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Industry W age Survey:
Sem iconductors
Septem ber 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2021







Industry W age Survey
Sem iconductors
Septem ber 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood,
Acting Commissioner
April 1979

Bulletin 2021

V

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Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of
Labor Statistics survey of occupational wages, estab­
lishment practices, and supplementary benefits in the
semiconductor and related devices manufacturing in­
dustry. It was the Bureau’s first such study in the elec­
trical equipment sector since the inception of the cur­
rent Industry Wage Survey program in 1959-60.
Summary 78-10, providing data on occupational earn­
ings from the survey, was issued in September 1978.
Copies are available from the Bureau of Labor Statis­
tics, Washington, D.C. 20212, or any of its regional
offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations. Mark Sieling of the




Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared the
analysis in this bulletin. Field work for the survey was
directed by the Assistant Regional Commissioners for
Operations.
Other publications available from the Bureau’s indus­
try wage studies program, as well as the addresses of
the Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of
this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without permission of the Fed­
eral Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor
Statistics and cite Industry Wage Survey: Semiconduc­
tors, September 1977, Bulletin 2021.

Contents

Page
Summary.............................................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics.......................................................................................................................................................
Products and processes..............................................................................................................................................
'Employment............................................................................................................................................................
Establishment size.....................................................................................................................................................
Unionization............................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage paym ent.........................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings.....................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings.......................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary benefits.......................................................
Scheduled weekly hours...........................................................................................................................................
Shift differential provisions and practices.................................................................................................................
Paid holidays.......................................................
Paid vacations............................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans...................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits..............................................................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4

Reference tables:
1. Average hourly earnings: Byselectedcharacteristics.........................................................................................
2. Earnings distribution: All productionw orkers.................................................................................................
3. Occupational earnings......................................................................................................................................

5
6
7

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
4. Method of wage paym ent.................................................................................................................................
5. Scheduled weekly hours .................................................................................................................................
6. Shift differential provisions...............................................................................................................................
7. Shift differential practices.................................................................................................................................
8. Paid holidays.....................................................................................................................................................
9. Paid vacations.....................................................................................................................................................
10. Health, insurance, and retirementplans.............................................................................................................
11. Other selected benefits......................................................................................................................................

9
9
10
10
H
12
13
14

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey.............................................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions..................................................................................................................................

15
18




IV

Semiconductors,
September 1977

Summary
Straight-time earnings of production workers in the sem­
iconductors manufacturing industry1averaged $4.52 an
hour in September 1977. The middle 50 percent of the
53,000 production workers covered by the survey
earned between $3.34 and $5.83 an hour nationwide. In
the Northeast, where nearly two-fifths of the industry’s
work force was located, hourly earnings averaged $5.51;
in the South, they averaged $3.91.
Among the 14 plant occupations2 studied separately,
average hourly earnings were highest for maintenance
pipefitters ($7.94) and lowest for crystal coaters ($3.38).
Three levels of assemblers, accounting for 55 percent
of all production workers, averaged $4.08 an hour.
Hourly averages of computer operators ($5.97) and en­
gineering technicians ($6.80)-the two nonplant jobs
studied separately-exceeded the overall production
worker average by 32 percent and 50 percent,
respectively.
All of the production workers studied were employed
by firms providing paid holidays (usually 9 or 10 annu­
ally) and paid vacations (typically 2 weeks after 1 year
of service; 3 weeks after 10 years; and 4 weeks after 15
years). All or virtually all workers were provided with
life, sickness and accident, hospitalization, surgical,
medical, and major medical insurance coverage, at least
partially financed by their employers. Long-term disa­
bility insurance and retirement plans each applied to
about three-fourths of the workers.

tricity by using layers of specially treated silicon and
other materials, such as aluminum, that are placed on
a silicon crystal.3 Semiconductors and combinations of
single semiconductors-known as integrated microcircuits-are used in a wide variety of products ranging
from computers, medical diagnostic equipment, and sat­
ellites to television sets and wrist watches. Firms with­
in scope of the survey also manufactured an assortment
of other solid-state devices, such as diodes, solar cells,
and transistors.
The total value of factory shipments of solid-state
devices amounted to $3.8 billion in 1976.4 About twothirds of this amount represented shipments of integrat­
ed microcircuits (semiconductor networks), while di­
odes and transistors each accounted for about one-tenth.
From 1965 to 1972, the total number of integrated mi­
crocircuits produced increased three hundredfold-from
2 million to 604 million. During this same period, how­
ever, their value increased by a factor of 15-from $41
million to $620 million-indicating that the average cost
per unit has declined, primarily due to increased pro­
duction efficiencies.5
Production of semiconductor devices requires both
a high degree of precision and an extremely clean work­
ing environment. First, large-size drawings are made
that trace the pattern of silicon layers that will be placed
on the base crystal. These drawings are then reduced
and imprinted on the crystal wafers by a photolithic
process which allows the different layers to be built up
by chemical means. Each device is then tested to in­
sure adherence to performance standards. Since a sin­
gle dust speck can ruin a semiconductor device, inspect­
ing and testing them is a major part of the manufactur­
ing process. Assembling single devices into more com­
plex ones, preparing them for shipment, and connect­
ing wires and leads are among the various tasks per­
formed by assemblers.

Industry characteristics
Products and processes.
Semiconductors are extreme­
ly small solid-state devices that alter the flow of elec­
1This survey covered firms employing at least 50 workers and en­
gaged primarily in manufacturing semiconductors and related de­
vices. (Industry 3674 as defined in the 1972 Standard Industrial Clas­
sification Manual prepared by the U.S. Office o f Management and
Budget.) Personal visits were made to 55 o f the 153 plants estimated
to be within scope o f the survey. Survey coverage nationwide, how ­
ever, was reduced to 93 percent o f the workers classified in the in­
dustry because a few large firms could not be adequately represent­
ed by others visited. Unavailability o f data for several major firms in
the West precluded the publication o f separate information for that
region. For further information on the scope and method o f the sur­
vey, see appendix A.
2For detailed occupational descriptions, see appendix B.




Employment.

Of the 53,000 production employees

3For further technical information on semiconductors and their pro­
duction, see Scientific American, Sept. 1977, Vol. 237, No. 3.
4Electronic Market Data Book, 1978 (Washington, D.C.: Electronic
Industries Association), pp. 104-11.
5See “N ew Leaders in Semiconductors”, Business Week, Mar. 1976,
pp. 40-46.

1

covered by the survey, about two-fifths were located
in the Northeast, and one-fifth were located in the South
(table 1). Other important centers of semiconductor
manufacturing were located in the West, especially in
California.6 Virtually all of the industry’s work force
was employed by firms located in metropolitan areas.
Women, predominant in the assembling and inspecting
and testing occupations, accounted for seven-tenths of
the industry’s production workers. Plant maintenance
occupations and the two nonplant jobs studied-com­
puter operators and engineering technicians-were
staffed primarily by men.

ries shows that gross hourly earnings for semiconduc­
tors are near the bottom of the array:7
Electric and electronic e q u ip m e n t............................................. $5.51
Miscellaneous electrical equipment and s u p p lie s.......................
Communications equipment..............................................................
Electrical industrial apparatus...................
Electrical distributing equip m ent....................................................
Household a p p lia n c e s........................................................................
Electrical lighting and wiring equipm ent.......................................
Radio and TV receiving equipm ent.................................................
Electronic components and a c c e sso r ie s.......................................
Semiconductors and related d e v ic e s .......................................

5.09

Production personnel in large-sized semiconductor
firms (those with 250 workers or more) averaged 24
percent more than their counterparts in smaller plants$4.64 compared with $3.74. Workers employed by firms
where a majority were covered by labor-management
agreements (primarily located in the Northeast) held a
61 percent wage advantage over those in nonunionized
plants-$6.42 compared with $4.00. Workers in metro­
politan areas held a 6 percent advantage over nonmet­
ropolitan workers-$4.53 compared with $4.26. The sur­
vey, however, did not isolate the independent impact
of wage determinants, since published differentials rep­
resent the joint influence of associated variables, such
as region and unionization, on wage rates. Looking at
the union-to-nonunion wage differential within the
Northeast region, the union impact is still overstated
by the establishment size variable. When the union-tononunion comparison is limited, for example, to large­
sized Northeast establishments, the differential is signif­
icantly smaller, 31 percent compared with 48 percent.
Earnings of individual production workers varied
widely-from under $2.50 an hour to over $8.00 (table
2). Excluding the upper and lower fourths of the earn­
ings array, the middle 50 percent of the workers earned
between $3.34 and $5.83 an hour. In the Northeast, the
corresponding portion of the array fell between $3.67
and $6.87 an hour. In the South, however, workers
were more highly concentrated at lower earnings levels-the middle 50 percent earned between $3.22 and
$4.16 an hour.
Overall, the wide spread of individual earnings with­
in the semiconductors industry reflects large wage dif-

Establishment size. Nationally, 87 percent of the pro­
duction workers were employed by firms with at least
250 employees. In the Northeast, such firms accounted
for 80 percent of the workers. In the South, the pro­
portion was 96 percent.
Unionization.
Establishments having labor-manage­
ment agreements covering a majority of their produc­
tion workers employed about one-fifth of the workers
nationwide. The vast majority of the industry’s union­
ized firms were located in the Northeast. In that region,
half of the workers were employed by unionized firms.
The International Brotherhood of Electrical Workers
(AFL-CIO) was the predominant union in the industry.
Method o f wage payment.
Nine-tenths of the produc­
tion personnel were employed on a time-rated basis (ta­
ble 4). All of the incentive paid workers were located
in the Northeast, where they accounted for one-third
of the work force. Formal pay plans, providing for ei­
ther a range of rates or for a single rate for specified
jobs, applied to about three-fourths of the workers
nationwide. Individually determined rates, based pri­
marily on each worker’s qualifications, applied to about
one-eighth of the workers.

