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L
i t e

2.
d

Industry
Wage Survey

Metal Mining
September 1972
Bulletin 1820
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Bureau of Labor Statistics

1974




ja yto n &. Montgomery Co,
Public Library

JU L

' ?A

DOCUMENT COLLECTION

Industry
Wage Survey

Metal Mining
September 1972
Parti. Iron Ore
Mining
Part II. Copper Ore
Mining
Part III. Lead and Zinc
Ore Mining
Bulletin 1820
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF LABOR
Peter J. Brennan, Secretary
BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
Julius Shiskin, Commissioner
1974

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402 - Price 70 cents






Preface

This three-part bulletin summarizes the results of a Bureau of Labor Statistics
survey of wages and supplementary benefits in three metal mining industries in
September 1972. Information is provided separately for: Iron ore mining (Part I);
copper ore mining (Part II); and lead and zinc ore mining (Part III).
A summary tabulation, providing national information, was issued in January 1974.
Copies of this release are available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington,
D.C. 20212, or any of its regional offices.
This study was conducted in the Bureau’s Office of Wages and Industrial Relations.
Carl Barsky of the Division of Occupational Wage Structures prepared the analysis
in this bulletin. Field work for the survey was conducted by the Bureau’s regional
offices.




in




Contents
Page
Part I.

Iron ore mining ..............................................................................................................................................
Summary .................................................................
Industry characteristics .................................................................................................................................
Facilities ...........................
Size of establishment .................................................................................................................................
Location .....................................................................................................................................................
Unionization ..............................................................................................................................................
Method of wage payment ........................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings .................................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings ...................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits ........................................................................
Work schedules ..........................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices ..................................................................................................................
Paid holidays ............................................................................................................................................
Paid vacation ..............................................................................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ..................................................................................................
Other selected benefits .............................................................................................................................

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3

Tables:
1. Earnings distrib u tio n ............................................................................................................................
2. Occupational earnings ........................................................................................................................
3. Work schedules .........................................
4. Shift provisions and practices .............................................................................................................
5. Paid h o lid ay s..........................................................................................................................................
6. Paid vacations ........................................................................................................................................
7. Health, insurance, and retirement plans ............................................................................................
8. Other selected benefits ......................................................................................................................

4
5
6
6
6
6
7
7

Part II. Copper ore mining ........................................................................................................................................
Summ ary...........................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics .................................................................................................................................
Facilities .....................................................................................................................................................
Size of establishment ...............................................................................................................................
Location .....................................................................................................................................................
Unionization ..............................................................................................................................................
Methods of wage payment ........................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings ...............................................................................................................................
Occupational earnings ..................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits ........................................................................
Work schedules ..........................
Shift provisions and practices .................................................................................................................
Paid holidays ............................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations .....................................................................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ................................................................................................
Other selected benefits .........................................

8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10




Contents—Continued
Part II. Copper ore mining— Continued

®

Tables:
9. Earnings distribution ........................................................................................................................
10. Occupational earnings ........................................................................................................................
11. Work schedules .....................................................................................................................................
12. Shift provisions and practices ...................
13. Paid holidays ........................................................................................................................................
14. Paid vacations .........v..........................................................................................................................
15. Health, insurance, and retirement plans
..........................................................................................
16. Other selected benefits ........................................................................................................................

11
12
13
13
13
14
15
15

Part III. Lead and zinc ore mining .............................................................................................................................
Summary .......................................................................................................................................................
Industry characteristics .................................................................................................................................
Facilities .....................................................................................................................................................
Size of establishment .................................................................................................................................
Location .....................................................................................................................................................
Unionization ..............................................................................................................................................
Method of wage payment ........................................................................................................................
Average hourly earnings .................................................................................................................................
Occupational averages ...................................................................................................................................
Establishment practices and supplementary wage benefits ..............................................................
Work schedules ..........................................................................................................................................
Shift provisions and practices ..................................................................................................................
Paid holidays ...........................................................................................................................................
Paid vacations
.............................................
Health, insurance, and retirement plans ................................................................................................
Other selected benefits .............................................................................................................................

16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
16
17
17
17
17
17
17
17
17

Tables:
17. Earnings distribution ..........................................................................................................................
18. Occupational averages ........................................................................................................................
19. Work schedules ...................................................................................................................................
20. Shift provisions and practices .............................................................................................................
21. Paid holidays .......................................................................................................................................
22. Paid vacations .....................................................................................................................................
23. Health, insurance, and retirement plans ............................................................................................
24. Other selected benefits ........................................................................................................................

18
19
19
19
20
20
21
21

Appendix A. Scope and method of study ..................................................................................................................
Appendix B. Occupational descriptions ....................................................................................................................

22
25




Part I. Iron ore mining

Summary

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in iron ore mining averaged $4.41 an hour in
September 1972. Nine-tenths of the 13,128 workers
covered by the survey1 earned between $3.50 and $5;
the middle half fell between $3.97 and $4.84.
Among occupations selected for separate study,
average hourly earnings ranged from $5.42 for miners
to $3.52 for surface laborers.2 Maintenance mechanics,
the largest occupational group studied separately, aver­
aged $4.83 an hour.
Paid holidays, paid vacations, and employer con­
tributions to various health, insurance, and retirement
plans were provided virtually all production and related
workers in the survey. With few exceptions, workers
received 9 paid holidays annually and 1 week of
vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after
3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and 4 weeks after
25 years.
Industry characteristics

Iron ore mining and treatment facilities covered
by the survey employed 13,128 production and related
workers (virtually all men) in September 1972. At that
time, the Bureau’s employment and earning series
reported production worker employment in the iron
ore mining industry at 54 percent below its peak in
August 1957.
The domestic production of usable iron ore declined
less sharply than employment during the same 15-year
period— down 29 percent to 75.4 million long tons
in 1972.
This disparity between employment and
production decline reflected a 50 percent increase in
productivity for the industry, as measured by output
per production worker man-hour.3 Contributing to
productivity gains were the use of high capacity shovels
and haulage equipment, increased automation of ore
treatment facilities, including monitoring by electronic
panelboard, and the increased production of iron ore
pellets.



Facilities. Nine-tenths of the production workers
surveyed in September 1972 were employed in establish­
ments4 that included ore treatment operations; fourfifths were employed by establishments that also had
agglomerating facilities, i.e., equipment that prepares
the product into a form suitable for the blast furnace.
Surface mines and related facilities employed 9,717
production workers, four-fifths of whom were in estab­
lishments using trucks as the primary method of
ore haulage from working place to primary crusher.
The remainder used rail as the primary method. Rail
was also the primary means of haulage from mine
face to hoist or exit in establishments employing
two-fifths of the 3,411 workers associated with under­
ground mining operations.
Size o f establishment. Three-fourths of the produc­
tion workers were employed in establishments with
500 employees or more. Those with 100 to 249
workers accounted for slightly more than one-tenth
of the production workers, and a similar proportion
was in the 250-499 category. Most of the establish­
ments studied were part of large, multi-plant companies.
Location. Iron ore workers in scope of the study
were employed in only a few States, primarily in the
Great Lakes and Middle West regions. Four-fifths
of the workers were employed in Michigan and Min­
nesota. Missouri, the third largest State in industry
employment, had slightly less than one-tenth of the
production workers.
Unionization.
Contracts with the United Steel­
workers of America (AFL-CIO) covered virtually all
of the production and related workers in the survey.

1 See appendix A for scope and method of survey.
Earnings data exclude premium pay for overtime and for
work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
2
For job descriptions, see appendix B.
3
“Iron Ore in December 1973,” Mineral Industry Sur­
veys, February 25, 1974 (Bureau of Mines), p. 2; Indexes
o f Output Per Man-Hour: Selected Industries, Bulletin 1780
(Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1973), pp. 9-10.
For establishment definition, see appendix A.

Method o f wage payment. Time rates, typically
paid on a single-rate basis for specified occupations,
applied to nearly all of the production workers in
September 1972. Only one occupation— miners—
had a substantial proportion of workers (two-thirds)
paid under incentive plans, usually production bonuses.

Average hourly earnings

Straight-time hourly earnings of the 13,128 pro­
duction workers in iron ore mining averaged $4.41 in
September 1972 (table l).5 Nine-tenths earned be­
tween $3.50 and $5; the middle half fell between
$3.97 and $4.84.
Earnings in the iron ore industry were rather com­
pressed in comparison to other industries surveyed
by the Bureau in the last decade. The index of
wage dispersion for iron mining, measured by dividing
the middle range of earnings by the median, was
20 percent. Only four industries showed lower dis­
persion factors.6
Occupational earnings

Occupations selected to represent various skill levels
and the wage structure of the industry accounted
for seven-tenths of the production and related workers
(table 2). Average hourly earnings ranged from $5.42
for miners to $3.52 for surface laborers. Maintenance
mechanics, the largest group studied separately, aver­
aged $4.83 an hour.
Among occupations directly related to mining, aver­
ages varied considerably. Miners, whose duties include
drilling and charging holes with explosives, recorded
the highest average ($5.42) and were the most populous
underground occupation.
Change room attendants,
whose responsibilities might involve observing boilers
and making minor adjustments in addition to main­
taining cleanliness of change rooms and supplying ma­
terials, averaged the lowest ($3.54) in mining operations.
For survey jobs classified under ore treatment opera­
tions, averages were between $4.52 an hour (concen­
trator and pellet-mill operators) and $4.10 (secondary
crusher operators).
All these occupations involved
operation and adjustment or regulation of ore treat­
ment machinery and equipment.
Workers in six selected maintenance crafts had
averages ranging from $5.01 for electricians and ma­
chinists to $4.80 for heavy duty mechanics. Other
maintenance trades and averages were automotive me­
chanics, $4.83; maintenance mechanics, $4.83; and
welders, $4.82. Four-fifths of the 3,523 workers in
these six trades earned between $4.80 and $5.



Wages appeared to be compressed in other job
categories as well. Among the 36 jobs studied sep­
arately, 23 showed distributions with nine-tenths or
more of the incumbents receiving rates within 40-cent
intervals. For 30 of the 36 survey jobs, earnings for
at least one-half of the workers were in 20-cent ranges.
Only miners, who were frequently paid incentive bo­
nuses, had as much as a $1.40 range between the
highest and lowest paid worker compared to 80 cents
for most other jobs. Single-rate wage plans, which
covered nearly nine-tenths of the workers in the
industry, contributed heavily to the compression of
wages. Other factors included the high percentage
of workers organized by a single union, and the
concentration of the work force in relatively few
large, multiplant companies and in one section of
the country— the North Central region.
Establishment practices and supplementary
wage benefits

Data were also obtained on certain establishment
practices and supplementary wage benefits for produc­
tion workers, including work schedules, shift differ­
entials, paid holidays, paid vacations, and specified
health, insurance, and retirement plans.
Work schedules. Ninety-four percent of the pro­
duction employees were in establishments where work
schedules of 5 days and 40 hours a week were pre­
dominant (table 3). The remainder were on a 6-day,
48-hour workweek.
5 Straight-time hourly earnings in this bulletin exclude
premium pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holi­
days, and late shifts. Average earnings were calculated by
summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the num­
ber of individuals. They differ from gross average hourly
earnings in the Bureau’s monthly series ($4.50 in September
1972) in which the sum of man-hour totals reported by
establishments in the industry was divided into the reported
payrolls.
The estimate of production workers within scope of the
study is intended only as a general guide to the size and
composition of the labor force included in the survey. It
differs from the monthly series (17,000) in September 1972
because (1) establishments employing fewer than 50 workers
were excluded as were auxiliary units and (2) the list of
establishments was assembled considerably in advance of data
collection.
Thus, new establishments are omitted as are
those that are no longer operating or out of scope at the
time of the survey.
Comparisons of wage dispersion factors were made
between the iron ore industry and others surveyed by the
Bureau in the last decade, for which nationwide earnings
distributions of all production (nonsupervisory) workers were
available.
The industries showing lower dispersions were
motor vehicles, April 1969 (6 percent); bituminous coal mining,
January 1967 (13 percent); petroleum refining, April 1971
(14 percent); and copper ore mining, September 1972 (15
percent). (See Part II of this bulletin).

Shift provisions and practices.
All production
workers were in establishments with late-shift pro­
visions under which differentials were paid (table 4).
About one-fourth of the workers, however, were ac­
tually employed on second shifts in September 1972,
and slightly less than one-fifth on third or other late
shifts. Shift differentials, granted in uniform cents
per hour above day-shift rates, were nearly always
10 cents for second shifts and 15 cents for third shifts.
Paid holidays.
Nine paid holidays were granted
annually to nearly all workers covered by the survey
(table 5). According to collective bargaining agree­
ments in effect at that time, the nine were: New
Year’s Day, Good Friday, Memorial Day, the Fourth
of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, the day after Thanks­
giving, Christmas Eve, and Christmas Day.
Paid vacations. The following vacation provisions
applied after qualifying periods of service to virtually
all production workers:
1 week of vacation pay
after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks
after 10 years, and 4 weeks after 25 years (table 6).




