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Industry Wage Survey:
Oil and Gas Extraction
September 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2014




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Industry Wage Survey:
Oil and Gas Extraction
September 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet Norwood
Acting Commissioner
February 1979

Bulletin 2014

F or sale by th e S u p erin ten d en t o f D ocum ents, U.S. G ov ern m en t Printing O ffic e , W ashin gton, D.C. 2 0 40 2, G P O B ook stores, or




B LS R egional O ffic e s listed on inside back co ver. Price. $1 .6 0
M ake checks p ayab le to S u perin ten d en t o f D ocum en ts
S tock num ber 02 9-0 01-02277-8




Preface

This bulletin summarizes the results o f a Bureau
o f Labor Statistics survey o f wages and related ben­
efits in the oil and gas extraction industries in Sep­
tember 1977. Formerly limited to firms operating oil
and gas field properties, the survey’ s scope was ex­
panded in 1977 to include contractors who drill gas
and oil wells for others.
The study was conducted in the Bureau’ s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations. Harry B. Williams
o f the Division o f Occupational Wage Structures
prepared the analysis in this bulletin. Field work for




the survey was directed by the Assistant Regional
Commissioners for Operations.
Othelr reports available from the Bureau’ s program
o f industry wage studies, as well as the addresses of
the Bureau’ s regional offices, are listed at the end of
this bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without the permission of
the Federal Government. Please credit the Bureau of
Labor Statistics and cite Industry Wage Survey: Oil
and Gas Extraction, September 1977, Bulletin 2014.




Contents

Page
Summary ..............................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics
Employment .................................................................................................................................................
Production ....................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage payment ...........................................................................................................................
U nionization.................................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings .........................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wageprovision s............................................................................
Scheduled weekly hours ..............................................................................................................................
Shift differential provisions and practices ..................................................................................................
Paid holidays ................................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations ..............................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ....................................................................................................
Other selected benefits ................................................................................................................................
Text tables:
1 Domestic production, exports, and imports o f mineral fuels. United States, 1972-76 ......................
.
2. Offshore production of crude petroleum, United States, California, and Louisiana, 1972-76 ..........
3. Percent of workers in oil and gas extraction establishments with labor-management
agreements covering a majority o f their production workers, September 1977 ................................
4. Occupational pay relationships in oil and gas extraction, United States, September 1977 ...............

I
I
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4

2
2
3
3

Reference tables:
1 Oil and gas extraction: Occupational averages....................................................................
.

5

Earnings distribution:
2. Derrick operators...................................................................................................................
3. Drillers, rotary ......................................................................................................................
4. Floor workers, rotary ...........................................................................................................
5. Gas plant operators ...............................................................................................................
6. Mechanics, maintenance ......................................................................................................
7. Pumpers .................................................................................................................................
8. Roustabouts...........................................................................................................................
9. Tru ckdrivers...........................................................................................................................

6
7
8
9
10
II
12
13

Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions:
Method o f wage payment:
10. Oil and gas extraction ...........................................................................................................
11. Crude petroleum and natural gas .........................................................................................

14
14

Scheduled weekly hours:
12. Oil and gas extra ction ...........................................................................................................
13. Crude petroleum and natural gas..........................................................................................

15
15

Shift differential provisions:
14. Oil and gas extraction ...........................................................................................................
15. Crude petroleum and natural gas..........................................................................................

16
17




v

Contents— Continued
Page
Paid holidays:
16. Oil and gas extraction ...................................................................................................................
17. Crude petroleum and natural gas ................................................................................................

18
19

Paid vacations:
18. Oil and gas extra ction ..................................................................................................................
19. Crude petroleum and natural gas ........... ....................................................................................

20
22

Health, insurance, and retirement plans:
20. Oil and gas extra ction ............................................................................................ ......................
21. Crude petroleum and natural gas ................................................................................................

24
25

Other selected benefits:
22. Oil and gas extra ction ..................................................................................................................
23. Crude petroleum and natural gas ................................................................................................

26
27

Appendixes:
A. Scope and method o f survey ...............................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions ....................................................................................................................

28
31




vi

Oil and Gas Extraction,
September 1977

Summary
Occupational pay levels for production workers in
the Nation’ s oil and gas extraction industries typical­
ly were between $6 and $8 an hour in September
1977. For 13 occupational groups studied, pay levels
ranged from $7.95 an hour for gas plant operators
and maintenance electricians to $5.64 an hour for
truckdriversJ Among the regions and States studied
separately, pay averages were usually highest in Cal­
ifornia and lowest in the Border States o f Kentucky
and West Virginia and in the Middle Atlantic region.
About three-fourths o f the production workers
were in establishments providing paid holidays and
paid vacations after specified periods o f service.
L ife, hospitalization, surgical, and medical insurance
benefits, for which the employer paid at least part of
the cost, were also widespread within the industries.
Retirement pension plans were available to about
two-thirds o f the workers surveyed.

Industry characteristics
The study covered establishments in two indus­
tries primarily engaged in extracting oil and gas:
Those engaged in crude petroleum and natural gas
production, and those drilling oil and gas wells for
others. The former includes firms producing crude
petroleum and natural gas up to the point of ship­
ment from the producing property. The latter includ­
ed firms primarily drilling wells for oil and gas field
operations on a contract, fee, or similar basis. (E x ­
cluded were oil and gas field operators with few er
than 8 workers and contract drillers with few er than
50 workers.)
Oil and gas producers employed relatively few
workers in drilling occupations since most o f their
well-drilling operations were performed by outside
contractors. Establishments performing some or all
o f their own drilling employed only one-fourth o f the
workers in crude petroleum and natural gas produc­
tion.

'See appendix A for scope and method of survey, and appendix
B for occupational descriptions. Wage data in this bulletin ex­
clude premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holi­
days, and late shifts. Survey data do not include Alaska, a newly
emerging center o f oil and gas production.




Employment. The 1,610 establishments within the
scope o f the survey employed about 87,500 nonsupervisory production workers in September 1977.
Establishments primarily engaged in operating oil
and gas field properties accounted for just over
three-fifths o f the total work force (crude petroleum
producers, nearly half; natural gas, about one-tenth);
and contract drillers, the remaining two-fifths.
In September 1977, three-fifths of the production
workers were concentrated in the two largest oilproducing states— Texas (34 percent) and Louisiana
(25 percent). The Midcontinent— Arkansas, Kansas,
Mississippi, Nebraska, and Oklahoma— accounted
for nearly one-sixth o f the workers while the State
o f California and the Mountain region each had
about one-tenth.
Nearly seven-tenths o f the workers were in estab­
lishments employing at least 100 workers; nearly
three-tenths were in establishments that had 500
workers or more. The percent o f production workers
by size o f establishment is indicated in the following
tabulation:

Crude
petroleum
C ontract
and
Total
d rillin g
natural
gas
production

All sizes ...................... ...
8 to 49 w o r k e r s ....... ...
50 to 99 workers ....... ...
100 to 249 w o rk ers...... ...
250 to 499 workers ..... ...
500 workers or more ... ...

100
1
1
20
23
17
28

100
19
14
1
1
17
39

100
29
43
18
10

An estimated 53,000 production workers were
employed in the crude petroleum and natural gas
industry in September 1977; this was nearly onefourth higher than the level in August 1972, the date
o f a similar study of the industry.2 Employment in­
creases, however, varied considerably by geographic
location over the 1972-77 period. For example, em­
ployment in the Middle Atlantic and Mountain States
2
For an account o f the earlier study, see Industry Wage Survey:
Crude Petroleum and Natural Gas Production, August 1972, Bul­
letin 1797 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1977):

and in Louisiana rose by 50-60 percent; in Texas, by
nearly 20 percent; and in the other localities studied,
by less than 10 percent.
Although BLS surveyed contract drillers for occu­
pational wages for the first time in 1977, other
sources indicate that their employment has been ris­
ing sharply in recent years. According to the Bu­
reau’ s employment and earnings series, for example,
the production work force servicing oil and gas fields
on a contract basis nearly doubled between 1972 and
1977. (This includes, however, not only firms drilling
wells, but also those performing exploration and
other services, such as grading and building founda­
tions.)

agreements were represented either by independent
unions (those not affiliated with the A F L -C IO ) or by
the Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International
Union, an A F L -C IO affiliate.

Occupational earnings
The survey developed earnings information for 13
occupations selected to represent various skill levels
in oil and gas extraction. These jobs accounted for
slightly more than seven-tenths of the 87,500 produc­
tion and related workers covered by the survey.
Among the jobs studied, pay levels were highest for
gas plant operators and maintenance electricians—
$7.95 an hour— and lowest for Iruckdrivers— $5.64
an hour (table 1). Averages also exceeded $7 an hour

Production. Domestic production o f crude petroleum
in the United States fell consistently between 1972
and 1976 and imports rose. Consequently, imports
made up two-fifths of the new supply of U.S. crude
petroleum in 1976 compared to one-fifth 4 years ear­
lier.3 During the same period, new supplies o f U.S.
natural gas declined each year. Imports remained
only a small proportion of domestic natural gas sup­
plies— less than 5 percent. (See text table 1.)

for maintenance mechanics ($7.77), rotary drillers
($7.76), and maintenance painters ($7.36). Hourly
wages for oil-well pumpers, roustabouts, and rotary
floor workers— numerically the three largest occupa­
tional groups studied— were $6.94, $6.36, and $6.00,
respectively.
Occupational averages varied considerably among
and within geographic locations. Workers in C alifor­
nia, usually the highest paid, often held wage ad­
vantages averaging 25 percent or more over those
performing similar duties elsewhere. The Border
States and Middle Atlantic region typically had the
lowest pay levels.

Offshore production o f domestic crude petroleum
totaled about 462.5 million barrels in 1976, a de­
crease o f 24 percent from the 1972 level (text table
2). California and Louisiana accounted for about
seven-eighths o f these offshore oil supplies. In 1976,
offshore production of crude oil represented nearly
16 percent o f total U.S. production.4

Text table 1. Domestic production, exports, and imports of
mineral fuels, United States, 1972-76
Crude petroleum
(thousands of
barrels)

Method o f wage payment. Virtually all production
workers were paid on a time-rated basis, typically
under formal plans providing a single rate for a spec­
ified occupation. Range-of-rate plans applied to
about one-eighth o f the time-rated workers; indivi­
dual rates, to slightly less than one-tenth, nationally.
(See tables 10 and 11.) Incentive pay plans were vir­
tually nonexistent in the industry.

Year

D om estic
production
1972 ........
1973 .........
19 74.........
19 75.........
1 9 7 6 .........

187
697
1,074
2,146
2,941

811,135
1,183,996
1,269,165
1,498,181
1,935,012

D om estic
production
22,532
22,648
21,601
20,109
19,952

Exports Imports

78
77
77
73
65

1,019
1,033
459
953
964

SOURCE: Energy Data Reports: Crude Petroleum, Petroleum
Products, and N atural Gas Liquids, 1977, and N atural Gas P roduction
an d C onsum ption, 1976 (D epartm ent o f Energy, Energy Inform ation
A dm inistration, 1978).

Unionization. Establishments operating under labormanagement agreements in September 1977 em­
ployed nearly one-fourth o f the production workers
in all oil and gas extraction. By industry, the propor­
tion was nearly two-fifths in crude petroleum and
natural gas production compared to less than onetenth for contract drillers. The extent o f unionization
varied widely by location (text table 3). Most work­
ers in establishments with collective bargaining

Text table 2. Offshore production of crude petroleum, United
States, California, and Louisiana, in thousands of barrels,
1972-76
Year

1972 ....................
1 9 7 3 ....................
1974 ....................
1975 ....................
1976 ....................

3Energy Data Reports: Crude Petroleum, Petroleum Products,
and Natural Gas Liquids, 1977, and Natural Gas Production and
Consumption, 1976 (Department of Energy, Energy Information
Administration, 1978). New supplies are defined as domestic pro­
duction plus imports.

United
States1

607,722
589,687
543,636
497,266
462,470

California

95,590
89,261
83,918
79,671
70,587

Louisiana

445,915
436,875
398,329
356,458
335,849

in c lu d e s data for other States in addition to those shown separately
SOURCE: Energy Data R e p o rts : Crude Petroleum, Petroleum P rod­
ucts, and N atural Gas Liquids (D epartm ent o f Energy, Energy Inform a­

4Energy Data Reports: Crude Petroleum, Petroleum Products,
and Natural Gas Liquids (Department of Energy, Energy Infor­
mation Administration), 1972 to_76, annual issues.




3,455,368
3,360,903
3,202,585
3,056,779
2,976,180

Exports Imports

Natural gas
(billions o f cubic feet)

tion A dm inistration). 1972 to 76 annual issues.

2

fifths of the workers in the Great Lakes region and
the Midcontinent to seven-eighths in the Border
States (table 13). Longer weekly schedules o f 48 and
56 hours applied to most other workers. Variable
work schedules, where no predominant workweek
prevails, were in effect in establishments employing
about one-tenth o f the workers.

Text table 3. Percent of workers in oil and gas extraction
establishments with labor-management agreements
covering a majority of their production workers, September
1977
Location

United States ..........................
Middle Atlantic region ............
Western Pennsylvania ....
Border S ta te s ..........................
Great Lakes region .................
Midcontinent S t a t e s ...............
Oklahoma ........................
L o u is ia n a .................................
Texas ........................................
Mountain region .....................
C a lifo r n ia .................................

Oil and gas
extraction1

Crude petroleum
and natural gas
production

20-24
10-14
10-14
40-44
20-24
20-24
30-34
10-14
20-24
10-14
65-69

35-39
15-19
15-19
50-54
25-29
35-39
50-54
15-19
35-39
15-19
70-74

Shift differential provisions and practices. At least
three-fourths of the workers were in establishments
having provisions for second and/or third shifts
(tables 14 and 15). At the time o f the survey, 14 per­
cent o f the workers actually were employed on sec­
ond shifts and 18 percent on third or other late
shifts. Uniform cents-per-hour differentials over dayshift pay were commonly 45-50 cents on second
shifts and 90 cents on third or other late shifts.

in c lu d e s data fo r contract drillers not shown separately.

Although the spread between the highest paid and
lowest paid jobs studied were 4 1 percent nationwide
(text table 4), these occupational pay relationships
varied considerably between the different locations
studied. The pay advantage of electricians over
truckdrivers, for example, ranged from 8 percent in
the Middle Atlantic region and California to 62 per­
cent in Texas.
The pay relationships between the various occupa­
tions in the crude petroleum and natural gas industry
did not change significantly between the 1
972 and
1977 studies. During this period, nationwide increas­
es in the average hourly earnings o f the eight non­
drilling jobs permitting comparison ranged from
about 60 to 75 percent and between 80 and 92 per­
cent for the three drilling jobs.
Although earnings o f individuals in the occupa­
tions studied varied somewhat on a nationwide ba­
sis, there were concentrations o f individual earnings
within oil and gas-producing locations (tables 2 to 9).
For example, nine-tenths o f all the rotary drillers in
Oklahoma earned between $7.40 and $7.50 an hour,
and half o f those in California earned between
$10.20 and $10.30. Such concentrations reflected, in
part, the high incidence o f single-rate pay systems
applying to specified jobs in this industry.

Paid holidays. Paid holidays, most commonly 10
days annually, were provided by establishments
employing three-fourths o f the production workers
in the survey (table 16). Without contract drillers,
the coverage rose to nearly 95 percent (table 17).
Provisions varied somewhat among and within geo­
graphic locations.
Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying pe­
riods o f service, were provided by establishments
employing slightly more than three-fourths o f the
production workers in the survey (table 18). Exclud­
ing contract drillers, virtually all workers were cov­
ered by such provisions (table 19). In September
1977, typical vacation provisions were 2 weeks o f
vacation after 1 year o f service, 3 weeks after 5
years, 4 weeks after 10 years, and 5 weeks after 20
years o f service. These typical provisions covered a
smaller proportion o f workers in the lower paying

Text table 4. Occupational pay relationships in oil and gas
extraction, United States, September 1977
(A vera ge hourly earnings of truckdrivers = 1 0 0 }

Occupation

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions
Data were also obtained on selected establishment
practices and supplementary wage benefits, including
work schedules, paid holidays, paid vacations, and
specified health, insurance, and retirement plans.

Derrick operators ....................................
Drillers, r o ta r y ..........................................
Electricians, m a in te n a n ce.....................
Floor workers, r o ta r y ...............................
Gas plant o p e r a to r s .................................
Hoist o p e r a to r s ........................................
Mechanics, m ain ten an ce........................
Painters, m a in te n a n ce............................
Pum pers ..................................................
R o u s ta b o u ts............................................
Truckdrivers ............................................
Welders, oil field ......................................
Well p u lle r s ..............................................

Scheduled weekly hours. Work schedules o f 40
hours a week were in effect in establishments em­
ploying slightly more than half o f the production
workers (table 12). When workers for contract drill­
ers were excluded, the proportion rose to five-sixths.
Such schedules varied from covering just over two


Oil and gas
extraction1

Crude petroleum
and natural
gas production

113
138
141
106
141
112
138
131
123
113
100
115
118

104
121
137
101
131
104
131
121
114
106
100
119
116

’ Includes data fo r contract drillers not shown separately.