Average hourly earnings
Straight-time hourly earnings of the 53,000 semicon­
ductor production workers covered by the survey av­
eraged $4.52 in September 1977 (table 1). The average
in the Northeast was $5.51 an hour-22 percent higher
than the nationwide average-while in the South, the
average was $3.91-13 percent lower.
Pay levels in the semiconductor industry were
typically below those in related electric and electronic
equipment industries. The following tabulation from the
Bureau’s September 1977 Employment and Earnings se-

7 Straight-time average hourly earnings o f production workers in
this bulletin differ in concept from the gross average hourly earnings
in the monthly Employment and Earnings series. The estimates pre­
sented in this bulletin for straight-time earnings exclude premium pay
for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
The gross hourly earnings presented in the monthly series include all
o f these. In this bulletin, average straight-time earnings are calcula­
ted by summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the num­
ber o f individuals. In the monthly series, the sum o f hours reported
by firms in the industry is divided into reported payroll totals. In ad­
dition, averages in the monthly series reflect data for all firms with­
in an industrial group, whereas only firms with at least 50 workers
were included in the semiconductors survey.

6See footnote 1.




6.62
6.35
5.61
5.57
5.44
5.13
4.97
4.58

2

ferences between firms rather than wide differences
within each firm. When an index of wage dispersion
was computed for each firm, for example, the averages
of those indexes was 24. By comparison, the index com­
puted for the entire industry was about 2 1/2 times as
large-61.8

er, between class V engineering technicians (the high­
est skill level) was 29 percent ($9.22 in the Northeast
compared with $7.15 in the South).
Of the five plant occupations for which separate com­
parisons were possible, men typically averaged about
10 percent more than women. The wage advantage,
however, varied by both occupation and skill level.
Class C men assemblers, for example, averaged only 2
percent more than class C women assemblers. The dif­
ference, however, between class A men and class A
women assemblers amounted to 37 percent. Factors
such as minor differences in job duties and the propor­
tion of men and women in relatively high or low pay­
ing firms may have influenced wage differences be­
tween the sexes.
The wide spread among establishment wage levels
results in some workers in relatively low paying jobs,
as measured by the industry’s average, earning more
than others in much higher paying jobs. As the follow­
ing tabulation shows, for example, some inspectors and
testers earned more than maintenance electricians, even
though their survey averages differed by $2.87 per hour.

Occupational earnings
Average hourly earnings among the plant jobs stud­
ied separately ranged from $3.38 for crystal coaters to
$7.94 for maintenance pipefitters (table 3).9 Three lev­
els of assemblers, accounting for 55 percent of all pro­
duction workers, averaged $4.08 an hour. Inspectors
and testers, numerically the second largest job, aver­
aged $4.84 an hour. Averages for the two nonplant jobs
studied separately-computer operators ($5.97) and en­
gineering technicians ($6.80)-exceeded the industry’s
production worker average by 32 percent and 50 per­
cent, respectively.
Occupational pay relationships revealed by the sur­
vey, however, deviated at times from those found with­
in individual establishments. Such anomalies resulted
from the disproportionate impact of a high (or low)
paying firm on an occupation’s survey average. In the
Northeast, for example, the majority of class C inspect­
ors and testers were in relatively high paying firms,
while class B workers were about evenly distributed
among high and low paying firms. Thus, although class
B inspectors averaged more than class C inspectors
within each firm employing both groups, their survey
average was less ($5.26 compared with $5.69 for class
C).
Occupational averages in the Northeast typically ex­
ceeded those in the South by about 30 to 40 percent.
Regional wage differences, however, were smaller for
production workers with higher skill levels. Class C
(entry level) assemblers in the Northeast, for example,
averaged 54 percent more than their southern counter­
parts ($4.73 compared with $3.07). The difference be­
tween class A assemblers (those with the highest skill
levels), however, was only 28 percent ($5.22 compared
with $4.08). A similar pattern was found among the
three levels of inspectors and testers and between skilled
maintenance and unskilled plant jobs. The reverse was
true, however, for the five levels of engineering tech­
nicians studied in both regions. Class I (entry level) en­
gineering technicians in the Northeast, for example, av­
eraged only 4 percent more than those in the South
($3.94 compared with $3.78). The differential, howev­

Inspectors and
testers
Number o f workers:
Under $ 5 .2 0 . . .
$5.20 to $5.80 .
$5.80 to $6.40 .
$6.40 to $7.00 .
$7.00 to $7.60 .
$7.60 to $8.20 .
$8.20 and over .
Average hourly earn in gs....................

686
48
14

11
50
29
40

8

22

116

$4.84

$7.71

Establishment practices and supplementary
benefits
Data also were obtained for production and office
workers on certain establishment practices, including
work schedules and on selected supplementary bene­
fits, including paid holidays, paid vacations, and health,
insurance, and retirement plans.
Scheduled weekly hours.
Virtually all production
workers and nine-tenths of the office workers were
scheduled to work a 40-hour week (table 5). Weekly
work schedules varied somewhat for office workers in
the Northeast: three-fifths worked 40 hours, and onethird worked 38 1/2 hours.

8 The index o f dispersion, calculated by dividing the difference be­
tween the third quartile and the first quartile by the median, falls be­
tween 25 and 35 for most manufacturing industries studied in the Bu­
reau’s industry wage program. For the semiconductors industry it
was 61.
’ Workers in plant jobs studied separately accounted for about twothirds o f the total production work force. For detailed job descrip­
tions, see appendix B.




2,360
119
476

Maintenance
electricians

3

Shift differential provisions and practices. About ninetenths of the production workers were in firms having
extra pay provisions for work on second or third shifts
(table 6); about two-fifths were actually employed on
such shifts at the time of the survey (table 7). In the
Northeast, one-fifth of the workers were on second
shifts and one-tenth were on third or other late shifts;
premium pay for such work was typically 10 percent

above day-shift rates. The proportion of workers in the
South on second shifts was about three-tenths, and on
third shifts, one-fourth. Shift premiums there usually
amounted to 20 cents an hour. Other things being equal,
cents-per-hour premiums tend to compress occupation­
al pay relationships of workers on late shifts while per­
cent differentials maintain those relationships.
Paid holidays. All production workers were in firms
providing holidays, usually 9 or 10 annually (table 8).
Workers in the Northeast typically received 10 holi­
days, while those in the South usually received 9. Pro­
visions for office workers were generally the same as
for production workers. In the Northeast, however,
about three-tenths of the office workers received 11
paid holidays compared with about one-eighth of the
production workers.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. All or virtu­
ally all production and office workers were provided
with life, hospitalization, medical, major medical, sick­
ness and accident, and surgical insurance coverage, usu­
ally financed solely by their employers (table 10). A c­
cidental death and dismemberment insurance applied to
about nine-tenths of the production workers and threefourths of the office workers. Coverage was about 3
times greater in the Northeast, however, than in the
South. Long-term disability insurance, however, was
slightly more pervasive in the South-where such cov­
erage extended to about 95 percent of the workers com­
pared to 80 percent in the Northeast.
Retirement plans, other than social security, applied
to about three-fourths of the production and office
workers nationwide. As with long-term disability cov­
erage, retirement plans were slightly more prevalent in
the South than in the Northeast.

Paid vacations.
Paid vacations, after qualifying peri­
ods of service, were provided to all production and of­
fice workers (table 9). Typical provisions for both
groups were 1 week of pay after 6 months; 2 weeks
after 1 year; 3 weeks after 10 years; and 4 weeks after
15 years. Provisions in the South were slightly more
liberal than those in the Northeast for workers with
shorter periods of service. In the South, for example,
79 percent of the production workers received 3 weeks
of vacation after 5 years of service compared with 21
percent in the Northeast. This pattern was reversed,
however, for workers with longer tenure.

Other selected benefits. At least nine-tenths of the pro­
duction and office workers also were covered by some
form of paid funeral and jury-duty pay provisions (ta­
ble 11). Technological severance pay plans applied to
two-fifths of the workers in both groups. Such plans
were more common in the Northeast, where they ap­
plied to half of all production workers, than in the
South, where they covered only one-seventh. Provi­
sions for cost-of-living adjustments followed a similar
pattern-applying to just over half the production per­
sonnel in the Northeast and to less than 5 percent in
the South.




4




Table 1. Average hourly earnings: By selected characteristics
(Num ber and average straight-tim e hourly earnings1 of production workers in semilonductor m anufacturing establishments by selected characteristics. United States
and selected regions2 , Septem ber 1977.)