Extended vacation plans, providing additional pay
every five years, covered more than 95 percent of
the workers (table 8).
Typically, under extended
vacation plans, the “ Senior Group” of employees
(one-half of employees with longest continuous service)
are granted additional vacation pay to bring their total
for the year to 13 weeks. The “Junior Group” of
employees receive an additional 3 weeks’ vacation pay.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Life, sick­
ness and accident, hospitalization, surgical, basic and
major medical insurance, and retirement pension plans
were provided to all or nearly all of the workers
(table 7).
Slightly more than one-eighth of the
workers also were covered by accidental death and
dismemberment insurance. All insurance and retire­
ment plans were financed entirely by the employer.
Other selected benefits. Virtually all workers were
in establishments with provisions for technological
severance pay, supplemental unemployment benefits,
and periodic cost-of-living adjustments.7
7

For definition of these items, see appendix A.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r ib u t io n of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s by a v e r a g e s tr a ig h t - ti m e h o u r ly e a r n in g s a n d m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t, U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)




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A ll
w o rk ers

100. 0

100. 0

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13, 128
$ 4 .4 1

12, 584
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544
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N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s ---------A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s -

E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r tim e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d la t e s h if ts .
L e s s t h a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .

7. 0

( N u m b e r a n d a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a rn in g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s , U n ited S t a te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
N u m b e r of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s tr s lig h t- tim e h o u r ly e a r n in g s 1 o f—
O c c u p a tio n

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of
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2
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M in in g o p e r a t io n s
B r a k e m e n -------------------------------------------------;—
B u lld o z e r o p e r a t o r s (fin e g r a d e ) --------------C a g e t e n d e r s ----------------------------------------------C h a n g e r o o m a tte n d a n ts ---------------------------D r i l l e r s , m a c h i n e -------------------------------------D u m p e r s __ ____________________ —---------------G r o u n d m e n _______
— — — —
— -—
L a b o r e r s , u n d e r g r o u n d -----------------------------L o a d in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ---------------------M i n e r s ---------------------—---------------------------------P o w e r - s h o v e l o p e r a t o r s ---------------------------P u m p m e n ----------------------------------------------------S h o t f i r e r s --------------------------------------------------S h u ttle -c a r o p e ra to rs , ( e le c tr ic
o v e r h e a d p o w e r e d ) -----------------------------------

62
386
34
141
133
24
68
87
132
854
242
12
56

$ 4 .0 6
4 .2 3
4 .0 3
3. 54
4 . 31
4 .0 9
3 .6 9
3 .6 1
4 .5 3
5 .4 2
4 .9 3
3 .8 1
4 .2 5

.
135
49
-

136

4 . 22

-

69
42
192
125
67
81
1-8
111
45
83

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4 .5 2
4. 14
4 . 16
4 . 10
4 . 12
4 .4 7
4 .4 9
4 .5 2
4 . 34

-

116
161
496
163
50
1, 078
126
377
329
1 ,4 5 2
191
17
1 ,0 7 9
836
235
743

4 .2 8
3. 75
5 .0 1
3 .8 9
4 .4 3
3 .5 2
5 .0 1
4 .8 3
4 . 80
4 . 83
3 .9 0
4 .0 7
4 .3 0
4 .3 6
4 . 10
4 . 82

‘

_
58
.
_

-

_
_
_
.
18
_

.
_
_
_
_
_
.
_
76
.
_

O r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t io n s
B a l li n g - d r u m o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------C o n c e n t r a t o r o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------C r u s h e r o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------P r i m a r y c r u s h e r ----------------------------------S e c o n d a ry c r u s h e r --------------------------------F i l t e r o p e r a t o r s ----------------------------------------F l o ta t io n o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------F u r n a c e o p e r a t o r s --------------------------------------P e l l e t - m i l l o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------R o d - a n d b a l l - m i l l o p e r a t o r s ---------------------M in in g a n d o r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t io n s
C l e a n - u p e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t o r s -----------------C o n v e y o r o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a i n t e n a n c e ------------------------H e l p e r s , m a in te n a n c e t r a d e s --------------------H o i s t m e n -----------------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , o t h e r th a n u n d e r g r o u n d ----------M a c h in is ts , m a i n t e n a n c e --------------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o t i v e -----------------------------M e c h a n ic s , h e a v y d u t y ------------------------------M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----------------------------O i l e r s a n d g r e a s e r s -----------------------------------S te e l s h a r p e n e r s ----------------------------------------T r u c k d r i v e r s 1 ---------------------------------------------2
O r e h a u l a g e -------------------------------------------S e r v ic e o r w a t e r --------------------—------------W e ld e r s , m a i n t e n a n c e ------------ —----------------

1,026
-

“

4
16
6
223
10
209
"

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , a n d l a t e s h if ts .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s if i c a t io n in a d d itio n to th o se sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .




-

4
840
818
22
■

-

"

( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s by
s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s a n d d a y s , 1 U n ite d S t a te s ,
S e p t e m b e r 1972)
W e ek ly h o u r s a n d d a y s 1

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ---------40 h o u r s — d a y s
5
48 h o u r s — d a y s
6

-----------------------------------------------------------

( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s by s h if t d i f f e r e n t ia l p r o v is i o n s 1 a n d p r a c t i c e s , U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s —
S h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l

P e rce n t

In e s ta b l is h m e n t s h a v in g f o r m a l
p r o v is i o n s 1 f o r —
T h ird o r o th e r
S e c o n d s h if ts
la t e s h if ts

A c tu a lly w o rk in g on—
S e c o n d s h if ts

T h ir d o r o th e r
l a te s h if ts

100

T o t a l -------------------------------------------------

100. 0

100. 0

24. 0

18. 2

94
6

W ith s h if t d e f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------------U n ifo rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ----------------------9 c e n ts -------------------------------------------10 c e n ts -------------------------------------------15 c e n ts -------------------------------------------18 c e n ts --------------------------------------------

100. 0
100. 0

100. 0
100. 0

2. 2
97. 8

_
_
97. 8
2. 2

24. 0
24. 0
.3
23. 7
_

1 8 .2
18. 2
_
_
18. 0
.3

1
D a ta r e l a t e to th e p r e d o m i n a n t w o r k s c h e d u le of
f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h e s ta b l is h m e n t .

-

~

1 R e f e r s to p o l ic i e s o f e s ta b l is h m e n t s e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y o p e r a tin g la te s h if ts o r h a v in g p r o v is i o n s c o v e rin g la t e s h if ts .
NOTE:

Table

5. Iron ore mining: Paid holidays

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith
f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id h o lid a y s ,
U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
N u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s a n d
h o lid a y s p r o v id e d

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o ta l s .

Table 6. Iron ore mining: Paid vacations
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id v a c a tio n s , U n ite d S ta te s ,
S e p te m b e r 1972)
V a c a tio n p o lic y

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ----------------A ll p r o d u c t i o n w o r k e r s -------W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s
p r o v id in g :
P a i d h o lid a y s ---------------------------8 d a y s -----------------------------------, days
H o lid a y s p r o v id e d :
N ew Y e a r ' s D ay ----------------------G ood F r i d a y ------------------------------M e m o r ia l D a y ---------------------------F o u r t h o f J u l y ---------------------------L a b o r D ay --------------------------------T h a n k s g iv in g D a y ----------------------D ay a f t e r T h a n k s g iv i n g ------------C h r i s t m a s E v e -------------------------C h r i s t m a s D ay -------------------------O th e r —2 d a y s ----------------------------




P ercen t

V a c a tio n p o lic y

P e rce n t

P e rce n t

100

100

M e th o d of p a y m e n t

99
96
99
99
99
99
97
99
99
2

W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
p a id v a c a tio n s 1 ------------------------------------L e n g th - o f - tim e p a y m e n t -------------------P e r c e n t p a y m e n t --------------------------------

99
97
2

W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g no
p a id v a c a t i o n ------------------------------------------

99
1
98

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y — C o n tin u e d

l

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
2
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
99

A f t e r 3 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------A f t e r 15 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------A f t e r 20 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------4 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------------A f t e r 25 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :3
3 w e e k s --------------------------------------—
-----------4 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------------

99
2
97
99
98
1
2
97

1 S e r v ic e p a y m e n ts e it h e r d u r in g th e s u m m e r o r a t th e e n d of th e y e a r to w o r k e r s w ith s p e c if ie d p e r i o d s of s e r v i c e w e r e
c l a s s if i e d a s v a c a tio n p a y r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e th e r w o r k e r s to o k tim e o ff f r o m w o rk .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts s u c h a s p e r c e n t o f a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n v e r te d to a n e q u iv a le n t t im e b a s i s . P e r i o d o f s e r v i c e w e r e
c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y a n d do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t in d iv id u a l e s ta b l is h m e n t p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r e x a m p le c h a n g e s in d i­
c a te d a t 15 y e a r s m a y in c lu d e c h a n g e s w h ic h o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n 10 a n d 15 y e a r s .
3 V a c a tio n p r o v is i o n s w e r e th e s a m e a f t e r lo n g e r p e r i o d s of s e r v i c e .

( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d h e a lth , in s u r a n c e a n d r e t i r e m e n t p la n s ,
U n ite d S t a te s , S e p t e m b e r 1972)
T y p e of p la n 1
A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ---------------------------W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------------N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s -----------------------------A c c id e n ta l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e -----------------------------------------------------N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s ----------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e a n d
s ic k l e a v e o r b o th 1 -------------------------------------2
S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e ------------N o 'n c o n trib u to r y p l a n s -------------------------S ic k l e a v e (fu ll p a y , n o w a itin g p e rio d ) —
S ic k le a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r w a itin g p e rio d ) —

P ercen t
100
100
100

14
14
97
97
97

T y p e o f p la n 1
W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g —
C o n tin u e d
H o s p ita liz a tio n i n s u r a n c e -------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s --------------------S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s --------------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e ------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s --------------------M a jo r m e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e --------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s -------------------R e t ir e m e n t p l a n s 3 -------------------------------P e n s io n p la n s ---------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s --------------S e v e ra n c e p a y ----------------------------------

P e rce n t

I te m 1
100
100
100
100
100
100

99
99
99
99
99

1 I n c lu d e s o n ly t h o s e p la n s f o r w h ic h th e e m p lo y e r p a y s a t l e a s t p a r t of th e c o s t a n d e x c lu d e s l e g a l ly r e q u i r e d
p l a n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n a n d s o c ia l s e c u r i ty .
H o w e v e r, p la n s r e q u i r e d b y S ta te t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li ty
la w s a r e in c lu d e d if the e m p l o y e r c o n tr i b u te s m o r e th a n i s l e g a lly r e q u i r e d o r th e e m p lo y e e s r e c e iv e b e n e f its in e x c e s s
o f th e le g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .
" N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s " in c lu d e o n ly th o se p la n s f in a n c e d e n t i r e l y b y th e e m p lo y e r .
2 U n d u p lic a te d to ta l o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k l e a v e o r s ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .
3 U n d u p lic a te d totcil of w o r k e r s c o v e re d b y p e n s io n s o r r e t i r e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y m e n ts sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .




( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g
t e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y , s u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e f i ts , e x te n d e d v a c a tio n s a n d c o s t- o f- liv in g a d ju s tm e n ts ,
U n ited S t a te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
P ercen t

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s -----------------------

100

W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith
p r o v is i o n f o r: .
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y ------------------S u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e f i t s -----E x te n d e d v a c a t i o n s ---------------------------------C o s t - o f - li v in g a d j u s t m e n t s ---------------------B a s e d on C P I ---------------------------------------

96
97
96
96
96

1 F o r d e fin itio n o f i te m s s e e a p p e n d ix A .

Part II. Copper Ore Mining
Summary
Straight-time earnings of the 27,046 production
and related workers in copper ore mining averaged $4.43
an hour in September 1972. All but 7 percent
of the workers covered by the survey8 had earnings
between $3.50 and $5 an hour; the middle half
ranged from $4.05 to $4.73.
Among jobs selected to represent the industry’s
wage structure, average hourly earnings ranged from
$5.25 for power-shovel operators to $3.64 for change
room attendants.9 Truckdrivers, the largest occupa­
tional group studied separately, averaged $4.61 an hour.
Virtually all workers covered by the survey were
provided paid holidays, paid vacations, and various
health, insurance, and retirement plans. Workers typ­
ically received 8 paid holidays annually and 1 week of
vacation pay after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after 3
years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and 4 weeks after
20 years.
Industry characteristics
Establishments within scope of the survey employed
27,046 production and related workers in September
1972. These workers, virtually all men, were engaged
in mining and ore treatment operations; all smelting
activities were excluded.
Employment of production workers, as reported
by the Bureau’s employment and earnings series, has
fluctuated considerably in the last 30 years; it reached
its post-World War II peak in 1972.
On several
occasions between 1942 and 1972 average annual
employment rose or fell more than 20 percent in one
year. Strikes appear to have been the single most
important cause of major employment fluctuations.
Other factors, however, have contributed, such as
discoveries of new ore deposits, the closing of older
mines when only low grade ore remained, and price
changes, which make ores with relatively low copper
content economically feasible to mine.10
Despite employment fluctuations, productivity, as
measured by production worker output of recoverable
metal per man-hour, has risen 2.9 percent annually



since 1947. Production in 1972, 1.64 million short
tons, was slightly less than the all-time high reached
in 1970.1
1
Facilities. All establishments studied operated ore
treatment facilities for their mines in September 1972.
Two-thirds of the workers were employed in establish­
ments that had leaching facilities which chemically
break down copper compounds into higher quality ore.
Slightly fewer than three-fifths of the workers were
employed in surface mining establishments. One-fourth
were in underground operations; and the remainder,
in establishments with both types of mines. Among
the 6,455 workers in underground establishments, threefifths were employed by establishments using rail as
the primary ore haulage method from working face
to hoist or exit. In surface mines the 15,360 workers
were divided among establishments that used trucks
(45 percent), rail (40 percent), and other means to
haul ore from work place to primary crusher.
Size o f establishment. Workers in the copper ore
mining industry are employed primarily by large, multi­
plant companies. Eighty percent of the production
workers in September 1972 were found in establish­
ments of 1,000 workers or more, about 40 percent
each in establishments of the 1,000-2,499 and the
2,500 or more worker categories. About 13 percent
were in establishments with 500 to 999 workers and
the remaining 7 percent were in establishments of
50-499 workers.
Location. Slightly more than three-fourths of the
workers were located in the Mountain States of Arizona,
8 See appendix A for scope and method of the survey.
Earnings data in this bulletin exclude premium pay for over­
time and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
9
For job descriptions, see appendix B.
10 The copper content of crude (untreated) copper ore
is constantly declining. In 1942, a ton of crude ore and old
tailings yielded, on the average, about 1.09 percent copper
after treatment and smelting. By 1971, this value had fallen
to .55 percent.
Mineral Facts and Problems (Bureau of
Mines 1956), p. 22; Minerals Yearbook (Bureau of Mines,
1971), p. 461.
1 Indexes o f Output Per Man-Hour: Selected Industries
1
Bulletin 1780 (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 1973), p. 13;
“Copper Industry in December 1972,” Mineral Industry Surveys,
February 28, 1973 (Bureau of Mines) p. 2.

