ; a n d 4 a t $ 7 . 6 0 a n d o v e r .




4

-

10
4

2
21

4
11
11

4
4

23

1

2

10

2

25
16
9
5
5

2

8

25

-

117
99
21
78
18
14
4

61
54
14
40
7
7

43
36
36
7
7

10

49
37

10

37

12

2

2
-

12

2
8 10

T a b le 10. O ccu p a tio n a l earnings: P a te rs o n —C lifton—P assaic, N .J .1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , A u g u s t 1970)
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v i n g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s of—
O c c u p a tio n a n d s e x

N um ber A v e r a g e
$ 0 5
h o u r ly
of
U n d er
w o r k e r s e a r n in g s 2

$ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0

W J5

$ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 . 6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 6 . 0 0 $ 6 .4 0
and

$ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 . 9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $ 2 . 1 0 $ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $ 6 . 0 0 $ 6 .4 0
A l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ----------W o m e n ----------------------------------

3, 538
2, 9 8 7
551

$ 3 . 17
3. 03
3. 93

62

3.
2.
4.
3.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
4.
5.

2

_
-

_
_

26

3

6

14

2
1

5
1

85
16

-

_
-

_
-

52
40

226
215

172
166

276
24 5
31

492
470

9
4
5
5

18

328
304
24

328
29 5
33

279
241
38

180
148
32

165
135
30

117
87
30

205
136
69

3

31
26
5

16
14

1

17
5

13

-

1

1

4
4
-

6

11

2

1

12

11

2

11

12

11

3
3
3

6

2

-

13

12

11

12

13
13
13
-

11

1

7
32
32
28
4
4
4
4

5. 37

18

3

2

2

12

101

160

152

12

11

6

8

-

-

-

6

22

over

23
26

23

21

6

11

15

12

17

34

18

9

4

5

48

-

-

-

12

1

2

1

-

4

12

1

2

1

8

1

16

4
4
4
-

3
3.
3
-

-

23
23

4
14
14
514

127
81
46

104
60
44

36

10

5

6
6

-

11

45

S e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s
C u tt e r s an d m a r k e r s ( a ll
m e n ) ( a l l t i m e w o r k e r s ) --------I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l
( e x a m i n e r s ) ----------------------------W o m e n ( a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) —
M en ( a l l t im e w o r k e r s ) ------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ------------------------W o m e n ( a l l t im e w o r k e r s ) —
M e n ---------------------------------------T i m e --------------------------------P r e s s e r s , m a c h in e -----------------M e n ------------------------------------T i m e --------------------------------I n c e n t i v e -------------------------P r e s s e r s , h an d and
m a c n i n e - .................

11

7
119
35
84
65
1 55
153
119
34

. 12
. 47
4. 45

21

1

4
5
6

_
-

-

6

-

2

1

1

2

1

1

-

-

-

1

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

1
1

6
6

3
3
3

8

4
4
4
-

. 86
2. 54
3. 58
2

3.
3.
3.
3.
4.
3.

24
23
02
99
07
79

2

7
4

12

-

10

11
10

1

2

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

1

-

4

-

-

5

6

11

54
50
4

64
57
7

32
28
4

66

16

10

60

15

15
5

6

1

10

6

7
7

9
-

2

-

14
14

_
_
_

_
_

_
_
_

_

_
_
_

28
28

28
28
16

157
157
155

311
310
294

236
23 2

192

12

2

16
1

-

1

231
228
219
9
3
3

1

1
1

.
1

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

1

6

11

4

-

-

2

5
5
5
-

30
30
27
3

2
2

_
-

-

21

7
-

-

T h e P a t e r so n —C lifto n —P a s s a i c S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f B e r g e n a n d P a s s a i c C o u n tie s .
E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y fo r o v e r t i m e a n d fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , an d la te s h if t s .
I n c lu d e s 24 w o r k e r s a t $ 1 . 6 0 to $ 1 . 6 5 a n d 7 a t $ 1 . 7 0 to $ 1 . 7 5 .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 4 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7 . 20 and 4 a t $ 8 . 40 to $ 8 . 8 0 .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is t r i b u t e d a s f o ll o w s : 6 a t $ 6 . 40 to $ 6 . 80; 6 a t $ 6 . 80 to $ 7 . 20 an d 2 a t $ 7 . 20 to $ 7 . 6 0 .
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 9 . 2 0 to $ 9 . 6 0 .




12

1

6

11
T i m e --------------------------------S e w e r s , h an d ( f i n i s h e r s )
315
( a l l w o m e n ) -----------------------------241
T i m e --------------------------------110
I n c e n t i v e -------------------------S e w in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m ------------------------ 1, 76 6
W o m e n ------------------— - ———— 1, 731
T i m e --------------------------------- 1, 36 3
368
I n c e n t i v e -------------------------35
*
1
T i m e --------------------------------___________________________________ 1 ____ _ 1
i
_

3

_
-

6

19

2

43
99
12
54
85
83
47
51
53
16
81

200

32
4
4

4

10

124
123
91
32

no

164
28
2

1

2

67
69
35
24
3

2

1

2

8

194

108
74
34

-

11
1
10
101

97
41
56
4
4

22
1

16

16
-

10
10

10

4
4
4

-

-

-

-

18
18

6

2

-

-

-

42
39

47
46
3
43

17 , 2 2
18
17
4
13
18
4

6

4
4

7
7
7

2
2
2

12

27
3
2

68
8

-

-

6

2

1
1

-

2

2

-

T a b le 11. O ccu p ation al earnings: Philadelphia, P a .—N .J .1
(N u m b er and a v e ra g e

s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n * s a n d m i s s e s '

O c c u p a tio n and s e x

A l l p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s ______
W o m e n ________________ __ _
M en