3

Middle Atlantic and Border States than in other geo­
graphic locations studied.

three-fourths in the Middle Atlantic States and in
California.
Thrift or savings plans, for which the employer
made monetary contributions beyond administrative
costs, were available to slightly more than half o f
the work force nationally. Coverage o f such plans
varied from two-fifths in Texas to nearly all workers
in the Border States.
In California, Louisiana, and Texas, nearly all es­
tablishments with offshore operations provided extra
pay to workers when they traveled from their report­
ing point to the site o f offshore operations (tables 22
and 23). In the major offshore locations (California
and Louisiana), most o f the workers traveling to
offshore sites received $2.30 per hour for travel
time. In Texas, however, offshore workers typically
received their regular hourly wage as travel pay­
ment. Premium pay for offshore work was available
to about half o f the workers in California and Texas
establishments with such operations and to just un­
der three-tenths in Louisiana. Typical premiums
reported were 1) 20 cents above the regular hourly
wage, and 2) lump-sum payments, sometimes vary­
ing by craft.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. L ife , hospi­
talization, surgical, basic medical, and major medical
insurance were provided to nearlv all of the produc­
tion workers in tne industry (tables 20 and 21). Pro­
visions for accidental death and dismemberment cov­
ered seven-tenths o f the work force; sickness and
accident insurance, or sick leave, or both, applied to
three-fifths. Plans providing employees with long­
term disability insurance coverage applied to almost
one-third o f the production workers.
Retirement pension plans, typically entirely em­
ployer financed, were available to about two-thirds
o f the workers. W orker coverage ranged from slight­
ly over two-fifths in the Great Lakes and Midconti­
nent States to nearly seven-eighths in California.
Other selected benefits. Formal provisions for juryduty and funeral leave covered 3 out o f 5 production
workers. Geographically, the proportion o f workers
covered by one or both o f these plans ranged from
just over two-fifths in the Midcontinent to about




4

Table 1. Oil and gas extraction: Occupational average*
(Number o f workers and average straight-time hourly earnings1 o f production workers engaged in oil and gas extraction. U nited States and selected regions3 and States, September 1977)
Middle Atlantic
United States3
Occupation

Western
Pennsylvania

Total
Workers

Earnings Workers

Earnings Workers

Border States

Earnings Workers

Great Lakes

Earnings Workers

Earnings

249
249

$ 6 .3 2
7 .7 0

538
24

5 .8 6
7 .4 6

O il and gas e x tra ctio n 4
DERRICK OPEE ATCBS...................................................................
D R IL L E R S , BOTABY.....................................................................
E LE C T R IC IA N S , MAINTENANCE................................................
FLOOB WORKERS, BOTABY.........................................................
GAS PLANT OPERATORS..............................................................
HOIST OPEBATOBS.......................................................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE.......................................................
P A IN T E R S , MAINTENANCE.........................................................
PUMPERS............... ........................................................................
ROUSTABOUTS................................................................................
TRUCKDBIVEBS.............................................................................
B EID ER S, O IL F IE L D ................................................................
HELL PULLERS..............................................................................

6 ,6 5 8
b , i>JU
876
1 3 ,9 2 1
2,200
62
3 ,6 9 2
38
1 3 ,9 2 8
1 1 ,3 7 9
2 ,0 5 8
840
1, 045

$ 6 .3 9
7 .7 6
7 .9 5
6.00
7 .9 5
6 .3 1
7 .7 7
7 .3 6
6 .9 4
6 .3 6
5 .6 4
6 .4 8
6.66

865
86 2
677
1 ,5 1 3
2 ,1 9 2
62
3 , 186
38
1 3 ,8 7 4
1 0 ,5 1 1
1, 037
277
66 1

6 .3 1
7 .3 7
8 .3 5
6 .1 7
7 .9 6
6 .3 1
7 .9 7
7 .3 6
6 .9 5
6 .4 6
6 .0 9
7 .2 6
7 .0 5

10
53
323
434
52
27
22

*
$ 6 .4 2
6 .1 6
-

5 .7 6
5 .2 6
5. 93
6 .6 0
5 .8 4

10

-

115

$6 . 2 2

$ 6 .4 2

-

-

_

-

-

-

-

_

-

-

53

6 . 16

-

34

6.01

106

6 .8 5

185
281

5 .3 0
5 .0 6

709
555
192
32
117

8 .0 9
5 .7 3
5 .8 2
7 .4 8
6 .2 3

36
36

5 .8 0
6 .6 7

74
24

5 .5 6
7 .4 6

6.11

95

6 .9 5

5 .3 0
5 .0 6
6. 13
6 .9 3

709
555
120

8 .0 9
5 .7 3
5 .9 9

117

6 .2 3

-

239
331
51
27
22

5 .9 5
5 .3 7
5 .9 2
6 .6 0
5 .8 4

-

9
—

6 .9 3

C rud e petroleum and n atu ral gas extraction
DEfiBICK OPEBATOBS..................................................................
D R IL L E R S , BOTABY.......................... .........................................
E LE C T R IC IA N S , MAINTENANCE...............................................
FLOOB NCBKEBS, BOTABY.........................................................
GAS PLANT OPEBATOBS................. ...........................................
H OIST OPEBATOBS......................................................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE......................................................
P A IN T E R S , MAINTENANCE.........................................................
PUMPERS.........................................................................................
ROUSTABOUTS................................................................................
TB UCKDBIVEfiS..............................................................................
B EID ER S, O IL F IE L D ...............................................................
HELL PULLEBS............ ................................................................

.
-

•

10
-

6. 42
-

-

-

10

6 .4 2

-

45

-

6 .3 1

—

323
424
36
27

-

5. 76
5 .2 6
6 .0 7
6 .6 0

-

5 .2 7

•

36

*
-

52

-

4 .4 7
-

•

45

6 .3 1

-

-

239
321
35
27

5. 95
5 .3 7
6 .0 6
6 . 60

*

16
—

185
281
18
9

**

-

Mid-continent
Louisiana
Total
Workers

Mountain

Texas

California

Oklahoma
Earnings

Workers

Earnings Workers

Earnings Workers

Earnings Workers

$ 6 .3 1
7 .3 5
6.00
6 .0 3
8 .0 8
7 .7 4
7 .0 0
6 .4 5
5 .9 1
6 . 29

$ 6. 18
7. 66
7 .4 7
5 .6 9
8 . 12
7 .9 3
7 .2 4
6 .6 2
4 .7 6
6.01
5 .9 5

2 ,2 0 7
2 ,2 6 1
290
4 ,6 7 0
1 ,0 2 5
8
1,220
10
5 ,3 7 3
3 ,8 4 1
681
321
-

$ 5 .9 8
7 .3 7
8 .2 4
5 .6 7
8.02
5 .1 7
7 .6 7
7 .5 4
6 .6 0
6 .4 0
5. 08
6 .3 3
-

8 .4 0
8.12
8 . 20
7 .2 5
7 .0 1
5 .1 0
8 .2 9

120
118
277
1 ,0 2 5
8
1 ,0 8 0
10
5 ,3 7 3
3 ,7 6 1
280
68

4 .6 0
5 .3 1
8 .3 3
8.02
5 . 17
7 .8 6
7 .5 4
6 .6 0
6 .4 4
5 .7 7
7 .8 1

Earnings Workers

Earnings

O il and g as extraction
DERRICK OPERATORS........................................
D R IL L E R S , ROTARY..........................................
E L E C T R IC IA N S , MAINTENANCE......................
FLOOR HOBKERS, ROTARY...............................
GAS PLANT OPERATORS...................................
HOIST OPERATORS.............................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE.............................
P A IN T E R S , MAINTENANCE...............................
ROUSTABOUTS......................................................
...............................................................................
NELDERS, O IL F IE L D .....................................
BELL PULLERS....................................................

1 ,2 9 6
1 ,2 9 1
32
1 ,9 6 6
155
*
475
*
2 ,3 9 5
2 ,0 8 1
413
89

$ 6 .0 3
7 .1 2
7. 89
5 . 94
8 .0 8
*
“
7 .3 1
*
6 .7 1
6 .1 3
5 .3 3
5 .5 6
'

702
738
24
1 ,2 7 2
155
. 290
1 ,6 5 2
1 ,2 7 6
165
48
*

1 ,6 3 8
1,40 0
368
4 ,3 9 8
322
950
2 ,6 7 8
2 ,6 9 2
213
235
386

652
654
1 ,1 0 6
206
275
1 ,2 6 5
680
189
21
-

$ 7 . 14
8. 8C
6 .7 9
7 .0 4
7 .7 1
7 .3 3
6. 6:
6. 3C
6 .6 1
-

496
496
116
960
282
4
513
13
973
689
246
106
458

$ 9 . 06
1 0 .5 2
8.68
8 .4 6
8. 14
8.22
8 .5 7
8 .5 8
7 .9 4
7 .0 5
8. 01
8 .3 8
7 .6 6

206
224
1 ,2 4 7
680
68
15
■
”

7 .0 4
7 .7 «
7 . 35
6 .6 3
6 .4 6
6.63

108
282
4
46 9
13
973
599
144
56
446

8 .5 6
•
8. 14
8.22
8 .5 4
8 .5 8
7 .9 4
7 .0 3
7 .7 7
8; 11
7 .6 6

C rud e p etroleum and n atu ral gas extractionj
DERRICK OPERATORS........................................
D R ILLE R S, ROTARY...........................................
E LE C T R IC IA N S , M A IN TE N A N C E ...................
FLOOB WORKERS, ROTARY...............................
GAS PLANT OPERATORS....................................
HOIST OPERATORS............................................
MECHANICS, MAINTENANCE.............................
P A IN T E R S , MAINTENANCE...............................
ROUSTABOUTS......................................................
TKUCKDRIVRRS....................................................
BEELERS, O IL F IE L D ......................................
HELL PULLERS...................................................

243
27
396
155
*
386
2 ,3 7 1
1 ,8 1 7
239
59

6 . 64
8 .0 7
5 .6 8
8 .0 8
*
7 .6 5
*
6 .7 2
6.22
6.00
5 .6 1

24
155
240
1 ,6 5 2
1 ,2 7 6
101
36

8.00
195
8 .0 8
322
8 .0 4
811
7 .0 0 2 ,6 6 6
6. 45 2 ,2 6 8
6 .5 1
126
6. 22i
31
i

‘ Excluding premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
’ For definition of regions shown in this and subsequent tables, see appendix A.
’ Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




5

"

'

"

4Includes data for firms engaged in operating oil and gas field properties (crude
petroleum and natural gas producers) and contractors drilling wells for others.
NOTE: Dashes indicate no data reported or data that do not meet publication criteria.

Table 2. Earnings distribution: Derrick operators
(Percent distribution o f derrick operators in oil and gas extraction establishments by straight-time hourly earnings,1 United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)
Hourly earnings'

United
States2

Great
Lakes

Mid-continent
Louisiana
Total

I O T A ! ..........

249
$ 6 .3 2

1 ,2 96
$ 6 .0 3

702
$ 6 .3 1

1 ,6 3 8
$6 . 18

2 ,2 0 7
$ 5 .9 8

652
$7 . 14

496
$ 9 .0 6

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

5. 1

-

1 .5

-

$ 5 .0 0
$ 5 . 10
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0

$ 5 . 1 0 ........................
$ 5 . 2 0 ........................
$ 5 . 3 0 ........................
$ 5 .4 0 ............ ...........
$ 5 . 5 0 ........................

.7
5 .0
3 .6
.3

4 .8
2 2 .9
*

_
-

-

4 .9
5 .5
-

$ 5 .5 0 AND ONREfi $ 5 . 6 0 ........................
$ 5 .6 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 7 0 ........................
$ 5 .7 0 AND UNDER $ 5 .8 0 ........................
$ 5 .8 0 AND UNDER $ 5 . 9 0 ........................
$ 5 .9 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 0 0 ........................

4 .1
3 .5
7 .7
1.6
2 .4

7 .2
*

1 9 .3
1 7 .8
2. 1

3 .8

1 .5
4 .9
7 .7
4 .4
-

$6 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 1 0 ........................
$6 . 1 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 2 0 ........................
$6 . 2 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 3 0 ........................
$ 6 .3 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 4 0 ........................
$ 6 .4 0 AND UNDER $ 6 .5 0 ........................

4 .9
5 .6
4. 1
1 3 .5
9 .3

*

1 .4
2 .5
2 1 .3
3 0 .2

4 .6
3 5 .9
5 5 .7

$ 6 .5 0 AND UNDER $ 6 .6 0 ........................
$ 6 .6 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 7 0 ........................
$ 6 .7 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 8 0 ........................
$ 6 .8 0 AND UNDER $ 6 . 9 0 ........................
$ 6 .9 0 AND UNDER $ 7 .0 0 ........................

3 .5
1 .4
.6
*

2 4 .1
-

1.2
2.8
-

-

1 .7
4 .5
.1
.2
.2

3 8 .6
•
*

*

_
-

.7
-

.1
4 .7
-

_
2 .4
-

-

_
-

•
-

3 .1
. 1
.2
.7

-

•
-

-

4 .0
•
*

-

*

*

-

3 .5

-

-

-

$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 . 10
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 .4 0
$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 . 90

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 .1 0 ........................
$ 7 . 2 0 ........................
$ 7 . 3 0 ........................
$ 7 .4 0 ........................
$ 7 .5 0 ................... ..
$ 7 . 6 0 ........................
$ 7 .7 0 ........................
$ 7 .8 0 ........................
$ 7 . 9 0 ........................
$ 8 . 00........................

$8 . 0 0 AND UNDER $ 8 . 1 0 ........................
$8 . 1 0 AND UNDER $ 8 . 2 0 ........................
$ 8 . 2 0 AND UNDER $ 8 .3 0 ........................
$ 8 .3 0 AND UNDER $ 8 . 4 0 ........................
$ 8 .4 0 AND UNDER $ 8 .5 0 ........................
$ 8 .5 0
$ 8 .6 0
$ 8 .7 0
$ 8 .8 0
$ 8 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 .0 0

California

6 ,6 5 8
$ 6 .3 9

UNDER $ 5 .0 0 ..........
UNDER
UNDER
UN DEB
UNDER
UNDER

Mountain

1 0 0. 0

NUEBER OF W O R K E R S ............................
AVERAGE HOURII EARNINGS; .................

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

Texas

Oklahoma

$ 8 .6 0 ........................
$ 8 . 7 0 ........................
$ 8 . 8 0 ........................
$ 8 . 9 0 ........................
$ 9 .0 0 ........................

AND OVER..

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




-

-

8.8

-

7 .9
1 0 .7
14. 2
1 .5
1 3 .2
-

-

1 2 .7
.5
1.0
-

7 .4

-

-

2 .2
10. 9
4 .3
1.0

-

-

6.2
3 .0
1 .4
6. 1

-

*

-

-

8.0
7 .6
•
19. 4
8 .7
-

3 6 .2
-

4 .6
.5
-

-

-

13. 6
.2
-

•
1 .5
2 .5

-

. 9
4 7 .1
•
-

-

-

- i i
6 .7 5

-

-

-

-

-

•
5 3 .2
-

-

-

-

46. 8

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data reported or data that do not meet publication
criteria. Because o f rounding, sums o f items mav not eaual 100.

6

Table 3. Earnings distribution: Drillers, rotary
(Percent distribution of drillers, rotary engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earnings1, United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)
Hourly earnings1

United
States1
2
3

Border
States

Great
Lakes

Mid-continent
Texas
Total

Mountain

California

Oklahoma

115
$6. 22

249
$ 7 .7 0

1,291
$ 7 .1 2

738
$7 .3 5

1 ,4 0 0
$7.66

2,2 6 1
$7 .3 7

654
$8 . 80

496
$10. 52

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

1 0 0. 0

2 .9

3 2 0 .9

4 .8

1.9

-

-

5 .5

-

-

3 .3

-

-

18 .8
*

*

*

5 .7
2 5 .3
2. 1

4 .9
-

NUNBER OF HOBKERS................................
AV ERAGE BOD ELY EARNINGSi................

6 ,5 3 0
$7 .7 6

TOTAL...............................................
U CEB $ 6 .0 0 .............................................
N
$ 6 .0 0
$ 6 .1 0
$ 6 .2 0
$ 6 .3 0
$ 6 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
ONDEfi
UNDER
ONCER
UNDER

$ 6 .1 0 .......................
$ 6 .2 0 .......................
$ 6 .3 0 .......................
$ 6 .4 0 .......................
$ 6 .5 0 .......................

6.6
.9
. 1
.9

5 .2
-

2 2 .9
7 .2

$ 6 .5 0
$ 6 .6 0
$ 6 .7 0
$ 6 .8 0
$ 6 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 .6 0 .......................
$ 6 .7 0 .......................
$ 6 .8 0 .......................
$ 6 .9 0 ......................
$ 7 .0 0 .......................

1.9
.3
5 .4
3. 1

19. 1
-

-

$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 .1 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 .1 0 .......................
$ 7 .2 0 .......................
$ 7 .3 0 .......................
$ 7 .4 0 .......................
$ 7 .5 0 .......................

2 .5
1.6
2 .4
1.2
11 .9

5 4 .8
-

_
-

$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 .6 0 .......................
$ 7 .7 0 .......................
$ 7 .8 0 .......................
$ 7 .9 0 .......................
$ 8 .0 0 .......................

16 .9
.8
3 .3
6 .9
.7

*

_
-

4 .9
*

-

$ 8 .0 0
$ 8 .1 0
$ 8 .2 0
$ 8 .3 0
$ 8 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 .1 0 .......................
$8. 2 0 .......................
$ 8 .3 0 .......................
$ 8 .4 0 .......................
$ 8 .5 0 .......................

.9
.3
1.3
<*)

-

-

2.8
*

$ 8 .5 0
$ 8 .6 0
$ 8 .7 0
$ 8 .8 0
$ 8 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB

$ 8 .6 0 .......................
$ 8 .7 0 .......................
$ 8 .8 0 ..............
$ 8 .9 0 .......................
$ 9 .0 0 .......................

5 .6
4 .6
2 .9
*

-

6 2 .7
*

$ 9 .0 0
$ 9 .1 0
$ 9 .2 0
$ 9 .3 0
$ 9 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 .1 0 .......................
$ 9 .2 0 .......................
$ 9 .3 0 .......................
$ 9 .4 0 .......................
$ 9 .5 0 .......................