Item

United States3
Num ber Average
of
hourly
workers earnings

Northeast
Num ber Average
hourly
of
workers earnings

South
Num ber Average
of
hourly
workers earnings

All production workers. . 5 2 ,9 5 6
M e n ................................. 11,861
W o m en ........................... 3 7 ,5 4 9

$ 4 .52
5.85
4.1 7

2 0 ,2 2 0
6 ,6 9 3
13,527

$5.51
6 .7 7
4 .8 9

9,3 6 6
1,815
7,551

$3.91
4 .8 2
3 .6 9

Size of com m unity:
Metropolitan areas . . .5 0 ,4 9 6
N onm etropolitan areas 2 ,4 6 0

4 .5 3
4 .2 6

19 ,372
-

5.53
-

9 ,1 1 8
-

3.88
-

Size of establishment:
100-250 workers . . .
7,086
2 5 0 workers or more . 4 5 ,8 7 0

3 .7 4
4 .6 4

4 ,0 0 8
16 ,212

3.61
5.98

—
8 ,9 47

—
3.8 9

6 .4 2

1 1 ,0 1 0

6 .4 7

4 .0 0

9 ,2 1 0

4.3 6

9 ,2 1 9

3.8 7

Labor-management con­
tracts:
Establishments w ith —
M ajority of workers
covered....................... 11 ,412
None or m ino rity of
workers covered. . . 4 1 ,5 4 4

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r w ork on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
2 Regional definitions were as follows: N ortheast—
Connecticut, Delaware, Maine,
Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New Hampshire, New Y ork, Pennsylvania,
Rhode Island, and V erm o nt; Sou th—
Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, K entucky,
Louisiana, Mississippi, N orth Carolina, Oklahom a, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas,
Virginia, and West Virginia.
3 Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.
N O TE : Dash indicates no data or data th at do not meet publication criteria.

Table 2. Earnings distribution: All production workers*
(P e rce n t d is tr ib u tio r v o f p r o d u c t io n w o rk e rs in s e m ic o n d u c to r m a n u fa c tu rin g establishm ents b y average s tra ig h t-tim e h o u rly earnings ,
U n ite d States and selected regions, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 .)

Item

United States

Northeast

South

N um ber of w o rke rs. . .
Average hourly earnings

52 ,9 5 6
$4 .52

20,220
$5.51

9 ,3 66
$3.91

T o t a l ..............

10 0.0

10 0.0

100.0

Under $ 2 .5 0 ....................

.2

.6

$ 2 .5 0
$ 2 .5 0
$ 2 .7 0
$ 2 .8 0
$ 2 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 2 .6 0 .
$ 2 .7 0 .
$ 2 .8 0 .
$ 2 .9 0 .
$ 3 .0 0 .

2.1
5.9
1.4
2.5
2.5

.2
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.0

1.4
1.0
2.7
4.8
4 .3

$ 3 .0 0
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 .2 0
$ 3 .3 0
$ 3 .4 0

ana
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 .1 0 .
$ 3 .2 0 .
$ 3 .3 0 .
$ 3 .4 0 .
$ 3 .5 0 .

3.1
3.3
2.6
3.4
5.3

2.4
2.8
2.4
2.3
2.3

4.2
5.7
3.7
7.6
8.2

$ 3 .5 0
$ 3 .6 0
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3 .6 0 ,
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3 .9 0
$ 4 .0 0

2.5
2.8
2.6
7.3
2.2

2.0
2.5
1.6
1.5
1.4

3.6
3.6
6.3
6.0
5.1

$ 4 .0 0
$ 4 .1 0
$ 4 .2 0
$ 4 .3 0
$ 4 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 4 .1 0
$ 4 .2 0
$ 4 .3 0
$ 4 .4 0
$ 4 .5 0

4.1
2.1
1.9
1.8
2.6

.9
.7
.7
.8
1.3

4.7
5.1
1.6

2.8
.7

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
2 Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.




Item

U nited States

Northeast

South

$ 4 .5 0
$ 4 .6 0
$ 4 .7 0
$ 4 .8 0
$ 4 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 4 .6 0 .....................................
$ 4 .7 0 ........................................
$ 4 .8 0 .......................................
$ 4 .9 0 ........................................
$ 5 .0 0 ........................................

1.1
1.2
1.6
1.8
1.1

.6
.3
1.5
1.6
1.3

.7
1.0
1.2
1.0
1.0

$ 5 .0 0
$ 5 .1 0
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 5 .1 0 ........................................
$ 5 .2 0 ........................................
$ 5 .3 0 ........................................
$ 5 .4 0 ........................................
$ 5 .5 0 ........................................

1.0
1.1
1.4
.4
.5

1.3
1.1
1.9
.5
.6

.4
.4
.7
.4
.4

$ 5 .5 0
$ 5 .6 0
$ 5 .7 0
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 5 .6 0 ........................................
$ 5 .7 0 ........................................
$ 5 .8 0 ........................................
$ 5 .9 0 ........................................
$ 6 .0 0 ........................................

.7
.2
.6
.6
2.7

1.4
.2
.7
1.3
6.6

.3
.4
.5
.2
.6

$ 6 .0 0
$ 6 .2 0
$ 6 .4 0
$ 6 .6 0
$ 6 .8 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 6 .2 0 ........................................
$ 6 .4 0 ........................................
$ 6 .6 0 ........................................
$ 6 .8 0 ........................................
$ 7 .0 0 ........................................

3.4
1.6
2.6
1.5
1.2

7.6
3.3
6.4
3.4
2.2

1.8
.9
.5
.5
.7

$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .4 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .8 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 7 .2 0 ........................................
$ 7 .4 0 ........................................
$ 7 .6 0 ........................................
$ 7 .8 0 ........................................
$ 8 .0 0 ........................................

5.1
.4
1.0
1.1
.6

11.3
.7
1.6
1.6
1.1

.7
.4
.4
1.0
.2

$ 8 .0 0 and o v e r .....................................................

3.1

7.2

.7

3

Less than 0.0 5 percent.

N O T E : Because o f rounding, sums o f individual items may no t equal 100.

Table 3. Occupational earnings
(N um ber and average straight-tim e hourly earnings1 of workers in selected occupations in semiconductor m anufacturing establishments, United States and selected regions, September 1977.)

Number
of
workers

Selected occupations

United States2
Average
Median
hourly
earnings3 earnings3

Northeast
Average
hourly
Median
earnings3 earnings3

Middle
range o f3
earnings

Num ber
of
workers

$ 3 .2 8 -$ 4 .5 3
3 .3 0 - 6.11
3 .2 7 - 4 .4 5
3.8 5- 4 .9 9
4 .3 5 - 7.59
3 .8 2 - 4 .8 8
3 .3 9 - 4 .4 9
3 .6 0 - 6 .4 2
3 .3 8 - 4 .4 0
3 .0 9 - 3.8 7
2 .9 4 - 5.91
3 .1 0 - 3.8 7

10 ,409
1,003
9 ,4 0 6
784
197
587
3 ,9 4 3
481
3 ,4 6 2
5 ,6 8 2
—
5 ,3 57

$ 4 ,8 0
5.91
4 .6 8
5.2 2
6.9 8
4 .6 3
4.81
5.3 8
4 .7 3
4 .7 3
—
4.6 5

4 .3 8
5.3 6
4 .0 6
3 .1 0
—
3 .1 0
4 .5 8
5 .7 0
4 .2 5
3 .4 8
—
3 .3 5
5.8 5
5.6 4
-

South
Average
hourly
Median
earnings3 earnings3

Middle
range of
earnings3

Num ber
of
workers

Middle
range of
earnings

$4 .8 8
6 .1 3
4 .7 9
4 .9 9
7.5 4
4 .1 7
4 .5 0
5.5 4
4 .4 0
4 .9 9
—
4 .8 4

$ 3 .3 2 -$ 6 .1 0
5.1 7- 6 .8 4
3.2 5- 6 .0 2
3 .6 6 - 7.08
6.8 5- 7.81
3 .6 0 - 4.9 9
3.3 0- 6 .4 2
4 .1 5 - 6 .8 0
3 .2 5 - 6 .4 2
3.2 5- 5.9 8
—
3 .2 5 - 5.98

6 ,0 5 4
366
5,6 88
1,485
—
1,441
2,0 5 9
—
1,976
2 ,5 1 0
—
2,271

$ 3 .52
3 .2 6
3 .5 3
4 .0 8
—
4 .0 8
3 .6 5
—
3 .6 5
3 .0 7
—

—

3 .0 8

3.09

3.7 5
5.18
3 .5 0
3.0 6
_
3 .0 6
3.8 5
6 .0 4
3 .6 0
3.5 3
—
3 .5 0
5.93
5.6 0
-

3 .1 5 - 5 .2 4
3 .7 5 - 7.17
3.0 6- 5.18
2.9 0- 3.31
_
2.9 0- 3.31
3 .1 8 - 6 .0 4
4 .0 0 - 7.17
3 .1 5 - 4 .5 0
3 .2 5 - 3 .7 5
—
3.0 8 - 3 .5 3
4.0 0 - 7.76
4 .0 0 - 7.6 0
-

_
—
—
_
_
_
—
—
_
—
—
—
—
—
-

_
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
-

_
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
_
_

15
23
42
-

6 .2 6
5.88
5.53
—

6.38
6.0 3
5.15
-

5.92- 6.61
5.34- 6.23
4.7 4- 7.17
—

45 5
41
414
35

4.1 7
4 .4 0
4 .1 5
5.0 5

4.2 4
4.27
4.2 4
5.26

3.573.653.564.18-

A S S E M B L IN G
Assemblers.............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class A .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class B .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class C .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................

29 ,182
2,223
26 ,843
3,9 75
31 5
3,6 26
10,502
731
9,7 33
14,705
1,177
13,484

$4 .08
4 .5 2
4 .0 4
4.5 3
6.0 2
4.3 9
4.1 6
4.7 8
4.1 2
3 .9 0
3.9 7
3 .9 0

$ 3 .86
3.81
3.8 7
4.2 3
6 .2 0
4.21
3.91
4.2 5
3 .9 0
3 .5 0
3.41
3.56

1,345
34 3
984
202
18
184
394
125
261
37 5
45
330
182
118
54

4.18
4.57
4.0 5
3.3 8
3 .4 4
3.3 7
4 .3 4
4 .7 0
4 .1 8
4.01
3.7 5
4 .0 5
4.87
4.8 9
4 .9 0

4 .0 0
4.01
3.95
3 .3 2
3 .4 0
3.31
3.7 5
4 .0 0
3.6 9
4 .0 3
3.71
4 .0 3
4 .4 2
4 .4 2
4 .4 7

3 .4 9 3 .6 5 3 .3 2 3 .0 4 3 .4 0 2.983 .3 0 3 .5 0 3 .1 5 3 .8 3 3 .5 6 3 .9 0 4 .0 0 4 .0 6 3 .7 1 -

4 .4 4
5.18
4 .4 0
3 .5 0
3 .5 0
3 .7 4
4 .5 0
6 .0 4
4 .4 0
4 .4 0
3 .8 4
4 .4 0
5 .3 0
5 .3 0
4 .9 6

59 0
145
44 5
126
—
124
287
66
221
42
—
31
59
41
-

254
177
501
106

7.71
7.03
6.5 7
7.94

7.5 0
6 .5 0
6 .5 9
8 .4 8

6 .5 8 6 .0 0 5.5 07 .3 8 -

8 .9 4
8.2 5
7.89
8 .4 8

90
237
80

7.7 0
7.11
8 .1 9

8.2 5
7.93
8 .4 8

6 .5 0 - 8 .9 4
5.90- 8.4 8
8 .4 8 - 8 .4 8

3,7 25
42 4
3,283
470
123
341
1,609
190
1,413
1,646
111
1,529

4 .8 4
5.3 2
4.7 7
5.11
6.3 6
4.6 3
4 .5 8
4.7 2
4.5 5
5.02
5.21
5.01

4 .6 0
5.2 2
4 .5 0
4 .8 0
6 .2 0
4 .5 4
4 .3 5
4.0 7
4 .3 5
5 .9 0
5.98
5 .9 0

3.7 0 3 .8 2 3 .6 8 4 .1 7 4 .9 8 4 .0 0 3 .7 0 3 .6 8 3 .7 0 3 .5 0 3 .7 0 3 .4 9 -

6.11
6 .4 8
6 .1 0
5 .5 0
7.61
4 .9 8
5.0 4
5 .5 4
4 .9 0
6.41
6.11
6.41

1,902
291
1,611
160
100
60
614
103
511
1,1 28
88
1 ,0 40

5.58
5.8 4
5.5 3
6 .0 3
6 .6 3
5.0 3
5.2 6
5.1 6
5.2 8
5 .6 9
5.7 2
5.6 9

6 .1 0
5.98
6 .1 0
5.5 4
7 .0 0
4 .7 6
5.3 5
5 .0 0
5.4 2
6.2 6
5.98
6 .2 6

4 .6 2 4 .8 6 4 .5 0 4 .3 1 5 .2 9 3 .6 4 3 .9 0 3 .7 5 4 .0 0 5.9 05.9 15 .8 7 -

$3.43
2.94
3.46
3.96
—
3.96
3.67
—
3.68
3.0 4

$ 3 .09-$3.8 7
2.88- 3.56
3.13- 3 .9 0
3.80- 4.1 3
—

3.75- 4.1 3
3.40- 3.9 4
—
3.40- 3 .9 4
2.86- 3.28
—
2.86- 3 .3 4

P R O C E S S IN G
Crystal processors...............................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Crystal coaters...............................................................
M e n ...............................................................................
W o m e n ....................................................................
Crystal cu tters...............................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Crystal finishers............................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Crystal g ro w e rs ............................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................

_
—

—
—
—
—
—
—
_
_

—

—

—
—
—
-

—
—
—
-

MAINTENANCE
Electricians, m a in te n a n c e ..............................................
Machinists, m ain te n a n c e ..................................................
Maintenance workers, general u t ilit y ..........................
Pipefitters, m a in te n a n c e ..................................................

_

_

_

_

INSPECTING AND TESTING
Inspectors and testers........................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class A .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class B .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................
Class C .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n ......................................................................

 footnotes at end of table.
See


r

6.4 8
6.7 5
6.4 8
7.51
7.91
6 ,2 0
6 .4 8
6.51
6 .4 8
6 .4 8
6.41
6 .4 8

—

—

_

26
36 5
23
342

4 .9 5
4 .2 4
4.31
4 .2 4

5.28
4.31
4.27
4.31

4.73
4.9 2
4.7 3
5.65

—

3.803.663.513.7 1-

—

—

—

—

—

_

_

—

—

—

—

—

5.58
4.73
4.8 3
4.7 3

Table 3. Continued— Occupational earnings
( N u m b e r a nd average s tra ig h t-tim e h o u r ly e a rnings1 o f w o rk e rs in selected o c c u p a tio n s in s e m ic o n d u c to r m a n u f a c t u r in g e sta b lish m e n ts. U n it e d S ta te s a n d selected regions, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 .)

Selected occupations

Num ber
of
workers

U nited States1
2
Average
Median
hourly
earnings earnings3

M iddle
range o f 3
earnings

N um ber
of
workers

Northeast
Average
Median
ho urly
earnings3 earnings3

M iddle
range o f
earnings3

N um ber
of
workers

Sc>uth
Average
Median
hourly
3
earnings3 earnings

M iddle
range of
earnings3

CUSTODIAL AND MATERIAL MOVEMENT
/
Janitors, porters, and cleaners........................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Laborers, m aterial h a n d lin g ............................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................

499
431
68
283
222
53

4 .3 4
4 .3 4
4.3 2
4.1 4
4 .1 4
4.1 2

4 .2 3
4 .2 3
4 .2 3
4 .0 9
4 .0 9
4 .1 8

3.7 6 3.7 9 3.7 0 3.8 1 3 .8 1 3.94-

5.1 9
5.1 9
5 .2 4
4 .3 8
4 .3 2
4 .4 7

234
203
—
44
44
—

4 .8 7
4 .8 4
—
4 .9 6
4 .9 6
—

5.2 4
5.1 9
—
5.18
5.18
—

4 .5 9 - 5 .2 4
4 .4 3 - 5.2 4
—
4 .2 5 - 5.4 5
4.2 5 - 5.45
—

55
—
46
—
—

3 .1 3
—
3 .0 2
—
—
—

3 .1 5
—
2.7 8
—
—
—

2.69- 3.51
_
2.60- 3 .4 4
—
—
-

OFFICE AND TECHNICAL
C om puter o p e r a to r s .........................................................
M e n ....................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class A .......................................................................
Class B ..........................................................................
M e n ..........................................................................
Class C .............................................................................
Engineering te c h n ic ia n s ..................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class 1 .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class II .............................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class III ..........................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class I V ..........................................................................
M e n .............................................................................
W o m e n .......................................................................
Class V .............................................................................

224
113
111
94
91
47
17
3 ,5 9 0
3,1 0 3
441
144
90
46
424
256
160
802
67 4
116
962
88 3
69
1,258

$5.97
6.13
5.80
5.98
6.47
6.24
4.93
6.80
7.01
5.56
4.62
4.58
4.89
4.92
5.14
4.66
4.73
5.73
5.76
6.73
6.77
6.4 4
8.41

$ 5 .7 5
6 .1 5
5.63
6.0 5
7.03
5.07
4.9 5
6 .6 4
6 .9 0
5.4 5
4.5 9
4 .5 9
4 .7 3
4 .9 9
5 .0 0
4.8 5
5.61
5.6 2
5.61
6.6 5
6 .7 3
6 .4 0
8.4 7

4 .8 5 -$ 7 .0 3
4 .9 0 - 7.21
4 .7 2 - 7.03
5 .1 9 - 6 .4 9
5.2 8- 7.71
4 .9 3 - 7.69
4 .8 5 - 4.8 5
5.5 0- 7.9 4
5 .7 1 - 8 .1 4
4 .7 3 - 6 .4 9
4 .1 7 - 5.2 7
4 .1 5 - 5.31
4 .3 1 - 5.4 5
4 .2 7 - 5.55
4 .5 1 - 5.88
3 .9 0 - 5.2 7
4 .9 1 - 6.5 5
4 .9 2 - 6 .5 4
4.9 3- 6 .6 4
5.9 5- 7.58
6 .0 0 - 7.61
5.8 8 - 7.08
7.38- 9 .4 0

1 Excludes prem ium pay fo r overtim e and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts.
2 Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.




128
85
_
_
74
37
_
1,5 09
1,4 09
100
8
_
_
141
127
14
283
242
_
—
—
_
725

6 .6 8
6 .5 2
_
_
6.8 8
6 .6 8
_
7.8 0
7.88
6.6 6
3 .9 4
_
_
5.06
5.0 9
4 .7 9
6.1 6
6 .1 2
_
_
—
_
9.2 2

$ 6 .8 4
6.4 5
_
_

$5.81 -$7.71
5.55- 7.69
_
_

7.47
7.41
_
7.98
8 .1 3
6.71

5.6 3- 7.73
5.45- 7.71
_

—
_
_
5 .0 0
5 .0 0
_
6 .3 8
6 .3 3
_
—
_

—
9 .2 0

6 .5 0 - 9.1 8
6 .5 7 - 9.2 3
5.8 8- 7.48
_
_
_
4 .5 0 4 .5 0 _
5.565.55_
_
_
_
8 .7 1 -

5 .5 0
5.65

32
_

$4 .86
_

$4.71
_

_
_
_
25
737
686
51
16

_
_
_
4.81
5.93
6 .0 0
4.9 8
3.7 8

_
_

_

_

9.8 3

4 .4 5
4.61
4.0 3
4.91
4.91
_

232
22 0
_

6.7 9
6 .7 5

67
48
19
185
178
_

6.0 6
6.0 7
_

237

7.15

$4 .5 1 -$ 5 .1 3

_

_
__
_

_

-

4.71
5.92
6 .0 0
4.81
3.6 7

4.515.005.023.863.56-

_

_
4.51
4 .7 0
4.0 6
4.91
4.91
_
6.01
6.0 3
_
7.64

5.06
6.71
6.72
5.85
3.77

4.13- 4.83
4.3 3- 4.9 2
3.50- 4.52
4.72- 5.15
4.72- 5.15
_
5.63- 6.3 5
5.66- 6.3 5
_
6.4 1- 7.70

3 For specific d efin ition , see appendix A.
N O T E : Dash indicates no data reported or data th at do not meet publication criteria.




Table 4. Method of wage payment
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing
establishments by method of wage payment,1 United States and selected regions,
September 1977)
Method of
wage payment

United
States2

Northeast

South

Production workers
All workers....................................................

100

100

100

Time-rated workers..........................................
Formal plans..................................................
Single r a te ...................................................
Range of rates............................................
Individual ra te s ..............................................

88
86
3
84
2

68
64
7
57
4

100
99
99
1

Incentive workers.............................................
Group piecework...........................................

12
12

32
32

_

Office workers
All workers....................................................

100

100

100

Time-rated workers..........................................
Formal plans..................................................
Single r a te ...................................................
Range of rates............................................
Merit review..............................................
Length of service.....................................
Combination .............................................
Individual rates ..............................................

100
86
1
85
37
14
33
14

100
78
3
75
31
34
10
22

100
98
98
93
6
2

1 For definition of m ethod o f wage paym ent, see appendix A.
2 Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.
N O TE :

Because of rounding, sums of individual Items may not equal totals.

Table 5. Scheduled weekly hours
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments by scheduled weekly hours,1 United
States and selected regions, September 1977)

Weekly hours

United
States2

Northeast

South

United
States2

Production workers
All workers....................................................
35 hours............................................................
37.5 hours.........................................................
38.75 hours.......................................................
40 hours............................................................

South

Office workers

100

100

100

_

_

_

1

2

-

-

-

_

99

98

100

1 Data relate to the predominant schedule for full-time
day-shift workers in each establishment.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown
separately.

Northeast

100

100

100

1
1
9
90

2
4
32
62

100

_

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal 100.

Table 6. Shift differential provisions
(Percent of production workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments by
shift differential provisions,' United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Shift differential

United
States2

Northeast

South

97.3
93.2
39.9
11.4
6.3
1.5
6.8
13.7
.3
51.9
2.0
2.8
.4
9.1
36.6
.9
1.4

96.1
87.7
7.0
3.9
1.7
1.5
79.5
2.2
74.9
2.4
1.2

98.2
98.2
82.1
12.2
68.4
1.6
16.1
16.1
-

87.9
87.9
22.7
.5
3.7
18.2
.3
49.7
2.0
2.8
.4
31.0
2.1
4.0
6.1
1.4
15.5

79.8
79.8
3.9
3.9

86.0
86.0
69.9
-

-

68.4
1.6
16.1
16.1
-

S eco nd sh ift

Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions...................................
With shift differential......................................
Uniform cents per hour .............................
7 c e n ts .......................................................
10 ce n ts.....................................................
12.5 cents..................................................
15 ce n ts.....................................................
20 cents.....................................................
25 ce n ts.....................................................
Uniform percentage ....................................
5 percent ...................................................
6 percent ...................................................
7 p e rcent...................................................
8 percent ...................................................
10 percent.................................................
15 p ercent................................................
Other formal paid differential....................
Third shift

Workers in establishments with
third-shift provisions........................................
With shift differential.....................................
Uniform cents per hour .............................
10 ce n ts.....................................................
15 ce n ts.....................................................
20 ce n ts.....................................................
25 ce n ts .....................................................
Uniform percentage ...................................
5 percent ...................................................
6 percent ...................................................
7 percent ...................................................
10 p ercent.................................................
12 percent .................................................
12.5 percent.............................................
15 percent.................................................
20 percent.................................................
Other formal paid differential....................

-

74.8
57.0
10.4
3.7
3.7
1.2

-

1 Refers to policies o f establishments currently operating late shifts or
having provisions covering late shifts.
2 Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.
NO TE:




Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 7. Shift differential practices
(Percent of production workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments
employed on late shfts by amount of shift differential, United States and selected
regions, September 1977)

Shift differential

United
States1

Northeast

South

27.0
26.4
11.0
3.9
.9
.5
1.3
4.3
15.0
.6
.9
(*>
3.6
9.6
.3
.4

21.8
20.8
1.3
.3
.7
.3

29.8
29.8
24.4
1.9
-

19.3
.7
17.8
.7
.2

5.3
5.3
-

14.2
14.2
4.1
.1
4.0

9.3
9.3
.1
.1

25.3
25.3
22.1
-

-

22.1

Second shift
Workers employed on second shift...............
Receiving differential ....................................
Uniform cents per hour .............................
7 ce n ts......................................................
10 cents.....................................................
12.5 cents..................................................
15 cents.....................................................
20 cents.....................................................
25 cents.....................................................
Uniform percentage ...................................
5 percent ..................................................
6 percent ..................................................
7 percent ..................................................
8 percent ..................................................
10 percent ................................................
15 percent.................................................
Other formal paid differential....................

-

-

22.5
-

Third shift
Workers employed on third shift....................
Receiving differential ....................................
Uniform cents per hour .............................
10 cents....................................................
15 cents....................................................
20 cents....................................................
25 cents....................................................
Uniform percentage ...................................
5 percent ..................................................
6 percent ..................................................
7 percent ..................................................
10 percent................................................
12 percent................................................
12.5 percent.............................................
15 percent................................................
Other formal paid differential....................

-

-

-

-

7.5
.2
.6

9.2
8.5
.6
.1
.1

3.2
3.2
-

5.3
.2
.2
1.0
2.6

’ Includes data fo r regions in addition to those shown separately.
Less than 0 .0 5 percent.
N O T E : Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.







Table 8. Paid holidays
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid
holidays, United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Number of
paid holidays

United
States1
2

Northeast

South

United
States1

Production workers

Northeast

South

Office workers

All workers....................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays..................................
7 days .............................................................
8 days .............................................................
8 days plus 1 or 2 half days .......................
9 days .............................................................
9 days plus 1 or 2 half days .......................
10 days ...........................................................
10 days plus 1 or 2 half d a y s .....................
11 days ...........................................................
12 days ...........................................................
13 days ...........................................................

100
1
3
3
30
2
47
2
5
1
7

100

100

100
1
4
(*)
46
4
30
1
8
1
5

100

100

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown
separately.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

O
-

8
8
5
61
4
12
2
“

-

14
68
-

16
-

2
“

O

-

6

-

2
8
14
46
2
28
-

”

-

80
13
2
“

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal totals.

Table 9. Paid vacations
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions,
September 1977)

Vacation policy

United
States1

N orth­
east

South

United
States1

100

100

South
Vacation policy

100

100

100

United
States1

N orth­
east

South

United
States1

Production workers

Office workers

Production workers
All workers .............................................

—
N o rth ­
east

N orth­
east

South

Office workers

100
A m o un t o f va cation pay2

M e tho d o f p a ym en t

Workers in establishments

Percentage paym ent..............................

100
98
2

100
100

100
100

100
99
1

100
100

100
100

A m o u n t o f va cation pay2

After 6 months of service:
Under 1 week .........................................
1 week .....................................................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..................
After 1 year of service:
1 week .....................................................
Over 1 and under 2 w e e k s ..................
2 weeks ...................................................
After 2 years of service:
1 week .....................................................
2 weeks ...................................................
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ..................
After 3 years of service:
1 week .....................................................
2 weeks ...................................................
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ..................
3 weeks ...................................................
After 5 years of service:
1 week .....................................................
2 weeks ...................................................
Over 2 and under 3 w e e k s ..................
3 weeks ...................................................
After 10 years of service:
1 week .....................................................
2 weeks ...................................................

7
57
(3
)

6
71
1

28
1

5
38
(3
)

2
67
1

17
(3
)

21
2
77

16
2
82

79
1
21

25
1
74

8

82

1
79
20

(3)
97
2

84
16

0
75
25

(3
)
77
20
2

(3
)
97
2

(3
)
40
25
35

(3
)
65
14
21

(3
)
5

(3)
8

72
16
12
-

4
16
79

74
25
1

92

18

100

87
13

100

-

-

25
29
46

41
17
42

1

83
13
4
-

After 10 years of service:—
-Continued
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................
4 weeks ..................................................
After 12 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................
4 weeks ..................................................
Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s ..................
After 15 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ..................
4 weeks ..................................................
Over 4 and under 5 w e e k s ..................
After 20 years of service:
1 week ....................................................
3 weeks ..................................................
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ..................
4 weeks ..................................................
5 weeks ..................................................
After 25 years of service:4
1 week ....................................................
2 weeks ..................................................
3 weeks
Over 3 and under 4 w e e k s ..................
4 weeks ..................................................

2

5
13
82

5 weeks ..................................................
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
2 Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings, were converted to an equivalent time
basis. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example, changes indicated at 10 years may include
changes that occurred between 5 and 10 years.




72
13
10

73
2
17

100

(3)
3
72
3
21
1

0
8
69
5
17

-

(3)
3
25
10
62
1

(3
)
8
10
6
75

(3
)
3
18
1
62
16

(3
)
8
3
2
76
10

(3
)
3
16
1
40
2
38

0
8
3
2
19
4
64

_

-

100

_
_

34
66

-

_

77
8
14
-

62
2
34
-

_
_

-

(3
)
74
4
21
(3
)

2
60
4
34

_

_

(3
)
21
9
69
(3
)

2
19
4
75

-

100

-

-

100

_
_
_
_
_

22
78

-

_

(3)
13

2
3

72
14

71
24

93

_

_

_
2
3

_
_

16

(3
)
12
62
1
25

31
2
62

16
84

84
-

3 Less than 0.5 percent.
4 Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

7

7
93
-




Table 10. Health, insurance, and retirement plans
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments with specified health, insurance, and
retirement plans,1 United States and selected regions, September 1977)

Type of plan

United
States1
2

Northeast

South

United
States2

Production workers
All workers....................................................

Northeast

South

Office workers

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
85

100
87

100
86

100
91

100
93

100
95

87
70

97
84

34
19

77
67

96
88

22
17

97
65
58

94
72
62

99
99
85

99
72
69

98
62
59

100
100
94

84

77

85

92

85

97

2
75
55
100
73
100
73
100
73
99
72
77
76
58
19

1
75
66
100
76
100
76
100
76
98
74
78
75
73
49

3
95
16
100
70
100
70
100
70
100
70
84
84
68
-

1
82
56
100
80
100
80
100
80
100
80
74
73
60
10

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance................................................
Noncontributory plans................................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance.........................
Noncontributory plans................................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ..................................
Sickness and accident ihsurance.............
Noncontributory plans.............................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period) .....................................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)......................................
Long-term disability insurance.....................
Noncontributory plans................................
Hospitalization insurance .............................
Noncontributory plans................................
Surgical insurance.........................................
Noncontributory plans................................
Medical insurance.........................................
Noncontributory plans................................
Major medical insurance..............................
Noncontributory plans................................
Retirement plans4 ..........................................
Pensions......................................................
Noncontributory plans.............................
Severance p a y ............................................

1 Includes those plans for which the employer pays at
least part of the cost and excludes legally required plans
such as workers’ compensation and social security;
however, plans required by State temporary disability laws
are included if the employer contributes more than is legally
required or the employees receive benefits in excess of legal
requirements. “Noncontributory plans” include only those
plans financed entirely by the employer.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown

-

86
77
100
75
100
75
100
75
100
73
82
79
79
35

3
95
13
100
82
100
82
100
82
100
82
93
93
80
-

separately.
3 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness and
accident insurance and sick leave shown separately.
4 Unduplicated total of workers covered by pension plans
and severance pay shown separately.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal totals.




Table 11. Other selected benefits
(Percent of production and office workers in semiconductor manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for funeral
leave pay, jury duty pay, technological severance pay, and cost-of-living adjustments,1 United States and selected regions,
September 1977)

Item

United
States2

Northeast

South

United
States2

Production workers

Northeast

South

Office workers

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral leave....................................................
Jury duty lea ve.................................................
Technological severance pay.........................
Cost-of-living adjustments...............................
Based on BLS consumer price index.........

90
96
39
23
23

1 For definition of items, see appendix A.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown
separately.

85
96
51
53
53

100
100
16
2
2

91
99
37
3
3

74
98
36
6
6

100
100
13
2
2

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items
may not equal totals,

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

Scope of survey
The survey included establishments engaged primar­
ily in manufacturing semiconductors and related de­
vices (SIC 3674) as defined in the 1972 edition of the
Standard Industrial Classification Manual prepared by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget. Separate
auxiliary units such as central offices were excluded.
Establishments studied were selected from those em­
ploying 50 workers or more at the time of reference of
the data used in compiling the universe lists. Table A-l
shows the number of establishments and workers esti­
mated to be within the scope of the survey, as well as
the number actually studied by the Bureau.

Employment
Estimates of the number of workers within the scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the industry’s labor force, rather
than as precise measurements of employment.
Production workers
Production workers include working supervisors and
all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice activ­
ities. Administrative, executive, professional, and tech­
nical personnel, and force-account construction employ­
ees, who are used as a separate work force on the firm’s
own properties, are excluded.
Office workers
Office workers include nonsupervisory employees
such as general office clerks, secretaries, computer per­
sonnel, and all other workers engaged in office func­
tions. Administrative and executive employees and
those engaged in nonoffice functions were excluded.

Method of study
Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field representatives from a probability sample of firms
within the scope of the survey. To obtain appropriate
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large
than of small establishments was studied. All estimates
are presented, therefore, as relating to all establishments
in the industry, excluding only those below the mini­
mum size at the time of reference of the universe data.
Establishment definition
An establishment is defined for this study as a single
physical location where manufacturing operations are
performed. An establishment is not necessarily identi­

Occupational classification
Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of in­
terestablishment and interarea variations in duties with­
in the same job. (See appendix B for these descriptions.)
The criteria for selection of the occupations were: The
number of workers in the occupation; the usefulness of

cal with a company, which may consist of one estab­

the data in collective bargaining; and the appropriate

lishment or more.

representation of the entire job scale in the industry.

Table A-1. Number of establishments and workers within scope of survey and number studied, semiconductor
manufacturing, September 1977
Workers in establishments

Number of establishments2
Region1

United States4 ......................................................................
Northeast..............................................................................
S outh.....................................................................................

Within scope of study
Within scope of
Actually studied
study

55
22
11

153
61
21

90,698
33,870
15,924

Production
workers
52,956
20,220
9,366

Actually studied
Office workers
12,812
3,503
3,610

57,036
23,283
12,949

4 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the study.

1 See table 1, footnote 1, for definitions of the selected regions.
2 Includes only those establishments with 50 workers or more at the
time of reference of the universe data.
3 Includes executive, professional, and other workers in addition to the
production and office worker categories shown separately.




Total3

NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
totals.

15

Working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and
probationary workers were not reported in the data for
selected occupations but were included in the data for
all production workers.

rate structure is one in which the same rate is paid to
all experienced workers in the same job classification.
(Learners, apprentices, or probationary workers may
be paid according to rate structures which start below
the single rate and permit workers to achieve the full
job rate over a period of time). An experienced work­
er occasionally may be paid below the standard rate
for special reasons, but such payments are exceptions.
Range-of-rate plans are those in which the maximum,
minimum, or both of these rates paid experienced work­
ers for the same job are specified. Specific rates of in­
dividual workers within the range may be determined
by merit, length of service, or a combination of these.
Incentive workers are classified under piecework or bo­
nus plans. Piecework is work for which a predeter­
mined rate is paid for each unit of output. Production
bonuses are for production in excess of a quota or for
completion of a task in less than standard time.

Wage data
Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the worker’s regular pay. Non­
production bonus payments, such as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each oc­
cupation or category of workers, such as production
workers, were calculated by weighting each rate (or
hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving
the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of indi­
viduals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers were
obtained by dividing straight-time salary by normal (or
standard) hours to which the salary corresponds.
The median designates position; that is one-half of
the employees surveyed received more than this rate
and one-half received less. The middle range is defined
by two rates of pay such that one-fourth of the em­
ployees earned less than the lower of these rates and
one-fourth earned more than the higher rate.

Scheduled weekly hours
Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time (production) (office) workers em­
ployed on the day shift.
Shift provisions and practices
Shift provisions relate to the policies of establishments
either currently operating late shifts or having provi­
sions covering late-shift work. Practices relate to work­
ers employed on late shifts at the time of the survey.
Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions
Supplementary benefits in an establishment were con­
sidered applicable to all (production) (office) workers
if they applied to half or more of such workers in the
firm. Similarly, if fewer than half of the workers were
covered, the benefit was considered nonexistent in the
establishment. Because of length of service and other
eligibility requirements, the proportion of workers re­
ceiving the benefits may be smaller than estimated.

Size of community
Tabulations by size of community pertain to metro­
politan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metro­
politan areas,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the Stan­
dard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the
U.S. Office of Management and Budget through Feb­
ruary 1974. Except in New England, a Standard Met­
ropolitan Statistical Area is defined as a county or a
group of contiguous counties which contains at least
one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties con­
tiguous to the one containing such a city are included
in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area if, accord­
ing to certain criteria, they are essentially metropolitan
in character and are socially and economically integrat­
ed with the central city. In New England, where the
city and town are administratively more important than
the county, they are the units used in defining Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

Paid holidays.
Paid holiday provisions relate to fullday and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations.
The summaries of vacation plans are
limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the dis­
cretion of the employer or supervisor. Payments not on
a time basis were converted; for example, a payment of
2 percent of annual earnings was considered the equiv­
alent of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for which
data are presented represent the most common prac­
tices, but they do not necessarily reflect inidividual es­
tablishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of service
may include changes which occurred between 5 and 10
years.

