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7

Industry Wage Survey:
Metal Mining, Summer-Fall 1977
U.S. Department of Labor
Bureau of Labor Statistics
1979
Bulletin 2017







Industry Wage Survey
Metal Mining, Summer-Fall 1977
Part
Part
Part
Part

I. Iron Ores
II. Copper Ores
III. Lead and Zinc Ores
IV. Uranium, Radium, and Vanadium Ores

U.S. Department of Labor
Ray Marshall, Secretary
Bureau of Labor Statistics
Janet L. Norwood
Acting Commissioner
May 1979
Bulletin 2017

F o r s a le b y




th e S u p e r in te n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s , U .S . G o v e r n m e n t P r in tin g O f f ic e , W a s h in g t o
B o o k s t o r e s , o r B L S R e g io n a l O f f ic e s lis te d o n in s id e b a c k c o v e r . P r ic e $ 1 .7 0
M a k e c h e c k s p a y a b le t o S u p e r in t e n d e n t o f D o c u m e n t s
S to c k

n u m b e r 0 2 9 -0 0 1 -0 2 3 0 5 -7




Preface

This four-part bulletin summarizes the results of a
Bureau of Labor Statistics survey of wages and supple­
mentary benefits in metal mining industries during the
summer and fall of 1977. Information is provided sep­
arately for: Iron ores (part I); copper ores (part II); lead
and zinc ores (part III); and uranium, radium, and va­
nadium ores (part IV). Survey data relate to October
1977 for all but iron ores; for the latter the reference
date is July 1977-just before a prolonged strike occurred
in the industry.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of
Wages and Industrial Relations as part of its regular
program of industry wage studies. Sandra L. King of




the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared
the analysis in this bulletin. Field work for the survey
was conducted by the Assistant Regional Commission­
ers for Operations.
Other reports available from the Bureau’s program
of industry wage studies, as well as the addresses of the
Bureau’s regional offices, are listed at the end of this
bulletin.
Material in this publication is in the public domain
and may be reproduced without permission. Please cred­
it the Bureau of Labor Statistics and cite Industry Wage
Survey: Metal Mining, Summer-Fall 1977, Bulletin 2017.

Contents

Introduction. The metal mining industries...............................................................................................................
Earnings and benefits...........................................................................................................................................
Production and productivity...............................................................................................................................
Facilities.............................................................................................................................................................
Establishment size.....................................................................................................
Location.............................................................................................................................................................
Unionization......................................................................................................................................................
Method of wage payment...........................
‘Text tables:
1. Percent of production workers by type of mining facility, metal mining industries................................
2. Percent of production workers by type of mine and method of hauling ore, metal
mining industries.................................................................................................................................
3. Percent of production workers by size of establishment, metal mining industries...................................
Part I. Iron ores
Average hourly earnings.....................................................
Occupational earnings.......................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions
Work schedules..........................................................
Shift provisions and practices.....................................
Paid holidays............................................................
Paid vacations............................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans.....................
Other selected benefits..............................................

Page
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
3

2
2
2

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
5
5

8
9
10
10

Part II. Copper ores
Average hourly earnings......................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings........................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions...............................................................................
Work schedules...........................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices......................................................................................................................
Paid holidays.............................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations.............................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans........... *.......................................................................................
Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................

11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11




IV

'J

Reference tables:
1. Earnings distribution.............................................................................................................................
2. Occupational earnings . . .
3. Work schedules................
4. Shift differential provisions
5. Shift differential practices.
6. Paid holidays........................................................................................................................................
7. Paid vacations........................................................................................................................................
8. Health, insurance, and retirement plans.................................................................................................
9. Other selected benefits.........................................................................................................................

oo

oo

oo

6

Contents—Continued
Reference tables:
Page
10. Earnings distribution...........................................................................................................................
12
11. Occupational earnings........................................................................................................................
13
12. Work schedules....................................................................................................................................
14
13. Shift differential provisions..................................................................................................................
14
14. Shift differential practices....................................................................................................................
14
15. Paid holidays......................................................................................................................................
14
16. Paid vacations......................................................................................................................................
15
17. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...............................................................................................
16
18. Other selected benefits........................................................................................................................
16
Part III. Lead and zinc ores
Average hourly earnings......................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings.........................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementarywage provisions................................................................................
Work schedules...........................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions andpractices ...................................................................................................................
Paid holidays.............................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations.............................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans......................................................................................................
Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................

17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17

Reference tables:
19. Earnings distribution...........................................................................................................................
20. Occupational earnings........................................................................................................................
21. Work schedules....................................................................................................................................
22. Shift differential provisions..................................................................................................................
23. Shift differential practices....................................................................................................................
24. Paid holidays......................................................................................................................................
25. Paid vacations......................................................................................................................................
26. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...............................................................................................
27. Other selected benefits........................................................................................................................

18
19
20
20
20
20
21
22
22

Part IV. Uranium, radium, and vanadium ores
Average hourly earnings.......................................................................................
Occupational earnings.........................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage provisions ............................................................................
Work schedules...........................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices....................................................................................................................
Paid holidays.............................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations.................................................................................* .........................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans......................................................................................................
Other selected benefits...............................................................................................................................

23
23
23
23
23
24
24
24
24

Text table:
4. Earnings distribution of clean-up equipment operators and probers in uranium, radium, and
vanadium mining..................................




v

23

Contents—Continued
Reference tables:
Pdge
28. Earnings distribution...........................................................................................................................
25
29. Occupational earnings........................................................................................................................
26
30. Work schedules....................................................................................................................................
27
31. Shift differential provisions................................................................................................................
27
32. Shift differential practices....................................................................................................................
27
33. Paid holidays......................................................................................................................................
27
34. Paid vacations......................................................................................................................................
28
35. Health, insurance, and retirement plans...............................................................................................
29
36. Other selected benefits........................................................................................................................
29
Appendixes:
A. Scope and method of survey...........................................................................................................................
B. Occupational descriptions...............................................................................................................................




vi

30
33

Introduction. The Metal
Mining Industries

In 1977, the four metal mining industries covered by
this study accounted for one-tenth of the total work
force in mining,1 which also encompasses mining of
coal, oil, gas, and nonmetallic minerals (except fuels).
The study covered 19,100 production workers in iron
ores, 20,200 in copper ores, 5,300 in lead and zinc ores,
and 9,000 in uranium, radium, and vanadium ores-about
four-fifths of total metal mining employment.2

ore declined 24 percent, to 57 million long tons.5 Pro­
ductivity in the industry, as measured by output per
production worker employee-hour, fell 16 percent.6
Production of recoverable copper was 1.52 million
short tons in 1977, down slightly from its 1972 near alltime high. During the same period, however, more than
offsetting declines in labor input spurred the industry
to an 8-percent gain in productivity.7
At 589,000 short tons, mine production of recovera­
ble lead was down 5 percent from the level recorded
in 1972 (619,000 short tons) and was 11 percent lower
than the recent 50-year high in 1974. In the past dec­
ade, however, production has grown as lead has in­
creased in use in such items as automobile batteries and
gasoline antiknock devices. Zinc mine production con­
tinued to fall-from 549,000 short tons in 1967 to 478,000
in 1972 to 458,000 in 1977. Demand for the metal re­
mained high in 1977, but the closing of smelters unable
to meet antipollution standards tended to discourage
the mining of zinc ore.8
Large-scale commercial interest in uranium dates
from World War II and the development of the atom­
ic bomb. In 1977, approximately 15,000 short tons of
uranium concentrate were mined. Uranium is used in
government-sponsored nuclear programs, including
weapons, propulsion, underground tests, and space, and
as nuclear fuel for power reactors. In 1977, 6,200 short
tons of recovered vanadium were produced domesti­
cally. (Vanadium is recovered from uranium and vana­
dium ores and concentrates received at mills and also
from ferrophosphorus-a derivative of domestic phos-

Earnings and benefits

Among the four industries, average straight-time
hourly earnings3 for production workers ranged from
$6.23 for lead and zinc mining to $7.60 for copper min­
ing. Workers in uranium mining averaged $6.89 an hour
and those in iron ore facilities, $7.10. This relationship
of pay levels among the industries held for all 16 oc­
cupations for which comparisons could be made.
Paid holidays, ranging from 6 to 11 annually, and
paid vacations after qualifying periods of service were
provided to virtually all production workers in the sur­
vey. Nearly all mining facilities visited also provided
at least part of the cost of life, hospitalization, surgical,
basic medical, and major medical insurance. At least
four-fifths of the production workers in each industry
were also covered by pension plans. Funeral and juryduty leave pay plans were also widespread in the
industries.
Production and productivity

Between 1972, the year of the last BLS study of met­
al mining,4and 1977, domestic production of usable iron
1 Based on the BLS monthly establishment survey, results of
which are published in the periodical Employment and Earnings.
The estimates of the number of production workers within
the scope of the study are intended only as a general guide to the
size and composition of the labor force included in the survey.
The differ from those in Employment and Earnings (20,800 in iron
mining, 27,700 in copper) in part by the exclusion of establishments
employing fewer than SO workers (for uranium ores, establishments
employing fewer than 20 workers were excluded).
The advance planning necessary to make the survey required the
use of lists of establishments assembled considerably in advance of
data collection. Thus, establishments new to the industries are
omitted, as are establishments originally classified in the iron or
copper ores mining industry but found to be in other industries
at the time of the survey. Also omitted are iron or copper mining
establishments classified incorrectly in other industries at the time
the lists were compiled.
Straight-time average hourly earnings of production workers
in this bulletin differ in concept from the gross average hourly



earnings published in Employment and Earnings ($7.58 for iron ore
mining in July 1977 and $7.80 for copper mining in October 1977).
Unlike the latter, the estimates presented here excluded premium
pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts. Average earnings are calculated by summing individual
hourly earnings and dividing by the number of individuals; in the
monthly series, the sum of the hours reported by establishments
in the industry is divided into the reported payroll totals.
* The 1972 survey covered iron, copper, and lead and zinc
mining. See Industry Wage Survey: Metal Mining, September
1972, Bulletin 1820 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1974).
5 The source for all output information is Minerals Yearbook
(Bureau of Mines, 1977).
6 Productivity Indexes for Selected Industries, 1978 Edition,
Bulletin 2002 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1978), p.13.
7 Ibid., p. 17.
8 1 978 Commodity Year Book (New York, Cpmmodity
Research Bureau, Inc.), p. 378.

1

phate rock.) Vanadium’s chief use is as an alloying el­
ement in steel and in cast iron. Radium, found in small
amounts in pitchblende and other uranium minerals, is
used in the treatment of cancer and some skin diseases
and in diagnostic testing.

Rail and rubber-tired vehicles were the primary
means of hauling ore from underground mining sites to
hoist or exit. Trucks were the principal vehicles used
to haul ore from surface mining sites to primary crush­
er; other important secondary hauling activity was done
by rail or by a combination of truck, rail, and other
systems of conveyance. (See text table 2 for details by
industry.)

Facilities

Establishments operating ore treatment facilities in
connection with their mines accounted for at least threefourths of the production workers in each of the sur­
veyed industries (text table 1). Nine-tenths of the iron
miners were employed by establishments with agglom­
erating facilities-equipment that prepares the ore into
pellet form which is suitable for the blast furnace. Cop­
per and uranium mine workers typically were in estab­
lishments with leaching facilities that chemically break
down copper or other compounds into higher quality
ore.
Underground mining complexes accounted for ninetenths of the production workers in the lead and zinc
industry; surface mines, in contrast, accounted for about
three-fifths of the workers in iron and copper mining
(text table 2). One-half of the uranium workers were in
underground mines; the remaining workers were about
equally divided between surface mines and mining com­
plexes with surface and underground components.

Establishment size

Overall, establishments with 2,500 workers or more
employed three-tenths of the industries’ production
workers; the same proportion were in facilities with
1,000 to 2,499 workers. Mines with 500 to 999 workers
and those with less than 500 each employed about onefifth. The proportion of workers in these establishmentsize groups varied by industry (text table 3). For exam­
ple, about seven-tenths of the iron and copper mining
work forces were in large facilities (1,000 workers or
more), compared to one-fourth in uranium mining, and
none in lead and zinc.
Location

Iron ore workers were employed primarily in the
Great Lakes region. Minnesota and Michigan together
accounted for nearly four-fifths of the work force. Near­
ly nine-tenths of the copper mining workers were em­
ployed in the Mountain States of Arizona, Montana,
New Mexico, and Utah. Arizona alone had nearly twofifths. The uranium, radium, and vanadium mining work
force was also located principally in the Mountain
States, with one-half of the workers in New Mexico,
three-tenths in Wyoming, and one-tenth in Colorado.
The lead and zinc work force was more widely distri­
buted throughout the country-one-fourth in Missouri,
one-fifth in Tennessee, about one-seventh each in Col­
orado and Utah, and one-tenth in New York.

Text table 1. Percent of production workers by type of mining
facility, metal mining industries

Mining facility

Iron

Copper

Mine o n l y ..........................................
Mine and treatment plant . . . .
With agglomerating facility .
With leaching fa c ili ty ..............

3
97
92

1
99
81

NOTE:

Lead
and
zinc
10
90
-

Uranium

22
78
67

Dashes indicate facility is not applicable to the industry.

Unionization

Facilities that had labor-management contracts cov­
ering a majority of their production and related work­
ers employed slightly less than one-half of the workers

Text table 2. Percent of production workers by type of mine
and method of hauling ore, metal mining industries

Item

Iron

7
Un derground mine o n l y ..............
6
Rubber-tired vehicles..............
1
R a i l................................................
Other hauling m e t h o d s . . . . ( 2 )
Surface mine o n l y ............................ 60
T r u c k ............................................. ’ 16
(2)
R a i l................................................
Other hauling m e t h o d s . . . . 44
32
Under ground and surface . . . .
30
T r u c k .............................................
2
R a i l ................................................
Other hauling m e t h o d s . . . . ~

Copper

21
(')
(*)
(')
64
33
30
<2 )
15
5
—
10

Lead
and
zinc
90
26
47
17
—
—
—
10
—
—

10

Uranium

50
13
23
15
23
19
3
27
1
1
25

Text table 3. Percent of production workers by size of estab­
lishment, metal mining industries

Establishment size




Copper

Fewer than 100 workers' . . . .
1 00-499 w o r k e r s ............................
500 -999 w o r k e r s ............................
1,000-2,499 w o r k e r s ................. ..
2, 500 workers or m o r e .................

1 Data unavailable from major mines.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.
N O T E : " O t h e r " methods include conveyors and combination
systems. Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not
equal totals.

Iron

1
14
13
16
56

<2 )
6
23
49
21

Lead
and
zinc

Uranium

3
49
48
—

5
43
30
23

_

‘ Mines with fewer than .20 workers were excluded from the
uranium industry; those with fewer than 50 workers were excluded
from the iron, copper, and lead and zinc industries.
2 Less than 0.5 percent.

2

in uranium mining, just over four-fifths in lead and zinc
mining, and virtually all workers in iron and copper
mining. The United Steelworkers of America (AFLCIO) was the major union for these industries. Other
unions, including the International Brotherhood of Elec­
trical Workers (AFL-CIO), the International Union of
Operating Engineers (AFL-CIO), and the Internation­
al Chemical Workers (AFL-CIO), also had contracts
with facilities in these industries-particularly in copper
and uranium mining.




Method of wage payment

Time rates, typically paid on a single-rate basis for
specified occupations, applied to virtually all of the pro­
duction workers in iron and copper ore mining, to ninetenths in uranium mining, and to three-fourths in lead
and zinc mining. Incentive plans-almost exclusively lim­
ited to miners and others involved directly in mining
operations-typically took the form of individual or
group production bonuses.

3

Part I. Iron Ores

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time hourly earnings of the 19,100 produc­
tion and related workers in iron ore mining averaged
$7.10 an hour in July 1977 (table 1). This was 61 per­
cent above the level recorded in September 1972 ($4.41),
when a similar study was conducted. The annual rate
of increase averaged 10.4 percent. Over the same peri­
od, the annual rate of increase in the Bureau’s Hourly
Earnings Index for nonsupervisory workers in all min­
ing industries averaged 9.8 percent.
Earnings in the iron ore industry fell within a rela­
tively narrow range compared to other industries sur­
veyed by the Bureau in the last decade. The index of
wage dispersion for iron mining, computed by dividing
the middle range of earnings by the median, was 16.
Only five industries studied showed lower dispersion
factors, one of which was copper ore mining.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Data were also obtained for production workers on
certain establishment practices such as work schedules
and shift differential provisions and practices, as well
as selected supplementary benefit provisions, including
holidays, vacations, and health, insurance, and retire­
ment plans.
Work schedules. Virtually all of the production work­
ers were in iron ore mining facilities where work sched­
ules of 5-day, 40-hour weeks were predominant (table 3).
Shift provisions and practices. All production workers
were in establishments with late-shift provisions that
stipulated premium pay over day-shift rates (table 4).
About one-fifth of the workers were actually employed
on second shifts in July 1977; a similar proportion
worked on third shifts (table 5). All late-shift workers
received uniform cents-per-hour differentials-typically
20 cents for second shifts and 30 cents for third.