Montana, New Mexico, and Utah.
Arizona alone
accounted for half of the employment. Nevada ac­
counted for another one-tenth.
Unionization. Establishments operating under col­
lective bargaining agreements accounted for virtually
all of the industry’s production and related workers
in September 1972.
The United Steelworkers of
America (AFL-CIO) was the predominant union in the
industry.
Method o f wage payment. Virtually all workers were
paid time rates, almost exclusively under plans providing
single rates for specified occupations. Incentive paid
workers, limited primarily to miners, were typically
paid individual or group bonuses.

Average hourly earnings

The 27,046 production and related workers in copper
ore mining averaged $4.43 an hour in September 1972
(table 9), with 93 percent of the workers earning
between $3.50 and $5. Twenty-two percent earned
from $3.50 to $4; 28 percent from $4 to $4.50; and
43 percent from $4.50 to $5. Virtually all time-rated
workers had earnings under $5.50, whereas three-fifths
of the incentive workers earned above that amount.12
Earnings were highly compressed in this industry.
The index of dispersion (computed by dividing the
middle range by the median) was 15 percent— the
fourth lowest among industries surveyed by the Bureau
in the last decade.13 The high incidence of single-rate
pay systems for specified occupations, the predomi­
nance of a single union, geographic concentration, and
the presence of relatively few large, multiplant com­
panies contributed to this narrow dispersion.
Occupational earnings

Occupations selected to represent the industry’s
wage structure accounted for slightly more than threefifths of the production and related workers. Among
these jobs, average hourly earnings ranged from $5.25
for power-shovel operators to $3.64 for change room
attendants (table 10). Truckdrivers, the largest occupa­
tional group, averaged $4.61; those who hauled ore
averaged $4.65.
Averages among various jobs tended to fall within
a relatively narrow band.
Of the 38 occupations
(excluding subcategories of jobs), 30 had averages
between $4.23 and $4.94.
For workers in skilled maintenance crafts, occupa­
tional averages ranged from $4.68 (maintenance mech­
anics) to $4.81 (machinists). Other maintenance crafts
and their averages were electricians, $4.80; heavy duty



mechanics, $4.78; automotive mechanics, $4.73; and
welders, $4.70.
Among the five occupations related to ore treatment,
averages ranged from $4.23 for primary crusher opera­
tors to $4.44 for filter operators.
Workers in occupations classified under mining opera­
tions had a higher range of averages— a $1.61 spread.
Both the highest and lowest occupational averages
in the survey ($5.25 for power-shovel operators and
$3.64 for change room attendants) were found in
mining operations.
Miners, who accounted for more than nine-tenths
of the incentive paid workers, had the widest dispersion
of individual earnings, ranging from $2.60 to over $7.
The 703 incentive paid miners, slightly more than half
under bonus systems, averaged $5.61 an hour; the
844 time-rated miners averaged $4.38.
Establishment practices and supplementary
wage benefits

Data were also obtained on certain establishment
practices and supplementary wage benefits, including
work schedules, shift differentials, paid holidays, paid
vacations, and various health, insurance, and retire­
ment plans.
Work schedules. Nearly two-thirds of the industry’s
production workers were in establishments scheduling
their personnel on 5-day, 40-hour workweeks (table 11).
Slightly less than one-third were subject to 5-day,
371£-hour workweek. Others were on longer schedules.
/
Shift provisions and practices. All copper mining
establishments studied had provisions for late shifts
12

The straight-time average hourly earnings in this bulletin
differ in concept from the gross average hourly earnings
published in the Bureau’s monthly hours and earnings series.
Unlike the latter, estimates presented here exclude premium
pay for overtime and for work on weekends, holidays, and
late or other shifts.
Average earnings were calculated by
summing individual hourly earnings and dividing by the number
of individuals; in the monthly series, the sum of the man-hour
totals reported by establishments in the industry is divided
into the repotred payroll totals. Thus, the average in this
bulletin is not comparable with the average ($4.75 in Septem­
ber 1972) for the copper ores industry (SIC 102) provided
in the monthly series.
The estimate of production workers within scope of the
study is intended only as • a general guide to the size and
composition of the labor foice included in the survey. It
differs from the monthly series (31,200) in September 1972
because (1) auxiliary units and establishments employing
fewer than 50 workers were excluded and (2) the list of
establishments was assembled considerably in advance of data
collection.
Thus, new establishments are omitted as are
those that are no longer operating or found out of scope
at the time of the survey.
13 The industries recording lower dispersion factors were
motor vehicles maufacturing, April 1969 (6 percent); bituminous
coal mining, January 1967 (13 percent); and petroleum refining,
April 1971 (14 percent).

in September 1972 (table 12). Slightly more than
one-fifth of the workers were actually employed on
second shifts, and just under one-fifth on third shifts.
All late-shift employees received differential pay above
day rates, usually 10 cents an hour for second shifts and
20 cents an hour for third shifts.
Paid holidays. All workers were in establishments
providing paid holidays, with nine-tenths receiving 8
days annually (table 13). All, or virtually all, received
New Year’s Day, Memorial Day, Fourth of July,
Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. The two
other holidays most frequently provided were Easter
Sunday14 and Christmas Eve.
Paid vacations. All establishments provided their
workers with paid vacations after qualifying periods
of service (table 14). Typical vacation provisions for
workers covered by the survey were 1 week’s pay
after 1 year of service, 2 weeks after 3 years, 3
weeks after 10 years, and 4 weeks after 20 years.
Nearly three-tenths received 5 weeks after 25 years
of service.
Health, insurance, and retirement plans.
Seveneighths or more of the workers were in establishments




providing at least part of the cost of life, sickness
and accident, hospitalization, surgical, and basic and
major medical insurance (table 15). Nearly all were
covered by retirement pension plans, in addition to
those provided by Federal social security, and slightly
more than one-eighth by retirement severance pay
provisions.
A large majority of the pension and
other insurance plans were wholly financed by the
employer.
Other selected benefits.
Technological severance
pay for employees permanently separated from their
jobs as a result of force reduction or the closing of
a mine or unit was applicable to slightly less than
one-half of the workers (table 16). More than ninetenths were in establishments having supplemental un­
employment benefit plans that augment State unem­
ployment payments to laid-off workers, and periodic
cost-of-living adjustment for wages based on changes
in the BLS Consumer Price Index.
14

In establishments where Easter Sunday was considered
a holiday, Sunday was a regular part of the workweek. Easter
Sunday, however, was not worked in these establishments,
and employees were given a day’s pay at straight-time rates.

( P e r c e n t d i s t r i b u t i o n of p r o d u c tio n a n d r e l a te d w o r k e r s , b y a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s a n d by m e th o d o f w a g e p a y m e n t,
U n ite d S t a te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
A ll
w o rk ers

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1
U n d e r $ 3 . 0 0 --------------------------------------------------

1. 1

.1
.2
.3
.5
.3

.5
. 1
1. 1
.7
. 1

.9
5 .3
1 .7
6. 1
8 .9
2 .2
4 .4
7 .1
3 .0
11. 6

.3
.4
. 1
.7
.5
1 .6
1 .2
2 .6
2. 1

9 .5
9 .8
1 3 .5
4 .8
5 .2

9 .8
9 .9
1 3 .8
4 .9
5 .3

2. 1
7 .9
3 .2
2 .0
.9

1 .5
1 .0
.4
.1
.7

1 .4
1 .0
.3
(1
2)
.7

2. 2
2 .4
2. 1
2 .0
1. 8

under
under
under
under
under

$ 4 . 1 0 ------------ — — ------------$ 4 . 2 0 ----------------—-------------$ 4 . 3 0 -------- ------------------------$ 4 . 4 0 --------------------------------$ 4 . 5 0 ---------------------—
---------

2 .2
4 .4
6 .9
3 .0
1 1 .4

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$4.
$4.
$4.
$4.
$ 5.

6 0 --------------------------------7 0 -------------- >----------------8 0 --------------------------------9 0 ---- ---------------------------0 0 ---------------------------------

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 5 . 1 0 --------------------------------$ 5 . 2 0 --------- ----------------------$ 5 . 3 0 --------------------------------$ 5 . 4 0 ----------------—-------------$ 5 . 5 0 ---------------------— -— —

under
under
under
under
under

$ 3. 10 —----------------------- --------$ 3. 2 0 ------------------------- —
$ 3 . 3 0 -----------— --------------—
$ 3 . 4 0 --------------------------------$ 3 . 50 — ---------------- ------------

$ 3. 50
$ 3 . 60
$ 3 . 70
$ 3. 80
$ 3 .9 0

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$ 4 .0 0
$ 4 . 10
$ 4 .2 0
$ 4 . 30
$ 4 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

$4.
$4.
$4.
$4.
$4.

50
60
70
80
90

$ 5 . 00
$ 5 . 10
$ 5 . 20
$ 5 .3 0
$ 5 .4 0

I n c e n tiv e
w o rk ers

0. 1

$ 3. 6 0 --------------------------------$ 3 , 70 — -------—--------- -----—
$ 3. 8 0 -----------—------------------$ 3. 9 0 --------------------------------$ 4 . 0 0 ---------------------------------

and
and
and
and
and




0 .2
.1
.2
.3
.5
.3
. 9
5 .2
1 .6
6 .0
8 .6

$ 3. 00
$ 3 .1 0
$ 3 . 20
$ 3 .3 0
$ 3 .4 0

T im e w o rk ers

$ 5 . 50
$ 5 . 60
$ 5. 70
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5. 90

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
tind er
u n d er
u n d er
tind er

$ 5 . 60
$ 5. 70
$ 5 .8 0
$ 5 .9 0
$ 6. 00

—
—
—
—
—

$ 6. 00
$ 6. 10
$ 6. 20
$ 6. 30
$ 6 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

u n d er
u n d er
u n d er
u nd er
u n d er

$ 6 . 10
$ 6. 20
$ 6 .3 0
$ 6 .4 0
$ 6 . 50

—
—
—
—
—

$ 6.
$ 6.
$ 6.
$ 6.
$ 6.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

tinder
u n d er
tind er
tind er
u nd er

$ 6. 60
$ 6. 70
$ 6. 80
$ 6. 90
$ 7 .0 0

—
—
—
—
—

$ 7. 00
$ 7 .1 0
$ 7 .2 0
$ 7. 30
$ 7 .4 0

and
and
and
and
and

tind er
tinder
u n d er
tind er
tinder

$ 7 .1 0
$ 7. 20
$ 7 .3 0
$ 7 . 40
$ 7 .5 0

—
—
—
—
—

B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g ,

—

0 .2
(2)
0
(2)
.2

T im e w o rk e rs

.2

In c e n tiv e
w o rk e rs
7 .0
1 .7
.5
.5
.5
3 5 .3
2 .0

1.0
.1

<3
(*)
(2)

____
—

1. 1

.(*)
(2)
(3
(2)
(2)

1 .2
.5
.3
.4
1 .6

(*)

.9

A
(*)

.3
.5

.8
.8

$ 7 . 5 0 and o v e r ---------------

.i

T o t a l -----------------------

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

1 0 0 .0

N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s -------A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

27, 046
$ 4 .4 3

26, 286
$ 4 . 39

760
$ 5 .5 8

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m iu m p a y f o r o v e r tim e and f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s a n d l a t e s h if t s .
2 L e s s th a n 0 .0 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE;

A ll
w o rk ers

H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i t e m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.

4 .6

( N u m b e r and a v e r a g e s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 o f w o r k e r s in s e le c te d o c c u p a tio n s , U n ited S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s t r a i g h t - t i m e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1 of—
O c c u p a tio n

N um ber
of
w o rk ers

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
e a rn in g s

$ 2 . 60 $2 . 80 $ 3 .0 0 $3. 20 $ 3 .4 0 $3. 60 $3. 80 $4. 00 $4. 20 $ 4 .4 0 $4. 60 $4. 80 $5. 00 $5. 20 $ 5 .4 0 $5. 60 $5. 80 $6 . 00 $6 . 20 $ 6 .4 0 $6 . 60 $6 . 80 $7. 00
an d
or
under
$2 . 80 $3. 00 $3. 20 $3. 40 $3. 60 $3. 80 $4. 00 $4. 20 $4. 40 $4. 60 $4. 80 $ 5 .0 0 $5. 20 $ 5 .4 0 $5. 60 $5. 80 $6 . 00 $6 . 20 $ 6 .4 0 $6 . 60 $6 . 80 $7. 00 m ore

M in in g o p e r a t io n s
B ra k c m c n
B u lld o z e r o p e r a t o r s (fin e g r a d e )

2
--------------------

D r i l l e r s , m a c h i n e ---------------------------------------------q o ndm cn
L a b o r e r s , u n d e r g r o u n d ------------------------------------L o a d in g -m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------Pvtxne r s —---- ------— — —
-----------—
-----P o w e r - s h o v e l o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------------R o o fm e n —_____________ - —-___—--- ----------—-------__
S h o t fix’CTS __________ — ____ ___ ______________—
S h u ttle - c a r ope r a t o r s 1 --------------------------------------2
G a s o lin e o r b a t t e r y pow e r e d ------------------------U n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e m e n ----------------------------------

245
182
59
52
207

4.
4.
4.
3.
4.

