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Industry Wage Survey:
Petroleum Refining, April 1976
U.S. D ep artm en t of L abor
B ureau of L abor S ta tistic s
1977
Bulletin 1948




Industry Wage Survey:
Petroleum Refining, April 1976
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1948




For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock N o. 029-001-02010-4




Preface
This bulletin sum m arizes the results o f a Bureau o f Labor Statistics survey o f wages
and related b en efits in p etroleum refineries in April 1 9 7 6 . A similar study was con d u cted
by the Bureau in April 1 9 7 1 .
A sum m ary tab u lation , providing national and regional in form ation , was issued in
February 1 9 7 7 . C opies are available from the U .S. D epartm ent o f Labor, Bureau o f Labor
Statistics, W ashington, D.C. 2 0 2 1 2 , or any o f its regional o ffices.
This stu d y was co n d u cted in the Bureau’s O ffice o f Wages and Industrial R elations.
The analysis was prepared b y Carl Barsky in the D ivision o f O ccupational Wage Struc­
tures. Field w ork for the survey was directed by the A ssistant R egional C om m issioners
for O perations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program o f industry wage studies, as w ell as
the addresses o f the Bureau’s regional o ffices, are listed at the end o f this b u lletin .
Material in this publication is in the public dom ain and m ay be reproduced w ith ou t
the perm ission o f the Federal G overnm ent. Please credit the Bureau o f Labor Statistics
and cite the nam e and num ber o f the publication .







Contents
Page

Summ ary

..........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Industry characteristics

.............................................................................................................................................................................................

Products and processes

....................................................................................................................................................................................

1
1
1

L o c a t i o n .................................................................................................

2

Size o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t .........................................................................................................................................................................................

2

U n ion ization

.................................. ................................................................................................ „ ..............................................................

M aintenance craft con solid ation plans

2

. ..................................................................................................................................................

2

M ethod o f wage p a y m e n t ...............................................................................................................................................................................

2

Average hourly earnings

.............................................................................................................................................................................................

2

O ccupational e a r n i n g s ..................................................................................................................................................................................................

3

E stablishm ent practices and supplem entary wage provisions

.....................................................................................................................

4

Scheduled w eek ly hours and shift p r a c t i c e s .............................................................................................................................................

4

.......................................................................................................................................................................................................

4

Paid v a c a t i o n s .......................................................................................................................................................................................................

Paid h olid ays

4

H ealth, insurance, and retirem ent plans
Other selected ben efits

.................................................................................................................................................

4

....................................................................................................................................................................................

4

T ext tables
1.

P roductivity, o u tp u t, and em p loyee hours for production w orkers in petroleum refining, 1965-75

2.

R egional pay levels for selected occupations expressed as percents o f n ationw ide averages

. . . .

.............................

2
4

R eference tables:
1.

Average h ou rly earnings: By selected characteristics

...........................................................................................................

6

2.

Earnings distribution: A ll p roduction w o r k e r s .........................................................................................................................

7

O ccupational averages:
3.
All e s t a b lis h m e n t s ....................................................................................................................................................................................

8

4.
5.

By size o f c o m m u n i t y ..........................................................................................................................................................................
9
By size o f e s t a b l i s h m e n t .......................................................................................................................................................................... 11

O ccupational earnings:
6.
U nited S t a t e s ...................................................................................................................................................................................................13
7.

East C o a s t ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14

8.

Western Pennsylvania-W est Virginia

9.

M idw est I

.................................................................................................................................................. 15

........................................................................................................................................................................................................16

10.

M idw est I I ........................................................................................................................................................................................................17

11.

Texas-Louisiana G u lf C o a s t ..................................................................................................................................................................... 18

12.

Texas Inland-N orth L o u isia n a -A r k a n sa s............................................................................................................................................. 19

13.

R ocky M ountain

14.

West C o a s t .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 21

........................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

E stablishm ent practices and supplem entary wage provisions:
15.

M ethod o f wage p aym en t




..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 2

v

C ontents— Conti nu ed
Page
Establishm ent practices and supplem entary wage p rovisions—C ontinued
16.

Scheduled w eek ly h o u r s .......................................................................................................................................................................... 2 2

17.

Shift differential practices

18.

Paid h o l i d a y s ...................................................................................................................................................................................................2 3

..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 3

19.

Paid vacations

2 0.

H ealth, insurance, and retirem ent p l a n s .............................................................................................................................................2 5

..............................................................................................................................................................................................2 4

21.

Other selected b e n e f i t s ...............................................................................................................................................................................2 6

A ppendixes:
A.

Scope and m eth od o f survey

B.

O ccupational descriptions




................................................................................................................................................................ 2 7
..................................................................................................................................................................... 3 0

VI

Petroleum Refining, April 1976
Summary

plans. Workers typ ically received 10 paid h olid ays and, de­
pending on len gth o f service, b etw een 2 and 5 w eeks o f
vacation annually.

Straight-tim e earnings o f p rod u ction workers in p etro­
leum refineries averaged $ 7 .3 8 an hour in April 1 9 7 6 . All
but 3 percent o f the 6 3 ,2 8 9 workers covered by the sur­

Industry characteristics

v e y 1 earned b etw een $ 5 .1 0 and $ 8 .5 0 an hour; the m iddle
50 p ercent fell b etw een $ 6 .8 9 and $ 7 .8 6 .

The 168 refineries w ithin the scope o f the study e m ­

R egionally, average earnings ranged from $ 7 .7 3 in the

p lo y ed 6 3 ,2 8 9 prod u ction and related workers in April

East C oast region to $ 6 .2 3 in W estern Pennsylvania-W est

1 9 7 6 —dow n 9 percent from the 6 9 ,8 3 1 w orkers recorded

V irginia.2 Workers in the T exas-Louisiana G u lf C oast reg­
io n -n u m e r ic a lly the largest region (37 percent o f the w ork

in a similar survey co n d u cted in April 1 9 7 1 , and 14 percent

fo rce)-a v era g ed $ 7 .5 0 .
A m on g occu p ation s selected to represent the in d u stry’s

v ey .4 The 1 9 7 1 -7 6 em p lo y m en t decline apparently resulted

below the 7 3 ,3 1 8 w orkers total in the D ecem ber 1965 sur­
from a drop in the num ber o f establishm ents w ith in scope
o f survey (d ow n from 185 in 1 9 7 1 ). The m ean establish­

wage structure, h ourly pay levels ranged from $ 8 .1 4 for
c h ie f operators o f stills to $ 5 .9 6 for jan itors.3 A ssistant

m ent size was virtually unchanged b etw een the last tw o

operators, num erically the largest job studied, averaged

surveys—541 em p lo y ees in 19 7 6 com pared w ith 5 3 0 in

$ 7 .6 2 . O ccupational pay levels varied b y com m u n ity and

1 971.

establishm ent size.
V irtually all w orkers covered b y the survey were in es­

O utput per p rod u ction -em p loyee hour in the industry
was on e-sixth higher in 1975 than in 1 9 7 0 . The 1975 level

tablishm ents that provided paid h o lid a y s, paid vacations,

o f prod u ctivity w as slightly above that attained in 197 2 and
1 9 7 4 , b u t was w ell b elo w the record level in 1 9 7 3 , just

and at least part o f the co st o f life, h osp italization , surgical,
basic and major m edical insurance, and retirem ent pension

before the height o f the Arab oil em bargo. T ext table 1
sum m arizes trends in p rod u ctivity, o u tp u t, and em p loyee
hours in the industry since 1 9 6 5 .5

1 See appendix A for scope and method of survey. Wage data
exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holi­
days, and late shifts.
The straight-time average hourly earnings in this bulletin differ in
concept from the gross average hourly earnings published in the
Bureau’ monthly Employment and Earnings series ($7.76 in April
s
1976). Unlike the latter, the estimates presented in this bulletin
exclude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holi­
days, and late shifts. Average (mean) earnings were calculated by
summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number of
individual workers. In the monthly series, by contrast, the sum of
the man-hour totals reported by establishments in the industry was
divided into the reported payroll totals.
The estimated number of production workers within the scope

Year-to-year flu ctu ation in activity level o f the p etro­
leum

refining industry depends largely on the short-run

availability (and flo w ) o f crude p etroleum and the dem and
for petroleum -based p roducts. E vid en tly, the recent d ow n ­
ward trend o f em p loyee hours in the industry has n o t sig­
n ifican tly a ffected increases in o u tp u t (te x t table 1). D e­
creased dem and, h ow ever, for petroleu m p roduction in
1974 and 1975 corresponds w ith declines in refinery o u t­
put for th ose years.6

Products and processes.

G asoline (including naph th a) was

the major product o f refineries em p loyin g slightly more

of the study i intended only as a general guide to the size and
s
composition of the labor force included in the survey. I differs
t

than n in e-ten th s o f the workers w ithin the scope o f the

from that published in the monthly series (87,100 in April 1976) by
excluding establishments employing fewer than 100 workers. Also,
the advance planning necessary to make the survey required use of
l s s of establishments assembled considerably in advance of data
it
collection. Thus, omitted are: (1) Establishments new to the indus­
try, (2) establishments originally classified in the petroleum refining
industry but found in other industries at the time of the survey, and
(3) refineries classified incorrectly in other industries at the time the
l s s were compiled.
it
2 For definitions of regions, see appendix A, table A-l, footnote
3 See appendix B for occupational descriptions.




4 See Industry Wage Survey: Petroleum Refining, April 1971,
Bulletin 1741 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1972), and Industry Wage
Survey: Petroleum Refining, December 1965, Bulletin 1526 (1966).
5 Based on data from the Bureau’ series on productivity in
s
selected industries. Data for 1975 are preliminary. SeeProductivity

Indexes for Selected Industries, 1976 Edition, Bulletin 1938 (Bu­
reau of Labor Statistics, 1977).
6 See “Energy Report from Chase,” Chase Manhattan Bank,
October-December 1976.

1

Text table 1. Productivity, output, and employee hours
for production workers in petroleum refining, 1965-75

Small refineries—
those with fewer
than 1 ,0 0 0 workers—
employed just under three-fifths of
the workers. All workers in four regions were employed in
small refineries; three-fourths in the Midwest I region,
three-fifths in the West Coast, slightly less than one-half in
the East Coast, and three-tenths in the Texas-Louisiana
Gulf Coast region.
Size o f establishment.

O u tp u t per
e m p lo y e e Year

O u tp u t

E m p lo y e e
h o u rs

hour

P e r c e n t c h a n g e f r o m p r e v io u s y e a r

1 9 6 5 ........................................................

8 .4

2 .8

- 5 .1

1 9 6 6 ........................................................

7 .9

5 .2

-2 .6

1967

........................................................

3 .0

4 .3

1 .2

1 9 6 8 ........................................................

3 .1

3 .6

.5
-3 .9

1 9 6 9 ........................................................

5 .8

1 .7

1 9 7 0 ........................................................

-2 .3

1 .8

4 .2

1 9 7 1 ........................................................

5 .4

2 .7

-2 .6

1 9 7 2 ........................................................

8 .5

3 .9

—4 . 3

1 9 7 3 ........................................................

1 1 .3

5 .3

-5 .3

1 9 7 4 ........................................................

-1 0 .2

-2 .7

8 .4

1 9 7 5 ........................................................

1 .1

- 1 .3

U n i o n i z a t i o n . Establishments operating under labormanagement agreements employed just over nine-tenths of
the industry’s workers. The proportion was at least fourfifths in each of the regions studied. The Oil, Chemical and
Atomic Workers Union (AFL-CIO) was the major union in
the industry in all regions except Texas Inland-North
Louisiana-Arkansas, where a majority were under other
AFL-CIO contracts.

-2 .4

A v e ra g e a n n u a l ra te (p e rc e n t)

Information was ob­
tained on the incidence and major features of maintenance
craft consolidation plans. (These plans combine two or
more crafts into a single job classification, titled “general
mechanics” in this survey.) Such plans were found in 27 of
the 104 refineries visited in April 1976—
about the same
number of plans found in 1971 (but double the number
reported in 1965). The combination of crafts covered by
these plans ranged from all maintenance crafts (reported by
10 refineries) to only two designated crafts in some plants.
Most maintenance consolidation plans take workers who
have already attained journeyman status in one craft for
training in additional crafts, e.g., a boilermaker who learns
pipefitting. Little or no wage differential, however, was re­
ported within an establishment between these fully trained
general mechanics and their counterparts in a single craft.
About one-third of these plans allowed for progression of
helpers or apprentices to general mechanics in 30 to 36
months.

M aintenance c ra ft consolidation plans.
1 9 6 5 -7 0

.............................................

3 .5

3 .3

-.3

1 9 7 0 -7 5

.............................................

3 .0

1 .6

- 1 .3

survey. Other important products include distillate fuel oil,
residual fuel oil, lube oil, and asphalt. At the time of the
survey, two-fifths of the refineries were processing petro­
chemicals (chemical products derived from hydrocarbon
sources such as petroleum or natural gas). In the Western
Pennsylvania-West Virginia region, refineries primarily
manufactured products other than gasoline—
usually lube oil
or distillate fuel oil.
P e tro le u m refin in g is a re la tiv e ly large-scale
manufacturing operation processing fluids and gas almost
exclusively. Crude oil flows almost continuously in closely
interrelated refining units from the time it is received until
finished products are shipped. As a result, the industry’s
products are highly diversified and its processes automati­
cally controlled.

Virtually all production workers
were paid time rates (table 15). For about nine-tenths of
the workers, these formal plans provided single rates for
specified occupations. Range of rate plans were most com­
monly found in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast and Rocky
Mountain regions, where they covered about 15 percent of
the production work force.

M e th o d o f wage p ay m e n t.

The Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast region, numeri­
cally the largest, employed 37 percent of the production
workers. The East Coast, Midwest I and II, and West Coast
regions each employed between 10 and 15 percent of the
workers; the remaining three regions each employed 5 per­
cent or fewer.
Establishments in metropolitan areas7 employed fourfifths of the workers. Regionally, the proportion in such
areas were seven-eighths or more in the East Coasts Midwest
I, Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and West Coast regions;
about two-fifths in the Rocky Mountain States; about onethird in the Midwest II and Texas Inland-North LouisianaArkansas regions; and none of the workers in refineries vis­
ited in the Western Pennsylvania-West Virginia region.
L o c a tio n .

Average hourly earnings

Earnings of the 63,289 production and related workers
covered by the study averaged $7.38 an hour in April 1976.
Wage levels were highest in the East Coast region ($ 7 .7 3 an
hour) and lowest in Western Pennsylvania-West Virginia
($6.23). In all other sections of the country, average hourly
earnings ranged from $6.51 to $7.55 an hour. In the region
Texas-Louisiana
7
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. with the largest refinery employment—
Office of Management and Budget through February 1974.
Gulf Coast— average was $7.50 (table 1 ).
the




2

Among the 9 journeyman maintenance occupations
studied, average wage levels were highly compressed with
only a 2 -percent differential between the averages for the
highest paid job, general mechanics ($7.86)9, and the
lowest paid, hand welders ($7.69); maintenance trades’
helpers, at $6.62, were only about 15 percent below the
journeyman averages.
Occupational averages usually were highest in the East
Coast region and lowest in Western Pennsylvania-West Vir­
ginia. In the latter, they typically fell 12 to 18 percent
below their nationwide levels (text table 2.) Averages were
generally about 10 percent below the nationwide levels in
the Texas Inland-North Louisiana-Arkansas region and
within 5 percent of national levels in the other 6 regions.
Occupational averages in almost all cases were slightly
higher in metropolitan areas than in nonmetropolitan areas
(table 4), and in refineries of 1,000 workers or more than in
smaller establishments (table 5). These relationships held in
the few instances where regional comparisons were possible.
Individual earnings of workers in selected occupations
were generally concentrated within relatively narrow limits
(particularly in the higher skilled jobs), even on a nation­
wide basis (table 6 ). For most occupations, hourly earnings
of more than one-half the workers were within 40-cent in­
tervals. Occupational earnings were concentrated even more
within the regions (tables 7-14).
The relatively high wage rates paid in the petroleum re­
fining industry also filtered down to the low-skilled or un­
skilled occupations. The $5.96 nationwide pay level in
April 1976 for janitors in petroleum refineries for example,
was considerably higher than the $4.20 all-manufacturing
average reported for janitors in the Nation’s metropolitan
areas in June 1975, the latest date for which information is
available. 10 This tendency for high-skilled occupations to
“pull up” semiskilled or unskilled workers is associated fre­
quently with highly unionized, capital intensive indus­
tries.1 1 The 37-percent spread between the highest and
lowest paying jobs in petroleum refining is among the small­
est such differentials reported for industries studied by the
Bureau.