Occupational earnings

The occupations selected to represent the various
skill levels and the wage structure of the industry ac­
counted for about three-fifths of the production and re­
lated workers (table 2). Average hourly earnings ranged
from $5.92 for underground laborers to $8.86 for miners.
Truckdrivers were the largest occupational group sur­
veyed separately. Those hauling ore averaged $7.72 an
hour compared with $6.73 for those operating service
or water vehicles. Surface laborers, the second largest
group, averaged $6.12 an hour.
Among occupations directly related to mining, aver­
ages varied considerably. Both the highest and lowest
occupational averages in the survey were found in min­
ing operations. Miners, whose duties include drilling
and charging holes with explosives, recorded the high­
est average and were the most populous underground
occupation. Underground laborers averaged the least.
For survey jobs classified under ore treatment oper­
ations, averages were between $6.81 an hour (flotation
operators) and $7.33 (pellet-mill operators); all these
occupations involved operation and adjustment or reg­
ulation of ore treatment machinery and equipment.
Workers in six selected maintenance crafts had aver­
ages ranging from $7.17 an hour for machinists to $7.80
for electricians. Other maintenance trades (and their av­
erages) were heavy duty mechanics ($7.55), automotive
mechanics ($7.63), mechanics ($7.67), and welders
($7.69). Seven-eighths of the 4,200 workers in these six
trades earned between $7.60 and $8.00 an hour.



Paid holidays. All establishments in iron ore mining
provided paid holidays-nearly always 10 days annual­
ly (table 6). According to collective bargaining agree­
ments in effect at the time of the survey, the 10 were:
New Year’s Day, Washington’s Birthday, Good Fri­
day, Memorial Day, the Fourth of July, Labor Day,
Thanksgiving Day, the day after Thanksgiving Day,
Christmas Eve, and Christmas Day.
Paid vacations. All establishments in the industry pro­
vided paid vacations to their employees after qualify­
ing periods of service (table 7). The following provi­
sions typically applied: 1 week of vacation pay after 1
year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after 10
years, 4 weeks after 20 years, and 5 weeks after 25
years.
Extended vacation plans, providing additional pay
every 5 years, covered nine-tenths of the workers (ta­
ble 9). Typically, under extended vacation plans, the
“Senior Group” of employees (those in the upper 50
percent in seniority ranking) are granted additional va­
cation time off to bring their total for the year to 13
weeks. The “Junior Group” of employees receive an
additional 3 weeks’ vacation.
4

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Life, sickness
and accident, hospitalization, surgical, basic and major
medical, and dental insurance plans were provided to
all or nearly all of the production workers (table 8).
Three-tenths of the workers also were covered by ac­
cidental death and dismemberment insurance and about
one-sixth each were covered by sick leave plans (pro­
viding either partial pay or a waiting period before pay
begins) and long-term disability insurance. All workers
were covered by retirement pension plans (in addition
to Federal social security) and about one-sixth also were




covered by retirement severance pay provisions. All
insurance and retirement plans were financed by the
employer.
Other selected benefits. All production workers were
in mining facilities with provisions for pay while serv­
ing as a juror (table 9). Funeral leave and supplemen­
tal unemployment benefit provisions each applied to
about nine-tenths of the work force, while technologi­
cal severance pay plans applied to four-fifths.

5

Table 1. Iron ore mining: Earnings distribution
(Percent distribution of production workers by average straight-time hourly earnings1, United States, July 1977)
Hourly earnings

A V P R A o r H L Jk L V

"-A P N IN O S ............................

All
workers

» 7 .1 j

Time
workers

Hourly earnings

* 7 .0 3

$ 7 . 20 AND UM UER $ 7 . 3 0 ............................
1 7 . 3 0 a n : U N C c R $7 . 4 0 .............................

All
workers

6 .7
5 .3

Time
workers

6 .9
5 .5

(♦1

* 5 .0 0 A. <a J m D c R $ 5 .1 0 ............................

. 1

.1

i d . 00 AN 0 UN OCR

$ 6 .1 0 ............................

. 2

•1

-

...

.i>

-

.1

$ 9 .6 0 AND UN OER $ 9 . 7 0 .............................
$ 9 .7 0 AND UNDER $ 9 . 8 0 .............................
$ 9 .8 0 AND UNDER $ 9 . 9 0 ............................
$ 9 .9 0 ANC UNDER $ 1 0 . 0 9 ..........................
$ 7 .0 0

A*C IN 0 E R

$ 7 . 1 0 ..................................

5. 3

5 .5

$ 1 0 .0 0

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late
shifts.
* Less than 0.05 percent.




AND O V E R ......................................................

N O TE :

6

_

_
_
_

. 8

.5

(* )

Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal totals,

Table 2. Iron ore mining: Occupational earnings
(Number and average streight-time hourly earnings1 of workers in selected occupation! United State,, July 1977)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of—
Occupation

8 R A K E R S ............................................................................
BULLD O ZER O P ER A TO R S ( F I N E G R A D E ) . . .
C A G E TE N D E R S ..............................................................
CAR R E P A IR E R S ..........................................................
CHANGE ROOM A T T E N D A N T S ..................................
D R IL L E R S * M A C H IN E ................................................
LA B CRERS* UNDERGROUND.....................................
M IN E R S ..............................................................................
P O W ER -S H C V E L C P F R A TO R S ..................................
SHOT F IR E R S................................................................
S H O V EL OPER ATOR S H E L P E R S .............................
U N O E R G K O JN C -F Q U IP M E N T O P E R A T O R S ... .
ORE

Average
hourly
earnings

50
414
14
B3
127
237
65
6 97
44b
64
12
lfc

* 6 .3 2
7 .1 4
6 .7 7
6 . 94
t> .1 3
7 .0 9
5 .9 2
8 .8 6
7 . 79
6 .9 7
7 .1 b
6 .4 4

86
77
180
103
77
119
67
94
85
73

7 .0 0
7 .0 8
6 .9 7
7 .0 3
6 . 8b
6 .9 0
6 . 61
7 .1 4
7. 33
7 .0 6

389
130
6 87
210
50
1, 7d2
255
431
612
1, 485
156
9
1 ,8 0 7
1 , 477
257
723

7 .1 2
6 .5 2
7 .8 0
6 .4 5
7 .0 2
6 . 12
7 .1 7
7 . 63
7 .5 5
7. 67
6 .6 0
6. 6 7
7 .1 4
7 . 22
6 .7 3
7. 69

5.80
5.80

215
2
> ib
3
45

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

under
6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

over

14
56
3
i
34
3

32
3
“

and

-

-

13
-

115

~
-

2
~
~

C

IZ

13
7
4
6
6
2
2
-

38
1
20
3
-

3
3
4
4
~

3
12
5
7
10
4

4
12
9
3
14
9
36
-

36

4
24

22
41
ii
4
i
155
30
do
16
lb
2
105
B3
11

7
6
43
1
-

~
“

159
-

“

4fc

-

*

o4

~
ad

3
- 4

~
-

“
~

“
~
-**S

“

11
•
"
~

”
“
~
“

4
5

„ _
653 3

36

■

TR E A TM E N T O P E R A T IO N S

B A L L IN G -D R U M O P E R A TO R S ..................................
C O N C EN TR A TO R OPER ATO R S ..................................
CRUSHER O P E R A TO R S ................................................
P R IM AR Y CR US H ER ................................................
secondary
c r u s f e r ..........................................
F I L T E R O P ER ATO R S ...................................................
F L O T A T IO N O P E R A TO R S ..........................................
FURN ACE O P ER A TO R S ................................................
P E L L E T - M I L L O P E R A TO R S .....................................
R O J -A N U -B A L L -M I LL O P E R A TO R S ....................
M IN IN G

Number
of
workers

sn
-

-

-

8
3

4

“
4

ib
6
70
29
41
93
17
43
29

6d
3
42
23
is

65
7
43
2
-

238
2
-

-

33

-

-

_
”

d
-

1o
4

*
*
"

4
6

~
~
~

~
~

“

~
“

•

24

“

“
~

-

-

~

~
“

12

AN0 ORE TR E A TM E N T O P E R A TIO N S

C L E A N -U P EQ U I PMENT O P E R A TO R S .................
CONVEYOR O P E R A TO R S .............................................
E L E C T R IC IA N S * M A IN TE N A N C E ..........................
H E L P E R S , M A IN TEN A N C E T R A D E S ....................
H O I S T O P E R A TO R S ......................................................
LA B O R ER S , OTH ER TH AN U N D E R G R O U N D ...
m a : h i n i s t s * m a i n t e n a n c e ...............................
M E C H A N IC S , A U T O M O T IV E .....................................
M E C H A N IC S , H E A V Y D U T Y .....................................
M EC H A N IC S , M A IN TE N A N C E ..................................
O IL E R S AND G R E A S E R S ...........................................
S T E a S H A R P E N E R S ..................................................
TR U CK D R I V E R S .7 .........................................................
.
ORE H A U L A G E ...........................................................
S E R V IC E OR R ATER ..............................................
W ELD ER S, M A IN T E N A N C E ........................................

8
-

23
19
4

147
13
-

~
~
44
1 5 46
~
i
2
40
~
40

2

6

_____

1 59
22
19
116
1
1
1

17
3
252
63
153

10

“
“

5

"
~
“
6
“
282
211
43

2
2
179
“

2
“
93

1030
1 0 30
“

~
37
34
3
Is

10
39 7
491
1 3 56
~
19
19

44 5

-

6

1

"
“

“
"
“
~
~
~
~

691

-

~
“

~

lfc
lfc

“
"

“
■

~

1

___

Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, end late shifts.
All workers were at $5.40 to $5.60.
All workers were at $4.80 to $5.
All workers were at $5 to $5.20.




1
12
38
2
-

28

s All workers were at $5.20 to $5.40.
‘ Workers were distributed as follows: 384 at $8.80 to $9; 26 at $9.20 to $9.40; 8 at $9.40 to $9.60;
21 at $10 to $10.20; 4 at $10.20 to $10.40; 66 at $10.60 to $10.80; and 24 at $10.80 and over.
7 Includes data for workers in classifications in addition to those shown separately.

7

Table 3. Iron ore mining: Work
schedules

Table 5. Iron ore mining: Shift
differential practices

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u ctio n w o rke rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by scheduled
weekly h o u rs and d a y s,1 U n ited Sta te s, Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts em ployed on late
sh ifts by a m o u n t of pay d iffere n tia l, U n ite d S ta te s, Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

Weekly hours

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . .
..

Second shift

5 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . . . .
..
4 0 ho u rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. . . . . . . .
.
Over 40 ho urs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . .
.
1 Data
relate
to
the
p re d o m in a n t
sh ift w o rk e rs in each estab lishm e n t.
N O TE : Because
equal 100.

of

ro u n d in g ,

sum s

sche d u le
of

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

S h ift differential

for

individual

fu ll-tim e
item s

m ay

daynot

W o rk e rs em ployed on second .s. h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20. .8
.
Receiving d if f e r e n t ia l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 .0 ..8. . . . . . .
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h o u r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. 0. .8 . . . . . .
.
12 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . .
.
14 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . .
.
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 . . . . . . . .
.
...
2 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.9 . . . . . .
Third shift

W orkers em ployed on th ird s .h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.5
.
..
Receiving d if f e r e n t ia l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.5. . . . . . .
..
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h o u r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19.5. . . . . .
...
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.5 . . . . .
..
.
22 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . .
25 c e n t. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .
.
ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17.6 . . . . .
...
30
N O TE: Because
equal tota ls.

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

Second shift

item s

m ay

not

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

W o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts
p ro vid in g paid h o li d. a. y. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .
..
8 d a y s ” .!. . . . . . . . . . . ’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .
10 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. . . . . . . . . . .
.
11 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (>. ) . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Holidays provided:
New Y e a r’s Day
.....
100
W a sh in g to n 's B i r t h d a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 . . . . . . .
.
Good F r i d a y . . . . . . . . . ’. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99. . . . . . . . . .
.
M em orial D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . . . . . . .
.
F ourth of J u l y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
Labor Day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .
..
V e te ra n s ' Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31. . . . . . . . .
.
Th a n k s g iv in g D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . .
..
Day afte r T h a n k s g iv in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . . . . .
.
C h ristm a s E v .e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63. . . . . .
.
.
C h ristm a s D a .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69. . . . . .
.
.
New Y e a r’s E .v . e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .
Othe r - 1 day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (>.) . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
late O the r - 2 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . .

Third shift

1
Refers
to
policies
of
e sta b lishm e n ts
sh ifts or h a vin g p ro visio n s c o ve rin g late shifts.




individual

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts with
th ird -s h ift p r o v is io.n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0. . .
.
...
W ith s h if t 'd if f e r e n. t. ia .l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 .0 ..0. .
.
.
10.0..0. .
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 . . . . .
..
22 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 . . . . .
..
25 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . . . .
.
3 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89. .5 . . . . .
. .

rou n d in g,

of

N u m b e r of
paid holidays
and holidays p ro vided

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith
se c o n d -sh ift p r o v i s io. n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 0. .0 . .
.
. .
W ith sh ift d if f e r e n. t. ia .l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 0 .0. . .
.
...
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0. .
.
...
12 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 . . . . . . . .
..
14 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .4 . . . . . . . .
.
15 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . .
.
20 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95. .8 . . . . .
. .

of

su m s

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith form al
p ro visio n s for paid holidays and holidays pro vid e d , U n ite d S tates,
Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by shift
differe n tia l p ro vis io n s,1 U n ite d S ta te s, Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )

N O TE : Because
equal tota ls.

ro u n d in g ,

Table 6. Iron ore mining: Paid
holidays

Table 4. Iron ore mining: Shift
differential provisions

S h ift differential

of

su m s

of

c u rre n tly

individual

item s

o pe ra tin g
m ay

not

1 Less than 0 .5 p ercent.
N O TE: Because
equal tota ls.

8

of

ro u n d in g,

su m s

of

individual

item s

m ay

not




Table 7. Iron ore mining: Paid
vacations
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith fo rm a l
pro visio n s fo r paid v aca tion s a fte r selected periods of service,
U n ite d S ta te s, Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )
P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

V a ca tio n policy

..
All w o r k e .r .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
Method of payment

W o rk e rs in e s ta b lis hsm e n ts p ro vid in g paid v aca tion s
100
.
.
L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m. e. n .t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .99 . .
P e rce n ta g e p a y m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . .
.
Amount of vacation pay1
After 1 year of service:

1 week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91 . . . . . . . .
.
2 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . .

After 2 years of service:

1 w e e .k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .91. . . . . . . .
.
2 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9. . . . . . . .

After 3 years of service:

2 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94. . . . . . . .
.
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . .
After 5 years of service:

2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . . .
.
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .
After 10 years of service:

3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .
After 15 years of service:

3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . . . .
5 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 . . . . . . . . . . .
After 20 years of service:

4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91. . . . . . . . . . .
.
5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . . .
After 25 years of service:

5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . .
..
Maximum vacation:

5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . . .
..
1 Vaca tio n
p a ym e n ts, su ch as p e rc e n t of annual e a rn in g s, w ere
c on ve rte d
to
an
equiva le n t
tim e
basis.
Periods
of
se rvice
w ere
chosen
a rb itra rily
and
do
not
n e cessarily
refle ct
individual
e sta b lis hm e n t
provisions
for
p ro g re ssio n .
For
exam ple,
changes
indicated at 10 years m ay include c hanges th a t o ccu rre d between 5
and 10 years.
N O TE: Because
equal totals.

of

ro u n d in g , sum s

9

of

individual

item s

m ay

not




Table 8. Iron ore mining: Health,
insurance, and retirement plans
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith specified
health , in su ran ce , and re tire m e n t p la n s ,' U n ited S ta te s, Ju ly
1977)
Ty p e of plan

P ercent of
pro d u ctio n
w o rke rs

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts p ro vid in g :
Life in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
A ccid e n ta l d e a th ’ a'nd
d ism e m b e rm e n t in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 . . . . . .
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29. . .
.
S ickness and a c cid e n t insurance
or sick leave or b o th 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . .
..
S ickness and a ccid e n t in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100. . . . . .
..
S ick leave (p a r tia l'p a y
.
o r w a itin g p e r i .o. d. .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 . . .
Lo n g -te rm disa b ility i n s u r .a.n. c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . .
.
Hosp ita liza tio n in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
..
N on c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
S u rg ic a l in s u r a n. c. e. ' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
M edical in s u r a n c e .'. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . .
..
..
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
M a jo r m edical in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .
..
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
Dental in s u ra n c e. '..’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 . . . .
..
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. . .
.
Retire m e n t p la n .s .^ .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . .
..
P e n s io n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100. . . . . .
..
Seve ra n ce pay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . .
.
.
1 Includes
tho se plans fo r
w h ich
the
e m ployer pays
at
least
p a rt
of
th e
cost and
excludes
legally
req uired
plans
such
as
w o rk e rs’ c o m p e nsa tio n
and
social
se cu rity;
how e ve r,
plans
required
by
S ta te
te m p o ra ry
disa b ility
laws
are
included
if th e
em ployer
co n trib u te s m ore th a n is legally required or the em ployees receive
benefits
in
excess
of
legal
req uire m e n ts.
“ N o n c o n trib u to ry
p la n s "
include o nly tho se plans fina n ce d e n tire ly by the em ployer.
2 U n d u p lic a ted
tota l
of w o rk e rs
rece ivin g
sickness
and
accid e n t
insurance and sick leave show n separately.
3 U n d u p lica ted
tota l
of w o rk e rs
covered
by
pension
plans
and
severance pay show n separately.

