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Industry Wage Survey:
Paints and Varnishes,
November 1976
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1977
Bulletin 1973




Industry Wage Survey:
Paints and Varnishes,
November 1976
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1977
Bulletin 1973







For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D .C . 20402
Stock No. 029-001-02116-0

Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of wages
and supplementary benefits in the paints and varnishes manufacturing industries in
November 1976. A similar study was conducted in November 1970.
Separate locality releases were issued earlier for Atlanta, Ga.; Baltimore, Md.;
Chicago, 111.; Cleveland, Ohio; Dallas-Fort Worth, Tex.; Detroit, Mich.; Los AngelesLong Beach, Calif.; Louisville, Ky.-Ind.; New Brunswick-Perth Amboy-Sayerville, N.J.;
New York, N.Y.-N.J.; Newark, N.J.; Philadelphia, Pa.-N.J.; St. Louis, Mo.-Ill.; and
San Francisco-Oakland, Calif. Copies of these releases are available from the Bureau of
Labor Statistics, Washington, D.C. 20212, or any of its regional offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations.
Mark Sieling of the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared the analysis in
this bulletin. Field work for the survey was directed by the Assistant Regional Com­
missioners for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program of industry wage studies as well as
the addresses of the Bureau’s regional offices are listed at the end of this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced without
permission of the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of Labor Statistics and
cite the name and number of the publication.







Contents
Page
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics.............................................................................................................................................................
Products and processes ......................................................................................................................................................
Employment trends .............................................................................................................................................................
Location.................................................................................................................................................................................
Establishment size ...............................................................................................................................................................
Union contract coverage ....................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage payment ..................................................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings ...........................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings .............................................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions................................................................................................
Scheduled weekly hours and shift practices ......................................................................................................................
Paid holidays ........................................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations........................................................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ............................................................................................................................
Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
4
4
4
4
4
4

Text table:
1. Pay relatives for three occupations in paint manufacturing, November 1976 .........................................................

3

Reference tables:
Average hourly earnings:
1. By selected characteristics .......................................................................................................................................

5

Earnings distribution:
2. All establishments......................................................................................................................................................

6

Occupational averages:
3. All establishments......................................................................................................................................................
7
4. By size of establishment
............................................................................................................................................ 9
5. By labor-management contract coverage and size of establishment...................................................................... 11
Occupational earnings:
6. Atlanta, Ga . ...............................................................................................................................................................
7. Baltimore, Md...............................................................................................................................................................
8. Chicago, 111....................................................................................................................................................................
9. Cleveland, O hio................................................................................................................................
10. Dallas-Fort Worth, T e x ..............................................................................................................................................
11. Detroit, Mich...............................................................................................................................................................
12. Los Angeles-Long Beach, Calif...................................................................................................................................
13. Louisville, Ky.-Ind......................................................................................................................................................
14. New Brunswick-Perth Amboy-Sayreville, N.J...........................................................................................................
15. New York, N.Y............................................................................................................................................................
16. Newark, N.J.................................................................................................................................................................
17. Philadelphia, Pa.-NJ....................................................................................................................................................
18. St. Louis, Mo .-111.........................................................................................................................................................
19. San Francisco-Oakland, Calif.....................................................................................................................................




v

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26

Contents—Continued
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
20. Method of wage payment ..........................................................................................................................................
21. Scheduled weekly hours ............................................................................................................................................
22. Shift differential provisions ......................................................................................................................................
23. Shift differential practices ........................................................................................................................................
24. Paid holidays ..............................................................................................................................................................
25. Paid vacations..............................................................................................................................................................
26. Health, insurance, and retirement plans....................................................................................................................
27. Other selected benefits ..............................................................................................................................................

27
28
29
30
31
32
36
38

Appendixes:
A. Regression analysis ..........................................................................................................................................................
B. Occupational pay m atrix.................................................................................................................................................
C. Scope and method of survey ..........................................................................................................................................
D. Occupational descriptions ...............................................................................................................................................

39
42
44
48




VI

Paints and Varnishes, November 1976

Summary

Paint is a mixture of pigments suspended in a liquid.
The liquid, either oil or water, is called a vehicle and
binds together the pigment particles which give the
paint its color. Varnish, which contains no pigment, is
used in making paints and finishes. Enamels are paints
with varnish or synthetic resin vehicles that dry with
hard glossy surfaces. Lacquers are quick-drying fin­
ishes used mainly for mass-produced items.
Paint manufacturing is a batch process rather than a
continuous production process (used in many other
chemical industries). Pigments are mixed, blended with
part o f the vehicle to form a paste, and ground to break
down the agglomerates of pigment. Then the product is
thinned as specified by formula. After this mixture is
prepared and approved by the laboratory, it is ready for
packaging.

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing plants
averaged $5.10 an hour in November 1976.1 Earnings
of slightly over 90 percent of the nearly 28,000
production workers in the study—those in plants with
at least 20 employees— were within a range of $3 to
$7 an hour, with workers in the middle 50 percent of
the array earning from $4.38 to $5.81 an hour.
Regionally, averages ranged from $4.10 in the South­
east to $5.77 in the Pacific region.2 Workers in the
Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions—about threefifths of the industry’s work force—averaged $5.38 and
$5.13 an hour, respectively.
Among occupations studied separately, average
hourly earnings ranged from $4.59 for labelers and
packers to $5.72 for general utility maintenance work­
ers.3 Combination mixers-grinders, the largest occupa­
tional classification studied, averaged $5.13.
Occupa­
tional earnings varied with size of establishment, labormanagement contract coverage, and location in or
outside metropolitan area, among other characteristics.
Paid holidays, usually 9 to 11 annually, and paid
vacations, after qualifying periods of service were
provided to nearly all production and office workers in
the survey. Vacation provisions were somewhat more
liberal at shorter lengths of service for office than for
production workers—a common finding of most BLS
wage surveys.
Life, hospitalization, surgical, and basic medical
insurance plans each covered all or nearly all pro­
duction and office workers, and pension plans about
nine-tenths of each group.

Employment trends. The industry’s employment level
tends to be highest in the summer and lowest in the
winter partly due to fluctuations in the demand for and
use of paints. Between the last two BLS wage surveys
o f this industry— 1970 and 1976—production employ­
ment in the peak season of each year generally exceed­
ed the yearly low by about 7 to 15 percent.4
Based on the Bureau’s monthly establishments sur­
vey, the paint industry’s production work force declin­
ed by 8 percent between the November 1970 and
November 1976 occupational wage surveys.5 Employ­
ment hit its nadir in 1975; since then, monthly levels
have been 1 to 6 percent higher than those a year

* See appendix C for scope and method o f survey.
2 For definitions o f the regions, see appendix C, table C -l, footnote
1.

1 See appendix D for occupational descriptions.
4 Employment data are based on the Bureau’s monthly series
published inEmployment and Earnings. The estimate of the number of
production workers within the scope o f the study is intended only as
a general guide to the size and composition o f the labor force in the
survey. It differs from that published in the monthly series (35,200)
primarily by the exclusion o f establishments employing fewer than 20
workers. The advance planning necessary to make the survey
required the use o f lists o f establishments assembled considerably in
advance o f data collection. Thus, establishments new to the industry
are omitted, as are establishments originally classified improperly and
found to be in other industries at the time of the survey.
5 See Industry Wage Survey: Paints and Varnishes, November 1970,
Bulletin 1739 (Bureau o f Labor Statistics, 1972).

Industry characteristics

Products and processes. Nationally, establishments
whose principal products were paints employed over
nine-tenths o f all production workers. Plants chiefly
producing other surface coatings such as varnishes,
lacquer, and enamels; or allied products such as putties,
caulking compounds, wood fillers and sealers, and paint
and varnish removers, each accounted for about 4
percent o f the work force.




1

earlier. Except for technicians and general utility
maintenance workers, employment in most occupations
studied has declined.

than two-fifths of the workers. Individual rates with
wages determined by worker qualifications applied to
about one-tenth of all production workers. Regionally,
individual rates were most prevalent in the Southeast
and Southwest, where about one-third of the workers
were under such plans. Other significant deviations
from the national norm were the Border States and the
Middle West, where nearly three-fourths of the work­
ers were under range-of-rate plans, and in the Middle
Atlantic, where three-fifths were under single rate
plans.

Location. In November 1976, the Great Lakes region
accounted for 36 percent of all paints and varnishes
workers and the Middle Atlantic, for 22 percent. The
Border States, Southeast, Southwest, Middle West, and
Pacific regions each accounted for between 5 and 12
percent. Establishments located within metropolitan
areas accounted for slightly over 96 percent of the total
production work force.6 About one-half of the workers
were employed in the 14 metropolitan areas studied
separately, with the largest numbers in Chicago (3,049),
Los Angeles-Long Beach (1,825), Detroit (1,283),
Cleveland (1,253), New York (1,186), and Philadelphia
(1,194).

Average hourly earnings
Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in the paint industry averaged $5.10 an hour in
November 1976 (table 1). The Bureau’s monthly Em­
ployment and Earnings series shows that between
November 1970 and November 1976 earnings of paint
workers increased 57 percent compared with 63 per­
cent for manufacturing workers as a group.
Average wage levels for regions ranged from $5.77
an hour in the Pacific to $4.10 in the Southeast. In the
Great Lakes and Middle Atlantic regions, which to­
gether employed about three-fifths of the work force,
earnings averaged $5.38 and $5.13 respectively. Among
the 14 areas for which separate data were developed,
hourly earnings averaged the highest in San FranciscoOakland ($6.50) and the lowest in Baltimore ($4.30).
On average, production workers in establishments
employment 100 workers or more held a 16-percent
hourly wage advantage over those in establishments of
20 to 99 workers ($5.44 to $4.69). Regionally, the wage
rate advantages of workers in the largest establishments
were: 25 percent in the Middle Atlantic, 22 percent in
the Southwest, 16 percent in the Southeast and Middle
West, 13 percent in the Great Lakes, 9 percent in the
Border States, and less than 1 percent in the Pacific
region.
Establishments having labor-management agree­
ments covering the majority of their workers paid an
average of $5.35 an hour—78 cents, or 17 percent more
than establishments without such coverage. The wage
rate advantage held by workers in union establishments
ranged from 4 percent in the Middle Atlantic region to
18 percent in the Middle West.
The above discussion has illustrated some wage­
determining factors such as establishment size and
union contract coverage. The survey cross-tabulations
do not isolate wage-determining characteristics and
their effect on earnings. Appendix A, however, pre­
sents a brief technical note on results of a multiple

Establishment size. Only 125 of the 645 establishments
covered by the survey employed 100 workers or more,
but these plants accounted for about 54 percent of the
total production work force. Regionally, the propor­
tion o f workers in the larger size establishments— 100
workers or more—ranged from about two-fifths in the
Southwest to slightly over two-thirds in the Great
Lakes.
Union contract coverage. Establishments with labormanagement contracts covering a majority of their
production work force accounted for slightly over
two-thirds of the industry’s work force in 1976. The
proporation of workers covered by collective bargain­
ing agreements was about nine-tenths in the Middle
Atlantic and Pacific regions, about three-fourths in the
Middle West, two-fifths in the Southeast and South­
west, and about three-tenths in the Border States.
The e x t e n t of u n i o n i z a t i o n v a r i e d s o m e w h a t by s i z e
o f establishment. Slightly over three-fourths of the
workers in establishments employing 100 workers or
more were in plants operating under collective bargain­
ing agreements; in establishments of 20 to 99 workers
the proportion was about three-fifths.
The Brotherhood of Painters and Allied Trades, the
principal union of the industry nationwide, accounted
for about three-tenths of all production workers cov­
ered under labor-management contracts. The International
Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen,
and Helpers; the Oil, Chemical and Atomic Workers Inter­
national Union (AFL-CIO); and the United Steel Workers
of America (AFL-CIO) each accounted for between 10 and
16 percent of all orgainzed workers.

Method o f wage payment. All production workers were
paid time rates (table 20). Formal rate structure plans
providing single rates for specific job categories or
formal ranges of rates each applied to slightly more




4 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by the U.S.
Office of Management and Budget through February 1974.
2

regression in which the singular effects of some char­
acteristics were isolated to a measurable degree. In
some cases, there were marked dissimilarities between
average earnings differentials produced by cross­
tabulations (simple regression) and those produced by
multiple regression techniques. Production workers in
union establishments, for example, averaged 78 cents an
hour more than their nonunion counterparts, but appar­
ently less than one-half of this differential (36 cents)
can be attributed solely to unionization (appendix tables
A -l and A-2).

example, averaged 7 cents an hour more nationally than
technicians ($5.26 compared to $5.19). In the Middle
Atlantic, Border States, and Pacific regions, however,
technicians held a higher average wage rate than
mixers (27, 9, and 15 cents respectively).
The highest occupational averages were usually
found in the Pacific region; the lowest in the Southeast.
Wage advantages for workers in the Pacific over those
in the Southeast ranged from 73 percent for truck
drivers to 22 percent for shipping and receiving clerks.
Text table 1 shows that interregional wage differences
vary by occupation. (See table 3 for a more detailed
display of these differences.)

Individual earnings were widely dispersed, with 90
percent of the workers earning between $3 and $7
an hour in November 1976; the middle 50 percent
earned between $4.38 and $5.81 an hour (table 2). The
proportion of workers at the upper end of the earnings
array varied widely among regions. For example, about
6 percent or less of the workers in the Border States,
Southeast, and Southwest earned at least $6 an hour,
while corresponding proportions were 11 percent in
the Middle West, 19 percent in the Middle Atlantic, 22
percent in the Great Lakes, and 38 percent in the
Pacific region.

T ext table 1. Pay relatives fo r three occupations in paint
manufacturing, November 1 9 7 6

Region

Fillers,
hand

Mixersgrinders

Shipping
and
receiving
clerks

P a c if ic ...................................

136

122

138
124

128
118

111
104
95

M id dle A t l a n t i c ..................

Occupational earnings

M id dle W e s t.........................

135

115

S o u th w e s t............................
S outheast ............................

Nineteen occupations were selected to represent
various skills and wage levels of production workers in
the industry in November 1976 (table 3). These occu­
pations made up just over two-thirds of the surveyed
production work force. National averages for the jobs
shown separately ranged from $5.72 an hour for general
utility maintenance workers to $4.59 an hour for
labelers and packers. Combination mixers and grinders,
the largest occupational classification studied separate­
ly, averaged $5.13 an hour.
The occupational wage structure o f workers making
paints and varnishes in November 1976 was more
compressed than that reported in the Bureau of Labor
Statistics 1970 survey. The mean difference between all
possible pairings o f the 14 occupational average hourly
earnings studied in both years declined from 10 percent
in 1970 to 7 percent in 1976. This 3-percent decline
shows that, taken as a whole, occupational average
hourly rates have moved closer to each other during
this period (appendix B). The mean difference between
one occupation and all others declined significantly for
4 o f the 14 occupations studied separately—general
utility workers, janitors, labelers and packers, and
technicians.
Changes in wage ralationships between two separate
occupations, such as technician’s wages compared only
to mixer’s, were not developed for this survey,
although such comparisons are possible.7
Occupational wage relationships within regions did
not always follow the national pattern. Mixers, for




149

G reat L a k e s .........................

103

101

97

100

100

100

Earnings of the highest paid workers within a given
occupation and area usually exceeded those of the
lowest paid by a least $1.50 an hour (tables 6-19).
Consequently, some workers in jobs with relatively
low averages (as compared to the overall average in
the industry) earned more than some workers in jobs
with much higher averages. The extent of such overlap
is illustrated by the following tabulation, which shows
the number of general utility maintenance workers ($5.74)
and labelers and packers ($4.62) in Chicago by specific
hourly earnings intervals:
General u tility
maintenance
workers
$ 3 .6 0 a nd u n der $ 4 .0 0

—

$ 4 .0 0 and u n der $ 4 .4 0

-

Labelers and
packers
82
13

$ 4 .4 0 and u n d er $ 4 .8 0

4

$ 4 .8 0 and u n der $ 5 .2 0

16

25

$ 5 .2 0 a nd u n d er $ 5 .6 0

18

52

$ 5 .6 0 and over

86

16

31

7 Lack o f individual establishment data for the 1970 survey
prevented significance testing o f changes between individual occupa­
tional wage rates during the 1970-76 period.

3

Nationally, and in regions where such comparisons
could be made, occupational averages were usually
higher in establishments employing 100 workers or
more than in smaller establishments and in
establishments having labor-management contracts
covering a majority of their workers (tables 4-5).

provisions for office workers were 2 weeks after 1 year
and 3 weeks after 10 years. A majority of both
production and office workers in every region received
at least 4 weeks o f vacation after 20 years.
Health, insurance and retirement plans. Life, hospitali­
zation, surgical, and basic medical insurance plans, at
least partly paid for by employers, were available to all
or virtually all production and office workers (table
26). Accidental death and dismemberment insurance
applied to about four-fifths of all production and office
workers. Sickness and accident insurance and/or sick
leave applied to about nine-tenths o f both groups.
Retirement pension plans in addition to Federal social
security benefits were available in establishments em­
ploying about nine-tenths of the workers.
Noncontributory plans—those for which the em­
ployer pays the entire cost—were more prevalent for
production than for office workers. Noncontributory
medical insurance plans, for example, were provided to
four-fifths of all production workers, while just under
seven-tenths o f all office workers were under similar
plans.
There was little regional variation in the incidence of
life, hospitalization, surgical, and medical insurance
plans. Certain other benefits, however, did differ some­
what among regions. In the Middle Atlantic, for
example, about seven-tenths of both production and
office workers were covered by major medical insur­
ance compared to about nine-tenths or more of workers
in the Border States, Southeast, Southwest, and Pacific
regions.

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provi­
sions. Data were also obtained for production and office
workers on certain establishment practices (production work­
ers only), and on selected supplementary wage benefits, in­
cluding paid holidays, paid vacations, and health, insurance
and retirement plans.
Scheduled weekly hours and shift provisions. Work sched­
ules
of 40 hours a week were in effect in
establishments employing 94 percent of the production
work force and about 81 percent of the office workers
(table 21). Nearly all production workers were in
establishments having provisions for second shifts, and
about seven-eighths were covered by provisions for
third or other late shifts (table 22). At the time of the
survey, however, only about 11 percent of the pro­
duction workers were actually employed on second
shifts and about 3 percent on third or other late shifts
(table 23). Late-shift workers usually received extra pay
above day-shift rates, the most common premium being
15 cents an hour for second-shift work and 20 cents for
third or other late shifts.
Paid holidays. All establishments provided paid holi­
days, usually 9 to 11 annually, to production and office
workers (table 24). Regionally, the number of holidays
most commonly provided ranged between 11 and 12 days
in the Middle Atlantic and 7 to 9 days in the Border
States, Southeast, and Southwest.

Other selected benefits. Pay provisions for funeral leave
and jury duty were reported in establishments employ­
ing at least seven-tenths of all production and office
workers (table 27). Establishments reporting provisions
for cost-of-living adjustments employed about threetenths of the production workers and about one-tenth
o f the office workers. Establishments providing work
clothing and/or a monetary allowance for such cloth­
ing employed nearly four-fifths o f all production work­
ers.

Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying periods
o f service, were provided by establishments employing
all production and office workers (table 25). The most
common provision for production workers were 1 week
o f vacation pay after 1 year o f service, 2 weeks after 2
years, and 3 weeks after 10 years. The most common




4




Table 1. Average hourly earnings:

By selected characteristics

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e hou rl y e a r n i n g s 1 of pr odu ct ion w o r k e r s in pai nt s and v a r n i s h e s m a nu fa ct ur in g e s t a b l i s h m e n t s
by s e l e c t e d c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , United Sta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
United Sta tes 2 Mid dle 1Atlantic
1
Item

Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hourl y
e ar n in S8

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS3 ...........................
MEN............................................................................
WOMEN......................................................................