.1
.3
-

-

$ 9 .5 0
$ 9 .6 0
$ 9 .7 0
$ 9 .8 0
$ 9 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

$ 9 . 6 0 . . ..................
$ 9 .7 0 .......................
$ 9 .8 0 .......................
$ 9 .9 0 .......................
$ 1 0 .0 0 ....................

0.6
_
1.7
10.3

2. 1
1.4

*

•
*

5.1
9.4
5 .7

2. 9
1 .5

-

-

4. 4

•

32. 9
2 .9
1.3
3 .3
3.1

15. 2
8.8
17. 7

3 6 .1
.3
.6
.3

_
-

*

1.4
.9
3 .7
*

-

5 .2
.5

-

-

*

14.9
-

13. 3
8 .5
*

*

*

-

2 .4
-

-

-

.9
-

_
-

-

-

.1
3 .8
.5
.6
.1

-

_
-

*

-

-

-

.9
3 7 .5
4 .9
6. 1
.9

•

$ 1 0 .1 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .2 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .3 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .4 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .5 0 ..................

.7
4 .4
-

_
-

-

-

-

1.9
-

_
-

6 .7
-

53 .2
-

$ 1 0 .5 0 AND UNDER $ 1 0 .6 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .6 0 AND UNDER $ 1 0 .7 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .7 0 AND UNDER $ 1 0 .8 0 ..................
$ 1 0 .8 0 AND UNDER $ 1 0 .9 0 ..................
$ 1 0.90 AND UNDER $ 1 1 .0 0 ..................

1.8
1.5

-

_
-

*

_
-

-

-

*

24 .2
19. 4

$ 1 1 .0 0 AND OVER....................................

.2

-

-

-

-

3 .2

$ 1 0 .0 0
$ 1 0 .1 0
$ 1 0 .2 0
$ 1 0 .3 0
$ 1 0 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDEB
UNDER
UNDER

'

_
1.9
5 2 .3

3 .7
_
9 1 .5

•

;

: -

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 2.6 percent at $3.40 to $3.50; 1.7 percent
at $3.60 to $3.70; 2.6 percent at $3.70 to $3.80; and 13.9 percent at $4.00 to $4.10.




NOTE: Asterisk indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data were reported or
data that do not meet publication criteria. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

7

Table 4. Earnings distribution: Floor w orkers, rotary
" i
Hourly earnings'

----*
United
States2

---Great
Lakes

Mid-continent
Louisiana
Total

Texas

Mountain

California

Oklahoma

1 3 ,9 2 1
$6.00

538
$ 5 .8 6

1 ,9 6 6
$ 5 .9 4

1 ,2 7 2
$ 6 .0 3

4 ,3 9 8
$ 5 .6 9

4 ,6 7 0
$ 5 .6 7

1, 106
$ 6 .7 9

960
$ 8 .4 6

TO TAL............

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

OHDEB $ 4 .0 0 ..........

0 .5

MUHBEB OF HOBKBBS.................................
AVERAGE HOOKIY EA B H IH G Si.................

S 4 .0 Q A ID
$ 4 .1 0 AMD
$ 4 .2 0 AMD
$ 4 .3 0 A D I
$ 4 .4 0 A H
D

OHDEB
0HDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

$ 4 . 1 0 ........................
$ 4 . 2 0 ........................
$ 4 . 3 0 ........................
$ 4 .4 0 ........................
$ 4 .5 0 ........................

.5
.5
.1
. 1

-

0 .3

-

-

.3
.5

-

-

-

-

1.1
-

-

-

1. 1
.5
.5

-

•
-

.5
4 .9
2. 7
6.2
-

8.2
3 .0
2 .7
-

•
-

-

1 2 .7
4 .2
-

4 .3

-

6.0
.8
4 .1
8 .5

_

-

7 .8

-

*

6.1

6.6

•

-

1 2 .4
4 .1
8 .7

1
2.8
1.8
16. 1
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

$ 4 .5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 4 . 6 0 ........................
$ 4 .6 0 AHD OHDEB $ 4 . 7 0 ........................
$ 4 .7 0 AHD OHDEB $ 4 . 8 0 ........................
$ 4 .8 0 AHD OHDEB $ 4 .9 0 ........................
$ 4 .9 0 AHD OHDEB $ 5 . 0 0 ........................

2 .9
1.6
1 .9
2 .9
*

*

$ 5 . 00
$ 5 .1 0
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0

$ 5 . 1 0 ........................
$ 5 . 2 0 ........................
$ 5 .3 0 ........................
$ 5 . 4 0 ........................
$ 5 . 5 0 ........................

6.2
1 .1
1 .7
1 .3
5 .9

2 8 .3
-

$ 5 .5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 5 . 6 0 ........................
$ 5 .6 0 AHD OHDEB $ 5 .7 0 .....................................
$ 5 .7 0 AMD OHDEB $ 5 . 8 0 .....................................
$ 5 .8 0 AHD OHDEB $ 5 . 9 0 .....................................
$ 5 .9 0 AHD OHDEB $6 . 0 0 ....................................

7 .5
2 .5
9 .9
5 .9
.3

1 7 .8
6 .7

$6 . 0 0 AHD OHDEB
$6 . 1 0 AHD OHDEB
$ 6 . 2 0 AHD OHDEB
$ 6 .3 0 AHD OHDEB
$ 6 .4 0 AHD OHDEB

$6 . 10 .....................................
$ 6 . 2 0 .....................................
$ 6 . 3 0 .....................................
$ 6 . 4 0 ....................................
$ 6 .5 0 ................... r r

3. 1
9 .5
2 .7
1.8
7 .8

$ 6 .5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 6 . 6 0 ........................
$ 6 .6 0 AHD OHDEB $ 6 . 7 0 .....................................
$ 6 .7 0 AHD OHDEB $ 6 .8 0 ....................................
$ 6 .8 0 AHD OHDEB $ 6 .9 0 .....................................
$ 6 .9 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 .0 0 .....................................

.5
.9
.4
7 .3
1.6

$ 7 .0 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 . 1 0 .....................................
$ 7 .1 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 .2 0 .....................................
$ 7 .2 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 .3 0 ........................
$ 7 .3 0 AMD OHDEB $ 7 . 4 0 ........................
$ 7 .4 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 . 5 0 ........................

3 .4
.1
.3

-

-

1 .1

-

-

-

$ 7 .5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 . 6 0 ........................
.....................
$ 7 .6 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 .7
$ 7 .7 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 . 8 c ........................
$ 7 .8 0 AHD OHDEB $ 7 . 9 0 ........................
$ 7 .9 0 AHD OHDEB $8 . 0 0 ........................

•
-

-

$8 . 1 0 ........................
$ 8 . 2 0 ........................
$ 8 . 3 0 ........................
$ 8 . 4 0 ........................
$ 8 .5 0 ........................

.3
4 .1
*

*

$ 8 .5 0 AHD OHDEB $ 8 . 6 0 ........................
$ 8 .6 0 AHD UHDEfi $ 8 . 7 0 ........................
$ 8 .7 0 AHD OHDEB $ 8 . 8 0 ........................
$ 8 .8 0 AHD OHDEB $ 8 .9 0 ........................
AHD OHDEB $ 9 . 0 0 ........................

1 .7
.3
1 .0

-

OHDEB
OHDEB
CHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

4 5 .1
3 .7

*

-

_

1.8
3 .5
2 .4
-

11.2
-

11.2

•

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB
OHDEB

CO
CM

$8 . 0 0
$ 8. 10
$8 .2 0
$ 8 .3 0
$ 8 .4 0

AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD
AHD

-

0 .9

3 9 .6
5 .7
-

5 .3
-

4 2 .8

2 3 .8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

8 .9
2 .3
-

3 .9
9 .8

-

-

-

_

1 8 .4
6 .2
-

-

-

*
*
*
•
-

-

2 .

3 .7

-

-

1.0

-

2 1 .3

-

-

-

7 .2
2 .7

•

.3
3

*

-

.
-

-

-

©
o>
•

CO

1.0
9 .5

12. 8

-

-

-

1 9 .5

-

-

-

-

.7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

*

-

-

-

-

-

*

*

*

-

.

.8
-

-

4 3 .0
. 9
.7

-

-

-

4 .0

-

-

-

_
•
-

5 5 .0
2 5 .0
5 .0
1 5 .0

1
Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported or data that do not meet public
tion criteria. Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.
shifts.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.




8

Table 5. Earnings distribution: Gas plant operators
(Percent distribution ot gas plant operators engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earnings.1 United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)
Hourly earnings1

NUHBEB O f NOBKEBS.................................
AVEBAGE H00B1X EABNINGS1.................

United
States1
*
3

Mid-continent

Great
Lakes

Louisiana
Total

Texas

Mountain

California

Oklahoma

2,200
$ 7 .9 5

24
$ 7 .4 6

155
$ 8 .0 8

155
$ 8 . 08

322
$ 8.12

1 ,0 2 5
$ 8.02

206
$ 7 .0 4

282
$ 8 .1 4

T 0 T A 1 ... . .

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

ONDEB $ 6. 00. . . .

2 .9

33 3 .3

$6 . 0 0
$6 . 1 0
$6.20
$6 . 30
$ 6 .4 0

ANE
AND
ANE
AM
ANI

ON EBB
UNEEB
UNEEfi
ONEEfi
0NEEB

$6 . 1 0 ........................
$6 . 20........................
$ 6 .3 0 ........................
$ 6 . 4 0 ........................
$ 6 .5 0 ........................

$ 6 .5 0 ANE UNEEfi $ 6 .6 0 ........................
$ 6 .6 0 ANE ONEEB 4 6 .7 0 ........................
$ 6 .7 0 ANE UNEEB $ 6 . 8 0 ........................
$ 6 .8 0 ANE ONEEfi $ 6 . 9 0 ........................
$ 6 .9 0 ANE ONEEB $ 7 .0 0 ........................
$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 . 10
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 .4 0

ANE
ANE
ANE
ANE
ANE

ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEB

$ 7 . 1 0 ........................
$ 7 . 2 0 ........................
$ 7 . 3 0 ........................
$ 7 .4 0 ........................
$ 7 . 5 0 ........................

3. 9

-

-

1.0
1 9 .4
1.0
-

_
-

1 4 .6
1. 5
1 7 .5
-

-

-

. 2
-

-

-

-

2. 1

.1
1 .8
.1
-

-

-

_

-

-

-

1 .4
. 1
.1
1.6
-

-

-

•
-

-

-

-

.5
. 1
1. 0

.
-

_

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

_

2. 1

2 .9
1.0
-

2. 1
-

$ 7 . 6 0 ........................
$ 7 . 7 0 ........................
$ 7 .8 0 ........................
$ 7 . 90 ........................
$ 8 . 0 0 ........................

1.8
3 .5
4 .5
1 3 .0
5 .5

-

3 .2
3 2 .3
1 1 .6

3 .2
3 2 .3
1 1 .6

5 .0
1 6 .1
2 .5
. 6

1. 9
5 .4
2.1
2 1 .5
2. 0

1.0
3 .9
6.8

1.8
5 .7
8 .5
2 3 .0

$8 . 0 0 ANE ONEEfi $ 8 . 1 0 ........................
$8 . 1 0 ANE ONEEfi $8 . 2 0 ........................
$ 8 . 2 0 ANE ONEEfi $ 8 .3 0 ........................
$ 8 .3 0 ANE ONEEfi $ 8 . 4 0 ........................
$ 8 .4 0 ANE ONEEB $ 8 . 5 0 ........................

10 .6
14. 2
1 4 .8
6.8
.5

1 6 .7
5 0 .0
*

2 3 .2
7 .7
5 .2

2 3 .2
7 .7
5 .2

20. 2
1 3 .0
1 9 .9
5 .3
-

7 .7
14. 1
2 0 .4
6. 5
-

8 .7
7 .8
9. 2
-

1 2 .4
2. 1
6 .4
1 8 .8
1 .4

8 .5
4 .7
1.1
.4
*

-

1 6 .8

1 6 .8

-

-

-

-

6.8
10.6
-

1 1 .9
2. 0
•
-

_

-

-

6 .4
5 .0
1 .4
2.8
-

.3

-

-

-

-

-

2. 1

$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 . 90

ANE
ANE
ANE
ANE
ANE

ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEB
ONEEfi

$ 8 .5 0 ANE UNEEB $ 8 .6 0 ........................
$ 8 .6 0 ANE ONEEB $ 8 . 7 0 ........................
$ 8 .7 0 ANE ONEEfi $ 8 . 8 0 ........................
$ 8 .8 0 ANE ONEEB $ 8 . 9 0 ........................
$ 8 .9 0 ANE ONEEB $ 9 .0 0 ........................
$ 9 .0 0

ANE C VEB ..

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data reported or data that do not meet publication
late shifts.
criteria. Because o f rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 All workers were at $5.60 to $5.70.




9

Table 6. Earnings distribution: Mechanics, maintenance
(Percent distribution of mechanics, maintenance, engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earnings,1 United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)
Middle Atlantic
Hourly earnings1

United
States1

Total

Mid-continent

Western
Pennsylvania

Border
States

Louisiana

Lakes

Total

Texas

Mountain

Californi

Oklahoma

UN DAB $ 5 .0 0 .........

3,69 2
$7 .7 7

$ 6. 16

53
$ 6 . 16

34
$ 6.01

106
$ 6 .8 5

475
$7.31

290
$7 .7 4

950
$ 7 .9 3

1,220
$ 7 .6 7

27 5
$ 7 .7 1

513
$ 8 .5 7

100.0

O F HOEKERS.............
AVERAGE HOURLY EARNINGSJ
HUM BER

1 0 0. 0

10 0. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

3 .6

2.9

$ 5 .0 0
$5 . 10
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0

AND
AND
ANI
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 .1 0 .......................
$ 5 .2 0 .......................
$ 5 .3 0 .......................
$ 5 .4 0 ......................
$ 5 .5 0 .......................

$ 5 .5 0
$ 5 .6 0
$ 5 .7 0
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 5 .6 0 .......................
$ 5 .7 0 .......................
$ 5 .8 0 .......................
$ 5 .9 0 .......................
$ 6 . 0 0 .......................

$6 . O
G
$6 . 1 0
$6 . 2 0
$ 6 .3 0
$ 6 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 .5 0
$6 . 6 0
$ 6 .7 0
$ 6 .8 0
$ 6 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

$ 7 .0 0
$7 . 10
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 .4 0

2 .9

-

-

317 .6
-

1.2
.5
.3

7 .5

.4

-

-

-

.5

1.0

1 .9
7 .5

.5
.2
1.9

1 .9
7 .5
-

13.2

13 .2

11 .8
8.8

$ 6 . 1 0 .......................
$6 . 2 0 ......................
$ 6 .3 0 .......................
$ 6 .4 0 .......................
$ 6 .5 0 .......................

2 .5

18.9

18.9

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 6 .6 0 .......................
$ 6 .7 0 .......................
$ 6 .8 0 .......................
$ 6 .9 0 .......................
$ 7 .0 0 ......................

1.3
. 1
.8
2 .5

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 .1 0 .......................
$ 7 .2 0 .......................
$ 7 .3 0 .......................
$ 7 .4 0 .......................
$ 7 .5 0 .......................

.9
.4

$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 7 .6 0 .......................
$ 7 .7 0 .......................
$ 7 .8 0 . i ..................
$ 7 .9 0 .......................
$ 8 . 0 0 .......................

$ 8. 00
$8 . 1 0
$8 . 2 0
$ 8 .3 0
$ 8. 40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 . 1 0 .......................
$8 . 2 0 .......................
$ 8 .3 0 .......................
$ 8 .4 0 .......................
$ 8 .5 0 .......................

7 .8
20 .5
10.5
3 .3

$ 8 .5 0
$ 8 .6 0
$ 8 .7 0
$ 8 .8 0
$ 8 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER
UNDER

$ 8 .6 0 .......................
$ 8 .7 0 .......................
$ 8 .8 0 .......................
$ 8 .9 0 .......................
$ 9 .0 0 .......................

14.2
7. 3

$ 9 .0 0

AND OVER..

.2

. 1
2 .7

.2

7 .5
_

_

-

_

_

3 4 .0

3 4 .0

7 .5

7 .5
•
5 .7
1.9
1.9

5 .7
1.9
1.9

3 .6

*

1.8

.8
*

.3

-

.8

8 .5
-

*

.9
*
*

. 4

*

*
1.6

.4

. 7
*

-

*

. 9
2. 7
.9

*

4 .0

*
-

3. 9

2 .3
8 .3
—
-

8.8
17.6

3 .8
3.8

5 .1
*
-

26 .5
—

3 .8
*

3 .2
•6
•
12.0

4.1
*
*

2 .7
•6
4.3
2.7
3 .2

1 .3
. 2

*

2.6
1 .3

-

*
*

•7
1. 1
2.2

**
*
*

-

4 .1
.7

.2
.2

-

2 .5
4 .0
.4
*

. 1
.8
*

4 .7
5. 8
“
“

. 2

_

-

3 .8
2 .5
.4
6 .3

6.2
4.1

-

_
-

.7
1 0 .3

.6
1.3
.6
1. 1
.8

1. 1
.3
3. 2
7. 5

6 .5
30 . 5
*

.6
•
.6

-

2 1 .3
11.6
1 .7
1 .5
-

3 4 .8
2 .4
2.8
2 .4

7 .5
3 5 .3
13 .9
2 .9

8.8
2 2 .5
16 .8
3 .0

1.1
1 0 .2
14. 5
2 .9
.7

7 .6
.6

7 .6
1 .5
-

12 .4
2 .4
—
-

1 0 .4
6 .9
.2

4 .7
8.6
. 4
.3

5 .8
1. 5
-

6 1 .6
13. 1
5 .7
3 .7

1 .3

2. 1

2.1

1.6

2.9

4. 9

-

-

-

_

.2

'

5 .7
11 .3
5 .7
2 0 .8
.9
2.8

_

7 .5

.9
.5

-

-

-

-

2.1 1
3
*

-

-

-

-

_

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
1 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 5.7 percent at $4.40 to $4.50; 11.3 percent at
$4.50 to $4.60; and 0.9 percent at $4.60 to $4.70.