Table 9. Iron ore mining: Other
selected benefits
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts p ro vid in g selected
b e n e fits,1 U n ite d Sta te s, Ju ly 1 9 7 7 )

Ty p e of benefit

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts
w ith pro visio n s for:
Funeral le a v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92. . . . . . . . . .
.
Ju ry -d u ty leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
.
Te ch n o lo g ica l se verance .p. a. .y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82. .
S up p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo ym e n t b e n .e .f .i t. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
.
Extended v a c a tio n s '. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. 0. . . . . . . . .
1 For defin itio n of item s, see appendix A.

10

Part II. Copper Ores

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time earnings of the 20,200 production and
related workers in copper ore mining averaged $7.60
an hour in October 1977 (table 10). This was 72 per­
cent higher than in September 1972 ($4.43) and repre­
sented an 11.4-percent annual rate of increase over the
5-year period.
The earnings range was highly compressed in the in­
dustry. The index of dispersion-middle range divided
by the median-was 12, the second lowest among indus­
tries surveyed by the Bureau in the last decade. The
high incidence of single-rate pay systems for specified
occupations, the predominance of a single union, geo­
graphic concentration, and the presence of a few large,
multiplant companies contributed greatly to low earn­
ings dispersion in copper mining.

a 5-day, 40-hour workweek (table 12). The rest were
on longer schedules.
Shift provisions and practices. All copper mining estab­
lishments visited had provisions for late shifts in Octo­
ber 1977 (table 12). Nearly one-fourth of the workers
were actually employed on second shifts, and one-fifth
on third shifts (table 14). All late-shift workers received
premium pay above day rates, nearly always 20 cents
per hour for second shifts and 30 cents per hour for
third shifts.
Paid holidays. All workers were in facilities providing
9 paid holidays annually (table 15). Virtually all re­
ceived New Year’s Day, Memorial Day, the Fourth of
July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas
Day.

Occupational earnings

The occupations for which wage data are presented
in table 11 were selected to represent the full spectrum
of activities performed by production workers in the
copper mining industry. These jobs accounted for near­
ly three-fifths of the 20,200 production and related
workers within the scope of the October 1977 survey.
Average hourly earnings ranged from $6.43 for surface
laborers to $8.58 for miners. Truckdrivers, the largest
occupational group studied separately, averaged $7.67;
those who hauled ore averaged $7.75.
Of the 28 occupational classifications studied sepa­
rately, 21 had averages between $7.27 and $8.27. For
workers in skilled maintenance crafts, the range was
narrower-6 cents. Occupational hourly averages ranged
from $8.03 for automotive and heavy duty mechanics
to $8.09 for machinists. Other maintenance crafts stud­
ied were welders ($8.08), electricians ($8.06), and me­
chanics ($8.05). Among the five occupations related to
ore treatment, averages were also in a very narrow
band-from $7.41 for filter and crusher operators to $7.64
for flotation operators. Other ore treatment occupations
studied were rod- and ball-mill operators ($7.57) and
concentrator operators ($7.58).

Paid vacations. All establishments provided their
workers with paid vacations after qualifying periods of
service (table 16). Typical vacation provisions for work­
ers covered by the survey were 1 week of pay after 1
year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after 10
years, 4 weeks after 20 years, and 5 weeks after 25
years.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. All production
workers were in establishments with provisions for life,
accidental death and dismemberment, sickness and ac­
cident, hospitalization, surgical, basic medical, and ma­
jor medical insurance (table 17). More than nine-tenths
of the workers were covered by dental insurance plans,
two-fifths by full sick leave plans, and about one-tenth
by long-term disability insurance.
Retirement pension plans (in addition to Federal so­
cial security) covered all workers. Retirement sever­
ance plans also applied to one-eighth.
Nearly all health, insurance, and retirement plans
were financed entirely by the employer.
Other selected benefits. Jury-duty leave covered all
workers; funeral leave, about seven-eighths (table 18.)
Seven-tenths of the workers were in establishments
having supplemental unemployment benefit plans that
augment State unemployment payments to laid-off
workers. Technological severance pay applied to less
than one-tenth of the workers.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Work schedules. Ninety-five percent of the industry’s
production workers were in establishments scheduling



11

Table 10. Copper ore mining: Earnings distribution
(Percent distribution of production workers by average straight-time hourly earnings1. United States. October 1977)
Hourly earnings1

All
workers
2vJf • 10
;

T CT A t ...........................................................

100. 0

Time
workers

Hourly earnings1

„u ,
* t 7
100. J

All
workers
2 .o

> 7 .3 0 AMU UNUt_K > 7 . A 0 .............................
$7 .A J A k C
> 7 . 5 0 .............................

4 .0

Time
workers
2 .7
2. 9
4 .1
-• 2

.
'
7 .7
7. 7
io .7

1*)
1v )

S'? .'JO

A NO J N J E k

$ 5 .2 0 .............................

c. 5
7 .b
7. 7

5 .0

1

ANC UNOttv

$ 3 .3 0 .............................

*

5. 3
7 .9
1 .9
1 .4
5 .0

(♦1
. 7
•2

(* )
. 7
•2

. 1
.1
( *1
.7
.1

. i
.1

(* )
l
.i

(♦ J
l *}
•1

l* )

>3 .2 0

m

7 .4
1 .9

•6
± 5 . 70 A N J

k

AN J

U .J E K

$ ‘j . j 0.......................

.1

» 6 . o 0 .............................

.4

.1

> 3 .7 0 AMO UMOEft i o . 0 0 .............................
> 3 .9 0 Ai.O

UrtJfcK > 9 . 0 0 . . . .............. ..

.
fr o . 3 0 A \ D U\ 22h

* fc.5 G

AO

$ 5 .7 0

AN 2 UN 0"K

$ 6 .-» 0 .. . . . . . . . . .

u U u t K i i . s O . . .......................
$ h .5 0 « .

1 .3

* 5 . 30 AND UNCEk

1 .7

1 .7

> 9 .3 0

:.b

1 .5

> 9 .7 0 AMC UMDc R * 9 . 8 0 ................. ...

1 .3

Z 7

$ 9 . 4 0 ............................

A N 0 0ND3R $ 9 . 6 0 . . .......................

. 4
‘ Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.

.2

N O TE : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

* Less than 0.05 percent.




.1
. 1

12

Table 11. Copper ore mining: Occupational earnings
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 of workers in selected occupations, United States, October 1977)_______________________________________________________
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of—
Number
of
workers

Occupation

HI NI NG UPfcRATI ONS 2
B U L LD O ZE R O P ER ATOR S ( F I N S G R A D E ! . . .

Average
hourly
earnings1

6.00
Under and
6.00 under
6.20

A3 I
32
231
18
39 5
54
49
67
181
161

V 7 . 72
6 .5 8
7. 76
7 .1 1
8 .4 0
7 .5 3
7 . 14
7 .2 7

73
241
139
10 2
47
204
176

7 .5 6
7 .4 1
7 .5 4
7 .2 4
7 .4 1
7 .6 4
7 .5 7

C L E A N -U P E Q U IP M E N T O P E R A TO R S .................
E L E C T R I C I A N S , M A IN TE N A N C E ..........................

2 89
6 91

7 .6 1
8 . 06

H E L P E R S , M A IN TEN A N C E T R A D E S ....................
L A B O R E R S , OTHER THAN UNDERGROUND. ••
LCCCMOT IV E E N G IN E E R S ........................................

530
1 ,3 3 3
297

7 ^0 3
6 .4 3
6 .2 7

0
105
~

-

M E C H A N IC S , A U T O M O T IV E .....................................
M E C H A N IC S , H EAV Y D U T Y .....................................
M E C H A N IC S , M A IN TE N A N C E ..................................
O I L E R S AND G R E A S E R S ..........................................
TR U CK DR IV E K S 3 ..........................................................
.
DRE H A U L A G E ...........................................................
65 TQ 8 4 T O N S ................................................
65 TO 99 TO N S ................................................
100 TCNS OR MORE........................................
S E R V IC E OF W TE R .............................................
A
W E L D E R S , M A IN TE N A N C E ........................................

96
1 161 u
929
246
2, 0 57
1 ,7 7 6
113
356
533
281
648

8 .0 5
6 .0 3
6 .0 5
7 .3 4
7 .6 7
7 .7 5
7 . 49
7 .6 7
7 .7 7
7 .1 V
8 .0 8

_
16
12
6

-

0 R IL L E R S , M A C H IN E ................................................
DUN P ER S ............................................................................
P O W ER -S H O V EL C P F R A TO R S ...................................
P UM P ER S ...........................................................................
SHOT F I R E R S ................................................................
SHOVEL OPER ATO R S H E L P E R S ............................
G A S O L IN E OR B A T T E R Y P U w t K t u ..............
ORE TR E A TM E N T O P E R A TIO N S
C O N C EN TR A TO R O P E R A TO R S ..................................
CRUSHER O P E R A TO R S ................................................
P R IM AR Y CR US H ER ................................................
SECONDARY C R U S H E R ..........................................
F I L T E R O P ER A TO R S ..................................................
F L O T A T I O N 0 P F R A T O R S ..........................................
R U U -A N O -B A L L -M I L L U P E R A T U R S ....................
M IN IN G

ANC ORE TR EATM EN T

0 .9 5

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.40

6.60

6.80

-

-

-

_
-

_
-

t
2

2
Id
3
2
5

455
55

-

-

6
6
-

-

6

6.80

7.00

6

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

9.00

18

145

oo

12 J

12

14
-

9
68
1
0

5o
c

40
2
-

4o
-

43
-

113
-

39
-

~

"

~

15
5
3
9

c
7
13

_
18
-

-

-

-

-

o
-

45
45
-

~
-

9
9
_

-

-

12
3
-

24
20
13
108
108

16
6
12
4
7
0

24
1b

-

-

-

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

59
o7
o1
6
24
75
1 D0

14
*b
19
C9

7
4o
3t
10
4
63
15

*
2
2
-

-

3
-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1JU
o

91
324
12

202

3b

94

-

-

*

cl

-

-

-

1 Du

18
18

DU
D

O P E R A TIO N S
-

-

-

-

-

15

li

-

-

-

-

8

-

-

“

10

74
9

522
~

c5
243

232
17 b

7

7

175

-

7
35
30
50
5

17
290

-

15
17
D
-

-

_

17
31
-

17
141
o
8
-

31

133

-

_
in
91
45
45
40

15
3
5
17
71
179
148
1*6
31
2

2
264
141
761
75 d
65
St
65
C
80

. 7
54
55i
71
6J 1
77fc
lo t
403
Z3
2o 7

2c
521
4U-*
io
79

-

-

132

wfc
57
35

15
2 06
2 22
177

_
-

13

-

-

_______
1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
a The 470 miners, not shown separately, averaged $8.58 per hour. The workers were distributed
as follows: 294 at $7.60 to $7.80; 18 at $8 to $8.20; 119 at $9.20 to $9.40; 12 at $10.80 to $11;




12 j
-

6 at $12.80 to $13; and 21 at $13 and over.
3 Includes data for workers in classifications in addition to those shown separately,
4 All workers were at $5.80 to $6.

_
-

Table 12. Copper ore mining: Work
schedules

Table 14. Copper ore mining: Shift
differential practices

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by scheduled
w eekly ho urs and d a y s,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c to b e r 1 9 7 7 )

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts e m ployed on late
sh ifts by a m o u n t of pay d iffere n tia l, U n ite d S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W eekly ho urs

All w o r k e .r .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
..

Second shift

5 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95. . . . . . . . .
.
4 0 h o u r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95. . . . . . . . . . .
.
5 1 / 2 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
4 4 h o u r's. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . . . . . .
1 Data
relate
to
th e
p re d o m in a n t
sh ift w o rk e rs in each e sta b lis h m e n t.
N O TE : Because
equal 100.

of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

schedule
of

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

S h ift d ifferential

for

individual

fu ll-tim e
item s

m ay

W o rk e rs e m ployed on second .s . h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21. .9
.
Receiving d if f e r e n t ia l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 .1..9. . . . . . .
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21..9. .
.
.
10 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 .0. . . . . . . .
..
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . .
.
d a y2 0 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 0 .6. . . . . . . .
...
Third shift

not

W orkers e m ployed on th ird s .h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19.3
.
..
19.3
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u .r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... .. .. . . . . . . .19.3
.
.
2 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 . . . . .
.
.
2 5 c e n .t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . .
3 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.3 . . . . .
...
N O T E : Because
equal tota ls.

of

ro u n d in g,

su m s

of

ind ivid u a l

Table 13. Copper ore mining: Shift
differential provisions

m ay

not

m ay

not

Table 15. Copper ore mining: Paid
holidays

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by shift
Differential p ro vis io n s,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c to b e r 1 9 7 7 )

item s

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith fo rm a l
p ro visio n s fo r paid holidays and holidays p ro vid e d , U n ite d Sta te s,
O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rke rs

S h ift d ifferential

N u m b e r of
paid holidays
and holid a ys p ro vided

Second shift

..
All w o r k e .r .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts with
s e c o n d -sh ift p r o v i s io. n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. 0. .0 . .
.
. .
W ith sh ift d if f e r e n t ia l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 .0 .0 ..0. . . . . . .
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h o u r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 0 0 .0. . . . . .
....
10 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.0 . . . . . . . .
..
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 . . . . . . . .
..
2 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94. .0 . . . . .
. .

W o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts
p ro vid in g paid h o li d. a. y. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .
..
' 9 d a y s ” .!. . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. .'.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .
..

Third shift

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith
th ird -s h ift p r o v is io .n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100..0. . . .
.
..
W ith sh ift d if f e r e n. t. ia .l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 .0. . .
.
...
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 ..0. .
.
..
2 0 c e n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 . . . . .
..
2 5 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.0 . . . . .
..
3 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93. .8 . . . . .
. .
1 Refers
to
policies
of
e sta b lis hm e n ts
sh ifts or h a vin g pro visio n s cov e rin g late sh ifts.
N O T E : Because
equal tota ls.

of




ro u n d in g ,

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rke rs

su m s

of

c u rre n tly
individual

o pe ra tin g
item s

m ay

late

H olidays p rovided:
N ew Y e a r's D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
W a sh in g to n 's B i r t h .d. a. y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g . . .
.
Good F r i d a y . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . .
.
M em orial B a. .y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 . . . . . .
..
F ourth of J u f y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
Labor D a. . y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . .
..
Vete ra n s^ Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 . . . . . .
.
Th a n k s g iv in g D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98. . . . . . . . .
.
Day afte r T h a n k s g iv in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . .
.
Ch ristm a s Eve ....1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 . . .
. .1..
.
Ch ristm a s D a .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . .
.
..
N ew Y e a r's E v e .. .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27. . . .
.
O th e r - 1 day. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 . . . . . .
.
.
O th e r - 2 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 . . . . . . . . .
..
F lo a t i n g . . . .'.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . . . . .
.

not
N O TE : Because
equal totals.

14

of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

of

individual

item s




Table 16. Copper ore mining: Paid
vacations
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts w ith form al
p ro visio n s fo r paid v aca tion s afte r se lected periods of service,
U n ited Sta te s, O ctob e r 1 9 7 7 )
Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

V a ca tio n policy

100

All w orkers
Method of payment

W o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts
.
p ro vid in g paid v a c a t i. o. n .s . . . . . . . . . . .
Le n g th -o f-tim e p a y m . e. n. t. . . . . . . . . . . .
Pe rce n ta g e p a y m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
O th e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

100

97
2
1

A m o u n t of vacation p a y1
After 1 year of service:

95
5

1 w eek. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over 1 and un d e r 2 weeks
After 2 years of service:

85
5
1
1

1 w e e .k. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over 1 and un d e r 2 weeks
2 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
After 3 years of service:

O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 weeks
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over 2 and under 3 weeks

2
95
2

After 5 years of service:

2 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over 2 and u n d e r 3 weeks

98
2

After 10 years of service:

3 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ove r 3 and under 4 weeks

98
2

After 15 years of service:

3 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ove r 3 and under 4 weeks
4 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

95
2
2

After 20 years of service:

3 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Over 4 and under 5 weeks

(1
2)

97
2

After 25 years of service:3

3 w e e k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ove r 5 and under 6 weeks

2

1 Vaca tio n p a ym e n ts,
such
as
pe rce n t
of
annual
earn in g s,
w ere c on ve rte d to an e qu iva le n t tim e basis.
Periods of service
w ere chosen a rb itra rily and do not n e cessarily reflect
ind ivid u a l e sta b lis hm e n t p ro visio n s for pro g re ssio n . For
exam ple, c hanges indica te d at 10 years m ay include cha n g es tha t
o cc u rre d between 5 and 10 years.
2 Less than 0 .5 p ercent.
3 Vaca tio n
pro visio ns
were
virtu a lly
the
sam e
afte r
longer
periods of service.
N O T E : Because
equal tota ls.

of

ro u n d in g ,

15

su m s

of

individual

item s

m ay

not




Table 17. Copper ore mining: Health,
insurance, and retirement plans
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith specified
health, insu ran ce , and re tire m e n t p la n s ,1 U n ited Sta te s, O ctob e r
1977)
Ty p e of plan

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
W orkers in e sta b lis hm e n ts p ro vid in g :
Life in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . .
.
Accid e n ta l d e a th 'a n d
d ism e m b e rm e n t in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100. . . . . .
..
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
Sickness and a ccid e n t in su ran ce
or sick leave or b o th2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . .
..
Sickn e ss and a c c id e n t in s u r. a. n. c .e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100
.
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . .
..
S ick leave (fu ll pay,
no w a itin g p e rio d ). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42. . . .
.
.
Lo n g-te rm disa b ility in s u r .a .n. c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. n .s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. . .
.
Ho spitalizatio n in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
.
..
S urgica l i n s u r a n. c .e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . .
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
Medical i n s u r a n. c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
M ajor m edical in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .
..
..
hfoncontributory p l a. n. .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
Dental in s u r a n c .e .'..’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .95 . . . .
.
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74. . .
.
Retirem ent p la n s ^ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . .
..
P e n s io n s !. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . .
..
.
S everance p a . . .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. . . .
1 Includes
tho se
p lans
fo r w h ic h
the
e m ployer
pays
at
least
p art
of
the
c os t
and
excludes
legally
req uired
p lans such
as
w o rk e rs’ com p e n sa tio n
and
social se c u rity ;
how ever,
plans
required
by S ta te
te m p o ra ry
disa b ility
law s
are
included
if th e
em ployer
con trib u te s m ore than is legally req uired or the em ployees receive
benefits
in
excess
of
legal
req uire m e n ts.
"N o n c o n trib u to ry
p la n s”
include only tho se plans fin a n ce d e n tire ly by the e m ployer.
2 U n d u p lica ted
total
of w o rke rs
rece ivin g
sickness
and
accid e n t
insurance and sick leave show n separately.
3 U n d u p lica ted
total
of w o rk e rs
covered
by
pension
plans
and
severance pay show n separately.