27,647
25,942
1,680

S I Z E OF ESTABLISHMENT:
2 0 - 9 9 NORKERS................................................
100 WORKERS OR MORE................................

12,616
15;031

5.44

S I Z E OF CCMMUNITI:
METROPOLITAN AREAS 4 ..............................
NON METROPOLITAN AREAS...........................

26,487
1,160

Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

5 . 14
4.04

LABOR-MANAGEMENT CONTRACTS:
ESTABLISHMENTS WITHMAJORITI OF WORKERS COVERED...
NONE OR MINORITY OF WORKERS
COVERED......................................................

$5.10

Aver age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

B o rd er St a te s
Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

Aver age
ho ur ly
earn­
ings

5,975

2,345

18,828

5.35

8,819

r"
b. -/tIi

Aver age
hourl y
earn­
ings

G reat La k es
Num­
ber
of
wo rk er s

M id dle West

Pacific

Aver age
hourl y
earn­
ings

Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hourl y
earn-

Num­
Aver ber
age
hou rl y
of
work­
earners

4.57

424

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m pay for o v e r t i m e and for wo r k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s ,
and l a t e s h i f t s .
2 In clu de s data for re g io n s in addition to t h o s e shown s e p a r a te l y .
3 I nc lu de s w o r k e r s in e s ta b l i s h m e n t s for wh ich in for m ati on by s e x w a s
un a v a i la b le .

4 . 85

*4.10
4.18
2.95

1.954
1,887
67

$4.42
4.45
3.45

10,018
9 , 139
879

$5.38
5.48
4.27

1,566
1,492
74

$5.18
5.22
4 . 46

3,283
3 , 124
134

$5.77
5.81
5 . 11

3.80
4.42

1,162
79 2

4.06
4 . 94

3,176
6 , 842

4.94
5.58

609
957

4.73
5 . 47

1,792
1,491

5.78
5.7 6

1,978
367

1, j 40

5 . 15

Sout hw est
Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

1,223
1,122

79j

5.13

5 , 166

Aver age
hourl y
earn ings

159

n*

2 , 949

Southeast
Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

4.28
3 . 10

1,838
*

4.43

9,607
4 11

5.39
4 . 97

1,462

5.28
*

3,283
~

5.77
*

999

4.45

694

4.85

7,046

5.51

1 ,194

5 .38

2,908

5.84

1,346

3.8 4

1,260

4.18

2,972

5.07

372

4.56

375

5.25

def ine d

by the

4 Standard M etr op ol ita n S t a t i s t i c a l A r e a s
M an ag e m e nt and Budget through F e b r u a r y 1974.

U.S. O ff ic e of




Table 2.

Earnings distribution:

All establishments

( P e r c e n t d i s tr i b u t io n of pr odu ct ion w o r k e r s in paints and v a r n i s h e s m an uf a ctu ri ng e s t a b l i s h m e n t s by a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e hou rl y
e a r n i n g s , 1 Un ite d S t a t e s and s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
United St a tes 2
Atl antic

Border
St a tes

Southeast

1,680
$4.12

5,975
$5.13

1,540
$4.34

2,345
$ 4 . 10

100.0

A v e r a g e h o ur ly e a r n in g s 1
Tot al

Men

Women

NUMBER OF HORKERS3 ....................................
AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGS......................

27.647
$5.10

25,942
$5.16

west

P a c i fi c

La k es

We st

1,954
$4.42

10,018
$ 5 . 38

1,566
$ 5 . 18

3,283
$5.77

100.0

100.0

TOTAL..........................................................

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

10 C. 0

100.0

$ 2 . 3 0 AND UNDER $ 2 . 4 0 ...........................
$ 2 . 4 0 AND UNDER $ 2 . 5 0 ...........................

1.0
.3

0.5
.3

7.6
.4

0. 1
. 1

0.5
1.6

6 .0
.9

C. 7
.6

0.8
. 1

_
-

-

$2 .5 0
$2.60
$2.70
$2.80
$2.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 2 . 6 0 ............................
$ 2 . 7 0 ...........................
$ 2 . 8 0 ............................
$ 2 . 9 0 ...........................
$ 3 . 0 0 ...........................

1.0
.4
.8
.3
.4

.9
.3
.5
.2
.4

2. 3
2.4
5. 4
1.5
.5

. 3
.3
. 7
.2
.5

1.7
.4
1.4
.1
.2

6 .8
2.3
3.0
.8
2.3

a.3
1.0
1.3
.2
. 8

.2
.2
.5
.2
(4 )

_

-

$3.00
$3.10
$3.20
$3.30
$3.40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 . 1 0 ...........................
$ 3 . 2 0 ............................
$ 3 . 3 0 ...........................
$ 3 . 4 0 ...........................
$ 3 . 5 0 ............................

1.6
.8
1.2
.8
.8

1.5
.6
1.2
. 8
.8

1.8
3. 1
2. 3
1.3
1.3

1.8
1.4
1.3
.8
1.1

2.3
2.3
3.8
2.7
.8

3.5
1.3
3.0
2.7
3.0

6.C
1.4
2.6
.4
1. 1

$3.50
$3.60
$3.70
$3.80
$3.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 3 . 6 0 ............................
$ 3 . 7 0 ............................
$ 3 . 8 0 ............................
$ 3 . 9 0 ...........................
$ 4 . 0 0 ............................

1.5
.9
1.7
1.0
1.3

1.5
.9
1.7
1.0
1.0

1. 8
1.0
1.7
1. 8
6.0

.8
.8
2.0
.8
1.4

2. 9
3.0
2. 4
1 .1
1.3

2.2
2 .3
2. 1
1.4
1.6

$4.00
$4.10
$4.20
$4.30
$4.40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 . 1 0 ...........................
$ 4 . 2 0 ............................
$ 4 . 3 0 ............................
$ 4 . 4 0 ...........................
$ 4 . 5 0 ............................

2.9
2.2
2.1
2.4
1.8

2.8
2. 1
2.0
2. 3
1.8

4.8
3. 8
2.9
2.6
.8

3. 1
2.4
1. 9
2. 1
1.8

3.8
2.6
3.6
3.7
4.7

$4.50
$4.60
$4.70
$4.80
$4.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 4 . 6 0 ............................
$ 4 . 7 0 ...........................
$ 4 . 8 0 ............................
$ 4 . 9 0 ...........................
$ 5 . 0 0 ............................

2.7
2.7
3.1
3.7
3.3

2.6
2. 5
3.0
3.8
3.3

4. 7
6. 1
4. 3
2. 7
2.3

2.7
2.3
2. 0
3.7
3 .0

$ 5 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 1 0 ............................
$ 5 . 1 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 2 0 ...........................
$ 5 . 2 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 3 0 ............................
$ 5 . 3 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 4 0 ...........................
$ 5 . 4 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 5 0 ............................

3.3
3.3
3.3
5.4
4.3

3.5
3.4
3.3
5. 5
4.4

.9
2.9
2.7
3.5
2.7

$5 .5 0
$5.60
$5.70
$5.80
$5.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 . 6 0 ...........................
$ 5 . 7 0 ...........................
$ 5 . 8 0 ............................
$ 5 . 9 0 ...........................
$ 6 . 0 0 ............................

4.7
4.3
3.4
4. 1
3.0

4. 8
4.4
3.6
4.3
3.2

$6.00
$6.10
$6.20
$6.30
$6.40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 . 1 0 ...........................
$ 6 . 2 0 ............................
$ 6 . 3 0 ............................
$ 6 . 4 0 ...........................
$ 6 . 5 0 ...........................

2 .5
2. 1
2.1
1.0
1.0

2.6
2.2
2.2
1. 1
1. 1

$6.50
$6.60
$6.70
$6.80
$6.90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 . 6 0 ...........................
$ 6 . 7 0 ............................
$ 6 . 8 0 ............................
$ 6 . 9 0 ...........................
$ 7 . 0 0 ............................

1.5
.9
1.0
1.0
.5

1.6
1.0
1.0
1.0
.5

$ 7 . 0 0 AND OVER..............................................

4.6

4. 9

.

-

-

0.1
1.0
-

0. 1
-

.5
. 1
.4
. 1
.2

1.0
.9
1.3
2.4
1.1

. 1
. 1
. 1
. 1
.2

2.5
1.0
2.9
1.7
. 7

1.3
. 3
1.0
1.0
1.6

1.9
1.0
3.9
1.1
2.6

1.8
. 6
1.2
.6
. 1

3.3
3.6
2.3
1.9
2.6

S.O
3.6
5.1
3.7
3.7

1.9
2.0
2.2
2.1
1.3

1.5
1.0
1.0
.6
.5

1.2
. 3
.1
3. 5
.2

4.0
4.1
7. 5
6.8
11.6

1.4
4.6
2.6
2 .8
3. 5

4.5
3.0
4.8
3.0
2.8

3.5
2.7
3.2
4.4
2 .8

1.1
1.5
1.0
.5
1.5

.7
.9
2 .5
1. 4
1.2

3.6
4.9
3. 3
5.5
6.0

7.9
2.6
2.8
1.8
.6

3.2
5.7
1.4
3.0
2. 3

2.1
1.7
3.2
7.1
2.0

2.4
2.7
3.7
7 .5
4.6

6.7
5.3
3.4
2.5
6.0

1.1
1. 4
3.1
2. 7
2.9

3.0
2.2
1. 2
1.1
.5

5.0
5.2
3. 3
3.8
2. 1

. 5
.5
.5
.3
.3

2 .0
1.0
1.4
.6
. 2

3.1
1.9
2.2
1.2
1.2

5.9
4.5
3.7
4.5
3.4

5. 1
14 . 2
4.8
7.7
2 .9

5.7
3. 3
6.2
9. 1
8.8

. 5
.2
. 4
. 1
*

3.0
2.C
3. 2
1.1
1.6

.
.
.
.
.

2. 1
<4 )
.9
.7
-

1.3
.5
.2
.7
. 2

1.9
2.7
1.5
.6
. 9

1.7
.6
.1
1.1
-

6. 6
5. 3
5.9
3.0
2.7

.2

2. 6
.4
.4
. 1
.9

. 3

.7

.2
.4
. 1

-

1.0
1.7
1.5
1.6
. 4

1.6
. 3
2.4

2.8
1.6
1.3
2. 9
.7

. 1

3. 2

8.5

2.9

-

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m pay for o v e r t i m e and for w o r k on w e e k e n d s ,
h o l id a y s , and la te s hi fts .
I nc lu de s data fo r re g io n s in addition to t h o s e shown se p a r a te l y .
3 In clu de s w o r k e r s in e s t a b l i s h m e n t s for which i n fo r m a ti o n by s e x
w a s u n a v a ila b le .

5
1
5
1
1

-

-

-

.9

.5
. 1
.3
.3
. 1

-

.3

-

-

5.5

4 L e s s than 0 .0 5 pe r c en t.
NOTE:
equal 100.

Because

of

rounding,

sums

of

in dividual

item s

may

not

Table 3.

Occupational averages:

All establishments

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o ur ly e ar ni n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c up a tio ns in pai nt s and v a r n i s h e s ma nu fa ctu ri ng e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , Un ited St a te s and s e l e c t e d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

S e e f o o tn o t e s at end o f ta bl e.




Middle Atl antic

2

H our ly e arnings
Mean 4 M edian4 Middle range 4

Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

B o r d e r St a te s

H o u r ly e a r n in g s 1
Mean 4 Median 4 Middle ra nge 4

21«
1, 511
1, 416
95
1,765
1, 5ti£
167
54 6
502
44
1,746
1,371
377
1,426

$4.74
4. 88
4.91
4. 39
4.91
5.03
3.78
4 . 84
4. 89
4.27
4 . 59
4.71
4. 12
4.67

14.85
4.90
5.00
4.50
5.05
5. 16
3.50
a . 99
5.00
4.56
4.7 C
4.76
4.00
4.78

$3.604. 2 6 4.2 8 3. 6 5 4.264. 473.0C 4.074.093. 4 6 3. 984. 153. 593. 90 -

$5.68
5.62
5.62
5.24
5 . b4
5.71
4.7 1
5.60
5.63
4. 99
5.32
5.37
4.84
5.41

18
168
177
427
377
104
9b
372
34C
32
264

$5.17
4.69
4.69
4.88
5.08
4.80
4.79
4.64
4.67
4.30
4.56

4.90
5.09
5.12
4.97
4.56
4. 59
4.28
4.85

4 . 19 4.5 4 u . z b4 . *84. 144. 1 5 3.583 .4 5-

1,175
4, 128
1,621
65 2
1,855
83 7
296
25 7
28 4
1,209
1,064
145
68 8
63 5
53
34 3
1,105
7 3S
1,043

5.72
5. 20
5.26
5. 22
5.13
5. 17
5.27
5 . 16
5 . 07
5.19
5. 27
4.62
5. 23
5.29
4 . 50
5.24
5.62
5.03
5.23

5 .74
5. 32
5.37
5.33
5.17
5.22
5.41
5.00
5.15
5.15
5.23
4.50
5.25
5.29
4.38
5.50
5.67
4.90
5.37

5 .2 0 4. 6 4 4 .7 8 4. 7 1 4 .504. 5 3 4 .584. 554. 4 5 4 .5 0 4. 5 0 4 .4 4 4. 3 9 4 .4 9 4. 0 0 4 .8 7 5.004 .0 0 4. 83-

6.18
5.81
5.90
5.74
5.83
5.86
6.00
5.67
5.83
5.89
5.95
4.95
6.19
6.22
4.97
5.69
6.25
6.09
5.81

20 1
865
297
146
42 2
193
71
61
61
250
221
29
125
117
8
41
223
130
208

5.68
5.14
5.23
5.30
5.01
5.06
5.33
5 . 16
4.64
5.50
5.60
4.75
5.28
5.30
4.95
4.94
5.68
5.30
5.24

5.68
5.14
5.22
5.45
5.04
5.16
5.48
5.33
5.14
5.53
5.66
4.53
5.73
5.73
5.15
5.63
5.20
5.37

5 .2 8 4.624.704.944 .6 2 4.534 .8 2 4.604 .104.724.314.244.304 .3 0 4 .4 8 5.244 .5 0 5.10-

-

$5.30
4.67
4.55
-

Sou th ea st

H ou r ly e a r ni n gs
Mean 4 Median 4 Middle ra nge 4

$ 4 . 52
4.17
4 . 16

5 . 58
5.65
5.35
5.35
5.25
5.25
5.06
5.36

14
100
98
84
80
26
24
11b
b3
33
77

4 . 32
4.40
4.09
4 . 10
4.09
4.17
3.91
3.85

4. 67
4.72
4.30
4. 30
4.25
4. 35
4.00
4. 10

3.883.9C 3.563. 5 9 3. 603 .603. 6C3 .0 0-

4.91
4.91
4.72
4. 72
4. 77
4.77
4. 50
4.76

6.07
5.5b
5.76
5.74
5.45
5.69
5.52
5.87
5.22
6 . 13
b
5.12
6.29
6.29
5.31
6.07
6.24
5.76

67
239
132
44
63
57
18
14
25
51
47
41
30
11
16
58
71
64

4 . 77
4.52
4 . 54
4.75
4 . 30
4.52
4.81
4.61
4.27
4.63
4.62

4. 66
4.80
4. 82
4.90
4. 27
4.52
4. 90

4.404.154. 25 4.703 .614.134 . 15-

5. 12
4 . 94
4. 91
5.00
5.05
4.94
5. 03
4. 45
5 . 15
5 . 15

$ 5 . 1z- $ 5 .53
4 .2 4 5.3b
4 .2 0 5.36
-

Numbe r
of
work­
ers

-

-

-

4.21
4 . 24
4.14
4 . 54
4.96
4.22
4.02

*4.41
$ 3 .5 0 - $4.71
4. 41 .
4 . 70
3 . 5C-

-

-

-

4 . 38
4. 91
4.91
4. 13
4. 70
5. 07
4 . 50
4.01

4.134. 114.113.753.754 .194 .783.913.50-

-

-

4.92
4.61
5. 07
5.29
4. 9C
4.45

Number
of
work­
ers

43
167
152

H ou r ly e ar nin gs 1
Mean 4 Median 4 Middle r a n g e 4

14C
128
41
28
127
93
34
101

$3.09
3. 79
3.94
3.87
3.90
3 . 28
3 . 36
3 . 64
3.97
2.76
3.44

$3.00
4. O
C
4 .1 C
3.5C
3. 50
2.75
2.76
3.5C
4 . 10
2.75
3.35

124
40 4
96
37
271
76
21
31
24
128
120
8
56
55
41
96
90
66

5.17
4. 36
4.29
3.77
4.47
4.89
5.48
4.27
5 . 18
4.41
4 . 45
3.70
4 . 44
4.43
4.07
4.84
3.62
4.14

5.2C
4 . 36
4.16
3.45
4.41
4.82
5.52
4 . 05
5. 05
4.50
4. 55
4. 66
4.66
4.35
4.95
3.75
4.38

-

$ 2 .6 0 - $3.45
2. 535.08
2.755.08
3.005.04
2.765. 16
2.354 . 03
4.03
2.404.48
2.753.004 . 69
2.352.75
2 .5 0 4.40
4.403.453.403.351
o
90

DRUM CLEANERS..........................................................
FILLERS, HAND.........................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN.................................................................
FILLERS, MACHINE..................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
JANITORS.......................................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
LABELERS AND PACKERS......................................
MEN.......................................................................
W
OMEN..................................................................
LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING...................
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY.......................................................................
MIXER-GRINDERS.......................................................
MIXERS.......................................................................
GRINDERS..................................................................
COMBINATION MI XER-GR IN DERS................
SHIPPING ANE RECEIVING CLERKS..............
SHIPPING CLERKS...............................................
RECEIVING CLERKS............................................
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K S . .. .
TECHNICIANS...............................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
TESTERS, PRODUCT.................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
THINNERS.......................................................................
TINTERS..........................................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................
TRUCKERS, EOWER (FORKLIFT)......................

Nu m be r
of
worke rs

o
o

United State
O cc up at io n and s e x 3

4 . 245.373.954.503.603 .6 4 3.543.45-

2.504.702.502.85-

5.84
5.31
4.69
3.92
5.31
5.62
5.62
4.82
6.02
5.01
5.01
5.23
5.25
5.11
5.57
4.25
5.12

Table 3.

Occupational averages:

All establishments— Continued

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n in g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d o c c up a t io ns in pai nt s and v a r n i s h e s ma nu fa ctu ri ng e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , United St a te s and s e l e c t e d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
Sout hw est
O ccu pa tio n and s e x 3

DRUM CLEANERS..........................................................
FILLERS, HAND..........................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN.................................................................
FILLERS, MACHINE..................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WCMEN..................................................................
JANITORS.......................................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
LABELERS AND PACKERS.......................................
MEN........................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
LABORERS, MATERIAL HANELING....................
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY.......................................................................
MIXER-GRINDERS.......................................................
MIXERS.......................................................................
GRINDERS..................................................................
COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS.................
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS..............
SHIPPING CLERKS...............................................
RECEIVING CLERKS............................................
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K S . .. .
TECHNICIANS...............................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
TESTERS, PRODUCT..................................................
MEN.......................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
THINNERS........................................................................
TINTERS......................... .................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)......................

Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

G re at L a k e s

H o ur ly ea rn in g s
Mean 4 Median 4 Middle range 4

7
105
99
129
121
8
26
26

$3.99
3. 91
3.93
9.51
9. 59
9.00
3.61
3.61

$9.00
9.00
9 .3 6
9.99
3.15
3.15

-

185
159

3.98
9.13

60

9.15

72
305
89
29
192
90
7
17
16
59
59
~
62
6C
26
100
78
109

9.76
9. 39
9.51
5.03
9.26
9.72
9 . 99
9.60
9.97
9.27
9. 27
9. 72
9.73
9. 58
5.07
9.09
9.77

9.1C
9.25
9.27
9.88
9. 90
9.58
5.00
9.26
9.60
9.53
9.80
9.30
9.30
9.50
9.53
9.68
9.87
9.00
9.70

$ 3 .2 5 - $9.60
9.60
3.205.37
3.9 5 5.37
9 . 0C2 .5 5 9.36
9.36
2.553.009.70
3. 399.75
3.68-

5.16

9.009. 0 0 9.009. 583.899i 109 . 10 9. 903.373. 3 7 -

5.56
9.95
5.92
5.99
9.95
5.32
9.99
5.69
5.10
5.10
5.05
5.11

-

9. 289.27-

3.959. 99 3.539.25-

-

5.92
5.72
9.55
5.37

Numbe r
of
work­
ers

Mean 4 Median 4 Middle range 4

95
579
535
39
665
605
60
257
229
28
609
93 9
175
976

$5.38
5.29
5.27
9.77
5.23
5.36
3.90
5.29
5.39
9 . 96
9.78
5.01
9.22
5 . 15

$5 .5 0
5.25
5.32
5.16
5.37
5.37
9.71
5.25
5.25
9.63
9.76
5. 1 1
9.00
5.28

956
1,922
619
280
528
276
88
83
105
981
399
87
280
299
31
187
388
129
918

5.89
5.56
5.97
5.53
5.69
5.91
5.19
5.92
5.62
5.26
5.39
9.68
5.99
5.62
9.51
5.59
5.80
5.78
5.96

5.81
5.51
5.98
5.53
5.59
5.36
5.10
9.93
5.68
5.02
5.21
9.50
5.97
5.65
9.30
5.59
5.79
5.55
5.91

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m p a y for o v e r t i m e and for work on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , and late sh i ft s .
2 I nc lu de s data for r e g io n s in add ition to tho se shown s e p a r a te l y .
3 Data not sho wn s e p a r a t e l y by s e x i nd ic at e all or v i r t u a l ly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m e n .




Middle W e s t

H o u r ly e a r n in g s

Numbe r
of
wo rk ers

Mean 4 Median 4 Middle ra nge 4

$ 9 .8 5 - $6.11
9 .665.62
9.755.62
5.29
9.105.79
9.8 8 5.79
9.935.37
2.309.675.80
9.735.80
9.99
9.225.37
9.165.37
9 .3 6 3.939.72
5.69
9.68-

10
105
101
62
59
92
38
117
91
26
102

$5.36
5.10
5.13
~
9. 59
9.59
9.62
9.79
9.65
9.65
9.67
5.22

6 . 15
5.98
5.93
5.96
6.55
5.95
5.86
6.03
6.21
5.90
6 .00
9.85
6.65
6.65
5.35
5.83
6.28
7.17
5.81

69
269
101
98
115
96
26
11
9
82
78
55
55
-

5.75
5 .00
5.08
9.97
5.19
9.66
9.11
5.35
5.90
5 .05
5.13
5.33
5 . 33

5.925.035 .0 9 5 .0 8 9 .8 5 9.819.329.815.159 .5 0 9.509.509.569 .6 0 9.105.505.329.859 .9 8 -

59
59
29

Pacific

H ourly e a r ni n gs 1

-

5.65
5.29
5.00

$5.96
5. 96
9. 23
9.18
5.08
5. 39
5.09
5.09
5. 10
5.35
5. 61
5.18
5. 61
9.17
5. 19
5.01
9. 08
5.60
5.61
5.90
5. 90
5 . 83
9. 92
5.61

$ 9 .9 2- $ 5 . 6 5
5.095.65
3.835.51
3.795.51
3 .7 5 5.39
9.005. 39
3 .7 5 5. 91
3 .7 9 5.91
3.755. 36
5.175.51
5.319 .939.503 .7 9 5.093.603.003 .903 .929 .8 6 9.865.523 .8 0 9 .5 7 -

6.73
5.65
5.81
5.29
5.61
5.69
9. 95
5.89
5.89
5.89
5.89
5.98
7. 30
5.61

Numbe r
of
work­
ers

H o u r ly e a r n in g s 1
Mean 4 M e d ia n 4 Middle range 4

31
290
222
18
165
199
90
39
179
131
98
-

$9.87
5.63
5.65
5. 90
5.71
5.78
5.38
5.38
5.38
5.98
5 . 11
-

$5.21
5. 76
5.76
5.71
5.86
5.86
_
5.63
5. 63
5. 79
5.76
5 . 16
-

$3.855.255.319.3 0 5 .595.5 9 _
5 .1 8 5.079.895.259.78-

$5.72
5.82
5.82
6.59
5.86
5. 86
5.69
5.71
5.86
5.92
5.72
-

199
999
291
209
107
61
33
13
101
90
11
53
53
_
26
192
122
191

6.89
5.91
5.97
5.93
5.99
6.06
5.88
5.90
6.12
6.26
5.02
6.03
6.03
_
6.39
6.32
6.28
6 .00

6.35
5 . 96
5 . 96
6. 02
6.02
6 .2 C
6.09
6 . 1C
6. 1C

6 .125.525.525.765.795.865 .9 7 5.505.69-

7.27
6. C5
5.96
6.12
6. 37
6.97
6.22
_
6.69
6.69
_
6.97
6.97
_
6.90
6.97
6.93
6 . 12

-

6. 2 C
6.2 C
6.39
6.2 5
6.26
5.96

-

5.395.39_
5.966.256.005.72-

4 Se e appen dix A f or m et ho d u s e d to c om pu te m e a n s , m e d ia n s , and m id d le r a ng e s of e a r n in gs .
M ed ian s and m id d le r a ng e s a r e not p r ov id e d f or job s with f e w e r than 15 w o r k e r s in a reg ion .
N O TE :

D a s h e s in d ic a te no data r e p o r te d o r data that do n ot m e e t p u b lica tio n c r it e r ia .

Table 4 .

Occupational averages:

By size of establishm ent

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s by s i z e of e s ta b lis h m e n t ,
U n ite d S ta te s and s e le c te d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)




United States

Middle Atl antic

B o r d e r State s

So ut he as t

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s with—
Occ up a tio n and s e x

20-99 w orkers
Aver­
age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

Num­
ber
of
wo r k­
ers

DRUM CL E ANE R S ..............................................................
F I L L E R S . HAND.............................................................
MEN............................................................................
8 0 B E N ......................................................................
F I L L E R S . MACHI NE....................................................
MEN............................................................................
WOMEN......................................................................
J A N I T O R S ............................................................................
MEN............................................................................
WOMEN......................................................................
LABELERS AND PACKERS.........................................
MEN............................................................................
WOMEN......................................................................
L AB OR E R S , MATERI AL HANDLI NG.....................
MAI NTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
U T I L I T Y ............................................................................
M I X E R - G R I N D E R S ..........................................................
M I X E R S ............................................................................
G R I N D E R S ......................................................................
C OMBI NATI ON MI X E R - G R I N D E R S ..................
S H I P P I N G AND R E C E I VI N G C L E R KS ...............
S H I P P I N G C L E R K S ..................................................
R E C E I V I N G C LERKS ...............................................
S H I P P I N G AND R ECE I VI NG C LERKS ____
T E C H N I C I A N S ..............................................................
MEN ......................................................................
WOMEN................................................................
T E S T E R S , PRODUCT .................................................
MEN ......................................................................
WOMEN.................................................................
T H I N N E R S ......................................................................
T I N T E R S .........................................................................
T R U C K D R I V E R S ...........................................................
TR UC KE R S , POWER ( F O R K L I F T ) ......................

S e e f o ot no t e s at end of table s,

103
679
630
49
772
664
108
16 6
15 8

8
918
747
17 1
522
482
2,112
830
272
1,010
52 7
158
128
241
518
493
25
295
277
18
114
601

555
299

100 w o r k e r s
or m o re
Aver­
Nu m ­
be r
age
ho ur ly
of
work­
earn­
ers
ings

20— w o r k e r s
99
Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

20— w o r k e r s
99
Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hourl y
earn­
ings

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
Aver­
Num­
age
be r
hou rl y
of
earn­
work­
ings
ers

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
Aver­
Num­ Aver­
ber
age
age .
ho ur ly
hou rl y
of
earn­ work­
earn­
ings
ers
ings

20— w o r k e r s
99
Nu m ­
be r
of
work­
ers

$4.01
4.46
4 . 50
3.97
4 . 39
4.58
3.21
3 .96
4.04
2.43
4.26
4. 41
3.61
4.20

115
832
78 6
46
99 3
92 4
59
38 0
344
36
83 0
62 4
20 6
904

$5.39
5 . 23
5 .25
4 .84
5. 32
5.36
4 . 83
5.23
5 . 29
4 .67
4 . 94
5.07
4. 54
4 . 94

24 0
221
19
155

4.31
4.36
3. 70
3.96

132
119
13
109

5.24
5.25
5.17
5.40

48
36
12
45

4.0 0
4.20
3.40
3.33

68
47
21
32

4 . 16
4 . 14
4.20
4.58

79
45
34
51

3.26
3.63
2.76
3.35

48
48
50

3.52

5.37
4.88
5.01
4.96
4.76
5.03
5.26
4.85
4.97
5.17
5.22
4.08
4.75
4 . 78
4.24
4.72
5 . 46
4.78
4.78

693
2 , 016
791
38 0
845
31 0
138
129
43
691
571
120
393
358
35
229
504
184
74 4

5 . 96
5.53
5 . 53
5.41
5 . 58
5.42
5. 30
5 .47
5 .65
5 . 21
5.32
4 . 73
5 .59
5.68
4 .64
5 . 50
5.81
5. 78
5.41

100
528
167
74
287
144
49
36
59
96
90
6
68
64
18
121
92
62

5.48
4.86
4.80
4.96
4.86
4.86
5. 18
4.85
4.61
5.45
5.53
4.26
4.75
4.79
4.36
5.46
4.75
4.55

101
337
130
72
135
49
22
25
154
131
23
57
53
23
102
38
146

5.88
5.57
5.78
5.66
5.33
5.64
5.69
5.60
5.53
5. 64
• 4.88
5.91
5.92
5.40
5.94
6.65
5.54

32
123
61
16
46
39

4.64
4.41
4 .50
4 . 59
4.21
4.46
5.25
4.50
4.17
4.60
4.60
4.47
4.42
4.76
3.80

35
116
71
28

4.88
4.64
4.58
4.84

62
174
65
16
93
43
12
18
13
73
67
25
25
29
58
68
44

5.02
4.0 3
4.34
3.73
3.87
4.67
5.62
4 .17
4.4 7
4.3 5
4.40
3.84
3.84
3.63
4 .67
3.4 2
3.6 8

62
230

5.31
4.61

8
133
122
181
137
30
30
-

$4.59
4.34
4.31
4.08
4.39
3.95
3.95

100 w o r k e r s
or m o r e
Num­ Aver­
be r
age
hou rl y
of
earn­
work­
ers
ings

-

10
55
55
-

246
240
74
68
-

$5.63
5.55
5.55
5.48
5.47
5 .15
5.16
-

45
45
43
39
9
9
-

8
8
23
23
23
24
20
31
41

$3.91
3.91
4.10
4.24
4.09
4.09
-

12
55
53
41
41
17
15
-

-

18
10

6

28
24
17
10
7
10
27
30
40

$4.48
4.38
4.38
4.55
4 . 55
4.09
4.11
-

-

4.66
4.45
4.77
4.64
4 . 64
3.86
3.88
3.83
4.21
5.20
4.79
4 . 10

34
73
58
74
74
36
33
-

$3.05
3.30
3.56
3.45
3.4 5
3 .28
3 .36
-

9
94
94
66
54

$3.21
4 . 17
4.17

-

-

-

-

-

178
33
9
13
55
53
31
30
38
-

-

4.34
4 . 52

4.28
4.28
-

-

4.78
5.19
5.30
4.41
4.48
4 . 52
4 . 92
4.92
5 . 10
-




Table 4 .

Occupational averages:

By size of establishm ent— Continued

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t - t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s b y s i z e of e s ta b lis h m e n t,
U n ited S ta te s and s e le c t e d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
G re a t L akes

S o u th w e st

M id d le W e s t

P a c if i c

E s t a b l i s h m e n ts w ith —
O c c up a ti on and s e x

20-99 workers
Aver­
age
hourly
earn­
ings

Nu m ­
ber
of
wo rkers

DRUB CLEANERS..........................................................
FILLERS, BAND.........................................................
BEN.......................................................................
HOBEN...................... .........................................
FILLERS, BACBINB..................................................
BEN.......................................................................
HOBEN..................................................................
JANITORS.......................................................................
BEN.......................................................................
HOBEN..................................................................
LABELERS AND PACKERS.......................................
REN.......................................................................
HOBEN..................................................................
LABORERS, BATERIAL HANDLING...................
BAINTENANCE HORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY.......................................................................
BIXER-GRINDERS.......................................................
MIXERS........................................................................
GRINDERS..................................................................
COMBINATION BIXER-GRINDERS.................
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS..............
SHIPPING CLERKS...............................................
RECEIVING CLERKS............................................
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING C L E R K S . .. .
TECHNICIANS...............................................................
MEN.......................................................................
HOMEN..................................................................
TESTERS, PRODUCT.................................................
BEN.................................................................... ..
HOBEN..................................................................
THINNERS ..........................................................................
TINTERS .............................................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS..............................................................
TRUCKERS, POHER (FORKLIFT) .......................

1 Excludes
and la te s h i ft s .

premium

6
89
89
57
53
-

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
Aver­
Nu m ­
ber
age
ho ur ly
of
earn­
work­
ings
ers

$3.71
3.88
3.88
9.17
9.21
-

16
10
-

72
68
-

15
15
139
119
36

3.00
3.00
3.68
3.86
3.53

11
11
96
90
29

93

9.29
9.07
9.06
9.83
3.99

29
92
55
17
8
15
15
27
25

213
60
16
137
23
-

9.99

-

9

9.90

10

9.89
3.89
3.89
9.36
9.36

99
99

35
35
-

15
66
62
91

V
-

9.11
9.77
3.92
9.01

pay for o v e r t i m e and fo r work

-

11
39
16
68

$9.07
9 .39
9.78
9 . 80
9 . 95
9.9 5
-

9 . 89
9.9 5
5 . 10
5.96
5 . 13
9.93
5. 03
9.89
5.37
5.37
5. 17
5 .29
-

5.23
5.67
9.99
5 . 23

on w e e k e n d s ,

20-99 workers
Num­
be r
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
Num­ Aver­
be r
age
hourl y
of
earn­
work­
ings
ers

27
152
129
23
197
170
91
38
177
130
97
73

$9.93
9.67
9.66
9.79
9.55
9.91
9.36
9.52
9.29
9.58
3.98
9.26

68
922
906
16
968
935
33
216
191
25
932
30 9
128
903

$ 5.76
5.94
5.46
4.83
5.51
5.54
5.20
5.46
5.56
4.72
4.98
5 . 19
4 .49
5.31

132
55 3
29 2
101
210
139
20
27
87
197
191
102
92
10

5.57
5.09
5.21
5.19

32 9
869
372
179
318
192
68
56
18
339
253
81
178
157
21
150
290
31
362

5.95
5.87
5 .63
5.73
6.22
5.48
5.22
5.77
5.59
5.06
5.17
4 .72
5.70
5.84
4.69
5.53
5.90
6.34
5.49

-

198
98
56

ho l id a y s ,

9.90

5.33
9.87
9.69
5.63
5.71
5.78
5 . 13
5.29
9. 19
-

5. 69
5.60
5.27

20-99 workers

100 w o r k e r s
or m o r e
Aver­
Num­
ber
age
hou rl y
of
earn­
work­
ings
ers

Nu m ­
ber
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

34
34
39
38
12
10
82
69
13
24

$4.52
4.52
4.51
4.48
3.79
3.99
4.58
4.45
5.26
4.66

71
67

18
114
33
21
60
31
-

5.19
4.71
4.55
4.71
4.79
4.27
5.40
4.42
4.42

46
150
68
55
15
8
7
57
-

9

25
25
9
9
-

28
41

4.29
4.29
-

5.64
4.59

21
30
28
35
22
78

46
46
-

26
18
26

$5.38
5.44
4.63
4.96
5.07
“
4.82
5.26
5.39
5.97
5.22
5.34
5.53
5.46
5.34
5.59
5.32
5.54
5 . 54
-

5.65
6.73
4.99

20-99 workers
Num­
ber
of
work­
ers

Aver­
age
hou rl y
earn­
ings

22
124
124
98
94
13
13
115
92
23
80

$4.54
5.64
5.64
5.66
5.65

56
286
151

100 w o r k e r s
or m ore
Aver­
Nu m ­
ber
age
h o ur ly
of
earn­
work­
ings
ers

6.40
5.88
5 .89
5.91
5.86
6 . 13
6 .28
5.94
5.93
6.10
5.47
5.47

9

126
73
43
21
58
53
18
18
-

109
93
66

-

5.64
5.64
5.31
5.34
5.20
5.54

9
116
98
18
67
55
27
26
64
39
-

$5.69
5.62
5 .66
5.40
5.79
5.99
5.26
5 .25
5.51
5.82
-

93
21 3
90
78
34
18
12
43
37
35
35

7.11
5.96
6 .11
6.06
5.6e
5 .55
5.79
6 . 37
6.48
6.32
6 .32

21
33
29
75

6.43
6 .4 C
6.40
5.90

-

6.29
6.24
6 . 12

2 In clud es data for r e g io n s in addition to t h o s e sho wn s e p a r a t e l y ,

-

Table 5.

Occupational averages:

By labor-management contract coverage and size of establishm ent

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n ts by la b o r -m a n a g e m e n t c o n tr a c t c o v e r a g e
and s iz e o f e s ta b lis h m e n t , U n ited S ta te s and s e le c te d r e g io n s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
Sou th ea st

M id dle At la nti c

United States 2

G rea t La k es

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s with—
O cc up at io n and s i z e
of e s t a b l i s h m e n t

Majo ri ty
None or m in o r i ty
covered
covered
Num­
Aver - N u m ­
Aver­
ber
age
ber
age
hourly
hourl y
of
of
work­
earn - w o r k ­
earn­
ers
ings
ers
ings

M a jo r ity
Non e or m i n o r i ty
covered
covered
Aver­
Num­
A ver­ Num­
ber
ber
age
age
hourl y
ho ur ly
of
of
work earn­
earn - w o r k ­
ings
er s
ings
ers

M a jo r ity
covered
Num ­ Aver age
ber
hourl y
of
w ork­ earn­
ings
ers

No n e or m i n o r i ty
Non e or m in o r i ty
M ajo ri ty
covered
covered
covered
Nu m Aver­
A v e r ­ Nu m - A v e r Num­
age
ber
age
ber
age
ber
hourl y
hou rl y
hou rl y
of
of
of
work earn­
work­
earn­ work­ earn­
er s
ers
ings
ings
ers
ings

M a jo r ity
^one or m in or ity
covered
covered
Nu m - A v e r ­ Nu m Aver ber
ber
age
age
of hourly
of
hourly
work­ earn­ work­
earn­
ers
ers
ings
in g8

DR U M CLEAN ERS :

2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RK E RS OR M O R E .....
MACHINE:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 W OR KER S OR M O R E .....