The $7.38 average for production workers in April 1976
was 61 percent above the average recorded in April 1971
($4.59 ) .8 This increase, which resulted largely from general
wage adjustments granted under collective bargaining agree­
ments, far outpaced the 42-percent rise in average hourly
earnings for production workers in all nondurable goods
manufacturing (as reported in the Bureau’s index of hourly
earnings), and the 40-percent rise in the Bureau’s Consumer
Price Index. Regionally, increases in average hourly earnings
ranged from 55 percent in the Texas Inland-North Louisiana-Arkansas region to 67 percent in the Western Pennsyl­
vania-West Virginia area.
Nationwide, workers in metropolitan areas averaged
$7.48 an hour— percent more than the $6.98 for workers
7
in nonmetropolitan areas. A 3-percent difference occurred
in the Midwest II region, but in the Rocky Mountain
States—
the only other region that could be compared—
workers in nonmetropolitan areas averaged 2 percent more
($7.52 compared with $7.35).
Average hourly earnings for workers in establishments of
1,000 employees or more were $7.51, compared with $7.28
for smaller establishments. In the three regions permitting
comparisons—
the East Coast, Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast,
and West Coast—
this relationship also held.
The survey did not measure the influence of any single
characteristic on wage levels or earnings relationships. Such
factors as size of community, size of establishment, and
unionization tend to be highly interrelated.
Earnings of all but 2 percent of the workers were within
a range of $6.10 and $8.50 an hour; the middle 50 percent
fell between $6.89 and $7.86 (table 2). The index of dis­
persion (computed by dividing the middle range by the
median) was 13 percent—
one of the lowest dispersion rates
among industries studied by the Bureau. Contributing to
this narrow range of earnings are the high degree of union­
ization in the industry, the predominance of single-rate
wage structures, and companywide bargaining in multiplant
companies.
Occupational earnings

Twenty-eight occupations, accounting for seven-tenths
of the production workers, were selected to represent
manufacturing operations and the wage structure in the
petroleum refining industry. Nationwide, occupational aver­
ages ranged from $8.14 for chief operators of stills to $5.96
for janitors (table 3). Assistant operators, numerically the
most important job studied, averaged $7.62. Other impor­
tant processing jobs and their averages included chief oper­
ators’ helpers, $7.12; laborers, $6.09; and pumpers, $7.58.

9
The 2,334 general mechanics were employed chiefly by refin­
eries having maintenance craft consolidation plans.
I 0 See Area Wage Survey: Metropolitan Areas, United States and
Regional Summaries, 1975, Bulletin 1850-89 (Bureau of Labor Sta­
tistics, 1977). The all-manufacturing average for the April 1976 pay­
roll period, if it were available, would show a smaller differential;
however, the wage advantage for janitors in refineries would still be
significant-probably more than 30 percent.
II See, for example, the following Industry Wage Surveys: Basic
Iron and Steel, September 1972, Bulletin 1839 (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, 1975); Metal Mining, September 1972, Bulletin 1820
(1974); and Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, August
1972, Bulletin 1797 (1973). In each of these industries, the lowest
paid occupations averaged more than many high skilled occupations
in other industries surveyed at the same time.

8 Op. cit., BLS Bulletin 1741. In January 1977 the Oil, Chem­
ical and Atomic Workers union negotiated new settlements with
refineries employing approximately 60,000 workers. See Current
Wage Developments, February 1977, p. 1.




3

Text table 2.
(U .S .

a v e ra g e s

Regional pay levels for selected occupations expressed as percents of nationwide averages
= 1 0 0 )

Texas

W e s te rn

Texas
I n la n d -

P e n n s y l­
East
O c c u p a tio n

R ocky

L o u is i ­
M id w e s t

II

N o rth

M id w e s t

I

v a n ia Coast

ana

W est

G u lf

V ir g in ia

W est
M oun­

L o u is i-

Coast

Coast

ana-

t a in

A rk a n s a s

M a in t e n a n c e :
E l e c t r ic i a n s

..........................................................................................

103

83

99

96

101

91

100

H e lp e r s , t r a d e s ..................................................................................

105

90

102

98

101

91

102

I n s t r u m e n t r e p a ir e r s

...................................................................

102

88

99

95

101

91

99

102

M e c h a n ic s , g e n e r a l ...........................................................................

103

82

101

97

101

P ip e fitte r s

.............................................................................................

102

82

99

97

101

90

100

101

W e ld e r s , h a n d ......................................................................................

104

79

99

98

101

91

101

102

-

-

-

102
99

P r o c e s s in g :
.......................................................................

105

88

102

94

101

91

101

98

C h i e f o p e r a t o r s ..................................................................................

106

86

101

95

101

90

100

101

A s s is ta n t o p e r a t o r s

............................................................

104

-

104

98

101

88

102

99

L a b o r e r s .................................................................................................

104

95

105

101

99

91

100

102

P u m p e rs

.................................................................................................

105

85

100

94

104

88

100

98

100

C h i e f o p e r a t o r s ' h e lp e r s

O th e r:
R o u t i n e te s t e r s , l a b o r a t o r y ....................................................

109

85

100

94

103

88

94

T r u c k d r i v e r s ..........................................................................................

104

-

107

99

102

92

103

J a n i t o r s .....................................................................................................

103

-

100

103

100

-

N O T E :

D a sh e s

in d ic a te

n o

d a ta

re p o rte d

o r d a ta

th a t d o

n o t

m e e t

p u b lic a tio n

-

105

criteria.

visions for most workers amounted to 2 weeks’ pay after 1
year of service, 3 weeks after 5 years, 4 weeks after 10
years, and 5 weeks after 20 years. Provisions varied little by
region, except that they were somewhat less liberal in West­
ern Pennsylvania-West Virginia.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions

Data were also obtained on certain establishment prac­
tices and supplementary wage benefits for production
workers, including work schedules, shift differentials, paid
holidays, paid vacations, and specified health, insurance,
and retirement plans.

H e a lth , insurance , and re tire m e n t plans.

All or nearly all
workers were in establishments providing at least part of
the cost of life, hospitalization, surgical, medical, and major
medical insurance, and protection against loss of income
due to illness or accident (table 20). Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance applied to three-fifths of the
workers, and long-term disability insurance, to one-third.
Dental insurance was rarely found.
Also studied was the coverage of dependents by health
plans. In almost all cases, employees’ dependents were cov­
ered by hospitalization, surgical, and basic and major medi­
cal insurance. As with other insurance plans, health insur­
ance coverage was usually jointly financed by the employer
and employees.
Retirement pension plans, in addition to Federal social
security, were provided by virtually all refineries. Most of
these plans were financed entirely by the employer. Sever­
ance payments upon retirement applied to 3 percent of the
industry’s workers.

Virtually all
production workers were in refineries scheduling a 40-hour
workweek on the day shift (table 16). In the Midwest I and
West Coast regions, a small proportion of the workers were
on longer schedules.
Approximately one-half of the industry’s work force was
assigned to rotating shifts in April 1976 (table 17). Typi­
cally, arrangements called for an employee to alternate
among day, evening, and night assignments on successive
weeks. In almost all cases, workers on evening schedules
received 2 0 cents an hour above day rates, and those on
night schedules received 40 cents. Workers on fixed late
shifts accounted for less than 2 percent of the work force.

Scheduled w eekly hours and shift practices.

All workers were in establishments providing
paid holidays, typically 10 days annually except in the
Texas Inland-North Louisiana-Arkansas region (table 18).
In that region a slight majority of workers received between
7 and 9 days. Slightly more than one-third of the East
Coast workers were provided 11 paid holidays.

Paid holidays.

O ther selected benefits. Virtually all production workers
were in refineries having formal provisions for jury-duty
pay and pay during absences to attend funerals of specified
relatives. Technological severance pay to eligible employees

All establishments studied provided paid
vacations after qualifying periods of service (table 19). Pro­

Paid vacations.




91

4

Plants employing nearly seven-eighths of the workers
provided thrift or savings plans to which the employer
made contributions beyond administrative costs. In most
instances, three-fourths or more of the eligible workers sub­
scribed to such plans.

permanently separated from employment because of plant
closings or force reductions was available to slightly less
than three-fifths of the work force, nationally, and to about
two-fifths or more of the workers in all regions except the
East Coast (table 21).




5




Table 1. Average hourly earnings: By selected characteristics
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 o f production workers in petroleum refineries. United States and regions,2 April1976)

Ca c ris
hrate tic
AL WR E S
L O K R ......................................
SIZE O C M U IT :
F O MN Y
M T O O IT N A E ....................
E R P L A RA
N N E R P L A A E S.................
O MT O O IT N R A
SIZE O E A L M N :
F ST B ISH E T
100-999 W R E S
O K R ...........................
1000 WR E S O M R ..................
O KR R O E

Es
at
Cat
os

Uite
nd
S te
ta s
Nme Ae g
u br
vrae
hu
orly
o
f
wrkrs ern g
oe
a ins
63,289 $7.38

Nme
u br
o
f
wrkrs
oe
8 , 141

50,692
12,597

7.48
6.98

8

36,440
26,849

7.28 3,711
7.51 4,430

, 141

Ae g
vrae
hu
orly
ern g
a ins
$7.73

Wte
e rn
s
Txs
eaPnslvn eny aia
Mws I
id et
Mws I
id et I
Lu iaa
ois n
WtV in
e irg ia
s
GlfCat
u os
Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g
u br vrae u br vrae u br vrae
u br
vrae
o
f
hu
orly
hu
orly
o
f
o
f
hu
orly
o
f
hu
orly
wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g
oe
a ins o e
a ins o e
a ins
oe
a ins
1,750 $6.23 9,435 $7.55 6 , 1 2 2 $6.97 23,321 $7.50

7.73
1,750
-

6.23

7.73 1,750
7.74
-

6.23 7,082
~
“

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and fo r work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts
2 For d efinitions of regions used in this report, see appendix A, table A-1, footnote 1.

8,320
-

TxsIn nea lad
Rcy
ok
Wt
e
s
NrthLu iaa
o ois nMn in
o ta
u
Cat „
os
A ass
rkna
Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g
u br vrae u br vrae u br vrae
o
f
hu
orly
f
o
f
hu ^ o
orly
hu
orly
wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g
oe
a ins o e
a ins o e a ins
3,400 $6.51 2,833 $7.45 8,287 $7.36

7.56 2,057
4,065
"

7.12 21,782
6.90
-

7.50
-

2,305

7.52
-

6.97 6,449
- 16,872

7.46
7.52

3,400

6 ,1 2 2

1,148
1,685

7.35 8,149
7.52
-

7.35

6.51 2,833
-

7.45 5,093
3,194
-

7.50
7.13

6 .6 8

3 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. Office o f Management and Budget through
February 1974.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reportedjor data that do not meet publication criteria.




T a b le 2. E a r n in g s d is tr ib u tio n : A ll p r o d u c t io n w o r k e r s
(Percent of production w
orkers by straight-tim hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries. United States and regions, April 1976)
e

Hu ern g
orly a ins
N ME O W R E S
U BR F O K R .......................
A E A E H U L E R IN S
V R G O R Y A N G .............
TTL
O A ..................................
U D R $5.10................................
NE
$5.10 A D U D R $5.20..............
N NE
$5.20 A D U DR $5.30................
N NE
$5.30 A D U D R $5.40................
N NE
$5.40 A D U D R $5.50................
N NE
$5.50 AD U DR $5.60................
N NE
$5.60 A D U D R $5.70................
N NE
$5.70 A D U DR $5.80................
N NE
$5.80 A D U D R $5.90................
N NE
$5.90 A D U D R $6.00................
N NE
$6.00 AD U DR $6.10................
N NE
$6.10 A D U D R $6.20................
N NE
$6.20 A D U DR $6.30................
N NE
$6.30 A D U D R $6.40................
N NE
$6.40 A D U DR $6.50................
N NE
$6.50 A D U D R $6.60................
N NE
$6.60 A D U D R $6.70................
N NE
$6.70 AD U DR $6.80................
N NE
$6.80 A D U D R $6.90................
N NE
$6.90 A D U DR $7.00................
M NE
$7.00 A D U D R $7.10................
N NE
$7.10 A D U D R $7.20................
N NE
$7.20 AD U DR $7.30................
N NE
$7.30 A D U D R $7.40................
N NE
$7.40 A D U DR $7.50................
N NE
$7.50 A D U D R $7.60................
N NE
$7.60 A D U D R $7.70................
N NE
$7.70 A D U DR $7.80................
N NE
$7.80 A D U D R $7.90................
N NE
$7.90 AD U DR $8.00................
N NE
$8.00 A D U D R $8.10................
N NE
$8.10 A D U D R $8.20................
N NE
$8.20 A D U DR $8.30................
N NE
$8.30 A D U D R $8.40................
N NE
$8.40 AD U DR $8.50................
N NE
$8.50 A D O E ............................
N VR

Uite
nd
S te
ta s

Es
at
Cat
os

63,289
$7.38

8,141
$7.73

Wte
e rn
s
Pnslvn eny aia
WtV in
e irg ia
s
1,750
$6.23

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

0.9
.2
.3
.3
.2

.4
.1
.2

.7

1 .1
1 .1

2.4
1.5
2.3
2 .0

2.5
2 .1
3.2
3.8
2.9
3.4
2.9
4.4
3.5
4.4
2.3
3.4
15.2
1 2 .2
5.5
1.9
4.3
3.7
1 .1
1.7
1.9

.1
(*)
.2
2.3
.3
.7
.9
2 .0
3.4
1 .6
2.9

3.9
4.7
4.2
6 .8
1. 2
_
8.3
3.7
5.6
7.7
5.6
6.4
9.6
6.5
8.3
4. 1
2.4

2 .8

8 .8

0 .1
-

.1
_

2.9
4.9
5.4
1.3
2.9
2 .2
14.9
9.3
3.5
17. 9
2.4
.6
2.3

.4

1 .6

2 .0

1 0 .1

1 Excludes prem pay for overtim and for work on w
ium
e
eekends, holidays, and
late shifts.

-

_
-

.1
_
-

-

-

Mws I
id et

Mws I
id et I

9,435
$7.55

$6.97

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

0.3

6 ,1 2 2

Txs
eaLu iaa
ois nGlfCat
u os
23,321
$7.50
1 0 0 .0

-

-

-

.6

0.3
(*)
.1
.1
.1

.8

.1

(*)
(*)
.4
.5
.3
.6
3. 6
1.4
1.5

0 .2

-

.9
.2
1 .6
.8

4. 5

1.5
1 .6
4.8
7.1
5.0
4.4
3.7
3.7
5.9

2 .6

6 .6

5.4
3.3
3.3
3.7
3.5

5.3
4.3
6.5
8 .0
4.2

2 .6

8 .8

.6
1 .6

5.4
24.1
5. 6
4.0
3. 8
4.8
5.2
1 .0
4.5
1 .6

2.7
5.6
1.3
1.7
1 .1
.8

1 0 0 .0

9.8
.9

Rcy
ok
Mn in
o ta
u

8,287 !
$7.36

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

0 .6
-

<
*)

(*)
.4
.3

3.0
.1
.4
2.5

1 .2

6 .0

1.5
.1
.1
1 .6
.2

1.5

2 .6

2 .2
.2
1 .0

3.3
1.9
.8
6.3

1 .8

2 .1

.9

1.9
2.7
4.0
2.4
1.9
2.9
5.0
2 .8
1.7
1.7
2.9
27.0
14.6
8 .0
.8
1 .8

5.1
.7

.1

.8

.8

5.1
5.4
7.9
4.5
3.0
4.4
4. 1
8 .6
1.3
3.7
1 .1
.8

4.9
.7
_

.1
-

-

Wt
e
s
Cat
os

2,833
$7.45

1 .6
1 .0
2 .0

<)
*
<)
*

Less than 0.05 percent.