Table 18. Copper ore mining: Other
selected benefits
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts p ro vid in g selected
b e n e fits,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Ty p e of benefit

P e rce n t of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W orkers in esta b lishm e n ts
with pro visio n s for:
Funeral leave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87. . . . . .
.
Ju ry -d u ty l e a . v. e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100. . . . . .
.
..
Te ch n olog ica l se verance .p . a. y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 .
.
.
Sup p le m e n ta l u n e m p loym e n t b e n. e .f i. t. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
.
1 For defin itio n of item s, see appendix A.

16

Part III. Lead and Zinc Ores

above day rates. Differentials ranged from 12 to 18
cents for second shifts and typically amounted to 16 or
20 cents for third shifts.

Average hourly earnings

The 5,300 production and related workers in lead and
zinc ore mining averaged $6.23 an hour in October 1977
(table 19). This was 48 percent above the level record­
ed in September 1972. During the 1972-77 period, the
annual rate of increase in average earnings amounted
to 8.1 percent.
Employee earnings were somewhat more dispersed
than in iron or copper mining. (See parts I and II.) The
index of wage dispersion (middle range divided by the
median) was 18. Factors contributing to the dispersion
include the importance of low-paying, small mines (onehalf of the workers were in mines with fewer than 500
employees) and of incentive wage systems, which cov­
er one-fourth of the workers (mostly miners). Also lead
and zinc mines are located in a variety of labor markets
throughout the country, while iron or copper mines are
generally found in one geographic region.

Paid holidays. All production workers were in estab­
lishments granting paid holidays (table 24). Nearly twofifths received 10 days annually; three-tenths, 9 days;
one-sixth, 7 days; and one-seventh, 8 days. Among the
holidays reported, at least nine-tenths of the workers
received New Year’s Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of
July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas
Day.
Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying periods
of service, were provided by all establishments (table
25). The most common provisions were 1 week of va­
cation after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3
weeks after 10 years, at least 4 weeks after 20 years,
and 5 weeks or more after 25 years.

Occupational earnings

Occupations selected to represent the industry’s wage
structure accounted for three-fourths of the production
and related workers (table 20). Miners, the largest group,
were highest paid, at $7.43 an hour. Conveyor opera­
tors were lowest paid, averaging $4.92 an hour.
Of the jobs studied separately, operators of gasoline
or battery-powered shuttle cars, at $6.72, had the sec­
ond highest average, followed by loading-machine op­
erators ($6.65), maintenance electricians and machinists
($6.37), and maintenance mechanics ($6.28).
Miners, who accounted for three-fifths of the incen­
tive-paid workers, had widely dispersed earnings. They
ranged from $4.80 an hour to over $10.20. Incentivepaid miners averaged $8.18; time-rated, $5.83.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Nine-tenths or
more of the workers were in establishments providing
at least part of the cost of life, sickness and accident,
hospitalization, surgical, and basic medical insurance
(table 24). Four-fifths were covered by accidental death
and dismemberment and major medical insurance; threefifths had dental insurance. About one-tenth were cov­
ered by long-term disability insurance and the same
proportion by formal sick leave plans. Employers near­

ly always paid the total cost of health benefits.
Retirement pension plans (in addition to Federal so­
cial security) applied to slightly more than four-fifths
of the workers. Retirement severance plans were not
found in mines visited. Pension plans were financed
completely by the employer.

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Other selected benefits. More than nine-tenths of the
workers were in facilities providing pay while attend­
ing funerals of specified family members or serving as
a juror (table 25). Supplemental unemployment benefit
plans, which augment State unemployment programs,
covered slightly more than two-fifths of the workers.
About one-fourth of the production workers were em­
ployed by establishments having technological severance
pay plans for workers permanently separated from their
jobs because of a reduction in the work force or a
mine or unit closing.

Work schedules. A weekly work schedule of 5 days
(40 hours) applied to seven-eighths of the lead and zinc
work force (table 21). One-eighth were scheduled for
6 days (48 hours).
Shift provisions and practices. All employees were in
establishments with provisions for late shifts (table 22).
Three-tenths worked second shifts, and about one-tenth,
third shifts at the time of the survey (table 23). Virtu­
ally all received uniform cents-per-hour premiums



17

Table 19. Lead and zinc ore mining: Earnings distribution
(Percent distribution of production and related workers by average straight-time hourly earnings.1 United States. October 1977)
Hourly earnings1

All
workers
o ,2 7 7

Time
workers

J

J ~J

Incentive
workers

Hourly earnings1

Time
workers

Incentive
workers

1 f442
* 7 .3 0

1 0 0 .0

All
workers

A NO UN07R

l_ *

$ 7 .4 0 .............................

1 *0
.3

1 00 .0
l.b
r

l.b

1 .0

r
*T

3*1
.

1 *o
**

1* H
s 1

*.
7 7

‘ *7
*

z, * ?
r ’

X* ’

* 6 .4 0 AND UNDER i t . 5C.............................

“* 7
"
4 7 .0 0 AND UN0ER

4 7 . 1 0 ............................

•i

#
•6

s* 1

7* rf
3 .9

“

*
1 *

?V
1 .5

$ 9 .4 0 A N J U'JOfcK $ 9 . 5C.............................

*7
-

.7

-

2 .6

3 .4

-

1 2 .5

. *_
A#
*
-

.b

$ 1 0 .0 0

A N 0 0 V E K .............................................

______________
1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
N O TE : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.
late shifts.
* Less than 0.05 percent.




A

1 *7

. 3
i

.
y* *
f7* 7
3.2

*

18

.

Table 20. Lead and zinc ore mining: Occupational earnings
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 of workers in selected occupations, United States October 1977)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (io dollars) of Number
of
workers

Occupation

Average
hourly
earnings1

4.60
4.60

4.80

under

5.00
MI N i NG GPERAT IUN S
C A G E T t N J E R S .............................................................
CHANGE kcOM A T T F N 0 A N T S ..................................
l a b o r e r s , u n d e r g r o u n d ....................................
L O A D IN G -M A C H IN E C P r KAT u R S ..........................
M I N U S .............................................................................
m in e
t r u c k e r s ...........................................................
PUM PERS...........................................................................
R O L F 8 U L T CR 5 .............................................................
S H U i r i E -C A R O P E R A TO R S ....................................
E L E C T R I C QVERHc A0 POWERED....................
G A S O L IN E Ok 6 A 1 T E K Y P G n E R E o ..............
U N D E R G R C U N D -E C d IP M E N T O P E R A T O R S ... .
UNDERGROUND s e r v i c e r s .....................................

6b
30
485
150
1 ,2 6 5
4o
24
42
139
47
92
44
172

URF TR EATM EN T UPERAT IUN S
C O N C EN TR ATO R O P E R A TO R S ..................................
CRUSHER oP c RAT u R S ................................................
PRIM ARY C R uS H E R ...............................................
SECONDARY C R U S H E R ..........................................
F I L T E R OPERA 1UK S..................................................
F L O T A T I CK O P E R A TO R S ..........................................
R Q O - A N J - B A L L -M I L L O P E k A T U k S ....................

25
lo l
54
47
24
67
39

M IN IN G

AND URF TREATM ENT

S 3 . 7o
5 .0 0
5 .4 3
6 .6 5
7 .4 3
6 . 1<*
5 .9 5
6 . 14
6 . 5o
6 .2 5
6 .7 2
3 . 62
5 .7 2

~
9
72
6
1
“

3 .9 d
5 .3 9
5 . 4B
5 .2 6
5 .2 6
3 .6 6
5 .3 7

5.00

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

“
6.80

~

6

4
16
10
13
7
7
7

1
*
4
58
i
10
10
1
“

~
2
ID
9
i
5

5
5
“
5
2
9

3
2
1
1
*
13
~

8
4
4
_
2
5

27
13
14
2
i

O P E R A TIO N S

C L E A N -U P E Q U IP M E N T O P E R A TU h S .................
CONVEY U P O P fR A T O k S .............................................
E L c C T K I C I A N S , M A IN TE N A N C E .........................
H F IP E R S , M A IN TEN A N C E T R A D E S ....................
HOI ST J P t K A T L k S .....................................................
L A u O R E R S , OTH ER TH A N JNOSRG kOUN O . . .
L O C O M O TIV E E N G IN E E R S ........................................
MEC FAN I C S i H E AV Y O U T f ....................................
M E C H A N IC S , M A IN TE N A N C E ..................................
O IL EKS ANO G K E A S E R S ..........................................
TRACK E A Y = R S .............................................................
TRUCK JK I VEk S.‘ ..........................................................
CR= HAUL AG I ...........................................................
S E R V IC E DR WATER.............................................
H 51 O C R S . M A IN TE N A N C E ........................................

9
2
7
24
164
11
1
2
19
b
ii
i
51

97
2
7
8
26
26
40
76

4
i
12
147
2
6
3
6
6
”
”

2
16
7
9
7
9
9

“

s
9
4
~

2
22

5
7
165
1 04
4
14
12
~
12
~

~
12
b
4
10
12

“
17
12
4
3
6
3

8
5
i
2
“
lo
”

l
3
12
lu
47
b
2
4
3
2
-

7
3
16
1
“
4
3
17
6
n
1
lo

4
12
48
5
2
14
21
2
4
27
22
4

“
25
lo
19

i
24
9
6
12
“
6
61
1 79
~

2

12

8
b
48
6
6
~
i

-

29

“
~
24
53
5
14
“
“

3
“

_

6b
3
93
4
2
6
“

~
2
135
”

-

i
26

“

~

“
“
“
“
4

“
“

”
■

9
14
10
141
5b
146
154
22
72
154
334
10
28
69
34
20
51

5 .4 b
4 .9 2
6 .3 7
5 .4 5
5 .9 4
5 .1 4
5 .8 5
6 .3 7
6 .1 7
6 .2 8
5 .6 0
5 .2 7
5 .6 6
3 .5 *
3 .4 3
3 . 7b

2
6
9
37
2
1
1

n

6
i
“

-

3
4
13
9
4

2

2
“
13
~
6
13
5
—
1

1
7
3
12
“
5
27
~
“
3
1
i
18

2
1
3
7
3
31

20
i
6
~
~
2

2
b
2

-

5
3

2
—
26

~
27
3
“
~
31
17
46

4
“
—
~

i
~
21
”
25
2
ii
6
“
“
“
1
“

MINING OPERATIONS
CAGE TCNDER S .......................................................
CHANGE HCLM ATTENDANTS..............................
LAbJKEKS, UNDE* GROUND................................
LGADI n g -MACHINE UP c RAT u R S ......................
M I n ER S .....................................................................
MINE TRUCKERS....................................................
PUMPERS ...................................................................
ROLF B u L T F K S ......................................................
SHUTTLE-CAR l PL RA TUK S ................................
ELECTRIC UVERHcAH PUwEKtO..................
oASJL INE OR bATTCRY P3*fckfcD.............
JNCfRGRC’JNO-SC'JIPHcNT OPERATORS . . . .
JNQ c k GK GUND SERVICERS................................
ORE TREATMENT OPERATIONS
CONCENTRATOR OPERATORS..............................
CRUSHER CPE RAT ORS..........................................
PRIMARY CRUSHER..........................................
SECONDARY CRUSHER......................................
Flu Ten UPERATO k S............................................
FLOTATION GPFPATUkS ......................................
K0U-4ND-BAL L-M ILL OPERATORS..................
MINING An P ORE TRFATMENT UPERAf IONS
CLEAN-UP Egj IPM CN l OPERA IURS...............
CuNVEYuR OPFH ATGRS........................................
ELECTRICIANS* mA IN T E n ANC c ......................
HF.LPiRS* MAI NT CN ANC c TRADES.................
HOI ST JPcKATOR S ...............................................
LAcGRSKS* 01 HER THAN JN^cRGKCUrtO. . .
LOEUMJT IVE ENGINEER S...................................
MACHINISTS* MAINTENANCE...........................
MElHANICS, HEAVY DU TY................................
MECHANIC*. MAIMENAN c S ..............................
UILERS AND GREAScrvS.......... ..........................
TRACK I AY Er S .............. .......................................
TKUCKJN I VLK S.5....................................................
UR= HAUL A G : ....................................................
SERVICE UR i% TER ••*•••.........................
4
..ELDERS, MA1NTFNANCF...................................
1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at $4 to $4.20; and 4 at $4.40 to $4.60.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 5 at $4.20 to $4.40; and 67 at $4.40 to
$4.60.




4 Workers were distributed as follows: 32 at $9 to $9.20; 8 at $9.20 to $9.40;
39 at $9.40 to $9.60, 5 at $9.60 to $9.80, 4 at $9.80 to $10; 4 at $10 to $10 203 at $10.20 to $10.40; 9 at $10.40 to $10.60; 6 at $10.60 to $11; 34 at $11 to
$11.40; 10 at $11.40 to $11.80; and 86 at $11.80 and over.
* includes data for workers in classifications in addition to those shown separately.

19

Table 21. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Work schedules

Table 23. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Shift differential practices

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by scheduled
weekly h o u rs and d a y s ,1 U n ited Sta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u ctio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts e m ployed on late
sh ifts by a m o u n t of pay d iffere n tia l, U n ite d S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Percent of
prod u ctio n
w orkers

W eekly hours

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 . . . . . . . . . .
..

Second shift

5 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 0 h o u r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88. . . . . . . . . . .
.
6 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 8 ho urs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 . . . . . . . . . .
.
1 Data
relate
to
th e
p re d o m in a n t
sh ift w o rk e rs in each e sta b lishm e n t.
N O TE : Because
equal 100.

of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

sche d u le
of

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

S h ift d ifferential

fo r

individual

fu ll-tim e
item s

m ay

W o rk e rs e m ployed on second .s . h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 .5
..
2 7 .8
.
.
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u .r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27..8. .
10 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.8. . . . . . . .
..
12 c e n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 .6. . . . . . . .
..
d a y13 cents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7. . . . . . . .
..
14 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 .7. . . . . . . .
..
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.2. . . . . . . .
..
not
18 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. .7. . . . . . . .
.
Third shift

.
.
W o rk e rs e m ployed on th ird s .h. i. f. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11..3
Receiving d if f e r e n t ia l. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.1. . . . . . .
..
.
..
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u .r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.1. .
15 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . . .
.
16 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.1 . . . . .
..
18 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . .
.
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.9 . . . . .
..
22 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 . . . . .
.
23 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . .
.
2 8 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N O T E : Because
equal tota ls.

Table 22. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Shift differential provisions

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts with
se c o n d -sh ift p r o v i s io. n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0 . .
.
....
W ith s h ift d if f e r e n. t. ia .l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94.7. . .
.
..
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. .u . r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94.7. .
..
10 c e n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 . . . . . . . .
..
12 c e n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.3 . . . . . . . .
...
13 c e n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.5. . . . . . . .
..
14 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9. .4. . . . . . . .
. .
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20.1 . . . . . . . .
...
18 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8.5 . . . . . . . .
..

ro u n d in g ,




su m s

of

individual

item s

m ay

not

m ay

not

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..

Holidays p ro vided:
N ew Y e a r’s D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
W a sh in g to n ’s B i r t h .d .a. y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 . . .
.
Good F r i d a. .y . . . . .". .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . .
.
M em orial D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95. . . . . . . . . .
.
Fou rth of J u f y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
Labor Day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100. . . . . . . . . .
..
V e te ra n sr D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . . . . . . . . .
Th a n k s g iv in g D a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . .
..
Day afte r T h a n k s g iv in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43. . . . . . . .
.
Ch ristm a s Eve ...1 .. .. .. ". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73 . . . .
.
Ch ristm a s D a .y. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. . . . . . .
.
.
N ew Y e a r's E v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 . . . . . . . . .
..
O the r - 1 day . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4.6. . . . . . . . . .
O the r - 2 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 . . . . . .
..
.
F lo a t i n g . . . .". . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 . . . . . . . . .
.

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith
th ird -s h ift p r o v is io .n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100.0. . . .
.
...
W ith s h if t 'd if f e r e n. t. ia .l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94. .7. . .
.
. .
U n ifo rm ce n ts per h . o. u .r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 ..7. .
.
.
15 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.7 . . . . .
..
41. .8 . . . . .
16 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 . . . . .
..
2 0 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25. .4 . . . . .
. .
2 2 c e n .t s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1. . .
.
.
23 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 . . . . .
..
28 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 . . . . .
..

of

individual

W orkers in e sta b lis hm e n ts
p ro vid in g paid h o li d. a. y. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . .
..
' 7 d a y s ”. ..!. . . . . ..'... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
8 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. . . . . . . . .
.
9 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31. . . . . . . . . . .
.
10 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 . . . . . . . .
.

Third shift

N O T E : Because
equal totals.

of

N u m b e r of
paid holidays
and h o lid a ys provided

Second shift

c u rre n tly

su m s

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith fo rm al
pro visio n s for paid holidays and holidays pro vid e d , U n ited S ta te s,
O c to b e r 1 9 7 7 )

Percent of
prod u ctio n
w orkers

1 Refers
to
policies
of
e sta b lis hm e n ts
sh ifts or h a vin g p ro vis io n s c o ve rin g late shifts.

ro u n d in g,

Table 24. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Paid holidays

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by sh ift
d iffere n tia l p ro vis io n s,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c to b e r 1 9 7 7 )
S h ift d ifferential

of

o pe ra tin g
item s

m ay

late
not

20

N O TE : Because
equal tota ls.

of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

of

individual

item s

Table 25. Lead and zinc ore mining: Paid vacations
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts w ith fo rm al pro visio n s for paid v aca tion s a fte r se lected periods of service, U nited
S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )
V a ca tio n policy

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

V a ca tio n policy

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . .
..

A m o u n t of vaca tion p a y1— C o n tin u e d

Method of payment

After 10 years of service:
W o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts
p ro vid in g p a id v a c a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . O ver 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .
..
2 w e e k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1. . . . . . . .
' L e n g th -o f-tim e p a y m. e .n. t. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82. . .
.
.
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . . . . . . . . .
.
15
Perce n ta ge p aym ent
3. . . . . . . . O. ver 3 and under 4 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .
O th e r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
..
4 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 . . . . . . . . . .
5 weeks and over . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. . . . . . . . .
.
A m o u n t of vacation p a y 1
After 15 years of service:

O ver 1 and under 2 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .
Un d e r 1 week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . 2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .
.
1 week
.....
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
.
O ver 1 and under 2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . O ver 3 and under 4 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .
.
1. . . . . . . . 4. . weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . .
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
Over 5 and un d e r 6 w e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. .
.
.
O ver 2 and under 3 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. .

After 1 year of service:

After 2 years of service:

After 20 years of service:

U n d e r 1 w e e k . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2. . . . . . . . Over 1 and un d e r 2 w e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .
.
. .
.
1 week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 . . . . . . . .2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .
.
O ver 1 and under 2 w e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 .
. .
.
.
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . .
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . O ver 3 and un d e r 4 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .
.
..
3 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . .4. . weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
O ver 5 and un d e r 6 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 .
.
.
After 3 years of service:
1 week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . After 25 years of service:
.
..
2 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . . . . O ver 1 and un d e r 2 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .
.
..
.
.
Ove r 2 and u n d e r 3 w e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. .
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . .
.
11. .
3 weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 . . . . . . . .
Ove r 3 and u n d e r 4 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
.
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . .
After 5 years of service:
.
1 week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . .5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52. . . . . . . . . .
.
2 w eeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 . . . . . . . . Over 5 and u n d e r 6 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. . . . . . . .
.
.
O ve r 2 and under 3 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 .
.
.
Maximum vacation
3 w e e k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 . . . . . . . . Ove r 1 and u n d e r 2 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . .
.
O ver 4 and un d e r 5 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. .
.
.
2 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1. . . . . . . . . . .
3 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22. . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . . . . . . . .
5 w eeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55. . . . . . . . . . .
.
Ove r 5 and un d e r 6 w e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 .
. .
.
6 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . . . . . . . . .
1 Va c a tio n
p a ym e n ts,
such
as
p e rc e n t
of
annualcc u rre d rnbetws, 5 and 10 years.
e a in g een
o
w ere c on ve rte d to an equiva le n t tim e basis.
Periods of service
w ere chosen a rb itra rily and do n o t necessarily reflect
N O T E : Because of ro u n d in g ,
individual e sta b lis hm e n t pro visio n s for p ro g re ssio n . For
equal tota ls.
exam ple, cha n g es indica te d at 10 years m ay include cha n g es tha t




21

su m s

of

individual

item s

m ay

not




Table 26. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Health, insurance, and retirement plans
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith specified
he a lth , in su ran ce , and re tire m e n t p la n s ,1 U n ited S ta te s, O ctober
1977)
Ty p e of plan

Percent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rke rs

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..
W orkers in e sta b lishm e n ts p ro vid in g :
Life in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 . . . . . . . . .
..
N on c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . .
..
Accid e n ta l d e ath'a'nd
d is m e m b e rm e n t in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80 . . . . . .
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . .
.
.
S ickness and a c cid e n t insurance
or sick leave or b o th 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . .
..
S ickness and a ccid e n t in s u r. a. n. c .e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
.
.
.
.
N on c o n trib u to ry p la. n .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87. . .
S ick leave (fu ll pay,
no w a itin g p e r i .o. d. .) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5. . . .
Sick leave "(p a r tia l'p a y
or w a itin g p e r i o d ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . .
.
L o n g -te rm d isa b ility in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 . . . . . .
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. . .
Ho spitalizatio n in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .
..
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99. . .
.
Surgica l in s u r a n. c. e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 . . . .
.
...
N on c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99. . .
.
.
Medical i n s u r a n. c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 . . . . .
N on c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96. . .
.
M ajor m edical in s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 . . . . . . .
..
^ c o n t r i b u t o r y p. l.a. n. .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81. . .
.
Dental in s u r a n .c e .' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 . . . . .
.
.
.
N on c o n trib u to rv p l a. .n . s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52. . .
Retirem ent plans5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 . . . . . . . .
.
P e n s io n. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84. . . . . . .
.
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84 . . . . . .
.
1 Includes
tho se
plans
fo r
w h ich
the
e m p loye r
pays
at
least
p a rt
of
the
cost
and
excludes
legally
req uired plans
such
as
w o rk e rs' com p e n sa tio n
and
social se c u rity ;
how e ve r,
plans
required
by
State
te m p o ra ry
d isa b ility
laws
are
included
if
the
e m ployer
con trib u te s m ore
than is legally required or
the em ployees receive
benefits
in
excess
of
legal
req uire m e n ts.
“ N o n c o n trib u to ry
p la n s "
include o nly tho se p lans fin a n ce d e n tire ly by the em ployer.
2 U n d u p lica ted
total of w o rk e rs
rece ivin g
sickness
and
accid e n t
insurance and sick leave show n separately.
3 U n d u p lica ted
total of w o rk e rs
covered
by
pension
plans
and
severance pay show n separately.

Table 27. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Other selected benefits
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts p ro vid in g selected
b e n e fits,1 U n ited S ta te s, O ctob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Ty p e of benefit

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts
w ith pro visio ns for:
Funeral le a v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 . . . . . . .
..
.
Ju ry -d u ty l e a .v. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . .
.
Te ch n o lo g ica l se verance p a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24. . . . . . .
.
Sup p le m e n ta l u n e m p loym e n t b e n. .e .f .i t. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
1 For defin itio n of item s, see appendix A.

22

Part IV. Uranium, Radium, and
Vanadium Ores

electricians, $7.35; and automotive mechanics, $7.86.
Earnings of individuals performing similar tasks var­
ied considerably for some occupations. Earnings of the
highest paid worker frequently exceeded those of the
lowest paid in the same occupation by $2 an hour or
more. Similarly, some workers in comparatively low
paid occupations (as measured by the average for all
workers) earned more than some workers in occupa­
tions for which significantly higher averages were re­
corded. Text table 4 illustrates this by showing the over­
lapping of individual earnings for clean-up equipment
operators and probers, despite a $1.50 difference in the
hourly averages for the two occupations.

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time hourly earnings of the 9,(X ) production
X
and related workers in the uranium, radium, and vana­
dium ore mining industry averaged $6.89 in October
1977 (table 28).
Workers’ earnings were more widely dispersed than
in the other mining industries in this study. Nine-tenths
of the workers earned between $5 and $10 an hour; the
middle 50 percent fell between $5.98 and $7.73. The
index of wage dispersion for uranium mining (the mid­
dle range of earnings divided by the median) was 27about average among dispersion indexes calculated for
other industries studied by the Bureau in the last dec­
ade. Factors contributing to the dispersion include the
mix of union-nonunion mines (about one-half of the
work force in each); the importance of low-paying,
small mines (one-half of the work force in mines with
fewer than 5C ) employees); and the wage payment plans
X
in the industry (one-sixth of the workers under formal
systems providing a range of rates for specific occupa­
tions and an additional one-tenth paid incentive rates).

Establishment practices and supplementary
wage provisions

Work schedules. Five-day 40-hour work schedules ap­
plied to three-fourths of the workers in the uranium
mining industry (table 30). About one-tenth of the work­
ers had a 5-1/2 day, 44-hour weekly schedule. The re­
maining workers had 4-day schedules (40 or 48 hours)
or 6-day, 48-hour weekly schedules.

Occupational earnings

Occupations selected to represent various skill levels
and the wage structure in the industry accounted for
seven-tenths of the production and related workers (ta­
ble 29). Average hourly earnings ranged from $8.94 for
maintenance machinists to $5.68 for surface laborers.
Miners, the largest group studied separately, averaged
$7.68 an hour.
Among occupations classified under mining opera­
tions, averages varied considerably. Operators of oreloading machines, used to gather loose ore (or rock) at
the working face of an underground mine and trans­
port it to a designated location, were highest paid, at
$8.92. Laborers who perform general manual tasks in
underground mines were lowest paid-$5.78 an hour.
For survey jobs classified under ore treatment oper­
ations, averages were between $7.30 (flotation opera­
tors) and $6.04 (primary crusher operators). All of these
occupations involved operation and adjustment or reg­
ulation of ore treatment machinery and equipment.
Workers in six selected maintenance crafts had hour­
ly averages ranging from $8.94 for machinists to $6.98
for heavy duty mechanics. Other maintenance trades
and averages were mechanics, $7.12; welders, $7.19;



Shift provisions and practices. Virtually all production
workers were in establishments with late-shift provi­
sions under which differentials were paid (table 31).
Slightly more than one-fourth of the workers were ac­
tually employed on second shifts in October 1977, and
about one-seventh on third shifts (table 32). Shift dif­
ferentials were nearly always uniform cents per hour
Text table 4. Earnings distribution of clean-up equipment
operators and probers in uranium, radium, and vanadium min­
ing

Earnings

Average hourly e a r n i n g s ...........................
Nu m ber of w ork e r s ......................................
Under $ 5 . 6 0 ..........................................................
$5.60 and under $ 6 . 0 0 ......................................
$6.00 and under $ 6 . 4 0 ......................................
$6.40 and under $ 6 . 8 0 ......................................
$6.80 and under $ 7 . 2 0 ......................................
$7.20 and under $ 7 . 6 0 ......................................
$7.60 and under $ 8 . 0 0 ......................................
$8.00 and under $ 8 . 4 0 ......................................
$8.40 and under $ 8 . 8 0 ......................................
$8.80 and o v e r ....................................................

23

Clean-up
equipment
operators
$8.06
287

_

10
23

_

4
15
12
164
30
29

Probers

$6.56
153
36
13
29
7
23
10
14
13
8
-

above day-shift rates. They typically amounted to 15
cents for second shift, and ranged from 12 to 30 cents
for third-shift work.

gical, basic medical, and major medical insurance to
their production workers (table 35). Four-fifths of the
workers were also covered by sickness and accident in­
surance, seven-tenths by dental insurance, and about
two-thirds by accidental death and dismemberment in­
surance. Sick leave plans covered slightly more than
one-third of the work force. The cost of these health
insurance plans was usually borne entirely by the
employer.
Retirement pension plans providing regular payments
for the remainder of the retiree’s life (in addition to
Federal social security) were reported for slightly more
than nine-tenths of the workers. Retirement severance
plans were nonexistent in mines visited.
Health and retirement plans were financed entirely
by the employers.

Paid holidays. All workers in the uranium, radium and
vanadium ore mining industry were in establishments
providing paid holidays (table 33). About two-thirds of
the workers received 10 days; three-tenths, 9 days.
Among the holidays reported, all workers received New
Year’s Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of July, Labor Day,
Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day.
Paid vacations. Paid vacations, after qualifying periods
of service, were provided by establishments employing
virtually all workers (table 34). Typical provisions in
the industry were 2 weeks of vacation pay after 1 year
of service, 3 weeks after 5 years, and 4 weeks after 10
years. Maximum vacation provisions of 5 weeks applied
to one-fifth of the workers and of over 5 weeks to an
additional one-fourth.

Other selected benefits. Virtually all production work­
ers were in establishments providing funeral and juryduty leave in October 1977 (table 33). Technological
severance pay, providing payments to workers perma­
nently separated from employment because of a tech­
nological change or mine closing, applied to about oneseventh of the work force.

Health, insurance, and retirement plans. All establish­
ments in the industry provided life, hospitalization, sur­




24

Table 28. Uranium, radium, and vanadium ore mining: Earnings distribution
(Percent distribution of production and related workers by average straight-time hourly earnings,1 United States, October 1977)
Hourly earnings1

NUMBER OF w uRKERS........................................

All
workers
9 ,0 0 0
J

Time
workers

Incentive
workers

Hourly earnings1

* 7 . 2 0 ............................

100 .0

*,
*7
. 5
UN J E R * 5 . 1 C .............................

2 .4

2 .7

*•* 5 .3 0 ANC J N C tR

*5 . 4 0 .............................

i.i

AND UN C FR

* 6 . 0 0 .............................

2*1
3. b

2* 1
3. 9

* 8 . 9 0 .............................

ANC U N C Fk

* 8 .9 0

ANC UNDER

* 9 . 0 0 .............................

J

^

- j

4 .7
3. 5
2 .0

5 .0
J* ®
1

2 .0

1 .9
1 .0

* 9 .6 0

ANC UN DFR * 9 . 7 0 ............................

'

2 .2

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.




* 3 .3 0

2 5
10. 7

3 2
*

* 7 .0 0 AND UNDER * 7 . 1 0.............................

* 8 . 1 0 .............................

?

C 1
O
1 7

$ 6 .6 0 A N J UNDER * 6 . 7 0 .............................

* 8 .0 0 AND UNDER

.

■
a
T *o
* 5 .9 0

.4

2

.4

Incentive
workers

.4

* 1 0 .0 0 a n d

0 VER.............................................

. 3
1 .3
1 .0
.2

. 3
1 .1
1 .0
•1

1 .2
1 .2

1. 7
•8
•9
1 .6
•4

1 .1
3 .7
1 .7
•4

1 .9
1. 9
3 .7
1. 2
2 .8

1 .0
2. 1
4 .0
1 .1
3 .1

2 .6
.2

. 4
.2
.6
1 .2
.4

•1
.2
•6
1 .1
. 3

3 .0
•8
.7
1 .6
1 .6

.9
. 8
.i
. 4
•3

AN 2 UNDER

ANC UNDER * 7 . 4 0 ............................

-.6

* 5 .0 0 A N J

Time
workers

1 .9
•6
1 .2
1 .8
. 4

* *
*

* 7 .1 0
* 7 .3 0

891

8 ,1 0 9

All
workers

.9
•8
_

.1
.9
•8
.1
2 .1

.2
.8
•1
.3
.2
3 .8

N O TE : Because of rounding, sums of individual items may not equal 100.