N u m ber A v era g e
$ 1 .6 0 $ 1.65 $ 1.70 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $
of
h o u r ly
and
w o r k e r s e a r n ir g s 2
und er
$ 1.6 5 $ 1.70 $ 1.75 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .9 0 $
1

,

907
2 93

$ 3 . 29
3. 03
4 . 12

57
53

25

2

10

24

21

21

1

10

20

4

1

17
4

4 .4 1
4 . 38

_

_

18

2 .6 3

12

2

. 26
3. 38

200

4

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g
1 .90

$

2 .0 0

$

2 .1 0

$

2 .0 0

$

2 .1 0

$

2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $

2 .6 0

2 .2 0

c o a t a n d s u it m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

A u g u s t 1970)

s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—

$ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $

6 .0 0

$ 6 .4 0
and

$ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .8 0 $ 5 .2 0 $ 5 .6 0 $

28
18

58

53
47
6

82
77
5

2

42
29
13

64
56

10

84
18

43
41

10

8

52
43
9

“

-

“

"

-

-

-

1

-

2

1

-

2

68

102

57
49

41
35

57
47

8

6

10

4
4

1

1

1

-

66

53
13

6 .0 0

$ 6 .4 0

60
51
9

84
57
27

65
31
34

46

20

14
6

27
13
14

10

22

24

4
4

13
13

23
23

10

1

6

-

-

-

1

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
7

51
10
3

41

S e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s
C u t t e r s a n d m a r k e r s ____ _____
M e n ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ____
I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l
( e x a m i n e r s ) - — ____ _____ __
W o m e n ( a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) _____________
M e n ( a ll t i m e w o r k e r s ) ____
P a c k e r s , s h ip p in g ( a ll
m e n ) ___ _____ __ ________ ______
T i m e _____ - _____ _______
P r e s s e r s , m a c h i n e —— ---------M e n — — — ____________
I n c e n t i v e ________________
P r e s s e r s , h a n d an d m a c h in e
(1 8 m e n a n d 8 w o m e n )
( a ll i n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s ) _____
S e w e r s , h a n d ( f i n i s h e r s ) _____
W o m e n ________ ____________
T im e
— _______________
I n c e n t i v e __ ___
__ ____
S e w in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ,
s e c t i o n s y s t e m — - -----------W o m e n —___ - __ __ __ ____ _
I n c e n t iv e — --------------------T h rea d tr im m e r s (c le a n e r s)
( a ll w o m e n )
__ ____ _______
T i m e --------------------------------

6

13
12

50
40
39

26
11 4
113

2 .4 7
2. 53
5 . 73
6 . 27
6 . 31

103

4.
2.
2.
2.
3.

453
444
432

3. 31
3. 26
3. 27

10

17
14

87
97
94
37
00

. 21
1. 90

2

_

.

"

-

”

*
*

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

8

-

“

-

1

”

•

-

-

8

"

-

“

-

“

“

“

6

-

-

6

-

-

1

1

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

-

2

1

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

_

_

1

1

_

_

-

-

-

3
3

-

1

-

-

1

-

.

1

.

_

_

_

_

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

-

-

2

1

1

1

“

1

“

“

2

1

1

-

5
4
4

_

“

4
4
4

1

-

1

_

.

_

6

10

11

11

8

8

6

10

11

11

8

8

_

-

-

.

_

_

6

10

11

11

8

8

4
4
>
4

_
„

5

7
7
3
4

-

-

-

-

-

1

9
9
7

39
39
39

24
24
24

33
32
26

34
34
34

19
19
18

30
30
29

31
31
31

42
41
41

10

14
14
14

9
9
9

5

4

-

_

_

_

_

3

_

_

_

1

-

1

-

1

13
13

7
7

-

1

-

9
9
9

2

5
5
5

5
5
5

17
17
17

21

20

-

-

2

_

8

-

1

"

”

2

“

8

“

1
1

4

_
25
24
24

1

1

_

_

_

“

-

“

“

11

1

2

11

1

2

11

1

4
4
4

-

”

3
3

1

“

1

“

2

-

2

1

-

“

1

13

6

21

21

21

21

3
7
7
4
3

_
4
4
4

27
27
27

13
13
12

_

3
6
6
1

_

9

23

3

_

_
_

_

22

10

22

10

5
1

_

6
1
1

2

1

2

1

_

1
T h e P h i la d e l p h i a S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a c o n s i s t s o f B u c k s , C h e s t e r , D e la w a r e , M o n t g o m e r y , an d P h ila d e lp h ia C o u n tie s , P e n n s y lv a n ia ; an d B u r lin g to n , C am d en , and G lo u c e s te r
C o u n t ie s , N e w J e r s e y .
2 E x c l u d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and fo r w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
h o l id a y s , and l a t e s h i f t s .
3
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
14 a t $ 6 . 4 0 to $ 6 . 8 0 ; 12 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7 . 2 0 ; 5 a t $ 7 . 2 0 to $ 7 . 6 0 ; a n d 10 a t $ 7 . 6 0 to $ 8 .
4
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s :
2 a t $ 6 . 4 0 to $ 6 . 8 0 ; 8 a t $ 6 . 8 0 to $ 7 . 2 0 ; 5 a t $ 7 . 2 0 to $ 7 . 6 0 ; an d 10 a t $ 7 . 6 0 to $ 8 .
5
A l l w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 7 . 6 0 to $ 8 .