57
54
68
64
68

.

683
184
1, 547
424
85
66
68
530
391
169

3.
4.
4.
5.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

89
52
94
25
40
74
23
42
35
24

98
345
190
155
197
171
225

378
82
77
794
644
152
1 768
’ 268
408
139
1 ,4 7 2
843
412
10
466
2, 575
2 , 296
700
674
557
279
632

.

6

-

-

-

2

-

8
6
-

2
-

.
5
-

55
13
-

-

-

1
8
8
-

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68
2
1
4
3
3

4 . 25
4 . 32
4 . 23
4 .4 2
4 .4 4
4. 30
4 . 35

.

_

_

_

_

-

-

-

9

-

-

-

4

-

8
3

4 . 52
3 .9 5
4. 88
4 . 80
4 . 00
4 . 55
3. 66
A . 81
4 . 81
4 . 73
4 . 78
4 . 68
4 . 25
4 . 38
3. 81
4 . 61
4 . 65
4 . 58
4. 62
4. 81
4 . 33
4 . 70

.
-

.
-

.
-

.
2

.
-

-

.
3

.

11
124
2

28

9
31

27

118

34

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

119
26
36
4
5
104
104
35

5
764
14
21
43
2
303
164
53

12
107
21
' 13
12
89
89

2
20
8

3
32
153

3
28
37

7
60
153

2
15
-

2
6
45

3
274
-

1
13
-

1
14
-

1
5
-

15
-

1
47
-

-

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-

-

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6

-

-

-

-

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4
59
15
44
58
28
111

9
72
14
58
74
5

_

4
12
12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

.

-

-

184
17
26

91
20
516

39

15

-

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21
65
9

26
26
-

q
7
12
443
5
7
4
3
33

_
11
11

4
47
40

54
22
16
6

-

3

7
11

23
102
66
36
45
117
95

49

2
12

6
7

95
4

29
15
17
76
3

5
5

115
163
49
29

26
1
2

109
3
13
45
-

45

64

O r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t io n s
C o n c e n t r a t o r o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------------u r u s n e r o p e ra to rs
P r i m a r y c r u s h e r ----------— ---- - -o e c o n Q a ry c r u s n e r
r l ite r o p e ra to rs
F l o ta t io n ope r a t o r s --------------------------------------------P

7

i

-

12

M in in g a nd o r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t io n s
C l e a n - u p e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t o r s -------------------------C o n v e y o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------------E n g i n e e r s , s t a t i o n a r y ---------------------------------------.E l e c t r i c i a n s , m a in te n a n c e
H e l p e r s , m a in te n a n c e t r a d e s -------------------------L a b o r e r s o t h e r th a n u n d e r g r o u n d _____ —-------L o c o m o tiv e e n g in e e r s ------- ---- ------- -------M a c h i n i s t s , m a in te n a n c e —
- ----------- — ~
M e c h a n ic s , a u to m o tiv e - --------- ---------- — —
M e c h a n ic s , h e a v y d u t y --------------------------------------M e c h a n ic s , m a in te n a n c e —
~ -------- ” —
O i l e r s a n d g r e a s e r s - — ---— -----------------S te e l s h a r p e n e r s ------------------------------------------------T r a c k m e n ------------- — ---------------------- ------------T r u c k d r i v e r s ------------------------------------------------------O r e h a u l a g e 2 — — ------- ------- — -----------65 to 84 t o n s ---- — ------- ” ” ~
85 to 99 to n s — ;---------------------------------------100 to n s o r m o r e - - —
~ ------- —
S e r v ic e o r w a t e r ” ~ ----- ---- ------- "
W e ld e r s , m a in te n a n c e
“ ~ “

L
D

-

-

3

■

-

_
_
1
3
3
-

-

-

-

8

-

29

12

152

_
2
-

72
8
8
-

.
2
9
2
4
-

_
27
71
6
_
9 313
8
-

2
6

-

4
•

"

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o r k on w e e k e n d s , h o lid a y s , and l a t e s h if t s .
2 I n c lu d e s d a ta f o r w o r k e r s in c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s in a d d itio n to th o s e show n s e p a r a te l y .




25 429
6
23
1 289 283

8
"

101

81
8

.
_
55
3
42
113
35
32

5
2
4
23
9
168
3
75
-

78

75
2

21
202

8
4

49

13

26

1
250
115
792
434

197
147
19
644
219

11
145
109
4
25
5
1, 021 1, 018
933
994
405
185
242
432
204
108
24
88
90
479

86
86
78

237
237

8

237

55

( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s by
s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s a n d d a y s , 1 U n ite d S ta te s ,
S e p te m b e r 1972)
W e ek ly h o u r s a n d d a y s 1

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s by s h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r o v i s i o n s 1 a n d p r a c t i c e s , U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e i s —
In e s ta b l is h m e n t s h a v in g
fo rm a l p r o v is io n s 1 fo r—
T h ird o r o th e r
S e c o n d s h if ts
la te s h if ts

S h ift d i f f e r e n t ia l

P ercen t

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s --------

100

T o t a l ------------------ -----------------------------

37V2 h o u r s —5 d a y s --------------------------40 h o u r s — d a y s -----------------------------5
4 2 '/2 h o u r s —5 d a y s --------------------------44 h o u r s —5 V2 d a y s --------------------------48 h o u r s — d a y s -----------------------------6

33
64
(*)
(*)
2

W ith s h if t p a y d i f f e r e n t ia l ----------------------U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r ---------------------6 c e n ts -------------------------------------------8 c e n t s -------------------------------------------9 c e n ts -------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ------------------------------------------14 c e n ts ------------------------------------------15 c e n ts ------------------------------------------16 c e n ts ------------------------------------------18 c e n ts ------------------------------------------20 c e n ts -------------------------------------------

1 D ata r e l a t e to th e p r e d o m i n a n t w o rk s c h e d u le o f
f u l l - t i m e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h e s ta b l is h m e n t s .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
N O T E : B e c a u s e of ro u n d in g , s u m s of in d iv id u a l ite m s
m a y no t e q u a l t o ta l s .




A c tu a lly w o rk in g on—
S e c o n d s h if ts

T h ird o r o th e r
la te s h ifts

100. 0

100. 0

20. 7

17. 1

100.
100.
.
1.
8.
89.

100. 0
100. 0

20.
20.
.
.
2.
18.

17. 1
17. 1

0
0
7
1
3
9

_
_

_
_
_

.7
.4
2. 6
11. 1
.7
5. 7
78. 8

_
_
_
_
_

-

7
7
2
1
0
5

.
_
_

. 1
(*)
.4
1. 7
. 1
1. 3
13. 5

1 R e f e r s to p o l ic i e s of e s ta b l is h m e n t s e it h e r c u r r e n t l y o p e r a tin g la te s h if ts o r h a v in g p r o v is i o n s c o v e rin g la te s h if ts .
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

s u m s of in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

Table 13. Copper ore mining: Paid holidays
( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l
p r o v is io n s f o r p a id h o lid a y s , U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
N u m b e r of p a id h o lid a y s
a n d h o lid a y s p r o v id e d

P ercen t

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s -----------------W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s
p ro v id in g :
P a i d h o l i d a y s --------------------------------------6 d a y s --------------------------------------------7 d a y s --------------------------------------------8 d a y s --------------------------------------------9 d a y s --------------------------------------------H o lid a y s p r o v id e d :
N ew Y e a r 1 s D a y ---------------------------------W a sh in g to n ’ s B ir th d a y ----------------------G o o d F r i d a y ---------------------------------------E a s t e r S u n d a y -------------------------------------M e m o r ia l D a y -------------------------------------F o u r th o f J u l y -------------------------------------L a b o r D ay -------------------------------------------T h a n k s g iv in g D ay -------------------------------D ay a f t e r T h a n k s g iv i n g ----------------------C h r i s t m a s E v e ------------------------------------C h r i s t m a s D a y ------------------------------------N ew Y e a r ’ s E v e ---------------------------------O th e r — 1 d a y ---------------------------------------O th e r — 2 d a y s --------------------------------------

100

100
( l)
4

90
6
100
4
3
68
99
100
100
100
2
85
100
2
16
11

1 L e s s th a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:
B ecause
m ay n o t e q u a l t o ta l s .

o f ro u n d in g ,

sum s

o f in d iv id u a l i te m s




V a c a tio n p o lic y
A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s

P ercen t
100

M e th o d o f p a y m e n t
W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
p a id v a c a t i o n s 1 --------------------------------L e n g th - o f - t im e p a y m e n t -------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ----------------------

100
89
**

W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
p a id v a c a t i o n s -------------------------------- A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 1
2
A fte r 1 y e a r o f s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------A f te r 2 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s — i-----------2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------A f te r 3 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
1 w e e k --------------------------- -------- — --------O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---------------2 w e e k s ------------------------ ---------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s —-------------A f te r 5 y e a rs of s e rv ic e :
O v e r 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s ---- -------—
2 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ---------------3 w e e k s ------------------ ■
--------- ------------------

85
12
3
82
13
5
9
2
75
14
0
83
14
3

V a c a tio n p o lic y

P ercen t

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n p a y 2— C o n tin u e d
A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ----------------4 w e e k s --------------------- —-------------- ------A f t e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s -------------------------------------------—
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ----------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------- ------A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s -------------- -—:--------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ----------------4 w e e k s ---------------------------- -----------------O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s --------------------------------—---- ------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------4 w e e k s -------—----------—-----———--------- —
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------5 w e e k s —-------------------------------------------A f t e r 25 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :4
2 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------- —
O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ----------------5 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------

n
4
82
11
3
( 3)
1
86
11
3
(J
82
14
3
(S
)
(*)
0
17
69
11
3
( 3)
n

17
43
11
28

1 S e r v ic e p a y m e n ts e it h e r d u rin g th e s u m m e r o r a t th e e n d o f th e y e a r to w o r k e r s w ith s p e c if ie d p e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e
w e r e c l a s s i f i e d a s v a c a tio n p a y r e g a r d l e s s of w h e th e r w o r k e r s to o k t im e o ff f r o m w o rk .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts s u c h a s p e r c e n t of a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n v e r te d to a n e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s i s . P e r io d s of s e r v ­
ic e w e r e c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y a n d do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t in d iv id u a l e s ta b l is h m e n t p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n .
F o r e x a m p le ,
c h a n g e s in d ic a te d a t th e e n d o f 10 y e a r s m a y in c lu d e c h a n g e s w h ic h o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .
3 L e s s t h a n 0. 5 p e r c e n t .
4 V a c a tio n p r o v is io n s w e r e th e s a m e a f t e r lo n g e r p e r i o d s o f s e r v i c e .

Table 15. Copper ore mining: Health, insurance,
and retirement plans

Table 16. Copper ore mining: Other
selected benefits

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d h e a lth , i n s u r a n c e , a n d r e t i r e m e n t p la n s , 1
U n ite d S ta te s , S e p t e m b e r 1972)

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
te c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p ay, s u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e fits , e x te n d e d v a c a tio n s a n d c o s t- o f - l iv i n g a d ju s t m e n t s ,1
U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)

T y p e o f p la n

P e rce n t

T ype of p la n 1

100

W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g —
C o n tin u e d
H o s p ita liz a tio n in s u r a n c e — ----------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------S u r g ic a l i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e -------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------M a jo r m e d i c a l in s u r a n c e --------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s --------------------------R e t ir e m e n t p l a n s 3 --------------------------------------P e n s io n p la n s ----------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s -------*------------S e v e ra n c e p a y ----------------------------------------

P e rce n t
I te m 1

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ---------------------------W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e --------------------------- -------—---------N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s ------- -------------- -------A c c id e n ta l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
i n s u r a n c e ----------------------------------------------------N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s ----------------------- ----S ic k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e o r
s ic k l e a v e o r b o th 1 — — —---------------------------2
S i c k n e s s a n d a c c i d e n t i n s u r a n c e — -------- N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p l a n s -----------------------S ic k l e a v e (fu ll pa y , no w a itin g p e rio d ) —
S ic k l e a v e ( p a r t i a l p a y o r w a itin g p e rio d ) --

98
82
91
79
87
87
82
13

1

100

87
100

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s -----------------------

100

87
100

87
100

87
99
99
99
13

1 I n c lu d e s o n ly t h o s e p l a n s f o r w h ic h th e e m p lo y e r p a y s a t l e a s t p a r t o f th e c o s t a n d e x c lu d e s l e g a lly r e q u i r e d
p la n s , s u c h a s w o r k m e n ' s c o m p e n s a tio n a n d s o c ia l s e c u r i ty .
H o w e v e r, p la n s r e q u i r e d by S ta te t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li ty
la w s a r e i n c lu d e d i f t h e e m p l o y e r c o n tr i b u te s m o r e th a n i s le g a lly r e q u i r e d o r th e e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e b e n e fits in e x c e s s
of th e le g a l r e q u i r e m e n t s .
" N o n c o n tr ib u to r y p la n s " in c lu d e o n ly th o s e p la n s f in a n c e d e n ti r e l y b y th e e m p lo y e r.
2 U n d u p lic a te d t o t a l o f w o r k e r s r e c e i v in g s ic k le a v e o r s ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .
3 U n d u p lic a te d t o ta l o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by p e n s io n o r r e t i r e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y m e n ts sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .




P ercen t

W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith
p r o v is i o n s f o r:
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y -----------------S u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e f i t s -----E x te n d e d v a c a tio n s --------------------------------- C o s t - o f - li v in g a d j u s t m e n t s ---------------------B a s e d on C P I --------------------------------------O th e r b a s i s -------------------------------------------

F o r d e fin itio n of i te m s s e e a p p e n d ix A .

45
93
_

93
93

Part III. Lead and Zinc Ore Mining
Summary

Straight-time earnings of production and related
workers in the lead and zinc ore mining industry
averaged $4.20 an hour in September 1972. Fourfifths of the 6,586 workers covered by the survey15
earned from $3 to $5 an hour; the middle half fell
between $3.50 and $4.55.
Among occupations selected to represent the wage
structure of the industry, earnings levels ranged from
$5.26 an hour for miners to $3.23 an hour for
surface laborers.16 Miners, the industry’s largest occu­
pational group, accounted for one-fourth of the pro­
duction employment.
Paid holidays, paid vacations, and at least part
of the cost of various health and insurance benefits were
provided all workers.
Nine-tenths of the workers
also were covered by retirement plans.
Industry characteristics

Establishments within scope of the survey employed
6,586 production and related workers (virtually all men)
in September 1972. Mining and ore treatment opera­
tions were included in the survey; smelting and refining
operations were excluded.
Mine production of recoverable lead reached a
43-year high in 1972 at 618,915 short tons. Lead
production has grown with the increasing use of the
metal for such items as automobile batteries and
gasoline antiknock devices.
Zinc mine production,
however, fell to 478,318 short tons— a decrease of
5 percent from 1971 and more than 20 percent since
1965.
Although demand for the metal continued
to be high in 1972, the closing of smelters that
were unable to meet government antipollution standards
and other factors tended to discourage the mining
of zinc ore.17
Facilities. Establishments operating ore treatment
facilities in connection with their mines accounted
for virtually all of the production and related workers
in the survey.
Underground mining complexes ac­
counted for nearly seven-eighths of the workers; a
combination of rail and rubber-tired vehicles were



the most common methods of ore haulage from work­
ing face to mine hoist or exit at these sites.
Size o f establishment. Employment levels among
establishments varied substantially. Slightly less than
one-fourth of the survey’s workers were in establish­
ments with 100-249 total employment. About threeeighths each were employed in establishments with
250-499 workers and 500 workers or more.
Location. Approximately one-third of the workers
were employed in Missouri and Tennessee, with onefourth of the industry’s employment in Missouri and
almost one-tenth in Tennessee. The remaining twothirds of the work force was distributed widely through­
out the country.
Unionization. More than nine-tenths of the workers
were in establishments with union contracts covering
a majority of their production workers. The United
Steelworkers of America (AFL-CIO) was the largest
union in the industry.
Method o f wage payment.
Seven-tenths of the
workers were paid time rates in September 1972,
almost always under formal plans providing single
rates for specified occupations. Bonus plans applied
to approximately seven-tenths of the 2,022 incentive
workers. The remainder received individual or group
piece rates. Incentives were paid almost exclusively
to workers involved in mining operations, primarily
to the miners.
Average hourly earnings

The 6,586 production and related workers in lead
and zinc ore mining averaged $4.20 an hour in Sep­
tember 1972 (table 17). Employee earnings in this
industry were widely dispersed in comparison to other
mining industries studied by the Bureau. The index of
15 For scope and method of survey, see appendix A.
Earnings data in this bulletin exclude premium pay for overtime
and for work on weekends, holidays, and late shifts.
16 See appendix B for occupational descriptions.
17 “Lead Industry in December 1973,” Mineral Industry
Surveys, February 28, 1974 (Bureau of Mines), p. 5; “Zinc
Industry in December 1973,” Mineral Industry Surveys, Feb­
ruary 22, 1974 (Bureau of Mines), p. 5.

wage dispersion, computed by dividing the middle
range by the median, was 27 percent.18
Slightly more than one-half of the workers earned
between $3 and $4 an hour; another one-third earned
between $4 and $5.
One-eighth of the workers
earned from $5 to over $10.
Occupational averages
Occupations selected to represent the industry’s wage
structure accounted for two-thirds of the production
and related workers. Miners, the largest group, were the
highest paid, averaging $5.26 an hour. Surface laborers
had the lowest average— $3.23 an hour (table 18).
Of the jobs studied separately, loading-machine oper­
ators had the second highest hourly average at $4.45.
Only five others had averages exceeding $4 an hour:
automotive mechanics, $4.11; heavy duty mechanics,
$4.25; maintenance electricians, $4.09; maintenance
machinists, $4.40; and roofmen, $4.01.
Establishment practices and supplementary
wage benefits
Data were also obtained on certain establishment
practices and supplementary wage benefits for produc­
tion workers, including work schedules, shift differ­
entials, paid holidays, paid vacations, and specified
health, insurance and retirement plans.
Work schedules.
Five-day work schedules were
predominant in the industry: 40-hour schedules applied
to three-fifths of the workers and 37%-hour schedules
to about one-third (table 19).
One-tenth of the
production workers were scheduled for 6 days, 48
hours a week.
Shift provisions and practices. All employees were
in establishments with provisions for late shifts (table
20). Slightly less than three-tenths of the employees
worked second shifts and one-tenth third shifts at the
time of the study; virtually all received pay differentials.
Second-shift employees typically received 8 to 14
cents an hour above day rates; third-shift workers
received from 9 to 20 cents an hour; the latter
amount was the most common.




Paid holidays.
All production workers were in
in establishments granting paid holidays. Slightly more
than three-fifths received 8 days annually and slightly
more than three-tenths received 7 days (table 21).
Among the holidays reported, at least nine-tenths of the
workers received New Year’s Day, Memorial Day,
Fourth of July, Labor Day, Thanksgiving, and Christmas.
Paid vacations.
Paid vacations, after qualifying
periods of service, were provided by all establishments
(table 22). At least two-thirds of the workers re­
ceived 1 week’s vacation pay after 1 year of service,
2 weeks after 3 years, 3 weeks after 10 years, and
4 weeks or more after 25 years.
Nearly three-tenths of the workers were in establish­
ments granting 5 weeks or more after 30 years of
service.
Healthy insurance, and retirement plans. Nine-tenths
or more of the workers were in establishments pro­
viding at least part of the cost of life, sickness and
accident, hospitalization, surgical, and basic medical
insurance (table 23). Three-fourths were covered by
accidental death and dismemberment and major medical
insurance.
Retirement pension plans, in addition to Federal
social security, applied to seven-eighths of the workers.
Retirement severance plans, on the other hand, were
rare.
The employer paid for a large majority of all
health, insurance, and retirement plans studied.
Other selected benefits. Slightly more than onefourth of the production workers were employed by
establishments having technological severance pay plans
for workers permanently separated from their jobs
because of a reduction in work force or a mine or
unit closing (table 24). Supplemental unemployment
benefit plans, which augment State unemployment
programs, covered about 6 percent of the workers.
Establishments employing about one-tenth of the
workers provided periodic cost-of-living adjustments
based on changes in the BLS Consumer Price Index.
18 Other mining industries surveyed by the Bureau showed
indexes of dispersion ranging from 13 to 20 percent. See
parts I and II of this bulletin.




H o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

A ll
w o rk ers

T im e
w o rk ers

I n c e n tiv e
w o rk e rs

H o u rly e a r n i n g s 1

10
20
30 ’
40
50

.3
.3
.7
.4
.7

_
_
_
_

6.
6.
6.
6.
7.

60
70
80
90
00

.
.
.
.
.

7.
7.
7.
7.
7.

10
20
30
40
50

.2
.3
.3
.2
•1

.6

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

5.
5.
5.
5.
6.

60
70
80
90
00

9. 6
8 .4
5. 7
5. 3

2. 0
5. 0
3. 3

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

6.
6.
6.
6.
6.

2. 1

2. 2

1. 9

10
20
30
40
50

9. 1
5 .9
4. 1
1. 6
.7

10. 3
6 .4
4. 4
1. 2
.6

6. 6
4 .9
3. 3
2. 4
.8

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

4.
4.
4.
4.
5.

60
70
80
90
00

1.
.
4.
3.

2. 1

1. 4

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

5.
5.
5.
5.
5.

10
20
30
40
50

1. 1
.4
.3

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

10
20
30
40
50

2. 0
3. 5
4. 7
5. 1
7. 1

7. 1
9. 0

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
3.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
tin d e r

$
$
$
$
$

3.
3.
3.
3.
4,

60
70
80
90
00

7.
7.
5.
6.

3
3
0
2

$
$
$
$
$

4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

4.
4.
4.
4.
4.

$
$
$
$
$

4.
4.
4,
4.
4.

50
60
70
80
90

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

$
$
$
$
$

5.
5.
5.
5.
5.

00
10
20
30
40

and
and
and
and
and

under
under
under
under
under

$
$
$
$
$

9
9
7
8

.8

.6

2. 8

5. 0

6.6

.3

2. 8

4. 9
.7

10
.
(*1
)
.

.4

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r tim e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s ,
2 L e s s th a n 0. 05 p e r c e n t .
NOTE:

_

and
and
and
and
and

$
$
$
$
$

B e c a u s e o f r o u n d in g ,

.2
.

1

8. 2

2. 2

9. 2

11
.
10
.

T im e
w o rk ers

0. 2
.4
.4
.4
.7

50
60
70
80
90

U n d e r $ 3. 00 -------------------

A ll
w o rk ers

|> 7. 50 a n d o v e r

4
6
7
8
6

2. 3

_
-

-

_
_
_

_

{*)
-

-

I n c e n tiv e
w o rk e rs
0.
1.
1.
1.
2.

5
4
2
3
1

1. 1
1. 1
2. 2
1. 4
2. 2
1.
1.
2.
2.
2.

2
8
3
6
0

.5
.9
.9
.6
.3
7 .4

1. 2

1. 3
.9
1. 9
1. 3

100. 0
N u m b e r o f w o r k e r s --------A v e r a g e h o u r ly e a r n i n g s 1

h o lid a y s ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l ite m s m a y n o t e q u a l 100.

a n d la t e s h if ts .

100. 0

100. 0

6, 586
$ 4 . 20

4, 564
$ 3 . 77

2, 022
$ 5 . 18

Table 19. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Work schedules

N um ber
of
w o rk ers

O c c u p a tio n

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
w o rk ers

A v e ra g e
h o u r ly
w o rk ers

W e ek ly h o u r s a n d d a y s 1

P e rce n t

O re t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t o r s - —
C o n tin u e d

M in in g o p e r a t io n s
74
8
23
369
166
1, 642
13
83
156
26
130
42
157

3 .5 6
3. 60
3. 35
3 .4 2
4 . 45
5. 26
3 .4 4
4. 01
3. 65
3. 65
3. 65
3. 98
3. 63

45
118
57
61

C a g e t e n d e r s --------------------------------------------C a r r e p a i r m e n ----------------------------------------C h a n g e r o o m a tt e n d a n ts -------------------------L a b o r e r s , u n d e r g r o u n d --------------------------L o a d in g - m a c h in e o p e r a t o r s ------------------M in e r s ------------------------------------------------------P u m p m e n -------------------------------------------------R o o f m e n ---------------------------------------------------S h u t t l e - c a r o p e r a t o r s -----------------------------E l e c t r i c o v e r h e a d p o w e r e d ---------------O th e r ( g a s o l in e o r b a t t e r y p o w e re d ) —
U n d e r g r o u n d - e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t o r ----------U n d e r g r o u n d s e r v i c e m e n -------------------------

3. 76
3 .4 5
3. 42
3. 48

O r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a t io n s
C o n c e n tra to r o p e ra to rs
C r u s h e r o p e r a t o r s -----P rim a ry c ru s h e r —
S e c o n d a ry c r u s h e r -

35
66
58

3. 61
3. 69
3 .5 9

12
25
161
33
178
149
213
10
190
263
10
18
77
67

3. 93
3. 36
4. 09
3 .2 9
3. 69
3. 23
4 .4 0
4. 11
4. 25
3 .8 9
3 .5 4
3. 61
3 .5 5
3. 86

F i l t e r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------------F lo ta tio n o p e r a t o r s -------------------------------R o d - a n d b a l l - m i l l o p e r a t o r s ----------------

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s -----------------37V2 h o u r s— d a y s ------------------------------------5
4 0 h o u r s — d a y s --------------------------------------5
48 h o u r a— d a y s ----------------—----------------—
6
—

M in in g a n d o r e t r e a t m e n t o p e r a tio n s
C le a n -u p e q u ip m e n t o p e r a t o r s ------------C o n v e y o r o p e r a t o r s ------------------------------E l e c t r ic i a n s , m a in te n a n c e ------------------H e lp e rs , m a in te n a n c e t r a d e s --------------H o i s t m e n ------------------------------------------------L a b o r e r s , o t h e r th a n u n d e r g r o u n d ------M a c h in is ts , m a i n t e n a n c e ---------------------M e c h a n ic s , a u t o m o t i v e ------------------------M e c h a n ic s , h e a v y d u ty ------------------------M e c h a n ic s , m a i n t e n a n c e ----------------------O ile r s a n d g r e a s e r s -----S te e l s h a r p e n e r s ----------T r a c k m e n ----------------------W e ld e rs , m a in te n a n c e —

1 E x c lu d e s p r e m i u m p a y f o r o v e r t i m e a n d f o r w o rk on w e e k e n d s,




N um ber
of
w o rk ers

O c c u p a tio n

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s by
s c h e d u le d w e e k ly h o u r s a n d d a y s , 1 U n ite d S ta te s ,
S e p te m b e r 1972)

h o lid a y s a n d la te s h if t s .

( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s by sh ift d i f f e r e n t ia l p r o v i s i o n s 1 a n d p r a c t i c e s , U n ited S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s —
In e s ta b l is h m e n t s h a v in g
fo rm a l p r o v is io n s 1 fo r—
T h ir d o r o t h e r
S e c o n d s h if ts
la t e s h if ts

T o t a l _______________________________

100

A c tu a lly w o rk in g on—
S e c o n d s h if ts

T h ir d o r o t h e r
la te s h if ts

9 8 .4

W ith s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -----------------------------U n if o rm c e n ts p e r h o u r --------------------6 c e n t s -------------------------------------------------7 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------8 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------9 c e n ts -----------------------------------------------10 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------11 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------12 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------13 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------14 c e n ts ---------- --------------- —
----------------16 c e n t s ----------------------------------------------18 c e n ts ----------------------------------------------20 c e n t s ------ -----------------------------------------

9 8 .4
98. 4
6. 5
1. 2
29. 6
1. 3
29. 6
7. 8
4 .4

W ith n o s h if t d i f f e r e n t i a l -------------------------

1. 6

-

3 .4
_
-

14. 6

28. 2

10. 1

98. 4
98. 4

27. 5
27. 5
2 .4
.4
5 .9
.5
8. 3
2. 6
1 .9

10. 1
10. 1

1 .4

.8
1. 6

_
_
_

5 .4
12. 4
_

28. 0
1. 2
12. 2
12. 6
9 .8
16. 6
-

_

_
_

4 .2
.7

_
_
_

. 1
1. 5
_

1 .9

_

4. 2
-

1 R e f e r s to p o l ic i e s o f e s ta b l is h m e n t s e i t h e r c u r r e n t l y o p e r a tin g l a t e s h if ts o r h a v in g p r o v is i o n s c o v e rin g la t e s h if ts .
NOTE:

B e c a u s e o f ro u n d in g ,

s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y n o t e q u a l t o t a l s .

32
59
9

1 D a ta r e l a t e to th e p r e d o m in a n t w o rk s c h e d u le
t im e d a y - s h i f t w o r k e r s in e a c h e s ta b lis h m e n t.

Table 20. Lead and zinc ore mining: Shift provisions and practices

S h ift d iff e r e n t ia l

100

of f u ll ­

Table 21. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Paid holidays

Table 22. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Paid vacations

( P e r c e n t o f p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith f o r m a l
p r o v is i o n s f o r p a id h o lid a y s , U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
V a c a tio n p o lic y
N u m b e r o f p a id h o lid a y s
a n d h o lid a y s p r o v id e d

P ercen t

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ----------------

P ercen t

V a c a tio n p o lic y

100

A m o u n t o f v a c a tio n pay*— C o n tin u e d

M eth o d o f p a y m e n t
A ll p r o d u c tio n ----------------------------

_

W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
p a id h o lid a y s - --------------------------------------4 d a y s ---------------------------------------------7 d a y s --------------------------------8 d a y s --------------------------------------------------9 d a y s -------------- ---H o lid a y s p r o v id e d :
N ew Y e a r ' s D ay ------------------- ----------G ood F r i d a y ----------------------------------------E a s t e r S u n d a y ------------------------------------E a s t e r M o n d a y — ------------ _
M e m o r ia l D ay ------------------------------------F o u r th of J u ly ------------------------------------L a b o r D ay — -------------------------------------V e te r a n ' s D a y ------------------------------------T h a n k s g iv in g D a y -------------------------------D ay a f t e r T h a n k s g iv in g ---------------------C h r i s t m a s E v e -----------------------------------C h r i s t m a s D ay ------- — ____ _______
N ew Y e a r ' s E v e -------------------- ------------------- --E m p lo y e e ' s b i r th d a y ---F l o a tin g h o lid a y --------------------------------O th e r —1 d a y ----------------------------------------O th e r — d a y s ---------------- ------- ----------2

100
100
3
31
63
2
100
35
2
4
91
100
100
12
92
2
58
100
9
20
8

4
19

N O T E : B e c a u s e of r o u n d in g , s u m s o f in d iv id u a l i te m s m a y
n ot eq u al to ta ls .




W o rk e rs in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g
- p a i d v a c a t i o n s 1 -------------------------------------. L e n g th - o f - tim e p a y m e n t --------------------P e r c e n t a g e p a y m e n t ---------------------------

100
85
15

A m o u n t of v a c a tio n p a y 2
A fte r 1 y e a r of s e rv ic e :
1 w eek ------------------------------------------------O v e r 1 w e e k a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -------O v e r 2 w e e k s a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s ------A f t e r 2 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k ------------------------------------------------O v er 1 a n d u n d e r 2 w e e k s -----------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------A f t e r 3 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
1 w e e k -------------------------------------------------2 w e e k s -----------------------------------------------O v er 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------A fte r 5 y e a r s of s e rv ic e :
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v e r 4 a n d tin d e r 5 w e e k s -----------------A f t e r 10 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
O v e r 2 a n d u n d e r 3 w e e k s -----------------3 w e e k s ----------------------------------------------O v er 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s -----------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s -----------------A f t e r 12 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
O v er 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ------------------

77
5
15
3
70
12
15
3
4
80
12
3
70
11
16
3
12
6
67
5
5
3
12
59
5

A f te r 12 y e a r s of s e r v i c e — C o n tin u e d
4 w e e k s -------------------------------------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------A f t e r 15 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------A f t e r 20 y e a r s o f s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ------------------------------ :-------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s --------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 4 a n d u n d e r 5 w e e k s ---------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s --------------A f t e r 25 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s ^ ------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------5 w e e k s -------------------------- .-----------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------A f t e r 30 y e a r s of s e r v i c e :
2 w e e k s --------------------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------4 w e e k s -------—_______________________
5 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------M a x im u m v a c a tio n :
2 w e e k s -------—-----------------------------------3 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 3 a n d u n d e r 4 w e e k s ---------------4 w e e k s --------------------------------------------5 w e e k s --------------------------------------------O v e r 5 a n d u n d e r 6 w e e k s ---------------6 w e e k s ---------------------------------------------

P ercen t

20
3
10
60
5
16
5
3
10
29
5
47
5
3
10
9
5
66
1
9
10
9
5
49
19
9
10
9
5
49
19
3
5

1 S e r v ic e p a y m e n ts e i t h e r d u r in g th e s u m m e r o r a t th e e n d o f th e y e a r to w o r k e r s w ith s p e c if ie d p e r i o d s
of
s e r v ic e w e r e c l a s s if i e d a s v a c a tio n p a y r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e th e r w o r k e r to o k t im e off f r o m w o rk .
2 V a c a tio n p a y m e n ts s u c h a s p e r c e n t of a n n u a l e a r n i n g s w e r e c o n v e r te d to a n e q u iv a le n t tim e b a s i s . P e r i o d s o f
s e r v ic e w e r e c h o s e n a r b i t r a r i l y a n d do n o t n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t in d iv id u a l e s ta b l is h m e n t p r o v is i o n s f o r p r o g r e s s i o n . F o r
e x a m p le , c h a n g e s i n d ic a te d a t 10 y e a r s m a y in c lu d e c h a n g e s w h ic h o c c u r r e d b e tw e e n 5 a n d 10 y e a r s .




( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith s p e c if ie d h e a lth i n s u r a n c e a n d r e t i r e m e n t p la n s , 1
U n ite d S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
T ype of p la n 1

P ercen t
100

A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s --------------------------W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p ro v id in g :
L ife i n s u r a n c e ---------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s ----------------------------A c c id e n ta l d e a th a n d d i s m e m b e r m e n t
in s u r a n c e --------------------------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s ----------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t in s u r a n c e o r
s ic k le a v e o r b o th 2 -----------------------------------S ic k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e -----------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s -----------------------S ic k le a v e ( fu ll p a y , no w a itin g p e rio d ) —
S ick le a v e ( p a r tia l p a y o r w a itin g p e rio d ) --

100
75
75
55
96
96
79

T y p e o f p la n
W o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g —
C o n tin u e d
H o s p ita liz a tio n i n s u r a n c e ---------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s ----------------S u r g ic a l in s u r a n c e --------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s ----------------M e d ic a l i n s u r a n c e --------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p la n s ----------------M a jo r m e d i c a l i n s u r a n c e ----------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s ----------------R e t ir e m e n t p l a n s 3 ----------------------------P e n s io n p l a n s ------------------------------N o n c o n trib u to ry p l a n s -----------S e v e r a n c e p a y ------------------------------

P e rce n t

100
83
100

83
100
83
76
61
91
86
86

5

1 I n c lu d e s t h o s e p la n s f o r w h ic h th e e m p lo y e r p a y s a t l e a s t p a r t o f th e c o s t a n d e x c lu d e s l e g a lly r e q u i r e d p la n s ,
s u c h a s w o rk m e n 's c o m p e n s a tio n a n d s o c ia l s e c u r i ty . H o w e v e r, p la n s r e q u i r e d by S t a t e t e m p o r a r y d i s a b i li ty la w s a r e
in c lu d e d if th e e m p lo y e r c o n tr ib u te s m o r e th a n i s l e g a lly r e q u i r e d o r th e e m p lo y e e s r e c e i v e b e n e f its in e x c e s s of th e
le g a l r e q u i r e m e n ts . " N o n c o n trib u to r y p la n s " in c lu d e o n ly t h o s e f in a n c e d e n ti r e l y by th e e m p lo y e r.
2 U n d u p lic a te d to ta l of w o r k e r s r e c e iv in g s ic k le a v e o r s i c k n e s s a n d a c c id e n t i n s u r a n c e sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .
3 U n d u p lic a te d t o ta l o f w o r k e r s c o v e r e d by p e n s io n o r r e t i r e m e n t s e v e r a n c e p a y p la n s sh o w n s e p a r a te l y .

Table 24. Lead and zinc ore mining:
Other selected benefits
( P e r c e n t of p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s p r o v id in g
t e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p ay , s u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t
b e n e fits , e x te n d e d v a c a tio n s , a n d c o s t- o f - l iv i n g a d ju s tm e n ts ,
U n ited S ta te s , S e p te m b e r 1972)
I te m 1
A ll p r o d u c tio n w o r k e r s ----------------W o rk e r s in e s ta b l is h m e n t s w ith
p r o v is i o n s f o r:
T e c h n o lo g ic a l s e v e r a n c e p a y ------------S u p p le m e n ta l u n e m p lo y m e n t b e n e f its E x te n d e d v a c a t i o n s ----------------------------C o s t - o f - li v in g a d j u s t m e n t s ---------------B a s e d on C P I — ----------------------------O th e r b a s is -------------------------------------

P ercen t
100

28
6
-

11
11

-

Appendix A. Scope and Method of Survey
Scope of survey
The survey covered establishments primarily engaged
in the following activities as defined by the 1967
Standard Industrial Gassification Manual prepared by
the U.S. Office of Management and Budget:
1. Mining, beneficiating, or otherwise preparing
iron ores valued chiefly for their iron content
(SIC 1011).
2. Mining, milling, or otherwise preparing copper
ores (SIC 1021).
3. Mining, milling, or otherwise preparing lead
ores, zinc ores, or lead-zinc ores (SIC 1031).The survey excluded all smelting and refining opera­
tions, ore treatment facilities directly connected with
smelters located away from the mine, and independently
owned ore treatment plants that were not part of a
single economic unit as defined below.
The establishments (see definition below) were se­
lected from those employing 50 workers or more at the
time of reference of the data used in compiling
the universe lists.
The number of establishments surveyed by the
Bureau, as well as the number estimated to be within
the scope of the survey during the payroll period
studied, is shown in table A-l.
Method of study
Data were obtained by personal visits of the Bureau’s
field staff to a representative sample of establishments
in each industry.
To obtain appropriate accuracy
at minimum cost, a greater proportion of large than
of small establishments was visited.
In combining
the data, however, all establishments were given their
appropriate weight. All estimates are presented, there­
fore, as relating to all establishments in the industry,
excluding only those below the minimum size at the
time of reference of the universe data.

company as a single economic unit. Such an establish­
ment is defined as a single economic unit if it has
common supervision over the day-to-day activities or
common support facilities, such as maintenance and
office.
Employment
The estimates of the number of workers within scope
of the study are intended as a general guide to the
size and composition of the labor force included in the
survey.
The advance planning necessary to make
a wage survey requires the use of lists of establishments
assembled considerably in advance of the payroll period
studied.
Production workers
The term “production workers,” as used in this
bulletin, includes working foremen and all nonsupervisory workers engaged in nonoffice functions. All
workers in smelting and refining operations were ex­
cluded, as were administrative, executive, professional,
and technical personnel, and force-account construction
employees, who were utilized as a separate work force
on the firm’s own properties.
Occupations selected for study
Occupational classification was based on a uniform
set of job descriptions designed to take account of
interestablishment and interarea variations in duties
within the same job. (See appendix B for these descrip­
tions.) The occupations were chosen for their numerical
importance, their usefulness in collective bargaining,
or their representativeness of the entire job scale
in the industry.
Working supervisors, apprentices,
learners, beginners, trainess, and handicapped, parttime, temporary, and probationary workers were not
reported in the data for selected occupations, but
were included in the data for all production workers.