25

. 4
•1
. i
•6

.2

5 .2
.2

•3
_

1 .3
3 .0
.7
1 .1
2 .2

1 .0

2 9 .1

Table 29. Uranium, radium, and vanadium ore mining: Earnings distribution
(Number and average straight-time hourly earnings1 of workers in selected occupations. United States, October 1977)
Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of—
Number
of
workers

Occupation

MIN ING 0P EK AT IONS
B U L L U 0 Z E R OPERATORS ( F I N E G R A C f c l. . .
CAGE T E N D E R S .............................................................
U k l L L E R S * M A C H iN E ................................................
LA B O R ER S , UNDERGROUND.....................................
L O A J IN G -M A L H IN E O P tK A TO R S ..........................
M IN E R S ..............................................................................
POW ER-SHUVfcL O P E K A TU k S ..................................
P R O B ER S ...........................................................................
SH3 T E l R t k S ................................................................
S H C V E L C P F R A TU k S H E L P E R S ............................
S H U T T l c -C A K O P E R A T O R S ...................................
G A S O L IN E OR B A T TE R Y ? J «iEk E D ..............
UNO ERGR 0 U N D -E uu IPMb NT u P l r A T CHS . . . .
UNDERGROUND S L R V IC E K S .....................................
V E N T I L A T I O N T E C H N I C I A N S ...............................
ORE TR E A TM E N T O P E R A T IO N S
C O N C EN TR A TO R O P ER A TO R S ..................................
CR JS HER O P E R A TO R S ................................................
PRIM ARY C R USHER ................................................
SECONDARY C R U S H E R .........................................
F II TER O P ER A TO R S ...................................................
F L O T A T IO N O P E R A TO R S ..........................................
R O D - A N J -S A L L - M I LL O P E R A TO R S ....................
Y E L L U w C A k C P AC K AG ER S .......................................
M IN IN G

ANU GRE

TREATM ENT

Average
hourly
earnings1

8.00

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.80

5.20

5.40

5.60

5.80

6.00

6.20

6.40

6.60

6.80

7.00

_
-

_

3

22
-

10
-

27
6

3 04
72

6
4
_
_

24
_
_

5
_
_

2
-

-

-

1

4.80
Under •nd
4.80 under
5.00

8
la
8
8
8
-

8
4
4
-

8
8
-

*7 .6 9
6 . 73
7 ,6 J
5. 7a
a .9 2
7. 68
8 .2 8
6. 56
a .2 2
7. 90
7 .2 0
7 . 35
7 .5 5
6 .4 5
6 .IU

-

8
-

1
-

4
-

-

-

d7
88
52
36
67
64
84
67

6 .6 2
6 . 2o
6 .Oh
6 . 58
6 .7 4
7. 30
6 .7 6
6 . 66

-

-

-

-

4
12

267
12
IBM
93
122
362
36
69
54 0
569
10 7
478
652
22
73

8 . 06
7 .2 6
7. 35
5 .9 8
7 . 16
5 .6 8
8 . 94
7 .6 6
8 . 98
7 .1 2
7. 26
6 *7u
o . 76
o .O l
7 . 19

_
-

_
-

_
-

_
-

-

i
_

73
BO
53
466
77
1, 726
59
152
8
16
155
12 0
12
98
27

-

-

1
-

6
6

30
1
583
5
2
1
70
39

40
i

26
12

12
-

_
15
15

3
2
_

-

5

2
17

fc
I
47
-

15
9
-

6

1 15

4
54

8
_
_
_
_

5
_

29
_
-

_
_

_

_

-

-

6

2
1

_

_

32
4
4
-

-

8
-

5
18
_

4
_
_

4
8
4
4
_
_

fc
6

32
23
2 26
—
5
32
32
2
6
4

-

-

13
-

“

28
14
14
17

6
i

10
3
5

20
-

27
13

_

-

4
5

2
_

8
-

23
-

_
-

_
_

-

15

4
46
-

6

21

-

20

i

25
10
33
72
8

_

3
20
19

31
44-

14
14
_

_

-

-

2

12

15

12

3

1

OPER ATIO N S

C L E A N -U P 5& U IP M E N T 0 P E R A T J R S .................
CO NV EYO R R E P A IR E R S .............................................
E L E C T R I C I A N S , m a i n t e n a n c e .........................
H E L P E R S , M A IN TEN A N C E 1 K A J E S ....................
H O IS T U P r R A T C R S .....................................................
L A B O R E R S , OTHER TH AN U N Jc K G R C U lw . . .
M A C H IN IS T S , M A IN TE N A N C E ................................
M EC H A N IC S * A U T C H U T lV c .....................................
M E C H A N IC S , HEAVY D U T Y .....................................
M E C H A N IC S , M A IN TE N A N C E ..................................
O IL E R S AND G R EA S E R S ..........................................
TROCKDR I V E R S l...........................................................
ORE H A U L A G E ..........................................................
S E R V IC E OR R A TER .............................................
W EL D ER S , M A IN TE N A N C E .......................................

-

-

-

-

12
-

58
-

24
60
12
46
42
4
“

2
32
-

-

54
54
-

”

_____

_
4
2
3
-

—

96
28
-

i
6
-

4
2
-

2
”

2

31
26
40
-

2
20
12
8
~

-

2
*f
fc
76
61
14
f
c
0
_
6

-

57
6
96
96
“

-

-

23
“
4
6
30
99
-

-

-

38
1
4
i
-

i
113
-

Number of workers receiving straight-time hourly earnings (in dollars) of —

7.00

7.20

7.40

7.60

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.80

9.00

7.20

7.40

7.80

7.80

8.00

8.20

8.40

8.60

8.00

9.00

over

10
2

2
-

17
—
9
i
3
57

10
31
2
6
7
3
_
_
-

_
39
2
_
_
_
_
_

9
3
—
25
1
.
6
.
.
-

i
i
i
’ 38
®260
34
_
.
_
32
32

"

*

8
5
i
4
11
12
12
2

4
_
.
_
4
5
6

_
_
-

5

159
_

7

4

20
_
13
_

10
_
_
-

and

MINING GPERATION S
BULLDOZER OPERATORS (F IN E uR AOE l..............................................................
CAGE TENDERS...............................................................................................................
LABORERS, u n d e r g r o u n d .........................................................................................
L O O I No-MACHINF OPERATORS...............................................................................
M ..........................................................................................................................................
p u r e r - s h l v e l o p e r a t o r s .......................................................................................
PRO BERS...........................................................................................................................
SHOT FI RERS..................................................................................................................
SHUVEL OPEKATUkS ..................................................................................................
SHUTTLC_ CAR UP?kATuRd1 ......................................................................................
4
*
2
.
OASJL INfc OK 8 ATTEKY PU aEKEO.....................................................................
UNO FRUK CUND — c GUIPMCNT UP £R AT U R i ................................................................
UNDERGROUND S ERVICERS.........................................................................................
V S NT lL A TI C N TECHNICIANS....................................................................................

■
a
_
_

an d o r ? t r e a t m e n t

5
1

31

13
2
45

1

9

39
_
7

4

_
_

_
5
1

_

_
-

-

-

3
13
i

1

4

9

5

_

_
_
2

_
1
29
_
7
_
3
.
2
2

7
—
1
45
_
i
_
_
_
_
_

-

12
_
_
_
_
2
4

"

1
3

_
1
8
_
10

3
3
_
_
n

1
4
2
2
4
i

6
-

-

_
“

_
fc
3
~

.
_
_
-

operations

C L E A N U P EQUIPMENT OPERATORS........................................................................
CONVEY uP REPAIRERS................................................................................................
E L cC T R IC l AN St MAINTENANCE...............................................................................
HELPERS* HAINTFNANC? TRADES..........................................................................
HOIST OPERA TOR ..........................................................................................................
LAbCKEnSt UTHER THAN JNDckGRuU.iO..............................................................
MECHANICS, AUTOMOTIVE.........................................................................................
MECHANICS* HEAVY DUTY.........................................................................................
MECHANICS, m a i n t e n a n c e .................................................................................................

_
_

_

39

_
15

14
2

1

_
_
_
2

_

_

_

1

9

14
14

4
4
24
24

_
41

12
_
2
2

5

TRUCKOR IVEkS4 .............................................................................................................
.
j R t h A U L A G c . . . . ...................................................................................................

13
11

1

13

_

_

_

26
26

_

_
2

_

5
6

4
25
48

_
_

-

25
8
61
59

06
66
_

22

3

2

4

_

5

97
18
22
22
_

“

3

_
_

19
_

10
_

7

22
_
16

-

4

ii

f
c

2B
2
4
4
-

16
9
59

62

_

3

3 Workers were distributed as follows: 30 at $9 to $9.20; 8 at $9.20 to $9.40;
18 at $9.40 to $9.60; 12 at $9.60 to $9.80; 32 at $9.80 to $10; 9 at $10 to $10.20;
2 at $10.20 to $10.40; 75 at $10.40 to $10.60; 4 at $11.80 to $12.20; and 70 at
$12.20 and over.
4 Includes data for workers in classifications in addition to those shown separately.

1 Excludes premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late shifts.
2 Workers were distributed as follows: 1 at $9 to $9.20; 3 at $9.60 to $9.80;
6 at $10 to $10.20; 18 at $10.20 to $10.40; 3 at $11.60 to $12; 2 at $12 to $12.40;
and 5 at $12.40 and over.




4
2
_

49

ORE TREATMENT OPERATIONS
CONCENTPATCR OPEKATUKS.......................................................................................
CRUSHER OPERA TORS...................................................................................................
PRIMARY CRUSHER...................................................................................................
SECONDARY CRoSHER..............................................................................................
f i l t e r c p e r a t o k s .....................................................................................................
FLOTATION UPEkATUkS..............................................................................................
ROD-AND— BALL-MILL .................................................................................................
YELLUWCAKC PACKAGERS...........................................................................................
MIMN G

5

8

26

Table 30. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Work schedules

Table 32. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Shift
differential practices

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts by scheduled
weekly ho urs and d a y s ,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts em p loye d on late
sh ifts by a m o u n t of pay d iffere n tia l, U n ite d S ta te s, O c to b e r 1 9 7 7 )

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W eekly hours

All w o r k e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . . . . .
..

Second shift

4 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 0 h o u .r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (2). . . . . . . . .
.
.
4 8 h o u rs
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . .
5 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 0 ho u rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80. . . . . . . . .
.
42 h o u .r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 . . . . . . . .
.
.
5 1 /2 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 . . . . . . . . . . .
.
4 4 ho u rs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11. . . . . . . . .
6 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . . . . . . . .
48 ho u rs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 . . . . . . . . . .
1 Data
relate
to
th e
p re d o m in a n t
sh ift w o rk e rs in each e sta b lis hm e n t.
1 Less th a n 0 .5 pe rce n t.
N O TE : Because
equal 100.

of

ro u n d in g ,

su m s

sche d u le

of

individual

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

S hift d ifferential

fo r

fu ll-tim e

item s

m ay

W o rk e rs e m ployed on second shift
Receiving d if f e r e n .t ia. l. . . . . . . .
.
Un ifo rm ce n ts per h o u r . . . . . . .
8 c e n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 c e n t. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 c e n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 c e n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ove r 2 0 and un d e r 2 5 c e n ts .
dayU n ifo rm p e r c e n t a .g .e. . . . . . . .
.
Un d e r 5 p e rc e n t. . . . . . . . . . . .
.
not

26 .7
2 6 .3
2 5 .4
.7
1.4
3.5
2 .7
13.0
.5
3.3
.2

.9
.9

Third shift

W o rk e rs e m ployed on th ird shift
.
Receiving d if f e r e n .t ia. l. . . . . .
Un ifo rm c e n ts per h o u r . . . . .
12 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Un ifo rm p e r c e n t a g .e . . . . . .
..
Under 5 p e rc e n t. . . . . . . . . .
.

Table 31. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Shift
differential provisions

N O TE: Because
equal tota ls.

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts by shift
d iffere n tia l p ro vis io n s,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

ro u n d in g,

.1

1.4
2.9
2.0

1.7
4.9
.9
.9
su m s

of

individual

item s

m ay

not

item s

m ay

not

Table 33. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Paid holidays

P ercent of
prod u ctio n
w o rk e rs

S hift d ifferential

of

15.2
14.8
1 3.9

(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith fo rm al
pro visio n s for paid holid a ys and holidays pro vid e d , U n ite d Sta te s,
O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Second shift

N u m b e r of

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith
. .
se c o n d -sh ift p r o v i s io. n. s . . . . .
With sh ift d if f e r e n. t.ia .l . . . . . .
.
Un ifo rm ce n ts per h .o. u .r . .
.
8 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 ce n ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ov e r 2 0 and un d e r 2 5 ce n ts
U n ifo rm p e r c e n t a .g .e. . . . . . .
.
Un d e r 5 pe rce n t. . . . . . . . . . .
.

99 .8
9 7 .5
9 2 .4
1.9

W orkers in e sta b lis hm e n ts
p ro vid in g paid h o li d a y s ...
6 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 days. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1.2

11.9
2.0
5.1
5.1

96 .4
9 4 .4
8 9 .3
1.9
6.1

1 8.5
14.2
1 1.5
3 3 .0
5.1
5.1

N O TE : Because
equal tota ls.

of

ro u n d in g ,




su m s

of

c u rre n tly
individual

100

2

(')

2

28
68

Holidays p rovided:
N ew Y e a r’s D .a . y. . . . .
Wa sh in g to n 's B irth d a y
Good F r i d a .y . . . . . . . . .
.
Me m oria l D a. .y . . . . . . .
Fou rth of J u . l.y. . . . . . .
Labor D a . y. . . . . . . . . . . .
Ve te ra n s Day. . . . . . . .
.
Th a n k s g iv in g D .a. y. . .
Day afte r Th a n k s g iv in g
Ch ristm a s E v .e. . . . . .
.
Ch ristm a s D a. .y. . . . . .
New Y e a r’s E .v .e. . . . .
Othe r - 1 day. . . . . . . .
.
Oth e r • 2 days. . . . . . .
.
F lo a t i n .g. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Third shift

1 Refers
to
policies
of
e sta b lis h m e n ts
sh ifts or havin g pro visio n s cov e rin g late sh ifts.

100

A ll w o rk e rs

6.1

13.5
10.3
4 3 .9

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts w ith
th ird -s h ift p r o v is io.n. s. . . . . .
.
With sh ift d if f e r e n. t.ia .l . . .
.
Un ifo rm c e n ts per h .o. u r
.
12 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28 c e n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 ce n ts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Un ifo rm p e r c e n t a .g .e. . . .
.
Un d e r 5 p e rc e n t. . . . . . . .
.

P ercent of
p ro d u ctio n
w orkers

and

o pe ra tin g
item s

m ay

late
not

27

100

42
84

100
100
100

18
100

65
54
100

7
25

1

64

1 Less than 0 .5 perce n t.
N O T E : Because
equal tota ls.

of

ro u n d in g ,

sum s

of

individual

Table 34. Uranium, radium, and vanadium ore mining: Paid vacations
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts w ith fo rm al pro visio ns for paid vaca tion s after selected periods of service, U nited
Sta te s, O ctob e r 1 9 7 7 )
V a ca tio n policy

Percent of
prod u ctio n
w o rk e rs

Percent of
prod u ctio n
workers

Vaca tio n policy

..
All w o r k e .r .s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100. . . . . . .

A m o u n t of vacation p a y 1 Co n tin u e d
—

Method of payment
After 10 years of service:
W o rk e rs in esta b lishm e n ts
.
p ro vid in g paid v a c a t i o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97. . . . . . . . 3 w e e k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 . . . . . . . .
.
Le n g th -o f-tim e p a y m e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 . . . . . . . 4 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
..
Over 4 and under 5 w e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
.
.
A m o u n t of vacation p a y1
After 15 years of service:
3 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16 . . . . . . . . . .
.
After 1 year of service:
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71. . . . . . . . . .
.
1 week. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 . . . . . . . .Over 4 and under 5 w e .e .k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
.
.
.
Ove r 1 and under 2 w .e .e. k. s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
After 20 years of service:
.
.
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68. . . . . . . . 3. . weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
After 2 years of service:
4 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
1 w eek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17. . . . . . . . .5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36. . . . . . . . . .
2 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 . . . . . . . .Over 5 and under 6 w .e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
.
..
.
Over 2 and under 3 w .e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. .
.
After 25 years of service:
After 3 years of service:
3 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . . .
.
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85. . . . . . . . 4. . weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35. . . . . . . . . .
.
.
Ove r 2 and un d e r 3 w .e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. .
.
5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37. . . . . . . . . .
.
After 5 years of service:
Over 5 and under 6 w e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
.
.
2 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. . . . . . .Maximum vacation
.
...
Over 2 and under 3 w e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. .
.
3 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 . . . . . . . . .
.
3 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .66 . . . . . . . .4. .weeks. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
35
Over 3 and under 4 w .e .e. k. s. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. .
.
5 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
O ver 5 and under 6 w e e k s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. . . . . . .
.
6 weeks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. . . . . . . . . .
.

1 Vaca tio n
p a ym e n ts,
such
as
p e rce n t
of
annualccu rreearnbetws, 5 and 10 years.
o
d in g een
w e re c on ve rte d to an equiva le n t tim e basis.
Periods of service
w e re chosen a rb itra rily and do n o t necessarily reflect
N O TE: Because of ro u n d in g,
individual e sta b lis hm e n t pro visio n s fo r pro gressio n. For
equal totals.
exam ple, cha n ges in dicated a t 10 years m ay n g es th a t
cha include




28

su m s

of itemindividual
s m ay

not




Table 35. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Health,
insurance, and retirement plans
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lis h m e n ts w ith specified
health , in su ran ce , and re tire m e n t p la n s ,1 U n ite d S ta te s, O ctob e r
1977)
Ty p e of plan
All w o rk e rs

P ercent of
p ro d u c tio n
w o rk e rs
100

W o rk e rs in e sta b lis hm e n ts p ro vid in g :
Life i n s u r a n .c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Ac c id e n ta l death and
d ism e m b e rm e n t in s u r a. n. c e . . .
..
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Sickn e ss and a c cid e n t insurance
..
or sick leave or b o .th 2 . . . . . . . .
Sick n e ss and a c cid e n t insurance
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la .n .s. . . . . .
.
Sick leave (f u ll pay,
no w a itin g p e r i .o. d. .) . . . . . . . . .
Sick leave (p a rtia l pay
or w a itin g p e r i .o. d. .) . . . . . . . . .
Lo n g -te rm d isa b ility i n s u r .a.n. c e
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Ho sp ita liza tio n in s u r a .n.c.e. . . . . .
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Su rg ic a l in su ran ce. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. n .s. . . . . . .
.
Medical i n s u r a n c e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a .n. s. . . . . . .
.
Ma jo r m edical i n s u r a. n. c. e . . . . .
.
No n c o n trib u to ry p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Dental i n s u r a n. c. e. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
No n c o n trib u to rv p l a. .n . s. . . . . . .
Retire m e n t p lans3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
Pe n s io n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
N o n c o n trib u to ry p la .n .s . . . . . .
.

100

62

65
53
95
79
42
22

13
30
13
100

71

100

71

100

71

100

56
69
62
94
94
94

1 In clu d e s
tho se
plans
fo r
w h ic h
the
em p loye r
pays
at
least
p a rt
of
th e
cost
and
excludes
legally
req uired p lans
such
as
w o rk e rs’ com p e n sa tio n
and social
se c u rity ;
how e ve r,
plans
req uired
by
S ta te
te m p o ra ry
d isa b ility
law s
are
included
if th e
e m ployer
c o n trib u te s m o re than is legally req uire d or the em ployees receive
benefits
in
excess
of
legal
re q uire m e n ts.
‘‘ N o n c o n trib u to ry
p la n s”
include o nly tho se plans fina n ce d e n tire ly by the em ployer.
2 U n d u p lic a ted
total
of w o rk e rs
rece ivin g
sickness
and
accid e n t
in su ran ce and sick leave show n separately.
3 U n d u p lica ted
total
of
w o rk e rs
covered
by
pension
plans
and
se verance pay show n separately.

Table 36. Uranium, radium, and
vanadium ore mining: Other selected
benefits
(P e rc e n t of p ro d u c tio n w o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts p ro vid in g selected
b e n e fits,1 U n ited S ta te s, O c tob e r 1 9 7 7 )

Ty p e of benefit

P e rce n t of
p ro d u ctio n
w o rk e rs

W o rk e rs in e sta b lishm e n ts
w ith pro visio n s for:
..
.
Funeral le a v e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 . . . . . . .
ju ry -d u t y leave. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98. . . . . . .
.
.
T e r.h n n ln g ir.a l s e v e ra n c e p a y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.
15
1 For de fin itio n of item s, see appendix A.

29

Appendix A. Scope and
Method of Survey

Scope of survey

such as maintenance and office.

The survey covered establishments primarily en­
gaged in the following activities as defined in the 1972
edition of the Standard Industrial Classification Manual
prepared by the U.S. Office of Management and
Budget:
1. Mining, beneficiating, or otherwise preparing iron
ores valued chiefly for their iron content (SIC 1011).
2. Mining, milling, or otherwise preparing copper
ores (SIC 1021).
3. Mining, milling, or otherwise preparing lead ores,
zinc ores, or lead-zinc ores (SIC 1031).
4. Mining, milling, or otherwise preparing uraniumradium-vanadium ores (SIC 1094).
The survey excluded all smelting and refining oper­
ations, ore treatment facilities directly connected with
smelters located away from the mine, and independent­
ly owned ore treatment plants that were not part of a
single economic unit as defined below.
Establishments studied in iron, copper, and lead-zinc
mining were selected from those employing 50 workers
or more at the time of reference of the data used in
compiling the universe lists; those picked in uranium
mining were from establishments with at least 20
workers. Table A-l shows the number of establish­
ments and workers estimated to be within the scope of
the survey, as well as the number actually studied by
the Bureau.

Employment

Estimates of the number of workers within the scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the size
and composition of the industry’s labor force, rather
than as precise measures of employment.
Production workers

The terms “production workers” and “production
and related workers,” used interchangeably in this
bulletin, include working supervisors and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice activities. Admin­
istrative, executive, professional, and technical person­
nel, and force-account construction employees, who
are used as a separate work force on the firm’s own
properties, are excluded.
Occupational classification

Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of
interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix B for these descrip­
tions.) The criteria for selection of the occupations
were: The number of workers in the occupation; the
usefulness of the data in collective bargaining; and
appropriate representation of the entire job scale in the
industry. Working supervisors, apprentices, learners,
beginners, trainees, and handicapped, part-time, tempo­
rary, and probationary workers were not reported in
the data for selected occupations but were included in
the data for all production workers.

Method of study

Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field representatives to a representative sample of
establishments within the scope of the survey. To
obtain appropriate accuracy at minimum cost, a greater
proportion of large than of small establishments was
studied. All estimates are presented, therefore, as
relating to all establishments in the industry, excluding
only those below the minimum size at the time of
reference of the universe data.

Wage data

Information on wages relates to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts. Incentive
payments, such as those resulting from piecework or
production bonus systems, and cost-of-living bonuses
were included as part of the workers’ regular pay.
Nonproduction bonus payments, such as Christmas or
yearend bonuses, were excluded.

Establishment definition

An establishment is defined as: (1) A mine or mines
without an ore treatment plant; or (2) a mine or mines
with an ore treatment plant operated by a company as a
single economic unit. Such establishment is defined as a
single economic unit if it has common supervision over
the day-to-day activities or common support facilities,



Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or category of workers, such as production
workers, were calculated by weighting each rate (or
hourly earnings) by the number of workers receiving
the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number of
30

Table A-1. Estimated number of establishments and employees within scope of survey and number studied, metal mining
industries, July and October 1977
N um ber of establishments
Industry

Workers in establishments
Within scope of study

Within scope
of study

Actually
studied

Total1

Production
workers

Actually
studied

All industries c o m b i n e d ................................................

108

98

66,506

53,59 0

55,465

Iron m i n i n g ...............................................................................
Copper min in g............................................................................
Lead and zinc m in i n g ..............................................................
Uranium, radium, and vanadium m i n i n g ........................

25
25
22
36

23
21
22
32

22,707
25,686
7,051
1 1,062

19,103
20,210
5,277
9, 000

18,431
19,950
7,051
10,033

1 Includes executive, professional, office, and other workers in
addition to the production worker category shown separately.

individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers
were obtained by dividing straight-time salary by
normal (or standard) hours to which the salary corre­
sponds.
Method of wage payment

Tabulations by method of wage payment relate to
the number of workers paid under the various time and
incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures for
time-rated workers provide single rates or a range of
rates for individual job categories. In the absence of a
formal rate structure, pay rates are determined primari­
ly by the qualifications of the individual worker. A
single rate structure is one in which the same rate is
paid to all experienced workers in the same job
classification. (Learners, apprentices, or probationary
workers may be paid according to rate schedules which
start below the single rate and permit the workers to
achieve the full job rate over a period of time.) An
experienced worker occasionally may be paid above or
below the single rate for special reasons, but such
payments are exceptions. Range-of-rate plans are those
in which the minimum, maximum, or both of these rates
paid experienced workers for the same job are speci­
fied. Specific rates of individual workers within the
range may be determined by merit, length of service, or
a combination of these. Incentive workers are classified
under piecework or bonus plans. Piecework is work for
which a predetermined rate is paid for each unit of
output. Production bonuses are for production in excess
of a quota or for completion of a task in less than
standard time.
Scheduled weekly hours

Data on weekly hours refer to the predominant work
schedule for full-time production workers employed on
the day shift.

formal provisions covering late-shift work. Practices
relate to workers employed on late shifts at the time of
the survey.
Establishment practices and supplementary wage
provisions

Supplementary benefits in an establishment were
considered applicable to all production workers if they
applied to half or more of such workers in the
establishment. Similarly, if fewer than half of the
workers were covered, the benefit was considered
nonexistent in the establishment. Because of length-ofservice and other eligibility requirements, the propor­
tion of workers receiving the benefits may be smaller
than estimated.
Paid holidays. Paid holiday provisions relate to full-day
and half-day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summary of vacation plans is
limited to formal arrangements and exclude informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion of the employer or supervisor. Payments not
on a time basis were converted; for example, a payment
of 2 percent of annual earnings was considered the
equivalent of 1 week’s pay. The periods of service for
which data are presented represent the most common
practices, but they do not necessarily reflect individual
establishment provisions for progression. For example,
changes in proportions indicated at 10 years of service
may include changes which occurred between 5 and 10
years.
Extended vacations. Data relate to formal plans provi­
ding for additional vacation pay at a specified interval.
Such plans commonly provide 13 weeks of vacation
every 5 years to the “Senior Group’’ (one-half of
employees with longest continuous service) and 3
weeks in addition to regular vacation every 5 years for
the “Junior Group”.

Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having



Health, insurance, and retirement plans

Data are presented for health, insurance, pension,

company or a nonprofit organization, or they may be a
form of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical or catastrophe insurance, includes
plans designed to cover employees for sickness or
injury involving an expense which exceeds the normal
coverage of hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide regular payments for the remain­
der of the retiree’s life. Data are presented separately
for retirement severance pay (one payment or several
over a specified period of time) made to employees on
retirement. Establishments providing both retirement
severance payments and retirement pensions to em­
ployees were considered as having both retirement
pensions and retirement severance plans; however,
establishments having optional plans providing employ­
ees a choice of either retirement severance payments or
pensions were considered as having only retirement
pension benefits.

and retirement severance plans for which the employer
pays all or a part of the cost, excluding programs
required by law such as workers’ compensation and
social security. Among plans included are those under­
written by a commercial insurance company and those
paid directly by the employer from his current op­
erating funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life insur­
ance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited to that
type of insurance under which predetermined cash
payments are made directly to the insured on a weekly
or monthly basis during illness or accident disability.
Information is presented for all such plans to which the
employer contributes at least a part of the cost.
However, in New York and New Jersey, where
temporary disability insurance laws require employer
contributions,1 plans are included only if the employer
(1) contributes more than is legally required, or (2)
provides the employees with benefits which exceed the
requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited to
formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion of
the worker’s pay during absence from work because of
illness; informal arrangements have been omitted. Sepa­
rate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which
provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Long-term disability insurance plans provide pay­
ments to totally disabled employees upon the expiration
of sick leave, sickness and accident insurance, or both,
or after a specified period of disability (typically 6
months). Payments are made until the end of disability,
a maximum age, or eligibility for retirement benefits.
Payments may be full or partial, but are almost always
reduced by social security, workers’ compensation, and
private pension benefits payable to the disabled em­
ployee.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commercial insurance




Paid funeral and jury-duty leave. Data for paid funeral
and jury-duty leave relate to formal plans which
provide at least partial payment for time lost as a result
of attending funerals of specified family members or
serving as a juror.
Technological severance pay. Data relate to formal plans
providing for payments to employees permanently sepa­
rated from the company because of a technological change
or plant closing.
Supplemental unemployment benefits. Data relate to
formal plans designed to supplement benefits paid under
State unemployment insurance systems.
'The temporary disability laws in California and Rhode Island do
not require employer contributions.

32

Appendix B. Occupational
Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions
for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to assist its field rep­
resentatives in classifying into appropriate occupations
workers who are employed under a variety of payroll
titles and different work arrangements from establish­
ment to establishment and from area to area. This clas­
sification permits the grouping of occupational wage
rates representing comparable job content. Because of
this emphasis on interestablishment and interarea com­
parability of occupational content, the Bureau’s job de­
scriptions may differ significantly from those in use in
individual establishments or those prepared for other
purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bu­
reau’s field representatives are instructed to exclude
working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees, and handicapped, part-time, temporary, and
probationary workers.
Balling-drum operator

Operates balling drum to produce green iron pellets.
Work involves: Regulating speed of balling drums, cut­
ter bars, and feeds; conducting tests of moisture, com­
pressions, and screen structure; and adjusting water and
other controls for proper balling. May clean bins, chutes,
and screens when necessary. Exclude operators of ball
mills in the concentrator section of the plant (see Rodand Ball-Mill Operator).

(Skip tender; station tender)
Controls operation of cages between levels of mine
and surface. Work involves most o f the following: Push­
ing or pulling loaded cars off cage at surface and re­
placing them with empty cars or cars with supplies or
personnel; pulling cars from cage at bottom or other
levels of mine and moving them onto sidings; and sig­
naling hoist operator to raise or lower cage. May load
cage with materials and record number of cars and pro­
duction from mine.
Car repairer

(Mine-car repairer)
Reconditions mine cars by repairing worn or broken
parts or by replacing such parts with new ones. Work
involves most of the following: Inspecting mine cars,
noting the condition of various parts, and determining
need for repair or replacement of parts; and making re­
placements of worn or broken parts such as axles,
wheels, and couplings.
Changeroom attendant

Keeps changeroom and offices clean and orderly.
Work involves most o f the following: Maintaining clean­
liness of changerooms, hallways, showers, toilets, etc.;
handling mine lamps in and out of charging racks; ob­
serving boilers and making minor adjustments; supply­
ing materials; and making minor repairs to lockers, etc.

Braker

Clean-up equipment operator

(Coupler; nipper; rope rider; trip rider)
Rides on trains or trips of cars hauled by locomotive
or hoisting cable or chain, and assists in their transpor­
tation. Work involves most of the following: Operating
or throwing switches; coupling and uncoupling cars or
attaching and detaching cars to cable; opening and
closing ventilation doors; and directing movement of
train by signaling operator.

Operates mobile equipment such as rubber-tire or
track payloader or bulldozer to clean-up loose ore or
rock in and around surface mine or mill. Places large
boulders aside for blasting. May work in conjunction
with a power shovel.
Concentrator operator

(Panelboard operator)
Operates panelboard to control all or most of the ma­
chinery and equipment in the concentrator mill involv­
ing such operations as conveying, feeding, crushing,
grinding, reagent handling, flotation classifying, drying,
and loading. Work involves most o f the following: Start­
ing, stopping, and operating concentrating equipment;
observing, checking, and manipulating all controls; and
making necessary adjustments to regulate ore flow and
air, water, fuel, chemicals, lubrication, etc.

Bulldozer operator-fine grade

Operates tractor with concave steel scraper mount­
ed in front of chassis to fine grade roadways and other
areas. May build dams and ponds. Excludes Quad Op­
erators (those operating bulldozers pushing scrapers)
and operators cleaning up around shovels and crushers
(see Clean-up Equipment Operator).



Cage tender

33

Conveyor operator

Engineer, stationary

(Boom-conveyor operator)
Operates the conveyor or conveyor loading boom to
transport ore or materials about mine or ore treatment
plant. Work involves most o f the following: Starting spec­
ified boom conveyor and conveyor belts; regulating
conveyor speed as required; and observing controls to
detect malfunctions of conveyor systems. May oil,
grease, and make minor adjustments to conveyor sys­
tem, and may operate drum hoist to position cars un­
der conveyor.

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the
operation of stationary engines and equipment (mechan­
ical or electrical) to supply the establishment in which
employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or air-condi­
tioning. Work involves: Operating and maintaining
equipment such as steam engines, air compressors, gen­
erators, motors, turbines, ventilating and refrigerating
equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed water pumps;
making equipment repairs; keeping a record of opera­
tion of machinery, temperature, and fuel consumption.
May also supervise these operations. Head or chief en­
gineers in establishments employing more than one engi­
neer are excluded.

Conveyor repairer

Installs and repairs belt conveyors in and about mine
or mill. Work involves: Inspecting and maintaining con­
veyors; replacing parts such as couplings, pulleys, idlers;
installing belt conveyor sections; and lubricating con­
veyors. May do simple cutting and burning, and
welding.

Electrician, maintenance

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such
as in the installation, maintenance, or repair of equip­
ment for the generating, distribution, or utilization of
electrical energy in an establishment. Work involves
most of the following: Installing or repairing any of a
variety of electrical equipment such as generators, trans­
formers, switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, mo­
tors, heating units, conduit systems, or other transmis­
sion equipment; working from blueprints, drawings, lay­
out, or other specifications; locating and diagnosing
trouble in the electrical system or equipment; working
standard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of elec­
trician’ handtools and measuring and testing instru­
^
ments. In general, the work of the maintenance electri­
cian requires rounded training and experience usually
acquired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Crusher operator

Operates a crushing machine to break up ore. Work
involves: Regulating flow of ore to and from crusher;
breaking up large chunks or prodding them through
crusher; and cleaning, oiling, and making minor repairs.
For wage study purposes, crusher operators are clas­
sified by type of crusher as follows:
Primary crusher
Secondary crusher
NOTE: Primary crushing machines are frequently
located in a mine or pit.
Driller, machine

Operates truck or tractor mounted machine to drill
ore body to make holes for explosives in surface mines.
Work involves most o f the following-. Positioning drill­
ing equipment and making power connections; drilling
shot holes as needed to obtain desired breakage from
blasting; and lubricating, adjusting, and making minor
repairs to machine. May, in addition, direct work of a
helper and insert and set off charges of explosives in
the holes. Exclude workers primarily drilling blast holes
to break-up large boulders.