$4.72
5. 68

50
24

$3.25
4.30

6
10

$4.52
5.63

-

-

9

$3.76

-

-

417
64 4

4. 88
5.29

262
188

3.78
4.99

127
55

4.33
5.55

-

-

11
72

474
77 0

4.75
5.38

29 8
223

3.81
5.14

157
214

4.06
5.43

24

80
32 4

4.58
5. 30

86
56

3.39
4 . 83

22
71

3.98
5.13

555
584

4 . 67
5.01

36 3
24 6

3.64
4.77

212
112

4.30
5.15

28

29 6
74 0

4 . 54
4.93

22 6
164

3.77
5.02

117
94

3.93
5.32

38

297
537

5. 65
6 . 12

185
156

4.91
5.41

87
85

5.41
5.84

-

1,293
1,576

5. 12
5.61

81 9
440

4 . 50
5.22

426
319

4.76
5.56

102

465
620

5.33
5. 61

36 5
171

4.61
5. 21

131
115

4.92
5.77

36

152
301

5. 19
5.58

120
79

4. 66
4.77

36
69

4.29
5.66

-

67 6
65 5

4. 97
5.63

334
190

4.33
5.41

25 9
135

4.75
5.33

-

32 3
23 7

5. 38
5. 41

204
73

4.46
5. 44

112
45

5.01
5.62

32

95
112

5.71
5. 39

63
26

4 . 56
4. 91

40
20

5.29
5.68

9
-

4. 68

78

5. 16
5.35

50
31

4. 37
5 . 85

30
23

4.70
5.59

6

5.63

-

98

"

7

3.96

6

150
27

5.29
5.75

91
16

4. 44

42

4.96

17

3.75

6

-

-

-

4.28
-

-

5.48

318
500

5.41
5. 31

4.79
4. 97

76
103

39

4.46

34
35

-

19
59

$4.99
5.89

9

97
306

4 . 88
5.43

55
116

10
9

$ 5 . 11
5.69

-

4.30
5.46

104
1 16

5.74
5.62

20

-

•

HAND:

FILLER S,

-

53
91

0
0

2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RKE RS OR M O R E .....
FILLER S,

-

$4.16
-

-

4.64
4.19

62

-

3 . 51
4.16

112
380

5.31
5.48

85
88

3.55
5. 66

98
67

5.66
5.79

2.86

17
180

5.24
5 . 50

24
36

3.73
5.28

13
27

5.64
5.26

3.05

104
293

4.72
4.98

73
139

3.66
4.99

106
64

5.44
5.51

“

5.54

$5.11

*

-

41

4.45

52
25

13

4.01

23

$3.06
-

-

-

-

“
*

JA NI TOR S:

2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 W OR KE R S OR M O R E .....
AND PACKERS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 W OR KER S OR M O R E .....
LA B OR ER S , MATER IA L HA NDLING:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RK E RS OR M O R E .....
MA I NT E N A N C E WORKERS, G EN E R A L
UTILITY:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WORKERS OR M O R E .....
MIX ER- GR I ND ER S :
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RKE RS OR M O R E .....
MIXERS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
1 00 WO RKE RS OR M O R E .....
GRINDERS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RKE RS OR M O R E .....
C O M B I N A T I O N MI XER -G R IN DE R S:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RK E RS OR M O R E .....
S H I P P I N G AND RE CEI VI NG CLERKS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RK E RS OR M O R E .....
SHI PP IN G CLERKS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RKERS OR MO RE .....
RE C EI VI N G CLERKS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WORKE RS OR M O R E .....
SH I PP I N G AND RE CEI VI N G CLERKS:
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WO RKE RS OR M O R E .....
TE C HN ICI ANS :
2 0 - 9 9 W O R K E R S ............
100 WORKE RS OH M O R E .....

8

3.88

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

18
25

3 .95
4.28

61

9
35

4.13
3.37

42
15

3 . 18
3.88

41
315

4.34
5.35

32
88

4.15
5.18

73

“
-

24
38

5.09
5.69

38
24

4.98
4.70

88
262

5.76
6.01

44
62

5.17
5.70

48
93

6.48
7.11

8

5.93

5.26

43
126

4.44
4.91

131
104

3 . 90
4.25

365
693

5.25
5.83

188
176

4.77
6.01

238
2 13

5.91
5.96

48

5.70

-

63

4 . 32

-

-

110
285

5.49
5.59

132
87

4.98
5.79

139
90

5.93
6.11

-

-

-

14

69

5.70
5.90

32
42

4.C8
5.16

9
~

5.91

137
186
271

4.94
6.05

24

4.58

90
78

5.88
6.06

36

*

98
112

5.48
5 . 33

36
30

4.91
6.06

66
34

6.29
5.68

“

-

40
18

6.40
5.55

-

*

18
12

6.24
5.79

LABELERS

S e e fo o tn o te s at end o f ta b le .




20 0
191

-

5.36
5.62

-

-

4.34
4.06

-

4.39

-

-

-

20

4.36
-

-

5.79

-

-

3.52

~

~

~

-

39
124

4.37
4.92

54

16
21

4 . 79
5.28

27
12

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

12

-

3. 51
4 . 59
5.03
-

-

-

-

61

5 . 26

7

4.85

3.85

16
41

5.03
5.40

11
“

4.20

4. y 4

75
10

5.56
5.42

12

5.62
5 . 10

45
66

-

4.23
4.65

“

5 .93
4.93

*

*
*

*

*

'

-

102
268

'

6.04

-

5. 1 1

-

“
~

54
43

5.90
6.37

5.80

*

*

-

Table 5.

Occupational averages:

By labor-management contract coverage and size of establishm ent— Continued

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r l y e a r n i n g s 1 of w o r k e r s in s e l e c t e d oc c up at io ns in pai nt s and v a r n i s h e s m an uf a ctu ri ng e s t a b l i s h m e n t s by l a b o r - m a n a g e m e n t co nt ra ct c o v e r a g e
and s i z e of e s t a b l i s h m e n t , United Sta tes and s e l e c t e d r e g io ns , N o v e m b e r 1976)
P a c i fi c

G reat La k es

Sout heast

Middle Atlantic

United Sta tes 2

E s t a b l i s h m e n t s with—
O cc up at io n and s i z e
of e s t a b l i s h m e n t

TESTERS,

M ajo ri ty
covered
Num­
Aver­
ber
age
of
hourly
e ar n work­
ings
ers

Majo ri ty
None or m in o r i ty
None or m in o r i ty
ered
covered
c o v e re d
Num­ Aver­ Num­
Aver­
Aver Num­
age
age
ber
ber
age
ber
hourl y
hourl y
of
hourly
of
of
earn­
earn - w o r k ­
earn work­
wo r k ings
ers
ings
ings
ers
ers

FEODUCT:
$4.86
5.70

137
12 0

$ 4 . 63
5.34

52
57

$4.63
5.91

75
187

5.25
5. 66

39
42

3.69
4.81

14
23

4 . 14
5.40

16
10

TINTERS:
39 2
321

5.74
5. 94

20 9
183

4.94
5. 57

105
85

5.45
5.91

25 7
122

5. 39
6.38

298
62

4.24
4.61

82
38

4.77
6.65

TRUCKDRIVERS:

$5.13

-

-

_

-

5 . 52

_

.

4.56

-

-

6
17

$4.91
5.35

-

5.25
5.49

124
130

4. 12
5.02

1 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m pa y for o v e r t i m e and for wor k on w e e k e n d s ,
2 In clu des data fo r r e g io n s in addition to t h o s e shown se p a r a te l y .




43
145

h o lid a y s ,

3 . 35

_

s h i ft s .

-

16
12

5.25
5.51

Zb

4.45
4 . 90

19

4.45

49

3.02

-

-

42

-

39

4.25
5.54

and la te

$3.50
4.41

-

-

TRUCKERS, FCWER (FORKLIFT) :
175
6 14

19
14
23

16

158
273
THINNERS:

M ajo ri ty
None or m in o r i ty
M ajo ri ty
covered
cov e r ed
covered
Aver Aver - N u m ­
Num­
Num­
Aver ber
age
age
ber
be r
age
hourl y
hourl y
of
hou rl y ' of
of
earn­
ea rn - w o r k ­
work­
earn­
work­
ings
ings
ers
ers
ings
ers

-

NOTE:

_

-

-

3.59
-

42
110
.

None or m in or ity
None or m in o r i ty Majo ri ty
covered
covered
covered
Aver­
Num­ A ver­ Num­
Aver Num­
ber
ber
age
age
ber
age
hourly
of
hourly
of
hourl y
of
wo rkearn­
work­
w o r k ­ e ar n earn ings
er s
ings
ers
ings
ers

$5.29
5.52

60
68

$5.02
6.00

17
35

$5.44
6.32

-

-

.

.

.

_

.

_

.

122

5 . 68

28

4.89

21

6.43

-

113
141

5.91
6.07

35
99

4.77
5.65

87
33

6 .38
6.4C

22

56
27

5.61
6.31

42

5 . 58
-

6.45
6.40

32

-

61
29

40
302

5.39
5.49

_

_

64
75

6.13
5.90

_

60

5.50

-

$ 5 . 96

-

-

5.84

-

-

D a s h e s indica te no data r e po r te d or data that do not m e e t pub licatio n c r i t e r i a .

-

-

Table 6.

Occupational earnings:

A tlanta, Ga.

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

1 The Atlanta St and ar d M etr op ol ita n S t a ti s ti c a l Ar e a c o n s is t s of Bu tts , C h e r o k e e , Clayton, Cobb,
De K alb , D o u g la s , F a y e t t e , F o r s y t h , Ful ton , Gwinnett, Hen ry, Newton, P aul di ng, R o c kd a le , and Walton
C ounties.
2 E x c l u d e s p r e m i u m pay for o v e r t i m e , and for wor k on w e e k e n d s , h o l id a y s , and late s hi fts .
T h e s e s u r v e y s , b a s e d on a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p le of e s t a b l i s h m e n t s , a re d e s ig n ed to m e a s u r e the l e v e l
of o c c u p a t io n a l e a r n in g s at a p a r t ic u l a r t i m e . Th us , c o m p a r i s o n s with p r e v io u s s tu d ie s m a y not




r e fl e c t e x p e c te d w ag e m o v e m e n t s b e c a u s e of change in the s a m p le c o m p o s i t io n , and shifts in em p lo ym e nt
among e s t a b l i s h m e n t s with di ffe r en t pay l e v e l s . Such s h i f t s , for e x a m p l e , coul d d e c r e a s e an occu pat iona l
a v e r a g e , e v e n though m o s t e s t a b l i s h m e n t s i n c r e a s e d w a g e s be tw e e n p e r io d s be in g co mp are d.
All of
the produ ct ion w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by the s u r v e y w e r e paid on a t im e b a s i s .
Data not sho wn s e p a r a t e l y by s e x indicate a l l or v i r t u a l ly a l l w o r k e r s a r e men.

Table 7.

Occupational earnings:

Baltim ore. M d .1

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

1 T h e B a ltim o r e S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a
A r u n d e l, B a lt im o r e , C a r r o ll, H a rfo r d , and H ow ard C o u n tie s.




c o n s is t s

of

B a ltim o r e

C ity , and Anne

2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
3 D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll or v ir t u a lly a l l w o r k e r s a r e m en.

Table 8.

Occupational earnings:

Chicago, III.1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lish m e n t.;, N ov e m b e r 1976)

O ccu p ation and sex 3

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings2 UNDER
3.00

NUME ER 01
3.60

PRO DU C T IO N

3. yo

3.60

3.80

y. 60

y . 80

5 .CO

5.20

HOURLY EA RN IN G S

5.yo

y.2C

y .y o

y .6C

y.ao

5.00

5.20

5 .y o

37

5.60

5 .80

IN DOLLARS)

6.00

6.20

6.90

OF- .

6 .60

6.80

7.00

7.90

7.80

8.20

iy 9

150

309

189

256

337

92
57

2 16
193

2y7

30

53

157
129
28

199
ya

295
1V

167
17

235
21

292
y 5

3

3

5.60

5 .80

6.00

7

40

7

8. 60

AND
OVER

80

—

$ 5 . 13
3
u. 59

W O M E N ............................
FI LLE RS, M A C H I N E . ......... ... .. ... .

25
2 3
185

2

'I VI

162

H A N D .......................

y . 83

23

y .85
5. y 1
5.39

120
110

J A N I T O R S ..................................................
MEN..................................................
MEN.....................................................
W O M E N ............................
LA BORERS, MAT ER IA L H A N D L I N G ........
MA I N T E N A N C E WORKERS, G EN ERA L
U T I L I T Y ..........................
M I X E R S .............................
G R I N D E R S ...........................
CO M BI N A T I O N M I X E R - G R I N D E R S . . . ” .....
.
SH I PP IN G C L E R K S .......................
M E N ...............................
RE C E I V I N G C L E R K S .................
M E N ............................
SHIPPING, AND RECE IVI NG C L E R K S ......
M E N ............................
T E C H N I C I A N S .......................
M E N ............................
W O M E N .............................
TESTER S. P R O D U C T ............ _
M E N ...........................
W O M E N ............................
T H I N N E R S ............................

23

-

•
1

"

3

-

_

-

-

“

3

i

3

1

_

7

*
■

y .6 2

y*

-

18

15

13

3y

16

15

3
i y
iy

1
1
5

4

8
34

382
37 1

11

3

y .81

2

5
5

1
1

*

5
5

12

2

2

9

4

-

4
4

41

6

78

6

7

~
6

6

1

23

'
t

^

j

“

9

7

5.y7

“
“
”

15
33

8
8
4
4

5.57

1
5
7

12

4
2

~
“

7
27

2

10
10

2

7
5
2

7

9

13

32

18

6
3

6
6
4
y

9

~

2
2

“

_

“

1

5 . 31

M cH enr yThandC WC CounUd s ! d M e t r ° P° litan S U t l s t i c a l
iri8
e

4

1

-

*

Area conststs

-

-

-

-

3

of Cook,

DuPage,

Kane,

La k e,

1

6
9

^ ^

13

5

3
2

8

10
“

234

135

33

227
7

139

33

39
39

27
27

15
15

-

-

_

_

32

11

32

1

1

21

1

6

1
•

13

8

26

13

16

6
6

-

92
38

4
11
10
20
21

10.
10
20

8
17

~
18

1

5

-

5

-

y 2

9

1

9

4
4

1

-

-

3
3

2

92
2
2
1 3 1
12
1

y

1

15
7

2
19

-

-

-

-

-

_
_

_
_

_
_

-•

_
-

_
-

_
_

_
_

_

3

1

~

-

-

35

16

7

_

19

-

_
_

1

7

1
.2
1
-

-

-

_
_

8

27

3
3

10
9

1
13

11
10
1

-

3

-

5
5

4

4
4

-

y

4

4

4

6

5
3
2
10

5
1

2

8

13

3

7

7

2

3

9

7

8

39

2
5

3
2
5
5
~
19
20
24

9

4
5
6
6

-

8
33

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

_

_

2

9

3

~

_

_
-

~

2

31

1

-

2

b

9
3

2
2
y 5
y 5

3
3

b

11
4
5

167

6

'

15

4

”

3
3

20
5

5
4
2

*

9
18

25

9

7.57

15

3

3

5*26
5.69

17

5

5

20

4
4

12

2
9

5.00

2
2
1

8

1 1
16
35

_
“

5*02
81

2

2
8

“

2
105

-

7

12
3

2

2

22
56

“

33

2
2

3

6

“
6

150

8

1

*

19

86

T R U C K D R I V E R S .....................
T RU CK ER S , POWER (F OR KL IFT ) .......... 1

*
*

4.61

4*54
219




1ECEIVING ST RA IG H T - TI M E

y. yc

O CC UP AT ION S

DRU M C L E A N E R S ..........................
FILLER S,

WOR KERS
y . "20

_
o
o
3-

SE LEC TED

3, 0 49

y.oo

AND
UNDER
3. 20

ALL PROD UCTION W O R K E R S ...............
M E N ...............................
W O M E N ............................

3 . 80

18
17

1
1
1
-

2

2
2

i

_
_
y

2

1

4

1
1
-

_
_
_

_

10

5
y

7

3
3

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

4

_

3
3

_
_
_
1
1

_
_

3

_

_
_

-

_

_

1

“

_

3
10

_
19

2 S e e tab le 6, fo otnote 2.
Data not sho wn s e p a r a t e l y by s e x in di ca te a l l or vi r t u a l ly a ll w o r k e r s ar e men.

_
“

Table 9.

Occupational earnings:

Cleveland, O h io 1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUMBER OP WORKERS R E CE IVING

ae
Number Aver g
hul
ory
o
f
anns
w r e e erig 2
okr

Occupation and sex3

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS............
HEN...........................
WOMEN..........................

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

HOURLY EARNING S

( IN

DOLLARS)

OF—

2.30 2. 40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3 60 3.80 4.00 4. 20 4.40 4.60 4.80 5.00 5. 20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6 .40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7.20
AND
AND
OVER
UNDER
.
2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3 80 4. 00 4. 20 4. 40 4. 60 4. 80 5.00 5.20 5.40 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.40 6.60 6.80 7.00 7.20
54

_

-

-

54

-

8
5
3

1,253
1,051
2 02

*5.11
5. 37
3.75

7
20
153
11 8
79
35
44

5. 12
4.86
4.66
5.17
4.30
5.19
3.59

21

-

90

5.71

-

-

-

76

5. 34
5.02

-

-

-

*

4
4
-

6
6
*

11
11
*

38
35
3

23
21
2

75
19
56

70
45
25

1
2
-

37
35
2

101
65
36

29
27
2

22
22
-

36
35
1

98
96
2

165
154
11

283
282
1

4
3
55
55
28
17
11

2
1
1
1

-

36
32
4

42
42

9
9
“

-

-

-

~

55
55

32
32
*

12
12

4
4
_

3
3
”

~
4
4

-

-

“
“

“
“

SELECTEE PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
DRUM CLEANERS.....................
FILLERS, HAND.....................
FILLERS, MACHINE..................
HEN..........................
LABELERS AND PACKERS.......................................
HEN........................................................................
WOMEN..................................................................
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
U TILITY .......................................................................
COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS......................
RECEIVING CLERKS..................................................

19

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

27
21

-

~

-

-

-

-

13
13

-

-

2

6
“
2

SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS..............
TESTERS, PRODUCT..................................................

15

5.20
3.47

3

-

TRUCKDRIVERS............................................................

11

4.54

-

*

1 T he C le v e la n d
and M edin a C o u n tie s.




S tandard

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

19

-

~
-

M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

1

6

1

-

-

5

12
11
4
4

8

-

-

12

4
4

-

-

1

-

5
4

9
8

-

18
18

-

-

-

9
5
4
5
5

-

3
-

-

-

“

-

“

2

2

-

-

-

-

1

-

7

-

4

2

2

7

3

10

~

1

4
3

-

5
-

3
4

5

10

-

6

-

8

1

2

13

-

18

-

1
1

1

5

4

-

-

-

2

5

-

2

-

2

4

-

2

*

*

-

-

4

-

_
_
-

-

-

-

c o n s is t s of C u yahoga, G eau ga, L a k e,
2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
3 D ata n o t sh ow n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a l l o r v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

4

-

-

“
-

-

2

-

1

2

-

-

-

“

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

1

Table 10.