Establishment definition
An establishment is defined as: (1) A mine or
mines without an ore treatment plant; or (2) a mine
or mines with an ore treatment plant operated by a



Wage data
Information on wages related to straight-time hourly
earnings, excluding premium pay for overtime and

for work on weekends, holidays, and late or other
shifts.
Incentive payments, such as those resulting
from piecework or production bonus systems, and
cost-of-living bonuses were included as part of the
workers’ regular pay, but nonproduction bonus pay­
ments, such as Christmas or yearend bonuses, were
excluded.
Average (mean) hourly rates or earnings for each
occupation or other group of workers, such as produc­
tion workers, were calculated by weighting each rate
(or hourly earnings), by the number of workers re­
ceiving the rate, totaling, and dividing by the number
of individuals. The hourly earnings of salaried workers
were obtained by dividing straight-time salary by normal
rather than actual hours.
The median designates position; that is, one-half
of the employees surveyed receive more than this
rate and one-half receive less. The middle range
is defined by two rates of pay; one-fourth of the
employees earn less than the lower of these rates
and one-fourth earn more than the higher rate.

Method of wage payment

Statements of method of wage payment relate
to the number of workers paid under various time
and incentive wage systems. Formal rate structures
for time-rated workers provide single rates or a range
of rates for individual job categories. In the absence
of a formal rate structure, pay rates are determined
primarily by the qualifications of the individual worker.
A single rate structure is one in which the same rate
is paid to all experienced workers in the same job
classification. Learners, apprentices, or probationary
workers may be paid according to rate schedules
which start below the single rate and permit the
workers to achieve the full job rate over a period
of time. Individual experienced workers may occa­
sionally be paid above or below the single rate for
special reasons, but such payments are regarded as
exceptions. Range of rate plans are those in which
the minimum and/or maximum rates paid experienced
workers for the same job are specified. Specific
rates of individual workers within the range may
be determined by merit, length of service, or a combi­
nation of various concepts of merit and length of
service. Incentive workers are classified under piece­
work or bonus plans. Piecework is work for which
a predetermined rate is paid for each unit of output.
Production bonuses are based on production in excess
of a quota or for completion of a job in less than
standard time.



Work schedules

Data refer to the predominant work schedule (hours
and days per week) for full-time production workers
employed on the day shift.
Shift provisions and practices

Shift provisions relate to the policies of establish­
ments either currently operating late shifts or having
formal provisions covering late shift work. Practices
relate to workers employed on late shifts at the time
of the survey.
Supplementary wage provisions

Supplementary benefits were treated statistically on
the basis that if formal provisions were applicable to
half or more of the production workers in an es­
tablishment, the benefits were considered applicable
to all such workers. Similarly, if fewer than onehalf of the workers were covered, the benefit was
considered nonexistent in the establishment. Because
of length-of-service and other eligibility requirements,
the proportion of workers receiving the benefits may
be smaller than estimated.
Paid holidays.
Paid holiday provisions relate to
full-day and half day holidays provided annually.
Paid vacations. The summaries of vacation plans
are limited to formal arrangements, excluding informal
plans whereby time off with pay is granted at the
discretion of the employer or the supervisor. Payments
not on a time basis were converted; for example,
a payment of 2 percent of annual earnings was con­
sidered the equivalent of 1 week’s pay. The periods
of service for which data are presented were selected
as representative of the most common practices, but
they do not necessarily reflect individual establishment
provisions for progression. For example, the changes
in proportions indicated at 10 years of service may
include changes which occurred between 5 and 10 years.
Extended vacations. Data relate to formal plans
providing for additional vacation pay at a specified
interval. Such plans commonly provide 13 weeks of
vacation every 5 years to the “Senior Group’" (onehalf of employees with longest continuous service)
and 3 weeks in addition to regular vacation every 5
years for the “Junior Group.”
Health, insurance, and retirement plans. Data are
presented for health, insurance, pension, and retirement
severance plans for which the employer pays all or
part of the cost, excluding programs required by law,
such as workmen’s compensation and social security.
Among the plans included are those underwritten
by a commercial insurance company and those paid

directly by the employer from his current operating
funds or from a fund set aside for this purpose.
Death benefits are included as a form of life
insurance. Sickness and accident insurance is limited
to that type of insurance under which predetermined
cash payments are made directly to the insured on a
weekly or monthly basis during illness or accident
disability. Information is presented for all such plans
to which the employer contributes at least a part of
the cost. However, in New York and New Jersey,
where temporary disability insurance laws require em­
ployer contributions,1 plans are included only if the
employer (1) contributes more than is legally required
or (2) provides the employees with benefits which
exceed the requirements of the law.
Tabulations of paid sick leave plans are limited
to formal plans which provide full pay or a proportion
of the worker’s pay during absence from work because
of illness; informal arrangements have been omitted.
Separate tabulations are provided for (1) plans which
provide full pay and no waiting period, and (2) plans
providing either partial pay or a waiting period.
Medical insurance refers to plans providing for
complete or partial payment of doctors’ fees. Such
plans may be underwritten by a commerical insurance
company or a nonprofit organization, or they may be
a form of self-insurance.
Major medical insurance, sometimes referred to as
extended medical insurance, includes the plans designed
to cover employees for sickness or injury involving
an expense which goes beyond the normal coverage of
hospitalization, medical, and surgical plans.
Tabulations of retirement pensions are limited to
plans which provide, upon retirement, regular payments

for the remainder of the retiree’s life.
Data are
presented separately for retirement severance pay (one
payment or a specified number over a period of time)
made to employees upon retirement. Establishments
providing retirement severance payments and pensions
to employees upon retirement were considered as
having both retirement pension and retirement severance
pay. Establishments having optional plans providing
employees a choice of either retirement severance
payments or pensions were considered as having only
retirement pension benefits.
Supplemental unemployment benefits
Data relate to formal plans designed to supplement
benefits paid under State unemployment insurance
systems.
Technological severance pay
Data relate to formal provisions for severance pay
to workers permanently separated from employment
as a result of force reduction arising out of the
introduction of new equipment or from department
or unit closing.
Cost-of-living adjustments
Provisions for cost-of-living adjustments relate to
formal plans whereby wage rates are increased period­
ically in keeping with changes in the BLS Consumer
Price Index or on some other basis.

1 The temporary disability insurance laws in California
and Rhode Island do not require employer contributions.

Table A-1. Estimated number of establishments and workers within scope of survey, and number studied,
iron, copper, and lead and zinc ore mining, September 1972
Number of establishments

Industry

Within
scope of
study

All industries c o m b in e d
Iro n ore m in in g

.........................

86

Actually
studied

Workers in establishments
Within scope
of study

Total 1

73

5 7 ,2 3 3

Actually
studied

Production
workers

4 6 ,7 6 0

Total

5 2 ,1 4 2

..........................................................

30

20

1 6 ,1 6 7

1 3 ,1 2 8

1 3 ,4 6 3

C o p p er ore m in in g .......................................................

31

29

3 3 ,1 2 2

2 7 ,0 4 6

3 0 ,9 3 8

Lead an d zin c ore m in in g

25

24

7 ,9 4 4

6 ,5 8 6

7 ,7 4 1

.......................................

In clu d e s e x e c u tiv e , p ro fe s sio n a l, o ffic e and o th e r w o rk e rs e x c lu d e d fr o m th e p ro d u c tio n w o rk e r c ate g o ry sh o w n sep a ra te ly .




Appendix B. Occupational Descriptions

The primary purpose of preparing job descriptions for the Bureau’s wage surveys is to
assist its field staff in classifying into appropriate occupations workers who are employed
under a variety of payroll titles and different work arrangements from establishment to
establishment and from area to area. This classification permits the grouping of occu­
pational wage rates representing comparable job content. Because of the emphasis on
interestablishment and interarea comparability of occupational content, the Bureau’s
job descriptions may differ significantly from those in use in individual establishments
or those prepared for other purposes. In applying these job descriptions, the Bureau’s
field staff are instructed to exclude working supervisors, apprentices, learners, beginners,
trainees; handicapped, part-time, temporary, and probationary workers.

Balling-drum operator
Operates balling drum to produce green iron pellets.
Work involves: Regulating speed of balling drums,
cutter bars, and feeds; conducting tests of moisture,
compression, and screen structure; and adjusting water
and other controls for proper balling. May clean bins,
chutes, and screens when necessary. Excludes oper­
ators of ball mills in the concentrator section of the
plant (see rod- and ball-mill operator).
Brakeman

Cage tender
(Skip tender)
Controls operation of cages between levels of mine
and surface. Work involves most o f the following:
Pushing or pulling loaded cars off cage at surface and
replacing them with empty cars or cars with supplies
or personnel; pulling cars from cage at bottom or
other levels of mine and moving them onto sidings;
and signaling hoistman to raise or lower cage. May
load cage with materials and record number of cars
and production from mine.

(Coupler; nipper; rope rider; trip rider)
Rides on trains or trips of cars hauled by loco­
motive or hoisting cable or chain, and assists in
their transportation. Work involves most o f the fol­
lowing:
Operating or throwing switches; coupling
and uncoupling cars or attaching and detaching cars
to cable; opening and closing ventilation doors; and
directing movement of train by signaling operator.
Bulldozer operator (fine grade)
Operates tractor with concave steel scraper mounted
in front of chassis to fine grade roadways and other
areas. May build dams and ponds. Excludes quad
operators (those operating bulldozers pushing scrapers)
and operators cleaning up around shovels and crushers
(see clean-up equipment operator).



Car repairman
(Mine-car repairer)
Reconditions mine cars by repairing worn or broken
parts or by replacing such parts with new ones. Work
involves most o f the following: Inspecting mine cars,
noting the condition of various parts, and determining
need for repair or replacement of parts; and making
replacements of worn or broken parts such as axles,
wheels, and couplings.
Change room attendant
Keeps change room and offices clean and orderly.
Work involves most o f the following: Maintaining
cleanliness of change rooms, hallways, showers, toilets,

etc.; handling mine lamps in and out of charging racks;
observing boilers and making minor adjustments; supply­
ing materials; and making minor repairs to lockers, etc.
Clean-up equipment operator

Operates mobile equipment such as rubber-tire or
track payloader or bulldozer to clean up loose ore or
rock in and around surface mine or mill. Places
large boulders aside for blasting. May work in con­
junction with a power shovel.
Concentrator operator

(Panelboard operator)
Operates panelboard to control all or most of the
machinery and equipment in the concentrator mill
involving such operations as conveying, feeding, crush­
ing, grinding, reagent handling, flotation classifying,
drying, and loading.
Work involves most o f the
following: Starting, stopping, and operating concen­
trating equipment; observing, checking, and manipu­
lating all controls; and making necessary adjustments
to regulate ore flow and air, water, fuel, chemicals,
lubrication, etc.
Conveyor operator

(Loader-head man; boom man)
Operates the conveyor or conveyor loading boom
to transport ore or materials about mine or ore
treatment plant. Work involves most o f the following:
Starting specified boom conveyor and conveyor belts;
regulating conveyor speed as required; and observing
controls to detect malfunctions of conveyor system.
May oil, grease, and make minor adjustments to con­
veyor system, and may operate drum hoist to position
cars under conveyor.

Crusher operator

Operates a crushing machine to break up ore.
Work involves: Regulating flow of ore to and from
crusher; breaking up large chunks or prodding them
through crusher; and cleaning, oiling, and making
minor repairs.
For wage study purposes, crusher operators are
classified by type of crusher as follows:
Primary crusher
Secondary crusher
NOTE: Primary crushing machines are frequently
located in a mine or pit.