T a b le 12. O c c u p a tio n a l earnings: S a n F ra n c is c o —O a k la n d , C a lif.1
( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 2 o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c u p a t i o n s in w o m e n * s a n d m i s s e s *

c o a t a n d s u it m a n u f a c tu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

A u g u s t 1970)

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g s t r a i g h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s o f—
O c c u p a tio n an d s e x

A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s — ----W o m e n ----------------------------——
M e n ---------------------------------------

Num be r A v era g e
h o u r ly $ 1 .6 5 $ 1 .7 0 $ 1 .7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1.8 5 $ 1 .9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $
of
w o r k e r s e a r n in g s 13 and
2
u n d er
$ 1 .7 0 $ 1 /7 5 $ 1 .8 0 $ 1 .8 5 $ 1 .9 0 $ 1 .9 5 $ 2 . 0 0 $
489
411
78

$ 2 . 90
2 . 82
3. 34

30
28
17
14

.

12

-

12

'3 0
30
-

-

4 . 05
4 . 13

_

30

2 . 34
2 .4 0
2 . 70
3. 13

27
14
13

-

3
3
-

"

_

_

_

4
4
_
-

_
-

_

3 . 16
4 . 92

-

-

4 . 82

-

_

20

"

.
-

2 .0 0

$

2 .1 0

$ 2 . 2 0 $ 2 .3 0 $ 2 . 4 0 $ 2 . 5 0 $ 2 .6 0 $ 2 .7 0 $ 2 .8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 .4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 . 4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0

2 .1 0

$

2 .2 0

$ 2 .3 0 $ 2 .4 0 $ 2 .5 0 $

-

5
5
-

33
26
7

_

_

_

2

_
-

3
3
3
-

_
_
-

2

-

-

-

8
8

2 .6 0

and
$ 2 . 7 0 $ 2 . 8 0 $ 3 .0 0 $ 3 .2 0 $ 3 . 4 0 $ 3 .6 0 $ 3 .8 0 $ 4 .0 0 $ 4 .2 0 $ 4 .4 0 $ 4 .6 0 $ 4 .8 0 o v e r

26

32

22

20

26

26

22

-

6

-

16
4

_

_

_

_

_
_
-

_
_
_
3

_
_
_

_
_
_
_

2

_
_
_

_

2

1

_
_
_
3

3

_

-

3

1

3

_

_

3

_

35
29

54
48

19
19
-

11

6

5

6

_

_

_

_
_

2

_
_

2

20

22

18

22

9

2

-

3

_

2

_

_

6

24

22

8

4

16

4

12

8

2

10

2

12

15
7

-

2

6

2

29
20

1

16

23
19
4

2

11

6

2

2

2

11

6

2

3
3

_

_
_

_

_

2

S e l e c t e d p r o d u c t io n
o c c u p a t io n s
C u tt e r s a n d m a r k e r s ------------M en ( a ll t im e w o r k e r s ) -----I n s p e c t o r s , f in a l
( e x a m i n e r s ) -------------------------W o m e n --------------------------------T i m e -----------------------------P r e s s e r s , h a n d ---------------------W o m e n ( a ll in c e n t i v e
w o r k e r s ) -------------------------P ressers,
m a c h i n e --------— ..—
W o m e n ( a ll in c e n t i v e
w o r k e r s ) -------------------------S e w in g - m a c h i n e o p e r a t o r s ,
s in g le h a n d ( t a i lo r ) s y s t e m
( a ll w o m e n ) ( a ll i n c e n t i v e
w o r k e r s ) --------------------------------

1
2
3

10

173

2

.

61

_

2

_
_

_

_

2

_

_

_

_
_

_

5

_

_

3

_

3
3
3

_

_

_

_
_

_
_

_

1

_

2

4

1

_

_

2
2

4

1

_

2

1

1

_

3

6

4

2

2

-

_

10

_

2

2

_

-

_

_

_

4

9

6

_

6

_

_

_

_

9

7

19

7

_
8

_

1

_

_

2

1
1

_

_

1

2

1

26

11

7

3

3

T h e S a n F r a n c i s c o — a k la n d S ta n d a r d M e tr o p o lit a n S t a t i s ic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f A la m e d a , C o n tr a C o s t a , M a r in , S a n F r a n c i s c o , an d S a n M a te o C o u n tie s .
O
E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and l a t e s h i f t s .
W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s : 1 a t $ 6 to $ 6 . 2 0 ; a t $ 7 . 4 0 to $ 7 . 6 0 ; and 1 a t $ 8 . 6 0 to $ 8 . 8 0 .




_

_

2

2

2
34




T a b le 13. M e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s in w o m e n * s a n d m i s s e s * c o a t a n d s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s b y m e t h o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t , 1 8 s e l e c t e d
a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)

M e th o d of w a g e

Kansas
City

Ch icago

paym ent1

Los
A n gelesLong
Beach

New

York

A ll
shops

R egular
shops 2

Contract
shops

Newark
and
Jersey
City

Paterson—
Clifton—
Passiac

P hila­
delphia

San
F ran cisco—
O akland

_____

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

T i m e - r a t e d w o r k e r s ------------------------F o r m a l plans —
_____________
S i n g l e r a t e ------------------------------R a n g e o f r a t e s ----------------------I n d i v i d u a l r a t e s ----------------------------

38
38

34
34
34

37
15
10
5
22

59
5
4
1
54

82
12
8
4
70

52
3
3

70

81
-

37

23

_
-

-

-

-

_

19
19
_

49

70

81

19

19
14
4
5

I n c e n t i v e w o r k e r s _______________
I n d i v i d u a l p i e c e w o r k _________
G r o u p p i e c e w o r k ______________

62

66
66

63
63
“

18
15
3

48
44
4

30
30

“

41
37
4

19
17
2

63
58
5

77
75
1

All w orkers

1
2

________

-

38
"

49
2

F o r d e fin ition of m e t h o d of w a g e p a y m e n t ,
see appendix A.
In c l u d e s jo b b in g sh o p s p e r f o r m i n g s o m e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s ,

NOTE:

Because

of

rou nd ing,

sum s

of

individual

item s

may

not

equal

in

a d d itio n

to

regular

(i nsid e)

shops.

totals.