Occupational earnings:

Dallas—Ft. W orth, Tex.

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u r ly ea r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

NUMBER OF WORKERS RECEIVING STRAIGHT-TIME HOURLY EARNINGS (IN DOLLARS) OF —
O ccu p a tio n and s e x 3

AIL PRODUCTION WORKERS.
BEN...............

hul
ory
erig'
anns

79 7
793

2: ! °

2.6 0 I2.8 0

3 . 0 0 1 3 . 2 0 | 3 . 4 0 I 3 . 6 0 I 3 . 8 0 I 4 . 0 C I 4 . 2 0 I 4 . 4 0 |4. 6 0

$4.99
4.9 9

4 . 8 0 [ 5 . 00

5 .2 0

5. 40 5 . 6 0 | 5 . 80 I 6 . 0 0 |6 . 2 0 6 . 4 0 16 . 6 0

188
185

SELECTEE PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
FILLERS, HACHINE.............
JANITORS.....................
LABELERS AND PACKERS.........
LABORERS, HATERIAL HANDLING...
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY.....................
MIXERS.......................
COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS....
SHIPPING AND RECEIVING CLERKS.
TECHNICIANS..................
THINNERS.....................
TINTERS......................
TRUCKDRIVERS.................
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)....

4.7 8
4.9 9
4.9 8
4 .3 5
5.5 2
4 .9 5
5 . 15
4.8 6
5 . 42
5 .3 5
5 .7 3
4 .4 2
5 .4 5

Denton r f v
F V y f o r t h Standard M e tro p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f C o llin , D a lla s,
D enton, E l l i s , H ood, J o h n so n , K aufm an, P a r k e r . R o ck w a ll. T a r r a n t, and W ise C o u n tie s .




S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
D ata not shown s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

6 .8 0

Table 11.

O ccupational earnings:

D etroit, M ic h .1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUMBER OF JfORKEBS R E CE IVING S T R A IG H T -T IM E

Occupation and sex 3

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS............
MEN............................
WOMEN.........................

o
f
wres
okr

1,283

HOURLY EARNINGS

(IN

DOLLARS)

OF —

a. ao 9. 50 9. 60 4. 70 4. 80 4.90 5. 00 5. 1C 5.20 5.30 5. 90 5.50 5.60 5.80 6. 00 6.20 6.90 6.60 6.80
7.00 7.20 7.90 7.60 7.80 8.00
hul
ory
e r i g 2 UNDER AND
anns
AND
9.90 UNDER
9.50 9. 60 9.70 9.80 9.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.90 5.50 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.90 6. 60 6. 80 7. 00 7. 20
$6.38

20
!r
TO

61

TO

69

37
35

38
32
6

12

99
44
“

19
19

109
105
9

79
79
-

79
79

20

12
6
6
5
5
6
6

~
6
6

36
36
-

21
21

109
101
3

107
107

18
18
-

21
21
-

152
152
-

50
50
_

192
192
_

16
16

-

-

28
22
22
-

_
_
_
9

_
_
_
_
_
-

~

•~

_
_
_
_
_
~

5
99
~
2
2
10
10
-

6
6
1
1
-

-

2
29
-

_
_

16

-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

_
9
8

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

-

-

SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
FILLERS, HAND.....................
FILLERS, MACHINE..... .............
MEN..........................
JANITORS..........................
MEN...........................
LABELERS AND PACKERS..............
MEN...........................
LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING.......
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY..........................
MIXERS.............................
GRINDERS..........................
COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS........
TECHNICIANS.......................
MEN..........................
TESTERS, PRODUCT..................
MEN..........................
WOMEN.........................
TINTERS...........................
TRUCKDRIVERS......................
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)........

68
90
81
57
53
92
30
33
59
66
91
75
61
53
35
29
6
63
99
97

5.77
5.89
2
A

5.70
6.53

_

_

”

~

4
6
6

3
10
_

2

2
2

~

6
6
2
2
10

_
2

2
_

“
“

~
6
22
”
1
1
~
”

3
“

2
_

"
~
“

~

“

19
11

2

8
8

~

_

6. 13
6.39
6.20

6

—
“
_

8l

6. 80

5.97
6.05
5.55

*

10

9
1

10
“
19

8
~

8

6.30
6. 22

T h e D e tr o it Sta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A rea c o n s is t s of L a p e e r ,
O akland , St. C la ir , and W ayne C o u n tie s.
•




15
19
“

L iv in g sto n ,

M a co m b ,
’

*

10
-

*
~
9

-

19

9

15
16
-

15
7
7
1
1

12
19
19
4
4

10

16
13

12
2
-

~
31
31
9
9

~
*

3
3
7
9
3

9
*

-

-

19
19

-

-

19

7
-

11
-

2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
3
D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll or v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

_
_

_
10
10
_
2
2

-

Table 12.

Occupational earnings:

Los Angeles—Long Beach, Calif,

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1 976)
NUME ER OI

Number
o
f
wres
okr

Ave a e
rg
hul
ory
erig2
anns

1 ,8 2 5
1 ,6 9 7

O c c u p a tio n and s e x 3

25
131
121
106
90
29
1 16
75
91

9 .6 2
5 .3 8
5 . 95
5 .5 5
5 .6 3
5 .1 9
5 . 10
5 .1 8
9 . 96

65
180
59
91
23
56
96
10
27
76
80
69

WORK ERS R E CE IVING

$ 5 . 98
5 .5 2

6 .1 0
5 .7 7
5 .6 5
5 .8 1
5 .6 5
5 . 86
6 .0 5
9 .9 7
5 . 39
6 .0 6
6 . 16
5 .7 5

2 .8 0

2 . 90 3 . 0 0

UNDER
2 .9 0 3 .0 0

3 . 10

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

HOURLY EARNI NGS

(IN

DOLLARS) OF--

3 .1 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 .9 0

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

9 .0 0

9 .2 0

9 .9 0

9 .6 0

9 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 .9 0

5 .6 0

5 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

6 .9 0

6 .6 0

3 .2 0

3 .3 0

3 . 90

3 .5 0

3 .6 0

3 .7 0

3 .8 0

9 .0 0

9 .2 0

9 .9 0

9 .6 0

9 .8 0

5 .0 0

5 .2 0

5 . 90 5 .6 0

5 .8 0

6 .0 0

6 .2 0

6 .4 0

6 .6 0

7 .0 0

55

21

58

15

107
76

77
68

36
35

151
126

2 16
2 05

191
189

391
3 89

99
93

190
190

67
67

39
33

6
28
28
15
12

“
10
10
“
”
3

“
1
1
1
1
“
1
1

5

“
55
53
12
12
n
17
12
5

“

19
19

2
50
5
5

4
3
4
“

l-a

2-5

7 .0 0
AND
OVER

18
18

SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS

MEN........................................................................
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENEBAL

T E C H N IC IA N S ............................................................ ..
WOMEN..................................................................

POWER

( F O R K L IF T )......................

1 T h e L os A n g e le s —L on g B e a c h Standard M etro p o lita n S ta tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f L o s A n g e le s
C ou nty.
2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.




z.

9

12

6
13
10

”
18
19
4

12

•

M IX E R S .................................................. ..........................

TRUCKERS,

?

3

6
"

12
“
“
~

4

“
59
55

■

20
3

2
2
~

20
85
31
2
“

1
12
"
11
4

2
6

6

6
*

6
31

~
11
12
28

17

“
“
’ ~

22
5
2
11
10
“
~
4
36
27

D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .
W o r k e r s w e r e d is tr ib u te d as fo llo w s : 3 at $ 7 to $ 7 .4 0 ; and 2 at $ 7 .8 0 to $ 8 .2 0 .

3
3
“

“
“

~
~
~

6
“

-

■
*■
*

“

6
4
~
4

5

~

2
2
”
10
18

“
"
9
8
1
2
3
*

2

_

“

5
45
~
~

“

Table 13.

Occupational earnings:

Louisville, Ky.—Ind

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUKE ER OF
O ccup a tion and s e x 3

ALL PRODUCTION HORKEBS.................................
HEN............................ .. ...........................................

o
f
wres
okr

59 6
520

hul
ory
erig 2
anns

19.66
9.6 7

2 . 7 0 2 . 80 2 . 9 0
AND
UNDER
2 .8 0 2.9 0 3 .0 0

WORK ERS

ECEIVI NG S TR A IG H T -T IM E

(IN

DOLLARS)

OF --

3.2 0

3.3 0

3.9 0

3 .5 0

3.6 0

3 .7 0

3. 80 3 . 9 0 9 . 0 0 9 . 1 0 9 . 2 0 9 . 9 0 9 . 6 0 9 . 8 0 5 . 0 0 5 . 2 0 5 . 9 0 5 . 6 0 5 . 8 0 6 . 0 0 6 . 2 0

3. 10 3 . 2 0

3.3 0

3 .9 0

3.5 0

3.6 0

3 .7 0

3.8 0

3 .9 0

AND

14

13
13

HOURLY EARNI NGS

3 . 00 3 . 1 0

9 .0 0

1

6

9 . 10 9 . 2 0
17
15

3

~
*
1

1

1
1
• “

4 .4 0

4 .6 0

4. 80

19
19

92
92

97
95

198
185

92
89

11
11

3
2
3
3
3
3
7

16

16
18
20
19
16

-

“
3
3
4
4

*

-

6 20

2

2
2

2

1
1

3
3

1

i

SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
F I L L E R S , H A N D . . . . * ................. ...........................
F I L L E R S , M AC HI N E ..................................................
JA N I T O B S .......................................................................

HEN....................* .................................................
HAINTENANCE HOSKEHS, GENERAL
U T I L I T Y .......................................................................
MIXER S ............................ ..................... j . . . ................
GRINDERS....................* .................................................
S H IP P IN G CLER KS ....................................................
MEN...............................* ......................................
RE CE IV IN G C L E R K S . . . . . ....................................
S H IP P IN G AND RE CE IVI NG CLERKS..............

T I N T E R S . .......................................................................
TRUCKDRIVERS.............................................................

38
21
16
15
96
39
91

9.6 0
9.8 3
9.3 9
9.3 1
9 . 69
9.7 5
9 . 16

21
66
27
7
6
9
7
22
10
22
19

5.0 7
9.8 9
9.9 0
9.8 9
9 .8 7
9.7 9
9 .3 9
9 .9 1
9 .6 9
5 .0 3
9.8 1

3

~

~

1
1

1
1
-

-

-

-

-

*
9
7
~

_
2

-

1 T h e L o u is v ille S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s of B u llitt, J e ff e r s o n , and O ldham
C o u n tie s , K y.; and C la rk and F lo y d C o u n tie s , Ind.




3

10

6
5
19
13
3

-

-

-

-

-

~

3
3

~

3

3
*

“

1

3

1

9
2

-

-

-

_
_
_
-

-

-

-

.

_
_

-

_
_

-

-

6
99
10
9
9
2

10
12
10
2

9
-

9

“

"

"

-

7

5
9
7

2
5

1
1

1
-

1
-

i

1

-

-

_
-

"

-

-

5
7

1

"

-

2 S e e ta b le 6 , fo o tn o te 2.
3 D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir tu a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

-

_
_
_
_

Table 14.

Occupational earnings:

New Brunswick—Perth Amboy—Sayreville, N.J

(N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t -t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

1 T h e N ew B r u n sw ic k — e r th Am boy— a y r e v ille Standard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a
P
S
2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
c o n s is t s o f M id d le s e x County.
3 D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir t u a lly




a l l w o r k e r s a r e m en.

Table 15.

Occupational earnings:

New York, N .Y .—N .J.1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUMBER OF WORKERS R E C E IV IN G

Occupation and sex3

o
f
wres
okr

1, 186
1,1 19

$9.56
9.63

FILLERS, HAND.....................
FILLERS, MACHINE..................
MEN..........................

65
118
79

9.17
9.01
9.97

3

LABELERS AND PACKERS..............
MEN...........................

125
117

9. 37
9.38

LABORERS, MATERIAL HANDLING.......
MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
UTILITY..........................
MIXERS.............................

96

3.65

27
60

5.61
5.06

COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS........
SHIPPING CLERKS...................
RECEIVING CLERKS..................

91
22
17

9.78
5. 93
9.53

TECHNICIANS.......................
MEN..........................

28
26

5. 09
5.08

*-

THINNERS...........................
TINTERS............................
TRUCKDRIVERS......................
TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)........

10
97
98
29

9.19
5.36
9.90
9. 39

-

ALL PRODUCTION WORKERS............
, MEN............................

S T R A IG H T -T IM E HOURLY EARNINGS

( IN

DOLLARS)

O F --

2. 60 r2T80 3.00 3.20 3.90 3.60 3.80 9.00 9.20 9.90 9.60 9.80 5.00 5.20 5.90 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.90 6.60 6.80 7.00
hul
ory
e r i g 2 UNDER A ND
anns
AND
2.60 UNDER
OVER
2.80 3.00 3. 20 3.90 3.60 3.80 9.00 9.20 9.90 9.60 9.80 5.00 5.20 5.90 5.60 5.80 6.00 6.20 6.90 6.60 6.80 7.00
11
11

18
10

16

8

100
67

53
97

31
31

79
79

56
59

86
89

66
69

72
70

80
79

138
137

91
91

97
97

87
87

90
90

3
6
6

2

4
3
3

5
11
11

6
7
7

9
9
9

9
9
9

7
11
11

_
18
18

5
2
2

1
9
9

3
2
2

2
2
2

-

17
15

9
7

15
15

9
8

23
22

7
7

2
2

_

2

2
2

_

-

-

2

-

3

3

2

-

3

3
1

9

10

2
5

1
-

6
10

5

4
-

19
2

4
-

9
2
2

5
3
3

4
i
2

4
2
-

16
2
-

23
-

2
-

36
33

31
31

25
25

9
9

2
2

10
10

13
13

_
_

_
-

_
_

_

-

_
-

_

_

_

6
7

2

-

_
_

3

_
_

_
3
-

_
3
_

3
5
3

_

_

_
_

_

_

_

_

_

2
2

_

1
1

_

.

-

_

_

I
_

_

43
3

_
9
3

1
5
2

_

_

-

2
6

2
2

2

_
3
_

I
_
_

SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
6

-

-

-

6
33
-

-

-

-

2
2

-

2
2

25
23

10
10

-

-

-

8

16

9

2

1

-

-

- • -

1

2

-

2
~
-

4
-

6

-

'

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

2
2
3
9

2

‘

‘

1
3

-

-

2
2

-

9
9

6
6

3
1

-

4
4

3
3

-

_

3
2
2

6

2
3

-

'

'

2
1
6

9
3
4

_
3
1

*

2
3
2
“

3

3
5

_
3
8
3

'

1 The N ew Y ork S tandard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f B ronx, K in g s, N ew Y ork,
P u tn am , Q u e en s, R ic h m o n d , R o c k la n d , and W e s tc h e s te r C o u n tie s, N .Y .; and B e r g e n County, N .J .
2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.




2
5

5

~

-

2

_

_

-

-

_
_
-

-

_

.

3 D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e at $ 8 .2 0 and o v e r .

_

_

_

_

Table 16.

Occupational earnings:

Newark, N.J

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u rly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

1
2

T h e N e w a r k Standard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f E s s e x , M o r r is , S o m e r s e t ,
3 D a ta not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a il o r v ir tu a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .
and U nion C o u n tie s .
4 W o r k e r s w e r e d istr ib u te d as fo llo w s :
1 at $ 7 .2 0 to $ 7 .4 0 ; 1 at $ 7 .8 0 to $8; and 2 at
S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2 .
„
$ 8 .2 0 and o v e r .




Table 17.

Occupational earnings:

Philadelphia, Pa.—N .J .1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n ish ei m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUMBER OF WORKERS R E C E IV IN G
hourly
earnings 2

O cc u p a tio n and s e x 3

2 . 3 0 2. 40

PRODUCTION WORKERS............................
HEN.....................................................................

1,194
1.177

3.4 0

3.60 3.80

4.00

S T R A IG H T -T IM E

HOURLY EARNINGS

4 .2 0 4 .4 0 4 .6 0 4 .80 5 .0 0

5.20

( IN

5.40

DOLLARS)

5.60

OF—

5.80 6 .0 0

AND

UNDEE
2 .4 0 2.50

A LL

3.20
3 .00

$5.64
5.64

5. 20 5 . 4 0
125
125

6.60

6.2 0
121

117

130
129

142
140

SELECTED PRODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
F IL L E R S , HAND....................................................
F IL L E R S , H A C H IN E ............................................
J A N IT O R S ..................................................................
HEN..................................................................
LABELERS AND PACKERS..................................
LABO RERS, H A TE R IA L H A N D LIN G ..............
HAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
U T I L I T Y ..................................................................
H IX E R S ........................................................................
G R IN D E R S ..................................................................
C O H B IN A TIO N H IX E R -G R IN D E R S .................
S H IP P IN G CLE RKS ...............................................
S H IP P IN G AND R E C E IV IN G C L E R K S . . ..
T E C H N IC IA N S ..........................................................
TE S T E R S , ERODUCT............................................
HEN..................................................................
T IN T E R S .....................................................................
TR U CKD RIVERS........................................................

1

4 .93
5.98
5.23
5.21
4.86
5.38
6.06
5.33
5.33
5.22
5.66
4 . 40
5.71
5.87
5.85
5.83
6.42

T h e P h ila d e lp h ia S ta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s of B u ck s, C h e s te r , D e la w a r e ,
M o n tg o m e r y , and P h ila d e lp h ia C o u n tie s , P a .; and B u rlin g to n , C am den, and G lo u c e s te r C o u n tie s, N .J .




10

13
6

7

S e e ta b le 6 , fo o tn o te 2.
D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te s a ll o r v ir tu a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

7.20
11

11

37
37

Table 18.

Occupational earnings:

St. Louis, M o .—III.1

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu r in g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)

1

T h e St. L o u is Sta n d a rd M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A rea c o n s is t s of the c it y of St. L o u is , the co u n tie s
F r a n k lin , J e ff e r s o n , St. C h a r le s , and St. L o u is, M o.; and the c o u n tie s of C lin to n , M a d iso n , M o n ro e,
and St. C la ir , 111.




2 S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
3 D ata not sh ow n s e p a r a te ly by s e x in d ic a te a ll or v ir tu a lly a ll w orke'rs a r e m en

Table 19.

Occupational earnings:

San Francisco—Oakland, Calif.

(N u m b er and a v e r a g e s t r a ig h t - t im e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 2 of w o r k e r s in s e le c t e d o c c u p a tio n s in p a in ts and v a r n is h e s m a n u fa ctu rin g e s ta b lis h m e n t s , N o v e m b e r 1976)
NUMBER OF WORKERS BEC EIV IN G

O cc up at io n and s e x 3

Number
of
workers

Average
hourly
earnings2

768
747
21

S TR A IG H T— IM E
T

4.80

4.90 5 .0 0

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80 6 .00

4.70 4 .8 0 4 .9 0

5.00 5 .2 0

5.40

5.60

5 . 80

6.00

6.20

33
31

158
156

211
205

5.92
5.99
5.93

40

4.60 4 .7 0

1

$6.50
6.51
6.24

6
70
62

4 . 3 0 4. 40 4 . 5 0
AND
UNDER
4 .40 4.50 4 .6 0

5.81
5.99
5.99

11
11

1
1

1

HOURLY EARNINGS

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.40 6 .6 0 6 .8 0
22
22

72
71 1
1

27
27

6.80

( IN

DOLLARS)

7.00 7 .2 0

7.00 7.20 7 .40
93
86
7

12
11
1

14
14

OF—

7.40

7 .60

7.60 8.0 0
31
31

28
28

8.00 8.40
8.40

8.80

9.20

8.80 9 .2 0

9.60

33
33

15
15

14

9.60
AND
OVER

15

SELECTEE PBODUCTION OCCUPATIONS
r4
10
2

i
21

1
9
4

5

b

b

11

MAINTENANCE WORKERS, GENERAL
7 .74
COMBINATION MIXER-GRINDERS......................