Driller, machine

Operates truck or tractor mounted machine to drill
ore body to make holes for explosives in surface
mines. Work involves most o f the following: Position­
ing drilling equipment and making power connections;
drilling shot holes as needed to obtain desired breakage
from blasting; and lubricating, adjusting, and making
minor repairs to machine. May, in addition, direct
work of a helper and insert and set off charges of
explosives in the holes. Excludes workers primarily
drilling blast holes to break up large boulders.
Dumper

(Car dumper)
Operates a car-dumping device to unload mine cars
or trucks.
May direct ore into separate bins by
means of an unloading chute and move cars to and
from the dumping device.
Engineer, stationary

Operates and maintains and may also supervise the
operation of stationary engines and equipment (mech­
anical or electrical) to supply the establishment in
which employed with power, heat, refrigeration, or
air-conditioning. Work involves: Operating and main­
taining equipment such as steam engines, air com­
pressors, generators, motors, turbines, ventilating and
refrigerating equipment, steam boilers and boiler-fed
water pumps; making equipment repairs; keeping a
record of operation of machinery, temperature, and
fuel consumption. May also supervise these operations.
Head or chief engineers in establishments employing
more than one engineer are excluded.
Electrician, maintenance

Performs a variety of electrical trade functions such
as the installation, maintenance, or repair of equipment
for the generation, distribution, or utilization of electric
energy in an establishment. Work involves most o f the
following: Installing or repairing any of a variety of
electrical equipment such as generators, transformers,
switchboards, controllers, circuit breakers, motors, heat­
ing units, conduit systems, or other transmission equip­
ment; working from blueprints, drav/ings, layout, or
other specifications; locating and diagnosing trouble
in the electrical system or equipment; working stand­
ard computations relating to load requirements of
wiring or electrical equipment; using a variety of
electrician’s handtools and measuring and testing instru­
ments.
In general, the work of the maintenance
electrician requires rounded training and experience

usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
Filter operator

(Concentrate dryer man)
Operates machine to filter, dry, and load con­
centrates in preparation for shipment. Work involves:
Controlling flow of air, fuel, and feed into disc,
drum, or belt filter; regulating speed of rotation and
vacuum suction; and checking discharge end for proper
formation of cake. May load ore into cars.
Flotation operator

Operates flotation machinery for the recovery of
concentrates. Work involves: Starting, stopping, and
observing operation of flotation machines, reagent dis­
pensers, tanks, and related equipment; checking froth
in flotation units; and mixing reagents and adjusting
reagent feeds.
Furnace operator

(Kiln operator)
Operates furnace or kiln to produce fired pellets.
Work involves most o f the following: Starting and
stopping equipment; regulating temperatures, flows,
and pressures; observing instrument on control panel;
and controlling feed rates in wet, dry, and firing
sections. Kiln operators may fire guns to break up
rings in kiln.
Groundman

(Pitman; shovel operator helper)
Performs a variety of duties to aid operation of a
power shovel employed in removing ore in a pit mine.
Work involves a combination o f the following: Moving
up power lines or water lines and other supplies
when power shovel is moved to a new position in the
mine; removing obstructions in path of shovel; blocking
treads or wheels to steady shovel; and moving rock
within reach of power shovel, using a pick and shovel.
May oil shovel.
Helper, maintenance trades

Assists one or more workers in the skilled main­
tenance trades, by performing specific or general duties
of lesser skill, such as keeping a worker supplied
with materials and tools; cleaning working area, ma­
chine, and equipment; assisting worker by holding
materials or tools; performing other unskilled tasks



as directed by journeyman. The kind of work the
helper is permitted to perform varies from trade to
trade:
In some trades, the helper is confined to
supplying, lifting, and holding materials and tools
and cleaning working areas; and in others he is per­
mitted to perform specialized machine operations, or
parts of a trade that are also performed by workers
on a full-time basis.
Hoistman

Operates underground or surface hoisting machinery
to move cages or skips. Work involves: Controlling
movement; stopping cage or skip tender at proper
levels; inspecting machinery for defects; and adjusting
brakes.
Laborer, other than underground

Performs manual labor in surface mine, yard, or
mill area. Work involves: Repairing railroad tracks,
ties, etc.; digging ditches; breaking rock or ore; and
loading and unloading supplies. May do minor lu­
bricating.
Laborer, underground

Performs general manual tasks in an underground
mine. Work involves: Digging and cleaning ditches,
walkways, etc.; loading and unloading tools and sup­
plies; and performing clean-up work or other laboring
tasks.
Uses handtools such as picks and shovels.
Loading-machine operator

(Duckbill self-loading-conveyor operator; Joy loader
operator; Jeffrey loader operator; loading-machine
runner; mobile-loader operator, mucking machine
operator, ore hauler, scraper-loader operator)
Operates one of a variety of ore-loading machines
used to gather loose ore (or rock) at the working
face of an underground mine and transport it to
designated location such as trucks, mine cars, or
conveyors.
Work involves most o f the following:
Inspecting and testing roof of working area for unsafe
condition and setting up supports where necessary;
moving track rubber tire or crawler-tread mounted
machine to working face; manipulating machine con­
trols to position the gathering head and to move
machine as necessary in gathering and loading the
ore; directing the activities of helpers; and greasing,
oiling, and making minor repairs and adjustments
to machine.

Locomotive engineer

Operates train for haulage, switching, and servicing
work in and about mine or mill.
May control
locomotive by remote radio control. May operate
feeders and also signal power shovel or haulage trucks
when loading and unloading.
Machinist, maintenance

Produces replacement parts and new parts in making
repairs of metal parts of mechanical equipment operated
in an establishment.
Work involves most o f the
following: Interpreting written instructions and spec­
ifications; planning and laying out of work; using a
variety of machinist’s handtools and precision meas­
uring instruments; setting up and operating standard
machine tools; shaping of metal parts to close tol­
erances; making standard shop computations relating
to dimensions of work, tooling, feeds and speeds of
machining; knowledge of the working properties of the
common metals; selecting standard materials, parts, and
equipment required for his work; fitting and assembling
parts into mechanical equipment. In general, the
machinist’s work normally requires a rounded training
in machine-shop practice usually acquired through a
formal apprenticeship or equivalent training and ex­
perience.
Mechanic, automotive

Repairs automobiles, buses, motortrucks, and trac­
tors of an establishment. Work involves most o f the
following: Examining automotive equipment to diag­
nose source of trouble; disassembling equipment and
performing repairs that involve the use of such handtools as wrenches, gauges, drills, or specialized equip­
ment in disassembling or fitting parts; replacing broken
or defective parts from stock; grinding and adjusting
valves; reassembling and installing the various assemblies
in the vehicle and making necessary adjustments; align­
ing wheels, adjusting brakes and lights, or tightening
body bolts. In general, the work of the automotive
mechanic requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
Mechanic, heavy duty

(Diesel engine mechanic)
Performs major overhauls and repair of diesel engines
and equipment such as trucks, drillers, power shovels,
etc. Work involves most o f the following: Diag­
nosing trouble and determining nature and extent
of repairs; removing cylinder heads and pistons, cylinder



linings, connecting rods, bearings, and all auxiliary
parts such as hoist cylinders, hose assemblies, electric
and hydraulic equipment; and setting up and operating
automotive machine tools such as valve grinders and
honing machines. In general, the work of the heavyduty mechanic requires rounded training and experience
usually acquired through a formal apprenticeship or
equivalent training and experience.
Excludes workers repairing railroad diesel engines.
Mechanic, maintenance

Repairs machinery or mechanical equipment of an
establishment. Work involves most o f the following:
Examining machines and mechanical equipment to
diagnose source of trouble; dismantling or partly dis­
mantling machines and performing repairs that mainly
involve the use of handtools in scraping and fitting
parts; replacing broken or defective parts with items
obtained from stock; ordering the production of a
replacement part by a machine shop or sending of the
machine to a machine shop for major repairs; pre­
paring written specifications for major repairs or for
the production of parts ordered from machine shop;
reassembling machines; and making all necessary ad­
justments for operation. In general, the work of a
maintenance mechanic requires rounded training and
experience usually acquired through a formal appren­
ticeship or equivalent training and experience. Ex­
cluded from this classification are workers whose pri­
mary duties involve setting up or adjusting machines.
Miner

(Operating driller)
Performs a number of the following tasks in under­
ground mines:
Drilling blast holes; charging holes
with explosives; arranging for proper guarding of all
entrances to the area; firing charges; inspecting results
of blasts and reblasts where necessary. May scale
loose rock from walls or roof of working places.
Oiler and greaser

Lubricates, with oil or grease, the moving parts
of wearing surfaces of mechanical equipment of an
establishment. Excludes workers classified as conveyor
belt cleaner.
Pellet-mill operator

(Panelboard operator)
Operates panelboard to control all or most of the
machinery and equipment in a pellet mill such as

kiln system cooler, screens, balling discs, pumps, feeders,
tripper systems, and conveyors. Work involves most
o f the following: Starting, regulating, and stopping
pellet plant equipment; observing panel for fuel, power,
temperature, and pressure readings; checking operation
of dust collection system; igniting kiln burner and
regulating flow of fuel, and maintaining flow of mate­
rials to grinding mill and balling discs.

Power-shovel operator

(Power-shovel engineer)
Operates diesel or electric powered shovels to load
ore or other material into trucks or other transportation
equipment in a surface mine.

Shot firer

(Blaster, shooter; shot firemen)
Blasts ore, or rock, loose from solid mass by
charging, tamping, and setting off charges of explosives
in drilled holes in a surface mine. Work involves
most o f the following:
Preparing and placing ex­
plosive charge with primer inserted in shot hole,
tamping charge in place; filling remainder of shot
hole with noncombustible material, tamping it tightly
and leaving a detonator wire extending outside the
hole; preparing blasting equipment and setting off
charge; examining areas in which charges have been
set off and reporting on number and location of holes
fired and those that fail to go off.
Shuttle-car operator

Pumpman

(Pump operator; pumper)
Operates one or more motor-driven pumps used
to remove excess water from work areas in an under­
ground or surface mine. Work involves most o f the
following: Setting or assisting in the work of setting
the pumps at desired locations, or in laying, connecting,
and repairing pipe or hose lines; starting and stopping
pumps; making necessary adjustments or minor repairs
to equipment; and reporting on water levels in work
areas.

Roofman

(R o o f bolter, barman-trimmer)
Maintains mine roofs, walls, and pillars for the
protection of underground employees and equipment
from rock falls. Work involves: Drilling holes for
sheaves, pins, and cables; and installing roof supporting
equipment, pillars, air lines, and water lines. May drill
and blast.

Rod- and ball-mill operator

Operates rod and ball machines to pulverize ore.
Work involves:
Charging mill with round stones,
steel balls, rods, or other grinding materials; regulating
flow of ore and water into mill and controlling
rotation speed to grind ore properly; and lubricating
and making minor repairs to machinery.
Exclude
operators of balling-drums in iron pellet mills (see
balling-drum operator).



(Mo tor man)
Operates gas, battery or electrically powered engine
that pulls rail shuttle car in mine to transport supplies
or ore from face to designated location.
For wage study purposes, shuttle-car operators are
classified by type of car as follows:
Electric overhead powered
Other (gas or battery)
Steel sharpener

(Bit grinder; bit sharpener)
Shapes, sharpens, and tempers drill steel and bits.
Work involves: Shaping and sharpening bits on grind­
ing machine; drilling steel on anvil or press; and
tempering drills by heating and quenching in liquids.
Trackman

(Roadman; track layer)
Prepares the track bed, and lays, maintains, and
repairs rail tracks in underground or surface mine.
Work involves most o f the following: Preparing track
bed by grading; placing ties in position; laying and
spacing rails, spiking or clamping rails to ties, joining
rail sections and installing switches; inspecting estab­
lished track to detect possible defects, making adjust­
ments or replacements as necessary; and removing
rails, ties, and other track parts from areas where
they are no longer needed. May bond track.
Truckdriver

Drives a truck to transport ore or other materials
and equipment or men in and around the mine,

loading docks, and other areas as required. May also
load or unload truck with or without helpers, make
minor mechanical repairs, and keep truck in good
working order.
For wage survey purposes, truckdrivers are classified
by type of truck and mine as follows:
Iron, lead and zinc
Ore haulage
Service or water
Combination o f types
Copper
Ore haulage
Under 65 tons
65 to 84 tons
85 to 99 tons
100 tons or more
Combination o f types
Service or water
Combination o f types
Underground-equipment operator

Operates mobile equipment in underground mines,
such as lift trucks, front-end loader, truck, load hauler,
backhoe, road grader, and bulldozer to maintain roads
and ditches, and move and position equipment and
supplies. Does not include equipment operators trans­




porting or loading ore or waste at face of mine
(see loading-machine operator).

Underground serviceman

(Mine utility man, pipe-ventilation man)
Performs a wide range of service functions in support
of mining activities.
Work involves most o f the
following: Installing air, water, and vent pipes and
dismantling used pipe; installing pumps; building and
installing vent doors, chutes, grizzlies, bulk heads,
and pouring concrete.
May use lift truck, drills,
front-end loader, and welding equipment in work.

Welder, maintenance

Performs the welding duties necessary to maintain
machinery and equipment in good repair, by fusing
(welding) metal objects together in the fabrication
of metal shapes and in repairing broken or cracked
metal objects. Work involves most o f the following:
Planning and laying out work from written or oral
instructions and specifications; knowledge of welding
properties of a variety of metals and alloys; setting
up of work and determining operation sequence; weld­
ing a variety of items as necessary; ability to weld with
gas and arc apparatus.

BUREAU OF LABOR STATISTICS
REGIONAL OFFICES

Region I
1603 JFK Federal Building
Government Center
Boston, Mass. 02203
Phone: 223-6762 (Area Code 617)

Region V
8th Floor, 300 South Wacker Drive
Chicago, III. 60606
Phone: 353-1880 (Area Code 312)

Region II
Suite 3400
1515 Broadway
New York, N.Y. 10036
Phone: 971-5405 (Area Code 212)

Region VI
1100 Commerce St., Rm. 6B7
Dallas, Tex. 75202
Phone: 749-3516 (Area Code 214)

Region III
P.O. Box 13309
Philadelphia, Pa. 19101
Phone: 597-1154 (Area Code 215)

Regions VII and VIII *
Federal Office Building
911 Walnut St., 15th Floor
Kansas City, Mo. 64106
Phone: 374-2481 (Area Code 816)

Region IV
Suite 540
1371 Peachtree St., NE.
Atlanta, Ga. 30309
Phone: 526-5418 (Area Code 404)

Regions IX and X **
450 Golden Gate Ave.
Box 36017
San Francisco, Calif. 94102
Phone: 556-4678 (Area Code 415)




Regions VII and VIII are serviced by Kansas City
Regions IX and X are serviced by San Francisco


Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, One Federal Reserve Bank Plaza, St. Louis, MO 63102