T a b l e 1 4 . S c h e d u l e d w e e k l y h o u rs
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s
A u g u s t 1970)

in w o m e n * s

—

_______

U n d e r 35 h o u r s —
----- ----------- 35 h o u r s _____
_________
—
3 7 V2 h o u r s -------- _ -------------- —
40 h o u r s
-------------------- ------- —

1
2
3

and

suit m an u fa ctu rin g

C h icago

W eekly h o u r s 1

A ll w o r k e r s _
_

and m i s s e s ' c o a t

Kansas
City

Los
A n gelesLong
Beach

A ll
shops

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

86
-

14

“

New

establishm ents

100

91
(3 )
9

D a t a r e l a t e to p r e d o m i n a n t w o r k s c h e d u l e of f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h
I n c lu d es jo b b in g sh o ps p e r f o r m i n g s o m e m a n u f a c t u r i n g o p e r a t i o n s , in a d d it io n to
L e s s than 0 . 5 p e r c e n t .

NOTE:

Because

of

rounding,

sum s

of

individual

item s

may

no t e q u a l

totals.

scheduled w ee kly

Contract
shops

Newark
and
Jersey
City

100

100
3
89
8

York

Regular
shops 2

97
1
2

by

99
1
1

establishm ent.
r e g u l a r (i nsi d e)

_

shops.

hours, 1

Paterson—
Clifton—
P a s siac

8 selected

areas,

P hila­
delphia

S an
F rancisco—
Oakland

100

100

100

100

96

85

“

4

15

_

_




T a b le 15. P aid holidays
( P a i d h o l id a y p r o v i s i o n s 1 f o r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a d i e s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n io n c o n t r a c t s in w o m e n 's a n d m i s s e s ' c o a t a n d
s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , 8 s e l e c t e d a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)

N u m b e r of h o l i d a y s

d a y s a nnu ally ; o n e - h a l f d a y 's p a y g u a r a n t e e d , t h r e e fo u r t h s d a y ' s pay fo r t h o s e w o r k i n g 3 d a y s in the
h o l i d a y w e e k , and fu ll p a y f o r t h o se w o r k i n g 4 d a y s .

Method of com puting pa y

C h ica g o -

6

K ansas C ity—

7 days annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n ­
tive b a s i s w e r e paid 7 tim es their a v e r a g e hourly e a r n ­
i n g s d u r i n g t h e y e a r e n d i n g t h e p r e v i o u s M a r c h 31.

L o s A n g e le s —Long B e a c h -

8 d ays annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n ­
t i v e b a s i s w e r e p a id a m o u n t s r a n g i n g f r o m $ 17 to $ 2 0 ,
a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

8 days annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n t i v e b a s i s w e r e p a i d a m o u n t s r a n g i n g f r o m $ 1 6 . 7 5 to
$ 2 3 . 5 0 , a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

N e w a r k a nd J e r s e y C i t y -

8 days annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n t i v e b a s i s w e r e p a i d a m o u n t s r a n g i n g f r o m $ 1 6 . 7 5 to
$ 2 3 . 5 0 , a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

P a t e r s on — C l i f t o n — P a s s a i c -

8 days annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r , r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n tive b a s is w e r e paid am ounts
r a n g i n g f r o m $ 1 6 . 7 5 to
$ 2 3 . 5 0 , a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

Philadelphia-

8 days annually

7 t i m e s w o r k e r s ' a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s . In s o m e s h o p s ,
in c en tiv e w o r k e r s w e r e paid am ounts per d ay ranging
f r o m $ 1 6 . 7 5 to $ 2 3 . 50, a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t.

S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d —

8 days annually

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n ­
t i v e b a s i s w e r e p a i d a m o u n t s r a n g i n g f r o m $16 to $19*
a c c o r d i n g to c r a f t .

In a f e w s h o p s i n C h i c a g o p r o v i s i o n s d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y f r o m t h o s e s h o w n .

T i m e w o r k e r s p a i d t h e i r r e g u l a r r a t e s ; t h o s e on a n i n c e n ­
tive b a s i s w e r e paid 7 tim e s their a v e r a g e hourly e a r n ­
i n g s d u r i n g t h e 20 w e e k s e n d i n g i n t h e f i r s t w e e k o f t he
p r e v i o u s June.

T a b le 16. H e a lth , w elfare, and vacation b enefits
(Health,

w elfare,

a n d v a c a t i o n b e n e f i t s p r o v i s i o n s 1 f o r p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a d i e s ' G a r m e n t W o r k e r s ' U n i o n c o n t r a c t s i n w o m e n ' s a nd m i s s e s ' c o a t a nd

suit m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lish m en ts,

8 selected ,areas,

A u g u s t 1970)

E m p lo yers
c o n t r ib u ti o n 2

Vacation

H e a l t h and w e l f a r e b e n e fi t s

H o s p ita l,
surgical,
m aternity,
d isability,
eyeglass,
and
d e a t h b e n e f i t s ; a l s o f r e e m e d i c a l c a r e f o r u ni on m e m b e r s
at u ni on h e a l t h c e n t e r .

C h icago —

3 percent 4

K a n s a s C i t y ---------------------------

3 V2 p e r c e n t ----

■ Hos pi tal ,

surgical,

m ajor

m e d ical,

m aternity,

d isability,

and d e a t h b e n e f i t s , and r e i m b u r s e m e n t of d o c t o r ' s f e e s ;
a l s o , f r e e m e d i c a l c a r e f o r union m e m b e r s at union h e a l t h
center.

L o s A n g e l e s —L o n g B e a c h -

7 V2 p e r c e n t ----

N e w Y o r k ------------------------------

7 percent

N e w a r k and J e r s e y C i t y -

•H ospital, s u r g i c a l , c l i n i c a l ,
and d e a t h b e n e f i t s .

disability,

m aternity,

eyeglass,

benefits3

1 w e e k ' s p a y a f t e r 1 y e a r a n d 2 w e e k s a f t e r 2 y e a r s — 35
t i m e s a w o r k e r ' s a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s d u ri ng the 2 0
w e e k s en ding the f i r s t w e e k of the p r e v i o u s June, if e m ­
p l o y e d at l e a s t
1 y e a r ; V4 w e e k f o r e a c h q u a r t e r y e a r
w o r k e d , i f e m p l o y e d 6 m o n t h s but l e s s t h a n 1 y e a r .
1 w e e k ' s p a y a f t e r 1 y e a r , 2 w e e k s a f t e r 3 y e a r s , a nd 3
w e e k s after 5 y e a r s .
B e n efits prorated for w o r k e r s e m ­
ployed over
6
m o n t h s a s o f t h e p r e v i o u s A p r i l 1, a c ­
c o r d i n g to th e n u m b e r of m o n th s of e m p l o y m e n t .
Ben­
efits
w ere based
on w o r k e r ' s a v e r a g e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s
in the y e a r e n d in g the p r e v i o u s M a r c h 31.
4 p e r c e n t of a w o r k e r ' s
year.

earnings

in the

previous

calendar

H ospital,
surgical,
m ajor m e d ical,
d isability, m a ter n ity
and p a t e r n i t y , e y e g l a s s , d e a t h b e n e f i t s , and u ni on h e a l t h
center se rv ic e s .

A p r i l p a y m e n t — 2 p e r c e n t of e a r n i n g s in th e p r e v i o u s c a l ­
e n d a r y e a r up to a m a x i m u m of $ 1 2 5 . S e p t e m b e r p a y ­
m en t, a flat $70.

7 percent

H ospital,
surgical,
m ajor m e d ical,
d isability, m a ter n ity
and p a t e r n i t y , e y e g l a s s , d e a t h b e n e f i t s , and uni on h e a l t h
center se rv ic e s.

A p r i l p a y m e n t — 2 p e r c e n t of e a r n i n g s in th e p r e v i o u s c a l ­
e n d a r y e a r up to a m a x i m u m of $ 1 2 5 . S e p t e m b e r p a y ­
m ent, a flat $70.

P a t e r s o n —C l i f t o n —P a s s a i c •

7 percent

Hospital,
surgical,
m ajo r m e d ical,
d isability, m a ter n ity
and p a t e r n i t y , e y e g l a s s , d e a t h b e n e f i t s , and uni on h e a l t h
center se rv ic e s.

A p r i l p a y m e n t — 2 p e r c e n t of e a r n i n g s in the p r e v i o u s c a l ­
e n d a r y e a r up to a m a x i m u m of $ 1 2 5 . S e p t e m b e r p a y ­
m ent, a flat $70.

P h i l a d e l p h i a ---------

7 percent

H ospital, m e d i c a l , su r g ica l, m a jo r m e d ic a l,
t e r n i t y and p a t e r n i t y , c l i n i c a l , e y e g l a s s ,
efits.

disability,
and d e a t h

m a­
ben­

F i r s t p a y m e n t — 2 p e r c e n t of e a r n i n g s in the p r e v i o u s c a l ­
e n d a r y e a r up to a m a x i m u m of $ 1 2 5 ,
Second paym ent,
a flat $ 70.

S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d -

8 V4 p e r c e n t -

M edical,
hospital,
surgical,
g l a s s , and d e a t h b e n e f i t s .

disability,

eye-

------

m aternity,

4 p e r c e n t and 6 p e r c e n t of p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e a r n i n g s to w o r k ­
e r s w i t h l e s s tha n 5 y e a r s of s e r v i c e and w ith 5 y e a r s
o r m o r e of s e r v i c e ,
resp ectively.

In a f e w s h o p s i n C h i c a g o p r o v i s i o n s d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y f r o m t h o s e s h o w n .
2 E m p l o y e r s c o n t r i b u ti o n s to the health, w e l f a r e , and v a c a t i o n fund w e r e b a s e d on p a y r o l l s fo r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by union a g r e e m e n t s .
3 V a c a t i o n b e n e f i t s p a i d f r o m u n i o n fu nd i n a l l a r e a s e x c e p t C h i c a g o a n d K a n s a s C i t y w h e r e v a c a t i o n p a y m e n t s w e r e m a d e b y e m p l o y e r s d i r e c t l y t o t h e w o r k e r s .
4 E m p lo yers
c o n t r i b u te d 2 p e r c e n t of w e e k l y p a y r o l l s f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the a g r e e m e n t s to a h e a l t h fund.
A n a d d i t io n a l 1 p e r c e n t of p a y r o l l s fo r c o v e r e d w o r k e r s
w a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a h e a l t h c e n t e r f u nd .
5 I n o n e s h o p , 8 V2 p e r c e n t w a s c o n t r i b u t e d a n d w o r k e r s r e c e i v e d 1 , 2, o r 3 a n n u a l p a y m e n t s a f t e r 1, 2, o r 5 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e , r e s p e c t i v e l y .
E a c h p a y m e n t w a s eq u al
to 2 p e r c e n t o f t h e p r e v i o u s y e a r ' s e a r n i n g s r a n g i n g f r o m a $ 1 0 m i n i m u m t o a n $ 8 5 m a x i m u m .




T a b le 17. R e tire m e n t plans
( R e t i r e m e n t p r o v i s i o n s 1 fo r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y International L a d i e s '
a r e a s , A u g u s t 1970)

8 selected

Garment W orkers'

U ni on c o n t r a c t s in w o m e n ' s an d m i s s e s '

c o a t and s u i t m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s ,

B e n e f i t s to q u a l i f i e d w o r k e r s 3

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y ag e;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p -s u m $500 death benefit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y a g e;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p -su m $500 death benefit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

Los An geles-L on g B e a c h -

a f t e r a g e 6 5; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y a g e ;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death b en efit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

New York—

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y age;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death ben efit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

N e w a r k a nd J e r s e y C i t y -

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y age;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death ben efit.

reduced

benefits

for

e arlier

retirem ent

P a t e r s o n ^ - C l i f t on—P a s s a i c -

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y ag e;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death ben efit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

C h icago —

K ansas

$ 7 5 a m onth
to q u a l i f i e d

City—

Ph iladelph ia—

$ 7 5 a m onth
to q u a l i f i e d

a f t e r a g e 6 5; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y a g e ;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death ben efit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent

S a n F r a n c i s c o —O a k l a n d —

$ 7 5 a m onth
to q u a l i fi e d

a f t e r a g e 65; t o t a l l y d i s a b l e d w o r k e r s , a t a n y age;
w o r k e r s ; lu m p - s u m $500 death ben efit.

reduced

benefits

for

earlier

retirem ent




In a f e w s h o p s i n C h i c a g o p r o v i s i o n s d i f f e r e d s l i g h t l y f r o m t h o s e s h o w n .
E m p l o y e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s to r e t i r e m e n t fund w e r e b a s e d on p a y r o l l s f o r w o r k e r s c o v e r e d b y union a g r e e m e n t s .
O t h e r tha n b e n e f i t s a v a i l a b l e und er F e d e r a l o l d - a g e , s u r v i v o r s , and d i s a b i l i t y i n s u r a n c e .

A p p en dix A.

S c o p e and M e t h o d o f S u r v e y

Scope of survey

The survey included establishments primarily engaged
in manufacturing women’s, misses’, and juniors’ suits
and coats, except fur coats and raincoats (part of industry
2337 as defined in the Standard Industrial Classification
Manual, 1967, U.S. Office of Management and Budget).
Shops making tailored pantsuits and coats of manmade
fur (a textile product) and contract shops producing
single skirts for suit manufacturers or for suit jobbers
were included in the study, but regular (inside) shops
and jobbing shops primarily engaged in producing single
skirts and contract shops working on skirts for such
establishments were excluded. The jobbing shops included
in the study were limited to those which perform some
manufacturing operation such as cutting, finishing,
packing or shipping.
The establishments studied were selected from those
employing four workers or more at the time of reference
of the data used in compiling the universe lists.
The number of establishments and workers actually
studied by the Bureau, as well as the number estimated

to be within scope of the survey during the payroll
period studied, are shown in table A-l.
Method of study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff. The survey was conducted on a sample basis.
To obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion of large than of small establishments
was studied. In combining the data, however, all establish­
ments were given their appropriate weight. All estimates
are presented, therefore, as relating to all establishments
in the industry, excluding only those below the minimum
size at the time of reference of the universe data.
Establishment definition

An establishment, for purposes of this study, is
defined as a single physical location where industrial
operations are performed. An establishment is not neces­
sarily identical with the company, which may consist
of one or more establishments. The terms “establish­
ment” and “shop” have been used interchangeably in
this bulletin.

Table A -1 . Estimated number of establishments and employees within scope of women's and misses' coat and suit
industry survey and number studied, 8 selected areas, August 1970
Num ber of
establishments2
W ithin
scope of
study

A re a 1

T otal
Chicago

............................................... ....................

......................................................... ..............

Kansas C ity
......................................................
Los Angeles—Long Beach
...........................
New Y o r k ............................................................
Regular shops 4 ............................................
Contract s h o p s ...........................................
N ewark and Jersey C ity
...........................
Paterson—C lifto n —Passaic
...........................
Philadephia .........................................................
San Francisco—Oakland
..............................

.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............
.............

A ctually
studied

Workers in establishments
W ithin scope
of study
T o ta l3

Actually
studied

Production
workers

T o ta l3

1,072

277

15

10

811

712

717

9
81
735
318
417
122
72
24
14

7
24
147
59
88
39
31
12
7

1,839
2,5 27
2 2 ,9 7 3
7 ,6 0 3
15 ,370
5 ,4 0 2
3 ,8 0 2
1,324
612

1,585
2 ,1 6 2
1 8 ,940
4 ,5 9 6
14 ,344
5 ,0 0 4
3 ,5 3 8
1,2 00
489

1,698
938
5 ,6 9 3
1,821
3 ,8 7 2
2,6 0 3
2 ,0 9 9
1,0 22
442

3 9 ,2 9 0

3 3 ,6 3 0

15,212

1 Standard M etropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. O ffice of Management and Budget (form erly U.S. Bureau of the
daet) through January 19 68 (see individual area tables fo r counties included in the 8 areas).
Includes only shops w ith 4 workers or more at the tim e of reference of the universe data.
Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers in addition to production workers.
Includes jobbing shops perform ing some m anufacturing operations, in addition to regular (inside) shops.




21

ceiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of
individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers were
obtained by dividing straight-time salary by normal
rather than actual hours.

Employment

The estimates of the number of workers within scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The advance planning necessary to make a wage survey
requires the use of lists of establishments assembled
considerably in advance of the payroll period studied.