83
7

g

TRUCKERS, POWER (FORKLIFT)......................

1 The
C o s ta ,

6.74
8.03
6.21
6 . 17

-

-

-

.

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

2
3

-

5

-

2

27

;
2
1

1 u

2

San F r a n c is c o — akland Standard M e tr o p o lita n S t a tis tic a l A r e a c o n s is t s o f A la m e d a , C on tra
O
M arin , San F r a n c is c o , and San M ateo C o u n tie s .




3

14

2

6^97

31
10
40
38

14
71

2
2

19

8

5

6 .14
6.61
6 .00

'
-

-

7

2

-

*

2
1

2

~r_

_

8

_

-

_

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

5
2

S e e ta b le 6, fo o tn o te 2.
D ata not show n s e p a r a te ly b y s e x in d ic a te a ll o r v ir t u a lly a ll w o r k e r s a r e m en .

Table 20.

Method of wage payment

(Percent of production workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments by method of wage payment,1 United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Method of
wage payment

Regions
United
States*

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Areas

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

Atlanta

Baltimore

Chicago

All workers ............................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Time-rated workers ....................................................
Formal p la n s ............................................................
Single rate ..........................................................
Range of rates ...................................................
Individual ra te s.......................................................

100
88
44
43
12

100
89
61
28
11

100
85
9
75
15

100
66
25
41
34

100
68
23
45
32

100
96
55
40
4

100
94
23
71
6

100
94
39
54
6

100
100
73
27
-

100
84

100
94
49
45
6

Los AngelesLong Beach

Louisville

Newark

New York

Philadel­
phia

St. Louis

San FranciscoOakland

_

84
16

Areas
Cleveland

Dallas—
Fort Worth

Detroit

New BrunswickPerth AmboySayerville

All workers ............................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Time-rated workers ....................................................
Formal p la n s ............................................................
Single rate ..........................................................
Range of rates ...................................................
Individual ra te s.......................................................

100
96
73
23
4

100
87
14
73
13

100
100
80
20
(3)

100
100
88
12
-

100
92
3
89
8

100
86
14
72
14

100
66
53
13
34

100
90
37
53
10

100
92
67
25
8

100
98
25
73
2

100
99
99

1 For definition of method of wage payment, see appendix C.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE:




Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

_

1

Table 21.

Scheduled weekly hours

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments by scheduled weekly hours,' United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Weekly hours

United
States*

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

100
_

100

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

100

100

100

Production workers

ro
co




All workers ............................................
35 hours....................................................
36 hours..............................................
Over 36 and under 37 hours...................................
37.5 hours.........................................
Over 37.5 and under 38 hours.............................
38 hours...........................................
Over 38 and under 39 hours...................................
39 hours......................................
Over 39 and under 40 hours...................................
40 hours..........................................
Over 40 hours.........................

100
4
(3)
(3)
8
2
(3)
3
(3)
(3)
81
(3>

100
17
2
1
21

All workers ..............................
35 hours.................................
36 hours....................................
Over 36 and under 37 hours...............................
37.5 hours.............................
Over 37.5 and under 38 hours................................
38 hours....................
Over 38 and under 39 hours.............................
39 hours......................................
Over 39 and under 40 hours...................................
40 hours..............
Over 40 hours..............................

100
2
1
(3)
9
3
(3)
3
(3)
<3)
81
(3)

_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

100

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

55
-

100
-

98
2

93
2

1
80
-

94
2

97

100
11
2
1
27

100

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

100

100

100

100

_

_

_
_
_9
_

_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_

100

51
-

100
-

97
3

98
2

_
_

5

_
_
_

_

_
_

_
_

1
7
6
(3>
5

2
1

Office workers

' Data relate to the predominant schedule for full-tim e day-shift workers in each establishment.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

_

_
_
_

_
_

_
_

1
7
7
(3)
4

5
1

_

(3)
80
-

_

98
2

_
93




Table 22.

Shift differential provisions

(Percent of production workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments by shift differential provisions,1 United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Shift differential

United
States*

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

75.0
74.3
71.9
1.2
.4
11.1
2.7
1.4
2.5
32.0
2.7
8.9
1.2
4.0
.3
2.4
.3
.5
1.4

68.6
68.6
63.6
.9
1.8
11.2
2.4

48.3
48.3
48.3
4.4
_
8.1
4.7
8.4
_
12.1
_
10.6

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

46.8
45.6
41.7
_

51.1
51.1
51.1

90.4
88.7
86.2
1.4

17.4
_
_
5.3
_

_
_
_
5.9
38.9
_
6.2

11.3
3.8
2.7
3.4
46.3
1.4
8.6

Middle West

Pacific

82.2
82.2
82.2
_
_
29.8

91.0
91.0
91.0

Second shift
Workers in establishments with
second-shift provisions.............................
With shift differential............................................
Uniform cents per hour ....................................
5 cents.....................................
9 cents ...........................................
10 cents..................................
12 cents................................................
13 cents.............................................
14 cents.......................................................
15 cents..........................................................
18 cents ..........................................................
20 cents..........................................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents......................
25 cents..........................................................
30 cents..........................................................
Uniform cents per hour ....................................
4 percent.........................................................
5 percent.........................................................
10 percent.......................................................
Over 10 and under
15 percent .....................................................

-

4.1
19.5
4.1
2.1
2.2
9.6
_

_
_
-

5.0

_

_

_

3.3
15.8

_

3.9
3.9

_
_

_
_
_

_

_

_

1.0
.8
2.5

_

_
_

_
6.5

_
45.9
_
_

_

4.9

54.1
10.6
14.0
3.5
2.1

_

1.3
1.1

_
_
_

_
_

-

-

-

-

34.4
34.4
34.4

78.5
78.5
77.1

_

-

-

-

_

_

_

4.2

-

_

_

.2

.8

-

-

64.8
64.8
63.3
.2
2.4
.6
.4
10.8
.8
1.0
2.4
1.4
24.1
.6
.8
5.0
1.6
.5
.7

61.4
61.4
58.3

50.6
50.6
50.6

29.7
29.7
25.8

_

Third or other late shift
Workers in establishments with
third or other late shift
provisions ..................................................................
With shift differential............................................
Uniform percentage ...........................................
Under 10 cents..............................................
10 cents..........................................................
12 cents..........................................................
13 cents..........................................................
15 cents..........................................................
16 cents..........................................................
17 cents..........................................................
18 cents..........................................................
19 cents..........................................................
20 cents..........................................................
22 cents..........................................................
23 cents ..........................................................
25 cents..........................................................
Uniform percentage ...........................................
5 percent.........................................................
10 percent.......................................................

-

4.4
-

1.2
6.6
1.8
2.4

-

4.4

_

_

4.0

_

_

_

_

_

3.5

_

8.4

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

3.1
-

3.1

16.6

5.3

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

29.8

1.7

_

.4
14.6
.8
_

3.3
3.4
36.6

_
_
10.0
_
19.9
_

_
_
_

3.2

-

-

_

_

_

-

_

-

-

_

7.1

-

4.6

-

3.9

-

-

-

-

“

~

1 Refers to policies of establishments currently operating late shifts or having provisions covering late shifts.
* Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE:

_
-

_

16.7
1.5
2.5

-

7.0

_

82.2
82.2
82.2

6.5
1.3
1.3

31.2

82.1
82.1
82.1

_
_
_

__

16.3

_
_

10.5
1.9
30.2
2.0
2.0

_

-

_

-

_

”

-




Table 23.

Shift differential practices

(Percent of production workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments employed on late shifts by amount of pay differential, United States and selected regions,
November 1976)

Regions
Shift differential

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

11.2
111
11.0
.1
_
.6
.3
.1
.4
5.5
.7
1.6
.3
.6
(*)
.1
<l )
.1
-

8.8
8.8
8.8
_
_
_
.2
_
.3
3.7
1.2
.2
.5
1.1
-

6.3
6.3
6.3
.8
_
1.2
1.0
2.1
_
1.3
_
-

8.3
8.2
7.7
_
2.0
_
1.9
_
1.4
2.4
.6
.6
-

6.3
6.3
6.3
_
.8
4.9
.6
-

-

-

-

-

-

2.9
2.9
2.9
.1
-

2.5
2.5
2.5
-

1.4
1.4
1.4

-

-

-

-

.1
(l )
.5
.4
-

-

Southeast

Great
Lakes

Southwest

*

Middle West

Pacific

Second shift
Workers employed on second shift .........................
Receiving differential.............................................
Uniform cents per h o u r....................................
5 ce n ts............................................................
9 ce n ts............................................................
10 ce nts..........................................................
12 ce nts..........................................................
13 ce nts..........................................................
14 ce nts..........................................................
15 ce nts..........................................................
18 ce nts..........................................................
20 ce nts..........................................................
Over 20 and under 25 cents......................
25 ce nts..........................................................
30 ce nts..........................................................
Uniform cents per hour ....................:..............
4 percent.........................................................
5 percent.........................................................
10 percent.......................................................
Over 10 and under
15 percent.....................................................

10.6
10.6
10.6
_
1.0
_
1.0
_
8.6
-

10.8
10.8
10.8
_
_
_
5.1
1.6
2.7
.7
.4
-

-

-

-

2.8
2.8
2.8
-

4.4
4.4
4.2
.2
-

5.0
5.0
5.0
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.3
(2)
.1
2.2
.6
.2
.2

-

‘

16.3
16.0
15.8
.2
_
.8
.6
.1
.8
9.3
.7
1.6
.2
.1
.2
.2
-

'

Third or other late shift
Workers employed on third
or other late s h if t ....................................................
Receiving differential.............................................
Uniform percentage ...........................................
Under 10 ce nts..............................................
10 ce nts..........................................................
12 ce nts..........................................................
13 ce nts..........................................................
15 ce nts..........................................................
16 cents ..........................................................
17 ce nts..........................................................
18 ce nts..........................................................
19 ce nts..........................................................
20 ce nts..........................................................
22 ce nts..........................................................
23 ce nts..........................................................
25 ce nts..........................................................
Uniform percentage ...........................................
5 percent.........................................................
10 percent.......................................................

.2
(*)
(*)
(’ )
.1
1.2
(*)
.1
.3
.1
.1
“

-

.3
.2
-

-

~

-

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

-

.4
(’ )

-

~

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
* Less than 0.05 percent.
NOTE:

1.0
1.0
1.0

"

2.8
-

.7
-

.8
-

-

1.5
1.5
1.5

-

~

.2
.1
.5
.1




Table 24. Paid holidays
(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States and selected regions,
November 1976)

Regions
Number of
paid holidays

United
States'

All workers............................................................
Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays...........................................
Under 6 days..........................................................
6 d a y s .....................................................................
6 days plus 2 half days......................................
7 d a y s .....................................................................
7 days plus 1 or 2 half days.............................
8 d a y s .....................................................................
8 days plus 1 or 2 half days............................
9 days .....................................................................
9 days phis 1 or 2 half days............................
10 d a y s ...................................................................
10 days plus 1 or 2 half days..........................
11 d a y s ...................................................................
11 days plus 1 or 2 half days..........................
12 d a y s ...................................................................
12 days plus 1 half da y......................................
13 d a y s ...................................................................
14 d a y s ...................................................................

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

100

100

100

100

100
1
5
(*)
4
2
5
2
14
1
36
(*)
19
(*)
7
1
• 2
1

100
1
4
1
5
1
21
2
32
19
2
5
3

100
14
12
11
6
5
29
7
16
-

100
17
18
12
6
12
19
9

100

100

100

100

100
<*)
4
(’ )
4
2
8
2
18
2
35
(*)
17
4
1
2
(l >

100
2

100

100
5
9

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

100

100

100

100

100
20
5
3
_
6
39
21
4
_
-

100
_
2
3
2
3
3
11
_
48
_
18
1
6
_
3
-

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

_

_

_

Southwest

Production workers

-

_
-

6

_

_

_
_
14
2
7
_
5
_
66

3
18
_
49

_

_

_
_
_
_
-

7

-

1

_
_

28
_
_
_
_

-

Office workers
All workers ............................................................
Workers in establishments
providing paid holidays...........................................
Under 6 days ..........................................................
6 days .....................................................................
6 days plus 2 half days......................................
7 days .....................................................................
7 days plus 1 or 2 half days............................
8 d a y s .....................................................................
8 days plus 1 or 2 half days............................
9 d a y s .....................................................................
9 days plus 1 or 2 half days.............................
10 d a ys...................................................................
10 days plus 1 or 2 half days..........................
11 d a ys...................................................................
12 d a y s ...................................................................
12 days plus 1 half day......................................
13 days ...................................................................
14 d a ys...................................................................

-

10

14
4
3

-

1
-

5
-

8
4
24
2
25
15
3
6
2

1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
1 Less than 0.5 percent.
NOTE:

-

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

-

9
5
6
7
29
4
26

10
6
22

-

-

-

22

1
_

42

_

5
2
7
_
_

3

_

8
15
_

-

-

14

21

41

81

-

_

_

12

_

4
_

1

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

•

17
2

-

“

3

_

2
4
6
3
19

11

_

_

3

36
33

_
_

-

-

3

_

_

_

-

-




Table 25.

Paid vacations

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service,
United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Vacation policy

United
States'

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

Production workers
All workers .............................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid vacations ........................................
Length-of-tim e payment.......................................
Percentage payment ...............................................

100
96
4

100
97
3

100
100
-

100
93
7

100
95
5

100
97
3

100
100
-

100
87
13

67
1
31
2

47
3
49
_

71
_
29
-

85
_
15
_

80
20
-

62
(3)
32
5

80
_
20
_

83
_
17
_

25
2
71
2

27
3
70
_

11
4
85
_

45
55
_

40
60
_

26
1
66
7

27
10
63
_

_
100
_

4
1
90
3
1
1

1
(3)
93
5
-

6
4
90
_
_

22
_
78
_

11
89
_
-

(3)
90
4
3
3

10
90
_
-

100
-

n
(3)
75
3
20
2

70
3
24
3

6
6
94
_
-

90
10
-

100
-

68
6
23
3

83
3
15
-

64
36
-

10

16
69

-

Amount of vacation pay*
After 1 year of servico:
1 w eek......................................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ..................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks..................................
After 2 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks..................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
After 3 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ..................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks..................................
After 5 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Under 2 weeks........................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
After 10 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 or 5 weeks..........................................................
After 15 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 w eeks....................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks ..................................
5 w eeks....................................................................
After 20 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

(3)
14
(3)
73
4
8
(3)
7
54
4
33
2
1
(3)
7
14

12

3
15

36

-

-

-

60
9
17

82

61

21
3
76

-

-

-

4
37
6
49
3
4
10

15

2
98
-

3
11
72
14
-

28
50
22
-

15
75
11
-

-

-

-

3
52
8
32
3
1

2
75
23
-

2
52
47
-

3
11
28

28
21

15
28

-

-

-

-

3

-

-

75
7
8

-

3
11

2
7

2
9




Table 25.

Paid vacations—Continued

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service
United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Vacation policy

United
States'

Border
States

Middle
Atlantic

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

77

85

15

4

Production workers
A m o M t of vacation pay’ -C o n tiiu id
A fter 20 years of service: — Continued

Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 w eeks...................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks ..................................
5 w eeks...................................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ..................................
6 w eeks...................................................................

1
62
4
11
1
1

2
51
7
21
3
_

(3)
7
13
34
2
41
2
1
(3)

-

58
_
_
_
_

41
_
10
_ _

_

3
11
24
40
_
23
_
_
_

_
28
21
31
_
20
_
_
_

_
15
28
25
_
32
_
_
_

3
11
24
29

_
28
21
31
_
20
_
_
-

_
15
28
25
_
32
_
_

57
_
_

_

65
6
12
(3)
1

_

A fter 25 years of service:

1 w eek.....................................................................
2 w eeks...................................................................
3 w eeks...................................................................
4 w eeks...................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks ..................................
5 weeks...................................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ..................................
6 weeks...................................................................
7 weeks...................................................................

4
6
38
2
39
8
1
2

•

_
3
11
34
5
43
1
1

_

A fter 30 years of service:4

1 week.....................................................................
2 weeks...................................................................
3 weeks...................................................................
4 weeks...................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks..................................
5 weeks...................................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks..................................
6 weeks...................................................................
Over 7 weeks..........................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

(3>
7
13
32
1
42
3
1
(3)

-

4
6
38
2
39
8
1
2

_

33
_
_

.

-

_
2
7
32

2
9
21

60

69

_

_

_

3
11
33
3
45
4
1
-

2
7
32

2
9
21

60

69

_

-

-




Table 25.

Paid vacations —Continued

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service,
United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Vacation policy

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

Office workers
All workers .............................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

Method of payment
Workers in establishments
providing paid va cations........................................
length-of-tim e payment.......................................
Percentage payment ...............................................

100
100
(*)

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
100
-

100
97
3

34
65
1

22
75
4

50
50
_

43
57
_

47
53
_

17
81
1

68
32
_

52
48
_

6
<
3)
83
11

8
(3)
86
6

7
3
90
-

15
_
85
_

15
76
9

2
_
74
24

6
_
94
_

_
_
100
-

2
(3)
87
11

1
(3)
92
6

3
3
93
_

8
92
_

4
87
9

76
24

_
100
_

_
100
-

(3)
(3)
69
10
20
1

_
73
3
21
4

3
3
93

81

-

-

84
9
7
-

_
56
25
19
-

_
93
_
7
-

_
56
44
_

(3)
14
2
68
10
8

16
57
10
18

1
14
81
4

24
73
3

20
3
68
9
-

10
4
58
20
9

9
84
7

7
_
92
1

(3)
7
46
13
33
(3)

10
32
14
43
1

1
10
77

17
53

-

-

4
41

-

-

-

11

31
-

3
34
27
36
-

9
82

-

11
63
9
16
-

(3)
7
13
1
54
8
15

-

-

-

-

-

17
21
43

11
28
45
9
7

3
9
4
50
17
18

Amount of vacation pay1
After 1 year of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
After 2 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks..................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks..................................
After 3 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Over 1 and under 2 weeks ..................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
After 5 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
Under 2 weeks ........................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks..................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks..................................
After 10 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
Over 2 and under 3 weeks ..................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 or 5 weeks..........................................................
After IS years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks..................................
4 w eeks....................................................................
5 w eeks....................................................................
After 20 years of service:
1 w eek......................................................................
2 w eeks....................................................................
3 w eeks....................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 w eeks....................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks..................................
5 w eeks....................................................................
See footnotes at end of table.

10
8
-

52
7
20

-

-

4

-

1
10
19
65
4

19

-

19

9
-

55
1
-

9
2

4
9

82

69

-

-

7

18




Table 25.