1.1

*
.3

-

1. 1

.1

1.4

1 .7
2 .7
.2
-

-

.8

.8
.7
3 .8
3.9

5. 1

7 .5
*
-

5 .9
-

.1
(* )

17. 9

NOTE: Asterisk indicates less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data reported or
data that do not meet publication criteria. Because of rounding sums of individual items may
not equal 100.

10

Table 7. Earnings distribution: Pumpers
(Percent distribution of pumpers engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earnings1 United States and selected regions and States. September 1977)
Hourly earnings*

United
States2

Middle Atlantic
Total

Border
States

Western
Pennsylvania

Great
Lakes

Mid-continent
Louisiana
Total

Texas

Mountain;

California

Oklahoma

13,928
*6 .9 4

323
* 5 .7 6

239
* 5 .9 5

185
* 5 .3 0

709
$ 8 .0 9

2,39 5
* 6 .7 1

1,65 2
* 7 .0 0

2 ,6 7 8
* 7 .2 4

5 ,3 7 3
* 6 .6 0

1,26 5
* 7 .3 3

973
* 7 .9 4

100.0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

100. 0

10 0. 0

100. 0

10 0. 0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

ONDEE * 3 . 4 0 .........
* 3 . 40 AND UNDEE * 3 . 5 0 .......................

0.6
2.1

1.2

1.7
*

313.0

3.1
. 6

1 .4
.3

0 .7
-

3. 0

* 3 .5 0
* 3 .6 0
* 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
* 3 .9 0

$ 3 .6 0 .......................
* 3 . 7 0 .......................
* 3 . 8 0 .......................
$ 3 .9 0 .......................
* 4 . 0 0 .......................

.1
.3
. 1
.2
1.1

-

1. 1
3 .2
*

2.1
. 4
2 .4

1 .3
.2
.6
.8

* 4 .0 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 1 0 .......................
* 4 .1 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 2 0 .......................
* 4 . 2 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 3 0 .......................
* 4 . 3 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 4 0 .......................
$ 4 .4 0 AND UNDEE $ 4 .5 0 .......................

1.4
.3
1. 0
2.2
.3

2 .5
2.8

3 .3
•

-

*

12.1
1. 1
1. 1
.4
.8

* 4 .5 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 6 0 .......................
* 4 . 6 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 7 0 .......................
* 4 .7 0 AND UNDER $ 4 .8 0 .......................
* 4 .8 0 AND UNDEE * 4 . 9 0 .......................
* 4 .9 0 AND UNDEE $ 5 .0 0 .......................

1.9
1.1
1.4
.1
1.4

4 .6
2 .5
""

*

2.2
1.1
*

1.3
4. 4
4 .9

* 5 . 0 0 AND UNDEE $ 5 .1 0 .......................
* 5 .1 0 AND UNDEE $ 5 .2 0 .......................
* 5 .2 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 3 0 .......................
* 5 .3 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 4 0 .......................
* 5 .4 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 5 0 .......................

.4
.8
.5
.5
1 .0

2 .5
2 .5
•

-

1. 1
19.5

* 5 .5 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 6 0 .......................
* 5 .6 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 7 0 .......................
* 5 .7 0 AND UNDER * 5 . 8 0 .......................
* 5 . 8 0 AND UNDEE * 5 . 9 0 .......................
* 5 .9 0 AND UNDEE * 6 . 0 0 .......................

1.7
1.4
.6
.9
1.3

2 .5
14.9
27.9

-

7 .6
48. 1

NUMBER OF HOBKEES................................
AVERAGE H0UB1X EAENINGS.1................
T O T A I.........

*6.00
* 6 . 10
* 6. 20
* 6 .3 0
* 6 .4 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

ON DEE
UNDEE
UNDER
UNDEE
UNDEE

-

20.1
2 7 .6
3 0 .5
15.1

1.6
.8
.4
.2
.3
3 .8
2.8
.2
.4
.4

1.2
-

1 .7
-

1
.

“

*

-

-

2 3 .8
11. 1

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE

* 7 .0 0
* 7 .1 0
* 7 .2 0
*7 .3 0
$ 7 . 40

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE

* 7 . 1 0 .......................
* 7 . 2 0 .......................
* 7 . 3 0 .......................
$ 7 .4 0 .......................
$ 7 .5 0 .......................

1.2
.4
1.0
3 .6
10.0

* 7 .5 0 AND UNDEE * 7 . 6 0 .......................
* 7 .6 0 AND UNDEE $ 7 .7 0 .......................
* 7 .7 0 AND UNDEE * 7 . 80.......................
* 7 .8 0 AND UNDEE * 7 . 9 0 .......................
* 7 .9 0 AND UNDEE * 8 . 0 0 .......................

17.4
5. 2
7 .3
2 .9
2.0

-

* 8 . 1 0 .......................
* 8 . 2 0 .......................
* 6 . 3 0 .......................
* 8 . 4 0 .......................
* 8 . 5 0 .......................

4 .9
4 .8
.7
. 1

-

* 8 .5 0 AND UNDEE * 8 . 6 0 .......................
* 8 .6 0 AND O VIE.

1.4
1 .8

-

UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE

-

-

-

1.1
“

-

-

2.2

0.2

.6
1. 2
3 .0
.7
.4

1.3
4. 1
.7
*

.9
1.5
.7
.8

.8
.4
4 .9
*

1 .6
.2
.2
. 2

-

3 .3
4 .0
1.5

. 1
.9
.1
*

3. 3
.4
1.6
2. 9

. 1
-

*

.4

2 .4
3. 2
2 .5
.6
1.7

3. 1

.3
1 .4
.4
.5

.7
-

1.7
. 6
1. 8

1 .3
1. 2
. 6
.5

*
. 1
-

*
*
-

.4
13 .4
-

.3
1.0
-

-

1.7
1.2
. 2
3 .5

3 .4
.5
.6

1. 4

*
*

1 .6
1.1
-

.7

1. 2
. 1
1. 1
*

8 .9

1.6
*

—

7 .0
-

_
-

. 2
.4
.3
-

6.6
6.2
.4
. 1

3 .2
*
3 .8
2. 1

•

-

.2
1 .3
2.2
2 3 .0

1 .9
3. 1
3 3 .4

. 9
.7
.9
3 .6

2 .4
. 1
5. 3
11 .0

.4
*
3. 7
11 .2

.4
*
6. 5
•

19 .7
7 .2
5 .2
1.0
1. 8

2 6 .5
6 .9
11 .4
5 .0
1 .8

15 .6
4 .5
6. 1
1.7
2 .7

2 7 .6
2 .7
13. 7
1 .9
1.2

3 .9
14.0
8.6
4. 1

8. 1
-

9 .0
6 .3
.9
-

. 1
4. 2
. 1

9. 5
5 .5
*

45. 0
.2

-

6.2

2 .0
.2

-

8 .3
5 .5

6.8
17 .2
“

-

.3

*
-

11

7 .9
3 .8
7 .9
*

18. 2
5 .0
4 .3
3. 7
1 .3

1.7
-

_
5 .7
-

-

-

-

.2
.1
*

-

*
*

”

1.6
* A
_ *

_
1.1
*

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 2.2 percent at $2.70 to $2.80; 1.1 percent at $2.80
to $2.90; 1.1 percent at $2.90 to $3.00; 5.4 percent at $3.00 to $3.10; 1.1 percent at $3.10 to
$3.20 and 2.0 percent at $3.30 to $3.40.




1

-

-

-

_
3 .7

.6
1.1
•

-

* 6 . 1 0 .......................
$ 6 . 2 0 .......................
$ 6 .3 0 .......................
* 6 . 4 0 .......................
* 6 . 5 0 .......................

* 6 .5 0
*6 .6 0
$ 6 .7 0
* 6 .8 0
$ 6 .9 0

AND
AND
AND
AND
AND

*

UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE
UNDEE

* 6 . 6 0 .......................
* 6 . 7 0 .......................
* 6 . 8 0 .......................
* 6 . 9 0 .......................
* 7 . 0 0 .......................

* 8.00
* 8.10
$8. 20
* 8 .3 0
* 8 .4 0

-

_

.8

.4

(* )
(* )
.1

*

*

. 2

“

*
.4

*
1.7

NOTE: Asterisks indicate less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data reported
or data do not meet publication criteria. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may
not equal 100.

Table 8. Earnings distribution: Roustabouts
(Percent distribution of roustabouts engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earnings*, United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)
"• Middle Atlantic
Hourly earnings1

States

> Total
y

Mid-continent

Western
Pennsylvania

Border
States

Lakes

Louisiana
Total

Texas

Mountain

California

Oklahoma

NUHBEB O F WOBKEBS... . . . . . . . . . . . .
AVEBAGE HOUBLY EABNINGS1 ................
.

11.379
$ 6 .3 6

434
$5.26

331
$ 5 .3 7

281
$5 .0 6

555
$ 5 .7 3

2,081
$ 6 .1 3

1,276
$6 .4 5

2,69 2
$ 6 .6 2

3 ,8 4 1
$ 6 .4 0

680
$ 6 .6 3

689
$ 7 .0 5

TOTAL.................... .........................

10 0. 0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

10 0. 0

100. 0

100.0

100.0

100. 0

10 0. 0

UNLEB $ 3 .4 0 ............................................
$ 3 .4 0 AND UNLEE $ 3 .5 0 .......................

1.9
.4

1.4

1. 8
—

319 .6
2. 1

2 .3
-

3 .7

$3. 50
$ 3 .6 0
$ 3 .7 0
$ 3 .8 0
$ 3 .9 0

A NL
A NL
A NL
A NL
ANL

UN LEE
UNLEE
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 3 .6 0 .......................
$ 3 .7 0 .......................
$ 3 .8 0 .......................
$ 3 .9 0 ....................... f
$ 4 .0 0 .......................•

1.1
.9
1.2
.4
1 .4

5.1
*
4 .6

6.6

2.8
-

6.0

-

*

-

-

-

“

*

-

-

$ 4 .0 0
$ 4 .1 0
$ 4 .2 0
$ 4 .3 0
$ 4 .4 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 4 .1 0 ...................................
$ 4 .2 0 ..................................
$ 4 .3 0 ...................................
$ 4 .4 0 ...................................
$ 4 .5 0 ..................................

2 .9
.5
2. 0
2 .3
1.8

13. 4
.2
2 .3
.5

15. 1

$ 4 .5 0
$ 4 .6 0
$ 4 .7 0
$ 4 .8 0
$ 4 .9 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 4 .6 0 ...................................
$ 4 .7 0 .......................
$ 4 .8 0 .......................
$ 4 .9 0 ..................................
$ 5 .0 0 ...................................

3. 1
1.7
1 .4
1.5

6 .0

~

-

-

2 .7

-

3 .0
.7
.7
3 .0
1-3
.8

1.7

_
-

6 .3
4 .3
9 .9
2. 5

10.8

3 .8
.2
3 .0
.8
.6

2 .7
3 .8
.9
.9

7 .4
.8
.5

11 .8
.9

.2

.3

1. 5
1.2

-

-

-

7.2

-

-

_

.7

-

-

-

2. 8
6. 4
_

-

-

1.9
.3

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 5 .1 0 ............................... ...
$ 5 .2 0 ...................................
$ 5 .3 0 ..................................
$ 5 .4 0 ..................................
$ 5 .5 0 ...................................

.8
.5
.1
.7
.5

$ 5 .5 0
$ 5 .6 0
$ 5 .7 0
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5 .9 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 5 .6 0 ...................................
$ 5 .7 0 .......................
$ 5 .8 0 ......... ..............
$ 5 .9 0 .......... ..............
$ 6 .0 0 ...................................

.3
.4
2 .2
1.2
1 .0

19.4

$ 6 .0 0
$ 6 .1 0
$ 6 .2 0
$6 .3 0
$ 6 .4 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 6 . 1 0 . . . ................
$ 6 .2 0 ...................................
$ 6 .3 0 .......................
$ 6 .4 0 .......................
$ 6 .5 0 ......................

.8
.8
1.3
2 .3
1 .8

14.3
.2
11.5

$ 6 .5 0
$ 6 .6 0
$ 6 .7 0
$ 6 .8 0
$ 6 .9 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 6 .6 0 .......................
$ 6 * 7 0 .......................
$ 6 .8 0 .......................
$ 6 .9 0 .......................
$ 7 .0 0 .......................

.2
1.1

$ 7 .0 0
$ 7 .1 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 .4 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 7 .1 0 ...........
$ 7 . 2 0 . ....................
$ 7 .3 0 .......................
$ 7 .4 0 .......................
$ 7 .5 0 .......................

2. 1
8.0
4 .4
24 . 1
3 .9

$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 .9 0

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB
UNLEB

$ 7 .6 0 .......................
$ 7 .7 0 ......................
$ 7 .8 0 .......................
$ 7 .9 0 .......................
$ 8 .0 0 .......................

.5
1 1 .8
*
.4
.5

-

-

*
~

$ 8 .0 0 ANL OVEfi......................................

1.2

-

1 .2

-

-

*

-

1 .8

-

-

.6

~
-

*

*
*

-

-

-

-

.5

.4

-

1.1

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 .9
-

.5
-

9

5 .9

_

.6

.

.8
.2

i.

-

4 .6
-

_
.

-

4
-

_
-

5

7
1
1.3
1.6

-

.3
1. 3

.

. 2

.4

.9
(♦ )
1 .4

1.3
. 1
2 .3

1. 1
. 1

1. 5
7 .0
7 .9
21 .0
5 .7

1. 0
4 .4
12.9
3 4 .2
6 .4

.9
1.6
—
3 4 .4

*

-

8. 6
-

2 .5
_

2. 0

-

-

-

-

-

3 .6

*

-

-

.

-

.

-

2« 2 ;
2. 9

_

-

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
3 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 2.1 percent at $2.50 to $2.60; 2.1 percent at $2.60
to $2.70; 2.1 percent at $2.70 to $2.80; 1.4 percent at $2.90 to $3.00; 7.1 percent at $3.00
to $3.10; 4.3 percent at $3.10 to $3.20; and 0.5 percent at $3.30 to $3.40.

1

.

_

11.8

cn
0
0

-

O

1 .2
3 .0
1.8

cr

15. 1

-

-

1
7 .4
. 9
11.0

_
-

-

-

-

-

-

r'j

.9
2 .3
1.4

18. 1
.3

2 .9
.6
1.7
3. 3

3. 2

-

-

2 2 .7

-

5 .8
2.6

2.6
.6
1 .7
4 .0
. 5

-

.

_

—

_

1. 8
-

-

-

17.8

C
D

-

1. 4

1. 4

NJ

7 .4
2.8

-

-

-

1.1
.8
3. 2

V£

-

1 .2
.6

C
N

*

2 .8
.5

-

1. 1
3 .7
.9
.9

1.2

-

.6

ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL
ANL

1. 4

7. 4
1.4

-

(* )

.6

-

-

~

$ 5 .0 0
$ 5 .1 0
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0




2. 8

-

2 .5
2. 2
2. 7
.2
.9
1.9

.9
4

.

4
.3
1 .5
.7
. 4

_
-

.

1. 0

•
3 .8
2 .9

1 .9
10 .5
1.5
2 5 .6
2 .5

1 .3
5. 2
2. 9
33 . 8
4 .7

8 .4
10. 4
4. 1
1 7 .5
9 .3

1. 0
2 5 .6

.5
10. 8
_

_
_
6. 1

2. 8

2.6

.6

5 .5
8 .3
5 .7
29 .0
2 2 .9
1.7
1.9
1. 2
7. 0

.7

.6

2. 4

-

. 1

5. 1

3 .3

NOTE: Asterisks indicate less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicate that no data reported or
data do not meet publication criteria. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal 100.

12

Table 9. Earnings distribution: Truckdrivers
(Percent distribution of truckdrivers engaged in oil and gas extraction by straight-time hourly earning*1. United States and selected regions and States. September 1977)
Middle Atlantic
Hourly earnings

United
States2

Total

Mid-continent

Western
Pennsylvania

Louisiana
Total

Texas

Mountain

California

Oklahoma

UNOEfi $4 . 0 0 . . . .

52
$ 5 .9 3

51
$ 5 .9 2

192
$ 5 .8 2

413
$ 5 .3 3

165
$5 .9 1

213
$ 4 .7 6

681
$ 5 .0 8

189
$ 6 .3 0

246
$ 8 .0 1

10 0.0

1 0 0 .0

100.0

10 0.0

10 0.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

10 0.0

1.6

4 .8

3 .3

1 .2

-

-

_
9 .7

4 0 .4
4 .7
5 .6
7 .5
5 .6

2 .3
2 .3
4. 7
2 1 .6
1 .8

4 .2
.5
*

*
•

-

13.1
*

2 2 .3
1 .5
4 .4
6 .5
6 .5

1. 1
4 .2
1.1
*

-

-

-

*

*
*
*

2.1

$ 4 .0 0
$ 4 .1 0
$4. 20
$ 4 .3 0
$4 .4 0

AMO
AMO
AMO
AMO
AM
O

UN0EE
UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UN0EE
UMOEfi

$ 4 .1 0 .......................
$ 4 .2 0 .......................
$ 4 .3 0 .......................
$ 4 .4 0 .......................
$ 4 .5 0 .......................

$ 4 .5 0
$ 4 .6 0
$ 4 .7 0
$ 4 .8 0
$ 4 .9 0

AMO
AMO
AMO
AMO
AMO

UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UNOEfi

$5. 00
$ 5 .1 0
$ 5 .2 0
$ 5 .3 0
$5 . 40

AMO
AMO
AMO
AMD
AMO

$ 5 .5 0
$ 5 .6 0
$ 5 .7 0
$5. 80
$ 5 .9 0

AMI
AMO
AMO
AMI
AMI

-

00

TOTAL.........