TxsIn nea lad
NrthLu iaa
o ois nAass
rkna
3,400
$6.51

.1

.1
2 .0
.8
2

.1
2.3

2 .0
2 .0

1.7

(*)
<)
*
<
*)
<)
*
.1
1 .2
.4
0 .2

8 .1
1 .0

3.2
2.3
5.0
1.4
4.4
2.3

1 .2

1 .8

3.9
3.7
3. 2
3.3
9.1

3.6

.6

12.4
12. 5
11.9
5.2
1.7
9.7
.9
3.1
-

1 .1
2 .8
1 .8

12.7
.5
1.9
1 .6
23.7
2 .1

2.7
.6
5.7
3.3
3.8
.6

T a b l e 3 . O c c u p a t io n a l a v e r a g e s : A ll e s t a b lis h m e n t s
(Number and average hourly earnings1 of production w
orkers in selected occupations in petroleum refineries. United States and regions, April 1976)

Es
at
Cat
os

Uite
nd
S te
ta s
Dprtmnadocptio
ea et n cua n

Nme
u br
o
f
wrkrs
oe

Ae g
vrae
hu
orly
ern g
a ins

M IN E A C
A TNNE
B IL R A E S, M IN E A C ...............
O E MKR A TNNE
921 $7.79
685 7.73
C R N E S, M IN E A C ..................
A PE T R A T N N E
ELECTRICIA S, M IN E A C ............... , 1,108 7.75
N A TNNE
1,531 6.62
H
ELPERS, M IN E A C T A E
A T N N E R D S............
1,371 7.83
IN R M N R IR S.......................
ST U E T EPA ER
1,447 7.78
M C IN
A H ISTS, M IN E A C ..................
A TNNE
M C A IC G N R L
E H N S, E E A ........................... 2,334 7.86
M C A IC M IN E A C
E H N S, A T N N E
1,155 7.71
(M C IN R )....................................
AH EY
PIPEFITTERS, M IN E A C ................. 2,751 7.74
A TNNE
H L E S, H N , M IN E A C .............
E DR AD A TN NE
1,254 7.69
POE G
R C SSIN
A
SSISTA T O E A O S
N P R T R .........................
8,684 7.62
C IEF O R T R ................................ 6,573 8.14
H
PE A O S
C IEF O R T R H L R
H
PE A O S' E PE S................. 3,068 7. 12
C MO N E S
O P U D R ......................................
7.44
2 02
L B RR
A O E S........................................... 2,717 6.09
L A E S, T N C R O T U K
O D R A K A S R R C S..........
865 6.81
P C A E FILLERS, M C IN .................
AKG
AH E
655 6 . 89
PU PE S.............................................
M R
1,705 7.58
PU PER H PE S..............................
M S' EL R
765 7.27
T EA S, OILS.................................
R TER
515 7.08
TR TER H L R OILS..................
EA S' E PE S,
209 7.41
IN TIN A D T ST G
SPEC G N E IN
R U IN TESTER L B R T R ............ 2,504 7.38
OT E
S, A O A O Y
R C R IN A D C N R L
E OD G N OTO
542 7.22
S OK C E K
T C L R S....................................
M T R L MVMN
A E IA O E E T
P WR R C O R T R FORKLIFT....
O E -T U K PE A O S,
168 6.67
P WR R C O R T R , O H R T A
O E -T U K PE A O S T E H N
77
FO LIFT.........................................
RK
7.21
T U K R E S.....................................
R C D IV R
810 6.71
C S O IA
UT D L
521 6.64
G A D ..............................................
URS
351 5.96
JA ITO
N RS...........................................

Nme
u br
o
f
wrkrs
oe

Ae g
vrae
hu
orly
ern g
a ins

$7.94
7.94
7.99
6.95
8 .0 2
7.96
8.13
264 7.93
147 8.03
122
66

132
214
148
189
794

1

_

_

-

-

17 $6.44
56 5.97
13 6 . 88
9 6.60
45 6.44
34 6.36
27 6 . 1 1

116 $7.71
70 7.64
136 7.70
327 6.75
201
7.73
226 7.72
778 7.90
107 7.68
429 7.69
166 7.65

Txs
eaTxsIn nea lad
Rcy
ok
Wt
e
s
Lu iaa
ois nNrthLu iaa
o ois nMn in
o ta
u
Cat
os
GlfCat
u os
Aass
rkna
Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g Nme Ae g
u br vrae u br vrae u br vrae u br vrae u br vrae
hu
orly
hu
orly
o
f
hu
orly
hu
orly
o
f
o
f
o
f
hu
orly
o
f
wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g
o e a ins o e
a ins
a ins o e a ins o e
a ins o e
Mws I
id et I

26 $7.53
498 $7.80
333 7.78
33 7.29
518 7.86
83 7.42
152 6.46
428 6.67
91 7.41
625 7.89
73 7.43
589 7.80
647 7.84
132 7.46
176 7.49 1,284 7.79
12 1
7.41
501 7.79

_
_
31 $7.06
68
7.04
106 6 . 0 2
37 7.11
26 7.07
-

74
61
66

-

6 .6 8

6.96
6.96

_
24 $7.72
43 6.76
75 7.79
67 7.75
166 7.65
37 7.71
156 7.77
83 7.79

, 102
665
215
28
104
46
180
261
65
24
18

8.60
7.37
8.07
6.31
7.23
6.78
7.98
7.37
8 .1 1
7.22

96
153
21
155
14
51
69
55
-

6.67 1,733
6.97
907
471
23
6.39
5.81
483
6.48
152
6.43
6.44
279
60
5.99
37
-

7.76
8.26
7.40
7.92
6.42
7.37
7.61
7.50
7.04
-

848
604
392
26
577
199
63
173
51
81
-

7. 17 3,007
7.70 2,643
7.01 1,332
7.40
42
6.15
806
6.67
132
219
6.92
7. 13
521
6.87
473
7. 14
174
72
-

7.68
8.24
7. 16
8 .0 0
6.05
6.77
6.81
7.92
7.35
7.28
7.57

442
399
192
32
310
160
105
26
75

6.91
7.34
6.27
6.72
5.55
6.05
-

389

8 .0 1

73

6.29

356

7.41

308

6.94

872

7.61

194

6.46

123

7.26

10

6.09

77

7.15

39

6.87

204

7.49

21

44

6.82
7.31
6.98

-

6.99
7.03
7.15

44

54

6.63
7.09
6.64

251

6.84

42

6.90
5.97

17
53

6.37
6.13

229
126

6.59
5.96

_

_

_

"

“

16

18
93
113
46

8 .0 1

6.71
6 .1 1

Excludes prem pay for overtim and for work on w
ium
e
eekends, holidays and late shifts.




Wte
e rn
s
Pnslvn eny aia
Mws I
id et
WtV in
e irg ia
s
Nme Ae g Nme Ae g
u br vrae u br
vrae
hu
orly
o
f
o
f
hu
orly
a ins o e
a ins
wrkrs ern g wrkrs ern g
oe

-

15
154

_

_

“

~

99

11

48

12

115 $7.85 i
111
7.84
130 7.88
205 6.54
181 7.97
268 7.84
36 7.92
60 7.87
347 7.83
143 7.83

7.72 1,040
8 . 15
885
7.23
216
27
6.06
141
7.03
79
35
7.61
206
7.50
63
47
53

7.49
8 .2 0
7.04
7.24
6 .2 1
7.29
6.62
7.41
7.03
7.76
7.41

125

6.93

187

7.39

6.42

15

7.18

53

6.94

6.14

26

6.92

-

-

36
29

6.56
6.27

6 .6 8
6 .2 1

6.29
-

416
317
206
141
83
91
27
-

NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not m publication criteria.
eet

_

5.43




Table 4. Occupational averages: By size of community
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings' of production workers in selected occupations, United States and regions, A pril 1976)

Occupation

United States
M
etropolitan
areas

United States
Nonmetropolitan
areas

East
Coast
Metropolitan areas

W
estern Pennsylvania
W Virginia
est
Nonmetropolitan areas

M
idwest-1
Metropolitan
areas

M
idwest-2
M
etropolitan
areas

M
idwest-2
Nonmetropolitan
areas

Texas- Louisiana
Gulf
Coast
Metropolitan

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Nonmetropolitan

Number
of
workers
ASSISTANT OPERATORS.........................................
BOILERMAKERS, MAINTENANCE........................
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE..............................
CHIEF OPERATORS....................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS* HELPERS...........................
COMPOUNDERS...............................................................
ELE CTR IC IA N S, MAINTENANCE........................
GUARDS............................................................................
HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES...................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS......................................
JA N ITO RS.......................................................................
LABORERS.......................................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS................
M ACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE..............................
MECHANICS, GENERAL............................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(MACHINERY)............................................................
PACKAGE F IL L E R S , MACHINE...........................
P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE...........................
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, FORKLIFT____
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
FO R K L IFT....................................................................
PUMPERS..........................................................................
PUMPERS* HELPERS.................................................
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...................
STOCK CLERKS............................................................
TREATERS, O IL S .......................................................
TREATERS' HELPERS, O I L .................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................
See footnotes at end of table.

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

7 ,1 3 6
854
579
5 ,0 0 2
2 ,2 7 4
138
929
478
1 ,2 5 7
1 ,1 4 4
260
1 ,7 7 1
57 5
1 ,2 1 4
2 ,0 6 3

$ 7 . 69
7 . 81
7 .7 8
8 .2 7
7 .2 3
7 . 73
7 .8 3
6 . 68

$ 7 .2 7
7 .5 9
7 .4 3
7 .7 1
6 .8 1
6 . 82
7 .3 5
6 .2 8
6 .3 5
7 . 56
5 .7 7

1 , 102
122
66

96
153
-

$ 6 .6 7
6 .9 7
6 .3 9
6 .4 4
5 .9 7

$ 7 .7 6
7 .7 1
7 .6 4
8 .2 7
7 .4 5
7 .9 2
7 .7 0
6 .9 0
6 .7 2
7 .7 4

$ 7 .3 3

562

$ 7 .0 8
7 .4 6
7 .2 6
7 .6 1
6 .8 5
7 .4 0
7 .3 5
_
6 . 23
7 .3 3

6 .7 4
7 .5 9
7 . 52

6 .1 4
6 .5 9
7 .4 1
-

2 ,8 6 5 i $ 7 . 6 8
4 90
7 .8 0
327
7 .7 8
2 ,2 3 9
8 . 31
1 ,1 8 1
7 .2 0
42
8 .0 0
496
7 .8 7
229
6 .5 9
4 28
6 .6 7
5 79
7 .9 0
126
5 .9 6
788
6 .0 4
120
6 .7 5
509
7 .8 1
“

334
_
25
291
126

5 .8 1
6 .4 8
6 .6 0
6 .4 4

1 ,5 5 9
108
62
799
402
23
116
94
28 8
165
28
427
132
217
73 3

2 86
-

665
215
28
132
113
214
148
46
104
46
189
794

$ 8 .0 1
7 .9 4
7 .9 4
8 .6 0
7 .3 7
8 .0 7
7 .9 9
6 .7 1
6 .9 5

7 .8 8
6 .0 3
6 .1 3
6 . 85
7 .8 1
7 . 91

1 ,5 4 8
67
106
1 ,5 7 1
794
64
17 9
43
27 4
227
91
946
29 0
233
271

894
541
2 ,3 3 5
132

7 .7 8
6 .9 4
7 .7 8
6 .7 0

261
114
416
36

7 . 49
6 .6 1
7 . 50
6 .5 9

1 80
2 64
44

6 .7 8
7 .9 3
6 .8 2

51
34
“

6 .4 3
6 .3 6

62
40 4

52
1 ,3 4 1
6 81
1 ,9 5 1
455
325
183
679
973

7 .3 5
7 .7 0
7 .3 3
7 .5 5
7 . 31
7 .2 9
7 .4 3
6 .7 3
7 .7 7

25
364
84
55 3
87
190

6 .9 1
7 .1 6
6 . 86
6 .8 1
6 .7 5
6 .7 0

18
261
65
389
123
24
18
93
147

7 .3 1
7 .9 8
7 .3 7
7 .2 6

10

8 .1 1

55

6 .4 4
6 .2 9
6 .0 9
5 .9 9

11

8 .0 1

69
73

7 .2 2
6 .9 8
8 .0 3

27

6 .6 8

-

131
281

6 .0 0

-

6 .5 9
7 .4 0

-

8 .0 2
6 .1 1

6 .3 1
7 .2 3
7 .9 6
8 .1 3
-

21

17
56
13
155
14
9
45

-

6 .8 8

11

24 6
47
332
66

33

-

-

-

131
148

6 .1 1

-

-

-

7 .5 3
6 .7 3
6 . 14

11

29
391
248

6 .4 3
7 .4 3
7 .7 2
7 .9 0

31
71
24
168
83
~

6 .7 7
“

52
_
81
58
29
409
116
59
-

7 .6 2
7 .6 9
6 .9 9

67
“

7 .5 4
_

65
37
106
16

7 .3 8
6 . 80
7 .4 4
6 .6 0

578
2 19
1 ,1 9 0
-

7 .8 1
6 .8 1
7 .7 9
“

59
_
43

7 .0 1
7 .5 6
7 .5 1
7 .4 2
7 .0 9
6 .9 1

61

7 .2 6
6 .9 7
7 .0 8
-

10
112

7 .0 1
7 .0 6
6 .8 0
6 .8 5
6 .8 1
7 .0 3

463
47 3
824
193
174
72
247
457

_
7 .9 4
7 . 35
7 .6 1
7 .5 3
7 .2 8
7 .5 7
6 .8 4
7 .7 9

-

6 .1 2

-

7 .1 5
7 .6 5

20
120

-

6 .2 0

-

-

-

-

46

7 .5 2

20

31
188
25
55
_

35
75

6 .1 2

_

6 .5 4
7 .3 4

20

53
_
43
25
223
76
23
-

~

69
26
131
21

51
_

24
42

Average
hourly
earnings
$ 7 .0 2 i
7 .1 5
7 .4 7
6 .1 4
6 .6 5
7 .2 0
6 .0 5
7 .2 7
5 .7 2
6 .5 2
7 .2 7
6 .8 3
_
7 .0 5
_
6 .8 8
6 .2 1

6 .6 2
6 .4 2
6 .3 6
_

6 .3 2
7 .0 9




Table 4. Occupational averages: By size of
community—Continued
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 o f production workers in selected occupations,
United States and regions, A pril 1976)

Rocky
M
ountain
Metropolitan

W
est
Coast
Metropolitan

Occupation
Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

1 , 028
111

$ 7 .4 9
7 .8 5
7 .8 4

7 .7 1
6 .0 6
7 .7 0
7 .5 6

873
2 16
27
124
36
190
178
29
129
64
2 62
36

7 .0 4
7 .2 4
7 . 89
6 .5 6
6 .5 3
7 .9 7
6 .2 7
6 . 19
7 .3 1
7 . 84
7 .9 2

7 .7 1
7 .6 9
7 .4 7
7 .3 0
7 .0 0
7 . 36
6 .7 3
-

60
35
341
206
63
175
53
44
53
137

7 .8 7
6 . 62
7 .8 4
7 .4 1
7 .0 3
7 .4 2
6 .9 4
7 .7 8
7 . 41
7 .8 4

Number .Average
of
hourly
workers earnings

o

ASSISTANT OPERATORS..........................................
BOILERMAKERS, MAINTENANCE.........................
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE..............................
CHIEP OPERATORS....................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS* HELPERS............................
COMPOONDERS...............................................................
ELECTRICIA NS, MAINTENANCE.........................
GUARDS............................................................................
HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES....................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS......................................
JANITORS.......................................................................
LABORERS......................................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS.................
MACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE..............................
MECHANICS, GENERAL............................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(MACHINERY)............................................................
PACKAGE FILLER S, MACHINE............................
P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE...........................
PUMPERS.........................................................................
PUMPERS' HELPERS.................................................
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...................
STOCK CLERKS............................................................
TREATERS, O IL S .......................................................
TREATERS' HELPERS, O IL .................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................

188
1 05
15
29
68

20

90
25
48
68

13
48
6
16
_

$ 7 .7 5
8 .0 3
7 .6 8
-

115

8 .2 0

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and fo r work on weekends, holidays and late shifts.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.




Table 5. Occupational averages: By size of establishment
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 of production workers in selected occupations, United States and regions, April 1976)

United States
100-999
workers
Occupation
Number
of
workers
ASSISTANT OPERATORS.........................................
BOILERMAKERS, MAINTENANCE........................
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE..............................
CHIEF OPERATORS...................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS' HELPERS...........................
COMPOUNDERS..............................................................
ELECTRICIA NS, MAINTENANCE........................
GUARDS...........................................................................
HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES...................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS......................................
JA N IT O RS.....................................................................
LABORERS......................................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS.................
M ACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE..............................
MECHANICS, GENERAL...........................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(MACHINERY)...........................................................
PACKAGE F IL L E R S, MACHINE...........................
P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE...........................
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, FORKLIFT____
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
FO RKLIFT...................................................................
PUMPERS........................................................................
PUMPERS' HELPERS................................................
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...................
STOCK CLERKS...........................................................
TREATERS, O IL S ......................................................
TREATERS' HELPERS, O IL .................................
TRUCKDRIVERS...........................................................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................
See footnotes at end of table.