Paid vacations—Continued

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service.
United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Vacation policy

United
States'

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

Office workers
Amount of vacation pay*-Continued
After 20 years of service: — Continued
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ..................................
6 weeks...................................................................
After 25 years of service:
1 week.....................................................................
2 weeks...................................................................
3 weeks...................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 weeks...................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks ..................................
5 w eeks...................................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ..................................
6 weeks...................................................................
After 30 years of service:4
1 week .....................................................................
2 weeks ...................................................................
3 weeks ...................................................................
Over 3 and under 4 weeks ..................................
4 weeks...................................................................
Over 4 and under 5 weeks ..................................
5 weeks...................................................................
Over 5 and under 6 weeks ..................................
6 weeks...................................................................
1
1
reflect
3
4

4
1

_
_

10
3

1
10
16

17
21

_

_

_

1
(3)
(3)
7
11
1
32
1
39
8
(3)
(3)
7
11
1
30
(3)
40
9
1

36
1
39
9
2

_

39

32

_

_

34

30

11
28

_
34
_
27

_

_

_

_

_

_
10
3

1
10
16

_

_

17
21

11
28

-

__

_

36
1
39
9
2

__

_

23

32

34

-

_

_

49

30

27

_

_

_

-

-

-

3
9
4
34
1
31
18

_
3
9
4
33

9
2

4
9

11

24

78

63

_

9
2

4
9

_

11
_

24

32
20

78

61

-

2

Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
Vacation payments, such as percent of annual earnings, were converted to an equivalent time basis. Periods of service were chosen arbitrarily and do not necessarily
individual establishment provisions for progression. For example, changes indicated at 10 years may include changes that occurred between 5 and 10 years.
Less than 0.5 percent.
Vacation provisions were virtually the same after longer periods of service.

NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 26.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with specified healtti, insurance, and retirement plans,1 United States and
selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Type of plan

United
States3

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

Production workers
All workers ............................................................
orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance.........................................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance ..................................
Noncontributory pla n s........................................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ........................................
Sickness and accident
insurance...........................................................
Noncontributory p la n s....................................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period)...........................................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)............................................
Long-term disability insurance...........................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Hospitalization insurance ......................................
Noncontributory pla n s........................................
Surgical insurance..................................................
Noncontributory plan s........................................
Medical insurance...................................................
Noncontributory pla n s........................................
Major medical insurance.......................................
Noncontributory pla n s........................................
Pensions ...................................................................
Noncontributory......................................................

roc

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

98
83

99
96

94
74

97
55

98
72

97
84

100
87

97
87

82
68

66
63

86
66

84
42

73
56

88
73

100
87

86
78

93

89

94

82

81

98

97

100

64
52

65
47

77
64

38
18

31
24

85
75

90
75

15
13

38

61

64

32

38

27

22

18

26
18
16
100
81
100
80
99
80
86
66
91
84

17
15
13
99
97
99
96
97
93
72
61
96
91

6
9
9
100
87
100
87
100
87
96
75
88
74

16
7
5
100
47
100
47
100
47
92
36
79
79

31
21
17
100
66
100
66
100
66
100
66
85
78

16
23
21
99
78
99
78
99
78
85
67
93
81

46
18
18
100
83
100
83
100
83
84
67
95
95

80
13
13
100
96
100
96
100
96
100
96
92
91

All workers ............................................................
orkers in establishments providing:
Life insurance.........................................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Accidental death and
dismemberment insurance ..................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Sickness and accident insurance
or sick leave or both3 ........................................
Sickness and accident
insurance...........................................................
Noncontributory p lan s....................................
Sick leave (full pay,
no waiting period)...........................................
Sick leave (partial pay
or waiting period)............................................
Long-term disability insurance ...........................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Hospitalization insurance ......................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Surgical insurance..................................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Medical insurance...................................................

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

100

96
72

96
88

95
77

93
57

97
61

97
73

100
29

95
83

83
59

70
55

92
74

79
32

65
40

87
65

96
25

88
79

88

87

95

79

83

86

85

100

52
37

55
36

82
69

16
5

36
26

62
50

83
19

17
16

61

72

73

35

68

56

11

83

12
33
27
99
69
99
69
99

11
30
26
98
90
98
89
98

4
39
38
100
90
100
90
100

31
22
22
100
44
100
44
100

5
40
32
100
60
100
60
100

13
42
34
100
67
100
67
100

7
9
9
100
27
100
27
100

16
30
14
97
78
97
78
97

Office workers

See footnotes at end of table.




Table 26.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans—Continued

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments with specified health, insurance, and retirement plans,1 United States and
selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Type of plan

United
States1

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

89
73
57
86
77

90
98
87
90
81

44
98
39
75
75

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

67
93
63
94
77

27
93
20
97
39

78
96
77
67
66

Office workers
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Major medical insurance.......................................
Noncontributory p lan s........................................
Pensions..................................................................
Noncontributory......................................................

69
90
59
86
73

•

60
100
60
86
75

1 Includes those plans for which the employer pays at least part of the cost and excludes legally required plans such as workers’ compensation and social security;
however, plans required by State temporary disability laws are included if the employer contributes more than is legally required or the employees receive benefits in excess
of legal requirements. "Noncontributory plans” include only those plans financed entirely by the employer
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
1 Unduplicated total of workers receiving sickness and accident insurance and sick leave shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 27.

Other selected benefits

(Percent of production and office workers in paints and varnishes manufacturing establishments providing funeral leave pay, jury duty pay. supplemental unemployment
benefits,cost-of-living adjustments, and clothing allowances1 United States and selected regions, November 1976)

Regions
Type of benefit

United
States*

Middle
Atlantic

Border
States

Southeast

Southwest

Great
Lakes

Middle West

Pacific

91
88

100
100

92
58

Production workers
Workers in establishments
with provisions fo r
Funeral leave ...............................................................
Jury duty leave ...........................................................
Supplemental unemployment
benefits.......................................................................
Cost of living adjustments
Based on BLS d a ta ................................................
Other bases .............................................................
Clothing allowance .....................................................
Clothing provided....................................................
Monetary allowance in lieu
of clothes ..............................................................
Combination ............................................................

91
83

95
86

95
87

78
77

79
86

4

_

5

_

28
1
77
64

32
_
92
91

12
_
82
50

15
9
57
44

_
_

9
4

2
-

18
14

8
6

10

3

5

_
76
44

44
_
76
65

3
7
76
26

19
1
67
63

32
-

4
7

50
-

3
2

89
88

96
96

93
70

5

_

6

Office workers
Workers in establishments
with provisions for:
Funeral leave ...............................................................
Jury duty leave ...........................................................
Supplemental unemployment
benefits.......................................................................
Cost of living adjustments
Based on BLS data ...............................................
Other bases .............................................................

90
86

95
90

95
93

84
88

75
86

4

_

25

_

10
1

21
“

_
_

-

For definition of items, see appendix C.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

4

3
12

-

7
-

1
3

18
1

Appendix A. Regression Analysis

One method of isolating the independent effect on
wages of various establishment and worker character­
istics is multiple regression. By this method, the estima­
ted wage differential for a given variable is determined
independently. The variables included in table A -l are
defined, where necessary, in appendix C—Scope and
Method of Survey.
In the regression equation, one category of each of
the variables is not shown explicitly, but its influence is
embodied in the constant term. In table A -l, therefore,

Conventional methods of analyzing wage variations
using cross tabulations (simple regression) of data
typically stop short of measuring the independent
influence on wage levels of such factors as size of
establishment, location, and union contract status. The
independent effect of unionization on earnings, for
example, may be obscured by earnings differentials
associated with larger establishments and metropolitan
areas—two characteristics generally found more often
in union than nonunion establishments.

Table A -1. Regression analysis o f average hourly earnings, all production workers and selected occupations, paint and
varnish manufacturing, November 1976
Selected occupations
All
production
workers

Variable

C o nstan t........................................................................... .. • • ■
Metropolitan area.......................................................................
Larger plants (at least 100 workers)

...................................

Union p la n t.................................................................................
Region:
Middle Atlantic ..................................................................
Border S ta te s .......................................................................
Southwest ............................................................................
Great L a k e s .........................................................................
Middle W e s t.........................................................................
Pacific ...................................................................................
Statistical information:
Coefficient of determination (R 2 ) ........................................
Standard error of estimate ....................................................
Mean (Y) .....................................................................................
Number of establishments ( S ) ...............................................

Fillers
machine

Labelers
and
packers

Laborers
material
handling

Grinders

$3.16
(.26)
0.59
(.24)
0.60
(.10)
0.36
(.11)

$2.33
(.36)
1.10
(.34)
0.57
(.14)
0.38
(.15)

$2.95
(.40)
0.42
(.35)
0.83
(.13)
0.30
(.16)

$2.96
(.30)
0.40
(.26)
0.62
(.12)
0.37
(.14)

$2.32
(.40)
1.01
(.37)
0.49
(.16)
0.20
(.18)

$3.09
(.40)
0.63
(.31)
0.23
(.17)
0.36
(.18)

0.77
(.20)
0.18
(.26)
0.33
(.24)
0.99
(.18)
0.83
(.26)
1.43
(.22)

0.73
(.27)
0.30
(.30)
0.33
(.30)
1.15
(.21)
1.06
(.29)
1.58
(.25)

0.78
(.26)
0.47
(.36)
0.63
(.32)
1.07
(.25)
0.68
(.40)
1.70
(.31)

0.74
(.25)
0.27
(.30)
0.37
(.27)
0.78
(.23)
0.85
(.31)
1.46

0.87
(.32)
0.25
(.40)
0.57
(.43)
1.29
(.30)
1.47
(.37)
.69
(.32)

1.21
(.37)
.71
(.43)
.96
(.51)
1.47
(.35)
.43
(.43)
1.29
(.43)

.36
$0.79
$5.10
292

.45
$0.76
$4.88
163

See fo o tn o te s a t end o f ta b le .




Fillers,
hand

39

.37
$0.82
$4.91
177

(.28)
.35
$0.75
$4.59
184

.32
$0.81
$4.67
142

.34
$0.72
$5.22
96

Table A-1. Regression analysis of average hourly earnings, all production workers and selected occupations, paint and
varnish manufacturing, November 1976—
Continued

Mixers

Variable

C o n s tan t.....................................................................................
Metropolitan area .....................................................................
Larger plants (at least 100 workers)

...................................

Union p la n t.................................................................................
Region:
Middle Atlantic ..................................................................
Border States

Mixers
and
grinders

.....................................................................

Southwest ............................................................................
Great L a k e s ..........................................................................
Middle W e s t..........................................................................
Pacific ...................................................................................
Statistical information:
Coefficient of determination (R 2 ) ......................................
Standard error of estim ate......................................................
Mean (Y) .....................................................................................
Number of establishments ( S ) ...............................................

_________________________________________

Maintenance
workers,
Technicians
general
utility

Tinters

Truckers,
power
(forklift)

$4.07
(.28)
0.11
(.25)
0.42
(.13)
0.29
9.15)

$2.94
(.37)
1.15
(.36)
0.83
(.12)
0.01
(.16)

$3.99
(.33)
0.90
(.31)
0.40
(.12)
0.33
(.13)

$4.01
(.31)
0.49
(.30)
-0.08
(-)
0.14
(.15)

$4.03
(.27)
0.74
(.27)
0.34
(.11)
0.35
(.12)

$3.49
(.35)
0.53
(.32)
0.47
(.14)
0.14
(.17)

0.62
(.31)
-0.01
(.33)
0.04
(.36)
0.86
(.28)
0.43
(.35)
1.36
(.32)

0.66
(.21)

0.31
(.22)
-0.42
(.29)
-0.39
(.28)
0.44

0.96
(.26)
0.13
(.39)
-0.24
(.37)
0.75
(.24)
0.53
(.33)
1.52
(.32)

0.47
(.22)
-0.06
(.29)
0.08
(.25)
0.63
(.20)
0.43
(.30)
1.18
(.24)

0.78
(.28)
-0.30
(.34)
0.44
(.30)
0.96
(.26)
0.45
(.44)
1.61
(.30)

(*>
(.37)
(M

(.25)
1.10
(.20)
0.66
(.29)
1.53
(.24)

.35
$0.71
$5.26
145

Less th a n $ 0 .0 5 .

.53
$0.72
$5.13
153

(.19)
0.38
(.29)
1.39
(.23)
.38
$0.79
$5.72
214

.19
$0.89
$5.19
182

.29
$0.74
$5.62
211

.42
$0.66
$5.23
129

w o u ld d iffe r fr o m a census-derived value by less th a n th e standard
e rro r, and a b o u t 1 9 o u t o f 2 0 th a t th e d iffe re n c e w o u ld be less th a n

N O T E : N um bers in parenthesis are standard errors. Regression
c o e ffic ie n ts , based on a sam ple, m ay d iffe r fr o m figures th a t w o u ld

tw ic e th e stan dard e rro r. Y is th e m ean o f th e earnings (d e p e n d en t)
variab le w e ig h te d by p ro d u c tio n w o rkers; S is th e n u m b e r o f

have been o b ta in e d fro m a c o m p le te census o f th e in d u s try .
Chances are a b o u t 2 o u t o f 3 th a t an estim ate fr o m th e sam ple

establishm ents in th e sam ple o r w ith e m p loyees in th e o c c upatio ns
show n above.

the categories represented by the constant term are
nonmetropolitan, small employment size, nonunion
plant and Southeast. The average wage level relating to
this set o f suppressed characteristics is represented by
the value of the constant term. The coefficients o f the
explicit variables represent the differentials associated
with categories of those characteristics differing from
the basic set embodied in the constant.
The effects o f the coefficients on average wage levels
are determined by the substitution of the values of the
new variables in table A-1 for those suppressed in the
constant term. For example, for production workers in
a union shop, estimated average hourly earnings are
higher by 36 cents (or $3.52) when other factors are
held constant. Further, if these workers are located in a
metropolitan area, another 59 cents is added to the
constant term, which raises the average hourly earnings
to $4.11. Wage differences found by simple cross­
tabulation may be labeled gross differentials; those
isolated by regression techniques are net differentials.
As illustrated in table A-2, net differentials are general­




ly smaller than gross differentials, which is to be
expected, because, as stated previously, characteristics
associated with higher wages tend to be highly interre­
lated. Regression techniques, then, measure more pre­
cisely the impact of individual factors on the wage
structure o f an industry.
It should be emphasized that the regression analysis
is not sufficiently complete to state with certainty that
the truly independent effects of employee and
establishment characteristics on wage levels have been
measured. As table A-1 shows, the regression analysis
failed to account for about 64 percent of the variation
in average earnings levels for all production workers,
and 47 to 81 percent of the variation in earnings for the
11 selected occupations. (See adjusted coefficient of
determination, R2.) This could mean that other factors,
beyond the scope of the survey, influenced the esti­
mates. However, by holding constant those characteris­
tics within the survey scope, estimates for specified
characteristics definitely were improved.
40

Table A-2. Earnings differentials associated w ith selected characteristics, paints and varnish industry, November 1976
All
production
workers

Characteristic

Metropolitan to nonmetropolitan area:
Gross d iffe re n tia l................................................................
Net differential ..................................................................

Union to nonunion:
Gross d iffe re n tia l................................................................
Net differential ..................................................................

Larger plants (100 workers plus) to smaller plants
(less than 100 workers):
Gross d iffe re n tia l................................................................
Net differential ..................................................................

Great Lakes to Southeast:
Gross d iffe re n tia l................................................................
Net differential ..................................................................

NO TE:

Gross

d iffe re n tia ls

w ere

derived

fr o m

sim p le

Combination
mixers
and grinders

$0.83
(.40)
(-26)

$1.24
1.01
(.37)

$1.52
1.15
(.36)

.76
.30
(.16)

.74
.37
(.14)

.52
.20
(.18)

.57
.01
(.16)

.77
.57
(.14)

.93
.83
(.13)

.68
.62
(.12)

.74
.49
(.16)

.82
.83
(.12)

1.45
1.15
(.21)

1.36
1.07
(.25)

1.14
.78
(.23)

1.71
1.29
(.30)

1.22
1.10
(.20)

Fillers,
machine

$1.10
.59
(.24)

$1.62
1.10
(.34)

$0.93
.42
(.35)

.78
.36
(.11)

.84
.38
(.15)

.75
.60
(.10)

1.28
.99
(.18)

cro ss -ta b u la tio n s ;

net d iffe re n tia ls , fr o m m u ltip le regression analysis.




Laborers,
material
handling

Fillers,
hand

41

Labelers
and packers

Appendix B. Occupational Pay Matrix
Differences between individual occupational average
hourly earnings usually have been limited to compari­
sons o f the high to the low average or one occupation’s
average to all others. The matrix analysis is an attempt
to expand upon this type o f comparison to more fully
understand wage changes between occupational group­
ings.

Occupations were arranged along the matrix axes
from highest to lowest pay levels as o f November 1976.
Percent differences then were computed for the 91 pay
relationships each in 1970 and 1976. For example,
reading across the mixers’ row, table B-l, their earnings
were exceeded by 9 percent for general utility mainte­
nance workers, 7 percent for tinters, and less than 0.5

Table B-1. Occupational pay relationship m atrix in paints and varnishes, November 1 9 7 6 and November 1970
(in parenthesis)

Occupation

Maintenance workers, general u t ilit y ..........
Tinters ..............................................................
Shipping clerks ................................................
M ix e rs ................................................................
Testers ..............................................................
Grinders ...........................................................
Technicians.......................................................
Receiving clerks...............................................
Combination mixers-grinder ........................
Shipping and receiving clerks .....................
Truckdrivers ....................................................
Janitors..............................................................
Laborers, material handling ........................

Maintenance
workers,
general
utility

2
9
9
9
10
10
11
12
13

( 2)
(11)
(15)
(13)
(10)
( 7)
(18)
(19)
(16)

7
7
7
8
8
9
10
11

( 8)
(12)
(10)
( 9)
( 4)
(15)
(16)
(13)

1
1
1
2
2
3
4

14
18
22
25

(14)
(29)
(26)
(35)

12
16
20
22

(11)
(26)
(23)
(32)

5
9
13
15

Receiving
clerks

Maintenance workers, general u t ilit y ..........
T in ters................................................................
Shippers ...........................................................
M ix e rs ................................................................
Testers................................................................
Grinders ...........................................................
Technicians.......................................................
Receiving clerks .............................................
Mixers and grinders........................................
Shipping and receiving clerks .....................
Truckdrivers ....................................................
Janitors..............................................................
Laborers, material handling..........................
Labelers and packers ....................................

Shipping
clerks

Tinters

1
2
3
7
10
12

( 1)
(-2 )
( -4)
( 9)
( 7)
(14)

Combination
mixersgrinders

1
2
6
10
12

( -3)
(-4 )
( 8)
( 6)
(13)




42

4)
2)
1)
-4)
7)
8)
4)

1
1
1
2
3
4

( -2)
(-3 )
(-7 )
( 3)
( 4)
( 1)

( 3)
(16)
(14)
(22)

5
9
13
15

( -1)
(12)
( 9)
(17)

Shipping
and
receiving
clerks

1
5
9
10

Less th a n 0 .5 p e rc e n t.