2,05 8
$ 5 .6 4
100.0

NUMBEE OF HOiKEBS................................
AVEBAGE B0UE1X EAEMINGS..................

7 .7
-

-

$ 4 .6 0 .......................
$ 4 .7 0 .......................
$ 4 .8 0 .......................
$ 4 .9 0 .......................
$ 5 .0 0 .......................

11.1
1.2
5 .2
3 .9
2 .6

7 .7
•
-

7 .8
-

UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi

$ 5 .1 0 .......................
$ 5 .2 0 .......................
$ 5 .3 0 .......................
$ 5 .4 0 .............................
$ 5 .5 0 .............................

3 .6
.3
.9

•
1.9

•
2 .0

-

•
-

UMOEfi
UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi

$ 5 .6 0 .............................
$ 5 .7 0 .............................
$ 5 .8 0 .............................
$ 5 .9 0 .............................
$ 6 .0 0 .............................

1.2
1.2
1.2
.4
.2

•
30 .8

3 1 .4

$ 6 .0 0 AMO UMOEfi $ 6 .1 0 .............................
$ 6 .1 0 AMO UNOEfi $ 6 .2 0 .............................
$ 6 .2 0 AMI UMOEfi $ 6 .3 0 .............................
$ 6 .3 0 AMI UMOEfi $ 6 .4 0 ............................
$ 6 .4 0 AMD UMOEfi $ 6 .5 0 .............................
$6 . 50
$ 6 .6 0
$ 6 .7 0
$ 6 .8 0
$ 6 .9 0

AND
AMO
AMI
AMO
AMO

UMOEfi
UMIEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi

$ 6 .6 0 .............................
$ 6 .7 0 .............................
$ 6 .8 0 .......................
$ 6 .9 0 .......................
$ 7 .0 0 .......................

2 .2
.3
.3
.2

•

•

-

•

11.5
9 .6
7 .7

$7. 00
$ 7 .1 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7 .3 0
$7. 40

AMO
AMI
AMO
AMO
AMI

UNOEfi
UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi

$ 7 .1 0 .......................
$ 7 .2 0 .......................
$ 7 .3 0 .......................
$ 7 .4 0 .......................
$ 7 .5 0 .......................

(* )
1.4
6 .0
4 .5

$ 7 .5 0
$ 7 .6 0
$ 7 .7 0
$ 7 .8 0
$ 7 .9 0

AMI
AMO
AMO
AMO
AMO

UNOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi
UMOEfi

$ 7 .6 0 .......................
$ 7 .7 0 .......................
$ 7 .8 0 .......................
$ 7 .9 0 .......................
$ 8 .0 0 .......................

-

•

7 .1
2 .3
5 .7
8 .7
1.2

$ 8 .0 0

Lakes

•
-

9 .9
5 .1
11.6
3 .9
*

1.6
•
22 .9
1.6
4 .7

8 .2
3 .4
6 .8
-

«
2. 1
4 .2

13.1
.5
.5

-

•

-

*

•
-

-

_

•
-

•
•

3 .8

3 .9

*

*

5 .4

-

-

25 .0

(*)

•
•
-

-

.3
1.0

-

-

.5

19.2

17 .6

6 .8

.5

8 .5
- •
9 .7
*
2 9 .1

-

*

-

•

*

-

3 .7
1 .2

1. 8

3 .8
*

-

-

•
*

*

•

•

•

.

-

-

*

-

11.8
9 .8
7 .8

•
*

*

•
-

•
*

•
*

4 .4
18 .9
7 .7

10 .9
12 .7
19 .4

4 .2

2.1
1.8
5 .6
1.0
.6

.
*

•
*

12 .5
9 .9
-

-

•
•
-

1 .3

*

3. 8
3 .8
3 .8
*

•
-

•

•
-

•
-

-

-

.3
*
-

’

4 .2
*
*
.5
*

*

*
*
*

•
*
*
*

*

AMO UMOEfi $ 8 .1 0 .......................

1.0

$ 8 . 10 AMO UNOEfi $ 8 .2 0 .......................

4 .2

$8. 20 AMI UMIEfi $ 8 .3 0 .......................
$ 8 . 3 0 AMO UMOEfi $ 8 .4 0 .......................
$ 8 .4 0 AMO OVEfi..

1.3

'
1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2 Includes data for regions in addition to those shown separately.
3 Workers were distributed as follows: 9.4 percent at $8.40 to $8.50; 0.9 percent at $8.70 to
$8.80; and 0.3 percent at $9.60 to $9.70.




•
6 .3
-

-

13

1.0

.7

.5

-

• 5

*

2 .6
6 .3

*

3 3 .9

-

-

1. 5
-

19. 0
*

*
*
*
•

1 .5

•5

•
*

4 .4

8. 5
“

*

8 .5
*
*
*

4 .5
10.2
32. 5
*
3 .3

4. 2

7 .3
31. 7
•
*
310.6

7. 5

.6
.4

. 3
.6

-

NOTE: Asterisks indicate less than 0.05 percent. Dashes indicates that no data reported or
data do not meet publication criteria. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal
total.

Table 10. Method of wage payment—Oil and gas extraction1
(P e rc e n t o f production w o rkers by m eth od of w a g e paym en t,2 U nited S ta te s a n d s ele cte d regions an d S tates, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id continent

M iddle A tlantic
M e th o d of
w a g e p aym en t

U nited
S ta tes 3

To tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
van ia

B order
S ta tes

G re a t
L akes

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M ountain C alifornia

All w o rkers ................................................................

4 100

100

1 00

1 00

4 1 00

100

100

100

1 00

100

1 00

T im e -ra te d w o r k e r s ....................................................
Fo rm al p lan s ..............................................................
S in gle r a t e ................................................................
R a n g e o f r a t e s ......................................................
Individual r a t e s ..........................................................

99
93
78
15
7

100
77
69
9
23

1 00
82
73
9
18

1 00
84
73
11
16

99
76
69
7
23

1 00
90
80
10
10

100
95
89
6
5

1 00
100
90
10

1 00
89
71
18
11

100
100
55
45

1 00
99
95
4
1

1 In cludes firm s prim arily e n g ag ed in operating oil and g a s field prop erties
(cru de p e troleum an d natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells for oth ers.
2 Fo r definition o f m eth o d of w a g e paym en t, s e e appendix A.
3 In cludes d a ta for regions in addition to those show n sep arately.

(5)

(5)

plans not show n sep arately.
5 Less than 0 .5 percent.
N OTE:

4 In cludes a sm all p e rce n ta g e of th e w orkers on individual p iecew o rk

D a s h e s in dicate th a t no d a ta w e re rep orted . B ec a u s e o f rounding,

sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

Table 11. Method of wage payment—Crude petroleum and natural gas production1
(P e rc e n t o f production w o rkers by m eth od of w a g e paym ent,2 U nited S ta te s a n d sele cte d regions an d S ta tes , S e p te m b e r 1 97 7 )

M id continent

M iddle A tlantic
M e th o d of
w age paym ent

United
S ta tes 3

W e s tern
To tal

Pennsyl­
van ia

Border
S tates

G re a t
Lakes

To tal

O k la ­
hom a

Louisiana

Te x a s

M ou ntain C alifornia

All w o rkers ................................................................

4 1 00

1 00

1 00

100

4 100

1 00

100

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

T im e -ra te d w o r k e r s ....................................................
F o rm al p lan s ..............................................................
S in gle r a t e ................................................................
R a n g e o f r a t e s .......................................................
Individual r a t e s ..........................................................

99
91
78
13
9

1 00
74
64
10
26

1 00
79
68
11
21

1 00
79

98
76
66
10
22

1 00
86
70
16
14

100
91
81
10
9

100
100
93
7

1 00
88
73
15
12

1 00
99
57
42
1

1 00
99
94
5
1

1
ties.
2
3
4




In cludes firm s prim arily e n g ag ed in operating oil and gas field p rop er­
Fo r definition o f m eth o d o f w ag e paym ent, s ee appendix A.
In cludes d a ta for reg ion s in addition to those show n separately.
In cludes a sm all p e rce n ta g e o f th e w orkers on individual p iecew ork

66
14
21

(5)

plans not show n sep arately.
5
Less th a n 0 .5 percent.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 12. Scheduled weekly hours—Oil and gas extraction1
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers by scheduled w e e k ly hours,2 U nited S ta tes and sele cte d regions a n d S ta tes , S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id co ntin en t

M iddle A tlantic
W e e kly hours

All w o rkers ...............................................................
3 7 .5 hours .....................................................................
4 0 hours .........................................................................
4 2 hours .........................................................................
4 5 hours .........................................................................
4 8 hours .........................................................................
5 0 hours .........................................................................
5 2 hours .........................................................................
5 6 hours .........................................................................
V a ria b le w o rk w e e k s 5 .................................................

U nited
S ta te s 3

1 00
O

53
4
1
14
1
0

13
14

To tal

100

W estern
Pennsyl­
vania
100

B order
S tates

1 00

G re a t
Lakes

1 00

_

_

73
-

69
-

13
-

15
-

-

1
23
5
-

14

16

“

“

11

11
18

T o tal

O k la ­
ho m a

1 00

1 00

Louisiana

100

Texas

1 00

M ountain C alifornia

100

1 00

_

-

-

_

_

-

-

O

43
-

1
88

44
-

47
-

49
1

51
26

75
21

1

2
24
3
24

-

20
2
34

18
-

-

(4)

”

50
3
25
20
2

1
-

49

0

5

4

4 Less than 0 .5 percent.
5 N o predom in an t w ork w e e k prevailed for a m ajority of w orkers.

' In cludes firm s primarily engaged in operating oil and gas field properties
(cru de p e troleum and natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells for others.
2 D a ta rela te to the predom inant schedule for full-tim e day-shift
production w o rkers in e ach establishm ent’s lan d -b ased operations.
3 In cludes d a ta for regions in addition to th o se show n separately.

N O T E : D a s h e s indicate th at no d a ta w e re reported. B ec a u s e of rounding,
sum s of individual item s m ay not equal 100.

Table 13. Scheduled weekly hours—Crude petroleum and natural gas production1
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers by scheduled w e e k ly hours,13U nited S ta tes and sele cte d regions and S ta tes , S e p te m b e r 1 97 7 )
2

M id continent

M iddle Atlantic
W e e kly hours

All w o rk e rs ...............................................................
3 7 .5 hours .....................................................................
4 0 hours .........................................................................
4 2 hours .........................................................................
4 5 hours .........................................................................
4 8 hours .........................................................................
5 0 hours .........................................................................
5 2 hours .........................................................................
5 6 hours .........................................................................
V a ria b le w o rk w e e k s 5 .................... ............................

U nited
S ta te s 3

100
0
83
1
2
7
2
0
3
3

To tal

W estern
P ennsyl­
van ia

1 00

100

_
_

_

85

82

-

-

100
2
85
-

-

-

-

-

-

15
-

18
-

-

“

1 In cludes firms primarily e ngaged in operating oil and gas field p rop er­
ties.
2 D a ta relate to th e predom inant schedule for full-tim e day-shift
production w orkers in each establishm ent’s land -based operations.
3 In cludes d a ta for regions in addition to tho se show n separately.




B order
S ta tes

14

G re a t
Lakes

1 00

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

1 00

1 00

_

_

61

68

80

-

-

-

2
14
7
-

2
13
3
-

4
13

14
1

Louisiana

100

Texas

1 00

M ountain C alifornia

1 00

_

_

-

87
2

82

92
2

3
12
5
-

-

5
12
-

-

-

”

2
-

-

2
8

1 00

-

O
99
1
-

(4)
1

-

~

-

-

4

4 Less than 0 .5 percent.
5 N o predom in an t w ork w e e k prevailed for a m ajority of w orkers.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal 100.

Table 14. Shift differential provisions—Oil and gas extraction1
(P e rc e n t o f production w o rk e rs by shift differential provisions,2 U nited S ta te s a n d sele cte d regions and S tates, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id continent

M id dle A tlantic
Shift differential

U nited
S ta tes 3

B order
S tates

G re a t
Lakes

7 2 .6
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
-

6 9 .6
3 7 .8
3 7 .8
7 .8
-

Louisiana

Texas

5 0.7
3 6 .9
3 6 .9
-

8 0 .0
3 5 .3
3 5 .3
-

-

-

-

-

2 2 .4
14.5
-

3 2 .0
3 .2
-

-

-

-

7 6.4
2 6 .0
2 6 .0
-

84.1
36.1
36.1
-

9 5 .4
3 9 .3
3 9 .3
-

8 0 .0
3 5 .3
3 5 .3
-

.6

1.1

-

-

2 .4
2 2 .4
14.5

-

T o tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
van ia

7 3.7
3 7.3
3 7.3
.3

5 3 .5
1 4.3
1 4.3
-

5 9 .5
1 4.0
14.0
-

O

1.6
12.7
-

1.8
12.1
-

16.4
23.1
-

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

.6
2 1 .5
3.9
-

-

-

-

-

-

4 4 .7
1 2 .7
1 2.7
1 2 .7
-

4 9 .2
12.1
12.1
12.1
-

7 2 .6
3 9 .5
3 9 .5
16.4
-

6 6 .6
3 7 .8
3 7 .8
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

23.1
-

-

-

3 0 .0
7.8

2 1 .5
3 .9

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

8 0 .0
2 6 .0
2 6 .0
-

84.1
36.1
36.1
-

-

1.1
3 5 .0

M ountain C alifornia

Second shift
W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts with
s eco n d -sh ift p r o v is io n s ...........................................
W ith shift differential ..............................................
U nifo rm c e n ts p er h o u r .....................................
5 c e n t s ....................................................................
8 c e n t s ....................................................................
1 0 cen ts ................................................................
1 4 cen ts ................................................................
1 8 cen ts ................................................................

.6
.5
.1

21A
5 0 cen ts ................................................................
6 7 .5 c e n t s .............................................................
7 0 cen ts ................................................................

7.6
.1
.6

3 0 .0

-

85.1
3 7 .5
3 7 .5
2 5 .6
2 .9
1.6
7.4

9 6 .7
6 2 .6
6 2 .6
42.1
2 0 .5
-

Third or other late shift
W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith thirdor o th e r late-sh ift p ro v is io n s .................................
W ith shift differential ..............................................
U nifo rm cen ts p e r h o u r .....................................
15 cen ts ................................................................
18 cen ts ................................................................
2 0 cen ts ................................................................
6 6 .7 cen ts .............................................................
7 0 cen ts ................................................................
9 0 cen ts .................................................................
$1 ..............................................................................

8 3 .5
3 7 .8
3 7 .8
.6
.1
.5
.6
.6
2 7 .4
7.9

-

' In clu d es firm s prim arily e n g a g e d in operating oil and gas field properties
(cru d e p etro leu m an d natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells for others.
2 R e fe rs to po licies o f establishm ents currently operating late shifts or
having provisions c overing la te shifts.
3 In cludes d a ta fo r reg ion s in addition to th o se show n separately.




-

-

-

3 5 .0

-•
3 2 .0
3 .2

8 3 .5
3 5 .9
3 5 .9
7.4
2 5 .6
2.9

9 1 .8
6 2 .6
6 2 .6
-

42.1
2 0 .5

4 Less than 0 .0 5 percent.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 15. Shift differential provisions—Crude petroleum and natural gas production1
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers by shift differential provisions,2 U nited S ta te s and sele cte d regions and S tates, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M iddle A tlantic
S hift differential

U nited
S ta te s 3

To tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
vania

M id continent
Border
S ta tes

G re a t
Lakes

6 4 .7
5 0.9
5 0 .9
-

5 6 .6
4 2 .8
4 2 .8
-

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

M ountain C alifornia

Louisiana

Texas

8 6 .5
71.1
71.1
-

6 7 .3
5 7 .8
5 7 .8
-

7 7 .0
7 1.0
7 1 .0
-

9 5 .6
8 2 .6
8 2 .6
-

4 8 .3
5.5
3.1
14.1

5 5 .6
2 7 .0
-

S e c o n d s h ift
W o rk e rs in establishm ents with
s eco n d -sh ift p ro v is io n s ....... ...................................
W ith shift differential .............................................
U niform cen ts per h o u r .....................................
8 c e n t s ...................................................................
10 cen ts ................................................................
14 cen ts ...............................................................
18 c e n ts ...............................................................
4 5 c e n ts ................................................................
5 0 c e n ts ................................................................
6 7 .5 cen ts ............................................................
7 0 c e n ts ...............................................................

7 4 .6
6 0 .8
6 0 .8
.1
1.0
.8
.2
45.1
1 2.5
.2
.9

46.1
16.6
1 6.6
1.8
14.8
-

5 1 .8
16.6
16.6
2.2
14.4
-

-

-

7 4 .4
6 1 .5
6 1 .5
1.0
.2
.8
1.0
.9
45.1
1 2.5

2 1 .2
2 9 .7
-

6 7 .0
4 2 .9
4 2 .9
-

7 2 .8
6 1 .6
6 1 .6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5 2 .5
5.3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3 5 .9
14.8
14.8
14.8
-

3 9 .5
14.4
14.4
14.4
-

6 4 .7
5 0.9
5 0 .9
2 1 .2
-

5 2.3
4 2 .8
4 2 .8
-

6 1 .2
4 2 .9
4 2 .9
-

7 2.8
6 1 .6
6 1 .6
-

9 4 .4
8 2 .6
8 2 .6
-

1.8

6 7 .3
5 7 .8
5 7 .8
-

7 3 .9
6 7 .9
6 7 .9
-

1.1

9 3 .4
7 5 .6
7 5 .6
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2 9 .7
-

_

-

-

4 .5
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4 2 .8

5 9 .8

“

-

“

3 5 .4
6 .4

14.1
4 8 .3
5.5

5 5 .6
2 7 .0

4 2 .8

1.8
5 9 .8
-

43.1
2 8 .0

-

1.1
3 5 .4
6 .4

-

T h ir d o r o th e r la te s h ift
W o rk e rs in establishm ents with thirdor o th er late-sh ift p ro v is io n s ................................
W ith shift differential .............................................
U nifo rm cen ts per h o u r .....................................
15 cen ts ...............................................................
18 cen ts ...............................................................
2 0 c e n ts ...............................................................
6 6 .7 cen ts ............................................................
7 0 cen ts ...............................................................
9 0 cen ts ...............................................................
$1 .............................................................................