Filter operator

Operates machine to filter, dry, and load concentrates
in preparation for shipment. Work involves: Control­
ling flow of air, fuel, and feed into disc, drum, or belt
filter; regulating speed of rotation and vacuum suction;
and checking discharge end for proper formation of
cake. May load ore into cars.
Flotation operator

Dumper

Operates flotation machinery for the recovery of con­
centrates. Work involves: Starting, stopping, and ob­
serving operation of flotation machines, reagent dis­
pensers, tanks, and related equipment; checking froth
in flotation units; and mixing reagents and adjusting re­
agent feeds.

(Car dumper)
Operates a car-dumping device to unload mine cars
or trucks. May direct ore into separate bins by means
of an unloading chute and move cars to and from the
dumping device.
Dust collector servicer

Furnace operator

Services dust collection equipment in a mill. Work
involves most of the following-. Starting, stopping, and
inspecting dust collectors; adjusting spray water; clean­
ing spray nozzles and screens; flushing out hoppers;
checking and cleaning fan; and observing gauges. May
make minor adjustments to equipment.



(Kiln operator)
Operates furnace or kiln to produce fired pellets.
Work involves most o f the following: Starting and stop­
ping equipment; regulating temperatures, flows, and
pressures; observing instruments on control panel; and
34

controlling feed rates in wet, dry, and firing sections.
Kiln operators may fire guns to break up rings in kiln.

Locomotive engineer

Operates train for haulage, switching, and servicing
work in and about mine or mill. May control locomo­
tive by remote radio control. May operate feeders and
also signal power shovel or haulage trucks when load­
ing and unloading.

Helper, maintenance trades

Assists one or more workers in the skilled mainte­
nance trades, by performing specific or general duties
of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied with
materials and tools; cleaning working area, machine,
and equipment; assisting workers by holding materials
or tools; performing other unskilled tasks as directed
by journeyman. The kind of work the helper is permit­
ted to perform varies from trade to trade: In some
trades, the helper is confined to supplying, lifting, and
holding materials and tools and cleaning working areas;
and in others he is permitted to perform specialized ma­
chine operations, or parts of a trade that are also per­
formed by workers on a full-time basis.

Machinist, maintenance

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making
repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment oper­
ated in an establishment. Work involves most o f the fol­
lowing-. Interpreting written instructions and specifica­
tions; planning and laying out of work; using a variety
of machinist’s handtools and precision measuring instru­
ments; setting up and operating standard machine tools;
shaping of metal parts to close tolerances; making stan­
dard shop computations relating to dimensions of work,
tooling, feeds and speeds of machining; knowledge of
the working properties of the common metals; select­
ing standard materials, parts, and equipment required
for his work; fitting and assembling parts into mechan­
ical equipment. In general, the machinist’s work nor­
mally requires a rounded training in machine-shop prac­
tice usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship
or equivalent training and experience.

Hoist operator

Operates underground or surface hoisting machinery
to move cages or skips. Work involves: Controlling
movement; stopping cage or skip tender at proper lev­
els; inspecting machinery for defects; and adjusting
brakes.
Laborer, other than underground

Mechanic, automotive

Performs manual labor in surface mine, yard, or mill
area. Work involves: Repairing railroad tracks, ties, etc.;
digging ditches; breaking rock or ore; and loading and
unloading supplies. May do minor lubricating.

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and tractors
of an establishment. Work involves most o f the follow­
ing-. Examining automotive equipment to diagnose
source of trouble; disassembling equipment and per­
forming repairs that involve the use of such handtools
as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equipment in
disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken or de­
fective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting valves;
reassembling and installing the various assemblies in the
vehicle and making necessary adjustments; alining
wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening body
bolts. In general, the work of the automotive mechan­
ic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience.

Laborer, underground

Performs general manual tasks in an underground
mine. Work involves: Digging and cleaning ditches,
walkways, etc.; loading and unloading tools and sup­
plies; and performing clean-up work or other laboring
tasks. Uses handtools such as picks and shovels.
Loading-machine operator

(Duckbill self-loading-conveyor operator; Joy load­
er operator; Jeffrey loader operator; loading-machine
runner; mobile-loader operator; mucking machine op­
erator; ore hauler; scraper-loader operator; slusher
operator)
Operates one of a variety of oreloading machines
used to gather loose ore (or rock) at the working face
of an underground mine and transport it to designated
location such as trucks, mine cars, or conveyors. Work
involves most o f the following-. Inspecting and testing
roof of working area for unsafe condition and setting
up supports where necessary; moving track rubber tire
or crawler-tread mounted machine to working face;
manipulating machine controls to position the gather­
ing head and to move machine as necessary in gather­
ing and loading the ore; directing the activities of help­
ers; and greasing, oiling, and making minor repairs and
adjustments to machine.



Mechanic, heavy duty

(Diesel engine mechanic)
Performs major overhauls and repair of diesel engines
and equipment such as trucks, drillers, power shovels,
etc. Work involves most of the following: Diagnosing
trouble and determining nature and extent of repairs;
removing cylinder heads and pistons, cylinder linings,
connecting rods, bearings, and all auxiliary parts such
as hoist cylinders, hose assemblies, electric and hydrau­
lic equipment; and setting up and operating automotive
machine tools such as valve grinders and honing ma­
chines. In general, the work of the heavy-duty mechan­
ic requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
35

training and experience.
Exclude workers repairing railroad diesel engines.

flow of fuel, and maintaining flow of materials to grind­
ing mill and balling discs.

Mechanic, maintenance

Power-shovel operator

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following-. Ex­
amining machines and mechanical equipment to diag­
nose source of trouble; dismantling or partly disman­
tling machines and performing repairs that mainly in­
volve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting parts;
replacing broken or defective parts with items obtained
from stock; ordering the production of a replacement
part by a machine shop or sending the machine to a
machine shop for major repairs; preparing written spec­
ifications for major repairs or for the production of
parts ordered from machine shop; reassembling ma­
chines; and making all necessary adjustments for oper­
ation. In general, the work of a maintenance mechanic
requires rounded training and experience usually ac­
quired through a formal apprenticeship or equivalent
training and experience. Excluded from this classifica­
tion are workers whose primary duties involve setting
up or adjusting machines.

(Power-shovel engineer)
Operates diesel or electric powered shovels to load
ore or other materials into trucks or other transporta­
tion equipment in a surface mine.
Prober

Determines grade of ore mined by inserting Geiger
counter into drilled holes of ore body and recording
data.
Pumper

(Pump operator)
Operates one or more motor-driven pumps used to
remove excess water from work areas in an under­
ground or surface mine. Work involves most of the fol­
lowing-. Setting or assisting in the work of setting the
pumps at desired locations, or in laying, connecting,
and repairing pipe or hose lines; starting and stopping
pumps; making necessary adjustments or minor repairs
to equipment; and reporting on water levels in work
areas.

Mine trucker

(Transfer hauler)
Operates rubber-tire truck to transport ore or other
materials in an underground mine. Work involves: Ma­
nipulating levers and switches for loading, unloading,
and transporting ore, rock, and other materials to des­
ignated area. Truck may pull rubber-tire cars or have
its own body.

Roof bolter

Miner

Rod and ball mill operator

(Operating driller)
Performs a number of the following tasks in under­
ground mines: Drilling blast holes; charging holes with
explosives; arranging for proper guarding of all en­
trances to the area; firing charges; inspecting results of
blasts and reblasts where necessary. May scale loose
rock from walls or roof of working places.

Operates rod and ball machines to pulverize ore.
Work involves: Charging mill with round stones, steel
balls, rods, or other grinding materials; regulating flow
of ore and water into mill and controlling rotation speed
to grind ore properly; and lubricating and making mi­
nor repairs to machinery. Exclude operators of ballingdrums in iron pellet mills (see Balling-Drum Operator).

Oiler and greaser

Shaft miner

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts of
wearing surfaces of mechanical equipment of an estab­
lishment. Excludes workers classified as conveyor belt
cleaners.

Constructs vertical shafts in underground mines.
Work involves: Drilling, blasting, pouring concrete, set­
ting guides for hoists and skips, and operating special
shaft sinking equipment.

Pellet-mill operator

Shot firer

(Panelboard operator)
Operates panelboard to control all or most of the ma­
chinery and equipment in a pellet mill such as kiln sys­
tem cooler, screens, balling discs, pumps, feeders, trip­
per systems, and conveyors. Work involves most o f the
following-. Starting, regulating, and stopping pellet plant
equipment; observing panel for fuel, power, tempera­
ture, and pressure readings; checking operation of dust
collection system; igniting kiln burner and regulating

(Blaster; shooter)
Blasts ore, or rock, loose from solid mass by char­
ging, lamping, and setting off charges of explosives in
drilled holes in a surface mine. Work involves most of
the following: Preparing and placing explosive charge
with primer inserted in shot hole, tamping charge in
place; filling remainder of shot hole with noncombust­
ible material, tamping it tightly and leaving a detona­
tor wire extending outside the hole; preparing blasting




Maintains mine roofs, walls, and pillars for the pro­
tection of underground employees and equipment from
rock falls. Work involves: Drilling holes for sheaves,
pins, and cables; and installing roof supporting equip­
ment, pillars, air lines, and water lines. May drill and
blast.

36

equipment and setting off charge; examining areas in
which charges have been set off and reporting on num­
ber and location of holes fired and those that fail to go
off.

Service or water
Combination of types
Copper
Ore haulage
Under 65 tons
65 to 84 tons
85 to 99 tons
100 tons or more
Service or water
Combination of types

Shovel operator helper

Performs a variety of duties to aid operation of a
power shovel employed in removing ore in a pit mine.
Work invovles a combination of the following: Moving
up power lines or water lines and other supplies when
power shovel is moved to a new position in the mine;
removing obstructions in path of shovel; blocking treads
or wheels to steady shovel; and moving rock within
reach of power shovel, using a pick and shovel. May
oil shovel.

Underground-equipment operator

Operates mobile equipment in underground mines,
such as lift trucks, front-end loader, load hauler, backhoe, road grader, and bulldozer to maintain roads and
ditches, and move and position equipment and supplies.
Does not include equipment operators transporting or
loading ore or waste at face of mine (see Loading-Ma­
chine Operator).

Shuttle-car operator

Operates gas, battery or electrically powered engine
that pulls rail shuttle car in mine to transport supplies
or ore from face to designated location.
For wage study purposes, shuttle-car operators are
classified by type of car as follows:

Underground servicer

Electric overhead powered
Other (gas or battery)

Performs a wide range of service functions in sup­
port of mining activities. Work involves most o f the fol­
lowing-. Installing air, water, and vent pipes and dismam
tling used pipe; installing pumps; building and installing
vent doors, chutes, grizzlies, bulk heads, and pouring
concrete. May use lift truck drills, front-end loader, and
welding equipment in work.

Steel sharpener

(Bit grinder; bit sharpener)
Shapes, sharpens, and tempers drill steel and bits.
Work involves: Shaping and sharpening bits on grind­
ing machine; drilling steel on anvil or press; and tem­
pering drills by heating and quenching in liquids.
Track layer

Ventilation technician

Prepares the track bed, and lays, maintains, and re­
pairs rail tracks in underground or surface mine. Work
involves most of the following: Preparing track bed by
grading; placing ties in position; laying and spacing rails,
spiking or clamping rails to ties, joining rail sections
and installing switches; inspecting established track to
detect possible defects, making adjustments or replace­
ments as necessary; and removing rails, ties, and other
track parts from areas where they are no longer needed.
May bond track.

(Air sampler)
Tests samples of air in mine for radon, dust, and die­
sel emissions to determine air quality. To assure air cir­
culation, locates fans within mine and builds airdoors
and bulkheads.
Welder, maintenance

Performs the welding duties necessary to maintain
machinery and equipment in good repair, by fusing
(welding) metal objects together in the fabrication of
metal shapes and in repairing broken or cracked metal
objects. Work involves most o f the following-. Planning
and laying out work from written or oral instructions
and specifications; knowledge of welding properties of
a variety of metals and alloys; setting up of work and
determining operation sequence; welding a variety of
items as necessary; ability to weld with gas and arc
apparatus.

Truckdriver

Drives a truck to transport ore or other materials and
equipment or men in and around the mine, loading
docks, and other areas as required. May also load or
unload truck with or without helpers, make minor me­
chanical repairs, and keep truck in good working order.
For wage survey purposes, truckdrivers are classi­
fied by type of truck and mine as follows:

Yellowcake packager

Iron, lead and zinc, and uranium, radium and
vanadium
Ore haulage



Packages processed uranium ore (yellowcake) in met­
al drums for shipment. Weighs and labels drums. May
also pick ore samples for testing.
37

Industry Wage Studies

The most recent bulletins providing occupational wage
data for industries included in the Bureau’s program of
industry wage surveys since 1960 are listed below. Copies
are for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S.
Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 20402,
or from any of its regional sales offices, and from the

regional offices of the Bureau of Labor Statistics shown
on the inside back cover. Copies that are out of stock are
available for reference purposes at leading public, college,
or university libraries^ or at the Bureau’s Washington or
regional offices.

Manufacturing

Structural Clay Products, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1942
Synthetic Fibers, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1975
Textile Dyeing and Finishing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1967
Textiles, 1975^ BLS Bulletin 1945
Wages and Demographic Characteristics in Work Clothing
Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1858
West Coast Sawmilling, 1969. BLS Bulletin 1704
Women’s and Misses’ Coats and Suits, 1970. BLS Bulletin
1728
Women’s and Misses’ Dresses, 1976. BLS Bulletin 2007
Wood Household Furniture, Except Upholstered, 1974.
BLS Bulletin 1930

Basic Iron and Steel, 1972. BLS Bulletin 18391
Candy and Other Confectionery Products, 1975. BLS
Bulletin 1939
Cigar Manufacturing, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1976
Cigarette Manufacturing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1944
Corrugated and Solid Fiber Boxes, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1921
Fabricated Structural Steel, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1935
Fertilizer Manufacturing, 1971. BLS Bulletin 1763
Flour and Other Grain Mill Products, 1972. BLS Bulletin
1803
Fluid Milk Industry, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1871
Footwear, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1946
Hosiery, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1987
Industrial Chemicals, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1978
Iron and Steel Foundries, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1894
Leather Tanning and Finishing, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1835
Machinery Manufacturing, 1978. BLS Bulletin 2022
Meat Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1896
Men’s and Boys’ Separate Trousers, 1974. BLS Bulletin
1906
Men’s and Boy’s Shirts (Except Work Shirts) and Night­
wear, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1901
Men’s and Boy’s Suits and Coats, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1962
Miscellaneous Plastics Products, 1974. BLS Bulletin 1914
Motor Vehicles and Parts, 1973-74. BLS Bulletin 1912
Nonferrous Foundries, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1952
Paints and Varnishes, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1973
Paperboard Containers and Boxes, 1970. BLS Bulletin 1719
Petroleum Refining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1948
Pressed or Blown Glass and Glassware, 1975. BLS Bulletin
1923
Pulp, Paper, and Paperboard Mills, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2008
Semiconductors, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2021
Shipbuilding and Repairing, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1968
Southern Sawmills and Planing Mills, 1969. BLS Bulletin
1694




Non manufacturing
Appliance Repair Shops, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1936
Auto Dealer Repair Shops, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1876
Banking and Life Insurance, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1988
Bituminous Coal Mining, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1999
Communications, 1976. BLS Bulletin 1991
Contract Cleaning Services, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2009
Contract Construction, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1911
Department Stores, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2006
Educational Institutions: Nonteaching Employees,
1968-69. BLS Bulletin 1671
Electric and Gas Utilities, 1972. BLS Bulletin 1834
Hospitals, 1975-76. BLS Bulletin 1949
Hotels and Motels, 1973. BLS Bulletin 1883
Laundry and Cleaning Services, 1968. BLS Bulletin 16451
Metal Mining, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2017
Motion Picture Theatres, 1966. BLS Bulletin 15421
Nursing Homes and Related Facilities, 1976. BLS Bulletin
1974
Oil and Gas Extraction, 1977. BLS Bulletin 2014
Scheduled Airlines, 1975. BLS Bulletin 1951
Wages and Tips in Restaurants and Hotels, 1970. BLS
Bulletin 1712
1Bulletin out o f stock.

38

* U . S . G O V E R N M E N T P R IN T IN G O F F I C E

: 1979 O - 2 8 1 - 4 1 2 /7 3

Bureau of Labor Statistics
Regional Offices

Region I
1603 J F K Federal Building
Government Center
Boston. Mass 02203
Phone (617) 223-6761

Region IV
1371 Peachtree Street. N E
Atlanta. Ga 30309
Phone (404) 881-4418

Region V
Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York. N Y 10036
Phone: (212) 399-5405

Region III
3535 Market Street
P O Box 13309
Philadelphia. Pa 19101
Phone: (215) 596-1154




9th Floor
Federal Office Building
230 S Dearborn Street
Chicago. Ill 60604
Phone: (312) 353-1880

Regions VII and VIII*
911 Walnut Street
Kansas City, Mo 64106
Phone: (816) 374-2481

Regions IX and X**
450 Golden Gate Avenue
Box 36017
San Francisco. Calif 94102
Phone: (415) 556-4678

Region VI
Second Floor
555 Griffin Square Building
Dallas. Tex 75202
Phone: (214) 749-3516

* Regions VII and VIII are serviced
by Kansas City
“ Regions IX and X are serviced
by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102