(
(
(
(
(
(
(

Mixers

(-1 )
(11)
( 9)
(17)

Truckdrivers

4
8
10

(13)
(10)
(19)

Testers

1
1
1
2
3
4
8
12
14

(-1)
(-6 )
( 5)
( 6)
( 2)
( 1)
(14)
(11)
(20)

Janitors

4
5

(-2 )
( 5)

Grinders

1

(-4)

1
2
3
4
8
12
14

( 6)
( 7)
( 4)
( 2)
(15)
(13)
(21)

Technicians

Laborers,
material
handling

2

( 7)

1
1
2
3
7
11
13

(11)
(12)
( 8)
( 7)
(21)
(18)
(27)

Labelers
and
packers

percent for shipping clerks in 1976; but compared to
the other 10 jobs shown, the mixer earnings advantage
varied from 1 to 15 percent, reading down column 4.
The mean occupational difference then is computed by
summing the percent differences in a given year and
dividing by the number of observations. The resulting
mean represents the average percent difference
between occupational pairings. For example, the mean
occupational difference of the 14 paints and varnishes
occupations studied in both 1970 and 1976 was 7
percent in 1976 and 10 percent in 1970. The difference
between two mean occupational averages then ij tested
for statistical significant by using the standard T-test at
the 95 percent level o f confidence. If the difference is
significant, it becomes possible to determine if the
occupational wage structure, as a whole, has remained
stable (i.e., individual occupational average hourly




earnings have maintained a constant relationship to
each other); expanded (i.e., earnings have moved
farther apart); or contracted (i.e., earnings have moved
closer together). For example, the difference between
the 1970 and 1976 mean occupational differences in
paints and varnishes manufacturing industry was 3
percentage
points—tested
for
significance—
representing a contraction of the overall occupational
wage structure.
By using the same methods, changes in an individual
occupation’s relationship to all other occupations and
to other individual occupations also can be determined.
The following tabulation presents the mean differences
o f four occupation in both 1970 and 1976. The absolute
differences—all significant—represent changes in the
average advantage or disadvantage held by these
occupations to others studied.

43

Appendix C. Scope and Method of Survey
S cope o f survey

P roduction w o rkers and O ffic e w o rkers

The survey included establishments engaged primari­
ly in manufacturing paints (in paste and ready mixed
form), varnishes, lacquers, enamels and shellac; putties
and calking compounds; wood fillers and sealers; paint
and varnish removers; paint brush cleaners; and allied
paint products (SIC 2851 as defined in the 1967 edition
o f the Standard Industrial Classification Manual pre­
pared by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget).
Separate auxiliary units such as central offices were
excluded.
Establishments studied were selected from those
employing 20 workers or more at the time of reference
o f the data used in compiling the universe lists. Table
C-l shows the number of establishments and workers
estimated to be within the scope of the survey, as well
as the number actually studied by the Bureau.

The terms “production workers” and “production
and related workers,” used interchangeably in this
bulletin, include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice activities. Adminis­
trative, executive, professional, and technical person­
nel, and force-account construction employees, who
are used as a separate work force on the firm’s own
properties, are excluded.
The term “office workers” includes all nonsupervisory office workers and excludes administrative, execu­
tive, professional, and technical employees.

O ccupational classification
Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of
interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix D for these
descriptions.) The criteria for selection of the occu­
pations were: The number of workers in the occu­
pation; the usefulness of the data in collective bargain­
ing; and appropriate representation of the entire job
scale in the industry. Working supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, parttime, temporary, and probationary workers were not
reported in the data for selected occupations but were
included in the data for all production workers.

M eth o d o f study
Data were obtained by personal visits o f the Bureau’s
field staff to a representative sample o f establishments
within the scope o f the survey. To obtain appropriate
accuracy at minimum cost, a greater proportion of
large than o f small establishments was studied. All
estimates are presented, therefore, as relating to all
establishments in the industry, excluding only those
below the minimum size at the time of reference o f the
universe data.

W age data
E stablishm ent definition
Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the workers’ regular pay.
Nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses, were excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or category of workers, such as production
workers, were calculated by weighting each rate (or
hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving
the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of
individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers

An establishment is defined for this study as a single
physical location where manufacturing operations are
performed. An establishment is not necessarily identical
with a company, which may consist o f one
establishment or more.

E m ploym en t
Estimates o f the number o f workers within the scope
o f the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the industry’s labor force, rather
than as precise measures of employment.




44

Table C-l.
E stim ated num ber of estab lish m en ts and em p lo yee s w ithin scope of survey
and num ber studied, paints and varn ish e s industry, N o v e m b e r 1976

Workers in establishments

Number of establishments1
Region1 and area2

United States*.....................................................................
Middle Atlantic6 ..................................................................
New Brunwicks, Perth Amboy,
Sayerville. N.J...............................................................
Newark, N.J....................................................................
New York, N.Y-NJ .......................................................
Philadelphia, P a .-N J ...................................................
Border States ......................................................................
Baltimore, Md.................................................................
Louisville, Ky.-lnd..........................................................
Southeast* ...........................................................................
Atlanta. Ga.....................................................................
Southwest*...........................................................................
Dallas- Ft Worth, Texas................................................
Great Lakes*........................................................................
Chicago. I l l .......................................
Cleveland. O hio............................................................
Detroit, Mich.................................................................
Middle W est*.......................................................................
St Louis, Mo.— .........................................................
Ill
Pacific® .................................................................................
Los Angeles-Long Beach, C a lif.................................
San Francisco-Oakland, C a lif....................................

Within scope of study

Within scope of
study

Actually studied

645
137

292
68

50790
10230

27647
5975

7715
1439

30779
7186

8
19
44
21
44
11
14
54
12
■37
16
179
52
26
20
34
15
91
43
13

6
11
21
12
23
7
9
19
8
13
10
70
23
11
11
18
10
40
19
10

1095
1321
1889
2205
3207
1047
1274
3200
1100
2131
1327
18882
5870
2130
2309
2870
816
5977
3184
1411

703
884
1186
1194
1540
526
546
1807
538
1157
797
10018
3049
1253
1283
1566
471
3283
1825
768

146
182
263
346
484
152
226
377
201
334
233
2814
772
376
250
521
92
1021
502
276

1015
1019
999
1902
2327
883
1054
1489
978
834
1133
10000
3849
1222
1611
2065
651
3490
1749
1303

Actually studied
Total*

Production workers

Office workers

1 The regions used in this study include Middle Atlantic—H e * Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania; Border States—Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland,
Virginia, and West Virginia; Southeast—Alablama, Florida, Georgia, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee; Southwest—Arkansas, Louisiana, Oklahoma, and
Texas; Great Lakes—Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, Ohio, and Wisconsin; Middle West—Iowa, Kansas, Missouri, North Dakota, and South Dakota; and Pacific—California,
Nevada, Oregon, and Washington
* See individual area tables 7-14 for definitions of selected areas.
* Includes only those establishments with 20 workers or more at the time of reference of the universe data.
* Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers in addition to the production worker category shown separately.
* Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately. Alaska and Hawaii were not included in the study.
* Includes data for areas in addition to those shown separately.
NOTE:

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals.

politan in character and are socially and economically
integrated with the central city. In New England,
where the city and town are administratively more
important than the county, they are the units used in
defining Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

were obtained by dividing straight-time salary by
normal (or standard) hours to which the salary
corresponds.
The median designates position; that is, one-half of
the employees surveyed received more than this rate
and one-half received less. The middle range is defined
by two rates of pay such that one-fourth of the
employees earned less than the lower of these rates and
one-fourth earned more than the higher rate.

Lab or-m anagem ent ag reem en ts
Separate wage data are presented, where possible,
for establishments that had (1) a majority of the
production workers covered by labor-management
contracts, and (2) none or a minority of the production
workers covered by labor-management contracts.

Size o f com m unity
Tabulations by size of community pertain to metro­
politan and nonmetropolitan areas. The term “metropol­
itan areas,” as used in this bulletin, refers to the
Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas as defined by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget through
February 1974. Except in New England, a Standard
Metropolitan Statistical Area is defined as a county or
group of contiguous counties which contains at least
one city of 50,000 inhabitants or more. Counties
contiguous to the one containing such a city are
included in a Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area if,
according to certain criteria, they are essentially metro­




M eth od o f w age paym ent
Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primari­
ly by the qualifications of the individual worker. A
single rate structure is one in which the same rate is
45

paid to all experienced workers in the same job
classification. Learners, apprentices, or probationary
workers may be paid according to rate schedules which
start below the single rate and permit the workers to
achieve the full job rate over a period of time. An
experienced worker occasionally may be paid above or
below the single rate for special reasons, but such
payments are exceptions. Range-of-rate plans are those in
which the minimum, maximum, or both of these rates paid
experienced workers for the same job are specified. Specific
rates of individual workers within the range may be deter­
mined by merit, length of service, or a combination of these.
Incentive workers are classified under piecework of bonus
plans. Piecework is work for which a predetermined rate is
paid for each unit of output. Production bonuses are for pro­
duction in excess of a quota or for completion of a task in
less than standard time.

equivalent o f 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for
which data are presented represent the most common
practices, but they do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of service
may include changes which occurred between 5 and 10
years.

H ealth, insurance, and retirem en t plans
Data are presented for health, insurance, pension,
and retirement severance plans for which the employer
pays all or a part of the cost, excluding programs
required by law such as workers’ compensation and
social security. Among plans included are those under­
written by a commercial insurance company and those
paid directly by the employer from his current opera­
ting funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that
type of insurance under which predetermined cash
payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly
or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least a part of the cost.
However, in New York and New Jersey, where
temporary disability insurance laws require employer
contributions,1 plans are included only if the employer
(1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2)
provides the employees with benefits which exceed the
requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sepa­
rate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which
provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide pay­
ments to totally disabled employees upon the expiration
o f sick leave, sickness and accident insurance, or both,
or after a specified period of disability (typically 6
months). Payments are made until the end of disability,
a maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits.
Payments may be full or partial, but are almost always
reduced by social security, workers’ compensation, and
private pension benefits payable to the disabled em­
ployee.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commercial insurance
company or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a
form of self-insurance.

S cheduled w eekly hours
Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers (or office
workers) employed on the day shift.

Sh ift provisions and p ractices
Shift provisions relate to the policies of
establishments either currently operating late shifts or
having formal provisions covering late-shift work.
Practices relate to workers employed on late shifts at
the time of the survey.

Estab lishm ent practices and sup plem entary w age
provisions
Supplementary benefits in an establishment were
considered applicable to all production workers (office
workers) if they applied to half or more of such
workers in the establishment. Similarly, if fewer than
half o f the workers were covered, the benefit was
considered nonexistent in the establishment. Because of
length-of-service and other eligibility requirements, the
proportion of workers receiving the benefits may be
smaller than estimated.
Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day
and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summaries of vacation plans are
limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion of the employer or supervisor. Payments not
on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the




1 The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do
not require employer contributions.

46

Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes
plans designed to cover employees for sickness or
injury involving an expense which exceeds the normal
coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations o f retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the remain­
der of the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately
for retirement severance pay (one payment or several
over a specified period o f time) made to employees on
retirement. Establishments providing both retirement
severance payments and retirement pensions to em­
ployees were considered as having both retirement
pensions and retirement severance plans; however,
establishments having optional plans providing employ­
ees a choice of either retirement severance payments or
pensions were considered as having only retirement
pension benefits.

and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which
provide at least partial payment for time lost as a result
o f attending funerals of specified family members or
serving as a juror.

Supplemental unemployment benefits. Data relate to
formal plans designed to supplement benefits paid
under State unemployment insurance systems.
Cost-of-living adjustments. Data relate to formal plans
providing adjustments to wage rates in keeping with
changes in the BLS consumer price index or some
other measure.

Clothing allowance. Data relate to formal provisions for
protective garments, such as coveralls, overalls, coats,
smocks, and acid-resistant clothing, worn in lieu of or
over the employees’ personal clothing; provisions for
boots, glasses, hats, and gloves were excluded.

Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral




47

Appendix D. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its
field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed under a variety of
payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to establishment and from area
to area. This permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job content.
Because of this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content,
the Bureau’s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments
or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s field staff is
instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners, trainees, and handi­
capped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

and other refuse; dusting equipment, furniture, or fixtures;
polishing metal fixtures or trimmings; providing supplies
and minor maintenance services,cleaning lavatories, showers,
and restrooms. Workers who specialize in window washing
are excluded.

Drum cleaner

Cleans drums used in the production and distribution
of paint products. Work involves most o f the following:
Pumping residual liquid from drum; chipping and scraping
caked material from interior of drums and removing scrap­
ings from drum; and scrubbing interior of drums. May
presoak drum with caustic solution, haul drums to burning
area, and burn off residue in drums.

Labeler and packer

Pastes identifying labels on cans or other containers by
hand or by means of a labeling machine, and/or packs
labeled containers into boxes or cartons. This is a produc­
tion job and excludes shipping packers.

Filler, hand

Fills tubes, drums, or other containers with finished
products. Work involves any o f the following: Filling
containers by hand, using a dipper or spatula; filling con­
tainers to weight or volume by setting them on scales
adjusted to proper weight and controlling flow of product
from a filling spout. In addition, may cap filled containers
or may clean equipment at end of batch or day.

Laborer, material handling

(Loader and unloader; handler and stacker; shelver;
trucker; stocker or stock helper; warehouse worker or
warehouse helper)
A worker employed in a warehouse, manufacturing
plant, store, or other establishment whose duties involve
one or more o f the following: Loading and unloading
various materials and merchandise on or from freight cars,
trucks or other transporting devices; unpacking; shelving,
or placing materials or merchandise in proper storage loca­
tion; transporting materials or merchandise by hand truck,
car,or wheelbarrow to proper location. Longshore workers
who load and unload ships, are excluded.

Filler, machine

Fills tubes, drums, or other containers with finished
products. Work involves adjusting filling machine to fill
container to correct volume and feeding containers into
machine. In addition, may cap filled containers or may
clean equipment at end of batch or day.
Janitor

(Cleaner, porter; sweeper; charworker)

Maintenance workers, general utility

Keeps the machines, mechanical equipment and/or
structure of an establishment (usually a small plant where
specialization in maintenance work is impractical) in repair.
Duties involve the performance of operations and the use

Cleans and keeps in an orderly condition factory working
areas and washrooms, or premises of an office. Duties
involve a combination o f the following: Sweeping, mopping,
or scrubbing, and polishing floors; removing chips, trash




48

of tools and equipment of several trades, rather than
specialization in one trade or one type of maintenance work
only. Work involves a combination o f the following:
Planning and laying out of work relating to repair of build­
ings, machines, mechanical equipment; installing, aligning
and balancing new equipment; repairing buildings, floors,
stairs, as well as making and repairing bins, cribs, and
partitions.

Shipping clerk
Receiving clerk
Shipping and receiving clerk
Technician

(Laboratory assistant)
Performs routine, predetermined chemical tests under
the supervision of a chemist or plant supervisory to deter­
mine whether purchased raw materials meet specifications
and/or whether processing is being performed according to
plant standards or specifications. In addition, may per­
form some of the duties of the PRODUCT TESTER, such
as conducting physical tests to determine viscosity, color,
and weight. Employees performing the duties of a techni­
cian as part of a training program leading to position as
professional chemists are excluded.

Mixer-grinder

Tends equipment which mixes and/or grinds liquid and
solid ingredients used to make products such as paints,
varnishes, lacquers, enamels, and shellacs. Workers who
operate equipment to only crush, grind, or pulverize dry
materials or dry pigments are excluded.
For wage survey purposes, workers are to be classified
according to whether the equipment they tend does both
mixing and grinding or is limited to only one operation as
follows:

Tester, product

(Inspector)
Conducts standard and routine simple physical tests to
determine quality, viscosity, color, and weight of paint
products. Tests consist of comparisons between finished
products and standard samples or specifications. Workers
performing chemical as well as physical tests are classified
as TECHNICIANS.

Mixer — Tends equipment which mixes pigments with
a portion of the vehicle (which may consist of oils, alkyde
resins) to form a smooth uniform paste ready for the
grinding operation. (See Grinder.) Work involves the
following:
Selecting, weighting, and measuring out
pigments and selecting quantities of vehicle required
by formula or batch ticket; charging or loading ingre­
dients into mixer; and operating equipment. May also
clean mixer.

Thinners

Adds vehicles as required by specifications to paste and
semi-paste mixtures and agitates to the consistency
designated on batch ticket or other specifications.

Grinder— Tends equipment which grinds paste received
from mixing machines to insure proper dispersion of
mixed paste in the vehicle. (See Mixer.) Work involves
the following: Setting controls of mills, starting flow of
paste, and rerunning batch when necessary. May also
operate screening equipment.
Combination mixer-grinder —Tends operation of equip­
ment which performs a combination of the operations
indicated under mixer and grinder. Equipment may
perform one or more of these operations automatically.

Tinter

Colors or tints paints; Work involves a combination o f
the following: Blending basic color pigments in correct
proportions to match standard color sample or according
to specifications; using hand paddle or power mixer to mix
ingredients thoroughly; checking weight and/or viscosity of
batch against sample or specifications, and making necessary
additions to mixture to meet requirements.
Truckdriver

Shipping and receiving clerk

Drives a truck within a city or industrial area to transport
materials,merchandise, equipment, or men between various
types of establishments such as: Manufacturing plants,
freight depots, warehouses, wholesale and retail establish­
ments, or between retail establishments and customers’
houses or places of business. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechanical
repairs, and keep truck in good working orders. Driver-sales
personnel and over-the-road drivers are excluded.

Prepares merchandise for shipment, or receives and is
responsible for incoming shipments of merchandise or other
materials. Shipping work involves: A knowledge of shipping
procedures, practices, routes, available means of transporta­
tion and rates; and preparing records of the goods shipped,
making up bills of lading, posting weight and shipping
charges, and keeping a file of shipping records. May direct
or assist in preparing the merchandise for shipment. Re­
ceiving work involves: Verifying or directing other in
verifying the correctness of shipments against bills of lading,
invoices, or other records; checking for shortages and reject­
ing damaged goods; routing merchandise or materials to
proper departments; maintaining necessary records and files.
For wage study purposes, workers are classifed as follows:




Truckers, power (forklift)

Operates a manually controlled gasoline- or electricpowered truck or tractor to transport goods and materials
of all kinds about a warehouse, manufacturing plant, or
other establishment.
49

Industry Wage Studies
The most recent reports providing occupational wage
data for industries included in the Bureau’s program of in­
dustry wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies are
for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Gov­
ernment Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, or from
Manufacturing
Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS Bul­
letin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1796
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976, BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and solid fiber boxes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972. BLS Bulletin
1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1863
Industrial Chemicals, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1768
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1974-75. BLS Bulletin 1929
Meat Products, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1962
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1973
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1844
Shipbuilding and Repairing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1968
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1694
Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1967




any of its regional sales offices, and from the regional of­
fices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown on the inside
back cover. Copies that are out of stock are available for
reference purposes at leading public, college, or university
libraries, or at the Bureau’s Washington or regional offices.
Manufacturing- Continued
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1908
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930

Nonmanufacturing
Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1862
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1967. BLS Bulletin 1583
Communications, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1954
Contract Cleaning Services, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1916
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, 1972. BLS
Bulletin 1797
Department Stores, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1869
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees, 196869. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 16451
Life Insurance, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1791
Metal Mining, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1820
Motion Picture Theaters, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities 1973. BLS Bulletin
1855
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS Bul­
letin 1712
1 Bulletin out o f stock.

■fr U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1977

0 —2 6 1 -0 1 7

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I

1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: (617) 223-6761

Region IV

1371 Peachtree Street, NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: (404)881-4418
Region V

Region II

Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y 10036
.
Phone: (212)399-5405
Region III

3535 Market Street
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154



9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S. Dearborn Street
Chicago, III. 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880
Region VI

Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

Regions VII and VIII*

911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816)374-2481
Regions IX and X**

450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678
‘ Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
“ Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco

U. S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Washington, D.C. 20212
Official Business
Penalty for private use, $300




Postage and Fees Paid
U.S. Department of Labor
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Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102