-

1 In cludes firm s primarily e ngaged in operating oil and gas field p rop er­
ties.
2 R e fe rs to policies of establishm ents currently op erating late shifts or
having provisions covering late shifts.




3

“

43.1
2 8 .0

5 2 .5
5.3

-

Includes d a ta for regions in addition to th o se show n sep arately.

N O T E : D ash es indicate th at no d a ta w e re reported. B ec a u s e of rounding,
sum s of individual item s m ay not equal totals.

Table 16. Paid holidays—Oil and gas extraction'
(Percent of production workers in establishments with formal provisions for paid holidays, United States and selected regions and States, Septem ber 1977)

M id co ntin en t

M id d le A tlantic
N u m b e r of
paid holidays

All w o rk e rs ................................................................
W o rk e rs in esta b lis h m e n ts
providing paid h o lid a y s ...........................................
U n d e r 5 d a y s ..............................................................
5 d ays ...........................................................................
6 d a y s ...........................................................................
6 d ays plus 2 h a lf d a y s ........................................
7 d ays ...........................................................................
8 d ays ...........................................................................
8 d a y s plus 1 h a lf d a y ..........................................
8 d a y s plus 2 h a lf d a y s ........................................
9 d ays ...........................................................................
9 d ays plus 1 h a lf d a y ..........................................
10 d ays .........................................................................
11 d ays o r m o r e .......................................................

United
S tates2

T o tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
v an ia

S ta te s

G re a t
Lakes

T o tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M o u ntain C alifornia

1 00

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

100

1 00

100

1 00

75
16
2
5

80

77
-

74
3

-

61
13
-

87
26
2

54
1

-

10
13
-

-

2

7

3

15
-

85
24
8
4
-

76
24

-

78
15
2
19
-

73

-

9

10

6
4

2
2

2
3

0
1
3
1
(1
3)
2
4
(3)
41
2

-

-

-

-

15
-

14
-

32
1

37
1

1 In cludes firm s prim arily e n g a g e d in operating oil and gas field p rop erties
(cru d e p e tro le u m a n d natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells for oth ers.
2 In cludes d a ta fo r regions in addition to tho se show n separately.
3 L ess th a n 0 .5 p ercen t.




B order

8
3
4
11
-

-

-

-

-

42

31

“

“

4

3
3
-

1

1
6
2

-

-

-

5

-

-

1

6

-

-

-

31
9

36

44
“

4
1
38
1

-

0
-

2
3

4
-

-

2
12
31

4
65
“

N O T E : D ash es indicate th a t no d a ta w e re rep orted . B e c a u s e o f rounding,
sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.

Table 17. Paid holidays—Crude petroleum and natural gas production'
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers in establishm ents w ith form al provisions for paid holidays, U nited S ta te s an d s e le cte d regions a n d S tates, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id dle A tlantic
N u m b er of
paid holidays

All w o rkers ................................................................
W o rk e rs in establishm ents
providing paid h o lid a y s ...........................................
U n d e r 5 d a y s .............................................................
5 d ays ...........................................................................
6 d ays ...........................................................................
6 d ays plus 2 half days ........................................
7 d ays ...........................................................................
8 d ays ...........................................................................
8 d ays plus 1 half d a y ..........................................
8 d ays plus 2 half d a y s ........................................
9 d ays ...........................................................................
9 d ays plus 1 half d a y ..........................................
1 0 d ays ........................................................................
1 1 d ays o r m o r e ......................................................

U nited
S tates1
2

To tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
van ia

M idcontinent
B order
S ta te s

G re a t
Lakes

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M ou ntain C alifornia

1 00

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

100

1 00

1 00

100

100

94

93
-

92
-

96

99
12
-

91
-

18
-

11
-

93
2
4
3
-

94
-

-

93
12
9
6
-

89
-

12
15
-

98
10
3
27
-

10

12

9
5

3
4

3
6

-

-

5
3
5

0
2
5

1
(3
)
6

0
66

0

4
-

4
5
14
-

-

-

17
-

17
-

-

37
1

44

55
“

1

5

-

-

4
-

2
-

-

2
9

-

3

-

-

-

2

1
-

-

-

-

5
5

-

86

-

7
3

8

2

6

-

-

10
-

-

1

23
-

45

51

62

80

62

59

“

“

*

1

3

“

1 In cludes firm s primarily e n gaged in operating oil and ga s field prop erN O T E : D as h e s indicate th a t no d a ta w e re rep orted . B ec a u s e o f rounding,
ties.
sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.
2 In clu d es d a ta for regions in addition to those show n sep arately.
3 Less th a n 0 .5 percent.




Table 18. Paid vacations—Oil and gas extraction'
(Percent of production workers in establishments with formal provisions for paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions
and States, Septem ber 1977)

M iddle Atlantic
V a c atio n policy

U nited
S ta tes 2

Total

W e s tern
Pennsyl­

M id continent
Border

G re a t

S tates

Lakes

Total

O k la ­
ho m a

van ia
All w o rkers ................................................................

Louisiana

Te x a s

M ountain C alifornia

1 00

100

1 00

100

100

100

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

100

78
77

81
81
-

78
78
-

76
76
-

88

83

78

83
-

78
-

64
64
-

78

88
-

78
-

85
85
-

1 00
85

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

(3)
14

31

19
12

21
-

16
-

19
-

10
-

-

50

57
-

44
-

58
-

59
-

2

1

-

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e stab lish m en ts
providing paid vac a tio n s ........................................
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t ........................................
P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t ..............................................
F lat s u m ........................................................................

(3)
1

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 4
A fter 1 y e a r o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 an d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................

2
56

49
-

45
-

50
-

31

O v e r 2 an d un der 3 w e e k s ................................

0

-

32
-

26
-

5
52
-

1

-

-

-

-

11
1
63

-

-

-

(3)
1

73
1
-

77
1
-

68
-

12
1

-

8

-

-

17
-

(3)
1

73
1
-

77
1
-

68
_
-

63
3
3

(3)

-

-

-

11
1
21

-

-

-

-

46
1
27

46
1
31

58

48

-

14

3
35

-

-

-

-

-

-

48
3
4
31

3 w e e k s .........................................................................
A fter 2 y e a rs of service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 an d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
A fter 3 y e a rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 3 an d un d er 4 w e e k s ................................
A fter 5 y e a rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 an d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 an d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 4 a n d un d er 5 w e e k s ................................
A fter 10 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un d er 2 w e e k s .................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s .................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
4 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ................................

See footnotes at end of table.




18

64

1
44
1

8

8

8

-

8

-

17

4

4

14
1
10
41

4
1
55
14

2
1

8
-

60
15

57
6

-

-

-

91
1
-

6

8

2
66

13
8

19
-

15
-

10
-

-

-

61

3

(3)

59
-

45
-

67
-

64
-

2

1

-

91
1
-

13
8

19
-

16
-

10
-

18
-

(3)
-

61
(3)

59
-

45
-

67
-

64
-

99
1
-

-

-

-

-

-

13
8
20
4

19
-

16
-

10
-

18
-

4

23

25

-

-

-

-

(3)
33
1

37

45
-

41
2

46
-

41
-

66
-

13
8
16

19
-

16
-

10
-

18
-

-

8

4

4
7
35

-

-

13
-

13
-

29
1

9
42

13
42

16
38

66

-

-

(3)
41
2

“

“

2

-

1

-

-

11
1

8

(3)

8

-

-

2

1

2

13

2

-

-

5

Table 18. Paid vacations—Oil and gas extraction1
—Continued
(Percent of production workers in establishments with formal provisions fc. paid vacations after selected periods of service, United States and selected regions
and States, September 1977)

M id dle A tlantic
V a c atio n policy

U nited
S ta te s 1
2

Total

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
van ia

M id continent
B order
S ta tes

G re a t
L akes

T o tal

M ou ntain C alifornia

Louisiana

Texas

_

16

_

10

_

18

6
_

_

3

13

_

13

7
45
_

1
41
2

7
47

6
48

_

29
1
4
66
_

19

_

16

_

10

_

18

_

6
_

3
_

13

_

13

7
4
_

1
_

7
10
_

5
10

29
1
4
1

O k la ­
ho m a

Amount of vacation pay4
—Continued
A fte r 15 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s ........................................................................
4 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d un d er 6 w e e k s ................................
A fter 2 0 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k .........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un der 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s ........................................................................
4 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 4 a n d un d er 5 w e e k s .................................
5 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d un d er 6 w e e k s ................................
A fte r 2 5 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k .........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s ........................................................................
4 w e e k s ......................................................................
5 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d un d er 6 w e e k s .................................
A fter 3 0 y ea rs o f service:5
1 w e e k .......................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un d er 2 w e e k s .................................
2 w e e k s .................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un der 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s ........................................................................
4 w e e k s ........................................................................
5 w e e k s ........................................................................
O v e r 5 an d un d er 6 w e e k s .................................
6 w e e k s ........................................................................

11
1
13
1
6
46
1
11
1
13
1
5
6

0
40
1
11
1
13
1
5
5
41
1
11
1
13
1
5
5
41
1
0

8
_

-

4
1
35
33
_

2
1
38
37

8

_

-

4
-

7

-

_

13
8
14
4
7
37
_

8
57
_

43
3
7
33
2

4
_

_
_

7
_

13
8
14
4
7
3
_

-

19

_

_

_

_
_

-

_

4
1
15
39
1
14
_

2
1
17
43
_

-

43
3
3
6
_

15
_

19
_

31
2

34
_

41

_

41
2

38

_

39
_

66

8
_

_
_

4

_
_

19
_

_

10

_

18

_
_

4
1
15
8
46
_

2
1
17
9
49
_

7
_

6
_

_

3

13

_

13

4
18
42
_

43
3
3
6
31
2

13
8
14
4
7
3
34

16

-

7
4
41

1
_

7
10
38

5
10
39

29
1
4
1
66

4
_

_
_

_

7
_

43
3
3
6
31
2

8
_

-

_

5
40

4
1
15
7
47

2
1
17
8
50

4
18
42

_

_

_

-

-

-

-

_

13
8
14
4
7
3
34

_

_
_

_

41
2

19

_

16

_

10

_

18

6
_

3

_

13

_

13

7
4
41

1

7
10
38

5
10
39

29
1
4
1
66

_

_

-

-

_

_

_

41
2

-

-

(3)

_

_
-

_
_
_

_

1 In clu d e s firm s primarily e n g a g e d in operating oil and g as field properties
(cru de p e tro le u m and natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells fo r others.
2 In clu d es d a ta for regions in addition to tho se show n separately.
3 L ess th an 0 .5 percent.

for progression. For e xam p le, ch an g es indicated at 10 y ea rs m ay include
c h a n g e s th at occurred b e tw e e n 5 and 10 years.
5
V acatio n provisions w e re virtually th e s a m e a fter lo nger periods of
service.

4 V a c a tio n paym en ts, such a s percen t o f annu al earnings, w e re
c o n v e rte d to a n equivalent tim e basis. Periods of service w e re chosen
arbitrarily a n d d o not necessarily reflect individual establishm ent provisions

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.




Table 19. Paid vacations—Crude petroleum and natural gas production'
(P e rc e n t o f production w o rkers in establishm ents with form al provisions for paid vacatio ns after s e le cte d periods of service, U nited S ta te s an d sele cte d regions
a n d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id dle Atlantic
V a c atio n policy

All w o rk e rs ................................................................
M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W o rk e rs in e stab lish m en ts
providing paid vac a tio n s ........................................
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t ........................................
P e rc e n ta g e p a y m e n t ..............................................
A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 4
A fter 1 y e a r o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 a n d un der 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un der 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
A fte r 2 y e a rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 an d un der 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 an d un der 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
A fter 3 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 an d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 3 a n d un der 4 w e e k s ................................
A fte r 5 y ea rs of service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
O v e r 1 an d un d er 2 w e e k s ................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s ................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
A fte r 1 0 y e a rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
2 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 2 an d un d er 3 w e e k s .................................
3 w e e k s .........................................................................
4 w e e k s .........................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d un d er 6 w e e k s ................................
A fte r 15 y e a rs o f service:
1 w e e k ..........................................................................
2 w e e k s ........................................................................................
O v e r 2 a n d un d er 3 w e e k s .......................................
3 w e e k s ........................................................................................
4 w e e k s ........................................................................................
O v e r 5 a n d un der 6 w e e k s .......................................

S ee footnotes at end of table.




U nited
S tates2

To tal

W estern
Pennsyl­
vania

M id continent
B order
S ta tes

G re a t
Lakes

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M ountain C alifornia

100

100

100

1 00

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

97
97

94
94

92
92

97
97

94
94

1 00
1 00

1 00
1 00

88
88

1 00
1 00

1 00
1 00

1 00
1 00

(3)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

9
1
87

57
-

53
-

64
-

-

-

-

-

39
-

84
-

97
-

-

97
-

96
-

-

33
-

12
6
82

-

36
-

23
8
64
-

1

-

96
1
-

10
-

-

2

-

-

-

(3)
-

-

-

84
1

92
1

88
-

86
-

1 00

-

1 00
-

98
-

-

9
84
1
-

-

1 00
-

2
86
-

(3)
98
-

-

-

1
-

(3)
-

-

25

23

0
(3)
2
0
94
(3)
(3)
1
94
(3)
1
(3)

9

-

10
88
-

-

92
1
-

(3)
23
1
72

-

-

53
1
31

55
1
36

75
-

1
12
1
15
68

9
5
1
63
16

-

2
1
71
18

5
10
73
8

-

-

-

1

0

9

1

11
1
8

9
5

5

17

-

99
(3)

1
99

3
80
4
4

(3)
-

3
-

-

37
4
50

32
6
62

-

1
25
6
11
57
-

1

37
4
5
45
3

10
46
3

1

1
46

75

41
38

44

10
73

0

-

-

-

-

4

• r

8

22

3

3

1

3

-

97
-

1

3

3

96
1
(3)
99
1
(3)
11
1
88

-

-

-

-

78

80

75

77

1
7

(3)
10

-

-

-

-

-

15
71

1
80

21
69

24
72

11
1
1
87

-

-

-

-

-

14

-

1

21
6

11

6

-

11
61

12
78

-

-

-

30

4

-

1

5
2

1

3
3
84
4
-

9

-

(3)
-

3

(3)

-

4

(3)
10

-

-

-

-

-

2
80

12

6

78

91

-

“

4

11
1
-

88

Table 19. Paid vacations—Crude petroleum and natural gas production—Continued
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers in establishm ents w ith form al provisions for paid v acatio n s after s ele cte d periods o f service, U nited S ta te s and s e le cte d regions
an d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1 97 7 )

M iddle Atlantic
United

V a c atio n policy

S tates1
2

W e s tern
To tal

Pennsyl­

M id continent
B order

G re a t

S ta tes

Lakes

To tal

vania

O k la ­

Louisiana

Texas

M ountain C alifornia

ho m a

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 4— C o n tin u e d
A fte r 2 0 y ea rs o f service:
1 w e e k .........................................................................

1

9

2 w e e k s ........................................................................

11

5

-

5

-

9

2

30
4
4

-

O v e r 2 a n d un der 3 w e e k s ................................

1

17

20

6

4 w e e k s ........................................................................

10

45

(3)
66

1

51
-

52
-

5 w e e k s ........................................................................

co

1

7

O v e r 4 an d un der 5 w e e k s ................................

ro

1

3 w e e k s ........................................................................

O v e r 5 an d un der 6 w e e k s ................................

(3)

16
-

18
-

25
-

1 w e e k .........................................................................

1

9

2 w e e k s ........................................................................

11

5

-

1
6

6

11
-

(3)
10
-

11

12

2

1
21

8

5

7

-

-

-

11

12

5

-

16
-

-

4

18
-

-

-

1
1

-

-

-

56
-

70
-

80
-

62

73

87

3

-

-

-

5

-

-

1

30

21

6

4

6

11
-

(3)
10
-

-

9

4

11

12

2

12

-

16

18

1

80
-

62
-

73
-

87
-

-

1
6

(3)
10

-

11

-

-

2

12

-

16

18

1

79

62

73

87

-

-

45

A fter 2 5 y ea rs of service:
-

2
-

O v e r 2 and un der 3 w e e k s ................................

1

1

1

3 w e e k s ........................................................................

7

17

20

5

1

4 w e e k s ........................................................................

9

9

11

23

8

5

7

5 w e e k s ........................................................................

68
0

58
-

55
-

45

O v e r 5 a n d under 6 w e e k s ................................

53
-

3

56
-

70
-

5

-

9

30

21

-

-

4
-

11

5

-

1

A fter 3 0 y ea rs o f service:5
1 w e e k .........................................................................

1

9

2 w e e k s ........................................................................

11

-

5

2

O v e r 2 an d under 3 w eeks ................................

1

1

1

3 w e e k s ........................................................................

7

17

20

5

1
4

6

4

-

11

-

-

12

4 w e e k s ........................................................................

9

8

10

23

8

5

7

5 w e e k s ........................................................................

68

54

59

55

45

56

70

O v e r 5 and un der 6 w e e k s ................................

(3)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

6 w e e k s ........................................................................

