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INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY




SYNTHETIC FIBERS

I

FEBRUARY-APRIL 1966

B u lle tin

N o. 1 5 4 0

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

INDUSTRY WAGE SURVEY
SYNTHETIC FIBERS
FEBRUARY-APRIL 1966

Bulletin No. 15 40
January 1967

UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Arthur M. Ross, Commissioner

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Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 30 cents










Preface

This bulletin sum m arizes the results of a Bureau
of Labor Statistics survey of wages and supplementary
benefits in the synthetic fib ers manufacturing industries in
F eb ru a ry— p r il 1966.
A
This study was conducted in the Bureau* s Division
of Occupational Pay, To ivo P. Kanninen, Chief, under the
general direction of L. R. Linsenm ayer, Assistant C om ­
m issioner, Office of Wages and Industrial Relations. The
analysis was prepared by Joseph C. Bush, under the i m ­
mediate supervision of L. E a rl Lew is. F ie ld work fo r the
survey was directed by the Assistant Regional D irectors
fo r Wages and Industrial Relations.
Other reports available fr o m the Bureau’ s p r o ­
gram of industry wage studies, as w e ll as the addresses
of the Bureau's six regional offices, are listed at the end
of this bulletin.

Hi




Contents
Page
S u m m a r y __________________________________________________________________________________
Indu stry c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ________________________________________________________________
E m p l o y m e n t ___________________________________________________________________________
L o c a t io n and o w n e r s h i p _______________________________________________________ -_____
P r o d u c ts and p r o c e s s e s _____________________________________________________________
M e th od o f w a g e p a y m e n t ____________________________________________________________
L a b o r u n io n s __________________________________________________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u rly e a r n in g s ________________________________________________________________
O cc u p ation a l e a r n i n g s ___________________________________________________________________
E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and s u p p lem en ta ry w a g e p r o v i s i o n s ____________________
Scheduled w e e k l y h o u r s _____________________________________________________________
Shift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r a c t i c e s __________________________________________________________
P a id h olid a y s _________________________________________________________________________
P a id v a c a t i o n s ________________________________________________________________________
Health, in s u ra n ce , and pen sio n p la n s_____________________________________________
O ther s e le c t e d b e n e f it s ______________________________________________________________

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2
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3
3
3
4
5
5
6
6
6
6
6

T a b le s :

A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea rn in gs:
1. B y s e le c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s ________________________________________________

7

E a r n in g s d istrib u tion :
2. A l l e s ta b lis h m e n t s ___________________________________________________________
3. C e llu lo s ic f i b e r s _____________________________________________________________
4. N o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s __________________________________________________________

8
9
10

O cc u p ation a l ea rn in gs:
5. C e llu lo s ic f i b e r s — U nited S ta tes___________________________________________
6. C e llu lo s ic f i b e r s — South____________________________________________________
7. N o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s __________________________________________________________

11
12
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E s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t ic e s and su p p lem en ta ry w a g e p r o v is io n s :
8. Scheduled w e e k l y h o u r s _____________________________________________________
9. Shift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r a c t i c e s — a ll e s ta b lis h m e n t s _________________________
10. Shift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r a c t i c e s — c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s ____________________________
11. Shift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r a c t i c e s — non cellu lo sic f i b e r s ------------------------------12. P a id h o lid a y s ___________________________________________________
13. P a id v a c a t i o n s ________________________________________________________________
14. H ealth, in s u ra n ce , and pension pla n s-----------------------------------------------

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15
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18
19
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A p p e n d ix es :
A . Scope and m eth od o f s u r v e y ___________________________________________________
B. O cc u p ation a l d e s c r i p t i o n s ______________________________________________________

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27




v




Industry W a g e Survey

Synthetic Fibers, February— A pril 1966
Sum m ary
S t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly ea rn in g s o f p rod u ctio n and r e la t e d w o r k e r s in plants
m an u fac tu rin g synthetic f i b e r s a v e r a g e d $ 2 .4 5 in F e b r u a r y — p r i l 1966, a c c o r d in g
A
to a s u r v e y conducted by the B u re a u o f L a b o r S t a tis tic s . 1 V i r t u a l l y a ll o f the
62,407 w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the s u r v e y had h o u rly e a r n in g s b e tw e e n $ 1 . 5 0 and
$ 3 .5 0 , w ith e a rn in g s o f the m id d le h a lf r an gin g f r o m $ 2 . 1 4 to $ 2 .6 9 .
Men,
accounting f o r se ve n -te n th s o f the w o r k e r s , a v e r a g e d $ 2 .5 3 an hour, c o m p a r e d
w ith $ 2 .2 7 f o r w om en .
The e m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n was l a r g e l y co n fin e d to the
fin ish in g , in s p ec tio n , and te s t in g jo b s .
N e a r l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of th es e w o r k e r s w e r e in plants p rod u c in g n on cellu lo s ic f i b e r s ; they a v e r a g e d $ 2 .5 8 an hour, c o m p a r e d w ith $ 2 .2 7 f o r the w o r k e r s
in plants p rod u cing c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s .
A m o n g the occu pations studied s e p a r a t e ly , h ig h e st a v e r a g e s in both
typ es o f plants w e r e r e c o r d e d f o r s k ille d m ain ten an ce jo b s .
The nationwide
a v e r a g e s f o r these jo b s ra n g e d b e tw e e n $ 2 . 6 4 and $ 2 .7 6 an hour in c e l l u l o s i c
plants, and they w e r e w e l l a bove $ 3 an hour in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants.
P a id h olid ay s and v a c a t io n s w e r e p r o v id e d by a ll e s ta b lis h m e n t s . F o r m a l
p r o v is io n s f o r v a r io u s typ es o f health, in s u ra n ce , and pension plans a ls o w e r e
a v a ila b le to a v e r y l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the p rod u c tio n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
In du stry C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s
The s u r v e y c o v e r e d e s ta b lis h m e n ts en ga g ed in the p ro d u c tio n o f the two
p r in c ip a l typ es o f m an m ade f i b e r s suitable f o r fu r th e r m an u fac tu rin g on t e x t ile
p r o c e s s in g equipm ent; c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s (r a y o n and a c e ta te ) and oth er synthetic
o r g a n ic fibers., e x c e p t g la s s (e. g. , nylon, a c r y l i c s , and p o l y e s t e r s ) .
A lth o u gh
t h e r e w e r e a f e w ex cep tio n s, the l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the 42 e s ta b lis h m e n ts w ithin
the scope o f the s u r v e y li m i t e d t h e ir prod u ctio n to one o f th es e two m a j o r typ es
of fib ers.
E m p lo y m e n t .
E s ta b lis h m e n ts en ga ged p r i m a r i l y in the p ro d u c tio n o f
n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s e m p lo y e d 35, 695 prod u ctio n and r e l a t e d w o r k e r s at the t im e
o f the s u r v e y , c o m p a r e d w ith 26,712 w o r k e r s e m p lo y e d in plants prod u cing
c e ll u l o s i c f i b e r s . Th is r e p r e s e n t s a shift in the r e l a t i v e e m p lo y m e n t s o f the two
b ra n ch es o f the in d u s tr y since O c t o b e r 1958, the date o f the B u r e a u 's p r e v io u s
s u r v e y , when c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r plants accounted f o r s e v e n -te n t h s o f the 46,471
w o r k e r s then e m p l o y e d . 2 Since the e a r l i e r s u r v e y , p r o d u c t io n - w o r k e r e m p l o y ­
m ent in n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r plants had i n c r e a s e d 157 p e r c e n t, w h ile t h e r e w as a
d e c lin e o f 18 p e r c e n t in the c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s branch .
D u rin g this p e r io d , the
num ber o f n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r plants in c r e a s e d f r o m 10 to 24, w h e r e a s the nu m ber
o f c e ll u l o s i c f i b e r plants d e c lin e d f r o m 25 to 18.
Th e national p ro d u c tio n o f
n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 491 m i l l i o n pounds in 1958 to 1,777 m i l l i o n
pounds in 1965, w h ile that o f c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s i n c r e a s e d f r o m 1, 014 to 1, 527
m i l l i o n p o u n d s .3
See appendix A for scope and method of survey. Wage data in this bulletin exclude premium pay for overtime
and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 For results of the earlier survey, see Wage Structure: Synthetic Fibers (October 1958, BLS Report 143).
3 Source: Textile Organon, November 1959 and August 1966 Textile Economics Bureau, Inc.




2

M en accounted f o r t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the prod u ctio n w o r k e r s in the c e l l u ­
l o s i c f i b e r s b ra n ch and f o r s lig h t ly m o r e than t w o - t h ir d s o f those in the nonc e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s branch .
E m p lo y m e n t o f w o m e n in both bra n ch es w as l a r g e l y
co n fin e d to the fin is h in g d e p a rtm en ts and to in s p e c tio n and te s t in g jo b s .

L o c a t io n and O w n e r s h ip .
A l l n o n e e llu lo s ic * f i b e r s plants w e r e lo c a t e d
in the S ou th,4 w h ich a lso accounted f o r s lig h t ly m o r e than t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the
p r o d u c t io n - w o r k e r e m p lo y m e n t in c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s plants.
South C a r o lin a ,
T e n n e s s e e , and V i r g i n i a accounted f o r a l a r g e part o f the n o n c e llu lo s ic e m p l o y ­
m ent.
C e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s plants,
how ever,
w ere
m o r e w i d e l y lo c a t e d ,
in
M a s s a c h u s e tts , N e w Y o r k , P e n n s y lv a n ia , Ohio, and in eig h t sou thern States.
E s ta b lis h m e n ts c o m p r i s e d o f t h r e e c o m p a n ies accounted f o r a p p r o x im a t e ly
t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the prod u ctio n w o r k e r s in the c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s branch , w h ile
those o f one co m p a n y accounted f o r s lig h t ly m o r e than o n e - h a lf o f the e m p lo y m e n t
in the n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s branch.

P r o d u c ts and P r o c e s s e s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y s e ve n -te n th s o f the p rod u ctio n
w o r k e r s in both b ra n ch es o f the in d u s try w e r e in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r i m a r i l y e n ­
g a g e d in the m an u factu re o f m u lt ifila m e n t yarn; m o s t o f the r e m a in in g w o r k e r s
w e r e in plants p r i m a r i l y prod ucing sta ple.
N e a r l y t w o - t h ir d s o f the w o r k e r s in
the n o n c e llu lo s ic b r a n c h w e r e in plants prod ucing nylon f i b e r s , w h ile a p p r o x i ­
m a t e ly the sa m e p r o p o r t io n o f w o r k e r s in the c e l l u l o s i c b r a n c h w e r e in plants
m an u factu rin g rayon .
P r o d u c t io n m eth od s o r p r o c e s s e s o f the v a r io u s m an m a de f i b e r s have
m uch in co m m o n .
D e s c r i b e d b r o a d ly , th r e e b a s ic p r o c e s s e s a r e in v o lv e d :
(1) The c h e m ic a l p r e p a r a t io n o f the spinning solution; (2) the t r a n s f o r m a t io n o f
the spinning solution into s o lid if ie d fila m e n t s ; and (3) the fin is h in g o r t e x t ile
o p e r a tio n s w h ich p la c e the product in the f o r m in w hich it is sold.
In actual
p r a c t ic e , h o w e v e r , the m e c h a n ic s o f th ese op e r a tio n s m a y be quite d if fe r e n t ,
accounting in l a r g e p a rt f o r v a r ia t io n s in the occu pa tion al and w age str u c tu r e s
o f the in d ivid u a l e s ta b lis h m e n t s .
T h e s e d if f e r e n c e s a r e d e s c r i b e d b r i e f l y in the
f o llo w in g p a r a g r a p h s .

P r o c e s s e s in the p r e p a r a t io n o f the spinning solution v a r y a c c o r d in g to
the type o f f i b e r s prod u ced . R a y on and a ceta te both owe t h e ir o r i g i n to c e l l u l o s e —
a fib r o u s substance u su a lly d e r i v e d f r o m w ood pulp o r cotton l i n t e r s .
The
n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s , on the o th er hand, use c h e m ic a l compounds as the r a w
m a t e r i a l . A c c o r d i n g l y , the p r e p a r a t io n o f the spinning solution f o r the n o n cellu l o s i c s is a c c o m p lis h e d l a r g e l y th rough m e c h a n ic a l m ea n s, w h e r e a s a g r e a t e r
amount o f manual handling is r e q u ir e d f o r the c e llu lo s ic s .
The c h e m ic a l d e ­
p a r tm e n t o f a n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r m a n u fa c tu r e r r e q u ir e s a v a s t amount o f e q u ip ­
m ent, but c o m p a r a t i v e l y fe w e m p lo y e e s .
C o n v e r s io n o f the spinning solution into so lid fila m e n t s is a c c o m p lis h e d
by one o f two m e a n s .
Under the w e t - p r o c e s s method, the spinning solution is
f o r c e d through the tin y h oles o f the sp in n e re t into an a cid bath w h ich c o a g u la tes
the fin e s t r e a m s o f solution.
The d r y - p r o c e s s m ethod u ses w a r m a i r in s te ad
o f a c id to s o l i d i f y the f ila m e n t s .
When the w e t - p r o c e s s m eth od is used, the
fila m e n t s m ust be w as h ed f r e e f r o m the a cid and then d r ie d ; the d r y - p r o c e s s
m eth od m a k e s th ese steps u n n e c e s s a r y .
R a yon ( v i s c o s e ) u ses the w e t - p r o c e s s
m ethod, w h e r e a s a ceta te and m o s t n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s use the d r y p r o c e s s .
4

For the definition of South as used in the survey, see footnote 3 to the table in appendix A .




3

The fin is h in g ( t e x t i l e ) o p e r a tio n s depend upon the f o r m in w hich the
p rod uct is to be sold. Continuous f ila m e n t y a r n is t w is te d and wound on bobbins f o r
shipm ent.
T o w , on the oth e r hand, is a r o p e lik e stran d o f u n tw isted fila m e n t s
w h ich is pa ck ag e d in bulk and does not r e q u i r e w inding.
Staple (tow cut to
s p e c i f i e d len g th s ) is handled in m uch the sa m e m a n n er as tow, w ith the e x c e p tio n
o f the added o p e r a t io n s o f c r i m p i n g and cutting.

M eth od o f W a ge P a y m e n t .
N e a r l y a ll o f the w o r k e r s in n o n c e llu lo s ic
f i b e r s plants and s e v e n - e ig h t h s o f those in plants p r i m a r i l y p rod u c in g c e llu lo s ic
f i b e r s w e r e paid on a t i m e - r a t e b a s is .
F o r m a l s y s te m s p r o v id in g s in g le r a t e s
f o r in d ivid u a l occu pa tion s w e r e m o s t c o m m o n in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants, w h e r e a s
r a t e - r a n g e plans w e r e c o m m o n in c e l l u l o s i c plants.
In c e n tiv e w a g e s y s t e m s ,
r e p o r t e d b y 12 c e l l u l o s i c plants and 3 n o n c e llu lo s ic plants, u su a lly c o v e r e d
w o r k e r s in the fin is h in g d e p a r tm e n ts .

L a b o r U n io n s .
A t the t im e o f the s u r v e y , a ll o f the c e l l u l o s i c plants
had c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a in in g a g r e e m e n t s , c o v e r i n g a m a j o r i t y o f t h e ir prod u c tio n
w orkers.
About 55 p e r c e n t o f the w o r k e r s in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants w e r e c o v e r e d
by such a g r e e m e n t s .
The m a j o r unions in the c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s b r a n c h o f the
in d u s tr y w e r e the T e x t i l e W o r k e r s Union o f A m e r i c a and the U nited T e x t i l e
W o r k e r s o f A m e r i c a . Single f i r m independent unions w e r e found in s e v e r a l o f the
l a r g e r n o n c e llu lo s ic plants.

A v e r a g e H o u r ly E a r n in g s
S t r a ig h t - t im e e a r n in g s o f the 62, 407 p rod u c tio n and r e la t e d w o r k e r s
in plants m an u fa c tu rin g sy n th e tic f i b e r s a v e r a g e d $ 2 .4 5 an hour in F e b r u a r y —
A p r i l 1966. 5
W o r k e r s in the n o n c e llu lo s ic b ra nch a v e r a g e d $ 2 .5 8 an hour,
c o m p a r e d w i t h $ 2 .2 7 f o r w o r k e r s i n plants p r i m a r i l y prod u cin g c e l l u l o s i c
fib ers.
A v e r a g e ea r n in g s o f w o r k e r s in both bra n ch es had i n c r e a s e d s lig h t ly
m o r e than 20 p e r c e n t sin ce O c t o b e r
1958, the date o f the e a r l i e r s u r v e y .

S lig h tly m o r e than t h r e e - f o u r t h s o f the w o r k e r s in the c e l l u l o s i c b ra n ch
w e r e in the South.
The a v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n in g s f o r th es e w o r k e r s ( $ 2 . 2 6 ) was
o n ly 1 cent b e lo w the national a v e r a g e f o r c e l l u l o s i c e s ta b lis h m e n t s .
A l l o f the
n o n c e llu lo s ic plants w e r e in the South.

M en, as a group, a v e r a g e d 33 cents an hour m o r e than w o m e n in the
n o n c e llu lo s ic bra n ch , and 21 cents m o r e in c e ll u l o s i c f i b e r s plants.
D ifferen c es
in a v e r a g e pa y l e v e l s f o r m e n and w o m e n m a y be the r e s u lt o f s e v e r a l f a c t o r s ,
including v a r ia t io n s in the d is tr ib u t io n o f the s e x e s am ong e s ta b lis h m e n ts and
am ong jo b s w ith d iv e r g e n t pay l e v e l s .
A s in d ic a te d p r e v io u s ly , the e m p lo y m e n t
o f w o m e n in both b r a n c h e s w as l a r g e l y confined to the fin is h in g d e p a r tm e n ts and
to in s p e c tio n and te s t in g jo b s .
® The straight-time average hourly earnings (excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends,
holidays, and late shifts) presented in this bulletin are not comparable with gross average hourly earnings published
in the Bureau's monthly hours and earnings series ($2.68 in February 1966). In this bulletin, average earnings were
calculated by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number of individuals; in the monthly series,
the sum of man-hour totals reported by the establishments in the industry was divided into the reported payroll totals.
The number of production and related woricers within scope of the survey differs from the number published in
the monthly series (72.6 thousand in February 1966) primarily because of differences in the industrial classification
of certain large units.




4

V i r t u a l l y a ll o f the w o r k e r s had h o u r ly ea rn in g s b e tw e e n $ 1. 50 and $3. 50
(ta b le 2), w ith e a r n in g s o f the m id d le h a lf ran gin g f r o m $ 2 . 1 4 to $ 2 .6 9 .
In d i­
v id u a l ea r n in g s w e r e so m e w h at m o r e c o n c e n tr a te d in the c e l l u l o s i c b r a n c h than
in the n o n c e llu lo s ic b r a n c h ( s e e ta b les 3 and 4).
N e a r l y t w o - t h ir d s o f the c e l ­
lu lo s ic w o r k e r s e a r n e d b e tw e e n $2 and $ 2 .5 0 an hour.
On the o th er hand, the
l a r g e s t c o n c e n tr a tio n o f n o n c e llu lo s ic w o r k e r s in any 50 -cen t w ag e i n t e r v a l was
s lig h t ly m o r e than t w o - f ift h s f o r those ea rn in g b e tw e e n $ 2 .2 0 and $ 2 .7 0 an hour.
C on trib u tin g to the d i s p e r s io n o f in d ivid u a l ea rn in g s w e r e such f a c t o r s as d i f ­
f e r e n c e s in e s ta b lis h m e n t pay l e v e l s and the w id e r a n g e o f s k ill r e q u ir e m e n t s .

O ccup ational E a r n in g s
O ccu p ation a l c la s s if ic a t io n s f o r w hich ea rn in g s data a r e p r e s e n te d in
ta b le s 5 and 7 accounted f o r a p p r o x im a t e ly s e ve n -te n th s o f the p ro d u c tio n and
r e l a t e d w o r k e r s in both in d u s tr y b r a n c h e s .
A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea rn in g s o f the
s e v e n s k ille d m ain ten an ce jo b s w e r e c l o s e l y grou p ed and w e r e the h ig h e st paid
am ong the job s studied s e p a r a t e ly in ea c h branch, ra n g in g b e tw e e n $ 3 .1 8 and
$ 3 .3 7 an hour in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants and b e tw ee n $ 2 . 6 4 and $ 2 .7 6 in c e llu lo s ic
f i b e r s plants. J a n ito rs , a v e r a g in g $ 1 . 9 6 an hour, w e r e the l o w e s t paid w o r k e r s
in c e ll u l o s i c f i b e r s plants, w h ile m a t e r i a l handling l a b o r e r s ( $ 2 . 0 4 ) w e r e the
lo w e s t paid in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants.

A v e r a g e h o u r ly ea rn in g s of w o r k e r s in the sa m e occu pation al c l a s s i f i ­
c a tio n w e r e n e a r l y a lw a y s h ig h e r in the n o n c e llu lo s ic b r a n c h than in the c e l l u l o s i c
b r a n c h o f the in d u s try . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s r a n ge d f r o m only a f e w cents an hour,
as in the c a s e o f f o r k l i f t tr u c k o p e r a t o r s , to m o r e than 47 cents an hour f o r each
o f the s k ille d m ain ten an ce jo b s . T h is d i f f e r e n c e in oc cu p a tion al w a g e r e la tio n s h ip s
is illu s t r a t e d in the fo llo w in g tabulation w hich e x p r e s s e s a v e r a g e s f o r a f e w
s e le c t e d jo b s as a p e r c e n t o f the a v e r a g e s f o r m e n j a n i t o r s , w hich w e r e $ 2 .0 8
in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants and $ 1 .9 6 in c e ll u l o s i c plants.

Plants primarily manufacturing—
Occupation
Janitors (m en)---------------------------Physical test operators
(w om en)---------------------------------Warper operators (w o m e n )--------Laboratory assistants (m en)--------Spinners, dry process (m e n )------Chemical operators (m e n )--------Electricians (m e n )---------------------

Noncellulosic fibers

Cellulosic fibers

100

100

113
115
129
132
140
160

103
117
112
123
118
137

Thus, e l e c t r i c i a n s a v e r a g e d 37 p e r c e n t m o r e than ja n it o r s in the c e ll u l o s i c f i b e r s
branch , but 60 p e r c e n t m o r e in the n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s branch.
E a r n in g s o f in d ivid u a l w o r k e r s v a r i e d g r e a t l y w ith in the sa m e jo b in both
b r a n c h e s o f the in d u s try . In m a n y in s ta n c e s , h o u rly e a r n in g s o f the h igh est paid
w o r k e r s e x c e e d e d those o f the lo w e s t paid in the sa m e jo b by $ 1 o r m o r e .
Thus,
so m e w o r k e r s in a c o m p a r a t i v e l y lo w - p a id jo b (as m e a s u r e d by the a v e r a g e
f o r a ll w o r k e r s ) e a r n e d m o r e than s o m e w o r k e r s in job s f o r w h ich h ig h e r a v e r a g e s
w ere recorded.
F o r e x a m p le , the fo llo w in g tabulation in d ic a te s a c o n s id e r a b le
o v e r l a p o f in d ivid u a l r a t e s f o r m e n m a t e r i a l handling l a b o r e r s and c h e m ic a l
o p e r a t o r s in both in d u s tr y b r a n c h e s .




5

Cellulosic fibers
_____ plants_________________
Laborers,
material
handling

Average hourly earnings
Under
$ 1. 70
$1. 80
$1. 90
$2.00
$2. 10
$2. 20
$2. 30
$2. 40
$2. 50
$2. 60

Chemical
operators

Noncellulosic fibers
________________ plants________
Laborers,
material
handling

-

1
1
2
1
2
12
139
90
49
17
1,506

646
$2.02

1,820
$2.92

69
44
2
138
30
350

_

$ 1 .7 0 -----------------------and under $ 1 .8 0 -------and under $ 1 .9 0 -------and under $ 2 .0 0 -------and under $2. 10-------and under $2. 20-------and under $2. 30-------and under $ 2 .4 0 -------and under $2. 50-------and under $ 2 .6 0 -------or m o re --------------------

2
109
244
98
297
56
1
3

5
8
292
467
467
732
273
243
165

Total number of workers-----Average hourly earnings------

810
$2.14

2,652
$2.31

-

-

Chemical
operators

-

11
2
-

Th e e a rn in g s d is p e r s io n f o r in d ivid u a l jo b s r e f l e c t s , in l a r g e m e a s u r e ,
d if f e r e n c e s in e s ta b lis h m e n t pay l e v e l s . A s i llu s t r a t e d in the f o llo w in g tabulation
f o r m e n c h e m ic a l o p e r a t o r s and w o m e n y a r n w in d e r s in the c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s
plants, t h e r e was a lm o s t as m uch v a r ia t io n in plant a v e r a g e s as t h e r e w as in
in d ivid u a l e a rn in g s .
Men chemical operators_______ _________Women yam winders
Number of
establish­
ments

Average hourly earnings
$1. 60
$1. 70
$1. 80
$1.90
$2. 00
$2. 10
$2. 20
$2. 30
$2. 40
$2. 50
$2. 60
$2. 70
$2. 80
$2. 90
$3. 00

and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and
and

under $ 1 .7 0 ---------------------------- ___
under $ 1 .8 0 ---------------------------- - under $ 1 .9 0 ---------------------------- - under $2.00 --------------------------- - under $2.10----------------------------under $2. 20---------------------------under $2. 30---------------------------under $2. 40---------------------------under $2. 50---------------------------under $2. 60 ---------------------------under $2. 70---------------------------under $2. 80 ---------------------------- - under $2. 90 ---------------------------- - under $3. 0 0 ---------------------------- - over----------------------------------------- - -

Number
of
workers1

Number of
establish­
ments 1

_

1
6
3
2
3
2
1

_

-

3
4
2
1
2
1
3

5
8
292
467
467
732
273
243
145
12
8
-

-

-

-

-

Number
of
workers 1
48
534
108
216
360
143
255
51
50
101
68
31
47
14
10

There is no necessary relationship between the number of establishments within an earnings classification and
the number of workers in an earnings interval.

E s ta b lis h m e n t P r a c t i c e s

and S u p p lem en ta ry W age P r o v i s i o n s

Data w e r e a ls o obtained on c e r t a in e s ta b lis h m e n t p r a c t i c e s .
These in ­
clu ded shift d i f f e r e n t ia ls f o r prod u c tio n w o r k e r s ; w o r k sched ules and su p p le­
m e n t a r y b e n e fits , such as paid h olid ay s and v a c a tio n s ; and v a r io u s health,
in s u ra n ce , and r e t i r e m e n t pen sio n plans f o r p rod u c tio n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
Scheduled W e e k ly H o u r s .
W o r k schedules o f 40 hours a w e e k a p p lie d to
m o r e than nine-ten th s o f the f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h if t w o r k e r s in both bra n ch es o f the
in d u s try (ta b le 8). V i r t u a l l y a ll o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e scheduled to w o r k 40 hours
a w eek .




6

Shift D i f f e r e n t i a l P r a c t i c e s . A l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f the p rod u ctio n w o r k e r s
a r e e m p lo y e d on shift w o r k be ca u s e o f the continuous nature o f synthetic f i b e r s
m an u factu ring o p e r a t io n s .
A p p r o x i m a t e l y t h r e e - f i f t h s of the w o r k e r s w e r e a s ­
signed to ro ta tin g sh ifts, w h e r e b y in d ivid u a ls p e r i o d i c a l l y w o r k e d day, evenin g, and
night sched ules. Shift d i f f e r e n t ia ls f o r th ese w o r k e r s v a r i e d c o n s id e r a b ly by e s ­
ta b lish m en t and schedule of w o r k .
W o r k e r s a s s ig n e d to the day schedule of r o ­
tating shifts fr e q u e n t ly w e r e p r o v id e d a paid lunch p e r io d not g iv e n to w o r k e r s
a s s ig n e d to the fix e d day shift.
When a s s ig n e d to e v en in g and night sched ules,
w o r k e r s on r o ta tin g shifts u s u a lly r e c e i v e d a c e n t s - p e r - h o u r o r p e r c e n ta g e d i f ­
f e r e n t i a l a bove day r a t e s , as w e l l as a paid lunch p e r io d .
L e s s than 5 p e r c e n t
o f the w o r k e r s in both bra n ch es w e r e a s s ig n e d to e it h e r o s c illa t in g shifts o r fix e d
ev en in g and night schedules (ta b les 9—11).
P a id H o l i d a y s .
P a id h olid a y s w e r e p r o v id e d to p ro d u c tio n and o f f i c e
w o r k e r s by a ll es ta b lis h m e n ts s u r v e y e d (tab le 12).
The l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f both
groups of w o r k e r s in the c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s b ra n ch w e r e in e s ta b lis h m e n ts p r o v id in g
7 days a y e a r .
In the n o n c e llu lo s ic branch, a p p r o x im a t e ly h a lf o f the w o r k e r s
r e c e i v e d 9 days, w ith m o s t o f the r e m a i n d e r r e c e i v i n g 7 o r 8 days.
P a id V a c a t io n s . P a id v a c a t io n s , a ft e r q u a lify in g p e r io d s o f s e r v i c e , w e r e
a ls o p r o v id e d to prod u c tio n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s by a ll e s ta b lis h m e n t s .
V a c a tio n
paym ents f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s n e a r ly a lw a y s w e r e d e t e r m in e d on the ba sis o f the
e m p l o y e e 's r e g u la r s a l a r y f o r a s p e c if ie d len gth o f t im e .
Th is m eth od o f p a y ­
m ent a lso ap p lie d to a l a r g e m a j o r i t y o f the prod u c tio n w o r k e r s in n o n c e llu ­
lo s ic plants; v a c a t io n paym ents f o r prod u c tio n w o r k e r s in c e ll u l o s i c plants, h o w ­
e v e r , w e r e m o s t c o m m o n ly b a se d on a stipu lated p e r c e n t of the e m p l o y e e 's
ea r n in g s (tab le 13).
P r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s in c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s plants u su a lly r e c e i v e d 1 w e e k
o f v a c a t io n pay a ft e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e , 2 w eek s a ft e r 3 y e a r s , 3 w eek s a ft e r
12 y e a r s , and 4 w eek s a ft e r 20 y e a r s o r m o r e o f s e r v i c e . V a c a t io n p r o v is io n s f o r
p rod uction w o r k e r s w e r e so m ew h at m o r e l i b e r a l in n o n c e llu lo s ic plants.
For
e x a m p le , the m a j o r i t y o f these w o r k e r s w e r e in plants p r o v id in g 2 w eek s o f
v a c a t io n pay a ft e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v i c e , 3 w eek s a ft e r 5 y e a r s , 4 w eek s a ft e r
10 y e a r s , and 5 w eek s a ft e r 20 y e a r s . In the c e l l u l o s i c f i b e r s branch , v a c a t io n
p r o v is io n s w e r e m o r e l i b e r a l f o r o f f i c e w o r k e r s than f o r p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s .
In
the n o n c e llu lo s ic f i b e r s branch, h o w e v e r , v a c a t io n p r o v is io n s w e r e g e n e r a l l y
s i m i l a r f o r both group s o f w o r k e r s .
Health, In su ran ce, and P e n s io n P l a n s .
L i f e , h o s p ita liz a tio n , m e d ic a l,
and s u r g ic a l in s u ra n ce , fin an c ed at le a s t in pa rt by e m p l o y e r s , w e r e r e p o r t e d
by e s ta b lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g o v e r nine-ten th s of the prod u c tio n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s
(tab le 14).
Sickness and a ccid en t in s u ra n ce a ls o w as a v a ila b le to the l a r g e
m a j o r i t y o f the p rod u c tio n w o r k e r s .
A lth o u gh only about o n e - h a lf o f the o f f i c e
w o r k e r s w e r e p r o v id e d sic k n e ss and a ccid en t in s u ra n ce , n e a r ly nine-tenths w e r e
in es ta b lis h m e n ts g ra n tin g paid s ic k l e a v e (fu ll pay and no w a itin g p e r io d ), w h e r e a s
the la t t e r b e n e fit a p p lie d to only t h r e e -t e n th s of the p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s .
M ost
c o m m o n ly , health and in s u ra n ce b e n e fit plans w e r e fin a n c ed e n t i r e l y by the e m ­
p lo ye rs.
In m o s t in s ta n ce s, h o s p it a liz a tio n , s u r g ic a l, and m e d i c a l b e n efits c o v ­
e r e d both the e m p lo y e e s and t h e ir dependents.
R e t i r e m e n t pension b e n e fits (o th e r than those a v a ila b le under s o c ia l
s e c u r ity ) a p p lie d to v i r t u a l l y a ll plant and o f f i c e w o r k e r s .
T h e s e plans w e r e
e m p l o y e r - f i n a n c e d f o r a l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f the w o r k e r s .
O ther S e le c t e d B e n e f i t s .
F o r m a l p r o v is io n s f o r pa y m en t to e m p lo y e e s
p e r m a n e n tly s e p a r a t e d as a r e s u lt of f o r c e red u c tio n a r is in g out o f the in tro d u ctio n
o f new equipm ent o r f r o m d e p a r tm e n t o r unit c lo s in g s w e r e r e p o r t e d by e s t a b ­
lis h m e n ts e m p lo y in g 58 p e r c e n t o f the prod u c tio n w o r k e r s and 50 p e r c e n t of the
office w o rk e rs .
F i f t e e n p e r c e n t o f the p ro d u c tio n w o r k e r s , e m p lo y e d on a fix e d day
shift, and 2 p e r c e n t o f the o f f i c e w o r k e r s w e r e in e s ta b lis h m e n t s p r o v id in g a
f o r m a l paid lunch p e r io d (30 m in u te s ).






Table 1.

Average Hourly Earnings:

By Selected Characteristics

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tra ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs 1 o f prod u ction w o r k e r s in syn th etic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts
by s e le c te d c h a r a c te r is tic s , U nited States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
U nited States 2

South

Item

N um ber
of
w ork ers

A verage
h ou rly
earn in gs

Num ber
of
w ork ers

A l l p rod u ction w o r k e r s -----------------------------------------------------M e n -----------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n _________________________________________________________

62,407
43,996
18,411

$2. 45
2. 53
2. 27

56,368
39,673
16,695

$2. 47
2. 55
2. 28

G e llu lo s ic fib e r s esta b lish m en ts----------------------------------------M e n ------------------------------------------------------------------------------W o m e n _____________________________________ ____________________

26,712
19,950
6,762

2. 27
2. 32
2. 11

20,673
15,627
5,046

2. 26
2. 32
2. 10

N o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s estab lish m en ts 3 --------------------------------M e n _____________________________________________________________
W o m e n .............................................................................................

35,695
24,046
11,649

2. 58
2. 69
2. 36

35,695
24,046
11,649

2. 58
2. 69
2. 36

1 E xclu des p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h o lid a y s ,
2 Includes data fo r reg io n s in addition to the South.
3 A l l n o n cellu lo sic fib e r s estab lish m en ts w e r e lo c a te d in the South.
NOTE:

A vera ge
h ou rly
ea rn in gs

and late sh ifts.

Dashes in dicate that data do not m e e t p u b lication c r it e r ia .

■vl




Table 2.

Earnings Distribution:

00

All Establishments

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n o f p rodu ction w o rk e rs in syn th etic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts b y a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e
h ou rly e a r n in g s ,1 U nited States and South, F e b r u a r y — p r il 1966)
A
South

U nited States 2
A v e r a g e h o u rly earn in gs 1

----------------------------------■
---U n der $ 1. 50---- ------—
1 .6 0 ----------------------------------1 .7 0 ----------------------------------1 .8 0 ----------------------------------1 .9 0 ----------------------------------2. 00------ ---------„------------------

A ll
w o rk e rs

W om en

M en

A ll
w o rk e rs

M en

W om en

0. 2

0. 2

0. 1

0. 2

0. 3

0. 1

.5
1. 1
2. 1
4 .4
4. 1

.4
.2
.8
2. 1
3 .9

.6
3. 2
5. 2
10. 0
4 .4

.5
1.0
2. 2
4. 0
3.7

.4
.2
.8
2. 3
3. 7

.6
3. 1
5. 5
7 .9
3.7

7
5
8
6
0

8. 8
10.4
7.7
13. 3
6. 7

6. 9
11.0
8. 6
12. 0
7. 9

13. 3
9. 0
5. 7
16.4
3. 6

$ 1. 50
$ 1 .6 0
$ 1.70
$ 1 .8 0
$ 1.90

and
and
and
and
and

u nder
under
u nder
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

$ 2. 00
$ 2 ,1 0
$ 2 .2 0
$ 2 .3 0
$ 2 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2.
$ 2,
$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 2.

10----------------------------------20----------------------------------30----------------------------------40---------------------------------—
50-----------------------------------

8. 7
10. 1
8. 5
13. 6
7 .4

$ 2. 50
$ 2 .6 0
$ 2 .7 0
$ 2 .8 0
$ 2. 90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2.
$ 2.
$ 2,
$ 2.
$ 3.

60___________________________
70— , -----------------------------80----------------------------------90___________________________
00___________________________

2. 1
12.9
2. 7
4. 9
6. 7

2. 6
8 .4
3 .4
6 .6
8.4

1. 1
23. 9
.9
.8
2. 5

1.8
13. 8
2. 8
4. 7
7. 3

2. 5
8. 7
3. 7
6 .4
9. 3

$ 3. 00
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 .2 0
$ 3. 30
$ 3 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

u nder
under
u nder
under
u nder

$ 3. 10__ -----------------------------$ 3. 20----- ----------------------------$ 3. 30—. ------------------------------$ 3 .4 0 —— .................. ..................
$ 3 . 50-----------------------------------

.
2.
2.
.
3.

5
5
0
5
5

.7
3 .4
2. 9
.6
5. 0

. 1
.4
( 3)
. 1
. 1

.5
2.7
2. 3
.5
3 .9

.7
3.7
3. 2
.7
5. 5

( 3)
.4
( 3)
. 1

$ 3. 50 and o v e r ------------------------------ ---------------

1.0

1.4

(3)

1. 1

1. 5

( 3)

T o t a l-------------------------- ---------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

100. 0

39,673
$ 2 . 55

16,695
$ 2 . 28

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s --------------------- —.....................
A v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in g s 1------ ------------------------

62,407
$ 2 .4 5

7.
10.
9.
12.
8.

0
8
6
7
9

43,996
$ 2 . 53

12.
8.
5.
15.
4.

100. 0
18,411
$ 2. 27

1 Excludes prem ium pay for overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
z Includes data for regions in addition to the South.
3 L e s s than 0, 05 percent.
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f rounding, sums o f in d ivid u al item s m ay not equ al 100.

56,368
$ 2 .4 7

.
26.
.
.
2.

3
0
8
7
7

( 3)




Table 3-

Earnings Distribution:

Cellulosic Fibers

(P e r c e n t d istrib u tio n of produ ction w o r k e r s in c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m an u factu rin g e sta b lish m en ts by a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t-tim e
h o u rly e a rn in g s, 1 U nited States and South, F e b r u a r y — p r il 1966)
A
U nited States 2
A v e r a g e h ou rly earn in gs 1

U n der $ 1.50_______

A ll
w ork ers

South

M en

A ll
w o rk e rs

W om en

M en

W om en

( 3)

(3)

0.1

(3)

( 3)

and
and
and
and
and

unde r
unde r
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1.60 __________________________ _
1.7 0 ___ -________________________
1.80_ _________________________
1.9 0 _______ _______ _______
2 .0 0 ._____ ____________________

0.1
1.0
3.4
5.1
7.1

0.1
.3
.6
2.7
6.1

.2
3.1
11.5
12.1
10.3

0.1
.9
4.1
4.0
7.1

0.1
.2
.7
3.3
6.1

2.9
14.4
6.0
10.0

$ 2 .0 0 and
$ 2 .1 0 and
$ 2.20.-and
$ 2.30 and
$ 2.40 and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 .1 0 ____________________________
$ 2 .2 0 ____________ ________________
$ 2 .3 0 —__________________________
$ 2 .4 0 ____________________________
$ 2 .5 0 _________________________ _

12.1
15.7
13.5
14.0
9.8

11.3
15.4
13.4
16.6
12.3

14.5
16.7
13.7
6.2
2.5

13.4
18.1
12.9
13.4
8.4

12.2
17.2
11.8
15.8
10.8

17.2
21.0
16.2
5.9
.8

$
$
$
$
$

$ 1 .5 0
$ 1 .6 0
$ 1.70
$ 1.80
$ 1.90

______________________________

_

2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2 .6 0 —__________________________
2 .7 0 ____________________________
2 .8 0 __ _________________________
2 .9 0 ________________________
3 .0 0 ___ _____________________ —

4.1
4.2
3.5
3.6
1.2

4.5
4.7
4.3
4.5
1.5

2.7
2.8
1.0
.9
.3

3.8
4.0
4.1
2.8
1.3

4.9
4.5
5.3
3.5
1.7

.5
2.6
.5
.6
.2

$ 3 .0 0
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3,20
$ 3.30
$ 3.40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

3 .1 0 __ ___________________ __
3 .2 0 ____________________________
3 .3 0 __ _____________________ —
3 .4 0 ____________________________
3 .5 0 —
_______________________ ——

.1
.6
.7
(3)
(3)

(3)
.5
1.0
-

.2
.8
(3)
( 3)
( 3)

( 3)
.6
.9
( 3)

( 3)
.5
1.2
_

(3)
1.1
_

$ 3 .5 0 and o v e r

____ _________________________

-

(3)

(3)

-

N u m b er of w o r k e r s - __________________ ____________
A v e r a g e h o u rly earn in gs 1 _______________________

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

.1

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

26,712
$ 2.27

19, 950
$ 2.32

6, 762
$ 2.11

20, 673
$ 2.26

15, 627
$ 2.32

5, 046
$ 2.10

1 E xclu d es p rem iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eeken ds,
2 In clu des data fo r re g io n s in addition to the South.
3 L e s s than 0.05 p ercen t.
NOTE:

B ecau se of rounding,

h o lid a ys,

and late

sh ifts.

sums o f in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equ al 100.

(0




Table 4.

Earnings Distribution:

Noncellulosic Fibers

O

(P e r c e n t d is trib u tio n of produ ction w o rk e rs in n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m an u factu rin g e sta b lish m en ts by a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e
h ou rly e a rn in g s , 1 U nited S ta te s , 2 F e b r u a r y '- A p r il 1966)
A v e r a g e h ou rly earn in gs 1
2

A ll w o rk e rs

M en

W om en

U nder $ 1 .5 0 .................................... .....................................................

0.3

0.4

0.1

$ 1.50
$ 1.60
$ 1.70
$ 1 .8 0
$ 1.90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
u nder
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

1.60_______________________________ _____ ___
1.70___________________________________________
1.80 _______ _____________________________ _
1.90________________________________________ __
2.00_______ _________________________ __ _

.7
1.1
1.1
3.9
i .8

.6
.2
.9
1.6
2.2

.9
3.2
1.6
8.7
1.0

$ 2 .0 0
$ 2.10
$ 2.20
$ 2.30
$ 2.40

and
and
and
and
and

u nder
under
u nder
under
under

$ 2 .1 0 _________________________________________
$ 2.20------------ ----------------------------------------$ 2.30------------- ------------------------------------$ 2.40_ ______________________ ______ _______
$ 2.50----- ------- -------------------------- -----------

6.1
5.9
4.7
13.3
5.7

3.5
7.0
6.4
9.6
6.1

11.6
3.8
1.2
21.0
4.9

$
$
$
$
$

2.50
2.60
2.70
2.80
2.90

and
and
and
and
and

under
u nder
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

2.60_____________________ __________________
2.70 --------------------------------------- ---2.80 --------------------------------- __ ------- _
2.90— -------------------------------------------------3.00---------- ---------------------- __ -----------

.7
19.5
2.0
5.8
10.8

.9
11.4
2.6
8.3
14.2

.2
36.2
.9
.7
3.7

$ 3 .0 0
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 .2 0
$ 3.30
$ 3.40

and
and
and
and
and

unde r
unde r
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

3.1 0__________________________ ____________
3.2 0________________________________________ __
3.30 _________________________________ __
3.40_____ ___________________________ - _
3.5 0___________________________________________

.8
4.0
3.0
.8
6.2

1.2
5.8
4.5
1.1
9.1

( 3)
.1
( 3)
.1
.1

$ 3.50 and o v e r .

____

__

__________________________

________

T o t a l____________________________________ - ________ __
N u m b er of w o r k e r s ____________________________________________
A v e r a g e h o u rly ea rn in g s 1_______________________________________

1.6

2.4

100.0

100.0

100.0

35,695
$ 2.58

24,046
$ 2.69

11,649
$ 2.36

1 E x clu d es p re m iu m pay fo r o v e rtim e and fo r w o rk on w eek en d s, h olid a ys,
2 A ll n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s estab lish m en ts w e re lo c a te d in the South.
3 L e s s than 0.05 p ercen t.
NOTE:

B eca u se of rounding,

sums of individual item s m ay not equal 100.

and late

sh ifts.

Table 5.

Occupational Earnings:

Cellulosic Fibers— United States

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly ea rn in gs 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d occu pation s in c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m an u factu rin g
esta b lish m en ts, U nited States, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
A verage
$1.50 $1.60
hourly
of
and
Under
w o r k ­ e a rn ­
$1.50 under
ers
ings 1
$1.60 $1.70

N u m b er o f

N um -

D ep a rtm en t, occu p ation , and sex

'o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h o u rly ea rn in gs o f—

$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2.00

$2.10

$2.20

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50 $2.60 $2.70' $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50

$1.80

$1.90

$2.00

$2.10

$2.20

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 o v e r

and

M ain ten an ce
C a rp e n te rs (a ll m e n )-----------------E le c tr ic ia n s (a ll m e n )--------------H e lp e r s , tra d e s (a ll m e n ) --------In stru m en t re p a ir m e n (a ll m en ) .
M ach in ists (a ll m e n )-----------------M e c h a n ic s , g e n e r a l (a ll m e n ) --M illw r ig h ts (a ll m e n )---------------P ip e fit t e r s (a ll m e n )------------------

138 $2. 69
342
2. 69
2. 18
391
2. 66
159
204
2. 71
2. 64
41 1
714
2. 71
2. 76
406

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_

_
.

'

P r o c e s s in g
C h e m ic a l o p e r a to r s , c e llu lo s ic
fib e r (a ll m e n )-----------------------C r e e l t e n d e r s ---------------------------M e n -------------------------------------W o m e n __________________________
J e tm e n ______________________________
M e n .................. .........................
W o m e n __________________________
S p in n ers, d ry p r o c e s s ____________
M e n ______________________________
S p in n ers, w et p r o c e s s (a ll m en).
T h r o w e r s ( t w is t e r s )------------------W o m e n __________________________
T o w o p e r a to r s (a ll m e n )----------W a r p e r o p e r a t o r s ---------------------M e n -------------------------------------W o m e n __________________________
W a sh er o p e r a to r s (527 m en and
1 0 w o m e n )______________________
W in d e rs , y a r n --------------------------M e n -------------------------------------W o m e n __________________________

2, 652
706
96
610
184
97
87
1,403
1,091
2, 431
1,406
1,115
266
744
73
671

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

31
10
05
11
15
26
02
40
41
26
09
12
34
32
56
30

537
2, 147
11 1
2, 036

2.
2.
2.
2.

17
08
01
09

174
149
25
264
32
232

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

25
20
50
04
19
02

75
508
464
44
874
810
115
381

2. 19
1. 96
1.96
1. 97
2. 14
2. 14
2. 30
2. 26

100
44

2. 13
2. 25

_
-

'

_
_
_
_
_

_
_

_
_

_

_
_
_

_
9
_

6
_

_
_

_
_

'

4

1

.

_

4

1

_

_
-

-

-

-

-

.
-

-

-

-

-

-

_
43
-

-

115
-

-

1

5

-

-

5
185
4
181
35
_

292
66
55
11
19
14
5

8
105
20
85
2
-

2

35

.

-

-

1
59
58

-

19
66
1
11
19
25
97
41

467
150
13
137
66
21
45
9
9
833
370
301
21
174
10
164

467
66

732
54

273
28

-

-

-

66
23
23

54
19
19

-

-

-

-

-

-

102

9

35

14

78

201
255

10
51

16
50

5
101

5
68

45
12
7

1

27
73
12
29
60
57
160
108

243
19

145
7

12
8

-

-

28
12
12

19

7
8
8

-

-

-

1
-

5
152
-

37
100
-

40
66

14
21
11
4

-

-

255

60
33

129

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

6
14
_
11
10
58
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

34

_

-

122
53
497
355
351
8
102

578
335
833
33
33
195
9

633
633
183
16
16
40
35

-

-

8

8
4
1
3

3
2
1

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

136
29
107

32
208
199
2
43
43

27
235
19
216

151
441
81
360

121
144
1
143

-

-

-

-

-

_

255

51

50

101

68

4
3
1
39
6
33

62
61
1
73
2
71

20
14
6
29
2
27

16
11
5
7
5
2

13
9
4
11
9
2

2
2
-

8
57
57

6
51
51

10
4
4

-

-

-

162
98
7
26

297
297
20
144

56
56
41
100

1
1
31
50

10
3

22
6

14
8

7

247
39

-

-

'

-

.

_

_

_

_
.

_
_

48
-

_

-

"

48

534

1
118
10
108

_

_

_

5
5

16
16

_

_

-

_
_

23
23

11
11

10
1
9

15
14
1
61
7
54

-

_
-

14
94
89
5
109
109
8
6

12
77
52
25
244
244
4
45

6
9

48

-

-

2

-

-

2

-

2

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

89
34
55

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
1
1

-

_
-

-

4

-

_

61
61
48

48
48

-

534

22
19
8
10
30
99
30

-

.
-

-

_

4
100
100

-

3
40
128
44
24
14
26
22

-

'

_

17
17

9
5
77
4
6
24
5
1

1
3

1
1
14

78

3

-

-

-

-

-

9

3

-

4

31

47
47

14

_

1

1

-

-

_

14

3
3

_

31

1

“

1

1

4

3
3
_

4
2
2

6
5
1

3

1
1
_

1
1
_

-

-

-

3

_

-

_

3
2
1

"

“

"

'

"

"

■

"

•

•

7
5
5

9

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_
_

-

_

_

-

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

'

"

“

-

-

-

-

9

-

1

4

In s p e c tio n and te s tin g
L a b o r a to r y a s s is t a n t s ___________
M e n _____________________________
W o m e n __________________________
P h y s ic a l te s t o p e r a t o r s -----------M e n _____________________________
W o m e n ---------------------------------

-

M is c e lla n e o u s
G uards (a ll m e n ) ------------------------------J a n ito r s ___________________________________
M e n ____________________________________
W o m e n _________________________________
L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h a n d lin g __________
M e n ____________________________________
Stock c le r k s (a ll m e n ) __________________
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (fo r k lift ) (a ll m en ) ..
T r u c k e r s , p ow er (o th e r than fo r k lift )
(a ll m e n )________________________________
W atchm en (a ll m e n )_____________________

E x clu d es p re m iu m
NO TE:

.

_

-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

7
213
199
14
2
2
2
10

_

_

_

_

_

-

-

3

•

7
7
-

_
-

pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends,

D ashes in d ica te no data re p o rte d or data that do not




h olid ays,

and late

sh ifts.

:et pu b lication c r it e r ia .

_

2

7

Table 6.

Occupational Earnings:

Cellulosic Fibers---- South

1
0

(N u m b e r and a v e ra g e s tr a ig h t-tim e hourly earn in gs 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d occu pations in c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m anufacturing
esta b lish m en ts, South, F e b r u a r y — p r il 1966)
A
Num D ep a rtm en t, occu p ation , and s ex

of

Aver age
$1.50
h ou rly T T ^ t
$1.50 under
m gs 1
$1.60

N u m b er o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs o f—
$1.60

$1.70 $1.80 $1.90

$2.00

$2.10

$2.20

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3,001 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50

$1.70

$1.80 $1.90 $2.00

$2.10

$2.20

$2.30

$2.40

$2.50

$2.60

$2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50

and
over

M ain ten an ce
C a rp e n te rs ( a l l m e n )------------------ --------—
E le c tr ic ia n s (a ll m e n )------------- -------------H e lp e r s , tra d e s ( a l l m e n )---------------------In stru m en t re p a ir m e n ( a ll m e n )-----------M a ch in ists (a l l m e n )-----------------------------M ech a n ic s , g e n e r a l ( a ll m e n )---------------M illw r ig h ts ( a l l m e n ) ------------ ---------------P ip e fit t e r s ( a l l m en) -............ ..... .................

.
29
1
-

.
79
5
-

_
3
45
12
3

9
2
77
3
2
24
5
1

1
30
87
44
21
10
23
12

22
19
7
9
16
98
30

15
48
1
7
19
1
97
11

1
1
152
1

27
73
12
29
60
57
160
108

23
53
34
40
118
82

14
21
11
4
60
33

-

.
-

6
14
11
10
58
34

.
-

_
-

-

-

_
6
-

17
17
6
6

4
98
98
496
496

5
128
4
124
35
35
1
11
10
44
44
1
41
10
31

4
49
20
29
2
2
237
29
116
29
87
27
176
19
157

260
56
55
1
16
11
5
32
199
190
2
10
10
109
420
81
339

369
123
13
110
57
12
45
9
9
697
359
290
8
168
10
158
121
132
1
131

377
38
38
15
15

492
10
10
17
17

177
3
3
12
12

243
1
1
-

136
8
8

12
-

8
2
1
1

2
2
-

1
1

-

1
1
-

-

-

1
1

122
53
179
313
309
8
100
100
127
244
244

578
335
509

245
24 5
183

-

61
61
48

195
35
35

40
16
25
25

5
22
22

60
60
5
47
47

-

-

-

-

89
34
55

-

-

-

-

21
21

29
29

6
6

1
1

1
1

-

1
1

-

3
3

5
5
10
10

16
16
8
1
7

15
14
1
58
7
51

3
3
39
6
33

28
28
73
2
71

20
14
6
29
2
27

14
9
5
7
5
2

10
6
4
11
9
2

1
1
-

2
2

4
2
2

6
5
1

3
3

1
1

1
1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3
2
1

-

3
3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
4
4
10
10
41
72

-

-

6
30
30
228
228
8
134

-

-

4
57
57
162
98
6
18

7
5
5
-

-

12
75
52
23
194
194
4
42

1

-

14
40
35
5
76
76
6
6

1

.
-

7
210
199
11
2
2
2
10

1

_
-

-

-

-

-

6
4

48

5
3

6

13

6

8

117
264
300
146
166
369
573
315

$ 2. 69
2.69
2. 19
2. 66
2. 71
2. 65
2. 68
2. 79

_
-

.
-

2, 083
415
96
319
162
75
87
1, 015
703
1,653
1,234
943
253
587
73
514
411
1, 706
111
1, 595

2. 31
2. 05
2. 05
2. 05
2. 15
2. 29
2. 02
2. 39
2.41
2. 26
2. 09
2. 12
2. 35
2. 32
2. 56
2. 28
2. 17
2. 05
2. 01
2. 06

-

-

-

-

132
109
23
238
32
206

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

26
20
53
08
19
06

-

-

-

-

-

63
428
389
39
675
611
80
327

2. 15
1.95
1.95
1.98
2. 13
2. 13
2. 29
2. 26

.
7
7
-

78
36

2. 10
2. 33

9
-

-

-

.
-

P r o c e s s in g
C h e m ic a l o p e r a t o r s , c e llu lo s ic
fib e r (a ll m e n )------------------------------------C r e e l t e n d e r s ---------------------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------J e tm e n --------------------------------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------S p in n ers, d r y p r o c e s s --------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------S pin n ers, w e t p r o c e s s ( a ll m e n )-----------T h r o w e r s (t w is t e r s ) ------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------T o w o p e r a to r s (a l l m e n )-----------------------W a r p e r o p e r a t o r s ___________________________
M e n ------------------------------------- ------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------W a s h e r o p e r a to r s (a l l m e n )------------------W in d e r s , y a r n --------------------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------

-

In s p e c tio n and te s tin g
L a b o r a t o r y a s s is t a n t s --------------------------M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------P h y s ic a l te s t o p e r a t o r s ................................
M e n --------------------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------M is c e lla n e o u s
G uards ( a ll m e n )-----------------------------------uatiiro r s
M e n ------------ -------------------------------------W o m e n ---------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a t e r ia l h a n d lin g ----------------M e n -------------------- ------------------------- ---Stock c le r k s (a ll m e n ) ----------------------------------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (fo r k lift ) (a ll m e n ) ------T r u c k e r s , p o w e r (o th e r than fo r k lift )
(a l l m e n ) ---------------------------------------------------------w a icn m en ^c tn m en j --------------------------------------

-

E xclu d es p re m iu m p ay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eekends, h olid a ys, and late sh ifts.
N O TE:

D ash es in d icate




data r e p o r te d o r data that do not m eet pu blication c r it e r ia .

12
45

1

-

7

7

1

3
3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Table 7.

Occupational Earnings:

Noncellulosic Fibers

(N u m b er and a v e ra g e s tra ig h t-tim e h ou rly ea rn in gs 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d occu pation s in n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m an u factu rin g
e sta b lish m en ts, U nited S tates, 2 F e b r u a r y — p r il 1966)
A
Num D ep a rtm en t, occu pation , and sex

of
w o rk ci s

Aver
age
$1.50 $1.60
hou rly TTnHe r
*
earn $1.50 under
ings
$1.60 $1.70

N u m ber o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr a ig h t-tim e h ou rly earn in gs o f—
$1.70

$1.80

$1.90

$2.00 $2.10

$2.20

$2.30

$1.80

“

$2.00

$2.10 $2.20

$2.30

-

$1.90

$2.40

$2.40 '$2.50
$2.50

$2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $^.50

and
"
"
$2.60 $2.70 $2.80 $2.90 $3.00 $3.10 $3.20 $3.30 $3.40 $3.50 o v e r

M aintenanc e
C a rp e n te rs (a ll m e n )-----------------------------—
E le c t r ic ia n s (a ll m en ) -_____________________
H e lp e r s , tra d e s (a ll m e n )----------------------In stru m en t r e p a ir m e n (a ll m e n ) ------------M a ch in ists (a ll m e n )------------------------------M e c h a n ic s , g e n e r a l (a ll m e n )----------------M illw r ig h ts (a ll m e n )----------- ------------------P ip e fit t e r s (a ll m e n )-------------------------------

109 $3. 33
3. 32
629
2. 46
41 1
285
3. 37
246
3. 29
1,844
3. 24
368
3. 18
330
3. 34

.
-

_
-

_
3
-

_
1
-

_
1
-

_
4
4

_
22
3
-

■

-

-

-

2
20

1
-

2
361
160
201
834
164
670
_
3
20
114

2
-

55
2
2
27
2
2

_
11
25
4

_
2
97
3
24
2

-

_
4
1
19
1

-

28

_
16
173
3
191
5

-

_
5

_
2
40
_
1
3
18

-

-

_
2

-

49
2
18
97
2
2

-

_

5
27

2
106
_
52
14
178
24
88

2
31
.
31
18
_
117
36

63
278

11
14
19
21
12

28
44
_
16
36
172
38
24

-

107
136
770
97
166

7
72
_
64
_
316
-

P r o c e s s in g
C h e m ic a l o p e r a to r s , n o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r (a ll m e n ) -------------------- ----------------- 1,820
C r e e l t e n d e r s ----------------------------------------- 1, 326
M Pn
757
Wnmpn
569
D ra w tw is t o p e r a t o r s ________________________ 5, 059
711
M e n ____________ ____________________________
W o m e n ----------------------------------------------- 4, 348
J e tm e n ---------------------------------------------------221
M e n ________________________________________
197
S p in n ers, d ry p r o c e s s (a ll m e n )...---------- 4, 385
S p in n ers, w et p r o c e s s (a ll rp en )------------324
T o w o p e r a t o r s _______________________________
990
M e n ---------------------------------------------------954
W a rp e r o p e r a t o r s ____________________________ 1, 373
Men ...
200
W o m e n _____________________________________ 1, 173
W in d e rs , y a r n _______________________________
907
W o m e n ----------------------------------------------408

2. 92
2. 21
2. 20
2.21
2. 37
2. 33
2. 38
2. 59
2. 57
2.75
2. 38
2. 64
2. 67
2. 41
2. 44
2. 40
2. 20
2. 06

2
2

10
10

1
-

1
-

4
4
4
-

43
43
_
2
-

-

-

-

2
2

14
14
_
_
10
16
5
1
4
-

10
6
4
12
12
28
8
8
7
7

_
-

2
2

20
360
74
286
1
1
-

-

35
35

139
2
137
254
202

12
14

49
111
111

17
-

131
_

138
_

13
_

240
_

73
_

597
_

314
_

_
_

_
_

382
82
300
2
2
291
33
35
35
64

_
_
3
35
21
21
-

_
_
20
20
247
46
8
8
-

_
_
_
62
62
984

112
112
_
28
18
1862
14
166
166
_

_
_
_
_
_
-

_
_
_
_
_
-

_

_

-

-

_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_
_
.
_
_
_
.
_
_

_
_

1919
124
1795
31
17
469
6
557
557
683
91
592
18
-

_
_

_
36
17

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

_
_

-

-

-

145
45
100
_

359
121
238
50
48
2

16
12
4
_
_

17
11
6
_
_

-

294
281
13
28
28
-

-

14

139
486
386
100

_
24
114
-

5
5
146
44
-

.
-

_
-

-

114
48
48

90
322
88
234
1324
92
1232
60
60
281
32
50
50
358
96
262
354

-

-

-

64
160
104

57
57
_
31
1
1
-

-

"

-

109
109
_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

_

_
_

-

-

-

11
9
2
_
_

17
7
10
_
_

15
7
8
_
_

29
29

-

-

-

-

-

In s p e c tio n and te s tin g
1, 346
925
421
1, 532
407
1, 125

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

73
68
85
41
55
36

_
1
1

_
17
17

3
3
30
30

12
11
1
6
6

23
23
48
1
47

45
45
_
40
12
28

19
17
2
166
1
165

39
35
4
46
3
43

39
35
4
12
1
11

69
52
17
395
138
257

26
22
4
16
1
15

41
39
2
-

127
121
6
677
174
503

178
585
530
55
731
646
152
339

2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.
2.

82
08
08
11
04
02
80
28

_
3
3
26
26
_
32

.
16
13
3
43
43
_
1

.
1
1

_
13
13
44
44
1

2
44
44
2
2
18

7
95
89
6
138
138
_
5

3
24
24
30
30
7
1

1
390
344
46
435
350
3
2

4
3
59

31
11
11
2
49

15
_
_
_
2
2
2
114

2
_
..
_

1
_
_

2
_
_
_

15
_
_
-

19
_
_
_

4
_
_
.

24
_
_
_

48
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_

2
16

_
_
1

_
2
1

_
58

_
70
38

_
_

_
1

_

_
1

_

.

_

_
_

'

L a b o r a to r y a s s is t a n t s ______________________
M e n ---------------------------------------------------W o m e n ...__________________________________
P h y s ic a l te s t o p e r a t o r s ____________________
M e n ________________________________________
W o m e n -----------------------------------------------

'

'

'

_
.

M is c e lla n e o u s
G uards (a ll m e n )------------------------------------J a n ito r s --------------------------------------------------M e n ---------------------------------------------------W o m e n ----------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , m a te r ia l h a n d lin g ______________
M e n -------------------------------- -------------------Stock c le r k s (a ll m e n )______________________
T r u c k e r s , p o w er ( fo r k lift ) (a ll m e n ) ------

1 E xclu d es p re m iu m pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o rk on w eeken ds, h o lid a ys,
2 A l l n o n c e llu lo s ic f ib e r s estab lish m en ts w e r e located in the South.
N O TE:

and late

sh ifts.

D ash es in d ica te no data re p o rte d o r data that do not m eet p u b lication c r it e r ia .




C
O

Table 8.

Scheduled W eekly Hours

(P e r c e n t o f p rod u ction and o ffic e w o rk e rs in synthetic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts by scheduled w e e k ly hours o f d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s , 1
United States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
P ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs
A ll estab lish m en ts

S cheduled w e e k ly hours

O ffic e w o rk e rs

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s
U nited
States

U nited
States 1
2

A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------37V2 h o u r s -------------------------------------------------------40 h o u r s ______________________________________________
42 h o u r s ______________________________________________

South

100

100

100

100

2
94
4

2
94
4

4
96

5
95

1 D ata r e la te to the p red om in a n t w o rk schedule in each estab lish m en t.
2 In clu d es data f o r re g io n s in a d dition to the South.
3 A l l n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s es ta b lis h m e n ts w e r e lo ca ted in the South.
N O TE:

B eca u se o f rounding,




sum s o f in d ivid u al item s m ay not equal 100.

South

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

100

93
7

A ll esta b lish m en ts
U nited
States

South

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s
U nited
States

South

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

100

100

100

100

100

2
98

2
98

4
96

5
95

1
99

Table 9.

Shift Differential Practices---- All Establishments

(P e r c e n t o f p rodu ction w o rk e rs a ssign ed to s e le c te d shifts in synthetic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts by type o f sh ift and amount o f shift d iffe r e n tia l,
United States and South, F e b r u a r y —A p r il 1966)
U nited States 1
Rotating shifts 2

Shift d iffe r e n t ia l
Day
schedules
(1st)

Evening
schedule s
(2d)

South

O s c illa tin g
shifts 3
N igh t
schedules
(3d)

F ir s t or
second
group

F ix e d shifts

O s c illa tin g
sh ifts 3

R otatin g sh ifts 2

E ven in g
schedules
(2d)

N igh t
schedules
(3d)

Day
schedules
(1 st)

E ven in g
schedule s
(2d)

N igh t
schedule s
(3d)

F ir s t or
second
grou p

F ix e d shifts
E ven in g
schedules
(2d)

N ight
schedules
(3d)

0. 2

W o r k e r s a s s ig n e d to s e le c te d s h ifts ---------------

21. 2

21. 2

21. 1

1.4

1. 5

1. 3

22. 8

22. 7

22.7

1.4

0. 4

R e c e iv in g sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l-------------------------

15. 4

21. 0

21. 1

.7

1. 5

1.3

16. 4

22. 5

22. 7

.6

.3

.1

3. 3
.7
1. 3
1. 1
. 1
-

3 .4
.9
2. 0
.4
. 1
-

.5
. 1
.4
-

.2
(4)

-

3. 9
.9
1.4
1.4
. 1
-

4. 1
1. 1
2. 3
.6
. 1
-

.4
. 1
-

.
-

_
-

-

.2
.2

1. 2

1. 1

1.4

_

_

-

-

U n ifo rm cen ts p e r h o u r ------------------------3 c e n t s ____________________________________
5 c e n t s ____________________________________
6 c e n t s ____________________________________
8 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------9 c e n t s ---------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ___________________________________
12 c e n ts ___________________________________
16 c e n ts ___________________________________
17 c e n ts _________________________ _______
18 c e n ts --------------------------------------------23 c e n ts ___________________________________
U n ifo rm cen ts p e r hour plus paid
lunch p e r io d not p r o v id e d fix e d
d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s -------------------------------5 c e n t s ____________________________________
6 c e n t s ____________________________________
7 c e n t s ------------------------------------------ -—
8 c e n t s ____________________________________
9 c e n t s ____________________________________
10 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------------1 1 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ___________________________________________
14 c e n ts ___________________________________________
15 c e n ts ___________________________________________
16 c e n ts ___________________________________________
19 c e n ts ___________________________________________
20 c e n ts ___________________________________________
23 c e n ts ___________________________________________
24 c e n ts ____________________________________________
33 c e n ts -------------------------------------------------------U n ifo rm p e rc e n ta g e plus paid
lunch p e rio d not p r o v id e d fix e d
day -sh ift w o r k e r s ---------------------------------------5 p e rc e n t------------------------ *_______________
10 percent__________________________ ____

.
-

-

c>
( 4)

-

2. 6
_
.
-

1

.2

13. 1

13. 1

3. 1
3. 2
1. 1
1. 1
.5
1. 3

.3
.
-

(4)
-

2. 3
-

-

-

-

(4)
. 1
-

. 1
.
-

3

( 4)

4. 5

4. 5

-

-

-

4. 5

P aid lunch period not provided fixed
d ay -sh ift w o r k e r s -----------------------------------

8. 2

.

Receiving no shift d iffe re n tia l----------------------

5. 9

.2

.

6

.
.
-

1
3

1
1

1
.7

B ecau se of rounding,




-

sums of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

-

13. 9

13. 8

( 4)

3. 9
3. 2
1.4
1.4
. 7
1.7

.4

_

-

-

.2

( 4)

-

.
.

1
.
_
_
.
_
_
_
_

( 4)
. 1

1.0

1.0

_

_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_

(4)
_

_
_
_
.
_
_
_

-

-

-

-

4. 6

4. 6

.
.

-

3

.
-

3

-

4. 6
-

-

4. 6

-

10. 4

( 4)

6. 3

_
_
_

4. 6

( 4)

( 4)

-

-

4. 6

( 4)
( 4)
“

.3
I

6. 0
1. 1
1.4
. 3
2. 9
1. 7

.
-

Includes data fo r regions in addition to the South.
W o rk e rs assign ed to rotating shifts alternately worked on the day, evening, and night schedules.
W o rk e rs assign ed to oscillating shifts w ere of 2 groups:
Those alternating between day and evening
L e s s than 0. 05 percent.

NOTE:

(4)

-

(4)

.
.

4. 5

1

.2

.
-

-

.3
-

“

(4)

-

4. 6

1
2
3
4

-

( 4)

4. 7
1. 5
.2
2. 3
2. 8

4. 6

(4)

1. 1

-

(4)
.2
-

.6
. 1

-

1

.2
(4)
2. 3

-

.2
_

0

schedules,

1

.

.2

-

.

and those

alternating

1

1
1

.
_
_

1

( 4)
(4)

-

between

(4 )

-

.9

( 4)

( 4)

evening

and

night

schedules.

Table 10,

Shift Differential Practices— Cellulosic Fibers

(P e r c e n t o f p rod u ction w o r k e r s a ssign ed to s e le c te d shifts in c e llu lo s ic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts by type o f sh ift and amount o f sh ift d iffe r e n tia l,
United States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
U nited States 1

S h ift d iffe r e n t ia l
D ay
schedu les
(1st)

W o r k e r s a s s ig n e d to s e le c te d s h ifts ----- ----- -----

19.7

R e c e iv in g sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l,____ _______________

14.7

U n ifo rm cents p e r h o u r — . ___ _____________
3 c e n t s , , , , , ........ ........ ............................. —
5 c e n t s ,—, , ____________ ____ . ______________
8 cents ______ -______ -____ ____ __________ , ___
_
9 c e n t s ------ . . . ----- ---------------------------- . . .
10 c ent s. . . . — ___________ —
—___________
16 c e n ts .----- ---------- -— ---- -------------------18 c e n ts —. ------- ——.............. .......................
23 c e n ts _________________________________—
U n ifo rm cents p e r hour plus paid
lunch p e rio d not p ro v id e d fix e d
day - sh ift w o r k e r s ...—
—
. . . . ________
3 cen ts --------------------------------- ---------- 5 c e n t s ____ ____________ ____ ______ ___________
6 c e n t s .—. __________ ___________— . . . . . ----7 cen ts . . . ______________ ______ ____ . . . ______
10 c e n ts .—___________________ —______ . . . __
11 c e n ts ---- ----------------- ----------------- ------12 c e n ts ________ _____ ______________________
14 c e n ts — ..................— —...........................
15 c e n ts ________ ________ . . . ________________
16 c e n t s ..... _____ _____________ _____________
19 c e n ts .......................................................20 c e n ts _________ _____ ______ ......_____ . . . . .
23 c e n ts ---------- ----------- —..... .................—
24 c e n ts ___ ___ ________--------------------. . . ___
33 ce n ts ___ ______ ______________________-____
P a id lunch p e rio d not p ro v id e d fix e d
d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s .—. _________ ,
__________ —
R e c e iv in g no sh ift d iffe r e n t ia l----- ----- -

1
2
3
4

O s c illa tin g
sh ifts 3

R otatin g shifts 2

.
.
_
.
-

5.9
.
.
.
.5
.
5.4
.
-

E vening
schedules
(2d)

N igh t
schedules
(3d)

F i r s t or
second
grou p

19.6

19.5

1.7

19.6

19.5

1.5

2.2
1.7
.5
"

2.2
1.7
.
.5
-

1.2
.2
1.0
-

17.3
.7
5.2
3.6
1,9
.
.5
(4)
5.4
-

18.8
2.4
-

-

-

-

5.2
3.6
1.7
.5
( 4)
5.3
-

*
.
-

8.8

.1

5.0

.1

-

(4)
-

.3
.
( 4)
.3
( 4)
-

South

Evening
schedules
. . ( 2d)

B eca u se o f rou nding, sum s o f in d ivid u a l ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.




O s c illa tin g
sh ifts 3

D ay
sch edu les
. (1st)

Evening
schedules
(2d)

N igh t
sch edu les
(3d)

F ir s t o r
second
grou p

E vening
schedules
(2d)

N ight
schedules
(3d)

21.9

21.8

1.8

0.1

0.3

21.9

21.8

1.6

.1

.3

2.2
2.2
_
-

2.2
2.2
_
_
-

1.5
.2
1.3
-

.1
-

_
.
-

-

N igh t
sch edu les
(3d)

-

~

2.8

3.0

22.0

2.8

3.0

16.4

.5
_
( 4)
(!)
( 4)
.5
-

2.3
1.5
.
.8

.5
_
*
.5

.
_
-

2.5
-

5.3
-

-

-

1.5
_
-

19.8
1.0
6.4
4.6
2.4
.6
4.7

_
.6
.
4.7

19.6
1.0

.1
-

_
_
_

-

6.4
4.6
2.3
.6
4.7

-

-

-

-

.2
.7
.1

-

-

-

-

-

( 4)
.1

-

-

-

-

F ix e d shifts

( 4)
( 4)
-

-

.3
-

-

-

-

_
_
_
_
.3
-

-

11.1

-

,2

5.6

.2

In clu des data fo r r e g io n s in a d dition to the South.
W o r k e r s a ssig n ed to ro ta tin g sh ifts a lte rn a te ly w ork ed on the day, even in g, and night schedules.
W o r k e r s a ssig n ed to o s c illa tin g s h ifts w e r e o f two grou ps:
Th ose a ltern a tin g b etw een day and
L e s s than 0.05 p erc e n t.

NOTE:

R otatin g sh ifts 2

F ix e d sh ifts

even in g

sch ed u les,

and

those

a ltern a tin g

b etw een

even in g and night schedu les.




Table 11.

Shift Differential Practices-----N oncellulosic Fibers

(P e r c e n t o f produ ction w o rk e rs assign ed to s e le c te d sh ifts in n o n c e llu lo s ic , m an u factu rin g e sta b lish m en ts by type o f sh ift
and amount o f sh ift d iffe r e n tia l, U nited S tates, 1 F e b r u a r y — p r il 1966)
A
O s c illa tin g
sh ifts 3

R o ta tin g sh ifts 2
Shift d iffe r e n tia l

N i ght
schedule
(3d)

F ix e d sh ifts

Day
schedules
(1st)

E ven in g
schedules
(2d)

W o r k e r s assign ed to s e le c te d s h ifts_____________

22. 4

22. 4

22. 4

1. 2

0. 5

R e c e iv in g shift d iffe r e n tia l____________________

15. 7

22. 0

22. 3

.2

.5

U n ifo rm cents p er h o u r ____________________
5 c e n t s ____________________________________
c e n t s ____________________________________
8 c e n t s ____ ____ — ________________________
10 cen ts___________________________________
12 cen ts___________________________________
16 cen ts___________________________________
17 cen ts___________________________________

.2

4. 3
1.9
1.9
.4
-

4. 6
. 3
.2
3. 1
.8
.2

( 4)

9. 8
1. 6
2. 8
. 5
1. 7
.9
2. 3

9. 8
-

( 4)
-

.4
-

-

-

. 1
-

-

-

(4)

-

4. 4
. 5
3. 9
.9

-

. 1
. 2
-

8. 0

8. 0

. 1
. 1

.
.

-

-

6

-

.2
-

-

U n ifo rm cents per hour plus paid lunch
p e rio d not provided, fix e d
d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s .----- ------------- ----- -----5 c e n ts ____________________________________
6 c e n ts ____________________________________
7 c e n ts ____________________________________
8 c e n ts ------------- ------------ -----------------------9 c e n ts ____________________________________
10 cen ts ....... .........— ------- -----------------------12 cen ts ___________________________________
15 cen ts ___________________________________
16 c en ts ___________________________________
U n ifo rm p ercen ta ge plus paid lunch
p e rio d not p ro vid ed fix ed
d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s _________________________
5 p e r c e n t ---------------------------------------------10 p e rc e n t ________________________________

8. 0

-

-

-

-

8. 0

8. 0

8. 0

P a id lunch p e rio d not p ro vid ed fix ed
d a y -s h ift w o r k e r s _________________________

7. 5

R e c e iv in g no sh ift d iffe r e n tia l ________________

6. 7

1
2
3
b etw een
4

E ven in g
schedule
(2d).

(4)
-

E ven in g
schedule
(2d)

N igh t
schedule
(3d)

0. 1
-

_
-

( 4)

1
1

.

4

.

i

1 . 1

.

1

.

1

A l l n o n cellu lo sic fib e r s estab lish m en ts w e r e lo ca ted in the South.
W o rk e rs a ssign ed to ro ta tin g shifts a lte rn a te ly w o rk e d on the day, even in g, and night sch ed u les.
W o rk e rs a ssign ed to o s c illa tin g sh ifts w e r e o f two groups: Th ose a lte rn a tin g b etw een day and even in g sch ed u les, and those a ltern a tin g
even in g and night schedules.
L e s s than 0. 05 p ercen t.

NO TE:

B ecau se o f rounding, sums of in d ivid u a l ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls .

Table 12.

Paid Holidays

00

(P e r c e n t o f p rodu ction and o ffic e w o rk e rs in synthetic fib e r s m anu factu ring esta b lish m en ts w ith fo r m a l p r o v is io n s fo r paid h o lid a y s ,
U nited States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)'
A
Production w o rk ers
Num ber of paid holidays

A ll establishments
United
States 1

South

O ffice w o rk ers

C ellulosic fibers
United
States 1

South

Noncellulosic
fib e rs 2

A ll establishm ents
United
States 1

South

C ellu losic fib e rs
United
States 1

South

Noncellulosic
fib e rs 2

A ll w o r k e r s ____________________________________

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing
paid h o lid a y s ------------------------------------------------------

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

1

1
40
25
34

_
84
16
-

_
79
21

1

1

.
8
78
13

_
83
17

-

-

1
19
30
50

Unde r 6 d a y s ____________________________________
6 d a y s ____________________________________________
7 d a y s ____________________________________________
8 d a y s --------------------------------------------------------------9 d a y s ____________________________________________
10 d a y s -------------------------------------------------------------

-

46
23
31

W o rk e rs in e sta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g
no paid h o lid a y s -------------------------------------------------

1 Inclu des data fo r re g io n s in ad d ition to the South.
2 A l l n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s esta b lis h m e n ts w e re loca ted in the South.
3 L e s s than 0. 5 p e rc e n t.
NO TE:

B eca u se o f rou nding, sums o f in d ivid u a l item s m ay not equal 100.




-

18
27
54

1
3
40
24
33
(3)

-

38
26
35

1

Table 13.

Paid Vacations

(P e r c e n t o f production and o ffic e w o rk e rs in synthetic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts w ith fo r m a l p ro v is io n s fo r paid va c a tio n s 1
a fte r s e le c te d p e rio d s o f s e r v ic e , U nited States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
P ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs
A ll establish m en ts

V a c a tio n p o lic y 1

O ffic e w o r k e r s

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

A ll esta b lish m en ts
U nited
State s 2

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s
U nited
States 2

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

United
States 2
A ll w o r k e r s ----------------------------------------------

South

United
States 2

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
58
30
12

100
61
26
13

100
20
60
20

100
16
58
25

100
87
7
6

100
93
7
-

100
92
8
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
89
11
-

62
3
35

58
3
39

93
4
3

91
5
4

39
2
59

13
87

14
86

10
90

13
87

15
85

45
55
-

39
61
-

60
40
-

48
52
-

35
65
-

10
88
2

10
87
2

100
-

100
-

15
82
3

18
1
80
2

9
1
88
2

39
57
4

21
74
5

1
2
97
-

( 5)
98
2

( 5)
98
2

100
-

100
-

97
3

67
3
31

63
3
34

96
4
-

95
5
-

45
2
54

66
34

63
37

100
-

100
-

47
_
53

35
3
32
31

28
3
35
34

64
4
32
-

54
5
41
-

13
2
32
54

23
42
2
33

21
42
2
35

46
54
-

46
54
_

11
_
36
3
50

12
57
31

12
54
34

17
83
-

18
82
-

9
38
54

12
53
2
33

10
53
2
35

24
76
-

18
82
_
_

6
41
3
50

2
53
3
42

2
48
3
46

96
4
-

95
5
-

4
21
2
73

3
36
2
58

4
31
2
63

_
76
24

_
70
30

5
15
3
77

28
30
42

29
25
46

35
65
-

42
58
-

22
5
73

29
21
2
49

27
18
2
53

51
45
4

52
43
_
5

17
8
3
73

11
46
1
42

12
40
1
46

8
92
-

9
91
-

-

-

14
11
2
73

9
33
2
56

6
31
2
61

14
69
18

6
72
22

6
14
3
77

South

South

South

M ethod o f paym ent
W o rk e rs in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g
paid v a c a tio n s ----------------------------------------------L e n g t h - o f- t im e p a y m e n t---------------------------P e r c e n ta g e p a ym en t----------------------------------Othe r ---------------------------------------------------------A m ount o f v a c a tio n pay 4
A ft e r 1 y e a r o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ____________________________________________
O v e r 1 and u nder 2 w e e k s ____________________
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------A ft e r 2 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U nder 2 w e e k s __________________________________
2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____________________
A ft e r 3 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e :
1 w e e k ___________________________________________
O v e r 1 and under 2 w e e k s -------------------------2 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____________________
A ft e r 5 y e a rs o f s e r v ic e :
2 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________________
A ft e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
2 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 2 and under 3 w e e k s ____________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s -------------------------4 w e e k s __________________________________________
A ft e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U nder 3 w e e k s __________________________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ____________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________
A ft e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
2 w e e k s __________________________________________
3 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 3 and under 4 w e e k s ____________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________
A ft e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U nder 4 w e e k s __________________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ____________________
'5 w e e k s __________________________________________
A ft e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v ic e :
U n der 4 w e e k s __________________________________
4 w e e k s __________________________________________
O v e r 4 and under 5 w e e k s ____________________
5 w e e k s __________________________________________

( 5)

1 In clu des b asic plans on ly.
Plan s such as v a c a tio n -s a v in g s and those plans which o ffe r "e x te n d e d " o r "s a b b a tic a l" b en efits beyond b a sic plans to w o r k e r s w ith q u a lifyin g lengths of
s e r v ic e a re exclu d ed .
2 Inclu des data fo r re g io n s in addition to the South.
3 A l l n o n c e llu lo s ic fib e r s esta b lish m en ts w e re loca ted in the South.
4 V a c a tio n paym en ts such as p ercen t of annual earn in gs w ere c o n v e rte d to an equ ivalen t tim e b a sis. P e r io d s o f s e r v ic e w e re a r b it r a r ily ch osen and do not n e c e s s a r ily r e fle c t individu al
e s ta b lish m en t p r o v is io n s fo r p ro g r e s s io n .
F o r exam p le, the changes in p ro p o rtio n s in d icated at 10 y e a rs m ay include changes in p ro v is io n s b etw een 5 and 10 y e a r s .
5 L e s s than 0. 5 p e rcen t.
N O TE:

B ecau se o f rounding,




sums of individu al item s m ay not equal to ta ls .

C
D

Table 14.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c t i o n and o f f i c e w o r k e r s in s y n t h e t i c f i b e r s m a n u f a c t u r i n g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s w i t h s p e c i f i e d h e a l t h ,
U n i t e d S t a t e s and S o ut h , F e b r u a r y - A p r i l 1966)

in su ran ce,

Prod u ction w o rk e rs
A ll estab lish m en ts

T y p e o f plan

plans, 1

O ffic e w o rk e rs

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s

United
States 2

A l l w o r k e r s ___________ _________________________

and p e n s r

South

United
States 2

South

100

100

100

100

99
24
75

99
23
76

100
8
92

59
12
47

58
13
45

95
84
33
50

94
82
34
48

31

34

11
100
24
-

None e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

A l l estab lish m en ts

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

United
States 2

South

United
States 2

South

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100

99
37
63

99
27
73

99
28
72

100
1
99

100
.
100

99
40
60

88
88

95
95

36
21
15

55
15
40

55
16
39

89
1
87

95
.
95

37
23
15

90
90
7
84

87
87
87

99
79
54
25

97
51
33
18

97
51
35
16

100
26
1
25

100
20
.
20

96
65
50
15

54

88

90

82

89

91

12
100
23
-

100
7
-

100
-

20
100
37
-

100
26
-

100
28
-

-

-

-

100
1

100
-

100
40
-

24
50
16

23
47
18

7
91
29

96
38

37
19
7

26
45
19

28
41
17

1
94
44

94
46

40
19
5

33

29

61

58

12

26

24

50

48

14

27
99
24
-

29
99
23
-

3
100
7
-

4
100
-

44
99
37
-

28
99
26
-

31
99
28
-

5
100
1
-

6
100
-

41
99
40
-

24
49
16

23
47
18

7
91
29

96
38

37

26
45
18

28
41
17

1
94
44

94
46

40
18
4

33

29

61

58

12

26

24

50

48

14

27
95
33
-

29
94
33
-

3
92
28
-

4
90
27
-

44
97
37
-

28
95
33
-

31
94
35

5
94
19

6
92
22

-

-

-

41
95
40
-

33
35
16

33
32
18

28
62
29

27
59
38

37
16
6

33
34
18

35
29
17

19
70
44

22
64
46

40
14
4

19

14

32

21

10

15

12

26

18

10

27

29

3

4

44

28

31

5

6

41

W o rk e rs in e s ta b lish m en ts p ro v id in g :
L ife in s u r a n c e ___________________________________
J oin tly fin a n c e d ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ------- --------------------------A c c id e n ta l death and d is m e m b e rm e n t
in s u ra n c e ________________________________________
J o in tly fin a n c e d ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ---------------------------------S ick n ess and a ccid en t in su ra n ce or
sick le a v e o r b o th 4____________________________
S ick n ess and accid en t in s u ra n c e __________
J oin tly fin a n c e d -------------------- ------------E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d -----------------------------S ick le a v e (fu ll pay, no
w a itin g p e r io d ). . , ---------------------------------S ick le a v e (p a r tia l pay or
w a itin g p e r io d )_____________________________
H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u ra n c e _______________ _______
J oin tly fin a n ced ______________________________
C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ---------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th eir
d e p e n d e n ts --------------------------------------E m p lo y e r fin an ced fo r e m p lo y e e s ;
jo in tly fin an ced fo r d ep en d en ts__________
S u rg ic a l in s u ra n c e ______________________________
J o in tly fin a n c e d --------------------------------------C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s o n ly _______________
C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ---------------------------------C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n ced fo r e m p lo y e e s ;
jo in tly fin an ced fo r d ep en d en ts__________
M e d ic a l in s u r a n c e ______________________________
J oin tly fin a n ced ______________________________
C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ------------------C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ----------------------------------C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s o n ly;_______________
C o v e rin g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ______________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n ced fo r e m p lo y e e s ;
jo in tly fin an ced fo r d ep en d en ts-------------

See

footnotes




at

e nd

of

tab le .

18
6

-

-

Table 14.

Health, Insurance, and Pension Plans---- Continued

(P e r c e n t o f produ ction and o ffic e w o rk e rs in synthetic fib e r s m an u factu rin g esta b lish m en ts with s p e c ifie d health, in su ran ce, and pension plans,
United States and South, F e b ru a ry — p r il 1966)
A
P ro d u ctio n w o r k e r s
A l l estab lish m en ts

T y p e o f plan

U nited
States 2

South

O ffic e w o r k e r s

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s
U nited
States 2

South

N o n c e llu lo s ic
fib e r s 3

A l l esta b lish m en ts
U nited
States 2

South

C e llu lo s ic fib e r s
U nited
States 2

South

N o n cellu lo sic
fib e r s 3

W o r k e r s in esta b lis h m e n ts p ro v id in g — •
C ontinued
C a ta stro p h e in s u r a n c e ............ _____ _____ ____
J o in tly fin an ced.,______ ____ ___________________
C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s o n ly -----------------C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ------ ----- . . . ---- -—
______ _
E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ......________________. . . . __
C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s o n ly ___ ____________
C o v e r in g e m p lo y e e s and th e ir
d e p e n d e n ts ___ ....________________________
E m p lo y e r fin a n ced fo r e m p lo y e e s ;
jo in tly fin a n ced fo r d ep en d en ts________ _
P en s io n p la n s __ . . . . ___ ......___ . . . . _________ ____
J o in tly fin a n c e d — — ------ . . . ------------ -------E m p lo y e r fin a n c e d ..____________ ......._______
No plans
______ ___________________ ...

1
2
3
4

39
37
-

38
35
-

61
58
-

62
58
-

24
21
-

45
40
-

44
39
-

55
50
-

54
48
-

39
35
-

37
1
-

35
2
-

58
-

58
-

21
2
-

40
3
-

39
3
-

50
-

48
-

35
4
-

1

2

-

-

2

-

4

1
98
14
84

1
99
16
83

3
97
29
68

4
100
37
63

6
100
48
52

99
6
94

-

99
3
95

3

3

2
99
22
78

2
99
19
81

-

5
99
50
48

In clu d es o n ly th ose plans fo r which at le a s t part o f the cost is b orn e by the e m p lo y e r and exclu d es le g a lly re q u ire d plans such as w o rk m e n 's com p en sation and s o c ia l s ecu rity.
In clu d es data f o r r e g io n s in addition to the South.
A l l n o n c e llu lo s ic f ib e r s esta b lish m en ts w e r e lo ca ted in the South.
U n du plicated to ta l of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g sick le a v e or sick n ess and accid en t in su ran ce shown se p a ra te ly .

NO TE;

B eca u se o f rou nding,




sums of in d ivid u al ite m s m ay not equal to ta ls.




Appendix A.

Scope and Method o f Survey

Scope of Survey
The survey included establishments p r im a r ily engaged in the manufacture o f cellulosic manmade fib ers in the fo rm o f monofilament, yarn, staple, o r tow suitable fo r further
manufacturing on textile proc es sin g equipment and synthetic organic fib e r s , except cellu lo sic
(industries 2823 and 2824 as defined in the 1957 edition of the Standard Industrial C l a s s i f i ­
cation Manual and 1963 Supplement, prepared by the U. S. Bureau of the Budget). The
cla ssifica tion o f establishments by industry branch was determ ined on the basis o f the value
of the principal fib er manufactured.
Separate auxiliary units, such as central o ffice s and
r e s e a rc h la b o ra to rie s, w e r e excluded.
A lso excluded fro m the survey w e r e establishments
p r im a r ily engaged in manufacturing glass fib ers.
The number of establishments and w o r k e r s actually studied by the Bureau, as w e l l
as the number estimated to be in the industry during the p a y ro ll period studied, are shown
in the follow ing table:

Estimated Number of Establishments and Workers Within Scope of Survey and
Number Studied, Synthetic Fibers, February—
April 1966
Number of
establishments

Workers in establishments
Within scope of survey

Industry branch and region

Studied

Within
scope of
survey

Studied

A ll establishments:
United States 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------South3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

42
37

36
31

80,079
72,971

62,407
56,368

4,171
3,862

68,711
61,603

Cellulosic fibers establishments:
United States 2 -------------------------------------------------------------------------South3 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------

18
13

18
13

32, 550
25,442

26,712
20,673

1,462
1,153

32, 550
25, 442

Noncellulosic fibers establishments: 4
United States-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

24

18

47, 529

35,695

2,709

36, 161

N onsupervisory
Total

Production
workers

Office
workers

Total1

Includes executive, professional, and other workers excluded from the production and office worker categories.
c Includes data for regions in addition to the South.

3 The South as used in this survey includes: Alabama, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland,
Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.
4 A ll noncellulosic fibers establishments were located in the South.

Method of Study
Data w e r e obtained by personal visits of Bureau field economists under the direction
of the Bureau's A ssistant Regional D ir e c to r s for Wages and Industrial Relations.
Of the
42 establishments within the scope of the survey, data w e r e obtained fr o m all but 6.
In
combining the data, how ever, all establishments w e r e given their appropriate weight.
A ll
estim ates are presented, th e r e fo r e , as relating to all establishments in the industry.

Establishment Definition
An establishment, fo r the purposes o f this study, is defined as a single physical
location w here industrial operations are perform ed .
An establishment is not n e c e s s a r ily
identical with the company, which may consist of one or m o r e establishments.




23

24
Employment

The estim ates of the number of w o r k e r s within the scope o f the study are intended
as a general guide to the size and composition o f the labor fo rc e included in the survey.
The advance planning ne ces sa ry to make a wage survey req u ires the use of lists of esta blish­
ments assem bled considerably in advance o f the p a y roll period studied.

Production W o r k e r s

The term "production w o r k e r s , " as used in this bulletin, includes w orking fo re m en
and all nonsupervisory w o r k e r s engaged in nonoffice functions.
A d m in istra tive , executive,
profession a l, and technical personnel, as w e ll as fo rc e-a cc ou n t construction em ployees who
w e r e utilized as a separate w o rk fo rc e on the f i r m 's own p ro p erties, w e r e excluded.
O ffice W ork ers
The term " o ff ic e w o r k e r s , " as used in this bulletin, includes a ll nonsupervisory
o ffice w o r k e r s and excludes adm inistrative, executive, professional, and technical em ployees.
Occupations Selected for Study
Occupational c la ss ifica tion was based on a uniform set o f job descriptions designed
to take account of inter establishment and in tera rea variations in duties within the same job.
(See appendix B for these job descriptions. ) The occupations w e r e chosen fo r their num erical
im portance, their usefulness in co lle c tiv e bargaining, or their representativen ess of the
entire job scale in the industry.
W orking su perviso rs, apprentices, le a r n e r s , beginners,
tra inees, handicapped, p a r t-tim e , tem p ora ry, and probationary w o r k e r s w e r e not reported
in the data fo r selected occupations but w e r e included in the data fo r all production w o r k e r s .

Wage Data
The wage information rela te s to a vera ge straight-tim e hourly earnings, excluding
premium pay fo r o v e r tim e and fo r w o r k on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
Incentive
payments, such as those resulting fr o m p iecew ork or production bonus system s, and c o s t - o flivin g bonuses w e r e included as part o f the w o r k e r s ' regu lar pay; but nonproduction bonus
payments, such as Christm as or yearend bonuses, w e r e excluded.
A v e r a g e hourly rates or earnings for each occupation or other group of w o r k e r s , such
as men, women, or production w o r k e r s , w e r e calculated by weighting each rate (or hourly
earnings) by the number of w or k e r s r e c e iv in g the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number
of individuals.
The hourly earnings of salaried w or k e r s w e r e obtained by dividing straighttim e sa la ry by norm al rather than actual hours.

Scheduled Weekly Hours
Data on w eek ly hours r e f e r to the predominant w ork schedule fo r fu ll-tim e p r o ­
duction w o r k e r s (o r o ffice w or k e r s ) employed on the day shift.

Shift P r a c tic e s and D ifferen tia ls
Data relate to shift practices of establishments during the p a y ro ll period studied
and are presented in term s o f the proportion of production w o r k e r s actually employed under
the conditions specified.
W ork ers assigned to rotating shifts va riou sly w o rk on day, evening,
and night shifts, and w o r k e r s assigned to fixed shifts r e g u la r ly w ork on their assigned shift.
W o rk ers assigned to o s cilla tin g shifts w e r e of two groups: Those alternating between day and
evening schedules, and those alternating between evening and night schedules.



25
Supplementary Wage P r o v is io n s

Supplementary benefits w e r e treated sta tistica lly on the basis that, if fo r m a l p r o ­
visions w e r e applicable to half o r m o r e of the production (or office ) w o r k e r s in an estab­
lishment, the benefits w e r e considered applicable to all such w o r k e r s .
S im ila rly , if fe w e r
than half o f the w o r k e r s w e r e covere d , the benefit was considered nonexistent in the estab­
lishment.
The proportion of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g the benefits may be s m a ller than estimated
because o f le n g t h - o f- s e r v ic e and other e lig ib ilit y requirem ents.

Paid H olid ays.
provided annually.

Paid holiday

provisions

relate

to fu ll-day

and half-day holidays

Paid Vacations. The summary of vacation plans is lim ited to fo rm a l arrangem ents,
excluding in form a l plans w hereby time o ff with pay is granted at the dis cretion of the em p loyer
or the su pervisor.
Payments not on a time basis w e r e converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the equivalent of 1 w eek 's pay.
The periods
of s e r v ic e for which data are presented w e r e selected as rep resenta tive of the m ost common
pra ctices, but they do not n e c e s s a r ily r e f le c t individual establishment provisions fo r p r o ­
gression.
F o r example, the changes in proportions indicated at 10 y ea rs of s e r v ic e include
changes in provision s which may have occu rred between 5 and 10 years.

Health, Insurance, and R e tire m e n t P la n s .
Data are presented for selected health,
insurance, and pension plans for which a ll or a part of the cost is borne by the em ployer.
P r o g r a m s required by law, such as w orkm en 's compensation and social security are excluded.
Among the plans included are those underwritten by a c o m m e r ic a l insurance company and
those paid d ir e c tly by the em p loyer from his current operating funds or fro m a fund set
aside for this purpose.

Death benefits are included as a fo rm of life insurance.
Sickness and accident
insurance is lim ited to that type of insurance under which predeterm ined cash payments are
made d ir e c tly to the insured on a w eek ly or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the em p loyer contributes at least part
of the cost.
H ow ever, in New Y o r k and New J ers ey , where tem p ora ry disability insurance
laws require em p loyer contributions, plans are included only if the em ployer (1) contributes
m o r e than is le g a lly required, or (2) provides the em ployees with benefits which exceed the
requirem ents of the law.
Tabulations o f paid sick leave plans are lim ited to fo r m a l plans which provide full
pay or a proportion of the w o r k e r 's pay during absence fro m w o rk because o f illness; in­
fo r m a l arrangements have been omitted.
Separate tabulations are provided, according to
(1) plans which provide fu ll pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans providing either partial
pay or a waiting period.
M e d ic a l insurance r e f e r s to plans providing fo r complete or partial payment of
doctors' fees.
Such plans may be underwritten by a c o m m e r ic ia l insurance company or a
nonprofit organization, or they may be self-insured.
Catastrophe insurance, som etim es r e f e r r e d to as extended or m a jo r m e d ica l insur­
ance, includes plans
designed to co ver em ployees in case of sickness or injury involving an
expense which goes beyond the norm al covera g e of hospitalization, m ed ica l, and su rgical plans.
Tabulations of r e t ir e m e n t pensions are lim ited to plans which provide, on retirem en t,
regu lar payments fo r the rem ainder of the w o r k e r 's life.
Severance P a y .
Data relate to fo rm a l plans providing for payments to em ployees
permanently separated fr o m the company through no fault of their own.
Paid Lunch P e r i o d .
Data relate to fo r m a l provisions for a lunch period with pay
for day-shift w o r k e r s . P r o v is io n s for shift w o r k e r s are rep orted in the sh ift-practices tables.






Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The p r im a ry purpose of preparin g job d e s c rip ­
tions fo r the B ureau's wage surveys is to a ssist its fie ld
staff in cla ss ify in g into appropriate occupations w ork ers
who are em ployed under a v a r ie ty of p a y ro ll titles and
d iffe re n t w ork arrangem ents fro m establishm ent to estab­
lishm ent and fro m a rea to area. This p erm its the grouping
of occupational wage rates rep resen tin g com parable job
content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishm ent
and in tera re a com p ara b ility of occupational content, the
Bureau's job d escrip tion s m ay d iffe r sign ifica n tly fro m
those in use in individual establishm ents or those prepared
fo r other purposes.
In applying these job descriptions,
the B ureau's fie ld econom ists are instructed to exclude
w orking su p e rviso rs , apprentices, le a rn e rs , beginners,
tra in ees, handicapped, p a rt-tim e, tem p ora ry, and proba­
tion a ry w o rk ers .

M A IN T E N A N C E
C A R P E N T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r fo r m s the carpen try duties n e ces sa ry to construct and maintain in good rep a ir
building w oodw ork and equipment such as bins, crib s, counters, benches, partitions, doors,
flo o r s , sta irs, casings, and trim made of wood in an establishm ent. W ork in volves m ost
of the fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of w ork fro m blueprints, drawings, m odels, or
ve rb a l instructions; using a v a r ie ty of c a rp e n te r's handtools, portable pow ertools, and stand­
ard m easuring instrum ents; making standard shop computations rela tin g to dim ensions of
w ork; and selectin g m a teria ls n e ces sa ry fo r the w ork. In gen eral, the w ork of the maintenance
carpenter req u ires rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a fo rm a l ap­
pren ticesh ip or equivalent training and exp erien ce.

E L E C T R IC IA N , M A IN T E N A N C E
P e r fo r m s a v a r ie ty of e le c tr ic a l trade functions, such as the installation, m ain te­
nance, or rep a ir of equipment fo r the generation, distribution, or u tilization of e le c tr ic
en ergy in an establishm ent.
W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : Installing or rep a irin g
any of a v a r ie ty of e le c tr ic a l equipment, such as g en era tors, tra n s fo rm ers, switchboards,
co n tro lle rs, circu it b r e a k e r s , m otors, heating units, conduit system s, or other tran sm ission
equipment; w orking fro m blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other sp ecification s; locating and
diagnosing trouble in the e le c tr ic a l system or equipment; w orking standard computations
rela tin g to load requ irem en ts of w irin g or e le c tr ic a l equipment; and using a v a r ie ty of e le c ­
tric ia n 's handtools and m easu ring and testing instrum ents.
In general, the w ork of the
maintenance e le c tr ic ia n req u ire s rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through
a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.

H E L P E R , M A IN T E N A N C E TRAD ES
A s s is ts one or m ore w o rk ers in the sk illed m aintenance trades by p e rfo rm in g
s p ec ific or g en eral duties of le s s e r sk ill, such as keeping a w o rk er supplied with m a teria ls
and tools; cleaning w orking areas, m achines, and equipment; a ssistin g w ork er by holding
m a teria ls or tools; and p e rfo rm in g other unskilled tasks as d irected by journeym an.
The
kind of w ork the helper is p erm itted to p e r fo r m v a rie s fro m trade to trade. In some trades,
the helper is confined to supplying, liftin g , and holding m a teria ls and tools and to cleaning
w orking areas; and in others, he is p erm itted to p e rfo rm sp ec ia lized machine operations
or parts of a trade that are also p e rfo rm e d by w o rk ers on a fu ll-tim e basis.




27

28

IN S TR U M E N T R E P A IR M A N
In stalls, m aintains, adjusts, and rep a irs manual, pneumatic, e le c tr ic , and/or e le c ­
tron ic m easuring, record in g , and regu lating instrum ents in a ch em ical plant. W ork in volves
m ost of the fo llo w in g : Inspecting, testing, and adjusting instrum ents p e rio d ic a lly , d e te r ­
m ining cause of trouble in instrum ents not functioning p ro p erly , and making n e ces sa ry
rep a irs or adjustments; disconnecting inaccurate or dam aged instrum ents and rep lacin g them;
exam ining m echanism s and cleaning parts; rep lacin g w orn or broken parts; assem bling in ­
strum ents and in stallin g them on testing apparatus; and calibratin g instrum ents to established
standards.
M A C H IN IST, M A IN T E N A N C E
P rod u ces rep lacem en t parts and new parts fo r m echanical equipment operated in
an establishm ent. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : In terp retin g w ritten instructions
and sp ecifica tion s; planning and laying out of w ork; using a v a r ie ty of m ach in ist's handtools
and p re c is io n m easu ring instrum ents; setting up and operating standard machine tools; shaping
of parts to close tolera n ces; making standard shop computations rela tin g to dim ensions of
w ork, tooling, feed s, and speeds of m achining; knowledge of the w orking p ro p erties of the
common m etals and other m a teria ls; selectin g standard m a teria ls, parts, and equipment
req u ired fo r his w ork; and fittin g and assem bling parts.
In gen eral, the m ach in ist's w ork
n orm a lly req u ires a rounded training in machine shop p ra ctice usually acquired through a
fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex p erien ce.
M E C H AN IC , G E N E R A L
P e r fo r m s the w ork of two or m ore maintenance trades rath er than sp ec ia lizin g in
only one trade or one type of maintenance w ork. In gen eral, the w ork of a gen eral m echanic
req u ire s rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship
or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
The cla s s ific a tio n includes w o rk ers who r e g u la r ly p e r fo r m two or m ore types of
sk illed m aintenance w ork w ithin a section or departm ent of a la rg e establishm ent, such as
pipefitting, m illw righ tin g, w elding, m achining, machine and equipment rep a irin g , and c a r ­
pentry, among others. It also includes w o rk ers that m aintain and rep a ir m achines, m echan­
ic a l and e le c tr ic a l equipment, and/or the structure of a sm a ll establishm ent w here s p e c ia l­
i z a t i o n in m a i n t e n a n c e w o r k is i m p r a c t i c a l .
It d o e s not, h o w e v e r , i n c l u d e w o r k e r s w h o
only make m inor rep a irs or adjustments.
M IL L W R IG H T
Installs new machines or heavy equipment and dism antles and installs machine or
heavy equipment when changes in the plant layout a re req u ired . W ork in volves m ost of the
fo llo w in g : Planning and laying out of the w ork; in terp retin g blueprints or other sp ecifica tion s;
using a v a r ie ty of handtools and rig gin g; making standard shop computations rela tin g to
stres ses , strength of m a teria ls, and centers of g ra vity ; alining and balancing of equipment;
selectin g standard tools, equipment, and parts to be used; and installing and m aintaining in
good* ord er power tra n sm ission equipment, such as d riv es and speed red u cers. In general,
the m illw rig h t's w ork n orm a lly req u ire s a rounded training and exp erien ce in the trade a c ­
quired through a fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
P IP E F IT T E R , M A IN T E N A N C E
Installs or rep a irs w ater, steam , gas, or other types of pipe and pip efittin gs in
an establishm ent. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : Layin g out of w ork and m easuring
to locate position of pipe fro m drawings or other w ritte n sp ecifica tio n s; cutting variou s sizes
of pipe to c o rr e c t lengths with ch isel and ham m er, oxyacetylen e torch, or pipe-cutting
m achine; threading pipe with stock and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or p o w e r-d riv e n
m achines; assem bling pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; m aking standard
shop computations rela tin g to p re ssu res , flow , and size of pipe req u ired ; and making standard
tests to determ in e whether fin ished pipes m eet sp ecifica tion s. In gen eral, the w ork of the
maintenance p ip efitter req u ires rounded training and exp erien ce usually acquired through a
fo rm a l apprenticeship or equivalent training and exp erien ce.
W ork ers p r im a r ily engaged
in installing and rep a irin g building sanitation or heating system s are excluded.



29

C H E M IC A L P R E P A R A T IO N
C H E M IC A L O P E R A T O R , C E L L U L O S IC F IB E R
O perates equipment in which raw m a teria ls are treated ch em ica lly to produce a
solution fro m which rayon or acetate fib e rs are spun. W ork consists of m ost of the fo llow in g :
Regulates the flo w of m a teria ls by turning va lve s; o b serves and controls tem p era tu res and
tim e elem ents as p re s c rib e d ; and tends pumps, tanks, v e s s e ls , and other rela te d equipment.
M ay take batch sam ples fo r the testing la b ora tory.
W ork ers in this c la s s ific a tio n a re usually designated according to th eir sp ec ific
function, such as: A cid m ix e r, b a rratte op erator, churn man, c o rre c tio n man, and steepingp ress op erator.
C H E M IC A L O P E R A T O R , N O N C E L L U L O S IC F IB E R
Controls the con version of ch em ica l in term ed iates to produce a solution fo r spinning
n on cellu losic fib e rs by operating one of s e v e ra l types of equipment, such as autoclaves,
re a c to rs , re to rts , etc.
O bserves a control board to determ in e the p rop er functioning of
the chem ical p ro c es s as p re s c rib e d ; and rec o g n ize s and rep o rts off-sta n d a rd conditions,
taking n e ces sa ry c o rr e c tiv e action if due to elem ents under his control. M aintains prop er
flo w of the in term ed iates and product by opening and closing v a lv e s ; o b serv es, re c o rd s , and
controls tem peratu re and tim e elem ents; and operates pumps, tanks, v e s s e ls , and other
rela te d equipment* M ay obtain sam ples fo r testing la b o ra to ry and keep p re s c rib e d rec o rd s
of production.
W ork ers in this cla ss ifica tio n a re usually designated accord in g to th eir sp ec ific
functions, such as: P o ly m e r p reparation op erator, solution op erator, and salt-house op erator.

SP IN N IN G

JETM AN
(Spinneret man; spinneret clean er; je t handler)
Cleans fr o m spinnerets any gum m y residu e (le ft by spinning solution) to p reven t
clogging of the tiny holes through which solution is fo rc ed .
Dismounts spinnerets fro m
holders and washes in acid bath; blows holes clean w ith com p ressed a ir; exam ines spin­
nerets fo r d efects; and remounts spinneret in holder.
S P IN N E R , D R Y -P R O C E S S
W orks as crew m em ber on m achines that convert a liquid spinning solution into a
solid filament* by the d ry -p ro c e s s m ethod of spinning. Includes w o rk ers on the upper flo o r
(topmen) who p a tro l the spinning machines fo r off-stan dard conditions as the spinning solution
is fo rc e d through the spinneret and coagulated into a fila m en t by w arm a ir; w ipe and spray
the spinnerets r e g u la r ly to insure an even flo w of the solution; and c o rr e c t fo r off-stan dard
conditions as req u ired ; also, w o rk ers on the low er flo o r (bottom men) who r e c e iv e the f i l ­
aments fro m the flo o r above, strin g up and establish p rop er threadline by passing filam en ts
through guides and attaching to the winding device, and doffs machine when the packages
are fu ll.
W ork ers m ay keep rec o rd s and take sam ples fo r la b o ra to ry analysis.
S P IN N E R , W E T -P R O C E S S
Tends spinning machine that fo rc e s liquid solution through tiny holes in the spinneret
(m etal disc) into a so lid ify in g acid bath and fo rm s the resu ltin g filam en ts into a thread.
Duties include m ost of the fo llo w in g : C ollects ends of filam en ts fro m the so lid ify in g bath
to fo rm an untwisted thread which is passed over a w heel, through guides, and attached to
a winding d evice; rem o v es (d offs) fu ll spinning boxes; and m akes p e rio d ic inspections, r e ­
pairin g breaks as n ecessa ry.




30

FINISH IN G
C R E E L TE N D E R
Tends c r e e l m echanism of draw tw ist machines or w a rp e rs by rep lacin g em pty pack­
ages of yarn or tow with fu ll ones. A s s is ts in stringing yarn fro m c r e e l through guides to
the draw tw ist machine or w a rp er; ties end of yarn on new package to end of yarn fro m
exhausted package; and inspects product as it is drawn fro m c r e e l and rep orts off-sta n d a rd
conditions. M ay take sam ples and keep production re c o rd s .

D R A W TW IST O P E R A T O R
(Drawwind op erator)
O perates a draw tw ist machine that draws and tw ists non cellu losic yarn fr o m a
spinning package. W ork includes m ost of the fo llo w in g : Stocks machines with spinning
bobbins; strings up positions by threading guides, wrapping r o lls , and fo llow in g standard
proced u res and p ra ctice s; re p a irs breaks and inspects fo r off-stan dard positions; patrols
assignm ent fo r threadline breaks and im prop er alinem ent; and starts and doffs machines
according to schedule.
M ay keep production rec o rd s.
TH R O W ER (T W IS T E R )
Tends machine that tw ists rayon or acetate yarn in plants w here box or cake method
of spinning is not used. P la c e s fu ll bobbins and em pty spools on tw isting (throwing) machine,
starts end of thread fro m bobbin and spool, ties together ends of broken threads, and r e ­
m oves em pty bobbins and fu ll spools fro m machine.
TOW O P E R A T O R
Operates any of s e v e ra l types of machines p ro cessin g tow (a ropelike co llectio n of
untwisted filam ents) im m ed ia tely a fter spinning and just b e fo re packing.
T y p ica l of such
operations are the follow in g:
(1) Takeup o p era tor— operates machine that takes tow fro m
the conveyor belt of the spinning machine; (2) crim p e r op erator--- operates m achine that
places a crim p in the tow to provid e g rea te r strength n e ces sa ry fo r additional handling;
(3) piddler-m achin e op erator--- operates a machine whose m echanism swings back and forth,
lapping the tow into transport cans; and (4) cutter op erator--- operates machine that cuts
crim ped tow into sp ecified lengths.
W ARPER O PERATO R
(B eam er)
O perates machine that draws yarn fro m many individual packages and winds the
strands p a ra lle l onto beam s to fo rm a warp. W ork in volves m ost of the fo llo w in g : Threads
ends of individual strands of yarn through guides, drop w ire s , and comb of machine, fo llow in g
d irection s of a drawing to obtain a p re s c rib e d arrangem en t; fastens ends of a ll strands to
the beam mounted in the m achine; operates the pow ered winding m echanism to draw the
yarn fro m the packages and wind it on the beam; and p ieces together broken ends of yarn
by tw isting or tying the ends together.
M ay also tend c r e e l m echanism of m achine.

W ASHER O P E R A T O R
P la c e s packages of synthetic yarn in a washing machine to rem ove the
in the spinning p rocess.
R e c e iv e s fu ll packages fro m the spinning machine and
racks of the washing machine; starts machine which fo rc e s w ater through the
washing the acid fro m the tread; and rem oves cleaned packages and places on
drying.



acid used
places on
packages,
racks fo r

31

W INDER, Y A R N
Tends the operation of one or m ore of the variou s type m achines used to wind
tw isted yarn fro m one fo rm to another fo r shipment or to fa c ilita te handling in la te r p r o ­
cessing. W ork in v o lve s: placin g packages of yarn on r e e ls or spindles of m achine; threading
yarn through the variou s guides; piecing-u p broken ends by tw isting or tying the two ends
togeth er; and rem ovin g fu lly wound packages and rep lacin g w ith em pty bobbins, cones, tubes,
or quills.
IN S P E C T IO N AND T E S T IN G
L A B O R A T O R Y A SSISTA N T
(Techn ician; labora toria n ; ch em ical control op erator)
P e r fo r m s standard and routine ch em ical la b o ra to ry tests or sp ecial a n alytical con­
tro l w ork under the d ire ctio n of a chem ist or forem an. Am ong the types of tests that m ay
be c a rrie d on by the la b o ra to ry assistant to determ in e p ro p e rtie s of m a teria ls a re v is c o s ity
tests, s p ec ific g ra v ity tests, vo lu m etric analysis, and c o lo r im e tr ic analysis. K eeps accurate
rec o rd s of test observations and rep orts to su p erviso r.
C la s sific a tio n does not include
w o rk ers p e rfo rm in g ph ysical tests. See ph ysical test o p e ra to r.
P H Y S IC A L T E S T O P E R A T O R

istics of
designed
types of
tow and

P e r fo r m s standard and routine ph ysical tests to determ in e the s p e c ific c h a ra c te r­
continuous filam en t yarn, staple yarn, or tow. U ses instrum ents and s p e c ific a lly
m achines, under the su pervision of the la b o ra to ry forem an , to make the fo llow in g
tests: D en ier, tenacity, tw ist determ ination, staple fib e r length, crim p count on
staple, tare w eight, m oistu re analysis, fila m en t count, and abrasion resista n ce.
M A T E R IA L M O V E M E N T A N D H A N D LIN G

L A B O R E R , M A T E R IA L H A N D LIN G
(L o a d e r and unloader; handler and stacker; sh elver; tru ck er; stockm an or w arehousem an
o r w arehouse h elper)
A w o rk er em ployed in a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, store, or other esta b ­
lishm ent whose duties in volve one or m ore of the fo llo w in g : Loading and unloading variou s
m a teria ls and m erch andise on or fr o m fre ig h t ca rs, trucks, or other tran sportin g d e v ic e s ;
unpacking, shelving, or placin g m a teria ls or m erchandise in p rop er stora ge location ; tra n s ­
porting m a teria ls or m erch andise by handtruck,
car, or w h eelb a rrow to p ro p er location.
M ay keep a r e c o r d o f m a te ria ls handled or check item s against in voices or other rec o rd s.
Longshorem en, who load and unload ships, a re excluded. If p r im a ry duty is to operate
pow er truck, c la s s ify as tru ck ers, pow er.
STO C K C L E R K
R e c e iv e s , s to res , and issues equipment, m a te ria l, m erch andise, or tools in a
stockroom or sto rero o m . W ork in volves a com bination of the fo llo w in g : Checking incom ing
o rd e rs ; storin g supplies; applying iden tification s to a r tic le s ; issuing supplies; taking p e rio d ic
in ven tory or keeping perpetu al in ven tory; m aking up n e c e s s a ry r e p o rts ; and requ estin g or
ord erin g supplies when needed. Stockroom la b o re rs , tool c r ib attendants, and em p loyees
who su p ervise stock cle rk s and la b o r e r s a re excluded.

TRUCKER, POW ER
O perates a m anually co n trolled g asolin e- o r e le c tr ic -p o w e r e d truck o r tra c to r to
tran sport goods and m a te ria ls o f a ll kinds about a w arehouse, m anufacturing plant, or other
establishm ent.
F o r w age

su rvey pu rposes, w o rk e rs

T ru ck er, pow er (fo r k lift)
T ru ck er, pow er (oth er than fo rk lift)



a re c la s s ifie d b y type o f truck as fo llo w s :

32

C U S TO D IA L
GUARD
P e r fo r m s routine p o lice duties, eith er at fix ed post or on tour, m aintaining o rd e r,
using arm s or fo rc e w here n ecessa ry. Includes gatem en, who are stationed at gate and
check on identity of em p loyees and other persons entering.

J A N IT O R
(Day p o rte r; sw eep er; charwom an; ja n itre s s )
Cleans and keeps in an o r d e r ly condition fa c to ry w orking areas and w ashroom s, or
p re m is es of an o ffic e , apartm ent house, or co m m e rc ia l or other establishm ent.
Duties
in volve a com bination of the fo llo w in g : Sweeping, mopping, and/or scrubbing and polishing
flo o r s ; rem ovin g chips, trash, and other refu se; dusting equipment, fu rniture, or fix tu res;
polishing m etal fix tu res or trim m in g s; providin g supplies and m inor m aintenance s e r v ic e s ;
and cleaning la v a to rie s , show ers, and res tro o m s . W ork ers who s p ec ia lize in window washing
are excluded.

W ATCH M AN
Guards p re m is e s of plant p rop erty, w arehouses, or o ffic e buildings. Makes rounds
of p re m is e s p e r io d ic a lly in protectin g p ro p erty against fir e , theft, and ille g a l entry.




Industry Wage Studies
Th e m o s t r e c e n t r e p o r ts fo r in d u s trie s in clu d ed in the B u re a u 's p r o g r a m
o f in d u s try w a g e s u r v e y s sin ce January 1950 a re lis t e d b e lo w .
T h o s e fo r w h ich
a p r ic e is shown a re a v a ila b le fr o m the S u p erin ten den t o f D ocu m en ts, U. S.
G o v e rn m e n t P r in t in g O ffic e , W a sh in gton , D. C. , 20402, o r any o f its r e g io n a l
s a le s o f fic e s . T h o s e fo r w h ich a p r ic e is not shown m a y be ob ta in ed fr e e as
lon g as a su pply is a v a ila b le , fr o m the B u reau o f L a b o r S ta tis tic s , W a sh in gton ,
D. C. , 20212, o r fr o m any o f the r e g io n a l o ffic e s shown on the in s id e ba ck c o v e r .

I. Occupational Wage Studies
M a n u fa ctu rin g
B a s ic Ir o n and S te e l, 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1358 (30 c e n ts ).
Candy and O th er C o n fe c tio n e r y P r o d u c ts , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1520 (30 c e n ts ).
^C anning and F r e e z in g , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
C ig a r M a n u fa ctu rin g 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1436 (30 c e n ts ).
C ig a r e t te M a n u fa ctu rin g , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1472 (20 c e n ts ).
C otton T e x t ile s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1506 (40 c e n ts ).
D is t ille d L iq u o r s , 1952. S e r ie s 2, N o. 88.
F a b r ic a te d S tru c tu ra l S te e l, 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1463 (30 c e n ts ).
F e r t i l i z e r M a n u fa ctu rin g , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1362 (40 c e n ts ).
F lo u r and O th er G ra in M i l l P r o d u c ts , 1961. B L S B u lle tin 1337 (30 c e n ts ).
F lu id M ilk In d u stry , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1464 (30 c e n ts ).
F o o t w e a r , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1503 (50 c e n ts ).
H o s ie r y , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1456 (45 c e n ts ).
In d u s tria l C h e m ic a ls , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1529 (40 c e n ts ).
Ir o n and S te e l F o u n d r ie s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1386 (40 c e n ts ).
L e a th e r Ta n n in g and F in is h in g , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1378 (40 c e n ts ).
M a c h in e r y M a n u fa ctu rin g , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1476 (25 c e n ts ).
M e a t P r o d u c ts , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1415 (75 c e n ts ).
M e n 's and B o y s ' S h irts (E x c e p t W o rk S h irts) and N ig h tw e a r , 1964.
B L S B u lle tin 1457 (40 c e n ts ).
M e n 's and B o y s ' Suits and C o a ts , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1424 (65 c e n ts ).
M is c e lla n e o u s P la s t ic s P r o d u c ts , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1439 (35 c e n ts ).
M is c e lla n e o u s T e x t ile s , 1953. B L S R e p o r t 56.
M o to r V e h ic le s and M o to r V e h ic le P a r t s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 139 3 (45 c e n ts ).
N o n fe r r o u s F o u n d r ie s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1498 (40 cen ts).
P a in ts and V a r n is h e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1524 (40 c e n ts ).
P a p e r b o a r d C o n ta in ers and B o x e s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1478 (70 c e n ts ).
P e tr o le u m R e fin in g , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1526 (30 c e n ts ).
P r e s s e d o r B low n G la ss and G la s s w a r e , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1423 (30 c e n ts ).
^ P r o c e s s e d W a s te , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 124.
P u lp , P a p e r , and P a p e r b o a r d M i l l s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1341 (40 c e n ts ).
R a d io , T e le v is io n , and R e la te d P r o d u c ts , 1951. S e r ie s 2, N o. 84.
R a ilr o a d C a r s , 1952. S e r ie s 2, N o. 86.
*R a w S u gar, 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
Sou thern S a w m ills and P la n in g M ills , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1519 (30 c e n ts ).
S tru c tu ra l C la y P r o d u c ts , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1459 (45 c e n ts ).
S ynthetic F ib e r s , 1958. B L S R e p o r t 143.
S ynthetic T e x t ile s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1509 (40 c e n ts ).
T e x t ile D y e in g and F in is h in g , 1965—66. B L S B u lle tin 1527 (45 c e n ts ).

*

Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.




I.

O c c u p atio n al W a g e Studies----- C ontinued

M a n u fa ctu rin g — Continued
^ T o b a c c o S tem m in g and R e d r y in g , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 136.
W e s t C o a st S a w m illin g , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1455 (30 c e n ts ).
W o m e n 's and M is s e s ' C oats and Su its, 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1508 (25 c e n ts ).
W o m e n 's and M is s e s ' D r e s s e s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1391 (30 c e n ts ).
W ood H ou seh old F u r n itu r e , E x c e p t U p h o ls te r e d , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1496
(40 c e n t s ).
* W ooden C o n ta in ers , 1957. B L S R e p o r t 126.
W o o l T e x t ile s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1372 (45 c e n ts ).
W o rk C lo th in g , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1440 (35 c e n ts ).
N on m a n u factu rin g
A uto D e a le r R e p a ir Shops, 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1452 (30 c e n ts ).
B an kin g, 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1466 (30 ce n ts ).
B itu m inou s C o a l M in in g , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1383 (45 c e n ts ).
C o m m u n ic a tio n s , 1964. B L S B u lle tin 1467 (20 c e n ts ).
C o n tra c t C le a n in g S e r v ic e s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1507 (30 c e n ts ).
C ru de P e tr o le u m and N a tu ra l Gas P ro d u c tio n , I960. B L S R e p o r t 181.
D e p a rtm e n t and W o m e n 's R e a d y - t o - W e a r S to r e s , 1950. S e r ie s 2, N o. 78.
E a tin g and D rin k in g P la c e s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1400 (40 c e n ts ).
E le c t r ic and Gas U t ilit ie s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1374 (50 c e n ts ).
H o s p ita ls , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1409 (50 ce n ts ).
H o te ls and M o t e ls , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1406 (40 c e n ts ).
L a u n d rie s and C le a n in g S e r v i c e s , 1963. B L S B u lle tin 1401 (50 c e n ts ).
L if e In su ra n ce, 1961. B L S B u lle tin 1324 (30 c e n ts ).
N u rs in g H o m es and R e la te d F a c ilit ie s , 1965. B L S B u lle tin 1492 (45 ce n ts)

II.

Earnings Distributions Studies

F a c t o r y W o r k e r s ' E a rn in g s — D is tr ib u tio n by S t r a ig h t - T im e H o u r ly
E a r n in g s , 1958. B L S B u lle tin 1252 (40 ce n ts ).
F a c t o r y W o r k e r s ' E a rn in g s — S e le c te d M a n u fa ctu rin g In d u s tr ie s , 1959.
B L S B u lle tin 1275 (35 c e n ts ).
R e t a il T r a d e :
E m p lo y e e E a rn in g s and H o u rs , June 1965—
B u ild in g M a t e r i a l s , H a rd w a r e , and F a r m E q u ip m en t D e a le r s .
B L S B u lle tin 1501-1 (25 c e n ts ).
G e n e r a l M e r c h a n d is e S to re s . B L S B u lle tin 1501-2 (40 c e n ts ).
F o o d S to r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1501-3 (30 ce n ts ).
A u to m o tiv e D e a le r s and G a s o lin e S e r v ic e S tations.
B L S B u lle tin 1501-4 (40 c e n ts ).
A p p a r e l and A c c e s s o r y S to re s . B L S B u lle tin 1501-5 (45 c e n ts ).
F u r n itu re , H om e F u rn is h in g s , and H ou seh old A p p lia n c e
S to r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1501-6 (40 c e n ts ).
M is c e lla n e o u s S to r e s . B L S B u lle tin 1501-7 (30 c e n ts ).
E m p lo y e e E a rn in g s in N o n m e tro p o lita n A r e a s o f the South and N o rth
C e n tr a l R e g io n s , 1962. B L S B u lle tin 1416 (40 c e n ts ).

*

Studies of the effects of the $1 minimum wage.




☆ U. S. GOVERNMENT PR IN TIN G OFFICE : 1967 O - 244-389

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