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

5 ,0 2 0
349
306
4 ,0 4 4
2 ,1 7 9

$ 7 .5 4
7 . 78
7 .6 4
7 .9 7
7 .0 6
7 . 12
7 .6 3
6 .3 9
6 .5 3
7 .7 8
5 . 88
6 .0 8
6 .7 7
7 .7 3
7 .7 5

3 ,6 6 4
572
379
2 ,5 2 9
88 9
82
539
303
537
54 0
147
892
116
621
1 , 197

$ 7 .7 2
7 . 80
7 .8 0
8 . 40
7 .2 9
7 .9 1
7 .8 8
6 .8 3
6 .7 9
7 .9 0
6 .0 7

86

7 .5 9
6 .7 5
7 .6 9
6 . 52

54
1 ,2 1 6
38 1
1 ,6 3 2
268
40 9
124
477
778

7 . 19
7 . 45
7 .2 1
7 .2 2
7 .0 3
6 . 83
7 .3 6
6 . 59
7 .6 0

120

569
218
994
831
20 4
1 ,8 2 5
749
826
1 , 137
560
266
1 ,4 6 0

East
Coast
100-999
workers

United States
1,000 workers
or more

Number
of
workers
64 7
45
24
323
96
69
65
-

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

$ 7 .9 5
7 .9 3
7 .9 0
8 .5 5
7 .2 6
-

455
77
42
342
-

96
153
-

$ 7 .8 2
7 .7 1
7 .5 9

63
48
153
73
37
109

$ 6 .6 7
6 .9 7
6 .3 9
6 .4 4
5 .9 7

1 ,0 7 4
65
41
714
4 22

8 .0 0
6 .6 8

$ 8 .1 0
7 .9 5
7 .9 6
8 .6 4
8 . 12
7 .9 7
6 .7 5
7 .0 7
6 . 28
7 .2 6
7 .9 7

7 . 07
7 .8 4
7 .9 7

59 5
389
1 ,2 9 1
82

7 .8 3
6 .9 8
7 .7 9
6 . 84

108
151
~

6 .8 2
7 .9 5
~

23
489
38 4
872
274
106
85
33 3
47 6

7 .2 7
7 .9 0
7 . 33
7 .6 9
7 .4 0
8 .0 4
7 .4 9

150
170
45
76

7 .8 9
8 .3 1
7 . 17
7 .9 8

6 .8 8

7 .8 4

M
idwest-1
100-999
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

8 .0 6
7 .0 9
7 .9 5
8 .1 3

6 .1 0

or m
ore

W
estern PennsylvaniaW V
est irginia
100-999
workers

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

9
80
30 9

10 1

East
Coast
1,000 workers

20

21

10
111

8 .2 1

7 .4 3
8 .2 0

~

~

17
56
13
155
14
9
45

-

6 .8 2

51
34
”

6 .4 3
6 .3 6

93
2 52
~

7 .6 4
7 .6 8
“

-

6 .4 4
6 .2 9
6 .0 9
5 .9 9
-

15
2 79
60
277

7 .0 3
7 .6 1
7 .5 0
7 .4 1
7 .1 8
6 .9 6
7 .2 3
7 .6 5

44
-

-

111

8 .1 0

12

7 .7 8
7 .3 1
8 .0 9
7 .0 3
8 .0 9

219
78
45
71

69
73
10
55

27

6 .8 8

5 .8 1
6 .4 8
6 .6 0
6 .4 4

6 .1 1

7 .7 1
6 .9 3
6 .7 5
7 .7 4
5 .9 4
6 .4 2
7 .3 6
7 .7 2

71
28 4
177
45
403
148
166
3 68

8 .0 1

68

33
104
166




Table 5. Occupational averages: By size of establishment—Continued
(Number and average straight-tim e hourly earnings' o f production workers in selected occupations, United States and regions, A pril 1976)

M
idwest-2
100-999
workers
Occupation

G
ulf
Coast
1,000 workers

or more

Texas-Inland
North Louisana
100-999
workers

Rocky
Mountain
100-999
workers

W
est
Coast
100-999
workers

W
est
Coast
1,000 workers

or m
ore

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

848
26
33
604
392
26
83
17
152
91
53
577
199
73
-

$ 7 .1 7
7 . 53
7 .2 9
7 .7 0
7 .0 1
7 .4 0
7 .4 2
6 .3 7
6 . 46
7 .4 1
6 . 13
6 .1 5
6 . 67
7 .4 3
-

876
106
62
94 1
615
10 8
38
170
19 8

2 ,1 3 1
3 92
271
1 ,7 0 2
717
42
410
191
258
42 7
116
732
54
359
-

$ 7 .7 0
7 .7 8
7 .7 8
8 .3 4
7 .2 8

442
31
399
192
32

$ 7 .7 2
8 .1 5
7 .2 3
7 .7 2
6 .7 6
7 .7 9
5 .4 3
6 .0 6
7 .0 3
7 .7 5
7 .6 5

$ 7 .5 1
7 .8 4
7 .8 3
8 .0 8
7 .0 4
7 .8 5
6 .6 2

6 .0 5
7 .0 4
7 .8 1
-

416
317
20 6
24
43
75
16
141
83
67
166

621
63
74
5 93

106
37
310
160
26
-

$ 6 .9 1
7 .0 6
7 .3 4
6 .2 7
6 .7 2
7 .0 4
-

74
78
230
168

$ 7 .6 3
7 .8 6
7 .8 2
8 .0 6
7 .0 3
7 .8 3
4 .9 9
6 .5 6
7 .8 4
5 .3 0
6 .0 5
6 . 59
7 .7 8
6 .9 9

$ 7 .4 7
7 .8 5
8 .4 4
7 .9 5
6 .5 6
6 .4 2
7 .8 5
-

132
63
1 76
44

7 .4 6
6 .9 2
7 .4 9
6 . 63

153
366
-

7 .9 7
7 .8 1
-

49 4
219
918
-

7 .8 0
6 .8 1
7 .7 9
-

74
61
-

37
156
-

7 .7 1
7 .7 7
-

25
264
-

7 .8 5
-

12

7 .0 9
7 . 13
6 .8 7
6 .9 4
6 .8 7
7 . 14
6 .6 4
7 . 41

Number
of
workers
ASSISTANT OPERATORS.........................................
BOILERMAKERS, MAINTENANCE........................
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE..............................
CHIEF OPERATORS....................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS' HELPERS...........................
COMPOUNDERS...............................................................
ELE C TR IC IA N S, MAINTENANCE........................
GUARDS............................................................................
HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES...................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS......................................
JA N IT O R S......................................................................
LABORERS.......................................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS................
M ACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE..............................
MECHANICS, GENERAL...........................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(MACHINERY)............................................................
PACKAGE F IL L E R S , MACHINE...........................
P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE...........................
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, F O R K L IF T ....
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
FO R K L IFT....................................................................
PUMPERS..........................................................................
PUMPERS' HELPERS.................................................
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...................
STOCK CLERKS............................................................
TREATERS, O IL S ......................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................

G
ulf
Coast
100-999
workers

173
51
308
39
81
54
121

10

_

_
206
122

322
44
30
135

7 .9 2
7 . 43
7 .4 8
7 . 30
6 .7 9
7 .8 0

1 Excludes premium pay fo r overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.

_

8 .0 0

7 .8 7
6 .9 0
6 .7 4
7 .9 1
6 .0 2

_

68

_

315
351
550
160
76

7 .9 2
7 .3 3
7 .6 9
7 .5 5

105
26
194

8 .0 1

221

6 .8 5
7 .7 9

75
42

366

21

66

6 .0 2

7 .1 1
5 .5 5
6 .0 5
7 .0 7
6 .6 8

6 .9 6
-

_
6 .6 8
6 .2 1

6 .4 6
6 .4 2
6 .2 9
6 . 14
6 .9 6

_
91
27
125
15
26
83

_
7 .6 1
7 .5 0
6 .9 3
7 .1 8
6 .9 2
7 .7 9

139

8 .0 1

11

6 .4 4

134
58
175
36

7 .5 1
7 .8 4
7 .9 2

419
37
292
41
36
83
42
-

7 .9 2
7 .8 3
-

_
83
-

212

89
122

_
143
63
163
26
33
104

6 .2 1

_
7 .3 9
7 .0 3
7 .3 2
6 .9 7
7 .5 7
7 .8 2

_
63
27
39

_
_
7 .4 5
6 .9 1
7 .8 5

Table 6. Occupational earnings: United States
(Distributions o f workers in selected occupations in petroleum refineries by straight-time hourly earnings,1 April 1976)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of-

Department and occupation

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS.................................

5.50
and
under
5.60

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings

6 3 ,2 8 9

$ 7 .3 8

92 1
685
1 ,1 0 8
1 ,5 3 1
1 ,3 7 1
1 ,4 4 7
2 ,3 3 4

7 .7 9
7 .7 3
7 .7 5
6 .6 2
7 .8 3
7 .7 8
7 .8 6

1 ,1 5 5
2 ,7 5 1
1 ,2 5 4

7 .7 1
7 .7 4
7 .6 9

18
7

8 ,6 8 4
6 ,5 7 3
3 ,0 6 8
2 ,7 1 7
865
655
1 ,7 0 5
765
515
209

7 .6 2
8 .1 4
7 .1 2
7 .4 4
6 .0 9
6 .8 1
6 .8 9
7 . 58
7 .2 7
7 .0 8
7 .4 1

36
24
158
44

2 ,5 0 4

7 .3 8

54 2

7 . 22

Under
5.50

5.60

5.70

5.80

5.90

6.00

6.10

6.20

6.30

6.40

6.50

6.60

6.70

6.80

6.90

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

5.70

5.80

5.90

6.00

6.10

6.20

6.30

6.40

6.50

6.60

6.70

6.80

6.90

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

9.00

9.00
and
over

' 75

13 9

426

680

687 1 5 3 9

936

145 8

1289

1 6 0 8 1 3 3 8 2 0 3 4 2 4 3 0 1 8 3 8 4 0 2 5 4 9 6 0 4 2 4 4 117 5 3 1 1 1 7 2 3 8 9 8

3053

1550

430

153

189 f

_
3
3
-

_
-

_
-

2

_
39
14

_
84
4
-

_
71
-

134

_
-

11

_
3
-

9
-

-

_
15
69

_
4
78

6

_
3
36
3
-

1

3
5
40

2

-

3

-

-

5

3

-

10

"

-

3

-

-

19

-

-

-

_

_
4
-

12

24
146
-

_
3
417
49
5
5
-

_
27
36
215

-

_
9

10 4

44
213
3

620
23 4
40
8 15 1503 1231
87
20
33
1
13
2
16
1
179
167
4
50
54
10
-

4
219
-

_

_
154
-

116 2 < 223

MAINTENANCE
BOILERMAKERS, MAINTENANCE.........................
CARPENTERS, MAINTENANCE...............................
ELECTR IC IA N S, MAINTENANCE.........................
HELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES....................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS.......................................
M ACHINISTS, MAINTENANCE..............................
MECHANICS, GENERAL.............................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(MACHINERY).............................................................
P IP E F IT T E R S , MAINTENANCE............................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................

_
1

4
27
8

12

6

-

2
1

6

4

1

-

2

_
2

1

-

3
7
277
4
-

4

_

8
6

2
2

239

355

10

2
6

7
23

-

_
5
18
-

4
7
3

-

92
40
33

121

118
57

100

-

115
29
4

58
16
4
4
-

8

38
167
19
40
18
3

41
27
5
59
33
31
-

9

18
23

10

12

16

4

_
11

26
40

6
22
66

21
6
6

72
41
45
28

44
39
67

28
81
57

528
105

981
18 9
869
18

17
13
38
46
35
67
64
60

44

440
3 20
179
322
620
622

422
280
690
776
679
498

29
15
75
34
41
829

82
151

427
352
1393 1 0 6 7
465
468

180
48
76

-

6

8

-

_
6

PROCESSING
ASSISTANT OPERATORS..........................................
CHIEF OPERATORS.....................................................
CHIEF OPERATORS' HELPERS............................
COMPOUNDERS...............................................................
LABORERS........................................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS.................
PACKAGE F IL L E R S , MACHINE............................
PUMPERS..........................................................................
PUMPERS' HELPERS..................................................
TREATERS, O IL S .......................................................
TREATERS' HELPERS, O IL S ...............................

202

12
20

81
3
-

6

73
19
-

12

2

319
25
9

-

_
4
516
18
37
16
3

-

435
27
14
26
"

8

95
4
18 0
27
32
28

68

8

76
6
2

40
279
28
8

6

89
83
69
79
14
19

171
23
126
2 83
29
45

9 4 4 279 6 2 0 0 6
637
2 3 2 1244
4 37
156
20
30
5
4
2
14
44
46
24
21
35
174
161
538
83
100
73
27
30
55
52
65
10

666
11
11

2

121

-

"

-

-

52

12

-

2

3

-

62

13

30

13

85

46

74

73

165

127

141

222

248

312

53 2

77

44

45

100

10

16

8

2

-

-

-

-

2

-

10

-

7

9

5

8

21

71

69

128

121

18

58

4

1

-

-

-

-

10

30
3
45
-

8

8

66

8
8
11

1

43
66

93
19
21

28

1

2

-

INSPECTING AND TESTING
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...................
RECORDING AND CONTROL
STOCK CLERKS............................................................
MATERIAL MOVEMENT
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, F O R K L I F T ....
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
FO RKLIFT.....................................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................

168

6 . 67

6

-

-

-

-

2

-

1

-

-

20

22

17

30

41

22

_

5

_

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

77
810

7 .2 1
6 .7 1

27

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

1

10
210

14

15

1

8

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

84

8

-

62

8

6

4
23

2

96

5

105

98

-

7

5

-

13

-

-

-

521
351

6 .6 4
5 .9 6

6

-

6

4

9

2

2

5

_

69

8

86

38

46

74
3

97

11

100
2

72

-

23
15

59

4

3

-

254

1

-

-

3

30

36

CUSTODIAL
GUARDS.............................................................................
JA N IT O R S........................................................................

33

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays and late shifts.




27

11

2

-

-

_

_

-

-

-

Workers were distributed as follows: 34 under $ 5 .2 0 ; 1 at $ 5 .2 0 -$ 5 .3 0 ; and 11 at $ 5 .4 0 -$ 5 .5 0 .

_

_

"

-

T a b le 7. O ccupational earnings: East coast
(D istribution o f workers in selected occupations by straight tim e hourly earnings,1 April 1976)

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) ofDepartment and occupation

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

8 ,1 4 1

$ 7 .7 3

122
66

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS.................................

7 .9 4
7 .9 4
7 .9 9
6 .9 5

6.20

Under
6.20

36

and
under
6.30

6.30

6.40

6.50

6.60

6.70

6.80

6.90

7.00

7.10

7.20

7.30

7.40

7.50

7.60

7.70

7.80

7.90

8.00

8.10

8.20

8.30

8.40

8.60

6.40

6.50

6.60

6.70

6.80

6.90

7.00

7.10

7.20

7.30

7.40

7.50

7.60

7.70

7.80

7.90

8.00

8.10

8.20

8.30

8.40

8.60

8.80

162

27 7

131

239

232

236

184

53

74

400

166

438

108

2 36

183 1 2 1 0

75 9

78
41
35

22

56

283

146 1

22

1 93

49

8.80
and
over

28
15
19

545

359

1 05

40
3 58

4
2 15

2 92

-

-

-

4

~

“

MAINTENANCE

ELECTR IC IA N S,

MAINTENANCE.........................

INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS.......................................
MPPD1UTPC n VVPD IT
n TDTVTUOPPDC Ml T UfpT?U1 Upp
uv r n v D c
u m rt
m it u t p u iu p v

1 32
214
148
189
794
264
147

-

-

-

-

5

56

60

17

3

-

1

9

16
10

63
41
63
147
49

70
94
18
72
36

328

8 .0 2

7 .9 6
8 .1 3
7 .9 3
8 .0 3

7
32
776
45
43

22

246

185

271

28

-

4

6

8

46

8

:
19

PROCESSING
% CCTCPlVT AT)pDi mno c
pOTPP nDPDlTHPQ
PDTPP ADPPini/tDCl tJPf DP BC
rn M D n n u n p p c
t ft n n p p d c
Tm n P D Q
rpftinr r i p e HR T D iin r^
O lP V lflP PTTT PPC
M rOT UP
ft
Dn MDP P c
PUMPERS' HELPERS..................................................
rpDPAfpP p e ATT C
fPDPlfPVDCI UpT DPDC ATT C

1 , 10 2

8 .0 1

665
215
28
10 4
46
180
26 1
65
24
18

8 .6 0
7 .3 7
8 .0 7
6 .3 1
7 .2 3
6 .7 8
7 .9 8
7 .3 7

389

8 .0 1

12 3

7 .2 6

91
313

59

3

8

16

4

7

2

58

41

1

16

6

7
48

4

12

1

1

119
1

1
1

3

1

5

20

-

-

-

5

4
5

”

104

15
8

4
32

4

12

4
_

4

8 .1 1

7 .2 2

3

82

12

4

4

4

10

4

45

2

1

11

3

53

22

29

INSPECTING AND TESTING
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY....................

2

3

-

1

-

9

-

4

17

-

20

102

2

1

9

9

9

42

90

9

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

RECORDING AND CONTROL
c rrtrp

at

p u re

16

MATERIAL MOVEMENT
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, F O R K L I F T ....
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
PADFT TT?n»
'PDnrpDDTPPPC

44

6 .8 2

18
93

7 .3 1
6 .9 8

1 13
46

6 .1 1

-

-

-

2

-

25

8

24

61

26

-

17
6

4
39

9

5
16

CUSTODIAL
r T 1 T f\ c
T >
T1 MTV ADC

6 .7 1

2
11

25

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o l i d a y s , a n d la te s h i f t s .
A ll w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 8 . 8 0 - $ 9 . 0 0 .




7

-

3

16
3

5

A ll w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 6 . 1 0 - $ 6 . 2 0 .

Tab le 8. O ccupational earnings: W estern Pa.— W est Virginia
(D istribution of workers in selected occupations in petroleum refineries by straight time hourly earnings,1 April 1976)

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) ofDepartment and occupation

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS.................................

Number
of
workers

A
verage
hourly
earnings

Under
4.50

4.50
and
under
4.60

4.60

4.70

4.80

4.90

5.00

5.10

5.20

5.30

5.40

5.50

5.60

5.70

5.80

5.90

6.00

6.10

6.20

6.30

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

7.20

7.60

4.70

4.80

4.90

5.00

5.10

5.20

5.30

5.40

5.50

5.60

5.70

5.80

5.90

6.00

6.10

6.20

6.30

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

7.20

7.60

8.00

-

-

-

146

64

98

134

98

280

260

113

161

28

-

-

-

-

14

-

3

-

22
1

2
-

2
-

5
-

2

2
4

7

-

5

1 ,7 5 0

$ 6 .2 3

17

-

-

-

1

3

17
56
13
g

6 .4 4
5 .9 7
6 .8 8

-

-

-

-

-

-

48

83

74

119

21

-

17

-

-

4
-

2

MAINTENANCE
ELEC TR IC IA N S, MAINTENANCE.........................
H ELPERS, MAINTENANCE TRADES....................
INSTRUMENT REPAIRERS ....................................................
M l r* tVT MT

M I T U <PPV 1 u r p

M T ? rH lN T P 9
P T P ltF T T T R R S

nK M PPH
H IT NT S N lN fV

WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE..............................

5
34
27

'

1

1

D • DU
6 *44
6«36
6 . 11

_

4

-

14
12

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

:

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

12

4

-

4

37

2

2

-

_

-

-

’

-

~

2 0

44

-

_

PROCESSING
&
N*r n P i ? n » T n o < ;
rH T B P r» P i? B iT n p s
r n m p n n a t»te r
r .a R D R P R

LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS.......................
p iriric p

f t t t v r

*;

m rp T

PUMPERS.....................................................................................................
T R F l f K R<;
r>TT<J

9 6
153
21
155
14
51
69
55

6 . 67
6 .9 7
6 .3 9
5 .8 1

15

114

18

6 .4 8
6 .4 3
6 .4 4

14
73

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

8

5 .9 9

_

24

_

_

2

2
_

20

7
24
3

15

11

25

-

8

2

1

_
_

22

INSPECTING AND TESTING
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY...........................

73

6 .2 9

10

6 .0 9

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

8

-

12

8

RECORDING AND CONTROL
STO CK

C T . E R K S _____________________T1

Excludes premium pay fo r overtim e and for w ork on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




2

2

*

-

-

Table 9. Occupational earnings: Midwest I
(D istribution of workers in selected occupations by straight-time hourly earnings,1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)

Number o workersr c i i gs r i h - i eh u l e r i g (nd l a s off
e e v n t a g t t m o r y a n n s i olr)
Department and o c p t o
cuain

ALL

PRODUCTION

W O R K E R S .......... .

61
.0

Number
o
f
workers

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

61
.0

9,435

$7.55

122

116
70
1 36
327

2 26
778

7.71
7.6 4
7.70
6.75
7.73
7.72
7.9 0

1 07
429
166

7.68
7.69
7.65

1,733

7.76
8.26
7.40
7.92
6. 42
7.37
7.61

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

6.64

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

81
.0

82
.0

83
.0

8
.40

85
.0

und r
e
62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

81
.0

82
.0

83
.0

84
.0

8 50
.

86
.0

86
.0
and
oe
vr

28

61

343

136

453

490

98

421

72

79

_

_

_
_
_

1

_
_
_

_
_
_

_
_
_
_
_
_

_

_

_
_

_
_
_
_
_

1

10

2

138

60

1 48

421

250

_

_

_

_
_

_

_
_

_
_

43

187

_
_
_

509

315

311

3 47

3 28

242

_
_

_
_
_

_
_

2

12

3

_
_
_
_

4

513 2 2 7 8

532

382

358

_

1

MAINTENANCE
ROTLERMAKTRS, MAINTENANCE ......_ _
_
C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ............ .
E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E ....... .
HEL P E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E T R A D E S .........
M A C H I N I S T S , M A I N T E N A N C E . . _______ ...
M ECHA N T C S , O ENER AT...........____...

201

_
_

12

48

_

8
8

37
4

2

_

3

(M A C H T N E R Y ) ....... .............. ....
P T P E E T T T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E . . . _________

NELDEBS,

HAND, MAINTENANCE......................

24

20

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

31
45
49
3

90
14 4
502

17

_

21

1

_

_

_

8

_

108

20

10

6
10

_

9

16
24

41

20

18
3
53

24

24

_

2

_

-

4

40

_

-

_
_

85
34
65

MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE

29

3

-

80
24

285
25

26

13
38
18

58
64
50

24

74

73

688

187

133

16

_

_

_
_
_
_
_

_
_
_
_
14 2
_

_

_

_

_

-

_

30

_
_
_

"

-

-

-

123
12 3

83
3 95

_
58

33

_

_

_

_

_

PROCESSING
ASSISTANT O P E R A T O R S . . . . ..............................
H E L P E R S ............

471

LABO R E R S . .......................... .
LOADE R S , T A N K CARS OR T R U C K S ..... .

483
1 52
279

CHIEF

OPERATORS*

PUMPERS ..........................................................................
TREATERS, O I L S . . . . . . . . . .............. ..

_

104
32
_

12

_

_

219
_

119
_

22
2
80

_
_
_

33
_

_

11

38
_

6
13

_

121

2

1

1

_
n

37

7.04

_

356

7.41

12

77

7.1 5

_

11

6.99

15
154

7.0 3
7 .15

_

99
48

6.90
5 . 97

_

_

_

_

_

4

_

_

8

2 18

_

_

_

_

41

4

21

3

19

10

4

16

5

-

21

51

4
44

26

25

76

26
g

8

91

32

18

6

u

_

87

_

_

21

13
59
4
13

18
4

7

6
8
9

_
_

3
28
-| 5

t
l

92
180

_

9

1

15

13
95

13

1
11

_

_

9

_

_

_

4

_

27

1

_

_

-

-

-

-

13

_

_

_
_

INSPECTING AND TESTING
ROUTINE TESTERS, LABORATORY.. . . . . . .

_

1

8

_

_

_

_

—
_

12

10

7

9

_

6

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

7

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

6

35

19

4

5

-

-

32

87

42

RECORDING AND CONTROL
STOCK CLERKS..............................
MATERIAL MOVEMENT
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, F O R K L I F T . . . .
POWER-TRUCK OPERATORS, OTHER THAN
FORKLIFT.............. ..
TRUCKDRTVER*'_ - ...................................................
_

1

_
_

4

—
_

7

_

17

12

5

_

_

CUSTODIAL
o n A n n s . _____ ____. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
JANITORS ................................ ............. ..

_

_

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




_

_
Q

2
11

_

4

23

2

_

8
Workers were distributed as follovys: 16 at $ 5 .0 0 -$ 5 .1 0 and 2 at $ 5 .6 0 -$ 5 .7 0 .

_

_

_

_

Table 10. Occupational earnings: Midwest II
(Distribution o f workers in selected occupations by straight-time hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of-

Number
o
f
wres
okr

Department and o c p t o
cuain

ALL

PRO D U CTIO N

W O R K E R S .............................................

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

6 ,1 2 2

$ 6 .9 7

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ..................................
CARPENTERS,
M A I N T E N A N C E ..........................................
E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E ..................................

26
33
83
152
91
73

98

55

57
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

81
.0

81
.0
ad
n
oe
vr

98

46

89

100

29 1

437

30 5

271

228

227

362

407

324

264

398

489

256

539

168

342

82

104

69

63

8

5
-

1
1

2
10

6
5

2
10

2
11

7
-

1
8
12

-

-

6
3
21

4

4
4

-

6

1
14
1

10
-

5

15
30

12
4

15

7 .5 3
7 .2 9

HELPERS,
M A I N T E N A N C E T R A D E S ...........................
I N S T R U M E N T R E P A I R E R S .....................................................
M A C H IN ISTS,
M A I N T E N A N C E ....................... ..................

Under
56
.0

56
.0
ad
n
udr
ne
57
.0

10

M A INTENANCE

7 .4 2
6 .4 6
7 . 41

-

-

-

28

-

-

-

17

14

22

7 .4 3

2
8
6

35
-

14
-

-

-

-

-

10
-

-

7

53

98
32
16
-

90
-

20
12
-

-

M E C H A N IC S , M A IN TEN A N CE
( M A C H I N E R Y ) ...................................................................................
P IP E F IT T E R S ,
M A I N T E N A N C E ......................................

132
176

7 .4 6
7 .4 9

2

W ELDERS,

121

7 .4 1

1

8
10
8

-

848
604

7
7
7
7
6
6

. 17
.7 0
.0 1
.4 0
. 15
.6 7

_

_

36

.9
.1
.8
.1

HAND,

M A I N T E N A N C E ..............................

10
6
14

1
3
3

23

6
48
12

24

1 1

16
22

16
33
10

114
17
27

198
-

55
142
90
1

8
13
22
28
11

12
9
31
32
25

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

PR O C ESSIN G
A S S I S T A N T O P E R A T O R S ........................................................
C H I E F O P E R A T O R S .......................................................................
C H IE F O PERA TO RS'
H E L P E R S ......................................
C O M P O U N D E R S ......................................................................................

-

_

-

-

L A B O R E R S .................................................................................................
LOADERS,
T A N K C A R S O R T R U C K S .......................
PACKAGE F I L L E R S ,
M A C H I N E ......................................

392
26
577
199
63

P U M P E R S .....................................................................................................
P U M P E R S ' H E L P E R S ...................................................................
T R E A T E R S , O I L S ...........................................................................

173
51
81

6
7
6
7

308

6 . 94

-

-

-

-

39

6 .8 7

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

-

-

IN S P E C T IN G
RO U TIN E

TESTERS,

AN D

STOCK

AN D

_

_

_

104

_

24

-

3
-

-

4
-

32
-

24
-

56
8
-

39
6
-

163
14
1
-

172
18
-

44

6 .6 3

12

7 .0 9

TRnrKr»RTVER<?

54

6 .6 4

17
53

6 .3 7
6 * 13
.

..........

32
-

11
-

17
-

8
6

36
16
27

24
8

2

4

11
18

-

1
-

20
-

21
-

-

-

22

12

_

72
82
-

48
-

-

7

-

-

1
-

1
-

_

_

_

104
-

59
-

30
-

2

-

-

_
_

-

"

-

-

34
15
-

29
14

28
9

19
-

8
2

4
-

16
-

-

-

8

-

16
1

-

-

-

4

“

-

-

-

-

10

2

-

27

24

27

22

44

-

-

-

-

-

2

4

2

8

1

8

20

5

3

2
10

-

-

7

3

3
11

g

5

10

9
5
-

7

7

20
2
8

44

-

9

32

7

9

4

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

_
-

8

g

_
_

_
-

_

_

_

_

g

-

-

1

-

C U STO D IA L

.

,

2

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.




98

_
24
-

13
4
12

-

10
-

-

10

4
-

33

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

_

_

_

MOVEMENT

P O W E R - T R U C K O P E R A T O R S , F O R K L I F T ______
PO W E R -T R U C K O P E R A T O R S ,
OTHER THAN
F O R K L I F T .............................................................................................

GITA R D S ..... .......
.IAN TTH R 9

29

2

52
50
-

28
66
-

CONTROL

C L E R K S ..................................................................................
M A T E R IA L

_

T E ST IN G

L A B O R A T O R Y ...........................

R E C O R D IN G

2
3
7
4

_

g

g
1

3

24

2

12

1

7

Table 11. Occupational earnings: Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast
(Distribution o f workers in selected occupations by straight-tim e hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of-

Number
o
f
workers

Department and o c p t o
cuain

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS..................................1 2 3 , 3 2 1
2

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

$7.50

5 70
57
.0

172

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

82
.0

udr
ne
58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

82
.0

84
.0

84
.0
ad
n
oe
vr

98

61

283

360

516

56

2 41

215

410

433

628

9 38

560

4 35

39 4

40 5

668

6 3 0 4 34 16

1 87 5

6 16

1360

37 0

6 8 7 1 16 8

652

MAINTENANCE

TM^TPIT M7KT RPDiT P17DQ
M
1PHTV T
Ml TM
*T1?1I 1 MPV
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE
(M irBTNVRV)
P I P E F I T T E R S , MAINTENANCE............................
WELDERS, HAND, MAINTENANCE......................

498
333
518
428
625
589

7.80

12

6.67

12

g

187

1 07

7.84
7.79
7.79

3,007
2,643
1,332

7.6 8
8.24
7.16

806
132
219
52 1
473
1 74
79

6.0 5
6.77
6. 81
7.9 2
7.3 5
7.2 8
7 A7

8 72

7.61

204

7.4 9

2 51

6.84

229
126

6.59
5.96

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

144
57
37 3

41
24
99

1z
24

90

7*80

647
1,284
501

313
243
37
II J
oc Q
JDO

36 2

122

78
85

30
15

24 8
871
342

23 5
2 53
65

93
1 30
79

2 8 5 12 5 6
10 4 6
140

58 5

38 4

9
9

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

60
69
-

_

_

-

PROCESSING
a

nD v n t T n n B
nDPRi'TnRq
CHIEF OPERATORS* HELPERS............................
pnMDnniinvDQ
LABORERS . ................... ................................................
LOADERS, TANK CARS OR TRUCKS.................
PACKAGE FI LL ER S, MACHINE............................
pryMppRC
P^ HPE ®^«
nTT<;
TDVIWDQ 9 QiSLrfiADf UILD# • • • • • • • • • • •
HffTDVDC DTT C
1 JK
CA
qtimt

59
_

20
g

67
19

36
58
_

204

1

66

150
345

8

14

2

18

26

2

6
11

2

1
2

12
15

97

24

i
18
5

1

~7
*

116

209

52

166

28

4
-j
144
9«r
2D

*

ZZ
oo

9
133

522

10 8

77

12

9

15
3

13

191
121

123

6

2
2

4

10
Q

8
3

15

11

"
2 6 0 1014

12

7

3

31

77

4

11

14

59

24

AA
T2
f

il A
*10

CO
DZ

10

7

12

42

167

246

77

37

25

8

22

23

22 7
58
39

31

12
27

2■3Z3
oo^

INSPECTING AND TESTING
ROUTINE TESTERS,

LABORATORY....................

42

<
1

3

2

21

10

38

14

18

4

RECORDING AND CONTROL
c»Trtrif m ? P 7 C

2

1

17

MATERIAL MOVEMENT
fppnrFnBTVPPC

33

26

156

10

79
jz

28

H

7z
/o

3

5

CDSTODIAL
GOAFP^

___- -

.i v m p Q
7

- ____

1..

35
3 14

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , ho li d a y s, a n d la te sh ifts.
2 W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o llo w s : 1 6 9 a t $ 8 . 4 0 - $ 8 . 6 0 a n d 1 5 4 a t $ 9 . 6 0 a n d over.




2
50

(
J

40

18

26

ai
1

3

W o r k e r s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d a s f o l l o w s : 3 u n d e r $ 5 . 4 0 a n d 11 a t $ 5 . 4 0 t o $ 5 . 5 0 .

3

49

1

29

Table 12. Occupational earnings: Texas Inland— North Louisiana—Arkansas
(Distribution o f workers in selected occupations by straight-time hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)

Number o workers r c i i gs r i h - i eh u l e r i g (nd l a s of~
f
e e v n t a g t t m o r y a n n s i o lr)
Department and o c p t o
cuain

ALL

W O R K E R S .............................................

PR O D U C TIO N

Mumper
o
f
wres
okr

3 ,4 0 0

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

$ 6 .5 1

48
.0
ad
n
udr
ne
49
.0

51
.0

52
.0

53
.0

54
.0

55
.0

56
.0

57
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

68
.0

70
.0

72
.0

74
.0

76
.0

78_
.0

80
.0

51
.0

52
.0

53
.0

54
.0

55
.0

56
.0

57
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

68
.0

70
.0

72
.0

74
.0

76
.0

78
.0

80
.0

82
.0

58

58

31

55

33

68

102

4

14

84

65

27

-

-

3
5

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5
6
3

-

3

93

50
.0

50
.0

3

125

49
.0

3

Under
48
.0

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

24
-

-

27
-

4
-

-

-

71

-

-

-

-

205

90

111

214

71

357

424

253

431

169

64

189

5

M A IN T E N A N C E
CARPENTERS,
M A I N T E N A N C E .........................................
E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A I N T E N A N C E ..................................