Method of wage payment

Production workers

The term “production workers,” as used in this
bulletin, includes working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice functions. Admin­
istrative, executive, and professional personnel and forceaccount construction employees who were utilized as a
separate work force on the firm’s own properties were
excluded.
Occupations selected for study

The occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of inter­
establishment and interarea variations in duties within
the same job. (See appendix B for these descriptions.)
The occupations were chosen for their numerical impor­
tance, their usefulness in collective bargaining, or their
representativeness of the entire job scale in the industry.
Working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and
probationary workers were not reported in the data for
the selected occupations but were included in the data
for all production workers.
Wage data

The wage information relates to average straight-time
hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and
for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the worker’s regular pay; but
nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or other group of workers, such as pro­
duction workers, were calculated by weighting each rate
(or hourly earnings) by the number of workers re­




Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily
with reference to the qualifications of the individual
worker. A single rate structure is one in which the
same rate is paid to all experienced workers in the same
job classification. Learners, apprentices, or probationary
workers may be paid according to rate schedules which
start below the single rate and permit the workers to
achieve the full job rate over a period of time.
Individual experienced workers occasionally may be paid
above or below the single rate, for special reasons, but
such payments are regarded as exceptions. Range-of-rate
plans are those in which the minimum and/or maximum
rates paid experienced workers for the same job are
specified. Specific rates of individual workers within the
range may be determined by merit, length of service, or
a combination of various concepts of merit and length
of service. Incentive workers are classified under piece­
work or bonus plans. Piecework is work for which a pre­
determined rate is paid for each unit of output. Produc­
tion bonuses are based on production in excess of a
quota or for completion of a job in less than standard
time.
Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed
on the day shift, regardless of sex.
Supplementary benefits

Supplementary benefits are presented in terms of the
provisions of collective bargaining agreements with the
International Ladies’ Garment Workers’ Union, which
were in effect in establishments employing over ninetenths of the workers in the eight areas.

22

A p p e n d i x B.

O ccup atio nal Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is
to assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed
under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to
establishment and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment
and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may
differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for
other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field economists are
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees,
and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

items of stock in order to verify content; selection of
appropriate type and size of container; inserting en­
closures in container; using excelsior or other material
to prevent breakage or damage; closing and sealing
container; and applying labels or entering identifying
data on container. Packers who also make wooden boxes
or crates are excluded.

Cutter and marker

Marks the outlines of various garment parts on a ply
of fabrics and cuts out parts with shears, hand knife, or
powered cutting machine. May spread or lay up cloth on
cutting table. Workers who specialize in cutting or in
marking and workers engaged in marking and cutting
linings and trimmings are included.
Specialized markers using perforated patterns, and
marking by use of talcum, are excluded as are all workers
who specialize in spreading cloth.

Presser

Performs pressing operations (finish or under) on
garments or garment parts by means of a handpressing
iron and/or powered press or mangle.
For wage study purposes, pressers are classified by
type of pressing equipment, as follows:

Inspector, final (examiner)

Examines and inspects completed garments prior to
pressing or shipping. Work involves determining whether
the garments conform to shop standards of quality, and
marking defects such as dropped stitches, bad seams,
etc. May make minor repairs. In many shops manufac­
turing inexpensive garments, there will be no inspectors
falling within this classification; and in those shops, what­
ever inspection is carried on is usually performed by
thread trimmers, who may only casually inspect garments
and are, therefore, excluded.

Presser, hand
Presser, machine
Presser, hand and machine
Workers are classified as “pressers, hand and machine”
when sizable proportions of their work are performed by
each of the two methods. Otherwise, the predominant
type of pressing is the determining factor in classification.

Packer, shipping

Sewer, hand (finisher)

Prepares finished products for shipment or storage by
placing them in shipping containers, the specific opera­
tions performed being dependent upon the type, size,
and number of units to be packed, the type of container
employed, and method of shipment. Work requires the
placing of items in shipping containers and may involve
one or more o f the following: Knowledge of various




(Bench worker)
Performs sewing operations by hand including sewing
on buttons, making buttonholes, stitching edges, closing
openings that have been left by various hand and machine
operations. Workers who specialize in sewing tickets or
labels are excluded.

23

Work involves assembling and joining all parts of the
garment except those added by finishers. Is usually an
experienced operator working on better grade apparel
in which the variety of design is so great and style
changes so frequent as to prevent the economical use
of a section system.
Workers, employed in singlehand system shops, who
pair-up and work as a team and divide work tickets
equally are included. This arrangement is informal, in
contrast to the section system in which rates are
established for individual operations.

Sewing-machine operator, section system

Uses a standard or special purpose sewing machine to
perform the sewing operations required in making parts
of garments, joining parts made by others, joining various
sections together, or in attaching previously completed
parts to partially completed garments, but does not
construct the entire garment. In shops that operate
entirely on a section (or bundle) system, this classification
would include all sewing-machine operators (except
buttonhole makers, button sewers, and lining sewers),
without any differentiation of operators by type of
of machine or operation performed. In shops that
operate partly on a section system, this classification
would include all operators who do not construct an
entire garment.

Thread trimmer (cleaner)

(Clipper)
Trims loose thread ends, basting threads, and seam
edges of garments with scissors prior to pressing or
packing. Workers who also carefully examine and inspect
garments are classified as inspectors, final.

Sewing-machine operator, singlehand (tailor) system

Performs all the standard sewing-machine operations
involved in the manufacture of a complete garment.




24

Industry W a g e S tu d ie s
The most recent reports for industries included in the
Bureau’s program of industry wage surveys since Jan­
uary 1960 are listed below. Copies are available from
the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government
I.

Printing Office, Washington, D.C., 20402, or any of its
regional sales offices, and from the Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Washington, D.C., 20212, or from any of its
regional offices shown on the inside back cover.