Method of wage payment
Tabulations by method of-wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for time­
rated workers provide single rates or a range of rates
for individual job categories. In the absence of a for­
mal rate structure, pay rates are determined primarily
by the qualifications of the individual worker. A single



16

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are pre­
sented for health, insurance, pension, and retirement
severance plans for which the employer pays all or a
part of the cost, excluding programs required by law
such as workers’ compensation and social security.
Among plans included are those underwritten by a com­
mercial insurance company and those paid directly by
the employer from current operating funds or from a
fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that
type of insurance under which predetermined cash pay­
ments are made directly to the insured on a weekly or
monthly basis during illness or accident disability. In­
formation is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least part of the cost. Howev­
er, in New York and New Jersey, where temporary
disability insurance laws require employer contribu­
tions, plans are included only if the employer (1) con­
tributes more than is legally required, or (2) provides
the employees with benefits which exceed the require­
ments of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sep­
arate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which pro­
vide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans pro­
viding for either partial pay or a waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide pay­
ments to totally disabled employees upon the expira­
tion of sick leave, sickness and accident insurance, or
both, or after a specified period of disability (typically
6 months). Payments are made until the end of disabil­
ity, a maximum age, or eligibility for retirement bene­
fits. Payments may be full or partial, but are almost al­
ways reduced by social security, workers’ compensa­
tion, and private pension benefits payable to the disa­
bled employee.




Medical insurance refers to plans providing for com­
plete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such plans
may be underwritten by a commercial insurance com­
pany or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a form
of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes
plans designed to cover employees for sickness or in­
jury involving an expense which exceeds the normal
coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to plans
which provide regular payments for the remainder of
the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately for re­
tirement severance pay (one payment or several over
a specified period of time) made to employees on re­
tirement. Establishments providing both retirement sev­
erance payments and retirement pensions to employees
were considered as having both retirement pensions and
retirement severance plans; however, establishments
having optional plans providing employees a choice of
either retirement severance payments or pensions were
considered as having only retirement pension benefits.
Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral
and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which pro­
vide at least partial payment for time lost as a result of
attending funerals of specified family members or serv­
ing as a juror.
Technological severance pay.
Data relate to formal
plans providing for payments to employees permanent­
ly separated from the company because of a technolog­
ical change or plant closing.
Cost-of-living adjustments. Data relate to formal plans
providing for adjustments to employee pay based on
changes in the Consumer Price Index or other meas­
urement of living costs.

17

Appendix B. Occupational
Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to as­
sist its field representatives in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are em­
ployed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment
and from area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing
comparable job content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea com­
parability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from
those in use in individual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying
these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude working
supervisory, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary,
and probationary workers.

Production workers
Assembler

(Production operator; electronic assembler; bonding
operator; wire fuse/tab operator; encapsulators; etch­
ers; firers; performing machine operators)
Assembles and/or fits together parts to form com­
plete units or subassemblies in the manufacture of sem­
iconductor devices and related component materials.
Work may include processing and simple in-line testing
operations requiring the use of instruments and handtools, such as microscopes; oscilloscopes, flow meters,
calipers, soldering equipment, tweezers, bonding ma­
chines, and bake ovens.
Class A
Performs intricate assembling operations of parts into
units or subassemblies, requiring judgment to make de­
cisions concerning sequence of diversified operations,
processes, quality, etc., within prescribed procedures.
Work involves most of the following: Assembling from
drawings, blueprints, or other written specifications, us­
ing high degree of independent judgment; loading, op­
erating, and cleaning of assembling machines and use
of instruments, gauges, etc., requiring interpretation; in­
specting own work and others, occasionally, for visual
defects compared to product specifications; maintain­
ing accurate production records; and training other op­
erators, as required.



Class B
Assembles parts into units or subassemblies in accord­
ance with well-defined sequences and prescribed pro­
cedures. Some independent judgment regarding ma­
chine and material adjustment is required. Work in­
volves most of the following: Using simple machines
and/or hand tools to assemble parts into semiconduc­
tor components; inspecting own work for visual defects
compared to product specifications; assisting in the
packaging and symbolizing of units; maintaining accu­
rate production records; and assisting in the training of
new operators.
Class C
Performs short-cycle simple assembling operations,
under direct supervision of others. Work does not or­
dinarily involve making decisions regarding assembling
procedures but some judgment is required in following
well-defined routines.
Crystal

processor

Grows or processes crystals into wafers, chips, and
other forms used in making semiconductors and relat­
ed solid-state devices.
Crystal coater

Tends a machine that coats silicon wafers or chips
with ceramic materials. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing: Placing workpiece on rack, starting rack re­
18

volving and initiating coating cycle; monitoring
progress of coating; and monitoring supply of ceramic
material and gas to machine.

cian’s handtools and measuring and testing instruments.
In general, the work of the maintenance electrician re­
quires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training
and experience.

Crystal cutter

Cuts crystalline materials, such as germanium, quartz,
and silicon into wafers, blanks, or dice for use in oscil­
lators and semiconductor devices. Work involves most
of the following: Preparing crystals for cutting by
mounting them on jig plate; aligning cutting blades; ad­
justing cutting blades; adjusting automatic feed devices;
starting machine and monitoring operation; removing
jig plate and stripping off cut crystals by using hot wa­
ter or a solvent; drying crystals; and verifying dimen­
sions of crystals using micrometer. May also operate
ultrasonic vibration machine.

Janitor

(Cleaner, porter, sweeper, charworker)
Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory
working areas and washrooms or premises of an estab­
lishment. Duties involve a combination of the follow­
ing: Sweeping, mopping, or scrubbing, and polishing
floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting
equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fix­
tures or trimmings; providing supplies and minor main­
tenance services; cleaning lavatories, showers, and rest­
rooms. Workers who specialize in window washing are
excluded.

Crystal finisher

Stabilizes oscillating frequencies of quartz crystals
within specified tolerances using electroplating or etch­
ing equipment. Work involves most of the following:
Preparing crystals of washing and drying them; meas­
uring crystals and calculating size of crystal required;
plating or etching crystals to achieve desired thickness;
monitoring plating or etching process; and testing fin­
ished crystals to assure they meet specifications.

Inspector

(Incoming material inspector; process controller; chip
inspector; test operator; pre-cap inspector, mask inspect­
or; crystal evaluator)
Inspects, tests, and/or evaluates various components
and products manufactured within the establishment or
purchased parts from other firms for conformance to
performance and engineering specifications. Performs
such operations as examining parts or products for flaws
and defects and suggesting or making needed repairs.

Crystal grower

Forms crystals from materials, such as germanium
and silicon, using either a gas reduction, electric refin­
ing, or electric draw crystalization furnace. Work in­
volves most of the following: Preparing raw materials
for insertion into the furnaces; adjusting and control­
ling furnace temperature; observing crystal growth and
removing crystals at the appropriate time; recording
weight, growing time, and other pertinent information.
May also perform standard cleanup and low-level main­
tenance on furnaces.

Class A
Responsible for decisions regarding the quality of the
product and/or operations. Work involves any combi­
nation of the following: Thorough knowledge of the
processing operations in the branch of work to which
assigned, including the use of a variety of precision
measuring instruments; interpreting drawings and spec­
ifications in inspection work on units composed of a
large number of component parts; examining a variety
of products or processes and suggesting necessary
changes to correct work methods; devising inspection
procedures for new products.

Electrician, maintenance

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions in the
installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for the
generating, distributing, and/or utilization of electric
energy in an establishment. Work involves most of the
following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors,
heating units, conduit systems, or other transmission
equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, layouts,
or other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble
in the electrical system or equipment; working standard
computations relating to work requirements of wiring
or electrical equipment; and using a variety of electri­




(Tester)

Class B
Work involves any combination of the following:
Knowledge of processing operations in the branch of
work to which assigned, limited to familiar products
and processes or where performance is dependent on
past experience; performing inspection operations on
products and/or processes having rigid specifications,
but where the inspection procedures involve a sequence
of inspection operations, including decisions regarding
19

proper fit or performance of some parts; using preci­
sion measuring instruments.

Pipefitter, maintenance

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types
of pipe and pipefittings in an establishment. Work in­
volves most of the following: Laying out of work and
measuring to locate position of pipe from drawings or
other written specifications; cutting various sizes of pipe
to correct lengths with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe
with stocks and dies; bending pipe by hand-driven or
power-driven machines; assembling pipe with couplings
and fastening pipe to hangers; making standard shop
computations relating to pressures, flow, and size of
pipe required; and making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general
the work of the maintenance pipefitter requires round­
ed training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and expe­
rience. Workers primarily engaged in installing and re­
pairing building sanitation or heating and cooling sys­
tems are excluded.

Class C
Work involves any combination of the following:
Short-cycle repetitive inspection operations; using stan­
dard special-purpose measuring instruments repetitive­
ly, visual examination of parts rejecting units having
obvious deformities or flaws.
Laborer, material handling

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver;
trucker; stocker or stock helper)
A worker employed in an establishment whose du­
ties involve one or more of the following: Loading and
unloading various materials and merchandise on or from
freight cars, trucks, or other transporting devices; un­
packing, shelving, or placing materials or merchandise
by hand truck, car, or wheelbarrow to proper location.
Machinist, maintenance

Nonplant workers

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making
repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment oper­
ated in an establishment. Work involves most of the
following: Interpreting written instructions and speci­
fications; planning and laying out of work; using a va­
riety of machinist’s handtools and precision measuring
instruments; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; mak­
ing standard shop computations relating to dimensions
of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowl­
edge of the working properties of the common metals;
selecting standard materials, parts, and equipment re­
quired for work; and fitting and assembling parts into
mechanical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work
normally requires a rounded training in machine-shop
practice usually acquired through a formal apprentice­
ship or equivalent training and experience.

Computer operator

Monitors and operates the control or remote control
console of a digital computer to process data accord­
ing to operating instructions, usually prepared by a pro­
grammer. Work involves most of the following: Stud­
ies instructions to determine equipment setup and op­
erations; loads equipment with required items (tape
reels, cards, etc.); switches necessary auxiliary equip­
ment into circuit, and starts and operates computer;
makes adjustments to computer to correct operating
problems and meet special conditions; reviews errors
made during operation and determines cause or refers
problem to supervisor or programmer; and maintains
operating records. May test and assist in correcting
programs.
Class A

Maintenance workers, general utility

Operates independently, or under only general direc­
tion, a computer running programs with most of the
following characteristics: New programs are frequent­
ly tested and introduced; scheduling requirements are
of critical importance to minimize downtime; the pro­
grams are of complex design so that identification of
error source often requires a working knowledge of the
total program, and alternate programs may not be avail­
able. May give direction and guidance to lower level
operators.

Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or
structure of an establishment (usually a small plant
where specialization in maintenance work is impracti
cal) in repair. Duties involve the performance of oper­
ations and the use of tools and equipment of several
trades, rather than specialization in one trade or one
type of maintenance work only. Work involves a com­
bination of the following: Planning and laying out of
work relating to repair of buildings, machines, mechan­
ical and/or electrical equipment; installing, aligning, and
balancing new equipment; repairing buildings, floors,
stairs, as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, and
partitions.




Class B
Operates independently, or under only general direc­
20

tion, a computer running programs with most of the
following characteristics: Most of the programs are es­
tablished production runs, typically run on a regularly
recurring basis; there is little or no testing of new pro­
grams required; alternate programs are provided in case
original program needs major change or cannot be cor­
rected within a reasonably short time. In common er­
ror situations, diagnoses cause and takes corrective
steps, using standard correction techniques.

equipment; records test data; extracts engineering data
from various prescribed sources; processes the data fal­
lowing well-defined methods; presents the data in pre­
scribed form.
Engineering technician III
Performs assignments that are not completely stand­
ardized or prescribed. Selects or adapts standard pro­
cedures or equipment. Receives initial instructions,
equipment requirements, and advice from supervisor or
engineer; technical adequacy of completed work is
checked. Performs at this level one or a combination
of such tasks as: Constructs components, sub-units, or
simple models or adapts standard equipment; may trou­
bleshoot and correct malfunctions; conducts various
tests or experiments which may require minor modifi­
cations in test setups or procedures; selects, sets up, and
operates standard test equipment and records test data;
extracts and compiles a variety of engineering data;
processes or computes data using specified formulas and
procedures; performs routine analysis to check applica­
bility, accuracy, and reasonableness of data.

Class C
Works on routine programs under close supervision.
Is expected to develop working knowledge of the com­
puter equipment used and ability to detect problems in­
volved in running routine programs. Usually has re­
ceived some formal training in computer operation. May
assist higher level operator on complex problems.
Engineering technician

Provides semiprofessional technical support for en­
gineers working in such areas as research, design, de­
velopment, testing, or manufacturing process improve­
ment of semiconductors and related devices.
(Production or maintenance workers, quality control
testers, craftsmen, drafters, designers, and engineers are
excluded.)

Engineering technician IV
Performs nonroutine assignments of substantial vari­
ety and complexity. Receives objectives and technical
advice from supervisor or engineer; work is reviewed
for technical adequacy. May be assisted by lower level
technicians. Performs at this level one or a combination
of typical duties as: Works on limited segment of de­
velopment project; constructs experimental or proto­
type models to meet engineering requirements; conducts
tests or experiments; records and evaluates data and re­
ports findings; conducts tests or experiments requiring
selection and adaptation or modification of test equip­
ment and test procedures; sets up and operates equip­
ment; records data; analyzes data and prepares test re­
ports; compiles and computes a variety of engineering
data; may analyze test and design equipment; develops
or prepares schematics, designs, specifications, parts,
lists or makes recommendations regarding these items;
may review designs or specifications for adequacy.

Engineering technician I
Performs simple routine tasks under close supervi­
sion or from detailed procedures. Work is checked in
progress or on completion. Performs at this one level
or combination of such typical duties as: Assembles or
installs equipment or parts requiring simple wiring, sol­
dering, or connecting; performs simple or routine tasks
or tests; operates and adjusts simple test equipment;
records test data; gathers and maintains specified records
or engineering data such as tests, drawings, etc.; per­
forms computations by substituting numbers in speci­
fied formulas; plots data and draws simple curves and
graphs.
Engineering technician II

Engineering technician V
Performs standardized or prescribed assignments, in­
volving a sequence of related operations. Follows stan­
dard work methods or explicit instructions; technical
adequacy of routine work is reviewed on completion;
nonroutine work may also be reviewed in progress.
Performs at this level one or a combination of such
typical duties as: Assembles or constructs simple or
standard equipment or parts; may also service or repair
simple instruments or equipment; conducts a variety of
standardized tests; sets up and operates standard test



Performs nonroutine and complex assignments in­
volving responsibility for planning and conducting a
complete project of relatively limited scope or a por­
tion of a larger and more deverse project. Selects and
adapts plans, techniques, designs, or layouts. May co­
ordinate proportions of overall assignment; reviews, an­
alyzes, and integrates the technical work of others. Su­
pervisor or professional engineer outlines objectives,
requirements, and design approaches; completed work
21

is reviewed for technical adequacy and satisfaction re­
quirements; may be assisted by lower level technicians.
Performs at this level one or a combination of such
typical duties as: Designs, develops, and constructs ma­
jor units, devices or equipment; conducts tests or ex­
periments; analyzes results and redesigns or modifies
equipment to improve performance; reports results;
plans or assists in planning tests to evaluate equipment
performance; determines test requirements, equipment




modifications, and test procedures; conducts tests, an­
alyzes and evaluates data, and prepares reports on find­
ings and recommendations; reviews and analyzes a va­
riety of engineering data to determine requirements to
meet engineering objectives; may calculate design data;
prepares layouts, detailed specifications, parts lists, es­
timates, procedures, etc.; may check out and analyze
drawings or equipment to determine adequacy of draw­
ings and designs.

22

Industry Wage Studies

The most recent bulletins providing occupational wage
data for industries included in the Bureau’s program of
industry wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies
are for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
or from any of its regional sales offices, and from the

regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown
on the inside back cover. Copies that are out of stock are
available for reference purposes at leading public, college,
or university libraries, or at the Bureau’s Washington or
regional offices.

Manufacturing

Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1967
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1976. BLS Bulletin 2007
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930

Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1976
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and Solid Fiber Boxes, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972. BLS Bulletin
1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1987
Industrial Chemicals, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1978
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing 1978. BLS Bulletin 2022
Meat Products, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boy’s Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear. 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boy’s Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1962
Miscellandous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1973
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2008
Semiconductors, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2021
Shipbuilding and Repairing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1968
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1964
Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975



Nonmanufacturing
Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking and Life Insurance, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1988
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1999
Communications, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1991
Contract Cleaning Services, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2009
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Department Stores, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2006
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 1968-69.
BLS Bulletin 1971
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 19451
Metal Mining, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2017
Motion Picture Theatres, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1974
Oil and Gas Extraction 1977 BLS Bulletin 2014
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1712

1Bulletin out o f stock.

23
☆

U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1979 0 - 2 8 1 - 4 1 2 (45)

Productivity
Indexes for
Selected
Industries,
1978 Edition

This bulletin updates through 1977
indexes of output per employee for
the industries currently included in
the United States’ government pro­
gram of productivity measurement.
Data are presented for these indus­
tries:

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Fill out and mail this coupon to
BLS Regional Office nearest
you or
Superintendent of Documents,
U.S. Government Printing Office,
Washington, D.C. 20402.
Make checks payable to
Superintendent of Documents.




Iron Mining
Copper Mining
Coal Mining
Nonmetallic Minerals
Canning and Preserving
Grain Mill Products
Bakery Products
Sugar
Candy and Confectionery
Malt Beverages
Bottled and Canned Soft
Drinks
Tobacco Products
Hosiery
Sawmills and Planing Mills
Paper, Paperboard, and
Pulp Mills
Corrugated and Solid Fiber
Boxes
Synthetic Fibers

•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Pharmaceuticals
Paints
Petroleum Refining
Tires and Inner Tubes
Footwear
Glass Containers
Hydraulic Cement
Structural Clay Products
Concrete Products
Ready-mixed Concrete
Steel
Gray Iron Foundries
Steel Foundries
Primary Smelting and
Refining of Copper, Lead,
and Zinc
• Primary Aluminum
• Copper Rolling and Drawing
• Aluminum Rolling and
Drawing

• Metal Cans
• Major Household
Appliances
• Radio and TV Receiving
Sets
• Motor Vehicles and
Equipment
• Railroad Transportation
• Intercity Trucking
• Air Transportation
• Petroleum Pipelines
• Telephone Communications
• Gas and Electric Utilities
• Retail Food Stores
• Franchised New Car
Dealers
• Gasoline Service Stations
• Eating and Drinking Places
• Hotels and Motels

Please send_________copies of Productivity Indexes for Selected Industries, 1978
Edition, Bulletin 2002, No. 029-001-02241-7, price, $4.50.
□ Remittance is enclosed.

□ Charge to GPO deposit account n o ._______

Name______________________________________________________________
Add ress____________________________________________________________
City, State, and Zip Code______________________________________________

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, NE
Atlanta, Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Regions VII and VIII*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region II
Suit': 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312)353-1880

Regions IX and X**
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678 ;

Region III
3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761




* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
"Regions IX and X are servicea
by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102