HPT DPDQ

MmiiPPHlUPP

(PDinVC
I R E R S .................

31
68
106

7 .0 6
7 .0 4
3

6 .0 2
7 ! 11

M A I N T E N A N C E ..........................................

37
26

M E C H A N IC S , M AINTENANCE
( M A C H I N E R Y ) ...................................................................................
P IPE FIT T E R S,
M A I N T E N A N C E ............
W ELDERS,
H A N D , M A I N T E N A N C E ..........

74
61
66

6 .6 8
6 .9 6

442
399
192

6 .9 1
7 .3 4
6 .2 7

-

32

6 .7 2
5 .5 5

248

IN S T R U M E N T

REPA

M A C H IN IST S,

2

7 .0 7
-

-

-

3

_
-

3

_

6

3

6

3

-

6 .9 6

_
9
Z 7/

_
-

_
-

6
6

2

_

-

2

13
37

7
12

_
-

_

-

-

_
-

_

10
1U

_
-

_

_

3

_

4
-

9
14

16
6

_

2

_

7

-

_
-

-

6
15

4
7

-

-

1

22
6
7

-

3

19
27
31

-

15

-

-

-

-

104
-

194
-

52

21

-

96
84
-

24
-

_

_

PR O C ESSIN G
A S S I S T A N T O P E R A T O R S .........................................................
C H I E F O P E R A T O R S ........................................................................
C H IEF

OPERATORS'

H E L P E R S ......................................

C O M P O U N D E R S ......................................................................................

j

__

LOADERS,

TANK

CARS

OR

T R U C K S .......

P U M P E R S .................................
P U M P E R S ' H E L P E R S ......................
T R E A T E R S , O I L S ...........................................................................
IN SPE C T IN G
R O U TIN E

TESTERS,

AND

c:*r n ryr

AND

M A TERIA L

6 .4 6

6.68
6.21

-

_

12

24

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

12

-

-

8

12
20

4

12
-

3
7 5

2
15

2
6

3

-

-

_
-

48

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

“

“

-

-

12

-

12

~

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

18

12

-

-

3

-

-

-

5

4

53

_
-

5

-

2

1

6 .4 2

3

4

7

5

6

-

-

-

8

oe
iJ

6
11

4
37

-

-

3

-

-

-

15
24

-

-

12

-

35

9

15

5

1

MOVEMENT
42

6.14

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , ho li d a y s, a n d late s hifts.
2 W o rk ers w e re d istrib u te d as follow s: 4 2 at $ 4 .3 0 -$ 4 .4 0 and 6 at $4.70-$4.80.




24

20
15

6 .2 9

194

54

6 .0 5

75

_
-

20
6
27
-

_
5
-

16

53

CONTROL

rT P p |r< ;

l
PT>nr,rn n yvpn c
|

160
105
26

-

1
3
25

-

_

_
60
-

_
159
-

_
5
-

-

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

_

-

-

_
-

3

6

-

-

T E ST IN G

L A B O R A T O R Y ...........................

RECO RD IN G

310

-

3

g

1

1

1^

7

-

18

-

-

-

Table 13. Occupational earnings: Rocky Mountain
(D istribution o f production workers in selected occupations by straight-time hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of-

Department and oc u a i n
cpto

ALL

PR O D U C TIO N

W O R K E R S .............................................

Number
o
f
workers

2 ,8 3 3

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

$ 7 .4 5

Under
55
.0

■

55
.0
an
d
udr
ne
56
.0

22

43

56
.0

57
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

80
.0

82
.0

57
.0

58
.0

59
.0

60
.0

61
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

80
.0

82
.0

84
.0

45

-

58

23

60

65

57

58

49

34

110

105

92

94

13

3

-

24

1

-

2

3

3

3

7

259

17

350

355

484

32
29

322

115

M AINTENA NCE

HELPERS,
M A I N T E N A N C E T R A D E S ...........................
I N S T R U M E N T R E P A I R E R S .....................................................
M A C H IN ISTS,
M A IN T E N A N C E .. . . . . . . . . . .
M E C H A N IC S,
M EC H A N IC S,

G E N E R A L . . . .................................................
M A IN TEN A N CE

( M A C H I N E R Y ) ..................................................................................
P IP E F IT T E R S ,
M A I N T E N A N C E ......................................
W E L D E R S , H A N D , M A I N T E N A N C E ..............................

24
43
75

6 .7 6
7 .7 9

14

23

166

l ’6 5
.

52

5

12

97

37

7 .7 1
7 .7 7
7 .7 9

2
3
2

-

16
38
9

11
29

83

317
206

s ’ 15
.
7 .2 3

141
83

6 . 06
7 .0 3
7 .6 1

156

6

-

_

_

8
86
58

-

-

76

145

96

3
2

21

1
4

20

1

-

-

3

3

_

_

-

-

14

~

PR O C E SSIN G
A SSIST A N T O P E R A T O R S ..... . . . . . . . . . . .
C H I E F O P E R A T O R S .......................................................................
C H IE F OPERATORS'
H E L P E R S ......................................
AR D R FT? <5. ......... ......... .
.
CARS

TANK

PUMPERS *

HELPERS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9 1

IN SPEC TIN G
R O U TIN E

AND

42

—

93

6

41

23

16
3

-

12

4
10

4

28

7

21

9

12

24

44
4

:

;

16
-

12

24

14

9

125

6 .9 3

15

7 .1 8

1

6

16

5 .4 3

4

8

-

34

6

11

2

1

1

16

7

14

-

-

_

_

_

_

_

2

_

6

_

_

_

_

_

1

1 0

l)

2

-

-

1

CONTROL

C L E R K S ............................................. ....................................
M A TER IA L

3

T E ST IN G

L A B O R A T O R Y ...........................
AND

16

7*. 5 0

26

TESTERS,
R EC O R D IN G

STOCK

OR

T R U C K S .......................

LOADERS,
D n If D V D c

9
3

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

_

MOVEMENT

T 'D n p v n D T tfi'D C

3

92

3

3

C U STO D IA L
J A N I T O R S .................................................................................................

6

-

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , h o li d a y s, a n d late shifts.




-

3

3

-

1

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

Table 14. Occupational earnings: West Coast
(D istribution of production workers in selected occupations by straight-time hourly earnings1 in petroleum refineries, April 1976)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of-

Number
o
f
wres
okr

Department and o c p t o
cuain

Aeae
vrg
hul
ory
erig
anns

8 ,2 8 7

$ 7 .3 6

B O I L E R M A K E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ..................................
C A R P E N T E R S , M A I N T E N A N C E ..........................................
E L E C T R IC IA N S ,
M A I N T E N A N C E ..................................

115
111
130
205
181

6 .5 4
7 .9 7

M E C H A N I C S , G E N E R A L ............................................................
M E C H A N IC S , M A IN TEN A N CE
( M A C H I N E R Y ) ..................................................................................
P IPE FIT T E R S,
M A I N T E N A N C E .....................................
W ELDERS,
H A N D , M A I N T E N A N C E ..............................

36

7 .8 7

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

81
.0

82
.0

83
.0

62
.0

63
.0

64
.0

65
.0

66
.0

67
.0

68
.0

69
.0

70
.0

71
.0

72
.0

73
.0

74
.0

75
.0

76
.0

77
.0

78
.0

79
.0

80
.0

81
.0

82
.0

83
.0

84
.0

ALL

PR O D U C TIO N

W O R K E R S ? .........................................

30

670

87

267

194

411

112

365

188

152

177

84
.0
and
oe
vr

157

135

1960

227

-

-

-

-

-

111
87

-

-

15

25

20

3

54
341
137

-

-

-

3
3

470

274

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18

-

39

140
262
27

235

1050

115

126

95

149

3

299

7 .9 2

60
347

61
.0

7 .8 4
7 .8 8

HELPERS,
M A I N T E N A N C E T R A D E S ...........................
I N S T R U M E N T R E P A I R E R S .....................................................
M 1 P IIT I I T C T ' C
MAT
HP I?

Under
60
.0

60
.0
and
und r
e
61
.0

9

-

-

-

6
-

-

-

~

~

~

53

363

M A IN TEN A N CE

143

7. 85

7 .8 3
7 .8 3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

42

41

76

-

-

-

-

17

-

27

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

-

-

“

3

102
-

24
-

3
-

-

-

-

-*

"

6
-

“

-

PR O C ESSIN G
A S S I S T A N T O P E R A T O R S ........................................................
C H I E P O P E R A T O R S .......................................................................
C H IE F OPERATORS*
H E L P E R S ......................................
C O M P O U N D E R S ......................................................................................
L A B O R E R S .................................................................................................
LOADERS,
T A N K C A R S O R T R U C K S .......................
PACKAGE F IL L E R S ,
M A C H I N E ......................................
P U M P E R S ....................................................................................................
P U M P E R S ' H E L P E R S ...................................................................
T R E A T E R S , O I L S ...........................................................................
TREATERS' HELPERS,
O I L S ..........................................
IN SPE C T IN G
R O U TIN E

TESTERS,
R EC O R D IN G

STOCK

AND

7
8
7
7

.4
.2
.0
.2

9
0
4
4

141
79

6
7
6
7

. 21
.2 9
.6 2
.4 1

-

-

-

9

-

3

-

-

30
-

47
-

42
-

-

19
-

3
5
9

-

17

35
206
63
47

7 .0 3
7 .7 6

53

7 .4 1

-

-

-

-

-

187

7 .3 9

4

-

-

1

1

1

1

53

6 .9 4

2

-

-

-

-

-

1

36
29

6 .5 6
6 .2 7

16

-

31
10

16
-

14

-

8
7

11

123

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

32

132

-

20

250

32 5 1

2

-

-

-

2

-

-

32

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

5

-

-

7

-

1

1

28

-

-

8

16

12

4

-

-

-

-

4

2 10

-

-

-

-

“

~

“

62

1

1

1

-

1

10

3

-

-

-

15

-

-

-

-

-

13
16
10

12

96

-

20

4

-

-

15

4

18

3

-

2
44

7

4

8

-

3

-

-

-

25

-

4

11

12

22

12

12

6

28

-

-

13

1

-

93

75
200

36
-

CONTROL

C L E R K S ..................................................................................

pnc

1i U T T n D Q

18

1

E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k o n w e e k e n d s , ho li d a y s, and la te sh ifts.

2

Earnings in fo rm a tio n fo r a p p ro x im a te ly




_

32

-

C U STO D IA L
ptti

623

82
-

T E ST IN G

L A B O R A T O R Y ...........................
AN D

1 ,0 4 0
885
216
27

1 0 p e r c e n t o f all p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s ( e x c l u d i n g t h o s e c l a s s i f i e d

b

3

in t h e o c c u p a t i o n s s h o w n ) w a s e s t i m a t e d .
3

All w o r k e r s w e r e a t $ 8 . 4 0 - $ 8 . 5 0 .

1

Table 15.

Method of wage payment

(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries by method of wage payment,1 United States and regions, April 1976)
Method of
wage payment

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

Midwest 1

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

100

100

100

100
100
100
_
-

100
99
84
16
H

93
93
85
8
(2)

-

7

United States

East Coast

All workers........................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

Time-rated workers.................................................
Formal plans
Single rate
Range of rates
Individual rates..................................................

99
99
88
11
(*)

99
96
87
9
3

100
99
96
4
(2)

100
100
89
11
-

100
100
94
6
-

100
99
85
14
(2)

Incentive workers....................................................

1

(2)

-

-

-

-

-

Midwest II

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

Midwest II

1 For definition of method of wage payment, see appendix A.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

ro

1
0




Table 16.

Scheduled weekly hours

(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries by scheduled weekly hours.1 United States and regions. April 1976)1
*

United States

East Coast

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

All workers........................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

40 hours.................................................................
Over 40 hours........................................................

98
2

100

100

91
9

100
-

100
-

100
-

100

92
8

Weekly hours

~

1 Data relate to the predominant schedule for full-time day-shift workers in each establishment.
NOTE: Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Midwest 1

Table 17.

Shift differential practices

(Percent of production workers assigned to rotating shifts' in petroleum refineries by amount of shift differential, United States and regions, April 1976)

United States

East Coast

Shift differential
Day

Eve­
ning Night Day

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

Eve­
ning Night Day

Eve­
ning Night Day

Workers assigned to rotating shifts...................... 17.7 17.1 17.4 13.0 12.8 12.8 18.6 18.3 17.9 20.2
18.3 17.9
Receiving shift differential .................................. .1 16.5 16.8 1.0 12.8 12.8
18.3 17.9
Uniform cents per hour................................... .1 16.5 16.8 1.0 12.8 12.8
.1
.1
.1 1.0 1.0 1.0
7-1/2 cents
.1
2.9
13 cents
.2
15 cents
15.5
14.7
11.2
20 cents
.2
25 cents
2.9
.1
26 cents
.4
.2
30 cents........................................................ _ 15.1
_
15.1
11.1
40 cents
_
.7
.8
50 cents
.7
1.1
$1 ........
1

Texas-Louisiana
Gulf Coast

Midwest II

Midwest 1

Eve­
ning Night Day

Eve­
ning Night Day

Texas InlandNorth
LouisianaArkansas

Eve­
ning Night Day

Rocky Mountain

Eve­
ning Night Day

West Coast

Eve­
ning Night Day

Eve­
ning Night

17.1 16.8 20.6 20.5 20.5 15.8 15.8 15.8 19.5 19.4 19.4 18.4 18.4 18.3 21.7 21.1 24.0
18.4 18.4
15.8 15.8
18.4 18.3
17.1 16.8
20.0 20.0
17.2 20.2
- 20.0 20.0
18.4 18.4
15.8 15.8
18.4 18.3
17.1 16.8
17.2 20.2

16.0
1.1

-

-

20.0

-

-

-

16.8

-

-

20.0

15.0

-

.6

-

-

2.8
15.5

-

-

18.4

-

-

.6
15.0

-

-

2.8
15.5

-

-

18.3

-

10.0

12.9
4.8
7.2

.2
.2

Workers assigned to rotating shifts worked successively on the day, evening, and night schedules. Workers employed on fixed extra shifts accounted for less than 2 percent of the labor force, and those on

other types, such as oscillating, accounted for
NOTE:

1.4

percent.

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

NO
CO




Table 18. Paid holidays
(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States and regions, April 1976)

United States

East Coast

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

All workers.......................................................

100

100

100

Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays.....................................
7 days ..............................
8 days ...........................
9 days .......................
10 days ..............................................................
10 days plus 1 half day................................
11 days ..............................................................

100
(')
(')
5
89
1
5

100
-

Number of
paid holidays

'

-

60
4
36

Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Midwest II

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

-

-

-

100
-

6
94
~

9
91
-

100
6
9
36
48
_
-

100
_
_
_
100
_
-

100

-

-

Midwest 1

-

_
3
97
_
-

-

_
_
_
100
_
-




Table 19.

Paid vacations

(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and regions, April 1976)

Midwest II

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
100
-

100
93
7
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100

60
40

12
88

100

1
99

100

100

100

2
97
1

-r
100
-

19
81
-

7
93
-

90
10

100
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

1
98
1

100
-

100
-

7
93
-

90
10

100
-

100
-

100
-

100
-

1
4
95

-

74
26

7
6
88

-

-

-

-

-

-

100

100

13
87

-

-

100

100

United States

East Coast

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

All workers........................................................

100

100

100

Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations....................................
Length-of-time payment.....................................
Percentage payment............... *.........................
Other ...................................................................

100
94
1
5

100
64
36

4
96

Vacation policy

Midwest 1

Amount of vacation pay1
After 1 year of service:
1 week................................................................
2 weeks ..............................................................
After 2 years of service:
1 week................................................................
2 weeks ..............................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks .............................
After 3 years of service:
1 week................................................................
2 weeks ..............................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks.............................
After 5 years of service:
Over 1 and under 2 weeks.............................
2 weeks ..............................................................
3 weeks ..............................................................
After 10 years of service:
2 weeks ..............................................................
3 weeks..............................................................
4 weeks..............................................................

-

100

1
5
94

-

-

100

74
26

7
6
88

10
90

100

6
16
78

100

100

1
1
96
1

100
-

19
81
-

7
93
-

100
-

100
-

6
16
78
-

100
-

92
8

(•••)
1
1
1
96

100

19
81

7
93

100

100

6
16
78

100

-

After 15 years of service:

2 weeks ..............................................................
3 weeks ..............................................................
4 weeks ..............................................................
5 weeks ..............................................................
After 20 years of service:2

2 weeks ..............................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks.............................
3 weeks ..............................................................
4 weeks ..............................................................
5 weeks ..............................................................

'

Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings, were converted to an equivalent time basis. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily reflect individual

establishment provisions for progression. For example, changes indicated at 10 years may include changes that occurred between 5 and 10 years.
2

Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.

'•

Less than 0.5 percent.

NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

7
93




Table 20.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans

(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries with specified health, insurance, and retirement plans,' United States and regions, April 1976)

Type of plan

All workers............................................................

United States

East Coast

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

Midwest 1

Midwest II

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100
51

100
38

100
82

100
50

100
55

100
47

100
56

100
59

100
63

61
27

39
-

100
82

56
20

74
29

47
16

100
73

71
42

94
52

99
42
35

100
92
83

100
100
100

96
44
40

100
21
21

100
21
11

100
15
15

100
55
51

100
58
45

51

72

21

78

34

85

69

80

44
34
24
100
(:1
)

28
53
38
100

58
51
34
100

19
30
13
100

66
28
25
100

-

-

-

-

-

6
30
13
100
6

31
75
42
100
-

20
8
8
100
-

99
11

100
-

100
68

100
13

100
11

100
4

94
34

100
52

100
-

21
100
(•’)

26
100
-

32
100
-

11
100
-

30
100
-

13
100
-

24
100
6

18
100
-

39
100
-

99
11

100
-

100
68

100
13

100
11

100
4

94
34

100
52

100
_

21
100
.(:>
)

26
100

32
100

'i
100

30
100

13
100

18
100

-

-

-

-

-

24
100
6

-

39
100
_

99
11

100

100
68

100
13

100
11

100
4

94
34

100
52

100
_

21
97
3

26
100
-

32
81
19

11
93
7

30
100
-

13
100
-

24
100
6

18
100
-

39
90
10

97
9

100
-

81
49

93
7

100
11

100
4

94
34

100
52

90
_

21
3
1
99

26
100
100
100
4

32
100
100
100
18

11
9
100
100
96
2

30
6
6
100
100
70
6

13
-

24
15
6
94
94
75
5

18
_

39
2
2
100
100
100
6

Workers in establishments providing:
Life insurance........................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .....................................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance................................
Noncontributory p la n s .....................................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or bo th -......................................
Sickness and accident insurance................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period)........................................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)..........................................
Longterm disability insurance..........................
Noncontributory plans .
Hospitalization insurance
Covering employees only.................................
Covering employees and their
dependents .......................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Noncontributory plans for
employees; contributory plans
for dependents ...........................................
Surgical insurance ..........
Covering employees only
Covering employees and their
dependents .......................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Noncontributory plans for
employees; contributory plans
for dependents...........................................
Medical insurance................................................
Covering employees only.................................
Covering employees and their
dependents .......................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Noncontributory plans for
employees; contributory plans
for dependents ...........................................
Major medical insurance....................................
Covering employees only.................................
Covering employees and their
dependents .......................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Noncontributory plans for
employees; contributory plans
for dependents...........................................
Dental insurance..................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .....................................
Retirement plans4 ........................................ .......
Pensions.............................................................
Noncontributory p la n s .................................
Severance pay ..................................................

See footnotes on following page.

9
9
95
3

-

68
32
-

100

100
100
100
-

100
100
97
-




Table 20— Footnotes
' Includes those plans for which the employer pays at least part of the cost and excludes legally required plans such as workers’ compensation and social security; however, plans required by
State temporary disability laws are included if the employer contributes more than is legally required or the employees receive benefits in excess of legal requirements. “Noncontributory plans"
include only those plans financed entirely by the employer.
2 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness and accident insurance and sick leave shown separately.
Less than 0.5 percent.
4
Unduplicated total of workers covered by pension plans and severance pay shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

T ab le 21.

O ther s elected benefits

(Percent of production workers in petroleum refineries providing funeral leave pay, jury duty pay, technological severance pay, and thrift or savings plans,' United States and regions, April 1976)

Type of benefit

United States

East Coast

Western
PennsylvaniaWest Virginia

Midwest 1

Midwest II

TexasLouisiana
Gulf Coast

Texas InlandNorth Louisiana
Arkansas

97
97
68
94

100
100
56
79

Rocky
Mountain

West Coast

Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral leave..............................................................
Jury duty leave...........................................................
Technological severance p a y ...................................
Thrift or savings p la n .............................................

99
99
56
87

100
100
17
96

1 For definition of items, see appendix A.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums.of individual items may not equal totals.

100
100
91
-

100
100
70
92

100
100
45
90

100
100
66
100

100
100
39
65

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of survey

Production workers

The survey included establishments engaged primarily in
producing gasoline, kerosene, distillate fuel oils, residual
fuel oils, lubricant, and other products from crude petro­
leum, and its fractional products either through straight
distillation of crude oil, redistillation of unfinished petro­
leum derivatives, cracking, or other processes (SIC 2911 as
defined in the 1967 edition of the Standard In d u s tria l Clas­
sification M a n u a l , prepared by the U.S. Office of Manage­
ment and Budget). Separate auxiliary units such as central
offices were excluded.
Establishments studied were selected from those em­
ploying 100 workers or more at the time of reference of the
data used in compiling the universe lists. Table A-l shows
the number of establishments and workers estimated to be
within the scope of the survey, as well as the number actu­
ally studied by the Bureau.

The terms “production workers” and “production and
related workers,” used interchangeably in this bulletin, in­
clude working supervisors and all non supervisory workers
engaged in nonoffice activities. Administrative, executive,
professional, technical, and clerical personnel, and forceaccount construction employees, who are used as a separate
work force on the firm’s own properties, are excluded.

Occupations selected for study

Occupational classification was based on a uniform set
of job descriptions designed to take account of interestab­
lishment and interarea variations in duties within the same
job. (See appendix B for these descriptions.) The criteria
for selection of the occupations were: The number of
workers in the occupation; the usefulness of the data in
collective bargaining; and appropriate representation of the
entire job scale in the industry. Working supervisors, ap­
prentices, learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped,
part-time, temporary, and probationary workers were not
reported in the data for selected occupations but were in­
cluded in the data for all production workers.

Method of study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff to a representative sample of establishments with­
in the scope of the survey. To obtain appropriate accuracy
at a minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than of
small establishments was studied. In combining the data,
however, all establishments were given an appropriate
weight. All estimates are presented, therefore, as relating to
all establishments in the industry, excluding only those be­
low the minimum size at the time of reference of the uni­
verse data.

Wage data

Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for work
on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive payments,
such as those resulting from piecework or production bonus
systems, and cost-of-living bonuses were included as part of
the workers’ regular pay. Nonproduction bonus payments,
such as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (m ean ) hou rly rates o r earnings for each occupa­
tion or category of workers, such as production workers,
were calculated by weighting each rate (or hourly earnings)
by the number of workers receiving the rate, totaling, and
dividing by the number of individuals. The hourly earnings
of salaried workers were obtained by dividing straight-time
salary by normal rather than actual hours.
The median designates position; that is, one-half of the
employees surveyed received more than this rate and onehalf received less. The m iddle range is defined by two rates
of pay such that one-fourth of the employees earned less

Establishment definition

An establishment is defined for this study as a single
physical location where manufacturing operations are per­
formed. An establishment is not necessarily identical with a
company, which may consist of one establishment or more.
Employment

Estimates of the number of workers within the scope of
the study are intended as a general guide to the size and
composition of the industry’s labor force, rather than as
precise measures of employment.



27

Table A -1. Estim ated num ber of establishm ents and em ployees within scope of survey
and num ber studied, petroleum refining industry, April 1976
Number of
establishments2

Region1

Workers in establishments

Within scope of study

Within
scope of
study

Actually
studied

Actually
studied
Total1
*

Production
workers

United States ..........................................................................................

168

104

90,904

63,289

72,414

East Coast................................................................................................
Western Pennsylvania-West Virginia ..................................................
Midwest 1..................................................................................................
Midwest I I .................................................................................................
Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast.................................................................
Texas Inland-North Louisiana-Arkansas...........................................
Rocky Mountain.......................................................................................
West C oast...............................................................................................

13
9
26
26
32
20
19
23

10
6
17
16
19
10
12
14

11,949
2,122
13,549
7,721
33,530
4,456
4,246
13,331

8,141
1,750
9,435
6,122
23,321
3,400
2,833
8,287

10,557
1,560
11,018
5,524
26,978
2,984
2,746
11,047

' The regions used in this study include: E ast C oast— Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire
New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Vermont, Virginia, and the following counties in Pennsylvania: Bradford, Columbia, Dauphin,
Montour, Northumberland, Sullivan, York, and all counties east thereof; Western P ennsylvania-W est V irg in ia — West Virginia and those counties in Pennsylvania not
included in the East Coast region; M id w e st /—Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, Ohio, and Tennessee; M idw est //—Iowa, Kansas, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North
Dakota, Oklahoma, South Dakota, and Wisconsin; T e x a s -L o u is ia n a -G u lf C oast— the following counties in Texas: Aransas, Brazoria, Calhoun, Cameron, Chambers, Fort Bend,
Galveston, Hardin, Harris, Jackson, Jasper, Jefferson, Kenedy, Kleberg, Liberty, Matagorda, Montgomery, Newton, Nueces, Orange, Polk, Refugio, San Jacinto, San
Patricio, Tyler, Victoria, Waller, Wharton, and Willacy; the following parishes in Louisiana: Avoyelles, East Feliciana, Pointe Coupee, Tangipahoa, Vernon, Rapides,
Washington, and West Fecliciana, and all parishes south thereof; the following counties in Mississippi: George, Hancock, Harrison, Jackson, Pearl River, and Stone;
and the following counties in Alabama: Baldwin and Mobile; Texas In la n d -N o rth Louis ian a -A rk an s a s — A r k a n s a s and New Mexico and those parts of the States of Alabama,
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas not included in the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast; Rocky M o u n ta in — Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming; and West
C oast— Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington. Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the survey.
2 Includes only those establishments with 100 workers or more at the time of reference of the universe data.
:* Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers in addition to the production workers category shown separately.

than the lower of these rates and one-fourth earned more
than the higher rate.

pay rates are determined primarily by the qualifications of
the individual worker. A single rate structure is one in
which the same rate is paid to all experienced workers in
the same job classification. (Learners, apprentices, or proba­
tionary workers may be paid according to rate schedules
which start below the single rate and permit the workers to
achieve the full job rate over a period of time.) An experi­
enced worker occasionally may be paid above or below the
single rate for special reasons, but such payments are excep­
tions. Range-of-rate plans are those in which the minimum,
maximum, or both of these rates paid experienced workers
for the same job are specified. Specific rates of individual
workers within the range may be determined by merit,
length of service, or a combination of these. Incentive
workers are classified under piecework or bonus plans.
Piecework is work for which a predetermined rate is paid
for each unit of output. Production bonuses are for produc­
tion in excess of a quota or for completion of a task in less
than standard time.

Size of community

Tabulations by size of community pertain to metropoli­
tan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metropolitan
areas,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the Standard Met­
ropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S. Office of
Management and Budget through February 1974.
Except in New England, a Standard Metropolitan Statis­
tical Area is defined as a county or group of contiguous
counties which contains at least one city of 50,000 inhab­
itants or more. Counties contiguous to the one containing
such a city are included in a Standard Metropolitan Statisti­
cal Area if, according to certain criteria, they are essentially
metropolitan in character and are socially and economically
integrated with the central city. In New England, where the
city and town are administratively more important than the
county, they are the units used in defining Standard Metro­
politan Statistical Areas.

Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on the
day shift.

Method of wage payment

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to the
number of workers paid under the various time and incen­
tive wage systems. Formal rate structures for time-rated
workers provide single rates or a range of rates for individ­
ual job categories. In the absence of a formal rate structure,




Shift practices

Data relate to workers employed under the conditions
specified. Workers assigned to rotating shifts work succes­

28

informal arrangements have been omitted. Separate tabula­
tions are provided for (1) plans which provide full pay and
no waiting period, and (2) plans providing either partial pay
or a waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide payments
to totally disabled employees upon the expiration of sick
leave, sickness and accident insurance, or both, or after a
predetermined period of disability (typically 6 months).
Payments are made until the end of diability, a maximum
age, or eligibility for retirement benefits. Payments may be
full or partial, but are almost always reduced by social secu­
rity, workers’ compensation, and private pension benefits
payable to the disabled employee.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for complete
or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such plans may be
underwritten by a commercial insurance company or a non­
profit organization, or they may be a form of self-insur­
ance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as ex­
tended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes plans de­
signed to cover employees for sickness or injury involving
an expense which exceeds the normal coverage of hospitali­
zation, medical, and surgical plans.
Dental insurance refers to formal plans covering normal
dental service such as fillings, extractions, and X-rays. Many
health insurance plans provide benefits for certain kinds of
oral surgery or dental care required as a result of an acci­
dent; plans limited to such conditions are excluded.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to plans
which provide regular payments for the remainder of the
retiree’s life. Data are presented separately for retirement
severance pay (one payment or several over a specified pe­
riod of time) made to employees on retirement. Establish­
ments providing both retirement severance payments and
retirement pensions to employees were considered as having
both retirement pensions and retirement severance plans;
however, establishments having optional plans providing
employees a choice of either retirement severance payments
or pensions were considered as having only retirement pen­
sion benefits.

sively on day, evening, and night shifts. Workers assigned to
oscillating shifts work alternately two periods of time (e.g.,
midnight to 8 a.m. and 8 a.m. to 4 p.m.), but do not make
the full cycle as under rotating shift arrangements. Workers
assigned to fixed shifts work regularly on either a day, eve­
ning, or night schedule.
Supplementary benefits

Supplementary benefits in an establishment were consid­
ered applicable to all production workers if they applied to
half or more of such workers in the establishment. Simi­
larly, if fewer than half of the workers were covered, the
benefit was considered nonexistent in the establishment.
Because of length-of-service and other eligibility require­
ments, the proportion of workers receiving the benefits
may be smaller than estimated.
Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day and
half-day holidays provided annually.

Paid holidays.

The summary of vacation plans is limited to
formal arrangements and excludes informal plans whereby
time off with pay is granted at the discretion of the em­
ployer or supervisor. Payments not on a time basis were
converted; for example, a payment of 2 percent of annual
earnings was considered the equivalent of 1 week’s pay. The
periods of service for which data are presented represent
the most common practices, but they do not necessarily
reflect individual establishment provisions for progression.
For example, changes in proportions indicated at 10 years
of service may include changes which occurred between 5
and 10 years.
Paid vacations.

H e a lth , insurance , and re tire m e n t plans.

Data are presented
for health, insurance, pension, and retirement severance
plans for which the employer pays all or a part of the cost,
excluding programs required by law such as workers’ com­
pensation and social security. Among plans included are
those underwritten by a commercial insurance company
and those paid directly by the employer from his current
operating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insurance.
Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that type of
insurance under which predetermined cash payments are
made directly to the insured on a weekly or monthly basis
during illness or accident disability. Information is pre­
sented for all such plans to which the employer contributes
at least a part of the cost. However, in New York and New
Jersey, w herejem porary disability insurance laws require
employer contributions,1 plans are included only if the em­
ployer (1) contributes more than is legally required, or
(2) provides the employees with benefits which exceed the
requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to formal
plans which provide full pay or a proportion of the
worker’s pay during absence from work because of illness;




Data for paid funeral and
jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which provide at least
partial payment for time lost as a result of attending funer­
als of specified family members or serving as a juror.

Paid fu n e ra l and ju ry -d u ty leave.

Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal plans
providing for payments to employees permanently sepa­
rated from the company because of a technological change
or plant closing.
T h rift o r savings plans. Thrift or savings plans are limited to
these plans to which the employer makes monetary contri­
butions beyond adminsitrative costs.
1 The tem porary disability insurance law s in California and
R hode Island d o n o t require em p loyer co n trib u tion s.

29

Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions
The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety
of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from
area to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job
content. Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupa­
tional content, the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individ­
ual establishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the
Bureau’s field staff is instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

Boilermaker, maintenance

Compounder

Assembles and repairs boilers, tanks, and pressure ves­
sels. Work involves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Interpreting writ­
ten instructions, specifications, and blueprints; planning
and laying out work; using a variety of hand and power
tools and applying knowledge of the working properties of
metals; and positioning, alining, fitting, and joining together
parts (by bolting, welding, or other means) in assembly and
repair work. In general, the boilermaker’s work normally
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

(B len d er)

Blends or compounds various lubricating oils and/or
greases according to specifications. Work involves m o s t o f
th e fo llo w in g : Ascertaining location of various oils to be
compounded and pumping or arranging for pumper to
transfer oils to proper lines; regulating valves to admit speci­
fied quantities of various ingredients to mixing tank, fol­
lowing prescribed formulas; setting air and heat controls on
kettles and tanks as necessary; maintaining record of com­
position, quantities of components used, density, and/or
other pertinent information. May make simple control tests
to determine whether products are meeting specifications.
In addition, may also blend new mixtures of oils and sub­
mit them to laboratory for analysis.

Carpenter, maintenance

Electrician, maintenance

Performs the carpentry duties necessary to construct and
maintain in good repair building woodwork and equipment
such as bins, cribs, counters, benches, partitions, doors,
floors, stairs, casings, and trim made of wood in an estab­
lishment. Work involves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Planning
and laying out of work from blueprints, drawings, models,
or verbal instructions; using a variety of carpenter’s handtools, portable power tools, and standard measuring instru­
ments; making standard shop computations relating to di­
mensions of work; selecting materials necessary for the
work. In general, the work of the maintenance carpenter
requires rounded training and experience usually acquired
through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and
experience.

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such as
the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment for
the generating, distribution, or utilization of electric energy
in an establishment. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g :
Installing or repairing any of a variety of electrical equip­
ment such as generators, transformers, switchboards, con­
trollers, circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit
systems, or other transmission equipment; working from
blueprints, drawings, layout, or other specifications; locat­
ing and diagnosing trouble in the electrical system or equip­
ment; working standard computations relating to load re­
quirements of wiring or electrical equipment; using a vari­
ety of electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing in­
struments. In general, the work of the maintenance electri­




30

cian requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent train­
ing and experience.

Laborer

Performs miscellaneous laboring tasks in plants or out­
side work areas, that require no formal training or previous
experience. Generally, learning how to do the work is lim­
ited to gaining a familiarity with work areas, with accept­
able ways of doing specific tasks, and with safety regula­
tions. Usually average standards of performance are at­
tained after a brief period of service. Specific assignments
among laboring tasks include: Loading and unloading,
stacking, interprocess moving of materials, cleaning work
areas and equipment, digging and shoveling. Tools such as
crowbars, picks, shovels, wheelbarrows, hand trucks, and
other lifting and excavating devices may be employed on
specific assignments.

Guard

Performs routine police duties, either at fixed post or on
tour, maintaining order, using arms or force where neces­
sary. In clu des guards w h o are s ta tio n e d a t g a te an d ch eck
on id e n tity o f e m p lo y e e s a n d o th e r p erso n s entering.

Helper, maintenance trades

Assists one or more workers in the skilled maintenance
trades, by performing specific or general duties of lesser
skill such as keeping a worker supplied with materials and
tools; cleaning working area, machine, and equipment; as­
sisting worker by holding materials or tools; performing
other semi-skilled or unskilled tasks as directed by journey­
man. The kind of work the helper is permitted to perform
varies from trade to trade: In some trades, the helper is
confined to supplying, lifting, and holding materials and
tools, and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or parts
of a trade that are also performed by workers on a full-time
basis.

Loader, tank cars or trucks
(T ank-car loader; tru c k lo a d er)

Loads gasoline, kerosene, and/or various oils into tank
cars or trucks according to specifications. Work involves:
Connecting or assisting in connecting hose to coupling, or
swinging loading spout over dome; opening valves to allow
liquid to flow into tank, or starting or notifying pumper to
start pumps, and filling tank to proper level. May perform a
variety of other tasks relating to shipment of product. May
gage or sample shipping tanks.

Instrument repairer
Machinist, maintenance

Installs, maintains, adjusts, and repairs manual, pneu­
matic, electric, and/or electronic measuring, recording, and
regulating instruments in a refinery. Work involves m o s t o f
th e fo llo w in g : Inspecting, testing, and adjusting instruments
periodically, determining cause of trouble in instruments
not functioning properly and making necessary repairs or
adjustments; disconnecting inaccurate or damaged instru­
ments and replacing them; examining mechanism and clean­
ing parts; replacing worn or broken parts; assembling instru­
ments and installing them on testing apparatus; and cali­
brating instruments to established standard.

Produces replacement parts and new parts for mechani­
cal equipment operated in an establishment. Work involves
m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Interpreting written instructions and
specifications; planning and laying out of work; using a
variety of machinist’s handtools and precision measuring
instruments; setting up and operating standard machine
tools; shaping of parts to close tolerances; making standard
shop computations relating to dimensions of work, tooling,
feeds, and speeds of machining;*knowledge of the working
properties of the common metals and other materials; se­
lecting standard materials, parts, and equipment required
for his work; fitting and assembling parts. In general, the
machinist’s work normally requires a rounded training in
machine shop practice usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.

Janitor
(D a y p o rte r; sw e e p e r)

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory work­
ing areas and washrooms, o r premises of an office, or other
establishment. Duties involve a co m b in a tio n o f th e fo llo w ­
ing: Sweeping, mopping, and/or scrubbing and polishing
floors; removing chips, trash, and other refuse; dusting
equipment, furniture, or fixtures; polishing metal fixtures
or trimming; providing supplies and minor maintenance ser­
vices; cleaning lavatories, showers, and restrooms. W orkers

Mechanic, general

Performs the work of two or more skilled maintenance
trades rather than specializing in one trade or one type of
maintenance work. The classification includes workers regu­
larly performing at least two types of skilled maintenance
work, such as pipefitting, boilermaking, insulating, welding,
machining, machine and equipment repairing, carpentry,

w h o sp ecia lize in w in d o w w ash in g are exclu d ed .




31

and electrical work, among others. In general, the work of a
general mechanic requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equiva­
lent training and experience. E x c lu d e w o rk ers w h o o n ly

p rim a rily engaged in installing an d repairing bu ildin g sanita­
tion o r h eatin g sy s te m s are ex clu d ed .

Pumper

m ake m in o r repairs o r a d ju stm en ts.

( Transfer p u m p e r; w a te r p u m p e r )

Mechanic, maintenance (machinery)

Is responsible for operating one or more power-driven
pumps to produce forced circulation of petroleum products
and water through units during processing, or to effect the
movement of water, chemical solutions, or petroleum prod­
ucts from one tank or processing unit to another or be­
tween tanks and processing units to points of loading or
unloading trucks, tank cars, or boats. Work involves m o s t o f
the fo llo w in g : Interpreting specifications to determine
which lines should be used for individual liquids; connect­
ing lines from pumps to storage tanks or processing units;
regulating pipeline valves so that liquids are pumped accord­
ing to written specifications or oral instructions; checking
measuring instruments or gaging contents of storage tanks;
maintaining operational records or log. May draw samples
from tanks or pipelines for laboratory analysis, or may
make specific gravity, visual color or other tests to deter­
mine whether products are meeting specifications. E x c lu d e

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an estab­
lishment. Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Examining
machines and mechanical equipment to diagnose source of
trouble; dismantling or partly dismantling machines and
performing repairs that mainly involve the use of handtools
in scraping and fitting parts; replacing broken or defective
parts with items obtained from stock; ordering the produc­
tion of a replacement part by a machine shop or sending of
the machine to a machine shop for major repairs; preparing
written specifications for major repairs or for the produc­
tion of parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for operation.
In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic requires
rounded training and experience usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and experi­
ence. Excluded from this classification are workers whose
p rim a ry d u tie s involve setting up or adjusting machines.

gagers w h o se p rim a ry d u tie s in volve m easuring q u a n tity a n d
tem p era tu re o f o il in storage tan ks a n d c o n tro llin g f l o w o f
o il in to pipelin es.

Package filler, machine

Tends the operation of an automatic or semiautomatic
machine which fills containers with specified weight or
amount of commodity being packaged. W ork in volves o n e
o r m o re o f th e f o llo w in g : Feeding empty containers to ma­
chine; making minor adjustments to weighing or dispensing
devices in order to maintain proper operation; removing
filled containers from machine. W orkers w h o te n d fillin g

Pumper's helper

Opens and closes pipeline valves at direction of pumper
to divert flow of liquids to proper location. May assist in
starting or stopping pumps. May gage contents of tanks,
draw samples of products through bleeder valves on pipe­
lines for laboratory analysis, or make specific gravity and
color tests.

m achines th a t also cap o r close fille d con tain ers are in­
clu ded.

Pipefitter, maintenance

Installs or repairs water, steam, gas, or other types of
pipe and pipe fittings in an establishment. Work involves
m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Laying out work and measuring to
locate position of pipe from drawings or other written spec­
ifications; cutting various sizes of pipe to correct lengths
with chisel and hammer or oxyacetylene torch or pipe-cutting machine; threading pipe with stocks and dies; bending
pipe by handdriven or power-driven machines; assembling
pipe with couplings and fastening pipe to hangers; making
standard shop computations relating to pressures, flow, and
size of pipe required; making standard tests to determine
whether finished pipes meet specifications. In general, the
work of the maintenance pipefitter requires rounded train­
ing and experience usually acquired through a formal ap­
prenticeship or equivalent training and experience. W orkers



Routine tester, laboratory

Performs various standard laboratory tests on different
petroleum products to determine certain chemical and/or
physical properties of the product, and submits results of
the tests to operators of the various departments, by which
they control the distillation and treating of the products.
Work involves: Making various tests, such as viscosity, spe­
cific gravity, flash and fire points, color, pour, water and
sediment, melting point, penetration, doctor solution, dis­
tillation and corrosion; submitting results to chemist or to
heads of processing units. May interpret results of tests.
C hem ists a n d la b o ra to ry laborers (b o ttle w ash ers , e tc .) are
exclu ded.

32

correct combustion; recording gage and meter readings
and/or other pertinent information on log sheet or other
records; reporting irregularities of still operation to chief
operator. May clean burners and/or remove and replace
plates covering openings that provide access to interior of
still for cleaning.

Chief operator
(F irst o p era to r; p ro cess o p e ra to r)

Is responsible for the operation of one or a battery of
stills (e.g., straight-run, combination units, and hydro, cata­
lytic, and other cracking stills) in which crude or other oil is
heated and separated into its various components. Work
involves: Directing and coordinating the activities of the
various crew members on the still; interpreting instructions
and operational requirements; keeping informed of operat­
ing conditions; patrolling entire unit periodically to check
on operating conditions; observing instrument indications
and chart records of rates, pressures, temperatures, liquid
levels, etc.; directing the drawing of periodic samples; inter­
preting results of tests; making or directing operation and
control changes as necessary to maintain operations within
specified tolerances; maintaining or directing the prepara­
tion of daily operational log or other records; preparing
equipment for maintenance work and directing repairs. May
be required to use computer data in certain phases of work.

Stock clerk

Receives, stores, and issues equipment, material, mer­
chandise, or tools in a stockroom or storeroom. Work in­
volves a co m b in a tio n o f th e f o llo w in g : Checking incoming
orders; storing supplies; applying identifications to articles;
issuing supplies; taking periodic inventory or keeping per­
petual inventory; making up necessary reports; requesting
or ordering supplies when needed. S to c k r o o m laborers, to o l
crib a tte n d a n ts, an d e m p lo y e e s w h o su pervise sto c k clerks
an d laborers are exclu ded.

Treater

O perators on one-m an o p e ra tio n s are exclu d ed .
( Treater, fir s t class)

Assistant operator

Is responsible for the treating of gasoline, kerosene,
distilled oils, light oils, naphthas, wax, and other petroleum
products with chemicals, steam, water, or air to
remove sulphur and/or other impurities, Work involves
m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Interpreting instructions and opera­
tional requirements; making frequent inspections of units
to check on operations; observing and recording readings of
temperature, pressure, flow gages and meters; making or
directing operation and control changes as necessary to
maintain operations; maintaining daily log or other opera­
tional records; preparing equipment for maintenance work
and testing equipment after repairs have been made. May
direct activities of one or more helpers, may operate pumps
to circulate liquids through the units.

(F irst h elper)

Helps chief operator maintain operation of stills (e.g.,
straight-run, combination units, and hydro, catalytic, and
other cracking stills) in which crude or other oil is heated
and separated into its various components. Work involves
m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Patrolling unit or instrument panel
regularly to check on operations; observing instrument indi­
cations of pressures, temperatures, liquid levels, etc., and
recording readings on log or other operational records;
maintaining desired liquid levels in equipment and control­
ling temperatures; adjusting or regulating manual or auto­
matic controls to maintain operations within specified tol­
erances; drawing periodic samples and/or running tests such
as specific gravity, viscosity, etc., reporting frequently to
chief operator as to operating condition of unit; lubricating
and cleaning equipment. May check operation and adjust
speed of pumps which circulate products through unit; may
make minor repairs to equipment.

Treater's helper, oils
(T reater, se c o n d class)

Assists treater in treating gasoline, kerosene, oils, wax,
and other petroleum products with chemicals, steam, water,
or air to remove sulphur and/or other impurities. Work in­
volves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Patrolling unit regularly to
check on operations and/or equipment; making operating
and control changes as directed; drawing off water and
spent chemicals after treatment and separation, by valve
manipulation; mixing chemical treating solution and adding
treating chemicals to oil; manipulating valves to charge
equipment with oils to be treated and to maintain level of
oil and solutions in equipment; maintaining daily log or
other operational records. May operate or regulate speed of
pumps to circulate liquids through unit, or make chemical,

Chief operator's helper

Tends operation of burners to maintain required temper­
ature in furnace of a petroleum products still. Work in­
volves m o s t o f th e fo llo w in g : Following instructions re­
ceived from chief operator or chief operator’s helper of
previous shift specifying temperature to be maintained;
reading temperature, pressure, and flow gages to determine
operation of still, and adjusting valves controlling flow of
fuel to burners; observing color of burner flames or gas
issuing from stack, and regulating supply of air to obtain




33

specific gravity, color, or other tests to determine whether
treating process is being carried on properly.

For wage study purposes, workers are classified by type
of truck, as follows:
F o rk lift

Truckdriver

O th e r than f o r k lif t

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to trans­
port materials, merchandise, equipment, or workers be­
tween various types of establishments such as: Manufactur­
ing plants, freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail
establishments and/or between retail establishments and
customers’ houses or places of business. May also load or
unload truck with or without helpers, make minor mechani­
cal repairs, and keep truck in good working order. Sales-

Welder, hand, maintenance

Performs the welding duties necessary to maintain plant
machinery and equipment in good repair, by fusing (weld­
ing) metal objects together in the fabrication of metal
shapes and in repairing broken or cracked metal objects.
Work involves m o s t o f th e f o llo w in g : Planning and laying
out work from written or oral instructions and specifica­
tions; knowledge of welding properties of a variety of
metals and alloys; setting up of work and determining oper­
ation sequence; welding a variety of items as necessary;
ability to weld with gas and arc apparatus. In general, the
work of the maintenance welder requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience.

ro u te a n d over-th e-road drivers are ex clu ded.

Power-truck operator

Operates a manually-controlled gasoline- or electricpowered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials
of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or
other establishment.




34

Industry Wage Studies
The most recent reports providing occupational wage
data for industries included in the Bureau’s program of in­
dustry wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies are
for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or
from any of its regional sales offices, and from the regional

offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown on the in­
side back cover. Copies that are out of stock are available
for reference purposes at leading public, college, or univer­
sity libraries, or at the Bureau’s Washington or regional of­
fices.

M an u factu rin g

M a n u fa c tu rin g - Con tin u ed

Basic Iron and Steel, 1972, BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS Bul­
letin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing , 1973. BLS Bulletin 1796
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972. BLS Bulletin
1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1863
Industrial Chemicals, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1768
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1967. BLS Bulletin 16261
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1974-75. BLS Bulletin 1929
Meat Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1794
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1843
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1739
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1844
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1694
Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1740
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1757
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858

West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1908
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930




N on m a n u fa ctu rin g

Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1862
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583
Communications, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1909
Contract Cleaning Services, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1916
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1972. BLS
Bulletin 1797
Department Stores, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1869
Educational In stitu tio n s: Nonteaching, Employees,
1968-69. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 16451
Life Insurance, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1791
Metal Mining, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1820
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1973. BLS Bulletin
1855
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS Bul­
letin 1712

1 Bulletin out of stock

Brief
History
jl of the

■

American
Labor
Movement

The development of organized
labor in the U.S., from conspiracy
to major institution. A readable,
authoritative, and fact-packed
account for:

students of social
science and
'history

civic groups and
others interested
in the
development of
trade unionism

worker education
and
management
training classes

Order Form
□ $____________ Remittance
enclosed, (M ake checks
payable to Superintendent
of Documents.)

Mail to BLS Regional Office nearest you (see listing elsewhere) or
to Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C. 20402.
Please send______copies of BLS Bulletin 1000, Bicentennial Edition, Brief History
of the American Labor Movement (Stock No. 029-001-01955-6) at $1.45 a copy.
(25 percent discount for orders of 100 copies or more sent to one address.)

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U.S G O V ERNMENT P R IN T IN G OFFICE : 1977

0 -2 4 1 -0 1 6

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region V

Region i

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617)223-6761
Region il

Region VI

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Region III

Regions VII and V III*

3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215)596-1154

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816)374-2481
Regions IX and X **

Region IV

1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312)353-1880

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Regions V and V are serviced by Kansas City
II
III
Regions IXand Xare serviced by San Francisco

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212

Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
Third Class Mail

Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300




Lab-441


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