Occupational Wage Studies
Manufacturing

Price
Basic Iron and Steel, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1602 ......................................................................................................... $0.55
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1520 .............................................................................. 30
Cigar Manufacturing, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1581 .......................................................................................................
.25
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1472 .......................................................................................................... 20
Cotton and Man-Made Fiber Textiles, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1637 ..........................................................................
1.00
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1695 .............................................. ....................................................... 50
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1 5 3 1 .......................................................................................................... 30
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1576 .............................................................................
.25
Fluid Milk Industry, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1464 ................................................................................................................... 30
Footwear, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1634 ..........................................................................................................................
.75
Hosiery, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1562 .......................................................................................................................................70
Industrial Chemicals, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1529 .......................................................................................................
.40
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1626 ................................................................................................
1.00
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1618 .....................................................................................
.55
Machinery Manufacturing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1664 ..............................................................................................
.65
Meat Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1677 ..................................................................................................................
1.00
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (except Work Shirts) and Nightwear, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1659 .....................................
.65
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1594 ...................................................................................
.75
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1690 ............................................................................................... 60
Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Parts, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1679 ......................................................................
.75
Nonferrous Foundries, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1498 .....................................................................................................
Paints and Varnishes, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1524 .......................................................................................................
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1964. BLS Bulletin 1478 .................................................................................
Petroleum Refining, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1526 .........................................................................................................
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1 7 1 3 ...........................................................................
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1608 .................................................................................

.40
.40
.70
.30
.50
.60

Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1694 .............................................................................
.50
Structural Clay Products, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1697 ................................................................................................
.65
Synthetic Fibers, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1540 ........................................................................................................................30
Synthetic Textiles, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1509 ..................................................................................................................... 40
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1965—
66. BLS Bulletin 1527 ........................................................................................... 45
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704.....................................................................................................
.45
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1508.......................................................................................25
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1649 .................................................................................................... 45
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1651 ................................................................. 60
Wool Textiles, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1551 ............................................................................................................................ 45
Work Clothing, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1624 ............................................................................................................................ 50




I.

Occupational Wage Studies— Continued
Nonmanufacturing

Price
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1695 .............................................................................................. $0.50
Banking, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1703 ....................................................................................................................................... 65
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583 ...........................................................................................................50
Communications, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1662 ........................................................................................................................30
Contract Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1644 ............. *.......................................................................................55
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1566 ........................................................................30
Eating and Drinking Places, 1966-67. BLS Bulletin 1588 ................................................................................................40
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 1968—
69. BLS Bulletin 1671........................................................ 50
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1 6 1 4 ............... ...........................................................................................70
Hospitals, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1688 ..........................................................................................................................
1.00
Hotels and Motels, 1966—
67. BLS Bulletin 1587 ............................................................................................................... 40
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 1645 ................................................................................................75
Life Insurance, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1569 ............................................................................................................................ 30
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1542 ...........................................................................................................35
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1967—
68. BLS Bulletin 1638 ...............................................................................75
II. Other Industry Wage Studies
Employee Earnings and Hours in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the South and North Central
Regions, 1965. BLS Bulletin 1552 ..................................................................................................................................... 50
Employee Earnings and Hours in Eight Metropolitan Areas of the South, 1965.
BLS Bulletin 1533 ...............................................................................................................................................................40
Employee Earnings and Hours in Retail Trades, June 1966—
Retail Trade (Overall Summary). BLS Bulletin 1584 ............................................................................................
1.00
Building Materials, Hardware, and Farm Equipment Dealers. BLS Bulletin 1584-1 .................................................... 30
General Merchandise Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-2 ...........................................................................................................55
Food Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-3 .................................................................................................................................... 60
Automotive Dealers and Gasoline Service Stations. BLS Bulletin 1584-4 .........................................................
.50
Apparel and Accessory Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-5 ...................................................................................................... 55
Furniture, Home Furnishings, and Household Appliance Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-6 ...................................
.50
Miscellaneous Retail Stores. BLS Bulletin 1584-7 ...........................................................................................................65




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F FIC E : 1972 O - 484-789 (63)

B U R E A U O F L A B O R S T A T IS T IC S
R E G IO N A L O F F IC E S

CZ7PUERTO RICO

Region V

Region I
16 03-JFK Federal Building
Governm ent Center

8th Floor, 3 0 0 South Wacker Drive

Boston, Mass. 0 2 2 0 3

Phone: 3 5 3 -1 8 8 0 (Area Code 3 1 2 )

Chicago, III, 6 0 6 0 6

Phone: 2 2 3 -6 7 6 2 (Area Code 6 1 7
Region II
341 N inth Ave., Rm. 10 25

Region V I
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B 7

N ew Y o rk , N .Y . 10001

Dallas, Tex. 7 5 2 0 2

Phone: 9 7 1 -5 4 0 5 (Area Code 2 1 2 )

Phone: 7 4 9 -3 5 1 6 (Area Code 21 4)

Region III

Regions V I I and V I I I

4 0 6 Penn Square Building

Federal Office Building

1317 Filbert St.

911 W alnut St., 10th Floor

Philadelphia, Pa. 1 9 107

Kansas C ity , Mo. 6 4 1 0 6

Phone: 5 9 7 -7 7 9 6 (Area Code 21 5)

Phone: 37 4-2481 (Area Code 8 1 6 )

Region IV

Regions IX and X

Suite 5 4 0

4 5 0 Golden Gate Ave.

1371 Peachtree St. NE.

Box 3 6 0 1 7

A tlanta, Ga. 3 0 3 0 9

San Francisco, Calif. 9 4 1 0 2

Phone: 5 2 6 -5 4 1 8 (Area Code 4 0 4 )

Phone: 5 5 6 ^ 6 7 8 (Area Code 4 1 5 )




Regions V I I and V I I I w ill be serviced by Kansas C ity.
Regions IX and X will be serviced by San Francisco.


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102