(3)

-

-

-

-

-

(3)

-

4

11

5

-

1

“

1 In cludes firm s primarily engaged in operating oil and gas field proper­
ties.
2 In cludes d a ta fo r regions in addition to those show n separately.
4 V a c atio n

paym en ts,
an

ch an g es th a t occurred b e tw e e n 5 and 10 years.
V acatio n

provisions w e re virtually th e s am e

a fter longer periods of

service.
such

as

p ercen t

equivalent tim e basis.

of

annual

earnings,

w ere

Periods of service w e re chosen

arbitrarily a n d d o not necessarily reflect individual establishm ent provisions




for progression. For exam ple, c h a n g e s indicated at 10 years m ay include
5

3 Less th a n 0 .5 percent.
c o n v e rte d to

3
-

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 20. Health, insurance and retirement plans—Oil and gas extraction1
(P e rc e n t o f production w o rkers in establishm ents with specified health, insurance, and retirem ent plans,1 U nited S ta te s and sele cte d regions and S tates,
2
S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M idcontinent

M iddle Atlantic
T y p e of plan

All w o rkers ................................................................

U nited
S ta tes 3

Total

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
vania

Border
S tates

G re a t
Lakes

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M ountain C alifornia

100

100

1 00

1 00

100

100

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

93
55

92
47

99
50

95
49

95
35

97
52

98
60

1 00
60

87
48

82
34

1 00
89

70
38

69
37

78
41

71
42

81
27

60
28

60
25

71
38

73
35

48
18

92
81

59
33
30

99
79
79

99
76
76

85
59
56

68
56
38

44
19
13

47
14
13

64
43
41

54
27
24

55
30
24

67
34
34

39

33

25

31

23

30

39

40

37

46

53

9
32
17
99
45
99
45
99
45
97
43
65
65
52
1

20
19

23
22

(5)
1 00
82
1 00
82
1 00
82
1 00
82
65
65
45

100
81
100
81
1 00
81
1 00
81
68
68
45

4
27
3
98
27
98
27
98
27
84
13
79
79
55

3
38
11
96
33
96
33
96
33
90
31
45
45
44

9
19
18
99
40
99
40
99
40
99
40
42
42
35

7
21
19
1 00
55
1 00
55
1 00
55
1 00
55
50
50
49

8
32
17
1 00
33
1 00
33
1 00
33
1 00
33
65
65
40

-

-

-

-

-

-

10
35
20
1 00
58
100
58
100
58
99
55
67
67
57
-

6
47
22
1 00
38
1 00
38
1 00
38
77
30
78
75
66
7

15
29
6
1 00
39
1 00
39
1 00
39
100
39
85
85
85
-

W o rk e rs in esta b lis h m e n ts providing:
Life in s u ra n c e ............................................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
A cc id e n ta l d e a th an d
d is m e m b e rm e n t in s u r a n c e ................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................

ro

S ic k n e s s a n d a cc id e n t insurance
o r sick le a v e o r both4 ..........................................
S ic k n e s s a n d a cc id e n t in s u r a n c e .................
N oncon tributory plan s ....................................
S ick le a v e (full pay,
no w aiting p e r io d ) ...............................................
S ick le a v e (partial pay
o r w aiting p e r io d ) ................................................
Lo ng-term disability in s u r a n c e ..........................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
H ospitalization in s u r a n c e .....................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
Surgical in s u r a n c e ...................................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e ....................................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
M a jo r m ed ical in s u ra n c e .......................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
R e tire m e n t p lan s6 ....................................................
P e n s io n s ....................................................................
N o n con tributory plan s ....................................
S e v e ra n c e p a y .......................................................
N o plan s ......................................................................

0

-

-

1 In clu d es firm s prim arily e n g a g e d in operating oil an d gas field properties
(cru d e p e tro le u m an d natural gas) a n d contractors drilling w ells for others.
2 In cludes th o s e p lan s fo r w hich th e em p loyer pays a t le a s t part of th e
c o st a n d e xc lu d e s legally required plans such a s w orkers’ c om pensation
a n d social security; h o w ever, plans required by S ta te tem porary disability
law s a re in cluded if th e e m p lo y e r contributes m ore than is legally required or
th e e m p lo y e e s re c e iv e b en efits in exc e s s o f legal requirem ents.
“ N oncon tributory plan s” include only th o se plans financed entirely by th e
e m p loyer.




4

2

1

“

“

”

3 Includes d a ta fo r regions in addition to th o se show n s ep arately.
4 U ndu plicated total o f w o rkers receiving sickness and a cc id e n t insurance
an d
5
*
pay

sick le a v e show n sep arately.
Less th an 0 .5 p ercen t.
U ndu plicated total o f w o rkers co v e re d by pension plans an d s ev e ran ce
show n sep arately.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 21. Health, insurance and retirement plans—Crude petroleum and natural gas production1
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers in establishm ents with specified health, insurance, and retirem ent plans,2 U nited S ta te s an d s e le cte d reqions and S ta tes
S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id dle A tlantic
T y p e of plan

All w o r k e r s ................................................................

U nited
S ta te s 3

T o tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
van ia

M id continent
B order
S ta tes

G re a t
Lakes

T o tal

O k la ­
ho m a

Louisiana

Texas

M ountain C alifornia

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

1 00

100

1 00

100

100

100

1 00

97
59

91
38

99
40

94
35

93
42

97
54

97
61

99
61

94
56

1 00
49

100
85

74
42

64
27

74
30

63
25

73
30

60
39

69
40

77
39

78
40

61
33

89
75

83
43
38

99
76
76

99
71
71

81
47
44

79
60
54

73
31
21

80
24
22

84
50
45

82
37
33

1 00
51
45

89
44
44

60

38

30

40

33

49

66

63

61

87

69

16
41
24
99
39
99
39
99
39
98
37
81
81
68

23
22
1
1 00
79
1 00
79
100
79
1 00
79
75
75
52

28
26
1 00
78
1 00
78
1 00
78
100
78
81
81
53

5
34
4
97
35
97
35
97
35
79
17
73
73
42

4
44
15
94
34
94
34
94
34
85
31
64
64
62

15
31
29
1 00
34
100
34
1 00
34
100
34
64
64
56

13
36
32
1 00
53
1 00
53
1 00
53
1 00
53
82
82
80

16
33
19
1 00
23
1 00
23
1 00
23
1 00
23
80
80
52

17
48
32
1 00
55
1 00
55
1 00
55
98
51
86
86
79

20
38
7
1 00
20
1 00
20
1 00
20
1 00
20
88
88
88

(6)

_

_

_

12
63
41
1 00
31
1 00
31
1 00
31
1 00
31
90
90
79
7

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

W o rk e rs in establishm ents providing:
Life in s u r a n c e ............................................................
N o n con tributory p l a n s ........................................
A cc id e n ta l d e a th and
d is m e m b e rm e n t in s u ra n c e ................................
N o n con tributory p l a n s .......................................
S ic k n e s s a n d accid en t insurance
o r sick le a v e o r both4 ..........................................

NJ

C1
J

S ic k n e s s and a ccid en t in s u ra n c e .................
N oncon tributory plans ....................................
S ick le a v e (full pay,
no w aiting p e r io d )...............................................
S ick le a v e (partial pay
or w aiting p e r io d )................................................
Lo n g -term disability in s u r a n c e ..........................
N o n con tributory p l a n s .......................................
H o spitalization in s u ra n c e .....................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s .......................................
S urgical in s u r a n c e ..................................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
M e d ic a l in s u ra n c e ..............................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
M a jo r m ed ical in s u ra n c e ......................................
N oncon tributory p l a n s ........................................
R e tire m e n t p lan s5 ............................................
P e n s io n s .................................................
N oncon tributory plans ....................................
S e v e ra n c e p a y ......................................................
N o p l a n s .........................................................

-

' In cludes firm s prim arily e ngaged in operating oil and g as field proper­
ties.
2
In clu d es th o se plans for which th e em ployer pays a t least part of th e
c o st a n d e xclu d es legally required plans such as w o rkers’ com pensation
a n d social security; how ever, plans required by S ta te tem p o rary disability
law s a re included if the e m p loyer contributes m ore th a n is legally required or
th e e m p lo y e e s receive benefits in excess of legal requirem ents.
“ N oncon tributory p lan s” include only th o se plans fin an ced entirely by the
e m p loyer.




3

_
6

_

_

_

-

3 Includes d a ta for regions in addition to th o se show n sep arately.
4 U ndu plicated total o f w o rkers receiving sickness and a cc id e n t insurance
and sick le a v e show n sep arately.
5 U ndu plicated total of w o rkers c o v e re d by pension plans and s ev e ra n c e
pay show n sep arately.
6 Less than 0 .5 percent.

NOTE: Dashes indicate that no data were reported. Because of rounding,
sums of individual items may not equal totals.

Table 22. Other selected benefits—Oil and gas extraction1
(Percent of production workers in establishments providing selected benefits,2 United States and selected regions and States, September 1977)

M id dle A tlantic
T y p e o f b en efit

U nited
S ta te s 3

M id continent
B order
S ta tes

G re a t
Lakes

49
52
54

Total

W e s tern
P ennsyl­
van ia

59
66
53

73
73
86

77
77
84

62
57
97

23
20
8

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

C)
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Louisiana

Texas

49
49
51

68
73
55

60
72
40

-

-

-

-

49
43
12
-

19
19
13
-

31

7

14
5

8
8
2
6
1

To tal

O k la ­
ho m a

42
42
68

M ountain C alifornia

W o rk e rs in esta b lis h m e n ts
with provisions f o r

NJ
cn

F u n eral l e a v e ................................................................
Jury duty l e a v e .............................................................
Th rift o r savings p lan 4 ...............................................
W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts with
o ffsh o re o p e r a tio n s ...................................................
W ith travel p ay provisions5 ..................................
R eg u la r w a g e r a t e ...............................................
U niform flat-su m p a y m e n t ...............................
O th e r travel p a y m e n t..........................................
W ith prem ium p ay for
o ffsh o re w o r k ...........................................................
C e n ts p e r h o u r ......................................................
10 c e n t s ................................................................
2 0 cen ts ................................................................
4 5 cen ts ................................................................
6 6 .7 c e n ts .............................................................
O t h e r ...........................................................................

8
6
1
4
1
2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1 In cludes firm s prim arily en g a g e d in operating oil and gas field properties
(cru de p e tro le u m a n d natural gas) and contractors drilling w ells fo r others.
2 Fo r definition o f item s, s e e appendix A.
3 In cludes d a ta fo r reg ion s in addition to tho se show n separately.
4 In cludes only th o s e plans in which th e em ployer m akes a contribution
be y o n d a dm inistrative costs.




3
2
9

-

-

54
55
56

66
77
52

-

39
30
5
4
20

-

-

20
20

-

-

-

20

-

-

-

-

“

5 Pay provisions for travel b e tw e e n th e w o rk e r’s reporting point an d th e
site o f o ffsho re operations.
6 Less than 0 .5 percent.
N O T E : D as h e s indicate th a t no d a ta w e re rep orted . B ec a u s e o f rounding,
sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.

Table 23. Other selected benefits—Crude petroleum and natural gas production1
(P e rc e n t o f production w orkers in establishm ents providing s e le cte d b e n e fits ,2 U nited S ta te s and sele cte d regions and S tates, S e p te m b e r 1 9 7 7 )

M id dle Atlantic
T y p e o f benefit

U nited
S ta tes 1
3
2

M id continent
B order
S ta te s

G re a t
L akes

92
92
81

79
73
96

-

T o tal

W e s tern
Pennsyl­
vania

80
83
43

84
84
83

27
25
12
14

-

11

-

M ountain C alifornia

Louisiana

Texas

84
84
16

84
86
45

80
89
36

92
93
24

87
89
41

-

-

-

49
48
18
30

32
32
21
11

-

47
34
7
27

-

-

-

-

14

14

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

27
27
-

-

-

14
4
9
1

-

-

9
1

3

-

-

27
-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

T o tal

O k la ­
hom a

59
52
45

69
69
48

-

-

-

-

-

-

W o rk e rs in establishm ents
w ith provisions f o r
F u n eral l e a v e ...............................................................
Jury duty le a v e ...........................................................
Th rift or savings plan4 ..............................................

to

W o rk e rs in establishm ents with
o ffsh o re o p e r a tio n s ..................................................
W ith travel pa y provisions5 .................................
R eg u la r w a g e r a t e ..............................................
O th e r travel p a y m e n t..........................................
W ith prem ium p ay for
o ffsh o re w o r k ..........................................................
C e n ts p e r h o u r ......................................................
10 cen ts ...............................................................
20 c e n ts ...............................................................
45 c e n ts ...............................................................
66.7 c e n t s ...........................................................
O t h e r ..........................................................................

10
1
7
1
1
1

-

-

-

1 In cludes firm s primarily engaged in operating oil a n d gas field prop er­
ties.

5
P ay provisions for travel b e tw e e n th e w o rk e r’s reporting point and th e
site o f offsho re operations.

2 F o r definition of item s, s ee appendix A.
3 In cludes d a ta for regions in addition to th o se show n sep arately.
4 In cludes only th o se plans in which the em p lo y e r m ak e s a contribution
b e y o n d adm inistrative costs.

N O T E : D as h e s indicate th at no d a ta w e re rep orted . B ec a u s e o f rounding,
sum s o f individual item s m ay not equal totals.




Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

Scope of survey

Employment

The survey included establishments primarily en­
gaged in operating oil and gas field properties and
those chiefly engaged in drilling wells for oil and gas
field operations on a contract, fee, or similar basis.
(Industries 1311 and 1381, respectively, as defined in
the 1972 Standard Industrial Classification Manual,
prepared by the U.S. Office o f Management and
Budget.) Separate auxiliary units, such as central
offices and research laboratories, were excluded
from the study.
The establishments studied were selected from
those employing 8 workers or more in operating oil
or gas field properties, and 50 workers or more in
contract drilling at the time of reference o f the data
used in compiling the universe lists.
The number o f establishments and workers actual­
ly studied by the Bureau, as well as the numbers es­
timated to be in the industries during the payroll per­
iod studied, are shown in table A -l.

The estimates of the number o f workers within the
scope o f the study are intended as a general guide to
the size and composition o f the labor force included
in the survey rather than as a precise measure of
employment.

Occupations selected for study
Occupational classification was based on a uni­
form set of job descriptions designed to take ac­
count of interestablishment and interarea variations
in duties within the same job. (See appendix B for
descriptions.) The occupations were chosen for their
numerical importance, their usefulness in collective
bargaining, or their representativeness o f the entire
job scale in the industry. Supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, parttime, temporary, and probationary workers were not
reported in the selected occupations.

Wage data
Method of study

Wage information relates to average straight time
hourly earnings, excluding premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Incentive payments, such as those resulting
from piece-work or production bonus systems, and
cost-of-living bonuses were included as part o f the
workers’ regular pay; nonproduction bonus pay­
ments, such as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were
excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation were calculated by weighting each rate
(or hourly earnings) by the number o f workers re­
ceiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number
of individuals. The hourly earnings o f salaried work­
ers were obtained by dividing their straight-time sal­
ary by normal rather than actual hours.

Data were obtained by personal visits o f Bureau
field representatives to a representative sample of
establishments within the scope of the survey. T o
obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a
greater proportion o f large than of small establish­
ments was studied. In combining the data, however,
all establishments were given their appropriate
weight. All estimates are presented, therefore, as
relating to all establishments in the industries, ex­
cluding only those below the minimum sizes at the
time of reference of the universe data.

Establishment definition
An establishment, for purposes of this study, was
defined as covering all oil and gas field activities o f
an operating company or a contract driller, in the
wage area for which separate data are presented.
For areas including two or more States, such as the
Great Lakes region, operating activities crossing
State lines were counted within the geographic
boundaries o f each State rather than combined into
one unit.




Scheduled weekly hours
Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant
work schedule for full-time production workers em­
ployed on the day shift. About 10 percent o f the
industry’ s work force were on a variable work
schedule; i.e., no predominant workweek.

28

Shift provisions and practices

employer contributions,1 plans are included only if
the employer (1) contributes more than is legally
required, or (2) provides the employees with benefits
which exceed the requirements o f the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion
of the worker’ s pay during absence from work be­
cause of illness; informal arrangements have been
omitted. Separate tabulations are provided for (1)
plans which provide full pay and no waiting period,
and (2) plans which provide either partial pay or a
waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide pay­
ments to totally disabled employees upon the expira­
tion of sick leave, sickness and accident insurance,
or both, or after a specified period o f disability (typi­
cally 6 months). Payments are made until the end o f
disability, a maximum age, or eligibility for retire­
ment benefits. Payments may be full or partial but
are almost always reduced by social security, work­
ers’ compensation, and private pension benefits pay­
able to the disabled employee.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment o f doctors’ fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commercial insur­
ance company or a nonprofit organization, or they
may be a form o f self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes
plans designed to cover employees for sickness or
injury involving an expense which exceeds the nor­
mal coverage o f hospitalization, medical, and surgi­
cal plans.
Tabulations o f retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the re­
mainder of the retiree’ s life. Data are presented sep­
arately for retirement severance pay (one payment
or several over a specified period o f time) made to
employees on retirement. Establishments providing
both retirement severance payments and retirement
pensions to employees are considered as having both
retirement pensions and retirement severance plans;
however, establishments having optional plans pro­
viding employees a choice o f either retirement sev­
erance payments or pensions are considered as
having only retirement pension benefits.

Shift provisions related to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having
formal provisions covering late-shift work. Practices
relate to workers employed on late shifts at the time
o f the survey.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions
Supplementary benefits in an establishment were
considered applicable to all production workers if
they applied to half or more o f such workers in the
establishment. Similarly, if fewer than half o f the
workers were covered, the benefit was considered
nonexistent in the establishment. Because o f lengthof-service and other eligibility requirements, the
proportion of workers receiving the benefits may
have been smaller than estimated.

Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to fullday and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summaries o f vacation plans are
limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion o f the employer or supervisor. Payments
not on a time basis were converted; for example, a
payment o f 2 percent of annual earnings was consid­
ered the equivalent o f 1 w eek’ s pay. The periods of
service for which data are presented represent the
most common practices, but they do not necessarily
reflect individual establishment provisions for pro­
gression. For example, changes in proportions indi­
cated at 10 years o f service may include changes
which occurred between 5 and 10 years.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are
presented for health, insurance, pension, and retire­
ment severance plans for which the employer pays
all or a part o f the cost, excluding programs required
by law such as workers' compensation and social
security. Among plans included are those underwrit­
ten by a commercial insurance company and those
paid directly by the employer from current operating
funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to
that type o f insurance under which predetermined
cash payments are made directly to the insured on a
weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans
to which the employer contributes at least a part of
the cost. H ow ever, in N ew York and N ew Jersey,
where temporary disability insurance laws require




Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid fu­
neral and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans
which provide at least partial payment for time lost
'T h e

te m p o r a r y

d i s a b i lit y

in s u r a n c e

la w s

in

C a lifo r n ia

R h o d e Is la n d d o n o t r e q u ir e e m p lo y e r c o n t r ib u t io n s .

29

and

Table A-1. Estimated number of establishments and employees within scope of survey and number studied, oil and
gas extraction, September 1977
W o rk e rs in e stablishm ents

N u m b e r o f establishm ents2

R e g io n 1 an d S tate

W ithin sco p e o f study
W ithin sco p e of
study

A ctually studied
T o ta l3

Production
w orkers

A ctu ally studied

Oil a n d g as extraction4

U nited S ta te s 5 ......................................................................

1 ,6 1 0

272

1 3 6 ,5 7 4

8 7 ,4 8 1

6 3 ,2 0 9

M id dle A t la n t ic ............................................................................
W e s tern P e n n s y lv a n ia ..........................................................
B order S t a t e s ...............................................................................
G re a t L a k e s ..................................................................................
M id c o n tin e n t.................................................................................
O k la h o m a ..................................................................................
L o u is ia n a .........................................................................................
T e x a s ................................................................................................
M o u n t a in ........................................................................................
C a lifo r n ia .........................................................................................

39
25
50
1 22
373
213
161
613
168
71

18
13
16
25
59
33
39
53
36
20

2 ,2 2 3
1 ,9 3 5
2 ,5 0 9
4 ,4 7 5
1 8 ,9 5 7
1 1 ,9 9 7
3 2 ,8 4 0
5 2 ,3 1 3
9 ,4 9 3
13,011

1 ,7 0 4
1 ,4 6 8
1 ,9 0 9
3 ,4 4 8
1 2 ,6 8 7
7 ,6 1 5
2 2 ,0 1 0
2 9 ,5 6 9
6 ,6 8 4
8 ,9 3 5

1 ,1 8 4
1 ,0 7 8
1 ,6 4 8
1 ,5 6 5
5 ,3 6 6
4 ,0 0 6
1 8 ,3 5 0
2 3 ,5 6 6
3 ,2 3 3
7 ,9 1 4

C ru d e p e troleum an d natural g as production

U nited S ta te s 5 ......................................................................

1 ,3 2 3

224

9 6 ,6 2 2

5 3 ,2 7 8

52,7 21

M iddle A t la n t ic ............................................................................
W e s tern P e n n s y lv a n ia ..........................................................
B order S t a t e s ......................................... ... .................................
G re a t L a k e s ..................................................................................
M id c o n tin e n t.................................................................................
O k la h o m a ..................................................................................
L o u is ia n a ........................................................................................
T e x a s ................................................................................................
M o u n ta in ........................................................................................
C a lifo r n ia ........................................................................................

37
23
47
106
318
1 83
105
515
129
57

17
12
15
21
51
30
27
43
29
17

1,951
1 ,6 6 3
1 ,9 7 5
3 ,2 6 9
1 3 ,4 0 2
8 ,5 3 4
2 0 ,6 2 8
3 8 ,8 4 9
5 ,9 2 8
9 ,9 7 9

1 ,4 7 0
1 ,2 3 4
1 ,4 8 3
2 ,4 1 6
7 ,6 9 7
4 ,4 5 9
11,431
1 8 ,0 4 7
3 ,5 3 4
6 ,7 6 7

1 ,0 4 8
942
1 ,4 7 0
1 ,2 5 4
4 ,5 6 8
3,601
1 2 ,9 0 0
2 1 ,7 3 3
2 ,3 3 3
7 ,1 0 0

1
T h e regions used in this study include: M id dle A tlantic— N e w
Y o rk and Pennsylvania; W e s tern P en nsylvania— A dam s, C u m b e r­
land, Lycom ing, Miffin, Perry, Tioga, Union, and all o th er P ennsyl­
v an ia counties w e s t thereof; B order S ta te s — K entucky and W e s t V ir­
ginia; G re a t L akes— Illinois, Indiana, M ichigan, and Ohio; M id co n ­
tin en t— A rkansas, K an sas, Mississippi, N eb ra s k a, and O klaho m a;
and M ountain— A rizona, C olorado, Idaho, M o n tan a, N e w M exico,
N orth D ako ta, U tah , an d W yom ing.

Travel and premium pay for offshore work. Informa­
tion is provided on the establishment’ s formal pay
provisions for travel between the worker’ s reporting
point and the site o f offshore operations, as well as
the incidence and amount of premium pay for work­
ers engaged in offshore operations.

as a result of attending funerals o f specified family
members or serving as a juror.

Thrift or savings plans. Data relate to formal provi­
sions for thrift or savings plan to which the em ploy­
er makes monetary contributions beyond administra­
tive costs.




2 In cludes only th o se estab lish m en ts w ith 8 w o rkers or m o re in
cru d e p e troleum an d natural g a s production a n d 5 0 w o rkers or m ore
in c o n tract drilling a t th e tim e o f refe re n c e o f th e un iverse data.
3 Includes executive, professional, o ffice, an d o th er w o rkers in
addition to th e production w o rker c ateg o ry show n sep arately.
4 In cludes d a ta fo r c o n tract drillers not show n s ep arately.
5 In cludes d a ta for regions in addition to th o se show n s ep arately.
A la sk a an d H aw aii w e re not included in th e study.

30

Appendix B. Occupational
Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’ s wage surveys
is to assist its field representatives in classifying into appropriate occupations work­
ers who are employed under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrange­
ments from establishment to establishment and from area to area. This classification
permits the grouping of occupational wage rates representing comparable job con­
tent. Because of the emphasis on comparability of occupational content, the Bu­
reau’ s job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual estab­
lishments or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions,
the Bureau's field representatives are instructed to exclude supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probation­
ary workers.

Derrick operator

pumps to see that fluid, which cools bit, removes
cuttings, and seals walls of well with clay, is circu­
lating properly and is of correct consistency; in­
specting core or cuttings from well to determine na­
ture o f strata drilled through; fishing for and remov­
ing equipment lost in well, using special tools at end
o f drill pipe or cable; and keeping record o f location
and nature of strata, number o f feet advanced per
shift, and materials used. May start flow o f well by
assisting shooter in lowering and setting off a charge
of explosives in the strata and control flow o f well
when it comes in (first begins flowing) by capping it
or regulating control valves. Supervises and is assist­
ed by workers, such as derrick operator and rotary
floor worker.

Works on a rotary drilling rig, assisting in raising
and lowering casing and drill pipe and in carrying on
drilling operations. Work involves: From position
near top o f rig, guiding and attaching or detaching
elevator to or from upper end of sections o f casing
or drill pipe as it is being run into or pulled out o f
well; tending slush or mud pumps which circulate a
heavy mixture o f clay and water through a drill pipe
to flush our drillings and cool bit; cleaning, oiling,
greasing, inspecting, and repairing pulley, blocks,
and cables that are used to raise and lower casing
and drill pipe; and assists rotary driller to regulate
valves in controlling flow of oil when well is brought
in (first begins flowing).

Driller, rotary
Electrician, maintenance

(Core driller; well driller)
Supervises drilling operations and operates draw
works that serve as a power distribution center for
the raising and lowering o f drill pipe and casing, and
for rotation of drill pipe in the well. Work involves:
Manipulating levers and throttles to control speed of
rotary table which rotates string of tools, and to reg­
ulate the pressure o f the tools at the bottom of the
well as indicated by a gage; connecting and discon­
necting sections o f drill pipe as they run into or out
of well; selecting drill bits according to nature of
strata encountered and changing them when dull or
when strata change; manipulating levers, pedals, and
brakes to control draw works which supply power
necessary to lower and raise drill pipe and casing
into and out of well; checking operation of slush



Performs a variety o f electrical trade functions
such as the installation, maintenance, or repair of
equipment for the generation, distribution, or utiliza­
tion o f electric energy in an establishment. Work
involves most o f the following-. Installing or repair­
ing any of a variety o f electrical equipment such as
generators, transformers, switchboards, controllers,
circuit breakers, motors, heating units, conduit sys­
tems, or other transmission equipment; working
from blueprints, drawings, layouts, or other specifi­
cations; locating and diagnosing trouble in the electri­
cal system or equipment; working standard computa­
tions relating to load requirements o f wiring or elec­
trical equipment; and using a variety o f electrician’ s
handtools and measuring and testing instruments. In

31

poses such as directional drilling, electric well log­
ging, perforating, and free-point shooting. May con­
nect or assist in connecting the various instruments
to conductor cable. May also maintain and repair
cables and hoisting equipment.

general, the work o f the maintenance electrician re­
quires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Floor worker, rotary
Mechanic, maintenance

(Rotary driller helper; rotary helper; roughneck)
Assists in drilling operations and in running drill
pipe and casing in and out of well. Work involves;
Guiding lower end o f sections o f drill pipe and cas­
ing to or from well opening as derrick operator han­
dles upper end in running sections into or out o f
well; racking or unracking drill pipe sections in order
o f removal; helping connect or disconnect joints
between sections, using longs or chain wrenches to
grip and turn pipe; inserting and removing slips
(curved metal wedges) used at top o f well to hold
drill pipe at desired point when it is being run into or
out o f well; operating a cathead (power-driven
winch), the cable o f which is attached to the tongs
or wrench to loosen or tighten the joints; digging
ditches, racking tools, and cleaning up drilling floor
or around rig; and assisting in making repairs to
drilling machinery, slush pumps, and derrick.

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment o f an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Examining machines and mechanical equipment to
diagnose source o f trouble; dismantling or partly
dismantling machines and performing repairs that
mainly involve the use o f handtools in scraping and
fitting parts; replacing broken or defective parts with
items obtained from stock; ordering the production
o f a replacement part by a machine shop or sending
of the machine to a machine shop for major repairs;
preparing written specifications for major repairs or
for the production o f parts ordered from machine
shop; reassembling machines; and making all neces­
sary adjustments for operation. In general, the work
o f a maintenance mechanic requires rounded training
and experience usually acquired through a formal
apprenticeship or equivalent training and experience.
Excluded from this classification are workers whose
primary duties involve setting up or adjusting ma­
chines.

Gas-plant operator
(Gas producer)
Operates automatically
controlled
natural-gas
treating unit in oil or gas field to render gas suitable
for fuel and for pipeline transportation. Work in­
volves most o f the follow ing: Opening valves to
admit gas and specified chemicals into treating vessel
where moisture is absorbed and impurities removed;
adjusting control of auxiliary equipment, such as
pumps, heating coils, and cooling tower; reading
temperature and pressure gages and adjusts controls
to keep heat and pressure at level o f maximum e ffi­
ciency within safe operating limits; performing rou­
tine tests or delivers samples to laboratory to deter­
mine qualities o f gas, such as B .T.U . value, flame
candlepower, and specific gravity, and proportions
o f elements, such as methane, propane, and natural
gasoline; draining samples o f boilerwater from treat­
ing unit for laboratory analysis; and adding specified
chemicals to water to keep heating and cooling sys­
tems in working order. May adjust and repair gas
meters and governors, using handtools. May change
charts on meters equipped with automatic recorders
and may advise and assist workers repairing regula­
tors (governors) and other control instruments.

Painter, maintenance
Paints structures and equipment used in oil fields.
Work involves the following: Knowledge o f surface
peculiarities and types o f paint required for different
applications; preparing surface for painting by re­
moving old finish or by placing putty or filler in nail
holes and interstices; and applying paint with spray
gun or brush. May mix colors, oils, white lead, and
other paint ingredients to obtain proper color or con­
sistency. In general, the work o f the maintenance
painter requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.

Pumper
(Oil-well pumper)
Operates the power unit (stem, gas, gasoline, elec­
tric, or Diesel) which drives the oil-well pumps used
to lift oil from wells in which natural flow has dimin­
ished or ceased. Work includes; Opening and closing
valves to regulate flow o f oil from well to storage
tanks or into pipe lines; reading meters and making
daily production reports o f the amount and quality
o f oil pumped; checking pressure o f separator,
which separates natural gas from oil and making
adjustments; lubricating and making minor repairs to
pumps; and reporting major breakdowns and well

Hoist operator
(Winch operator)
Operates truck-mounted hoist to lower into and
raise from oil or gas wells instruments used for pur­




32

cal repairs, and keep truck in good working order.

difficulties. May make regular tests o f oil for bottom
sediment and water.

Driver-salespersons and over-lhe-road drivers are
excluded.

Roustabout
(Laborer)
Performs, upon assignment, any combination o f
the following tasks in and about oil fields: Digging
trenches for drainage around oil wells, storage tanks,
and other installations; filling excavations with dirt;
loading and unloading trucks by hand or using handtrucks; assisting pumpers in setting up pumps used
to pump oil, gas, water, or mud; bailing spilled oil
into buckets and barrels; cleaning machinery; cutting
down trees and brush around oil field installations;
segregating pipe sections on racks in material yard;
and connecting tanks and flow lines and performing
other miscellaneous pipefitting work. Casual laborers
who are hired for sporadic needs and maintenance
floor workers (gang pushers) should be excluded
from this classification.
Difficulties are sometimes encountered in distin­
guishing between roustabouts and roughnecks (ro­
tary floor worker). Whenever such difficulties arise,
roughnecks should be considered as those workers
who assist in the actual drilling operations and those
operations alone. Roustabouts are employed after
the well is finished. They assist in various other
functions encountered in petroleum production.

Welder, oilfield
Cuts, lays out, fits, and welds sheet metal, cast
iron, aluminum, and other metal or alloyed metal
parts to fabricate or repair oil field machinery,
equipment, and installations such as oil and gas pipe
lines and tanks, pressure vessels, pump sections,
heavy bases for drilling equipment, drill pipes, or
casings. The oil field welder usually operates elec­
tric-welding and/or acetylene-welding apparatus.

Well puller
(Casing puller; clutchworker; rodworker; hy­
draulic-tool operator)
Controls power hoisting equipment to pull casing,
tubing, and pumping rods from oil and gas wells for
repair and to lower repaired equipment, testing de­
vices, and servicing tools into well. Duties usually
involve: Attaching cable clamps to top of pump rod
or casing and starting winch or hydraulic jack that
raises rod or casing; disconnecting sections o f rod or
casing using hand or power wrenches and tongs; and
running packer (plug device) into well to control flow
of oil. water, or gas during well-pulling operations.
May lower pressure recording device into well and
interpret findings. May also test pipes for leaks using
hyraulic testing equipment. Workers operating power
hoisting equipment mounted on a truck (hoist opera­
tors) and derrick operators are excluded from this
classification.

Truckdriver
Drives a truck in and around oil or gas fields to
transport crude petroleum, equipment, work crew,
or supplies between battery sites, rail points, and
other unloading docks. May also load or unload
truck with or without helpers, make minor mechani­




33

Industry Wage Studies
The most recent bulletins providing occupational
wage data for industries included in the Bureau’ s pro­
gram of industry wage surveys since I960 are listed
below. Copies are for sale from the Superintendent o f
Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Wash­
ington, D.C. 20402, or from any of its regional sales

Manufacturing
Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1839
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975.
BLS Bulletin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1796
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and Solid Fiber Boxes, 1976. BLS
Bulletin 1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972, BLS
Bulletin 1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1987
Industrial Chemicals, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1978
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin
1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1974-75. BLS Bulletin,
1929
Meat Products, 1974, BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’ s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS
Bulletin 1906
Men’ s and Boys’ Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and
Nightwear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’ s and Boys’ Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS
Bulletin 1962
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. B LS Bulletin
1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin
1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1973
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1923.
Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills, 1977. BLS Bulletin
2008
Shipbuilding and Repairing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1968
Southern Sawmills and Planning Mills, 1969. BLS
Bulletin



offices, and from the regional offices of the Bureau o f
Labor Statistics shown on the inside back cover. Cop­
ies that are out o f stock are available for reference pur­
poses at leading public, college, or university libraries,
or at the Bureau’ s Washington or regional offices.

Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1967
Textiles, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work
Clothing Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
W om en’ s and Misses' Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1728
W om en’ s and Misses’ Dresses, 1977. BLS Bulletin
2007
Wood Household Furniture, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1930.

Nonmanufacturing
Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking and L ife Insurance, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1988
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1976-81. BLS Bulletin
1999
Communications, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1991
Contract Cleaning Services, July 1977. BLS Bulletin
2009
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Department Stores, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2006
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees,
1968-69. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin
16451
Metal Mining, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1820
Motion Picture Theatres, 1966. BLS Bulletin 1542*
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1976. BLS
Bulletin 1964
Oil and Gas E xtraction, 1977. B LS Bulletin 2014
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970.
BLS Bulletin 1712

•Bulletin out o f stock.
*U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE ! 1979 0-281-412/13

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street, NE
Atlanta, Ga 30309
Phone: (404) 881-4418

Regions VII and VIII*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N Y. 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Region V
9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago, III 60604
Phone: (312)353-1880

Regions IX and X**
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region III
3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone. (214) 749-3516

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass 02203
P hone:(617) 223-6761




* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
"Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco